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The individual of late modernity in Istvan Anhalt's Foci (1969) Nguyen, Sophia 2014

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	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?THE	 ?INDIVIDUAL	 ?OF	 ?LATE	 ?MODERNITY	 ?IN	 ?ISTVAN	 ?ANHALT?S	 ?FOCI	 ?(1969)	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?by	 ?	 ?	 ?Sophia	 ?Nguyen	 ?	 ?	 ?BMus.,	 ?The	 ?University	 ?of	 ?Calgary,	 ?2011	 ?BSc.,	 ?The	 ?University	 ?of	 ?Calgary,	 ?2011	 ?	 ? 	 ?A	 ?THESIS	 ?SUBMITTED	 ?IN	 ?PARTIAL	 ?FULFILLMENT	 ?OF	 ?	 ?THE	 ?REQUIREMENTS	 ?FOR	 ?THE	 ?DEGREE	 ?OF	 ?	 ?	 ? MASTER	 ?OF	 ?ARTS	 ?	 ?	 ? in	 ?	 ?	 ?The	 ?Faculty	 ?of	 ?Graduate	 ?and	 ?Postdoctoral	 ?Studies	 ?	 ?	 ?(Historical	 ?Musicology)	 ?	 ?	 ? THE	 ?UNIVERSITY	 ?OF	 ?BRITISH	 ?COLUMBIA	 ?(Vancouver)	 ?	 ?	 ?March	 ?2014	 ?	 ?	 ??	 ?Sophia	 ?Nguyen,	 ?2014	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ? ii	 ?	 ?Abstract	 ?	 ? Hungarian-??born	 ?Canadian	 ?composer	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt?s	 ?(1919-??2012)	 ?multimedia	 ?work,	 ?Foci	 ?(1969),	 ?was	 ?written	 ?during	 ?a	 ?time	 ?of	 ?rapid	 ?technological	 ?and	 ?social	 ?change.	 ?Composed	 ?for	 ?taped	 ?and	 ?live	 ?voices,	 ?electronics,	 ?and	 ?instruments	 ?in	 ?Montreal	 ?amidst	 ?the	 ?political	 ?upheavals	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Quiet	 ?Revolution,	 ?Foci	 ?is	 ?a	 ?work	 ?that	 ?exemplifies	 ?new	 ?directions	 ?in	 ?musical	 ?technique	 ?that	 ?were	 ?being	 ?explored	 ?in	 ?Canada	 ?at	 ?the	 ?time.	 ?Foci	 ?is	 ?also	 ?a	 ?work	 ?that	 ?comments	 ?on	 ?broader	 ?cultural	 ?developments	 ?in	 ?a	 ?period	 ?known	 ?as	 ?late	 ?modernity.	 ?Sociologists	 ?such	 ?as	 ?Jock	 ?Young	 ?and	 ?Anthony	 ?Giddens	 ?have	 ?described	 ?this	 ?period	 ?as	 ?one	 ?that	 ?is	 ?characterized	 ?by	 ?an	 ?increase	 ?in	 ?the	 ?dissolution	 ?of	 ?traditional	 ?social	 ?and	 ?personal	 ?boundaries,	 ?a	 ?rise	 ?in	 ?individual	 ?autonomy,	 ?and	 ?the	 ?permeation	 ?of	 ?anxiety	 ?into	 ?all	 ?spheres	 ?of	 ?life,	 ?which	 ?Albert	 ?Camus	 ?argues	 ?is	 ?the	 ?result	 ?of	 ?one?s	 ?increased	 ?awareness	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Absurd.	 ?The	 ?thesis	 ?will	 ?explore	 ?how	 ?Foci	 ?can	 ?be	 ?read	 ?as	 ?a	 ?work	 ?that	 ?embodies	 ?various	 ?struggles	 ?that	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?of	 ?late	 ?modernity	 ?encounters,	 ?including	 ?the	 ?challenge	 ?of	 ?creating	 ?oneself	 ?from	 ?a	 ?philosophical	 ?blank	 ?slate	 ?(Chapter	 ?2),	 ?reconciling	 ?traditional	 ?notions	 ?of	 ?religion	 ?and	 ?faith	 ?with	 ?late-??modern	 ?ones	 ?(Chapter	 ?3),	 ?navigating	 ?through	 ?interactions	 ?with	 ?others	 ?and	 ?groups	 ?while	 ?balancing	 ?the	 ?need	 ?for	 ?individuality	 ?and	 ?uniqueness	 ?(Chapter	 ?4),	 ?and	 ?finally,	 ?confronting	 ?the	 ?late-??modern	 ?idea	 ?that	 ?any	 ?singular	 ?truth	 ?is	 ?untenable	 ?(Chapter	 ?5).	 ?By	 ?studying	 ?the	 ?sociological	 ?context	 ?of	 ?Foci	 ?in	 ?conjunction	 ?with	 ?its	 ?musical	 ?characteristics,	 ?an	 ?understanding	 ?of	 ?the	 ?work?s	 ?place	 ?and	 ?significance	 ?in	 ?Canadian	 ?music	 ?history	 ?as	 ?well	 ?as	 ?in	 ?the	 ?changing	 ?social	 ?and	 ?cultural	 ?conditions	 ?of	 ?the	 ?1960?s	 ?is	 ?acquired.	 ?	 ? iii	 ?Preface	 ?This	 ?dissertation	 ?is	 ?an	 ?original	 ?and	 ?unpublished	 ?intellectual	 ?product	 ?of	 ?the	 ?author,	 ?Sophia	 ?Nguyen.	 ?	 ?	 ?Permission	 ?to	 ?use	 ?scans	 ?of	 ?copyrighted	 ?material	 ?for	 ?score	 ?examples	 ?was	 ?obtained	 ?from	 ?Berandol	 ?Music	 ?Publishing.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ? iv	 ?Table	 ?of	 ?Contents	 ?	 ?Abstract	 ??????????????????????????????????????????	 ?ii	 ?Preface	 ??????????????????????????????????????????..	 ?iii	 ?Table	 ?of	 ?Contents	 ????????????????????????????????????.	 ?iv	 ?List	 ?of	 ?Tables	 ???????????????????????????????????????	 ?vi	 ?List	 ?of	 ?Figures	 ?????????????????????????????????????.?	 ?vii	 ?Acknowledgements	 ?????????????????????????????????........	 ?ix	 ?Dedication	 ????????????????????????????????????...????	 ?x	 ?1	 ? Introduction	 ?????????????????????????.......................................	 ?1	 ?1.1	 ?Absurdism,	 ?Existentialism,	 ?and	 ?the	 ?Individual	 ?of	 ?Late	 ?Modernity??????	 ?1	 ?1.2	 ?Absurdism	 ?in	 ?the	 ?Arts	 ?and	 ?Music???????????????????????...	 ?3	 ?1.3	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt	 ?and	 ?the	 ?History	 ?of	 ?Foci	 ?(1969)?????????????????.	 ?6	 ?2	 ?	 ? In	 ?the	 ?Beginning,	 ?there	 ?was	 ?Nothing	 ?????????????????????.10	 ?2.1	 ??Preamble	 ??	 ?Definition	 ?1?	 ?(Movement	 ?1)???????????????????10	 ?2.2	 ?Condemned	 ?to	 ?Freedom:	 ?Coping	 ?with	 ?Choice?????????.???????	 ?16	 ?2.3	 ?Rediscovering	 ?Music	 ?after	 ?Zero	 ?Hour?????????????...???????	 ?18	 ?2.4	 ??Measures?	 ?(Movement	 ?2)????????????????????????..........	 ?23	 ?2.5	 ?The	 ?Emergence	 ?and	 ?Discovery	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Voice??????????????..???	 ?27	 ?3	 ?	 ? The	 ?Individual,	 ?the	 ?Spirit,	 ?and	 ?the	 ?Soul?????????...................................	 ?30	 ?3.1	 ?The	 ?History	 ?of	 ?Icons??????????????????????????????	 ?30	 ?3.2	 ??Icons?	 ?(Movement	 ?3)	 ?????????????????????????????..	 ?	 ?34	 ?	 ? 	 ? 3.2.1	 ?Section	 ?1	 ?(mm.	 ?1-??29):	 ?Geneva	 ?Psalter	 ??	 ?Psalm	 ?150	 ?and	 ?117????...	 ?38	 ?3.3	 ?Max	 ?Weber?s	 ?Theory	 ?of	 ?Progressive	 ?Disenchantment?????????..........	 ?43	 ?	 ? 	 ? 3.3.1	 ?Section	 ?2	 ??	 ?Bridge	 ?(mm.	 ?30-??35):	 ??Geneva,	 ?1986?????????	 ?45	 ?	 ? 	 ? 3.3.2	 ?Section	 ?3	 ?(mm.	 ?36-??49):	 ??Elie	 ?dans	 ?son	 ?char	 ?de	 ?feu??	 ??????.	 ?48	 ?3.4	 ?Disenchantment	 ?and	 ?Secularization	 ?of	 ?Quebec	 ?in	 ?the	 ?1960?s	 ????????..	 ?50	 ?	 ? 	 ? 3.4.1	 ?Section	 ?4	 ?(mm.	 ?50-??59):	 ?Catalogue	 ?Descriptions	 ?-??	 ????????..	 ?52	 ??Gr?ce;	 ?epire;	 ?village	 ?de	 ?zitsa?	 ?3.4.2	 ?Section	 ?5	 ?(mm.	 ?60-??64):	 ?Akathisto	 ?Hymn	 ??	 ????????????.	 ?56	 ??Angelos	 ?protostatis??	 ?	 ?	 ? v	 ?3.5	 ?New	 ?Age	 ?and	 ?the	 ?Sacred	 ?Individual???????????????????..??.	 ?61	 ?	 ? 	 ? 3.5.1	 ?Section	 ?6	 ?(mm.	 ?65-??73):	 ?Eccl?siastique	 ?and	 ?Psalm	 ?130?????	 ?62	 ?3.6	 ??Definition	 ?2	 ??	 ?The	 ?Soul?	 ?(Movement	 ?4)	 ????????????????????	 ?66	 ?4	 ?	 ? Individual	 ?and	 ?Group	 ?Identities????????????????????..??.	 ?75	 ?	 ?	 ?4.1	 ?Sociological	 ?and	 ?Political	 ?Context????????????????..????.??.	 ?76	 ?	 ?	 ?4.2	 ??Individuals?	 ?(Movement	 ?5)?????????????????????????....	 ?80	 ?	 ? 	 ? 4.2.1	 ?Section	 ?1	 ?(mm.	 ?1-??29)	 ???????????????????????...	 ?83	 ?	 ? 	 ? 4.2.2	 ?Section	 ?2	 ?(mm.	 ?30-??48)??????????????????????.	 ?90	 ?	 ? 	 ? 4.2.3	 ?Section	 ?3	 ?(mm.	 ?49-??60)??????????????????????..94	 ?	 ? 	 ? 4.2.4	 ?Section	 ?4	 ?(mm.	 ?61-??92)??????????????????????.	 ?98	 ?	 ? 4.3	 ??Group?	 ?(Movement	 ?6)?????????????????????????..?103	 ?	 ? 4.4	 ??Definition	 ?3	 ?-??	 ?Interaction?	 ?(Movement	 ?7)?????????????.??..	 ?109	 ?5	 ?	 ? ?The	 ?truth,	 ?the	 ?whole	 ?truth,	 ?and	 ?nothing	 ?but	 ?the	 ?truth??????.???	 ?116	 ?	 ? 5.1	 ??Preparation?	 ?(Movement	 ?8)???????????????????????	 ?116	 ?	 ? 5.2	 ??Testimony?	 ?(Movement	 ?9)??????????????????????...?	 ?124	 ?6	 ?	 ? Conclusion	 ???????????????????????????????????..141	 ?Bibliography	 ???????????????????????????????????.???	 ?143	 ?Appendix??????????????????????????????????????.?.150	 ?Text	 ?and	 ?Translations	 ?for	 ?Movement	 ?3	 ??	 ??Icons???????????????.??150	 ?	 ?	 ? 	 ?	 ? vi	 ?List	 ?of	 ?Tables	 ?	 ?	 ?Table	 ?3.1	 ?	 ? Greek	 ?text	 ?and	 ?English	 ?translation	 ?for	 ?the	 ?text	 ?used	 ?in???????...	 ?58	 ?Section	 ?V	 ?of	 ??Icons?	 ?(mm.	 ?60-??64)	 ?	 ? 	 ?	 ? vii	 ?List	 ?of	 ?Figures	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?2.1	 ?	 ? Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?1	 ??	 ??Preamble	 ??	 ?Definition	 ?1?????.	 ?12	 ?Figure	 ?2.2	 ?	 ? Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?2	 ??	 ??Measures?????????????.	 ?25	 ?Figure	 ?3.1	 ? Example	 ?of	 ?a	 ?17th-??century	 ?Icon	 ?by	 ?Emmaneual	 ?Tzanes,	 ????????	 ?33	 ??Cosmas	 ?and	 ?Damian?	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?3.2	 ? The	 ?Demetrios	 ?icon.	 ?Elie	 ?dans	 ?son	 ?char	 ?de	 ?feu,	 ?17th	 ?century	 ?????..	 ?35	 ?Coll:	 ?Dr.	 ?Siegfried	 ?Amberg-??Herzog,	 ?Switzerland	 ?Figure	 ?3.3	 ? Form	 ?diagram	 ?of	 ??Icons?	 ??????????????????...??????	 ?37	 ?Figure	 ?3.4	 ?	 ? Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?3	 ??	 ??Icons,?	 ?mm.	 ?8-??14????????..	 ?39	 ?Figure	 ?3.5	 ? Pitches	 ?between	 ?mm.	 ?1-??5	 ?in	 ?the	 ?electric	 ?organ	 ?of	 ??Icons???????.	 ?39	 ?Figure	 ?3.6	 ? Beginning	 ?of	 ?Psalm	 ?150	 ?from	 ?The	 ?Genevan	 ?Psalter....................................	 ?39	 ?Figure	 ?3.7	 ? Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?3	 ??	 ??Icons,?	 ?mm.	 ?22-??27????????	 ?41	 ?Figure	 ?3.8	 ? Tone	 ?cluster	 ?played	 ?during	 ?mm.	 ?30-??35	 ?(Section	 ?2	 ??	 ?Bridge)????...	 ?46	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?of	 ??Icons?	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?3.9	 ? Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?3	 ??	 ??Icons,?	 ?mm.	 ?30-??35????????	 ?46	 ?Figure	 ?3.10	 ? Tone	 ?clusters	 ?sustained	 ?in	 ?the	 ?instruments	 ?from	 ?mm.	 ?30-??60????..47	 ?Figure	 ?3.11	 ? Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?3	 ??	 ??Icons,?	 ?m.	 ?50???????????	 ?53	 ?Figure	 ?3.12	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?3	 ??	 ??Icons,?	 ?mm.	 ?61-??64????????	 ?60	 ?Figure	 ?3.13	 ?	 ? Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?3	 ??	 ??Icons,	 ???????????????..	 ?63	 ?Beginning	 ?of	 ?Section	 ?VI,	 ?mm.	 ?64-??68.	 ?Figure	 ?3.14	 ? Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?4	 ??	 ??Definition	 ?2,?	 ?mm.	 ?1-??2?????..	 ?67	 ?Figure	 ?3.15	 ?	 ? Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?4	 ??	 ??Definition	 ?2,?	 ?mm.	 ?3-??4?????..	 ?68	 ?Figure	 ?4.1	 ?	 ? Image	 ?from	 ?the	 ?controversial	 ??Daisy	 ?Spot?	 ?advertisement	 ?(1964)?.	 ?78	 ?Figure	 ?4.2	 ? Figure	 ?4.2.	 ??Vive	 ?le	 ?Qu?bec	 ?libre!?	 ?Charles	 ?de	 ?Gaulle?s????????	 ?80	 ?exclamation	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Montreal	 ?World	 ?Expo	 ?(1967)	 ?Figure	 ?4.3	 ? Form	 ?Diagram	 ?of	 ??Individuals?????????????????????...	 ?82	 ?Figure	 ?4.4	 ?	 ? Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?5	 ??	 ??Individuals,?	 ?mm.	 ?1-??6??????	 ?84	 ?Figure	 ?4.5	 ? Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?5	 ??	 ??Individuals,?	 ?mm.	 ?7-??12?????.	 ?87	 ?Figure	 ?4.6	 ? Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?5	 ??	 ??Individuals,?	 ?mm.	 ?13-??18????..	 ?88	 ?	 ? viii	 ?Figure	 ?4.7	 ?	 ? Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?5	 ??	 ??Individuals,?	 ?mm.	 ?31-??36????..	 ?92	 ?Figure	 ?4.8	 ?	 ? Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?5	 ??	 ??Individuals,?	 ?mm.	 ?49-??54????..	 ?96	 ?Figure	 ?4.9	 ?	 ? Comparison	 ?of	 ?mm.	 ?36-??42	 ?of	 ??Icons?	 ?with	 ?mm.	 ?73-??78????????.	 ?99	 ?of	 ??Individuals?	 ?Figure	 ?4.10	 ? Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?6	 ??	 ??Group,?	 ?first	 ?10	 ?cells	 ?for????	 ?104	 ?flute	 ?and	 ?clarinet	 ?Figure	 ?4.11	 ? Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?7	 ??	 ??Interaction,?	 ?mm.	 ?1-??4?????.	 ?112	 ?Figure	 ?5.1	 ? Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?8	 ??	 ??Preparation,?	 ?mm.	 ?1-??5?????118	 ?Figure	 ?5.2	 ? Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?8	 ??	 ??Preparation?	 ?mm.	 ?36-??41????120	 ?Figure	 ?5.3	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?8	 ??	 ??Preparation,?	 ?mm.	 ?42-??47???..122	 ?Figure	 ?5.4	 ?	 ? Form	 ?Diagram	 ?for	 ??Testimony?????????????????????125	 ?Figure	 ?5.5	 ? Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?9	 ??	 ??Testimony,?	 ?mm.	 ?1-??2??????127	 ?Figure	 ?5.6	 ? Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?9	 ??	 ??Testimony,?	 ?mm.	 ?7-??10????...	 ?128	 ?Figure	 ?5.7	 ?	 ? Notes	 ?sung	 ?by	 ?soprano	 ?between	 ?mm.	 ?42-??48	 ?in	 ?Foci,	 ?????????	 ?130	 ?Movement	 ?9,	 ??Testimony?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?5.8	 ?	 ? Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?9	 ??	 ??Testimony,?	 ?mm.	 ?59-??62????	 ?132	 ?Figure	 ?5.9	 ?	 ? Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?9	 ??	 ??Testimony,?	 ?mm.	 ?65??????	 ?133	 ?Figure	 ?5.10	 ?	 ? Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?9	 ??	 ??Testimony,?	 ?mm.	 ?85-??86????	 ?135	 ?	 ? 	 ?	 ? ix	 ?Acknowledgements	 ?	 ?I	 ?would	 ?like	 ?to	 ?express	 ?my	 ?sincere	 ?gratitude	 ?and	 ?appreciation	 ?for	 ?all	 ?the	 ?professors,	 ?readers,	 ?colleagues,	 ?friends	 ?and	 ?family	 ?who	 ?have	 ?been	 ?with	 ?me	 ?throughout	 ?the	 ?process	 ?of	 ?writing	 ?this	 ?thesis.	 ?It	 ?was	 ?with	 ?your	 ?help	 ?and	 ?support	 ?that	 ?this	 ?document	 ?was	 ?able	 ?to	 ?become	 ?one	 ?of	 ?my	 ?proudest	 ?accomplishments.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Dr.	 ?David	 ?Metzer,	 ?I	 ?thank	 ?you	 ?for	 ?your	 ?unwavering	 ?patience	 ?and	 ?guidance	 ?in	 ?helping	 ?me	 ?navigate	 ?my	 ?way	 ?through	 ?what	 ?seemed	 ?like	 ?at	 ?the	 ?beginning	 ?a	 ?gargantuan	 ?task.	 ?Your	 ?thoughtful	 ?comments	 ?and	 ?questions	 ?pushed	 ?me	 ?to	 ?strive	 ?for	 ?a	 ?high	 ?level	 ?of	 ?academic	 ?quality	 ?in	 ?my	 ?writing,	 ?and	 ?to	 ?cultivate	 ?a	 ?thoughtful,	 ?critical	 ?eye	 ?towards	 ?research.	 ?I	 ?will	 ?continue	 ?to	 ?build	 ?from	 ?the	 ?foundation	 ?you	 ?helped	 ?me	 ?develop.	 ?	 ?	 ?Dr.	 ?Friedemann	 ?Sallis,	 ?I	 ?thank	 ?you	 ?for	 ?sparking	 ?and	 ?inspiring	 ?my	 ?interest	 ?in	 ?musicology	 ?and	 ?particularly	 ?Canadian	 ?music.	 ?I	 ?am	 ?deeply	 ?grateful	 ?for	 ?your	 ?continued	 ?mentorship	 ?over	 ?the	 ?years	 ?and	 ?for	 ?our	 ?fruitful	 ?and	 ?stimulating	 ?conversations.	 ?	 ?	 ?Kevin	 ?Madill,	 ?I	 ?thank	 ?you	 ?for	 ?helping	 ?me	 ?during	 ?the	 ?tedious	 ?process	 ?of	 ?seeking	 ?copyright	 ?permission	 ?from	 ?the	 ?publishers	 ?of	 ?my	 ?sources.	 ?	 ?	 ?The	 ?friends	 ?and	 ?colleagues	 ?I	 ?met	 ?in	 ?Vancouver,	 ?I	 ?thank	 ?you	 ?for	 ?your	 ?encouragement	 ?and	 ?for	 ?helping	 ?to	 ?keep	 ?my	 ?spirits	 ?high.	 ?Thank	 ?you	 ?for	 ?teaching	 ?me	 ?that	 ?the	 ?academic	 ?road	 ?is	 ?travelled	 ?best	 ?with	 ?company.	 ? x	 ?Dedication	 ?	 ? To	 ?my	 ?parents,	 ?for	 ?their	 ?limitless	 ?love	 ?and	 ?support.	 ?	 ?	 ? 1	 ?1	 ? Introduction	 ?1.1	 ?Absurdism,	 ?Existentialism,	 ?and	 ?the	 ?Individual	 ?of	 ?Late	 ?Modernity	 ?The	 ?decades	 ?after	 ?the	 ?Second	 ?World	 ?War	 ?were	 ?burdensome	 ?times.	 ?Feelings	 ?of	 ?jubilation	 ?following	 ?the	 ?Allies?	 ?victory	 ?were	 ?tainted	 ?with	 ?an	 ?overwhelming	 ?sense	 ?of	 ?anxiety	 ?and	 ?dread	 ?as	 ?survivors	 ?were	 ?forced	 ?to	 ?face	 ?the	 ?challenge	 ?of	 ?rebuilding	 ?their	 ?lives	 ?out	 ?of	 ?the	 ?rubble	 ?left	 ?behind.	 ?As	 ?the	 ?smoke	 ?cleared	 ?and	 ?details	 ?of	 ?the	 ?atrocities	 ?surfaced	 ?into	 ?public	 ?view,	 ?it	 ?became	 ?clear	 ?that	 ?the	 ?terrible	 ?events	 ?that	 ?had	 ?transpired	 ?were	 ?not	 ?anomalies.	 ?Decades	 ?of	 ?economic	 ?and	 ?social	 ?ills	 ?as	 ?well	 ?as	 ?long-??held	 ?prejudices	 ?played	 ?important	 ?roles	 ?in	 ?creating	 ?an	 ?environment	 ?where	 ?brute	 ?force	 ?and	 ?totalitarian	 ?rule	 ?became	 ?seen	 ?by	 ?some	 ?as	 ?the	 ?only	 ?solution	 ?to	 ?fading	 ?prosperity.	 ?To	 ?avoid	 ?repeating	 ?the	 ?mistakes	 ?of	 ?the	 ?past	 ?and	 ?their	 ?devastating	 ?consequences,	 ?one	 ?could	 ?not	 ?simply	 ?return	 ?to	 ?old	 ?ways	 ?of	 ?doing	 ?things;	 ?new	 ?ways	 ?of	 ?coexisting	 ?needed	 ?to	 ?be	 ?brought	 ?forth.	 ?From	 ?the	 ?ashes	 ?of	 ?the	 ?old	 ?world	 ?came	 ?the	 ?opportunity	 ?to	 ?create	 ?something	 ?anew.	 ?	 ?	 ?It	 ?was	 ?soon	 ?realized,	 ?however,	 ?that	 ?the	 ?freedom	 ?to	 ?determine	 ?one?s	 ?future	 ?carried	 ?with	 ?it	 ?a	 ?heavy	 ?burden.	 ?The	 ?casting	 ?away	 ?of	 ?traditional	 ?paradigms	 ?and	 ?the	 ?attempt	 ?to	 ?reinvent	 ?solutions	 ?to	 ?problems	 ?such	 ?as	 ?how	 ?to	 ?organize	 ?nations,	 ?countries,	 ?and	 ?societies	 ?led	 ?to	 ?a	 ?questioning	 ?of	 ?their	 ?fundamental	 ?goals.	 ?History	 ?had	 ?shown	 ?that	 ?all	 ?ideologies	 ?contain	 ?the	 ?potential	 ?risk	 ?of	 ?being	 ?distorted	 ?and	 ?abused	 ?for	 ?selfish	 ?reasons.	 ?Yet	 ?if	 ?one	 ?could	 ?not	 ?put	 ?one?s	 ?trust	 ?in	 ?his/her	 ?own	 ?nation,	 ?religion,	 ?or	 ?ruler,	 ?what	 ?was	 ?left?	 ?The	 ?1950s	 ?and	 ??60s	 ?witnessed	 ?an	 ?urgent	 ?search	 ?for	 ?human	 ?purpose,	 ?exemplified	 ?by	 ?the	 ?popularity	 ?of	 ?existentialist	 ?and	 ?absurdist	 ?philosophy.	 ?During	 ?this	 ?period	 ?that	 ?some	 ?scholars	 ?such	 ?as	 ?the	 ?sociologist	 ?Jock	 ?Young	 ?have	 ?	 ? 2	 ?identified	 ?as	 ?late	 ?modernity,	 ?the	 ?idea	 ?of	 ?the	 ?autonomous,	 ?self-??made	 ?individual	 ?became	 ?particularly	 ?attractive:	 ??The	 ?comfort-??seeking	 ?creature	 ?of	 ?post-??war	 ?modernity	 ?is	 ?replaced	 ?by	 ?the	 ?striving	 ?subject	 ?of	 ?late	 ?modernity...	 ?Finally,	 ?self-??realisation,	 ?the	 ?notion	 ?of	 ?constructing	 ?one?s	 ?own	 ?destiny	 ?and	 ?narrative,	 ?becomes	 ?a	 ?dominant	 ?ideal.?1	 ?	 ? Creating	 ?oneself	 ?out	 ?of	 ?nothing	 ?(a	 ?famous	 ?tenet	 ?of	 ?leading	 ?existentialist	 ?philosopher	 ?Jean-??Paul	 ?Sartre)	 ?was	 ?an	 ?arduous	 ?task,	 ?however,	 ?wrought	 ?with	 ?doubt	 ?and	 ?despair.	 ?Yet	 ?the	 ?fact	 ?that	 ?this	 ?philosophy	 ?appealed	 ?to	 ?so	 ?many	 ?during	 ?these	 ?decades	 ?(and	 ?continues	 ?to	 ?do	 ?so	 ?today)	 ?despite	 ?its	 ?promise	 ?of	 ?uncertainty	 ?speaks	 ?to	 ?how	 ?intricately	 ?linked	 ?this	 ?way	 ?of	 ?thinking	 ?was	 ?to	 ?the	 ?cultural	 ?conditions	 ?of	 ?the	 ?time.	 ?British	 ?sociologist	 ?Anthony	 ?Giddens	 ?is	 ?among	 ?many	 ?who	 ?believe	 ?that	 ?existentialist	 ?dread	 ?is	 ?characteristic	 ?to	 ?the	 ?notion	 ?of	 ?modernity:	 ?	 ?Modernity	 ?is	 ?a	 ?post-??traditional	 ?order,	 ?but	 ?not	 ?one	 ?in	 ?which	 ?the	 ?sureties	 ?of	 ?tradition	 ?and	 ?habit	 ?have	 ?been	 ?replaced	 ?by	 ?the	 ?certitude	 ?of	 ?rational	 ?knowledge.	 ?Doubt,	 ?a	 ?pervasive	 ?feature	 ?of	 ?modern	 ?critical	 ?reason,	 ?permeates	 ?into	 ?everyday	 ?life	 ?as	 ?well	 ?as	 ?philosophical	 ?consciousness,	 ?and	 ?forms	 ?a	 ?general	 ?existential	 ?dimension	 ?of	 ?the	 ?contemporary	 ?social	 ?world.	 ?Modernity	 ?institutionalizes	 ?the	 ?principle	 ?of	 ?radical	 ?doubt	 ?and	 ?insists	 ?that	 ?all	 ?knowledge	 ?takes	 ?the	 ?form	 ?of	 ?hypotheses.2	 ?	 ? The	 ?struggle	 ?to	 ?stay	 ?afloat	 ?in	 ?a	 ?world	 ?where	 ?everything	 ?is	 ?ambiguous	 ?throws	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?into	 ?a	 ?free	 ?fall.	 ?In	 ?such	 ?a	 ?world,	 ?anything	 ?can	 ?mean	 ?something	 ?at	 ?the	 ?same	 ?times	 ?that	 ?it	 ?can	 ?also	 ?mean	 ?nothing.	 ?The	 ?realization	 ?that	 ?life	 ?is	 ?potentially	 ?meaningless	 ?was	 ?a	 ?serious	 ?dilemma	 ?that	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?of	 ?late	 ?modernity	 ?had	 ?to	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?1	 ?Jock	 ?Young,	 ?The	 ?Vertigo	 ?of	 ?Late	 ?Modernity	 ?(Los	 ?Angeles:	 ?Sage	 ?Publications,	 ?2007),	 ?2-??3.	 ?	 ?2	 ?Anthony	 ?Giddens,	 ?Modernity	 ?and	 ?Self-??Identity:	 ?Self	 ?and	 ?Society	 ?in	 ?the	 ?Late	 ?Modern	 ?Age	 ?(Polity	 ?Press,	 ?1991),	 ?3.	 ?	 ? 3	 ?reconcile	 ?with.	 ?Albert	 ?Camus	 ?describes	 ?this	 ?dilemma	 ?as	 ?the	 ?individual?s	 ?encounter	 ?with	 ?the	 ?Absurd:	 ?A	 ?world	 ?that	 ?can	 ?be	 ?explained	 ?even	 ?with	 ?bad	 ?reasons	 ?is	 ?a	 ?familiar	 ?world.	 ?But,	 ?on	 ?the	 ?other	 ?hand,	 ?in	 ?a	 ?universe	 ?suddenly	 ?divested	 ?of	 ?illusions	 ?and	 ?lights,	 ?man	 ?feels	 ?an	 ?alien,	 ?a	 ?stranger.	 ?His	 ?exile	 ?is	 ?without	 ?remedy	 ?since	 ?he	 ?is	 ?deprived	 ?of	 ?the	 ?memory	 ?of	 ?a	 ?lost	 ?home	 ?or	 ?the	 ?hope	 ?of	 ?a	 ?promised	 ?land.	 ?This	 ?divorce	 ?between	 ?man	 ?and	 ?his	 ?life,	 ?the	 ?actor	 ?and	 ?his	 ?setting,	 ?is	 ?properly	 ?the	 ?feeling	 ?of	 ?absurdity.3	 ?	 ?	 ?Both	 ?the	 ?philosophies	 ?of	 ?existentialism	 ?and	 ?absurdism	 ?sought	 ?to	 ?come	 ?to	 ?terms	 ?with	 ?feeling	 ?of	 ?meaninglessness,	 ?with	 ?the	 ?former	 ?concluding	 ?that	 ?meaning	 ?is	 ?determined	 ?solely	 ?by	 ?individual	 ?choice,	 ?while	 ?the	 ?latter	 ?focuses	 ?not	 ?so	 ?much	 ?on	 ?what	 ?one	 ?chooses	 ?to	 ?live	 ?for,	 ?but	 ?rather	 ?the	 ?awareness	 ?that	 ?any	 ?meaning	 ?ascribed	 ?to	 ?life	 ?is	 ?arbitrary,	 ?and	 ?that	 ?embracing	 ?the	 ?struggle	 ?and	 ?inconclusive	 ?nature	 ?of	 ?life	 ?is	 ?itself	 ?the	 ?pinnacle	 ?of	 ?existence.4	 ?In	 ?1953,	 ?the	 ?characters	 ?Estragon	 ?and	 ?Vladimir	 ?in	 ?Samuel	 ?Becket?s	 ?seminal	 ?play,	 ?Waiting	 ?for	 ?Godot,	 ?echoed	 ?these	 ?absurdist	 ?sentiments,	 ?realizing	 ?that	 ?everything	 ?one	 ?does	 ?is	 ?simply	 ?for	 ?the	 ?sake	 ?of	 ?existing:	 ??We	 ?always	 ?find	 ?something,	 ?eh	 ?Didi,	 ?to	 ?give	 ?us	 ?the	 ?impression	 ?we	 ?exist??5	 ?	 ?	 ?1.2	 ?Absurdism	 ?in	 ?the	 ?Arts	 ?and	 ?Music	 ?Absurdism	 ?was	 ?highly	 ?influential	 ?in	 ?the	 ?theatrical	 ?arts,	 ?as	 ?exemplified	 ?by	 ?Beckett.	 ?In	 ?1974,	 ?Martin	 ?Esslin	 ?coined	 ?in	 ?retrospect	 ?the	 ?term	 ??Theatre	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Absurd?	 ?to	 ?describe	 ?a	 ?collection	 ?of	 ?works	 ?by	 ?playwrights	 ?who	 ?he	 ?believed	 ?shared	 ?an	 ?interest	 ?in	 ?the	 ?ideas	 ?of	 ?absurdism.	 ?Representative	 ?of	 ?this	 ?genre	 ?were	 ?Beckett,	 ?Arthur	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?3	 ?Albert	 ?Camus,	 ??The	 ?Myth	 ?of	 ?Sisyphus,?	 ?in	 ?The	 ?Plague,	 ?The	 ?Fall,	 ?Exile	 ?and	 ?the	 ?Kingdom,	 ?and	 ?Selected	 ?Essays	 ?(New	 ?York:	 ?Alfred	 ?A.	 ?Knopf,	 ?2004),	 ?497.	 ?	 ?4	 ?Ibid,	 ?589-??593.	 ?5	 ?Samuel	 ?Becket,	 ?Waiting	 ?for	 ?Godot	 ?(London:	 ?Faber	 ?and	 ?Faber,	 ?1965),	 ?Act	 ?II,	 ?69.	 ?	 ? 4	 ?Adamov,	 ?Eug?ne	 ?Ionesco,	 ?Jean	 ?Genet,	 ?and	 ?Harold	 ?Pinter.6	 ?In	 ?music,	 ?however,	 ?there	 ?were	 ?no	 ?figureheads	 ?who	 ?could	 ?be	 ?classified	 ?under	 ?a	 ?similar	 ?umbrella	 ?term,	 ?but	 ?this	 ?is	 ?not	 ?to	 ?say	 ?that	 ?absurdism	 ?and	 ?the	 ?changing	 ?attitudes	 ?towards	 ?individualism	 ?in	 ?late	 ?modernity	 ?did	 ?not	 ?influence	 ?musical	 ?composition.	 ?	 ?In	 ?1984,	 ?Hungarian-??born,	 ?Canadian	 ?composer	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt	 ?published	 ?his	 ?study	 ?on	 ?vocal	 ?music	 ?composition	 ?since	 ?the	 ?mid-??1950?s,	 ?Alternative	 ?Voices:	 ?Essays	 ?on	 ?Contemporary	 ?Vocal	 ?and	 ?Choral	 ?Composition.	 ?One	 ?of	 ?the	 ?unique	 ?characteristics	 ?that	 ?he	 ?noted	 ?within	 ?this	 ?repertoire	 ?was	 ?a	 ?fascination	 ?with	 ?the	 ??hierophany	 ?of	 ?the	 ?victim	 ?and	 ?the	 ?substitute	 ?celebration	 ?of	 ?the	 ?absurd.?7	 ?The	 ?roots	 ?of	 ?this	 ?he	 ?traced	 ?back	 ?to	 ?the	 ?efforts	 ?taken	 ?by	 ?artists	 ?and	 ?composers	 ?to	 ?reflect	 ?upon	 ?the	 ?meaning	 ?of	 ?human	 ?life	 ?following	 ?the	 ?mass	 ?destruction	 ?and	 ?causalities	 ?that	 ?the	 ?war	 ?left	 ?in	 ?its	 ?wake.	 ?Some	 ?works,	 ?such	 ?as	 ?Benjamin	 ?Britten?s	 ?War	 ?Requiem	 ?(1961-??1962),	 ?sought	 ?to	 ?comment	 ?directly	 ?on	 ?the	 ?loss	 ?of	 ?human	 ?life	 ?by	 ?commemorating	 ?the	 ?victims.	 ?Others	 ?focused	 ?on	 ?those	 ?who	 ?were	 ?affected	 ?by	 ?the	 ?wider	 ?reverberations	 ?of	 ?the	 ?war	 ?such	 ?as	 ?political,	 ?racial,	 ?and	 ?religious	 ?persecution,	 ?and	 ?social	 ?and	 ?economic	 ?oppression.	 ?The	 ?broad,	 ?overarching	 ?nature	 ?of	 ?these	 ?issues	 ?resulted	 ?in	 ?works	 ?that	 ?tended	 ?to	 ?be	 ?more	 ?abstract,	 ?but	 ?that	 ?were	 ?still	 ?clearly	 ?tinged	 ?with	 ?sadness	 ?and	 ?anger:	 ??Perhaps	 ?some	 ?composers	 ?were	 ?not	 ?able	 ?to	 ?speak	 ?directly	 ?about	 ?a	 ?specific	 ?tragedy	 ?or	 ?about	 ?what	 ?they	 ?saw	 ?as	 ?the	 ?hopelessness	 ?of	 ?the	 ?human	 ?condition	 ?and	 ?have	 ?elected	 ?to	 ?express	 ?the	 ?absurdity	 ?inherent	 ?in	 ?a	 ?situation.?8	 ?Anhalt	 ?notes	 ?a	 ?wide	 ?variety	 ?of	 ?composers	 ?who	 ?he	 ?believed	 ?wrote	 ?works	 ?that	 ?fell	 ?into	 ?this	 ?vein,	 ?including	 ?Luciano	 ?Berio,	 ?R.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?6	 ?Martin	 ?Esslin,	 ?The	 ?Theater	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Absurd	 ?(Eyre	 ?&	 ?Spottiswoode:	 ?London,	 ?1966),	 ?24.  7	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Alternative	 ?Voices:	 ?Essays	 ?on	 ?Contemporary	 ?Vocal	 ?and	 ?Choral	 ?Composition	 ?(Toronto:	 ?University	 ?of	 ?Toronto	 ?Press,	 ?1984),	 ?199.	 ?8	 ?Ibid,	 ?199-??200.	 ?	 ? 5	 ?Murray	 ?Schafer,	 ?Luigi	 ?Dallapiccola,	 ?Iannis	 ?Xenakis,	 ?Mauricio	 ?Kagel,	 ?Dieter	 ?Schnebel,	 ?Maxwell	 ?Davies,	 ?and	 ?himself.	 ?As	 ?Anhalt	 ?struggled	 ?to	 ?find	 ?meaning	 ?and	 ?solace	 ?following	 ?such	 ?senseless	 ?violence,	 ?he	 ?asks	 ?us	 ?to	 ?consider	 ?the	 ?following:	 ?	 ?Who	 ?are	 ?the	 ?victims?	 ?In	 ?our	 ?context,	 ?the	 ?answer	 ?is	 ?best	 ?sought	 ?in	 ?actual	 ?compositions.	 ?These	 ?indicate	 ?such	 ?a	 ?wide	 ?range	 ?of	 ?injustices	 ?that	 ?one	 ?wonders	 ?if	 ?any	 ?group	 ?or	 ?type	 ?of	 ?individual	 ?is	 ?to	 ?be	 ?excluded.	 ?If	 ?everyone	 ?can	 ?be	 ?victims,	 ?who	 ?are	 ?then	 ?the	 ?victimizers?	 ?The	 ?answer	 ?is	 ?both	 ?simple	 ?and	 ?complex.	 ?We	 ?all	 ?can	 ?be	 ?tormentors	 ?and	 ?victims.9	 ?	 ?The	 ?realization	 ?that	 ?anyone	 ?could	 ?occupy	 ?the	 ?position	 ?of	 ?both	 ?the	 ?persecutor	 ?and	 ?persecuted	 ?complicates	 ?the	 ?issue	 ?of	 ?blame,	 ?and	 ?contributes	 ?to	 ?feelings	 ?of	 ?hopelessness	 ?and	 ?unease	 ?that	 ?is	 ?characteristic	 ?of	 ?coming	 ?face	 ?to	 ?face	 ?with	 ?the	 ?idea	 ?of	 ?absurdity.	 ?In	 ?1969,	 ?Anhalt	 ?wrote	 ?a	 ?piece	 ?of	 ?music	 ?that	 ?he	 ?himself	 ?described	 ?as	 ?a	 ?commentary	 ?on	 ?the	 ?absurd.10	 ?Foci,	 ?composed	 ?in	 ?Montreal	 ?in	 ?the	 ?midst	 ?of	 ?civil	 ?unrest,	 ?captures	 ?with	 ?striking	 ?acuity	 ?the	 ?journey	 ?of	 ?the	 ?individual?s	 ?search	 ?for	 ?meaning	 ?and	 ?identity	 ?amidst	 ?the	 ?changing	 ?social	 ?landscape	 ?of	 ?late	 ?modernity	 ?and	 ?the	 ?rise	 ?in	 ?self-??awareness	 ?that	 ?characterised	 ?the	 ?period.	 ?By	 ?utilizing	 ?a	 ?combination	 ?of	 ?live	 ?and	 ?taped	 ?voices,	 ?an	 ?instrumental	 ?ensemble,	 ?and	 ?elaborate	 ?visual	 ?effects,	 ?Anhalt	 ?transforms	 ?the	 ?concert	 ?stage	 ?into	 ?a	 ?theatrical	 ?space	 ?where	 ?the	 ?audience	 ?is	 ?invited	 ?to	 ?experience	 ?and	 ?scrutinize	 ?	 ??contemporary	 ?existence?	 ?and	 ?the	 ??inner	 ?spaces	 ?of	 ?the	 ?mind/heart.?11	 ?The	 ?present	 ?thesis	 ?is	 ?an	 ?examination	 ?of	 ?this	 ?remarkable	 ?musical	 ?work	 ?along	 ?with	 ?its	 ?sociological	 ?implications.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?9	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Alternative	 ?Voices,	 ?199.	 ?	 ?10	 ?Ibid,	 ?200.	 ?	 ?11	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ??About	 ?Foci,?	 ?artscanada	 ?(April/May	 ?1971):	 ?57.	 ?	 ? 6	 ?1.3	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt	 ?and	 ?the	 ?History	 ?of	 ?Foci	 ?(1969)	 ?In	 ?1949,	 ?Anhalt	 ?landed	 ?on	 ?the	 ?shores	 ?of	 ?Halifax.	 ?He	 ?was	 ?among	 ?a	 ?lucky	 ?few	 ?who	 ?had	 ?been	 ?offered	 ?a	 ?chance	 ?to	 ?travel	 ?to	 ?Canada	 ?and	 ?build	 ?a	 ?new	 ?life	 ?for	 ?himself	 ?there	 ?after	 ?the	 ?war	 ?as	 ?a	 ?patron-??sponsored	 ?composer.	 ?From	 ?Halifax,	 ?Anhalt	 ?caught	 ?a	 ?train	 ?and	 ?travelled	 ?to	 ?Montreal,	 ?which	 ?would	 ?become	 ?his	 ?home	 ?for	 ?the	 ?next	 ?two	 ?decades.	 ?His	 ?initial	 ?impression	 ?of	 ?the	 ?country	 ?was	 ?a	 ?favourable	 ?one:	 ?	 ??I	 ?immediately	 ?felt	 ?very	 ?good	 ?here.	 ?At	 ?that	 ?time	 ?there	 ?was	 ?no	 ?flag,	 ?no	 ?national	 ?anthem	 ?that	 ?everybody	 ?could	 ?sing.	 ?Also,	 ?people	 ?made	 ?fun	 ?of	 ?nationalism	 ?in	 ?those	 ?days,	 ?which	 ?was	 ?very	 ?refreshing,	 ?and	 ?I	 ?felt	 ?that	 ?nobody	 ?could	 ?really	 ?do	 ?any	 ?harm	 ?to	 ?me	 ?under	 ?these	 ?conditions.?12	 ?Although	 ?Canada	 ?indeed	 ?had	 ?a	 ?flag	 ?and	 ?anthem	 ?in	 ?its	 ?name	 ?by	 ?this	 ?time,	 ?Anhalt?s	 ?feelings	 ?of	 ?hope	 ?and	 ?relief	 ?were	 ?sincere	 ?given	 ?the	 ?troubling	 ?situation	 ?he	 ?had	 ?just	 ?come	 ?from	 ?in	 ?Europe.	 ?	 ?	 ?With	 ?the	 ?assistance	 ?of	 ?a	 ?fellowship	 ?awarded	 ?to	 ?him	 ?by	 ?a	 ?Montreal	 ?patron,	 ?Henriette	 ?Davis,	 ?Anhalt	 ?was	 ?able	 ?to	 ?begin	 ?working	 ?immediately	 ?as	 ?a	 ?newly	 ?appointed	 ?assistant	 ?professor	 ?at	 ?the	 ?budding	 ?music	 ?faculty	 ?of	 ?McGill	 ?University.	 ?For	 ?the	 ?first	 ?few	 ?years	 ?upon	 ?his	 ?arrival,	 ?Anhalt	 ?wrote	 ?predominantly	 ?chamber	 ?works	 ?that	 ?explored	 ?dodecaphonic	 ?procedures.	 ?Examples	 ?of	 ?these	 ?works	 ?include	 ?his	 ?Piano	 ?Fantasia	 ?(1954)	 ?and	 ?the	 ?three-??movement	 ?suite,	 ?Comments	 ?(1954).	 ?In	 ?1958,	 ?Anhalt	 ?completed	 ?his	 ?first	 ?full-??orchestral	 ?piece,	 ?Symphony.	 ?Performances	 ?of	 ?large	 ?contemporary	 ?symphonic	 ?works	 ?were	 ?hard	 ?to	 ?come	 ?by	 ?in	 ?Canada	 ?at	 ?this	 ?time,	 ?and	 ?the	 ?success	 ?of	 ?the	 ?symphony?s	 ?premiere	 ?helped	 ?Anhalt	 ?gain	 ?prestige	 ?across	 ?the	 ?nation	 ?as	 ?well	 ?as	 ?internationally.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?12	 ?Anhalt,	 ?quoted	 ?in	 ?Robin	 ?Elliot	 ?and	 ?Gordon	 ?E.	 ?Smith,	 ?eds.	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt:	 ?Pathways	 ?and	 ?Memory	 ?(Montreal:	 ?McGill-??Queen?s	 ?University	 ?Press,	 ?2001),	 ?34.	 ?	 ? 7	 ?The	 ?following	 ?decade	 ?saw	 ?Anhalt	 ?experimenting	 ?with	 ?electronics.	 ?His	 ?first	 ?encounter	 ?with	 ?music	 ?that	 ?utilized	 ?the	 ?new	 ?medium	 ?came	 ?through	 ?a	 ?CBC	 ?broadcast	 ?in	 ?1957	 ?that	 ?featured	 ?Karlheinz	 ?Stockhausen?s	 ?early	 ?experimental	 ?works	 ?as	 ?well	 ?as	 ?his	 ?seminal	 ?piece,	 ?Gesung	 ?der	 ?J?nglinge	 ?(1955-??56):	 ??It	 ?was	 ?one	 ?of	 ?the	 ?strongest	 ?and	 ?most	 ?fascinating	 ?music	 ?experiences	 ?I	 ?ever	 ?had,?	 ?Anhalt	 ?recalls,	 ??It	 ?was	 ?so	 ?strong	 ?that	 ?I	 ?told	 ?myself,	 ??Well	 ?I	 ?really	 ?must	 ?see	 ?the	 ?place	 ?where	 ?this	 ?is	 ?made	 ?and	 ?I	 ?must	 ?meet	 ?the	 ?person	 ?who	 ?made	 ?that.??13	 ?Through	 ?Anhalt?s	 ?efforts,	 ?McGill	 ?soon	 ?became	 ?one	 ?of	 ?the	 ?first	 ?schools	 ?in	 ?Canada	 ?to	 ?establish	 ?a	 ?professional	 ?electronic	 ?music	 ?studio.14	 ?Although	 ?Anhalt	 ?would	 ?eventually	 ?move	 ?onto	 ?different	 ?mediums	 ?of	 ?composition	 ?due	 ?to	 ?the	 ?increasing	 ?complications	 ?and	 ?effort	 ?required	 ?to	 ?keep	 ?up	 ?with	 ?the	 ?rapidly	 ?changing	 ?technology,	 ?he	 ?remembers	 ?this	 ?period	 ?of	 ?his	 ?work	 ?fondly:	 ?	 ?I?m	 ?not	 ?saying	 ?that	 ?I	 ?wasted	 ?my	 ?time	 ?doing	 ?the	 ?synthetic.	 ?I	 ?didn?t.	 ?All	 ?those	 ?unusual	 ?sounds,	 ?combinations	 ?of	 ?sine	 ?tones,	 ?filtered	 ?white	 ?noise,	 ?they	 ?appealed	 ?to	 ?me.	 ?I	 ?wanted	 ?to	 ?learn	 ?about	 ?that.	 ?I	 ?could	 ?not	 ?have	 ?written	 ?a	 ?piece	 ?like	 ??the	 ?timber	 ?of	 ?those	 ?times?	 ?(2006)	 ?and	 ?evolved	 ?the	 ?harmony	 ?and	 ?grammar	 ?of	 ?my	 ?later	 ?pieces,	 ?if	 ?I	 ?had	 ?not	 ?acquired	 ?a	 ?compositional	 ?freedom	 ?which	 ?my	 ?work	 ?with	 ?synthetic	 ?music	 ?afforded	 ?me.	 ?It	 ?was	 ?an	 ?enormously	 ?liberating	 ?thing.15	 ?	 ?Feelings	 ?of	 ?excitement	 ?as	 ?well	 ?as	 ?anxiety	 ?that	 ?came	 ?with	 ?the	 ?freedom	 ?offered	 ?by	 ?electroacoustic	 ?music	 ?can	 ?be	 ?heard	 ?in	 ?the	 ?works	 ?that	 ?Anhalt	 ?wrote	 ?during	 ?this	 ?time.	 ?Never	 ?far	 ?are	 ?also	 ?expressions	 ?of	 ?human	 ?and	 ?societal	 ?concerns.	 ?Even	 ?within	 ?the	 ?abstract	 ?world	 ?of	 ?pure	 ?sound	 ?manipulation,	 ?Anhalt	 ?never	 ?lost	 ?sight	 ?of	 ?the	 ?need	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?13	 ?Anhalt,	 ?quoted	 ?by	 ?Gayle	 ?Young	 ?in	 ?The	 ?Sackbut	 ?Blues:	 ?Hugh	 ?Le	 ?Caine	 ?Pioneer	 ?in	 ?Electronic	 ?Music	 ?	 ?(Ottawa:	 ?National	 ?Museum	 ?of	 ?Science	 ?and	 ?Technology,	 ?1986),	 ?106.	 ?	 ?14	 ?Robin	 ?Elliot,	 ??Life	 ?in	 ?Montreal,?	 ?in	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt:	 ?Pathways	 ?and	 ?Memory,	 ?48.	 ?15	 ?Anhalt	 ?quoted	 ?in	 ?Matt	 ?Rogalsky,	 ??Finger	 ?Exercises	 ?for	 ?Oscillators:	 ?Istv?n	 ?Anhalt	 ?on	 ?Electronic	 ?Music,?	 ?Circuit:	 ?musiques	 ?contemporaines	 ?19,	 ?No.	 ?3	 ?(2009):	 ?84.	 ?	 ?	 ? 8	 ?to	 ??humanize	 ?the	 ?strange	 ?sonic	 ?materials	 ?with	 ?which	 ?he	 ?was	 ?working.?16	 ?Musicologist	 ?Gordon	 ?Smith	 ?describes	 ?that	 ?for	 ?Anhalt,	 ?no	 ?matter	 ?the	 ?medium,	 ??the	 ?meaning	 ?of	 ?music	 ?[was]	 ?linked	 ?to	 ?the	 ?mystery	 ?of	 ?human	 ?existence.?17	 ?Of	 ?the	 ?works	 ?Anhalt	 ?wrote	 ?during	 ?this	 ?period,	 ?Cento	 ?(1968)	 ?and	 ?its	 ?companion	 ?piece,	 ?Foci	 ?(1969)	 ?touch	 ?on	 ?these	 ?issues	 ?with	 ?particular	 ?acuity.	 ?In	 ?these	 ?pieces,	 ?Anhalt	 ?was	 ?able	 ?to	 ?combine	 ?new	 ?technologies	 ?with	 ?old	 ?ones	 ?in	 ?ways	 ?that	 ?were	 ?novel	 ?and	 ?stimulating	 ?while	 ?remaining	 ?at	 ?the	 ?same	 ?time	 ?familiar	 ?and	 ?relevant	 ?to	 ?contemporary	 ?issues.	 ?	 ?Scholarly	 ?research	 ?on	 ?Anhalt?s	 ?music	 ?has	 ?only	 ?just	 ?begun	 ?to	 ?emerge	 ?in	 ?recent	 ?years.	 ?A	 ?biography,	 ?a	 ?book	 ?of	 ?correspondences	 ?between	 ?him	 ?and	 ?fellow	 ?composer	 ?George	 ?Rochberg,	 ?and	 ?a	 ?collection	 ?of	 ?essays	 ?pertaining	 ?to	 ?Anhalt?s	 ?music	 ?in	 ?a	 ?discussion	 ?about	 ?music	 ?and	 ?place	 ?are	 ?important	 ?books	 ?that	 ?have	 ?been	 ?published	 ?within	 ?the	 ?last	 ?decade.18	 ?Of	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?works	 ?that	 ?have	 ?been	 ?studied,	 ?Anhalt?s	 ?symphonic	 ?and	 ?operatic	 ?works	 ?have	 ?drawn	 ?the	 ?most	 ?attention.19	 ?Although	 ?Anhalt?s	 ?electroacoustic	 ?works	 ?occupy	 ?a	 ?small	 ?portion	 ?of	 ?his	 ?oeuvre	 ?in	 ?comparison,	 ?they	 ?encompass	 ?an	 ?important	 ?part	 ?in	 ?Anhalt?s	 ?life	 ?as	 ?well	 ?as	 ?in	 ?the	 ?history	 ?of	 ?Canadian	 ?music.	 ?The	 ?present	 ?thesis	 ?is	 ?the	 ?first	 ?extensive	 ?musicological	 ?study	 ?of	 ?Foci	 ?that	 ?has	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?16	 ?Elliot	 ?and	 ?Smith,	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt:	 ?Pathways	 ?and	 ?Memory,	 ?62.	 ?Also	 ?see	 ?liner	 ?notes	 ?for	 ?Anthology	 ?of	 ?Canadian	 ?Music,	 ?vol.	 ?22,	 ?Radio	 ?Canada	 ?International,	 ?sound	 ?recording	 ?(1985),	 ?8.	 ?	 ?17	 ?Gordon	 ?E.	 ?Smith,	 ???Deep	 ?themes,	 ?not	 ?so	 ?hidden?	 ?in	 ?the	 ?Music	 ?of	 ?Istv?n	 ?Anhalt,?	 ?Queen?s	 ?Quarterly	 ?98	 ?(Spring	 ?1991):	 ?99.	 ?18	 ?Elliot	 ?and	 ?Smith,	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt:	 ?Pathways	 ?and	 ?Memory;	 ?Alan	 ?M.	 ?Gillmor,	 ?ed.,	 ?Eagle	 ?Minds:	 ?Selected	 ?Correspondence	 ?of	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt	 ?and	 ?George	 ?Rochberg,	 ?Waterloo,	 ?ON:	 ?Wilfrid	 ?Laurier	 ?University	 ?Press,	 ?2007;	 ?and	 ?Friedemann	 ?Sallis,	 ?Robin	 ?Elliott,	 ?and	 ?Kenneth	 ?DeLong,	 ?eds.	 ?Centre	 ?and	 ?Periphery,	 ?Roots	 ?and	 ?Exile,	 ?Waterloo:	 ?Wilfrid	 ?Laurier	 ?University	 ?Press,	 ?2011.	 ?19	 ?For	 ?example,	 ?Gordon	 ?E.	 ?Smith,	 ??From	 ?New	 ?France	 ?to	 ?a	 ??Millennial	 ?Mall?:	 ?Identity	 ?Paradigms	 ?in	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt?s	 ?Operas,	 ?American	 ?Music	 ?24,	 ?no.	 ?2	 ?(Summer	 ?2006):	 ?172-??193;	 ?Robin	 ?Elliott,	 ??Istv?n	 ?Anhalt?s	 ?Kingston	 ?Triptych,?	 ?in	 ?Centre	 ?and	 ?Periphery,	 ?73-??88;	 ?and	 ?William	 ?Benjamin,	 ??Istv?n	 ?Anhalt?s	 ?The	 ?Tents	 ?of	 ?Abraham:	 ?Where	 ?Music	 ?Cannot	 ?Heal,	 ?Let	 ?It	 ?Be	 ?Restored,?	 ?in	 ?Centre	 ?and	 ?Periphery,	 ?89-??110.	 ?	 ? 9	 ?yet	 ?been	 ?undertaken.	 ?It	 ?is	 ?hoped	 ?that	 ?this	 ?study	 ?will	 ?stimulate	 ?further	 ?research	 ?into	 ?Anhalt?s	 ?music	 ?and	 ?help	 ?it	 ?attain	 ?greater	 ?exposure.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ? 	 ?	 ? 10	 ?2	 ? In	 ?the	 ?Beginning,	 ?there	 ?was	 ?Nothing	 ?This	 ?chapter	 ?will	 ?focus	 ?on	 ?the	 ?first	 ?two	 ?movements	 ?of	 ?Foci,	 ??Preamble	 ??	 ?Definition	 ?1?	 ?and	 ??Measures.?	 ?Here,	 ?we	 ?are	 ?introduced	 ?to	 ?a	 ?concept	 ?of	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?that	 ?gained	 ?renewed	 ?interest	 ?in	 ?the	 ?late-??modern	 ?age	 ?as	 ?an	 ?entity	 ?that	 ?builds	 ?its	 ?identity	 ?from	 ?a	 ?blank	 ?slate.	 ?In	 ?describing	 ?Foci,	 ?Anhalt	 ?said	 ?the	 ?following:	 ?The	 ?overall	 ?structure	 ?of	 ?Foci	 ?is	 ?meant	 ?to	 ?give	 ?the	 ?impression	 ?of	 ?deriving	 ?from	 ?a	 ?tabula	 ?rasa	 ?kind	 ?of	 ?frame	 ?of	 ?mind	 ?of	 ?an	 ?imaginary	 ?listener/viewer,	 ?and	 ?progressing	 ?through	 ?many	 ?states	 ?of	 ?higher	 ?and	 ?lower	 ?tension,	 ?toward	 ?a	 ?conclusion	 ?of	 ?silence	 ?and	 ?darkness.20	 ?	 ?	 ? In	 ??Preamble,?	 ?Anhalt	 ?simulates	 ?the	 ?primordial	 ?beginning	 ?of	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?by	 ?using	 ?visual,	 ?dramatic,	 ?and	 ?musical	 ?techniques	 ?that	 ?reflect	 ?emptiness.	 ?In	 ?addition,	 ?his	 ?use	 ?of	 ?the	 ?definition	 ?for	 ??coping	 ?behaviour?	 ?as	 ?the	 ?text	 ?for	 ?the	 ?movement	 ?suggests	 ?that	 ?the	 ?process	 ?of	 ?inventing	 ?oneself	 ?from	 ?nothing	 ?is	 ?a	 ?complex	 ?and	 ?psychologically	 ?straining	 ?task.	 ?In	 ?the	 ?following	 ?movement,	 ??Measures,?	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?takes	 ?the	 ?first	 ?few	 ?steps	 ?towards	 ?establishing	 ?his/her	 ?own	 ?autonomous	 ?voice	 ?by	 ?experimenting	 ?with	 ?fragments	 ?of	 ?speech	 ?and	 ?melody.	 ?The	 ?movement	 ?is	 ?quite	 ?sparse	 ?in	 ?comparison	 ?to	 ?the	 ?ones	 ?that	 ?will	 ?follow	 ?as	 ?it	 ?still	 ?represents	 ?the	 ?initial	 ?stages	 ?of	 ?the	 ?individual?s	 ?self-??discovery.	 ?	 ?2.1	 ??Preamble	 ??	 ?Definition	 ?1?	 ?(Movement	 ?1)	 ?In	 ?1969	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Albright-??Knox	 ?Art	 ?Gallery	 ?Auditorium	 ?in	 ?Buffalo,	 ?New	 ?York,	 ?the	 ?audience	 ?sat	 ?immersed	 ?in	 ?darkness	 ?waiting	 ?for	 ?the	 ?premiere	 ?of	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt?s	 ?Foci.	 ?Deprived	 ?of	 ?their	 ?vision	 ?and	 ?kept	 ?in	 ?silence,	 ?their	 ?senses	 ?acquired	 ?a	 ?heightened	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?20	 ?Anhalt,	 ??About	 ?Foci,?	 ?57.	 ?	 ? 11	 ?sensitivity.	 ?Anhalt,	 ?who	 ?conducted	 ?the	 ?performance,	 ?had	 ?instructed	 ?that	 ?the	 ?hall	 ?be	 ?completely	 ?darkened,	 ?so	 ?that	 ?each	 ?sonic	 ?stimulus	 ?would	 ?have	 ?struck	 ?with	 ?intensified	 ?force	 ?and	 ?novelty.	 ?Off-??stage,	 ?a	 ?dull	 ?thud	 ?of	 ?a	 ?large	 ?object	 ?being	 ?struck	 ?by	 ?a	 ?hammer	 ?was	 ?heard.	 ?Quietly,	 ?four	 ?performers	 ?walked	 ?in	 ?single-??file	 ?onto	 ?the	 ?stage	 ?and	 ?positioned	 ?themselves	 ?in	 ?front	 ?of	 ?tape	 ?recorders.	 ?The	 ?hammer	 ?strikes	 ?were	 ?heard	 ?again.	 ?A	 ?pale	 ?blue	 ?glow	 ?emerged	 ?out	 ?of	 ?the	 ?darkness,	 ?projected	 ?onto	 ?a	 ?screen	 ?in	 ?front	 ?of	 ?the	 ?audience.	 ?Simultaneously,	 ?their	 ?ears	 ?picked	 ?up	 ?the	 ?frequency	 ?of	 ?a	 ?very	 ?high	 ?sine	 ?tone	 ?that	 ?came	 ?from	 ?two	 ?of	 ?the	 ?six	 ?tape	 ?channels	 ?operated	 ?by	 ?the	 ?performers.	 ?Gradually,	 ?the	 ?signal	 ?increased	 ?in	 ?intensity,	 ?and	 ?just	 ?as	 ?it	 ?became	 ?almost	 ?too	 ?uncomfortable	 ?to	 ?bear,	 ?a	 ?word	 ?was	 ?declaimed	 ?from	 ?a	 ?tape,	 ??Action!?,	 ?and	 ?the	 ?performance	 ?began	 ?(Figure	 ?2.1).	 ?	 ?	 ? 	 ?	 ? 12	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?2.1	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?1	 ??	 ??Preamble	 ??	 ?Definition	 ?1?	 ? 	 ?	 ? 13	 ?The	 ?gradual	 ?emergence	 ?from	 ?darkness	 ?and	 ?silence	 ?using	 ?sparsely	 ?textured	 ?sounds	 ?and	 ?dim	 ?lighting	 ?had	 ?been	 ?used	 ?by	 ?other	 ?composers	 ?of	 ?elektronische	 ?Musik.	 ?For	 ?example,	 ?Edgard	 ?Var?se?s	 ?Po?me	 ??lectronique	 ?(1958)	 ?begins	 ?with	 ?the	 ?strike	 ?of	 ?gongs	 ?followed	 ?by	 ?isolated	 ?electronic	 ?blips	 ?and	 ?tones.	 ?Karlheinz	 ?Stockhausen?s	 ?Sternklang	 ?(1969-??1971)	 ?also	 ?begins	 ?in	 ?a	 ?remarkably	 ?similar	 ?way	 ?with	 ?the	 ?striking	 ?of	 ?bells	 ?followed	 ?by	 ?a	 ?sustained	 ?high-??frequency	 ?tone.	 ?What	 ?distinguishes	 ?Foci?s	 ?beginning	 ?from	 ?these	 ?examples,	 ?however,	 ?is	 ?that	 ?its	 ?sonorities	 ?are	 ?of	 ?a	 ?cruder	 ?and	 ?harsher	 ?quality.	 ?The	 ?dull	 ?thuds	 ?from	 ?the	 ?hammer	 ?strikes	 ?do	 ?not	 ?have	 ?the	 ?clear	 ?timbre	 ?of	 ?bells	 ?or	 ?gongs.	 ?The	 ?pure	 ?sine	 ?tone	 ?borders	 ?on	 ?the	 ?threshold	 ?of	 ?pain,	 ?and	 ?it	 ?does	 ?not	 ?give	 ?way	 ?to	 ?elaborate	 ?sonorities,	 ?but	 ?rather	 ?to	 ?mechanical	 ?pulsations	 ?that	 ?sound	 ?more	 ?like	 ?operating	 ?machinery	 ?than	 ?creatively	 ?synthesized,	 ?musical	 ?sounds.	 ?As	 ?we	 ?continue	 ?our	 ?exploration	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Foci,	 ?we	 ?will	 ?piece	 ?together	 ?components	 ?from	 ?the	 ?work?s	 ?history,	 ?and	 ?social	 ?and	 ?cultural	 ?context	 ?to	 ?help	 ?illuminate	 ?Anhalt?s	 ?motivations	 ?behind	 ?composing	 ?its	 ?unique	 ?characteristics.	 ?To	 ?begin,	 ?we	 ?will	 ?consider	 ?the	 ?text	 ?of	 ?the	 ?first	 ?movement,	 ??Preamble	 ??	 ?Definition	 ?1.?	 ?The	 ?word	 ??action?	 ?is	 ?followed	 ?by	 ?a	 ?brief	 ?pause,	 ?which	 ?isolates	 ?it	 ?for	 ?a	 ?moment.	 ?Set	 ?apart,	 ?it	 ?comes	 ?across	 ?as	 ?a	 ?call	 ?to	 ??action,?	 ?for	 ?example,	 ?when	 ?a	 ?director	 ?makes	 ?the	 ?cue	 ?to	 ?begin	 ?filming.	 ?It	 ?is	 ?soon	 ?revealed,	 ?however,	 ?that	 ?it	 ?is	 ?the	 ?first	 ?word	 ?for	 ?the	 ?definition	 ?of	 ?the	 ?term	 ??coping	 ?behaviour?:	 ?	 ?Action	 ?that	 ?enables	 ?one	 ?to	 ?adjust	 ?to	 ?the	 ?environmental	 ?circumstances;	 ?to	 ?get	 ?something	 ?done.	 ?	 ?The	 ?voice	 ?that	 ?articulates	 ?the	 ?definition	 ?belongs	 ?to	 ?an	 ?English-??Canadian	 ?man	 ?whom	 ?Anhalt	 ?recorded	 ?on	 ?tape.	 ?With	 ?the	 ?exception	 ?of	 ?the	 ?last	 ?movement,	 ?all	 ?of	 ?the	 ?texts	 ?heard	 ?in	 ?Foci	 ?are	 ?played	 ?back	 ?through	 ?taped	 ?recordings.	 ?The	 ?definition	 ?is	 ?	 ? 14	 ?recited	 ?simultaneously	 ?by	 ?another	 ?voice	 ?in	 ?French	 ?by	 ?a	 ?French-??Canadian	 ?woman,	 ?as	 ?well	 ?as	 ?in	 ?High-??German	 ?by	 ?another	 ?male	 ?voice:	 ?Action	 ?qui	 ?permet	 ?de	 ?s?adapter	 ?aux	 ?conditions	 ?du	 ?milieu;	 ?realizer	 ?quelquechose.	 ?	 ?T?tigkeit	 ?die	 ?Erm?glicht	 ?sich	 ?an	 ?die	 ?Umwelt	 ?anzupassen;	 ?etwas	 ?zu	 ?Schaffen.	 ?	 ?These	 ?phrases	 ?are	 ?fragmented	 ?and	 ?repeated	 ?as	 ?pauses	 ?interrupt	 ?the	 ?flow	 ?of	 ?the	 ?words.	 ?The	 ?sine	 ?tone	 ?heard	 ?at	 ?the	 ?beginning	 ?of	 ?the	 ?movement	 ?is	 ?replaced	 ?by	 ??intermittent	 ??bleeps??21	 ?that	 ?cut	 ?in	 ?among	 ?the	 ?voices	 ?at	 ?random	 ?intervals.	 ?As	 ?this	 ?is	 ?happening,	 ?the	 ?remaining	 ?instrumentalists	 ?walk	 ?onto	 ?the	 ?stage	 ?and	 ?take	 ?their	 ?places	 ?(with	 ?the	 ?exception	 ?of	 ?the	 ?flautist,	 ?who	 ?does	 ?not	 ?participate	 ?until	 ?the	 ?fourth	 ?movement).	 ?The	 ?movement	 ?ends	 ?with	 ?the	 ?first	 ?and	 ?last	 ?words	 ?of	 ?the	 ?English	 ?definition	 ?spliced	 ?together	 ?to	 ?announce	 ?that	 ?the	 ??action?	 ?is	 ??done.?	 ?But	 ?what	 ?actions	 ?have	 ?actually	 ?transpired	 ?in	 ?this	 ?short,	 ?largely	 ?static	 ?movement?	 ?Anhalt	 ?insists	 ?that	 ?the	 ?hammer	 ?strikes	 ?heard	 ?at	 ?the	 ?beginning	 ?and	 ?end	 ?of	 ??Preamble?	 ?(as	 ?well	 ?as	 ?at	 ?the	 ?beginning	 ?and	 ?end	 ?of	 ?all	 ?subsequent	 ?movements	 ?with	 ?the	 ?exception	 ?of	 ?the	 ?final	 ?two)	 ?play	 ?a	 ?theatrical	 ?role	 ?of	 ?framing	 ?the	 ?movements	 ?as	 ?dramatic	 ?scenes	 ?by	 ?announcing	 ?their	 ?beginnings	 ?and	 ?concluding	 ?their	 ?ends.22	 ?Everything	 ?that	 ?occurs	 ?in-??between	 ?is	 ?the	 ??action?	 ?of	 ?the	 ?movement.	 ?To	 ?understand	 ?what	 ?kind	 ?of	 ?dramatic	 ?message	 ?Anhalt	 ?hoped	 ?to	 ?deliver	 ?tin	 ??Preamble,?	 ?we	 ?will	 ?consider	 ?other	 ?theatrical	 ?works	 ?that	 ?also	 ?utilize	 ?sparse	 ?visual	 ?and	 ?aural	 ?scenes.	 ?	 ?In	 ?a	 ?study	 ?on	 ?emptiness	 ?and	 ?space	 ?in	 ?Samuel	 ?Becket?s	 ?theatrical	 ?works,	 ?Les	 ?Essif	 ?proposes	 ?that	 ?by	 ?stripping	 ?the	 ?stage	 ?of	 ?conventional	 ?settings,	 ?narratives	 ?and	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?21	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci	 ?(Scarborough,	 ?ON:	 ?Berandol	 ?Music	 ?Limited,	 ?1972),	 ?5.	 ?22	 ?Anhalt,	 ??About	 ?Foci,?	 ?57.	 ?	 ?	 ? 15	 ?plot-??motivated	 ?actions	 ?and	 ?consequences,	 ?Beckett	 ?encourages	 ?audiences	 ?to	 ?focus	 ?their	 ?attention	 ?on	 ?barrenness	 ?itself	 ?and	 ?the	 ?psychological	 ?effect	 ?that	 ?this	 ?inversion	 ?of	 ?conventional	 ?expectations	 ?evoke.	 ?When	 ?there	 ?is	 ?little	 ?to	 ?distract	 ?our	 ?attention	 ?on	 ?stage,	 ?one	 ?grows	 ?increasingly	 ?introspective.	 ?The	 ?technique	 ?of	 ?emphasizing	 ?emptiness	 ?opens	 ?up	 ?a	 ?different	 ?way	 ?of	 ?perceiving	 ?scenes	 ?and	 ?characters:	 ??Something	 ?in	 ?the	 ?magnified	 ?status	 ?of	 ?emptiness,	 ?silence,	 ?immobility,	 ?and	 ?focus	 ?results	 ?in	 ?the	 ?magnified	 ?status	 ?of	 ?the	 ?figural	 ?image	 ?of	 ?character.	 ?Emptiness	 ?is	 ?foregrounded	 ?as	 ?character	 ?is	 ?foregrounded.?23	 ?In	 ?Becket?s	 ?play	 ?Rockaby	 ?(1980),	 ?for	 ?instance,	 ?the	 ?only	 ?visible	 ?figure	 ?on	 ?stage	 ?is	 ?an	 ?old,	 ?decrepit	 ?woman	 ?who	 ?sits	 ?rocking	 ?to	 ?and	 ?fro	 ?in	 ?a	 ?rocking	 ?chair	 ?while	 ?a	 ?recorded	 ?voice	 ?plays	 ?snatches	 ?and	 ?fragments	 ?of	 ?speech,	 ?likely	 ?from	 ?the	 ?woman?s	 ?internal	 ?musing	 ?and	 ?thoughts.	 ?The	 ?incoherent	 ?text,	 ?sparse	 ?movements,	 ?and	 ?situation	 ?of	 ?the	 ?woman	 ?in	 ?a	 ?darkened,	 ?empty	 ?room	 ?encourages	 ?her	 ?character	 ?to	 ?be	 ?seen	 ?not	 ?as	 ?a	 ?dramatic,	 ?evolving	 ?subject,	 ?but	 ?as	 ?an	 ?objectified	 ?figure,	 ?like	 ?a	 ?lifeless	 ?prop	 ?on-??stage:	 ??The	 ?visual	 ?economy	 ?is	 ?so	 ?radically	 ?reduced	 ?and	 ?acutely	 ?structured?	 ?that	 ?the	 ?spectator	 ?is	 ?induced	 ?to	 ?include	 ?the	 ?body	 ?of	 ?the	 ?woman	 ?in	 ?the	 ?design	 ?of	 ?the	 ?stage.?24	 ?	 ?Similarly,	 ?the	 ?scarcity	 ?of	 ?visual	 ?and	 ?aural	 ?events	 ?in	 ??Preamble?	 ?invites	 ?the	 ?listener	 ?to	 ?focus	 ?on	 ?and	 ?to	 ?contemplate	 ?the	 ?empty	 ?spaces	 ?and	 ?moments	 ?of	 ?silence	 ?between	 ?them.	 ?Our	 ?attention	 ?is	 ?turned	 ?inwards	 ?upon	 ?ourselves,	 ?and	 ?we	 ?fill	 ?in	 ?these	 ?voids	 ?with	 ?our	 ?own	 ?personal	 ?interpretations.	 ?We	 ?begin	 ?to	 ?reflect	 ?on	 ?our	 ?responses	 ?to	 ?the	 ?hammer	 ?thuds,	 ?sine	 ?tone,	 ?and	 ?eerie	 ?blue	 ?light.	 ?We	 ?mull	 ?over	 ?the	 ?words	 ?uttered	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?23	 ?Les	 ?Essif,	 ?Empty	 ?Figure	 ?on	 ?an	 ?Empty	 ?Stage:	 ?The	 ?Theatre	 ?of	 ?Samuel	 ?Beckett	 ?and	 ?His	 ?Generation	 ?(Bloomington:	 ?Indiana	 ?University	 ?Press,	 ?2001),	 ?4.	 ?	 ?24	 ?Ibid.	 ?	 ? 16	 ?by	 ?the	 ?tape,	 ?and	 ?we	 ?realize	 ?that	 ?the	 ??action?	 ?that	 ?has	 ?occurred	 ?in	 ?the	 ?movement	 ?has	 ?been	 ?happening	 ?within	 ?us.	 ?It	 ?was	 ?in	 ?the	 ?act	 ?of	 ?accessing	 ?and	 ?contemplating	 ?the	 ?music	 ?heard,	 ?and	 ?in	 ?coping	 ?with	 ?the	 ?environment	 ?that	 ?we	 ?had	 ?been	 ?placed	 ?in.	 ?Yet	 ?a	 ?question	 ?still	 ?remains:	 ?Why	 ?did	 ?Anhalt	 ?felt	 ?the	 ?urgency	 ?to	 ?draw	 ?the	 ?audience?s	 ?attention	 ?to	 ?coping?	 ?Was	 ?there	 ?something	 ?particular	 ?about	 ?the	 ?time	 ?and	 ?place	 ?he	 ?was	 ?writing	 ?that	 ?made	 ?this	 ?matter	 ?pressing?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?2.2	 ?Condemned	 ?to	 ?Freedom:	 ?Coping	 ?with	 ?Choice	 ?The	 ?idea	 ?of	 ?coping	 ?as	 ?a	 ?fluid	 ?and	 ?dynamic	 ?process	 ?was	 ?a	 ?relatively	 ?new	 ?way	 ?of	 ?thinking	 ?about	 ?the	 ?term.	 ?Before	 ?the	 ?mid-??1960?s,	 ?it	 ?was	 ?regarded	 ?primarily	 ?as	 ?a	 ?unilateral	 ?reaction,	 ?particularly	 ?as	 ?a	 ?defensive	 ?response	 ?to	 ?traumatic	 ?events.	 ?This	 ?view	 ?was	 ?promoted	 ?in	 ?the	 ?psychopathological	 ?studies	 ?of	 ?Sigmund	 ?Freud,	 ?who	 ?believed	 ?that	 ?neurotic	 ?behaviours	 ?were	 ?a	 ?maladaptive	 ?form	 ?of	 ?coping	 ?that	 ?was	 ?caused	 ?by	 ?the	 ?repression	 ?of	 ?accumulated	 ?excitation.25	 ?	 ?Richard	 ?Lazarus?	 ?book	 ?Psychological	 ?Stress	 ?and	 ?the	 ?Coping	 ?Process	 ?(1966)	 ?is	 ?cited	 ?as	 ?one	 ?of	 ?the	 ?first	 ?psychological	 ?works	 ?that	 ?spearheaded	 ?the	 ?move	 ?away	 ?from	 ?this	 ?view	 ?of	 ?coping	 ?to	 ?one	 ?that	 ?saw	 ?it	 ?as	 ?a	 ?normal,	 ?equalizing	 ?force.	 ?Lazarus	 ?describes	 ?coping	 ?as	 ?an	 ?adaptive	 ?trait	 ?inherent	 ?in	 ?all	 ?living	 ?organisms	 ?that	 ?is	 ?constantly	 ?engaged	 ?in	 ?maintaining	 ?a	 ?comfortable	 ?equilibrium	 ?between	 ?the	 ?needs	 ?of	 ?the	 ?organism	 ?and	 ?the	 ?demands	 ?of	 ?its	 ?environment.26	 ?In	 ?human	 ?beings,	 ?coping	 ?came	 ?to	 ?be	 ?seen	 ?as	 ?part	 ?of	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?25	 ?Sigmund	 ?Freud,	 ?Inhibitions,	 ?Symptoms	 ?and	 ?Anxiety,	 ?trans.	 ?by	 ?Alix	 ?Strachey,	 ?New	 ?York:	 ?W.W.	 ?Norton	 ?&	 ?Company	 ?Inc.,	 ?1959.	 ?26	 ?Susan	 ?Folkman	 ?and	 ?Judith	 ?Tedlie	 ?Moskowitz,	 ??Coping:	 ?Pitfalls	 ?and	 ?Promise,?	 ?Annual	 ?Review	 ?of	 ?Psychology	 ?55	 ?(2004):	 ?746;	 ?Richard	 ?S.	 ?Larazus,	 ?Psychological	 ?Stress	 ?and	 ?the	 ?Coping	 ?Process,	 ?New	 ?York:	 ?McGaw-??Hill	 ?Book	 ?Company,	 ?1966.	 ?	 ? 17	 ?what	 ?sociologist	 ?Anthony	 ?Giddens	 ?calls	 ?the	 ??reflexivity	 ?of	 ?the	 ?self,?	 ?27	 ?an	 ?expression	 ?which	 ?describes	 ?the	 ?process	 ?through	 ?which	 ?an	 ?individual	 ?constructs	 ?him/herself	 ?by	 ?accessing,	 ?reacting	 ?to,	 ?and	 ?adapting	 ?to	 ?environmental	 ?circumstances.	 ?	 ?The	 ?growing	 ?interest	 ?in	 ?the	 ?dynamic	 ?interplay	 ?between	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?and	 ?his/her	 ?environment	 ?in	 ?psychology	 ?and	 ?sociology	 ?extended	 ?into	 ?philosophy	 ?of	 ?the	 ?1950s	 ?and	 ?60s	 ?as	 ?well.	 ?Stemming	 ?from	 ?the	 ?ideas	 ?of	 ?S?ren	 ?Kierkegaard,	 ?existentialism	 ?was	 ?further	 ?developed	 ?and	 ?popularized	 ?by	 ?Jean-??Paul	 ?Sartre	 ?and	 ?Simone	 ?de	 ?Beauvoir	 ?during	 ?these	 ?decades,	 ?while	 ?Albert	 ?Camus	 ?was	 ?the	 ?main	 ?proponent	 ?of	 ?absurdism.	 ?The	 ?two	 ?philosophies	 ?emerged	 ?out	 ?of	 ?a	 ?similar	 ?understanding	 ?of	 ?the	 ?human	 ?condition,	 ?that	 ?is,	 ?of	 ?man	 ?and	 ?woman?s	 ?fundamental	 ?meaninglessness	 ?in	 ?the	 ?world.	 ?Sartean	 ?existentialism	 ?and	 ?absurdism	 ?begins	 ?with	 ?the	 ?hypothesis	 ?that	 ?humans	 ?do	 ?not	 ?have	 ?a	 ?predetermined	 ?essence	 ?that	 ?influences	 ?how	 ?their	 ?lives	 ?will	 ?unfold,	 ?and	 ?that	 ?no	 ?god,	 ?parent,	 ?nor	 ?politician	 ?can	 ?be	 ?held	 ?responsible	 ?for	 ?the	 ?actions	 ?and	 ?the	 ?ultimate	 ?fate	 ?of	 ?another	 ?human	 ?being.	 ?Every	 ?individual	 ?begins	 ?as	 ?an	 ?empty	 ?vessel	 ?through	 ?which	 ?s/he	 ?is	 ?filled	 ?and	 ?formed	 ?depending	 ?on	 ?his/her	 ?own	 ?actions	 ?and	 ?choices.	 ??Flung	 ?into	 ?the	 ?world,?	 ?we	 ?are	 ?each	 ?responsible	 ?for	 ?creating	 ?ourselves	 ?out	 ?of	 ?nothing:	 ?If	 ?man,	 ?as	 ?the	 ?existentialist	 ?conceives	 ?him,	 ?is	 ?indefinable,	 ?it	 ?is	 ?because	 ?at	 ?first	 ?he	 ?is	 ?nothing.	 ?Only	 ?afterward	 ?will	 ?he	 ?be	 ?something,	 ?and	 ?he	 ?himself	 ?will	 ?have	 ?made	 ?what	 ?he	 ?will	 ?be.	 ?Thus	 ?there	 ?is	 ?no	 ?human	 ?nature,	 ?since	 ?there	 ?is	 ?no	 ?God	 ?to	 ?conceive	 ?it.	 ?Not	 ?only	 ?is	 ?man	 ?what	 ?he	 ?wills	 ?himself,	 ?but	 ?he	 ?is	 ?also	 ?only	 ?what	 ?he	 ?wills	 ?himself	 ?to	 ?be	 ?after	 ?this	 ?thrust	 ?toward	 ?existence.28	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?27	 ?Anthony	 ?Giddens,	 ?Modernity	 ?and	 ?Self-??Identity:	 ?Self	 ?and	 ?Society	 ?in	 ?the	 ?Late	 ?Modern	 ?Age	 ?(Cambridge,	 ?UK:	 ?Polity	 ?Press,	 ?1991),	 ?7.	 ?	 ?28	 ?Jean-??Paul	 ?Sartre,	 ??The	 ?Humanism	 ?of	 ?Existentialism,?	 ?in	 ?Jean-??Paul	 ?Sartre,	 ?Essays	 ?in	 ?Existentialism,	 ?Wade	 ?Baskin,	 ?ed.	 ?(New	 ?York:	 ?Citadel	 ?Press,	 ?1993),	 ?36.	 ?	 ?	 ? 18	 ?The	 ?notion	 ?that	 ?one?s	 ?fate	 ?is	 ?utterly	 ?determined	 ?by	 ?only	 ?him/herself	 ?was	 ?an	 ?extremely	 ?liberating	 ?concept	 ?at	 ?this	 ?time	 ?though	 ?it	 ?carried	 ?with	 ?it	 ?a	 ?heavy	 ?weight.	 ?Following	 ?the	 ?catastrophic	 ?events	 ?of	 ?World	 ?War	 ?II,	 ?people	 ?were	 ?forced	 ?to	 ?come	 ?to	 ?terms	 ?with	 ?what	 ?had	 ?transpired.	 ?English	 ?author	 ?Aldous	 ?Huxley	 ?in	 ?his	 ?essay,	 ?Brave	 ?New	 ?World	 ?Revisited	 ?(1958),	 ?voiced	 ?the	 ?question	 ?that	 ?many	 ?of	 ?his	 ?generation	 ?were	 ?asking:	 ??What	 ?were	 ?the	 ?methods	 ?used	 ?by	 ?Hitler	 ?and	 ?Goebbels	 ?for	 ??depriving	 ?eighty	 ?million	 ?people	 ?of	 ?independent	 ?thought	 ?and	 ?subjecting	 ?them	 ?to	 ?the	 ?will	 ?of	 ?one	 ?man???29	 ?How	 ?was	 ?it	 ?possible	 ?that	 ?so	 ?many	 ?educated	 ?men	 ?and	 ?women	 ?could	 ?have	 ?bent	 ?to	 ?the	 ?will	 ?of	 ?a	 ?select	 ?few	 ?and	 ?enabled	 ?such	 ?crimes	 ?against	 ?humanity?	 ?Was	 ?it	 ?justified	 ?to	 ?place	 ?the	 ?blame	 ?solely	 ?on	 ?the	 ?masterminds,	 ?or	 ?did	 ?each	 ?individual	 ?bare	 ?a	 ?responsibility	 ?as	 ?well?	 ?	 ?These	 ?controversial	 ?questions	 ?were	 ?tackled	 ?head-??on	 ?by	 ?existentialist	 ?and	 ?absurdist	 ?philosophies,	 ?which	 ?concluded	 ?that	 ?in	 ?order	 ?to	 ?prevent	 ?such	 ?tragedies	 ?from	 ?happening	 ?again,	 ?no	 ?one	 ?was	 ?exempt	 ?from	 ?the	 ?duty	 ?of	 ?remaining	 ?vigilant	 ?and	 ?self-??aware.	 ?Every	 ?individual	 ?was	 ?condemned	 ?to	 ?the	 ?freedom	 ?to	 ?choose	 ?for	 ?him/herself	 ?what	 ?was	 ?right	 ?and	 ?what	 ?was	 ?wrong,	 ?and	 ?to	 ?carry	 ?the	 ?weight	 ?of	 ?their	 ?decisions?	 ?consequences.	 ?In	 ?the	 ?realm	 ?of	 ?music,	 ?the	 ?pressures	 ?of	 ?such	 ?a	 ?responsibility	 ?inspired	 ?many	 ?composers	 ?to	 ?think	 ?about	 ?how	 ?music	 ?could	 ?be	 ?used	 ?to	 ?express	 ?these	 ?anxieties.	 ?	 ?2.3	 ?Rediscovering	 ?Music	 ?after	 ?Zero	 ?Hour	 ?The	 ?introduction	 ?of	 ?electronics	 ?into	 ?the	 ?domain	 ?of	 ?music	 ?making	 ?in	 ?the	 ?post-??World	 ?War	 ?II	 ?era	 ?gave	 ?composers	 ?a	 ?new	 ?power:	 ?the	 ?ability	 ?to	 ?break	 ?down,	 ?isolate,	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?29	 ?Aldous	 ?Huxley,	 ?Brave	 ?New	 ?World	 ?Revisited	 ?in	 ?Brave	 ?New	 ?World	 ?and	 ?Brave	 ?New	 ?World	 ?Revisited	 ?(New	 ?York:	 ?First	 ?Harper	 ?Perennial	 ?Modern	 ?Classics,	 ?2004),	 ?271.	 ?	 ?	 ? 19	 ?and	 ?scrutinize	 ?the	 ?fundamental	 ?components	 ?of	 ?sound.	 ?As	 ?a	 ?result,	 ?many	 ?pieces	 ?emerged	 ?that	 ?explored	 ?the	 ?ways	 ?in	 ?which	 ?these	 ?elements	 ?could	 ?be	 ?isolated	 ?and	 ?combined.	 ?There	 ?were	 ?enthusiasts	 ?of	 ?isolated	 ?moments	 ?of	 ?sound	 ?in	 ?the	 ?past	 ?as	 ?well,	 ?most	 ?notably	 ?Anton	 ?Webern,	 ?whose	 ?pieces	 ?from	 ?approximately	 ?1908	 ?to	 ?1914	 ?explored	 ?the	 ?expressivity	 ?of	 ?fugitive	 ?fragments.30	 ?With	 ?electronics,	 ?however,	 ?the	 ?degree	 ?to	 ?which	 ?sound	 ?elements	 ?could	 ?be	 ?refined	 ?was	 ?unprecedented.	 ?A	 ?new	 ?way	 ?of	 ?listening	 ?was	 ?made	 ?available.	 ?The	 ?listener,	 ?like	 ?the	 ?scientist	 ?and	 ?researcher,	 ?was	 ?invited	 ?to	 ?participate	 ?in	 ?the	 ?rediscovery	 ?of	 ?sound	 ?at	 ?a	 ?stage	 ?before	 ?it	 ?was	 ?assembled	 ?into	 ?melodies,	 ?harmonies,	 ?and	 ?forms;	 ?in	 ?other	 ?words,	 ?at	 ?the	 ?pre-??existence	 ?of	 ?music.	 ?	 ?The	 ?sine	 ?tone,	 ?the	 ?purest	 ?component	 ?of	 ?sound,	 ?was	 ?the	 ?starting	 ?point	 ?for	 ?many	 ?composers	 ?of	 ?elektronische	 ?Musik,	 ?from	 ?which	 ?fantastic	 ?flights	 ?of	 ?imagination	 ?gave	 ?way	 ?to	 ?remarkable	 ?combinations	 ?of	 ?timbres.	 ?Anhalt?s	 ?decision	 ?not	 ?to	 ?take	 ?advantage	 ?of	 ?these	 ?possibilities	 ?and	 ?to	 ?remain	 ?focused	 ?on	 ?the	 ?purity	 ?of	 ?the	 ?tone	 ?itself	 ?therefore	 ?reveals	 ?a	 ?different	 ?intention.	 ?In	 ?and	 ?of	 ?itself,	 ?the	 ?sine	 ?tone	 ?is	 ?artificial:	 ?it	 ?never	 ?occurs	 ?in	 ?isolation	 ?in	 ?the	 ?natural	 ?world.	 ?It	 ?would	 ?thus	 ?be	 ?disconcerting	 ?to	 ?hear	 ?the	 ?tone	 ?prolonged	 ?indefinitely,	 ?such	 ?as	 ?in	 ?the	 ?manner	 ?we	 ?hear	 ?at	 ?the	 ?beginning	 ?of	 ??Preamble.?	 ?Anhalt	 ?increases	 ?our	 ?discomfort	 ?by	 ?choosing	 ?a	 ?high	 ?frequency	 ?and	 ?amplitude	 ?for	 ?the	 ?tone.	 ?Music	 ?scholar	 ?Steve	 ?Goodman	 ?describes	 ?the	 ?feeling	 ?of	 ?unease	 ?caused	 ?by	 ?exposure	 ?to	 ?an	 ?extreme	 ?end	 ?of	 ?the	 ?frequency	 ?spectrum:	 ??Infrasound	 ?[that	 ?is,	 ?sound	 ?with	 ?a	 ?frequency	 ?below	 ?20	 ?Hz]	 ?is	 ?inaudible	 ?yet	 ?felt,	 ?and	 ?this	 ?can	 ?frustrate	 ?perceptual	 ?compulsions	 ?to	 ?allocate	 ?a	 ?cause	 ?to	 ?the	 ?sound.	 ?Abstract	 ?sensations	 ?cause	 ?anxiety	 ?due	 ?to	 ?the	 ?very	 ?absence	 ?of	 ?an	 ?object	 ?or	 ?cause.	 ?Without	 ?either,	 ?the	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?30	 ?Kathryn	 ?Bailey,	 ??Webern,	 ?Anton,?	 ?in	 ?Grove	 ?Music	 ?Online,	 ?Oxford	 ?Music	 ?Online,	 ?Oxford	 ?University	 ?Press,	 ?accessed	 ?July	 ?2,	 ?2013,	 ?www.oxfordmusiconline.com	 ?	 ? 20	 ?imagination	 ?produces	 ?one,	 ?which	 ?can	 ?[be]	 ?more	 ?frightening	 ?than	 ?the	 ?reality.?31	 ?What	 ?links	 ?the	 ?sensations	 ?described	 ?by	 ?Goodman	 ?with	 ?the	 ?ones	 ?felt	 ?by	 ?hearing	 ?the	 ?tone	 ?used	 ?in	 ??Preamble??s	 ?beginning	 ?is	 ?the	 ?shrouding	 ?of	 ?the	 ?source	 ?of	 ?sound:	 ?although	 ?we	 ?can	 ?hear	 ?the	 ?high	 ?frequency	 ?tone,	 ?Anhalt	 ?ensures	 ?that	 ?we	 ?cannot	 ?see	 ?where	 ?it	 ?is	 ?coming	 ?from	 ?by	 ?immersing	 ?his	 ?audience	 ?in	 ?the	 ?darkened	 ?auditorium	 ?with	 ?only	 ?the	 ?amorphous	 ?blue	 ?glow	 ?as	 ?illumination.	 ?In	 ?this	 ?vast	 ?emptiness,	 ?we	 ?know	 ?neither	 ?where	 ?these	 ?primordial	 ?sounds	 ?are	 ?coming	 ?from	 ?nor	 ?what	 ?they	 ?signify.	 ?We	 ?are	 ?at	 ?the	 ?mercy	 ?of	 ?the	 ?tone,	 ?which	 ?seem	 ?to	 ?pierce	 ?deeper	 ?into	 ?us	 ?as	 ?it	 ?becomes	 ?louder	 ?and	 ?louder.	 ?How	 ?are	 ?we	 ?to	 ?make	 ?sense	 ?of	 ?it?	 ?Will	 ?it	 ?ever	 ?combine	 ?with	 ?others	 ?to	 ?eventually	 ?assemble	 ?melodies	 ?and	 ?harmonies,	 ?or	 ?will	 ?we	 ?remain	 ?forever	 ?stuck	 ?in	 ?anxious	 ?anticipation?	 ?	 ?	 ?In	 ??Preamble,?	 ?Anhalt	 ?creates	 ?a	 ?musical	 ?experience	 ?of	 ?existential	 ?angst,	 ?establishing	 ?a	 ?connection	 ?between	 ?feelings	 ?of	 ?anxiety	 ?and	 ?the	 ?burden	 ?of	 ?free	 ?choice.	 ?He	 ?invites	 ?his	 ?audience	 ?to	 ?experience	 ?a	 ?beginning,	 ?a	 ?point	 ?in	 ?time	 ?before	 ?anything	 ?is	 ?fully	 ?formed.	 ?The	 ?auditorium	 ?devoid	 ?of	 ?light	 ?with	 ?only	 ?a	 ?faint	 ?blue	 ?glow	 ?as	 ?illumination,	 ?the	 ?heavy	 ?thud	 ?of	 ?the	 ?hammer	 ?strike,	 ?and	 ?the	 ?thin	 ?whine	 ?of	 ?high-??pitched	 ?sine	 ?tones	 ?are	 ?evocative	 ?of	 ?primordial	 ?beginnings.	 ?They	 ?are	 ?basic	 ?components	 ?of	 ?sound	 ?and	 ?sight	 ?from	 ?which	 ?anything	 ?could	 ?emerge.	 ?Nothing	 ?does,	 ?however.	 ?The	 ?individual	 ?is	 ?offered	 ?a	 ?taste	 ?of	 ?interpretative	 ?freedom,	 ?the	 ?ability	 ?to	 ?make	 ?whatever	 ?s/he	 ?chooses	 ?of	 ?the	 ?vast	 ?space	 ?that	 ?surrounds	 ?him/her,	 ?but	 ?rather,	 ?as	 ?though	 ?paralyzed	 ?by	 ?these	 ?vast	 ?possibilities,	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?retreats	 ?into	 ?monotone	 ?recitations	 ?of	 ?the	 ?definition	 ?for	 ??coping	 ?behaviour.?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?31	 ?Steve	 ?Goodman,	 ?Sonic	 ?Warfare:	 ?Sound	 ?Affect,	 ?and	 ?the	 ?Ecology	 ?of	 ?Fear	 ?(Cambridge,	 ?MA:	 ?MIT	 ?Press,	 ?2009),	 ?66.	 ?	 ? 21	 ?As	 ?described	 ?above,	 ?coping	 ?and	 ??adjust[ing]	 ?to	 ?environmental	 ?circumstances?32	 ?had	 ?been	 ?established	 ?by	 ?the	 ?psychiatric	 ?and	 ?sociological	 ?community	 ?in	 ?the	 ?1960s	 ?as	 ?being	 ?part	 ?and	 ?parcel	 ?to	 ?any	 ?normal-??functioning	 ?organism?s	 ?life.	 ?At	 ?the	 ?same	 ?time,	 ?existentialist	 ?and	 ?absurdist	 ?philosophy	 ?realized	 ?that	 ?human	 ?beings	 ?needed	 ?to	 ?go	 ?beyond	 ?merely	 ?seeking	 ?comfortable	 ?equilibriums.	 ?Complacency	 ?with	 ?one?s	 ?environment	 ?should	 ?not	 ?dictate	 ?how	 ?one	 ?lives.	 ?Sometimes,	 ?it	 ?is	 ?necessary	 ?to	 ?take	 ?the	 ?initiative	 ?and	 ?change	 ?the	 ?status	 ?quo,	 ?no	 ?matter	 ?how	 ?uncomfortable	 ?or	 ?against-??the-??grain	 ?it	 ?may	 ?seem.	 ?The	 ?philosopher	 ?S?ren	 ?Kierkegaard	 ?describes	 ?this	 ?feeling	 ?of	 ?dread	 ?that	 ?accompanies	 ?self-??awareness	 ?and	 ?the	 ?responsibility	 ?it	 ?entails	 ?as	 ?being	 ?a	 ?virtue,	 ?for	 ?it	 ?is	 ?only	 ?by	 ?embracing	 ?the	 ?continual	 ?struggle	 ?that	 ?one	 ?appreciates	 ?the	 ?true	 ?potential	 ?of	 ?freedom:	 ???Only	 ?he	 ?who	 ?has	 ?passed	 ?through	 ?the	 ?dread	 ?of	 ?possibility	 ?is	 ?so	 ?trained	 ?that	 ?he	 ?has	 ?ceased	 ?to	 ?be	 ?in	 ?dread,	 ?not	 ?because	 ?he	 ?escapes	 ?the	 ?terrors	 ?of	 ?life,	 ?but	 ?because	 ?he	 ?finds	 ?them	 ?all	 ?too	 ?feeble	 ?in	 ?comparison	 ?with	 ?the	 ?terrors	 ?of	 ?possibility.?33	 ?Coping	 ?with	 ?the	 ?struggle	 ?of	 ?existence	 ?is	 ?a	 ?difficult	 ?task,	 ?and	 ?in	 ??Preamble,?	 ?Anhalt	 ?expresses	 ?some	 ?of	 ?the	 ?effects	 ?it	 ?may	 ?have	 ?on	 ?a	 ?person?s	 ?voice.	 ?In	 ?his	 ?study	 ?on	 ?the	 ?relationship	 ?between	 ?psychological	 ?states	 ?and	 ?the	 ?voice,	 ?laryngologist	 ?Paul	 ?Moses	 ?(whose	 ?work	 ?Anhalt	 ?was	 ?well	 ?acquainted	 ?with)	 ?describes	 ?some	 ?characteristics	 ?he	 ?associated	 ?with	 ?a	 ??neurotic	 ?voice.?	 ?Among	 ?these	 ?traits,	 ?he	 ?listed	 ?symptoms	 ?of	 ?fixation	 ?and	 ?regression,	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?32	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?5.	 ?33	 ?S?ren	 ?Kierkegaard,	 ?in	 ?Hermann	 ?Diem,	 ?Kierkegaard:	 ?An	 ?Introduction,	 ?trans.	 ?David	 ?Green,	 ?Virginia:	 ?John	 ?Knox	 ?Press,	 ?1966.	 ?	 ? 22	 ?obsessively	 ?repetition,	 ?and	 ?fragmentation	 ?of	 ?phrases.34	 ?Many	 ?of	 ?these	 ?characteristics	 ?are	 ?heard	 ?in	 ?the	 ?taped	 ?voices	 ?used	 ?in	 ?the	 ?first	 ?movement.	 ?	 ?Anhalt	 ?utilizes	 ?the	 ?voice	 ?in	 ?another	 ?important	 ?way.	 ?That	 ?is,	 ?to	 ?establish	 ?individuality.	 ?In	 ?Foci,	 ?each	 ?voice	 ?embodies	 ?the	 ?individuality	 ?of	 ?the	 ?person	 ?from	 ?which	 ?it	 ?came.	 ?Anhalt	 ?emphasized	 ?that,	 ??the	 ?most	 ?important	 ?single	 ?idea	 ?permeating	 ?Foci	 ?is	 ?the	 ?thought	 ?that	 ?each	 ?person?s	 ?uniqueness	 ?is	 ?embodied	 ?in	 ?his,	 ?or	 ?her,	 ?voice.?35	 ?He	 ?was	 ?extremely	 ?meticulous	 ?in	 ?choosing	 ?the	 ?voices	 ?he	 ?recorded,	 ?and,	 ?once	 ?chosen	 ?and	 ?preserved	 ?on	 ?tape,	 ?they	 ?were	 ?not	 ?interchangeable,	 ??as,	 ?for	 ?example,	 ?two	 ?similarly	 ?competent	 ?violinists.?36	 ?By	 ?understanding	 ?the	 ?importance	 ?that	 ?Anhalt	 ?placed	 ?on	 ?the	 ?individuality	 ?of	 ?each	 ?voice,	 ?we	 ?hear	 ?the	 ?three	 ?voices	 ?in	 ??Preamble?	 ?not	 ?as	 ?a	 ?schizophrenic	 ?split	 ?of	 ?one	 ?personality,	 ?but	 ?rather	 ?as	 ?that	 ?of	 ?three	 ?unique	 ?persons.	 ?There	 ?is	 ?little	 ?interplay	 ?between	 ?the	 ?lines	 ?despite	 ?the	 ?fact	 ?that	 ?they	 ?are	 ?all	 ?performed	 ?in	 ?a	 ?similar	 ?manner:	 ?recited	 ?at	 ?a	 ?calm	 ?and	 ?medium	 ?pace	 ?with	 ?the	 ?pitches	 ?of	 ?each	 ?line	 ?contained	 ?within	 ?a	 ?normal	 ?speaking	 ?range.	 ?Thus,	 ?the	 ?three	 ?voices	 ?do	 ?not	 ?appear	 ?to	 ?communicate	 ?with	 ?one	 ?another,	 ?for	 ?each	 ?progresses	 ?at	 ?its	 ?own	 ?pace,	 ?oblivious	 ?to	 ?what	 ?the	 ?others	 ?are	 ?saying.	 ?They	 ?are	 ?all	 ?preoccupied	 ?with	 ?the	 ?same	 ?issue,	 ?that	 ?is,	 ?of	 ?coping,	 ?but	 ?each	 ?is	 ?absorbed	 ?in	 ?the	 ?process	 ?separately.	 ?Anhalt	 ?reminds	 ?us	 ?that	 ?the	 ?journey	 ?that	 ?each	 ?person	 ?takes	 ?in	 ?crafting	 ?out	 ?his/her	 ?life	 ?on	 ?Earth,	 ?while	 ?done	 ?in	 ?the	 ?company	 ?of	 ?many	 ?others,	 ?is	 ?still	 ?ultimately	 ?a	 ?solitary	 ?task.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?34	 ?Paul	 ?J.	 ?Moses,	 ?The	 ?Voice	 ?of	 ?Neurosis	 ?(New	 ?York:	 ?Grune	 ?and	 ?Stratton,	 ?1954),	 ?122.	 ?	 ?35	 ?Ibid.	 ?	 ?36	 ?Anhalt,	 ??About	 ?Foci?,	 ?57.	 ?	 ? 23	 ?2.4	 ??Measures?	 ?(Movement	 ?2)	 ?In	 ?the	 ?second	 ?movement,	 ??Measures,?	 ?we	 ?hear	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?take	 ?tentative	 ?steps	 ?out	 ?of	 ?the	 ?darkness	 ?as	 ?s/he	 ?begins	 ?to	 ?experiment	 ?with	 ?the	 ?basic	 ?sound	 ?elements	 ?around	 ?him/her.	 ?Strikes	 ?from	 ?the	 ?hammer	 ?man	 ?announce	 ?the	 ?start	 ?of	 ?a	 ?new	 ?scene.	 ?Soft,	 ?electronic	 ?pulsations	 ?follow.	 ?Quicker	 ?than	 ?the	 ?ones	 ?heard	 ?in	 ??Preamble,?	 ?these	 ?pulses	 ?alternate	 ?between	 ?two	 ?frequencies,	 ?evoking	 ?the	 ?sound	 ?of	 ?footsteps	 ?or	 ?of	 ??a	 ?pounding	 ?heart.?37	 ?They	 ?change	 ?in	 ?periodicity	 ?and	 ?intensity,	 ?seemingly	 ?at	 ?random,	 ?as	 ?though	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?is	 ?testing	 ?out	 ?which	 ?pace	 ?suits	 ?him/her	 ?best.	 ?True	 ?to	 ?its	 ?title,	 ??Measures?	 ?is	 ?about	 ?quantification.38	 ?The	 ?act	 ?of	 ?quantifying	 ?is	 ?a	 ?process	 ?of	 ?organizing,	 ?structuring,	 ?and	 ?compartmentalizing	 ?one?s	 ?perceived	 ?reality	 ?into	 ?comprehensible	 ?units	 ?and	 ?concepts.	 ?Quantifying	 ?allows	 ?one	 ?to	 ?obtain	 ?a	 ?better	 ?understanding	 ?of	 ?what	 ?otherwise	 ?would	 ?be	 ?left	 ?to	 ?guesswork	 ?and	 ?intuition.	 ?It	 ?is	 ?an	 ?act	 ?of	 ?learning	 ?about	 ?one?s	 ?environment.	 ?Anthony	 ?Giddens	 ?adds	 ?that	 ?quantifying	 ?serves	 ?another	 ?purpose:	 ?it	 ?protects	 ?human	 ?beings	 ?from	 ?debilitating	 ?anxieties	 ?that	 ?are	 ?caused	 ?by	 ?being	 ?thrown	 ?into	 ?an	 ?unknown	 ?and	 ?indescribable	 ?reality:	 ?On	 ?the	 ?other	 ?side	 ?of	 ?what	 ?might	 ?appear	 ?to	 ?be	 ?quite	 ?trivial	 ?aspects	 ?of	 ?day-??to-??day	 ?action	 ?and	 ?discourse,	 ?chaos	 ?lurks.	 ?And	 ?this	 ?chaos	 ?is	 ?not	 ?just	 ?disorganization,	 ?but	 ?the	 ?loss	 ?of	 ?a	 ?sense	 ?of	 ?the	 ?very	 ?reality	 ?of	 ?things	 ?and	 ?of	 ?other	 ?persons?	 ?To	 ?answer	 ?even	 ?the	 ?simplest	 ?everyday	 ?query,	 ?or	 ?respond	 ?to	 ?the	 ?most	 ?cursory	 ?remark,	 ?demands	 ?the	 ?bracketing	 ?of	 ?a	 ?potentially	 ?almost	 ?infinite	 ?range	 ?of	 ?possibilities	 ?open	 ?to	 ?the	 ?individual.39	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?37	 ?Anhalt,	 ??About	 ?Foci,?	 ?57.	 ?	 ?38	 ?Ibid.	 ?	 ?	 ?39	 ?Giddens,	 ?Modernity	 ?and	 ?Self-??Identity,	 ?36.	 ?	 ? 24	 ?We	 ?had	 ?already	 ?encountered	 ?the	 ?anxiety	 ?that	 ?Giddens	 ?speaks	 ?of	 ?in	 ??Preamble,?	 ?where	 ?the	 ?prospect	 ?of	 ?endless	 ?choice	 ?proved	 ?to	 ?be	 ?too	 ?overwhelming	 ?for	 ?the	 ?individual,	 ?causing	 ?him/her	 ?to	 ?resort	 ?to	 ?the	 ?recitation	 ?of	 ??coping	 ?behaviour?	 ?to	 ?deal	 ?with	 ?the	 ?situation.	 ?	 ??Measures?	 ?is	 ?the	 ?individual?s	 ?first	 ?attempt	 ?to	 ?take	 ?control	 ?of	 ?his/her	 ?environment	 ?by	 ?imposing	 ?systems	 ?of	 ?measurement	 ?onto	 ?it.	 ?The	 ?text,	 ?for	 ?instance,	 ?consists	 ?of	 ?a	 ?random	 ?assortment	 ?of	 ?words	 ?that	 ?relate	 ?to	 ?the	 ?concept	 ?of	 ?quantification,	 ?such	 ?as	 ??cardinal	 ?and	 ?ordinal	 ?numbers,	 ?measurements	 ?of	 ?distance,	 ?of	 ?direction,	 ?of	 ?time?	 ?and	 ?words	 ?such	 ?as	 ??bell-??shaped,?	 ??irrational,?	 ?and	 ??infinity?.?40	 ?The	 ?instruments	 ?also	 ?represent	 ?quantification	 ?in	 ?their	 ?own	 ?way.	 ?Following	 ?the	 ?first	 ?utterances	 ?by	 ?the	 ?taped	 ?voice,	 ?the	 ?violin,	 ?cello,	 ?double-??bass,	 ?and	 ?then	 ?vibraphone	 ?introduce	 ?themselves	 ?one	 ?after	 ?the	 ?other	 ?by	 ?playing	 ?softly	 ?on	 ?an	 ?A,	 ?the	 ?conventional	 ?tuning	 ?pitch	 ?for	 ?Western	 ?orchestras.	 ?About	 ?forty-??five	 ?seconds	 ?into	 ?the	 ?piece,	 ?each	 ?instrument	 ?pairs	 ?up	 ?with	 ?another	 ?and	 ?the	 ?subsequent	 ?duos	 ?continue	 ?tuning	 ?at	 ?the	 ?same	 ?pitch.	 ?By	 ?the	 ?end	 ?of	 ?the	 ?movement,	 ?not	 ?much	 ?else	 ?has	 ?happened	 ?and	 ?they	 ?fall	 ?silent	 ?to	 ?wait	 ?for	 ?the	 ?conductor	 ?to	 ?give	 ?them	 ?their	 ?next	 ?cue	 ?(Figure	 ?2.2).	 ?	 ? 	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?40	 ?Anhalt,	 ??About	 ?Foci,?	 ?57.	 ?	 ? 25	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?2.2	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?2	 ??	 ??Measures?	 ?	 ? 26	 ?Anhalt?s	 ?decision	 ?to	 ?use	 ?tuning	 ?(a	 ?process	 ?typically	 ?done	 ?before	 ?a	 ?performance	 ?begins)	 ?as	 ?the	 ?core	 ?idea	 ?explored	 ?by	 ?the	 ?instruments	 ?in	 ?this	 ?movement	 ?draws	 ?attention	 ?to	 ?its	 ?significance.	 ?Tuning,	 ?like	 ?quantifying,	 ?is	 ?an	 ?act	 ?that	 ?is	 ?intended	 ?to	 ?organize	 ?and	 ?regulate	 ?a	 ?particular	 ?situation.	 ?It	 ?is	 ?the	 ?calibration	 ?of	 ?pitch	 ?through	 ?which	 ?a	 ?specific	 ?acoustical	 ?frequency	 ?is	 ?made	 ?the	 ?standard	 ?for	 ?the	 ?entire	 ?ensemble.	 ?Because	 ?of	 ?its	 ?ubiquity	 ?in	 ?Western	 ?concert	 ?culture,	 ?it	 ?is	 ?often	 ?taken	 ?for	 ?granted	 ?and	 ?slips	 ?outside	 ?of	 ?our	 ?conscious	 ?awareness,	 ?but	 ?one	 ?only	 ?needs	 ?to	 ?imagine	 ?the	 ?disaster	 ?that	 ?would	 ?ensue	 ?should	 ?an	 ?orchestra	 ?neglect	 ?to	 ?tune	 ?to	 ?be	 ?reminded	 ?of	 ?its	 ?importance.	 ?Tuning	 ?is	 ?not	 ?only	 ?essential	 ?for	 ?an	 ?orchestra?s	 ?proper	 ?functioning,	 ?but	 ?it	 ?has	 ?also	 ?become	 ?part	 ?of	 ?a	 ?tradition;	 ?it	 ?is	 ?a	 ?ritual	 ?that	 ?must	 ?be	 ?enacted	 ?before	 ?the	 ?start	 ?of	 ?every	 ?performance	 ?which	 ?the	 ?audience	 ?is	 ?also	 ?involved	 ?in	 ?by	 ?entering	 ?into	 ?solemn	 ?silence.	 ?	 ?Establishing	 ?rituals	 ?and	 ?routines	 ?is	 ?an	 ?important	 ?first	 ?step	 ?towards	 ?the	 ?growth	 ?and	 ?development	 ?of	 ?the	 ?individual.	 ?They	 ?create	 ?a	 ?comfortable	 ?environment	 ?where	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?is	 ?able	 ?to	 ?establish	 ?a	 ?sense	 ?of	 ?security	 ?and	 ?belonging.	 ?Eventually,	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?will	 ?desire	 ?to	 ?grow,	 ?create,	 ?and	 ?discover	 ?things	 ?outside	 ?of	 ?his/her	 ?known	 ?world,	 ?but	 ?before	 ?this	 ?can	 ?be	 ?done,	 ?reliable	 ?foundations	 ?must	 ?first	 ?be	 ?laid	 ?down.	 ?Giddens	 ?elaborates	 ?on	 ?the	 ?relationship	 ?between	 ?trusting	 ?one?s	 ?environment	 ?and	 ?the	 ?process	 ?of	 ?creation:	 ??Creativity,	 ?which	 ?means	 ?the	 ?capability	 ?to	 ?act	 ?or	 ?to	 ?think	 ?innovatively	 ?in	 ?relation	 ?to	 ?pre-??established	 ?modes	 ?of	 ?activity,	 ?is	 ?closely	 ?tied	 ?to	 ?basic	 ?trust.	 ?Trust	 ?itself,	 ?by	 ?its	 ?very	 ?nature,	 ?is	 ?in	 ?a	 ?certain	 ?sense	 ?creative,	 ?because	 ?it	 ?entails	 ?a	 ?commitment	 ?that	 ?is	 ?a	 ??leap	 ?into	 ?the	 ?unknown.??41	 ?The	 ?late-??	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?41	 ?Giddens,	 ?Modernity	 ?and	 ?Self-??Identity,	 ?41.	 ?	 ?	 ? 27	 ?modern	 ?individual	 ?perpetually	 ?faces	 ?the	 ?unknown,	 ?for	 ?s/he	 ?is	 ?aware	 ?that	 ?every	 ?act	 ?carries	 ?with	 ?it	 ?an	 ?inherent	 ?risk	 ?and	 ?responsibility.	 ?However,	 ?trust	 ?allows	 ?him/her	 ?to	 ?keep	 ?at	 ?bay	 ?these	 ?debilitating	 ?fears.	 ?S/he	 ?accepts	 ?(not	 ?to	 ?be	 ?confused	 ?with	 ?ignores)	 ?his/her	 ?precarious	 ?condition,	 ?and	 ?by	 ?doing	 ?so,	 ?gains	 ?the	 ?confidence	 ?to	 ?continue	 ?charting	 ?out	 ?his/her	 ?life	 ?amidst	 ?the	 ?risks.	 ?Thus,	 ?Anhalt?s	 ?focus	 ?on	 ?tuning	 ?is	 ?crucial	 ?not	 ?only	 ?for	 ?the	 ?orchestra?s	 ?performance	 ?in	 ?Foci,	 ?but	 ?also	 ?for	 ?allowing	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?to	 ?proceed	 ?forward	 ?on	 ?his/her	 ?own	 ?personal	 ?journey	 ?into	 ?the	 ?subsequent	 ?movements.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?2.5	 ?The	 ?Emergence	 ?and	 ?Discovery	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Voice	 ?The	 ?taped	 ?voices	 ?in	 ??Measures?	 ?capture	 ?the	 ?individual?s	 ?first	 ?attempt	 ?at	 ?creating	 ?something	 ?new	 ?for	 ?him/herself.	 ?The	 ?content	 ?of	 ?the	 ?text,	 ?as	 ?mentioned	 ?above,	 ?consists	 ?entirely	 ?of	 ?numerals	 ?and	 ?terms	 ?related	 ?to	 ?quantification.	 ?Despite	 ?the	 ?connotation	 ?of	 ?order	 ?that	 ?is	 ?inherent	 ?in	 ?these	 ?words,	 ?their	 ?organization	 ?is	 ?random,	 ?so	 ?that	 ?rather	 ?than	 ?bringing	 ?clarity,	 ?they	 ?evoke	 ?more	 ?questions	 ?than	 ?they	 ?answer.	 ?For	 ?example,	 ?the	 ?first	 ?few	 ?progressions	 ?we	 ?hear,	 ??2,	 ?2,	 ?3,	 ?4	 ?and	 ?a	 ?half,	 ?fifth;?	 ??ten	 ?to	 ?two	 ?point;?	 ?and	 ??2,3,7,8,9?,	 ?are	 ?declaimed	 ?without	 ?context	 ?or	 ?explanation.	 ?They	 ?are	 ?stated	 ?and	 ?left	 ?to	 ?float	 ?and	 ?mingle	 ?in	 ?our	 ?memory.	 ?The	 ?impression	 ?that	 ?this	 ?randomness	 ?creates	 ?is	 ?that	 ?of	 ?someone	 ?who	 ?is	 ?encountering	 ?these	 ?terms	 ?and	 ?sounds	 ?for	 ?the	 ?first	 ?time.	 ?Unsure	 ?of	 ?what	 ?to	 ?make	 ?of	 ?them,	 ?the	 ?fragments	 ?are	 ?observed,	 ?performed,	 ?and	 ?experimented	 ?with.	 ?	 ? 28	 ?The	 ?text	 ?in	 ?the	 ?movement	 ?is	 ?performed	 ?in	 ?English	 ?by	 ?a	 ?male	 ?voice	 ?of	 ?Hungarian	 ?origin	 ?and	 ?in	 ?two	 ?styles:	 ?recitation	 ?and	 ?intonational	 ?recitation.42	 ?The	 ?fragments	 ?described	 ?above	 ?are	 ?projected	 ?through	 ?tape	 ?channels	 ?1	 ?and	 ?2,	 ?and	 ?are	 ?an	 ?example	 ?of	 ?recitation.	 ?That	 ?is	 ?to	 ?say,	 ?the	 ?pitch	 ?range	 ?remains	 ?relatively	 ?narrow	 ?while	 ?still	 ?following	 ?the	 ?conventional	 ?contours	 ?of	 ?spoken	 ?English.	 ?Beginning	 ?approximately	 ?thirty-??five	 ?seconds	 ?into	 ?the	 ?movement,	 ?we	 ?also	 ?hear	 ?an	 ?example	 ?of	 ?intonational	 ?recitation	 ?in	 ?tape	 ?channels	 ?3	 ?and	 ?4	 ?where	 ?the	 ?words	 ?experiment	 ?with	 ?different	 ?intonations	 ?and	 ?expand	 ?their	 ?pitch	 ?range.	 ?They	 ?also	 ?thread	 ?together	 ?to	 ?create	 ?short	 ?melodic	 ?phrases.	 ?As	 ?the	 ?tape	 ?channels	 ?overlap,	 ?we	 ?hear	 ?both	 ?styles	 ?performed	 ?overtop	 ?of	 ?one	 ?another.	 ?Anhalt	 ?calls	 ?this	 ?technique	 ?autopolyphony,	 ?where	 ?a	 ?single	 ?voice	 ?performs	 ?in	 ?concert	 ?with	 ?itself.43	 ?By	 ?utilizing	 ?this	 ?technique,	 ?Anhalt	 ?illustrates	 ?the	 ?complexity	 ?of	 ?the	 ?individual:	 ?the	 ?voice?s	 ?ability	 ?to	 ?project	 ?multiple	 ?identities	 ?simultaneously	 ?is	 ?analogous	 ?to	 ?the	 ?multiple	 ?personalities	 ?that	 ?all	 ?individuals	 ?learn	 ?to	 ?cultivate	 ?throughout	 ?their	 ?lives.	 ?	 ?The	 ?connection	 ?between	 ?voices	 ?and	 ?identity	 ?has	 ?long	 ?been	 ?a	 ?topic	 ?of	 ?interest	 ?to	 ?many.	 ?Anhalt	 ?was	 ?of	 ?the	 ?opinion	 ?that	 ?the	 ?unique	 ?voice	 ?of	 ?each	 ?human	 ?being	 ?is	 ?integral	 ?to	 ?his/her	 ?identity,	 ?and	 ?he	 ?was	 ?not	 ?alone	 ?in	 ?this	 ?belief.	 ?Voice	 ?and	 ?drama	 ?scholar	 ?Flloyd	 ?Kennedy	 ?asserts	 ?that	 ?the	 ?voice	 ?is	 ?not	 ?merely	 ?a	 ?metaphor	 ?for	 ?individuality	 ?nor	 ?just	 ?a	 ?medium	 ?for	 ?language,	 ?but	 ?that	 ?it	 ?is	 ?rather	 ?the	 ?very	 ?presence	 ?of	 ?a	 ?person,	 ?the	 ??physical	 ?manifestation	 ?of	 ?the	 ?presently	 ?occurring,	 ?unique	 ?self	 ?of	 ?the	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?42	 ?The	 ?distinction	 ?is	 ?taken	 ?from	 ?George	 ?List?s	 ?model	 ?of	 ?speech	 ?and	 ?song.	 ?George	 ?List,	 ??The	 ?boundaries	 ?of	 ?speech	 ?and	 ?song,?	 ?Ethnomusicology	 ?7,	 ?no.	 ?1	 ?(1963):	 ?4-??13.	 ?43	 ?Anhalt	 ?uses	 ?this	 ?term	 ?himself	 ?to	 ?describe	 ?the	 ?interaction	 ?of	 ?the	 ?fragments.	 ??About	 ?Foci,?	 ?57.	 ?	 ?	 ? 29	 ?actor.?44	 ?At	 ?the	 ?beginning	 ?of	 ?his	 ?book,	 ?laryngologist	 ?Paul	 ?Moses	 ?recalls	 ?the	 ?etymology	 ?of	 ?the	 ?word	 ??person,?	 ?noting	 ?that	 ?the	 ?Latin	 ?persona	 ?derives	 ?from	 ?per	 ?sona:	 ?the	 ?sound	 ?of	 ?a	 ?voice	 ?as	 ?it	 ?passes	 ?through.	 ?It	 ?originally	 ?referred	 ?to	 ?the	 ?mouthpiece	 ?of	 ?a	 ?mask	 ?used	 ?by	 ?actors	 ?in	 ?a	 ?play,	 ?but	 ?over	 ?time	 ?it	 ?became	 ?dissociated	 ?from	 ?its	 ?symbolic	 ?connection	 ?with	 ?the	 ?voice	 ?and	 ?closer	 ?to	 ?representing	 ?only	 ?the	 ?physical	 ?body	 ?of	 ?the	 ?actor.45	 ?Canadian	 ?playwright	 ?Robert	 ?Lepage	 ?summarizes	 ?the	 ?evolved	 ?separation	 ?as	 ?follows:	 ?	 ??We	 ?tend	 ?to	 ?confuse	 ?voice,	 ?language	 ?and	 ?speech,	 ?and	 ?they	 ?are	 ?three	 ?radically	 ?different	 ?things;	 ?of	 ?course	 ?they	 ?are	 ?all	 ?interconnected	 ?and	 ?they	 ?all	 ?serve	 ?each	 ?other?s	 ?purposes.	 ?The	 ?voice	 ?is	 ?not	 ?language,	 ?it?s	 ?not	 ?speech;	 ?the	 ?voice	 ?is	 ?about	 ?the	 ?individual.?46	 ?Thus,	 ?through	 ?the	 ?exploratory	 ?play	 ?of	 ?the	 ?voice	 ?heard	 ?in	 ??Measures,?	 ?we	 ?are	 ?also	 ?invited	 ?to	 ?a	 ?discovery	 ?of	 ?the	 ?individual?s	 ?self	 ?and	 ?being.	 ? In	 ??Measures,?	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?begins	 ?the	 ?process	 ?of	 ?reconciling	 ?him/herself	 ?with	 ?existence.	 ?The	 ?instruments	 ?establish	 ?a	 ?stable	 ?environment	 ?through	 ?the	 ?ritualistic	 ?process	 ?of	 ?tuning,	 ?which	 ?then	 ?allows	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?to	 ?experiment	 ?with	 ?how	 ?s/he	 ?can	 ?use	 ?his/her	 ?voice	 ?to	 ?create	 ?an	 ?identity.	 ?The	 ?individual	 ?tries	 ?to	 ?make	 ?sense	 ?of	 ?his/her	 ?surroundings	 ?by	 ?testing	 ?different	 ?scales	 ?of	 ?quantification.	 ?Once	 ?comfortable	 ?and	 ?confident,	 ?s/he	 ?then	 ?begins	 ?to	 ?play	 ?with	 ?the	 ?melodic	 ?possibilities	 ?of	 ?the	 ?voice	 ?by	 ?exploring	 ?the	 ?technique	 ?of	 ?intonational	 ?recitation.	 ?The	 ?possibilities	 ?of	 ?the	 ?world	 ?are	 ?beginning	 ?to	 ?open	 ?up	 ?to	 ?him/her.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?44	 ?Flloyd	 ?Kennedy,	 ??The	 ?Challenge	 ?of	 ?Theorizing	 ?the	 ?Voice	 ?in	 ?Performance,?	 ?Modern	 ?Drama	 ?52,	 ?no.	 ?4	 ?(Winter	 ?2009):	 ?406.	 ?	 ?45	 ?Moses,	 ?The	 ?Voice	 ?of	 ?Neurosis,	 ?7.	 ?	 ?46	 ?Robert	 ?Lepage,	 ??Performing	 ?Past	 ?and	 ?Present,?	 ?interview	 ?with	 ?Tony	 ?Cascardis,	 ?Forum	 ?on	 ?the	 ?Humanities	 ?and	 ?the	 ?Public	 ?World,	 ?Townsend	 ?Center	 ?for	 ?the	 ?Humanities,	 ?University	 ?of	 ?California	 ?Berkeley,	 ?October	 ?2007,	 ?www.youtube.com/watch?v=sqhUSm451gI	 ?	 ? 30	 ?3	 ? The	 ?Individual,	 ?the	 ?Spirit,	 ?and	 ?the	 ?Soul	 ?This	 ?chapter	 ?focuses	 ?on	 ?the	 ?third	 ?and	 ?fourth	 ?movement	 ?of	 ?Foci	 ?entitled	 ??Icons?	 ?and	 ??Definition	 ?2?	 ?and	 ?their	 ?exploration	 ?of	 ?the	 ?individual?s	 ?attempt	 ?to	 ?reconcile	 ?late-??modern	 ?ideologies	 ?with	 ?traditional	 ?notions	 ?of	 ?religion	 ?and	 ?the	 ?soul.	 ??Icons?	 ?is	 ?rich	 ?with	 ?religious	 ?symbolism	 ?and	 ?sources.	 ?In	 ?the	 ?text,	 ?fragments	 ?from	 ?the	 ?Geneva	 ?Psalter,	 ?the	 ?Ecclesiastique,	 ?and	 ?Byzantine	 ?hymns	 ?are	 ?used.	 ?For	 ?its	 ?visual	 ?component,	 ?a	 ?projection	 ?of	 ?an	 ?image	 ?of	 ?Saint	 ?Elijah	 ?ascending	 ?in	 ?a	 ?chariot	 ?of	 ?fire	 ?is	 ?presented	 ?to	 ?the	 ?audience.	 ??Definition	 ?2?	 ?utilizes	 ?a	 ?definition	 ?of	 ??the	 ?soul?	 ?for	 ?its	 ?text.	 ?With	 ?its	 ?clear	 ?melodies	 ?and	 ?diatonic	 ?harmonies,	 ?it	 ?is	 ?the	 ?most	 ?nostalgic	 ?of	 ?the	 ?movements	 ?heard	 ?in	 ?the	 ?piece.	 ?These	 ?movements,	 ?however,	 ?are	 ?more	 ?than	 ?a	 ?celebration	 ?and	 ?remembrance	 ?of	 ?faith	 ?and	 ?spirituality.	 ?Concepts	 ?and	 ?issues	 ?such	 ?as	 ?the	 ?changing	 ?symbolism	 ?of	 ?icons,	 ?the	 ?sacred	 ?versus	 ?the	 ?profane,	 ?the	 ?diminishing	 ?influence	 ?of	 ?religion	 ?in	 ?public	 ?spheres,	 ?and	 ?the	 ?rise	 ?in	 ?scepticism	 ?will	 ?be	 ?discussed	 ?alongside	 ?the	 ?intersection	 ?of	 ?live	 ?instruments,	 ?tape,	 ?and	 ?electronics	 ?that	 ?Anhalt	 ?explores	 ?within	 ?these	 ?movements.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?3.1	 ?The	 ?History	 ?of	 ?Icons	 ?The	 ?term	 ??icon?	 ?refers	 ?to	 ?a	 ?form	 ?of	 ?art	 ?that	 ?was	 ?prominent	 ?in	 ?the	 ?Eastern	 ?Orthodox	 ?Church	 ?during	 ?the	 ?Byzantine	 ?period	 ?(300-??1453	 ?C.E.),	 ?and	 ?that	 ?took	 ?as	 ?its	 ?subject	 ?the	 ?portraits	 ?of	 ?religious	 ?figures	 ?such	 ?as	 ?Christ,	 ?the	 ?Virgin	 ?Mary,	 ?and	 ?saints.47	 ?The	 ?origin	 ?of	 ?icons	 ?traces	 ?back	 ?to	 ?Jewish	 ?art	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Second	 ?Temple	 ?period	 ?(6th	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?47	 ?N.	 ?Kokosalakis,	 ??Symbolism	 ?(Religious)	 ?and	 ?Icons,?	 ?in	 ?International	 ?Encyclopedia	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Social	 ?&	 ?Behavioral	 ?Sciences,	 ?eds.	 ?Neil	 ?J.	 ?Smelser	 ?and	 ?Paul	 ?B.	 ?Baltes	 ?(Amsterdam:	 ?Elsevier	 ?Sciences	 ?Ltd.,	 ?2001),	 ?15356.	 ?	 ? 31	 ?century	 ?B.C.E.)	 ?It	 ?then	 ?developed	 ?through	 ?the	 ?Hellenistic	 ?period	 ?(323-??146	 ?B.C.E.)	 ?in	 ?Judea	 ?and	 ?the	 ?Jewish	 ?communities	 ?in	 ?Galilee.	 ?After	 ?the	 ?destruction	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Second	 ?Temple	 ?in	 ?70	 ?C.E.,	 ?the	 ?diaspora	 ?that	 ?resulted	 ?helped	 ?to	 ?spread	 ?the	 ?art	 ?form	 ?through	 ?Europe,	 ?North	 ?Africa,	 ?and	 ?the	 ?Middle	 ?East.48	 ?Its	 ?entrance	 ?into	 ?Christian	 ?culture	 ?is	 ?alluded	 ?to	 ?in	 ?documents	 ?from	 ?the	 ?first	 ?century,	 ?though	 ?none	 ?of	 ?these	 ?early	 ?icons	 ?have	 ?survived	 ?into	 ?the	 ?present.49	 ?Icons	 ?and	 ?images	 ?of	 ?religious	 ?subjects	 ?in	 ?general	 ?have	 ?long	 ?been	 ?a	 ?site	 ?of	 ?controversy	 ?within	 ?Jewish	 ?and	 ?Christian	 ?traditions.	 ?The	 ?Jewish	 ?belief	 ?in	 ?a	 ?monotheistic	 ?God	 ?who	 ?operates	 ?outside	 ?of	 ?the	 ?earthly	 ?realm	 ?prohibits	 ?the	 ?worship	 ?of	 ?idols	 ?and	 ?icons.50	 ?Nonetheless,	 ?icons	 ?were	 ?an	 ?important	 ?part	 ?of	 ?life	 ?for	 ?many	 ?believers,	 ?especially	 ?during	 ?the	 ?Maccabean	 ?period	 ?(167-??63	 ?B.C.)	 ?when	 ?Jewish	 ?culture	 ?came	 ?into	 ?contact	 ?with	 ?Hellenism	 ?for	 ?whom	 ?images	 ?of	 ?gods	 ?had	 ?always	 ?played	 ?a	 ?large	 ?role.51	 ?The	 ?mixing	 ?of	 ?different	 ?cultural	 ?and	 ?religious	 ?beliefs	 ?and	 ?the	 ?contradictions	 ?and	 ?controversies	 ?that	 ?they	 ?ignited	 ?remained	 ?a	 ?volatile	 ?issue	 ?for	 ?many	 ?centuries.	 ?By	 ?the	 ?fourth	 ?century,	 ?icons	 ?had	 ?become	 ?commonplace	 ?in	 ?many	 ?Christian	 ?communities	 ?as	 ?well,	 ?and	 ?by	 ?the	 ?fifth	 ?century,	 ?stories	 ?of	 ?icons	 ?performing	 ?miracles	 ?such	 ?as	 ?curing	 ?illnesses,	 ?providing	 ?protection,	 ?and	 ?even	 ?speaking,	 ?became	 ?so	 ?prevalent	 ?that	 ?the	 ?idea	 ?that	 ?icons	 ?were	 ?somehow	 ?alive	 ?did	 ?not	 ?seem	 ?incredulous.52	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?48	 ?Shalom	 ?Sabar,	 ??Iconography,?	 ?Encyclopedia	 ?Judaica,	 ?eds.	 ?Michael	 ?Berenbaum	 ?and	 ?Fred	 ?Skolnik,	 ?second	 ?edition,	 ?volume	 ?9	 ?(Detroit:	 ?Macmillan	 ?Reference	 ?USA,	 ?2007),	 ?703.	 ?	 ?49	 ?Leonid	 ?Ouspensky	 ?and	 ?Vladimir	 ?Lossky,	 ?The	 ?Meaning	 ?of	 ?Icons.	 ?G.E.H.,	 ?trans.	 ?Palmer	 ?and	 ?E.	 ?Kadloubovsky	 ?(Crestwood:	 ?St.	 ?Vladimer?s	 ?Seminary	 ?Press,	 ?1982),	 ?25.	 ?50	 ?Passages	 ?from	 ?Exodus	 ?xx.	 ?4,	 ?and	 ?xx.	 ?23,	 ?for	 ?example.	 ?51	 ?H.P.	 ?Gerhard,	 ?The	 ?World	 ?of	 ?Icons	 ?(New	 ?York:	 ?Harper	 ?&	 ?Row	 ?Publishers,	 ?1971),	 ?10-??11.	 ?52	 ?Gerhard,	 ?The	 ?World	 ?of	 ?Icons,	 ?28-??29.	 ?	 ? 32	 ?The	 ?increasing	 ?veneration	 ?of	 ?icons	 ?triggered	 ?a	 ?response	 ?from	 ?the	 ?Church,	 ?which	 ?prior	 ?to	 ?this	 ?time,	 ?did	 ?not	 ?play	 ?an	 ?active	 ?role	 ?in	 ?regulating	 ?their	 ?production	 ?and	 ?usage.	 ?It	 ?was	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Trullan	 ?Council	 ?in	 ?691/692	 ?C.E.	 ?where	 ?the	 ?Church	 ?issued	 ?for	 ?the	 ?first	 ?time	 ?a	 ?definitive	 ?ruling	 ?against	 ?icons.	 ?These	 ?regulations	 ?were	 ?not	 ?enforced	 ?rigorously	 ?though,	 ?and	 ?tensions	 ?between	 ?supporters	 ?and	 ?opponents	 ?of	 ?icons	 ?increased,	 ?leading	 ?into	 ?a	 ?period	 ?of	 ?unrest	 ?known	 ?today	 ?by	 ?historians	 ?as	 ?the	 ?Iconoclastic	 ?Period	 ?(726-??843	 ?B.C.E.)53	 ?Under	 ?the	 ?rule	 ?of	 ?Emperor	 ?Leo	 ?III	 ?(717-??741	 ?B.C.E.),	 ?orders	 ?were	 ?issued	 ?to	 ?remove	 ?and	 ?destroy	 ?icons	 ?throughout	 ?the	 ?Empire.	 ?Riots	 ?ensued,	 ?and	 ?an	 ?insurrection	 ?was	 ?planned	 ?in	 ?Greece	 ?(which	 ?was	 ?ultimately	 ?thwarted).	 ?With	 ?the	 ?succession	 ?of	 ?Leo?s	 ?son,	 ?Constantine	 ?V,	 ?the	 ?persecution	 ?of	 ?icons	 ?and	 ?their	 ?supporters	 ?reached	 ?its	 ?peak.	 ?Many	 ?years	 ?passed	 ?before,	 ?at	 ?last,	 ?with	 ?the	 ?influence	 ?of	 ?Empress	 ?Irene	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Second	 ?Council	 ?of	 ?Nicaea	 ?in	 ?691-??692	 ?B.C.E.,	 ?icons	 ?were	 ?granted	 ?a	 ?place	 ?in	 ?religious	 ?worship,	 ?although	 ?the	 ?degree	 ?of	 ?artistic	 ?freedom	 ?allowed	 ?for	 ?their	 ?production	 ?was	 ?strictly	 ?limited.	 ?Thus,	 ?even	 ?though	 ?the	 ?tradition	 ?of	 ?icons	 ?has	 ?carried	 ?on	 ?into	 ?the	 ?present	 ?day,	 ?their	 ?stylistic	 ?characteristics	 ?have	 ?changed	 ?very	 ?little	 ?(Figure	 ?3.1).	 ?54	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?53	 ?Gerhard,	 ?The	 ?World	 ?of	 ?Icons,	 ?28-??29.	 ?54	 ?Alfred	 ?Werner,	 ?Icons:	 ?Religious	 ?Art	 ?of	 ?Eastern	 ?Europe	 ?(A.A.	 ?Wyn,	 ?Inc.:	 ?New	 ?York,	 ?1949),	 ?7.	 ?	 ? 33	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?3.1	 ?Example	 ?of	 ?a	 ?17th-??century	 ?Icon	 ?by	 ?Emmaneual	 ?Tzanes,	 ??Cosmas	 ?and	 ?Damian?55	 ?	 ?In	 ?contrast	 ?to	 ?the	 ?euphoric,	 ?visceral	 ?bodies	 ?and	 ?faces	 ?of	 ?Italian	 ?Renaissance	 ?art,	 ?icons	 ?tend	 ?to	 ?be	 ?two	 ?dimensional	 ?and	 ?sepia-??saturated	 ?in	 ?colour.	 ?Their	 ?appearance	 ?gives	 ?them	 ?a	 ?particularly	 ?muted	 ?and	 ?detached	 ?quality.	 ?Yet,	 ?the	 ?unblinking	 ?gaze	 ?of	 ?these	 ?otherworldly	 ?figures	 ?remains	 ?striking.	 ?Indeed,	 ?the	 ?archaic	 ?style	 ?of	 ?icons	 ?was	 ?intended	 ?to	 ?affect	 ?viewers	 ?directly,	 ?evoking	 ?feelings	 ?of	 ?awe	 ?and	 ?religious	 ?devotion	 ?without	 ?recourse	 ?to	 ?logic	 ?and	 ?rationale.56	 ?These	 ?images	 ?were	 ?meant	 ?to	 ?subconsciously	 ?	 ??enter	 ?the	 ?viewer	 ?instead	 ?of	 ?the	 ?viewer	 ?entering	 ?the	 ?image.?57	 ?In	 ?this	 ?way,	 ?icons	 ?serve	 ?as	 ?bridges	 ?between	 ?the	 ?material	 ?world	 ?and	 ?the	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?55	 ?Reproduced	 ?from	 ?Gerhard,	 ?The	 ?World	 ?of	 ?Icons,	 ?87.	 ?	 ?56	 ?Werner,	 ?Icons:	 ?Religious	 ?Art	 ?of	 ?Eastern	 ?Europe,	 ?3-??5.	 ?57	 ?Kokosalakis,	 ??Symbolism	 ?(Religious)	 ?and	 ?Icons,?	 ?15357.	 ?	 ?	 ? 34	 ?spiritual	 ?one	 ?through	 ?which	 ?an	 ?individual	 ?can	 ?gain	 ?an	 ?intense	 ?feeling	 ?of	 ?connection	 ?with	 ?the	 ?divine.58	 ?We	 ?may	 ?now	 ?reflect	 ?on	 ?how	 ?the	 ?third	 ?movement	 ?of	 ?Foci,	 ??Icons,?	 ?comments	 ?on	 ?the	 ?history	 ?and	 ?original	 ?purpose	 ?of	 ?these	 ?religious	 ?images.	 ?	 ?3.2	 ??Icons?	 ?(Movement	 ?3)	 ?In	 ?1968,	 ?Anhalt	 ?visited	 ?the	 ?city	 ?of	 ?Geneva,	 ?later	 ?commenting	 ?that	 ?the	 ?movement	 ??Icons?	 ?was	 ?an	 ?expression	 ??of	 ?certain	 ?thoughts	 ?and	 ?feelings	 ?[that	 ?he]	 ?came	 ?to	 ?develop	 ?in	 ?regard[s]	 ?to	 ?the	 ?city.?59	 ?Although	 ?his	 ?visit	 ?was	 ?brief,	 ?Anhalt	 ?recalls	 ?being	 ?thoroughly	 ?enchanted	 ?by	 ??the	 ?spirit	 ?of	 ?the	 ?city.?60	 ?One	 ?of	 ?the	 ?highlights	 ?of	 ?his	 ?stay	 ?was	 ?a	 ?viewing	 ?of	 ?a	 ?number	 ?of	 ?icons	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Mus?e	 ?Rath.	 ?One	 ?that	 ?stood	 ?out	 ?to	 ?him	 ?in	 ?particular	 ?was	 ?a	 ?portrait	 ?of	 ?the	 ?prophet	 ?Elijah	 ?ascending	 ?into	 ?the	 ?heavens	 ?in	 ?a	 ?chariot	 ?of	 ?fire	 ?by	 ?Demetrios,	 ?a	 ?17th-??century	 ?painter	 ?(Figure	 ?3.2).	 ?Anhalt	 ?describes	 ?that	 ?upon	 ?seeing	 ?the	 ?icon,	 ?the	 ?idea	 ?of	 ?a	 ?fusion	 ?between	 ?Calvinist	 ?and	 ?Byzantine	 ?traditions	 ?occurred	 ?to	 ?him	 ?though	 ?he	 ?could	 ?not	 ?immediately	 ?explain	 ?why.61	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?58	 ?Sarah	 ?Brooks,	 ??Icons	 ?and	 ?Iconoclasm	 ?in	 ?Byzantium,?	 ?in	 ?Heilbrunn	 ?Timeline	 ?of	 ?Art	 ?History.	 ?New	 ?York:	 ?Metropolitan	 ?Museum	 ?of	 ?Art,	 ?2000,	 ?www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/icon/hd_icon.htm	 ?(originally	 ?published	 ?October	 ?2001,	 ?last	 ?revised	 ?August	 ?2009).	 ?	 ?59	 ?Anhalt,	 ??About	 ?Foci,?	 ?57.	 ?60	 ?Ibid.	 ?	 ?	 ?61	 ?Ibid.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ? 35	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?3.2	 ?The	 ?Demetrios	 ?icon.	 ?Elie	 ?dans	 ?son	 ?char	 ?de	 ?feu,	 ?17th	 ?century.	 ?Coll:	 ?Dr.	 ?Siegfried	 ?Amberg-??Herzog,	 ?Switzerland62	 ?	 ?The	 ?melding	 ?together	 ?of	 ?different	 ?languages	 ?and	 ?cultures,	 ?and	 ?the	 ?boundaries	 ?between	 ?the	 ?sacred	 ?and	 ?the	 ?secular	 ?are	 ?central	 ?themes	 ?in	 ?this	 ?movement.	 ?The	 ?text,	 ?for	 ?example,	 ?vacillates	 ?between	 ?passages	 ?in	 ?French	 ?(the	 ?language	 ?of	 ?John	 ?Calvin?s	 ?Geneva	 ?Psalter)	 ?and	 ?Greek	 ?(the	 ?official	 ?language	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Byzantine	 ?Empire	 ?after	 ?640	 ?C.E),	 ?with	 ?a	 ?short	 ?phrase	 ?spoken	 ?in	 ?English,	 ??Geneva,	 ?1968?	 ?(m.	 ?30-??33),	 ?that	 ?bridges	 ?the	 ?two.	 ?Elijah	 ?is	 ?also	 ?a	 ?figure	 ?who	 ?occupies	 ?a	 ?place	 ?in-??between	 ?two	 ?worlds.	 ?In	 ?biblical	 ?stories,	 ?he	 ?is	 ?remembered	 ?as	 ?a	 ?prophet	 ?who	 ?went	 ?to	 ?live	 ?a	 ?monastic	 ?life	 ?in	 ?the	 ?wilderness	 ?at	 ?the	 ?instruction	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Lord	 ?and	 ?to	 ?escape	 ?persecution.	 ?His	 ?ability	 ?to	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?62	 ?Reproduced	 ?from	 ?Anhalt,	 ??About	 ?Foci,?	 ?58.	 ?	 ? 36	 ?communicate	 ?with	 ?God	 ?granted	 ?him	 ?the	 ?power	 ?to	 ?summon	 ?upon	 ?sinners	 ?drought	 ?and	 ?famine	 ?(3	 ?Kgs	 ?17:1-??3)	 ?and	 ?to	 ?resurrect	 ?the	 ?dead	 ?(3	 ?Kgs	 ?17:17-??24).	 ?When	 ?the	 ?Lord	 ?decided	 ?that	 ?Elijah?s	 ?earthly	 ?duties	 ?were	 ?complete,	 ?he	 ?was	 ?carried	 ?into	 ?heaven	 ?in	 ?a	 ?chariot	 ?of	 ?fire	 ?where	 ?he	 ?was	 ?transformed	 ?into	 ?an	 ?angel.	 ?Yet	 ?when	 ?he	 ?was	 ?on	 ?Earth,	 ?he	 ?was	 ?not	 ?a	 ?supernatural	 ?entity	 ?despite	 ?the	 ?miracles	 ?he	 ?performed.	 ?He	 ?was	 ?a	 ?vessel,	 ?a	 ?medium,	 ?transmitting	 ?God?s	 ?message	 ?to	 ?his	 ?brothers	 ?and	 ?sisters	 ?on	 ?earth.63	 ?Anhalt	 ?instructs	 ?that	 ?during	 ?the	 ?performance	 ?of	 ??Icons,?	 ?the	 ?image	 ?of	 ?Elijah	 ?should	 ?be	 ?projected	 ?onto	 ?three	 ?screens	 ?in	 ?front	 ?of	 ?the	 ?audience,	 ?initially	 ?blurred	 ?and	 ?unrecognizable.	 ?As	 ?the	 ?movement	 ?progresses,	 ?the	 ?image	 ?is	 ?slowly	 ?adjusted	 ?into	 ?focus.64	 ?The	 ?icon?s	 ?transition	 ?from	 ?obscurity	 ?to	 ?clarity	 ?may	 ?be	 ?a	 ?tribute	 ?to	 ?Elijah	 ?the	 ?prophet?s	 ?transformation	 ?and	 ?the	 ?liminal	 ?position	 ?he	 ?occupied	 ?on	 ?Earth.	 ?The	 ?music	 ?of	 ??Icons?	 ?also	 ?explores	 ?the	 ?idea	 ?of	 ?transformation	 ?and	 ?transition	 ?as	 ?will	 ?soon	 ?be	 ?discussed	 ?(Figure	 ?3.3).	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?63	 ?Alison	 ?Locke	 ?Perchuk,	 ??In	 ?the	 ?Image	 ?of	 ?Elijah:	 ?The	 ?Artistic	 ?Foundations	 ?of	 ?Community	 ?in	 ?a	 ?Medieval	 ?Italian	 ?Monastery,?	 ?PhD	 ?Dissertation	 ?(Yale	 ?University,	 ?2009),	 ?152.	 ?64	 ?Anhalt,	 ??About	 ?Foci,?	 ?57-??58.	 ?	 ? 37	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?3.3	 ?Form	 ?Diagram	 ?of	 ??Icons?	 ?	 ? 38	 ?3.2.1	 ?Section	 ?I	 ?(mm.	 ?1-??29):	 ?Geneva	 ?Psalter	 ??	 ?Psalm	 ?150	 ?and	 ?117	 ?The	 ?movement	 ?begins	 ?in	 ?Bb	 ?Mixolydian.	 ?The	 ?atmosphere	 ?is	 ?serene,	 ?with	 ?shimmering	 ?figurations	 ?played	 ?by	 ?the	 ?piano,	 ?crotales,	 ?and	 ?triangles.	 ?These	 ?light	 ?and	 ?translucent	 ?timbres	 ?evoke	 ?a	 ?sense	 ?of	 ?heavenly	 ?transcendence.	 ?The	 ?harmonics	 ?in	 ?the	 ?strings	 ?along	 ?with	 ?the	 ?sustained	 ?octaves	 ?in	 ?the	 ?piano,	 ?electric	 ?organ,	 ?and	 ?vibes	 ?that	 ?center	 ?around	 ?Bb	 ?(playing	 ?in	 ?unison	 ?at	 ?m.	 ?10)	 ?create	 ?a	 ?soothing	 ?wave	 ?of	 ?sound	 ?that	 ?washes	 ?over	 ?the	 ?imaginary	 ?congregation	 ?(Figure	 ?3.4).	 ?A	 ?quotation	 ?of	 ?the	 ?opening	 ?melody	 ?of	 ?Psalm	 ?150	 ?from	 ?the	 ?Geneva	 ?Psalter	 ?is	 ?played	 ?by	 ?the	 ?electric	 ?organ	 ?(Figures	 ?3.5	 ?and	 ?3.6),	 ?adding	 ?to	 ?the	 ?ecclesiastical	 ?quality.	 ?	 ?	 ? 	 ?	 ? 39	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?3.4	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?3	 ??	 ??Icons,?	 ?mm.	 ?8-??14	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?3.5	 ?Pitches	 ?between	 ?mm.	 ?1-??5	 ?in	 ?the	 ?electric	 ?organ	 ?of	 ??Icons?	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?3.6	 ?Beginning	 ?of	 ?Psalm	 ?150	 ?from	 ?The	 ?Genevan	 ?Psalter65	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?65	 ?Transcription	 ?by	 ?Devey	 ?Westra,	 ?www.genevanpsalter.com/attachments/GenPs150_homoph_BoP84.PDF	 ?	 ?	 ? 40	 ?Following	 ?the	 ?snap	 ?of	 ?claves,	 ?a	 ?taped	 ?recording	 ?of	 ?an	 ?impassioned	 ?recitation	 ?in	 ?French	 ?of	 ?the	 ?117th	 ?Psalm	 ?begins	 ?(m.	 ?5).	 ?It	 ?is	 ?recited	 ?by	 ?a	 ?female	 ?voice	 ?of	 ?Russian	 ?origin.	 ?She	 ?speaks	 ?enthusiastically,	 ?encouraging	 ?the	 ?faithful	 ?from	 ?around	 ?the	 ?world	 ?to	 ?come	 ?together	 ?in	 ?religious	 ?celebration:	 ?	 ?	 ?Vous	 ?peuples	 ?et	 ?lign?es,	 ?	 ?Gens	 ?de	 ?toutes	 ?contrees,	 ?	 ?En	 ?grand	 ?devotion,	 ?	 ?Mercier	 ?le	 ?seigneur	 ?sur	 ?tous	 ?autres	 ?greigneur,	 ?	 ?Par	 ?toute	 ?nation,	 ?	 ?Psalme	 ?CXVII.	 ?	 ?English	 ?Translation:	 ?	 ?People	 ?and	 ?lineages	 ?of	 ?all	 ?nations,	 ?	 ?Arriving	 ?from	 ?all	 ?around	 ?In	 ?grand	 ?devotion,	 ?	 ?To	 ?the	 ?grand	 ?mercy	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Lord,	 ?To	 ?all	 ?nations,	 ?	 ?Psalm	 ?117.66	 ?	 ? 	 ?As	 ?soon	 ?as	 ?she	 ?finishes	 ?the	 ?prayer,	 ?the	 ?optimistic	 ?and	 ?light	 ?mood	 ?of	 ?the	 ?music	 ?is	 ?replaced	 ?by	 ?the	 ?foreboding	 ?drone	 ?of	 ?recorded	 ?oscillators.	 ?Dissonant	 ?intervals	 ?begin	 ?to	 ?creep	 ?in	 ?alongside	 ?the	 ?clear,	 ?open	 ?octaves.	 ?For	 ?example,	 ?major	 ?seconds	 ?(Db-??E)	 ?at	 ?m.	 ?13	 ?in	 ?the	 ?piano	 ?and	 ?vibes	 ?are	 ?heard	 ?here.	 ?The	 ?woman?s	 ?voice	 ?recites	 ?the	 ?same	 ?lines	 ?from	 ?the	 ?Psalm	 ?once	 ?more	 ?at	 ?m.	 ?19,	 ?but	 ?she	 ?is	 ?interrupted	 ?by	 ?a	 ?recording	 ?of	 ?an	 ?eerie,	 ?repeating	 ?scalar	 ?figure	 ?created	 ?by	 ?a	 ?staircase	 ?generator.	 ?By	 ?m.	 ?22,	 ?the	 ?harmonic	 ?colour	 ?changes	 ?with	 ?a	 ?shift	 ?from	 ?Bb	 ?Mixolydian	 ?to	 ?B	 ?Ionian	 ?for	 ?five	 ?measures	 ?(until	 ?m.	 ?26)	 ?(Figure	 ?3.7).	 ?	 ?	 ? 	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?66	 ?Complete	 ?transcription	 ?and	 ?translation	 ?of	 ?all	 ?the	 ?text	 ?used	 ?in	 ??Icons?	 ?can	 ?be	 ?found	 ?in	 ?Appendix	 ?1.	 ?	 ? 41	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?3.7	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?3	 ??	 ??Icons,?	 ?mm.	 ?22-??27	 ?	 ?	 ? 	 ?	 ? 42	 ?The	 ?change	 ?in	 ?harmony	 ?encourages	 ?a	 ?different	 ?interpretation	 ?of	 ?the	 ?repetition	 ?of	 ?the	 ?psalm	 ?verse.	 ?The	 ?repetition	 ?is	 ?also	 ?different	 ?from	 ?the	 ?first	 ?recitation	 ?in	 ?the	 ?way	 ?it	 ?concludes:	 ?it	 ?does	 ?not	 ?finish	 ?with	 ?a	 ?statement	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Psalm	 ?number,	 ?but	 ?rather	 ?ends	 ?abruptly	 ?after	 ??par	 ?tout	 ?nation.?	 ?The	 ?different	 ?aural	 ?background	 ?heard	 ?in	 ?the	 ?instruments	 ?and	 ?electronics	 ?as	 ?well	 ?as	 ?the	 ?subtle	 ?difference	 ?in	 ?the	 ?text	 ?of	 ?the	 ?repetition	 ?signals	 ?to	 ?the	 ?listener	 ?that	 ?s/he	 ?is	 ?in	 ?a	 ?different	 ?place	 ?than	 ?before.	 ?The	 ?comforting	 ?familiarity	 ?of	 ?traditional	 ?Psalms	 ?is	 ?now	 ?tainted	 ?with	 ?ambiguity	 ?and	 ?dissonance.	 ?	 ?Sociologist	 ?Emile	 ?Durkheim	 ?believed	 ?that	 ?boundaries	 ?and	 ?borders,	 ?such	 ?as	 ?those	 ?between	 ?the	 ?earth	 ?and	 ?the	 ?heavens,	 ?the	 ?sacred	 ?and	 ?the	 ?profane,	 ?and	 ?the	 ?mortal	 ?and	 ?immortal,	 ?were	 ?fundamental	 ?to	 ?many	 ?religions	 ?and	 ?essential	 ?for	 ?an	 ?understanding	 ?of	 ?the	 ?concept	 ?of	 ?a	 ?god.67	 ?Christians,	 ?for	 ?example,	 ?understand	 ?life	 ?on	 ?earth	 ?to	 ?be	 ?but	 ?a	 ?preparation	 ?for	 ?what	 ?follows	 ?after	 ?death.	 ?Without	 ?the	 ?belief	 ?that	 ?a	 ?border	 ?separates	 ?one	 ?from	 ?the	 ?afterlife,	 ?life	 ?on	 ?earth	 ?loses	 ?its	 ?meaning.	 ?As	 ?sociologist	 ?Nikos	 ?Kokosalakis	 ?summarizes,	 ??Transcendence	 ?and	 ?the	 ?pursuit	 ?of	 ?salvation	 ?necessitate	 ?boundaries.?68	 ?	 ?The	 ?shift	 ?that	 ?we	 ?hear	 ?taking	 ?place	 ?between	 ?the	 ?first	 ?statement	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Psalm	 ?verse	 ?and	 ?the	 ?second	 ?may	 ?also	 ?symbolize	 ?the	 ?crossing	 ?of	 ?a	 ?border.	 ?As	 ?we	 ?rejoice	 ?in	 ?the	 ?promise	 ?of	 ?salvation	 ?upon	 ?hearing	 ?the	 ?words	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Psalm	 ?for	 ?the	 ?first	 ?time,	 ?we	 ?feel	 ?ourselves	 ?part	 ?of	 ?a	 ?safe	 ?and	 ?accepting	 ?haven.	 ?The	 ?text	 ?calls	 ?for	 ?us	 ?to	 ?surrender	 ?ourselves	 ?into	 ?feelings	 ?of	 ?communal	 ?worship.	 ?As	 ?we	 ?listen	 ?to	 ?the	 ?repetition	 ?that	 ?follows,	 ?we	 ?notice	 ?the	 ?image	 ?of	 ?the	 ?painted	 ?saint	 ?projected	 ?in	 ?front	 ?of	 ?us	 ?slowly	 ?shift	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?67	 ?Richard	 ?Fenn,	 ?K.	 ?Key	 ?Thinkers	 ?in	 ?the	 ?Sociology	 ?of	 ?Religion.	 ?London	 ?UK:	 ?Policy	 ?Press,	 ?2009),	 ?25-??26.	 ?	 ?68	 ?Kokosalakis,	 ??Symbolism	 ?(Religious)	 ?and	 ?Icons,?	 ?15355.	 ?	 ?	 ? 43	 ?into	 ?focus.	 ?The	 ?visual	 ?clarity	 ?is	 ?paired	 ?with	 ?feelings	 ?of	 ?unease	 ?that	 ?come	 ?from	 ?the	 ?dissonant	 ?and	 ?electronic-??infused	 ?music.	 ?As	 ?the	 ?icon?s	 ?strange	 ?proportions,	 ?archaic	 ?colours,	 ?and	 ?impersonal	 ?gazes	 ?become	 ?clearer,	 ?we	 ?realize	 ?that	 ?clarity	 ?does	 ?not	 ?necessarily	 ?bring	 ?with	 ?it	 ?comfort,	 ?and	 ?sometimes	 ?reveals	 ?a	 ?stark	 ?and	 ?disturbing	 ?reality	 ?instead.	 ?Perhaps	 ?there	 ?was	 ?a	 ?time	 ?when	 ?the	 ?eyes	 ?of	 ?these	 ?iconic	 ?figures	 ?were	 ?soothing	 ?for	 ?believers,	 ?but	 ?art	 ?historian	 ?Alfred	 ?Werner	 ?believes	 ?that	 ?the	 ?contemporary	 ?individual	 ?has	 ?lost	 ?the	 ?naivety	 ?to	 ?embrace	 ?the	 ?warmth	 ?of	 ?religious	 ?icon	 ?that	 ?once	 ?moved	 ?his/her	 ?ancestors.69	 ?The	 ?border	 ?has	 ?been	 ?crossed,	 ?but	 ?what	 ?lies	 ?on	 ?the	 ?other	 ?side	 ?is	 ?not	 ?what	 ?one	 ?expected.	 ?	 ?	 ?3.3	 ?Max	 ?Weber?s	 ?Theory	 ?of	 ?Progressive	 ?Disenchantment	 ?	 ?	 ?Werner?s	 ?lament	 ?echoes	 ?sociologist	 ?Max	 ?Weber?s	 ?theory	 ?of	 ?progressive	 ?disenchantment,	 ?which	 ?predicted	 ?that	 ?the	 ?modern	 ?age	 ?would	 ?see	 ?the	 ?loss	 ?of	 ?a	 ?metaphysical	 ?Hinterwelt,	 ?which	 ?had	 ?for	 ?centuries	 ?past	 ?helped	 ?the	 ?Western	 ?individual	 ?maintain	 ?a	 ?sense	 ?of	 ?security	 ?and	 ?belonging	 ?in	 ?the	 ?world.70	 ?The	 ?erosion	 ?of	 ?this	 ?belief	 ?would	 ?lead	 ?inevitably	 ?to	 ?the	 ?dissolution	 ?of	 ?the	 ?boundaries	 ?that	 ?once	 ?separated	 ?life	 ?on	 ?earth	 ?and	 ?the	 ?afterlife.	 ?In	 ?addition,	 ?the	 ?increasing	 ?reliance	 ?on	 ?modern	 ?science	 ?and	 ?empirical	 ?methodologies	 ?would	 ?contribute	 ?to	 ?a	 ?rising	 ?reductionist	 ?mentality	 ?that	 ?would	 ?further	 ?weaken	 ?the	 ?divide.	 ?If	 ?everything,	 ?when	 ?refined	 ?down	 ?to	 ?its	 ?simplest	 ?components,	 ?is	 ?simply	 ?part	 ?of	 ?the	 ?same	 ?molecular	 ?fabric,	 ?then	 ?the	 ?hope	 ?that	 ?religion	 ?offers	 ?in	 ?professing	 ?that	 ?humans	 ?are	 ?somehow	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?69	 ?Werner,	 ?Icons:	 ?Religious	 ?Art	 ?of	 ?Eastern	 ?Europe,	 ?5.	 ?70	 ?Stef	 ?Aupers	 ?and	 ?Dick	 ?Houtman,	 ?eds.	 ?Religions	 ?of	 ?Modernity:	 ?Relocating	 ?the	 ?Sacred	 ?to	 ?the	 ?Self	 ?and	 ?the	 ?Digital	 ?(Boston:	 ?Brill	 ?Academic	 ?Publishers,	 ?2010),	 ?1.	 ?	 ?	 ? 44	 ?unique	 ?and	 ?destined	 ?for	 ?salvation	 ?would	 ?diminish.	 ?Such	 ?a	 ?revelation	 ?may	 ?have	 ?been	 ?considered	 ?a	 ?welcomed	 ?enlightenment	 ?for	 ?some,	 ?but	 ?Weber	 ?feared	 ?that	 ?it	 ?was	 ?too	 ?much	 ?and	 ?too	 ?soon	 ?for	 ?most.	 ?The	 ?late-??modern	 ?individual	 ?becomes	 ?disoriented	 ?in	 ?a	 ?world	 ?that	 ?has	 ?suddenly	 ?shifted	 ?underneath	 ?his/her	 ?feet.	 ?The	 ?search	 ?for	 ?revelation	 ?in	 ?the	 ?dark	 ?pools	 ?of	 ?the	 ?saint?s	 ?eyes	 ?reveals	 ?only	 ?an	 ?abyss,	 ?and	 ?reminds	 ?him/her	 ?of	 ?his/her	 ?ephemeral	 ?morality.	 ?	 ?This	 ?rather	 ?pessimistic	 ?sociology	 ?of	 ?religion	 ?is	 ?based	 ?upon	 ?the	 ?belief	 ?that	 ?an	 ?essential	 ?issue	 ?of	 ?the	 ?contemporary	 ?age	 ?is	 ??the	 ?extreme,	 ?personal	 ?and	 ?existential	 ?loneliness	 ?of	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?in	 ?Western	 ?societies	 ?who	 ?has	 ?come	 ?under	 ?the	 ?influence	 ?of	 ?ascetic	 ?Protestantism.?71	 ?Sociologist	 ?Richard	 ?Fenn	 ?describes	 ?what	 ?he	 ?calls	 ?a	 ?Protestant	 ?Ethic,	 ?which	 ?teaches	 ?its	 ?followers	 ?to	 ?live	 ?in	 ??the	 ?most	 ?impersonal,	 ?rational,	 ?purposeful,	 ?consistent,	 ?systematic	 ?and	 ?organized	 ?fashion.?	 ?72	 ?This	 ?way	 ?of	 ?living	 ?is	 ?said	 ?to	 ?have	 ?had	 ?its	 ?roots	 ?in	 ?Antiquity,	 ?when	 ?in	 ?the	 ?face	 ?of	 ?chaotic	 ?social	 ?and	 ?political	 ?changes,	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?was	 ?forced	 ?to	 ?develop	 ?a	 ?stable	 ?and	 ?uncompromising	 ?mentality	 ?to	 ?cope	 ?with	 ?his/her	 ?precarious	 ?existence.	 ?What	 ?resulted	 ?was	 ?an	 ?ideology	 ?where	 ??the	 ?individual	 ?emerged	 ?as	 ?an	 ?ethical	 ?being	 ?placed	 ?over	 ?and	 ?against	 ?a	 ?welter	 ?of	 ?complex	 ?and	 ?changing	 ?circumstances	 ?that	 ?required	 ?being	 ?placed	 ?in	 ?a	 ?moral	 ?and	 ?causal	 ?order.?73	 ?This	 ?ideology	 ?was	 ?embraced	 ?by	 ?the	 ?Calvinist	 ?tradition	 ?(from	 ?which	 ?the	 ?Psalms	 ?used	 ?in	 ??Icons?	 ?come	 ?from),	 ?which	 ?offered	 ?the	 ?promise	 ?of	 ?eternal	 ?salvation	 ?in	 ?return	 ?for	 ?the	 ?individual?s	 ?strict	 ?obedience.	 ?So	 ?deeply	 ?was	 ?this	 ?moralistic	 ?code	 ?entrenched	 ?that	 ?when	 ?the	 ?forces	 ?of	 ?secularization	 ?grew	 ?and	 ?the	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?71	 ?Fenn,	 ?Key	 ?Thinkers	 ?in	 ?the	 ?Sociology	 ?of	 ?Religion,	 ?55.	 ?72	 ?Ibid,	 ?56.	 ?73	 ?Ibid,	 ?62.	 ?	 ?	 ? 45	 ?belief	 ?in	 ?the	 ?eternal	 ?began	 ?to	 ?fade,	 ?the	 ?idea	 ?that	 ?an	 ?individual?s	 ?self-??worth	 ?was	 ?still	 ?connected	 ?to	 ?austere,	 ?moral	 ?conduct	 ?remained.	 ?The	 ?individual	 ?of	 ?late	 ?modernity	 ?now	 ?struggles	 ?with	 ?a	 ?chronic	 ?need	 ?to	 ?prove	 ?him/herself	 ?and	 ?to	 ?adhere	 ?to	 ?standards	 ?that	 ?are	 ?becoming	 ?increasingly	 ?abstract	 ?and	 ?meaningless.74	 ?The	 ?joys	 ?that	 ?once	 ?accompanied	 ?one?s	 ?dutiful	 ?recitation	 ?of	 ?Psalms	 ?no	 ?longer	 ?offer	 ?the	 ?soothing	 ?promise	 ?of	 ?spiritual	 ?reward	 ?that	 ?they	 ?once	 ?did.	 ?	 ?	 ?3.3.1	 ?Section	 ?2	 ??	 ?Bridge	 ?(mm.	 ?30-??35):	 ??Geneva,	 ?1968?	 ?As	 ?the	 ?disillusioned	 ?individual	 ?struggles	 ?to	 ?find	 ?his/her	 ?place	 ?in	 ?the	 ?changing	 ?sound	 ?world	 ?of	 ??Icons?	 ?following	 ?the	 ?Psalm	 ?verses,	 ?Anhalt	 ?inserts	 ?the	 ?only	 ?English	 ?phrase	 ?in	 ?the	 ?movement:	 ??Geneva,	 ?1968.?	 ?It	 ?is	 ?stated	 ?by	 ?an	 ?ominous	 ?male	 ?voice	 ?at	 ?m.	 ?30.	 ?By	 ?this	 ?point,	 ?the	 ?piece	 ?has	 ?transitioned	 ?out	 ?of	 ?modal	 ?harmonies,	 ?and	 ?the	 ?pitches	 ?begin	 ?to	 ?coalesce	 ?together	 ?to	 ?form	 ?tone	 ?clusters	 ?that	 ?create	 ?an	 ?aural	 ?ambiance	 ?that	 ?will	 ?pervade	 ?the	 ?next	 ?few	 ?sections	 ?of	 ?the	 ?movement.	 ?The	 ?first	 ?of	 ?these	 ?clusters	 ?begins	 ?at	 ?m.	 ?30	 ?(Figure	 ?3.8	 ?and	 ?3.9).	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ? 	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?74	 ?Max	 ?Weber,	 ?Alexander	 ?Morell	 ?Henderson	 ?and	 ?Talcott	 ?Parsons,	 ?Max	 ?Weber:	 ?The	 ?Theory	 ?of	 ?Social	 ?and	 ?Economic	 ?Organization	 ?(New	 ?York:	 ?Free	 ?Press,	 ?1964),	 ?114.	 ?	 ?	 ? 46	 ?	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?3.8	 ?Tone	 ?cluster	 ?played	 ?during	 ?mm.	 ?30-??35	 ?(Section	 ?2	 ??	 ?Bridge)	 ?of	 ??Icons?	 ?	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?3.9	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?3	 ??	 ??Icons,?	 ?mm.	 ?30-??35	 ?	 ? 47	 ?Anhalt	 ?calls	 ?the	 ?statement	 ?concerning	 ?Geneva	 ?a	 ??contemporary	 ?frame	 ?of	 ?reference	 ?for	 ?this	 ?structure	 ?[(the	 ?movement)]	 ?which	 ?is	 ?expressed,	 ?primarily,	 ?in	 ?terms	 ?of	 ?historical	 ?events?.?75	 ?For	 ?Anhalt,	 ?the	 ?statement	 ?represented	 ?an	 ?intimate	 ?reminder	 ?of	 ?his	 ?trip	 ?to	 ?the	 ?city	 ?just	 ?the	 ?year	 ?prior	 ?to	 ?Foci?s	 ?premiere,	 ?as	 ?well	 ?as	 ?a	 ?reference	 ?to	 ?the	 ?role	 ?Geneva	 ?played	 ?in	 ?the	 ?foundation	 ?of	 ?Calvinism	 ?in	 ?the	 ?sixteenth-??century	 ?and	 ?the	 ?tradition	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Psalms.	 ?The	 ?statement	 ?directs	 ?the	 ?listener?s	 ?imagination	 ?to	 ?a	 ?time	 ?and	 ?place	 ?far	 ?away	 ?from	 ?the	 ?concert	 ?stage.	 ?As	 ?this	 ?is	 ?happening,	 ?the	 ?eerie	 ?electronic	 ?sounds	 ?produced	 ?by	 ?the	 ?taped	 ?staircase	 ?generator	 ?and	 ?oscillators	 ?cease,	 ?and	 ?the	 ?pitches	 ?played	 ?by	 ?the	 ?instruments	 ?narrow	 ?down	 ?to	 ?an	 ?even	 ?tighter	 ?collection	 ?that	 ?changes	 ?very	 ?little	 ?for	 ?the	 ?next	 ?few	 ?sections	 ?(Figure	 ?3.10).	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ? Figure	 ?3.10	 ?Tone	 ?clusters	 ?sustained	 ?in	 ?the	 ?instruments	 ?from	 ?mm.	 ?30-??60	 ?	 ?	 ? The	 ?subtle	 ?movement	 ?of	 ?the	 ?tone	 ?clusters	 ?in	 ?this	 ?section	 ?creates	 ?what	 ?sounds	 ?like	 ?an	 ?aural	 ?haze	 ?that	 ?drapes	 ?over	 ?the	 ?spoken	 ?text.	 ?With	 ?a	 ?static	 ?harmonic	 ?drive,	 ?the	 ?audience	 ?is	 ?suspended	 ?in	 ?these	 ?chords	 ?in	 ?anticipation.	 ?Where	 ?will	 ?this	 ?trip	 ?down	 ?memory	 ?lane	 ?take	 ?us?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?75	 ?Anhalt,	 ??About	 ?Foci?,	 ?58.	 ?	 ?	 ? 48	 ?3.3.2	 ?Section	 ?3	 ?(mm.	 ?36-??49):	 ??Elie	 ?dans	 ?son	 ?char	 ?de	 ?feu??	 ?The	 ?next	 ?section	 ?may	 ?be	 ?read	 ?as	 ?a	 ?continuation	 ?of	 ?the	 ?journey	 ?through	 ?Anhalt?s	 ?memory	 ?to	 ?his	 ?first	 ?encounter	 ?with	 ?Demetrio?s	 ?icon	 ?of	 ?Elijah,	 ?as	 ?well	 ?as	 ?a	 ?commentary	 ?on	 ?the	 ?dual	 ?nature	 ?and	 ?transitional	 ?quality	 ?of	 ?Elijah?s	 ?character.	 ??Elie	 ?dans	 ?son	 ?char	 ?de	 ?feu,?	 ?the	 ?subject	 ?of	 ?the	 ?icon,	 ?is	 ?declaimed	 ?numerous	 ?times	 ?against	 ?the	 ?static	 ?hum	 ?of	 ?a	 ?(0123)	 ?cluster.	 ?A	 ?shrill	 ?sound	 ?created	 ?by	 ?the	 ?scraping	 ?of	 ?a	 ?tam-??tam	 ?is	 ?heard	 ?with	 ?the	 ?first	 ?declamation	 ?while	 ?at	 ?the	 ?same	 ?time,	 ?the	 ?clarinet	 ?begins	 ?slowly	 ?undulating	 ?by	 ?quartertones	 ?(m.	 ?40).	 ?The	 ?violin	 ?follows	 ?suit	 ?at	 ?m.	 ?45	 ?as	 ?the	 ?tam-??tam	 ?is	 ?scrapped	 ?again.	 ?The	 ?pianist	 ?is	 ?instructed	 ?to	 ?match	 ?this	 ?timbre	 ?by	 ?scratching	 ?the	 ?strings	 ?of	 ?the	 ?piano	 ?with	 ?the	 ?blade	 ?of	 ?a	 ?knife	 ?creating	 ?an	 ?ethereal	 ?glissando	 ?(m.	 ?43).	 ?The	 ?use	 ?of	 ?extended	 ?techniques	 ?in	 ?this	 ?section	 ?demonstrates	 ?a	 ?transformation	 ?of	 ?the	 ?instruments?	 ?timbres,	 ?which	 ?complements	 ?the	 ?visual	 ?transformation	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Elijah	 ?icon	 ?from	 ?obscurity	 ?to	 ?clarity.	 ?As	 ?briefly	 ?mentioned	 ?above,	 ?Elijah	 ?is	 ?an	 ?embodiment	 ?of	 ?transition	 ?and	 ?change,	 ?as	 ?a	 ?deeper	 ?journey	 ?into	 ?his	 ?history	 ?will	 ?reveal.	 ?The	 ?name	 ??Elijah?	 ?consists	 ?of	 ?two	 ?theophoric	 ?elements,	 ?a	 ?unique	 ?characteristic	 ?that	 ?distinguishes	 ?it	 ?from	 ?all	 ?other	 ?names	 ?in	 ?the	 ?Bible.	 ??Eli?	 ?is	 ?considered	 ?by	 ?Biblical	 ?scholars	 ?to	 ?mean	 ??the	 ?God	 ?of	 ?justice	 ?and	 ?severity,?	 ?while	 ??Yah?	 ?has	 ?a	 ?meaning	 ?of	 ??the	 ?Lord	 ?of	 ?mercy	 ?and	 ?grace?.	 ?76	 ?Elijah	 ?is	 ?thus	 ?thought	 ?to	 ?embody	 ?two	 ?roles,	 ?that	 ?of	 ?discipline	 ?but	 ?also	 ?of	 ?forgiveness.	 ?He	 ?also	 ?represents	 ?another	 ?duality:	 ?on	 ?the	 ?one	 ?hand,	 ?he	 ?was	 ?born	 ?human,	 ?but	 ?his	 ?ability	 ?to	 ?proffer	 ?miracles	 ?gave	 ?him	 ?a	 ?spiritual	 ?quality	 ?that	 ?separated	 ?him	 ?from	 ?his	 ?fellow	 ?man	 ?and	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?76	 ?Mishael	 ?M.	 ?Caspi	 ?and	 ?Gerda	 ?Neu-??Sokol,	 ?By	 ?the	 ?Soft	 ?Lyres:	 ?The	 ?Search	 ?for	 ?the	 ?Prophet	 ?Elijah	 ?(Berlin:	 ?Klaus	 ?Schwarz	 ?Verlag,	 ?2006),	 ?3.	 ?	 ? 49	 ?woman.	 ?When	 ?God	 ?took	 ?him	 ?up	 ?to	 ?the	 ?heavens,	 ?he	 ?left	 ?the	 ?world	 ?of	 ?his	 ?birth	 ?behind,	 ?but	 ?his	 ?presence	 ?remained.	 ?Believers	 ?hold	 ?him	 ?close	 ?to	 ?their	 ?hearts	 ?during	 ?their	 ?daily	 ?lives	 ?even	 ?though	 ?he	 ?remains	 ?far	 ?from	 ?them	 ?as	 ?a	 ?transcendent	 ?figure	 ?that	 ?will	 ?only	 ?return	 ?to	 ?Earth	 ?when	 ?the	 ?Day	 ?of	 ?Judgment	 ?arrives.	 ?Although	 ?Anhalt	 ?was	 ?not	 ?a	 ?practicing	 ?Jew	 ?during	 ?this	 ?time	 ?in	 ?his	 ?life,	 ?he	 ?was	 ?very	 ?interested	 ?in	 ?the	 ?history	 ?and	 ?culture	 ?of	 ?Judaism	 ?and	 ?was	 ?inspired	 ?by	 ?the	 ?image	 ?of	 ?Elijah.	 ?Indeed,	 ?the	 ?ability	 ?for	 ?religious	 ?symbols	 ?to	 ?move	 ?even	 ?nonbelievers	 ?was	 ?a	 ?concept	 ?that	 ?Anhalt	 ?was	 ?interested	 ?in	 ?exploring	 ?and	 ?which	 ?was	 ?analogous	 ?to	 ?how	 ?he	 ?believed	 ?art	 ?and	 ?music	 ?could	 ?operate	 ?as	 ?well.	 ?The	 ?prophet?s	 ?ascension	 ?is	 ?a	 ?religious	 ?event	 ?that	 ?represents	 ?momentous	 ?change.	 ?Elijah?s	 ?transformation	 ?from	 ?human	 ?to	 ?angel	 ?made	 ?him	 ?immortal.	 ?He	 ?became	 ?a	 ?symbolic	 ?entity.	 ?Drastic	 ?transformations	 ?such	 ?as	 ?Elijah?s	 ?ascent	 ?become	 ?iconized	 ?in	 ?the	 ?public	 ?memory,	 ?and	 ?they	 ?become	 ?what	 ?sociologist	 ?Richard	 ?Fenn	 ?defines	 ?as	 ?sacred:	 ?	 ?The	 ?sacred	 ?represents	 ?a	 ?crisis	 ?that	 ?has	 ?emerged,	 ?been	 ?confronted,	 ?and	 ?transcended?	 ?Things	 ?are	 ?not	 ?the	 ?same	 ?again;	 ?in	 ?retrospect,	 ?it	 ?is	 ?realized	 ?that	 ?a	 ?tipping	 ?point	 ?has	 ?been	 ?reached...	 ?The	 ?possibility	 ?of	 ?a	 ?future	 ?that	 ?is	 ?different	 ?from	 ?the	 ?past	 ?is	 ?filled	 ?with	 ?hope	 ?for	 ?transformation.	 ?The	 ?time	 ?and	 ?place	 ?of	 ?the	 ?crisis	 ?is	 ?held	 ?sacred	 ?in	 ?memory	 ?and,	 ?if	 ?possible,	 ?embodied	 ?in	 ?practices	 ?such	 ?as	 ?ritualized	 ?forms	 ?of	 ?commemoration	 ?and	 ?reenactment.77	 ?	 ?	 ?Fenn?s	 ?association	 ?of	 ?the	 ?sacred	 ?with	 ?crisis	 ?provides	 ?the	 ?link	 ?to	 ?understanding	 ?why	 ?the	 ?music	 ?of	 ??Icons?	 ?undergoes	 ?such	 ?changes	 ?during	 ?the	 ?evocation	 ?of	 ?Elijah?s	 ?name.	 ?When	 ?Elijah	 ?departed	 ?from	 ?Earth,	 ?his	 ?believers	 ?were	 ?left	 ?behind.	 ?His	 ?physical	 ?absence	 ?forced	 ?them	 ?to	 ?place	 ?their	 ?trust	 ?in	 ?something	 ?much	 ?less	 ?tangible:	 ?his	 ?spiritual	 ?presence.	 ?Now,	 ?one	 ?can	 ?only	 ?pray	 ?to	 ?the	 ?icons	 ?that	 ?are	 ?made	 ?in	 ?his	 ?image,	 ?but	 ?these	 ?are	 ?merely	 ?abstract	 ?representations.	 ?As	 ?Weber	 ?predicted,	 ?much	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?77	 ?Fenn,	 ?Key	 ?Thinkers	 ?in	 ?the	 ?Sociology	 ?of	 ?Religion,	 ?1-??2.	 ?	 ?	 ? 50	 ?of	 ?the	 ?late-??modern	 ?age	 ?underwent	 ?a	 ?crisis	 ?of	 ?faith	 ?as	 ?the	 ?gods	 ?and	 ?saints	 ?that	 ?were	 ?honoured	 ?in	 ?the	 ?past	 ?became	 ?increasingly	 ?distant.	 ?Thus,	 ?as	 ?the	 ?icon	 ?of	 ?Elijah	 ?becomes	 ?focused	 ?in	 ?our	 ?view,	 ?we	 ?suddenly	 ?become	 ?aware	 ?of	 ?the	 ?strange,	 ?anachronistic	 ?details	 ?of	 ?the	 ?image.	 ?We	 ?are	 ?reminded	 ?that	 ?this	 ?is	 ?a	 ?symbol	 ?from	 ?a	 ?bygone	 ?past.	 ?Elijah	 ?is	 ?far	 ?from	 ?us	 ?now.	 ?The	 ?music,	 ?with	 ?its	 ?drawn-??out,	 ?dissonant	 ?tone	 ?clusters	 ?reflects	 ?our	 ?suspension	 ?in	 ?limbo.	 ?The	 ?gods	 ?who	 ?had	 ?once	 ?walked	 ?among	 ?us	 ?have	 ?retreated	 ?behind	 ?the	 ?clouds,	 ?and	 ?we	 ?are	 ?left	 ?to	 ?make	 ?due	 ?in	 ?their	 ?absence.	 ?This	 ?is	 ?not	 ?to	 ?say,	 ?however,	 ?that	 ?religion	 ?and	 ?faith	 ?have	 ?been	 ?obliterated,	 ?as	 ?the	 ?next	 ?section	 ?will	 ?elaborate	 ?on.	 ?	 ?	 ?3.4	 ?Disenchantment	 ?and	 ?Secularization	 ?of	 ?Quebec	 ?in	 ?the	 ?1960?s	 ?	 ?The	 ?belief	 ?that	 ?the	 ?Western	 ?world	 ?underwent	 ?a	 ?period	 ?of	 ?unprecedented	 ?secularization	 ?and	 ?religious	 ?disillusionment	 ?that	 ?began	 ?during	 ?the	 ?Enlightenment	 ?and	 ?that	 ?continues	 ?into	 ?the	 ?present	 ?has	 ?come	 ?under	 ?fire	 ?by	 ?many	 ?sociologists	 ?in	 ?recent	 ?decades.	 ?Some,	 ?such	 ?as	 ?Thomas	 ?Luckmann	 ?and	 ?Rodney	 ?Stark,	 ?argue	 ?that	 ?religion	 ?remains	 ?as	 ?deeply	 ?integrated	 ?in	 ?modern	 ?life	 ?as	 ?it	 ?had	 ?been	 ?in	 ?the	 ?past,	 ?but	 ?that	 ?it	 ?has	 ?simply	 ?changed	 ?forms.78	 ?In	 ?considering	 ?this	 ?theory,	 ?a	 ?case	 ?study	 ?of	 ?Montreal	 ?in	 ?the	 ?1960s	 ?will	 ?be	 ?discussed.	 ?	 ?In	 ?Montreal,	 ?the	 ?city	 ?of	 ?Foci?s	 ?conception	 ?and	 ?composition,	 ?the	 ?late	 ?1960s	 ?were	 ?radically	 ?changing	 ?times.	 ?This	 ?period,	 ?following	 ?the	 ?death	 ?of	 ?Quebec?s	 ?Conservative-??party	 ?premier	 ?Maurice	 ?Duplessis	 ?in	 ?1959	 ?to	 ?1966,	 ?is	 ?known	 ?today	 ?as	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?78	 ?Thomas	 ?Luckmann,	 ?The	 ?Invisible	 ?Religion,	 ?New	 ?York:	 ?Macmillan,	 ?1967;	 ?Luckmann,	 ??Shrinking	 ?transcendence,	 ?expanding	 ?religion,?	 ?Sociological	 ?Analysis	 ?50,	 ?No.	 ?2	 ?(1990):	 ?127-??38.;	 ?Rodney	 ?Stark	 ?and	 ?William	 ?Sims	 ?Bainbridge,	 ?The	 ?Future	 ?of	 ?Religion,	 ?Berkeley,	 ?CA:	 ?University	 ?of	 ?California	 ?Press,	 ?1985.	 ?	 ?	 ? 51	 ?the	 ?Quiet	 ?Revolution.79	 ?It	 ?followed	 ?a	 ?reign	 ?derogatively	 ?called	 ?the	 ?Grande	 ?Noirceur	 ?(Grand	 ?Darkness),	 ?characterised	 ?by	 ?political	 ?and	 ?religious	 ?corruption	 ?when	 ?Duplessis	 ?was	 ?in	 ?office	 ?(1936-??1939,	 ?and	 ?1944-??1959).	 ?Many	 ?saw	 ?the	 ?regime	 ?change	 ?as	 ?an	 ?opportunity	 ?to	 ?bring	 ?about	 ?radical	 ?changes	 ?in	 ?order	 ?to	 ?recover	 ?from	 ?the	 ?impact	 ?of	 ?Duplessis?	 ?poor	 ?leadership.	 ?One	 ?of	 ?the	 ?significant	 ?policy	 ?changes	 ?that	 ?was	 ?initiated	 ?during	 ?the	 ?Quiet	 ?Revolution	 ?was	 ?the	 ?restriction	 ?of	 ?Catholic	 ?influence,	 ?the	 ?native	 ?religion	 ?of	 ?Quebec,	 ?from	 ?many	 ?aspects	 ?of	 ?the	 ?province?s	 ?institutions,	 ?such	 ?as	 ?its	 ?social	 ?services,	 ?education,	 ?health	 ?care,	 ?and	 ?welfare.	 ?This	 ?resulted	 ?in	 ?a	 ?profound	 ?secularization	 ?of	 ?the	 ?province	 ?and	 ?a	 ?critical	 ?reassessment	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Catholic	 ?institution.	 ?It	 ?also	 ?marked	 ?the	 ?emergence	 ?of	 ?a	 ?modern	 ?and	 ?independent	 ?Qu?b?cois	 ?identity,	 ?different	 ?from	 ?the	 ?French	 ?Canadien	 ?identity	 ?who	 ?had	 ?for	 ?centuries	 ?struggled	 ?under	 ?the	 ?shadow	 ?and	 ?stigma	 ?of	 ?being	 ?colonized	 ?by	 ?the	 ?British	 ?during	 ?the	 ?British	 ?Conquest	 ?of	 ?1759.80	 ?	 ?There	 ?were	 ?many	 ?people,	 ?however,	 ?who	 ?were	 ?opposed	 ?to	 ?the	 ?changes	 ?that	 ?took	 ?place	 ?during	 ?this	 ?time,	 ?finding	 ?it	 ?too	 ?sudden	 ?and	 ?worried	 ?that	 ?it	 ?would	 ?cause	 ?the	 ?demise	 ?of	 ?Quebec	 ?altogether.	 ?For	 ?example,	 ?in	 ?1959,	 ?Quebec	 ?had	 ?the	 ?highest	 ?birth	 ?rate	 ?in	 ?Canada,	 ?but	 ?by	 ?1972,	 ?it	 ?had	 ?the	 ?lowest.	 ?Many	 ?blamed	 ?the	 ?decline	 ?of	 ?practicing	 ?Catholics	 ?and	 ?the	 ?embrace	 ?of	 ?modern	 ?birth	 ?control	 ?that	 ?had	 ?become	 ?accessible	 ?to	 ?the	 ?public	 ?during	 ?the	 ?decade.	 ?In	 ?1989,	 ?a	 ?documentary	 ?called	 ??To	 ?Disappear?	 ?was	 ?broadcasted	 ?on	 ?Radio-??Canada	 ?that	 ?generated	 ?intense	 ?discussion	 ?regarding	 ?the	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?79	 ?Philip	 ?Authier,	 ??Quiet	 ?Revolution	 ?Sparked	 ?Commerce,?	 ?Sudbury	 ?Star	 ?(September	 ?15,	 ?2000):	 ?A5.	 ?80	 ?Genevi?ve	 ?Zubrzycki,	 ??Negotiating	 ?Pluralism	 ?in	 ?Qu?bec:	 ?Identity,	 ?Religion,	 ?and	 ?Secularism	 ?in	 ?the	 ?Debate	 ?over	 ??Reasonable	 ?Accommodation,??	 ?in	 ?Religion	 ?on	 ?the	 ?Edge:	 ?De-??Centering	 ?and	 ?Re-??Centering	 ?the	 ?Sociology	 ?of	 ?Religion,	 ?eds.	 ?Courtney	 ?Bender,	 ?Wendy	 ?Cadge,	 ?Peggy	 ?Levitt,	 ?and	 ?David	 ?Smilde	 ?(Oxford:	 ?Oxford	 ?University	 ?Press,	 ?2013),	 ?215	 ?and	 ?220.	 ?	 ?	 ? 52	 ?consequences	 ?of	 ?what	 ?was	 ?perceived	 ?by	 ?some	 ?to	 ?be	 ?an	 ?increasing	 ?lack	 ?of	 ?morals	 ?within	 ?the	 ?previous	 ?decades.	 ?An	 ?excerpt	 ?from	 ?its	 ?synopsis	 ?reads:	 ??Within	 ?25	 ?years	 ?at	 ?the	 ?most,	 ?some	 ?demographers	 ?predict,	 ?the	 ?French	 ?Canadian	 ?nation	 ?will	 ?be	 ?moribund.	 ?THEN	 ?IT	 ?WILL	 ?DISAPPEAR??81	 ?Living	 ?in	 ?a	 ?city	 ?where	 ?much	 ?of	 ?this	 ?debate	 ?was	 ?taking	 ?place,	 ?Anhalt	 ?experienced	 ?first	 ?hand	 ?the	 ?anxieties,	 ?hopes,	 ?and	 ?fears	 ?that	 ?were	 ?felt	 ?by	 ?Montreal?s	 ?citizens	 ?during	 ?the	 ?shifting	 ?of	 ?power	 ?from	 ?religion	 ?to	 ?the	 ?state.	 ? 	 ?3.4.1	 ?Section	 ?4	 ?(mm.	 ?50-??59):	 ?Catalogue	 ?Descriptions	 ??	 ??Gr?ce;	 ?epire;	 ?village	 ?de	 ?zitsa?	 ? 	 ?Anhalt?s	 ?reflection	 ?on	 ?the	 ?sociological	 ?and	 ?cultural	 ?changes	 ?he	 ?was	 ?witnessing	 ?around	 ?him	 ?continues	 ?on	 ?into	 ?the	 ?next	 ?section	 ?of	 ?the	 ?movement,	 ?which	 ?focuses	 ?on	 ?the	 ?physical	 ?dimensions	 ?of	 ?the	 ?icon	 ?he	 ?saw	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Swiss	 ?art	 ?collection	 ?in	 ?Geneva.	 ?By	 ?m.	 ?50,	 ?the	 ?music	 ?has	 ?teleported	 ?us	 ?to	 ?a	 ?different	 ?sound	 ?space:	 ?the	 ?pitches	 ?sustained	 ?by	 ?the	 ?instruments	 ?are	 ?even	 ?more	 ?tightly	 ?packed	 ?together	 ?than	 ?before	 ?(E-??F-??F#	 ?(012));	 ?the	 ?rhythmic	 ?coordination	 ?of	 ?the	 ?performers	 ?is	 ?no	 ?longer	 ?dictated	 ?by	 ?a	 ?regular	 ?tempo	 ?and	 ?time	 ?signature,	 ?but	 ?rather	 ?by	 ?breath	 ?marks;	 ?suspended	 ?cymbals	 ?are	 ?added;	 ?and	 ?recordings	 ?of	 ?electronically	 ?produced	 ?sounds	 ?(a	 ?sine-??tone	 ?mixture)	 ?are	 ?played.	 ?In	 ?addition,	 ?the	 ?piano	 ?and	 ?the	 ?percussion	 ?instruments	 ?are	 ?instructed	 ?to	 ?improvise	 ?in	 ?such	 ?a	 ?way	 ?as	 ?to	 ?blend	 ?into	 ?the	 ?sine-??tone	 ?mixture.	 ?The	 ?combination	 ?of	 ?these	 ?factors	 ?creates	 ?an	 ?eerie	 ?aural	 ?environment	 ?in	 ?which	 ?none	 ?of	 ?the	 ?conventional	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?81	 ?National	 ?Film	 ?Board	 ?of	 ?Canada,	 ??Our	 ?Collection:	 ?Dispara?tre,?	 ?http://onf-??nfb.gc.ca/en/our-??collection/?idfilm=4665,	 ?last	 ?modified	 ?October	 ?11,	 ?2011.	 ?	 ? 53	 ?playing	 ?techniques	 ?and	 ?sonorities	 ?from	 ?the	 ?beginning	 ?are	 ?heard	 ?anymore	 ?(Figure	 ?3.11).	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ? 	 ?Figure	 ?3.11	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?3	 ??	 ??Icons,?	 ?m.	 ?50	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ? 54	 ?At	 ?the	 ?same	 ?time,	 ?fragments	 ?from	 ?a	 ?catalogue	 ?describing	 ?the	 ?Elijah	 ?icon	 ?are	 ?recited	 ?by	 ?a	 ?number	 ?of	 ?voices	 ?in	 ?French.	 ?It	 ?is	 ?the	 ?first	 ?instance	 ?within	 ?the	 ?movement	 ?where	 ?different	 ?voices	 ?mingle	 ?with	 ?one	 ?another	 ?and	 ?share	 ?the	 ?same	 ?aural	 ?space.	 ?It	 ?evokes	 ?a	 ?scene	 ?in	 ?which	 ?a	 ?small	 ?group	 ?of	 ?people	 ?are	 ?gathered	 ?around	 ?a	 ?painting,	 ?each	 ?person	 ?reading	 ?its	 ?description	 ?aloud	 ?at	 ?his/her	 ?own	 ?pace.	 ?Sometimes,	 ?these	 ?voices	 ?speak	 ?together,	 ?but	 ?often	 ?times,	 ?they	 ?do	 ?not.	 ?In	 ?the	 ?first	 ?part	 ?of	 ?this	 ?section	 ?(mm.	 ?50-??52),	 ?a	 ?female	 ?voice	 ?and	 ?a	 ?male	 ?voice	 ?take	 ?turns	 ?describing	 ?the	 ?origin	 ?of	 ?the	 ?icon:	 ?	 ? Female	 ?voice:	 ?	 ?Gr?ce;	 ?epire;	 ?village	 ?de	 ?zitsa.	 ?	 ?	 ? Male	 ?voice:	 ?Ann?e	 ?mille	 ?six	 ?cent	 ?cinq	 ?.	 ?Soixante	 ?dix	 ?huit	 ?par	 ?cinquante	 ?point	 ?deux,	 ?par	 ?quatre	 ?point	 ?quatre	 ?centimetre.	 ?	 ?	 ? Female	 ?voice:	 ?La	 ?partie	 ?superieure	 ?est	 ?occup?e	 ?par	 ?le	 ?proph?te	 ?Elie	 ?qui	 ?apparait	 ?dans	 ?un	 ?char	 ?ocre	 ?aux	 ?d?cors	 ?g?ometriques	 ?ocre	 ?brun	 ?et	 ?blancs.	 ?	 ?	 ?English	 ?Translation:	 ?	 ?Female	 ?voice:	 ?Greece,	 ?Epirus,	 ?Zitsa	 ?village.	 ?	 ?	 ? Male	 ?voice:	 ?The	 ?year	 ?one	 ?thousand	 ?six	 ?hundred	 ?and	 ?five.	 ?Seventy-??eight	 ?by	 ?fifty	 ?point	 ?two,	 ?four	 ?point	 ?four	 ?centimeters.	 ?	 ?	 ? Female	 ?voice:	 ?The	 ?upper	 ?part	 ?is	 ?occupied	 ?by	 ?the	 ?prophet	 ?Elijah,	 ?who	 ?appears	 ?in	 ?an	 ?ocher-??coloured	 ?chariot	 ?against	 ?geometric	 ?designs	 ?in	 ?brown	 ?and	 ?white.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ? 55	 ?Following	 ?this,	 ?two	 ?female	 ?voices	 ?describe	 ?the	 ?scene	 ?depicted	 ?(mm.	 ?53-??54):	 ?	 ?First	 ?female	 ?voice:	 ?Il	 ?est	 ?debout	 ?tenant	 ?un	 ?volumen	 ?de	 ?sa	 ?main	 ?droite	 ?et	 ?sa	 ?gauche	 ?les	 ?r?nes	 ?des	 ?quatre	 ?P?gases	 ?rouges...	 ?dans	 ?la	 ?partie	 ?inferieure	 ?son	 ?disciple	 ??lis?e...	 ?re?oit	 ?le	 ?manteau	 ?d'Elie.	 ?	 ?	 ? Second	 ?female	 ?voice:	 ?Il	 ?est	 ?v?tu	 ?d'un	 ?chiton	 ?ocre	 ?rose...	 ?sa	 ?cheuelure	 ?retombe	 ?en	 ?tresse	 ?ocre	 ?brun...	 ?de	 ?m?me	 ?couleur.	 ?Un	 ?paysage	 ?peint	 ?en	 ?ocre	 ?et	 ?vert	 ?aux	 ?plantes	 ?brunes	 ?et	 ?aux	 ?fleurs.	 ?	 ?English	 ?Translation:	 ?	 ? First	 ?female	 ?voice:	 ?He	 ?is	 ?standing,	 ?holding	 ?a	 ?volume	 ?in	 ?his	 ?right	 ?hand	 ?and	 ?in	 ?his	 ?left	 ?the	 ?reins	 ?of	 ?the	 ?four	 ?red	 ?Pegasus	 ?...	 ?in	 ?the	 ?lower	 ?part,	 ?the	 ?disciple	 ?Elisha	 ?...	 ?receives	 ?Elijah's	 ?mantle.	 ?	 ? Second	 ?female	 ?voice:	 ?He	 ?wears	 ?a	 ?pink-??ocher	 ?chiton...	 ?his	 ?draping,	 ?braided	 ?brown-??ocher	 ?hair...	 ?the	 ?same	 ?color.	 ?A	 ?landscape	 ?painted	 ?in	 ?ocher	 ?and	 ?brown,	 ?green	 ?plants	 ?and	 ?flowers.	 ?	 ?	 ? Describing	 ?the	 ?physical	 ?dimensions	 ?of	 ?the	 ?icon	 ?is	 ?an	 ?act	 ?of	 ?quantifying.	 ?As	 ?we	 ?recall	 ?from	 ?the	 ?previous	 ?movement	 ?of	 ?Foci,	 ??Measures,?	 ?quantification	 ?helps	 ?to	 ?bring	 ?clarity.	 ?However,	 ?clarity	 ?can	 ?be	 ?disturbing,	 ?as	 ?it	 ?can	 ?reveal	 ?details	 ?about	 ?an	 ?object	 ?or	 ?situation	 ?that	 ?contradict	 ?with	 ?an	 ?individual?s	 ?expectations.	 ?A	 ?change	 ?in	 ?perspective	 ?towards	 ?religion	 ?and	 ?faith	 ?has	 ?been	 ?experienced	 ?by	 ?the	 ?individual,	 ?representing,	 ?again,	 ?the	 ?crossing	 ?of	 ?a	 ?border	 ?from	 ?the	 ?past	 ?to	 ?the	 ?present,	 ?where	 ?late-??modern	 ?ideologies	 ?now	 ?encourage	 ?alternative	 ?explanations	 ?and	 ?uses	 ?for	 ?icons.	 ?In	 ?this	 ?section,	 ?the	 ?icon	 ?is	 ?no	 ?longer	 ?worshipped	 ?as	 ?a	 ?religious	 ?symbol,	 ?but	 ?as	 ?a	 ?cool	 ?and	 ?catalogued	 ?item	 ?in	 ?an	 ?art	 ?gallery.	 ?Similarly,	 ?Elijah?s	 ?transfiguration	 ?from	 ?man	 ?to	 ?symbol	 ?assures	 ?us	 ?of	 ?his	 ?omniscience,	 ?but	 ?removes	 ?from	 ?him	 ?the	 ?warmth	 ?of	 ?human	 ?camaraderie.	 ?The	 ?people	 ?who	 ?gather	 ?around	 ?his	 ?icon	 ?observe	 ?him	 ?like	 ?a	 ?specimen	 ?	 ? 56	 ?fixed	 ?in	 ?amber,	 ?appreciating	 ?his	 ?calm	 ?and	 ?stilled	 ?features.	 ?Delivered	 ?from	 ?the	 ?complexities	 ?of	 ?humanity,	 ?he	 ?is	 ?now	 ?an	 ?objectified	 ?piece	 ?of	 ?art.	 ?The	 ?instruments	 ?and	 ?electronics	 ?complement	 ?the	 ?idea	 ?of	 ?transformation	 ?that	 ?is	 ?explored	 ?in	 ?this	 ?section	 ?by	 ?focusing	 ?on	 ?unconventional	 ?playing	 ?techniques	 ?to	 ?create	 ?new	 ?and	 ?unusual	 ?timbres	 ?unheard	 ?from	 ?before.	 ?	 ?3.4.2	 ?Section	 ?5	 ?(mm.	 ?60-??64):	 ?Akathisto	 ?Hymn	 ?-??	 ??Angelos	 ?protostatis??	 ?	 ?	 ? In	 ?the	 ?next	 ?section,	 ?the	 ?gallery	 ?showing	 ?of	 ?the	 ?icon	 ?has	 ?come	 ?to	 ?an	 ?end	 ?and	 ?the	 ?descriptive	 ?voices	 ?disappear.	 ?The	 ?electronic	 ?sounds	 ?and	 ?extended	 ?techniques	 ?played	 ?by	 ?the	 ?instruments	 ?slowly	 ?die	 ?away	 ?as	 ?well,	 ?and	 ?we	 ?are	 ?left	 ?in	 ?a	 ?calmer	 ?environment	 ?characterized	 ?by	 ?figurations	 ?in	 ?the	 ?piano,	 ?glockenspiel,	 ?and	 ?other	 ?percussive	 ?instruments	 ?that	 ?evoke	 ?the	 ?sound	 ?of	 ?chiming	 ?bells.	 ?A	 ?powerful	 ?male	 ?voice,	 ?which	 ?according	 ?to	 ?Anhalt,	 ?is	 ??almost	 ?a	 ?vocal	 ?incarnation	 ?of	 ?Demetrios	 ?himself,	 ?or	 ?of	 ?a	 ?priest,?82	 ?declaims	 ?a	 ?new	 ?text	 ?that	 ?comes	 ?from	 ?the	 ?Akathist	 ?hymn,	 ?an	 ?important	 ?work	 ?from	 ?the	 ?Byzantine	 ?Church?s	 ?liturgy.	 ?The	 ?story	 ?of	 ?its	 ?origin	 ?traces	 ?back	 ?to	 ?the	 ?moments	 ?after	 ?Constantinople?s	 ?successful	 ?defense	 ?from	 ?an	 ?invasion	 ?of	 ?Muslims	 ?and	 ?Persians	 ?in	 ?626	 ?C.E.	 ?The	 ?emperor	 ?of	 ?the	 ?city	 ?was	 ?absent	 ?at	 ?the	 ?time,	 ?and	 ?so	 ?members	 ?of	 ?the	 ?clergy	 ?were	 ?forced	 ?to	 ?lead	 ?the	 ?charge	 ?against	 ?the	 ?invaders.	 ?It	 ?is	 ?said	 ?that	 ?Patriarch	 ?Sergius,	 ?with	 ?an	 ?icon	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Virgin	 ?Mary	 ?in	 ?hand,	 ?succeeded	 ?in	 ?pushing	 ?back	 ?the	 ?foreign	 ?forces	 ?against	 ?staggering	 ?odds	 ?and	 ?protected	 ?his	 ?city	 ?from	 ?being	 ?overthrown.	 ?Following	 ?their	 ?victory,	 ?the	 ?people	 ?of	 ?the	 ?city	 ?convened	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Church	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Virgin	 ?Mary	 ?in	 ?Vlahernae	 ?to	 ?express	 ?gratitude	 ?for	 ?their	 ?salvation	 ?by	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?82	 ?Anhalt,	 ??About	 ?Foci,?	 ?58.	 ?	 ?	 ? 57	 ?singing	 ?the	 ?Akathist	 ?hymn.	 ??Akathistos?	 ?means	 ??not	 ?sitting,?	 ?and	 ?it	 ?refers	 ?to	 ?the	 ?request	 ?that	 ?members	 ?of	 ?the	 ?congregation	 ?not	 ?be	 ?sitting	 ?while	 ?the	 ?hymn	 ?is	 ?being	 ?chanted.83	 ?Emmy	 ?Karavellas	 ?has	 ?described	 ?the	 ?Akathist	 ?as	 ??a	 ?literary	 ?and	 ?ecclesiastic	 ?monument	 ?erected	 ?by	 ?man	 ?during	 ?a	 ?moment	 ?of	 ?fear	 ?and	 ?inspiration	 ?for	 ?the	 ?purpose	 ?of	 ?exalting	 ?his	 ?faith	 ?and	 ?expressing	 ?his	 ?gratitude	 ?to	 ?an	 ?image...?84	 ?It	 ?is	 ?a	 ?excellent	 ?example	 ?of	 ?how	 ?a	 ?community?s	 ?triumph	 ?over	 ?a	 ?large	 ?political	 ?crisis	 ?is	 ?turned	 ?into	 ?a	 ?religious	 ?and	 ?sacred	 ?moment,	 ?memorialized	 ?for	 ?many	 ?future	 ?generations	 ?to	 ?come.	 ?The	 ?hymn	 ?is	 ?still	 ?heard	 ?in	 ?Eastern	 ?Orthodox	 ?churches	 ?around	 ?the	 ?world	 ?each	 ?year	 ?during	 ?Lent.	 ?	 ?The	 ?structure	 ?of	 ?the	 ?hymn	 ?is	 ?as	 ?follows:	 ?it	 ?begins	 ?with	 ?a	 ?prelude,	 ??Te	 ?Hypermacho,?	 ?a	 ?poem	 ?that	 ?praises	 ?the	 ?Virgin	 ?Mary	 ?for	 ?her	 ?protection.	 ?Following	 ?this,	 ?twenty-??four	 ?stanzas	 ?called	 ?Oikoi,	 ?which	 ?are	 ?organized	 ?acrostically	 ?progressing	 ?through	 ?the	 ?letters	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Greek	 ?alphabet,	 ?are	 ?recited.	 ?They	 ?alternate	 ?between	 ?being	 ?long	 ?and	 ?short	 ?stanzas,	 ?with	 ?the	 ?former	 ?type	 ?divided	 ?into	 ?two	 ?verses:	 ?a	 ?rhythmic	 ?and	 ?modal	 ?poetic	 ?verse,	 ?and	 ?a	 ?verse	 ?that	 ?exalts	 ?the	 ?Virgin	 ?Mary	 ?with	 ?multiple	 ?calls	 ?of	 ??Hail!?	 ?The	 ?Oikoi	 ?that	 ?is	 ?cited	 ?in	 ??Icons?	 ?is	 ?the	 ?first	 ?long	 ?stanza	 ?of	 ?the	 ?hymn	 ?(Table	 ?3.1).	 ? 	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?83	 ?Emmy	 ?P.	 ?Karavellas,	 ??The	 ?Akathist	 ?Hymn,?	 ?Word	 ?Magazine,	 ?Publication	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Antiochian	 ?Orthodox	 ?Church	 ?Archdiocese	 ?of	 ?North	 ?America	 ?(October	 ?1975):	 ?12-??13.	 ?http://www.orthodoxresearchinstitute.org/articles/liturgics/karavellas_akathist_hymn.htm	 ?84	 ?Karavellas,	 ??The	 ?Akathist	 ?Hymn,?	 ?12-??13.	 ?	 ? 58	 ?Table	 ?3.1	 ?Greek	 ?text	 ?and	 ?English	 ?translation	 ?for	 ?the	 ?text	 ?used	 ?in	 ?Section	 ?V	 ?of	 ??Icons?	 ?(mm.	 ?60-??64)	 ?	 ?Original	 ?text	 ?	 ?(Male,	 ?Greek)	 ?	 ????????	 ????????????,	 ??????????	 ????????,	 ???????	 ???	 ????????	 ???	 ??????	 ??	 ?(??	 ??	 ??	 ????	 ????	 ???	 ????????	 ?????,	 ?????????????	 ???	 ???????,	 ??????,	 ?????????	 ????	 ???????,	 ??????????	 ?????	 ??????	 ????????:	 ?	 ??????,	 ????	 ???	 ??	 ?????	 ?????????,	 ??????,	 ????	 ???	 ??	 ????	 ?????????.	 ?	 ??????,	 ????	 ?????????	 ?????	 ??	 ??????????.	 ?	 ?X????,	 ????	 ????????	 ????	 ?????	 ??	 ?????????.	 ?	 ??????,	 ?????	 ????????????	 ????????????	 ??????????.	 ??????,	 ??????	 ????????????	 ????	 ?????????	 ??????????.	 ??????,	 ????	 ?????????	 ?????????	 ????????.	 ?	 ?X????,	 ????	 ??????????	 ????	 ???????????	 ??????.	 ?	 ?English	 ?Translation85	 ?(Male,	 ?Greek)	 ?	 ?A	 ?prince	 ?of	 ?the	 ?angels	 ?was	 ?sent	 ?from	 ?heaven,	 ?to	 ?say	 ?to	 ?the	 ?Mother	 ?of	 ?God,	 ??Hail!?	 ?(three	 ?times).	 ?And	 ?as,	 ?at	 ?his	 ?bodiless	 ?voice,	 ?he	 ?saw	 ?you,	 ?Lord,	 ?embodied,	 ?he	 ?was	 ?astounded	 ?and	 ?stood	 ?still,	 ?crying	 ?out	 ?to	 ?her	 ?like	 ?this:	 ?	 ?Hail,	 ?you	 ?through	 ?whom	 ?joy	 ?will	 ?shine	 ?out,	 ?	 ?Hail,	 ?you	 ?through	 ?whom	 ?the	 ?curse	 ?will	 ?cease.	 ?	 ?Hail,	 ?recalling	 ?of	 ?fallen	 ?Adam,	 ?	 ?Hail,	 ?redemption	 ?of	 ?the	 ?tears	 ?of	 ?Eve.	 ?Hail,	 ?height	 ?hard	 ?to	 ?climb	 ?for	 ?human	 ?thoughts,	 ?	 ?Hail,	 ?depth	 ?hard	 ?to	 ?scan	 ?even	 ?for	 ?angels?	 ?eyes.	 ?	 ?	 ?Hail,	 ?for	 ?you	 ?are	 ?a	 ?throne	 ?for	 ?the	 ?King,	 ?Hail,	 ?for	 ?you	 ?carry	 ?the	 ?One	 ?who	 ?carries	 ?all.	 ?	 ?The	 ?recitation	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Akathist	 ?Hymn	 ?in	 ??Icons?	 ?serves	 ?to	 ?remind	 ?us	 ?of	 ?the	 ?original	 ?purpose	 ?of	 ?religious	 ?images.	 ?Following	 ?the	 ?cool,	 ?objective	 ?gallery	 ?viewing	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Elijah	 ?icon	 ?in	 ?the	 ?previous	 ?section,	 ?the	 ?Hymn	 ?attempts	 ?to	 ?bring	 ?the	 ?listener	 ?back	 ?to	 ?a	 ?time	 ?when	 ?images	 ?were	 ?used	 ?in	 ?worship	 ?to	 ?celebrate	 ?triumphant	 ?and	 ?joyous	 ?experiences.	 ?The	 ?nostalgia	 ?that	 ?sweeps	 ?over	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?as	 ?s/he	 ?is	 ?taken	 ?back	 ?to	 ?the	 ?Hymn?s	 ?historical	 ?origins	 ?is	 ?similar	 ?to	 ?that	 ?experienced	 ?when	 ?s/he	 ?first	 ?heard	 ?the	 ?Geneva	 ?Psalm	 ?recited	 ?at	 ?the	 ?beginning	 ?of	 ?the	 ?movement,	 ?with	 ?its	 ?calming	 ?and	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?85	 ?The	 ?Very	 ?Revered	 ?Archimandrite	 ?Ephrem	 ?Lash,	 ?Archdiocese	 ?of	 ?Thyateira	 ?and	 ?Great	 ?Britain,	 ?www.thyateira.org.uk/docs/Salutations.pdf	 ?	 ?	 ? 59	 ?familiar	 ?melodies	 ?from	 ?a	 ?distant	 ?past.	 ?	 ?Perhaps	 ?Anhalt	 ?is	 ?suggesting	 ?that	 ?the	 ?contemporary	 ?urbanite	 ?can	 ?still	 ?find	 ?solace	 ?in	 ?religious	 ?symbols.	 ?There	 ?is,	 ?however,	 ?a	 ?slight	 ?difference	 ?between	 ?the	 ?Geneva	 ?Psalm	 ?from	 ?earlier	 ?and	 ?the	 ?Akathist	 ?Hymn	 ?that	 ?reminds	 ?us	 ?that	 ?this	 ?remains	 ?a	 ?difficult	 ?task.	 ?The	 ?chimes	 ?that	 ?accompany	 ?the	 ?Hymn	 ?sound	 ?out	 ?clearly	 ?because	 ?of	 ?the	 ?scarcity	 ?of	 ?the	 ?other	 ?instruments	 ?around	 ?them.	 ?This	 ?creates	 ?a	 ?crisp	 ?echo	 ?and	 ?reverberation	 ?in	 ?the	 ?aural	 ?space	 ?that	 ?evokes	 ?an	 ?atmosphere	 ?of	 ?hollowness	 ?around	 ?the	 ?listener	 ?and	 ?reciter.	 ?In	 ?comparison	 ?to	 ?the	 ?dense,	 ?musical	 ?background	 ?that	 ?surrounded	 ?the	 ?Geneva	 ?Psalm,	 ?the	 ?voice	 ?that	 ?recites	 ?the	 ?Akathist	 ?Hymn	 ?appears	 ?to	 ?be	 ?speaking	 ?to	 ?empty	 ?pews.	 ?The	 ?focus	 ?is	 ?on	 ?the	 ?solitude	 ?of	 ?the	 ?performer	 ?as	 ?well	 ?as	 ?the	 ?listener.	 ?Rather	 ?than	 ?singing	 ?the	 ?Hymn	 ?as	 ?part	 ?of	 ?a	 ?communal	 ?experience	 ?as	 ?in	 ?the	 ?time	 ?of	 ?its	 ?original	 ?conception,	 ?the	 ?late-??modern	 ?individual	 ?prefers	 ?to	 ?celebrate	 ?alone	 ?(Figure	 ?3.12).	 ?Anhalt?s	 ?depiction	 ?of	 ?the	 ?increasing	 ?introversion	 ?of	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?in	 ?this	 ?movement	 ?reflects	 ?what	 ?many	 ?scholars	 ?discuss	 ?as	 ?a	 ?symptom	 ?of	 ?the	 ?late-??modern	 ?age.	 ?This	 ?issue	 ?will	 ?be	 ?elaborated	 ?on	 ?further	 ?in	 ?the	 ?following	 ?section.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ? 60	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?3.12	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?3	 ??	 ??Icons,?	 ?mm.	 ?61-??64	 ?	 ? 61	 ?3.5	 ?New	 ?Age	 ?and	 ?the	 ?Sacred	 ?Individual	 ?In	 ?his	 ?seminal	 ?study	 ?on	 ?the	 ?relationship	 ?between	 ?the	 ?public	 ?and	 ?private	 ?sphere,	 ?sociologist	 ?Richard	 ?Sennett	 ?observes	 ?similarities	 ?between	 ?the	 ?increasingly	 ?inward-??directed	 ?individual	 ?of	 ?the	 ?late-??modern	 ?age	 ?and	 ?a	 ?citizen	 ?of	 ?the	 ?declining	 ?ancient	 ?Roman	 ?Empire,	 ?concluding	 ?that	 ?in	 ?times	 ?when	 ?introspectiveness	 ?predominates,	 ?interest	 ?in	 ?mysticism	 ?and	 ?alternative	 ?forms	 ?of	 ?spirituality	 ?abounds:	 ?As	 ?the	 ?Augustan	 ?Age	 ?faded,	 ?Romans	 ?began	 ?to	 ?treat	 ?their	 ?public	 ?lives	 ?as	 ?a	 ?matter	 ?of	 ?formal	 ?obligation.	 ?The	 ?public	 ?ceremonies?	 ?the	 ?ritual	 ?contacts	 ?with	 ?other	 ?Romans	 ?outside	 ?the	 ?family	 ?circle,	 ?all	 ?became	 ?duties?	 ?As	 ?the	 ?Roman?s	 ?public	 ?life	 ?became	 ?bloodless,	 ?he	 ?sought	 ?in	 ?private	 ?a	 ?new	 ?focus	 ?for	 ?his	 ?emotional	 ?energies,	 ?a	 ?new	 ?principle	 ?of	 ?commitment	 ?and	 ?belief.	 ?This	 ?private	 ?commitment	 ?was	 ?mystic,	 ?concerned	 ?with	 ?escaping	 ?the	 ?world	 ?at	 ?large	 ?and	 ?the	 ?formalities	 ?of	 ?the	 ?res	 ?publica	 ?as	 ?part	 ?of	 ?that	 ?world.86	 ?	 ?Many	 ?sociologists	 ?believe	 ?that	 ?instead	 ?of	 ?disappearing	 ?completely,	 ?religion	 ?has	 ?instead	 ?adapted	 ?and	 ?changed	 ?its	 ?guise.	 ?As	 ?religious	 ?institutions	 ?came	 ?under	 ?increasing	 ?fire	 ?from	 ?sceptics	 ?and	 ?as	 ?instances	 ?of	 ?their	 ?corruption	 ?became	 ?wider	 ?publicized,	 ?many	 ?individuals	 ?began	 ?taking	 ?faith	 ?into	 ?their	 ?own	 ?hands,	 ?directing	 ?and	 ?creating	 ?their	 ?own	 ?system	 ?of	 ?beliefs.	 ?Practices	 ?such	 ?as	 ?private	 ?prayer,	 ?superstition,	 ?interest	 ?in	 ?astrology	 ?and	 ?horoscopes,	 ?holistic	 ?therapies,	 ?and	 ?personal	 ?growth	 ?regimes	 ?are	 ?examples	 ?of	 ?some	 ?alternatives	 ?that	 ?have	 ?gained	 ?interest.	 ?While	 ?these	 ?examples	 ?can	 ?still	 ?be	 ?practiced	 ?in	 ?groups,	 ?each	 ?individual	 ?can	 ?choose	 ?the	 ?extent	 ?of	 ?how	 ?s/he	 ?wishes	 ?to	 ?practice	 ?these	 ?beliefs.	 ?Ultimately,	 ?the	 ?responsible	 ?for	 ?forging	 ?out	 ?one?s	 ?path	 ?towards	 ?enlightenment	 ?lies	 ?within	 ?the	 ?self.87	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?86	 ?Richard	 ?Sennett,	 ?The	 ?Fall	 ?of	 ?Public	 ?Man	 ?(New	 ?York:	 ?Alfred	 ?A.	 ?Knopf,	 ?1977),	 ?3.	 ?87	 ?Malcolm	 ?Hamilton,	 ?The	 ?Sociology	 ?of	 ?Religion:	 ?Theoretical	 ?and	 ?Comparative	 ?Perspectives,	 ?second	 ?edition	 ?(London:	 ?Routledge,	 ?2001),	 ?191.	 ?	 ? 62	 ?The	 ?term	 ?New	 ?Age	 ?has	 ?been	 ?used	 ?to	 ?describe	 ?the	 ??veritable	 ?religion	 ?of	 ?modernity	 ?because	 ?its	 ?participants	 ?collectively	 ?sacralise	 ?the	 ?long-??standing	 ?modern	 ?value	 ?of	 ?individual	 ?liberty,	 ?and	 ?especially	 ?the	 ?ideal	 ?of	 ?an	 ?authentic	 ?self	 ?that	 ?distances	 ?itself	 ?from	 ?allegedly	 ?alienating	 ?institutions	 ?and	 ?traditions.?88	 ?The	 ?ideals	 ?and	 ?aspirations	 ?of	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?become	 ?the	 ?inspiration	 ?for	 ?spiritual	 ?belief:	 ?	 ?Religion	 ?becomes	 ?an	 ?aspect	 ?of	 ?private	 ?life,	 ?of	 ?individual	 ?choice	 ?from	 ?a	 ?variety	 ?of	 ?alternatives	 ?which	 ?can	 ?be	 ?constructed	 ?into	 ?a	 ?personally	 ?satisfying	 ?system.	 ?This	 ?leads	 ?[Thomas]	 ?Luckmann	 ?to	 ?argue	 ?that	 ?modern	 ?societies	 ?are	 ?witnessing	 ?a	 ?profound	 ?change	 ?in	 ?the	 ?location	 ?of	 ?the	 ?religious;	 ?away	 ?from	 ?the	 ??great	 ?transcendences?	 ?concerned	 ?with	 ?other-??worldly	 ?matters,	 ?life	 ?and	 ?death	 ?and	 ?towards	 ?the	 ??little	 ?transcendences?	 ?of	 ?life	 ?which	 ?concern	 ?self-??realisation,	 ?self-??expression	 ?and	 ?personal	 ?freedoms.89	 ?	 ?	 ? The	 ?increasingly	 ?quiet	 ?and	 ?withdrawn	 ?mood	 ?of	 ?the	 ?music	 ?that	 ?Anhalt	 ?writes	 ?to	 ?accompany	 ?the	 ?hymns	 ?and	 ?psalms	 ?used	 ?in	 ??Icons?	 ?could	 ?be	 ?a	 ?reflection	 ?of	 ?the	 ?late-??modern	 ?individual?s	 ?appropriation	 ?of	 ?old	 ?religious	 ?traditions	 ?for	 ?use	 ?in	 ?the	 ?privacy	 ?of	 ?his/her	 ?own	 ?space	 ?and	 ?time.	 ?This	 ?atmosphere	 ?is	 ?continued	 ?into	 ?the	 ?final	 ?sections	 ?of	 ?the	 ?movement.	 ?	 ?3.5.1	 ?Section	 ?6	 ?(mm.	 ?65-??73):	 ?Eccl?siastique	 ?and	 ?Psalm	 ?130	 ?	 ?At	 ?m.	 ?65,	 ?there	 ?is	 ?a	 ?brief	 ?moment	 ?of	 ?silence	 ?as	 ?the	 ?Akathist	 ?Hymn	 ?quietly	 ?fades	 ?away.	 ?During	 ?the	 ?final	 ?section	 ?of	 ?the	 ?movement	 ?(mm.	 ?65-??73),	 ?the	 ?vibes	 ?play	 ?a	 ?repeating	 ?gesture	 ?that	 ?is	 ?once	 ?again	 ?reminiscent	 ?of	 ?chimes	 ?and	 ?bells.	 ?The	 ?timbre	 ?here	 ?is	 ?much	 ?softer,	 ?as	 ?even	 ?fewer	 ?instruments	 ?are	 ?sounded	 ?compared	 ?to	 ?the	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?88	 ?Houtman	 ?and	 ?Aupers,	 ?Religions	 ?of	 ?Modernity,	 ?15.	 ?	 ?89	 ?Hamilton,	 ?The	 ?Sociology	 ?of	 ?Religion,	 ?208.	 ?	 ? 63	 ?previous	 ?section.	 ?The	 ?low	 ?register	 ?at	 ?which	 ?the	 ?vibes	 ?play	 ?and	 ?the	 ?deep	 ?reverberation	 ?of	 ?the	 ?gong	 ?add	 ?to	 ?the	 ?pensive	 ?mood	 ?(Figure	 ?3.13).	 ?	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?3.13	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?3	 ??	 ??Icons,	 ?Beginning	 ?of	 ?Section	 ?VI,	 ?mm.	 ?64-??68.	 ?	 ? 64	 ?The	 ?text	 ?used	 ?in	 ?this	 ?section	 ?of	 ?the	 ?movement	 ?is	 ?from	 ?the	 ?Eccl?siastique,	 ?also	 ?known	 ?as	 ?the	 ?Sirach	 ?(ca.	 ?180	 ?B.C.E.),	 ?an	 ?early	 ?apocryphal	 ?book	 ?from	 ?the	 ?Hebrew	 ?Bible.	 ?The	 ?book	 ?contains	 ?a	 ?compilation	 ?of	 ?maxims,	 ?proverbs,	 ?psalms	 ?of	 ?praise	 ?and	 ?lament,	 ?theological	 ?reflections,	 ?and	 ?other	 ?observations	 ?of	 ?Jewish	 ?life	 ?during	 ?the	 ?second-??century	 ?B.C.E.90	 ?The	 ?passage	 ?that	 ?Anhalt	 ?uses	 ?in	 ??Icons?	 ?is	 ?from	 ?chapter	 ?forty-??eight	 ?of	 ?the	 ?book	 ?in	 ?which	 ?the	 ?story	 ?of	 ?Elijah?s	 ?ascension	 ?is	 ?recounted	 ?by	 ?a	 ?mortal	 ?witnessing	 ?his	 ?miraculous	 ?transformation.	 ?Struck	 ?by	 ?wonder	 ?and	 ?awe,	 ?the	 ?observer	 ?exclaims	 ?in	 ?French:	 ??Comme	 ?tu	 ??tais	 ?glorieux	 ??lie	 ?dans	 ?tes	 ?prodiges	 ?qui	 ?peut	 ?dans	 ?son	 ?orgueil	 ?se	 ?faire	 ?ton	 ??gal??	 ?(?As	 ?you	 ?were	 ?glorious,	 ?Elijah,	 ?in	 ?your	 ?miracles!	 ?May	 ?his	 ?pride	 ?be	 ?your	 ?equal??)	 ?The	 ?exclamation	 ?is	 ?recited	 ?by	 ?an	 ?English-??Canadian	 ?man	 ?from	 ?Newfoundland,	 ?whose	 ?voice	 ?and	 ?command	 ?of	 ?French	 ?Anhalt	 ?describes	 ?as:	 ??laboured,	 ?almost	 ?fragile,	 ?and	 ?the	 ?considerable	 ?articulatory	 ?effort	 ?he	 ?displays	 ?in	 ?trying	 ?to	 ?speak	 ?in	 ?a	 ?language	 ?which	 ?he	 ?is	 ?only	 ?modestly	 ?familiar	 ?with	 ?is	 ?the	 ?principle	 ?reason	 ?I	 ?chose	 ?him	 ?for	 ?this	 ?passage.	 ?His	 ?effort	 ?appears	 ?to	 ?me	 ?as	 ?having	 ?an	 ?especially	 ?affective,	 ?even	 ?symbolic	 ?quality;	 ?it	 ?is	 ?the	 ?expression	 ?of	 ?a	 ?person	 ?undertaking	 ?an	 ?endeavour	 ?involving	 ?a	 ?great	 ?risk?91	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ? Beside	 ?the	 ?risky	 ?endeavour	 ?of	 ?speaking	 ?in	 ?an	 ?unfamiliar	 ?foreign	 ?language,	 ?the	 ?themes	 ?that	 ?have	 ?already	 ?been	 ?discussed	 ?in	 ?this	 ?chapter	 ?thus	 ?far	 ?suggest	 ?that	 ?Anhalt	 ?may	 ?have	 ?also	 ?been	 ?hinting	 ?at	 ?the	 ?risk	 ?that	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?of	 ?late-??modernity	 ?takes	 ?when	 ?placing	 ?his/her	 ?hopes	 ?in	 ?a	 ?fading	 ?spiritual	 ?presence.	 ?While	 ?the	 ?observer	 ?responds	 ?in	 ?amazement	 ?and	 ?rejoices	 ?in	 ?the	 ?power	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Lord	 ?as	 ?s/he	 ?watches	 ?the	 ?flames	 ?engulf	 ?Elijah,	 ?s/he	 ?also	 ?laments	 ?the	 ?prophet?s	 ?passing.	 ?The	 ?individual	 ?realizes	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?90	 ?Alexander	 ?A.	 ?Di	 ?Lella,	 ??Sirach	 ?(Ecclesiasticus),?	 ?in	 ?The	 ?Oxford	 ?Companion	 ?to	 ?the	 ?Bible,	 ?eds.	 ?Bruce	 ?M.	 ?Metzger,	 ?Michael	 ?D.	 ?Coogan,	 ?Oxford	 ?University	 ?Press,	 ?1993,	 ?www.oxfordreference.com	 ?	 ?91	 ?Anhalt,	 ??About	 ?Foci,?	 ?58.	 ?	 ?	 ? 65	 ?that	 ?s/he	 ?is	 ?being	 ?left	 ?behind	 ?with	 ?the	 ?one	 ?thing	 ?Elijah	 ?losses	 ?as	 ?he	 ?ascends	 ?into	 ?the	 ?clouds:	 ?human	 ?life.	 ?The	 ?last	 ?lines	 ?of	 ?text	 ?that	 ?are	 ?recited	 ?in	 ?this	 ?section	 ?reflect	 ?on	 ?this	 ?loss:	 ? Bienheureux	 ?ceux	 ?qui	 ?te	 ?verront	 ?et	 ?ceux	 ?qui	 ?endormis	 ?dans	 ?l'amour	 ?car	 ?nous	 ?aussi	 ?nous	 ?poss?derons	 ?la	 ?vie.	 ?(Si	 ?48:11)	 ?	 ?English	 ?translation:	 ?	 ?Blessed	 ?are	 ?those	 ?who	 ?see	 ?you	 ?and	 ?those	 ?who	 ?have	 ?fallen	 ?asleep	 ?in	 ?love,	 ?for	 ?we	 ?also	 ?possess	 ?life.	 ?	 ? In	 ?the	 ?final	 ?part	 ?of	 ??Icons,?	 ?a	 ?new	 ?text	 ?is	 ?recited	 ?that	 ?comes	 ?from	 ?the	 ?130th	 ?Psalm	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Geneva	 ?Psalter.	 ?Thus,	 ?the	 ?movement	 ?has	 ?returned	 ?full-??circle	 ?to	 ?the	 ?source	 ?it	 ?began	 ?with.	 ?To	 ?add	 ?to	 ?this,	 ?the	 ?female	 ?voice	 ?that	 ?speaks	 ?the	 ?text	 ?is	 ?also	 ?the	 ?same	 ?voice	 ?that	 ?recited	 ?the	 ?Geneva	 ?Psalm	 ?in	 ?the	 ?first	 ?section.	 ?In	 ?the	 ?final	 ?Psalm,	 ?mankind	 ?is	 ?begging	 ?for	 ?the	 ?forgiveness	 ?of	 ?God:	 ??Et	 ?veuille	 ?entendre	 ??	 ?ma	 ?clameur?	 ?(?Please	 ?hear	 ?my	 ?cry.?)	 ?The	 ?instruments	 ?fade	 ?out	 ?one	 ?by	 ?one	 ?until	 ?there	 ?is	 ?only	 ?the	 ?soft	 ?ringing	 ?of	 ?the	 ?gong.	 ?The	 ?woman?s	 ?voice,	 ?according	 ?to	 ?Anhalt,	 ??conveys	 ?a	 ?sense	 ?of	 ?faltering,	 ?indeed	 ?that	 ?of	 ?pain.?92	 ?In	 ?contrast	 ?to	 ?the	 ?first	 ?time	 ?we	 ?hear	 ?her	 ?voice,	 ?it	 ?is	 ?now	 ?tinged	 ?with	 ?resignation	 ?and	 ?sadness.	 ?	 ?As	 ?the	 ?movement	 ?approaches	 ?its	 ?conclusion,	 ?we	 ?recall	 ?the	 ?events	 ?that	 ?have	 ?transpired	 ?that	 ?may	 ?have	 ?caused	 ?this	 ?change:	 ?at	 ?the	 ?beginning	 ?of	 ??Icons,?	 ?there	 ?was	 ?an	 ?exuberant	 ?celebration	 ?that	 ?quickly	 ?passed	 ?through	 ?a	 ?crisis	 ?of	 ?faith	 ?as	 ?electronic	 ?sounds	 ?began	 ?encroaching	 ?upon	 ?the	 ?Geneva	 ?Psalm;	 ?the	 ?increasingly	 ?abstract	 ?role	 ?of	 ?religion	 ?in	 ?the	 ?late-??modern	 ?age	 ?was	 ?further	 ?demonstrated	 ?by	 ?the	 ?simulation	 ?of	 ?an	 ?objectified,	 ?gallery	 ?viewing	 ?of	 ?the	 ?icon;	 ?a	 ?brief	 ?nostalgic	 ?glimpse	 ?back	 ?at	 ?the	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?92	 ?Anhalt,	 ??About	 ?Foci,?	 ?58.	 ?	 ?	 ? 66	 ?communal	 ?origins	 ?of	 ?icons	 ?interrupts	 ?the	 ?sombre	 ?mood	 ?during	 ?the	 ?recitation	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Akathist	 ?Hymn;	 ?but	 ?as	 ?the	 ?voice	 ?reverberates	 ?through	 ?the	 ?empty	 ?space	 ?surrounding	 ?us,	 ?we	 ?are	 ?reminded	 ?that	 ?the	 ?figures	 ?that	 ?these	 ?symbols	 ?once	 ?stood	 ?for	 ?no	 ?longer	 ?walk	 ?among	 ?us.	 ?Anhalt?s	 ?attempt	 ?to	 ?recreate	 ?the	 ?religious	 ?camaraderie	 ?of	 ?the	 ?past	 ?by	 ?infusing	 ??Icons?	 ?with	 ?hymns	 ?and	 ?psalms	 ?is	 ?tempered	 ?by	 ?the	 ?late-??modern	 ?realization	 ?that	 ?an	 ?overwhelming	 ?solitude	 ?now	 ?permeates	 ?the	 ?age.	 ?A	 ?vast,	 ?emptiness	 ?surrounds	 ?the	 ?listener	 ?as	 ?the	 ?voices	 ?and	 ?music	 ?quiet.	 ?It	 ?is	 ?a	 ?vastness	 ?that	 ?simultaneously	 ?frees	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?to	 ?pursue	 ?his/her	 ?own	 ?spiritualty	 ?and	 ?gods,	 ?but	 ?which	 ?at	 ?the	 ?same	 ?time	 ?leaves	 ?him/her	 ?more	 ?alone	 ?than	 ?ever	 ?before.	 ??Please	 ?hear	 ?my	 ?cry,?	 ?s/he	 ?calls	 ?out,	 ?but	 ?is	 ?there	 ?anyone	 ?there	 ?to	 ?hear	 ?him/her?	 ?	 ?3.6	 ??Definition	 ?2	 ??	 ?The	 ?Soul?	 ?(Movement	 ?4)	 ?	 ? The	 ?movement	 ?that	 ?comes	 ?after	 ??Icons?	 ?carries	 ?on	 ?a	 ?nostalgic	 ?yearning	 ?for	 ?a	 ?closer	 ?connection	 ?with	 ?religion.	 ?	 ??Definition	 ?2?	 ?begins	 ?with	 ?what	 ?appears	 ?to	 ?be	 ?a	 ?glimmer	 ?of	 ?hope	 ?but	 ?that	 ?is	 ?tainted	 ?with	 ?unease:	 ?the	 ?vibes,	 ?piano,	 ?and	 ?celesta	 ?open	 ?with	 ?a	 ?soft	 ?and	 ?slow	 ?scalar	 ?ascent	 ?that	 ?ends	 ?in	 ?m.	 ?2	 ?on	 ?a	 ?cluster	 ?of	 ?notes	 ?that	 ?span	 ?a	 ?tritone	 ?(B-??C-??D-??E-??F)	 ?(Figure	 ?3.14).	 ?This	 ?shimmering	 ?flourish	 ?of	 ?sound,	 ?tinged	 ?by	 ?the	 ?dissonant	 ?interval,	 ?is	 ?the	 ?first	 ?clue	 ?that	 ?we	 ?are	 ?still	 ?far	 ?from	 ?reconciling	 ?ourselves	 ?with	 ?faith	 ?in	 ?a	 ?sceptical	 ?age.	 ?At	 ?this	 ?point,	 ?a	 ?recording	 ?of	 ?a	 ?male	 ?voice	 ?begins	 ?reciting	 ?a	 ?definition	 ?for	 ??the	 ?soul?	 ?in	 ?Italian.	 ?It	 ?is	 ?soon	 ?joined	 ?by	 ?three	 ?other	 ?voices	 ?that	 ?recite	 ?other	 ?definitions	 ?in	 ?English,	 ?French,	 ?and	 ?German.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ? 67	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?3.14	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?4	 ??	 ??Definition	 ?2,?	 ?mm.	 ?1-??2.	 ?	 ?	 ? 68	 ?The	 ?flute	 ?and	 ?bass	 ?clarinet	 ?imitate	 ?and	 ?follow	 ?one	 ?another	 ?as	 ?they	 ?breeze	 ?leisurely	 ?through	 ?scalar	 ?ascents	 ?that	 ?now	 ?span	 ?perfect	 ?fifths,	 ?a	 ?cleaner	 ?and	 ?more	 ?consonant	 ?interval	 ?than	 ?the	 ?tritone	 ?heard	 ?before.	 ?The	 ?piano	 ?moves	 ?through	 ?repeated	 ?groups	 ?of	 ?seventh	 ?chords	 ?at	 ?a	 ?steady	 ?rhythm	 ?of	 ?triplet	 ?quarter	 ?notes,	 ?while	 ?the	 ?celesta	 ?and	 ?cello	 ?play	 ?prolonged	 ?octaves	 ?and	 ?single	 ?pitches	 ?that	 ?support	 ?the	 ?other	 ?faster	 ?moving	 ?instruments.	 ?From	 ?the	 ?beginning	 ?to	 ?the	 ?end	 ?of	 ?this	 ?movement,	 ?the	 ?music	 ?lingers	 ?on	 ?pitch	 ?collections	 ?that	 ?suggest	 ?circle-??of-??fifths	 ?modulations:	 ?G	 ?major	 ?(m.	 ?6-??8),	 ?D	 ?major	 ?(m.	 ?9-??11),	 ?A	 ?major	 ?(m.	 ?12-??14),	 ?E	 ?major	 ?(m.	 ?15-??16),	 ?and	 ?B	 ?major	 ?(m.	 ?17-??end).	 ?There	 ?is	 ?a	 ?lightness	 ?and	 ?carefree	 ?quality	 ?about	 ?the	 ?music:	 ?the	 ?circle-??of-??fifth	 ?modulations,	 ?the	 ?predominance	 ?of	 ?straight	 ?rhythm	 ?as	 ?opposed	 ?to	 ?syncopated	 ?ones,	 ?and	 ?the	 ?clarity	 ?of	 ?the	 ?text	 ?and	 ?of	 ?each	 ?voices	 ?all	 ?contribute	 ?to	 ?a	 ?movement	 ?that	 ?seems	 ?to	 ?hark	 ?back	 ?to	 ?a	 ?time	 ?of	 ?comfort	 ?and	 ?familiarity	 ?(Figure	 ?3.15).	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ? 	 ?Figure	 ?3.15	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?4	 ??	 ??Definition	 ?2,?	 ?mm.	 ?3-??4	 ?	 ? 69	 ?Upon	 ?closer	 ?examination,	 ?however,	 ?we	 ?notice	 ?that	 ?there	 ?are	 ?certain	 ?details	 ?that	 ?suggest	 ?that	 ?this	 ?oasis	 ?is	 ?merely	 ?a	 ?mirage.	 ?The	 ?difference	 ?in	 ?wording	 ?for	 ?the	 ?definitions	 ?of	 ?the	 ?soul,	 ?for	 ?example,	 ?is	 ?particularly	 ?telling:	 ?	 ?Italian:	 ?L'anima	 ?secondo	 ?Aristotele	 ??	 ?il	 ?principio	 ?vitale	 ?un	 ?termine	 ?di	 ?nozioni	 ?metafisiche	 ?da	 ?essere	 ?del	 ?tutto	 ?inadatto	 ?al	 ?discorso	 ?scientifico.	 ?	 ?French:	 ?L'ame	 ?selon	 ?Aristote	 ?le	 ?principe	 ?vital;	 ?un	 ?mot	 ?si	 ?lourd	 ?sujet	 ?ad?quat	 ?de	 ?croyance	 ?du	 ?d'incroyance	 ?religieuse.	 ?	 ?German:	 ?Mit	 ?metaphysischer	 ?bedeutung	 ?die	 ?Seele	 ?aber	 ?nicht	 ?f?r	 ?empirische	 ?forschung.	 ?	 ?English:	 ?The	 ?soul	 ?is	 ?the	 ?vital	 ?or	 ?life	 ?principle;	 ?a	 ?term	 ?so	 ?heavily	 ?freighted	 ?with	 ?metaphysical	 ?connotations	 ?as	 ?to	 ?be	 ?wholly	 ?unsuited	 ?to	 ?scientific	 ?discourse.	 ?	 ?	 ? Although	 ?all	 ?of	 ?the	 ?voices	 ?profess	 ?to	 ?define	 ?the	 ?same	 ?thing,	 ?there	 ?are	 ?significant	 ?differences	 ?between	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?statements.	 ?For	 ?example,	 ?the	 ?definitions	 ?in	 ?Italian	 ?and	 ?English	 ?make	 ?reference	 ?to	 ?science,	 ?the	 ?French	 ?definition	 ?mentions	 ?religion,	 ?and	 ?the	 ?German	 ?definition	 ?avoids	 ?both.	 ?The	 ?variability	 ?highlights	 ?the	 ?complex	 ?relationship	 ?between	 ?religion	 ?and	 ?science	 ?and	 ?their	 ?differences	 ?in	 ?understanding	 ?the	 ?concept	 ?of	 ?the	 ?soul.	 ?In	 ?addition,	 ?the	 ?Italian	 ?and	 ?French	 ?definitions	 ?specify	 ?that	 ?they	 ?are	 ?referring	 ?to	 ?Aristotle?s	 ?conception	 ?of	 ?the	 ?soul,	 ?while	 ?the	 ?English	 ?and	 ?German	 ?versions	 ?ignore	 ?this	 ?detail.	 ?This	 ?is	 ?a	 ?crucial	 ?omission	 ?because	 ?the	 ?concept	 ?of	 ?the	 ?soul	 ?changed	 ?and	 ?evolved	 ?over	 ?time,	 ?and	 ?so	 ?there	 ?exists	 ?multiple	 ?understandings	 ?of	 ?what	 ?the	 ?soul	 ?means.	 ?Below,	 ?we	 ?will	 ?elaborate	 ?on	 ?Aristotle?s	 ?definition	 ?of	 ?the	 ?soul	 ?and	 ?speculate	 ?on	 ?why	 ?Anhalt	 ?may	 ?have	 ?been	 ?particularly	 ?attracted	 ?to	 ?it.	 ?	 ? 70	 ?In	 ?his	 ?important	 ?opus,	 ?De	 ?Anima	 ?(ca.	 ?350	 ?B.C.E.),	 ?Aristotle	 ?defines	 ?the	 ?soul	 ?as	 ?such:	 ??The	 ?soul	 ?is	 ?the	 ?first	 ?actuality	 ?of	 ?a	 ?natural	 ?body	 ?that	 ?is	 ?potentially	 ?alive.?93	 ?The	 ?term	 ??first	 ?actuality?	 ?refers	 ?to	 ?what	 ?Aristotle	 ?describes	 ?as	 ?a	 ?stage	 ?of	 ?knowing	 ?when	 ?a	 ?being	 ?first	 ?receives	 ?incoming	 ?information	 ?and	 ?processes	 ?it	 ?unconsciously.	 ?For	 ?example,	 ?a	 ?person	 ?who	 ?is	 ?competent	 ?in	 ?English	 ?but	 ?who	 ?is	 ?not	 ?paying	 ?attention	 ?to	 ?his/her	 ?surroundings	 ?may	 ?hear	 ?and	 ?recognize	 ?a	 ?statement	 ?spoken	 ?in	 ?English,	 ?but	 ?only	 ?receives	 ?this	 ?information	 ?passively	 ?and	 ?does	 ?not	 ?take	 ?the	 ?next	 ?step	 ?to	 ?process	 ?its	 ?meaning.	 ?An	 ?example	 ?of	 ?second	 ?actuality	 ?is	 ?when	 ?the	 ?person	 ?consciously	 ?acknowledges	 ?the	 ?statement	 ?and	 ?ascribes	 ?layers	 ?of	 ?meaning	 ?to	 ?it	 ?based	 ?on	 ?its	 ?content,	 ?context,	 ?and	 ?his/her	 ?personal	 ?experiences	 ?in	 ?relation	 ?to	 ?it.	 ?Thus,	 ?for	 ?Aristotle,	 ?the	 ?soul	 ?does	 ?not	 ?represent	 ?the	 ?full	 ?capacity	 ?of	 ?a	 ?living,	 ?intelligent	 ?thing,	 ?but	 ?its	 ?primordial	 ?potential	 ?to	 ?know.	 ?Another	 ?important	 ?component	 ?of	 ?Aristotle?s	 ?ontology	 ?of	 ?the	 ?soul	 ?is	 ?that	 ?it	 ?is	 ?inseparable	 ?from	 ?the	 ?body	 ?and	 ?that	 ?it	 ?cannot	 ?have	 ?a	 ?separate	 ?existence:	 ?once	 ?a	 ?human	 ?being	 ?dies,	 ?his/her	 ?soul	 ?departs	 ?with	 ?him/her.94	 ?	 ?Many	 ?centuries	 ?later,	 ?Ren?	 ?Descartes	 ?formulated	 ?a	 ?view	 ?that	 ?contrasted	 ?sharply	 ?with	 ?Aristotle?s	 ?idea	 ?of	 ?the	 ?intertwined	 ?body	 ?and	 ?soul.	 ?In	 ?his	 ?treatise,	 ?Passions	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Soul	 ?(1649),	 ?Descartes	 ?postulates	 ?that	 ?the	 ?body	 ?and	 ?the	 ?soul	 ?(which	 ?he	 ?equates	 ?with	 ?the	 ?mind)	 ?are	 ?two	 ?separate	 ?entities,	 ?which	 ?are	 ?governed	 ?by	 ?entirely	 ?different	 ?universal	 ?laws.	 ?They	 ?are	 ?able	 ?to	 ?interact	 ?and	 ?influence	 ?one	 ?another	 ?through	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?93	 ?Aristotle,	 ?De	 ?Anima,	 ?Book	 ?II,	 ?412a28-??b1	 ?trans.	 ?S.	 ?Marc	 ?Cohen	 ?in	 ??Aristotle	 ?on	 ?the	 ?Soul.?	 ?University	 ?of	 ?Washington,	 ?last	 ?modified	 ?December	 ?10,	 ?2004,	 ?	 ?http://faculty.washington.edu/smcohen/320/psyche.htm	 ?94	 ?Cohen,	 ??Aristotle	 ?on	 ?the	 ?Soul,?	 ?http://faculty.washington.edu/smcohen/320/psyche.htm.	 ?	 ? 71	 ?the	 ?pineal	 ?gland,	 ?or	 ?the	 ??seat	 ?of	 ?the	 ?soul,?95	 ?but	 ?the	 ?exact	 ?mechanism	 ?of	 ?this	 ?interaction	 ?is	 ?unknown.	 ?Despite	 ?being	 ?an	 ?influential	 ?part	 ?of	 ?the	 ?scientific	 ?revolution	 ?of	 ?the	 ?seventeenth-??century,	 ?Descartes?	 ?theory	 ?of	 ?the	 ?soul	 ?better	 ?suits	 ?many	 ?religions	 ?compared	 ?to	 ?Aristotle?s.	 ?The	 ?hope	 ?that	 ?one	 ?can	 ?attain	 ?salvation	 ?after	 ?committing	 ?earthly	 ?sins	 ?depends	 ?on	 ?the	 ?belief	 ?that	 ?there	 ?exists	 ?a	 ?soul	 ?that	 ?carries	 ?on	 ?into	 ?the	 ?afterlife.	 ?Without	 ?this	 ?entity	 ?that	 ?survives	 ?the	 ?flesh,	 ?all	 ?living	 ?beings	 ?are	 ?left	 ?with	 ?the	 ?more	 ?sombre	 ?and	 ?conclusive	 ?reality	 ?of	 ??Life	 ?is	 ?tough,	 ?and	 ?then	 ?you	 ?die.?	 ?	 ?In	 ?the	 ?twentieth-??century,	 ?the	 ?notion	 ?that	 ?there	 ?is	 ?a	 ?metaphysical	 ?entity	 ?that	 ?continues	 ?to	 ?exist	 ?after	 ?an	 ?individual?s	 ?expiration	 ?was	 ?once	 ?again	 ?intensely	 ?scrutinized.	 ?In	 ?his	 ?book	 ?The	 ?Concept	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Mind	 ?(1949),	 ?philosopher	 ?Gilbert	 ?Ryle	 ?points	 ?out	 ?the	 ?inconsistencies	 ?he	 ?saw	 ?in	 ?Descartes?	 ?theory	 ?of	 ?the	 ??	 ?ghost	 ?in	 ?the	 ?machine.?	 ?The	 ?premise	 ?of	 ?Ryle?s	 ?argument	 ?revolves	 ?around	 ?what	 ?he	 ?calls	 ?a	 ??category-??mistake,?	 ?which	 ?describes	 ?an	 ?instance	 ?where	 ?two	 ?things	 ?are	 ?illogically	 ?grouped	 ?into	 ?the	 ?same	 ?conceptual	 ?category.	 ?The	 ?example	 ?he	 ?elaborates	 ?on	 ?is	 ?the	 ?Cartesian	 ?body	 ?and	 ?soul	 ?duality.96	 ?Descarte?s	 ?conception	 ?of	 ?the	 ?soul	 ?implies	 ?that	 ?it	 ?is	 ?a	 ?radically	 ?different	 ?entity	 ?from	 ?the	 ?body.	 ?However,	 ?Descartes	 ?insists	 ?on	 ?describing	 ?it	 ?in	 ?terms	 ?and	 ?concepts	 ?that	 ?are	 ?still	 ?based	 ?on	 ?the	 ?laws	 ?of	 ?the	 ?body,	 ?for	 ?example,	 ?by	 ?describing	 ?the	 ?soul	 ?as	 ??not-??the-??body,?	 ?as	 ?opposed	 ?to	 ?using	 ?terms	 ?that	 ?show	 ?that	 ?it	 ?instead	 ?occupies	 ?an	 ?entirely	 ?different	 ?physical	 ?system.	 ?For	 ?Ryle,	 ?if	 ?two	 ?things	 ?occupy	 ?different	 ?conceptual	 ?fields	 ?(as	 ?say,	 ?for	 ?example,	 ?a	 ?carrot	 ?and	 ?the	 ?feeling	 ?of	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?95	 ?Ren?	 ?Descartes,	 ?The	 ?Passions	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Soul,	 ?translated	 ?by	 ?Stephen	 ?Voss,	 ?Indianapolis:	 ?Hackett	 ?Publication	 ?Company,	 ?1989.	 ?96	 ?Gilbert	 ?Ryle,	 ?The	 ?Concept	 ?of	 ?Mind	 ?(London:	 ?Hutchinson?s	 ?University	 ?Library,	 ?1951),	 ?15-??16.	 ?	 ? 72	 ?happiness),	 ?they	 ?cannot	 ?be	 ?considered	 ?a	 ?dualism.	 ?Thus,	 ?according	 ?to	 ?Ryle?s	 ?theory,	 ?the	 ?soul	 ?can	 ?only	 ?be	 ?another	 ?component	 ?of	 ?the	 ?body	 ?if	 ?it	 ?is	 ?to	 ?exist	 ?at	 ?all.	 ?Ryle?s	 ?cool	 ?and	 ?logical	 ?reasoning	 ?that	 ?led	 ?to	 ?the	 ?negation	 ?of	 ?the	 ?soul	 ?as	 ?a	 ?separate	 ?entity	 ?and,	 ?as	 ?a	 ?result,	 ?brought	 ?it	 ?back	 ?to	 ?Aristotle?s	 ?original	 ?conception	 ?is	 ?characteristic	 ?of	 ?the	 ?late-??modern	 ?age?s	 ?ever-??increasing	 ?embrace	 ?and	 ?reliance	 ?on	 ?strict,	 ?rational	 ?methodologies	 ?to	 ?explain	 ?life?s	 ?mysteries.	 ?Yet,	 ?despite	 ?the	 ?philosophical	 ?arguments	 ?and	 ?advancements	 ?in	 ?psychology	 ?and	 ?neuroscience	 ?that	 ?appear	 ?to	 ?be	 ?coming	 ?closer	 ?to	 ?a	 ?definitive	 ?disproof	 ?of	 ?the	 ?soul?s	 ?existence,	 ?human	 ?beings	 ?have	 ?remained	 ?loyal	 ?to	 ?the	 ?idea	 ?of	 ?this	 ?eternal	 ?entity.	 ?It	 ?nevertheless	 ?continues	 ?to	 ?fascinate	 ?and	 ?inspire,	 ?perhaps	 ?because	 ?it	 ?represents	 ?the	 ?individual?s	 ?final	 ?hope.	 ?	 ?Hope	 ?defies	 ?logic	 ?and	 ?reason,	 ?but	 ?it	 ?brings	 ?us	 ?comfort	 ?and	 ?joy	 ?in	 ?the	 ?bleakest	 ?of	 ?times.	 ?In	 ?a	 ?letter	 ?to	 ?his	 ?friend	 ?and	 ?fellow	 ?composer,	 ?George	 ?Rochberg,	 ?whose	 ?son	 ?was	 ?terminally	 ?ill,	 ?Anhalt	 ?reflects	 ?on	 ?the	 ?remarkable	 ?tenacity	 ?of	 ?hope	 ?in	 ?human	 ?beings,	 ?even	 ?among	 ?the	 ?most	 ?sceptical:	 ?What	 ?is	 ?the	 ??hope?	 ?of	 ?the	 ?person,	 ?like	 ?me	 ?who	 ?has	 ?no	 ?religion,	 ?and	 ?whose	 ?relationship	 ?to	 ?God	 ?is?	 ?amorphous,	 ?to	 ?say	 ?the	 ?least.	 ?When	 ?things	 ?seem	 ??out	 ?of	 ?one?s	 ?control?	 ?seeking	 ??hope?	 ?is	 ?natural,	 ?at	 ?least	 ?it	 ?appears	 ?so	 ?to	 ?me.	 ?Perhaps	 ??hope?	 ?is	 ?the	 ?belief	 ?that	 ?there	 ?are	 ?relationships	 ?at	 ?work	 ?in	 ?the	 ?processes	 ?of	 ?the	 ?organism	 ?of	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?as	 ?well	 ?as	 ?in	 ?that	 ?of	 ?a	 ?group	 ?of	 ?individuals,	 ?or	 ?even	 ?in	 ??unorganic?	 ?[sic]	 ?matter,	 ?which	 ?can	 ?and	 ?so	 ?produce	 ?eventually	 ?states	 ?which	 ?experts	 ?(and	 ?their	 ?expertise	 ?is	 ?based	 ?often	 ?on	 ?statistical	 ?evidence)	 ?considered	 ?unlikely,	 ?judged	 ?from	 ?the	 ?vantage	 ?point	 ?of	 ?statistics.	 ?97	 ?	 ?	 ? By	 ?the	 ?end	 ?of	 ?the	 ?movement,	 ?the	 ?instruments	 ?and	 ?voices	 ?become	 ?quieter	 ?and	 ?disappear	 ?one	 ?after	 ?the	 ?other.	 ?In	 ?the	 ?last	 ?section	 ?from	 ?mm.	 ?18-??19,	 ?only	 ?the	 ?lone	 ?chiming	 ?of	 ?the	 ?celesta	 ?is	 ?heard.	 ?Each	 ?of	 ?the	 ?voices	 ?conclude	 ?their	 ?rendition	 ?of	 ?the	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?97	 ?Anhalt	 ?in	 ?a	 ?letter	 ?to	 ?George	 ?Rochberg,	 ?17	 ?August	 ?1962,	 ?in	 ?Eagle	 ?Minds:	 ?Selected	 ?Correspondence	 ?of	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt	 ?and	 ?George	 ?Rochberg,	 ?16-??17.	 ?	 ? 73	 ?soul?s	 ?definition	 ?by	 ?stating	 ?once	 ?more	 ??the	 ?soul?	 ?in	 ?each	 ?of	 ?their	 ?respective	 ?languages.	 ?Meanwhile,	 ?a	 ?new	 ?female	 ?voice	 ?is	 ?heard	 ?overtop	 ?of	 ?them:	 ?	 ?T.	 ?was	 ?wide	 ?awake,	 ?motionless	 ?and	 ?silent.	 ?Three	 ?times	 ?in	 ?succession	 ?the	 ?crying	 ?of	 ?L.	 ?started	 ?him	 ?crying	 ?also.	 ?As	 ?soon	 ?as	 ?L.	 ?stopped	 ?crying?98	 ?	 ?	 ?This	 ?statement	 ?comes	 ?from	 ?Play,	 ?Dreams	 ?and	 ?Imitation	 ?in	 ?Childhood	 ?(1951),	 ?a	 ?book	 ?by	 ?Swiss	 ?psychologist	 ?and	 ?philosopher,	 ?Jean	 ?Piaget.	 ?The	 ?chapter	 ?from	 ?which	 ?it	 ?comes	 ?from	 ?deals	 ?with	 ?the	 ?stages	 ?of	 ?cognitive	 ?development	 ?where	 ?a	 ?child	 ?begins	 ?to	 ?instinctively	 ?imitate	 ?actions	 ?that	 ?s/he	 ?witnesses	 ?from	 ?others	 ?who	 ?are	 ?at	 ?a	 ?similar	 ?stage	 ?of	 ?development.	 ?T.	 ?and	 ?L.	 ?refer	 ?to	 ?the	 ?first	 ?initials	 ?of	 ?the	 ?children	 ?who	 ?are	 ?part	 ?of	 ?the	 ?case	 ?study	 ?that	 ?Piaget	 ?documented.	 ?This	 ?stage	 ?of	 ?cognition	 ?can	 ?be	 ?seen	 ?as	 ?analogous	 ?to	 ?Aristotle?s	 ?first	 ?actuality	 ?of	 ?knowledge,	 ?that	 ?is,	 ?the	 ?stage	 ?when	 ?an	 ?organism	 ?first	 ?perceives	 ?and	 ?instinctively	 ?responds	 ?to	 ?external	 ?stimuli	 ?without	 ?yet	 ?understanding	 ?how	 ?and	 ?why	 ?it	 ?affects	 ?it.	 ?Similarly,	 ?the	 ?children	 ?in	 ?Piaget?s	 ?study	 ?do	 ?not	 ?understand	 ?the	 ?meaning	 ?of	 ?their	 ?actions,	 ?but	 ?overtime,	 ?their	 ?understanding	 ?will	 ?grow	 ?and	 ?they	 ?will	 ?fulfill	 ?their	 ?potential	 ?as	 ?conscious	 ?and	 ?intelligent	 ?adults.	 ?For	 ?Anhalt,	 ?the	 ?idea	 ?of	 ?the	 ?soul?s	 ?potential	 ?extends	 ?to	 ?its	 ?ability	 ?to	 ?offer	 ?human	 ?beings	 ?hope	 ?and	 ?comfort	 ?in	 ?the	 ?face	 ?of	 ?even	 ?incredibly	 ?poor	 ?odds.	 ?The	 ?fact	 ?that	 ?Piaget?s	 ?quote	 ?is	 ?cut	 ?short	 ?(for	 ?we	 ?never	 ?do	 ?find	 ?out	 ?what	 ?happens	 ?to	 ?T.	 ?after	 ?L.	 ?stops	 ?crying)	 ?may	 ?be	 ?yet	 ?another	 ?reminder	 ?of	 ?the	 ?fleeting	 ?and	 ?forever-??inconclusive	 ?nature	 ?of	 ?one?s	 ?search	 ?for	 ?meaning	 ?in	 ?the	 ?soul.	 ?It	 ?is	 ?a	 ?search	 ?that	 ?human	 ?beings	 ?show	 ?no	 ?sign	 ?of	 ?stopping.	 ?	 ?The	 ?late-??modern	 ?age	 ?was	 ?a	 ?time	 ?of	 ?unprecedented	 ?opportunities	 ?for	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?to	 ?redefine	 ?his/her	 ?beliefs.	 ?As	 ?the	 ?influence	 ?of	 ?scepticism	 ?and	 ?modern	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?98	 ?Jean	 ?Piaget,	 ?Play,	 ?Dreams,	 ?and	 ?Imitation	 ?in	 ?Childhood	 ?(Florence,	 ?KY:	 ?Routledge,	 ?1999),	 ?8.	 ?	 ? 74	 ?science	 ?grew,	 ?the	 ?institutions	 ?that	 ?had	 ?once	 ?clearly	 ?dictated	 ?the	 ?roles	 ?that	 ?religion	 ?and	 ?its	 ?symbols	 ?played	 ?in	 ?an	 ?individual?s	 ?life	 ?diminished	 ?in	 ?their	 ?authority.	 ?Faith	 ?became	 ?a	 ?decision	 ?that	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?was	 ?responsible	 ?for	 ?choosing	 ?for	 ?him/herself.	 ?	 ?Yet,	 ?this	 ?freedom	 ?brought	 ?with	 ?it	 ?doubts.	 ?With	 ?so	 ?many	 ?alternative	 ?faiths,	 ?spiritual	 ?mantras,	 ?and	 ?definitions	 ?of	 ?the	 ?soul	 ?clamouring	 ?for	 ?one?s	 ?attention,	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?was	 ?forced	 ?to	 ?constantly	 ?justify	 ?and	 ?defend	 ?his/her	 ?choices	 ?without	 ?the	 ?assurance	 ?that	 ?what	 ?s/he	 ?believed	 ?in	 ?was	 ?necessarily	 ?true.	 ?Icons	 ?serve	 ?as	 ?a	 ?reminder	 ?of	 ?a	 ?time	 ?when	 ?religion	 ?was	 ?seen	 ?as	 ?an	 ?anchor	 ?of	 ?stability	 ?and	 ?communal	 ?support.	 ?In	 ?the	 ?past,	 ?they	 ?provided	 ?a	 ?means	 ?for	 ?humans	 ?to	 ?immortalize	 ?stories	 ?and	 ?values	 ?into	 ?solid,	 ?physical	 ?objects.	 ?In	 ?the	 ?late-??modern	 ?age	 ?when	 ?fewer	 ?things	 ?remained	 ?permanent	 ?and	 ?fluidity	 ?became	 ?the	 ?norm,	 ?icons	 ?appear	 ?anachronistic	 ?and	 ?out-??of-??place,	 ?relics	 ?from	 ?a	 ?bygone	 ?past.	 ?Nonetheless,	 ?they	 ?still	 ?hold	 ?the	 ?potential	 ?to	 ?affect	 ?and	 ?move	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?emotionally,	 ?though	 ?for	 ?reasons	 ?that	 ?are	 ?becoming	 ?increasing	 ?obscure	 ?and	 ?abstract.	 ?Similar	 ?to	 ?icons,	 ?the	 ?soul	 ?has	 ?proven	 ?itself	 ?to	 ?be	 ?a	 ?tenacious	 ?concept.	 ?Despite	 ?many	 ?attempts	 ?at	 ?disproving	 ?its	 ?existence,	 ?it	 ?has	 ?remains	 ?an	 ?important	 ?part	 ?of	 ?spirituality.	 ?The	 ?individual	 ?cannot	 ?deny	 ?the	 ?forces	 ?of	 ?secularization	 ?that	 ?had	 ?grown	 ?during	 ?the	 ?late-??modern	 ?age,	 ?but	 ?this	 ?does	 ?not	 ?mean	 ?that	 ?the	 ?power	 ?of	 ?religion	 ?and	 ?spiritual	 ?hope	 ?has	 ?disappeared.	 ?The	 ?human	 ?need	 ?for	 ?dreams	 ?and	 ?mystery	 ?is	 ?as	 ?strong	 ?as	 ?the	 ?need	 ?for	 ?logic	 ?and	 ?understanding.	 ?Science	 ?and	 ?religion	 ?have	 ?always	 ?been	 ?a	 ?peculiar	 ?couple,	 ?each	 ?occupying	 ?a	 ?different	 ?side	 ?of	 ?the	 ?same	 ?coin,	 ?neither	 ?able	 ?to	 ?escape	 ?the	 ?presence	 ?of	 ?the	 ?other.	 ?	 ?	 ? 	 ?	 ? 75	 ?4	 ? Individual	 ?and	 ?Group	 ?Identities	 ?	 ?Up	 ?until	 ?this	 ?point	 ?in	 ?Foci,	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?has	 ?explored	 ?two	 ?personal	 ?aspects	 ?of	 ?his/her	 ?existence:	 ?S/he	 ?has	 ?become	 ?aware	 ?of	 ?him/herself	 ?as	 ?an	 ?entity	 ?whose	 ?journey	 ?toward	 ?self-??awareness	 ?begins	 ?with	 ?nothing,	 ?from	 ?which	 ?s/he	 ?is	 ?then	 ?alone	 ?responsible	 ?for	 ?charting	 ?a	 ?path	 ?forward	 ?(Chapter	 ?2);	 ?and	 ?s/he	 ?has	 ?experienced	 ?the	 ?difficulties	 ?of	 ?reconciling	 ?faith	 ?and	 ?religion	 ?with	 ?a	 ?sceptical	 ?late-??modern	 ?age	 ?(Chapter	 ?3).	 ?In	 ?the	 ?present	 ?chapter,	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?must	 ?now	 ?come	 ?to	 ?terms	 ?with	 ?his/her	 ?relationship	 ?with	 ?other	 ?people,	 ?learning	 ?how	 ?to	 ?establish	 ?his/her	 ?own	 ?unique	 ?identity	 ?while	 ?living	 ?harmoniously	 ?among	 ?the	 ?diversity	 ?of	 ?others.	 ?	 ?The	 ?three	 ?movements	 ?of	 ?Foci	 ?that	 ?will	 ?be	 ?discussed	 ?in	 ?this	 ?chapter	 ?concentrate	 ?on	 ?the	 ?complex	 ?relationship	 ?between	 ?individual	 ?and	 ?group	 ?identities	 ?and	 ?how	 ?Anhalt	 ?utilizes	 ?the	 ?voice	 ?in	 ?conjunction	 ?with	 ?instruments	 ?and	 ?electronics	 ?to	 ?reflect	 ?on	 ?these	 ?interactions.	 ?In	 ?the	 ?fifth	 ?movement,	 ??Individuals,?	 ?Anhalt	 ?uses	 ?a	 ?number	 ?of	 ?important	 ?religious	 ?and	 ?mythical	 ?texts	 ?that,	 ?although	 ?vastly	 ?different	 ?in	 ?their	 ?historical	 ?origins,	 ?all	 ?comment	 ?on	 ?the	 ?power	 ?of	 ?the	 ?voice	 ?and	 ?its	 ?role	 ?in	 ?asserting	 ?identities.	 ?In	 ?the	 ?sixth	 ?movement,	 ??Group,?	 ?an	 ?overwhelming	 ?number	 ?of	 ?voices	 ?clamour	 ?together,	 ?creating	 ?an	 ?incomprehensible	 ?cloud	 ?of	 ?noise.	 ?Unable	 ?to	 ?communicate	 ?with	 ?the	 ?clarity	 ?and	 ?directness	 ?offered	 ?by	 ?more	 ?intimate	 ?exchanges,	 ?these	 ?voices	 ?and	 ?the	 ?identities	 ?they	 ?each	 ?represent	 ?are	 ?engulfed	 ?in	 ?a	 ?din.	 ?In	 ?the	 ?seventh	 ?movement,	 ??Definition	 ?3,?	 ?which	 ?utilizes	 ?the	 ?definition	 ?for	 ??Interaction,?	 ?we	 ?focus	 ?on	 ?the	 ?details	 ?of	 ?one-??on-??one	 ?conversation.	 ?Problems	 ?of	 ?communication	 ?still	 ?abound,	 ?however,	 ?and	 ?we	 ?realize	 ?that	 ?connecting	 ?with	 ?other	 ?individuals	 ?in	 ?both	 ?small	 ?and	 ?large	 ?settings	 ?is	 ?always	 ?a	 ?complex	 ?and	 ?difficult	 ?task.	 ?	 ?	 ? 76	 ?4.1	 ?Sociological	 ?and	 ?Political	 ?Context	 ?The	 ?1960s	 ?saw	 ?a	 ?great	 ?rift	 ?develop	 ?between	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?and	 ?society	 ?as	 ?the	 ?question	 ?of	 ??who	 ?am	 ?I??	 ?became	 ?a	 ?more	 ?pressing	 ?issue.	 ?Important	 ?events	 ?such	 ?as	 ?the	 ?Civil	 ?Right?s	 ?Movement	 ?in	 ?1963	 ?and	 ?Second-??Wave	 ?Feminism	 ?challenged	 ?people	 ?to	 ?re-??evaluate	 ?traditional	 ?social,	 ?gender,	 ?and	 ?racial	 ?categories	 ?that	 ?had	 ?once	 ?determined	 ?how	 ?people	 ?behaved	 ?and	 ?interacted	 ?with	 ?another.	 ?In	 ?scrutinizing	 ?one?s	 ?identity,	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?is	 ?required	 ?to	 ?consider	 ?the	 ?perspective	 ?of	 ?others	 ?and	 ?to	 ?place	 ?him/herself	 ?in	 ?relation	 ?to	 ?them.	 ?How	 ?much	 ?does	 ?one?s	 ?identity	 ?rely	 ?on	 ?being	 ?unique	 ?and	 ?how	 ?much	 ?of	 ?it	 ?is	 ?influenced	 ?by	 ?the	 ?expectations	 ?of	 ?the	 ?social	 ?and	 ?cultural	 ?groups	 ?that	 ?one	 ?belongs	 ?to?	 ?The	 ?intense	 ?re-??evaluation	 ?of	 ?the	 ?self	 ?that	 ?became	 ?pervasive	 ?in	 ?the	 ?late-??modern	 ?age	 ?has	 ?been	 ?described	 ?by	 ?Anthony	 ?Giddens	 ?as	 ?reflexivity:	 ?In	 ?the	 ?post-??traditional	 ?order	 ?of	 ?modernity,	 ?and	 ?against	 ?the	 ?backdrop	 ?of	 ?new	 ?forms	 ?of	 ?mediated	 ?experience,	 ?self-??identity	 ?becomes	 ?a	 ?reflexively	 ?organized	 ?endeavour.	 ?The	 ?reflexive	 ?project	 ?of	 ?the	 ?self,	 ?which	 ?consists	 ?in	 ?the	 ?sustaining	 ?of	 ?coherent,	 ?yet	 ?continuously	 ?revised,	 ?biographical	 ?narratives,	 ?takes	 ?place	 ?in	 ?the	 ?context	 ?of	 ?multiple	 ?choice	 ?as	 ?filtered	 ?through	 ?abstract	 ?systems.99	 ?	 ?	 ?Like	 ?spirituality	 ?and	 ?faith,	 ?identity	 ?and	 ?the	 ?roles	 ?that	 ?an	 ?individual	 ?takes	 ?on	 ?were	 ?becoming	 ?increasingly	 ?fluid,	 ?and	 ?their	 ?malleability	 ?was	 ?seen	 ?as	 ?simultaneously	 ?liberating	 ?and	 ?daunting.	 ?Balancing	 ?the	 ?needs	 ?of	 ?the	 ?self	 ?with	 ?those	 ?of	 ?others	 ?can	 ?pull	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?into	 ?opposing	 ?directions.	 ?How	 ?does	 ?one	 ?decide	 ?who	 ?and	 ?what	 ?to	 ?stand	 ?for:	 ?the	 ?group	 ?or	 ?the	 ?individual?	 ?In	 ?W.H.	 ?Auden?s	 ?poem,	 ?September	 ?1,	 ?1939	 ?(1939),	 ?which	 ?was	 ?written	 ?in	 ?response	 ?to	 ?the	 ?grim	 ?announcement	 ?that	 ?the	 ?Germans	 ?had	 ?invaded	 ?Poland,	 ?thus	 ?beginning	 ?World	 ?War	 ?II,	 ?the	 ?author	 ?alludes	 ?to	 ?the	 ?heavy	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?99	 ?Giddens,	 ?Modernity	 ?and	 ?Self-??Identity,	 ?5.	 ?	 ? 77	 ?responsibility	 ?that	 ?each	 ?individual	 ?has	 ?in	 ?maintaining	 ?peaceful	 ?relationships	 ?with	 ?his/her	 ?neighbour	 ?if	 ?the	 ?world	 ?was	 ?to	 ?prevent	 ?global	 ?calamities:	 ?All	 ?I	 ?have	 ?is	 ?a	 ?voice	 ?To	 ?undo	 ?the	 ?folded	 ?lie,	 ?The	 ?romantic	 ?lie	 ?in	 ?the	 ?brain	 ?Of	 ?the	 ?sensual	 ?man-??in-??the-??street	 ?And	 ?the	 ?lie	 ?of	 ?Authority	 ?Whose	 ?buildings	 ?grope	 ?the	 ?sky:	 ?There	 ?is	 ?no	 ?such	 ?thing	 ?as	 ?the	 ?State	 ?And	 ?no	 ?one	 ?exists	 ?alone;	 ?Hunger	 ?allows	 ?no	 ?choice	 ?To	 ?the	 ?citizen	 ?or	 ?the	 ?police;	 ?We	 ?must	 ?love	 ?one	 ?another	 ?or	 ?die.100	 ?	 ? The	 ?poem	 ?(though	 ?later	 ?deemed	 ?trivial	 ?by	 ?its	 ?author)	 ?became	 ?very	 ?popular	 ?in	 ?the	 ?United	 ?States	 ?and	 ?experienced	 ?a	 ?resurgence	 ?of	 ?interest	 ?when	 ?the	 ?final	 ?line	 ?of	 ?the	 ?above-??quoted	 ?stanza	 ?was	 ?used	 ?to	 ?promote	 ?Lyndon	 ?Johnson?s	 ?controversial	 ?campaign	 ?ad	 ?in	 ?1964.	 ?The	 ?commercial,	 ??Daisy	 ?Spot,?	 ?shows	 ?a	 ?young	 ?girl	 ?counting	 ?the	 ?petals	 ?of	 ?a	 ?daisy	 ?as	 ?she	 ?plucks	 ?them	 ?off.	 ?As	 ?she	 ?approaches	 ?zero,	 ?her	 ?voice	 ?is	 ?replaced	 ?by	 ?that	 ?of	 ?a	 ?man?s	 ?who	 ?continues	 ?counting	 ?down	 ?to	 ?the	 ?detonation	 ?of	 ?a	 ?nuclear	 ?bomb.	 ?When	 ?the	 ?image	 ?of	 ?the	 ?infamous	 ?mushroom	 ?cloud	 ?engulfs	 ?the	 ?screen,	 ?a	 ?foreboding	 ?voice	 ?warns:	 ??We	 ?must	 ?love	 ?one	 ?another	 ?or	 ?die?	 ?(Figure	 ?4.1).	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?100	 ?W.D.	 ?Auden,	 ??September	 ?1,	 ?1939,?	 ?in	 ?Another	 ?Time:	 ?Poems	 ?by	 ?W.H.	 ?Auden,	 ?New	 ?York:	 ?Random	 ?House,	 ?1940.	 ?	 ?	 ? 78	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?4.1	 ?Image	 ?from	 ?the	 ?controversial	 ??Daisy	 ?Spot?	 ?advertisement	 ?(1964)101	 ?	 ?On	 ?the	 ?one	 ?hand,	 ?both	 ?the	 ?poem	 ?and	 ?the	 ?commercial	 ?remind	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?that	 ?in	 ?the	 ?face	 ?of	 ?crisis,	 ?s/he	 ?possesses	 ?a	 ?unique	 ?voice	 ?that	 ?can	 ?be	 ?used	 ?to	 ?assert	 ?an	 ?individual	 ?opinion	 ?and	 ?challenge	 ?the	 ?situation	 ?around	 ?him/her.	 ?On	 ?the	 ?other	 ?hand,	 ?Auden	 ?gravely	 ?reminds	 ?us	 ?that	 ?when	 ?individuals	 ?are	 ?only	 ?concerned	 ?with	 ?voicing	 ?their	 ?own	 ?personal	 ?interests,	 ?the	 ?world	 ?can	 ?suffer	 ?terrible	 ?consequences.	 ?How	 ?does	 ?one	 ?establish	 ?an	 ?autonomous	 ?voice	 ?and	 ?self	 ?while	 ?respecting	 ?the	 ?needs	 ?for	 ?others	 ?to	 ?do	 ?the	 ?same?	 ?This	 ?question	 ?was	 ?a	 ?serious	 ?preoccupation	 ?for	 ?Anhalt	 ?during	 ?the	 ?years	 ?of	 ?Foci?s	 ?conception	 ?in	 ?Montreal,	 ?where	 ?many	 ?voices	 ?were	 ?struggling	 ?share	 ?their	 ?story.	 ?	 ? The	 ?Quiet	 ?Revolution	 ?in	 ?Quebec	 ?did	 ?not	 ?only	 ?bring	 ?about	 ?changes	 ?in	 ?institutional	 ?religion	 ?(as	 ?discussed	 ?in	 ?Chapter	 ?3).	 ?It	 ?was,	 ?above	 ?all,	 ?a	 ?conflict	 ?between	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?101	 ?Complete	 ?advertisement	 ?can	 ?be	 ?seen	 ?here.	 ?LBJ	 ?Library	 ?and	 ?Museum,	 ?Media	 ?Archives	 ?On-??Demand,	 ?Democratic	 ?National	 ?Committee,	 ?accessed	 ?August	 ?11,	 ?2013,	 ?www.lbjlib.utexas.edu/johnson/media/daisyspot/	 ?	 ?	 ? 79	 ?two	 ?language	 ?groups:	 ?the	 ?Anglophones	 ?and	 ?Francophones.	 ?In	 ?1960,	 ?the	 ?election	 ?of	 ?a	 ?new	 ?Liberal	 ?government	 ?in	 ?the	 ?province	 ?sparked	 ?intense	 ?feelings	 ?of	 ?Qu?b?cois	 ?nationalism.	 ?In	 ?1963,	 ?an	 ?extremist	 ?fringe	 ?group,	 ?the	 ?Front	 ?de	 ?Lib?ration	 ?du	 ?Qu?bec	 ?(FLQ),	 ?emerged	 ?as	 ?a	 ?prominent	 ?and	 ?dangerous	 ?presence	 ?amidst	 ?the	 ?conflict.	 ?	 ?They	 ?were	 ?responsible	 ?for	 ?200	 ?bombings,	 ?including	 ?one	 ?at	 ?McGill	 ?University,	 ?where	 ?Anhalt	 ?was	 ?working	 ?at	 ?the	 ?time,	 ?and	 ?another	 ?in	 ?a	 ?mailbox	 ?just	 ?a	 ?block	 ?away	 ?from	 ?where	 ?Anhalt?s	 ?daughters	 ?were	 ?attending	 ?school.102	 ?After	 ?having	 ?experienced	 ?ethnic	 ?persecution	 ?in	 ?his	 ?home	 ?country,	 ?the	 ?situation	 ?in	 ?Montreal	 ?was	 ?too	 ?reminiscent	 ?of	 ?these	 ?dark	 ?days.	 ?Yet	 ?amidst	 ?the	 ?political	 ?turmoil,	 ?Montreal	 ?was	 ?chosen	 ?to	 ?host	 ?the	 ?1967	 ?World	 ?Expo	 ?while	 ?Canada	 ?celebrated	 ?its	 ?centenary	 ?in	 ?the	 ?same	 ?year.	 ?Anhalt	 ?was	 ?commissioned	 ?to	 ?write	 ?a	 ?work	 ?for	 ?the	 ?occasion,	 ?which	 ?resulted	 ?in	 ?Cento,	 ?the	 ?companion	 ?piece	 ?of	 ?Foci.	 ?Despite	 ?the	 ?festivities,	 ?this	 ?work	 ?was	 ?not	 ?celebratory:	 ??The	 ?work	 ?ought	 ?to	 ?have,	 ?I	 ?thought,	 ?the	 ?character	 ?of	 ?bluntness,	 ?strength,	 ?starkness,	 ?and	 ?would	 ?convey	 ?expressions	 ?of	 ?scepticism,	 ?traces	 ?of	 ?despair,	 ?even	 ?of	 ?pent-??up	 ?anger,	 ?as	 ?well	 ?as	 ?suggest	 ?a	 ?certain	 ?social	 ?and	 ?technological	 ?environment.?103	 ?	 ?In	 ?a	 ?speech	 ?given	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Expo,	 ?visiting	 ?French	 ?president	 ?Charles	 ?de	 ?Gaulle	 ?tapped	 ?into	 ?the	 ?frustrations	 ?of	 ?the	 ?province	 ?that	 ?Anhalt	 ?had	 ?alluded	 ?to	 ?by	 ?shouting	 ?the	 ?controversial	 ?phrase	 ??Vive	 ?le	 ?Qu?bec	 ?libre!?	 ?It	 ?was	 ?a	 ?clear	 ?statement	 ?of	 ?support	 ?for	 ?Quebec	 ?separatists,	 ?and	 ?it	 ?caused	 ?roars	 ?of	 ?support	 ?as	 ?well	 ?as	 ?dissent	 ?among	 ?the	 ?audience	 ?present	 ?(Figure	 ?4.2)104	 ?De	 ?Gaulle?s	 ?ability	 ?to	 ?rouse	 ?his	 ?listeners	 ?into	 ?a	 ?zeal	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?102	 ?Elliot	 ?and	 ?Smith,	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt:	 ?Pathways	 ?and	 ?Memory,	 ?56.	 ?	 ?103	 ?Anhalt,	 ?liner	 ?notes,	 ?Anthology	 ?of	 ?Canadian	 ?Music,	 ?ACM	 ?22,	 ?1985,	 ?compact	 ?discs.	 ?104	 ??Vive	 ?le	 ?Qu?bec	 ?libre!?	 ?CBC	 ?News	 ?Magazine,	 ?CBC	 ?Digital	 ?Archives,	 ?hosted	 ?by	 ?Norman	 ?DePoe,	 ?July	 ?24,	 ?1967,	 ?accessed	 ?August	 ?12,	 ?2013,	 ?www.cbc.ca/archives/categories/politics/language-??culture/language-??culture-??general/vive-??le-??quebec-??libre.html	 ?	 ?	 ? 80	 ?of	 ?enthusiasm	 ?and	 ?feeling	 ?exemplified	 ?the	 ?power	 ?that	 ?words	 ?have	 ?when	 ?delivered	 ?through	 ?an	 ?individual?s	 ?voice.	 ?His	 ?call	 ?was	 ?taken	 ?up	 ?and	 ?amplified	 ?by	 ?the	 ?crowd,	 ?and	 ?any	 ?diversity	 ?of	 ?opinions	 ?was	 ?soon	 ?lost	 ?within	 ?the	 ?deafening	 ?roar.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?4.2.	 ??Vive	 ?le	 ?Qu?bec	 ?libre!?	 ?Charles	 ?de	 ?Gaulle?s	 ?exclamation	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Montreal	 ?World	 ?Expo	 ?(1967)105	 ?	 ?4.2	 ??Individuals?	 ?(Movement	 ?5)	 ?Commanding,	 ?inspiring,	 ?and	 ?mystical	 ??	 ?these	 ?are	 ?but	 ?some	 ?of	 ?the	 ?qualities	 ?that	 ?voices	 ?can	 ?have.	 ?Such	 ?qualities	 ?give	 ?them	 ?an	 ?air	 ?of	 ?mysticism	 ?that	 ?many	 ?ancient	 ?traditions	 ?and	 ?cultures	 ?cherish.	 ?In	 ?Alternative	 ?Voices,	 ?Anhalt	 ?expresses	 ?his	 ?thoughts	 ?on	 ?the	 ?voice?s	 ?evocative	 ?potential,	 ?which	 ?he	 ?believed	 ?was	 ?gaining	 ?renewed	 ?interest	 ?in	 ?contemporary	 ?vocal	 ?music.106	 ?Examples	 ?of	 ?some	 ?works	 ?that	 ?Anhalt	 ?lists	 ?are	 ?Luciano	 ?Berio?s	 ?Sequenza	 ?III	 ?(1966)	 ?and	 ?John	 ?Cage?s	 ?Aria	 ?(1958),	 ?both	 ?written	 ?for	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?105	 ?Image	 ?taken	 ?from	 ??De	 ?Gaulle	 ?and	 ??Vive	 ?le	 ?Qu?bec	 ?Libre,??	 ?in	 ?The	 ?Canadian	 ?Encyclopedia,	 ?accessed	 ?August	 ?15,	 ?2013,	 ?www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/featured/de-??gaulle-??and-??vive-??le-??quebec-??libre	 ?	 ?106	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Alternative	 ?Voices,	 ?3.	 ?	 ? 81	 ?and	 ?with	 ?Cathy	 ?Berberian,	 ?Peter	 ?Maxwell	 ?Davies?	 ?Eight	 ?Songs	 ?for	 ?a	 ?Mad	 ?King	 ?(1969)	 ?for	 ?Roy	 ?Hart,	 ?and	 ?works	 ?that	 ?combine	 ?electronics	 ?and	 ?the	 ?voice,	 ?such	 ?as	 ?Stockhausen?s	 ?Gesang	 ?der	 ?J?nglinge	 ?(1955-??56).	 ?The	 ?amazing	 ?skill	 ?of	 ?the	 ?singers	 ?in	 ?these	 ?pieces	 ?as	 ?well	 ?as	 ?the	 ?idiosyncratic	 ?qualities	 ?of	 ?their	 ?voices	 ?were	 ?key	 ?sources	 ?of	 ?inspiration	 ?for	 ?the	 ?composers	 ?of	 ?these	 ?works.107	 ?In	 ?the	 ?fifth	 ?movement	 ?of	 ?Foci,	 ??Individuals,?	 ?Anhalt	 ?too	 ?explores	 ?the	 ?evocative	 ?power	 ?of	 ?voices	 ?and	 ?the	 ?words	 ?that	 ?they	 ?deliver:	 ?We	 ?get	 ?a	 ?glimpse	 ?of	 ?the	 ?mystical	 ?quality	 ?of	 ?each	 ?of	 ?the	 ?individuals	 ?who	 ?utter	 ?these	 ?texts,	 ?which	 ?flow	 ?by	 ?at	 ?a	 ?rapid	 ?pace,	 ?each	 ?sub-??section	 ?dissolving	 ?into	 ?the	 ?succeeding	 ?one,	 ?offering	 ?fleeting	 ?insights	 ?into	 ?spiritual	 ?spaces	 ?of	 ?great	 ?depth,	 ?carried	 ?along,	 ?and	 ?supported	 ?by	 ?the	 ?instrumental	 ?and	 ?electronic	 ?complements	 ?underlining	 ?the	 ?character	 ?of	 ?the	 ?voices,	 ?and	 ?thereby	 ?the	 ?central	 ?idea	 ?of	 ?the	 ?section.108	 ?	 ?	 ?Like	 ?the	 ?third	 ?movement,	 ??Icons,?	 ??Individuals?	 ?contains	 ?a	 ?rich	 ?diversity	 ?of	 ?voices	 ?and	 ?text	 ?sources,	 ?each	 ?of	 ?which	 ?is	 ?chosen	 ?with	 ?great	 ?deliberateness.	 ?Anhalt	 ?recounts	 ?the	 ?process	 ?of	 ?finding	 ?the	 ?appropriate	 ?voices	 ?for	 ?the	 ?movement:	 ?It	 ?took	 ?about	 ?six	 ?weeks	 ?of	 ?searching,	 ?and	 ?a	 ?great	 ?deal	 ?of	 ?luck,	 ?to	 ?find	 ?the	 ?man	 ?of	 ?about	 ?60	 ?years	 ?of	 ?age,	 ?with	 ?a	 ?robust	 ?and	 ?raspy	 ?voice,	 ?who	 ?could	 ?read	 ?from	 ?The	 ?Zohar	 ?with	 ?the	 ?virtuosity	 ?of	 ?a	 ?scholar	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Cabbala.	 ?It	 ?took	 ?nearly	 ?as	 ?much	 ?time	 ?to	 ?find	 ?the	 ?Haitian	 ?man	 ?who	 ?was	 ?able	 ?to	 ?intone	 ?the	 ?Voodoo	 ?verses	 ?in	 ?the	 ?proper	 ?rhythmic	 ?sing-??song,	 ?which	 ?had	 ?to	 ?be	 ?half	 ?melody,	 ?half	 ?drum-??play.109	 ?	 ? There	 ?are	 ?four	 ?sections	 ?in	 ??Individuals?	 ?that	 ?are	 ?defined	 ?by	 ?the	 ?voices	 ?that	 ?sound,	 ?the	 ?cultural	 ?meanings	 ?behind	 ?the	 ?texts	 ?they	 ?recite,	 ?and	 ?the	 ?music	 ?that	 ?accompanies	 ?them	 ?(Figure	 ?4.3).	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?107	 ?Christian	 ?Utz,	 ??The	 ?Rediscovery	 ?of	 ?Presence:	 ?Intercultural	 ?Passages	 ?through	 ?Vocal	 ?Spaces	 ?between	 ?Speech	 ?and	 ?Song,?	 ?in	 ?Christine	 ?Utz	 ?and	 ?Frederick	 ?Lau,	 ?Vocal	 ?Music	 ?and	 ?Contemporary	 ?Identities:	 ?Unlimited	 ?Voices	 ?in	 ?East	 ?Asian	 ?and	 ?the	 ?West	 ?(New	 ?York:	 ?Routledge,	 ?2013),	 ?47.	 ?	 ?108	 ?Anhalt,	 ??About	 ?Foci,?	 ?58.	 ?109	 ?Ibid.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ? 82	 ?	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?4.3	 ?Form	 ?Diagram	 ?of	 ??Individuals?	 ?	 ? 83	 ?4.2.1	 ?Section	 ?1	 ?(mm.	 ?1-??29)	 ?The	 ?first	 ?section	 ?(mm.	 ?1-??29)	 ?begins	 ?with	 ?the	 ?light	 ?tinkling	 ?sound	 ?of	 ?crotales	 ?and	 ?a	 ?glockenspiel	 ?interspersed	 ?with	 ?similar	 ?timbres	 ?generated	 ?by	 ?a	 ?computer.	 ?A	 ?male	 ?voice	 ?recites	 ?lines	 ?from	 ?a	 ?Yiddish	 ?poem	 ?in	 ?tape	 ?channels	 ?1	 ?and	 ?2.	 ?At	 ?m.	 ?4,	 ?more	 ?voices	 ?are	 ?added	 ?that	 ?recite	 ?passages	 ?from	 ?the	 ?prologue	 ?of	 ?The	 ?Zohar,	 ?a	 ?fundamental	 ?book	 ?of	 ?Jewish	 ?Cabbalism:	 ?one	 ?voice	 ?recites	 ?a	 ?passage	 ?from	 ?the	 ?book	 ?in	 ?Aramaic	 ?through	 ?tape	 ?channel	 ?3,	 ?and	 ?then	 ?at	 ?m.	 ?7,	 ?another	 ?voice	 ?speaks	 ?passages	 ?in	 ?English	 ?from	 ?tape	 ?channel	 ?1.	 ?Denser	 ?electronic	 ?sounds	 ?are	 ?introduced	 ?in	 ?tape	 ?channel	 ?4	 ?at	 ?the	 ?same	 ?time	 ?while	 ?fragmentary	 ?figures	 ?are	 ?played	 ?by	 ?instruments	 ?with	 ?a	 ?low	 ?register	 ?(trombone,	 ?bass	 ?clarinet,	 ?cello,	 ?and	 ?double	 ?bass)	 ?(Figure	 ?4.4).	 ?	 ?	 ? 	 ?	 ? 84	 ?	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?4.4	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?5	 ??	 ??Individuals,?	 ?mm.	 ?1-??6	 ?	 ? 85	 ?The	 ?choices	 ?of	 ?texts	 ?here	 ?have	 ?a	 ?clear	 ?connection	 ?with	 ?Anhalt?s	 ?ethnic	 ?identity	 ?since	 ?Yiddish	 ?and	 ?Aramaic	 ?are	 ?languages	 ?with	 ?deep	 ?histories	 ?in	 ?the	 ?Jewish	 ?tradition.	 ?The	 ?former	 ?developed	 ?along	 ?with	 ?the	 ?culture	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Ashkenazi	 ?Jews	 ?during	 ?the	 ?tenth-??century,	 ?and	 ?the	 ?latter	 ?is	 ?considered	 ?to	 ?be	 ?the	 ?most	 ?prevalent	 ?language	 ?spoken	 ?in	 ?Israel	 ?during	 ?the	 ?Second	 ?Temple	 ?period	 ?(539	 ?B.C.E.	 ?to	 ?70	 ?C.E.)	 ?and	 ?likely	 ?also	 ?the	 ?one	 ?spoken	 ?by	 ?Jesus.110	 ?Anhalt?s	 ?relationship	 ?with	 ?Judaism	 ?was	 ?complex.	 ?Like	 ?his	 ?close	 ?friend	 ?American-??Jewish	 ?composer	 ?George	 ?Rochberg,	 ?Anhalt	 ?was	 ?critical	 ?of	 ?the	 ?limitations	 ?of	 ?organized	 ?religion	 ?and	 ?did	 ?not	 ?regularly	 ?participate	 ?in	 ?its	 ?institutional	 ?practices.	 ?However,	 ?Jewishness	 ?was	 ?an	 ?inextricable	 ?part	 ?of	 ?his	 ?identity	 ?and	 ?one	 ?that	 ?he	 ?spent	 ?his	 ?entire	 ?life	 ?trying	 ?to	 ?make	 ?peace	 ?with.	 ?The	 ?nation	 ?state	 ?from	 ?which	 ?he	 ?had	 ?come	 ?from	 ?had	 ?persecuted	 ?him	 ?because	 ?of	 ?his	 ?Jewishness,	 ?but	 ?what	 ?did	 ??Jewishness?	 ?mean	 ?for	 ?him?	 ?In	 ?a	 ?letter	 ?written	 ?to	 ?Rochberg,	 ?Anhalt	 ?mulls	 ?on	 ?the	 ?complexity	 ?of	 ?his	 ?faith	 ?and	 ?identity:	 ?	 ?As	 ?far	 ?as	 ?my	 ?interest	 ?in	 ?things	 ?Jewish	 ?are	 ?concerned	 ?this	 ?is	 ?a	 ?totally	 ?different	 ?story	 ?and	 ?it	 ?has	 ?almost	 ?no	 ?relationship	 ?whatsoever	 ?to	 ?our	 ?congregational	 ?affiliation.	 ?The	 ?roots	 ?of	 ?this	 ??interest?	 ??feed?	 ?from	 ?these	 ?sources:	 ?(1)	 ?personal	 ?memory	 ?of	 ?a	 ?life	 ?which	 ?was	 ?lived	 ?with	 ?a	 ?series	 ?of	 ?changes	 ?in	 ?the	 ?awareness	 ?of	 ??being	 ?Jewish?	 ?(what	 ?kind	 ?of	 ?Jew!?	 ?Was	 ?a	 ?question	 ?which	 ?took	 ?a	 ?very	 ?long	 ?time	 ?to	 ?surface	 ?in	 ?my	 ?consciousness)	 ?from	 ?those	 ??traces?	 ?acquired	 ?in	 ?childhood	 ?through	 ?(2)	 ?the	 ?Hitler-??years,	 ?then	 ?(3)	 ?as	 ?a	 ?Displaced	 ?Person	 ?(Jewish!)	 ?living/studying	 ?in	 ?Paris??111	 ?	 ?	 ?For	 ?Anhalt,	 ?the	 ?fact	 ?that	 ?he	 ?was	 ?a	 ?Jew	 ?was	 ?simply	 ?another	 ?piece	 ?of	 ?the	 ?rich	 ?tapestry	 ?of	 ?his	 ?life	 ?history.	 ?For	 ?Alan	 ?Gillmor,	 ??It	 ?is	 ?reasonably	 ?clear	 ?that	 ?Anhalt?s	 ?fascination	 ?with	 ?what	 ?he	 ?calls	 ??the	 ?syncretistic	 ?richness?	 ?of	 ?his	 ?Jewish	 ?heritage?	 ?is	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?110	 ?	 ?Jean	 ?Baumgarten,	 ?Introduction	 ?to	 ?Old	 ?Yiddish	 ?Literature,	 ?trans.	 ?and	 ?ed.	 ?Jerold	 ?C.	 ?Frakes	 ?(Oxford:	 ?Oxford	 ?University	 ?Press,	 ?2005),	 ?3.;	 ?Allen	 ?C.	 ?Myers,	 ?ed."Aramaic"	 ?in	 ?The	 ?Eerdmans	 ?Bible	 ?Dictionary	 ?(Grand	 ?Rapids,	 ?MI:	 ?Eerdmans	 ?Pub.	 ?Co.,	 ?1987),	 ?72.	 ?	 ?111	 ?Anhalt	 ?in	 ?a	 ?letter,	 ?July	 ?23,	 ?1996,	 ?in	 ?Eagle	 ?Minds,	 ?312.	 ?	 ? 86	 ?deeply	 ?rooted,	 ?not	 ?in	 ?religious	 ?orthodoxy,	 ?but	 ?rather	 ?in	 ?his	 ?search	 ?for	 ?identity	 ?and	 ?for	 ?answers	 ?to	 ?the	 ?external	 ?existential	 ?questions.?112	 ?The	 ?exploration	 ?of	 ?heritage	 ?is	 ?one	 ?way	 ?in	 ?which	 ?an	 ?individual	 ?may	 ?seek	 ?to	 ?define	 ?his/her	 ?identity.	 ?Anhalt?s	 ?decision	 ?to	 ?begin	 ??Individuals?	 ?with	 ?texts	 ?from	 ?his	 ?ancestors?	 ?religion	 ?reflects	 ?his	 ?own	 ?personal	 ?search.	 ?	 ?Identities	 ?and	 ?the	 ?unique	 ?voices	 ?that	 ?help	 ?express	 ?them	 ?are	 ?also	 ?represented	 ?by	 ?the	 ?instrumentation	 ?of	 ??Individuals.?	 ?The	 ?instruments	 ?that	 ?accompany	 ?the	 ?text	 ?in	 ?this	 ?section	 ?create	 ?an	 ?aural	 ?impression	 ?of	 ?fragmented	 ?conversations.	 ?Each	 ?of	 ?the	 ?four	 ?instruments	 ?involved	 ?possesses	 ?a	 ?distinct	 ?voice,	 ?communicating	 ?through	 ?idiomatic	 ?gestures	 ?and	 ?intervals.	 ?The	 ?bass	 ?clarinet,	 ?for	 ?example,	 ?moves	 ?predominantly	 ?by	 ?steps	 ?as	 ?well	 ?as	 ?leaps	 ?of	 ?fourths	 ?and	 ?fifths.	 ?The	 ?trombone,	 ?meanwhile,	 ?initially	 ?moves	 ?by	 ?semitones	 ?and	 ?glissandos,	 ?although	 ?halfway	 ?through	 ?the	 ?section	 ?(at	 ?approximately	 ?m.	 ?15),	 ?it	 ?begins	 ?taking	 ?larger,	 ?disjointed	 ?leaps.	 ?Coincidently,	 ?it	 ?is	 ?also	 ?from	 ?this	 ?point	 ?on	 ?when	 ?it	 ?and	 ?the	 ?bass	 ?clarinet	 ?begin	 ?overlapping	 ?with	 ?one	 ?another	 ?at	 ?a	 ?greater	 ?frequency.	 ?It	 ?is	 ?as	 ?though	 ?these	 ?instruments,	 ?after	 ?speaking	 ?to	 ?each	 ?other	 ?for	 ?a	 ?while,	 ?find	 ?themselves	 ?disagreeing	 ?with	 ?one	 ?another.	 ?This	 ?results	 ?in	 ?the	 ?more	 ?exaggerated	 ?and	 ?boisterous	 ?gestures	 ?of	 ?the	 ?trombone	 ?as	 ?it	 ?attempts	 ?to	 ?assert	 ?its	 ?dominance	 ?in	 ?the	 ?conversation,	 ?while	 ?the	 ?bass	 ?clarinet	 ?counters	 ?by	 ?chattering	 ?more	 ?rapidly	 ?at	 ?the	 ?same	 ?time.	 ?The	 ?cello	 ?sounds	 ?out	 ?uniquely	 ?by	 ?playing	 ?snap	 ?pizzicato	 ?(m.	 ?4),	 ?while	 ?the	 ?double	 ?bass	 ?can	 ?be	 ?heard	 ?improvising	 ?with	 ?the	 ?extended	 ?technique	 ?of	 ?scordatura.	 ?At	 ?m.	 ?10,	 ?perhaps	 ?in	 ?response	 ?to	 ?the	 ?double	 ?bass,	 ?the	 ?cello	 ?changes	 ?its	 ?tone	 ?and	 ?gestures	 ?by	 ?playing	 ?sul	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?112	 ?Gillmor,	 ?Eagle	 ?Minds,	 ?xxiii.	 ?	 ?	 ? 87	 ?pointicello	 ?through	 ?triplets	 ?and	 ?duplets	 ?that	 ?span	 ?tritones,	 ?fifths	 ?(E-??A-??Bb	 ?and	 ?E-??B	 ?at	 ?m.	 ?13,	 ?for	 ?example)	 ?and	 ?sevenths	 ?(D-??G-??Eb	 ?at	 ?m.	 ?17)	 ?(Figures	 ?4.5	 ?and	 ?4.6).	 ?	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?4.5	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?5	 ??	 ??Individuals,?	 ?mm.	 ?7-??12	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ? 88	 ?	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?4.6	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?5	 ??	 ??Individuals,?	 ?mm.	 ?13-??18	 ?	 ?	 ? 	 ?	 ? 89	 ?The	 ?conversational	 ?nature	 ?of	 ?the	 ?instruments	 ?contrasts	 ?with	 ?the	 ?taped	 ?voices,	 ?which	 ?do	 ?not	 ?seem	 ?to	 ?interact	 ?with	 ?each	 ?other	 ?at	 ?all:	 ?Each	 ?progresses	 ?at	 ?its	 ?own	 ?pace,	 ?oblivious	 ?to	 ?the	 ?others.	 ?The	 ?disconnection	 ?between	 ?the	 ?voices	 ?is	 ?a	 ?result	 ?of	 ?them	 ?being	 ?recorded	 ?separately	 ?and	 ?put	 ?together	 ?after-??the-??fact	 ?by	 ?Anhalt	 ?who	 ?did	 ?not	 ?alter	 ?them	 ?and	 ?simply	 ?allowed	 ?them	 ?to	 ?flow	 ?as	 ?they	 ?had	 ?during	 ?their	 ?recording	 ?session.	 ?This	 ?attempt,	 ?however,	 ?to	 ?preserve	 ?the	 ?integrity	 ?and	 ?uniqueness	 ?of	 ?each	 ?voice	 ?is	 ?complicated	 ?by	 ?the	 ?combination	 ?of	 ?too	 ?many	 ?diverse	 ?texts	 ?and	 ?languages.	 ?Aurally,	 ??Individuals?	 ?is	 ?not	 ?as	 ?dense	 ?as	 ?the	 ?following	 ?movement,	 ??Group,?	 ?in	 ?which	 ?hardly	 ?anything	 ?is	 ?distinguishable,	 ?but	 ?because	 ?of	 ?the	 ?variety	 ?of	 ?languages	 ?and	 ?sources	 ?used	 ?in	 ??Individuals,?	 ?only	 ?a	 ?listener	 ?with	 ?a	 ?solid	 ?understanding	 ?of	 ?Yiddish,	 ?Aramaic,	 ?and	 ?English	 ?has	 ?any	 ?chance	 ?of	 ?fully	 ?comprehending	 ?what	 ?is	 ?being	 ?spoken,	 ?even	 ?if	 ?s/he	 ?is	 ?able	 ?to	 ?hear	 ?each	 ?voice	 ?separately.	 ?A	 ?thorough	 ?understanding	 ?of	 ?the	 ?texts,	 ?however,	 ?was	 ?not	 ?Anhalt?s	 ?intension:	 ??The	 ?sources	 ?of	 ?the	 ?materials?	 ?are	 ?of	 ?no	 ?more	 ?importance	 ?than	 ?the	 ?origins	 ?of	 ?items	 ?assembled	 ?by	 ?an	 ?artist	 ?into	 ?a	 ?collage.	 ?What	 ?matters,	 ?and	 ?what	 ?is	 ?ultimately	 ?undiscoverable,	 ?is	 ?what	 ?these	 ?objects	 ?of	 ?words	 ?evokes	 ?in	 ?the	 ?mind	 ?and	 ?memory	 ?of	 ?each	 ?individual	 ?beholder.?113	 ?The	 ?texts	 ?may	 ?be	 ?too	 ?obscure	 ?for	 ?many	 ?listeners	 ?to	 ?appreciate	 ?their	 ?historical	 ?significance,	 ?but	 ?when	 ?delivered	 ?through	 ?the	 ?voices	 ?of	 ?the	 ?speakers,	 ?they	 ?acquire	 ?a	 ?personal	 ?touch.	 ?The	 ?connection	 ?that	 ?each	 ?speaker	 ?has	 ?with	 ?the	 ?texts	 ?is	 ?unique	 ?to	 ?each	 ?of	 ?them,	 ?and	 ?depends	 ?on	 ?how	 ?s/he	 ?interprets	 ?them,	 ?whether	 ?or	 ?not	 ?s/he	 ?has	 ?a	 ?personal	 ?or	 ?ethical	 ?history	 ?with	 ?them,	 ?and	 ?also	 ?on	 ?the	 ?aesthetic	 ?impression	 ?that	 ?the	 ?sound	 ?of	 ?the	 ?words	 ?themselves	 ?have	 ?on	 ?the	 ?speaker.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?113	 ?Carl	 ?Morey,	 ??Words	 ?for	 ?Music:	 ?The	 ?Composer	 ?as	 ?Poet,?	 ?in	 ?Elliot	 ?and	 ?Smith,	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?317.	 ?	 ? 90	 ?These	 ?factors	 ?influence	 ?how	 ?the	 ?speakers	 ?decide	 ?to	 ?perform	 ?the	 ?texts.	 ?While	 ?the	 ?listener	 ?may	 ?not	 ?be	 ?able	 ?to	 ?comprehend	 ?the	 ?literal	 ?meaning	 ?of	 ?the	 ?words,	 ?s/he	 ?may	 ?still	 ?be	 ?able	 ?to	 ?be	 ?impressed	 ?by	 ?the	 ?distinctly	 ?human	 ?qualities	 ?that	 ?they	 ?are	 ?given	 ?when	 ?spoken	 ?through	 ?each	 ?speaker?s	 ?unique	 ?voice.	 ?For	 ?example,	 ?the	 ?voice	 ?that	 ?speaks	 ?in	 ?Aramaic	 ?has	 ?a	 ?distinct	 ?resonance	 ?that	 ?can	 ?be	 ?picked	 ?out	 ?from	 ?among	 ?the	 ?other	 ?sounds:	 ?its	 ?pacing	 ?is	 ?moderate,	 ?never	 ?too	 ?slow	 ?or	 ?too	 ?fast,	 ?and	 ?its	 ?tone	 ?is	 ?assertive.	 ?An	 ?image	 ?that	 ?comes	 ?to	 ?mind	 ?is	 ?that	 ?of	 ?an	 ?orator	 ?or	 ?preacher	 ?delivering	 ?an	 ?important	 ?religious	 ?text	 ?to	 ?an	 ?attentive	 ?audience.	 ?Of	 ?course,	 ?the	 ?variety	 ?of	 ?impressions	 ?is	 ?as	 ?vast	 ?as	 ?the	 ?diversity	 ?of	 ?listeners,	 ?and	 ?the	 ?voices	 ?may	 ?evoke	 ?very	 ?different	 ?images	 ?and	 ?feelings	 ?in	 ?a	 ?person	 ?compared	 ?to	 ?that	 ?of	 ?his/her	 ?neighbour.	 ?That	 ?an	 ?individual?s	 ?background	 ?influences	 ?and	 ?shapes	 ?one?s	 ?understanding	 ?of	 ?his/her	 ?own	 ?identity	 ?as	 ?well	 ?as	 ?that	 ?of	 ?others	 ?is	 ?perhaps	 ?one	 ?of	 ?the	 ?messages	 ?that	 ?Anhalt	 ?hoped	 ?the	 ?diversity	 ?of	 ?the	 ?movement	 ?would	 ?convey.	 ?	 ?	 ?4.2.2	 ?Section	 ?2	 ?(mm.	 ?30-??48)	 ?The	 ?second	 ?section	 ?of	 ??Individuals?	 ?(mm.	 ?30-??48)	 ?transports	 ?the	 ?listener	 ?to	 ?a	 ?completely	 ?different	 ?aural	 ?and	 ?linguistic	 ?place.	 ?In	 ?tape	 ?channels	 ?1	 ?to	 ?3,	 ?the	 ?voice	 ?of	 ?a	 ?Haitian	 ?man	 ?recites	 ?phrases	 ?from	 ?ancient	 ?Voodoo	 ?texts	 ?in	 ?Creole.	 ?Anhalt	 ?explains:	 ?	 ??Several	 ?of	 ?the	 ?words	 ?have	 ?no	 ?known	 ?meaning,	 ?but	 ?are	 ?believed	 ?to	 ?possess	 ?magic	 ?powers.?114	 ?As	 ?in	 ?the	 ?first	 ?section,	 ?the	 ?listener	 ?is	 ?again	 ?being	 ?asked	 ?to	 ?seek	 ?meaning	 ?outside	 ?of	 ?the	 ?semantic	 ?realm.	 ?Meanwhile,	 ?the	 ?wind	 ?and	 ?keyboard	 ?players	 ?are	 ?instructed	 ?to	 ?exchange	 ?their	 ?instruments	 ?for	 ?percussive	 ?ones.	 ?For	 ?example,	 ?the	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?114	 ?Anhalt,	 ??About	 ?Foci,?	 ?58.	 ?	 ? 91	 ?flautist	 ?takes	 ?up	 ?a	 ?guiro,	 ?the	 ?clarinettist	 ?takes	 ?up	 ?castigates,	 ?and	 ?the	 ?keyboard	 ?players	 ?pick	 ?up	 ?a	 ?ratchet	 ?and	 ?washboard	 ?to	 ?scrap.	 ?The	 ?string	 ?players	 ?blend	 ?their	 ?timbres	 ?in	 ?with	 ?these	 ?new	 ?instruments	 ?by	 ?creating	 ?percussive	 ?sounds	 ?by	 ?improvising	 ?con	 ?legno	 ??on	 ?two	 ?strings	 ?each	 ?time,	 ?the	 ?pitches	 ?are	 ?indeterminate.?115	 ?The	 ?shift	 ?to	 ?percussive	 ?timbres	 ?enhances	 ?the	 ?evocation	 ?of	 ?Haitian	 ?Voodoo	 ?rituals	 ?in	 ?which	 ?drums	 ?and	 ?other	 ?percussive	 ?instruments	 ?play	 ?an	 ?essential	 ?role.	 ?In	 ?these	 ?practices,	 ?the	 ?drummer	 ?is	 ?responsible	 ?for	 ?creating	 ?and	 ?maintaining	 ?a	 ?rhythm	 ?that	 ?is	 ?conducive	 ?to	 ?the	 ?trance-??like	 ?state	 ?the	 ?dancers	 ?reach	 ?while	 ?performing.	 ?Should	 ?the	 ?drummer	 ?fail	 ?at	 ?his	 ?task,	 ?the	 ?entire	 ?ritual	 ?falls	 ?apart	 ?(Figure	 ?4.7).116	 ?	 ?	 ? 	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?115	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?41.	 ?	 ?116	 ?Alfred	 ?M?traux,	 ?Voodoo	 ?in	 ?Haiti,	 ?trans.	 ?Hugo	 ?Charteris	 ?(New	 ?York:	 ?Schocken	 ?Books,	 ?1972),	 ?177-??192.	 ?	 ? 92	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?4.7	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?5	 ??	 ??Individuals,?	 ?mm.	 ?31-??36	 ?	 ?	 ? 	 ?	 ? 93	 ?As	 ?the	 ?instruments	 ?are	 ?playing,	 ?electronic	 ?sounds	 ?are	 ?interspersed	 ?among	 ?them	 ?through	 ?tape	 ?channels	 ?4	 ?to	 ?6.	 ?Compared	 ?to	 ?the	 ?intermittent	 ?blips	 ?heard	 ?in	 ?the	 ?first	 ?section,	 ?the	 ?electronic	 ?sounds	 ?in	 ?the	 ?second	 ?section	 ?are	 ?exponentially	 ?more	 ?diverse,	 ?with	 ?broad,	 ?swooping	 ?lines,	 ?shrill	 ?chirps,	 ?clashes,	 ?and	 ?warbling.	 ?The	 ?percussive	 ?sounds	 ?that	 ?the	 ?instrumentalists	 ?make	 ?blend	 ?seamlessly	 ?with	 ?the	 ?electronics.	 ?Each	 ?sound	 ?is	 ?distinguishable	 ?from	 ?the	 ?other,	 ?for	 ?none	 ?of	 ?them	 ?have	 ?too	 ?large	 ?and	 ?overwhelming	 ?a	 ?presence.	 ?The	 ?smooth	 ?interplay	 ?of	 ?electronic	 ?and	 ?acoustic	 ?timbres	 ?mimics	 ?the	 ?sound	 ?of	 ?a	 ?traditional	 ?Voodoo	 ?orchestra	 ?that	 ?has	 ?been	 ?described	 ?by	 ?Swiss	 ?anthropologist	 ?Alfred	 ?M?traux	 ?as	 ?polyrhythmic:	 ??Each	 ?musician	 ?is	 ?striking	 ?an	 ?instrument	 ?of	 ?a	 ?different	 ?pitch	 ?from	 ?that	 ?of	 ?his	 ?neighbour	 ?and	 ?developing	 ?his	 ?own	 ?theme	 ?which	 ?must	 ?nevertheless	 ?fit	 ?in	 ?such	 ?a	 ?way	 ?as	 ?to	 ?give	 ?an	 ?impression	 ?of	 ?over-??all-??unity.?117	 ?	 ?This	 ?section	 ?of	 ??Individuals?	 ?represents	 ?a	 ?musical	 ?tradition	 ?and	 ?identity	 ?that	 ?is	 ?very	 ?different	 ?from	 ?what	 ?was	 ?familiar	 ?to	 ?the	 ?composer.	 ?Anhalt?s	 ?addition	 ?of	 ?electronics	 ?and	 ?the	 ?taped	 ?voices	 ?created	 ?his	 ?own	 ?vision	 ?of	 ?the	 ?ritual.	 ?The	 ?technique	 ?of	 ?appropriating	 ?styles	 ?and	 ?material	 ?from	 ?foreign	 ?cultures	 ?had	 ?been	 ?part	 ?of	 ?musical	 ?composition	 ?for	 ?centuries	 ?past.	 ?Mozart?s	 ?depiction	 ?of	 ?Turkish	 ?culture	 ?in	 ?his	 ?opera	 ?The	 ?Abduction	 ?from	 ?the	 ?Seraglio	 ?(1781-??1786)	 ?and	 ?Bizet?s	 ?image	 ?of	 ?Spanish	 ?gypsies	 ?in	 ?Carmen	 ?(1873-??1874)	 ?are	 ?examples	 ?of	 ?earlier	 ?works	 ?that	 ?were	 ?inspired	 ?by	 ?notions	 ?of	 ?exoticism	 ?and	 ?stereotypes	 ?of	 ?a	 ?distant	 ?and	 ?sinister	 ??Other.?	 ?During	 ?the	 ?late-??modern	 ?age,	 ?these	 ?prejudices	 ?were	 ?challenged	 ?by	 ?advances	 ?in	 ?technology	 ?that	 ?expanded	 ?lines	 ?of	 ?communication	 ?around	 ?the	 ?world	 ?in	 ?such	 ?as	 ?way	 ?as	 ?to	 ?break	 ?down	 ?the	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?117	 ?M?traux,	 ?Voodoo	 ?in	 ?Haiti,	 ?178.	 ?	 ? 94	 ?cultural	 ?and	 ?geographical	 ?barriers	 ?that	 ?had	 ?once	 ?kept	 ?groups	 ?of	 ?people	 ?apart.	 ?As	 ?diplomacy	 ?between	 ?countries	 ?evolved,	 ?allowances	 ?for	 ?people	 ?to	 ?travel	 ?and	 ?emigrate	 ?were	 ?facilitated	 ?to	 ?a	 ?greater	 ?degree.	 ?Strangers	 ?who	 ?had	 ?once	 ?been	 ?comfortably	 ?kept	 ?outside	 ?were	 ?now	 ?beginning	 ?to	 ?integrate	 ?themselves	 ?into	 ?places	 ?far	 ?away	 ?from	 ?the	 ?country	 ?of	 ?their	 ?birth	 ?and	 ?to	 ?redefine	 ?what	 ?they	 ?considered	 ?to	 ?be	 ?home.	 ?	 ?Anhalt	 ?was	 ?all	 ?too	 ?familiar	 ?with	 ?this	 ?experience	 ?after	 ?leaving	 ?Hungary	 ?behind,	 ?and	 ?travelling	 ?to	 ?many	 ?other	 ?countries	 ?as	 ?an	 ??migr?.	 ?The	 ?exploration	 ?of	 ?identity	 ?and	 ?the	 ??search	 ?for	 ?self?118	 ?is	 ?a	 ?central	 ?theme	 ?in	 ?many	 ?of	 ?his	 ?writings	 ?and	 ?music	 ?including	 ?Foci.	 ?Anhalt	 ?had	 ?never	 ?travelled	 ?to	 ?Haiti	 ?nor	 ?was	 ?he	 ?a	 ?practitioner	 ?of	 ?Voodoo,	 ?and	 ?his	 ?experience	 ?and	 ?understanding	 ?of	 ?the	 ?culture	 ?was	 ?a	 ?mediated	 ?one.	 ?The	 ?hints	 ?of	 ?post-??colonial	 ?exoticism	 ?that	 ?still	 ?emerge	 ?from	 ?this	 ?section	 ?suggest	 ?that	 ?in	 ?the	 ?late-??modern	 ?age,	 ?there	 ?still	 ?remains	 ?an	 ?acknowledgment	 ?of	 ?difference	 ?when	 ?it	 ?comes	 ?to	 ?understanding	 ?foreign	 ?cultures.	 ?Yet,	 ?the	 ?seamless	 ?integration	 ?of	 ?the	 ?instruments	 ?with	 ?the	 ?electronics	 ?in	 ?this	 ?section	 ?to	 ?create	 ?the	 ?image	 ?of	 ?a	 ?Haitian	 ?ritual	 ?may	 ?reflect	 ?Anhalt?s	 ?hope	 ?that	 ?people	 ?from	 ?lands	 ?far	 ?from	 ?one?s	 ?own	 ?may	 ?one	 ?day	 ?be	 ?understood	 ?not	 ?only	 ?as	 ?different,	 ?but	 ?also	 ?as	 ?part	 ?of	 ?what	 ?Marshall	 ?McLuhan	 ?calls	 ?the	 ?same	 ??global	 ?village.?119	 ?	 ?	 ?4.2.3	 ?Section	 ?3	 ?(mm.	 ?49-??60)	 ?In	 ?the	 ?following	 ?section,	 ?the	 ?musical	 ?environment	 ?changes	 ?again,	 ?and	 ?the	 ?listener	 ?is	 ?left	 ?to	 ?question	 ?whether	 ?or	 ?not	 ?a	 ?peaceful,	 ?multicultural	 ?coexistence	 ?will	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?118	 ?Gordon	 ?E.	 ?Smith,	 ??	 ??Deep	 ?these,	 ?not	 ?so	 ?hidden?	 ?in	 ?the	 ?Music	 ?of	 ?Istv?n	 ?Anhalt,?	 ?Queen?s	 ?Quarterly	 ?98,	 ?no.	 ?1	 ?(Spring	 ?1991):	 ?100.	 ?	 ?119	 ?Marshall	 ?McLuhan,	 ?The	 ?Gutenberg	 ?Galaxy,	 ?University	 ?of	 ?Toronto	 ?Press,	 ?1962.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ? 95	 ?ever	 ?be	 ?possible.	 ?The	 ?third	 ?section	 ?(mm.	 ?49-??60)	 ?continues	 ?with	 ?text	 ?spoken	 ?in	 ?Creole,	 ?but	 ?a	 ?different	 ?voice	 ?is	 ?delivering	 ?it	 ?now.	 ?On	 ?tape	 ?channels	 ?1	 ?to	 ?4,	 ?a	 ?woman?s	 ?voice	 ?is	 ?heard	 ?conjuring	 ?up	 ?spirits:	 ??Rh?lez??	 ?translates	 ?roughly	 ?to	 ??summon?	 ?or	 ??to	 ?call.?120	 ?Permutations	 ?of	 ?these	 ?phrases	 ?are	 ?played	 ?back	 ?one	 ?on	 ?top	 ?of	 ?another,	 ?overlapping	 ?to	 ?create	 ?a	 ?dense	 ?cloud	 ?of	 ?voices.	 ?The	 ?diversity	 ?of	 ?electronic	 ?sounds	 ?heard	 ?in	 ?the	 ?previous	 ?section	 ?is	 ?replaced	 ?now	 ?by	 ?a	 ?hypnotic	 ?drone.	 ?The	 ?string	 ?instruments	 ?and	 ?tam-??tam	 ?work	 ?together	 ?to	 ?complement	 ?this	 ?trance-??like	 ?atmosphere	 ?by	 ?playing	 ?long,	 ?drawn-??out	 ?chords	 ?and	 ?drumrolls	 ?that	 ?are	 ?lightly	 ?punctuated	 ?by	 ?step-??wise	 ?figures	 ?played	 ?by	 ?the	 ?flute	 ?and	 ?clarinet	 ?(m.	 ?53)	 ?(Figure	 ?4.8).	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ? 	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?120	 ?Milo	 ?Rigaud,	 ?Secrets	 ?of	 ?Voodoo,	 ?trans.	 ?Robert	 ?B.	 ?Cross	 ?(San	 ?Francisco:	 ?City	 ?Lights	 ?Books,	 ?1985),	 ?119.	 ?	 ?	 ? 96	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?4.8.	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?5	 ??	 ??Individuals,?	 ?mm.	 ?49-??54	 ?	 ?	 ? 	 ?	 ? 97	 ?Beginning	 ?at	 ?m.	 ?52,	 ?the	 ?string	 ?instruments	 ?play	 ?con	 ?sordino	 ?and	 ?modulate	 ?slowly	 ?by	 ?quartertones.	 ?A	 ?similar	 ?technique	 ?was	 ?used	 ?in	 ?the	 ?third	 ?movement,	 ??Icons,?	 ?to	 ?create	 ?an	 ?eerie	 ?aural	 ?environment	 ?that	 ?threatened	 ?to	 ?engulf	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?as	 ?s/he	 ?underwent	 ?a	 ?crisis	 ?of	 ?faith.	 ?In	 ?the	 ?third	 ?section	 ?of	 ??Individuals,?	 ?the	 ?technique	 ?adds	 ?to	 ?the	 ?mesmerizing	 ?effect	 ?of	 ?the	 ?conjuring	 ?voices	 ?and	 ?electronic	 ?drone.	 ?The	 ?dissolution	 ?of	 ?the	 ?boundaries	 ?between	 ?the	 ?different	 ?sound	 ?events	 ?created	 ?by	 ?the	 ?overlapping	 ?of	 ?the	 ?repetitive	 ?phrases,	 ?the	 ?sustained	 ?note	 ?clusters,	 ?and	 ?the	 ?drone	 ?draws	 ?the	 ?listener	 ?into	 ?an	 ?endless	 ?stream	 ?of	 ?sounds.	 ?In	 ?this	 ?section,	 ?all	 ?of	 ?the	 ?sounds	 ?as	 ?well	 ?as	 ?the	 ?audience	 ?members	 ?are	 ?brought	 ?together	 ?into	 ?a	 ?single	 ?trance-??like	 ?state.	 ?The	 ?rich	 ?mosaic	 ?of	 ?sounds	 ?that	 ?was	 ?heard	 ?in	 ?the	 ?second	 ?section	 ?has	 ?given	 ?way	 ?to	 ?a	 ?melting	 ?pot	 ?in	 ?the	 ?third	 ?section.	 ?Identities	 ?merge	 ?together	 ?until	 ?the	 ?many	 ?become	 ?one.	 ?	 ?Like	 ?the	 ?chants	 ?of	 ?the	 ?frenetic	 ?crowd	 ?roused	 ?by	 ?de	 ?Gaulle?s	 ?speech,	 ?one	 ?is	 ?lost	 ?among	 ?the	 ?voices	 ?of	 ?the	 ?third	 ?section	 ?that	 ?ebb	 ?and	 ?flow	 ?like	 ?waves	 ?in	 ?a	 ?roaring	 ?sea.	 ?Anhalt	 ?challenges	 ?the	 ?listener	 ?to	 ?come	 ?to	 ?his/her	 ?own	 ?interpretation	 ?of	 ?this	 ?aural	 ?environment,	 ?and	 ?to	 ?ask	 ?him/herself:	 ?Is	 ?the	 ?submission	 ?of	 ?diverse	 ?identities	 ?into	 ?a	 ?unified	 ?voice	 ?soothing	 ?and	 ?meditative,	 ?or	 ?does	 ?it	 ?rob	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?of	 ?his/her	 ?unique	 ?thoughts	 ?and	 ?opinions?	 ?The	 ?amorphous	 ?cloud	 ?of	 ?sound	 ?in	 ?this	 ?section	 ?is	 ?a	 ?reflection	 ?of	 ?the	 ?dilemma	 ?that	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?of	 ?late	 ?modernity	 ?encounters	 ?when	 ?faced	 ?with	 ?the	 ?awareness	 ?that	 ?while	 ?social	 ?conformity	 ?carries	 ?with	 ?it	 ?the	 ?benefit	 ?of	 ?belonging,	 ?it	 ?also	 ?contains	 ?the	 ?risk	 ?of	 ?obliterating	 ?one?s	 ?individuality.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ? 98	 ?4.2.4	 ?Section	 ?4	 ?(mm.	 ?61-??92)	 ?In	 ?the	 ?final	 ?section	 ?of	 ??Individuals?	 ?(mm.	 ?61-??92),	 ?the	 ?density	 ?of	 ?the	 ?music	 ?diffuses	 ?and	 ?separate	 ?voices	 ?become	 ?distinguishable	 ?once	 ?again.	 ?Just	 ?as	 ?the	 ?throbbing	 ?drone	 ?of	 ?the	 ?third	 ?section	 ?submerges	 ?the	 ?listener	 ?into	 ?a	 ?meditative	 ?state,	 ?the	 ?fourth	 ?section	 ?begins	 ?with	 ?a	 ?rapid	 ?glissando	 ?in	 ?the	 ?violin	 ?and	 ?an	 ?upward	 ?swooping	 ?sound	 ?created	 ?by	 ?sine	 ?tones	 ?coming	 ?from	 ?tape	 ?channels	 ?3	 ?and	 ?4.	 ?These	 ?shrill	 ?tones	 ?waver	 ?and	 ?vibrate	 ?rapidly	 ?around	 ?high-??frequency	 ?pitches	 ?that	 ?strain	 ?to	 ?suspend	 ?themselves	 ?in	 ?the	 ?air.	 ?At	 ?m.	 ?65,	 ?the	 ?flautist	 ?who	 ?is	 ?playing	 ?a	 ?harmonic	 ?A	 ?is	 ?instructed	 ?to	 ?modulate	 ?slowly	 ?by	 ?quartertones.	 ?Starting	 ?at	 ?m.	 ?68,	 ?the	 ?double	 ?bass	 ?and	 ?the	 ?violin	 ?join	 ?in	 ?and	 ?imitate	 ?the	 ?fluctuating	 ?sine	 ?tone,	 ?while	 ?the	 ?crotales	 ?and	 ?vibes	 ?sustain	 ?a	 ?(012)	 ?cluster.	 ?At	 ?this	 ?point,	 ?the	 ?allusion	 ?to	 ??Icons?	 ?is	 ?clear.	 ?The	 ?transformation	 ?of	 ?the	 ?music	 ?into	 ?a	 ?dense,	 ?electronic-??infused	 ?aural	 ?landscape	 ?is	 ?the	 ?same	 ?as	 ?that	 ?heard	 ?in	 ?section	 ?3	 ?(mm.	 ?36-??49)	 ?of	 ??Icons?	 ?when	 ?Saint	 ?Elijah	 ?and	 ?his	 ?fiery	 ?chariot	 ?were	 ?evoked	 ?(Figure	 ?4.9).	 ? 	 ?	 ?	 ? 99	 ?	 ? 	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ? 	 ?	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?4.9	 ?Comparison	 ?of	 ?mm.	 ?36-??42	 ?of	 ??Icons?	 ?(left)	 ?with	 ?mm.	 ?73-??78	 ?of	 ??Individual	 ?(right)	 ? 100	 ?In	 ??Icons,?	 ?the	 ?encroachment	 ?of	 ?the	 ?electronics	 ?and	 ?the	 ?use	 ?of	 ?extended	 ?techniques	 ?by	 ?the	 ?acoustic	 ?instruments	 ?created	 ?a	 ?feeling	 ?of	 ?unease	 ?and	 ?anxiety.	 ?The	 ?individual	 ?was	 ?reminded	 ?that	 ?religious	 ?figures	 ?are	 ?merely	 ?symbolic,	 ?and	 ?of	 ?the	 ?increasingly	 ?abstract	 ?and	 ?distant	 ?role	 ?that	 ?religion	 ?had	 ?come	 ?to	 ?play	 ?in	 ?the	 ?late-??modern	 ?age.	 ?The	 ?rising	 ?influence	 ?of	 ?the	 ?empirical	 ?sciences	 ?combined	 ?with	 ?encounters	 ?with	 ?foreign	 ?faiths	 ?and	 ?new	 ?forms	 ?of	 ?spirituality	 ?encouraged	 ?uncertainties	 ?in	 ?the	 ?minds	 ?and	 ?hearts	 ?of	 ?the	 ?faithful.	 ?In	 ??Individuals,?	 ?Anhalt	 ?shows	 ?that	 ?encounters	 ?with	 ?foreign	 ?people	 ?and	 ?traditions	 ?create	 ?personal	 ?complications	 ?as	 ?well.	 ?In	 ?some	 ?cases,	 ?these	 ?interactions	 ?result	 ?in	 ?enlightening	 ?and	 ?harmonious	 ?cultural	 ?diversity.	 ?However,	 ?in	 ?other	 ?cases,	 ?incompatible	 ?thinking	 ?and	 ?misunderstandings	 ?create	 ?conflict	 ?and	 ?strife.	 ?How	 ?does	 ?one	 ?overcome	 ?this	 ?challenge?	 ?In	 ?the	 ?final	 ?section	 ?of	 ??Individuals,?	 ?Anhalt	 ?utilizes	 ?the	 ?power	 ?of	 ?folktales	 ?and	 ?myths	 ?to	 ?reveal	 ?a	 ?commonality	 ?between	 ?peoples	 ?of	 ?the	 ?world.	 ?	 ?The	 ?texts	 ?that	 ?are	 ?used	 ?in	 ?this	 ?section	 ?come	 ?from	 ?a	 ?variety	 ?of	 ?different	 ?histories	 ?and	 ?cultures:	 ?a	 ?male	 ?voice	 ?recites	 ?in	 ?English	 ?a	 ?passage	 ?from	 ?Acts	 ?2:6	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Bible	 ?that	 ?tells	 ?the	 ?story	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Holy	 ?Spirit	 ?at	 ?Pentecost	 ?(mm.	 ?62-??72);	 ?another	 ?voice	 ?reads	 ?a	 ?Hungarian	 ?translation	 ?of	 ?an	 ?excerpt	 ?from	 ?Homer?s	 ?Odyssey,	 ?where	 ?the	 ?goddess	 ?Athena?s	 ?voice	 ?is	 ?heard	 ?warning	 ?Odysseus	 ?of	 ?his	 ?journey	 ?ahead	 ?(mm.	 ?73-??85);	 ?and	 ?another	 ?foreboding	 ?voice	 ?is	 ?heard	 ?describing	 ?the	 ?cold,	 ?supernatural	 ?realm	 ?where	 ?the	 ?Babylonian	 ?goddess	 ?of	 ?love	 ?and	 ?war,	 ?Ishtar,	 ?must	 ?travel	 ?to	 ?save	 ?her	 ?beloved	 ?(mm.	 ?75-??86).	 ?The	 ?stories	 ?from	 ?which	 ?these	 ?selections	 ?are	 ?taken	 ?all	 ?emphasis	 ?the	 ?power	 ?that	 ?voices	 ?have	 ?in	 ?passing	 ?on	 ?wisdom	 ?as	 ?well	 ?as	 ?in	 ?bringing	 ?people	 ?together.	 ?For	 ?example,	 ?the	 ?tale	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Holy	 ?Spirit	 ?at	 ?Pentecost	 ?describes	 ?a	 ?	 ? 101	 ?story	 ?when	 ?the	 ?Holy	 ?Spirit	 ?descended	 ?down	 ?to	 ?the	 ?aid	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Twelve	 ?Apostles	 ?who	 ?were	 ?trying	 ?to	 ?convince	 ?non-??believers	 ?of	 ?the	 ?power	 ?of	 ?God.	 ?Through	 ?a	 ?mighty	 ?gust	 ?of	 ?wind,	 ?the	 ?Spirit	 ?entered	 ?the	 ?Apostles	 ?and	 ?gave	 ?them	 ?the	 ?gift	 ?of	 ?tongues,	 ?which	 ?allowed	 ?them	 ?to	 ?communicate	 ?to	 ?all	 ?of	 ?the	 ?people	 ?surrounding	 ?them	 ?in	 ?their	 ?native	 ?language,	 ?thus	 ?breaking	 ?down	 ?the	 ?language	 ?barriers	 ?that	 ?had	 ?been	 ?erected	 ?following	 ?the	 ?collapse	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Tower	 ?of	 ?Babel.	 ?In	 ?Athena?s	 ?admonition	 ?of	 ?Odysseus,	 ?she	 ?passes	 ?on	 ?the	 ?wisdom	 ?of	 ?the	 ?gods	 ?to	 ?a	 ?mortal,	 ?steeling	 ?him	 ?for	 ?the	 ?challenges	 ?ahead.	 ?Finally,	 ?in	 ?the	 ?story	 ?of	 ?Isthar?s	 ?descent,	 ?the	 ?goddess	 ?commands	 ?with	 ?her	 ?powerful	 ?voice	 ?that	 ?the	 ?guards	 ?grant	 ?her	 ?entry	 ?into	 ?the	 ?land	 ?of	 ?no	 ?return.	 ?Should	 ?her	 ?request	 ?be	 ?denied,	 ?she	 ?warns	 ?of	 ?the	 ?fury	 ?and	 ?wrath	 ?that	 ?she	 ?would	 ?unleash	 ?upon	 ?the	 ?world.	 ?Anhalt	 ?describes	 ?the	 ?kind	 ?of	 ?voice	 ?he	 ?wanted	 ?to	 ?have	 ?narrate	 ?this	 ?tense	 ?confrontation:	 ??I	 ?needed	 ?a	 ?voice	 ?from	 ?the	 ?underworld,	 ?perhaps	 ?that	 ?of	 ?the	 ?gatekeeper	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Land	 ?of	 ?No	 ?Return.?121	 ?Regardless	 ?of	 ?whether	 ?or	 ?not	 ?the	 ?listener	 ?is	 ?familiar	 ?with	 ?the	 ?details	 ?and	 ?histories	 ?of	 ?these	 ?stories,	 ?upon	 ?hearing	 ?the	 ?voices	 ?that	 ?deliver	 ?them,	 ?one	 ?can	 ?still	 ?be	 ?affected	 ?by	 ?the	 ?emotional	 ?investment	 ?that	 ?the	 ?speakers	 ?have	 ?put	 ?into	 ?their	 ?telling.	 ?Anhalt	 ?believed	 ?in	 ?the	 ?power	 ?that	 ?voices	 ?had	 ?in	 ?touching	 ?a	 ?listener?s	 ?subconscious.	 ?The	 ?human	 ?connection	 ?felt	 ?upon	 ?hearing	 ?another	 ?person?s	 ?voice	 ?recounting	 ?tales	 ?from	 ?an	 ?ancient	 ?past	 ?breaks	 ?past	 ?the	 ?barriers	 ?of	 ?cultural	 ?and	 ?language	 ?differences.	 ?Exposure	 ?to	 ?many	 ?new	 ?identities	 ?had	 ?become	 ?a	 ?common	 ?experience	 ?in	 ?the	 ?late-??modern	 ?world,	 ?and	 ?these	 ?encounters	 ?were	 ?newly	 ?shaping	 ?the	 ?individual?s	 ?own	 ?identity.	 ?The	 ?notion	 ?that	 ?a	 ?single	 ?adjective	 ?could	 ?define	 ?a	 ?person?s	 ?identity	 ?(Canadian,	 ?Jewish,	 ?or	 ?male,	 ?for	 ?example)	 ?was	 ?becoming	 ?increasingly	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?121	 ?Anhalt,	 ??About	 ?Foci,?	 ?58.	 ?	 ? 102	 ?obsolete.	 ?One	 ?was	 ?a	 ?mosaic	 ?of	 ?accumulated	 ?experiences	 ?and	 ?encounters.	 ?In	 ?an	 ?interview	 ?with	 ?musicologist	 ?Robin	 ?Elliot,	 ?Anhalt	 ?elaborated	 ?on	 ?this	 ?new	 ?definition	 ?of	 ?identity,	 ?which	 ?he	 ?himself	 ?felt	 ?acutely:	 ??An	 ?immigrant	 ?composer,	 ?when	 ?in	 ?a	 ?new	 ?place	 ?of	 ?residence,	 ?experiences	 ?a	 ?crisis	 ?that	 ?is	 ?characterized	 ?by	 ?what	 ?[Lydia	 ?Goehr]	 ?calls	 ?doubleness.	 ?Well,	 ?why	 ?double?	 ?Why	 ?not	 ?multiple?	 ?A	 ?person	 ?might	 ?have	 ?led	 ?a	 ?complex	 ?life,	 ?which	 ?is	 ?not	 ?homogenous;	 ?it	 ?might	 ?have	 ?consisted	 ?of	 ?a	 ?number	 ?of	 ?elements,	 ?influences,	 ?insights,	 ?whatever.?122	 ?	 ?For	 ?Anhalt,	 ?an	 ?individual?s	 ?identity	 ?is	 ?something	 ?one	 ?crafts	 ?from	 ?the	 ?interaction	 ?of	 ?one?s	 ?personal	 ?beliefs	 ?with	 ?experiences	 ?gained	 ?from	 ?encountering	 ?new	 ?ideas	 ?and	 ?cultures,	 ?and	 ?in	 ??Individuals,?	 ?Anhalt	 ?emphasizes	 ?that	 ?it	 ?is	 ?important	 ?to	 ?keep	 ?in	 ?mind	 ?that	 ?the	 ?exchange	 ?occurs	 ?both	 ?ways:	 ?identities	 ?are	 ?not	 ?insular	 ?and	 ?esoteric	 ?entities;	 ?similarities	 ?can	 ?be	 ?found	 ?among	 ?the	 ?most	 ?diverse	 ?of	 ?people	 ?and	 ?folk	 ?tales,	 ?which	 ?can	 ?help	 ?to	 ?form	 ?bounds	 ?and	 ?friendships.	 ?In	 ?the	 ?late-??modern	 ?age,	 ?exposure	 ?to	 ?difference	 ?and	 ?variety	 ?had	 ?increased	 ?exponentially,	 ?which	 ?led	 ?to	 ?an	 ?inevitable	 ?rethinking	 ?of	 ?identity.	 ?The	 ?last	 ?line	 ?spoken	 ?in	 ??Individuals,?	 ??What	 ?meaneth	 ?this??,	 ?could	 ?be	 ?an	 ?inquiry	 ?of	 ?the	 ?late-??modern	 ?individual	 ?as	 ?s/he	 ?faces	 ?the	 ?challenges	 ?and	 ?questions	 ?of	 ?what	 ?these	 ?sociological	 ?changes	 ?mean	 ?for	 ?him/herself.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?122	 ?Anhalt,	 ??On	 ?Doubleness	 ?and	 ?Life	 ?in	 ?Canada:	 ?An	 ?Interview	 ?with	 ?Istv?n	 ?Anhalt,?	 ?in	 ?Sallis,	 ?Elliott,	 ?and	 ?DeLong,	 ?Centre	 ?and	 ?Periphery,	 ?Roots	 ?and	 ?Exile,	 ?423.	 ?	 ? 103	 ?4.3	 ??Group?	 ?(Movement	 ?6)	 ?Sometimes,	 ?rather	 ?than	 ?supplementing	 ?and	 ?nourishing	 ?an	 ?individual?s	 ?identity,	 ?encounters	 ?with	 ?many	 ?other	 ?people	 ?can	 ?be	 ?overwhelming.	 ?In	 ??Group,?	 ?the	 ?movement	 ?that	 ?follows	 ??Individuals,?	 ?the	 ?listener	 ?is	 ?thrown	 ?into	 ?a	 ?confusing	 ?mix	 ?of	 ?taped	 ?voices,	 ?electronic	 ?sounds,	 ?and	 ?instrumental	 ?duets.	 ?Because	 ?of	 ?the	 ?sheer	 ?density	 ?of	 ?sound	 ?events	 ?that	 ?are	 ?occurring	 ?all	 ?at	 ?once,	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?is	 ?unable	 ?to	 ?decipher	 ?and	 ?follow	 ?any	 ?particular	 ?strand	 ?of	 ?conversation	 ?recorded	 ?on	 ?the	 ?tape	 ?and	 ?is	 ?swallowed	 ?up	 ?by	 ?the	 ?sonic	 ?mass.	 ?Only	 ?the	 ?most	 ?attentive	 ?listener	 ?may	 ?be	 ?able	 ?to	 ?pick	 ?out	 ?the	 ?first	 ?words	 ?spoken	 ?by	 ?a	 ?faint,	 ?female	 ?voice:	 ??A	 ?lot	 ?of	 ?very	 ?ordinary	 ?and	 ?small	 ?things.?	 ?Following	 ?this	 ?statement,	 ?it	 ?becomes	 ?nearly	 ?impossible	 ?for	 ?one	 ?to	 ?comprehend	 ?anything	 ?else	 ?in	 ?the	 ?movement.	 ?The	 ?text	 ?becomes	 ?what	 ?Anhalt	 ?describes	 ?as	 ?a	 ??continuous	 ?dense	 ?interplay	 ?of	 ?spoken	 ?English	 ?phrases,?	 ?which	 ?is	 ?indeed	 ?precisely	 ?what	 ?the	 ?female	 ?voice	 ?describes.123	 ?After	 ?the	 ?introductory	 ?phrase	 ?by	 ?the	 ?female	 ?voice,	 ?the	 ?tape	 ?part,	 ?which	 ?contains	 ?a	 ?vast	 ?array	 ?of	 ?conversational	 ?segments	 ?and	 ?electronic	 ?blips,	 ?floods	 ?the	 ?listener	 ?with	 ?a	 ?dense	 ?cloud	 ?of	 ?sounds.	 ?At	 ?the	 ?same	 ?time,	 ?five	 ?instrumental	 ?pairs	 ?are	 ?cued	 ?in	 ?one	 ?after	 ?the	 ?other	 ?by	 ?the	 ?conductor.	 ?Each	 ?pair	 ?plays	 ?a	 ?short	 ?passage	 ?that	 ?lasts	 ?for	 ?approximately	 ?fifteen	 ?seconds	 ?before	 ?it	 ?is	 ?instructed	 ?to	 ?stop	 ?and	 ?allow	 ?the	 ?next	 ?pair	 ?to	 ?play.	 ?These	 ?passages	 ?consist	 ?of	 ?a	 ?sequence	 ?of	 ?musical	 ?cells	 ?that	 ?are	 ?chosen	 ?by	 ?the	 ?performers	 ?from	 ?a	 ?selection	 ?that	 ?Anhalt	 ?offers	 ?in	 ?the	 ?score.	 ?The	 ?following	 ?is	 ?an	 ?example	 ?of	 ?a	 ?page	 ?of	 ?cells	 ?available	 ?to	 ?the	 ?flutist	 ?and	 ?clarinetist	 ?(Figure	 ?4.10):	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?123	 ?Anhalt,	 ?score	 ?of	 ?Foci,	 ?53.	 ?	 ?	 ? 104	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?4.10	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?6	 ??	 ??Group,?	 ?first	 ?10	 ?cells	 ?for	 ?flute	 ?and	 ?clarinet	 ?	 ?	 ? 	 ?	 ? 105	 ?As	 ?in	 ?the	 ?first	 ?section	 ?of	 ??Individuals,?	 ?each	 ?instrument	 ?has	 ?a	 ?unique	 ??voice?	 ?that	 ?is	 ?characterized	 ?by	 ?a	 ?preference	 ?for	 ?certain	 ?musical	 ?figures	 ?and	 ?intervals.	 ?Each	 ?instrument	 ?is	 ?paired	 ?up	 ?with	 ?another	 ?that	 ?has	 ?a	 ?similar	 ?voice	 ?but	 ?which	 ?is	 ?not	 ?completely	 ?identical.	 ?These	 ?pairs	 ?are	 ?flute	 ?and	 ?clarinet,	 ?trombone	 ?and	 ?double	 ?bass,	 ?violin	 ?and	 ?cello,	 ?piano	 ?and	 ?celesta,	 ?and	 ?a	 ?marimba	 ?duet.	 ?In	 ?Cell	 ?1	 ?(Figure	 ?4.10),	 ?we	 ?see	 ?both	 ?the	 ?flute	 ?and	 ?clarinet	 ?play	 ?predominantly	 ?augmented	 ?octaves	 ?and	 ?unisons.	 ?They	 ?also	 ?synchronize	 ?together	 ?in	 ?their	 ?playing	 ?as	 ?well	 ?as	 ?moments	 ?when	 ?they	 ?are	 ?silent.	 ?Thus,	 ?rather	 ?than	 ?emulating	 ?a	 ?dialogue	 ?where	 ?there	 ?is	 ?an	 ?give-??and-??take	 ?of	 ?opinions	 ?expressed	 ?by	 ?two	 ?speakers,	 ?here,	 ?the	 ?instruments?	 ?voices	 ?clash	 ?and	 ?blur	 ?together,	 ?unable	 ?to	 ?communicate	 ?their	 ?points	 ?clearly	 ?towards	 ?the	 ?other	 ?because	 ?neither	 ?is	 ?willing	 ?to	 ?stay	 ?quiet	 ?and	 ?listen	 ?while	 ?the	 ?other	 ?is	 ?speaking.	 ?It	 ?is	 ?as	 ?though	 ?each	 ?instrument	 ?is	 ?absorbed	 ?in	 ?delivering	 ?its	 ?own	 ?monologue	 ?and	 ?speaks	 ?without	 ?noticing	 ?whether	 ?or	 ?not	 ?the	 ?other	 ?instrument	 ?has	 ?anything	 ?to	 ?contribute.	 ?Not	 ?only	 ?are	 ?the	 ?instruments	 ?unable	 ?to	 ?communicate	 ?with	 ?one	 ?another,	 ?but	 ?their	 ?speeches	 ?are	 ?also	 ?incomprehensible	 ?to	 ?the	 ?listener.	 ?Anhalt	 ?describes	 ?the	 ?effect	 ?he	 ?hoped	 ?to	 ?achieve	 ?in	 ?this	 ?movement	 ?as	 ?follows:	 ?The	 ?movement	 ??Group?	 ?enacts	 ?a	 ?furious	 ?quasi	 ?cocktail	 ?party	 ?where	 ?a	 ?multiplicity	 ?of	 ?people	 ?talk	 ?simultaneously,	 ?and	 ?from	 ?this	 ?din	 ?the	 ?hearer	 ?tries,	 ?and	 ?succeeds,	 ?to	 ?snatch	 ?a	 ?word	 ?or	 ?two,	 ?wondering	 ?about	 ?their	 ?context,	 ?purpose,	 ?and	 ?relevance	 ?to	 ?the	 ?one	 ?who	 ?overheard	 ?them.	 ?Could	 ?this	 ?movement	 ?also	 ?stand	 ?as	 ?an	 ?enactment	 ?of	 ?trying	 ?to	 ?make	 ?sense	 ?of	 ?a	 ?context	 ?or	 ?situation	 ?under	 ?difficult	 ?conditions?124	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?124	 ?Anhalt,	 ??A	 ?Continuing	 ?Thread?	 ?Perhaps,?	 ?in	 ?Elliot	 ?and	 ?Smith,	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?441.	 ?	 ? 106	 ?There	 ?were	 ?many	 ??difficult	 ?conditions?	 ?that	 ?permeated	 ?the	 ?social	 ?environment	 ?of	 ?Foci?s	 ?conception	 ?to	 ?which	 ?Anhalt	 ?may	 ?have	 ?been	 ?alluding.	 ?In	 ?Foci?s	 ?companion	 ?piece	 ?that	 ?was	 ?composed	 ?two	 ?years	 ?prior,	 ?Cento	 ?(1967),	 ?Anhalt	 ?had	 ?already	 ?begun	 ?exploring	 ?feelings	 ?of	 ?conflict	 ?and	 ?alienation	 ?that	 ?he	 ?felt	 ?were	 ?pervading	 ?the	 ?lives	 ?and	 ?interactions	 ?of	 ?individuals	 ?who	 ?lived	 ?in	 ?the	 ?urban	 ?centres	 ?of	 ?the	 ?late-??modern	 ?age:	 ?	 ?Cento	 ?was	 ?meant	 ?to	 ?evoke	 ?situations	 ?in	 ?which	 ?small	 ?and	 ?middle-??sized	 ?groups	 ?of	 ?people	 ?interact	 ?with	 ?one	 ?another.	 ?While	 ?doing	 ?so,	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?and	 ?the	 ?sub-??groups	 ?constituting	 ?the	 ?whole	 ?go	 ?through	 ?a	 ?series	 ?of	 ?thought/feeling	 ?states	 ?and	 ?corresponding	 ?vocal	 ?behaviours.	 ?It	 ?is	 ?an	 ?expression	 ?of	 ?urban	 ?existence.	 ?It	 ?speaks	 ?of	 ?the	 ?inhabitants,	 ?the	 ?machines,	 ?the	 ?physical	 ?environment	 ?of	 ?a	 ?large	 ?city.	 ?In	 ?focus	 ?are	 ?the	 ?individuals	 ?as	 ?they	 ?are	 ?striving	 ?to	 ?maintain	 ?their	 ?identity	 ?under	 ?the	 ?impact	 ?of	 ?forces	 ?which	 ?tend	 ?to	 ?make	 ?them	 ?anonymous,	 ?interchangeable,	 ?and	 ?in	 ?some	 ?extreme	 ?instances	 ?even	 ?dispensable.125	 ?	 ?	 ?Like	 ?Cento,	 ??Group?	 ?in	 ?Foci	 ?is	 ?a	 ?portrayal	 ?of	 ?the	 ?individual?s	 ?struggle	 ?to	 ?maintain	 ?autonomy	 ?within	 ?the	 ?faceless	 ?mass	 ?and	 ?among	 ?a	 ?swarm	 ?of	 ?competing	 ?voices.	 ?Anhalt?s	 ?approach	 ?to	 ?indeterminacy	 ?can	 ?be	 ?seen	 ?as	 ?a	 ?metaphor	 ?for	 ?the	 ?individual?s	 ?attempt	 ?to	 ?exercise	 ?a	 ?certain	 ?degree	 ?of	 ?freedom	 ?while	 ?restrained	 ?by	 ?situational	 ?circumstances.	 ?Previous	 ?works	 ?had	 ?already	 ?utilized	 ?a	 ?similar	 ?approach,	 ?notably	 ?Stockhausen?s	 ?Klavierst?cke	 ?XI	 ?(1956)	 ?and	 ?Earle	 ?Brown?s	 ?Twenty-??five	 ?Pages	 ?(1953)	 ?for	 ?piano(s).	 ?In	 ?these	 ?pieces,	 ?fragments	 ?of	 ?music	 ?are	 ?randomly	 ?distributed	 ?over	 ?a	 ?large	 ?piece	 ?of	 ?paper	 ?or	 ?onto	 ?separate	 ?sheets	 ?of	 ?paper,	 ?and	 ?the	 ?performer	 ?is	 ?given	 ?the	 ?opportunity	 ?to	 ?choose	 ?the	 ?sequence	 ?of	 ?fragments	 ?that	 ?s/he	 ?wishes	 ?to	 ?play.	 ?The	 ?basic	 ?premise	 ?of	 ?these	 ?works	 ?is	 ?that	 ?the	 ?composer	 ?provides	 ?the	 ?building	 ?blocks	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?125	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Anthology	 ?of	 ?Canadian	 ?Music:	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt.	 ?Vancouver:	 ?Radio	 ?Canada	 ?International,	 ?1985.	 ?LP?s.	 ?Program	 ?Notes.	 ?	 ? 107	 ?and	 ?framework	 ?for	 ?the	 ?work,	 ?but	 ?leaves	 ?it	 ?up	 ?to	 ?the	 ?performer	 ?to	 ?compile	 ?and	 ?put	 ?together	 ?the	 ?pieces.	 ?In	 ??Group,?	 ?the	 ?performers	 ?are	 ?given	 ?the	 ?freedom	 ?to	 ?choose	 ?for	 ?themselves	 ?which	 ?cells	 ?to	 ?perform	 ?and	 ?in	 ?what	 ?order.	 ?However,	 ?they	 ?still	 ?remain	 ?restricted	 ?by	 ?the	 ?parameters	 ?of	 ?the	 ?cells	 ?themselves.	 ?	 ?The	 ?notion	 ?of	 ?a	 ?performer?s	 ?freedom	 ?to	 ?choose	 ?while	 ?simultaneously	 ?bound	 ?by	 ?the	 ?requirements	 ?of	 ?the	 ?score	 ?has	 ?a	 ?sociological	 ?parallel.	 ?In	 ?Interaction	 ?Ritual:	 ?Essays	 ?in	 ?Face-??to-??Face	 ?Behavior	 ?(1967),	 ?sociologist	 ?Erving	 ?Goffman	 ?dissects	 ?in	 ?painstaking	 ?detail	 ?the	 ?act	 ?of	 ?human	 ?interactions.	 ?His	 ?thesis	 ?revolves	 ?around	 ?the	 ?idea	 ?that	 ?all	 ?successful	 ?interactions	 ?operate	 ?within	 ?the	 ?confines	 ?and	 ?conventions	 ?of	 ?culturally	 ?engrained	 ?rules	 ?and	 ?regulations.	 ?While	 ?an	 ?individual	 ?may	 ?feel	 ?as	 ?though	 ?s/he	 ?is	 ?free	 ?to	 ?act	 ?in	 ?any	 ?way	 ?s/he	 ?wishes,	 ?society	 ?places	 ?many	 ?subconscious,	 ?psychological	 ?boundaries	 ?and	 ?restrictions	 ?on	 ?what	 ?one	 ?can	 ?or	 ?cannot	 ?do	 ?should	 ?s/he	 ?wish	 ?to	 ?live	 ?harmoniously	 ?with	 ?others.	 ?The	 ?choices	 ?that	 ?an	 ?individual	 ?makes	 ?are	 ?part	 ?of	 ?what	 ?Goffman	 ?calls	 ?the	 ?ritual	 ?of	 ?interaction:	 ??I	 ?use	 ?the	 ?term	 ?ritual	 ?because	 ?I	 ?am	 ?dealing	 ?with	 ?acts	 ?through	 ?whose	 ?symbolic	 ?component	 ?the	 ?actor	 ?shows	 ?how	 ?worthy	 ?he	 ?is	 ?of	 ?respect	 ?or	 ?how	 ?worthy	 ?he	 ?feels	 ?others	 ?are	 ?of	 ?it?	 ?One?s	 ?face,	 ?then,	 ?is	 ?a	 ?sacred	 ?thing,	 ?and	 ?the	 ?expressive	 ?order	 ?required	 ?to	 ?sustain	 ?it	 ?is	 ?therefore	 ?a	 ?ritual	 ?one.?126	 ?Goffman	 ?goes	 ?on	 ?to	 ?describe	 ?the	 ?concept	 ?of	 ?face	 ?as	 ?an	 ?image	 ?of	 ?the	 ?self	 ?that	 ?an	 ?individual	 ?desires	 ?to	 ?share	 ?and	 ?have	 ?acknowledged	 ?by	 ?his/her	 ?peers.127	 ?This	 ?socially-??perceived	 ?image	 ?is	 ?one	 ?part	 ?of	 ?an	 ?individual?s	 ?multi-??faceted	 ?identity,	 ?and	 ?it	 ?determines,	 ?to	 ?a	 ?certain	 ?degree,	 ?who	 ?an	 ?individual	 ?is.	 ?Some	 ?acts,	 ?such	 ?as	 ?violence,	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?126	 ?Erving	 ?Goffman,	 ?Interaction	 ?Ritual:	 ?Essays	 ?in	 ?Face-??to-??Face	 ?Behavior	 ?(Chicago:	 ?Aldine	 ?Publishing	 ?Company,	 ?1967),	 ?19.	 ?Emphases	 ?are	 ?Goffman?s.	 ?	 ?127	 ?Ibid,	 ?5.	 ?	 ?	 ? 108	 ?cheating,	 ?or	 ?being	 ?anti-??social	 ?have	 ?widely	 ?acknowledged	 ?negative	 ?social	 ?consequences	 ?that	 ?contribute	 ?to	 ?a	 ??bad	 ?face.?	 ?Thus,	 ?many	 ?people	 ?choose	 ?not	 ?to	 ?engage	 ?in	 ?these	 ?acts	 ?even	 ?if	 ?their	 ?own	 ?personal	 ?desires	 ?compel	 ?them	 ?to	 ?do	 ?so	 ?because	 ?of	 ?what	 ?harm	 ?it	 ?can	 ?do	 ?to	 ?his/her	 ?identity.	 ?	 ?Seen	 ?in	 ?this	 ?way,	 ?a	 ?performer	 ?who	 ?engages	 ?with	 ?Anhalt?s	 ??controlled?	 ?indeterminacy,	 ?in	 ?the	 ?same	 ?way	 ?as	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?who	 ?is	 ?crafting	 ?out	 ?his/her	 ?identity,	 ?is	 ?always	 ?bound	 ?by	 ?the	 ?expectation	 ?of	 ?others.	 ?Economist	 ?Jacques	 ?Attali	 ?disparages	 ?of	 ?much	 ?of	 ?the	 ?music	 ?written	 ?during	 ?the	 ?1950?s	 ?and	 ?1960?s	 ?that	 ?professed	 ?to	 ?offer	 ?the	 ?performer	 ?freedom	 ?by	 ?drawing	 ?attention	 ?to	 ?what	 ?he	 ?saw	 ?as	 ?only	 ?an	 ?illusion	 ?of	 ?autonomy:	 ??Managing	 ?chance,	 ?drawing	 ?lots,	 ?doing	 ?anything	 ?at	 ?all,	 ?consigns	 ?the	 ?interpreter	 ?to	 ?a	 ?powerlessness,	 ?a	 ?transparency	 ?never	 ?before	 ?achieved:	 ?he	 ?is	 ?an	 ?executor	 ?bound	 ?by	 ?laws	 ?of	 ?probability,	 ?like	 ?the	 ?administrator	 ?in	 ?a	 ?repetitive	 ?society.?128	 ?Attali	 ?then	 ?goes	 ?on	 ?to	 ?show	 ?the	 ?connection	 ?between	 ?these	 ?compositional	 ?trends	 ?with	 ?the	 ?societal	 ?and	 ?economic	 ?changes	 ?of	 ?the	 ?late-??modern	 ?age:	 ?	 ?The	 ?place	 ?of	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?in	 ?the	 ?modern	 ?economy	 ?is	 ?no	 ?different	 ?from	 ?that	 ?of	 ?[the]	 ?interpreter:	 ?whatever	 ?he	 ?does,	 ?he	 ?is	 ?no	 ?more	 ?than	 ?an	 ?aleatory	 ?element	 ?in	 ?a	 ?statistical	 ?law.	 ?Even	 ?if	 ?in	 ?appearance	 ?everything	 ?is	 ?a	 ?possibility	 ?for	 ?him,	 ?on	 ?the	 ?average	 ?his	 ?behaviour	 ?obeys	 ?specifiable,	 ?abstract,	 ?ineluctable	 ?functional	 ?laws.	 ?Behind	 ?the	 ?disorder	 ?of	 ?the	 ?theory,	 ?then,	 ?lies	 ?a	 ?music	 ?of	 ?the	 ?mean,	 ?of	 ?anonymity	 ?reconstituted	 ?within	 ?a	 ?context	 ?of	 ?general	 ?individuality.129	 ?	 ?	 ? The	 ?idea	 ?that	 ?an	 ?individual	 ?can	 ?never	 ?escape	 ?from	 ?external	 ?economic	 ?and	 ?social	 ?influences	 ?while	 ?striving	 ?to	 ?maintain	 ?a	 ?public	 ?face	 ?is	 ?no	 ?different	 ?from	 ?the	 ?boundaries	 ?that	 ?consistently	 ?keep	 ?individuals	 ?from	 ?communicating	 ?and	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?128	 ?Jacques	 ?Attali,	 ?Noise:	 ?The	 ?Political	 ?Economy	 ?of	 ?Music,	 ?trans.	 ?Brian	 ?Massumi	 ?(University	 ?of	 ?Minnesota	 ?Press:	 ?Minneapolis,	 ?1985),	 ?114.	 ?	 ?129	 ?Ibid,	 ?114-??115.	 ?	 ? 109	 ?understanding	 ?one	 ?another.	 ?In	 ??Groups,?	 ?Anhalt	 ?reflects	 ?upon	 ?the	 ?confusion	 ?and	 ?struggles	 ?that	 ?the	 ?late-??modern	 ?individual	 ?encounters	 ?when	 ?his/her	 ?belief	 ?that	 ?s/he	 ?can	 ?freely	 ?connect	 ?with	 ?other	 ?human	 ?beings	 ?through	 ?spontaneous,	 ?innovative	 ?conversation	 ?turns	 ?out	 ?to	 ?be	 ?hindered	 ?and	 ?complicated	 ?by	 ?competing,	 ?egotistical	 ?needs	 ?and	 ?unspoken	 ?expectations.	 ?	 ?	 ?4.4	 ??Definition	 ?3	 ?-??	 ?Interaction?	 ?(Movement	 ?7)	 ?In	 ?the	 ?following	 ?movement,	 ??Definition	 ?3,?	 ?the	 ?movement	 ?that	 ?follows,	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?escapes	 ?from	 ?the	 ?crowd	 ?to	 ?seek	 ?a	 ?more	 ?intimate	 ?connection	 ?in	 ?a	 ?smaller	 ?setting.	 ?Perhaps	 ?when	 ?focused	 ?on	 ?a	 ?single	 ?person,	 ?communication	 ?can	 ?be	 ?more	 ?transparent.	 ?Yet,	 ?even	 ?here,	 ?Anhalt	 ?demonstrates	 ?that	 ?feelings	 ?of	 ?disconnect	 ?and	 ?apathy	 ?can	 ?still	 ?mar	 ?the	 ?process.	 ?The	 ?text	 ?used	 ?in	 ?this	 ?movement	 ?is	 ?the	 ?definition	 ?for	 ??Interaction,?	 ?which	 ?is	 ?recited	 ?by	 ?a	 ?male	 ?voice	 ?in	 ?English	 ?and	 ?by	 ?a	 ?female	 ?voice	 ?in	 ?French:	 ?Mutual	 ?or	 ?reciprocal	 ?influence	 ?between	 ?two	 ?or	 ?more	 ?systems,	 ?especially	 ?social	 ?interaction.	 ?That	 ?relation	 ?between	 ?animals	 ?in	 ?which	 ?the	 ?behaviour	 ?of	 ?either	 ?one	 ?is	 ?stimulus	 ?behaviour	 ?to	 ?the	 ?other.	 ?	 ?	 ?Influence	 ?mutuelle	 ?ou	 ?r?ciproque	 ?entre	 ?deux	 ?syst?mes	 ?ou	 ?plus	 ?et	 ?specialement	 ?l?interaction	 ?sociale.	 ?Relation	 ?entre	 ?deux	 ?animaux	 ?au	 ?sein	 ?de	 ?laquelle	 ?le	 ?comportement	 ?de	 ?l?un	 ?est	 ?le	 ?stimulus	 ?de	 ?comportement	 ?de	 ?l?autre.	 ?	 ?	 ?The	 ?voices	 ?state	 ?the	 ?standardized	 ?terminology	 ?in	 ?a	 ?factual	 ?manner,	 ?each	 ?proceeding	 ?at	 ?its	 ?own	 ?pace,	 ?making	 ?little	 ?effort	 ?to	 ?react	 ?and	 ?respond	 ?to	 ?the	 ?other.	 ?Because	 ?they	 ?are	 ?reciting	 ?the	 ?same	 ?content,	 ?there	 ?is	 ?no	 ?transfer	 ?of	 ?new	 ?information	 ?to	 ?stimulate	 ?a	 ?fruitful	 ?dialogue.	 ?Thus,	 ?there	 ?is	 ?no	 ?personal	 ?exchange	 ?of	 ?opinions	 ?or	 ?	 ? 110	 ?stories	 ?like	 ?that	 ?heard	 ?in	 ??Individuals.?	 ?Anhalt	 ?elaborates	 ?on	 ?the	 ?mood	 ?and	 ?social	 ?context	 ?he	 ?wished	 ?to	 ?capture	 ?in	 ?this	 ?movement:	 ?	 ?The	 ?setting	 ?features	 ?the	 ?voices	 ?of	 ?a	 ?French	 ?woman	 ?and	 ?an	 ?English	 ?man	 ?talking	 ?past	 ?each	 ?other,	 ?each	 ?oblivious	 ?of	 ?the	 ?other?s	 ?presence,	 ?or	 ?pretending	 ?not	 ?to	 ?have	 ?noticed	 ?the	 ??other.?	 ?In	 ?the	 ?context	 ?of	 ?the	 ?situation	 ?in	 ?Montreal	 ?in	 ?the	 ?late	 ?1960s	 ?this	 ?was	 ?an	 ?altogether	 ?possible	 ?event.	 ?The	 ?nature	 ?of	 ?the	 ?eerie	 ?accompaniment	 ?enhances	 ?this	 ??reality	 ?in	 ?unreality?	 ?effect.130	 ?	 ?Not	 ?all	 ?encounters	 ?between	 ?different	 ?individuals	 ?are	 ?necessarily	 ?confrontational.	 ?As	 ?this	 ?movement	 ?demonstrates,	 ?apathy	 ?and	 ?a	 ?retreat	 ?into	 ?one?s	 ?own	 ?world	 ?are	 ?other	 ?ways	 ?of	 ?dealing	 ?with	 ?the	 ?presence	 ?of	 ?the	 ??other,?	 ?and	 ?ways	 ?that	 ?Anhalt	 ?felt	 ?were	 ?becoming	 ?disturbingly	 ?prevalent	 ?in	 ?Montreal:	 ??Dark	 ?clouds	 ?appeared	 ?on	 ?the	 ?horizon.	 ?The	 ?two	 ?major	 ?ethnic	 ?and	 ?linguistic	 ?populations	 ?of	 ?Montreal	 ?began	 ?to	 ?show	 ?increasing	 ?irresolvable	 ?antagonisms	 ?toward	 ?one	 ?another.	 ?I	 ?was	 ?worried	 ?on	 ?account	 ?of	 ?this:	 ?anxious	 ?regarding	 ?both	 ?groups.?131	 ?Inspired	 ?by	 ?the	 ?unease	 ?and	 ?strife	 ?that	 ?he	 ?felt	 ?around	 ?him	 ?during	 ?the	 ?time,	 ?Anhalt	 ?penned	 ?a	 ?short	 ?parable,	 ??The	 ?Bridge,?	 ?that	 ?was	 ?never	 ?published,	 ?but	 ?which	 ?he	 ?presented	 ?during	 ?a	 ?keynote	 ?address	 ?at	 ?a	 ?conference	 ?many	 ?years	 ?later.	 ?An	 ?excerpt	 ?of	 ?it	 ?follows:	 ?	 ?The	 ?bridge	 ?is	 ?no	 ?more.	 ?The	 ?pillars	 ?in	 ?the	 ?river	 ?are	 ?crumbling.	 ?Only	 ?the	 ?shouts	 ?are	 ?heard	 ?from	 ?the	 ?opposing	 ?shores	 ?in	 ?languages	 ?reciprocally	 ?no	 ?longer	 ?comprehensible.	 ?But	 ?the	 ?meaning	 ?of	 ?the	 ?gestures	 ?alongside	 ?the	 ?water	 ?is	 ?clear	 ?enough:	 ?the	 ?imploding	 ?fists,	 ?the	 ?windmills	 ?of	 ?the	 ?arms	 ?and	 ?the	 ?faces	 ?frozen	 ?in	 ?crooked	 ?mask?	 ?Other	 ?fears	 ?are	 ?also	 ?spreading	 ?around.	 ?Since	 ?the	 ?bridge	 ?is	 ?gone,	 ?there	 ?is	 ?no	 ?way	 ?of	 ?knowing	 ?what	 ?happened,	 ?or	 ?might	 ?happen,	 ?to	 ?those	 ?dear	 ?ones	 ?who	 ?got	 ?caught	 ?on	 ?the	 ?other	 ?side.132	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?130	 ?Anhalt,	 ??A	 ?Continuing	 ?Thread?	 ?Perhaps,?	 ?in	 ?Elliot	 ?and	 ?Smith,	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?441.	 ?131	 ?Anhalt,	 ??Of	 ?the	 ?Centre,	 ?Periphery;	 ?Exile,	 ?Liberation;	 ?Home	 ?and	 ?the	 ?Self,?	 ?in	 ?Centre	 ?and	 ?Periphery,	 ?Roots,	 ?and	 ?Exile,	 ?61.	 ?132	 ?Ibid.	 ?	 ?	 ? 111	 ?This	 ?sombre	 ?metaphor	 ?of	 ?a	 ?broken	 ?connection	 ?between	 ?two	 ?groups	 ?of	 ?people	 ?can	 ?be	 ?heard	 ?in	 ?the	 ?music	 ?of	 ??Definition	 ?3.?	 ?The	 ?movement	 ?is	 ?much	 ?sparser	 ?than	 ?the	 ?previous	 ?two.	 ?It	 ?begins	 ?with	 ?a	 ?nervous	 ?burst	 ?of	 ?activity	 ?in	 ?the	 ?instruments.	 ?For	 ?the	 ?first	 ?four	 ?measures,	 ?many	 ?of	 ?the	 ?instrumental	 ?entrances	 ?and	 ?attacks	 ?are	 ?offset	 ?from	 ?one	 ?another	 ?by	 ?fractions	 ?of	 ?a	 ?beat,	 ?as	 ?though	 ?upon	 ?being	 ?persuaded	 ?to	 ?interact	 ?with	 ?each	 ?other	 ?without	 ?preparation,	 ?they	 ?stumble	 ?to	 ?introduce	 ?themselves,	 ?tripping	 ?over	 ?one	 ?another	 ?while	 ?doing	 ?so.	 ?Awkward	 ?leaps	 ?of	 ?augmented	 ?octaves	 ?and	 ?ninths	 ?abound,	 ?causing	 ?the	 ?instruments?	 ?melodic	 ?lines	 ?to	 ?be	 ?heavily	 ?disjointed.	 ?The	 ?movement	 ?also	 ?continues	 ?the	 ?technique	 ?heard	 ?in	 ??Group?	 ?of	 ?paired	 ?instruments	 ?overlapping	 ?one	 ?another	 ?as	 ?they	 ?speak,	 ?rather	 ?than	 ?alternating	 ?their	 ?phrases	 ?to	 ?simulate	 ?the	 ?give-??and-??take	 ?of	 ?a	 ?dialogue	 ?(Figure	 ?4.11).	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ? 	 ?	 ? 112	 ?	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?4.11	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?7	 ??	 ??Definition	 ?3?	 ?mm.	 ?1-??4	 ?	 ?	 ? 113	 ?Throughout	 ?the	 ?entire	 ?movement,	 ?other	 ?than	 ?in	 ?one	 ?case	 ?(in	 ?the	 ?flute	 ?at	 ?m.	 ?1	 ?and	 ?5),	 ?none	 ?of	 ?the	 ?instruments	 ?repeat	 ?any	 ?gesture	 ?in	 ?exactly	 ?the	 ?same	 ?way.	 ?The	 ?unrelated	 ?gestures	 ?produce	 ?what	 ?Anhalt	 ?calls	 ??residue?	 ?chords,	 ?named	 ?for	 ?the	 ?resolutions	 ?they	 ?suggest	 ?but	 ?never	 ?produce,	 ?thus	 ?leaving	 ?behind	 ?only	 ?fragments	 ?of	 ?sounds	 ?that	 ?hint	 ?at	 ?something	 ?that	 ?could	 ?have	 ?been.	 ?Anhalt	 ?describes	 ?the	 ?effect	 ?he	 ?hoped	 ?to	 ?create	 ?in	 ?the	 ?movement	 ?by	 ?using	 ?these	 ?chords	 ?in	 ?addition	 ?to	 ?the	 ?disconnected	 ?voices:	 ?The	 ?voices	 ?are	 ?impersonal,	 ?and	 ?each	 ?of	 ?their	 ?utterances	 ?is	 ?simultaneously	 ?punctuated	 ?by	 ?brittle	 ?electronic	 ?and	 ?instrumental	 ?sounds.	 ?Very	 ?soft,	 ?tonally	 ?unrelated,	 ??residue?	 ?chords	 ??result?	 ?from	 ?some	 ?of	 ?these	 ?and	 ?remain	 ??hanging	 ?in	 ?the	 ?air.?133	 ?	 ?Also	 ?beginning	 ?at	 ?m.	 ?5,	 ?a	 ?third	 ?voice	 ?in	 ?tape	 ?channel	 ?five	 ?calls	 ?out	 ?the	 ?word	 ??time?	 ?at	 ?sporadic	 ?intervals,	 ?reminding	 ?us	 ?that	 ?underneath	 ?the	 ?mundane	 ?and	 ?trivial	 ?chattering,	 ?the	 ?larger,	 ?undeniable	 ?force	 ?of	 ?time	 ?drives	 ?everything	 ?forward	 ?relentlessly.	 ?The	 ?voices	 ?deliver	 ?their	 ?text	 ?dutifully,	 ?one	 ?word	 ?at	 ?a	 ?time,	 ?so	 ?that	 ?by	 ?the	 ?end	 ?of	 ?the	 ?movement,	 ?we	 ?know	 ?without	 ?a	 ?doubt	 ?what	 ?the	 ?definition	 ?for	 ?the	 ?word	 ??interaction?	 ?is.	 ?But	 ?of	 ?course,	 ?knowing	 ?the	 ?meaning	 ?of	 ?a	 ?word	 ?does	 ?not	 ?give	 ?a	 ?person	 ?a	 ?full	 ?understanding	 ?of	 ?the	 ?phenomenon	 ?it	 ?describes.	 ?The	 ?irony	 ?of	 ?having	 ?instruments	 ?and	 ?voices	 ?that	 ?are	 ?completely	 ?disengaged	 ?from	 ?one	 ?another	 ?while	 ?describing	 ??interactions?	 ?demonstrates	 ?this	 ?point	 ?particularly	 ?well.	 ?	 ?Many	 ?years	 ?after	 ?writing	 ??Definition	 ?3,?	 ?Anhalt	 ?came	 ?across	 ?Goffman?s	 ?book	 ?on	 ?interaction	 ?rituals	 ?and	 ?was	 ?impressed	 ?by	 ?how	 ?much	 ?of	 ?it	 ?resonated	 ?with	 ?what	 ?he	 ?had	 ?hoped	 ?to	 ?express	 ?in	 ?the	 ?movement:	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?133Anhalt,	 ?Alternative	 ?Voices,	 ?242.	 ?	 ? 114	 ?I	 ?read	 ?this	 ?book	 ?only	 ?recently	 ?and,	 ?while	 ?doing	 ?so,	 ?was	 ?struck	 ?by	 ?the	 ?similarity	 ?between	 ?what	 ?[Goffman]	 ?says	 ?about	 ?such	 ?hindering	 ?factors	 ?[of	 ?interactions]	 ?and	 ?the	 ?burden	 ?of	 ?the	 ?seventh	 ?movement,	 ??Definition	 ?3,?	 ?of	 ?my	 ?Foci?	 ?The	 ?setting,	 ?for	 ?two	 ?(male,	 ?female)	 ?reciting	 ?voices	 ?(English	 ?and	 ?French)	 ?and	 ?a	 ?small	 ?group	 ?of	 ?instruments,	 ?express	 ?the	 ?lack	 ?of	 ?interaction	 ?between	 ?the	 ?vocalists	 ?and	 ?the	 ?repressed	 ?tension	 ?that	 ?results.134	 ?	 ?The	 ??hindering	 ?factors?	 ?that	 ?Goffman	 ?describes	 ?arise	 ?when	 ?the	 ?ritual	 ?of	 ?conversation	 ?is	 ?disrupted.	 ?Successful	 ?conversations	 ?must	 ?give	 ?the	 ?impression	 ?of	 ?	 ?	 ?spontaneity	 ?as	 ?well	 ?as	 ?ease	 ?and	 ?familiarity,	 ?all	 ?of	 ?which	 ?are	 ?culturally	 ?conditioned.	 ?When	 ?participants	 ?engage	 ?with	 ?one	 ?another,	 ?they	 ?enter	 ?into	 ?what	 ?Goffman	 ?calls	 ?a	 ??socialized	 ?trance.?135	 ?There	 ?are	 ?many	 ?reasons	 ?why	 ?a	 ?participant	 ?may	 ?fall	 ?out	 ?of	 ?this	 ?state,	 ?such	 ?as	 ?external	 ?preoccupations,	 ?self-??consciousness,	 ?interaction-??consciousness,	 ?and	 ?other-??consciousness.136	 ?As	 ?elaborated	 ?on	 ?earlier,	 ?one	 ?of	 ?the	 ?defining	 ?characteristics	 ?of	 ?the	 ?late-??modern	 ?individual	 ?is	 ?a	 ?hyperawareness	 ?of	 ?the	 ?self.	 ?In	 ?conversation,	 ?an	 ?individual	 ?may	 ?suddenly	 ?be	 ?struck	 ?by	 ?the	 ?notion	 ?that	 ?his/her	 ?identity	 ?is	 ?entirely	 ?mutability.	 ?At	 ?any	 ?moment,	 ?s/he	 ?may	 ?choose	 ?to	 ?change	 ?the	 ?face	 ?s/he	 ?is	 ?presenting	 ?and	 ?cease	 ?to	 ?be	 ?who	 ?s/he	 ?is	 ?at	 ?the	 ?moment.	 ?This	 ?awareness	 ?can	 ?cause	 ?feelings	 ?of	 ?panic,	 ?disturbance,	 ?and	 ?alienation	 ?from	 ?the	 ?interaction:	 ??When	 ?[the]	 ?definition	 ?of	 ?self	 ?is	 ?threatened,	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?typically	 ?withdraws	 ?attention	 ?from	 ?the	 ?interaction	 ?in	 ?a	 ?hurried	 ?effort	 ?to	 ?correct	 ?for	 ?the	 ?incident	 ?that	 ?has	 ?occurred.?137	 ?An	 ?excessive	 ?preoccupation	 ?with	 ?the	 ?self	 ?takes	 ?one?s	 ?attention	 ?away	 ?from	 ?the	 ?maintenance	 ?of	 ?the	 ?ongoing	 ?interaction.	 ?Although	 ?the	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?134	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Alternative	 ?Voices,	 ?242.	 ?135	 ?Goffman,	 ?Interaction	 ?Ritual,	 ?113.	 ?136	 ?Ibid,	 ?117-??120.	 ?137	 ?Goffman,	 ?Interaction	 ?Ritual,	 ?119.	 ?	 ?	 ? 115	 ?participants	 ?may	 ?still	 ?be	 ?able	 ?to	 ?go	 ?through	 ?the	 ?motions	 ?of	 ?interactions	 ?out	 ?of	 ?habit,	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?knows,	 ?at	 ?this	 ?point,	 ?that	 ?a	 ?sincere	 ?engagement	 ?has	 ?been	 ?lost.	 ?	 ?	 ? The	 ?late-??modern	 ?age	 ?saw	 ?a	 ?rise	 ?in	 ?ideologies	 ?and	 ?philosophies	 ?that	 ?emphasized	 ?the	 ?autonomy	 ?of	 ?the	 ?individual.	 ?Yet	 ?at	 ?the	 ?same	 ?time,	 ?people	 ?found	 ?themselves	 ?increasingly	 ?having	 ?to	 ?share	 ?their	 ?homes	 ?with	 ?new	 ?faces	 ?as	 ?geographical	 ?and	 ?cultural	 ?borders	 ?around	 ?the	 ?world	 ?began	 ?dissolving	 ?with	 ?ever-??increasing	 ?speed.	 ?	 ?The	 ?struggle	 ?to	 ?maintain	 ?one?s	 ?unique	 ?identity	 ?while	 ?developing	 ?and	 ?maintaining	 ?amicable	 ?relationships	 ?with	 ?different	 ?people	 ?and	 ?cultures	 ?was	 ?a	 ?preoccupation	 ?that	 ?Anhalt	 ?was	 ?highly	 ?attuned	 ?to.	 ?In	 ??Individuals,?	 ?Anhalt	 ?demonstrates	 ?that	 ?voices	 ?can	 ?be	 ?used	 ?to	 ?bring	 ?people	 ?of	 ?different	 ?cultures	 ?together	 ?by	 ?emphasizing	 ?some	 ?of	 ?their	 ?shared	 ?values	 ?within	 ?their	 ?stories	 ?and	 ?folklore.	 ?In	 ?some	 ?circumstances,	 ?such	 ?as	 ?that	 ?seen	 ?in	 ??Group,?	 ?however,	 ?too	 ?many	 ?voices	 ?can	 ?drown	 ?out	 ?the	 ?individual,	 ?and	 ?make	 ?communicating	 ?with	 ?others	 ?an	 ?impossible	 ?task.	 ?In	 ??Definition	 ?3,?	 ?Anhalt	 ?shows	 ?that	 ?feelings	 ?of	 ?alienation	 ?can	 ?permeate	 ?even	 ?into	 ?one-??on-??one	 ?conversations	 ?because	 ?of	 ?their	 ?inherent	 ?obligatory	 ?and	 ?ritualistic	 ?nature.	 ?Anhalt?s	 ?exploration	 ?of	 ?the	 ?issues	 ?and	 ?difficulties	 ?of	 ?social	 ?interactions	 ?were	 ?not	 ?meant	 ?to	 ?be	 ?prescriptive.	 ?He	 ?did	 ?not	 ?know	 ?whether	 ?or	 ?not	 ?the	 ?peoples	 ?of	 ?his	 ?adopted	 ?country	 ?would	 ?ever	 ?put	 ?aside	 ?their	 ?differences.	 ?He	 ?hoped,	 ?however,	 ?that	 ?through	 ?his	 ?music,	 ?he	 ?could	 ?encourage	 ?more	 ?people	 ?to	 ?open	 ?their	 ?ears	 ?and	 ?minds	 ?to	 ?engaging	 ?with	 ?and	 ?thinking	 ?about	 ?the	 ?issue	 ?of	 ?identity.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ? 116	 ?5	 ? ?The	 ?truth,	 ?the	 ?whole	 ?truth,	 ?and	 ?nothing	 ?but	 ?the	 ?truth?	 ?In	 ?the	 ?preceding	 ?movements,	 ?Anhalt	 ?explored	 ?a	 ?variety	 ?of	 ?challenges	 ?that	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?of	 ?late	 ?modernity	 ?encounters	 ?throughout	 ?his/her	 ?life.	 ?In	 ?the	 ?last	 ?chapter,	 ?we	 ?will	 ?discuss	 ?the	 ?last	 ?two	 ?movements	 ?of	 ?Foci,	 ??Preparation?	 ?and	 ??Testimony,?	 ?in	 ?which	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?is	 ?put	 ?to	 ?the	 ?final	 ?test:	 ?Will	 ?s/he	 ?be	 ?able	 ?to	 ?accept	 ?the	 ?new	 ?social	 ?and	 ?individual	 ?responsibilities	 ?as	 ?well	 ?as	 ?the	 ?perceptual	 ?feeling	 ?of	 ?uncertainty	 ?that	 ?the	 ?late-??modern	 ?age	 ?brought	 ?with	 ?it?	 ?As	 ?traditional	 ?conventions	 ?and	 ?boundaries	 ?dissolved,	 ?feelings	 ?of	 ?doubt	 ?and	 ?scepticism	 ?penetrated	 ?into	 ?all	 ?definitions	 ?of	 ?meaning	 ?and	 ?purpose.	 ?Yet	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?had	 ?no	 ?choice	 ?but	 ?to	 ?face	 ?each	 ?day	 ?in	 ?this	 ?perpetual	 ?state	 ?of	 ?unknowing:	 ?	 ?No	 ?matter	 ?how	 ?cherished,	 ?and	 ?apparently	 ?well	 ?established	 ?a	 ?given	 ?scientific	 ?tenet	 ?might	 ?be,	 ?it	 ?is	 ?open	 ?to	 ?revision	 ??	 ?or	 ?might	 ?have	 ?to	 ?be	 ?discarded	 ?altogether	 ??	 ?in	 ?the	 ?light	 ?of	 ?new	 ?ideas	 ?or	 ?findings.	 ?The	 ?integral	 ?relation	 ?between	 ?modernity	 ?and	 ?radical	 ?doubt	 ?is	 ?an	 ?issue	 ?which,	 ?once	 ?exposed	 ?to	 ?view,	 ?is	 ?not	 ?only	 ?disturbing	 ?to	 ?philosophers	 ?but	 ?is	 ?existentially	 ?troubling	 ?for	 ?ordinary	 ?individuals.138	 ?	 ?	 ?This	 ?is	 ?not	 ?to	 ?say	 ?that	 ?those	 ?who	 ?lived	 ?before	 ?the	 ?late-??modern	 ?age	 ?had	 ?never	 ?struggled	 ?with	 ?questions	 ?of	 ?existence,	 ?but	 ?the	 ?extent	 ?to	 ?which	 ?these	 ?insecurities	 ?now	 ?occupied	 ?an	 ?individual?s	 ?understanding	 ?of	 ?his/her	 ?place	 ?and	 ?significance	 ?in	 ?the	 ?world	 ?was	 ?unprecedented.	 ?	 ?	 ?5.1	 ??Preparation?	 ?(Movement	 ?8)	 ?Unlike	 ?all	 ?of	 ?the	 ?preceding	 ?movements,	 ??Preparation?	 ?is	 ?not	 ?announced	 ?by	 ?the	 ?hammer	 ?man.	 ?The	 ?absence	 ?of	 ?this	 ?theatrical	 ?device	 ?could	 ?symbolize	 ?the	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?138	 ?Giddens,	 ?Modernity	 ?and	 ?Self-??Identity,	 ?21.	 ?Emphases	 ?are	 ?Giddens?.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ? 117	 ?emergence	 ?of	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?from	 ?the	 ?fictional	 ?theatre	 ?and	 ?back	 ?into	 ?his/her	 ?own	 ?reality.	 ?No	 ?longer	 ?can	 ?the	 ?audience	 ?member	 ?sit	 ?comfortably	 ?at	 ?a	 ?distance,	 ?observing	 ?the	 ?drama	 ?on-??stage	 ?as	 ?a	 ?mere	 ?spectator,	 ?for	 ?the	 ?breaking	 ?of	 ?the	 ?fourth	 ?wall	 ?turns	 ?the	 ?spotlight	 ?onto	 ?the	 ?listener	 ?him/herself,	 ?forcing	 ?him/her	 ?to	 ?come	 ?face-??to-??face	 ?with	 ?his/her	 ?own	 ?psychological	 ?conflict.	 ?At	 ?the	 ?beginning	 ?of	 ?the	 ?movement,	 ?a	 ?solo	 ?violin	 ?plays	 ?a	 ?melodic	 ?figure	 ?that	 ?finishes	 ?with	 ?a	 ?large	 ?leap	 ?upwards	 ?from	 ?D4	 ?to	 ?F?6	 ?in	 ?m.	 ?2.	 ?It	 ?remains	 ?suspended	 ?on	 ?this	 ?note	 ?for	 ?a	 ?moment,	 ?jarring	 ?sharply	 ?against	 ?the	 ?D	 ?major	 ?sonority	 ?played	 ?by	 ?the	 ?cello	 ?(natural	 ?harmonic	 ?D),	 ?electric	 ?harpsichord	 ?(D-??A	 ?dyad),	 ?and	 ?glockenspiel	 ?(F?).	 ?This	 ?dissonant	 ?clash	 ?sets	 ?the	 ?stage	 ?for	 ?the	 ?entrance	 ?of	 ?a	 ?male	 ?voice	 ?recorded	 ?on	 ?a	 ?tape	 ?that	 ?asks	 ?in	 ?English:	 ??Do	 ?you	 ?solemnly	 ?affirm	 ?that	 ?the	 ?aforementioned	 ?communications	 ?declare	 ?and	 ?affirm	 ?nothing	 ?but	 ?the	 ?truth??	 ?The	 ?violin	 ?tumbles	 ?downwards	 ?with	 ?the	 ?flute	 ?and	 ?piano,	 ?synchronizing	 ?for	 ?a	 ?moment	 ?with	 ?the	 ?clarinet,	 ?cello,	 ?and	 ?harpsichord	 ?on	 ?E4	 ?in	 ?m.	 ?4	 ?before	 ?the	 ?instruments	 ?swoops	 ?upwards	 ?again,	 ?as	 ?though	 ?eluding	 ?a	 ?firm	 ?resolution	 ?and	 ?avoiding	 ?the	 ?question	 ?that	 ?is	 ?being	 ?asked	 ?(Figure	 ?5.1).	 ?	 ?	 ? 	 ?	 ? 118	 ?	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?5.1	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?8	 ??	 ??Preparation,?	 ?mm.	 ?1-??5.	 ?	 ? 	 ?	 ? 119	 ?From	 ?here	 ?until	 ?approximately	 ?m.	 ?38,	 ?the	 ?violin	 ?continues	 ?to	 ?avoid	 ?staying	 ?in	 ?any	 ?one	 ?place	 ?for	 ?long;	 ?its	 ?line	 ?abounds	 ?with	 ?syncopations,	 ?making	 ?it	 ?difficult	 ?to	 ?trace	 ?any	 ?regular	 ?pulse.	 ?The	 ?music	 ?is	 ?tonally	 ?ambiguous	 ?in	 ?this	 ?section	 ?as	 ?well,	 ?shifting	 ?chromatically	 ?so	 ?often	 ?that	 ?it	 ?is	 ?difficult	 ?to	 ?satisfyingly	 ?identify	 ?any	 ?tonal	 ?center.	 ?For	 ?example,	 ?from	 ?mm.	 ?13-??15,	 ?the	 ?harmonies	 ?supported	 ?by	 ?the	 ?flute,	 ?clarinet,	 ?cello,	 ?piano,	 ?and	 ?vibes	 ?are	 ?grounded	 ?in	 ?Eb	 ?minor.	 ?The	 ?glockenspiel,	 ?however,	 ?draws	 ?out	 ?an	 ?E?	 ?amidst	 ?these	 ?notes,	 ?tainting	 ?the	 ?Eb	 ?minor	 ?tonality.	 ?At	 ?m.	 ?15,	 ?the	 ?violin	 ?shifts	 ?towards	 ?D	 ?minor.	 ?The	 ?other	 ?instruments,	 ?however,	 ?are	 ?reluctant	 ?to	 ?follow:	 ?the	 ?flute	 ?stays	 ?on	 ?Eb	 ?for	 ?a	 ?measure	 ?longer;	 ?the	 ?cello	 ?lingers	 ?on	 ?an	 ?F#;	 ?and	 ?the	 ?left	 ?hand	 ?of	 ?the	 ?piano	 ?remains	 ?stubbornly	 ?centered	 ?around	 ?Eb	 ?as	 ?does	 ?the	 ?glockenspiel.	 ?At	 ?m.	 ?19,	 ?the	 ?instruments	 ?return	 ?to	 ?what	 ?sounds	 ?like	 ?Eb	 ?minor,	 ?but	 ?only	 ?momentarily.	 ?The	 ?violin	 ?descends	 ?by	 ?rolling	 ?through	 ?changing	 ?chords,	 ?while	 ?the	 ?other	 ?instruments	 ?shift	 ?back	 ?and	 ?forth	 ?by	 ?semitones.	 ?By	 ?m.	 ?24,	 ?clear	 ?harmonies	 ?have	 ?been	 ?eluded	 ?once	 ?again.	 ?The	 ?avoidance	 ?of	 ?tonal	 ?clarity	 ?combined	 ?with	 ?the	 ?encroaching	 ?taped	 ?voices	 ?that	 ?continue	 ?their	 ?relentless	 ?questioning	 ?gives	 ?the	 ?voices	 ?a	 ?particularly	 ?predator-??like	 ?quality.	 ?It	 ?is	 ?as	 ?though	 ?they	 ?were	 ?not	 ?simply	 ?asking	 ?for	 ?an	 ?answer	 ?and	 ?resolution,	 ?but	 ?demanding	 ?one	 ?that	 ?the	 ?instruments	 ?seem	 ?reluctant	 ?to	 ?give.	 ?By	 ?m.	 ?38,	 ?the	 ?music	 ?undergoes	 ?a	 ?noticeable	 ?change	 ?as	 ?the	 ?instruments	 ?are	 ?instructed	 ?to	 ?play	 ?sostenuto.	 ?For	 ?the	 ?first	 ?time	 ?in	 ?the	 ?movement,	 ?clear,	 ?coherent	 ?harmonies	 ?begin	 ?to	 ?emerge.	 ?For	 ?example,	 ?between	 ?mm.	 ?38-??41,	 ?a	 ?C#	 ?minor	 ?chord	 ?is	 ?sounded	 ?by	 ?the	 ?violin,	 ?piano,	 ?flute,	 ?cello,	 ?and	 ?double	 ?bass	 ?(Figure	 ?5.2).	 ?It	 ?is	 ?almost	 ?as	 ?though	 ?the	 ?instruments	 ?have	 ?finally	 ?been	 ?caught	 ?by	 ?the	 ?pursuing	 ?voices.	 ?As	 ?the	 ?	 ? 120	 ?latter	 ?becomes	 ?louder	 ?and	 ?more	 ?aggressive,	 ?the	 ?instruments	 ?have	 ?no	 ?choice	 ?but	 ?to	 ?come	 ?together	 ?and	 ?prepare	 ?an	 ?answer	 ?in	 ?their	 ?defense.	 ?They	 ?must	 ?communicate	 ?clearly	 ?if	 ?they	 ?are	 ?to	 ?have	 ?any	 ?chance	 ?at	 ?all.	 ?	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?5.2	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?8	 ??	 ??Preparation?	 ?mm.	 ?36-??41	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ? 121	 ?By	 ?m.	 ?42,	 ?however,	 ?the	 ?chord	 ?slowly	 ?falls	 ?apart,	 ?and	 ?it	 ?becomes	 ?unclear	 ?what	 ?it	 ?dissolves	 ?into:	 ?the	 ?violin	 ?moves	 ?between	 ?C#	 ?and	 ?Eb	 ?(m.	 ?42)	 ?and	 ?then	 ?between	 ?C	 ?and	 ?E	 ?(m.	 ?43);	 ?the	 ?flute	 ?dips	 ?down	 ?to	 ?an	 ?Eb	 ?as	 ?well	 ?while	 ?the	 ?cello	 ?and	 ?double-??bass	 ?stubbornly	 ?maintain	 ?a	 ?G#	 ?and	 ?A	 ?dyad;	 ?the	 ?piano	 ?stops	 ?its	 ?relentless	 ?hammering	 ?on	 ?C#	 ?and	 ?E	 ?and	 ?begins	 ?playing	 ?through	 ?constantly	 ?shifting	 ?figures	 ?and	 ?notes;	 ?and	 ?the	 ?percussive	 ?instruments	 ?begin	 ?improvising	 ?through	 ?patterns	 ?ranging	 ?from	 ?very	 ?spare	 ?to	 ?dense	 ?textures	 ?and	 ?between	 ?pianissimo	 ?to	 ?forte	 ?(Figure	 ?5.3).	 ?Unable	 ?to	 ?handle	 ?the	 ?pressure	 ?of	 ?coming	 ?together	 ?to	 ?speak	 ?in	 ?a	 ?common	 ?voice,	 ?the	 ?instruments	 ?disengage	 ?from	 ?one	 ?another	 ?and	 ?desperately	 ?try	 ?to	 ?present	 ?their	 ?own,	 ?individual	 ?answers	 ?to	 ?the	 ?persecuting	 ?voices.	 ?The	 ?improvisation	 ?in	 ?the	 ?percussion	 ?may	 ?represent	 ?the	 ?individual?s	 ?last	 ?attempt	 ?at	 ?holding	 ?onto	 ?his/her	 ?autonomy	 ?and	 ?freedom	 ?of	 ?unique	 ?expression	 ?in	 ?the	 ?face	 ?of	 ?social	 ?forces	 ?and	 ?obligations	 ?that	 ?try	 ?to	 ?make	 ?him/her	 ?to	 ?submit	 ?to	 ?a	 ?collective	 ?voice.	 ?However,	 ?like	 ?in	 ??Group,?	 ?the	 ?multitude	 ?of	 ?different	 ?instrumental	 ?answers	 ?only	 ?results	 ?in	 ?a	 ?blur	 ?of	 ?noise	 ?where	 ?nothing	 ?can	 ?be	 ?distinguished,	 ?and	 ?where	 ?the	 ?search	 ?for	 ?truth	 ?becomes	 ?confused	 ?and	 ?disorganized.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ? 	 ?	 ? 122	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?5.3	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?8	 ??	 ??Preparation,?	 ?mm.	 ?42-??47	 ?	 ? 	 ?	 ? 123	 ?Yet	 ?the	 ?instruments	 ?have	 ?not	 ?given	 ?up.	 ?From	 ?m.	 ?43	 ?to	 ?m.	 ?77,	 ?they	 ?continue	 ?to	 ?struggle	 ?towards	 ?a	 ?stable	 ?and	 ?unified	 ?harmony:	 ?the	 ?violin	 ?settles	 ?into	 ?a	 ?regular	 ?rhythm	 ?of	 ?rapidly-??moving	 ?sixteenth	 ?notes	 ?that	 ?creep	 ?through	 ?closely-??situated	 ?pairs	 ?and	 ?tuples	 ?of	 ?notes,	 ?such	 ?as	 ?between	 ?C	 ?and	 ?Eb	 ?(mm.	 ?43-??46);	 ?C	 ?and	 ?D	 ?(mm.	 ?46-??48);	 ?Bb	 ?and	 ?D	 ?(mm.	 ?49-??50),	 ?and	 ?F,	 ?Eb,	 ?and	 ?D	 ?(mm.	 ?51-??53).	 ?Some	 ?of	 ?these	 ?patterns	 ?are	 ?sustained	 ?for	 ?a	 ?relatively	 ?long	 ?time.	 ?For	 ?example,	 ?the	 ?oscillation	 ?between	 ?mm.	 ?54	 ?to	 ?59	 ?moves	 ?through	 ?C,	 ?D,	 ?and	 ?Eb	 ?for	 ?six	 ?measures.	 ?After	 ?this,	 ?however,	 ?the	 ?violin	 ?begins	 ?changing	 ?notes	 ?at	 ?almost	 ?every	 ?measure.	 ?Nervousness	 ?pervades	 ?the	 ?instruments	 ?and	 ?they	 ?fall	 ?apart	 ?into	 ?their	 ?own	 ?paths	 ?once	 ?again.	 ?By	 ?m.	 ?78,	 ?the	 ?music	 ?becomes	 ?even	 ?more	 ?unpredictable	 ?as	 ?the	 ?meter	 ?starts	 ?to	 ?change	 ?with	 ?every	 ?	 ?measure,	 ?and	 ?after	 ?m.	 ?83,	 ?there	 ?is	 ?no	 ?longer	 ?a	 ?notated	 ?time	 ?signature	 ?at	 ?all.	 ?The	 ?instruments	 ?are	 ?thrown	 ?into	 ?limbo	 ?as	 ?they	 ?play	 ?through	 ?gestures	 ?that	 ?spontaneously	 ?shift	 ?and	 ?change.	 ?The	 ?timing	 ?of	 ?their	 ?playing	 ?is	 ?only	 ?loosely	 ?coordinated	 ?by	 ?breath	 ?marks,	 ?and	 ?like	 ?so	 ?many	 ?previous	 ?instances	 ?in	 ?the	 ?movement,	 ?the	 ?instruments	 ?refuse	 ?to	 ?stay	 ?together	 ?for	 ?too	 ?long	 ?on	 ?any	 ?particular	 ?chord	 ?or	 ?harmony.	 ?As	 ?they	 ?grow	 ?louder	 ?and	 ?more	 ?chaotic,	 ?the	 ?voices	 ?reach	 ?a	 ?frenetic	 ?state,	 ?and	 ?by	 ?the	 ?end	 ?of	 ?the	 ?movement,	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?is	 ?engulfed	 ?in	 ?a	 ?storm	 ?of	 ?sound.	 ?The	 ?violent	 ?tension	 ?is	 ?finally	 ?broken	 ?when,	 ?at	 ?last,	 ?a	 ?lone	 ?figure	 ?steps	 ?out	 ?from	 ?the	 ?darkness	 ?and	 ?onto	 ?the	 ?stage.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ? 124	 ?5.2	 ??Testimony?	 ?(Movement	 ?9)	 ?A	 ?flurry	 ?of	 ?percussive	 ?sounds	 ?announce	 ?the	 ?final	 ?movement,	 ??Testimony.?	 ?Suddenly,	 ?the	 ?stage	 ?is	 ?illuminated	 ?and	 ?the	 ?audience	 ?witnesses	 ?a	 ?soprano	 ?standing	 ?before	 ?them.	 ?It	 ?is	 ?a	 ?significant	 ?moment,	 ?for	 ?at	 ?last,	 ?the	 ?bodiless	 ?voices	 ?that	 ?had	 ?only	 ?echoed	 ?from	 ?speakers	 ?previously	 ?are	 ?now	 ?given	 ?a	 ?visible,	 ?physical	 ?presence.	 ?The	 ?taped	 ?voices	 ?are	 ?quiet	 ?now,	 ?but	 ?the	 ?soprano	 ?remains	 ?haunted	 ?by	 ?them	 ?and	 ?their	 ?incessant	 ?demand	 ?for	 ?the	 ?truth.	 ?The	 ?audience	 ?becomes	 ?the	 ?anticipating	 ?jury	 ?that	 ?she	 ?must	 ?prove	 ?herself	 ?to.	 ?Her	 ?testimony	 ?starts	 ?with	 ?her	 ?returning	 ?to	 ?the	 ?beginning	 ?of	 ?the	 ?piece,	 ?and	 ?her	 ?first	 ?utterance	 ?is	 ?the	 ?definition	 ?for	 ??coping	 ?behaviour,?	 ?the	 ?same	 ?text	 ?heard	 ?in	 ?the	 ?first	 ?movement	 ?of	 ?Foci.	 ?Perhaps	 ?all	 ?that	 ?is	 ?being	 ?asked	 ?of	 ?her	 ?is	 ?to	 ?recite	 ?with	 ?precise	 ?accuracy	 ?the	 ?definitions	 ?used	 ?in	 ?Foci	 ?from	 ?beginning	 ?to	 ?end.	 ?The	 ?movement	 ?can	 ?be	 ?divided	 ?into	 ?four	 ?sections	 ?based	 ?on	 ?the	 ?text	 ?that	 ?is	 ?presented	 ?(Figure	 ?5.4).	 ? 	 ?	 ?	 ? 125	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?5.4	 ?Form	 ?Diagram	 ?for	 ??Testimony?	 ?	 ? 126	 ?Delivered	 ??recitativo	 ?appassionato	 ?(like	 ?an	 ?anguished	 ?plea),?139	 ?the	 ?soprano	 ?begins	 ?her	 ?definition	 ?of	 ?coping	 ?behaviour	 ?on	 ?D5.	 ?The	 ?expressive	 ?marking	 ?suggests	 ?that,	 ?even	 ?though	 ?she	 ?is	 ?preparing	 ?to	 ?deliver	 ?the	 ??truth,?	 ?she	 ?is	 ?still	 ?doing	 ?so	 ?within	 ?a	 ?dramatic	 ?scene.	 ?There	 ?remains	 ?a	 ?veil	 ?of	 ?theatrical	 ?fiction	 ?over	 ?her	 ?performance.	 ?All	 ?around	 ?her,	 ?the	 ?instruments	 ?announce	 ?her	 ?emergence	 ?onto	 ?the	 ?stage	 ?by	 ?coming	 ?together	 ?to	 ?play	 ?figures	 ?that	 ?consist	 ?of	 ?only	 ?the	 ?pitches	 ?C#	 ?and	 ?D	 ?(Figure	 ?5.5).	 ?At	 ?m.	 ?3,	 ?she	 ?embellishes	 ?her	 ?performance	 ?with	 ?a	 ?quick,	 ?swooping	 ?colouratura	 ?that	 ?finishes	 ?a	 ?minor	 ?third	 ?lower	 ?from	 ?her	 ?starting	 ?pitch	 ?on	 ?B4.	 ?From	 ?here,	 ?she	 ?loses	 ?momentum	 ?and	 ?begins	 ?falling	 ?slowly	 ?by	 ?minor	 ?thirds,	 ?and	 ?by	 ?m.	 ?7,	 ?she	 ?reaches	 ?F4.	 ?The	 ?soprano	 ?sustains	 ?this	 ?pitch	 ?for	 ?two	 ?measures	 ?while	 ?the	 ?instruments	 ?surround	 ?her	 ?in	 ?dense	 ?chords	 ?that	 ?consist	 ?of	 ?pitches	 ?from	 ?the	 ?F#	 ?minor	 ?scale.	 ?The	 ?dissonance	 ?caused	 ?by	 ?the	 ?soprano?s	 ?resounding	 ?F?	 ?against	 ?the	 ?F#	 ?tonality	 ?is	 ?unsettling,	 ?alluding	 ?to	 ?feelings	 ?of	 ?psychological	 ?distress	 ?that	 ?permeate	 ?the	 ?atmosphere.	 ?	 ?In	 ?the	 ?final	 ?fragment	 ?of	 ?Section	 ?1	 ?during	 ?which	 ?the	 ?soprano	 ?sings	 ??to	 ?get	 ?something	 ?done?	 ?(mm.	 ?8-??11),	 ?she	 ?attempts	 ?to	 ?regain	 ?her	 ?composure	 ?and	 ?escape	 ?the	 ?sombre	 ?mood	 ?by	 ?leaping	 ?upwards	 ?to	 ?Bb4.	 ?She	 ?cannot	 ?maintain	 ?this	 ?pitch,	 ?however,	 ?and	 ?soon	 ?descends	 ?again	 ?in	 ?long,	 ?plodding	 ?steps,	 ?ending	 ?the	 ?section	 ?on	 ?Eb4.	 ?The	 ?instruments,	 ?in	 ?the	 ?meantime,	 ?have	 ?moved	 ?into	 ?separate	 ?harmonic	 ?groups,	 ?no	 ?longer	 ?restricted	 ?to	 ?the	 ?pitches	 ?of	 ?F#	 ?minor	 ?scale:	 ?in	 ?mm.	 ?10-??11,	 ?the	 ?piano	 ?and	 ?celesta	 ?play	 ?pitches	 ?that	 ?are	 ?close	 ?to	 ?B	 ?major,	 ?while	 ?the	 ?clarinet,	 ?trombone,	 ?strings,	 ?and	 ?vibes	 ?center	 ?around	 ?Eb	 ?major	 ?(Figure	 ?5.6).	 ?The	 ?harmonic	 ?ambiguity	 ?of	 ?the	 ?closing	 ?section	 ?matches	 ?the	 ?ambivalence	 ?of	 ?the	 ?soprano?s	 ?plea.	 ?No	 ?matter	 ?how	 ?many	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?139	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?89.	 ?	 ?	 ? 127	 ?times	 ?she	 ?attempts	 ?to	 ?remain	 ?steady	 ?on	 ?a	 ?high,	 ?reciting	 ?pitch,	 ?she	 ?inevitably	 ?tumbles	 ?downwards.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?5.5	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?9	 ??	 ??Testimony,?	 ?mm.	 ?1-??2.	 ?	 ? 128	 ?	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?5.6	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?9	 ??	 ??Testimony,?	 ?mm.	 ?7-??10.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ? 	 ?	 ? 129	 ?In	 ?Section	 ?2	 ?(mm.	 ?12-??39),	 ?the	 ?soprano	 ?regains	 ?her	 ?composure	 ?and	 ?proceeds	 ?carefully	 ?on	 ?the	 ?same	 ?note	 ?that	 ?she	 ?ends	 ?on	 ?in	 ?the	 ?last	 ?section	 ?(Eb),	 ?from	 ?which	 ?she	 ?begins	 ?reciting	 ?the	 ?definition	 ?for	 ??Interaction.?	 ?If	 ?we	 ?recall,	 ?however,	 ?this	 ?is	 ?the	 ?incorrect	 ?order:	 ?she	 ?has	 ?skipped	 ?over	 ?the	 ?definition	 ?for	 ??the	 ?soul,?	 ?which	 ?was	 ?used	 ?in	 ?the	 ?fourth	 ?movement,	 ?while	 ??interaction?	 ?was	 ?recited	 ?in	 ?the	 ?seventh	 ?movement.	 ?Yet	 ?the	 ?soprano	 ?carries	 ?on	 ?without	 ?letting	 ?on	 ?to	 ?her	 ?error.	 ??Articulating?	 ?the	 ?text	 ??with	 ?exaggerated	 ?clarity,?140	 ?she	 ?speaks	 ?slowly	 ?on	 ?the	 ?Eb,	 ?each	 ?word	 ?spoken	 ?with	 ?painstaking	 ?deliberation.	 ?The	 ?instruments	 ?surrounding	 ?her	 ?are	 ?more	 ?subdued	 ?than	 ?before,	 ?playing	 ?at	 ?piano	 ?and	 ?pianissimo.	 ?At	 ?m.	 ?16,	 ?she	 ?suddenly	 ?becomes	 ?agitated	 ?and	 ?leaps	 ?upwards	 ?to	 ?Db5.	 ?Her	 ?voice	 ?becomes	 ?louder	 ?as	 ?she	 ?strains	 ?to	 ?remain	 ?on	 ?that	 ?pitch.	 ?At	 ?m.	 ?18,	 ?she	 ?inches	 ?higher	 ?to	 ?Eb5	 ?(m.	 ?18),	 ?G5	 ?(m.	 ?20),	 ?and	 ?then	 ?to	 ?Ab5	 ?(m.	 ?27).	 ?This	 ?is	 ?as	 ?far	 ?as	 ?she	 ?will	 ?ascend,	 ?however,	 ?and	 ?at	 ?m.	 ?33,	 ?she	 ?drops	 ?down	 ?suddenly	 ?to	 ?Db4.	 ?In	 ?the	 ?final	 ?part	 ?of	 ?this	 ?section	 ?(mm.	 ?33-??39),	 ?she	 ?embellishes	 ?her	 ?performance	 ?with	 ?a	 ?low,	 ?serpentine	 ?melisma	 ?that	 ?begins	 ?on	 ?Db4	 ?but	 ?finishes	 ?on	 ?D?4	 ?on	 ?the	 ?last	 ?word	 ?of	 ?the	 ?definition,	 ??other.?	 ?The	 ?focus	 ?on	 ?this	 ?word	 ?may	 ?be	 ?a	 ?subtle	 ?hint	 ?back	 ?to	 ?the	 ?ambiguous	 ?role	 ?that	 ?the	 ??other?	 ?plays	 ?in	 ?influencing	 ?one?s	 ?perception	 ?of	 ?identity	 ?and	 ?self,	 ?as	 ?explored	 ?in	 ?the	 ?fifth,	 ?sixth,	 ?and	 ?seventh	 ?movements.	 ?Yet,	 ?the	 ?attempt	 ?at	 ?showcasing	 ?the	 ?soprano?s	 ?technical	 ?prowess	 ?is	 ?marred	 ?by	 ?its	 ?deflated	 ?presentation:	 ?the	 ?melodic	 ?figure	 ?merely	 ?wavers	 ?around	 ?these	 ?pitches,	 ?sounding	 ?more	 ?like	 ?a	 ?failed	 ?vibrato	 ?than	 ?an	 ?exuberant	 ?melisma.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?140	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?92.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ? 130	 ?Meanwhile,	 ?the	 ?instruments	 ?separate	 ?into	 ?their	 ?own	 ?unique	 ?rhythmic	 ?and	 ?melodic	 ?patterns,	 ?similar	 ?to	 ?the	 ?beginning	 ?of	 ?the	 ?movement.	 ?By	 ?the	 ?end	 ?of	 ?the	 ?section	 ?(m.	 ?39),	 ?the	 ?instruments	 ?settle	 ?into	 ?a	 ?(01356)	 ?chord	 ?beginning	 ?on	 ?C.	 ?The	 ?cello,	 ?however,	 ?remains	 ?anxious,	 ?flitting	 ?to	 ?and	 ?from	 ?D?	 ?amidst	 ?the	 ?other	 ?notes.	 ?Unwilling	 ?to	 ?stay	 ?in	 ?one	 ?place,	 ?it	 ?seems	 ?to	 ?complement	 ?the	 ?wavering	 ?conviction	 ?of	 ?the	 ?soprano?s	 ?testimony.	 ?Together,	 ?these	 ?notes	 ?create	 ?a	 ?densely	 ?packed,	 ?dissonant	 ?sonority	 ?that	 ?makes	 ?for	 ?an	 ?unsettling	 ?end	 ?to	 ?this	 ?section.	 ?In	 ?Section	 ?3	 ?(mm.	 ?40-??51),	 ?the	 ?soprano	 ?retraces	 ?her	 ?steps	 ?and	 ?returns	 ?to	 ?the	 ?definition	 ?that	 ?she	 ?skipped	 ?earlier,	 ??the	 ?soul,?	 ?which	 ?was	 ?heard	 ?in	 ?the	 ?fourth	 ?movement	 ?of	 ?Foci.	 ?The	 ?instruments	 ?carry	 ?on	 ?as	 ?before,	 ?sustaining	 ?the	 ?cluster	 ?chord	 ?from	 ?the	 ?previous	 ?section.	 ?Hoping	 ?to	 ?correct	 ?her	 ?mix-??up	 ?of	 ?the	 ?order	 ?of	 ?definitions,	 ?the	 ?soprano	 ?aligns	 ?herself	 ?with	 ?the	 ?instruments	 ?by	 ?slipping	 ?down	 ?to	 ?Db4.	 ?She	 ?begins	 ?reciting	 ?in	 ?a	 ??serious?141	 ?manner,	 ?determined	 ?to	 ?present	 ?herself	 ?with	 ?conviction.	 ?Gaining	 ?momentum	 ?between	 ?m.	 ?41	 ?and	 ?48,	 ?she	 ?inches	 ?her	 ?way	 ?upwards	 ?by	 ?singing	 ?through	 ?tonally-??unrelated	 ?broken	 ?trichords	 ?(Figure	 ?5.7).	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?5.7	 ?Notes	 ?sung	 ?by	 ?soprano	 ?between	 ?mm.	 ?42-??48	 ?in	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?9,	 ?	 ??Testimony?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?141	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?97.	 ?	 ?	 ? 131	 ?The	 ?vibes	 ?synchronize	 ?loosely	 ?with	 ?the	 ?soprano	 ?and	 ?support	 ?her	 ?ambiguous,	 ?gradual	 ?ascent.	 ?Meanwhile,	 ?the	 ?other	 ?instruments	 ?dissolve	 ?out	 ?of	 ?the	 ?cluster	 ?chord	 ?and	 ?again	 ?resume	 ?playing	 ?their	 ?own	 ?separate	 ?figures.	 ?Similar	 ?to	 ?other	 ?passages	 ?mentioned	 ?earlier	 ?on	 ?in	 ?this	 ?movement,	 ?any	 ?clear	 ?sense	 ?of	 ?tonality	 ?is	 ?blurred	 ?by	 ?the	 ?prominence	 ?of	 ?chromatic	 ?notes.	 ?Instead,	 ?the	 ?listener	 ?is	 ?immersed	 ?in	 ?an	 ?aural	 ?blanket	 ?of	 ?densely	 ?packed	 ?pitches.	 ?From	 ?mm.	 ?52-??59,	 ?the	 ?second	 ?half	 ?of	 ??the	 ?soul,?	 ?is	 ?recited	 ?in	 ?a	 ?similar	 ?fashion,	 ?beginning	 ?on	 ?a	 ?single	 ?reciting	 ?pitch	 ?(F),	 ?slowly	 ?building	 ?momentum	 ?as	 ?the	 ?soprano	 ?then	 ?leaps	 ?between	 ?expanding	 ?intervals,	 ?and	 ?finally	 ?ending	 ?in	 ?a	 ?low,	 ?sinuous	 ?melisma	 ?on	 ?the	 ?last	 ?syllable	 ?of	 ?the	 ?last	 ?word	 ?of	 ?the	 ?definition,	 ??investigation.?	 ?At	 ?last,	 ?the	 ?soprano	 ?has	 ?completed	 ?reciting	 ?all	 ?the	 ?definitions	 ?that	 ?had	 ?been	 ?used	 ?in	 ?Foci.	 ?It	 ?would	 ?appear,	 ?then,	 ?that	 ?her	 ?testimony	 ?should	 ?be	 ?complete.	 ?At	 ?this	 ?crucial	 ?moment,	 ?however,	 ?the	 ?soprano	 ?begins	 ?something	 ?new:	 ??Communication	 ?to	 ?others	 ?of	 ?what	 ?one	 ?knows	 ?to	 ?be	 ?untrue	 ?or	 ?contrary	 ?to	 ?fact.	 ?Lie.?	 ?It	 ?is	 ?the	 ?definition	 ?for	 ?lying,	 ?the	 ?antithesis	 ?of	 ?the	 ?truth	 ?that	 ?the	 ?soprano	 ?had	 ?promised	 ?to	 ?deliver.	 ?Could	 ?this	 ?be	 ?a	 ?personal	 ?admission	 ?of	 ?guilt?	 ?Already,	 ?the	 ?mixed	 ?order	 ?of	 ?the	 ?definitions	 ?for	 ??coping	 ?behaviour,?	 ??interaction,?	 ?and	 ??the	 ?soul?	 ?in	 ?addition	 ?to	 ?the	 ?progressively	 ?dissonant	 ?harmonies	 ?that	 ?accompanied	 ?the	 ?melismas	 ?that	 ?closed	 ?the	 ?definitions	 ?foreboded	 ?that	 ?the	 ?outcome	 ?of	 ?the	 ?soprano?s	 ?case	 ?would	 ?not	 ?be	 ?in	 ?her	 ?favour.	 ?	 ?The	 ?last	 ?section	 ?of	 ?the	 ?movement	 ?(mm.	 ?59-??93)	 ?follows	 ?the	 ?soprano	 ?as	 ?she	 ?attempts	 ?to	 ?give	 ?her	 ?final	 ?plea.	 ?At	 ?the	 ?end	 ?of	 ?m.	 ?59,	 ?the	 ?soprano	 ?tries	 ?to	 ?repeat	 ?the	 ?definition	 ?for	 ?lying	 ?again,	 ?but	 ?she	 ?is	 ?gripped	 ?by	 ?anxiety	 ?and	 ?switches	 ?rapidly	 ?between	 ?high	 ?and	 ?low	 ?registers	 ?with	 ?her	 ?voice.	 ?Her	 ?singing	 ?devolves	 ?into	 ?a	 ?rushed	 ?	 ? 132	 ?and	 ?desperate	 ?slur	 ?of	 ?words.	 ?She	 ?manages	 ?to	 ?recover	 ?for	 ?a	 ?moment	 ?as	 ?she	 ?suddenly	 ?switches	 ?to	 ?exaggerated	 ?swooping	 ?gestures	 ?on	 ?the	 ?last	 ?syllable	 ?of	 ??untrue.?	 ?However,	 ?her	 ?frantic	 ?pattering	 ?returns	 ?when	 ?she	 ?tries	 ?to	 ?repeat	 ?the	 ?definition	 ?for	 ?a	 ?third	 ?time	 ?(Figure	 ?5.8).	 ?	 ? 	 ?	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?5.8	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?9	 ??	 ??Testimony,?	 ?mm.	 ?59-??62.	 ?	 ?	 ? 133	 ?At	 ?m.	 ?63,	 ?she	 ?becomes	 ?fixated	 ?on	 ?the	 ?word	 ??lie,?	 ?and	 ?from	 ?here	 ?until	 ?m.	 ?69,	 ?she	 ?leaps	 ?back	 ?and	 ?forth	 ?between	 ?C4	 ?and	 ?E?5	 ?on	 ?the	 ?open	 ?vowels	 ?of	 ?the	 ?word.	 ?Meanwhile,	 ?the	 ?instruments	 ?become	 ?increasingly	 ?louder	 ?and	 ?cacophonic.	 ?They	 ?are	 ?instructed	 ?to	 ?improvise	 ?in	 ?extreme	 ?pitch	 ?ranges	 ?and	 ?with	 ?extended	 ?techniques,	 ?creating	 ?a	 ?confusing	 ?blur	 ?of	 ?sound	 ?(Figure	 ?5.9).	 ?	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?5.9	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?9	 ??	 ??Testimony,?	 ?mm.	 ?65.	 ?	 ? 134	 ?At	 ?m.	 ?68,	 ?the	 ?chaos	 ?is	 ?suddenly	 ?suspended	 ?as	 ?the	 ?soprano	 ?leaps	 ?up	 ?to	 ?D5.	 ?From	 ?here	 ?until	 ?m.	 ?84,	 ?as	 ?though	 ?struck	 ?by	 ?some	 ?immense	 ?sadness,	 ?she	 ?ceases	 ?trying	 ?to	 ?ascend,	 ?and	 ?begins	 ?falling	 ?slowly	 ?by	 ?semitones	 ?in	 ?a	 ?kind	 ?of	 ?sighing	 ?motif.	 ?The	 ?instruments	 ?mirror	 ?her	 ?chromatic	 ?descent	 ?until	 ?m.	 ?85	 ?when	 ?she	 ?reaches	 ?Bb3.	 ?At	 ?this	 ?point,	 ?with	 ?all	 ?hope	 ?lost,	 ?she	 ?oscillates	 ?slowly	 ?between	 ?Bb	 ?and	 ?B?	 ?creating	 ?a	 ?low,	 ?ebbing	 ?moan	 ?with	 ?her	 ?voice.	 ?The	 ?violin	 ?imitates	 ?her	 ?by	 ?gliding	 ?between	 ?these	 ?pitches	 ?as	 ?well.	 ?The	 ?other	 ?instruments	 ?add	 ?to	 ?this	 ?desolate	 ?mood	 ?by	 ?moving	 ?slowly	 ?between	 ?closely	 ?situated	 ?notes	 ?within	 ?the	 ?same	 ?range	 ?(Figure	 ?5.10).	 ?A	 ?dissonant	 ?aural	 ?haze	 ?surrounds	 ?her	 ?voice,	 ?which	 ?slowly	 ?shrinks	 ?away.	 ?The	 ?soprano	 ?has	 ?reached	 ?the	 ?end	 ?of	 ?her	 ?testimony.	 ?There	 ?is	 ?nothing	 ?left	 ?for	 ?her	 ?to	 ?say.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ? 	 ?	 ? 135	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?5.10	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Foci,	 ?Movement	 ?9	 ??	 ??Testimony,?	 ?mm.	 ?85-??86	 ?	 ?	 ? 	 ?	 ? 136	 ?As	 ?the	 ?movement	 ?approaches	 ?its	 ?close,	 ?Anhalt	 ?instructs	 ?that	 ?the	 ?on-??stage	 ?lighting	 ?be	 ?dimmed	 ?until	 ?only	 ?the	 ?soprano?s	 ?lips	 ?are	 ?visible.	 ?The	 ?electric	 ?organ	 ?player	 ?moves	 ?to	 ?the	 ?piano	 ?and	 ?begin	 ?hitting	 ?its	 ?exposed	 ?strings	 ?with	 ?felt-??tip	 ?mallets.	 ?Meanwhile,	 ?the	 ?vibe	 ?player	 ?exchanges	 ?his/her	 ?instrument	 ?for	 ?a	 ?water	 ?gong.	 ?The	 ?other	 ?instruments	 ?gradually	 ?fade	 ?away	 ?as	 ?the	 ?extended	 ?techniques	 ?played	 ?by	 ?the	 ?two	 ?performers	 ?at	 ?the	 ?piano	 ?and	 ?the	 ?percussionist	 ?infuse	 ?the	 ?stage	 ?with	 ?archaic	 ?and	 ?ritualistic	 ?sounds.	 ?In	 ?the	 ?dark	 ?hall,	 ?the	 ?deep,	 ?rhythmic	 ?ringing	 ?of	 ?the	 ?hollow	 ?gong	 ?draws	 ?the	 ?audience	 ?into	 ?a	 ?trance.	 ?Suddenly	 ?at	 ?m.	 ?90,	 ?there	 ?is	 ?a	 ?deafening	 ?crash	 ?as	 ?the	 ?hammer	 ?man	 ?dumps	 ?a	 ?box	 ?of	 ?broken	 ?glass	 ?shards	 ?into	 ?a	 ?container	 ?lined	 ?with	 ?bricks.	 ?The	 ?result	 ?is	 ?electrifying.	 ?	 ?Three	 ?years	 ?later,	 ?Samuel	 ?Beckett	 ?would	 ?take	 ?the	 ?same	 ?image	 ?of	 ?a	 ?disembodied	 ?mouth	 ?and	 ?use	 ?it	 ?as	 ?the	 ?centerpiece	 ?for	 ?his	 ?play,	 ?Not	 ?I	 ?(1972).	 ?It	 ?is	 ?unlikely	 ?that	 ?Beckett	 ?would	 ?have	 ?been	 ?familiar	 ?with	 ?Anhalt?s	 ?piece.	 ?Regardless,	 ?the	 ?fact	 ?that	 ?the	 ?two	 ?artists	 ?envisioned	 ?using	 ?similar	 ?theatrical	 ?devices,	 ?despite	 ?being	 ?oceans	 ?apart,	 ?lends	 ?support	 ?to	 ?the	 ?notion	 ?that	 ?a	 ?new	 ?conception	 ?of	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?in	 ?late	 ?modernity	 ?had	 ?permeated	 ?into	 ?and	 ?influenced	 ?both	 ?the	 ?realm	 ?of	 ?theatre	 ?and	 ?music:	 ?an	 ?image	 ?of	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?as	 ?a	 ?multifaceted	 ?entity,	 ?compiled	 ?of	 ?diverse	 ?experiences	 ?and	 ?identities,	 ?which	 ?can	 ?be	 ?symbolized	 ?by	 ?emphasizing	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?parts	 ?of	 ?a	 ?human	 ?body	 ?that	 ?compile	 ?a	 ?person.	 ?While	 ?this	 ?conception	 ?allows	 ?for	 ?a	 ?richer	 ?and	 ?more	 ?complex	 ?understanding	 ?of	 ?human	 ?beings,	 ?it	 ?may	 ?also	 ?cause	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?to	 ?feel	 ?conflicted	 ?and	 ?pulled	 ?in	 ?too	 ?many	 ?different	 ?directions.	 ?Sometimes,	 ?the	 ?combination	 ?of	 ?so	 ?many	 ?components	 ?falls	 ?apart	 ?and	 ?leaves	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?with	 ?only	 ?fragments	 ?of	 ?his/her	 ?identity.	 ?Sometimes,	 ?to	 ?avoid	 ?the	 ?complexities	 ?of	 ?	 ? 137	 ?reconciling	 ?conflicting	 ?components,	 ?an	 ?individual	 ?may	 ?retreat	 ?into	 ?him/herself	 ?and	 ?choose	 ?to	 ?focus	 ?on	 ?a	 ?single	 ?part.	 ?The	 ?consequence	 ?of	 ?this,	 ?however,	 ?is	 ?that	 ?it	 ?leads	 ?to	 ?an	 ?erasure	 ?of	 ?much	 ?of	 ?what	 ?makes	 ?a	 ?person	 ?whole.	 ?Les	 ?Essif	 ?describes	 ?the	 ?fascination	 ?with	 ?the	 ?Mouth	 ?in	 ?Not	 ?I	 ?by	 ?imagining	 ?it	 ?as	 ?a	 ?frame	 ??for	 ?an	 ?inner	 ?psychic	 ?space	 ?that	 ?undermines	 ?the	 ?spectator?s	 ?familiar	 ?impression	 ?of	 ?a	 ?corporeal,	 ?material,	 ?socially	 ?oriented	 ?world.?142	 ?Anhalt,	 ?too,	 ?was	 ?thoroughly	 ?impressed	 ?by	 ?the	 ?impact	 ?of	 ?the	 ?mouth	 ?in	 ?Beckett?s	 ?work,	 ?and	 ?recalls	 ?the	 ?first	 ?time	 ?he	 ?witnessed	 ?the	 ?play	 ?in	 ?a	 ?1977	 ?television	 ?broadcast:	 ??I	 ?was	 ?so	 ?taken	 ?by	 ?this	 ?virtuoso	 ?performance	 ?that	 ?I	 ?had	 ?hardly	 ?any	 ?attention	 ?left	 ?for	 ?the	 ?steady	 ?stream	 ?of	 ?speech	 ?that	 ?issued	 ?from	 ?that	 ?semi-??dark,	 ?more	 ?than	 ?well-??lubricated,	 ?sensuous	 ?cavity?	 ?The	 ?sharp	 ?focus	 ?of	 ?light	 ?on	 ?this	 ?mouth,	 ?a	 ?symbol	 ?of	 ?language,	 ?which	 ?itself	 ?serves	 ?as	 ?a	 ?metaphor,	 ?nay,	 ?a	 ?carrier,	 ?of	 ?being??143	 ?What	 ?fascinated	 ?Anhalt	 ?and	 ?the	 ?observer	 ?of	 ??Testimony?	 ?is	 ?the	 ?stark	 ?image	 ?of	 ?the	 ?mouth	 ?itself,	 ?the	 ?reduction	 ?of	 ?a	 ?human	 ?being	 ?into	 ?an	 ?isolated	 ?body	 ?part.	 ?The	 ?individual	 ?is	 ?objectified	 ?into	 ?a	 ?single	 ?entity	 ?that	 ?then	 ?bears	 ?the	 ?responsibility	 ?of	 ?representing	 ?the	 ?entire	 ?person	 ?who	 ?is	 ?no	 ?longer	 ?there,	 ?for	 ?the	 ?exaggerated	 ?physicality	 ?of	 ?the	 ?mouth	 ?overshadows	 ?the	 ?underlying	 ?complexities	 ?of	 ?the	 ?person	 ?that	 ?it	 ?belongs	 ?to.	 ?It	 ?is	 ?this	 ?uncomfortable	 ?objectification	 ?of	 ?the	 ?soprano	 ?that	 ?makes	 ?Foci?s	 ?ending	 ?particularly	 ?effective.	 ?	 ?Soon	 ?after	 ?the	 ?sound	 ?of	 ?smashing	 ?glass,	 ?other	 ?voices	 ?emerge	 ?from	 ?the	 ?darkness.	 ?Rather	 ?than	 ?emanating	 ?from	 ?taped	 ?recordings,	 ?they	 ?come	 ?from	 ?the	 ?tape	 ?operators	 ?themselves.	 ?In	 ?rushed	 ?whispers,	 ?the	 ?operators,	 ?who	 ?had	 ?been	 ?mute	 ?up	 ?until	 ?now,	 ?repeat	 ?over	 ?and	 ?over	 ?again	 ?the	 ?question	 ?that	 ?had	 ?plagued	 ?the	 ?soprano	 ?in	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?142	 ?Essif,	 ?Empty	 ?Figure	 ?on	 ?an	 ?Empty	 ?Stage,	 ?77.	 ?143	 ?Anhalt,	 ?Alternative	 ?Voices,	 ?154-??155.	 ?Italics	 ?are	 ?Anhalt?s.	 ?	 ?	 ? 138	 ?the	 ?previous	 ?movement:	 ??Do	 ?you	 ?solemnly	 ?affirm	 ?that	 ?the	 ?evidence	 ?you	 ?will	 ?give	 ?in	 ?this	 ?case	 ?will	 ?be	 ?the	 ?truth,	 ?the	 ?whole	 ?truth,	 ?and	 ?nothing	 ?but	 ?the	 ?truth??	 ?The	 ?soprano	 ?has	 ?not	 ?escaped	 ?her	 ?demons;	 ?her	 ?persecution	 ?continues.	 ?Hushed	 ?and	 ?rapid,	 ?these	 ?voices	 ?creep	 ?into	 ?one?s	 ?ears	 ?like	 ?swarms	 ?of	 ?insects.	 ?In	 ?the	 ?dark,	 ?it	 ?is	 ?difficult	 ?to	 ?sense	 ?where	 ?they	 ?are	 ?coming	 ?from.	 ?Could	 ?they	 ?be	 ?projections	 ?of	 ?the	 ?soprano?s	 ?thoughts	 ?or	 ?perhaps	 ?they	 ?emanate	 ?from	 ?our	 ?own	 ?minds?	 ?In	 ?any	 ?case,	 ?the	 ?question	 ?remains	 ?unanswered.	 ?Whether	 ?or	 ?not	 ?the	 ?soprano	 ?was	 ?successful	 ?in	 ?delivering	 ?the	 ?truth	 ?no	 ?longer	 ?matters.	 ?The	 ?late-??modern	 ?realization	 ?that	 ?perhaps	 ?there	 ?is	 ?no	 ?single	 ?truth	 ?to	 ?begin	 ?with	 ?haunts	 ?her	 ?conscience.	 ?The	 ?soprano?s	 ?sense	 ?of	 ?reality	 ?has	 ?been	 ?shattered,	 ?the	 ?struggle	 ?to	 ?maintain	 ?and	 ?manage	 ?the	 ?multiple	 ?components	 ?of	 ?her	 ?identity	 ?has	 ?proved	 ?to	 ?be	 ?overwhelming,	 ?and	 ?as	 ?Camus	 ?would	 ?describe	 ?it,	 ?the	 ?absurdity	 ?of	 ?it	 ?all	 ?has	 ?been	 ?revealed:	 ?	 ?At	 ?certain	 ?moments	 ?of	 ?lucidity,	 ?the	 ?mechanical	 ?aspect	 ?of	 ?[people?s]	 ?gestures,	 ?their	 ?meaningless	 ?pantomime	 ?makes	 ?silly	 ?everything	 ?that	 ?surrounds	 ?them.	 ?A	 ?man	 ?is	 ?talking	 ?on	 ?the	 ?telephone	 ?behind	 ?a	 ?glass	 ?partition;	 ?you	 ?cannot	 ?hear	 ?him,	 ?but	 ?you	 ?can	 ?see	 ?his	 ?incomprehensible	 ?dumb	 ?show:	 ?you	 ?wonder	 ?why	 ?he	 ?is	 ?alive.	 ?This	 ?discomfort	 ?in	 ?the	 ?face	 ?of	 ?man?s	 ?own	 ?inhumanity,	 ?this	 ?incalculable	 ?tumble	 ?before	 ?the	 ?image	 ?of	 ?what	 ?we	 ?are,	 ?this	 ??nausea,?	 ?as	 ?a	 ?writer	 ?of	 ?today	 ?calls	 ?it,	 ?is	 ?also	 ?the	 ?absurd.144	 ?	 ?In	 ??Testimony,?	 ?the	 ?opposite	 ?occurs,	 ?in	 ?which	 ?the	 ?voice	 ?is	 ?heard,	 ?but	 ?the	 ?image	 ?of	 ?the	 ?person	 ?speaking	 ?is	 ?hidden.	 ?The	 ?effect	 ?is	 ?the	 ?same,	 ?however,	 ?and	 ?we	 ?are	 ?left	 ?with	 ?an	 ?uneasy	 ?feeling	 ?of	 ?impersonality	 ?and	 ?distance	 ?upon	 ?hearing	 ?the	 ?disembodied	 ?voice.	 ?In	 ?m.	 ?92,	 ?the	 ?soprano	 ?joins	 ?the	 ?whispers	 ?and	 ?begins	 ?repeating	 ?the	 ?question	 ?over	 ?and	 ?over	 ?to	 ?herself.	 ?In	 ?the	 ?final	 ?measures	 ?of	 ?the	 ?piece,	 ?the	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?144	 ?Camus,	 ??The	 ?Myth	 ?of	 ?Sisyphus,?	 ?in	 ?The	 ?Plague,	 ?The	 ?Fall,	 ?Exile	 ?and	 ?the	 ?Kingdom,	 ?and	 ?Selected	 ?Essays,	 ?504.	 ?Camus	 ?is	 ?referring	 ?to	 ?Sartre,	 ?who	 ?published	 ?his	 ?novel	 ?Nausea	 ?in	 ?1938.	 ?	 ? 139	 ?instrumentalists	 ?leave	 ?the	 ?stage	 ?one-??by-??one,	 ?some	 ?of	 ?them	 ?are	 ?instructed	 ?to	 ?articulate	 ?a	 ?single	 ?word	 ?or	 ?perform	 ?a	 ?gesture	 ?before	 ?they	 ?leave:	 ?Double-??bassist:	 ??True?	 ?Clarinetist:	 ??False?	 ?Violinist:	 ??Right?	 ?Trombonist:	 ??Why?	 ?Percussionist	 ?1:	 ??No?	 ?Percussionist	 ?2:	 ?Strike	 ?an	 ?elephant	 ?bell	 ?while	 ?facing	 ?the	 ?soprano.	 ?Exit	 ?while	 ?continuing	 ?to	 ?chime	 ?the	 ?bell	 ?Pianist:	 ??Maybe?	 ?	 ?It	 ?appears	 ?that	 ?they	 ?too	 ?are	 ?only	 ?able	 ?to	 ?offer	 ?equivocal	 ?solutions	 ?to	 ?the	 ?search	 ?for	 ?truth.	 ?The	 ?sounding	 ?of	 ?their	 ?voices	 ?distort	 ?our	 ?perception	 ?of	 ?reality	 ?even	 ?further:	 ?by	 ?putting	 ?down	 ?their	 ?instruments	 ?and	 ?stepping	 ?away	 ?from	 ?their	 ?position	 ?in	 ?the	 ?ensemble,	 ?the	 ?performers	 ?reveal	 ?that	 ?they	 ?were	 ?merely	 ?playing	 ?a	 ?role	 ?as	 ?instrumentalists,	 ?and	 ?that	 ?these	 ?roles	 ?could	 ?be	 ?as	 ?easily	 ?changed	 ?and	 ?discarded	 ?as	 ?masks	 ?can	 ?be.	 ?During	 ?these	 ?final	 ?moments,	 ?the	 ?flutist	 ?and	 ?hammer	 ?man	 ?each	 ?pick	 ?up	 ?a	 ?small	 ?mouth	 ?organ	 ?and	 ?from	 ?backstage,	 ?they	 ?quietly	 ?inhale	 ?and	 ?exhale	 ?through	 ?their	 ?new	 ?instrument.	 ?The	 ?stage	 ?is	 ?nearly	 ?empty	 ?now	 ?as	 ?the	 ?conductor	 ?turns	 ?towards	 ?the	 ?soprano	 ?and	 ?bows	 ?deeply,	 ?as	 ?though	 ?thanking	 ?her	 ?for	 ?her	 ?sacrificial	 ?performance,	 ?before	 ?taking	 ?his/her	 ?leave.	 ?The	 ?tape	 ?operators	 ?follow	 ?him/her	 ?soon	 ?after,	 ?still	 ?whispering	 ?the	 ?legal	 ?formula	 ?as	 ?they	 ?go.	 ?The	 ?ceremonial	 ?progression	 ?of	 ?the	 ?performers	 ?onto	 ?the	 ?stage	 ?at	 ?the	 ?beginning	 ?of	 ?Foci	 ?is	 ?now	 ?happening	 ?in	 ?reverse.	 ?The	 ?soft	 ?wheezing	 ?sounds	 ?made	 ?by	 ?the	 ?mouth	 ?organs	 ?as	 ?well	 ?as	 ?the	 ?quiet	 ?chimes	 ?from	 ?an	 ?elephant	 ?bell	 ?are	 ?heard	 ?reverberating	 ?around	 ?the	 ?soprano	 ?as	 ?she	 ?is	 ?finally	 ?left	 ?alone.	 ?At	 ?last,	 ?the	 ?dim	 ?light	 ?that	 ?illuminates	 ?her	 ?mouth	 ?fades,	 ?extinguishing	 ?her	 ?presence	 ?completely.	 ?	 ?	 ? 140	 ?Stories	 ?about	 ?persecuted	 ?individuals	 ?had	 ?long	 ?been	 ?the	 ?subject	 ?of	 ?many	 ?works	 ?of	 ?art	 ?and	 ?literature.	 ?As	 ?the	 ?late-??modern	 ?individual	 ?became	 ?increasingly	 ?aware	 ?that	 ?his/her	 ?destiny	 ?laid	 ?within	 ?his/her	 ?own	 ?hands,	 ?s/he	 ?realizes	 ?that	 ?many	 ?of	 ?the	 ?trials	 ?that	 ?one	 ?goes	 ?through	 ?in	 ?life	 ?are	 ?within	 ?and	 ?against	 ?the	 ?self;	 ?the	 ?persecutors	 ?are	 ?often	 ?the	 ?demons	 ?within	 ?one?s	 ?own	 ?head.	 ?An	 ?acute	 ?consciousness	 ?of	 ?self	 ?and	 ?society	 ?leads	 ?to	 ?the	 ?questioning	 ?of	 ?even	 ?the	 ?most	 ?presumably	 ?basic	 ?truths.	 ?The	 ?very	 ?threads	 ?that	 ?hold	 ?reality	 ?together	 ?begin	 ?to	 ?fray,	 ?and	 ?one?s	 ?own	 ?perception	 ?becomes	 ?suspect.	 ?What	 ?is	 ?true,	 ?and	 ?what	 ?is	 ?false?	 ?What	 ?is	 ?right,	 ?and	 ?what	 ?is	 ?wrong?	 ?What	 ?is	 ?real,	 ?and	 ?what	 ?is	 ?not?	 ?These	 ?questions	 ?can	 ?disturb	 ?even	 ?the	 ?most	 ?grounded	 ?and	 ?rational	 ?of	 ?minds,	 ?and	 ?an	 ?individual	 ?may	 ?express	 ?and	 ?experience	 ?symptoms	 ?of	 ?mental	 ?distress	 ?from	 ?these	 ?questions,	 ?leading	 ?to	 ?a	 ?disconnection	 ?from	 ?reality.	 ?S/he	 ?may	 ?react	 ?to	 ?these	 ?pressures	 ?by	 ?retreating	 ?into	 ?him/herself.	 ?The	 ?soprano?s	 ?haunting	 ?end	 ?in	 ??Testimony?	 ?portrays	 ?many	 ?of	 ?the	 ?characteristics	 ?of	 ?such	 ?psychological	 ?troubles.	 ?Her	 ?struggle	 ?to	 ?find	 ?truth	 ?and	 ?to	 ?answer	 ?to	 ?her	 ?persecutors	 ?ends	 ?with	 ?the	 ?realization	 ?of	 ?futility:	 ?there	 ?is	 ?no	 ?truth;	 ?there	 ?is	 ?no	 ?purpose;	 ?all	 ?certitudes	 ?are	 ?masked	 ?by	 ?lies.	 ?We	 ?watch	 ?with	 ?mixed	 ?feelings	 ?of	 ?pity	 ?and	 ?discomfort	 ?as	 ?the	 ?soprano	 ?regresses	 ?into	 ?delusional	 ?moaning	 ?as	 ?she	 ?quietly	 ?slips	 ?away.	 ?Her	 ?end	 ?is	 ?not	 ?a	 ?dramatic	 ?tragedy,	 ?but	 ?a	 ?personal	 ?and	 ?psychological	 ?one.	 ?One	 ?feels	 ?her	 ?loss	 ?as	 ?though	 ?it	 ?were	 ?our	 ?own.	 ?We	 ?are	 ?moved	 ?neither	 ?by	 ?her	 ?courage	 ?nor	 ?sacrifice,	 ?but	 ?by	 ?how	 ?closely	 ?she	 ?seems	 ?to	 ?reflect	 ?us.	 ?She	 ?is	 ?not	 ?a	 ?heroine,	 ?but	 ?merely	 ?a	 ?fellow	 ?human	 ?being,	 ?an	 ?individual	 ?of	 ?late	 ?modernity.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ? 141	 ?6	 ? Conclusion	 ?	 ? As	 ?the	 ?story	 ?of	 ?Foci	 ?draws	 ?to	 ?a	 ?close,	 ?we	 ?reflect	 ?on	 ?the	 ?struggles	 ?that	 ?the	 ?late-??modern	 ?individual	 ?has	 ?undergone,	 ?and	 ?we	 ?realize	 ?that	 ?these	 ?issues	 ?remain	 ?as	 ?relevant	 ?today	 ?as	 ?ever.	 ?As	 ?the	 ?world	 ?moves	 ?relentlessly	 ?towards	 ?the	 ?future,	 ?human	 ?beings	 ?remain	 ?preoccupied	 ?with	 ?the	 ?same	 ?concerns,	 ?hopes,	 ?and	 ?dreams:	 ?how	 ?to	 ?find	 ?purpose	 ?and	 ?significance	 ?in	 ?a	 ?world	 ?that	 ?remains	 ?silent	 ?on	 ?the	 ?question	 ?of	 ?meaning,	 ?reconciling	 ?secularization	 ?and	 ?scepticism	 ?with	 ?traditional	 ?notions	 ?of	 ?religious	 ?faith	 ?and	 ?spirituality,	 ?cohabitating	 ?harmoniously	 ?with	 ?one?s	 ?fellow	 ?man	 ?and	 ?woman	 ?while	 ?maintaining	 ?one?s	 ?individuality,	 ?and	 ?accepting	 ?the	 ?fluidity	 ?and	 ?unpredictable	 ?nature	 ?of	 ?modern	 ?life.	 ?These	 ?concerns	 ?have	 ?continued	 ?into	 ?the	 ?present	 ?and	 ?remain	 ?inconclusive.	 ?	 ?With	 ?Foci,	 ?Anhalt	 ?was	 ?not	 ?seeking	 ?to	 ?provide	 ?definitive	 ?solutions	 ?to	 ?the	 ?problems	 ?and	 ?issues	 ?that	 ?he	 ?saw	 ?around	 ?him	 ?and	 ?the	 ?culture	 ?that	 ?he	 ?inhabited.	 ?Rather,	 ?the	 ?piece	 ?represents	 ?his	 ?unique	 ?interpretation	 ?of	 ?the	 ?late-??modern	 ?situation,	 ?which	 ?he	 ?hoped	 ?others	 ?would	 ?be	 ?able	 ?to	 ?relate	 ?to,	 ?think	 ?about,	 ?and	 ?come	 ?to	 ?their	 ?own	 ?conclusions.	 ?While	 ?Anhalt	 ?was	 ?at	 ?the	 ?forefront	 ?of	 ?technological	 ?advancements	 ?in	 ?electronic	 ?music	 ?in	 ?Canada	 ?in	 ?the	 ?1960s,	 ?his	 ?music	 ?remained	 ?consistently	 ?grounded	 ?in	 ?fundamental	 ?human	 ?concerns,	 ?inspired	 ?by	 ?his	 ?compassion	 ?for	 ?people	 ?and	 ?his	 ?interest	 ?in	 ?the	 ?changing	 ?social	 ?and	 ?political	 ?world	 ?around	 ?him.	 ?As	 ?Robin	 ?Elliot	 ?comments,	 ??Foci	 ?is	 ?one	 ?of	 ?those	 ?rare	 ?works	 ?that	 ?manages	 ?to	 ?be	 ?completely	 ?evocative	 ?of	 ?its	 ?own	 ?time	 ?and	 ?place,	 ?yet	 ?still	 ?timeless	 ?and	 ?universal	 ?in	 ?its	 ?appeal.?145	 ?Indeed,	 ?Foci?s	 ?effectiveness	 ?comes	 ?from	 ?its	 ?unique	 ?blend	 ?of	 ?new	 ?technologies	 ?with	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?145	 ?Elliot,	 ??Life	 ?in	 ?Montreal,?	 ?in	 ?Istvan	 ?Anhalt:	 ?Pathways	 ?and	 ?Memory,	 ?55.	 ?	 ?	 ? 142	 ?conventional	 ?musical	 ?techniques	 ?and	 ?instrumentation	 ?that	 ?strikes	 ?the	 ?listener	 ?as	 ?simultaneously	 ?intriguing	 ?and	 ?familiar.	 ?The	 ?piece	 ?is	 ?rich	 ?with	 ?concepts	 ?and	 ?ideas	 ?from	 ?a	 ?vast	 ?array	 ?of	 ?cultures	 ?and	 ?histories	 ?that	 ?demonstrate	 ?the	 ?wide	 ?scope	 ?of	 ?Anhalt?s	 ?interests.	 ?Because	 ?of	 ?its	 ?concern	 ?with	 ?social	 ?issues,	 ?Foci	 ?invites	 ?the	 ?listener	 ?to	 ?think	 ?about	 ?how	 ?the	 ?work	 ?intersects	 ?with	 ?his/her	 ?own	 ?life.	 ?The	 ?soprano	 ?of	 ?Foci	 ?may	 ?not	 ?have	 ?found	 ?solace	 ?in	 ?her	 ?situation,	 ?but	 ?perhaps	 ?the	 ?listener	 ?will	 ?arrive	 ?at	 ?a	 ?different	 ?personal	 ?conclusion.	 ?	 ?Much	 ?has	 ?been	 ?written	 ?about	 ?the	 ?art	 ?music	 ?that	 ?emerged	 ?from	 ?the	 ?post-??World	 ?War	 ?II	 ?era,	 ?particularly	 ?about	 ?the	 ?works	 ?by	 ?composers	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Darmstadt	 ?School,	 ?such	 ?as	 ?Karlheinz	 ?Stockhausen,	 ?Pierre	 ?Boulez,	 ?and	 ?Luigi	 ?Nono	 ?in	 ?Europe,	 ?and	 ?John	 ?Cage	 ?in	 ?the	 ?United	 ?States.	 ?It	 ?is	 ?only	 ?recently,	 ?however,	 ?that	 ?musicological	 ?scholarship	 ?has	 ?considered	 ?composers	 ?in	 ?Canada.	 ?As	 ?this	 ?thesis	 ?has	 ?demonstrated,	 ?there	 ?is	 ?indeed	 ?a	 ?lively	 ?and	 ?creative	 ?presence	 ?in	 ?the	 ?country	 ?that	 ?engages	 ?with	 ?local	 ?as	 ?well	 ?as	 ?global	 ?issues.	 ?The	 ?approach	 ?that	 ?this	 ?thesis	 ?takes	 ?of	 ?analyzing	 ?music	 ?through	 ?the	 ?perspective	 ?of	 ?how	 ?it	 ?relates	 ?to	 ?sociological	 ?concepts	 ?informs	 ?the	 ?reader	 ?not	 ?only	 ?about	 ?the	 ?music	 ?itself	 ?but	 ?also	 ?about	 ?the	 ?environment	 ?in	 ?which	 ?it	 ?was	 ?written.	 ?Foci	 ?is	 ?a	 ?pioneering	 ?work	 ?in	 ?Canadian	 ?music	 ?history,	 ?and	 ?it	 ?is	 ?hoped	 ?that	 ?this	 ?research	 ?will	 ?help	 ?stimulate	 ?further	 ?interest	 ?in	 ?Anhalt?s	 ?music	 ?as	 ?well	 ?as	 ?in	 ?the	 ?unique	 ?social	 ?landscape	 ?of	 ?late	 ?modernity.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ? 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	 ?	 ? 150	 ?Appendix	 ?	 ?Text	 ?and	 ?Translations	 ?for	 ?Movement	 ?3	 ?-??	 ??Icons?	 ?Original	 ?Text	 ?	 ?SECTION	 ?I	 ?(Mm.	 ?1-??29)	 ?Source:	 ?Geneva	 ?Psalter,	 ?Psalm	 ?117	 ?Tape	 ?Recording:	 ?Female	 ?voice	 ?of	 ?Russian	 ?origin,	 ?French	 ?	 ?Mm.	 ?1-??25	 ?	 ?Vous	 ?peuples	 ?et	 ?lign?es,	 ?	 ?Gens	 ?de	 ?toutes	 ?contrees,	 ?	 ?En	 ?grand	 ?devotion,	 ?	 ?Mercier	 ?le	 ?seigneur	 ?sur	 ?tous	 ?autres	 ?greigneur,	 ?	 ?Par	 ?toute	 ?nation,	 ?	 ?Psalme	 ?CXVII.	 ?	 ?Vous	 ?peuples	 ?et	 ?lign?es,	 ?	 ?Gens	 ?de	 ?toutes	 ?contrees,	 ?	 ?En	 ?grand	 ?devotion,	 ?	 ?Mercier	 ?le	 ?seigneur	 ?sur	 ?tous	 ?autres	 ?greigneur,	 ?Par	 ?toute	 ?nation?	 ?	 ?	 ?SECTION	 ?II	 ?(Mm.	 ?30-??35)	 ?Source:	 ?Reference	 ?to	 ?Anhalt?s	 ?past	 ?visit	 ?Tape	 ?Recording:	 ?Male	 ?voice,	 ?English	 ?	 ?Mm.	 ?30-??35	 ?	 ?Geneva,	 ?1968	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?English	 ?Translation	 ?	 ?SECTION	 ?I	 ?(Mm.	 ?1-??29)	 ?Source:	 ?Geneva	 ?Psalter,	 ?Psalm	 ?117	 ?Tape	 ?Recording:	 ?Female	 ?voice	 ?of	 ?Russian	 ?origin,	 ?French	 ?	 ?Mm.	 ?1-??25	 ?	 ?People	 ?and	 ?lineages	 ?of	 ?all	 ?nations,	 ?	 ?Arriving	 ?from	 ?all	 ?around	 ?In	 ?grand	 ?devotion,	 ?	 ?To	 ?the	 ?grand	 ?mercy	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Lord,	 ?	 ?To	 ?all	 ?nations,	 ?	 ?Psalm	 ?117.	 ?	 ?People	 ?and	 ?lineages	 ?of	 ?all	 ?nations,	 ?	 ?Arriving	 ?from	 ?all	 ?around	 ?In	 ?grand	 ?devotion,	 ?	 ?To	 ?the	 ?grand	 ?mercy	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Lord,	 ?	 ?To	 ?all	 ?nations?	 ?	 ?SECTION	 ?II	 ?(Mm.	 ?30-??35)	 ?Source:	 ?Reference	 ?to	 ?Anhalt?s	 ?past	 ?visit	 ?Tape	 ?Recording:	 ?Male	 ?voice,	 ?English	 ?	 ?Mm.	 ?30-??35	 ?	 ?Geneva,	 ?1968	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ? 151	 ?SECTION	 ?III	 ?(Mm.	 ?36-??49)	 ?Source:	 ?Reference	 ?to	 ?subject	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Demetrios	 ?icon	 ?Tape	 ?Recording:	 ?Male	 ?voice,	 ?French	 ?	 ?Mm.	 ?38-??50	 ?	 ?Elie	 ?dans	 ?son	 ?char	 ?de	 ?feu.	 ?(X3)	 ?	 ?Elie	 ?dans	 ?son	 ?char	 ?de	 ?feu	 ?(a)	 ?Demetrios	 ?(new	 ?male	 ?voice)	 ?	 ?SECTION	 ?IV	 ?(Mm.	 ?50-??59)	 ?Source:	 ?Catalogue	 ?descriptions	 ?of	 ?the	 ?icon	 ?Tape	 ?Recording:	 ?Female	 ?voice	 ?alternating	 ?with	 ?male	 ?voice,	 ?French	 ?	 ?Mm.	 ?50-??52	 ?	 ?	 ?Gr?ce;	 ?epire;	 ?village	 ?de	 ?zitsa.	 ?(Female)	 ?	 ?Ann?e	 ?mille	 ?six	 ?cent	 ?cinq	 ?.	 ?Soixante	 ?dix	 ?huit	 ?par	 ?cinquante	 ?point	 ?deux,	 ?par	 ?quatre	 ?point	 ?quatre	 ?centimetre.	 ?(Male)	 ?	 ?La	 ?partie	 ?superieure	 ?est	 ?occup?e	 ?par	 ?le	 ?proph?te	 ?Elie	 ?qui	 ?apparait	 ?dans	 ?un	 ?char	 ?ocre	 ?aux	 ?d?cors	 ?g?ometriques	 ?ocre	 ?brun	 ?et	 ?blancs.	 ?(Female)	 ?	 ?Mm.	 ?53-??54	 ?	 ?	 ?(Two	 ?Females,	 ?French)	 ?	 ?(1)	 ?Il	 ?est	 ?debout	 ?tenant	 ?un	 ?volumen	 ?de	 ?sa	 ?main	 ?droite	 ?et	 ?sa	 ?gauche	 ?les	 ?r?nes	 ?des	 ?quatre	 ?P?gases	 ?rouges...	 ?dans	 ?la	 ?partie	 ?inferieure	 ?son	 ?disciple	 ??lis?e...	 ?re?oit	 ?le	 ?manteau	 ?d'Elie.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?SECTION	 ?III	 ?(Mm.	 ?36-??49)	 ?Source:	 ?Reference	 ?to	 ?subject	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Demetrios	 ?icon	 ?Tape	 ?Recording:	 ?Male	 ?voice,	 ?French	 ?	 ?Mm.	 ?38-??50	 ?	 ?Elijah	 ?in	 ?his	 ?fiery	 ?chariot	 ?(X3)	 ?	 ?Elijah	 ?in	 ?his	 ?fiery	 ?chariot	 ?of	 ?Demetrios	 ?(new	 ?male	 ?voice)	 ?	 ?SECTION	 ?IV	 ?(Mm.	 ?50-??59)	 ?Source:	 ?Catalogue	 ?descriptions	 ?of	 ?the	 ?icon	 ?Tape	 ?Recording:	 ?Female	 ?voice	 ?alternating	 ?with	 ?male	 ?voice,	 ?French	 ?	 ?Mm.	 ?50-??52	 ?	 ?Greece,	 ?Epirus,	 ?Zitsa	 ?village.	 ?(Female)	 ?	 ?The	 ?year	 ?one	 ?thousand	 ?six	 ?hundred	 ?and	 ?five.	 ?Seventy-??eight	 ?by	 ?fifty	 ?point	 ?two,	 ?four	 ?point	 ?four	 ?centimeters.	 ?(Male)	 ?	 ?The	 ?upper	 ?part	 ?is	 ?occupied	 ?by	 ?the	 ?prophet	 ?Elijah,	 ?who	 ?appeared	 ?in	 ?a	 ?chariot	 ?of	 ?geometric	 ?designs	 ?in	 ?ocher,	 ?brown,	 ?and	 ?white.	 ?(Female)	 ?	 ?Mm.	 ?53-??54	 ?	 ?	 ?(Two	 ?Females,	 ?French)	 ?	 ?(1)	 ?He	 ?is	 ?standing,	 ?holding	 ?a	 ?volume	 ?in	 ?his	 ?right	 ?hand	 ?and	 ?in	 ?his	 ?left	 ?the	 ?reins	 ?of	 ?the	 ?four	 ?red	 ?Pegasus	 ?...	 ?in	 ?the	 ?lower	 ?part,	 ?the	 ?disciple	 ?Elisha	 ?...	 ?receives	 ?Elijah's	 ?mantle.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ? 152	 ?(2)	 ?Il	 ?est	 ?v?tu	 ?d'un	 ?chiton	 ?ocre	 ?rose...	 ?sa	 ?cheuelure	 ?retombe	 ?en	 ?tresse	 ?ocre	 ?brun...	 ?de	 ?m?me	 ?couleur.	 ?Un	 ?paysage	 ?peint	 ?en	 ?ocre	 ?et	 ?vert	 ?aux	 ?plantes	 ?brunes	 ?et	 ?aux	 ?fleurs.	 ?	 ?Mm.	 ?55-??60	 ?(Male	 ?and	 ?female,	 ?Greek	 ?and	 ?French)	 ?	 ?Inscription:	 ?	 ?	 ?O	 ?prophitlis	 ?Elias,	 ?Elissos,	 ?Elisseos?	 ?apo	 ?horas	 ?zitsa?	 ?peninda	 ?pente?	 ?	 ?	 ?De	 ?la	 ?main	 ?de	 ?demetrios	 ?du	 ?village	 ?du	 ?Zitsa,	 ?en	 ?l'an	 ?mille	 ?six-??cent-??cinquante-??cinq...	 ?(male)	 ?	 ?la	 ?partie	 ?inf?rieure	 ?a	 ??t?	 ?fortement	 ?endomag?e.	 ?	 ?	 ?A	 ?toi	 ?seigneur,	 ?sans	 ?cesser	 ?crie	 ?et	 ?du	 ?plus	 ?profond	 ?demon	 ?coeur	 ?escoute	 ?ma	 ?voix,	 ?le	 ?te	 ?prie,	 ?et	 ?veuille	 ?entendre	 ??	 ?ma	 ?clameur.	 ?(female)	 ?	 ?SECTION	 ?V	 ?(Mm.	 ?60-??64)	 ?Source:	 ?Akathist	 ?Hymn,	 ?Oikos	 ?1	 ?Tape	 ?Recording:	 ?Male	 ?voice,	 ?Greek	 ?	 ?Mm.	 ?60-??65	 ?	 ?	 ????????	 ????????????,	 ??????????	 ????????,	 ???????	 ???	 ????????	 ???	 ??????	 ??	 ?(??	 ??	 ??	 ????	 ????	 ???	 ????????	 ?????,	 ?????????????	 ???	 ???????,	 ??????,	 ?????????	 ????	 ???????,	 ??????????	 ?????	 ??????	 ????????:	 ?	 ??????,	 ????	 ???	 ??	 ?????	 ?????????,	 ?	 ??????,	 ????	 ???	 ??	 ????	 ?????????.	 ?	 ?	 ??????,	 ????	 ?????????	 ?????	 ??	 ??????????.	 ?	 ?	 ?(2)	 ?He	 ?wears	 ?a	 ?pink-??ocher	 ?chiton...	 ?his	 ?draping,	 ?braided	 ?brown-??ocher	 ?hair...	 ?the	 ?same	 ?color.	 ?A	 ?landscape	 ?painted	 ?in	 ?ocher	 ?and	 ?brown,	 ?green	 ?plants	 ?and	 ?flowers.	 ?	 ?	 ?Mm.	 ?55-??60	 ?	 ?(Male	 ?and	 ?female,	 ?Greek	 ?and	 ?French)	 ?	 ?Inscription:	 ?	 ?The	 ?prophet	 ?Elias,	 ?bees?*	 ?Elisseos	 ?...	 ?by	 ?the	 ?country	 ?Zitsa?	 ?fifty-??five?	 ?	 ?The	 ?hand	 ?of	 ?the	 ?village	 ?of	 ?Demetrios	 ?Zitsa,	 ?in	 ?the	 ?year	 ?one	 ?thousand	 ?six	 ?hundred	 ?and	 ?fifty-??five	 ?(male)	 ?	 ?the	 ?lower	 ?part	 ?has	 ?been	 ?heavily	 ?	 ?endomag?e.*	 ?	 ?	 ?To	 ?you	 ?Lord,	 ?without	 ?ceasing	 ?cries	 ?and	 ?deep	 ?demon	 ?heart	 ?Escoute*	 ?my	 ?voice,	 ?pray,	 ?and	 ?want	 ?to	 ?hear	 ?my	 ?cry.	 ?(female)	 ?	 ?	 ?SECTION	 ?V	 ?(Mm.	 ?60-??64)	 ?Source:	 ?Akathist	 ?Hymn,	 ?Oikos	 ?1	 ?Tape	 ?Recording:	 ?Male	 ?voice,	 ?Greek	 ?	 ?Mm.	 ?60-??65	 ?	 ?	 ?A	 ?prince	 ?of	 ?the	 ?angels	 ?was	 ?sent	 ?from	 ?heaven,	 ?to	 ?say	 ?to	 ?the	 ?Mother	 ?of	 ?God,	 ??Hail!?	 ?(three	 ?times).	 ?And	 ?as,	 ?at	 ?his	 ?bodiless	 ?voice,	 ?he	 ?saw	 ?you,	 ?Lord,	 ?embodied,	 ?he	 ?was	 ?astounded	 ?and	 ?stood	 ?still,	 ?crying	 ?out	 ?to	 ?her	 ?like	 ?this:	 ?	 ?Hail,	 ?you	 ?through	 ?whom	 ?joy	 ?will	 ?shine	 ?out,	 ?	 ?Hail,	 ?you	 ?through	 ?whom	 ?the	 ?curse	 ?will	 ?cease.	 ?	 ?Hail,	 ?recalling	 ?of	 ?fallen	 ?Adam,	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ? 153	 ?X????,	 ????	 ????????	 ????	 ?????	 ??	 ?????????.	 ?	 ?	 ??????,	 ?????	 ????????????	 ????????????	 ??????????.	 ?	 ??????,	 ??????	 ????????????	 ????	 ?????????	 ??????????.	 ?	 ??????,	 ????	 ?????????	 ?????????	 ????????.	 ?	 ?	 ?X????,	 ????	 ??????????	 ????	 ???????????	 ??????.	 ?	 ?SECTION	 ?VI	 ?(Mm.	 ?65-??73)	 ?Source:	 ?Eccl?siastique	 ?(Si	 ?48:4	 ?and	 ?48:11)	 ?and	 ?Geneva	 ?Psalm	 ?130	 ?Tape	 ?Recording:	 ?Newfoundland	 ?Male	 ?voice	 ?and	 ?female	 ?voice,	 ?French	 ?	 ?Mm.	 ?65-??70	 ?	 ?Comme	 ?tu	 ??tais	 ?glorieux	 ??lie	 ?dans	 ?tes	 ?prodiges	 ?qui	 ?peut	 ?dans	 ?son	 ?orgueil	 ?se	 ?faire	 ?ton	 ??gal?	 ?(Si	 ?48:4)	 ?	 ?	 ?Bienheureux	 ?ceux	 ?qui	 ?te	 ?verront	 ?et	 ?ceux	 ?qui	 ?endormis	 ?dans	 ?l'amour	 ?car	 ?nous	 ?aussi	 ?nous	 ?poss?derons	 ?la	 ?vie.	 ?(Si	 ?48:11)	 ?	 ?Et	 ?veuille	 ?entendre	 ??	 ?ma	 ?clameur.	 ?(female)	 ?	 ?	 ?Hail,	 ?redemption	 ?of	 ?the	 ?tears	 ?of	 ?Eve.	 ?	 ?	 ?Hail,	 ?height	 ?hard	 ?to	 ?climb	 ?for	 ?human	 ?thoughts,	 ?	 ?Hail,	 ?depth	 ?hard	 ?to	 ?scan	 ?even	 ?for	 ?angels?	 ?eyes.	 ?	 ?	 ?Hail,	 ?for	 ?you	 ?are	 ?a	 ?throne	 ?for	 ?the	 ?King,	 ?	 ?Hail,	 ?for	 ?you	 ?carry	 ?the	 ?One	 ?who	 ?carries	 ?all.146	 ?	 ?SECTION	 ?VI	 ?(Mm.	 ?65-??73)	 ?Source:	 ?Eccl?siastique	 ?(Si	 ?48:4	 ?and	 ?48:11)	 ?and	 ?Geneva	 ?Psalm	 ?130	 ?Tape	 ?Recording:	 ?Newfoundland	 ?Male	 ?voice	 ?and	 ?female	 ?voice,	 ?French	 ?	 ?Mm.	 ?65-??70	 ?	 ?As	 ?you	 ?were	 ?glorious,	 ?Elijah,	 ?in	 ?your	 ?miracles!	 ?May	 ?his	 ?pride	 ?be	 ?your	 ?equal?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Blessed	 ?are	 ?those	 ?who	 ?see	 ?you	 ?and	 ?those	 ?who	 ?have	 ?fallen	 ?asleep	 ?in	 ?love,	 ?for	 ?we	 ?also	 ?possess	 ?life.	 ?(male)	 ?	 ?And	 ?want	 ?to	 ?hear	 ?my	 ?cry.	 ?(female)	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?146	 ?Translation	 ?by	 ?The	 ?Very	 ?Revered	 ?Archimandrite	 ?Ephrem	 ?Lash,	 ?Archdiocese	 ?of	 ?Thyateira	 ?and	 ?Great	 ?Britain,	 ?www.thyateira.org.uk/docs/Salutations.pdf	 ?	 ?*Author	 ?is	 ?unsure	 ?about	 ?these	 ?translations.	 ?

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