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Su'nan chuida in the Jiangnan area of China : a holistic approach Shao, Rong 2015

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	   SU’NAN CHUIDA IN THE JIANGNAN AREA OF CHINA: A HOLISTIC APPROACH  by RONG SHAO B.A., Shanghai Conservatory of Music, 2012   A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIRMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS  in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE AND POSTDOCTORAL STUDIES  (Ethnomusicology)   THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Vancouver  August 2015 © Rong Shao, 2015  	   ii	  Abstract This thesis is a study of the ritual music in southern Jiangsu 江蘇 province, the region of Wu-speaking Chinese people 吴人. The music is generally known as Su’nan chuida 蘇南吹打 (‘Su’nan blowing-hitting’ [music]). My approach is that of a Chinese musicologist (Zhongguo yinyuexue 中國音樂學), in that I attempt to document history together with an accounting of sociological issues and analytic perspectives. For my fieldwork, I went to a small town named Shaobo 邵伯, which is near Yangzhou. The xiao paizi 小牌子 (‘little label’) tradition in Shaobo is believed to be one representative type of chuida. During my research, I have attempted a close observation and comprehensive understanding of the history, social values and qualities of Su’nan chuida music. I have also explored evidence of a connection between Su’nan chuida and Kunqu 崑曲 opera based upon analysis of a representative taoqu 套曲 suite form entitled Xia Xifeng 下西風.   	  	           	   iii	    Preface 	   This thesis is an original, unpublished work by the author. Fieldwork references in Chapter One are minimal and represent work conducted before enrolment at the University of British Columbia. Except where noted, all photographs and musical examples are by the author. 	  	   iv	   Table of Contents Abstract	  ......................................................................................................................	  ii	  Preface	  ......................................................................................................................	  iii	  Table	  of	  Contents	  ...................................................................................................	  iv	  List	  of	  Figures	  ...........................................................................................................	  v	  List	  of	  Examples	  .....................................................................................................	  vi	  1	   	   Introduction	  to	  Chuida	  Music	  ......................................................................	  1	  The	  Setting	  ..................................................................................................................................................	  1	  Social	  Background	  and	  Fieldwork	  ....................................................................................................	  4	  Review	  of	  the	  Literature	  ....................................................................................................................	  15	  2	   	   History	  of	  Chuida	  Music	   	  ............................................................................	  20	  Zhou	  Dynasty	  ..........................................................................................................................................	  20	  Qin	  and	  Han	  Dynasties	  .......................................................................................................................	  22	  Wei,	  Jin,	  Southern	  and	  Northern	  Dynasties	  ...............................................................................	  27	  Sui	  and	  Tang	  Dynasties	  ......................................................................................................................	  29	  Ming	  and	  Qing	  Dynasties	  ...................................................................................................................	  34	  3	   	   Chuida	  Music:	  Instruments	  and	  Structure	   	  ..........................................	  44	  Musical	  Instruments	  ............................................................................................................................	  44	  Taoqu	  Form	  of	  Shifan	  Luogu:	  Xia	  Xifeng	  .....................................................................................	  50	  	   Conclusion	  ...........................................................................................................	  61	  Bibliography	  .......................................................................................................	  62	   	  	  	   v	  List of Figures 	  Figure	  1.1	   	   	   Jiangsu	  Province	  in	  Eastern	  China	  ..........................................................................	  2	  Figure	  1.2	   	   	   Urban	  areas	  in	  Jiangsu	  Province	  ..............................................................................	  3	  Figure	  1.3	   	   	   Wang	  Rongtang	  in	  interview	  .....................................................................................	  5	  Figure	  1.4	   	   	   ‘Refined’	  percussions	  instruments	  .........................................................................	  8	  Figure	  1.5	   	   	   Mr.	  Wang	  playing	  small	  wine	  cups	  .........................................................................	  9	  Figure	  1.6	   	   	   Ancestry	  pedigree	  tree	  ..............................................................................................	  10	  Figure	  1.7	   	   	   Percussion	  instruments	  of	  xiao	  paizi	  ..................................................................	  12	  	  Figure	  2.1	   	   	   Han	  brick	  carving	  of	  horse-­‐riding	  guchui	  ensemble	  ....................................	  26	  Figure	  2.2	   	   	   Han	  brick	  carving	  of	  drum	  carriage	  ....................................................................	  26	  Figure	  2.3	   	   	   Southern	  dynasty	  guchui	  brick	  carving	  1	  .........................................................	  28	  Figure	  2.4	   	   	   Southern	  dynasty	  guchui	  brick	  carving	  2	  .........................................................	  28	  Figure	  2.5	   	   	   Tang	  dynasty	  fresco	  of	  processional	  ensemble	  (Dunhuang敦煌)	  ........	  31	  Figure	  2.6	   	   	   Song	  dynasty	  fresco	  of	  guchui	  ensemble	  at	  Tai’an	  泰安	  ...........................	  32	  Figure	  2.7	   	   	   Yuan	  dynasty	  guchui	  ensemble,	  line	  drawing	  in	  Quanxiang	  Pinghua	   	  	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   Wuzhong	  全相平話五種	  ........................................................................................	  33	  Figure	  2.8	   	   	   Chuida	  ensemble	  on	  horseback,	  detailed	  part	  1	  in	  Chujing	  Tu	  ................	  36	  Figure	  2.9	   	   	   Chuida	  ensemble	  on	  a	  boat,	  detailed	  part	  2	  in	  Chujing	  Tu	  .........................	  36	  Figure	  2.10	   	   Qing	  dynasty	  painting	  of	  Chuida	  ensemble	  at	  a	  funeral	  .............................	  39	  Figure	  2.11	   	   Detail	  of	  Qing	  dynasty	  painting	  of	  Chuida	  ensemble	  at	  a	  funeral	  ..........	  39	  	  Figure	  3.1	   	   	   Tonggu,	  line	  drawing	  .................................................................................................	  46	  Figure	  3.2	   	   	   Bangu,	  line	  drawing	  ...................................................................................................	  46	  Figure	  3.3	   	   	   Daluo,	  line	  drawing	  by	  the	  author	  ........................................................................	  47	  Figure	  3.4	   	   	   Bo,	  line	  drawing	  by	  the	  author	  ..............................................................................	  48	  Figure	  3.5	   	   	   Standard	  seated	  Daoist	  Shifan	  Luogu	  ensemble	  of	  Suzhou,	  Jiangsu	   	  	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   Province	  ..........................................................................................................................	  49	  Figure	  3.6	   	   	   Qudi,	  line	  drawing	  by	  the	  author	  ..........................................................................	  50	  Figure	  3.7	   	   	   Xia	  Xifeng,	  outline	  of	  the	  suite	  ................................................................................	  51	  	  	     	  	   vi	  List of Examples 	  Example	  3.1	   	   	   Jiji	  Feng	  in	  Xia	  Xifeng	  .............................................................................................	  53	  Example	  3.2	   	   	   Melodic	  part	  A	  of	  Xia	  Xifeng	  ...............................................................................	  55	  Example	  3.3	   	   	   Vocal	  and	  instrumental	  versions	  of	  Xia	  Xifeng,	  synoptic	  format	  ........	  56	  Example	  3.4	   	   	   Melodic	  part	  from	  Hong	  Taren	  哄他人	  .........................................................	  57	  Example	  3.5	   	   	   Vocal	  and	  instrumental	  versions	  of	  Hong	  Taren,	  synoptic	  format	  ....	  59	  	  	     	  	   1	  Chapter 1 Introduction to Chuida Music The Setting My focus in this thesis is to examine a music genre of Wu-speaking people 吴人 of central-eastern China.1 Wu speakers live in Shanghai, the southern area of Jiangsu 江蘇 province and northern Zhejiang 浙江 province. The ritual music in this broad area is generally known as Su’nan chuida 蘇南吹打 (‘Su’nan blowing-hitting’). My approach is that of a Chinese musicologist (Zhongguo yinyuexue 中國音樂學), in that I attempt to document history together with an accounting of sociological issues and analytic perspectives. My fieldwork was mostly conducted with an ensemble in the town of Shaobo 邵伯2, which is near Yangzhou and believed to be one representative type of the chuida tradition.  Su’nan chuida is a genre of traditional instrumental ensemble music which is popular in southern Jiangsu province, especially the areas around Wuxi 無錫, Suzhou 蘇州, Changzhou 常州, Yixing 宜興 and Yangzhou 揚州. Yangzhou is in central Jiangsu province (see Figure 1.1 for the location of Jiangsu Province). In the past, it was one of the wealthiest cities in China, famous for its great merchant families, poets, painters and scholars at various periods. From the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) to the 19th century, Yangzhou acted as a major trade exchange center and important port for shipping. Su’nan chuida has been prevalent among the common people during the 16th and 17th centuries (mid to late Ming dynasty).  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  1 Wu culture is a significant part of Chinese civilization. The comprehensive development of economy, culture 2 As seen on the map in Figure 1.2, Shaobo, is half an hour from Yangzhou by car.  	   2	  Figure 1.1: Jiangsu Province in Eastern China           Today, most scholars have decided to use Su’nan chuida as a general term for various types of chuida ensemble music from different areas of Jiangsu province, including shifan luogu 十番鑼鼓 and shifan gu 十番鼓3 of Suzhou and Wuxi, and Lixiahe4 Paiziqu 裡下河牌子曲 of Yangzhou, etc. Lixiahe paiziqu (‘labeled melodies and tunes in Lixiahe’), is a form of traditional ensemble music prevalent in Yangzhou, Jiangdu 江都, Xinghua 興化 and Dongtai 東泰 of Jiangsu province (See Figure 1.2 for the location of these urban areas 	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  3 Shifan luogu and shifan gu are both types of Su’nan chuida in the Su’nan area. Shifan 十番: shi literally means ten and here refers to variety, fan means kinds. Shifan can be translated to English as ten kinds. Based on common knowledge and my own interpretation, the term shifan here can be considered as many different kinds of instruments. Further discussion is in Chapter 2. 4 Lixiahe, same as Su’nan, is a regional name of the area which is located in central Jiangsu Province.  	   3	  in Jiangsu province).5 During the late Qing dynasty and early Republic of China, Lixiahe paiziqu gained great popularity in Yangzhou, mainly for temple events, festivals, ceremonies and other activities.  Figure 1.2: Urban areas in Jiangsu Province  The concept of chuida should be understood within a much broader traditional instrument ensemble tradition throughout the history and regions of China. It is dominated by wind instruments and percussion instruments, but also includes stringed instruments. Chuida 	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  5 It is also known as luogu xiao paizi or xiao paizi in some areas. 	   4	  music is in widespread usage among the common people because of its functional relevance. According to Li Mingxiong, it has been used for traditional ceremonies and occasions year round, including weddings, funerals, festivals and religious rites (1990: 4). As a result, chuida music has become an influential genre due to its frequent use and multiple functions (Gao 1981:23).   Social Background and Fieldwork   In the winter of 2011 and summer of 2012, I visited the town Shaobo, near Yangzhou, for my fieldwork. Luogu xiao paizi 小牌子 (‘little label’) of Shaobo (hereafter referred to as xiao paizi) is a type of chuida music affiliated with lixiahe paiziqu from the Yangzhou area.   Wang Rongtang6, the fourth-generation of known xiao paizi musicians, became my major informant. In interviews, I inquired into the historical evolution, function and social background of the tradition. Xiao paizi obtained popularity in Yangzhou, and the source of its melody is closely linked with other forms of traditional music in Yangzhou. Wang explained that during the period of Cultural Revolution 文化大革命 (1966-76) it was belittled as ‘decadent music’ (mimi zhiyin 靡靡之音). During that decade, anyone who chanted or played xiao paizi would be labeled as a ‘feudalist’, ‘capitalist’ or ‘revisionist’7. Since politics, economy, culture and even the life of the public were despotically ruled by the government, the continuity of xiao paizi was seriously interrupted and broken. Then, in the 1980s, local artists started to re-notate and re-form the ensemble so that we are fortunate today to be able to enjoy what local artists called lishide huisheng (歷史的回聲), ‘historical 	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  6 Wang Rongtang 王榮棠 (1937- ). Since childhood, he played xiao paizi, and was adept at various kinds of musical instruments.  7 Feudalism, capitalism and revisionism are mainly derived from the former Soviet Union political philosophy. 	   5	  sound’. In 2001, Wang Rongtang re-established the local xiao paizi ensemble as the primary source for recovery.   Figure 1.3: Wang Rongtang in interview         Due to the unique location of Shaobo, musical elements from other regions have been introduced through trade and cultural exchange, forming what musicians call a ‘yindi guanxi 音地關係’ (‘sound and region relationship’). In addition, xiao paizi was also deeply related to the local folk arts of Yangzhou, such as Yangzhou xiaodiao 揚州小調 (Yangzhou urban songs)8. This created the xiangtu xing 鄉土性 (‘local/regional nature’) of xiao paizi . According to the Beijing scholar Zhou Qingqing 周青青, the concept of ‘regional nature’ is an essential part of the ‘sound and region relationship’. Under the commonality of a large-scale nation or culture, each region has very different characteristics, notably geography, climate, natural and manufacturing conditions, social composition, cultural 	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  8 According to local musicians, xiao paizi has been deeply rooted in vocal music.  	   6	  traditions, dialects and so on. Therefore, the local music tradition of a certain region has a strong ‘personality’ (Zhou 2003: 37). Xiao paizi is one such distinctive chuida music type, which has been greatly influenced by its ‘regional nature’.  In the source Jiangsu Jicheng (1998: 739)9, xiao paizi is also named ‘paiziqu 牌子曲’. However, local people still prefer to call it ‘xiao paizi’. Wang told me:  In Yangzhou, a lot of things are related to xiao 小 ('small'), such as xiaodiao 小調 (urban songs). Xiao is [also] associated with xi 細 (‘refined’) in local language. Our xiao paizi is a kind of refined chuida music. Playing music in a refined way is a feature of Yangzhou people, which exhibits elegance.  In the Jiangsu Jicheng, xiao paizi has been assigned to the chuida category. However, I have noticed that it is a hybrid tradition since it received characteristics from both Su’nan chuida and Jiangnan sizhu music. Local musicians think it is on the xi 細 (‘refined’) side of  the chuida tradition. I will discuss this tradition in reference to Gao Houyong’s 高厚永 theory (later in this chapter). Su’nan chuida has various types of melody including the cu 粗 (‘rough’) and xi 細 (‘refined’)10, but in Shaobo, the music always has a delicate and light character, which constitutes the typical characteristics of Wu culture. According to Mr. Wang, their xichui xida 細吹細打 (‘refined blowing refined hitting’) in xiao paizi is very different from other types of Su’nan chuida. It is interesting that he associates xiao with xi. It seems to me that this feature has been greatly affected by the refined style of other art genres in this region, such as the famous Yuanlin 園林 (‘Garden’) and jade carving arts of Yangzhou.  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  9 This is from Zhongguo Minzu Minjian Qiyuequ Jicheng- Jiangsu Volume 中國民族民間器樂曲集成﹣江蘇卷, henceforth called Jiangsu Jicheng.  10 There is also another combined type known as cu xi hun 粗細混 (‘mixed rough and fine pattern’). 	   7	  Therefore, when playing xiao paizi, the local musicians of Shaobo never use any ‘cuchui’ 粗吹 (‘rough blown’) instruments, such as suona 嗩吶11. The overall style of xiao paizi is closer to Jiangnan sizhu 江南絲竹 (Jiangnan string and wind ensemble), which is a delicate and graceful music genre maintained in Shanghai. Furthermore, most melodies of xiao paizi derive from melodious urban songs of the Yangzhou area, which give the melodies a refined flavor. Mr. Wang explained to me that: At the very beginning [during the Qing dynasty], there were only ‘blowing’ and ‘hitting’ instruments. During the New Year, people used to compete against each other. Anyone who beat more, better and longer would win. Later, the literati joined playing di 笛, erhu 二胡 and other stringed instruments, and thus the xiao paizi came into being.   When asked about its origin, Wang Rongtang said xiao paizi was not completely formed until the Qing Dynasty (1644-1912). A Sketch of Yangzhou Customs 揚州風土記略 records the popularity of Yangzhou xiaodiao 揚州小調 in Shaobo and its direct influence on the creation of xiao paizi:  Yangzhou xiaodiao 揚州小調 [Yangzhou urban songs] are very popular. They originate from Shaobo, supported by a multitude of traditional music lovers. When played, they sound soft and pleasant, which can even help listeners to get rid of fatigue.12  According to Wang, there is another interesting tradition. When musicians play melodies from xiaodiao, they may also sing the melody. It should be mentioned that local people believed Yangzhou urban songs started from the town of Shaobo rather than the more influential and bigger city of Yangzhou. In my opinion, Shaobo used 	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  11 Suona, also called laba 喇叭 or haidi 海笛, is a Han Chinese shawm-type instrument. It has a distinctively loud and high-pitched sound, and is used frequently in Chinese traditional ensembles, particularly at outdoor performances.  12 Shaobo Folk Songs and Music Collection, p. 161. 	   8	  to serve as a transit point of trade for Yangzhou and it also had a key ship pier for cargo transportation. Thus, the small town was very likely more open than the bigger but inland city, Yangzhou. Merchants and others moving between these areas may have spread urban songs from Shaobo to bigger cities, but given them the name Yangzhou xiaodiao since the city is more famous.   Figure 1.4: ‘Refined’ percussion instruments    	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	  	   9	   Figure 1.5: Mr. Wang playing small wine cups     	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   Many melodies of Yangzhou xiaodiao such as Yangliu Qing 楊柳青, Moli Hua 茉莉花 and Baduan Jin 八段錦 have been absorbed by the early form of xiao paizi, and have prompted the development of xiao paizi. During the early 20th century, xiao paizi became one of the most popular stable ensembles in the Su’nan area. In the 1930s, its third-generation descendants, the Zhai 翟 and Cheng 程 brothers, acquired skills passed down from generations and established an ensemble by assembling more than thirty instrumental musicians. They named this ensemble ‘Tongfuhui ensemble 同福會音樂班’.13 The passing on of xiao paizi was not restricted to siblings or offspring within the same family or clan, but external apprentices were welcome. In xiao paizi tradition, the use of instruments and techniques was sometimes passed on from older musicians and mentors. Other times, it 	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  13 Shaobo Folk Songs and Music Collection, p.162.  	   10	  could also be learned from friends. As part of my ethnography, Wang and I discussed the pedigree of xiao paizi from several generations to the present day. We reviewed the inheritance from the first founder, Zhai Yongru, to today’s fifth generation of musicians, and I established the family pedigree tree according to the data collected (see Figure 1.6 below).   Figure 1.6: Ancestry pedigree tree:                                                                                                                                           1930s                                                                                                                                     1970s - 2010s     As shown above, Wang Rongtang, who was in his 70s during my fieldwork, had experienced the rupture and loss of xiao paizi during the Cultural Revolution. In 2001, he 	   11	  assembled instrumental music enthusiasts in the town to restore the memory and named the new team ‘Kom Tong ancient ensemble 甘棠古樂隊’14. He became a key person who collected memory segments of xiao paizi after the Cultural Revolution.      Members of the xiao paizi ensemble come from all walks of life. And the instruments they use actually vary among the players according to their professions. The ensemble is so inclusive that anyone who loves playing instruments can join, such that local musicians call each other wanyou 玩友 (‘playing buddy’). When I asked if there was a close relation between career and instruments played, Mr. Wang said:  Definitely, it is natural to create a relation between the two factors . . . Some food dealers or their sons play difficult instruments, like stringed instruments and flutes, while construction workers, carpenters and bricklayers play instruments like gongs.    It is clear from this quote that people who have higher skill tend to play more sophisticated instruments, and the majority are wealthier people. I suspect the reason is that wealthier and higher-class people have access to better instruments, and have more time to learn playing skills than poorer people do. According to Wang, members of the xiao paizi ensemble include Buddhist and Daoists monks, practitioners of Chinese medicine, teachers, masons, blacksmiths, workers, cooks, proprietors and offspring of the nobility. Though they live in the same area, people from different social classes tended to maintain their own life experiences, values and aesthetic orientations, all of which greatly contribute to the formation of social identity and a unique cultural identity. The ensemble of xiao paizi is formed organically and it is an orderly yet diversified collective network. They come from diverse social classes but they formed a unique yet fixed circle, where wanyou were familiar with each other and talk freely without restrictions. 	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  14 In Mandarin pronunciation, it is “gan tang”.  	   12	   Figure 1.7: Percussion instruments of xiao paizi    When Yang Yinliu discusses the chuida tradition, he mentions that: “During the fifteenth century, ensembles of Buddhist and Daoist musicians performed chuida-type music in the imperial court. Later dismissed, they continued performing in the local temples and for ritual observances of wealthy families in Beijing and other areas” (Yang 1981: 992). This tradition remained strong into the mid-twentieth century, after which it gradually became a 	   13	  local tradition that is used in different kinds of ritual occasions, such as births, weddings, funerals and calendrical celebrations.  There are different functions of chuida. Local traditional ceremonies traditionally required the use of music. For instance, chuida is believed to stimulate social harmony. According to the research of ethnomusicologist Du Yaxiong 杜亞雄 on the ritual music in a north China Village, Beixinzhuang, the main purpose of rituals like funerals is to “sustain harmony among family members and people living in the same village” (2004: 44-5). The function of chuida in calendrical ceremonies is also to unify people who do not even like each other, the effect being to bring enemies together. I believe there are similar functions of music rituals in the Su’nan area. For example, a large ritual activity often requires the engagement of musicians or ensembles to perform, and they are always well paid. This ostentation and extravagance is a way to reflect the power and wealth of the organizers.  Today, chuida music has also turned into a type of stage performance, which changes its functionality. During my fieldtrips to Shaobo and Yixing, I have seen the city government hire musicians to play for some festive events on stage. However, the entertainment purpose of chuida music for the local musicians has not changed. Musicians enjoy the moments of playing music and gathering together with their ‘playing buddies’. According to the study of the famous Beijing scholar, Yuan Jingfang 袁靜芳, historically there were two types of Su’nan chuida performing organizations: 1) the Buddhist and Daoist ritual ensembles performing for public religious rites and memorial services; and 2) the farmers’ bands, known as tang ming 堂名, which perform for private funerals, celebrations and traditional festive events (2005: 384-5). Apart from these, there is one thing in common between these two types: musicians in both ensemble types are mostly 	   14	  semi-professional. The local Su’nan scholar Xie Jianping 謝建平 points out that performing in a Su’nan chuida ensemble is not those musicians’ only job: while they earn money by performing, they have their own occupations to make a living (1990: 90). Yuan Jingfang agrees, saying: “most performers from the ensembles are semi-professional musicians” (2005: 379). According to another local Su’nan scholar, Fan Yang 范楊, the tang ming ensembles play a significant role in the chuida tradition, because they are the prevailing type of those two organizations. “As the main carrier and inheritors of Su’nan chuida, the form of tang ming has been changed over time. Today, the tang ming ensemble still exists in the local areas. However, as the economy and culture develops, there are professional and non-professional types of tang ming groups” (2012: 269).  In my trips to rural areas of Yixing, Suzhou and Yangzhou, I have seen some similar events still in progress, people carrying instruments and playing festive music. Performers walk on the street play the chuida music in parade, or have a sitting performance in a private hall.  Gender is another important issue. In the past, most chuida musicians were male; female musicians rarely performed. Based on my knowledge, I suspect this has a great relevance to the status of women in Chinese traditional culture and early social ideology. From the point of view of a female’s political, economic and education status, women in the past have no rights to political participation, no control over properties, and no access to school. Meanwhile, the status of women in marriages and families is also quite low. As a result, not to mention the participation in ensemble, females barely have opportunities to learn music. Over time, younger generations have changed this tradition today to some extent. In today’s chuida ensembles, it is more common for female musicians to play string instruments, while 	   15	  the major performers for leading instruments such as flutes or more powerful instruments, like percussion, are still primarily male musicians. However, based upon my experience in Shaobo, all the players in the xiao paizi ensemble are male nowadays.   Review of the Literature In Ming (1368-1644) and Qing dynasty (1644-1912) novels and notes, there were many records of Su’nan chuida. The descriptions provide valuable historical data for today’s research.15 For example, during the 20th century, scholars such as Cao Xinyuan 曹心泉,Cheng Wujia 程午加 and Yang Yinliu 楊蔭瀏 studied and transcribed the music, made recordings and assembled collections. Those scholars must be considered the pioneers of chuida music research.16  In early summer of 1922, Yang Yinliu began to transcribe notations of chuida music for the publication of Su’nan Chuida Qu 蘇南吹打曲, and later in the official publication of the book Shifan Luogu 十番鑼鼓 (1982), representing nearly 60 years of research activity. After 1949, with the establishment and development of a number of research institutions and music conservatories, research on traditional music became more systematized. The publication and distribution of Su’nan Shifan guqu 蘇南十番鼓曲, edited by Yang Yinliu 	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  15 For instance, literary works including Wanli yehuo bian 萬曆野獲編 by Shen Defu 沈德符,Yueshi Bian 閱世編 by Ye Mengzhu 葉夢珠, Jinghua Yuan 鏡花緣 by Li Ruzhen 李汝珍, and Tao’an Yimeng 陶庵憶夢 by Zhang Dai all have relevant records of su’nan chuida music, and their comments will be discussed later in this thesis.   16 See details in the overview part of Zhang Boyu 張伯瑜, 2001. “Common-practice luogu music and royal court luogu music of Beijing and Tianjin areas”, Chinese Musicology, No. 3; Qiao Jianzhong 喬建中, 2004. “The fate of Yang Yinliu and luogu music”, Yinyue Yanjiu, No.1. 	   16	  and Cao Anhe (1957), was the landmark achievement of this period.17 I have carefully studied this book in the process of my research. Not only did the authors transcribe and analyze the melodies, but they also wrote a general introduction of chuida and described the major musical instruments. This book is certainly a main source for today’s research on chuida. Thereafter, many experts and scholars also devoted their enthusiasm to the study of this genre. For instance, the famous scholar Li Minxiong18 from the Shanghai Conservatory of Music19 studied traditional drumming from 1956 onward with the famous local musician Zhu Qinfu20 from Wuxi.21  Another active scholar is Yuan Jingfang22 from the Central Conservatory of Music23 in Beijing, who went to the Changshu 常熟 to study Su’nan chuida from local musician Wu Jinya24. In 1979, Yuan Jingfang made five Su’nan chuida recordings when she learned to play chuida music. Meanwhile, she completed the article “Exploration of the Structures of traditional luogu music - a structural analysis of luogu music in Shifan Luogu” (1983), which 	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  17 In the early days after the founding of New China (1949), some music institutions hired local musicians of traditional chuida music to teach in schools. See Li Minxiong, 1982. “In remembrance of su’nan chuida local musician Zhu Qinfu”. Zhongguo Yinyue. Beijing, vol.3. 18 Li Minxiong 李民雄 (1932-2009) was a famous traditional music theorist, percussion musician, composer, music educator and master tutor. He has published many scholarly articles. He was the author of monographs including Naitional percussionist tutorial, Chinese percussion music, Appreciation of traditional instrumental music, etc. Li had pioneered to establish the specialized courses of traditional percussion music, and had been long engaged in the teaching, writing and performances of traditional instrumental music.    19 The Shanghai Conservatory of Music was established November 27, 1927. It was formerly known as the National Academy of Music, and its first president was Cai Yuanpei 蔡元培.  20 Zhu Qinfu 朱勤甫 (1911-1981), Daoist drumming master, one of the most renowned su’nan chuida musicians.  21 Looking back after a lapse of more than fifty years, Li Minxiong’s learning experience as the foundation greatly helps the development of the traditional percussion music at the Shanghai Conservatory of Music. See Jin Jianmin 金建民, 2005. “The spirit of Drum — My mentor Li Minxiong”. Renmin Yinyue. Beijing, vol.2 for the relevant details of Li Minxiong’s research and teaching achievements of su’nan chuida music.  22 Yuan Jingfang 袁靜芳 (1936﹣) is a musicologist, professor and doctoral tutor. She is the former head of the Musicology department of Central Conservatory of Music. Yuan is dedicated to the research of traditional Chinese instrumental music and theoretical study of music genres. Starting the late 1980s, she began to get involved in the study of Buddhist and Daoist music.  23 The Central Conservatory of Music was founded in Tianjin in 1949 and moved to Beijing in 1958. It is one of the national key conservatories.  24 Wu Jinya 吳錦亞 (1929-?) was born in a village at Changshu, Jiangsu province. He had been studying Daoist and Kunqu music since an early age, and was able to grasp the playing skill of various instruments.  	   17	  was one of the most comprehensive and systematic studies of music structure, phrasing, rhythm and timbre after Yang Yinliu’s research.  Theoretical monographs are also an essential part of the academic foundation for this research. Examples include Minzu Qiyue Gailun 民族器樂概論 by Gao Houyong 高厚永 (1981), Minzu Qiyuede Ticai Yu Xingshi 民族器樂的體裁與形式 by Ye Dong 葉棟 (1983), Li Minxiong’s Minzu Qiyue Gailun 民族器樂概論 (1987), and Yuan Jingfang’s Minzu Qiyue 民族器樂 (1987), among others.   Gao Houyong's 1981 book, Minzu Qiyue Gailun, is one of the most influential sources of his time. In the chuida music chapter of this book, Gao talks about chuida comprehensively, which includes history, types, instrumental arrangements, music features, and analysis of structures and melodies. Most notably, Gao describes chuida in four categories: “cu 粗 (‘rough’), chang 长 (‘long’), hong 宏 (‘grand’) and da 大 (‘large’)”. However, it is interesting that in the chapter on Jiangnan sizhu 江南絲竹 music, Gao uses four words, xiao 小 (‘little’), qing 輕 (‘light’), xi 細 (‘refined’), and ya 雅 (‘elegant’) to summarize the features of sizhu, which happen to be the ones that Shaobo musicians used to describe the characteristics of xiao paizi. This properly explained why people from Shaobo believe the style of xiao paizi is closer to Jiangnan sizhu music and the melodies of xiao paizi have a refined flavor compared to other types of chuida.  Moreover, there are documents such as Suzhou Minzu Minjian Yinyue Jicheng 蘇州民族民間音樂集成 (‘Traditional music collection of Suzhou’)-Vol.8-Shifan luogu (mimeographed version) edited by Wu Jinya (nd), and officially supported by the Ministry of Culture. In 1984, the huge editing project of the Jicheng anthology was officially launched. 	   18	  This collection is a nation-wide comprehensive collection of common-practice instrumental and vocal music. A couple of other chuida genres that have not been studied by former scholars have now been documented. The Jicheng project provides a significant foundation for further research of Su’nan chuida music. On that basis, a group of young musicologists such as Zhang Boyu 張伯瑜, Qian Tiemin 錢鐵民, Wang Yuqi 王宇祺, and Xie Jianpin 謝建平 started to conduct in-depth geographical research of specific types of Su’nan chuida. Dozens of outstanding research papers of this genre have been published and they mostly focused on the cities of Suzhou and Wuxi.  Scholars such as Yuan Jingfang, Tong Zhongliang 童忠良, Fan Zuyin 樊祖蔭 and Zhang Boyu also have focused on the specific musical features of Su’nan chuida. Yuan Jingfang has talked about the basic phrasing, structure and the rhythmic features of Su’nan chuida. In the article “A discussion on the structure of number columns in Chinese traditional music” (1987) by Tong Zhongliang, he explains issues including the “order of timber” argument and the “geometric sequence” features of Su’nan chuida’s rhythm. In “The discussion of the relationship between the rhythm and order of timbre in Su’nan chuida and contemporary music composition” (1987) written by Fan Zuyin, he discusses how contemporary composers apply traditional chuida rhythmic and melodic elements in their modern works. In addition, Zhang Boyu has conducted further study on the structure of Su’nan chuida, analyzing the rhythmic patterns in his research papers “Rhythmic analysis of Shifan Luogu in Jiangsu” (2001). Research papers such as “A study on the Su’nan chuida piece Manting Fang” and “The examination of Nishang Yayun-one of the origins of qupai 	   19	  曲牌25 in Su’nan chuida” (1996, 1998) written by Xie Jianping 謝建平 are detailed musical analysis of certain pieces and notations of Su’nan chuida. All these studies provide essential materials for today’s academic research on Su’nan chuida.  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  25 Qupai, is written as 曲牌, also known as paizi , means tunes. According to the qupai entry in Zhongguo Yinyue Cidian (1984/1999 rpt: 321), every qupai has a specific paiming 牌名 (‘title’). Some titles are derived from the lyrics of the original melody, some are based on the contents or sources of the original melody. However, in most cases, the title of a qupai does not necessarily have a link to the musical content.  	   20	  Chapter 2 History of Chuida Music Shanghai scholar Gao Houyong believes that today’s chuida music has a trace of music from the Tang dynasty (618-907). According to Gao, even some of the melodies from that time are still popular in today’s repertoire (1981: 23-24). However, according to Li Minxiong’s research, chuida music can be traced back even further. In his 1997 book, Minzu Qiyue Gailun 民族器樂概論, Li suggests that the earliest form of chuida music should be considered guchui yue 鼓吹樂 (‘drum and wind music’)26, which was shown in Han visual sources of the 1st century BC (Li 1997: 56). But written sources show that the idea of using wind and percussion instruments for ritual or ceremonies actually goes back 1000 years earlier. The purpose of this chapter is to trace the history of chuida music by examining different early genres from the Zhou dynasty to the present day.   Zhou Dynasty  The Zhou 周 Dynasty (1045-221 BC) is generally considered the embryonic stage of guchui. According to 3rd – century BC sources such as Zhouli Zhengyi 周禮正義, guchui music can be divided into guyue 鼓樂 (‘drum music’) and chuiyue 吹樂 (‘blowing music’).27 Many large events, notably religious ceremonies and military parades, required 	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  26 Guchui 鼓吹 identifies two traditions: one is the drum and wind music from the Han Dynasty, the other is a kind of traditional percussion ensemble music in North China. 27 Zhouli Zhengyi 周禮正義: Zhouli-Diguan-Guren 周禮﹣地官﹣鼓人,1987: pp.898-910. “鼓人掌教六鼓四金之音聲,以節聲樂,以和軍旅,以正田役。凡祭祀百物之神,鼓兵舞帗舞者。凡軍旅,夜鼓磬,軍動,則鼓其眾,田役亦如之。” 	   21	  guyue performance. Chuiyue also appeared in national ritual activities. According to the 3rd - century BC book Liji 禮記:  Aristocratic descendants were required to learn chuiyue. Also, during the winter season, all musicians were required to play chuiyue together. (in Sun 1989: 479ff. )   Therefore, we can see that both guyue and chuiyue were performed in ritual ceremonies during the late Zhou dynasty. During this period, China experienced a transformation of its regime and social patterns, resulting in changes to traditional rules and regulations. Bell and stone chime music developed rapidly. The Shijing 詩經 (‘Book of Poetry’), which is a collection of traditional songs from the Chunqiu 春秋 period (770-476 BC), gives a good description of many kinds of ancient musical instruments, some of which are still in use. For example, the poem Yougu 有瞽 in the Zhousong 周頌 chapter tells us that:  There are blind musicians, in the court of Zhou dynasty. Bells and drums are hanging on the music stands, adorned with colorful feathers. Four instruments called tao, qing, zhu, yu are all in their positions, and other kinds of percussion are placed in good order. When everything is ready, the music starts. The panpipe and double-flute are played at the same time. The sound is harmonious and loud, with solemn and graceful skills. The ancestors have high spirits after listening. The guests are invited to visit, and appreciate this music for a long period.28 (author's translation)   This shows that a wide variety of percussion and wind instrument types were used at that time. According to Wang Min 王岷, the Western Zhou ritual system had a very close 	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  28Zhousong–Yougu 周頌﹣有瞽 : “有瞽有瞽,在周之庭  。設業設虡,崇牙树羽。應田縣鼓,鼗磬柷圉。既備乃奏, 簫管備舉。喤喤厥聲,肅雍和鳴,先祖是聽。我客戾止,永觀厥成。See James Legge for a different translation: “There are the blind musicians; there are blind musicians; In the court of [the temple of] Chow. There are [the music frames] with their face-boards and posts; The high toothed-edge [of the former], and the feathers stuck [in the latter]; With the drums, large and small, suspended from them; And the hand-drums and sounding-stones, the instrument to give the signal for commencing, and the stopper. These being all complete, the music is struck up. The panpipe and the double-flute begin at the same time. Harmoniously blend their sounds; in solemn unison they give forth their notes. Our ancestors will give ear; our visitors will be there; long to witness the complete performance.” This is from The Chinese Classics, vol. 4. 1991: pp. 587-588.  	   22	  relationship with the development of guchui music (Wang 2003: 64). In traditional Chinese thinking, li 禮 (‘ritual’) and yue 樂 (‘music’) are two inseparable cultural ideologies. In other words, if you want ritual, you must have music. Qin and Han Dynasties   In the Han dynasty (206 BC-AD 220), the evidence suggests that guchui was a genre of instrumental ensemble music performed on percussion and wind instruments. Guchui had different designations due to the diversity of the ensemble’s organization and performance occasions (Yang, 1981: 110). There are two prevailing theories on the question of origin:  1. Xihan Huyue 西漢胡樂 (‘Western Han dynasty barbarian music’), and  2. Zhongyuan Bentuyue 中原本土樂 (‘Central Plains local music’).  Scholars who advocate the ‘Western Han dynasty barbarian music’ theory believe that guchui emerged as the result of cultural exchanges among ethnic groups during the Qin (221-207 BC) and Han dynasties, and that the music of northern nomadic people was the only origin. This is the argument of Yang Yinliu (1981: 109), based upon statements in the late Han dynasty book, Hanshu:  At the last period of Qin Shi Huang's 秦始皇 dynasty,Ban Yi 班壹 took refuge in the place Loufan 樓煩, [and] the herds and horses he raised reached thousands. During the early years of Han dynasty, there was no restriction on the common people in the state. At the time of Xiaohui Di 孝惠帝 and Gaohou 高后,Ban was ruling the roost in the borderland because of his wealth; he went hunting, his flags were always fluttering, and the guchui sound of his army was deafening.29 (author's translation)  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  29 Han Shu 漢書, [Han dynasty] Ban Gu 班固, 1962: pp. 4197. “始皇之末,班壹避于樓煩,致馬牛羊千群。值漢初定,與民無禁。當(漢)孝惠、高后時,以財雄邊,出入弋獵,族旗鼓吹。 	   23	  Additionally, the record Yuefu Shiji 樂府詩集 mentions a military ceremony: “Guchui origin is unknown; Ban Yi of Han dynasty dominated the northern wilderness. People there blew jia笳30 with xiao 簫31 [and these instruments] were not bayin 八音32.”33 Thus, for a very long time, many people have advocated that guchui music was 'foreign music', other than bayin (native Chinese music).  The opposing theory, Zhongyuan bentuyue, holds the perspective that guchui music was derived from the development of traditional instrumental music of the Central Plain (present-day Henan province). This point of view is represented by Wang Min (Wang 2003: 64) based on the Han dynasty Liyue Zhi 禮樂志. This source, in part, states:  There were four categories of Han music, the fourth called duanxiao naoge 短簫鐃歌 [‘small pipe, bells, song’], which was military music. This was created by Huang Di 黃帝 and Qi Bo 岐伯 in order to establish prestige, preach morality, make the enemy afraid as well as encourage the soldiers.34 (author's translation)   I personally endorse the perspective of Zhongyuan bentuyue for two reasons. First, there was adequate material for the formation of guchui music during the Zhou dynasty. As mentioned above, Zhou guchui music was divided into guyue and chuiyue. Both guyue and chuiyue were employed in various Zhou dynasty ritual events, including worship, military parades, 	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  30 Jia 笳: reed-pipe; an instrument of ancient northern minorities. Usually called “hujia” 胡笳 as well, it is a reed instrument. They used bamboo to make the pipe, with birch bark as the decoration. 31 Xiao 簫, panpipe, a very ancient Chinese instrument. 32 There is great confusion in this argument. Bayin 八音,literally meaning ‘eight tones’, can refer to several different concepts in Chinese ways of thinking. It was originally a kind of appellation of ancient music. It is also a type of traditional instrumental and percussion music. Originally bayin was the earliest instrument classification system in China. Early in western Zhou dynasty (1046 -771 BC), people divided musical instruments by construction materials, including jin 金 (metal), shi 石 (‘stone), si 絲 (‘silk’), zhu 竹 (‘bamboo’), pao 匏 (‘gourd’), tu 土 (‘clay’), ge 革 (‘leather’), mu 木 (‘wood’), eight categories. The instrument Xiao definitely belongs to Bayin categories. Therefore, I suspect the “bayin” concept here refers to local music.  33 Yuefu Shiji 樂府詩集, Guo, 1979: pp. 223. “鼓吹未知其始也,漢班壹雄朔野而有之矣。鳴笳以和簫聲,非八音也。” 34 Ibid. “漢樂四品,其四曰短簫鐃歌,軍樂也。黃帝岐伯所作,以建威揚德、風敵勸士也。” 	   24	  state funerals, etc. In addition, guyue may also have been associated with metal instruments (such as bells) to accompany specific types of ceremonies. According to Liji Jijie 禮記集解 (Collected Annotations of the Book of Rites) by the Qing dynasty author Sun Xidan 孫希旦, professional chuiyue musicians were employed by Zhou dynasty state institutions: "There are instrumental masters, who teach wind instruments like sheng 笙 (mouth organ), xun 塤 (egg-shaped flute), xiao 簫 (panpipe), guan 管 (reed-pipe), and other percussion instruments" (Sun 1989: pp.1894). This shows that both guyue and chuiyue have been widely performed in Zhou dynasty, which laid a solid foundation for the development of guchui ensemble. Secondly, local military music of Central Plain has been used as a unique symbol for military exercises and hunting in Zhou dynasty. And this function was carried on to duanxiao naoge, which is a military type of guchui in Han dynasty. Therefore, Zhou dynasty’s guyue and chuiyue can be considered as the early form and foundation for the development of Han dynasty guchui music. During a later period of the Han dynasty, guchui music was divided into three general types: 1) hengchui35 橫吹 (‘horizontal blow’), 2) huangmen guchui 黃門鼓吹 (‘yellow gate drum blow’)36, and 3) duanxiao naoge. The source Donghan Huiyao 東漢會要 says:  When the emperors worship in the ancestral temple, they command the playing of huangmen guchui; when the military worships in the temple, they command the playing of duanxiao naoge.37 (author's translation)  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  35 There might be some confuson about the term hengchui 橫吹. It is worth mentioning that in Chinese common knowledge, hengchui has another meaning, which is transverse flute. In that case, hengchui should be considered as a traditional music instrument but not a kind of guchui music. In order not to confuse readers, I think it is necessary to make it clear that all the hengchui mentioned in this essay stand for the concept of guchui music in the Han Dynasty. 36 It is very possible that the ‘yellow gate’ refers to the emperor’s house since yellow was only the emperor’s colour.  37 “王师大献,则令奏恺乐,军大献则令凯歌。” Xu Tianlin 東漢會要, Shanghai: Guji, 2006, p119. 	   25	  The other type of guchui, hengchui, is not mentioned in the above quote. However, in other documents, such as Gujin Zhu 古今注 and Yuefu Shiji 樂府詩集, hengchui was also considered an essential guchui genre. It combined the traditional guchui, which was inherited from the pre-Qin, and then developed into huangmen guchui. According to Yang Yinliu’s interpretation from the statement of Yuefu Shiji, the title guchui was a general designation when the two instruments jiao 角38 and jia were used together. The type of guchui played on the march with paixiao 排簫 (panpipes) and jia was called huangmen guchui; the other type, which used drum and jiao as the main instruments and played on horseback, was known as hengchui. That classification was based upon a record in Yuefu Shiji 樂府詩集:“hengchui music, initially called guchui, was played on horses for the military…”39  Following the writing of Yang Yinliu, the distinction made between different kinds of guchui was changeable. He wrote that:  Due to the fact in the actual practice, the development of the music and the arrangement of the instruments could change at any moment due to different reasons. Thus, the above classification seems more inappropriate from much later dates onward (the former Song dynasty, 420﹣479), and only the initial name guchui has been kept by people as a general name. (Yang 1981: 110; author's translation)   This statement can be confirmed in some early art. For example, in the Han brick carving shown in Figure 2.1, which is not very clear, it seems that two figures are playing paixiao, which basically was used as a guchui instrument during the early Han period. Yet the interesting part is that they were playing paixiao on horses at the same time, which 	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  38 Jiao 角: horn; an ancient traditional instrument used by northwest nomadic people in the army. Initially made from animal horn. 39 Yuefu Shiji 樂府詩集, Guo, 1955: Juan 21:“橫吹去,其始亦謂之鼓吹,馬上奏之;蓋軍中之樂也。…… 其后分为二部,有箫、笳者为《鼓吹》,用之朝会道路,亦以給賜……;有鼓、角者为横吹,用之軍中,马上所奏者是也。” 	   26	  should be used in hengchui and duanxiao naoge types. Hence, we can see the changeability of different types of guchui proposed by Yang Yinliu. The brick carving in Figure 2.2 shows one drum carriage pulled by two horses. It appears that four people are playing paixiao on the carriage. In the middle there is a jiangu 建鼓 (a large drum on a post) with two musicians standing on each side hitting the drum with drumsticks. This drum carriage is leading the ensemble. Figure 2.1: Han brick carving of horse-riding guchui ensemble40    Figure 2.2: Han brick carving of drum carriage41	      	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  40 Brick from Feicheng 肥城, Shandong province, in Zhongguo Yinyueshi Tujian 中國音樂史圖鑑, Liu, 2008: pp. 67, used with permission by the Music Research Institute, Beijing. 41 Ibid. pp. 67, used with permission by the Music Research Institute, Beijing. 	   27	  Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties  Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern dynasties 魏晉南北朝 (AD 222 – 589, hereafter referred to as Wei Jin), appear to have brought further development to guchui. During these periods, the imperial court set up a guchui music department, which was in charge of all guchui music. The use of music still followed the Han dynasty custom. Guchui music was considered a grand and formal music genre, which could only be used by senior officials, such as great generals. The appearance of a guchui music department implied that guchui music had become an elegant type of court music (Xiang 2001: 2).  During the Northern Wei dynasty (386 – 557), guchui spread from the court to other social occasions. Liang Wudi 梁武帝 (Emperor Wu) of the Southern dynasty began to set up and use guchui shier an 鼓吹十二案42 in the temples, courts and banquets. The following Figures 2.3 and 2.4 are two Southern dynasty guchui brick carvings in Dengxian 鄧縣,Henan province. Figure 2.3 appears to be four musicians. Two of them are playing jiao horns, while the other two are hitting drums that are hanging at their waists. They are both holding drumsticks in their right hands and other objects (possibly bells) in their left hands. As shown in the image below, this appears to be a military ensemble because they are all dressed in the uniform with armor protection. It is also possible that they are the guchui ensemble performing for the emperor at court. The brick in Figure 2.4 shows five musicians. From the right to left, we can see one person playing the hengdi flute, one playing the paixiao panpipe, then two musicians playing long horns and one playing another kind of 	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  42 Guchui shier an 鼓吹十二案,also known as xiongpi shier an 熊羆十二案. This was a type of guchui with fixed music instrumental arrangement. It was originated in the Liang 梁’s court guchui music of the Southern dynasty. Later, it has been used as fixed guchui arrangement for the Zaochao 早朝 (‘morning court session’) in Song 宋 (960-1279), Liao 遼 (907-1125) and Jin金 (1115-1234) dynasties. 	   28	  wind instrument43. In this image, musicians are dressed in the same way but with no armor, which means it is probably a performance for another ritual event. These two bricks are generally recognized as depicting a type of processional guchui music. Figure 2.3: Southern dynasty guchui brick carving 144          Figure 2.4: Southern dynasty guchui brick carving 245      	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  43 The other instrument is a wind instrument with finger holes. According to the appreance, it seems to be a bili 筚篥. 44 Ibid. pp. 68, used with permission by the Music Research Institute, Beijing. 45 Ibid. pp. 68, used with permission by the Music Research Institute, Beijing. 	   29	   Sui and Tang Dynasties  According to Yang Yinliu, this music in Sui and Tang dynasties (581-907)46 was still called guchui yue and served two purposes for the ruler. First, guchui was used in processional ensembles to show the power and prestige of the ruler. Second, it was used during feasts and banquets for entertainment. From then on, it became less restricted and was combined with other music genres from its era (Yang 1981: 227). Later in the Tang dynasty (618﹣907), the tradition was still prosperous, and mostly used within the palace. But Li Minxiong (1997: 57) points out that at the same time, guchui was also quite widespread among the common people.  In the Sui dynasty (581-618), in order to preserve the old way of Han dynasty, the guchui shu 鼓吹署 (‘guchui department’) was kept. In the Tang dynasty, more diversified music and arrangements of ensembles were added. Guchui music used in Sui and Tang dynasties included two genres: shier an 十二案, for the temple courts and palace banquets; and guchui sibu 鼓吹四部, for military processions. Based on the records in Suishu 隋书47: “Into the middle of Daye 大业 years, emperor Yang prepared banquets, using guchui, and shier an based on the Liang dynasty tradition…”   	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  46 According to the historical records, the Sui dynasty started from AD 581. However, based on the above content, the Southern and Northern dynasties didn't end until AD 589. The eight-year overlap is because the Emperor Wen of Sui 隋文帝 had changed the country title to Sui before the Southern and Northern dynasties had been completely destroyed.   47 Suishui-Yinyue Zhi 隋書-音樂志, Zhangsun, 1974: pp. 382. “至大业中,炀帝制宴飨,设鼓吹, 依梁为十二案。 	   30	  In both the Sui and Tang dynasties, hengchui music was used in lu bu 卤簿48. The combination of hengchui and the original guchui music was called guchui sibu49, which was divided into ganggu bu 棡鼓部 (‘gang drum section')50, naogu bu 铙鼓部 (‘bell and drum section'), da hengchui bu 大横吹部 (‘large horizontal blow section'), and xiao hengchui bu 小横吹部 (‘small horizontal blow section'). Different sections were used for guards of honor at different levels. Figure 2.5 is a fresco from the Dunhuang 敦煌 caves, showing a processional Tang ensemble. In the fresco, there are eight people playing wind instruments on horseback. They are arranged on both sides, wherein each side has two musicians hitting drums and two musicians blowing horns. In the back of the team, there is a ten-musician ensemble. Musicians in the picture are holding different instruments, including pipa 琵琶 (lute), bili 篳篥 (reed-pipe), hengdi 橫笛 (flute), paiban 拍板 (clapper), drum, sheng 笙 (mouth-organ), konghou 箜篌 (harp), etc. There is also one drum-carrying person on each side, with two musicians hitting the drum with drumsticks. All musicians are standing while performing, which is the processional type guchui used for marching or ceremonies in the Sui and Tang dynasties. Based upon the number of the musicians and their uniforms, this image appears to show an important ritual event for a high government official. 	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  48 Lu bu 卤簿 was a type of processional music for emperors. 49 Yuefu Shiji – Hengchui Quci 横吹曲辞, Guo, 1955: pp. 136. “自隋已后,始以横吹用之卤簿,与鼓吹列为四部,总谓之鼓吹,并以供大驾及皇太子、王公等。一曰棡鼓部,其乐器有棡鼓、金钲、大鼓、小鼓、长鸣角、次鸣角、大角七种。” 50 Ganggu 棡鼓 is a kind of small drum with a lid.  	   31	  Figure 2.5: Tang dynasty fresco of processional ensemble (Dunhuang 敦煌)51       Song and Yuan Dynasties  Compared to the great Tang dynasty, court music during the Song dynasty (960-1279) reflects some changes as will be seen below. With the rise of urban music and the development of common-practice art, guchui deteriorated in many aspects, including its influence and status, decline of musicians and loss of quality. According to the records in Songshi 宋史:  In early Song dynasty, all princes and first to third class ministers have their own guchui ensemble. Because of the lack of guchui musicians for temple and ritual ceremonies, soldiers were taken from each army to serve as guchui musicians.52 (author's translation) 	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  51 Zhongguo Yinyueshi Tujian 中國音樂史圖鑑, Liu, 2008: pp. 111, used with permission by the Music Research Institute, Beijing. 52 Songshi-Juan Yibaisishi-Yue Shifu-Guchui Shang 宋史﹣卷一百四十﹣樂十五﹣鼓吹上, 1985: pp. 3301-3302. “宋初因之……又皇太子及一品至三品,皆有本品鼓吹太常。鼓吹署樂工數少,每大禮皆取之於諸軍,一品一下喪葬給之,亦取于諸軍……” 	   32	   However, guchui survived. There is evidence showing that guchui was still used in the military music in the Song dynasty. As seen in Figure 2.6, a fresco in Dai Miao 岱廟 of Tai’an 泰安 (Shandong province 山東), there is a guchui ensemble within the entourage troop accompanying the emperor on tour. The musical instruments in the fresco include long horn, suona 嗩吶, dagu 大鼓 (‘large drum’), hengchui 橫吹, and others. Compared to the Tang dynasty (See Figure 2.5), the size of the ensemble and the scale of the troop were smaller due to the depression of the country. But guchui still acted as an essential processional music for the emperors in Song dynasty.  Figure 2.6: Song dynasty fresco of guchui ensemble at Tai’an 泰安53      In the Liao dynasty (907-112554), guchui and hengchui were still used in military music. And it went on to Jin (1115-1234) and Yuan 元 (1271-1368) dynasties to be used in the 	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  53 Zhongguo Yinyueshi Tujian 中國音樂史圖鑑, Liu, 2008: pp. 188, used with permission by the Music Research Institute, Beijing. 	   33	  palace and court. In the Yuan dynasty, the state sent all guchui musicians to the Xuansheng temple 宣圣庙 in Qufu 曲阜55 to enhance their performing skills.  Figure 2.7 is a drawing from the Yuan dynasty book Quanxiang Pinghua Wuzhong 全相平話五種. In the drawing, musicians of the ensemble are playing dagu 大鼓 (‘large drum’), bili 篳篥 (reed-pipe), hengdi 橫笛 (‘transverse flute’), tongbo 銅鈸 (cymbals), and paiban 拍板 (clapper). Based on their unified formal clothing, it is likely that the people in the drawing were performing for a high level event, which could be a guchui ensemble for imperial celebration or ritual ceremony. Thus the guchui music was still used in courts in the Song and Yuan dynasties, and this laid the foundation for the further development of guchui.  Figure 2.7: Yuan dynasty guchui ensemble, line drawing in Quanxiang Pinghua Wuzhong 全相平話五種56  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  54 The Liao dynasty overlapped by some years with the Song dynasty.  55 Qufu, 曲阜 is a city in Shandong province.  56 

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