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Diagnosis: Diabetes : an interactive chamber opera in one act Park, Michael James 2015

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i   DIAGNOSIS: DIABETES AN INTERACTIVE CHAMBER OPERA IN ONE ACTbyMICHAEL JAMES PARKB.Mus., University of Manitoba, 2007M. Mus., The University of Western Ontario, 2009  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF     DOCTOR OF MUSICAL ARTSinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE AND POSTDOCTORAL STUDIES(Composition)  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA(Vancouver)     July 2015© Michael James Park, 2015 iiAbstractDiagnosis: Diabetes is an interactive one-act chamber opera for five singers (sopra-no, mezzo-soprano, mezzo-soprano, tenor, baritone) and an instrumental quintet (flute/alto flute, B Clarinet/bass clarinet, violin, cello, and piano). It is approximately 60 minutes in duration with seven scenes and no intermission.The opera tells the story of Charlie and his relationship with his diabetes. After Char-lie’s parents take full responsibility for his diabetes management in childhood, the audience influences the outcome of several scenes by answering the narrator’s multiple-choice ques-tions. The audience’s success in answering these questions dictates whether the following scene has a good or bad outcome. The music of Diagnosis: Diabetes serves to facilitate the posing of questions (from scripted musicians to live audience) and the implementation of multiple dramatic outcomes in a live performance scenario.iiiPrefaceThis dissertation and composition are original, unpublished, and independent works by the author, Michael James Park.ivTable of ContentsAbstract  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iiPreface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iiiTable of Contents  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ivList of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .viList of Examples  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viiAcknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viiiIntroduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Chapter 1: Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.1 Past Work as Musical Research  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.2 The Librettist and Composer as Separate Entities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.3 Characters and Summary of Dramatic Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Chapter 2: Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82.1 Possible Outcomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82.1.1 In Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82.1.2 Notation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92.2 Theatricality Beyond the Score  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11Chapter 3: Musical Materials  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133.1 Defining the Tetrachord  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133.1.1 Tetrachord Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133.1.2 Examples of Tetrachord Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143.1.3 Moving Between Tetrachord Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163.2 Melodic Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18Chapter 4: Creating the Experience of Diabetes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204.1 Priming the Audience  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204.1.1 Prologue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204.1.2 Scene 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204.2 Performer-Audience Interaction in Question Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214.2.1 Question Time 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214.2.2 Question Time 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234.2.3 Scene 4: Finale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25v4.3 Musically Experiencing Hypoglycemia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264.3.1 Levels of Severity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274.3.2 Playing with Time and Tempo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284.3.3 Playing with Text Intelligibility  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304.3.3.1 Notation of Garbling  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314.3.3.2 Previous Uses of Text Garbling  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314.3.3.3 Garbling in Scene 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324.4 Inside the Mind of a Diabetic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344.4.1 The Aria, Look Straight Ahead � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 354.4.2 Stream of Consciousness: Charlie’s Role in the Scene  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354.4.3 The Doctor-Patient Relationship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364.4.4 Towards the Climax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37Chapter 5: Closing Remarks  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40Bibliography  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41Appendix A: Libretto  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43Appendix B: Musical Score  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74Title Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74Roles and Program Note . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75Performance Notes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76Prologue  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79Scene 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89Question Time 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119Scene 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135Question Time 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168Scene 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184Scene 4: Finale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197viList of TablesTable 1.1 Characters by Scene  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5Table 1.2 Dramatic Events by Scene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6Table 1.2 Dramatic Events by Scene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7Table 3.1 Quality of Tetrachord Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14Table 3.2 Overall Harmonic Motion of Tetrachord Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17Table 3.3 Harmonic Motion in Scene 3  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17Table 3.4 Harmonic Motion in Question Time 2 (mm 797-847) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18List of TablesviiList of ExamplesExample 2.1 Question Time 1 (mm 568-573)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9Example 2.2 Scene 2 (mm 741-744) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10Example 2.3 Scene 2 (mm 731-735) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10Example 2.4 Question Time 1 (mm 494-506) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11Example 3.1 Scene 2 (mm 625-627) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15Example 3.2 Prologue (mm 1-7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15Example 3.3 Scene 1 (mm 131-134) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16Example 3.4 Scene 1 Trio: M- and T-voices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19Example 4.1 Question Time 1 (mm 500-506) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22Example 4.2 Question Time 2 (mm 847-850)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23Example 4.3 Scene 2 (mm 636-639)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29Example 4.4 Scene 2 (mm 685-689)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30Example 4.5 Scene 1 (mm 115-116)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31Example 4.6 Scene 1 (mm 135-138)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32Example 4.7 Scene 2 (mm 625-627) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33Example 4.8 Scene 3 (mm 946-952)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37List of ExamplesviiiAcknowledgementsI am not the same person I was when I started this project, and for that I owe a huge debt of gratitude to the many people and organizations that have supported me and my opera over the past few years, including:Dr. Dorothy Chang, for providing the best feedback I could have hoped for, and setting an amazing example of what an excellent composer and educator can be. Also to the UBC Com-position Department for providing an enriching environment for me to come into my own as a composer.Bryan Wade, Tom Cone (RIP), Fred Wah, Pamela Hawthorne, and Ray Hsu for insightful conversations as I was developing the libretto.The people in my diabetes world who may or may not have inspired parts of the opera: Dr. Heather Dean, Dr. Lica Chui, Kerri Sparling, Catherine MacDonald, Gen Henderson, Tu Dia-betes, Heather Nichol and the Diabetes Program at the B.C. Children’s Hospital.Mel Braun and the University of Manitoba’s Contemporary Opera Lab for the opportunity to write and workshop the original scene that developed into this thesis. Also to Karl Paulnack, Ann Hodges, and Ker Wells for their helpful feedback during that workshop.Erato Ensemble for programming the world premiere as part of your season.The many friends and colleagues who have supported me and held me accountable. While there are too many to list, a special mention goes to those who fit in both categories: Nancy, Jonathan, and Ray.And finally, thank you to all of those people in my family and otherwise who fill my life with love. I am eternally grateful to have parents whose unconditional support has allowed me to develop into the musician I am today, and a husband whose love inspires me to become an even better musician tomorrow. Thank you Mom and Dad, y gracias Héctor.1IntroductionAs a diabetic since the age of seven, I have seen friends and fellow diabetics follow a variety of paths that put diabetes at the forefront of their lives and, until a few years ago, I had no idea how I’d ever be able to make an impact on the world of diabetes. Writing an opera about diabetes has allowed me to bring to light an invisible illness by giving the audience the experiences of being diabetic. As a composer, I’ve been obsessed with musicalizing life experiences as well as concepts such as humour and disease. I have found that shared experience and audience interaction are powerful tools for connecting music to the extramusical, and those tools became the basis for creating Diagnosis: Diabetes.While the opera is very specifically about diabetes, the struggle faced by the main character is universal amongst the youth of today: burnout and apathy. In exploring these themes by engaging audience interaction, the project simultaneously connects opera to a potential new audience of diabetics, and shares an essentially diabetic experience with any audience members who aren’t afflicted.One of the most exciting elements of this project was that the libretto and idea behind it is that the opera would involve the audience in more than a trivial manner. The audience actually becomes a character in the opera, with tensions and a relationship that develops between both the protagonist (Charlie) and the antagonist (Narrator). Having had success with audience interaction in previous pieces, this libretto gave me the opportunity to develop that technique further and on a grander scale.2Chapter 1: BackgroundWhen I submitted the proposal for this project, I truthfully stated that there were very few operas written about disease, and certainly none about diabetes. Within the past decade, there has been a cultural shift in the recognition and dialogue about invisible illness. People are “sick and tired of feeling sick and tired,”1 and have not hesitated to share their experiences with any number of conditions, including diabetes. Fitting this dialogue into the broader movement of Health 2�02, there is no shortage of writing and creative methods discussing invisible illnesses on line, including a Kickstarter campaign for “an 80’s rock opera written, directed by, and starring family doctors,”3 and an interactive game where players go through the process of being diagnosed as HIV positive.4 In terms of art music, composers are often less direct in their treatment of disease in music, either by musicalizing a satellite of the disease, or allowing extramusical elements to bridge the gap between disease and music.John Corigliano’s Symphony No� 1 draws a connection to AIDS though the program note and dedications. While the music itself applies programmatic techniques, the connection is drawn to individual victims of the AIDS crisis, rather than to the disease itself. John Greyson’s 2009 operatic documentary film Fig Trees also connects music to the AIDS epidemic, this time through a documentary lens focusing on AIDS advocacy, in place of the actual disease. Benton Roark’s experimental music theatre work, Hover, explores a woman’s experience with regaining consciousness while under anesthesia as well as other characters whose experiences cannot be verified by observable evidence. The social illness of bullying has also been receiving much attention in the past few years, and was the topic of Neil Weisensel’s opera Stickboy, premiered Fall 2014 by Vancouver Opera. Both of these works see the musical composition working in close collaboration with extramusical elements (alternative location staging, video design) in order to facilitate the invisible illness as a stage presence.1  Paul J. Donoghue and Mary E. Siegel, Sick and Tired of Feeling Sick and Tired: Living with Invisible Chronic Illness (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2000).2  A predominantly web-based movement wherein patients play a larger role in the self-educa-tion and self-management of their conditions.3  https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/539868944/diabetes-the-musical/description4  The game provides an interactive format through which players gain access to experiences they otherwise wouldn’t have. Because the interactive questions in the game have a right answer, the wrong answers serve a more educational purpose to educate and illuminate elements of the experi-ence. This kind of false interactivity led me to seriously consider the kind of interactivity appropriate for Diagnosis: Diabetes.  http://impositivegame.com/31.1 Past Work as Musical Research The variety of techniques I’ve used in Diagnosis: Diabetes is the amalgamation of several years of compositional experimentation in which I’ve explored the experience of disease in music, audience interaction, and the manipulation of text comprehension. To honour my grandmother and to deal with her passing from Alzheimer’s disease, I wrote Alzheimer’s Variations in 2006. Realizing it struck such a chord of authenticity with many audiences, I examined the piece in search of what made it so effective. I was invited to present my findings at the TEDxSFU conference5 in September 2013, outlining how the authentic experience of the performer (forcing them to make actual mistakes, and giving them near impossible challenges) results in an empathetic response from the audience. In planning to write an opera about diabetes, I realized that a real experience would be essential to the success of the project, leading me to explore audience interaction. For the 2011 Contemporary Opera Lab at University of Manitoba, I was asked to write a short scene to be workshopped by student performers. The scene I wrote became the basis for Diagnosis: Diabetes, and its workshop informed many aspects of  the present work. Most importantly, it allowed me to evaluate several methods of soliciting responses from a live audience. As part of Art Song Lab 2012, I was able to further explore audience interaction and to test a method for including variable-outcome performance scenarios with my piece Art Song Lib, a musical mad lib with text by Ray Hsu. This particular performance workshop experience re-confirmed the importance of priming the audience with a friendly, inviting request for interaction at the outset, in order to guarantee continued involvement throughout the piece. The plausibility of this opera’s Scene 2 was heavily informed by my piece Gramps Ain’t No Namby-Pamby in which I confirmed that the auditory registration of speech is not ultimately essential for comprehension. The piece is a musical dialogue for a baritone singer and a bassoonist, such that only half the text is heard by the audience because the other half is unintelligible. By heavily using context, motives, and repetition, the piece was successful in inciting audience laughter, even when the punchline was delivered by the instrumentalist. While Scene 2 does the opposite, by intentionally garbling the text to achieve unintelligibility, the above techniques were invaluable in setting a text that had to be both intelligible and unintelligible, depending on the scene’s version.5  Michael Park, “Experiencing Disease Through Music,” TEDxSFU 2013.41.2 The Librettist and Composer as Separate Entities While I wrote both the text and the music for Diagnosis: Diabetes, it is important to clarify that I wrote the two parts separately, mindful of the important distinction between librettist and composer. The libretto was written in 2012-13. I first created a plot summary based on commonalities between my own personal experiences and those of the on-line diabetes community6. At that point, I met with several dramaturgs for suggestions on how to move forward. Bryan Wade, Associate Professor in the Creative Writing Program at UBC, agreed to oversee the libretto writing. We met at several stages of the writing, and he approved the libretto on its own merit before I started composing. The composition of the opera took place between 2013-15. Just as I would with any text, I started by reading and internalizing the libretto. During the composition, the libretto underwent a few alterations related to musical considerations, including substantially rewriting the end of the Finale. On both sides of the partnership, I strived to keep the other side in mind. While the changes arose from my compositional needs, the alterations were made in full consideration of the dramatic effects on the libretto.1.3 Characters and Summary of Dramatic Events Owing largely to the financial and practical limitations of contemporary chamber opera, the work’s five singers are all cast in multiple roles throughout the opera as described here. Below that is a table outlining which characters are present in each scene.Charlie (mezzo-soprano) Protagonist. Pants-role as child, tenor as young adult. Attempting to live a normal life - managing, but not enslaved to his diabetes.Mom (Soprano) and Dad (Tenor) Charlie’s young idealistic parents are blindsided by his diagnosis and do their best to meet the overwhelming challenges diabetes presents their family.Narrator (Mezzo-Soprano) Antagonist. Genderless.Chorus (SATB) Energetic ensemble of entertainers who bridge the gap between the Audience and the dramatic action.6  I had originally intended to create a libretto from numerous authors of blogs and on-line fo-rums. In reading those sources, I realized that, by universalizing my own experiences, I would be able to write a story that would appeal to many diabetics while maintaining a sense of character consisten-cy.5Diabetes Specialists: Endocrinologist (Baritone) Older, late-career male.Nurse (Mezzo-Soprano) Middle-aged female.Ophthalmologist (Soprano) (eye specialist) Ageless female.Co-Workers:Boss (Mezzo-Soprano) No-nonsense, female, late-30sBrenda (Soprano) Type-A perfectionist, female, young adult.Andy (Baritone) Yes-man, early 30s.Table 1.1 Characters by SceneSoprano Mezzo 1 Mezzo 2 Tenor BaritonePrologue Chorus, Mom Narrator Chorus Chorus ChorusScene 1 Mom Young CharlieNurse Dad EndocrinologistQuestion Time 1Chorus Narrator Chorus Chorus ChorusScene 2 Brenda Boss Charlie AndyQuestion Time 2Chorus Narrator Chorus Chorus Charlie’s Friend,ChorusScene 3 Ophthalmologist CharlieScene 4: FinaleChorus, Mom Narrator Chorus Charlie ChorusNot listed above, there is an additional character who enters during the Prologue and remains active until the Finale: the Audience. As discussed further in chapter 4, its active involvement in the Question Time scenes is essential to an effective experience of scenes 2 and 3, and serves to propel the Narrator’s character development throughout. The Narrator and Charlie both undergo significant character development throughout the opera. Below is a brief summary of dramatic events.6Table 1.2 Dramatic Events by SceneScene Setting EventsPrologue Performance Setting: broken fourth wallNarrator and chorus introduce Charlie and the inter-active nature of the opera. Audience encouraged to respond in an amusing manner with zero risk.Includes a cut-away scene where Mom discovers there is something wrong with Charlie.Scene 1 Endocrinologist’s Of-fice (Diabetes Specialty Clinic)Endocrinologist and Nurse educate Mom and Dad about diabetes management. Charlie participates in a non-text-singing capacity. Includes:● Mom’s aria Oh My Baby Boy● Dad’s aria Should I Really…● Finale Quintet Any Blood Sugar Less Than FourQuestion Time 1Performance Setting: broken fourth wallNarrator and chorus pose 3 questions to the audience based on what they heard in Scene 1.Scene 2 Board room at large cor-porate officeCharlie chairs an important meeting , presenting to his Boss, and coworkers Andy and Brenda. Recitative throughout. Dramatic shifts in tempo and text-intelligi-bility create the character’s (and audience’s) experience of hypoglycemia (low blood-sugar), the degree of which is determined by the responses in Question Time 1. Includes● Boss/Brenda/Andy Trio I Think You’re Really On To SomethingQuestion Time 2Performance Setting: broken fourth wallTableau of Charlie and Friend driving in carNarrator and chorus pose 2 questions to the audience based on Scene 2.Includes a short cut-away scene where Charlie notices a change in his vision while driving on a road trip.Scene 3 Ophthalmologist’s Office(Eye Specialist)Eye Exam ChairThe Ophthalmologist examines Charlie’s eyes while Charlie struggles internally with the potential of com-plications from his diabetes. When the Ophthalmologist diagnoses Charlie with his first complication, the degree of which is determined by the audience’s responses in Question Time 2, Charlie is faced with his own mortali-ty.● Ophthalmologist’s aria Look Straight Ahead7Scene Setting EventsScene 4: FinaleContinues from Oph-thalmologist’s office and transitions into Dream Scenario of the Perfor-mance Setting, toying with then reestablishing the fourth wall.As Charlie’s thoughts and fears spiral out of control, the chorus plays the role of the obsessive thoughts in his head while he sings:● Charlie’s Aria How Can This Be Fine?The aria continues with interruptions and variation throughout the Finale.When the Narrator’s antagonism leads to posing one final Question Time question to the audience, Charlie triumphantly reclaims control over his fate and diabetes management.While there is a growing interest in invisible illness, both in social media and in the arts, Diagnosis: Diabetes presents a new topic and dramatic approach to chamber opera. This document will explore the techniques and musical materials used within the composition in order to embody an audience with the experience of diabetes.Table 1.2 Dramatic Events by Scene8Chapter 2: MethodologyWhile there were many techniques and approaches that came together in the creation of Diagnosis: Diabetes, this section will focus on the interactive nature of the piece, and the concerns surrounding how to implement such an extramusical idea in a musical score.2.1 Possible OutcomesThe opera contains 4 scenes with variable outcome possibilities. In Question Time scenes, the audience is asked a series of multiple-choice questions. While there are as many as three incorrect responses per question, the calculation of possible outcomes is based solely on whether the question is answered correctly (1) or incorrectly (0). For scenes 2 and 3, there are two possibilities: a good (B) or a bad (A) fate. Good fates are the result of answering more than half the questions correctly, whereas the bad fates result from answering half or fewer of the questions correctly. Because each outcome of the Question Time scene predetermines the result of the following scene, the two outcomes in scenes 2 and 3 cannot be included in the calculation of total possible outcomes, which is thirty-two.The portion of scenes effected by the variable outcomes is noticeably different between the two types of scenes. In Question Time scenes, each question is followed by a short variable response by the narrator, approximately two measures in length. Much more of the material is varied in the dramatic scenes, wherein the second half of the scene is presented in two different versions (mm 699-796 in Scene 2 and mm 956-969/993-1018 in Scene 3).2.1.1 In PerformanceOne of the highest priorities in setting a libretto with variable outcomes was to ensure it did not become cumbersome for the performers at any stage of the learning, rehearsal, or performance. The task became to use or develop techniques in order to create two versions of each variable outcome without doubling the performers’ workload. For the Question Time scenes, I evaluated the additional eight measures to be negligible, given the benefit of creating a drastic difference between the outcomes of four of the five questions. To minimize the effect on ensemble workload, the results of each audience response is sung as a vocal solo by the narrator, as shown in the example below.9Example 2.1 Question Time 1 (mm 568-573)The process of asking the question is more involved, as it requires the coordination of the chorus and instrumentalists. Though each question is slightly different, the basic process is the same: the Narrator poses the question, the Chorus presents the options separately, then the Chorus repeats the options, gaining in intensity while the audience chooses a response. Based on the performance venue, audience, and method of collecting audience response, the length of time the options are repeated will vary greatly, requiring the coordination of the conductor. The freer notation, as described in section 2.1.2, encourages the performers to take the material into their own hands, leaving time open to listen to the other performers, and engage more meaningfully with the audience.2.1.2 Notation To facilitate the possibility of two different versions of a scene from which one is chosen during a live performance, the score would need to present both possibilities simultaneously. In these instances, an additional staff is added to the applicable part and the 10variable outcomes are labeled as the bad fate “A”, or the good fate, “B”. Example 2.2 Scene 2 (mm 741-744)When the part returns to a single stream, it is labeled “A+B”.Example 2.3 Scene 2 (mm 731-735) Facilitating the posing and response to questions in the Question Time scenes required freer notation that could be adapted to the variety of possible outcomes. A box around a portion of the music indicates that the music therein should be performed at the individual performer’s own tempo, independent of the conductor or ensemble’s tempo. In QT scenes, it defines the basic unit of repetition, allowing for the flexibility in tempo required while the audience prepares to answer. Arrows are used to indicate that the material in the 11preceding box should continue until the vertical alignment of the arrow’s point has been reached. Example 2.4 shows the Question Time process as described  in section 2.1.1.Example 2.4 Question Time 1 (mm 494-506)2.2 Theatricality Beyond the Score Especially in a dramatic context, a score is no substitute for a realized performance. Musically, it would be impossible to account for every possible outcome of audience interaction; instead, the score aims to present the content and form in a way that best 12prepares the performers to connect with the audience through the music. Essential to the success of a performance is the performer’s understanding that performers are welcomed and encouraged to go beyond the limits of the score. While much of this can be understood within the context of ad libitum performance practice, both the responses and context for audience responses require more flexibility. For example, a performance in a larger venue might integrate clicker technology to collect audience poll responses. In such a case, the need might arise to speak or sing instructions before the questions are asked; the performers and director would also have to choose how to announce and communicate the result of the audience poll to the conductor. As another example, a smaller venue might better suit soliciting responses from individual audience members. Since these responses would most likely be too quiet for everyone to hear, a chorus member could easily repeat the response at an audible level. While it is beyond the scope of this paper to outline the endless variables surrounding audience interaction, the score’s flexible notation in the Question Time sections is an important first step towards an otherwise extramusical concern, similar to staging and costume design. With an understanding of how Diagnosis: Diabetes musically facilitates audience interaction, a closer examination of the musical materials used will serve to prepare the reader for a more detailed discussion of how audience interaction and musical materials come together to create an experience of diabetes.13Chapter 3: Musical Materials Speaking from a perspective of compositional aesthetic, I place a high value on simple processes that make the best use of limited materials. This chapter describes how the pitch material of the entire opera is generated from a single tetrachord, by applying the simple process of combining tetrachords in order to formulate a harmonic language from which the melodic material is derived.3.1 Defining the TetrachordThroughout the opera, the basic unit of harmony is the tetrachord 0279. The choice of this chord was based on the composer’s aural preference initially understood as a root, P4, P5, and Major 9th above. (ex. CFGD), but because of its harmonic use, it is more simply understood in its normal form (0279 or CDFG). 3.1.1 Tetrachord CombinationsWith the perfect and major quality of the intervals, and potential for tonic-dominant relations, the nature of the 0279 tetrachord lends itself to some semblance of tonality; however, the harmonic language is derived by treating these tetrachords as sets of four pitch class sets, which can be freely combined with any other transposition of said tetrachord. Because of this, the music in Diagnosis: Diabetes benefits from the harmonic implications of tonality, while maintaining some of the flexibility of serial processes. In order to make the harmony more interesting than simply four PCs, the approach to harmony throughout the opera is to combine transpositions of tetrachord 0279. The resulting Tetrachord Combination (TC) can contain between five and eight Pitch Classes (PCs) based on the intervallic relationship of two tetrachords.14Table 3.1 Quality of Tetrachord CombinationsInterval of TC Separation Number of PCs Character of CollectionMinor 2nd (1) 8 2 chromatic clusters (0123)Major 2nd (2) 6 Diatonic, no leading toneMinor 3rd (3) 7 Diatonic, Major or Natural MinorMajor 3rd (4) 8 Diatonic, added #4Perfect 4/5th (5) 5 Pentatonic (symmetrical)Tritone (6) 8 2 chromatic clusters (0123)The character of each collection in the above table is based on the aggregate of PCs in the tetrachord combination, however, these harmonies vary in their presentation, often including only subsets. Some scenes present the full collection of PCs to create a layer of harmony, others present the tetrachords as distinct entities, and others separate PCs between vocal and instrumental forces. The common practice I have maintained in using these tetrachord combinations throughout the opera is that they exist as the prevailing harmony for a period of time within a weave of changing TCs. The use and presentation of these prevailing harmonies varies by a number of variables, including scene, character, instrument, emotional content, or formal division. While a full analysis of each TC and its presentation is beyond the scope of this document, the following section provides a survey of common and noteworthy presentations.3.1.2 Examples of Tetrachord CombinationsAs the entire opera takes its pitch material from combinations of tetrachords, it is beyond the scope of this paper to outline all of the combinations. Presented below are a few examples of common methods of combining tetrachords used throughout the opera.Throughout Scene 2, and wherever ostinato is used, TCs are often presented as separate tetrachords played by different instruments. Example 3.1 below, shows tetrachord-B presented by the violin, while tetrachord-C# is presented by the cello.15Example 3.1 Scene 2 (mm 625-627) The same example also shows another presentation, commonly used in the vocal writing and instrumental accompaniment figures. In this case, the flute and clarinet both present subsets of TC (B/C#).The opening of the Prologue provides a good example of the difference in PCs used by melody as opposed to how they are used in the accompaniment. As shown in example 3.2, the melody (vocal and flute) take their pitch material from the full TC (C/A), while the piano’s right hand ostinato presents exclusively the C-tetrachord. The cello and the piano’s left hand present single PCs from the TC.Example 3.2 Prologue (mm 1-7)Recitative sections often contain slow harmonic motion, marked by extended periods of one TC. Within these sections, several techniques allow for the illusion of harmonic 16motion while staying relatively stable, such as presenting subsets of tetrachords, and varying the vertical relation of the tetrachords or subsets within the TC. The following example from Scene 1 shows an example of a moment of strong motion between two chords of the same TC. In measure 133, a (079) subset of the E tetrachord is above a (79) subset of the C tetrachord [E (079) / C(79)]. In measure 134, the tetrachords flip to [C(079) / E (079)], then returning to [E (079) / C(79)] in measure 135.Example 3.3 Scene 1 (mm 131-134)3.1.3 Moving Between Tetrachord CombinationsSimilar to the generation of harmonic material, I employed a simple process to control the motion between tetrachord combinations, both at a structural and local level. The general principle, described in more detail below, is that the more PCs there are shared between TCs, the smoother the motion will be. At the structural level, scenes that connect via attacca (Prologue/Scene 1 and Scene 3/Scene 4), do so with smooth harmonic motion because the Ending TC of one scene and the Starting TC of the next share at least one tetrachord, thus guaranteeing that the two TCs will share at least half of their pitch content. On the other hand, for a greater delineation between Question Time 1 and Scene 2, both of the tetrachords are changed, resulting in only 3 shared pitch classes.17Table 3.2 Overall Harmonic Motion of Tetrachord CombinationsScene Starting TC Ending TCPrologue C/A B/G#Scene 1 B/G# E/E♭Question Time 1 E♭/D E/B♭Scene 2 D/G D/GQuestion Time 2 C#/G#[Begins with transition from D/G]A/E [ends with transition through altered (0179) G/E]Scene 3 G/D E/CScene 4: Finale E♭/C E♭/C While this process was helpful in developing an overall harmonic plan for the complete opera, shown above in table 3.2, the details of the process and how it works on the local level is shown below with examples from the third and fourth scenes.In Scene 3, the motion between TCs is marked by both the clarity of transitions and the fluidity of harmonic motion. Both of these characteristics are controlled by the type of PCs that change or remain the same at each harmonic change. The fluidity is achieved through a technique used commonly throughout the opera: creating relative smoothness by changing only one tetrachord at a time, or maintaining a common tetrachord on both sides of every harmonic change.  The following figure shows the common tetrachord D is present in the first four TCs. Thereafter, it’s the other tetrachord of TC (B♭/D) that remains stable in shifting to TC (B♭/D♭). This control results in at least 4 common PCs between TCs. Meanwhile, the clarity of transition is achieved by transposing the changing tetrachord by semitone, allowing up to 4 PCs to change between TCs.Table 3.3 Harmonic Motion in Scene 3m 1 7 13 32 44 60 83 85 91 95 100G/D A♭/D A/D B♭/D B♭/D♭ F/C E/C E/D♭ E/C E♭/C E/C5 PCs 8 PCs 5 PCs 8 PCs 7 PCs 5 PCs 8 PCs 7 PCs 8 PCs 7 PCs 8 PCsWhile Scene 3 uses these techniques to create a consistent effect throughout, Question Time 2 applies these concepts as a way of separating dramatically separate 18moments from one another. The opening 45 measures nestle a cutaway/flashback scene between sections of Narrator recitative. The Narrator’s TC (C#/G#) in measures 797-814, and TC (B/E♭) in measures 841-847) have all five of the first TCs PCs in common. The middle section’s TC (C/B) has only two PCs in common with the preceding section, and 3 new PCs that are not present in the following TC. While several elements (orchestration, motives, tempo) come together to reinforce this transition, the harmonic shift between TCs underlies this dramatic shift at a structural level.Table 3.4 Harmonic Motion in Question Time 2 (mm 797-847)Narrator Recitative C#/G# C# D# F# G# A# Car Scene (Flashback) C/B♭ C D  E♭ F G  B♭Narrator Recitative B/E♭ C# D# E F F# G# A# B3.2 Melodic MotionAs much as possible, I have tried to limit my vocal writing to a method which was inspired by, and adapted from Arvo Pärt’s Tintinnabulation technique, described below by Paul Hillier. The basis of tintinnabuli style is a two-part texture (working always note against note), consisting of a ‘melodic’ voice moving mostly by step from or towards a central pitch (often, but not always, the tonic) and a ‘tintinnabuli’ voice sounding the notes of the tonic triad� For brevity these will be referred to henceforth as the ‘M-voice’ and the ‘T-voice’�7In place of tonality and the tonic triad, my adaption uses the tetrachord combination (TC) and subsets thereof respectively. My essential technique can be described as follows:A vocal line can move towards or away from a central pitch within a given tetrachord combination� It can do this by stepwise motion, either up or down, by any number of steps� Note that this technique does not limit the vocal writing to stepwise motion. By virtue of octave transposition and when the central pitch (PC) changes, there is ample room for leaps, as can be seen in figure 3.6. Within the TC (B/D), B is the central pitch. After 7  Paul Hillier, Arvo Pärt (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 92-93.19a brief upward motion towards the B-flat central pitch, the upward motion continues away from the central pitch to the D. Approaching the same B-flat by upward motion results in a leap of a perfect fifth at the beginning of measure 964. Of course, as with the harmonic materials, this is primarily a generative process that plays a key, but flexible part in the overall composition. The process is adhered to most closely in sections of recitative. Arias and areas of stronger characterization tend to be more flexible in vocal writing-style.While the general vocal writing owes its generative process to the M-voice of Arvo Pärt’s tintinnabulation, a formulation of the T-voice can be found in the Scene 1 Trio, Any Blood Sugar Less Than Four. The main melody takes its PCs from TC(B/G). In my formulation of the tintinnabuli accompaniment style, the T-voice takes its PCs from a subset of TC(B/G), including PCs (EGABD), consistently one step below the melody.Example 3.4 Scene 1 Trio: M- and T-voices  Though it has been clear since the beginning that this opera is about diabetes, it was necessary to explore the technique of implementing audience interaction, as well as to examine the musical materials before engaging in discussion about the complex process of musicalizing diabetes. The following chapter brings the technique and materials previously discussed together with elements of my past musical research to illuminate how Diagnosis: Diabetes allows its audience to embody elements of the diabetic experience.20Chapter 4: Creating the Experience of DiabetesThe present chapter outlines the ways in which each scene relates to the diabetic experience of the Audience, focusing on the musical and structural devices it uses to achieve the effect. Some scenes are explicit in their depiction of diabetes-specific scenarios, including scenes 1, 2 and 3. Although the Prologue and Question Time scenes appear to be written for a general audience, the performer-audience interaction becomes a metaphor for how diabetics must connect with new information and their own condition.4.1 Priming the Audience4.1.1 PrologueIn order to assure the audience will participate later in the opera, it was essential to break the fourth wall during the prologue. At m.72, the Question Time (QT) theme is introduced for the first time, noticeably more upbeat and light-hearted than the opening music. At m.78, the texture lightens further and the Narrator switches to spoken text. The three statements between mm.78-88 are key to facilitating the transition between observer-audience and participant-audience. First the Narrator’s statement of “questions” is joined after-the-fact by the chorus. Second, the Narrator invites the Chorus to join with her for the statement of “options” with a vocal style that implies she is waiting for them to speak with her. Finally, the Narrator and the Chorus invite the audience to join for the statement of “answers,” using the same vocal style, a fermata with underlying vamp, and visual encouragement to ensure that the audience takes an active role in breaking the fourth wall. Immediately following, the audience is positively reinforced for their participation, then informed about the key role their participation will play in affecting Charlie’s life. Fittingly, the chorus statement of “Diagnosis: Diabetes” that comes at the end of this scene applies just as much to the Audience as it does to Charlie.4.1.2 Scene 1While there is no interactive element to Scene 1, it certainly benefits from the preparation of the prologue, and serves itself as preparation for later scenes. Knowing that they will be quizzed on the information presented, the audience aligns itself with the experience of Charlie’s parents - trying to absorb as much of the presented information as possible. When the information is presented too quickly and overlaps in the quintet, the 21audience shares the protagonists’ experience of being overwhelmed - their first diabetic experience.4.2 Performer-Audience Interaction in Question TimeWhile the game-show format used in the Question Time scenes benefits from its appearance as a gimmick, it is in itself, a diabetic experience. Five of the six questions were adapted from a B.C. Children’s Hospital’s publication8 intended to educate newly-diagnosed diabetics and their families. The following sections examine how the Question Time scenes use motive and ostinato to condition the Audience to respond to questions, and how the finale in Scene 4 makes new use of that conditioning leading to the opera’s climax.4.2.1 Question Time 1Question Time 1 (QT1) opens with a Narrator recitative that reminds the audience of the stakes and task at hand. Setting it as solo recitative with only the Narrator on stage distinguishes the setting from the scripted nature of the scenes, re-confirming the removal of the fourth wall and preparing the audience for interaction. At m. 486 and mm 489-490, the Question Gesture  (QG) is first introduced: a 3-note motive that descends a perfect fifth, then rises a perfect fourth. It can be seen as incompletely outlining the supertonic-dominant-tonic of a specific tetrachord. This QG serves jointly to 1) announce the coming question, and 2) uses the material to harmonically shift from one tetrachord combination to the next.   At m. 491, the familiar Question Time ostinato returns, with the bass line at the same pitch as it was in the Prologue, hearkening to the audience’s first reinforced interactive experience. After the Narrator poses the question, the tenor, mezzo, and soprano sing the multiple options. At m. 500, they trio begins repeating the options, growing in dynamic and intensity until the audience responds. The openness of this notation encourages the performers to find an approach that best suits the audience, which both necessitates and develops a stronger performer-audience interaction.8  Heather Nichol, ed,  A Guide for Families: Diabetes Care for Children and Teens,  Vancou-ver: B.C. Children’s Hospital, 2011.  http://endodiab.bcchildrens.ca/pdf/chbctype1kids.htm22Example 4.1 Question Time 1 (mm 500-506) The amount of variable material for this question is minimal for this question, only mm. 504-505 where the Narrator sings option A for an incorrect response, or option B for the correct. In both cases, the Narrator’s reaction is friendly and reassuring. It is  followed by a statement and clarification of the correct answer, a musical development of material from that answer, and a return to the QT ostinato.  The second question mm 517-549 follows the exact same formula, with only one measure of variable material (m 538). The third question (mm 550-584) follows the same format, replacing the QT ostinato with a rhythmic variation and introducing a contrapuntal line in the bass clarinet based on the question’s melody.  The scene ends with variable material (mm 585-592) which informs the audience of the outcome of their participation in the scene. The varied appearance of the QT ostinato material (mm 588-592), much slower and the shift from piano to woodwinds, marks a dramatic shift away from the initial intention of the material.234.2.2 Question Time 2Question Time 2 also begins with a Narrator recitative that reminds the audience of the stakes. After a brief cut-away scene, the audience is called to action by the Question Gesture (m 848).Example 4.2 Question Time 2 (mm 847-850) What follows has enough in common with the QT ostinato to establish its presence, with enough variation to indicate that a shift in mood has occurred since QT1, as indicated by the text, “This time, only two questions.” What remains of the QT Ostinato are 1) the repetitive nature of the accompaniment material and 2) the separation of tetrachords between voices (which had been separated by hands in the piano accompaniment for Questions one and two in QT1). The rhythmic variation of the ostinato can be seen as a continuation of the variation begun in Question three in QT1. A subtle, but important shift is that the Narrator’s text about the audience’s role comes both before and after the Question Gesture, serving to bring the Narrator’s developing character into what was previously an ask-answer binary relationship. Again, this can be seen as a continuation of the development set in motion with the third question in QT1. In m 860, rather than simply evaluating the correctness of the audience’s response, the Narrator’s text in both outcomes aims to connect with the audience on a more personal level. In the case of the wrong response, the Narrator’s obvious reference of the Any 24Blood Sugar Less Than Four material can be seen as sharply sarcastic, as foreshadowing to the Narrator’s antagonistic role to come.  Again, rather than proceeding directly to the second question, a brief recitative section allows the Narrator to subtly reveal her role as antagonist by calling into question the value of the “quiz game” element. A third repetition in the Question Gesture (m 872) chromatically alters the existing tetrachord to create a semitone which, combined with the dynamic profile, highlights the subtext that the stakes have been raised for the next question. The continuation of the diminished octave/major seventh interval relation, as well as the use of Scene 2 materials for the QT ostinato (m 873) further reinforces the heightened level of tension crystallized by the nearly impossible task of answering this specific question.  Measure 92 marks another key moment in the evolving character/antagonism of the Narrator. The Narrator’s evaluation of the audience’s response is preempted by an instrumental response by the pianist: an irritating buzzer noise for a false response, or a triangle ding for the correct response. When the Narrator does respond, both evaluations have a considerably negative, if not aggressive, tone. Whereas previous question responses received further explanation and/or musical development of the material, here, the Narrator simply states the correct answer, with very simple accompaniment taken from the Scene 2 ostinato. Compared to the jovial, interactive experience laid out in the prologue, the audience is in a completely different world. The seed of dramatic conflict between the audience and the Narrator has been planted.9  While the text that concludes Scene 2 is sufficient to put the audience in a pensive mood, several musical devices are used as a means of directing the audience’s emotional intensity towards a sombre, worrisome sentiment that mirrors Charlie’s emotional situation as the opera moves into scene 3. The short transition between the last question and the results of QT2 (mm 892-893) feature the solo string colour of sul ponticello. This sound, which is used nowhere else in the opera, is followed by a paraphrase of the “Last Post” played very quietly by straight-tone flute with viola harmonics (joined by bass clarinet with cello harmonics).9  During the 2011 workshop of Diabetes: Question Time, director Ker Wells criticized the work for inciting strong feelings from the audience without providing a dramatic outlet through which to channel it, comparing it to early 20th century Russian Agitprop (Agitation Propaganda). The present work provides such an outlet through the development of the Audience’s character through building the antagonistic Narrator-Audience relationship, which is transferred onto the Narrator-Charlie rela-tionship in the finale.254.2.3 Scene 4: Finale The opera’s final scene presents the marriage of two simultaneous struggles: Charlie’s internal struggle to accept his diagnosis and take responsibility for his health, and the Narrator’s efforts to incite someone to action (either Charlie or the Audience). The dramatic arc of Charlie’s struggle is apparent though the text alone, but the music plays a crucial role in depicting the Narrator’s developments towards the climax. Measures 1047-49 provide an excellent example of how. After Charlie questions the value of his own self-care, the narrator responds, “Sounds like you have a choice to make…” Based on the libretto, the text-setting in the opera, and even the implied stage direction, there is no doubt that this statement is directed at Charlie; however, the inclusion of the Question Gesture (m 1048) adds a layer of meaning that would not be possible in another dramatic medium. Without even implying that the question is being directed at the audience, the reference to previous Question Time scenes reminds the audience of how it felt to be asked high-stakes questions and perhaps incites in the audience an anticipation of being asked themselves. At measure 1052, the Question Gesture is presented alongside the Narrator’s new gesture, “So, what’s it gonna be?” which comes to dominate the next fifty measures towards the climax. In effect, this musical equation of gestures associates the Narrator’s question with the audience’s previous experiences from the  Question Time sections, creating a shared experience between the audience and Charlie (much like the shared hypoglycemia experience in Scene 2). After a series of chorus interruptions (many of which are questions) to Charlie’s internalized struggle, the Narrator’s question is stated again in tandem with the QG at measure 1071. Convinced that Charlie won’t answer her question (Charlie ignores the Chorus’ questions from measure 43 onwards), the Narrator turns her attention to the audience at measure 1071. This turn of events is not unexpected; it is a dramatically effective maneuver, reinforced by the chorus whispering “what’s it gonna be?” directed at the audience (mm 1071-73) while the Narrator threatens to force the decision away from Charlie. While Charlie continues his internal struggle, the Chorus oscillates between antagonistic interruptions and the Narrator’s question. In a way that is speaking simultaneously to Charlie and the Audience, the Narrator continues to taunt Charlie (mm 1076-77, 1088-89). At measure 1096, the dynamic level is pulled dramatically back, marking the start of the final build to the climax. It is important to note that at this point, the antagonism 26is divided: the Chorus is singing targeted statements to Charlie, ignoring the audience; the Narrator has given up on Charlie, singing directly to the audience. The piano uses the Question Gesture (m 1099) as its ad lib� growth to the climax, as the Narrator tells the audience that one final question will decide Charlie’s fate. At the height of all these tensions, before the Narrator can specify the final Question Time question, Charlie finally responds “no” to the Narrator and to the suggestion that the audience will make such an important decision for him. The intention in leaving the scoops and pitch contour up to the performer on Charlie’s whole-tone rise up to the B-natural, is that it will lead to a more authentic expression of the performer’s passionate opposition. What follows (mm 1105-1116) is a quick denouement of the Audience’s role in the drama, releasing it from the tension built up in the previous section. In a sense, this same section is, or extends, Charlie’s climax by expanding on the opposition to taking full ownership of his own free will.Measure 1115 to the end encapsulates Charlie’s denouement, which not only brings Charlie’s dramatic arc to an end, but gently guides the audience back from their role as the high-stakes decision-making Audience to its safe space as spectators in a performance venue. Beginning in measure 1136, the instrumental ensemble and chorus begin presenting snippets of themes and gestures from throughout the opera, in reverse chronological order. In addition to the end result of providing a bookended conclusion to the opera, this technique affirms the audience’s status as observers of the dramatic action. As much as the ability to re-experience past events in close proximity would be helpful, it remains the exclusive privilege of people watching a dramatic form from the outside. The change of materials happens quickly, as Charlie explores a drawn-out acceptance of his control over diabetes, giving it a sense that he is experiencing them as memories. Gone is the context in which the Narrator was inciting responses from an interactive audience, and so too is the sense of involvement they previously felt. By measure 1270, the reversed chronology comes to a rest. The final material of the opera is a transposition of the Prologue (m 35), before any mention of audience interaction, at what should have been, and now is a simple exchange between a mother and her son.4.3 Musically Experiencing HypoglycemiaSufficiently primed and engaged into the experience of diabetes by the previous scenes, the audience is ready for the uniquely diabetic experience of hypoglycemia in Scene 272. As Scene 1 itemizes the signs of low blood-sugar clearly, it would have been simple enough to outwardly show those signs in the following scene, and allow the audience to apply their knowledge practically. Doing so would rely heavily on staging instructions and non-musical means; it would also sidestep the task of exploring an invisible illness through opera. Looking at commonalities amongst diabetic experiences10 of real-life hypoglycemia, two things stood out as musically representable: an altered sense of time, and a diminished ability to concentrate and understand. Both of these effects are used extensively in Scene 2 in order to give both Charlie and the Audience an authentic (partial) experience of low blood-sugar. Because this experience is shared, this section focuses on the specific experience of Charlie, but the effect of the techniques remains the same for the Audience as well.4.3.1 Levels of Severity Regardless of the Audience’s success in Question Time 1, the opening section of Scene 2 (mm 593-698) proceeds without distinguishing between the good fate (B), or the bad fate (A). After establishing a sense of normalcy with a steady, mechanical ostinato, the tempo and text intelligibility are manipulated in order to mimic the experience of low blood sugar.11 After Charlie manages to test his blood sugar during the meeting, the test result (m 699) is the event that launches the scene into one of two possible versions. In both cases, Charlie’s hypoglycemia was established earlier in the scene; the difference between the fates is whether or not his blood sugars improved after consuming glucose tablets (mm 633-637). In the bad fate (A), his blood sugars are lower than before, leading to more confusion, shame, and a troubling conclusion to the meeting. In the good fate (B), his sugars are rising to a normal level, he regains control of the meeting, and impresses the boss. While these two outcomes are drastically different, both versions use the exact same text and pitch content. In conceiving of a dramatic form wherein the choice of two different versions of a scene would come during the performance, practicality and ease of learning were high priorities. I was able to achieve two very different outcomes almost exclusively by manipulating the intelligibility of the text, discussed further in section 4.3.3.10  From blogs and on-line forums within the Diabetes Online Community, as well as my own personal experiences.11  Charlie’s statement, “Damnit, ...can barely concentrate… sugars must be low,” in response to the molto ritardando draws a concrete comparison between tempo/text intelligibility and low blood-sugar.284.3.2 Playing with Time and Tempo Before discussing the effect-specific adjustments of tempo, it is important to note that there is some flexibility in the normal tempo of Scene 2: Charlie and Brenda speak slightly slower (ca. 80-90 BPM), Boss and Andy speak slightly faster (ca. 90-100 BPM). The relative tempo range of 80-100 BPM is considered the normal, non-hypoglycemic tempo of the scene. The opening fifteen measures of Scene 2 establish a predictable, mechanical ostinato representing the non-stop nature of the business environment in which Charlie works. The first disruption to the motion comes at the end of measure 607, an awkward pause that hints at the disruptions to come. The immediate return to the motion is quickly interrupted by a molto ritardando, reducing the tempo to 60BPM, a noticeable reduction that affects pronunciation and articulation as opposed to strictly the tempo. The slower section lasts seven measures, during which time the Boss’s text becomes unintelligible and fades to the dynamic level of the accompanying figure. This clears the texture for Charlie to sing a brief soliloquy, the function of which is two-fold: firstly, Charlie acknowledges that the change in tempo has made it hard for him to concentrate which aligns his experience with the Audience’s difficulty in understanding the text; secondly, he identifies the experience as low-blood sugar, offering the Audience an explanation for what they are both experiencing. In returning to the normal tempo (mm 633-634), the accelerando is highlighted by a rhythmic woodwind gesture. Because the scene moves quickly between faster and slower tempos, this rhythmic gesture is consistently paired with accelerandos (a contrasting rhythmic gesture is paired with ritardandos) in order to highlight the dramatic nature of these tempo changes. Measures 636-638 provide a clear example of how the scene moves from normal tempo to hypoglycemic tempo and back.29Example 4.3 Scene 2 (mm 636-639) The state of flux between normal and hypoglycemic tempo remains constant until measure 663, with one interesting exception. In measures 636-637, the ensemble is playing in hypoglycemic tempo and Charlie has just emphasized his desire to hide his hypoglycemia. To highlight this incongruence, he delivers his next statement at the normal tempo (m 638), but the ensemble remains at the hypoglycemic tempo. Though the expectation would be for the ensemble to return to normal tempo, it then slows even more to accentuate the severity of his low blood-sugar. From here, the tempo oscillations continue until the final accelerating gesture at measure 663.  After such an extended period of nearly constant tempo changes, a necessary shift comes with an accelerando beyond normal speed (piano in mm 663-4). This represents the loss of control that Charlie feels, not being able to concentrate on the meeting that continues to go on around him. In measures 680-689, the previously consistent correlation of tempo and intelligibility dissolves, marking a clear shift in the drama. The opening section of this scene, in which the audience is guided through the shifts from normal to hypoglycemic tempo, is over; the result is a feeling of losing something that should be stable, which is shared by both Charlie and the Audience.30Example 4.4 Scene 2 (mm 685-689)   For the remainder of the scene, variations in tempo are largely expressive in effect, leaving the control of Charlie (and the Audience’s) low blood-sugar experience to the intelligibility of text, discussed in the next section. One exception is in the distinction between A- and B-fates in measures 743-749. In the more serious fate on line A, Charlie sings markedly slow (50 BPM) and has the instructions “struggling” indicated. For the good fate on line B, he sings at his normal speed (80 BPM) without problem. Here, it was important to maintain text intelligibility while still showing that Charlie is experiencing difficulties due to his low blood-sugar.4.3.3 Playing with Text Intelligibility The idea for this scene, and perhaps the whole opera as an interactive experience, came to me as a result of my own experiences with low blood sugar: an awareness and aural registration that someone is talking to you, without the ability to completely comprehend or remember what is being said. Because no one, not even music, can control the ability to comprehend or remember, rendering the text unintelligible by mumbling or garbling12 became a reasonable facsimile. Viewing this garbling technique as a type of articulation opened the possibilities of creating two drastically different versions of a scene, based on what text is or isn’t 12  While the technical approach to garbling is left to the discretion of the performers, the score instructs singers to mumble the text unintelligibly, suggesting that they sing the vowels and omit the consonants. It also clarifies that the effect should be exaggerated in slower sections, such that articula-tions are also slower.31understood.4.3.3.1 Notation of GarblingIn notating the effect of text garbling, I considered using an alternate notehead or stem addition, but the desired effect was not intuitive, especially when two different versions were presented on staves in close vertical proximity. Because it predominantly affects the way in which the text is (not) pronounced, the effect is notated throughout the opera as an italicization and font change of the vocal text.Example 4.5 Scene 1 (mm 115-116) 4.3.3.2 Previous Uses of Text GarblingWhile not related to hypoglycemia, Scene 1 portrays Charlie as a child by  completely garbling all of his text. The libretto originally presented Charlie as a mute role, due to concerns over the dramatic limitations of a young character that were raised by Pamela Hawthorne. Musically, it was important to have Charlie involved in all scenes, so the garbling technique allowed for presenting Charlie as a musically active, though not dramatically important character. The fact that Charlie’s text is not intelligible actually is dramatically relevant; a newly-diagnosed child has very little control over his or her own diabetes, as those responsibilities are managed by their parents. Though it might not matter to the child, it is important to highlight this in the context of Charlie’s loss of control throughout the opera. As superficial as Charlie’s lines might be, this was an opportunity to implement a technique with which I experimented in a previous piece13, in which the audience is taught, or conditioned to understand unintelligible text. When young Charlie sings his first line (m 135), it is completely unintelligible, but Dad immediately explains that “Charlie’s been 13  See: Park, Michael, “Gramps Ain’t No Namby-Pamby,” Unpublished Score, 2010.32telling everyone he’s the world’s best pee-er.” By accentuating the fact that he’s matching the rhythm, contour, and pitch class of Charlie’s statement, he has granted syntactical meaning to this motive. Charlie’s repetition of the motive one beat after Dad (m 138) reinforces the connection; a further repetition by Charlie (m 140) with Dad’s response reinforcing the humour of his son’s statement further solidifies the connection.Example 4.6 Scene 1 (mm 135-138)4.3.3.3 Garbling in Scene 2 In Scene 2, the garbling first appears (m 611) shortly after the first ritardando in measure 610. The two techniques work together until measure 617, serving to take the Boss’s text out of focus, so Charlie can describe the audience-shared experience and identify it as low blood-sugar. While the tempo variations often occur over several measures, the garbling can be more tightly controlled, affecting only a few words a first. Until measure 664, the tempo shifts and garbling work very closely together: the text becomes garbled (unintelligible) shortly after the onset of the ritardando, and returns to normal pronunciation (and intelligibility) after the onset of the accelerando, often in line with reestablishing the normal tempo. The following example from measure 625 shows a good 33example of Charlie losing the ability to focus at the end of Andy’s sentence.Example 4.7 Scene 2 (mm 625-627)After measure 664, the technique of text garbling takes on its new task of distinguishing between the good and bad fates (mm 710-749), essentially by garbling any positive-sounding text from the bad fate, and any negative-sounding text from the good. While the section at measure 743 uses less text garbling in favour of tempo variation, there is an element of altered intelligibility in the orchestration. In the good fate (B), Charlie is doubled by the cello at pitch with some octave displacement to decorate and support the vocalist’s resonance; in the bad fate (A), Charlie is doubled at the octave by the violin, liberally playing glissandi which pull down from vocal line, creating the sense of instability noted in the “struggling” indication.By garbling the text, the previous section mentally engages Charlie and the Audience. The selective nature of the text garbling creates a constant feedback loop, confirming that the missing words support either the positive or negative version of the scene. Consider the following scenarios: A. Experiencing low blood-sugar throughout the scene, and hearing what can only be construed as bad news throughout the meeting, Charlie’s statement at m 743 is his last-ditched effort to make sense of and contribute to the 34meeting. The fact that some his own text is garbled (m 746-747) supports the implication that he is failing.B. In the process of recovering from low blood-sugar, Charlie is understanding more of the dialogue in the meeting and gains the confidence to pitch an idea to his boss and colleagues.Measures 750-769 begin a Trio which may be either garbled or not. The underlying text is enthusiastically positive, such that in the un-garbled version B, Charlie receives rave reviews of his pitch. In version A, the text is completely unintelligible and the performers are instructed to convey the opposite meaning of the text, essentially yelling what must be angry things at a character and Audience that cannot understand. After the Trio, the mechanical ostinato from the scene’s opening returns, a stark reminder that the world keeps moving regardless of Charlie’s blood-sugar level. The Boss’s final words, completely intelligible in both versions, are left entirely open to the Audience’s interpretation. 4.4 Inside the Mind of a Diabetic If Scene 2 aimed to give the audience a physical sensation of a common diabetes experience, then Scene 3 aims to give psychological insight into another. Many years ago, when I read diabetes blogger Kerri Morrone’s description of being diagnosed with her first diabetes complication while sitting at an eye exam14, I felt like she was taking the words right out of my mouth. After connecting with her, I not only realized that the experience is quite common amongst diabetics, but also discovered the reason why that connection felt so strong. The experience of sitting in a chair with a bright light shining in one’s eyes is almost universal for anyone who has had their eyes checked, but the series of thoughts, concerns, worries, and fears going through a diabetic’s head during that exam is not something commonly shared, and certainly not with the doctor sitting two feet away. The fact that the doctor can peer through the windows of Charlie’s soul and not know how he is feeling, creates a sense of disconnection. That stark separation of the two characters was a unique challenge in musically setting this scene, and was one of the inspirations for my desire to depict diabetes as an invisible illness.Opera has a strong tradition of exploring a character’s inner thoughts through aria, often with a recitative presenting the bulk of the context and plot-driving text, so that the 14 Morrone, Kerri, “Eye Yi Yi,” Six Until Me, http://sixuntilme.com/blog2/2010/11/eye_yi_yi.html (accessed September 17, 2011).35aria can focus on more discrete, expandable sentiments. Scene 3 maintains the function and separation of the two styles, but separates them even further, between the two characters: the aria is sung by the Ophthalmologist, while Charlie sings an overlapping stream of recitative throughout.4.4.1 The Aria, Look Straight AheadEven though Charlie is undoubtedly the main focus of this scene, the glory of the aria goes to the soprano. In showing the contrast between the ophthalmologist’s interaction and the inner thoughts of the diabetic, the role of the aria became very simple: to present the doctor’s instructions as beautifully as possible while leaving room for Charlie’s internal monologue. Two factors that contribute to this type of simplicity15 are the long sustained notes and the use of just one Tetrachord Combination during the instruction portions of the scene. While not rigidly tied to the form, the aria in this scene bears several resemblances to a Da Capo Aria. The ternary form can be divided into section A (mm 927-955), Section B (mm 956-969), and a reprise of A with variation (mm 970-992). Stylistically, the choice to reference a Da Capo Aria was based on the desire for performer-driven improvisation on the repeated section-A material. The aria can also be seen as an asymmetrical binary form, alternating between aria and recitative in sections A (m 927) B (m 956) A1 (m 970) B1 (m 993), repositioning the B1 section as a transition to Scene 4. Formal concerns aside, the stylistic reference to a Da Capo Aria is important because it gives the performer a sense of ownership over an otherwise simplistic aria. The degree of ad libitum improvisation also plays a role in the soprano’s characterization of the Ophthalmologist.4.4.2 Stream of Consciousness: Charlie’s Role in the SceneOne of the elements of the libretto I wanted to musically maintain, was how the separation of the two characters puts the Audience in the same chair as Charlie. Dramatically, this is achieved by ensuring the Audience had a stronger connection to Charlie than they do to the ophthalmologist, who is predominantly an observer of Charlie’s actions in the scene. The fact that the audience is privy to both the actions of the scene and Charlie’s 15  The approximate pacing of the ophthalmologist’s instructions in the aria portions was devel-oped from a recording of one my actual eye exams.36inner monologue, would then be the exclusive perspective of a patient in the eye doctor’s chair. While I was sure that staging and lighting could help, I focused on drawing melodic connections between the two voices to highlight the contextual relationship of doctor and patient.From the Chorus Tenor’s role at the end of Question Time 2 through the opening of Scene 4, Charlie presents a nearly uninterrupted syllabic presentation of recitative, the majority of which is sung to himself or the Audience as a monologue. Even though the ophthalmologist enters in measure 1030 and gives him several instructions, Charlie’s text does not actually address her until measure 1066 where he responds to a direct question. While it might seem that the characters are completely separate before then, there are actually several cues that make it clear that Charlie is actively involved with her, the only other character in the scene. 4.4.3 The Doctor-Patient RelationshipIn measure 934, Charlie responds to the brightness of the doctor’s tools. The musical connection here is that Charlie’s m-voice approaches by rising stepwise motion the central pitch of E, the apogee of the Ophthalmologist’s previous phrase. The doctor expresses concern (m 941) with a single note containing two features that are mirrored in Charlie’s response. The doctor’s short, non-sung note is in contrast to the long tones of her previous singing style; this dramatic shift is marked by a piu mosso in measure 943 and Charlie’s shift in focus towards his own self-worry. The doctor’s note ends with a fall off the pitch, which launches Charlie into chromatic alterations to the present tetrachord combination. The m-voice writing in Charlie’s phrases at measure 948 and 951 respectively use rising and falling stepwise motion towards a central pitch of E, established both by the ophthalmologist’s previous phrases and the TC accompaniment in the piano.37Example 4.8 Scene 3 (mm 946-952) In measures 956-963, it is the rhythm that clarifies that the doctor and Charlie are finally speaking directly to one another. The doctor’s shift from sustained pitches back to recitative style indicates that they are now both on the same level of consciousness, and the sharing of an eighth-note triplet (mm 959-960) shows the type of speech matching that is common in conversation. 4.4.4 Towards the ClimaxThe relative stasis of Charlie’s thoughts after the Ophthalmologist raises concerns about his right eye (mm 968-84) represents Charlie’s attempt to keep his thoughts and emotions under control, commenting only on the physicality of how bright the light is. Charlie’s return to monologue for the second eye is dramatically more interesting than the first, as highlighted by PC content in measures 987-8. After the soprano establishes a central 38pitch of G in m 987, Charlie’s m-voice moves upwards, one can assume towards that G, but stops shy on the F-sharp. A brief step down returns to the upwards stepwise motion, past the F-sharp to the G-sharp in measure 988. While there were some slight differences in the Ophthalmologist’s recitative (mm 956-58), the dramatic difference between the A- and B-fates of the scene begin at measure 993. Again, the syllabic declamation marks the return to direct dialogue. This time, the depiction of concern is found in the ophthalmologist’s A-version, beginning its upward stepwise motion, to the central pitch D, with an added chromatic step. The obvious relation of text between doctor and patient (repetition of the last few words) is reinforced by PC matching in the B-fate, and shared upward motion to the same central pitch in the A-fate. Though Charlie reaches the climax at measure 1000 in both fates, the journey is different and technique are different. In the more positive B-fate, the doctor dismisses the minimal diagnosis and has nothing more to say, but Charlie obsesses over his fears and the repeated piano gesture (m 998) serves as his cue for escalation. In this version, while a case can be made to musically justify either possibility, I purposely left it up for the interpretation of the performers whether the text is understood by the doctor, or it is sung as an aside. In the A-fate, the doctor’s explanation of the diagnosis fades into unintelligibility via garbling while Charlie elongates the word edema. Hardly a melisma, it is a noticeable enough departure from the speech-like syllabic setting throughout the scene, to set Charlie apart from the doctor.The final section (mm 1002-1018) presents a hybrid of the recitative and aria styles. Measures 1002-1004 bears a resemblance to the aria inasmuch as the doctor has gone back to doing just her job, as she did when looking into Charlie’s eyes. This can be seen in the longer note values, PC content, and accompaniment style. While the mostly shorter note values in the ophthalmologist’s text support it, the larger distinction is that this section has actual content to the text, whereas the aria contained only simple instructions.To transform diabetes into a musical experience was no simple task. It required a background in exploring how both text and disease are elements that sit near a flexible edge of comprehension. It required a libretto that expressed concerns, both diabetic and universal. It needed to be written with materials developed from simple processes, allowing the composer to focus on techniques involving text comprehension and audience interaction. 39And it certainly called for an audience willing to interact with a live performance.While the ultimate success of the composition will be decided by the audience for which it is performed, this paper provides document of how this work has contributed to the art form. Diagnosis: Diabetes has provided a context through which audience interaction and the manipulation of text intelligibility transcend their extramusical origins to become key musical techniques within the genre of chamber opera.40Chapter 5: Closing RemarksHaving finished writing Diagnosis: Diabetes and this document, I have the benefit of hindsight in evaluating the experience. It can not truthfully be said that any individual element of the work is truly innovative; in fact, several of this document’s main topics are even reflected in the popular culture that has surrounded me. The idea of letting the audience influence the outcome of a story was a key feature in Choose Your Own Adventure series novels that I read as a youth, and the use of text unintelligibility to depict aspects of illness is commonplace in television medical dramas such as House M�D�Since these examples are outside of art music, and music in general, I am forced to reexamine my own sense of extramusical. If the term means simply outside of the field (or province) of music16, what does it say when a scene with variably intelligible text relies so heavily on musical technique for the success of its presentation? I feel that, through these and other examples discussed in this paper, I have shown that Diagnosis: Diabetes uses music as an essential element in exploring an extramusical topic beyond how it has been previously depicted. While writing an opera about previously unaddressed subject matter is certainly noteworthy, my work serves as a prototype for how the extramusical can be more invasively explored through music. And that exploration is ready to begin thanks to Vancouver’s Erato Ensemble, who have agreed to perform the world premiere in concert (with limited staging) in October, 2015, at the Orpheum Annex. They are also currently exploring ways in which diabetes organizations can be involved, such as the Canadian Diabetes Association, who had expressed interest at a previous point in time.16  Oxford English and Merriam-Webster definitions.41BIBLIOGRAPHYMedical and Libretto Source MaterialDiabetes Hands Foundation.  “Members – TuDiabetes - A Community for People Touched by Diabetes.”  TuDiabetes. http://tudiabetes.com/profiles/members (accessed September 24, 2010).McKee, Robert.  Story: Substance, Structure, Style, and the Principles of Screenwriting.  London: Methuen, 1999.Morrone, Kerri.  “Eye Yi Yi.” Six Until Me. http://sixuntilme.com/blog2/2010/11/eye_yi_yi.html (accessed September 17, 2011).---. “Invisible Illness: Type One Diabetes.” Six Until Me.  http://sixuntilme.com/blog2/2009/09/invisible_illness_type_1_diabe.html (accessed September 19, 2009).Nichol, Heather, ed.  A Guide for Families: Diabetes Care for Children and Teens.  Vancouver: B.C. Children’s Hospital, 2011.  http://endodiab.bcchildrens.ca/pdf/chbctype1kids.htm (accessed February 17, 2011).World Health Organization. “10 Facts about Diabetes.” World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs312/en/ (accessed September 20, 2009).Music LiteratureHolmes, Rupert.  Drood: The Mystery of Edwin Drood.  New York: Tams-Witmark Music Library, 1985.Corigliano, John.  Symphony No� 1 for Orchestra.  New York: G. Schirmer, 1990.Hillier, Paul. Arvo Pärt. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.42Laurent, Jama.  “Hansel & Gretel: Build your own Opera.” Creative Kids Education Foundation, 2010.   http://www.classicalkusc.org/kids/opera/index.asp (accessed August 10, 2011).Nyman, Michael.  The Man Who Mistook his Wife for a Hat: Chamber Opera.  Libretto by Oliver  Sacks, Christopher Rawlence, and Michael Morris.  London: Chester Music, 1996.Park, Michael. “Alzheimer Variations.” Unpublished score, 2007.---.  “Art Song Lib.” Unpublished score, 2012.---.  “Experiencing Disease Through Music.” TED Talk presented at TEDxSFU Sept 21, 2013. Video posted October 17, 2013. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Oj2AXT23uVI (accessed April 14, 2015).---.  “Gramps Ain’t No Namby-Pamby.” Unpublished score, 2010.Pinkerton, David Edward,II. “Minimalism, the Gothic Style, and Tintinnabulation in Selected Works of Arvo Paert.” Order No. 1379302, Duquesne University, 1996. http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/docview/238176082?accountid=14656 (accessed April 17, 2015).Roark, Benton. “Hover: A Music Theatre Work in Three Acts”.  DMA diss., University of British Columbia, 2013.Vancouver Opera. “Stickboy” by Neil Weisensel and Shane Koyczan. Vancouver Playhouse, Vancouver, November 7, 2014.43APPENDIX A: LIBRETTODiagnosis DiabetesLibretto by Michael ParkMany thanks to the Diabetes Online Community for sharing their experiences. Through reading many blogs and forums, I’ve been able to access an ‘average’ Person with Diabetes (PWD) experience which I’ve attempted to explore through my own voice and experiences.In particular, the writings of Kerri Morrone at sixuntilme.com resonated strongly with me. The way she described her diagnosis with retinopathy, it felt like we were sitting in the same ophthalmologist’s office.In this opera, the Narrator is not a single entity; rather, whichever characters are available onstage share the role of communicating directly with the audience.44LibrettoPrologue NARRThis is the story of Charlie, a boy like any otherToday, mom and dad are taking him to the circus...Imagine how excited he must be for all that cotton candy!Offstage SceneMOM [humming tune]Good morning, sunshine.How’s my special boy?Time to get up, Charlie. Don’t you remember what today is?  Charlie..? Charlie..?!  Call an Ambulance! Something’s wrong!(Return to) PrologueNARRSpoiler alert: he’s diabetic! Come on, you can’t be surprised. It’s in the title!Don’t worry, we’re not here to ruin the story for you,We’re here to help you ruin the story for yourselves!While you watch this opera, Charlie’s fate is in your hands.45After each scene, we’ll ask you … Questions!We’ll give you multiple... Options.And you’ll shout out the... “   (Answers)   “ [prompt audience for their response]Exactly!Your answers decide what happens in the next scene.Your success decides how diabetes will affect Charlie’s life.Let’s start them off in mom and dad’s shoes. Your son has just been diagnosed with diabetes...Scene 1 – Doctor’s Office at DiagnosisNurse and Endocrinologist explain the basics of diabetes to Mom and Dad. Charlie is present as a mute role.ENDO Insulin helps the body use food for energy. Before Charlie started taking insulin, his body was not able to use food for energy. NURSEThat’s why Charlie’s been losing weight, Charlie, and feeling so weak.DADHear that, Charlie? CHAR(Oh! That’s why.)MOM (copying words in book)(Insulin helps...the body... use food... for energy...)DAD46Just to be perfectly clear, what exactly is type-one diabetes?ENDOWell, much of the food you eat becomes a type of sugar called glucose. Charlie’s pancreas can not make insulin so the glucose stays in his blood.MOMSo, are blood sugar and glucose the same thing?ENDOYes, exactly! Without insulin, his body can not use the glucose for energy, so Charlie requires insulin by injection. NURSESigns of high blood-sugar are being thirsty, tired, blurry eyes, and needing to pee lots. CHAR(I thought I was just the world’s best pee-er.)DADCharlie’s been telling everyone that he’s the world’s best pee-er....ENDOHa, ha!It’s a good thing you brought him in when you did.CHAR(the world’s best pee-er, haha!)MOMDoes that mean he could go blind?47ENDOVision problems are one of the complications related to diabetes.... NURSEwhich is why it’s so important to manage it properly. ENDONow would be a good time to teach you about injections.ARIAMOM Oh, my baby boy.Why did this happen?Is this because I craved chocolate and shortbread while I was pregnant?At least now we know what’s been making him sick.Oh, my baby boy.Why couldn’t I protect you?(I was) sleeping like a baby, while my baby... my baby..Oh, my baby boy.Oh, my baby boy.How will I protect you?No more candy, no more cake, no more... no more sugar!At least now we know what’s been...At least now... at least...My baby boy...SCENENURSESee, injections are really quite simple, and not a single tear, You’re such a brave boy, Charlie! 48You can give insulin in the arms, legs, tummy, or bum.CHARBum, tee hee!DADCharlie, shh!MOM(Arms, legs, tummy, bum)DADAre any of those spots better than the others?NURSEWe recommend using the tummy most often, but make sure to give your insulin in a new spot every time.MOM(rotate injection sites)NURSEIf you use the same area too often, a hard lump will form under the skin.MOM(a hard lump)ENDOThis can affect your blood sugar.ARIADADShould I really be breathing a sigh of relief?49Can I calm my nerves?There are far worse fates.I’m happy that it’s something we can deal with.Or think we can deal with anyway...There are far worse fates.Should I really be putting an end to my grief?Is the worst behind us,Or are there darker days to come?I’m happy that it’s something we can deal with.Or think we can deal with anyway...There are far worse fates.There are far worse fates.(SCENE)MOM As soon as we get home, Charlie, we’re throwing out all the cookies, all the sweets... no more sugar at our house!CHARWhat?! But Mom!NURSENo need to go overboard, mom.Don’t worry, Charlie.ENDOThere’s sugar, or carbohydrate, in almost everything.And we need it to survive.50NURSECarbohydrate and insulin work together to help keep blood sugar in balance.MOM(carbohydrate..  insulin)DADAnd how do they do that?ENDOCarbohydrate raises blood sugar. Insulin lowers blood sugar.DADSo, diabetes is basically one big balancing act...NURSEPrecisely! Every time Charlie eats carbohydrate, he’ll have to take insulin. ENDOWe’ll teach you how to balance it properly because too much insulin can cause low blood sugar.Duet ―› QuartetNURSE Any blood sugar less than four is too low. MOM     less than four  is too lowNURSEIt must be treated right away.51MOM   right awayNURSESigns of low blood sugar are being sweaty, pale, shaky, hungry, mood changes, acting strange, dizzy, weak, trouble focusing or thinking, feeling or acting confused, feeling sleepy or tired.CHARMom… Do we have cookies?MOMSigns… low blood sugar... sweaty, shaky, hungry? he’s always hungry!confused… I think I’m confused!ENDOTake fifteen grams of fast acting sugar, wait fifteen minutes and recheck blood sugar. DADSure, fast acting sugar…and check blood sugar…ENDOWhen the blood sugar is above four, eat fifteen grams of slower acting carbohydrate and some protein or fat.DADAny blood sugar less than fourfast acting sugar, right.52NURSE & MOMAny blood sugar less than four is too low.It must be treated right away.NURSEFast acting sugars are found in: glucose tablets, regular pop, fruit juices, fruit drinks, candies, jam, honey, syrup and flavour shots used in sweet coffees.MOMFast acting sugars found in: glucose and regular .. fruit?juice, candy, honey, jam…what? coffee?CHARMom, I’m bored.MOM Shh, honey…NURSEGlucose tablets and fruit juice are used most often to treat low blood sugar.MOMWhat are glucose tablets anyway?Question Time 1NARRThat’s a lot to absorb in a short period of time!Any mistakes Charlie’s parents make have a direct effect on their son.But we’re not testing them today; we’re testing you.Meanwhile, Charlie has grown up and is working his first real job.He’s got an important meeting today, and you’re about to decide how it goes.53Any mistakes you make have a direct effect on Charlie.Charlie always uses his arm for his insulin. What problem can this cause?●	 Bruising●	 A hard lump●	 No problemOh so close... Good try, but...Using the same spot too often for insulin can cause a hard lump under the skin. The insulin will not be able to work as well if there are lumps.That’s right, exactly!Using the same spot too often for insulin can cause a hard lump under the skin. The insulin will not be able to work as well if there are lumps.Before Charlie knew he had diabetes, he was very thirsty and peeing a lot. He also felt tired all the time. Everything got better when he started taking insulin. Why?●	 Insulin helps Charlie use food for energy.●	 Insulin stops Charlie from peeing.●	 Insulin causes high blood-sugar.Good try, but...Insulin helps the body use food for energy.That’s right!Insulin helps the body use food for energy.Which of Charlie’s blood sugar needs to be treated with fast acting sugar?●	 12.0●	 3.8●	 9.9●	 4.1Might wanna listen a bit closer next time...When his blood sugar’s lower than 4.0, it needs to be treated with fast acting sugar. 3.8 is lower than 4.0. It’s too low.That’s right!When his blood sugar’s lower than 4.0, it needs to be treated with fast acting sugar. 3.8 is lower than 4.0. It’s too low.54You got (0 or 1) out of 3 questions right.Unfortunately, I don’t think this meeting’s going to go quite like Charlie expects...You got (2 or 3) out of 3 questions right.Disaster averted, but even so, things might not go quite like Charlie expects...Scene 2 – Hypoglycemia in a Meeting[Text in italics is soliloquy. Highlighted text is slower, garbled unintelligibly.]CHARAs we all know, there were some significant setbacks in the year-end report.BRENDAThat’s an understatement...CHARBottom line: stocks are down and cost projection is up.BOSSYes, yes, we’ve all read the report. And quite frankly, the first- and second-quarter reports aren’t much better. I just got off the phone with Ethel in senior management. She wanted to talk about the overall direction of this company - this department specifically. Things are not good, and we need to find solutions.CHARDamnit, sugars must be low��� can barely concentrate�Last thing I want is for the big boss to know I’m diabetic� Did she mention anything about our supply chains?Probably has an ‘aunt’ who died of complications���ANDYThe other day, I spoke with Danny in Importing/Exporting about supply chains. He said it’s a complicated issue with lots of moving parts to balance.55CHAR (Fumbling for briefcase)I’ve long been suggesting supply-chain integration. I know I have a few sips of that juice left in my briefcase��It’s a great way to proactively monetize.ANDYAll of our competitors have recently embraced supply-chain integration...CHAR (finishing juice)Can’t let them think I’m weak�And it would really set us up for an upswing in the third quarter.ANDYWell, that’s good to hear, but what does the market research say about our clientele? CHARCan’t let them see my weaknessANDYWell..?BRENDAWe’ve done two recent surveys, one about customer needs and another about customer satisfaction.ANDYOkay then… in terms of customer needs, how does our product rank?BRENDAAccording to the survey, our average customer is using it less often and less exclusively than they were two years ago. 56CHARLess exclusively?BRENDAHowever, those customers who use it exclusively are more loyal, and have often branched into our professional series.CHARYes, our professional series.BOSSIn other words, our professional series is thriving while our classic series is struggling.CHARlosing concentration again��� I should really check my sugars����discretely, behind my briefcase���BRENDAHave we considered a client-based paradigm? It’s much more cost-effective than the old client-centric approach. ANDYSounds good to me!BRENDACharlie, what’s your departmental perspective?CHAR (fumbling for blood-sugar meter)What the hell did she just say, something about client-focused? Concentrate, damnit!Umm, ah... well,Can’t let them think I’m weak�Can’t let them see my weakness�57BOSSDamnit, Charlie, quit texting and chime in here!CHAR (testing blood sugar behind briefcase)Uh... Great, now he thinks I’m slacking off... still better than being some diabetic pity case���umm, our biggest weakness is that we’re not backward compatible. A: BAD FATE B: GOOD FATECHAR     3�1, even lower than before���If we’re able to reconnect with what initially turned our clients on to our product, we’ll stay relevant and turn customer satisfaction into profit.     I really hope my sugars are on their way up��� Keep eating these glucose tabs���BOSSBut Brenda just told us how the classic series isn’t really serving customer needs. There’s a lot at stake here, and I’d be very grateful to anyone who could ramp up our classic market.BRENDAIt’s not that the product isn’t serving their needs. Think of it as our classic series being a great starter product for our future professional series clients.CHAR     4�0, thank god!If we’re able to reconnect with what initially turned our clients on to our product, we’ll stay relevant and turn customer satisfaction into profit.     Great, I can feel my sugars are on their way up� Keep eating these glucose tabs���BOSSBut Brenda just told us how the classic series isn’t really serving customer needs. There’s a lot at stake here, and I’d be very grateful to anyone who could ramp up our classic market.BRENDAIt’s not that the product isn’t serving their needs. Think of it as our classic series being a great starter product for our future professional series clients.58A: BAD FATE B: GOOD FATECHAR    Get Brenda to keep talking, give me          enough time to regain my senses�BOSSAre they upgrading because they’re happy, or in an attempt to improve?CHAR (uncertain)I’m under the impression that they’re happy... Brenda, do you have anything to back that up?BRENDAYes, I have those customer satisfaction survey results… ah, here, that didn’t appear in the quarterly reports. Those have risen steadily from 58%, to 70% to 83% last quarter. CHAR (struggling)So, if clients are being led to our professional series, then obviously the classic series is doing it’s job. We just need to remind the client that the classic series can also serve their other needs.CHAR    Get Brenda to keep talking, give me          enough time to regain my senses�BOSSAre they upgrading because they’re happy, or in an attempt to improve?CHAR (confident)I’m under the impression that they’re hap-py... Brenda, do you have anything to back that up?BRENDAYes, I have those customer satisfaction survey results… ah, here, that didn’t appear in the quarterly reports. Those have ris-en steadily from 58%, to 70% to 83% last quarter. CHARSo, if clients are being led to our profession-al series, then obviously the classic series is doing it’s job. We just need to remind the client that the classic series can also serve their other needs.59A: BAD FATE B: GOOD FATEBRENDAI think you’re  really onto something!BOSSThat’s exactly the kind of proactive integration we need.ANDYIt’ll look great on the quarterly report!CHAR (ashamed)What a simple solution… I can’t believe it took me this long to notice!BOSSIt’s all about synergy, synergy, synergy!I’ll expect an updated report on my desk by the end of the day.Exit all except CharlieBRENDAI think you’re  really onto something!BOSSThat’s exactly the kind of proactive integra-tion we need.ANDYIt’ll look great on the quarterly report!CHAR (incredulous / disbelief)What a simple solution… I can’t believe it took me this long to notice!BOSSIt’s all about synergy, synergy, synergy!I’ll expect an updated report on my desk by the end of the day.Exit all except CharlieCHARI can’t believe that just happened.I can’t believe I somehow made it through that.Can’t believe they didn’t see what was happening to me60Question Time 2NARRAs we just saw, diabetes can have a huge impact on daily living, whether other people see it or not.Over the years, the daily ups and downs can take their toll on even the most tightly controlled diabetic.Charlie’s been fortunate, nearly 30 years with no sign of complications. Right now, he’s driving with one of his oldest friends when he notices... something...(Scene)CHAR (ten)Hey, did you see that? It’s snowing...FRIEND (bari)You’re crazy Charlie, it’s the middle of June!CHARNo, seriously, little white spots right in front. You really can’t see them?FRIENDI think you’re seeing things, bud. Are you OK?CHAR   They dance out of the way when I try to focus on them,FRIENDYou’re freaking me out, man. Maybe you should pull over...CHARsort of like a Pac-Man ghost you can’t quite catch...61FRIENDThis isn’t a game.You’re freaking me out…Pull Over!(End Scene)NARRCharlie might not know what he’s seeing, but he’s about to find out. He’s at the eye doctor’s, about to be diagnosed with his first complication from diabetes.And guess who decides the severity... Let’s see what you remember from Diabetes 101.This time only two questions.Does insulin make blood sugar go up or down?●	 Up●	 DownMaybe you should check your sugars... Score one for the audience!Insulin makes blood sugar go down, but too far down makes low blood sugar, which you just experienced along with Charlie.Now as much fun as this quiz show is, let’s not be naive; a diabetic won’t stay healthy unless they can deal with real-life scenarios.How well were you able to concentrate while experiencing low blood sugar?Which paradigm did Brenda suggest?●	 client-centered●	 client-centric●	 client-based●	 client-focused62Not so easy, is it...Brenda suggested a client-based paradigm.You answered (0 or 1) out of 2 questions correctly.Not quite enough to save Charlie’s eyes, but it’s not all your fault.Lucky guess!Brenda suggested a client-based paradigm.You answered both questions correctly.But in reality, even if you do everything by the book, there’s no escaping fate. NARR + CHORUS + CHAROPHTAfter 20 years of diabetes, nearly all patients with type 1 diabetes have some damage to their retinas. 63Scene 3 – Ophthalmologist office (female): Diagnosis of First ComplicationCharlie in chair, ophthalmologist with back turned. Italics indicate soliloquy.CHARGoogle said floaters aren’t a big deal and most people don’t even notice them, but that’s all I can see���like a giant billboard writing ‘bad diabetic’ in the sky�I could have tested more often and corrected more vigorouslyAll those times I just didn’t care enough to double check�OPHTOk, let’s see what’s going on in there.This will be very bright. Look straight ahead.Look up.... and down.CHARDamnit, it’s like looking right into the sun�OPHTNow to the left, look up.... CHARDon’t they tell you not to look directly at the sun?OPTHand down.Hmmm..CHARThis can’t be happening, I’m too young and healthy to be going blind�64OPHTNow to the right, look up.... CHAR   That was always mom’s biggest worry�OPTHand down.CHARShe’d be heartbroken to see her worst fear come true�A: BAD FATESevere Nonproliferative Retinopathy + Macular EdemaB: GOOD FATEMild Nonproliferative RetinopathyOPHTOkay, your right eye has a few new hemor-rhages.How long since your last eye exam?  CHARI haven’t been since high school. Never had any reason to.OPHTYou really need to come in yearly for dila-tion so we can keep track of any changes in your eyes.CHAROh, right, ya… okay.OPHTYour right eye has two very small hemor-rhages.   How long since your last eye exam?  CHARI haven’t been since high school. Never had any reason to.OPHTYou really need to come in yearly for dila-tion so we can keep track of any changes in your eyes.CHAROh, right, ya… okay.65A: BAD FATESevere Nonproliferative Retinopathy + Macular EdemaB: GOOD FATEMild Nonproliferative RetinopathyOPHTLet’s see the other eye.Look straight ahead, look up.... CHARSo brightOPTHand down.OPHTNow to the left, look up.... CHARDamnit, my eyes are really tearing up�OPTHand down.CHARAt least I have the bright lights as an ex-cuse�OPHTNow to the right, look up.... CHARCan’t let her see that I’m actually crying�OPHTLet’s see the other eye.Look straight ahead, look up.... CHARSo brightOPTHand down.OPHTNow to the left, look up.... CHARDamnit, my eyes are really tearing up�OPTHand down.CHARAt least I have the bright lights as an ex-cuse�OPHTNow to the right, look up.... CHARCan’t let her see that I’m actually crying�66A: BAD FATESevere Nonproliferative Retinopathy + Macular EdemaB: GOOD FATEMild Nonproliferative RetinopathyOPTHand down.OPHTOk, you left eye also has quite a few new hemorrhages and some signs of macular edema.CHARMacular edema?OPHTNow, that occurs when the blood vessels in the retina begin to leak into the retinaCHAR   If my eyes fail me, what next? my kid-neys, my heart?OPHTThirty years is a long time with diabetes. OPTHand down.OPHTSame thing, two little hemorrhages in your left eye. CHARHemorrhages?OPHTThey’re all so small though, nothing to wor-ry about.CHARNothing to worry about…   If my eyes fail me, what next? my kid-neys, my heart?OPHTKeep doing what you’re doing. You are test-ing often, eating very well, and exercising more than most patients I see.  67A: BAD FATESevere Nonproliferative Retinopathy + Macular EdemaB: GOOD FATEMild Nonproliferative RetinopathyCHARI’m sure I could have tighter control, but I always thought complications were way down the road�OPHTWe’ll get you in quickly to see a laser sur-geon so we can fix this before it actually affects your vision. If you can tighten your control and come in for regular checkups, there’s no reason you won’t be just fine.CHARI’m sure I could have tighter control, but I always thought complications were way down the road�OPHTHonestly, I can’t believe you’ve had diabetes for this long; thirty years is a long time with this and you are doing just fine.68Scene 4 – Finale & ChorusCharlie leaves chair to take centre stage for solo aria.CHARJust fine... Just fine?!?How can this be fine?I’m not fine.In what way am I fine?Fine is a cloudy day, but at least it didn’t rain…Fine is not crying when you scrape your knee.Fine is having cataracts after a long full life, Not going blind because you didn’t obsess enough.[enter CHOR1]‘Fine’ is how you respond to “how do you do?”On the street, when you don’t want to talk.CHAR and CHOR 1“How do you do?”CHARFine and dandy, Dan.Oh yes, dandy, just fine and dandy![enter CHOR2]So what if I’m not fine,You can’t tell anyway!How can this be fine?69I’m not fine.In what way am I fine?CHORHow d’ya do, Buckeroo?CHARStill breathing...   Shallowly...My sugars are so high, it burns with each deep breath.If I know what’s coming anyway, why not just enjoy the hell out of life instead of fighting off fate!NARRSounds like you have a choice to make...CHARBut I’ve worked so hard to avoid complicationsI’ve spent my whole life managing this and what difference does it make?NARRSo, what’s it gonna be?CHARHow can this be fine?I’m not fine.In what way am I fine?CHORHow’s it goin’?CHAR70… Never been better, thanks...All those stories about someone’s grandpa going blind or losing a foot from diabetes...CHORMy grandpa went blind AND lost his big toe from diabetes!CHARI always imagined old fogies who didn’t take care of themselves, Who deserved what they had coming to them.CHORUSMy friend’s mom lost a foot from complications!CHARMaybe I do deserve this...CHORUSI had an uncle who went blind from diabetes...Should you be eating that?Diabetics can’t have chocolate!CHARI never once had a normal halloween in school.CHORUSYou can’t have candy, Charlie, It’ll make you high, Charlie.Really though, how are you?NARR So, what’s it gonna be? (to audience)You’ve been enjoying this game so much, why don’t you make the choice for Charlie. He’s 71obviously preoccupied...CHARI’m tired of missing out on life for diabetes...CHORUS 1You don’t want high sugars, CharlieIt’ll make you sickCHARWhat do I have to show for these sacrifices?...NARRHear that, Charlie? These fine folks are going to decide for you...CHOR 2You don’t want to go blind, Charlie, do you?CHOR 1(as MOM)Good morning sunshine!How’s my special boy?CHOR 2How are you?CHARHow can this be fine?I’m not fine.In what way am I fine?NARRSo what’s it gonna be?72Does Charlie man up, or succumb to apathy? CHARHow can this be fine?I’m not fine.I’m not fine.NARRSo what’s it gonna be?This time, only one question: Right or wrong, Life or death. Charlie’s fate lies in your hands…So, what’s it gonna be?CHARNo! Enough! You don’t get to decide... I do!I do.These are my eyes, as damaged as they may be, I choose how to use them.I do.ARIACHARHow can this be fineAm I fine?Sure, I’ve made mistakes,But perfection doesn’t exist.73In what ways am I fine?In what ways I am fine.Fine is taking control of my health,Not feeling sorry for myself.Having an eye complication doesn’t blind me.It opens up my eyes.So what if I’m not perfect,You can’t tell anyway!Fine is taking care of myself.Knowing what I need, and doing it.Fine is doing what I need to survive.This can be fine.This is fine.I am fine.I am fine.I’m fine.I’m fine.fin74APPENDIX B: MUSICAL SCOREDiagnosis: DiabetesAn Interactive Chamber Opera in One ActMusic and TextbyMichael Park© Michael Park, 2015 Title Page75Duration: approximately 60 minutesScore in CRoles, by voice type:Soprano: Mom, Brenda, Ophthalmologist, ChorusMezzo-Soprano: Nurse, Boss, ChorusMezzo-Soprano: Narrator, Young CharlieTenor: Dad, Charlie, ChorusBaritone: Endocrinologist, Andy, Friend, ChorusInstrumentation:Flute, doubling Alto FluteClarinet in B♭, doubling Bass Clarinet in B♭ViolinCelloPianoProgram NoteThis is the story of Charlie, a boy like any other.But this story is not an opera like any other.As Charlie goes through life with diabetes, You too will experience the onslaught of Information that comes with diagnosis, The sensation of low blood-sugar, Facing your own mortality...But don’t worry.This is a fun opera. And you just might learn something too! Roles and Program Note76PERFORMANCE NOTESBecause of the interactive nature of Diagnosis: Diabetes, performers are highly encouraged to perform ad libitum, requiring the flexibility to adjust the written materials to best suit the needs of the scene and performance medium. For an audience that might be anywhere between a small group shouting out answers, to a large auditorium using technology to vote, the score uses boxes and arrows to build in flexibility.All boxes indicate that the material therein will require some kind of ad lib� execution. Sol-id boxes indicate that tempo should be considered ad lib� such that the material should be considered separate from the prevailing/conductor’s tempo. Broken boxes indicate that, while the material should be performed in sync with the prevailing tempo, other aspects should be performed ad lib�, either as noted in the score, or as are required by the perfor-mance situation.77Quite often, the boxes are followed by arrows, which indicate how long the preceding ma-terial should be repeated, ending where the point of the arrow vertically aligns in the score. When there is a break in the notated music (ex. 2 before Rehearsal 2), the break or repeated figures can be as long or short as necessary, largely dependent on the performance situation.Essential to the interactive nature of the opera is that performers listen and respond. While continuing ad lib�, performers must listen to the other instrumentalists and respond in a manner that creates a cohesive musical texture, and they must also listen to the audi-ence and respond in a way that encourages audience interaction.In Scenes 2 and 3, there are two possible versions. The beginning of this split is indicated by boxed letters A and B at the far left side of each part’s staff. The division continues for as long as there are two staves for that part. Additional clarification is included, and a boxed A+B indicates the return to a single or parallel version. It is expected that the conductor will provide a clear indication of which fate is being performed, based on the results of the previ-ous Question Time scene.In scene 2, the vocalists are required to garble the text, which means to render the text un-intelligible to the audience. Garbling is notated on the text itself, using a different italicized font. This is not a cue to sing gibberish - it is important that the singer still think and express the meaning of the text they are singing, unless otherwise indicated. 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Fl.&∑To B. Cl.&?         && & ?&∑ ∑? ∑ ∑	 œœœœ œœ ˙œœ œœ˙ ˙œ ™ œ œ œ œ œ  œ œ œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ œœ œœœ	œœ 	 œœœ œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ	˙œœ˙œœ ™œ˙ ˙		œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ	˙œœœ œœœ ™œœ œ ˙˙œœ˙œ	œœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œ	 œ œœ™œ ˙™œœ˙ ˙	œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ ™œ˙ ˙	œœ œ 	 	83°¢{°¢°¢{°¢°¢N'((Pno.Cl.Spoilmer- a lert-- 0e1s di a- be- - tic- Comempon) you can1t be sur prised.- *t1spin theq=..  q=..m pq=..  q=..mpS.M.S.N'((T.Bar.Pno.Fl.B. Cl.Vln.Vc.Dimpag- no- sis:- Di a- bem- tes.- 5e1remq=67 q=1406Dimpag- no- sis:- Di a- bem- tes.- 5e1remtimptle-- Don1tm+or ry) +e1re not here to ru in- the sto ry- for you...Dimpag- no- sis:- Di a- bem- tes.- 5e1remDimpag- no- sis:- Di a- bem- tes.- 5e1remmq=67 q=140mpmp mp mp mp m&∑  &∑?∑&∑ ∑ ∑?Bass Clarinetin Bb &∑ ∑ ∑ &∑ ∑ ∑ &∑∑ &‹∑ ∑ ∑ ?∑ ∑ ∑ &∑ ∑ ∑œœ?&∑ ∑ ∑ ∑?∑ ∑ ∑ ∑&∑ ∑ ∑ ∑?∑ ∑ ∑ ∑œœ œ œ œœœ˙˙œœœ œœ œ œœ œœœœ	˙˙˙œœœœœœœœœ 	˙˙œœœœœœœœ œœœœ œœœœ˙  œ œ œ œœ œœ œ˙ 	  œ œ œ œ œœ œœ œ˙ 	  œœœ œ œ  œœ œ œ œ œœ œœ œ œœ œœ ™œœ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ˙ 	  œ  œ œ œ œ  œ œœ œ˙ 	 œ	œ	˙˙˙˙˙ ™™œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ˙˙˙˙˙˙	˙˙ ™	˙ ˙™	˙˙ ™ 	 ˙˙ ™84°¢{°¢°¢S.M.S.N'((T.Bar.Pno.Fl.B. Cl.Vln.Vc.here to help you ru in- the sto ry- for your sel8es--69here to help you ru in- the sto ry- for your sel8es--5hilempyou +atch this o p1ra)- Char lie1s-here to help you ru in- the sto ry- for your sel8es--here to help you ru in- the sto ry- for your sel8es--mpmpmpmp&∑ ∑ ∑ &∑ ∑ ∑ &∑ ∑ ∑&‹∑ ∑ ∑ ?∑ ∑ ∑ &∑ ∑ ∑?∑ ∑ ∑&∑ ∑ ∑           ?∑ ∑ ∑&∑ ∑ ∑           ?∑ ∑ ∑           œœœ œœ œ œœ œœœ˙ ˙	œ  œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ  œ œ ˙ ˙ 		  œœ œœœœ 	 œ œœœœ œœ œ œœ œœœ˙ ˙	œœœ œ œ œ œœ œœ œ˙ ˙	˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙	˙˙˙˙˙˙ ˙˙˙	œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ	 œœ	 œœ	 œœœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ85°¢{°¢°¢°¢°¢N'((Pno.Fl.B. Cl.Vln.Vc.fate is in your hands. 'fmter- eachmmp mpmpS.M.S.N'((T.Bar.Vln.Vc.9uesmtions- op - tions19uesmtions- op - tionsscene) +e1ll ask you 9ues tions)- and +e1ll gi8e you mul ti- ple- op tions- and then you shout out the..9uesmtions- op tions-9uesmtions- op - tionsmm&∑ ∑ ∑&∑ ∑ ∑?∑ ∑ ∑&           ∑ ∑ ∑? ∑ ∑ ∑&         pizz.?     &∑ ∑&∑ ∑&L cL&‹∑ ∑?∑ ∑&?œœœœœœ  	    	˙˙œœœœ œœœœœ™™ œœœ˙˙ ™™œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œœ œœ œœœœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ	 œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ œ œ œ œ œœœ œœœœœœœœœœœœœ œœ     	 	 ™        	   	               ˙     ™      	 	 	      	 	 	 ™ œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ œœ œœœœœœœœœœ œœ œœ œœ 86°¢{°¢™™™™™™™™™™™™™™™™™™™™™™™™™™™™™™™™™™™™S.M.S.N'((T.Bar.Pno.Vln.Vc.ans+ers)- yay-6ans+ers)- yay-:an s+ers.;- <,act- ly-- =ourmpan s+ers de cide- +hat hap pens-ans+ers)- yay-ans+ers)- yay-mp  mp&∑:Cued by audience response;∑ ∑ ∑&∑∑ ∑ ∑&c:encourage audience to yell out;∑&‹∑∑ ∑ ∑?∑∑ ∑ ∑&∑?∑&8amp∑ ∑?∑ ∑       	       	  œœœ œœ œ œ œ    œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ œœœ œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ 	 œœœœ	 œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ œœ œœ œœœœœœœ 87°¢{°¢°¢°¢N'((Pno.in the ne,t scene. =ourmsuc cess- de cides- ho+ di a- be- tes- +ill af fect- Char lie1s- life.91S.N'((T.Fl.B. Cl.Vln.Vc.inmpMom and Dad1s shoes.196>et1smpstart them o? in Mom and Dad1s shoes. =ourmson hasinmpMom and Dad1s shoes.mp1mpmpmp&∑  &?&∑ ∑&∑&‹∑ ∑&            ?            &            ?œœœœ  œ œœœœ œ œœœ œœ œœœœœ 	œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ  œœœœ œœœœ œœ  œœœœ  œœœœ  œœœœ	  œœ œœ˙œœœœœœ œœ˙ œœœ™ œ 	  œœ œœ˙œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ	 œœ 	 œœ 	 œœ  œœ œ88°¢{°¢°¢S.M.S.N'((T.Bar.Pno.Fl.B. Cl.Vln.Vc.Dimag- no- sis:- Di a- be- tes.-1inmpMom and Dad1s shoes. Dimag- no- sis:- Di a- be- tes.-@ust been di ag- nosed- +ith dia a- be- tes...-Dimag- no- sis:- Di a- be- tes.-inmpMom and Dad1s shoes. Dimag- no- sis:- Di a- be- tes-m&∑ & &∑&‹∑ ? &∑ ∑       ?∑ ∑&       ?       &       ?œ  	   œ œ œ œ  œ œ œ œ œ ˙	  œœ œœ˙ œœ œ œ œœ œœ œœ ˙œ œ œ œœ ˙œœ œœ œ œ ˙œ  	   œ œ œ œ  œ œ œ œ œ ˙	  œœ œœ˙ œœ œ œ œœ œœ œœ ˙œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ	 œœœœ	 œœœœœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ	  œœ	  œœ	  œœ	 œœ89°¢{°¢{°¢°¢SopranoMomear z-onsNntoTzanoBnbiPF lznF uslpi -us Cot  VVVFq1916BnmbiPF lznF uslpi -us Cot  F Pis coot cor sn srF = VF esmb q1MomNntoTnoVeV10lVhlnVhyVfismbcoot cor sn srF = VF91cors 0uar lzsF i-ar - stF -ag zn=F zn iP lznVF uzi Cot  F dai no- a ClsF -o Pis coot corsn srF = Vmb mp34&&34&&34&&34&&34&&34&&34&&∑?bdrz-zn=1todn1dua-1-us1toy-or1ia ikSysns1D1F1:us1Nntoyr znolo=zi-.i1'(ys˙? ∑œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ˙izmV∑? ? ?˙? ∑  ˙? ?˙? ? ? ? ?∑? ? ? ? ?˙? ? ?	        	      	 	           	     	         	    ‹Scene 190°¢{°¢°¢°¢{°¢°¢)Pr is0uarlzs*atTnoVe V10lVhyV:ua-.impdu  oP.+s Cssn loi zn=F dsz=u-0uar lzsVF antmbcssl zn=F iodsagV99	Oh!mpThat's why.,sarmp-ua--0uar lzs.F /Pi-mp-o Cs psr csy-F l F ylsar-mpMom*atNntoTnoVeV10lVhyV- psmbonsF tz aF CsF -siF99dua-mbs0ay-F l zi - ps onsF tz aF CsF -si.F1 sll-mpmPyu oc -us coot  oP sa- Cs yomsiF a - ps oc iP= arF™mbmb∑? ? ∑? ? ? ?∑? ?? ∑? ? ? ? ?˙? ? ? ?˙? ?˙?∑??∑? ?˙? ?∑? ? ?˙? ? ?˙? ?˙?           	         	            	         	          ‹91°¢{°¢°¢{°¢MomNntoTnoVhyV=lPmpyoisF9yallst =lP yoisVF 0uarlplzs.iF pan yrsF aiF yan no- mags zn iPF lznF io -us =lP yoisVF i-a i zn uzi ClootVp™MomNntoTnoVhlnVhyVSo-mpars Cloot iP= arF ant =lPyois -us iams -uzn=.92 sips0ay-F l VF 1z-umpoP-F zn iPF lzn-F uzi Cot  F yan no- Pis -us =lP yoisF cor sn srF = -Fb™mb∑? ?˙  ∑ 	˙?∑˙∑? ?˙? ∑	? ?∑˙	∑? ? ? ?˙?  	            ? 	  	          	                    		‹92°¢{°¢°¢°¢{°¢°¢Mom)Pr isNntoTnoV3lVe V10lVhlnVuz=umb9Sz=nimpoc uz=uCloot iP= arF ars Cs zn=Fio 0uar lzsF rs 4PzF rsiF zn iPF lznF C zn 5syF -zonVFmp™mbmbb mbMom)Pr is0uarlzsTnoV3lVe V10lVhlnVhyVCloot iP= arF9	6-uzri-  -F -zr st-F ClPrr s si- ant nsstpzn=F -o pss lo-iV ,ampmpthht  was st th w's st  ...Fmp mbmp mbmp mbmp mb∑? ? ? ?∑? ? ? ?˙? ? ? ∑? ?˙? ? ? ?∑? ? ?˙? ? ?∑?∑? ?∑blaP=u1at1lzCk∑? ∑? ?˙? ?∑ ˙: o10lV∑ ˙ 	           	 	  	     	       	 	  	       	   	   	   	   ‹93°¢{°¢°¢{°¢)Pr is0uarlzs*atNntoTnoVhlnVhyVua6 ,a ua6 ,a ua69	thmpw's st  ...F0uarplzs.iF Cssn -sl lzn=F s+s r F ons us.i -us dorlt.i Csi- pss srVF ,a ua6,ampua6 ,a ua6 B-.impa =oot -uzn= oP CroP=u-uzm znmbmbMom0uarlzs*atNntoTnoVhlnVhyV*osimb-ua- msan us yoPlt =o Clllbznt.F961thbw's st  ...F'u-b0uar lzsVVVFdusn  oP tztV hzimbzonF proC lsmi arsmp mp™mb∑?∑s0a==sra-st?∑ œ œ œ blaP=u1at1lzCk? ˙blaP=u1at1lzCk∑? ?˙? ? ?∑? ?pz77V˙? ?pz77V∑??∑? ??∑?? ??˙? ? ?∑	 ?˙?∑? ? ??˙? ? ? ?aryo 		 	                        	  	      	   	   	  	  	‹94°¢{°¢°¢{°¢°¢Mom)Pr isNntoTnoVhlnVhyV'u-bbq1	96VVVduzyumpzi du  z-.i zm porF -an-F -o man a=sF z- prop srF l VVVFons oc -us yom plzF yaF -zoni oc tz aF CsF -siVF )o d doPlt Cs a =oot -zms -omp mb bq1	™ ™ ™ ™ ™mbMomNntoTnoV3lVe V10lVhlnVmpm Ca C F Co Vmb1u  mptzt -uzi uap psn. Bimb-uzi Cs yaPisF Byra+st91-sayu -usm a CoP-F zn 5syF -zoniVFmbmbmb∑?bdorrzst-1Mom1mo+si1Ppi-a=s-o1izn=1arzak? ?∑?œ ?˙? ?yon-znPs1a-1prs+zoPi1-smpo ∑? ?˙? ?∑aryo? ?˙? ? ? ?∑˙? ? ? ?∑? ? ? ?˙∑? ? ?˙∑0lar zns-1zn1e? ?∑? ? ? ? ?	         	         	  		 	 	        	   ‹95°¢{°¢°¢{°¢°¢{°¢°¢MomTnoV3lV0lVyuoy. la-sF ant iuor - CrsatF duzls B dai prs= nan-.F 8-9mbMomTnoV3lV0lVlsai- nod ds gnod dua-.i Cssn mag zn=F uzm izygV 'u-mb mpm Ca C F9mpmbMomTnoV3lVhlnVhyVCo V 1u  byoPlt n.-F B pro -sy-F uzm. Bbdaiilssp zn=F lzgs a CaC duzls m Ca C -F m Ca C VVVF9bbb∑∑˙∑∑?∑∑?˙∑? ? ?∑?∑  ∑? ? ? ? ? ?˙∑? ? ? ? ?∑? ?˙?pz77       	 	     	 	       	                ‹‹96°¢{°¢°¢°¢{°¢°¢MomTnoV3lV0lVhyVou- m Ca C F ,o dmbdzll B pro -sy-F uzm. )o mors yan t -F no mors yags- no mors id ss-i-p9mbmbmbMomTnoV3lV0lVhlnVhyVnompmors iP= ar no mors iP=par 'u-mpm pCaC F Co V 8-mb9	mbmb mp p mpmp ppmp∑ ∑? ?˙∑? ?∑? ? ? ?˙? ?∑∑? ? ? ? ? ?˙∑? ?∑? ? ?∑? ? ? ? ?˙? ? ? ? ? ?aryo          	  	   		        	  	  	     	 	 ‹97°¢{°¢°¢°¢{°¢°¢Mom)Pr isTnoV3lV0lVhlnVhyVlsai- nod 8-mplsai-VVV m mbCaC F Co Vq191Sss-mpzn 5syF -zoniF ars rsal l F 4Pz-smpq1mb mp mpmb mp mpmpmb mpMom)Pr isTnoV3lV0lVhlnVhyVarmi-mb9izm plsF ant no- a izn =lsF -sar-  oP.rsmbiPyu a Cra+s Co - 0uar lzs6F 2 oPmpyan =z+szn iPF lznF zn -usarmi- ls=i- -Pm m -F or CPmVmb∑∑? ? ? ?∑  ? ?lV+V˙∑∑?∑? ? ? ?˙? ? ?∑? ? ?∑∑? ? ?˙? ? ? ?∑? ? ?∑? ? ?∑˙   	     	             	       	   		           	 	 	      	  	‹98°¢{°¢°¢{Mom)Pr is0uarlzs*atTnoV3lV0lVls=i- -Pm m -F CPm91 smb!pt h h! tbhh!0uarmblzs iuuuV 8rsmpan  F oc -uois ipo-i Cs- -srF -uan o-u sri.mbmbMom)Pr isTnoVromb-a-sF9rsy yomF msntF Pi zn=F -us -Pm m F moi- oc -sn-F CP- mags iPrs -o =z+s  oPr zniP lzn zn ansd ipo- s+s r F -zmsVmb™ ™∑?∑? ?∑blaP=u-sr1at1lzCVk? ∑∑˙∑˙∑? ?∑? ?∑? ? ?∑?∑?˙?  		            	              	 	 	                         ‹99°¢{°¢°¢{°¢°¢°¢°¢Mom)Pr isTnoV0lVzn 5syF -zonF iz-si amb9Bcmp oP Pis -us iams ar sF aF -oo oc -sn-F a uart lPmp dzll corm Pn tsrF -us igznV :uzimpyan ac csy-F  oPr™ ™bbMom)Pr isTnoVhlnVhyVuart lPmpq111Cloot iP= arVFmp mbq1™ ™bbmp mb bb*at3lV0lVhlnVhyVSuoPltbB rsal l F CsCrsa-u zn=F a iz=u oc rs lzsc.F 0an B yalm m nsr+si.91bbbb3&3&3&3&3&3&∑? ?∑œ œœœ  ∑?˙?∑? ? ?œ∑? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?∑? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?∑? ? ?˙? ? ?∑? ? ? ? ? ? ?˙œœœœœizmV∑?∑? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?∑? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?∑˙   	                		    	          	      	   	  	 ‹‹100°¢°¢°¢°¢°¢°¢°¢{°¢°¢*at3lV0lVhlnVhyVSuoPltmbB rsal l F CsCrsa-u zn=F a iz=u oc rs lzsc.F B.mmpuap p F9b mpmb mpmb mpmb mp*at3lV0lVhlnVhyV-ua- z-.i ioms -uzn=F ds yan tsal dz-uV 'rmb-uzngds yan tsal dz-u an  F da VVVF	mbmbmbmb*atTnoV3lV0lVhlnVhyV:usrsmpars car doris ca-siV69bb mbmpmpmp∑? ? ? ?∑? ? ? ? ? ?∑? ? ? ? ? ? ?∑˙∑?crssl ? ? ∑? ? ? ?∑? ?∑˙∑? ? ?∑? ?˙?∑?∑? ?∑?∑˙	  	   	    	             	             	      	    	 		       ‹‹101°¢{°¢°¢°¢{°¢°¢*atTnoV3lV0lVhlnVhyVSuoPltmbB rsal l F Cs pP- -zn=F an snt -o m =rzsc.1mp bb mbb mbmbmb*atTnoV3lV0lVhlnVhyVBimp-us dori- Cs uzntF Pi- 'rpars -usrs targ srF ta i -o yoms. B.mmbpmb p mpmb pmp pmp p∑? ? ? ?∑yaV1qD9:1;1∑1∑∑∑˙;18llo d1oi-zna-o1-o1=o1oP-1oc1puais1dz-u1snismClsV11usn1z-1rsayusi1ons1<-u1no-s1ausat-si-aClziu1prs+zoPi1-smpo1cor1a1momsn-1Cscors1mol-o1ayyslV∑?∑1q=D99 mol-o1ayyslV 	V=>9F><∑1∑? ? ?∑? ? ? ?∑˙	             	     	 		  	‹102°¢{°¢°¢°¢{°¢°¢*atTnoV3lV0lVhlnVhyVuap p F -ua- z-.i ioms -uzn=F ds yantsal dz-uV 'rbb-uzngds yan tsal dz-u an  F da VVVF9bbmb bmb bmbmbMom*atTnoV3lV0lVhlnVhyV8impioon ai d s =s- uoms 0uar lzs-F ds.rs -urod zn=F oP- allp-us1:usrsmbars car doris ca-siV carmpb mpmpmpmpmp∑crssl ? ∑? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?	=?@F<9∑? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?∑? ? ?∑? ? ?∑˙∑? ? ? ? ? ? ∑? ?∑1∑1∑? ?∑? ?∑˙            	            	   	      	             	     						  ‹103°¢{°¢°¢Mom)Pr is0uarlzs*atTnoV3lV0lVhlnVhyVyoog zsi-F all -us id ss-i VVV )o mors iP= arF a- oPr uoPis6q1)ompnsst -o =o o +srF Coart-F momV *on.-mbO h! Tapt' T s wy. doris ca-siVpq1pp&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&∑? ?∑? ? ?∑? ?∑? ?∑1˙1∑? ? ?∑? ? ?∑? ?˙? ?     	      	      104°¢{°¢°¢°¢{°¢°¢)Pr is*atNntoTnoV0lVhlnVhyVdor r -F 0uar lzsVF yarmpCoF u F tra-sF ant6yarmbCoF u F tra-sF:usrs.imbiP= ar-F or yar CoF u F tra-s-F zn al moi-F s+s r F -uzn=VF 8nt ds nsst z- -o iPr +z+sVFmb mpbbbMom)Pr is*atNntoTnoV0lVhlnVhyVzn iPF lznFzn iPF lznF dorg -o =s-uF srF -o uslp gssp Cloot iP= arF znCal anysVF8ntmpuod to -us to -ua-.0armbCoF u F tra-sF razi siF Cloot iP= arVFmbmb∑ ? ?∑? ?bdrz-zn=1zn1no-sCoogk˙ œ œ œ œ?∑˙? ?∑? ?œ œ œ œ?∑? ?pz77V?˙? ?pz77V?∑?b-agzn=1no-sCoog1Cayg1crom1*atk??∑ ? ? ∑?? ˙? ? ?∑?˙?∑? ? ?∑? ? ? ?˙? ? ? 	   	   	           	  	  	        ?             	‹105°¢{°¢°¢°¢°¢°¢)Pr is*atNntoTnoV3lV0lVhlnVhyVBnmbiPF lznF lod sriF Cloot iP= arVF TrspyzisF l 6F	1So-mbtz aF CsF -siF zi Caizy all F ons Cz= Cal anF yzn=F ay-VVVmb mp p ™mbmb)Pr isNnto0lVhlnVhyVN+smpr F -zms 0uar lzsF sa-i yar CoF u F tra-s-F us.ll ua+s -o -ags zn iPF lznVF	11 s.llmp-sayu  oP uod -o Cal anysF z- prop srF l Fmpmpmp∑?∑?˙? ? ? ?∑?œ˙?∑˙∑ ? ? ?∑? ? ? ?∑ ? ? ?˙? ? ? ?∑?˙?∑  ∑aryo˙aryo    	   	             	               	          	 	  ‹106°¢{°¢°¢°¢{°¢{Mom)Pr isNntoTnoV0lVhlnVhyVlsiimb-uan	18nmb F Cloot iP= ar lsii -uan coPrCsbyaPisF -oo mPyu zn iPF lznF yanmbyaPis lod Cloot iP= arVFmb ™bb mpbMom)Pr isTnoVcoPr zi -oo lodV rz=u-a da VF	V1=:9	9zi -oo lodV B-mPi- Cs-rsa- st rz=u- a da VFb	V1=:9™ ™ ™Mom)Pr isTnoV8nmb F Cloot iP= arF lsii -uan coPr zi -oo lodV B-mPi- Cs	8nmb F Cloot iP= arF lsii -uan coPr zi -oo lodV B-mPi- Cs -rsa- st rz=u- a Fmb3&3&3&3&3&3&3&3&∑? ? ? ? ? ?∑? ? ?˙? ? ? ? ? ∑? ? ?˙? ? ?∑? ? ? ?∑? ? ? ?˙? ? ? ?∑? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?∑? ? ? ? ? ?∑˙yon1pstV∑? ? ?∑?∑˙	                                                       	                    ‹‹107°¢{°¢{°¢{°¢Mom)Pr isTnoV-rsa- st rz=u- a da VF Sz=nimplod Cloot iP= arF id sa-		da V Sz=nimpoc lod Cloot iP= ar ars Cs zn=F id sa-  -F pals- iuag  F uPn =r -FmpMom)Pr is0uarlzsTnoV iuag  -F uPn =r -F uPn =r .F ,s.ipal d a iF uPn =r -F	6moot yuan= si-F ay- zn=F i-ran=s- tz7 7 - d sag- -roPCmplsF co yPiF zn=Fs wy pw h! ww aFMom)Pr is*atNntoTnoVhlnVhyVyonmpcPistF B -uzngB.m yon cPist6 eP-mpdua- to  oP to	cssl zn=F or ay- zn=F yon cPistF cssl zn=F ilssp  F or -z rstV8nb F Cloot iP= arF lsii -uan coPr zi -oo8nb F Cloot iP= arF lsii -uan coPr zi -oobb∑?∑∑˙∑? ?∑?∑? ? ? ? ?∑˙∑??∑? ? ? ?∑? ? ? ?˙? ? ? ?∑˙∑? ? ? ? ? ? ?˙? ? ? ? ? ? ?   	 	             	                  	       	                 	                   	          	 	              ‹‹108°¢{°¢°¢{°¢Mom0uarlzs*atNntoTnoVhlnVhyVdusn us.i yon cPist.F	mpFlodV SPrsVVVmbcai- ay- zn=F iP= ar-FlodV : agsmpAc-ssnF =rami oc cai- ay- zn=F iP= ar-F daz-mbAc-ssnF mz nP-siF ant rs yusygF Cloot iP= arVF0uarlzs*atNntoTnoVhlnVhyVh  s a.F  F ww ' ! F	6antmbyusyg ClootiP= arVVVF 8n  F Cloot iP= arF lsii -uan coPr1usnmp-us Cloot iP= arF zi a Co+sF coPr- sa- Ac-ssnF =rami oc ilod srF ay-zn=yar Co u F tra-sFmb bmb mbmb∑? ? ? ? ?∑? ? ? ? ? ?∑? ? ? ?˙ ∑˙∑? ? ?˙? ? ?∑? ? ?∑?˙?∑˙∑? ? ?˙? ? ?  	                                  	       	              	     ‹109°¢{°¢°¢{°¢Mom)Pr is0uarlzs*atNntoTnoVhlnVhyV3ai-mbay- zn=F iP= ari coPnt znB	13ai-mbay- zn=F iP= ari ars coPnt znB =lP yoisF -aC ls-i-F rs= PF larF pop- Th! w' cai- ay- zn=F iP= ar-F rz=u-Vant ioms pro -sznF or ca-VMom)Pr is0uarlzs*atNntoTnoVhlnVhyV=lP yoisF ant rs= PF larF crPz-. 5Pzys yan t -F	crPz- 5Pzysi-F crPz- tr zngi- yan tzsi-F 5am- uon s -F! F8nb F Cloot iP= arF lsii -uan coPr8nb F Cloot iP= arF lsii -uan coPrmbbb∑? ? ? ? ?∑? ? ?∑? ? ? ? ? ?∑? ? ? ? ? ?˙? ? ? ? ? ?∑˙∑˙∑? ? ?∑? ? ?∑? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?∑? ? ? ? ? ?˙? ? ? ? ? ?∑˙∑˙                                      	  	                                        	   ‹110°¢{°¢Mom)Pr is0uarlzs*atNntoTnoVhlnVhyVuon s -F 5am- 1ua-. yoc css.6F	i rmpPpF ant Ca+oPrF iuo-i Pist zn id ss- yoc cssi DlPmbyoisF -aC ls-iF! y hw F y y y  s wy mpzi -oo lodV B-mPi- Cs -rsa- st rz=u- a da VFzi -oo lodV B-mPi- Cs -rsa- st rz=u- a da VF∑? ? ? ?∑? ?∑? ? ?∑?˙?∑˙∑˙                  	               	          111°¢{°¢Mom)Pr is0uarlzs*atNntoTnoVhlnVhyVSuu-mpuon s VVVF 1ua- ars =lP yoisF -aC ls-iF an  F da .F 8nmb Cloot iP= arF61ant crPz-5Pzys ars Pist moi- oc -snF -o -rsa- lod Cloot iP= arVF 8nmb Cloot iP= arF !ypw8nmb F Cloot iP= arF lsii -uan coPr8nmb F Cloot iP= arF lsii -uan coPrmbmbmb∑?∑? ?∑? ? ? ? ? ?∑? ? ? ?˙? ? ? ?∑˙∑˙	            	      	                   112°¢{°¢°¢Mom)Pr is*atNntoTnoV0lVhlnVhyVlsii -uan coPr zi -oo lodV B-mPi- Cs -rsa- st rz=u- a da VF696lsii -uan coPr zi -oo lodV B-mPi- Cs -rsa- st rz=u- a da VFzi -oo lodV B-mPi- Cs -rsa- st rz=u- a da VFzi -oo lodV B-mPi- Cs -rsa- st rz=u- a da VF B-.impa =oot -uzn=mpmpmpmp∑?∑?∑? ? ?˙?∑˙∑? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?∑˙                         	   	       	 	113°¢{°¢°¢Mom0uarlzs*atNntoTnoV3lV0lVhlnVhyVBmpdai ilssp zn=66s wy ps wy 8nmb F Cloot iP= arF lsii -uan coPr zi -oo lodV oP CroP=u-uzm zn dusn  oP tztV 8nmb F Cloot iP= arF lsii -uan coPr zi -oo lodVmp mbmbmp∑? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?∑? ? ? ? ?∑? ? ? ?˙∑˙∑? ? ? ? ? ?∑?∑? ? ? ? ? ? ?˙? ? ? ? ?  	  	  	         	     	     	        114°¢{°¢°¢Mom)Pr is0uarlzs*atNntoTnoV3lV0lVhlnVhyVlzgs a Ca C F duzls m CaF C - m Ca F C VVV		 	V1=::6	6Sz=nimboc uz=u Cloot iP= arF ars Cs zn=F -uzri-  -F -zr st-F ClPrr FB-bmPi- Cs -rsa- st rz=u- a da VF SuoPltmpB rsal l F CsCrsa-u zn=F a iz=u oc rs FB-bmPi- Cs -rsa- st rz=u- a da VFb mb		 	V1=::mp∑?∑? ?∑? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?∑˙? ? ?∑?˙∑∑? ? ? ? ? ?∑? ? ? ? ? ?∑? ? ? ?˙?                               	         115°¢{°¢°¢Mom)Pr is0uarlzs*atNntoTnoV3lV0lVhlnVhyV,smb-uoP=u- us dai 5Pi- -us dorlt.i Csi- pss srVVVF ,smp-uoP=u-VVV66s si- ant nsst zn=F -o pss lo-iV 8nmb F Cloot iP= arF lsii -uan coPrmbthht  wasst th w's st  ...F mpthht  waslzsc. 8nmb F Cloot iP= arF lsii -uan coPrB-.imba =oot -uzn=  oPCroP=u-uzm zn dusn  oP tztV B-.impa™ ™mp mpmb mpmbmb∑?bdz-u10uarlzsk?∑? ? ?∑?bdz-u1Momk?∑? ? ?˙?∑∑˙∑˙∑˙∑?œ œœ œœœ? ?∑ œ∑? ? ? ?˙? ? ? ? ?	         	       	         	     	                            	             	  		116°¢{°¢°¢Mom)Pr is0uarlzs*atNntoTnoV3lV0lVhlnVhyV'u-mpm pCaF C Co V69zi -oo lodV B-mpmPi- Cs -rsa- st rz=u- a da VF 8np Fst th w's st  ...F  thht  was st thw's st  ...Fzi -oo lodV B-mpmPi- Cs -rsa- st rz=u- aVVV :usrspars car=oot -uzn=  oPCroP=u-uzm zn dusn  oP tztV B-.ipamp™ ™ ™mp pmp p∑?∑?∑∑˙?∑˙∑˙∑˙∑∑ œ? ?∑œ œœ œœœ∑˙                     	                                     	                   117°¢{°¢°¢Mom)Pr is0uarlzs*atNntoTnoV3lV0lVhlnVhyV'u-pm CaF C Co V	 	V1=>96Cloot iP= arF lsii -uan coPr zi -oo lodV B-mPi- Cs -rsa- stF rz=u- a Fpthht  was st th w's st  ...Fdoris ca-siV :usrs ars car doris=oot -uzn=  oP CroP=u-uzm zn dusn  oP tztV B-.ippap	 	V1=>9™ ™pppppp∑? ?∑∑? ?∑˙∑?∑˙?∑?∑?∑ œ˙ œ      	                         	 	           118°¢{°¢°¢Mom)Pr is0uarlzs*atNntoTnoV3lV0lVhlnVhyV:usrsppars car doris ca-siV!	6da V B-ppmPi- Cs -rsa- stF rz=u- a da VFppthht  was st th w's st  ...Fca-siV :usrsppars car doris ca-siV=oot -uzn=  oP CroP=u- uzm zn dusn  oP tztVpp!	™pppp∑∑∑∑˙∑?˙??∑∑∑˙        	                       	                   119°¢{°¢°¢{°¢°¢°¢°¢SopprannMmeMz-sNMtTsNMBTMiTNBTMiMNPaiiMFlsuCebqs iMuuMs eM- m TNs elM-uza -Tm MVm McuT=a1 oNbm0m =Teushaem yls- iTaCempfgd fbkd916qpfgd fbkdqmqm bmrmD1SopptNM1BiN1BP1zs- aNuem =sha ls: a s VT -aPum ac caPum MNulaT-eMN1 .'u (aC-aNMuaeuTN)m ula= uMVs0* (aC-aquaeuTN)m91qbqbqrmD1Sopp. 1+yi1BiN1BP10M'1 rasNbm(lTia*m yls- iTam lse ) -M(N'z sNVTe(M-hTN)m lTe ,-eu-asi -M 11  	9bq1  	q mq m bm34&3∑3∑33334&3∑3∑33334&3∑3∑33334&3∑3∑33334&3∑3∑33333&333&333&333&333&333&333&333&333&333&3&333&3&333&3&333&3&333&3?‹ ='eTP+ 0rTPlsai+t s-h.'aeuTMN+FT=a+b?‹ ˙œ aiimiTha˙?‹œ?  ?˙ ˙ ˙œ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙?œ? œ˙ ˙ ˙ ?œ			 			 				 	 			  		 				 	 ™™ ™™ ™   ™ ™™ ™™ 		 ™  	 						 	 	 		 	 		  		 		 	 		 	 			 	 	 						 ™™ 		   ™™ 				  			 	 	 		 			 	 				 											˙ 	   ˙			    		Question Time 1120°¢°¢°¢°¢{°¢rmD1Sopp/i1. 1+yi1BiN1BP10aCe)MusNT=zM-m usNum =aau TN)m uMVs0*m sNV 0M'C-as  M'uuMVa PTVam lM( Tu )Mae1 oNbm0m =Teushaem99bqbmmm bm mrmD1SopptNM1/i1. 1+yi10M'=sha ls: a s VT-aPum ac caPum MNyls- iTa1 yls-bqiTam si (s0em 'ea em lTefbk1mbk29bm q bqfbk1mbk2 bmbm&333&333&333&333&333??˙ ˙œ˙ ˙?˙œ˙?˙ ˙ ?˙œ˙ ˙ ˙?˙ ˙ ˙ ˙œ˙FM+yi1˙ ˙ ˙		 	 	 	 					 		 		 ™ 	 	 	 	 	 	   	 	 	 	 	 ˙ 		 ™˙ 			   		 				 			  				 ™				 								 																																									 												 						121°¢{°¢{D1rmD1rmD1SoppF1tNM1SMbqz-M ia=m99sbqls-V i'=zs-= cM-lTeTNe'm iTN1m 3lsu z-M ia=m PsNulTePs'ea4.- 'TebqTN)mD1rmD1rmD1SoppF1tNM1SMbmz-M ia=msbmls-V i'=z5l*meM PiMea1116MMVbqu-0* .'u111 7ebmTN)m ulaFlsuCeq-T)lu8 9: sPum i08m.- 'TebmTN)mbm?˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙;e'ezTPTM'ei0<?˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙?˙ ˙ ˙ ?˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙?œ?=+3lTia+(sTuTN)+cM-+;sNV+aNPM'-s)TN)<+s'VTaNPa+uM+-aezMNV*+)-sV'sii0+TNP-asea+aNa-)0+'eTN)*+ 'u+NMu+iT=TuaV+uM>P-aePaNVM*+sPPaia-sNM*+VaP-aseTN)+zs'ea+ au(a N+-azauTuTMNe*+zM-us=aNuM*+sPPaNue*+sV-'euTN)+s-uTP'isuTMN*+-l0ul=*+M-+zTuPl+M  aeu+e'Tu+za-cM-= - 1=+sV+iT 1 ?/ia:T ia+uT=a+uM+csPTiTusuas'VTaNPa+-aezMNea@+˙˙ ˙ ˙?=+sV+iT 1+˙˙ ˙ ˙?o˙+˙oA.?.˙+˙	+?=+sV+iT 1+˙˙ ˙ ˙?+˙˙ ˙œ+˙˙ 		 			 				 	 				 			 	 	 																																																																								  				  				 						  				  				 					 		 		 		 				   			 ™ 	   				 	 																																				 						 				 				 				122°¢{°¢°¢D1rmD1SopptNM1/i1. 1+yi1BiN1sbqls-V i'=z1es=a ezMu uMMMcuaNm cM-TNe'm iTN PsN) T:a yls- iTam s ls-Vbqs i'=z 'NVa-m ula ehTNB ulabmTNe'm iTN1m (TiiNMu a s  iam uMbqbqbq?˙ ˙ ˙?oA.      ?œ?oA.˙ ˙ ˙ ˙œo˙ ˙ ˙ ˙?yis- TNau+TN+.	œ.˙ ˙ ˙ ˙?˙?o˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙?.˙ ˙ ˙ ˙  			 							 	 												   																																																																						 				 						 				 				 				  	  	  	123°¢{°¢°¢D1rmD1rmD1SoppF1.s- 1tNM1/i1yi1BiN1ulabqTNe'm iTN1m (TiiNMu  a s  iam uM(M-hse (aii Tcula-a s-a i'=ze16ulaqTNe'm iTN1m (TiiNMu a s  iam uM(M-hse (aii Tcula-a s-a i'=ze1(M-hqse (aii Tcula-a s-a i'=ze1ulabqTNe'm iTN1m (TiiNMu  a s  iam uM(M-hse (aii Tcula-a s-a i'=ze1ulaqTNe'm iTN1m (TiiNMu a s  iam uM(M-hse (aii Tcula-a s-a i'=ze1qq bmbmq bmq bm?˙  ?˙  ?˙ ˙ ˙?˙  œ˙  ?œ?oA.o     ?˙ ˙.?o   ?.˙ ˙ ˙ ˙?o˙ ˙ ˙?.  							 										  																								  							 										  																																																																	 				 						 						 																						    										  		™		 ™ 																	   										˙	 ™ 	 	 ™ 		 ™				   		 ™ 	 	 ™ 	124°¢{°¢°¢rmD1SopptNM1/i1yi1BiN1BP1.amcM-am yls- iTam hNa(la lsV VTsm  am uaem la (se : a- 0m ulT-eu0m sNVmmzaa TN)m s iMu1 0abm m qqq mqbqbqbqbq?˙ ˙ ?˙œ˙?.-MsVi0o˙ ˙ ˙ ˙?.-MsVi0.˙ ˙ ˙ ˙?.-MsVi0o˙ ˙ ˙oA.?.-MsVi0.˙ ˙ ˙ ˙?o˙ ˙ ˙ ˙?.˙ ˙ ˙ ˙œo˙ ˙ ˙ ˙œ.˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ 											 				 		  				 	   				 												 												 												 									  				  				  				 									 			 			   				 												125°¢{°¢°¢{°¢rmD1SopptNM1yi1si eMm caiu uT-a Vm sii ula uT=a16bmD1rmD1rmD1SoppF1.s- 1tNM1BP13l 04q63l 04q9: a -0m ulTN)m )Mu  au ua-m (laNla eus-u aVm ush TN)m TN e'm iTN1m 3l 04q3l 04q3l 04qbqbq??œ?oA.  ?˙ ˙?˙ ˙??˙ ˙ ˙œ˙ ˙?˙ ˙œ˙œ˙ ˙ ˙oA.					  			 			 												 									 				  															 			 ™ 	 			 				 		 		 		 	    	 			 																					 				 										126°¢{°¢°¢F1.s- 1tNM1yi1BiN1BP1CNbqe'm iTNm laize yls- iTam 'eacMMVcM- aNa-m )01m61CNbqe' iTNm euMzeyls- iTam c-M= zaa TN)1mbqbq?˙ ˙ œ˙ ˙;TNcsNuTia<?               œ?oA.?oA.œ	 			 	 					 	 	  	 		 				 																																																																									 				 				 				 																																																													 		 		 		 127°¢{°¢°¢rmD1F1.s- 1tNM1yi1BiN1BP1CNbqe'm iTNm Ps'eaem lT)l  iMMVe') s-1m CNme'm iTNm Ps'eaem lT)l  iMMVe') s-1mCNme'm iTNm laize yls- iTam 'eacMMVcM- aNa-m )01mCNme' iTNm euMzeyls- iTam c-M=zaa TN)1mbmbmbm?˙ ˙+?˙ ˙+ œ˙ ˙;TNcsNuTia< +?     ˙ ˙+œ˙ ˙+?+?+œ+	 	 		 				 		 	 		 				 		 			 	 					 	 	 	 		 				 																																																																																																								 		 128°¢°¢°¢{°¢°¢rmD1rmD1SoppF1.s- 1/i1yi1BiN1BP16MMVbmu-0* .'u111 CNbqe'm iTNm laize yls- iTam 'eacMMVcM- aNa-m )01mFlsuCebq-T)lu8bqbqbqtNM1/i1yi1BiN1BP1q96bq bq qq??/ia:T ia+uT=a+uM+csPTiTusuas'VTaNPa+-aezMNea@˙˙ ˙ ˙ ˙?˙ooA.˙ ?˙.	+?˙˙ ˙ ˙ ˙œ˙˙ ˙ ˙ ˙?˙˙ ˙ ?˙˙ ˙ ˙?˙˙ ˙ ˙ ˙œ˙˙ ˙?˙ ˙ ˙ ˙œ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙?      ?˙ ˙?˙ ˙ ˙ ˙œ  ˙		 	 			 	 					 	 	   ™ 		 			 	 					 	 	 	 	 		 				 		 		 				 															 			 	 			 	 					 	 		 					 								 	 	 		 				 		 	 		 				 	 				 	 		 													129°¢{°¢°¢rmD1SopptNM1/i1yi1BiN1BP13lTPlbmMcyls- iTaCem  iMMVe') s-em s-a uMM iM( sNVfbbkmbb291bm mfbbkmbb2bq bmbqbm mbm m?˙ ˙ ˙?œœ˙?˙ ˙?FM+.1+yi1˙ ˙ ˙ ˙?˙ ˙ ˙œ˙ ˙	 		 	 		 																				   ˙																˙ ˙																			  					  						 					 						130°¢{°¢°¢D1rmD1rmD1SoppF1tNM1/i1BiN1F(ai: abmzMTNuna -Mm6Fl-aabmzMTNuaT)luNaaV uM au-asuaVm (Tulcseu sPuTN)m e') s-4mSTNabmzMTNuNTNabm?˙ ˙ ˙ ˙?˙ ˙ ˙ ˙?˙ ˙ ˙?˙ ˙ ˙ ˙œ ?œ ??˙ ˙ ˙?˙ 				™ 			 	 ™ 	  	 		 									 																												 										 																												 																							 	  							131°¢{°¢D1rmD1F1.s- 1tNM1BiN1BP1F(ai: abmzMTNuna -Mm1Fl-aabmzMTNuaT)luSTNabmzMTNuNTNa/M'-bmzMTNuMNa /M'-bmzMTNuMNabm?˙sV+iT (sTu+cM-+Mula-+:MTPae;iaee+sNV+iaee+(Tul+-azauTuTMN<˙+?˙sV+iT (sTu+cM-+Mula-+:MTPae;iaee+sNV+iaee+(Tul+-azauTuTMN<+?˙ ˙sV+iT (sTu+cM-+Mula-+:MTPae;iaee+sNV+iaee+(Tul+-azauTuTMN<+œ˙sV+iT (sTu+cM-+Mula-+:MTPae;iaee+sNV+iaee+(Tul+-azauTuTMN<?  ??˙ ˙ ˙œ				™ 			  			 			  											 										 										 										 																														 	  							132°¢{°¢°¢°¢{°¢++++tNM1. 1+yi1BP1bqbqbqbqbq++++tNM1. 1+yi1?+?+?+œ+?œ?œœ œ˙ ˙ ˙?+?/ia:T ia+uT=a+uM+csPTiTusua+s'VTaNPa+-aezMNea@˙?+˙?+˙œ+˙œ  +˙œ+˙œFM+yi1+˙						 																													 										 										 									 	  																																									133°¢°¢°¢{°¢rmD1Sopp/i1. 1+yi1rT)lum(sNNsm iTeuaNm s  Tu PiMea-m Na:u uT=a111 3laNbmlTe  iMMVe') s-Cem iM( a-m ulsN cM'-zMTNuna -M*m Tu1FlsuCebm-T)lu8qbmbmD1rmD1SoppF1.s- 1tNM1BiN1BP1Fl-aabqzMTNuaT)lu19NaaVe uM a u-asuaVm (TulcseusPuTN)m e') s-1m Fl-aabqzMTNuaT)lu Te iM( a-m ulsN cM'-zMTNuna -M1m CuCeuMM iM(1iM(1bqCuCebquMM iM(1bqbmbm333333?ooA. ?.	+?˙œ˙?yis- TNau+TN+.	?˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙?oA.˙?˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙œ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙	œ˙ ˙˙œ˙ ˙˙?˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙œ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙	 	 					 			 	 		 	 			 							 		 ™ 							 	  						 	  			 ˙		 						 		 						 						 	 				    			    						 	 						 	 134°¢{°¢°¢°¢{°¢°¢rmD1SopptNM1/i1yi1BiN1BP1DM'bm)Mu MNa;na-M<M'uMcul-aa E'aeuTMNem -T)lu111 7NbqfbddDM'bq)Mu k;F<M'uMcul-aa E'aeuTMNem -T)lu111 GTebmfbddbqbqbmmbqqrmD1SopptNM1/i1yi1BP1cM- u'm Nsuam i0*m C VMNCu ulTNhulTe=aau TN)Ce)MNNsm )MqE'TuaiThayls- iTam a: zaPue1mse ua-m s : a-um aV*m  'ubma : aNm eM* ulTN)e =s0 NMu )M E'TuaiThayls- iTam a: zaPue1mqqbq qbq qq?o˙ ˙ ˙ ˙?.˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ œ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙?o˙ ˙œ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙?.˙ ˙?˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙?˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙?˙ ˙ ˙ ˙œ˙ ˙ ˙˙?o ˙?.˙ ˙   ?oA.˙˙ ˙ ˙?oA.˙ ˙ ˙ ˙?˙?˙ œ˙ 	 		 		 		 			  	 	 			 		 			  										™ 	 	 	 	 			™ 	 	 	 	  		 		 			 		 	 		 	 			 		 		 	 	 	 		 	  	 				 			 	 			 	 	 	 	 						 			 	 		 	 	  	 	 		 	  	  	  		 135°¢°¢°¢°¢°¢°¢SopranoMrmneazmnor-sarNtmTNBim-NartnmiPtnPMbFtoNtnFtoNonlmNNoquC Vc =91610mphmaNNynohf ismrmhmrm0ogm0tdntbV tV laniV 0mikaly0quC Vc =mpmp mmp mMrmnea-sarNtm-NDFNnDFl Dzsai:0pan Bn emrV 0iaimV gmniDDDV91tn ism .marmneV rmporiDV Moi iogV Ntnm' 0ioly0 armeohn ane lo0i pro (mlitonV t0mp3333333333334& & & & &gB0tlPk.)tlsamNP*arySlmnmP+PVPzsm )mmitnd4{& & &4& & &4& & &40mgprmP0iallD∑=zst0Pgo,mgmniP0soBNePkmP0mmnPa0Plon0ianiN.P0stbitndPkmihmm Pba0iPaneP0NohP0mliton0P,taP		PaneP	DPzsmPba0ifPorPnorgaNPimgptP0soBNePrmNaimPioPismPlsaralimr:0PnaiBraNP0pmayntdPimgpofPnoitndPisaiP-sarNtmPanePMrmneaP0pmayP0NohmrP-CcVc .PisanPMo00PaneP1ne.P-c V/  .D==0iaNtlt1mePim2iPt0PioPkmPgBgkNmePBntnimNNtdtk .DPStndmr0ParmPmnloBradmePioPm2pmrtgmniPhtisPimlsnt3Bm0PborPalsmt,tndPis m mnePm4mlifkBiPismPlogpo0mrPrmloggmne0P0tndPismP,ohmN0PobPismim2ifPoggtiitndPismPlon0onani0PhsmnPtiaNtlt1meD0nP0NohmrP0mliton0fPismPm4mliPt0PborPitgm ioPkmP0NohmePeohnDP5,mr.istndP0soBNePkmP0NohmrfPtnlNBetndPismParitlBNaitonPanePlon0onani0D& &0mgprmP0iallD4?& &4{& 4&˙& &4∑œ œœœœ œ œ œ œœ œ œœ œ	 		 	œœœ œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ œœœœœœ œœœ œ œ œ œœœ œœœœ œœ œœ œ œœ‹ œ œ œ œ œ œœœœ œœ œœœ œœœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœœ œœœœœœ™Scene 2136°¢°¢°¢°¢°¢°¢Mo00-sarNtmTND-NDFNnDFl D6m0fmp.m0f hm:,maNNrmaeism rmporiDV 1ne 3Btimbrany N.fV ism 7r0i ane 0mlone 3BarimrV rmpori0Vquc V/  1BpDmpquc V/  1mpMo00*no DTND-NDFNnDFl Darmn:igBls kmi imrDV 0m(B0idoi o4 ismpsonm htis 5ismNV 	 	4&  4{& & & &4˙?˙?& & & &4˙?& & & &4∑4-ahyh arePpaB0m. 4&0mgprmP0iallD∑&0mgprmP0iallD4&0mgprmP0iallD4&0mgprmP0iallD4& &∑& &œœ œ‹ œœ œ œœœ  œœœ œœœ‹ œ œ œ œ œ œœœœ œ œœ œ œœœœœ œœ œ œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ œœœœœ œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœœœ œ 	  œœ œ œ œ œœ œœœœœœ œœœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœœ œœœ  œ œœœœœ œœœ œœœ  œ œœœœœ œœœœœœœ œœ 	œœœ œœœœœœ 	™137°¢°¢°¢°¢°¢Mo00-sarNtm*no DTND-NDtn 0mntorV gan admV gmniD Oh! Tat ' ! sV ' w ' ay. a w'V ' h! w ! V ayyV s  ! mV ' wtV w ' h! w aV t Vqu8 -DDD9agnptifV DDDlanmpkarm N.V lon lmnVqu8 m  mp mm mp mMo00-sarNtm*no DTND-NDFNnDFl D' h s! a'V  ! t 'V ! 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