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Topics in Siamou tense and aspect Toews, Carmela Irene Penner 2015

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 TOPICS IN SIAMOU TENSE AND ASPECT   by   CARMELA IRENE PENNER TOEWS  B.A., University of Manitoba, 2006    A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY   in   THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE AND POSTDOCTORAL STUDIES  (Linguistics)      THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  (Vancouver)    April, 2015    Ⓒ Carmela Irene Penner Toews, 2015      ii Abstract   This dissertation examines the syntax and semantics of tense and aspect in Siamou (Niger-Congo, Kru), a language of Burkina Faso. Its purpose is twofold. First, it provides a description of the tense/aspect system of Siamou; to date, this part of the grammar has not been systematically investigated. Second, it tests and sharpens formal syntactic and semantic tools relating to tense and aspect on Siamou data. It shows that applying standard analyses to a previously unanalyzed tense/aspect system is effective. For example, existing tests for perfective and imperfective aspect are able to diagnose two of Siamou's aspectual morphemes. However, it also points out some key areas that need work, including how Siamou past tense implicatures arise, and what kind of modality Siamou future expressions encode.  Chapter 1 provides background information on tense and aspect, describes the methodology used, and introduces topics covered in this dissertation. Chapter 2 provides an overview of properties of Siamou that are relevant to the description and analysis of tense and aspect in this language. Chapter 3, which is a morpho-syntactic description and analysis of the Siamou aspectual phrase, establishes that Siamou has a set of six aspectual suffixes that partition into three tonal classes: a low tone class, which includes -L, -è, and -ɲɛ̀n, a mid tone class, which includes -n and -a, and a high-low tone class, which includes -bɛ̂. This is followed by a theoretical chapter which develops a set of semantic diagnostics for perfective and imperfective aspect. Chapter 5 uses those diagnostics to show that one of the aspectual markers, the low tone suffix, encodes perfective aspect while another, the mid tone nasal consonant suffix, encodes imperfective aspect. Chapter 6 investigates the semantics of the right-edge particle ín, and argues that its primary meaning is past tense. I show that this particle also gives rise to a number of implicatures that are consistent with its primary meaning. Finally, chapter 7 examines Siamou's future expressions (ri. . .-a, bè. . .-a, and bè. . .-bɛ̂). I show that the future meaning makes use of three syntactic positions: finiteness, modality, and prospective aspect.           iii Preface  This dissertation is an original intellectual product of the author, Carmela Toews. The fieldwork was covered by UBC Ethics Certificate number H09-02557.                             iv Table of Contents Abstract .......................................................................................................................................... ii	  Preface ........................................................................................................................................... iii	  Table of Contents ......................................................................................................................... iv	  List of Tables .............................................................................................................................. xiv	  List of Figures ........................................................................................................................... xviii	  List of Abbreviations ................................................................................................................. xix	  Acknowledgements ..................................................................................................................... xx	  1.	   Introduction and Literature Review .................................................................................... 1	  1.1 Why Tense and Aspect Matter ........................................................................................................ 1	  1.1.1 Why Tense and Aspect Matter: The Theoretical Stakes ............................................................. 1	  1.1.2 How Tense and Aspect Are Deployed in Siamou: The Empirical Stakes .................................. 2	  1.2 Collection and Presentation of the Data ......................................................................................... 5	  1.2.1 Language Consultants ................................................................................................................. 6	  1.2.2 Elicitation Tasks .......................................................................................................................... 6	  1.2.3 Narratives .................................................................................................................................... 8	  1.2.4 Conversations .............................................................................................................................. 8	  1.2.5 Orthographic Conventions ........................................................................................................... 8	  1.2.6 Thesis Conventions for Siamou Data ........................................................................................ 10	  1.2.7 Siamou Linguist Connections .................................................................................................... 11	  1.3 Overview of the Thesis .................................................................................................................... 11	  1.3.1 The Grammatical Sketch ........................................................................................................... 11	  1.3.2 The Morpho-Phonology and Morpho-Syntax of Aspect in Siamou ......................................... 12	  1.3.3 The Semantics of the Perfective and the Imperfective .............................................................. 13	  1.3.4 The Semantics of the Perfective and the Imperfective in Siamou ............................................. 13	  1.3.5 The Semantics of Past Tense ín and its Implicatures ................................................................ 14	  1.3.6 The Semantics of Futurity in Siamou ........................................................................................ 14	  1.3.7 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................. 15	  2.	   Grammatical Sketch of Siamou .......................................................................................... 17	  2.1 Phoneme Inventory ......................................................................................................................... 17	   v 2.1.1 There Are 21 Consonants .......................................................................................................... 17	  2.1.2 There Are 7 Oral Vowels and 4 Nasal Vowels ......................................................................... 18	  2.1.3 Syllable Structure C(C)V(C)(C) ................................................................................................ 19	  2.2 Tone Melody Inventory .................................................................................................................. 23	  2.2.1 Siamou Tone Melodies .............................................................................................................. 23	  2.2.1.1 Level Tone Melodies ......................................................................................................................... 27	  2.2.1.1.1 H Tone Melody Group ............................................................................................................... 27	  2.2.1.1.2 L Tone Melody Group ............................................................................................................... 27	  2.2.1.1.3 M Tone Melody Group .............................................................................................................. 27	  2.2.1.2 Extended Tone Melodies ................................................................................................................... 28	  2.2.1.2.1 M(L) Tone Melody Group ......................................................................................................... 28	  2.2.1.2.2 M(!H) Tone Melody Group ....................................................................................................... 28	  2.2.1.3 Contour Tone Melodies ..................................................................................................................... 29	  2.2.1.3.1 HL Tone Melody Group ............................................................................................................ 29	  2.2.1.3.2 H!H Tone Melody Group ........................................................................................................... 29	  2.2.1.3.3. M!HL Tone Melody Group ....................................................................................................... 30	  2.2.2 The Three "Mid" Tones ............................................................................................................. 30	  2.2.3 Three Inflectional Tone Classes: Low, Mid, High-Low ........................................................... 36	  2.3 Basic Syntax ..................................................................................................................................... 36	  2.3.1 Basic Word Order Is S (Particle) OV ........................................................................................ 37	  2.3.2 The Basic Syntax of Lexical Categories ................................................................................... 37	  2.3.2.1 VP Has Complement-Head Ordering ................................................................................................ 37	  2.3.2.2 NP Has Complement-Head Ordering ................................................................................................ 37	  2.3.2.3 PP Has Complement-Head Ordering ................................................................................................. 38	  2.3.3 The Extended Nominal Projection ............................................................................................ 38	  2.3.3.1 Pronouns ............................................................................................................................................ 39	  2.3.3.2 Bare Nouns: N .................................................................................................................................... 42	  2.3.3.3 Adnominals: N AP ............................................................................................................................. 42	  2.3.3.4 Plurality: Enclitic è ............................................................................................................................ 42	  2.3.3.5 Definiteness: à . . .=î .......................................................................................................................... 44	  2.3.3.6 Possessor: Poss (ǹ) NP ....................................................................................................................... 46	  2.3.3.7 Nominalized Verbs ............................................................................................................................ 48	  2.3.4 The Extended Verbal Projection ............................................................................................... 49	  2.3.4.1 The Clause-Initial Quotative: dé ........................................................................................................ 52	  2.3.4.2 Pre-Predicate Particles ....................................................................................................................... 52	  2.3.4.2.1 nì 'if, when' ................................................................................................................................. 53	   vi 2.3.4.2.2 ki 'non-finiteness' ........................................................................................................................ 53	  2.3.4.2.3 ri 'finiteness' ............................................................................................................................... 58	  2.3.4.2.4 NPI wo ........................................................................................................................................ 59	  2.3.4.2.5 Modal bè .................................................................................................................................... 62	  2.3.4.2.6 Locative 'be here' fɔn .................................................................................................................. 64	  2.3.4.2.7 Locative 'be there' mí ................................................................................................................. 65	  2.3.4.2.8 Co-Occurrence of Particles ........................................................................................................ 66	  2.3.4.3 Right-Edge Particles .......................................................................................................................... 68	  2.3.4.3.1 Past Tense ín .............................................................................................................................. 68	  2.3.4.3.2 Negative bo ................................................................................................................................ 69	  2.3.4.3.3 Polar Question Particle á ............................................................................................................ 70	  2.3.4.3.4 Emphatic Particle ná .................................................................................................................. 71	  2.3.4.4 Verb Stems ......................................................................................................................................... 73	  2.4 Background Information on the Siamou Language and Culture .............................................. 75	  2.4.1 The Demographic Context of the Siamou Language ................................................................ 75	  2.4.2 Scholarly Work on Siamou ....................................................................................................... 77	  2.4.2.1 Siamou Linguistics............................................................................................................................. 77	  2.4.2.1.1 Prost (1964) on Siamou .............................................................................................................. 78	  2.4.2.1.2 Person (1966) on Siamou ........................................................................................................... 78	  2.4.2.1.3 Traoré (1984, 1985) on Siamou ................................................................................................. 79	  2.4.2.1.4 Marchese (1983, 1986) on Kru .................................................................................................. 83	  2.4.2.2 Siamou Ethnography .......................................................................................................................... 84	  2.4.2.2.1 Traoré (2006) on Siamou Mathematics ..................................................................................... 84	  2.4.2.2.2 Belliard (2014) on Siamou Musical Instruments ....................................................................... 84	  2.4.3 Siamou Culture and Personal Experience with the Siamou Speech Community ..................... 84	  2.4.3.1 Agricultural Production ..................................................................................................................... 85	  2.4.3.2 Social Life of Women ........................................................................................................................ 86	  2.4.3.3 Social Activities ................................................................................................................................. 86	  2.4.3.4 Economic Activities ........................................................................................................................... 86	  2.4.3.5 Traditional Rites of Passage ............................................................................................................... 87	  2.4.3.6 Islamic Influence on Marriage Ceremonies ....................................................................................... 87	  2.4.3.7 Linguistic Identity .............................................................................................................................. 88	  2.5 How Siamou Fits into the Kru Language Family ........................................................................ 89	  2.5.1. Characteristics of Kru Languages ............................................................................................ 89	  2.5.1.1 Kru Languages Are SVO and S Auxiliary OV .................................................................................. 89	  2.5.1.2 Kru Languages Are Tonal .................................................................................................................. 91	  2.5.1.3 Kru Languages Have a Perfective/Imperfective Contrast ................................................................. 93	   vii 2.5.2 Siamou Is Geographically Non-Contiguous to Other Kru Languages ...................................... 93	  2.5.3 Siamou Is an Outlier Relative to Other Kru Languages ............................................................ 96	  2.5.4 List of Kru Languages ............................................................................................................... 96	  2.6 Conclusion ....................................................................................................................................... 98	  3.	   The Morpho-Phonology and Morpho-Syntax of Aspect in Siamou ................................ 99	  3.1 The Form of Siamou Aspectual Morphemes .............................................................................. 100	  3.1.1 Siamou Low Tone Completive -è ............................................................................................ 100	  3.1.2 Siamou Low Tone Stative -ɲɛ̀n ............................................................................................... 103	  3.1.3 Siamou Low Tone Perfective .................................................................................................. 104	  3.1.3.1 The Perfective May be Marked or Unmarked ................................................................................. 105	  3.1.3.2 The Perfective Is a Suffix ................................................................................................................ 106	  3.1.3.3 The Perfective Is a L Tone Suffix .................................................................................................... 107	  3.1.3.4 Hypothesis 1: The Perfective Is a (Linked) Suffixal L Tone ........................................................... 109	  3.1.3.5 Hypothesis 2: The Perfective Is an (Unlinked) Floating L Tone ..................................................... 110	  3.1.4 Siamou Mid Tone Imperfective -n .......................................................................................... 111	  3.1.5 Siamou Mid Tone Prospective Aspect 1 -a ............................................................................. 113	  3.1.6 Siamou High-Low Tone Prospective Aspect 2 -bɛ̂ ................................................................. 114	  3.1.7 Three Tonal Inflectional Classes: Low Tone, Mid Tone and High-Low Tone ....................... 116	  3.2 The Headedness Debate: VO versus OV .................................................................................... 120	  3.2.1 Siamou and Kayne's Conjecture .............................................................................................. 120	  3.2.1.1 Kayne (1994) Predicts Consistent VO ............................................................................................. 120	  3.2.1.2 Siamou Is Consistently Head-Final ................................................................................................. 122	  3.2.1.3 Is There Evidence for Leftward Movement in Siamou? .................................................................. 124	  3.2.1.3.1 Wh-movement in Siamou? No ................................................................................................. 124	  3.2.1.3.2 Movement in Siamou Relative Clauses? No ............................................................................ 125	  3.2.1.3.3 Movement in Siamou Passives? Yes ....................................................................................... 126	  3.2.1.4 The Structure of Aspect in Siamou Following Anti-Symmetry (Kayne 1994) ............................... 127	  3.2.2 Siamou and Marchese's Generalization about Kru .................................................................. 128	  3.2.2.1 Kru Has Surface VO and OV Word Order ...................................................................................... 128	  3.2.2.2 Siamou Only Has Surface OV ......................................................................................................... 131	  3.2.2.3 The Structure of Aspect in Siamou Following Kru (Koopman 1984, Marchese 1986) .................. 134	  3.3 Aspect and the Verbal Spine ........................................................................................................ 134	  3.3.1 Siamou and Prolific Domains .................................................................................................. 135	  3.3.2 Siamou Has Two Positions for Aspect .................................................................................... 137	  3.3.2.1 The Argument from Segmental Defectiveness ................................................................................ 137	   viii 3.3.2.2. The Argument from Morphological Irregularity ............................................................................ 138	  3.3.2.3 The Apparent Absence of Aspect Stacking ..................................................................................... 139	  3.3.2.4 A (Possible) Argument from Auxiliation ........................................................................................ 145	  3.4 Imperfective and Perfective Aspect within the Larger Kru Context ....................................... 146	  3.4.1 The Form of Aspectual Inflection: Siamou Converges with Kru ............................................ 147	  3.4.1.1 Perfective Aspect May Be Marked or Unmarked ............................................................................ 147	  3.4.1.2 Imperfective Is Always Marked ....................................................................................................... 149	  3.4.2 The Tonal Melody of Aspectual Inflection: Siamou Converges with Kru ............................. 150	  3.4.2.1 Marked Perfective Is Always Low Tone ......................................................................................... 150	  3.4.2.2 Marked Imperfective Is Usually Mid Tone ..................................................................................... 151	  3.4.3 The Segmental Form of Aspectual Inflection: Siamou Converges with Kru .......................... 152	  3.4.3.1 Perfective Usually Lacks a Segmental Form ................................................................................... 152	  3.4.3.2 Imperfective Usually Has a Segmental Form .................................................................................. 153	  3.4.4 Aspectual Inflection and Negation: Siamou Diverges from Kru ............................................ 155	  3.4.4.1 Perfective Uses Negative Auxiliary with OV Order ........................................................................ 155	  3.4.4.2 Imperfective Uses Negative Particle with VO Order ...................................................................... 156	  3.4.5 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................... 158	  3.5 Conclusion ..................................................................................................................................... 158	  3.6 Appendix: Stem Allomorphy ....................................................................................................... 159	  3.6.1 Set 1: /ɛ/ Verbs ........................................................................................................................ 162	  3.6.2 Set 2: ATR Verbs .................................................................................................................... 163	  4.	   The Semantics of Perfective and Imperfective Aspect ................................................... 169	  4.1 Distinguishing Tense from Aspect ............................................................................................... 169	  4.1.1 Ordering Speech Time, Reference Time, and Event Time (Reichenbach 1947) .................... 169	  4.1.2 Structuring the Ordering Relation (Klein 1994) ...................................................................... 172	  4.1.2.1 Tense as an Ordering Relation between Speech Time and Reference Time ................................... 172	  4.1.2.2 Aspect as an Ordering Relation between Reference Time and Event Time .................................... 173	  4.2 Distinguishing Perfective and Imperfective Aspect: The Theoretical Framework ................ 175	  4.2.1 Theory 1: Event Time Fully Contained in Reference Time (Kratzer 1998) ........................... 178	  4.2.2 Theory 2: Reference Time Partially Contained in Event Time (Klein 1994) ......................... 180	  4.2.3 Comparing Theory 1 and Theory 2 ......................................................................................... 183	  4.2.4 What Theory 2 Predicts about Perfectives .............................................................................. 184	  4.2.5 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................... 185	  4.3 Lexical Aspect ................................................................................................................................ 186	  4.3.1 Four Event Types: States, Activities, Achievements, Accomplishments (Vendler 1957) ...... 186	   ix 4.3.2 Properties of Event Types: Stativity, Telicity and Durativity ................................................. 186	  4.3.3 Verb Class Templates (Rothstein 2004) .................................................................................. 188	  4.3.4 Cross-Linguistic Variation in Event Types ............................................................................. 189	  4.3.5 Teasing apart the Contribution of Lexical Aspect and Grammatical Aspect .......................... 190	  4.4 Distinguishing Perfective and Imperfective Aspect: The Diagnostics ..................................... 191	  4.4.1 Tests for Perfective Aspect ...................................................................................................... 191	  4.4.1.1 Perfective Aspect Has a Default Past Interpretation ........................................................................ 193	  4.4.1.2 Perfective Aspect Need Not Be Construed as Past .......................................................................... 193	  4.4.1.3 Perfective Aspect Is Not Required in Contexts That Force a Past Construal .................................. 194	  4.4.1.4 Perfective Aspect Combines with Past Tense .................................................................................. 194	  4.4.1.5 Perfective Aspect Does Not Combine with Imperfective ................................................................ 194	  4.4.1.6 Perfective Has Event Time Contained in Temporal Boundary of Adverbial Modifier ................... 195	  4.4.1.7 Perfective May Have Termination or Culmination Entailments ..................................................... 196	  4.4.1.8 Perfective Has an Inceptive Reading with Punctual Adverbs ......................................................... 200	  4.4.1.9 Conclusion ....................................................................................................................................... 206	  4.4.2 Tests for Imperfective Aspect ................................................................................................. 207	  4.4.2.1 Imperfective Aspect Has a Default Present Interpretation .............................................................. 208	  4.4.2.2 Imperfective Aspect Need Not Be Construed as Present ................................................................. 209	  4.4.2.3 Imperfective Aspect Is Not Required in Contexts That Force a Present Construal ......................... 209	  4.4.3.4 Imperfective Aspect Combines with Past Tense ............................................................................. 210	  4.4.2.5 Imperfective Aspect Does Not Combine with Perfective ................................................................ 210	  4.4.2.6 Imperfective Has Event Time That Exceeds Temporal Boundary of Adverbial ............................. 210	  4.4.2.7 Imperfective Lacks Culmination and Termination Entailments ...................................................... 211	  4.4.2.8 Imperfective Has an In-Progress Reading ....................................................................................... 211	  4.4.2.9 Imperfective Has Habitual Reading ................................................................................................. 212	  4.4.2.10 Imperfective Has Stative Reading ................................................................................................. 213	  4.5 Conclusion ..................................................................................................................................... 213	  5.	   The Semantics of Perfective and Imperfective Aspect in Siamou ................................. 215	  5.1 Perfective Aspect in Siamou ......................................................................................................... 215	  5.1.1 Low Tone Suffix Is Perfective Aspect in Siamou ................................................................... 216	  5.1.2. Identifying Perfective Aspect in Siamou ................................................................................ 216	  5.1.2.1 Low Tone Suffixed Verbs Have a Default Past Interpretation ........................................................ 217	  5.1.2.2 Low Tone Suffixed Verbs Need Not Be Construed as Past ............................................................ 219	  5.1.2.3 Low Tone Suffixed Verbs Are Not Required for Contexts That Force a Past Construal ................ 220	  5.1.2.4 Low Tone Suffixed Verbs Combine with Past Tense ...................................................................... 221	  5.1.2.5 Low Tone Suffixed Verbs Do Not Combine with Imperfective ...................................................... 222	   x 5.1.2.6 Low Tone Suffixed Verbs Have Event Time Contained within Temporal Boundary of Adverbial Modifier ....................................................................................................................................................... 223	  5.1.2.7 Low Tone Suffixed Verbs Have a Culmination Entailment with Accomplishments, No Termination Entailment with Activities ........................................................................................................................... 225	  5.1.2.8 Low Tone Suffixed Verbs Have an Inceptive Reading with Punctual Adverbs .............................. 228	  5.1.2.9 A Test That Is Specific to Siamou: Low Tone Suffixed Inchoative Verbs Have a Result State Reading ........................................................................................................................................................ 230	  5.1.3 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................... 233	  5.2 Imperfective Aspect in Siamou .................................................................................................... 233	  5.2.1 Mid Tone -n Is Imperfective Aspect in Siamou ...................................................................... 234	  5.2.2 Identifying Imperfective Aspect in Siamou ............................................................................ 234	  5.2.2.1 Imperfective Aspect Has a Default Present Interpretation .............................................................. 235	  5.2.2.2 Imperfective Aspect Need Not Be Construed as Present ................................................................. 236	  5.2.2.3 Imperfective Aspect Is Not Required for Contexts That Force a Present Construal ....................... 238	  5.2.2.4 Imperfective Aspect Combines with Past Tense ............................................................................. 238	  5.2.2.5 Imperfective Aspect Does Not Combine with Perfective ................................................................ 239	  5.2.2.6 Imperfective Event Time Exceeds Temporal Boundary of Adverbial Modifier ............................. 240	  5.2.2.7 Imperfective Lacks a Culmination Entailment ................................................................................ 242	  5.2.2.8 Imperfective Has an In-Progress Reading ....................................................................................... 244	  5.2.2.9 Imperfective Has a Habitual Reading .............................................................................................. 245	  5.2.2.10 A Test That Does Not Apply in Siamou: Imperfective Has Stative Reading ................................ 246	  5.2.3 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................... 247	  5.3. Identifying Perfective and Imperfective Aspect in Kru ........................................................... 248	  5.3.1 The Semantics of Perfective Aspect in Kru ............................................................................ 248	  5.3.2 The Semantics of Imperfective Aspect in Kru ........................................................................ 250	  5.4 A Curious Gap: Siamou Lacks Stative Verbs ............................................................................ 252	  5.4.1 Being a Stative Predicate: Lexical Statives Are Always Non-Verbal ..................................... 252	  5.4.2 Creating a Stative Predicate 1: The Stativizing Suffix -ɲɛ̀n Creates Stative Verbs ................ 255	  5.4.3 Creating a Stative Predicate 2: The Contribution of the Imperfective .................................... 256	  5.4.4 Creating a Stative Predicate 3: Result State Implicatures ....................................................... 256	  5.5 Detecting the "Factative" in Siamou ........................................................................................... 261	  5.5.1 Diagnosing the Factative ......................................................................................................... 262	  5.5.1.1 The Factative Imposes a State/Event Partition ................................................................................ 262	  5.5.1.2 The Factative as Default Tense Morphology: Igbo ......................................................................... 263	  5.5.1.3 The Factative as a Bare Predicate: Haitian ...................................................................................... 264	  5.5.1.4 The Factative as Perfective Aspect Morphology: Kru ..................................................................... 264	   xi 5.5.2 The Evidence from Siamou ..................................................................................................... 265	  5.5.2.1 No State/Event Partition Means the Factative Is Undetectable with Siamou Verbs ....................... 265	  5.5.2.2 Assessing the Factative with Siamou Non-Verbal States ................................................................ 266	  5.5.2.4 Implications for Kru ......................................................................................................................... 266	  5.6 Conclusion ..................................................................................................................................... 267	  6.	   The Semantics of Past Tense ín and its Implicatures ..................................................... 268	  6.1 The Six Meanings of Siamou ín ................................................................................................... 268	  6.1.1 Siamou ín Is Past Tense ........................................................................................................... 268	  6.1.2 Siamou Past Tense ín Gives Rise to Implicatures ................................................................... 269	  6.1.2.1 Siamou ín Implicates Remote Past .................................................................................................. 269	  6.1.2.2 Siamou ín Implicates Counterfactual ............................................................................................... 269	  6.1.2.3 Siamou ín Implicates Cessation ....................................................................................................... 270	  6.1.2.4 Siamou ín Implicates Politeness ...................................................................................................... 270	  6.1.2.5 Siamou ín Implicates Doubt ............................................................................................................. 270	  6.2. Four Hypotheses for Modeling Related Meanings ................................................................... 271	  6.2.1 Accidental Homophony Hypothesis ........................................................................................ 273	  6.2.2 Polysemy Hypothesis .............................................................................................................. 274	  6.2.3 Conversational Implicature Hypothesis .................................................................................. 274	  6.2.4 Abstract Meaning Hypothesis ................................................................................................. 277	  6.3. ín Shifts Reference Time to Past ................................................................................................. 279	  6.3.1 ín Combines with Aspectual Forms That Have a Default Present Interpretation ................... 280	  6.3.1.1 ín + Imperfective -n = "Past Imperfective" ...................................................................................... 281	  6.3.1.2 ín + Stative -ɲɛ̀n = "Past Stative" ..................................................................................................... 283	  6.3.2 ín Combines with Aspectual Forms That Have a Future Interpretation .................................. 288	  6.3.2.1 ín + Prospective1 -a = "Past Prospective" ....................................................................................... 288	  6.3.2.2 ín + Prospective2 -bɛ̂ = "Past Prospective" ...................................................................................... 291	  6.3.3 ín Combines with Aspectual Forms That Have a Default Past Interpretation ........................ 292	  6.3.3.1 ín + Perfective -L = "Past Perfective" .............................................................................................. 293	  6.3.3.2 ín + Completive -è = "Past Completive" .......................................................................................... 304	  6.4. Deriving the Implicatures of Siamou Past Tense ín .................................................................. 305	  6.4.1 Deriving the Remote Past Implicature .................................................................................... 306	  6.4.2 Deriving the Counterfactual Implicature ................................................................................. 307	  6.4.3 Deriving the Cessation Implicature ......................................................................................... 310	  6.4.4 The Politeness Implicature ...................................................................................................... 314	  6.4.5 The Doubt Implicature ............................................................................................................ 317	   xii 6.5 Conclusion ..................................................................................................................................... 324	  7.	   Future Expressions ............................................................................................................ 325	  7.1. Siamou Future Expressions Involve Three Syntactic Positions .............................................. 326	  7.1.1 The Verbal Suffix Position Is Aspect ...................................................................................... 328	  7.1.2 Pre-Predicate bè Is Modal ....................................................................................................... 329	  7.1.3 Pre-Predicate ri Is Finiteness ................................................................................................... 331	  7.2. The Connection between Futurity, Modality, and Aspect ....................................................... 333	  7.2.1 How to Talk about Future Events: Future Tense or Prospective Aspect ................................ 333	  7.2.2 The Ingredients of Modality .................................................................................................... 335	  7.2.2.1 The Modal Base ............................................................................................................................... 335	  7.2.2.2 The Ordering Source ........................................................................................................................ 336	  7.2.2.3 The Modal Force .............................................................................................................................. 337	  7.2.3 Types of Modality ................................................................................................................... 337	  7.2.3.1 Kratzer's (1991) Classification of Modality ..................................................................................... 337	  7.2.3.2 Portner's (2009) Classification of Modality ..................................................................................... 339	  7.2.4 Variation in the Specification of Modality .............................................................................. 340	  7.2.4.1 Underspecifiying the Modal Base and the Ordering Source: English ............................................. 340	  7.2.4.2 Underspecifiying the Modal Force: St'át'imcets .............................................................................. 340	  7.2.5 The Formal Status of "Future Modality" ................................................................................. 340	  7.2.5.1 When "Future Modality" Is a Kind of Modality: Enç 1996 ............................................................. 341	  7.2.5.2 When "Future Modality" Fuses Modality and Aspect: Tonhauser 2011 ......................................... 343	  7.2.5.3 When "Future Modality" Combines Modality and Aspect: Matthewson 2012 ............................... 345	  7.2.5.4 When "Future Modality" Contrasts Aspectual and Non-Aspectual Modals: Copley 2009 ............. 345	  7.3 Diagnosing Futurity in Siamou .................................................................................................... 348	  7.3.1 The Three Future Expressions Have Obligatory Future Interpretation ................................... 349	  7.3.2 The Three Future Expressions Do Not Combine with Other Aspects .................................... 351	  7.3.3 The Three Future Expressions Are Compatible with Past Tense ............................................ 352	  7.3.4 The Three Future Expressions Can Refer to Events That Are Not Expected to Happen ........ 353	  7.3.5 The Three Future Expressions Have Different Interpretations in an Offering Context .......... 355	  7.4 Decomposing Futurity in Siamou ................................................................................................ 356	  7.4.1 The Two Suffixes Are Two Different Prospective Aspects .................................................... 357	  7.4.2 The Two Particles ri and bè Are Finiteness and Intentional Modality .................................... 363	  7.5 Conclusion and Outstanding Questions ...................................................................................... 366	  7.6 Appendix: More Data on Futures ............................................................................................... 368	  7.6.1 The Priority Future: ri … -a .................................................................................................... 368	   xiii 7.6.2 The Simple Future: bè … -a .................................................................................................... 371	  7.6.3 The Certain Future: bè … -bɛ̂ .................................................................................................. 374	  8.	   Conclusion .......................................................................................................................... 376	  8.1 What Siamou Teaches Us about Tense ....................................................................................... 377	  8.1.1 Some Tense Construals Arise by Default ................................................................................ 377	  8.1.1.1 Past Tense Is the Default for Perfective ........................................................................................... 377	  8.1.1.2 Present Tense Is the Default for Imperfective ................................................................................. 378	  8.1.2 Future Reduces to Prospective Aspect and Modality .............................................................. 379	  8.1.3 Unresolved Issues in the Analysis of Siamou Tense ............................................................... 380	  8.1.3.1 Differentiating the Future Expressions ............................................................................................ 380	  8.1.3.2 Deriving the Implicatures of the Past Tense .................................................................................... 381	  8.1.3.3 Past: Is it Tense or Adverb? ............................................................................................................. 382	  8.2 What Siamou Teaches Us about Aspect ..................................................................................... 383	  8.2.1 Grammatical Aspect ................................................................................................................ 383	  8.2.1.1 Perfective Aspect Has Reference Time Partially Contained within Event Time ............................ 383	  8.2.1.2 Imperfective Aspect Has Reference Time Fully Contained within Event Time ............................. 385	  8.2.2 Lexical Aspect ......................................................................................................................... 386	  8.2.2.1 Siamou Lacks Stative Main Verbs ................................................................................................... 386	  8.2.2.2 Siamou Has Alternative Strategies for Encoding Stativity .............................................................. 387	  8.2.2.3 Absence of Stative Main Verbs Affects Expression of "Factative" ................................................ 388	  8.2.3 Unresolved Issues in the Analysis of Siamou Aspect ............................................................. 388	  8.2.3.1 Aspect in Subordinate Clauses ......................................................................................................... 388	  8.2.3.2 The Syntactic Structure of Aspect ................................................................................................... 392	  8.2.3.3 The Stativity Puzzle ......................................................................................................................... 393	  8.3 What Siamou Teaches Us About Context ................................................................................... 397	  8.4 What Siamou Teaches Us About Word Order .......................................................................... 398	  8.5 Conclusion ..................................................................................................................................... 399	  References .................................................................................................................................. 400	          xiv  List of Tables Table 1.1 Siamou Orthographic Conventions 1: j, sh and y ........................................................... 9	  Table 1.2 Siamou Orthographic Conventions 2: ŋ and n ................................................................ 9	  Table 1.3 Siamou Orthographic Conventions 3: Tone ................................................................. 10	  Table 2.1 Siamou Consonant Inventory ........................................................................................ 17	  Table 2.2 Sound Change from /s/ to /h/ ........................................................................................ 18	  Table 2.3 Siamou Vowel Inventory .............................................................................................. 19	  Table 2.4 Siamou Words with /əә/ ................................................................................................. 19	  Table 2.5 Siamou Vowel-Initial Morphemes ................................................................................ 21	  Table 2.6 Siamou Tone Melodies ................................................................................................. 24	  Table 2.7 Tone Contrasts for [kpar] .............................................................................................. 25	  Table 2.8 Tone Contrasts for [bar] ................................................................................................ 25	  Table 2.9 Tone Melody Frequency ............................................................................................... 26	  Table 2.10 H Tone Melody Group ................................................................................................ 27	  Table 2.11 L Tone Melody Group ................................................................................................ 27	  Table 2.12 M Tone Melody Group ............................................................................................... 28	  Table 2.13 M(L) Tone Melody Group .......................................................................................... 28	  Table 2.14 M(!H) Tone Melody Group ........................................................................................ 29	  Table 2.15 HL Tone Melody Group ............................................................................................. 29	  Table 2.16 H!H Tone Melody Group ........................................................................................... 29	  Table 2.17 M!HL Tone Melody Group ........................................................................................ 30	  Table 2.18 Differentiating Mid Tone Verbs ................................................................................. 32	  Table 2.19 Differentiating Mid Tone Nouns ................................................................................ 32	  Table 2.20 Aspectual Tone Melodies ........................................................................................... 36	  Table 2.21 Emphatic Pronouns ..................................................................................................... 39	  Table 2.22 Regular Pronouns ........................................................................................................ 40	  Table 2.23 Perfective Nominals .................................................................................................... 48	  Table 2.24 Imperfective Nominals ............................................................................................... 48	  Table 2.25 Pre-Predicate Particles ................................................................................................ 53	  Table 2.26 Verb Stem Variations .................................................................................................. 73	   xv Table 2.27 Siamou Plurals according to Person (1966) ................................................................ 79	  Table 2.28 Kru (Plawi) Plurals according to Person (1966) ......................................................... 79	  Table 2.29 Tin Perfective versus Bandougou Perfective .............................................................. 82	  Table 2.30 Three Level Tones in Krahn ....................................................................................... 92	  Table 2.31 Four Level Tones in Niaboua ..................................................................................... 92	  Table 2.32 Two Types of Mid Tones in Godié ............................................................................. 92	  Table 2.33 Contour Tones in Krahn ............................................................................................. 92	  Table 3.1 Siamou Aspectual Suffixes ......................................................................................... 100	  Table 3.2 Completive Aspect -è .................................................................................................. 101	  Table 3.3 Completive Aspect -è Tone ........................................................................................ 102	  Table 3.4 Stative Aspect -ɲɛ̀n ..................................................................................................... 104	  Table 3.5 Stative Aspect -ɲɛ̀n Tone ............................................................................................ 104	  Table 3.6 Perfective Aspect -L .................................................................................................... 108	  Table 3.7 Perfective Aspect -L Tone .......................................................................................... 108	  Table 3.8 Imperfective Aspect -n ................................................................................................ 112	  Table 3.9 Imperfective Aspect -n Tone ...................................................................................... 113	  Table 3.10 Prospective 1 -a ........................................................................................................ 114	  Table 3.11 Prospective 2 -a Tone ............................................................................................... 114	  Table 3.12 Prospective Aspect 2 -bɛ̂ ........................................................................................... 115	  Table 3.13 Prospective Aspect 2 -bɛ̂ Tone ................................................................................. 116	  Table 3.14 L Tone Inflectional Class .......................................................................................... 117	  Table 3.15 L Tone Inflectional Class versus HL Tone Inflectional Class .................................. 117	  Table 3.16 M Tone Inflectional Class ......................................................................................... 118	  Table 3.17 M Tone Inflectional Class versus Prospective Aspect 2 -bɛ̂ ..................................... 119	  Table 3.18 Three Levels of Aspect ............................................................................................. 136	  Table 3.19 Siamou Aspectual Suffixes ....................................................................................... 137	  Table 3.20 Irregular Verbs Pattern 1: /ɛ/-verbs ........................................................................... 138	  Table 3.21 Irregular Verbs Pattern 2: +ATR-verbs .................................................................... 139	  Table 3.22 Tone Comparison of Imperfective and Unknown Verb Stem (UVS) ...................... 142	  Table 3.23 Tests to See if Unknown Verb Stem Is Imperfective ............................................... 143	  Table 3.24 Kru Imperfectives ..................................................................................................... 149	   xvi Table 3.25 Kru Imperfectives That Resemble the Verb Stem .................................................... 149	  Table 3.26 Kru Low Tone Perfectives ........................................................................................ 150	  Table 3.27 Kru Imperfectives with a Different Segmental Form Than the Verb Stem .............. 154	  Table 3.28 Kru Imperfectives with /l/ ......................................................................................... 155	  Table 3.29 Negation Strategies ................................................................................................... 157	  Table 3.30 Kru Perfectives and Imperfectives ............................................................................ 158	  Table 3.31 Homophone Pairs ...................................................................................................... 160	  Table 3.32 Irregular Siamou Verbs ............................................................................................. 161	  Table 3.33 Irregular Siamou Verbs with /ɛ/ ................................................................................ 162	  Table 3.34 Irregular ATR Siamou Verbs .................................................................................... 163	  Table 3.35 Vowel Changes of Irregular ATR Siamou Verbs ..................................................... 164	  Table 3.36 Irregular Siamou Verbs with /u/ ............................................................................... 165	  Table 3.37 Irregular Siamou Verbs with /i/ ................................................................................ 166	  Table 3.38 Irregular Siamou Verbs with /o/ ............................................................................... 167	  Table 3.39 Irregular Siamou Verbs with /e/ ................................................................................ 168	  Table 4.1 Tense: Naïve Version .................................................................................................. 170	  Table 4.2 Tense according to Reichenbach (1947) ..................................................................... 171	  Table 4.3 Tense as the Relation between Speech Time and Reference Time ............................ 172	  Table 4.4 Comparison of Tense Theories ................................................................................... 172	  Table 4.5 Aspect as the Relation between Event Time and Reference Time ............................. 173	  Table 4.6 Comparison of Reichenbach (1947) and Klein (1994) ............................................... 174	  Table 4.7 Event Types (Smith 1997) .......................................................................................... 187	  Table 4.8 Verb Class Templates (Rothstein 2004) ..................................................................... 188	  Table 4.9 Səәnčáθəәn and Japanese Situation Types ..................................................................... 189	  Table 4.10 Perfective Diagnostics .............................................................................................. 192	  Table 4.11 Termination and Culmination Entailments Cross-Linguistically ............................. 199	  Table 4.12 Punctual Adverbs according to Smith (1997) ........................................................... 201	  Table 4.13 Punctual Adverbs according to Bar-el (2005) .......................................................... 202	  Table 4.14 Perfective Diagnostics .............................................................................................. 207	  Table 4.15 Imperfective Diagnostics .......................................................................................... 208	  Table 5.1 Perfective Diagnostics ................................................................................................ 217	   xvii Table 5.2 Termination and Culmination Entailments of Activities and Accomplishments ....... 226	  Table 5.3 Perfective Diagnostics in Siamou ............................................................................... 233	  Table 5.4 Imperfective Diagnostics ............................................................................................ 235	  Table 5.5 Imperfective Diagnostics in Siamou ........................................................................... 248	  Table 6.1 ín as Past Tense or Adverb ......................................................................................... 280	  Table 7.1 Three Future Expressions ........................................................................................... 326	  Table 7.2 Offer Contrast Cross-Linguistically ............................................................................ 347	  Table 7.3 Cross-Linguistic Comparison of Two Futures ............................................................ 348	  Table 7.4 Cross-Linguistic Comparison of Offer Future versus Non-Offer Future ................... 363	  Table 8.1 Siamou Tense and Aspect ........................................................................................... 376	  Table 8.2 ín as Past Tense or Adverb ......................................................................................... 383	  Table 8.3 Properties of Situation Types ...................................................................................... 396	                      xviii List of Figures Figure 2.1 Noun and Verb Frequency across Tone Melody Groups ............................................ 26	  Figure 2.2 Map of West Africa ..................................................................................................... 75	  Figure 2.3 Map of Burkina Faso ................................................................................................... 76	  Figure 2.4 Map of the Kru Languages .......................................................................................... 94	  Figure 2.5 Map of Burkina Faso Languages ................................................................................. 95	  Figure 4.1 Aspectual Oppositions ............................................................................................... 212	  Figure 7.1 will (Copley 2009:82) ................................................................................................ 346	  Figure 7.2 be going to (Copley 2009:83) .................................................................................... 347	  Figure 7.3 will (Copley 2009:82) ................................................................................................ 361	  Figure 7.4 Siamou Simple Future bè. . .-a .................................................................................. 362	  Figure 7.5 Siamou Certain Future bè. . .-bɛ̂ ................................................................................ 362                     xix List of Abbreviations Siamou  1  first person 2  second person 3  third person CL  classifier COP  copula CMPL  completive DEF1  definite (particle) DEF2  definite (suffix) DEM  demonstrative DIM  diminutive EMPH  emphatic EP  epenthetic consonant FIN  finite particle IMP  imperative INCEP  inceptive IMPF  imperfective LOG  logophor MOD  modal NEG  negative NFP  non-finite particle NOM  nominal NPI  negative polarity item ORD  ordinal POSS  possessive PL  plural PRFV  perfective PRSP1  prospective aspect 1 PRSP2  prospective aspect 2 PST  past Q  question particle QUOT  quotative particle REL  relative particle RFLX  reflexive SG  singular STAT  stative SUF  suffix V1  verb stem variation 1 V2  verb stem variation 2    Other languages  A  marks transitive subjects and    subjects of some intransitive    verbs in Paraguayan Guaraní ABL  ablative ASSOC  associative AUX  auxiliary B  marks possessors and     subjects of some intransitive    verbs in Paraguayan Guaraní CL3  class 3 prefix DEC  declarative DET  determiner EVN  event foregrounding suffix F  feminine FUT  future FV  final vowel INC  incompletive INDEF  indefinite INFER  inferential INT  intensive LOC  locative O  object P  post-position PART  particle PASS  passive PERF  perfect PRES  present PROG  progressive PRSP  prospective QU  question REC  recent past REM  remote past T  tense V  verb      xx Acknowledgements  For getting me through this process of dissertation-writing, I have many people to thank. First, for being a part of my life and supporting me, I would like to thank the following people: my husband, Tim Toews, my family, including my parents, Orlando and Luanna Penner; my brothers, Richard Penner and (the late) Daniel Penner; my parents-in-law, Alvin and Marlene Toews; my brothers- and sisters-in-law, Ken Toews, Jacob Toews and Heather Hagen, Jonathan and Ruth Toews, and Leslie Toews; my grandparents John L. and Annie Plett; and my grandma, Pauline Penner; my friends: Stephanie Fast, Mary Beth Penner, Ladine Penner, Kristie (Harms) Levasseur, Ruth Thiessen, Mariam Entz, Aisha Entz, Thea Lehmann, and many others; my UBC cohort: Heather Bliss, Elizabeth Firch, Raphael Girard, Murray Schellenberg, Beth (Rogers) Stelle, and Anita Szakay; and the rest of the UBC linguistics department, the Blumenort Church small group: Tim and Wanda Kretchmer, Ray and Heather Kroeker, Jim and Rebecca Wiebe, and (the late) Tina Fast; and the University Chapel home group: Geoff and Sharon Chapman, Robert and Judy Isaac-Renton, Eric and Sara Mills, Elaine and Nick Braun, and Karl and Barb Schmidt. In addition, I would like to thank Dr. H.C. Wolfart from the University of Manitoba without whose influence I would never have considered graduate school.  For hosting me and/or making me feel welcome in Burkina Faso, I would like to thank the whole courtyard of Téndenno in Tin, especially Fanta Coulibaly, who made a lot of food, gave a lot of advice, and cracked a lot of jokes. I would also like to thank Maminata Coulibaly, Zoumana Traoré (who told many great Siamou stories) Amedou Traoré (who transcribed them), Toussaint Kinda and Pascale Bado from the Orodara guesthouse, and Kotolama Traoré, who chased me down in the Ouagadougou airport to give me a photocopy of his thesis before I left the country. I want to thank Paul and Lois Thiessen, for inviting me to come to Burkina Faso to home school their children when I was 19, and for being the reason I came to know about Siamou in the first place. I also want to thank them for supporting and encouraging me over the years. Thank-you also to Norm and Lillian (Haas) Nicolson, who hosted me and Tim. Lillian was also my main host at Téndenno the first time I was there, and she happily allowed me to be her puppy dog and go with her everywhere, to visit friends, to plant cotton, to harvest cotton, peanuts, sorghum, kla, and fonio, to play cards late at night, and to dance at many weddings. She also inspired me with her enthusiasm for the Siamou language. I especially want to thank Souleymane Traoré, who was my main language consultant. He is a proficient Siamou  xxi speaker and a skilled teacher, often supplying me with information I never would have known to ask for. Without him, this dissertation would never have been possible. He accompanied me on a crazy ride late at night in the rain in the back of a truck loaded down with cement, crowded with people, and not going where they said they were going. He and his wife, Orokiya, took good care of me and let me stay at their place when I had malaria.  I am very thankful for my advisory committee, including my supervisor, Rose-Marie Déchaine, and Lisa Matthewson and Hotze Rullmann. They not only worked with me on my thesis, but also supported me and encouraged me to keep going when I felt like giving up. I remember more than one occasion where specific words they had said rolled through my mind and supplied the necessary boost for me to sit down and write. I am especially grateful to Rose-Marie for hosting me when I came to Vancouver during the last year.  Whenever I needed help with anything technological, I could always rely on my dad to give me more than I asked for. He helped me with choosing and purchasing all kinds of recording equipment before my research trip to Burkina Faso— microphones, a video camera, and a Marantz recorder. He helped me figure out how to set it all up and get it working before I left to be sure that we had all the required cords and that everything functioned together. He also took the liberty of bragging to various random strangers in coffee shops about his little girl who was going to be a doctor. He is also attributed with being the source of my "brains."   Then there is my mom. As a child, I remember asking her what "university" meant, and she said it was school that a few people went to after high school, but most people didn't, and it wasn't really important. Little did she know I'd be at university well over ten years! She has helped me so much over the years. She often came over to help me: picking raspberries, mowing the lawn, and even bringing food, or inviting Tim for supper so I could work in peace. When some important deadlines coincided with bean- and pea-picking time, she came every other day to pick for me. She and my 90-year-old grandma (who was stuck at home with a fractured spine) spent hours shelling peas and cutting beans for me, delivering them blanched and packaged. My mom also proofread my whole dissertation, claiming that it was easier for her to find typos because she had no idea what any of it meant. She has always delighted in everything I do— from when I was a child, and she wrote down the cute little things I said, to now, when she proofread this dissertation and marveled every few sentences about how smart I was.  xxii  I also want to thank my husband, Tim. We got married about seven months before we moved to Vancouver for me to start grad school. He supported me through the whole thing, including the following:  1. He left behind family, friends and work to come to Vancouver with me, and he was not too proud to check off the "follow spouse" box on the employment insurance application.  2. He started a new job in a new city without a word about his worries because he knew how anxious I was about school.  3. He endured a lot of boredom in Vancouver where he had no idea what to do with himself because he was only working eight hours a day, and he didn't have a yard or animals or anything to occupy his leisure time (except for the History Channel). He did all the housework, including randomly washing the walls, just to pass the time.   4. He occasionally warmed my shoes in the oven before I left for class.  5. When we went home for Christmas with my family for three weeks, I had trouble finding free time to do my qualifying paper revisions, so one day, he pushed me into the living room, sat me down with my computer, put up a cardboard wall so my family couldn't distract me, brought me a cup of tea and a candle, and told me to get to work. I finally got it done.  6. He travelled to Burkina Faso with me for six months so I could do field research. While he was there, he made many meals in a 40+ degree kitchen, squeezed a whole tree's worth of lemons, set up my equipment for me, and chauffeured me around on our motorcycle. The language barrier and the heat were a struggle for him, but he bore it all with good grace.  7. He always made me feel like he wouldn't mind if I was in school forever, as long as I was happy— and continued to be a tax write-off. There was no pressure from him to be finished.   Finally, I didn't really think I was going to add God to my acknowledgements because I thought it would sound trite, but the truth is, I have struggled a lot with anxiety during this process of thesis-writing. Many people helped me very much during this time, but without God's help, I do not think I would have made it. Near the end of this writing, my little brother Daniel was diagnosed with cancer, and he passed away at the end of March 2014 just after his 29th birthday. I am so grateful to God for carrying us through that, and for helping me to keep writing afterwards.   1 1. Introduction and Literature Review 1.1 Why Tense and Aspect Matter 1.1.1 Why Tense and Aspect Matter: The Theoretical Stakes Remember the last conversation you had? What was it about? For me, it was a discussion about the garden with my husband. We had had a frost warning the previous night, so we had covered the tomatoes and peppers in the garden with sheets to keep them from freezing. This is usually a sign that it is time to take in the garden for winter, so we were planning what we were all going to bring in to the garage on Saturday— all the tomatoes and peppers, and so on. The potatoes and carrots could wait because they were safe underground, and carrots are better after a frost anyway. . .  None of what we were talking about had to do with what was happening around us at the time. We were finishing up supper and getting ready to go out for the evening, but in our minds, we were already in the garden, filling the wheelbarrow with produce. Language is what allowed us to be there together. This is because human language has a property called "displacement" (Hockett 1960, von Fintel and Heim 2011). This property means it is possible for us to discuss things that are not in the here and now. It allows us to communicate a remembrance of past events, and an anticipation of future events. Without it, we would be stuck with only what was in front of us at the moment.  One of the main tools languages use for displacement is tense. Tense allows us to specify the temporal location of a certain time in relation to the time when we are talking. In natural language, this takes the form of past, present or future tense.  In the conversation about the garden, not only are we locating events in time, but we are doing something else as well. To see this, look at the following examples. When I was describing the incident in the garden, I said we had covered the tomatoes and peppers (1a), not that we were covering them (1b). This is because from my perspective, the event was already completed when we were sitting at the table. If I had said (1b), I would have communicated that we were still in the process of covering the garden.  1. a. We had cover-ed the tomatoes and peppers.        TEMPORAL ASPECT: non-overlapping time intervals  b. # We were cover-ing the tomatoes and peppers.   2 Later, I said we were finishing up supper (2a), not that we had finished up supper (2b) because from my perspective, we were still in the process of eating when we were sitting at the table. If I had said (2b), that would have meant that we were already finished eating.  2. a. We were finish-ing up supper.        VIEWPOINT ASPECT: overlapping time intervals  b. # We had finish-ed up supper.   When events are presented from a certain point of view, this is called aspect. The examples above use different grammatical markers, such as (have) -ed or (be) -ing to specify aspect. Therefore, this kind of aspect is sometimes called grammatical aspect. I adopt the proposal of Liao (2005), who claims that grammatical aspect can be divided into two types: temporal aspect and viewpoint aspect. Temporal aspect has to do with non-overlapping time intervals, which includes perfect and prospective aspect. Viewpoint aspect has to do with overlapping time intervals, which includes perfective, imperfective and progressive aspect. The sentence in (1a) is an example of temporal aspect (perfect), and the sentence in (2a) is an example of viewpoint aspect (progressive).  Sometimes, instead of grammatical markers, it is the words themselves that describe the situations that organize time differently. Some situations are stable over time, as in (3a), where have a frost warning describes a state that holds over time. In contrast, other situations have the possibility of changing over time, as in (3b), where covering the tomatoes and peppers describes an event that is constantly changing.   3. a. We had had a frost warning.  b. We had covered the tomatoes and peppers.  The state of having a frost warning just is— there is a frost warning. However, covering the tomatoes and peppers is a process that involves bringing a pile of sheets up from the basement, dragging them to the garden, unfolding them, and so on. The difference between states and events is part of an area of study that linguists call lexical aspect. 1.1.2 How Tense and Aspect Are Deployed in Siamou: The Empirical Stakes  Linguists are involved in a search for uniformity and diversity across languages. To understand how language works, it is important to know what languages have in common, and also in what ways they are different. Our knowledge of tense and aspect is gathered from looking at a variety   3 of languages. The more languages are studied, the more we can refine and develop this knowledge. This thesis is about how tense and aspect works in Siamou: how it is like other languages (uniformity) and how it is different (diversity).  As an example of a way in which languages are diverse, here is a basic contrast between two unrelated languages: English and Siamou. In English, sentences must be marked for tense, but not aspect. This means that you can say (4a) with past tense ate, but not (4b) with unmarked eat. Although there is no aspect marking in (4a), it is still grammatical.  4. a. Yesterday I ate breakfast.  b.1 * Yesterday I eat breakfast.  In Siamou, it is the opposite: tense is not obligatory, but aspect is. The utterance in (5a) has no tense marking, and yet it is grammatical because the verb is marked (with a low tone) for perfective aspect. The utterance in (5b) has no aspect marking and it is ungrammatical.  5. a. Dír  lɛ́ɛ  ń ni le dì.   yesterday  morning 1SG FIN food eat.PRFV   Yesterday morning I ate food.   French: J’ai mangé de la nourriture hier matin. (C)   b. * Dír  lɛ́ɛ  ń ni le di.    yesterday  morning 1SG FIN food eat   Another way in which Siamou differs from many other languages has to do with future expressions. In English, it is completely senseless to say something like (6).  6. # He will climb the mountain, but he won't.  In Siamou, this kind of utterance is odd, but it makes sense in the right context. Example (7) can be said in a context where the speaker knows that the person they are talking about is intending to climb a certain mountain, but he (the speaker) intends to stop him.                                                    1 Throughout this thesis, I diacritics on examples indicate the following: *  The utterance is ungrammatical. ?* There is uncertainty about the grammaticality of this utterance. # The utterance is infelicitous. The utterance is ambiguous. % There is speaker variation in usage of this utterance.   4 7. À bè dú-a  fóro à káal=î  ɲinatyé,   3SG MOD climb-PRSP2 till DEF1 hill=DEF2 top    kɛ̀ à bè dú-a   bo.  but 3SG MOD climb-PRSP1 NEG  He will climb to the top of the hill, but he won't climb  French: ll montera sur la colline jusqu’au sommet, mais il montera pas. (C)  This is similar in some ways to the following English utterance.  8. Now that she can eat, she can't eat.   This sentence can be said in reference to a person who was forbidden to eat for a day in order to have a medical procedure done. After the procedure, she is allowed to eat, but she feels sick and has no appetite. The first can has to do with permission, and the second can has to do with physical ability. This tells us that even though on the surface it may seem that the Siamou phrase À bè du-a has the same meaning as the English phrase He will climb, they are actually different from each other in a very important way.   To show how unrelated languages sometimes display uniformity, let us take an example from the category of viewpoint aspect. In English, utterances like (9a) and (9b) have a very clear contrast. The first one means that the rain started falling after I was done picking tomatoes, but the second one means that the rain started falling while I was still picking. This is an aspectual contrast.  9. a. I picked tomatoes, and then it rained.  b. I was picking tomatoes and then it rained.  Siamou, although unrelated to English, makes exactly the same kind of contrast. In (10a), the verb is marked with perfective aspect and it expresses a meaning similar to (9a). The verb in (10b) is marked with imperfective aspect, and it expresses a meaning similar to (9b).   10. a. Ń n' à yenìníin=î  tɔ́ŋn,  nɔ̀ ki tɔ́ŋn.   1SG FIN DEF1 tomato.PL=DEF2 gather.PRFV rain FIN fall   I gathered the tomatoes and then it rained.   French: J’ai ramassé la tomate et la pluie a tombé. (C)    context: I finished gathering the tomatoes before it rained.   inappropriate context: I was still gathering the tomatoes when it started to rain.     5  b. Ń n' à  yenìníin=î    tɔ́ɔŋ-n ín, nɔ̀ ki tɔ́ŋn.   1SG FIN DEF1  tomato.PL=DEF2  gather-IMPF PST rain NFP fall   I was gathering the tomatoes and then it rained.   French: Je ramassais la tomate et la pluie a tombé. (C)    context: I was still gathering the tomatoes when it started to rain.   inappropriate context: It started raining after I finished gathering the tomatoes.    consultant comment: They (i.e. gathering tomatoes and rain falling) happened at    the same time.  When completely unrelated languages pattern in the same way, and the same pattern is found over and over again in many languages, this may provide a pointer towards what is universal to all languages.  Siamou also contributes to our knowledge of lexical aspect. The contrast between states and events is believed to be universal. Siamou also has a stative/eventive contrast. However, in Siamou this contrast does not extend into the verbal domain. It appears that Siamou completely lacks stative verbs. Instead, stative readings are expressed in other ways, either with utterances that do not have verbs (11), or with event verbs that have an implied result state (12). In (12), the event verb jɛn (to heat), is inflected with perfective aspect (jɛ̀n).   11. Klɔ̂  ń to.  hunger  1SG to   I am hungry.   Literally: Hunger is to me.  12. À nun=î  jɛ̀n.  DEF1 water=DEF2 heat.PRFV  The water is hot.   Literally: The water is heated.  French: L’eau est chaude. (C)  The next section (1.2) describes the methodology used to collect data for this thesis, and the conventions used to present this data. Then, section 1.3 shows how the topics introduced above are organized into chapters. 1.2 Collection and Presentation of the Data Most of the research for this dissertation was conducted during a six-month visit to the province of Kenedougou in Burkina Faso in 2009–2010. Section 1.2.1 introduces the three Siamou   6 language consultants that I worked with. The following three sections describe three types of data collection: elicitation sessions in 1.2.2, narrative collection in 1.2.3, and Siamou conversations in 1.2.4. Section 1.2.5 gives an overview of Siamou orthographic conventions that I use, and section 1.2.6 explains the representation of Siamou data. Section 1.2.7 introduces three Siamou linguists with whom I had contact, and who have influenced this dissertation. 1.2.1 Language Consultants There were three main Siamou language consultants that I worked with. 1. Souleymane (Solo) Traoré from the courtyard2 Kyɛnsɔ́rɔn in Tin, who now lives in Orodara 2. Zoumana Traoré from Orodara, and 3. Fanta Coulibaly from the courtyard Téndenno in Tin. All three enthusiastically gave permission for me to use their names in this work.   For elicitation, I worked mainly with one consultant: Solo. He is someone with whom I had already established a working relationship on a previous visit to Burkina Faso, and he is familiar with many of the protocols associated with linguistic elicitation. He is a native speaker of Siamou, fluent in Jula (the local trade language) and French, and has some understanding of English from many years of working with English speakers. He is currently involved in Bible translation work with Paul Thiessen, and has contributed extensively to an unpublished Siamou-French dictionary (Thiessen et al. n.d) He has a deep interest in and understanding of his language, including a thorough awareness of tone. 1.2.2 Elicitation Tasks In the elicitation tasks, the consultant supplied the following:   13. a. Siamou sentences that fit a given context;  b. contexts for a particular Siamou sentence;  c. grammaticality judgements for Siamou sentences;  d. Siamou translations of French sentences;  e. alternatives and/or corrections to Siamou sentences;  f. felicity judgements of Siamou sentences in context.  Since many Siamou verbs neutralize distinctions between the different verb forms (in particular, the infinitive and the perfective), or have distinctions that are difficult for a non-native ear to grasp, I made an effort to use verbs in which all forms were clearly distinct.                                                 2 Siamou people usually live in courtyards, especially in the villages. Courtyards are groupings of houses in an enclosed area that are shared by members of an extended family.   7  Elicitation was done either in the village of Tin or in the town of Orodara, both of which are Siamou speaking areas, about 15 kilometres apart. Sessions were recorded in .wav files with a Marantz PMD660 solid state recorder using two of three microphones (one for the linguist and one for the consultant): an omni-directional mic, a hand-held cardioid mic, and a lapel mic. The omni-directional mic, although lovely in theory, was much better at recording cicadas, roosters, donkeys, and mopeds than Siamou utterances so it was phased out. I used the hand-held mic (with a mic stand) while Solo used the lapel mic. The recordings were later transferred to a Macbook laptop. All Siamou utterances, along with any related information, were entered into a database using Toolbox (an SIL software program).   When I returned to Canada, I was able to continue with my research by conducting elicitation through email questionnaires. This was a beneficial supplement to in-person elicitation because some elements of the grammar which my ears had missed became more apparent. Email elicitation requires different techniques than in-person elicitation. Since there is often a time lag between the time questions are asked and the time responses are received, it is extra important to make the questions as clear as possible. Depending on availability of internet, a misunderstanding could take weeks to clear up. Some techniques that I learned through trial and error were the following:  14. a. Do not make questionnaires too long. Three pages of well-spaced questions was a good length in my situation.  b. Put lots of empty space between questions so that it is clear when you are transitioning from one to the next.  c. Make the utterances that you are asking about stand out visually using boldface text or something similar.  d. Make it very clear where answers are expected. One way to do this is to draw a blank line after every question to which you would like a response.  e. It is sometimes necessary to ask the same kinds of questions more than once in different ways, especially if the answers are not clear at first. Even slightly rephrasing a question can affect the answers you get.  f. It is often useful to elicit data in stages. The first round of questions might involve asking for translations of utterances in the language of communication (French, in this case). It might also involve constructing Siamou utterances and determining if they are grammatical. Once you have a set of well-formed Siamou utterances, you can construct contexts and find out if the utterances are felicitous in those contexts, or even ask the consultant to supply contexts. Care must be taken with this because grammatical utterances may be rejected as ill-formed initially if no context is provided, but deemed acceptable with an appropriate context.    8  g. It is sometimes useful to give questions in pairs so that the consultant can contrast one form with another. For example, instead of eliciting a set of perfective utterances and then a set of imperfective utterances, elicit them as minimal pairs: one perfective utterance with a matching imperfective utterance.  h. Sometimes it is helpful to briefly explain your purpose in eliciting certain data.   This may prevent the consultant from getting frustrated when, for example, you purposefully ask about a bunch of ungrammatical sentences to get negative data and he begins to feel that all his careful teaching was in vain.  1.2.3 Narratives In addition to the elicitation, I also videotaped about forty traditional Siamou fables, and one description of how to play Awale, a common west African game. These narratives were given by Zoumana Traoré, who has experience telling stories for a local radio station.  Each story was recorded first in Siamou and then in French.3 The Siamou versions are in the process of being transcribed by Amedou Traoré, a native speaker from Tin. Some of the data from these transcriptions are used in this thesis.  1.2.4 Conversations Finally, I recorded about six hours of Siamou conversation. The conversations were between either me and Solo, me and Fanta, or Fanta and her 15-year-old daughter, Sali.  Aside from formal recording sessions, I also interacted on a personal and casual level with native Siamou speakers. This allowed me to increase my comprehension and production skills, and gave me an opportunity to listen for utterances that I could explore further during elicitation sessions. While in Tin, I stayed at Téndenno, a Siamou courtyard (occupied by an extended family). I had previously lived in this courtyard for nearly one year, and was familiar with the family, and was already somewhat able to converse in Siamou upon my arrival. 1.2.5 Orthographic Conventions For the most part, I use Siamou orthography in this dissertation. This orthography uses many standard IPA symbols, with a number of exceptions. First of all, the consonants /gʲ, ʃ, j/ are written j, sh, y respectively. An example for each of these phonemes is shown in Table 1.1 along with its phonetic transcription and gloss.                                                   3 I also recorded two stories told by Souleymane Traoré, but these do not have a French translation.    9 Table 1.1 Siamou Orthographic Conventions 1: j, sh and y     Secondly, nasalization on a vowel is marked by ŋ after the vowel.  Word final nasals are written n, but the exact nature of their articulation is more complex. I follow Nicolson (2010) and write this phonetically as /ᵑ/. See section 2.1.3 for more information on nasality. Examples of words with nasalized vowels or nasal consonant codas are given in Table 1.2.   Table 1.2 Siamou Orthographic Conventions 2: ŋ and n        Tones are usually marked with an accent on the vowel of the syllable in which they occur. High tone (H) is marked e.g. á, low tone (L) e.g. à.  mid tones (M, M(L), M(!H))4 are unmarked.  A high-low contour tone (HL) is marked e.g. â.  A high-downstepped-high contour tone (H!H) is marked áa, and a rising-falling contour (M!HL) by a sequence of two vowels, e.g. aa.  The double vowel is an orthographic convention and does not necessarily indicate vowel length.   There is another orthographic convention for marking tone in Siamou that may cause confusion. Imperfective forms of L, M and M(L) verbs have a M tone in the imperfective. However, for unknown reasons this tone falls slightly not quite to L, but maybe halfway (Souleymane Traoré p.c). The Siamou orthographic convention is to write these imperfectives with two vowels and mark the second vowel as L (e.g. duùn 'ask.IMPF'). This convention serves to distinguish verb forms from each other that would otherwise be written exactly the same. The L tone marking distinguishes these imperfectives from imperfectives of M(!H) verbs, which are written with two vowels but no L tone (e.g. diin 'extinguish.IMPF'). The double vowel distinguishes these imperfectives from bare verbs that have a surface M tone and end in a nasal consonant (e.g. din 'extinguish'). This information is summarized in Table 1.3. The purpose of                                                 4 See 2.2.2 for more information on the mid tone tone melody groups, M, M(L) and M(!H). Siamou word Phonetic Transcription Gloss a.  ja /gʲa/ catch/grab b. shi /ʃi/ life/knowledge c. yɔ /jɔ/ nest/net Siamou word Phonetic Transcription Gloss a.  shaŋ /ʃã/ to sprout/to hatch b. shan /ʃaᵑ/ to measure/to compare   10 this discussion is simply to clarify the Siamou orthographic conventions. More information about Siamou tone is given in section 2.2.  Table 1.3 Siamou Orthographic Conventions 3: Tone            Since Siamou has only had an orthography for about ten years, some conventions are still under debate. For example, vowels are predictably nasalized after a nasal onset, but it has not been decided whether or not these vowels should be marked as nasal or not.  I have chosen to mark them in this thesis, following current practices. 1.2.6 Thesis Conventions for Siamou Data The Siamou data in this thesis is structured in a certain way. First of all, English glosses are given for each Siamou morpheme. Beneath that, I give an English translation and a French translation, if one exists. Throughout this dissertation, the notation C following a French translation indicates that it was supplied by the consultant. The notation L indicates that it was supplied by the linguist (me). This means that either I initially provided the French utterance and asked for a Siamou translation of it, or that I provided the consultant with a French translation of a previously elicited Siamou utterance, and confirmed that it was correct. Sometimes no French translation is available because elicitation was focused on semantic contexts or grammaticality judgments rather than translation.  Since my research was conducted using French as the language of communication, all English translations are my own. When providing these English translations, I took into account the context(s) in which the Siamou phrase was judged felicitous, the discussion between me and the consultant regarding the Siamou phrase, and the French translation, if there was one.                                                   5 The M!HL tone melody group is not well understood. Its tone is not always the same, although it is usually some kind of rising-falling contour. Siamou Tone Marking Tone a. á High b. à Low c. a Mid d. â High-Low e. áa High-Downstepped High f. aa Mid-Downstepped High-Low5 g. aà Mid (falling slightly)   11 1.2.7 Siamou Linguist Connections   During my stay in Burkina Faso, I had contact with three other linguists who have conducted research on the Siamou language: Paul Thiessen (a missionary linguist), Lillian (Haas) Nicolson (a literacy worker and missionary linguist), and Kotolama Traoré (a Siamou speaker-linguist). I first went to Burkina Faso to homeschool Paul and Lois Thiessen's two youngest children in 2003–2004. Paul Thiessen is from my hometown of Blumenort, Manitoba. He has been involved with Siamou for about thirty years, and is currently working on a Siamou translation of the Bible.  Lillian Nicolson is a native of Blue Sky, Alberta and has worked on Siamou since 1999. She is well established as part of the Téndenno courtyard, and is a good friend and host when I am in Tin.  Kotolama Traoré is from the Siamou town of Bandougou in Burkina Faso, and has two French publications on the topic of the Siamou language (Traoré 1985, 1986). 1.3 Overview of the Thesis The dissertation is structured as follows: Chapter 2 is a descriptive overview of Siamou grammar. Chapter 3 focuses on the morpho-phonology and morpho-syntax of Siamou aspect. Chapter 4 introduces the background on theories of perfective and imperfective aspect, including a set of diagnostics for both. Chapter 5 uses these diagnostics to show that Siamou has a L tone suffix that encodes perfective aspect and a M tone nasal suffix that encodes imperfective aspect. Chapter 6 analyzes the sentence-final particle ín as a past tense, with a number of associated implicatures. Chapter 7 is a description and preliminary analysis of Siamou future expressions. Chapter 8 is the conclusion. Since these chapters cover a range of topics, it is possible to read most of them independently, except for chapter 5 which relies heavily on concepts introduced in chapter 4. In the following subsections, I give a preview of the major findings of each of these chapters. 1.3.1 The Grammatical Sketch Chapter 2 provides background information about Siamou grammar and a brief description of Siamou's phonology, including the inventory of consonants and vowels, syllable str