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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Gesture and sympathy in the 1969 BBC production of Benjamin Britten's "Peter Grimes" Harvey, Rosemary Alyce 2014

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!!GESTURE!AND!SYMPATHY!IN!THE!1969!BBC!PRODUCTION!OF!BENJAMIN!BRITTEN’S!PETER%GRIMES!!!by!!!Rosemary!Alyce!Harvey!!!!A!THESIS!SUBMITTED!IN!PARTIAL!FULFILLMENT!OF!THE!REQUIREMENTS!FOR!THE!DEGREE!OF!!!MASTER!OF!ARTS!!!in!!!THE!FACULTY!OF!GRADUATE!AND!POSTDOCTORAL!STUDIES!! (Music)!!!!THE!UNIVERSITY!OF!BRITISH!COLUMBIA!! (Vancouver)!!!!August!2014!!©!Rosemary!Alyce!Harvey,!2014!!!!!!!!!! ! !iiAbstract(! Throughout!his!career,!Benjamin!Britten!was!actively!involved!in!the!composition!of!music!for!television!and!film,!for!projects!ranging!from!documentary!soundtracks!for!the!General!Post!Office!Film!Unit!(1935\36)!to!television!adaptations!of!his!operas.!!This!thesis!will!examine!the!television!production!of!Peter%Grimes,!which!was!shot!under!Britten’s!supervision!in!1969!at!the!Snape!Maltings,!Aldeburgh.!!The!production!has!Peter!Pears,!Britten’s!partner!and!collaborator,!in!the!title!role,!a!role!that!he!also!performed!in!the!1945!premiere!of!the!opera.!As!in!many!of!his!operas,!Peter%Grimes!encourages!the!audience!to!sympathetically!identify!with!a!character!who!is!an!outsider!in!society.!!Grimes,!for!example,!is!rejected!by!the!people!in!the!local!village,!yet!is!made!to!be!a!multi\dimensional!character!who!the!audience!is!encouraged!to!feel!sympathy!for.!!!The!thesis!will!examine!how!gesture!is!used!in!the!production!to!create!a!sympathetic!connection!between!Grimes!and!the!audience.!!It!will!also!pay!particular!attention!to!the!use!of!camera!techniques!to!enhance!this!connection!through!different!shots!including!close\ups!and!framing!the!individual!against!the!crowd.!!In!addition,!it!examines!how!the!gestures!performed!relate!to!and!interact!with!the!accompanying!score.!!The!gestures!used!by!Grimes!in!three!scenes!of!the!opera!will!be!examined!in!detail:!the!Prologue,!Interlude!IV,!and!Act!III!scene!ii.!This!thesis!will!examine!Britten’s!perceptions!of!the!character!of!Grimes,!his!involvement!in!the!television!production!process,!and!his!views!on!acting.!!!Through!! ! !iiilooking!at!Pears’s!copies!of!vocal!scores,!it!will!also!explore!his!relationship!with!Grimes!and!how!he!approached!gesture!in!his!operatic!roles.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !ivPreface(!!This!thesis!is!an!unpublished,!original!work!by!Rosemary!A!Harvey.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !vTable(of(contents(!!Abstract!.........................................................................................................................................................!ii!Preface!…......................................................................................................................................................!iv!Table!of!Contents!......................................................................................................................................!v!List!of!Tables!.............................................................................................................................................!vi!List!of!Figures!..........................................................................................................................................!vii!Abbreviations!.........................................................................................................................................!viii!Introduction!................................................................................................................................................!1!Chapter!1:!Britten,!Pears,!opera,!and!television!.......................................................................!10!Chapter!2:!The!creation!of!Britten’s!Grimes!..............................................................................!32!Chapter!3:!The!Prologue:!The!creation!of!a!sympathetic!connection!through!!the!interaction!between!gesture,!camera,!and!music!............................................................!42!!Chapter!4:!Interlude!IV:!Gesture!with!no!voice!........................................................................!58!Chapter!5:!Act!III,!scene!ii:!The!emergence!of!an!empathetic!connection!....................!68!!Conclusion!.................................................................................................................................................!82!!Bibliography!.............................................................................................................................................!85!!Appendices!...............................................................................................................................................!92!!1:!Peter!Grimes’s!Gestures!in!The!Prologue!................................................................!92!!2:!Peter!Grimes’s!Gestures!in!Interlude!IV!...................................................................!96!!3:!The!Interludes!...................................................................................................................!101!!4:!Peter!Grimes’s!Gestures!in!Act!III,!scene!ii!...........................................................!102!!!!!(! ! !viList(of(tables(!!Table!1:!Goldin\Meadow’s!Descriptions!of!McNeill’s!Classifications!............................!4\5!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!(! ! !viiList(of(figures(!!1.1:!Image!of!the!Epilogue!in!Peter!Pears’s!annotated!vocal!score!of!Britten’s!!Billy%Budd%...................................................................................................................................................!23!!1.2:!Image!of!Peter!Pears’s!annotated!vocal!score!of!Britten’s!Peter%Grimes%...............!24!!!!!!!!!!3.1:!The!first!half!of!the!villagers’!“Old!Joe”!melody!...............................................................!48!!3.2:!The!first!half!of!Grimes’s!“Old!Joe”!melody!........................................................................!49!!3.3:!Score!demonstrating!the!progressive!musical!unison!between!Ellen!and!!Grimes!.........................................................................................................................................................!55!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!(! ! !viiiAbbreviations(!!BBC!=!British!Broadcasting!Corporation!!GB\ALb!=!Britten\Pears!Foundation!Archive,!Aldeburgh!!GPO!=!General!Post!Office!!ITV!=!Independent!Television:!page!11!!NBC!=!National!Broadcasting!Corporation!! 1!Introduction*! ! Benjamin!Britten’s!opera!Peter%Grimes!(1945)!presents!a!bleak!tale!of!an!individual,!Peter!Grimes,!who!is,!through!his!own!faults!and!those!of!the!people!around!him,!at!odds!with!the!members!of!“The!Borough,”!the!anonymous!name!of!the!village!in!which!he!lives.!Yet,!while!the!character!of!Grimes!may!be!fatally!flawed,!the!audience!of!the!opera!cannot!help!but!have!a!sympathetic!connection!with!him.!!In!The%Operas%of%Benjamin%Britten:%An%Introduction,%Patricia!Howard!states!that!Peter%Grimes’s%“miracle!is!that!a!character!as!unattractive,!unapproachable,!and!undeniably!unpleasant!as!Grimes!in!the!end!manages!to!gain!our!sympathy.”1!!!In!light!of!this!observation,!the!aim!of!this!thesis!is!to!examine!how!gesture!is!used!in!the!1969!British!Broadcasting!Corporation!(BBC)!television!version!of!the!opera%to!evoke!sympathy!from!the!audience!for!the!character!of!Peter!Grimes.!The!thesis!will!also!examine!how!the!music!informs!and!emphasises!the!physical!movements!performed!by!the!characters!on!stage.!!Beyond!this,!other!topics!to!be!discussed!include!Britten’s!views!on!acting,!his!involvement!in!the!production!of!television!operas,!and!the!reasons!why!forming!a!connection!for!the!audience!with!the!character!of!Peter!Grimes!is!such!an*important!element!of!the!work.!Britten!had!direct!involvement!with!the!production!of!the!opera,!conducting!the!orchestra!while!the!opera!was!being!filmed.!!The!knowledge!of!Britten’s!motivations,!beliefs,!and!experiences!in!filmed!opera!will!contribute!to!our!understanding!of!how!Britten!used!television!opera!to!convey!his!conception!of!Peter%Grimes.!!This!thesis!will!also!consider!how!the!camera!is!employed!in!the!television!production!to!create!an!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!1!Patricia!Howard,!The%Operas%of%Benjamin%Britten:%An%Introduction!(New!York:!Praeger,!1969),!23.!! 2!empathetic!connection!that!moves!beyond!the!strength!of!the!sympathetic!connection!that!can!be!created!in!a!stage!production!of!the!opera.!!Filmed!opera!has!been!the!subject!of!musicological!investigation!for!a!significant!period!of!time.!!From!the!midStwentieth!century!onwards!operas!have!frequently!been!recorded!and!televised!or!shown!in!cinemas!around!the!world.!!The!BBC!and!Channel!4!in!the!United!Kingdom!and!the!National!Broadcasting!Corporation!(NBC)!in!the!United!States!frequently!commissioned!operas!written!for!television!and!broadcasting!productions!on!popular!television!channels.!!Indeed,!Jennifer!Barnes!suggests!that!fiftySone!operas!were!commissioned!for!television!in!the!United!Kingdom!and!United!States!between!1951!and!2002.2!!!Given!this!prominence,!musicologists!have!considered!the!implications!of!the!mediums!of!television!and!film!on!operas.!!One!of!the!earlier!studies!on!filmed!opera!was!Kenneth!A!Wright’s!“Television!and!Opera”!which!addressed!questions!such!as:!!What!is!television’s!attitude!to!opera?!Can!it!assist!its!future?!What!are!the!facts,!and!what!are!the!problems!involved?3!!!More!recently,!Marcia!Citron!has!considered!television!and!film!operas!in!her!books!Opera%on%Screen!and!When%Opera%Meets%Film.4%%She!explores!a!broad!range!of!topics,!from!the!function!of!the!camera!as!a!narrative!tool!to!interpretative!issues!that!arise!when!creating!a!film!or!television!opera.!%Jennifer!Barnes!has!worked!specifically!on!television!opera,!which!she!defines!as!opera!specifically!written!for!television,!looking!at!how!television!opera!has!evolved!and!the!role!of!the!composer!in!creating!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!2!Jennifer!Barnes,!Television%Opera:%The%Fall%of%Opera%Commissioned%for%Television!(Rochester,!New!York:!Boydell!Press,!2003),!13.!3!Kenneth!Wright,!“Television!and!Opera,”!Tempo!45!(1957):!8.!4!Marcia!Citron,!Opera%on%Screen!(New!Haven:!Yale!University!Press,!2000);!Marcia!Citron,!When%Opera%Meets%Film!(Cambridge:!Cambridge!University!Press,!2010).!! 3!a!television!opera.5!!However,!these!works!focus!on!certain!key!issues:!the!logistics!of!filming!opera,!the!perceptions!and!experience!of!the!audience,!and!how!filming!opera!can!alter!the!interpretation!of!the!opera.!!!This!thesis!instead!focuses!on!the!role!of!gesture!in!the!television!production!Peter%Grimes.!!In!the!context!of!this!thesis,!“gesture”!will!be!defined!using!Robert!Hatten’s!definition,!which!is!“any!energetic!shaping!through!time!that!may!be!regarded!as!significant.”6!!Hatten’s!conception!of!gesture!is!appropriate,!particularly!as!this!thesis!is!concerned!with!a!broad!range!of!movements,!such!as!movement!of!the!eyes,!facial!expressions,!and!larger!bodily!movements.!!As!Hatten!notes,!his!definition!includes!“all!varieties!of!significant!human!motion!(including!gesticulation!of!the!hands!or!facial!expressions)!and!their!perception.”7!!Gesture!has!become!an!increasingly!prominent!area!of!study!across!disciplines,!as!Anthony!Gritten!and!Elaine!King!acknowledge!in!their!book!Music%and%Gesture.8!!This!work,!along!with!their!New%Perspectives%on%Music%and%Gesture,!examines!theories!of!gesture!and!a!range!of!gestures!used!in!different!musical!contexts,!for!example!conducting!and!solo!piano!playing.!9!!Other!scholars!have!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!5!Barnes,!Television%Opera;!For!writing!on!filmed!opera,!refer!to!Joe!Jeongwon!and!Theresa!Rose,!Between%Opera%and%Cinema!(New!York!:!Routledge,!2002);!Richard!Fawkes,!Opera%on%Film!(London:!Duckworth,!2000);!Jeremy!Tambling,!A%Night%in%at%the%Opera:%Media%Representations%of%Opera!(London:!John!Libbey!&!Company!Ltd,!1994);!David!Schroeder,!Cinema’s%Illusions,%Opera’s%Allure:%The%Operatic%Impulse%in%Film!(New!York:!Continuum,!2002).!6!Robert!Hatten,!“A!Theory!of!Musical!Gesture!and!its!Application!to!Beethoven!and!Schubert,”!in!Music%and%Gesture,!ed.!Anthony!Gritten!and!Elaine!King!(Aldershot:!Ashgate,!2006),!1.!7!Ibid.!8!Anthony!Gritten!and!Elaine!King,!Music%and%Gesture!(Aldershot:!Ashgate,!2006).!9!Anthony!Gritten!and!Elaine!King,!New%Perspectives%on%Music%and%Gesture!(Oxford:!Ashgate,!2011).!! 4!focused!on!gesture!in!opera.!For!example,!Mary!Ann!Smart!has!examined!the!use!of!gesture!in!nineteenthScentury!staged!opera!in!her!book.10!Susan!GoldinSMeadow,!a!psychologist!specializing!in!the!relationship!between!gesture,!language,!and!thought,!has!looked!at!gestures!that!accompany!speech.!She!has!compiled!a!table!of!gesture!classifications,!derived!from!the!work!of!David!McNeill,!Paul!Ekman!and!Wallace!Friesen,!David!Efron,!and!Robert!Krauss,!Yihsiu!Chen,!and!Rebecca!Gottesman.11!Although!the!gesture!classifications!have!different!names,!they!all!refer!to!the!same!types!of!physical!movement.!GoldinSMeadow!uses!McNeill’s!classification!to!outline!different!types!of!gestures!performed!when!a!person!speaks.!The!following!table!outlines!the!four!classes!of!gesture!and!GoldinSMeadow’s!description!of!each!type.!! Table*1:*Goldin3Meadow’s*Descriptions*of*McNeill’s*Classifications!McNeill’s*(1992)*Classification! *Goldin3Meadow’s*Description!Iconic!gesture! “[B]ears!a!close!relation!to!the!semantic!content!of!speech![…].”12!!GoldinSMeadow!suggests!that!“[i]n!general,!iconic!gestures!represent!body!movements,!movements!of!objects!or!people!in!space,!and!shapes!of!objects!or!people.”13!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!10!Mary!Ann!Smart,!Mimomania:%Music%and%Gesture%in%NineteenthHCentury%Opera!(Berkeley:!University!of!California!Press,!2004);!for!further!reading!on!gesture!in!opera,!see!David!Lewin,!“Musical!Analysis!as!Stage!Direction”!in!Studies%in%Music%with%Text,!ed.!David!Lewin!(New!York:!Oxford!University!Press,!2006),!19S38.!11!David!McNeill,!Hand%and%Mind:%What%Gestures%Reveal%About%Thought!(Chicago:!University!of!Chicago!Press,!1992);!Paul!Ekman!and!Wallace!Friesen,!“The!Repertoire!of!Nonverbal!Behavior:!Categories,!Origins,!Usage,!and!Coding,”!Semiotica!1,!(1969):!49S98;!Robert!Krauss,!Yihsiu!Chen,!and!Rebecca!Gottesman,!“Lexical!gestures!and!lexical!access:!A!process!model”!in!Language%and%Gesture!ed.!David!McNeill!(Cambridge:!Cambridge!University!Press,!2000),!261S283.!12!Susan!GoldinSMeadow,!Hearing%Gesture:%How%Our%Hands%Help%Us%Think!(Cambridge,!MA:!Harvard!University!Press,!2003),!6.!13!Ibid,!7.!! 5!McNeill’s*(1992)*Classification! *Goldin3Meadow’s*Description!Metaphoric!gesture! This! class! of! gesture! “presents! an! abstract! idea! rather! than! a!concrete!object.”14!GoldinSMeadow!gives!the!following!example:!“When!adults!are!asked!to!solve!algebra!word!problems,!they!gesture![…]!The!form!of!these!gestures!indicates!whether!the!adult!conceptualizes!the!problem!as!one!of!continuous!change!or!discrete!change.”15!Deictic!gesture! These!are!“gestures!used!to!indicate!objects,!people,!and!locations!in!the!real!world.”16!GoldinSMeadow!clarifies!these!gestures!further,!stating!that!“they!do!not!always!indicate!visible!objects!or!people.”17!Beat!gesture! “Unlike!iconic,!metaphoric,!and!deictic!gestures,!which!carry!information!about!the!plot!line,!beat!gestures!reflect!the!structure!within!which!the!plot!line!unfolds.”18!! Although!it!is!apparent!that!these!are!clear!ways!of!discussing!gesture,!they!are!not!suitable!to!be!the!main!way!of!defining!and!interpreting!gesture!in!this!thesis,!as!GoldinSMeadow’s!work!is!based!on!gestures!used!in!real!life.!Instead,!by!considering!the!implications!of!gestures,!this!thesis!is!trying!to!understand!how!the!emotions!of!characters!are!portrayed!in!an!artificial!setting!through!gesture.*The!gestures!being!considered,!rather!than!being!unplanned!gestures!that!are!“spontaneous!accompaniments!of!talk,”!are!intentional!gestures!that!have!been!designed!for!the!television!production.19!!Given!this,!in!Chapter!3!I!will!introduce!a!new!system!for!classifying!gestures!that!suit!the!purpose!of!this!thesis.!As!the!thesis!concerns!sympathy,!a!definition!must!also!be!established!for!that!concept.!!The!Oxford%English%Dictionary!defines!“sympathy”!as!“feelings!of!pity!and!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!14!Ibid.!15!Ibid.*16!Ibid.!17!Ibid,!7!–!8.!18!Ibid,!8.!19!Ibid,!77.!! 6!sorrow!for!someone!else’s!misfortune,”!a!definition!that!accurately!describes!the!connection!developed!between!the!audience!and!Grimes.20!!However,!through!the!development!of!this!connection,!I!argue!that!an!empathetic!bond!is!created!between!the!audience!and!Grimes,!in!which!we!come!to!understand!Grimes’s!actions!and!feelings,!as!opposed!to!simply!feeling!pity!for!him.!!Empathy!is!defined!as!“[t]he!ability!to!understand!and!appreciate!another!person’s!feelings,!experience,!etc.”21!!Scholars!have!discussed!the!idea!of!empathy!and!how!it!relates!to!and!differs!from!sympathy.!!Susan!Leigh!Foster!in!Choreographing%Empathy%draws!a!distinction!between!sympathy!and!empathy.!She!traces!theories!on!sympathy!from!the!seventeenth!century,!during!which!it!was!developed!as!a!“theory!of!connectivity,”!attempting!to!explain!how!people!interacted!and!connected!with!each!other.22!She!gives!the!example!of!Sir!Kenelm!Digby,!a!seventeenthScentury!English!philosopher,!who!suggested!that!people!had!feelings!of!sympathy!“through!an!act!of!imagination!that!allowed!one!body!to!transfer!him!or!herself!into!the!situation!of!another.”23!!Empathy!moves!beyond!this!distanced!way!of!experiencing!another’s!situation!through!one’s!own!imagination.!!More!than!simply!imagining!the!situation,!the!person!who!feels!empathy!experiences!it.!!Empathy,!as!Foster!describes!it,!developed!“as!a!theory!about!the!ways!that!specific!features!of!a!painting,!sculpture,!or!building!could!pull!the!observer!into!a!direct!experiencing!of!them.”24!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!20!Oxford%English%Dictionary!online!s.v.!“Sympathy,”!accessed!November!20,!2013,!http://www.oed.com.!21!Oxford%English%Dictionary!online!s.v.!“Empathy,”!accessed!March!23,!2014,!http://www.oed.com.!22!Susan!Leigh!Foster,!Choreographing%Empathy!(Oxford:!Routledge,!2011),!139.!23!Ibid.!24!Ibid,!154.!! 7!This!is!the!core!distinction!between!sympathy!and!empathy.!!With!sympathy,!we!feel!for!someone!or!something,!and!with!empathy,!we!feel!with!them.!!In!the!context!of!Peter%Grimes,!the!character!of!Grimes!is!so!unusual!that!it!is!impossible!for!the!viewing!audience!to!empathise!with!him!at!the!beginning!of!the!opera,!yet!we!can!sympathise!with!him!given!the!situations!that!he!is!faced!with,!such!as!being!confronted!by!the!angry!villagers!who!offer!him!no!kindness.!!We!can!imagine!how!distressing!it!would!be!to!be!placed!in!these!situations.!!However,!by!the!end!of!the!opera,!we!feel!that!we!know!Grimes!to!such!a!degree!that!we!can!feel!with!him.!!!Through!watching!the!opera!and!getting!to!know!Grimes,!we!realise!what!Amy!Coplan!describes!as!“three!essential!features!of!empathy:!affective!matching,!otherSoriented!perspectiveStaking,!and!self–other!differentiation.”25!!!She!articulates!these!three!features!in!the!following!way:!An!observer!affectively!matches!a!target!only!if!the!observer’s!affective!states!are!the!same!in!kind!as!the!target’s,!though!they!may!vary!in!degree.!In!otherSoriented!perspectiveStaking,!an!observer!imagines!a!target’s!situation,!experiences,!and!characteristics!as!though!he!were!the!target.!And!an!observer!maintains!self–other!differentiation!only!if!he!continuously!represents!himself!as!distinct!from!the!target,!thereby!avoiding!confusion!about!their!respective!situations,!experiences,!and!characteristics.!Together!these!features!make!up!empathy,!a!unique!kind!of!understanding!through!which!we!can!experience!what!it!is!like!to!be!another!person.26!!Thus,!in!order!to!feel!empathy,!we!must!experience!all!three!conditions,!as!“[a]ll!of!these!features!are!necessary!for!empathy,!but!none!is!sufficient!on!its!own.”27!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!25!Amy!Coplan,!“Understanding!Empathy:!Its!Features!and!Effects,”!in!Empathy:%Philosophical%and%Psychological%Perspectives!ed.!Amy!Coplan!and!Peter!Goldie!(New!York:!Oxford!University!Press,!2011).!26!Ibid.!27!Ibid.!! 8!As!suggested!previously,!musicologists!have!shown!a!developing!interest!in!both!filmed!operas!and!physical!gestures.!!However,!there!has!been!limited!discussion!on!gesture!in!the!studies!of!filmed!opera.!!Britten’s!filmed!operas!are!an!example!of!this!neglect!of!work!on!filmed!operas.!In!the!small!number!of!investigations!that!there!are!on!film!interpretations!of!his!dramatic!works,!very!few!move!beyond!score!and!textual!analysis!to!examine!the!visual!element!of!the!operas.!!The!one!opera!that!has!been!given!a!fair!amount!of!consideration!is!Owen%Wingrave!(1971),!which!was!composed!by!Britten!expressly!for!television!broadcast.!Shannon!McKellar!looks!at!how!Britten!achieved!his!pacifist!message!in!Owen%Wingrave,!both!musically!and!cinematically.28!!Significantly,!she!also!looks!at!Britten’s!attitude!to!writing!opera!for!television.!However,!she!examines!opera!and!television!by!looking!at!writing!an!opera!for!the!specific!purpose!of!it!being!broadcast!on!television,!as!opposed!to!the!situation!that!arose!when!creating!the!television!production!of!Peter%Grimes,!when!Britten!adapted!an!opera!originally!written!for!stage!to!be!broadcast!on!television.!!Jennifer!Barnes!focuses!on!Billy%Budd%and!Owen%Wingrave!and!examines!the!production!process,!the!music,!and!Britten’s!reaction!to!the!works!and!filmed!opera!more!generally.29!Notably,!she!considers!camera!techniques!and!how!they!are!used!in!conjunction!with!music!in!Owen%Wingrave!to!narrate!and!intensify!the!drama.!!In!order!to!reveal!how!physical!gesture!and!music!create!both!a!sympathetic!and!empathetic!connection!between!the!audience!and!Grimes,!this!thesis!will!first!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!28!Shannon!McKellar,!“Music,!Image!and!Ideology!in!Britten's!'Owen!Wingrave':!Conflict!in!a!Fissured!Text,”!Music%and%Letters!80!(1999):!390S410.!29!Barnes,!Television%Opera.!! 9!give!contextual!information!regarding!Britten,!Pears,!opera,!and!film.!It!will!then!directly!examine!the!creation!of!a!connection!between!Grimes!and!the!television!audience!by!analyzing!three!key!scenes:!the!Prologue,!the!fourth!“Sea!Interlude,”!and!Grimes’s!final!scene!in!Act!III!Scene!ii.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 10!Chapter*1:*Britten,*Pears,*opera,*and*television!! This!thesis!first!examines!Britten’s!relationship!with!television!productions,!as!it!is!important!to!establish!what!Britten’s!motivations!for!filming!Peter%Grimes%were,!as!these!would!have!had!an!impact!upon!how!the!opera!was!produced.!!!The!story!of!Peter%Grimes!comes!from!George!Crabbe’s!1810!collection!of!poems,!The%Borough,!which!tells!the!stories!of!those!living!in!this!fictional!village.1!!In!1939,!Britten!travelled!to!North!America,!remaining!there!until!1942!because!of!the!War.2!!While!in!California!in!1941,!Britten!read!an!article!written!by!E.M.!Forster!in!the!BBC!magazine,!The%Listener,!which!discussed!Crabbe’s!work.3!!In!particular,!Forster!mentions!Crabbe’s!vivid!descriptions!of!Aldeburgh,!a!small!coastal!village!in!Suffolk,!England,!around!30!miles!south!of!the!town!of!Lowestoft!where!Britten!grew!up.!!Britten!later!stated!in!1967!that:!I!don’t!know!whether!it!was!homesickness!or!a!sudden!opening!of!my!eyes!to!a!new!poetic!style,!or!both,!but!I!was!amazed!and!thrilled!by!this!poetry![…]!The!idea!of!writing!an!opera!came!almost!immediately.4!! Britten!returned!to!the!story!of!Peter%Grimes!in!1942!following!a!commission!from!conductor!Serge!Koussevitzky!to!compose!a!work!in!memory!of!his!late!wife.!!!Having!returned!to!England!in!the!same!year,!Britten!contacted!Montagu!Slater,!a!poet,!asking!him!to!work!on!the!libretto,!and!Britten!himself!began!composing!the!music!in!1944.!!The!work!was!premiered!the!following!year!in!at!Sadler’s!Wells!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!1!George!Crabbe,!The%Borough,%Continued.%Occasional%Pieces.%The%World%of%Dreams.%Tales,!(London:!John!Murray,!Albemarle!Street,!1834).!!2!For!further!reading!on!Britten’s!time!in!North!America,!see!Humphrey!Carpenter,!Benjamin%Britten:%A%Biography!(London:!Faber!and!Faber,!1992),!124S169.!3!E.!M.!Forster,!"George!Crabbe:!the!Poet!and!the!Man."!Listener,!May!29,!1941,!769S770.!!4!Ruby!Mercer!and!Benjamin!Britten,!“An!Interview!with!Benjamin!Britten,”!in!Britten%on%Music,!ed.!Paul!Kildea!(Oxford:!Oxford!University!Press,!2003),!304.!! 11!Theatre!in!London!with!Peter!Pears,!Britten’s!lifeSpartner,!playing!the!title!role.!!Over!20!years!after!the!premier,!Pears!would!resume!this!role!in!a!BBC!television!version!of!the!opera!in!1969.!This!1969!production!was!not!the!first!experience!Britten!had!in!television!opera,!having!participated!in!several!other!television!projects.!!His!first!involvement!in!composition!to!accompany!moving!images!was!in!1934,!when!he!began!working!at!the!General!Post!Office!Film!Unit!(GPO)!composing!music!to!accompany!films!produced!by!the!unit.!!In!1952!the!NBC!in!the!USA!broadcast!a!condensed!version!of!his!Billy%Budd,!entitled!“Scenes!from!Billy%Budd.”!Britten!had!little!influence!in!the!production!process,!and!was!unhappy!with!the!final!production,!particularly!the!significant!cuts!made!to!the!opera,!which!will!be!discussed!later!in!this!chapter.!!His!next!significant!involvement!in!a!television!broadcast!was!in!1959!when!his!opera!Turn%of%the%Screw%was!shown!on!Independent!Television!(ITV)!over!two!nights:!Act!I!on!25!October!and!Act!II!28!October.5!!The!final!production!that!Britten!took!part!in!prior!to!Peter%Grimes!was!Billy%Budd,!which!was!broadcast!by!the!BBC!in!1966.!!!Despite!this!frequent!involvement!in!recording!for!television,!what!is!apparent!is!that!he!was!not!a!great!follower!of!television.!He!did!not!own!a!television!until!1973!and!had!to!hire!one!to!view!the!premier!of!Owen%Wingrave!in!1971.!!By!the!time!of!the!premier,!televisions!had!become!popular!in!the!UK,!with!the!Broadcaster!Audience!Research!Board,!a!television!audience!measurement!service!in!the!United!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!5!“The!1959!TV!production,”!BrittenSPears!Foundation,!accessed!May!29,!2014,!http://www.brittenpears.org/page.php?pageid=746.!! 12!Kingdom,!suggesting!that!18.5!million!households!owned!a!television!in!1971.6!!Given!their!popularity,!Britten!not!owning!a!television,!despite!his!involvement!in!television!opera,!suggests!that!he!was!largely!interested!in!it!as!a!medium!through!which!to!communicate!his!works.!!Indeed!the!music!critic!Edward!Greenfield!stated!that!!“Britten!is!not!a!keen!television!watcher.”7!!The!first!BBC!television!broadcast!took!place!in!the!UK!in!1936,!with!broadcasts!continuing!until!they!ceased!from!September!1939!until!June!1946!during!the!Second!World!War.8!!From!1936!there!were!a!growing!number!of!television!production!and!broadcast!companies!in!the!UK.!* Britten’s!lack!of!interest!in!television!is!rather!at!odds!with!his!early!relationship!with!television,!which!helped!shape!his!future!in!terms!of!his!pacifist!beliefs!and!how!he!composed!his!operas.!!After!completing!his!studies!in!composition!at!the!Royal!College!of!Music!in!London!in!1933,!Britten!was!offered!a!job!in!1934!by!John!Grierson,!a!film!director,!as!a!composer!for!the!GPO,!writing!scores!to!accompany!various!short!films!that!were!shown!in!cinemas,!including!Night%Mail!(1936),!directed!by!Harry!Watt!and!Basil!Wright,!and!Peace%of%Britain%(1936),!directed!by!Paul!Rotha.!The!latter!film!demonstrated!to!Britten!how!film!and!television!could!be!used!as!an!educational!medium,!as!political!statements!on!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!6!“Television!ownership!in!private!domestic!households!1956S2013!(millions),”!Broadcaster!Audience!Research!Board,!accessed!May!27,!2014,!http://www.barb.co.uk/resources/tvSfacts/tvSownership.!7!Jennifer!Barnes,!Television%Opera:%The%Fall%of%Opera%Commissioned%for%Television!(Rochester,!New!York:!Boydell!Press,!2003),!43.!8!“The!story!of!BBC!Television!–!TV!as!we!know!it,”!British!Broadcasting!Corporation,!accessed!July!19,!2014,!http://www.bbc.co.uk/historyofthebbc/resources/tvhistory/tvasweknowit.shtml;!“The!story!of!BBC!Television!–!Closedown,”!British!Broadcasting!Corporation,!accessed!July!19,!2014,!http://www.bbc.co.uk/historyofthebbc/resources/tvhistory/closedown.shtml;!“The!story!of!BBC!Television!–!Television!returns,”!British!Broadcasting!Corporation,!accessed!July!19,!2014,!http://www.bbc.co.uk/historyofthebbc/resources/tvhistory/afterwar.shtml.!!! 13!pacifism!and!world!peace!are!rife!throughout!the!threeSminute!short!film.*!Working!at!the!GPO!gave!Britten!the!opportunity!to!make!contacts,!some!of!whom!he!would!collaborate!with!later!in!his!career.!!For!example,!he!first!teamed!up!with!the!poet!W.H.!Auden!while!working!on!Night%Mail.!!He!would!later!collaborate!with!Auden!on!compositions!including!Our%Hunting%Fathers!(1936)!and!Paul%Bunyan!(1941).!Auden!also!became!a!close!friend!of!Britten’s,!influencing!his!political!views!and!advising!him!on!personal!matters.9!!!Although!it!seems!that!Britten!had!a!lifelong!apathy!towards!watching!television,!he!was!fully!aware!of!its!potential!as!a!communicative!medium.!In!1975!John!Culshaw,!a!producer!and!longtime!friend!and!collaborator!of!Britten’s,!stated:!Britten’s!attitude!to!television!was,!and!is,!equivocal.!He!knows!it!is!a!power!in!the!land,!the!greatest!ephemeral!mass!communicator!yet!known!to!man.10!!Britten’s!recognition!of!television’s!potential!is!evident!in!his!correspondence!with!Boris!Ford,!head!of!school!broadcasting!at!the!Associated!Rediffusion!Ltd.!(an!independent!British!television!company),!which!makes!it!clear!that!he!was!not!averse!to!the!idea!of!working!with!television!as!an!educational!medium,!as!he!had!done!when!composing!for!Peace%of%Britain.!In!1957,!the!Associated!Rediffusion!Ltd.!approached!Britten!with!the!idea!of!writing!an!opera!for!schools.!!This!project!would!involve!the!filming!of!ten!halfShour!television!programmes!that!would!follow!him!in!his!composition!and!rehearsal!of!a!Christmas!charade!for!children.!The!composition!would!then!be!performed!by!the!children!in!the!final!programme.!!The!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!9!For!further!reading!on!the!relationship!between!Britten!and!Auden,!see!Donald!Mitchell,!Britten%and%Auden%in%the%Thirties!(Woodbridge:!Boydell!Press,!2000).!10!John!Culshaw,!“Recording!for!Audio!and!Video!with!Benjamin!Britten;!By!John!Culshaw,”!draft!copy,!June!11,!1975,!BrittenSPears!Foundation!Archive,!Aldeburgh!(GBSALb).!! 14!educational!content!of!the!programme!was!very!much!emphasized!in!the!proposal.!According!to!Ford:!The!purpose!of!the!series!would!be!to!provide!children!with!an!intimate!piece!of!musical!education!by!giving!them!some!conception!of!what!composing!music!amounts!to!and!thus!watching!a!piece!of!music!take!shape!and!in!some!degree!growing!with!it.11!!Britten!was!apparently!keen!to!take!part!in!this!project,!meeting!with!Ford!and!Imogen!Holst!(a!composer,!conductor,!and!close!friend!of!Britten!and!Pears)!on!July!22,!1957.!Although!this!proposal!did!not!result!in!the!Christmas!charade!that!Ford!had!envisioned,!it!did!yield!the!composition!of!Noye’s%Fludd!(1957),!an!opera!intended!for!performance!by!children.!!Britten’s!meeting!with!Ford!demonstrates!that!he!was!interested!in!television!as!a!medium!through!which!he!could!broadcast!his!compositions.!Indeed,!in!1959!there!was!a!television!broadcast!of!his!Turn%of%the%Screw,!his!first!opera!to!be!made!into!a!television!opera.%!The!broadcast!marks!a!significant!step!towards!his!later!positive!attitude!towards!television!opera.!!In!a!booklet!to!accompany!the!broadcast,!he!stated!that!“television!can!do!an!enormous!amount!to!popularize!opera!in!this!country![…].”12!!Indeed,!as!Culshaw!recalled:![In!Apsen,!Colorado!in!1960]!Britten!seemed!to!attack!the!whole!principle!of!recording![both!sound!and!image].!I!say!“seemed”!because!what!he!was!really!attacking!was!the!wrong!use!of!recording,!in!the!sense!that!some!people!have!come!to!regard!it!as!a!wholly!acceptable!substitute!for!live!performance.13!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!11!Letter!from!Boris!Ford!to!Benjamin!Britten,!April!10,!1957,!GBSALb.!12!Benjamin!Britten,!“Television!and!The%Turn%of%the%Screw,”!in!Britten%on%Music,!ed.!Paul!Kildea!(Oxford:!Oxford!University!Press,!2003),!161.!13!John!Culshaw,!“Recording!for!Audio!and!Video!with!Benjamin!Britten;!By!John!Culshaw,”!draft!copy,!June!11,!1975!GBSALb*! 15!Despite!this,!he!still!had!reservations!about!television!opera,!wanting!it!to!be!produced!sensitively!with!everyone!involved!in!a!production!remembering!that!the!work!was!an!opera!and!not!“a!vehicle!for!the!cameras!only.”14!!In!a!1957!letter!to!Basil!Coleman,!a!director!and!producer!who!worked!with!Britten!on!several!projects!including!the!filmed!version!of!Billy%Budd!(1966),!Britten!stressed!that!music!should!take!precedence!over!visual!imagery!and!technical!considerations!in!the!television!production!process,!stating!in!regard!to!The%Turn%of%the%Screw:!!Television!production.!I!am!still!uncompromisingly!against!cutting!the!work!at!all.!“Billy!Budd”!on!N.B.C.!was!a!quite!different!case;!it!was!a!longer!and!much!more!episodic!work.!“The!Turn!of!the!Screw”!is!as!concise!and!musically!knit!as!a!work!can!be.!Of!course,!I!understand!the!difficulty!of!finding!visual!images!for!the!interludes;![…]!even!you!may!feel!the!overwhelming!difficulty!of!these!long!interludes,!in!which!case!the!solution!is!not!to!televise!the!opera!rather!than!to!cut!them.!The!music!is!nonsense!without!them;!in!fact!it!would!be!better!to!do!it!as!a!play.15!!!In!1952!the!NBC!Opera!Company,!based!in!America,!decided!to!produce!a!television!production!of!Billy%Budd,!entitled!“Scenes!from!Billy%Budd.”!However,!instead!of!producing!the!whole!work,!the!opera!company!had!to!make!significant!cuts!in!order!to!keep!within!a!set!time!of!90!minutes.!!Britten!was!at!first!resistant!to!cuts,!yet!later!agreed!to!them!because!Peter!Herman!Adler,!the!music!and!artistic!director!of!the!NBC!Opera!Company,!persuaded!him!to!do!so.16!!However,!on!viewing!the!opera!he!felt!that!it!had!been!“badly!and!desperately!cut.”17!!It!is!perhaps!a!result!of!this!negative!experience!that!Britten!was!adamant!that!no!cuts!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!14!Donald!Mitchell!and!Benjamin!Britten,!“Mapreading,”!in!Britten%on%Music,!ed.!Paul!Kildea!(Oxford:!Oxford!University!Press,!2003),!321.!15!Letter!from!Basil!Coleman!to!Benjamin!Britten,!July!22,!1957,!GBSALb.!(underline!in!the!original)!16!Barnes,!Television%Opera,!42.!17!Ibid.!! 16!should!be!made!in!the!1959!televised!production!of!The%Turn%of%the%Screw!without!his!specific!consent.!!After!his!initial!foray!into!the!world!of!television!with!the!BBC,!Britten!actively!attempted!to!maintain!good!relations!with!television!companies,!as!demonstrated!by!how!he!dealt!with!a!dispute!between!his!publisher,!Boosey!&!Hawkes,!who!held!the!copyright!ownership!of!The%Turn%of%the%Screw!and!Associated!Rediffusion!Ltd,!which!had!filmed!and!produced!a!version!of!the!opera!for!television.!!The!cause!of!the!dispute!was!Boosey!&!Hawkes’s!“coldSshoulder”!attitude!to!Associated!Rediffusion!Ltd.!in!regards!to!their!requests!for!permission!for!repeat!broadcasts!and!distribution!rights!of!The%Turn%of%the%Screw.!!Boosey!&!Hawkes!refused!to!give!them!the!permission!that!they!requested.18!!In!a!letter!from!Britten!to!Peter!Morley,!the!programme!director!at!Associated!Rediffusion!Ltd.,!who!raised!the!issue!with!him,!Britten!stated:!!Thank!you!very!much!for!your!long!and!valuable!letter.!I!will!take!the!whole!matter!up!most!seriously!with!Boosey!&!Hawkes,!and!I!hope!that!when!any!future!negotiations!start!the!atmosphere!will!be!a!much!happier!one.19!!Britten!acted!upon!his!words,!a!response!from!Morley!on!December!8,!1960!stating:!I!thought!that!you!would!like!to!know!that!Mr.!Derrington,!the!Assistant!General!Manager!of!this!Company![Associated!Rediffusion!Ltd.]!and!myself!are!taking!Dr.!Roth![A!music!publisher!working!at!Boosey!and!Hawkes]!out!to!lunch!on!Friday!to!discuss!mutual!problems.!I!set!up!this!meeting!because!I!had!a!letter!from!Dr.!Roth,!obviously!after!a!recent!conversation!with!you,!and!he!is!very!keen!to!discuss!any!misunderstandings!which!might!exist!between!us.20!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!18!Letter!from!Peter!Morley!(Associated!Rediffusion!LTD)!to!Benjamin!Britten,!November!4,!1960,!GBSALb.!!19!Letter!from!Benjamin!Britten!to!Peter!Morley!(Associated!Rediffusion!LTD),!November!12,!1960,!GBSALb.!20!Letter!from!Peter!Morley!(Associated!Rediffusion!LTD)!to!Benjamin!Britten,!December!8,!1960,!GBSALb.!! 17!!However,!despite!this!desire!to!maintain!good!relations!with!television!production!companies,!Britten!was!clearly!unwilling!to!make!any!sacrifices!when!it!came!to!the!integrity!of!his!operas.!!As!early!as!1961,!it!is!clear!that!he!was!considering!producing!Peter%Grimes!for!television,!for!he!met!with!Lionel!Salter,!Head!of!Music!for!the!BBC!between!1956!and!1963,!to!discuss!producing!the!opera.!However,!having!discussed!how!the!production!would!be!dealt!with,!he!sent!a!letter!dated!November!14,!1961,!which!stated:!It!was!kind!of!you!and!Mr.!Osland!to!take!the!trouble!to!come!to!Covent!Garden!last!week!in!order!to!discuss!with!me!the!possibility!of!televising!“Peter!Grimes”!in!a!shortened!version.!I!have!thought!very!carefully!about!your!proposals,!and!have!reluctantly!come!to!the!conclusion!that!I!cannot!give!my!blessing!to!this!plan.21!!Despite!this!refusal,!Britten!had!not!dismissed!the!idea!of!filming!his!operas!for!television!broadcast,!as!in!1966!the!television!production!of!Britten’s!opera!Billy%Budd%was!broadcast!on!the!BBC.!!The!opera,!premiered!in!1951!in!Covent!Garden,!had!resulted!in!generally!positive!reviews!in!regards!to!scoring.!!The%Musical%Times!review!praised!the!“bold,!brilliant!and!successful!score”!and!noted!that!“Britten!and!Peter!Pears!gave![Vere]!style.”22!!Similarly,!Stephen!Williams,!writing!for!the!New%York%Times,!states:!!”Billy!Budd”!is!a!challenging,!stimulating!work!of!art!quite!able!to!stand!on!its!own!merits!without!a!lot!of!hysterical!ballyhoo.!In!fact,!one!might!say!that!with!“Billy!Budd”!Britten!has!conquered!not!only!his!enemies!but!also!his!friends!–!a!far!more!difficult!feat.23!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!21!Letter!from!Benjamin!Britten!to!Lionel!Salter,!November!14,!1961,!GBSALb.!22!W.!McN,!“Britten’s!‘Billy!Budd,’”!The%Musical%Times!93!(1952):!31,!32.!23!Stephen!Williams,%“Premiere!of!Britten’s!‘Billy!Budd’!Stirs!London:!Disciples!Weakness,”!New%York%Times,!December!9,!1951,!133.!! 18!Over!ten!years!after!the!stage!premiere!of!the!opera,!Britten!began!discussing!the!prospect!of!producing!the!opera!for!television!with!the!BBC!in!1965.!!This!discussion!resulted!in!the!first!major!television!production!that!he!was!significantly!involved!with.!!Britten!helped!edit!the!opera!for!the!broadcast,!and!attended!several!rehearsals.!!He!also!made!the!decision!to!ask!Basil!Coleman!and!John!Piper,!who!had!been!involved!with!the!original!stage!production,!to!work!on!the!television!opera!to!“ensure!television’s!fidelity!to!the!score”.24!!Despite!being!“puzzled”!by!the!twoSstudio!system!that!was!used!in!the!production!process,!25!Britten!was!pleased!with!the!final!opera,!writing!to!Coleman:*[T]hank!you!most!warmly!and!sincerely!for!what!you!did!for!Billy!Budd!last!week.!I!long,!of!course,!to!see!it!all!put!together,!but!I!think!I!saw!enough!to!judge!how!imaginative,!understanding!and!dramatic!you!had!made!the!whole!thing!–!and!against!such!obstacles!too!26!!This!television!production!of!Billy%Budd!prompted!Britten!to!begin!thinking!about!a!filmed!version!of!Peter%Grimes.!!As!he!wrote!to!Coleman:!!I!was!certainly!made!to!think!furiously!about!the!medium,!as!it!stands!now.!If!we!ever!do!a!piece!together!(&!I!hope!we!do)!we!must!certainly!have!a!long!talk!about!the!matter!well!in!advance!of!any!actually!planning.27!! I!have!been!thinking!a!lot!about!me!and!T.V.!(!).!I!do!really!think!that!my!next!job!with!you!all!should!be!this!film!of!Grimes.!I!think!that!with!Peter’s!performance,!your!understanding!of!the!piece,!and!me!around!not!yet!too!old!to!conduct,!we!ought!to!do!a!really!authoritative!record!of!how!we!like!it!to!go,!and!what!it!is!all!about.28!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!24!Barnes,!Television%Opera,!53.!25!Philip!Reed,!“Billy%Budd!on!television,”!in!Benjamin%Britten:%Billy%Budd,!ed.!Mervyn!Cooke!and!Philip!Reed!(New!York:!Cambridge!University!Press),!153.!26!Letter!from!Benjamin!Britten!to!Basil!Coleman,!September!12,!1966,!GBSALb.!27!Ibid.*28!Letter!from!Benjamin!Britten!to!Basil!Coleman,!April!24,!1967,!GBSALb.!! 19!Indeed,!Culshaw,!the!producer,!suggested!that!the!BBC!production!of!Billy%Budd%had!been!a!turning!point!for!Britten!in!regards!to!filmed!operas,!reassuring!him!that!a!television!opera!could!convey!the!intentions!of!the!opera!without!any!significant!loss!of!integrity.!According!to!Culshaw:!!The!BBC!production!of!Billy%Budd!two!years!earlier![before!Peter!Grimes]!had!proved!a!triumphant!artistic!success.!So!he!had!no!objection!whatsoever!to!a!television!production!of!Peter%Grimes,!except!that!he!himself!would!not!conduct.!And!it!seemed!to!me!that!we!were!about!to!miss!the!opportunity!of!a!lifeStime:!the!chance!to!record,!in!sound!and!vision,!a!contemporary!masterpiece!with!the!original!singer!–!Peter!Pears!–!in!the!title!role!and!with!the!composer!as!conductor.29!!Having!established!Britten’s!relationship!with!and!understanding!of!the!television!industry,!I!turn!to!his!views!of!physical!gesture!in!musical!productions.!!!One!of!his!core!values!in!his!productions!was!effective!communication,!illustrated!by!a!conversation!with!Peter!Garvie:!Garvie:!!Communication!is!important!to!you?!!Britten:!I!think!communication!is!for!me!entirely!important.!It!seems!to!me!that!there’s!no!point!having!great!thoughts!if!you!keep!them!to!yourself.30!!Britten!composed!in!an!illustrative!way!to!communicate,!sometimes!rather!obscure,!storySrelated!ideas.!For!example,!Interlude!IV!of!Peter%Grimes,!which!will!be!discussed,!uses!quotations!of!earlier!melodies!in!the!opera!to!illustrate!Grimes’s!character!and!personal!feelings.!!The!illustrative!quality!of!his!music!was!apparent!early!on!in!his!compositions,!including!his!works!for!film.!!For!example!in!Night%Mail:!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!29!John!Culshaw,!“Recording!for!Audio!and!Video!with!Benjamin!Britten;!By!John!Culshaw,”!draft!copy,!June!11,!1975!GBSALb.*30!Peter!Garvie,!Peter!Pears,!and!Benjamin!Britten,!“Britten!and!Pears!in!Canada,”!in!Britten%on%Music,!ed.!Paul!Kildea!(Oxford:!Oxford!University!Press,!2003),!213.!! 20![…]!the!commentary!suddenly!changes!from!factual!information!about!the!Edinburgh!mail!train!to!a!poetic!fantasy!of!its!journey.!Naturalistic!sounds!are!dropped!from!the!soundtrack!as!the!narration!of!Auden’s!poem!and!the!recording!of!Britten’s!economically!orchestrated!score!are!synchronized!with!the!motion!of!the!engine’s!wheels!and!coupling!rods.!The!fusion!of!these!three!elements!of!music,!image!and!voice!provided!the!most!imaginative!scoring!of!the!spoken!word!to!emerge!from!British!film!in!the!1930s![…].31!!Along!with!musical!illustration,!physical!gesture!is!also!essential!to!effective!communication!within!an!operatic!setting.!!Actors!and!actresses!use!gesture,!be!it!small!facial!movements!or!large!bodily!movements,!to!communicate!ideas!and!enhance!the!emotional!impact!of!the!words!that!they!are!speaking.!As!opera,!like!theatre,!involves!both!staged!actions!and!text,!gesture!has!a!direct!impact!on!how!well!the!audience!understands,!reacts!to,!and!connects!with!a!character.!!GoldinSMeadow!has!discussed!the!importance!of!gesture!in!communication,!stating!that!“[l]isteners!can!glean!specific!information!from!gestures.”32!She!later!goes!on!to!suggest!that!“gesture!can!help!listeners!secure!a!message!conveyed!in!speech!when!it!too!conveys!that!message.”33!!Through!opera!performers!making!gestures,!they!can!reinforce!the!meaning!of!the!words!of!the!libretto.!In!addition!to!reinforcing!text,!GoldinSMeadow!suggests!that!gestures!can!communicate!ideas!that!“are!often!different!from![those]!expressed!in!the!accompanying!speech.”34!Thus,!planned!gestures!can!enhance!the!depth!of!the!drama!being!performed!on!stage!by!adding!an!extra!layer!of!meaning!to!the!text.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!31!Jan!Swynnoe,!The%Best%Years%of%British%Film%Music,%1936H1958!(Woodbridge:!The!Boydell!Press,!2002),!135.!32!Susan!GoldinSMeadow,!Hearing%Gesture:%How%Our%Hands%Help%Us%Think!(Cambridge,!MA:!Harvard!University!Press,!2003),!82.!33!Ibid,!101.!34!Ibid,!243.!! 21!Britten!considered!acting!to!be!an!important!part!of!opera!productions,!stating!in!regards!to!the!performance!of!his!operas:!“I!want!singers!who!can!act.”35!In!an!article!regarding!the!composition!of!Midsummer%Night’s%Dream!he!wrote!“I!think!it’s!essential!for!every!potential!opera!singer!to!have!a!course!of!movement!in!an!opera!school.”36!!In!a!review!entitled!“Opera!Diary:!The!Marriage!of!Figaro,”!he!comments!on!gesture!in!a!1952!production!of!Mozart’s!Le%nozze%di%Figaro!and!dedicates!a!significant!portion!of!the!review!to!discussing!the!action!on!stage!–!the!set,!costumes,!singing,!and,!importantly,!the!acting.!!He!states!that!“[…]!there!was!energy!and!warmth!in!the!acting,!principally!from!Geraint!Evans,!who!was!vocally!and!dramatically!in!every!way!a!convincing!Figaro.”37!!This!application!of!his!awareness!of!the!singers!acting!on!stage!is!perhaps!clearest!in!John!Cranko’s!account!of!working!with!Britten!on!Prince%of%the%Pagodas!(1957).38!!!Cranko!states!“together!we!worked!out!a!sort!of!“shooting!script”!of!the!whole!ballet,!almost!as!if!we!were!planning!a!silent!film.”39!!Musicologist!Donald!Mitchell!notes!that!Britten!“often!imagined,!even!down!to!the!smallest!detail,!the!kind!of!physical!movement!or!action!that!should!accompany!it.”40!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!35!Benjamin!Britten,!“A!New!Britten!Opera,”!in!Britten%on%Music,%ed.!Paul!Kildea!(Oxford:!Oxford!University!Press,!2003),!188.!36!Ibid.!37!Benjamin!Britten,!“Opera!Diary:!The%Marriage%of%Figaro,”!in!Britten%on%Music,!ed.!Paul!Kildea!(Oxford:!Oxford!University!Press,!2003),!121.!38!Cranko!was!a!choreographer!for!the!Royal!Ballet!and!choreographed!the!premier!of!Prince%of%the%Pagodas!in!1957.*39!Benjamin!Britten,!Letters%From%a%Life:%The%Selected%Letters%of%Benjamin%Britten:%Volume%4:%1952H1957,!ed.!Philip!Reed!et!al.!(Woodbridge:!Boydell!Press,!2008),!487.!40!Taken!from!Philip!Reed,!“Finding!the!Right!Notes,”!in!The%Making%of%Peter%Grimes:%Essays%and%Studies,!ed.!Paul!Banks,!(Woodbridge:!The!Boydell!Press,!1996),!83.!!Original!source:!Donald!Mitchell,!“Britten!and!Pears:!A!Double!Portrait,”!in!Cradles%of%the%New:%Writings%on%Music%1951%–%1991,!ed.!Mervyn!Cooke!(London:!Faber!and!Faber,!1995),!486.!! 22!It!is!also!important!to!examine!Peter!Pears’s!approach!to!acting,!as!Pears!played!the!title!role!in!both!the!original!staged!production!of!Peter%Grimes!and!in!the!BBC!television!production.!!Understanding!Pears’s!acting!abilities!can!show!how!accurately!he!may!have!been!able!to!convey!Britten’s!intentions,!as!well!as!how!accurately!he!could!convey!Grimes’s!emotions.!!A!1967!letter!from!Basil!Coleman!discussed!Pears’s!role!in!a!production!of!the!opera!in!Montreal:!I!took!two!French!Canadians!to!‘Grimes’!last!night,!one!a!casting!director!with!the!CBC!in!Montreal,!the!other!a!friend!of!hers!and!a!CBC!producer.!Emma!is!highly!critical!of!actors!and!acting![…].![…]!their!admiration!for!Peter!was!complete.!Emma!was!deeply!moved!by!him,!specially!in!the!mad!scene,!and!had!never!seen!such!a!singingSacting!performance.!Peter!I!thought!had!grown!ever!since!the!first!performance!last!month,!and!was!truly!remarkable.41!!This!reaction!was!relatively!typical!of!critics’!view!of!Pears’s!performances!on!stage.!!For!example,!on!the!premier!of!the!stage!version!of!Billy%Budd,!Stephen!Williams,!writing!for!The%Evening%News!stated!that!“Peter!Pears’s!Captain!is!an!admirable!character!study.”42!Similarly!a!reporter!for!the!Sunday!Express!suggested!that!“[p]ersonal!successes!were!made!by!Frederick!Balberg,!as!the!villainous!masterSatSarms,!and!Peter!Pears!–!the!ship’s!captain.”43!Further!to!these!reviews,!it!is!apparent!that!Pears!thought!about!movement!in!the!operas,!as!shown!in!the!annotations!of!his!working!vocal!scores!of!both!Billy%!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!41!Letter!from!Basil!Coleman!to!Benjamin!Britten,!May!14,!1967,!GBSALb.!42!Newspaper!clipping!in!Theodor!Uppman’s!Billy!Budd!File,!Stephen!Williams,!“Brilliant!‘Budd,’”!The!Evening!News,!December!3,!1951,!GBSALb.*43!Newspaper!clipping!in!Theodor!Uppman’s!Billy!Budd!File,!Sunday%Express!reporter,!“Great!Britten!–!‘Billy!Budd!–!an!opera!for!men,”!December!2,!1951,!GBSALb.!! 23!Budd%and!Peter%Grimes,!both!of!which!are!held!in!the!BrittenSPears!Foundation!Archive!in!Aldeburgh.44!!!!! !!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!44!Britten,!Benjamin,!Billy%Budd:%Vocal%score,!vocal!score!by!Erwin!Stein,!libretto!by!E.M.!Forster!and!Eric!Crozier!(London:!Boosey!and!Hawkes,!1951),!GBSALb;!Britten,!Benjamin,!Peter%Grimes:%Vocal%Score,!vocal!score!by!Erwin!Stein,!libretto!by!Montague!Slater!(London:!Boosey!and!Hawkes,!1945),!GBSALb.!Example!1.1:!Image!of!the!Epilogue!in!Peter!Pears’s!annotated!vocal!score!of!Britten,!Billy%Budd,!page!343,!GBSALb.!©!Copyright!1951!by!Hawkes!&!Son!(London)!Ltd!Reproduced!by!permission!of!Boosey!&!Hawkes!Music!Publishers!Ltd.!Reproduced!by!permission!of!the!BrittenSPears!Foundation.!!! 24!Example!1.2:!Image!of!Peter!Pears’s!annotated!vocal!score!of!Britten’s!Peter%Grimes,!Act!II,!scene!ii,!page!241,!GBSALb.!!©!Copyright!1945!by!Boosey!&!Hawkes!Music!Publishers!Ltd!Reproduced!by!permission!of!Boosey!&!Hawkes!Music!Publishers!Ltd.!Reproduced!by!permission!of!the!BrittenSPears!Foundation.!Above!figure!56:!“sway!turn!to!pillar!and!–!see!jersey!–!take!it!–!hold!it”!!Above!the!third!stave:!“over!right!–!as!if!to!pull!off!boy’s!jersey!or!coat”!Above!the!end!of!the!first!measure!in!the!bottom!stave:!“[crossed!out]!goes!across!liftS”!Above!the!second!measure!in!the!bottom!stave:!“Pitch!over!to!boy”!Below!the!“Pitch!over!to!boy”:!“[crossed!out]!Pete!shrugs!and”!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!! 25!In!Example!1.1,!Pears!has!noted!above!the!score!“looking!into!fire.”!The!television!production!shows!him!performing!this!note,!suggesting!that!Pears!carefully!considered!the!effect!of!his!gestures,!particularly!when!they!coincided!with!poignant!moments!in!the!opera.!!Vere’s!looking!into!the!fire!is!such!a!moment,!as!the!opera!is!returning!to!Captain!Vere!as!an!old!man,!signifying!the!move!to!the!end!of!the!opera.!!The!rest!of!the!opera,!aside!from!his!opening!monologue!in!the!Prologue,!has!been!his!flashback!memory!of!the!events!on!the!H.M.S.!Indomitable.!!The!last!image!of!Vere!in!the!Prologue!before!his!recollection!was!him!turning!his!face!to!look!into!the!fire.!!By!returning!to!Vere!looking!into!the!fire,!the!production!suggests!that!flashback!is!over!and!thus!signals!that!the!opera!is!drawing!to!a!close.!!Indeed,!the!beginning!of!the!Epilogue!reinforces!the!importance!of!the!direction!of!Vere’s!gaze!by!opening!with!the!camera!pointing!at!the!fire!and!pulling!away!slowly.!!Vere!continues!to!look!into!the!fire!while!recounting!the!events!that!followed!Billy!Budd’s!death,!standing!and!turning!away!from!the!camera!only!when!he!mentions!the!ship’s!course!after!Billy’s!body!was!disposed!of.!!The!effect!of!Vere!standing!and!turning!away!from!the!camera!when!he!begins!talking!about!the!ship!makes!a!clear!distinction!between!his!personal!feelings!towards!Billy!and!his!official!role!on!the!ship.!!Vere’s!standing!coincides!with!the!introduction!of!a!new!orchestral!idea!heard!in!the!trumpets.!!This!suggests!that!Pears!was!intentionally!bringing!together!gesture!and!music!to!enhance!the!dramatic!effect!of!the!scene,!as!when!the!music!and!libretto!introduces!a!new!idea,!that!of!the!ship!and!his!official!duties,!Vere!physically!moves!and!changes!direction.!!! 26!Vere’s!standing!is!classed!as!a!gesture!within!Hatten’s!definition,!which!was!laid!out!in!the!Introduction,!as!it!is!a!movement!that!invites!interpretation!as!to!its!meaning.!!In!Hatten’s!words,!it!is!“affectively%loaded”:!his!standing!up!indicates!the!official!Vere,!while!sitting!down!was!the!private!Vere.45!!The!camera!plays!a!role!in!emphasizing!this!gesture!by!following!Vere’s!movements!in!a!shot!that!is!of!his!upperStorso!and!head.!!!By!staying!close!and!focusing!on!the!character,!we!are!forced!to!focus!on!his!movements,!rather!than!seeing!them!as!part!of!the!scene.!!!The!page!from!Pears’s!score!for!Peter%Grimes!further!demonstrates!his!careful!attention!to!detail!in!the!score.!Pears!makes!note!of!where!he!should!be!physically!in!relation!to!the!boy!and!the!stage!setting.!Below!the!note!“Pitch!over!to!boy”!is!written!and!crossed!out!“Peter!shrugs!and.”!!Evidently!Pears!was!so!aware!of!the!implications!of!his!physical!actions!that!he!carefully!planned!them!in!order!to!accurately!convey!Grimes’s!character.!!!From!these!annotations!it!is!apparent!that!Pears!was!not!only!interested!in!the!musical!aspects!of!the!score,!marking!up!notes!on!phrasing!and!pronunciation,!but!he!also!included!annotations!on!where!he!should!move!and!how!he!should!physically!react!to!events!around!him.46%As!demonstrated!in!the!example!from!Billy%Budd,!Pears!considered!the!gestures!to!make!them!fit!with!the!music.!This!is!further!demonstrated!in!the!Peter%Grimes!example!where!Pears!writes!“pitch!over!to!boy”!above!a!rapid!ascending!sequence.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!45!Robert!Hatten,!“A!Theory!of!Musical!Gesture!and!its!Application!in!Beethoven!and!Schubert,”!in!Music%and%Gesture,!ed.!Anthony!Gritten!and!Elaine!King!(Aldershot:!Ashgate,!2003),!3.!46!Pears!was!consistent!in!his!attention!to!marking!his!vocal!scores.!Christopher!Wintle!notes!his!use!of!marking!in!his!score!of!Death%in%Venice!with!the!same!types!of!notes.!He!states!that!Pears!used!them!“To!plan!stage!movements!in!advance!of!the!main!rehearsals![…]!To!handle!awkward!text!by!writing!out!words!and!phrases!and!occasionally!rewriting!them![…]!To!adjust!the!music!similarly![…]!To!secure!fidelity!to!the!source!(Mann’s!novella).”!Christopher!Wintle,!“The!DyeSline!Rehearsal!Scores!for!Death!in!Venice,”!in!Rethinking%Britten,!ed.!Philip!Rupprecht!(New!York:!Oxford!University!Press,!2013),!265S266.!! 27!The!gesture!suggests!a!rush!towards!the!top!of!the!sequence.!!This!is!imitated!in!the!television!version!of!the!opera!in!Pears’s!movements.!!At!this!point!he!plunges!towards!the!apprentice,!who!is!sitting!on!the!opposite!side!of!the!cabin!to!him,!and!attempts!to!violently!pull!his!collar!off.!One!element!of!television!operas!that!cannot!be!disregarded,!particularly!when!discussing!the!visual!aspects!of!a!production,!is!the!role!of!the!camera!in!enhancing!the!dramatic!impact!of!the!visual!image.!!In!a!staged!production!of!an!opera,!the!viewer!is!free!to!observe!all!areas!of!the!stage!at!any!one!time,!regardless!of!where!the!main!action!is!happening.!!However,!in!a!television!production!there!is!less!autonomy!given!to!the!audience,!as!the!camera!channels!the!attention!of!the!opera!viewer!by!allowing!them!to!only!look!at!what!the!director!wants!them!to!see.!!This!means!that!it!can!be!used!as!a!narrative!source,!the!camera!pointing!out!details!of!actions!that!may!escape!viewers!of!staged!operas.!!!Walter!Benjamin!likened!the!role!of!the!camera!to!that!of!a!surgeon’s!instrument:!Magician!is!to!surgeon!as!painter!is!to!cinematographer.!The!painter!maintains!in!his!work!a!natural!distance!from!reality,!whereas!the!cinematographer!penetrates!deeply!into!its!tissue.47!!This!analogy!suggests!that!the!camera!may!be!used!to!enhance!dramatic!events!and!heighten!the!viewers’!experience!of!the!story.!An!example!of!the!camera!being!used!to!do!this!may!be!seen!in!the!NBC!Opera!Company!production!of!Billy%Budd,!where!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!47!Walter!Benjamin,!“The!Work!of!Art!in!the!Age!of!Its!Technological!Reproducibility,”!in!The%Work%of%Art%in%the%Age%of%Its%Technological%Reproducibility%and%Other%Writings%on%Media,!ed.!Michael!Jennings!et!al.,!trans.!Edmund!Jephcott!et!al.!(Harvard:!Harvard!University!Press,!2008),!32.!! 28!elaborate!shots!replaced!Claggart’s!entire!Act!I!aria.!!Jennifer!Barnes!describes!the!cut:![T]he!most!controversial!cut![in!the!NBC!version!of!Billy%Budd],![is]!Claggart’s!entire!twelveSminute!aria,!in!which!the!MaserSatSArms!delineates!his!hatred!of!Budd!and!reveals!his!determination!to!destroy!him.!Instead,!Claggart’s!malevolence!is!expressed!in!two!closeSups,!one!of!his!face,!and!the!other,!clenching!his!whip!behind!his!back.!Each!shot!uses!lighting!to!create!ominous!shadows.48!!Instead!of!having!the!aria!in!the!production,!Samuel!Chotzinoff,!founder!of!the!NBC!Opera!Company,!felt!that!these!images!served!to!convey!what!the!aria!had!articulated,!stating!that!!“[t]he!camera!accomplished!in!a!few!seconds!what!the!aria!took!twelve!minutes!to!tells!us.”49!!Although!this!is!an!extreme!example,!as!it!involves!cutting!an!entire!aria,!it!demonstrates!the!power!that!the!camera!has!in!the!narration!and!enhancement!of!a!dramatic!story.!*Despite!the!dramatic!power!of!the!camera,!there!are!restrictions!involved!in!producing!an!opera!production!for!television.!!Theodore!Uppman,!who!had!performed!as!the!original!Budd,!“found!the!process![of!filming!the!NBC!Opera!Company!production!of!Billy%Budd]!dispiriting.”50!I!had!to!transpose!my!whole!performance!to!the!limits!of!the!TV!cameras!and!microphones.!On!the!stage,!I!had!felt!the!freedom!to!gesture!expansively!–!now!if!I!moved!my!arms,!I!was!told!I!was!going!out!of!shot.!I!couldn’t!take!proper!steps,!only!small,!measured!ones.!I!found!the!experience!confining!and!inhibiting.51!!After!the!1966!television!production!of!Billy%Budd,!Britten!himself!admitted!that!he!found!the!camera!a!difficult!way!of!creating!an!opera,!stating!in!a!letter!to!Basil!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!48!Barnes,!Television%Opera,!43.!49!Ibid.!50!Ibid,!44.!51!Ibid,!45.*! 29!Coleman!that!“it!is!a!medium!to!cope!with,!and!I!was!full!of!admiration!about!your!handing!of!those!legions!of!people!and!those!very!intractable!machines!”52!!However,!it!is!apparent!that!he!became!more!comfortable!with!the!medium.!!After!Peter%Grimes,!he!wrote!to!Coleman!proposing!the!production!of!Owen%Wingrave:!I’ve!come!to!the!conclusion!that!Myfanwy![Piper]!is!really!the!most!suitable.!I’ve!worked!very!well!with!her!in!the!past,!and!the!fact!that!she’s!had!no!television!experience!is!of!no!importance!since!that!side!of!it!will!come!from!you!and!me.53!!Having!examined!how!he!felt!about!physical!gesture,!it!is!necessary!to!consider!Britten’s!attitudes!to!composing!in!a!gestural!and!narrative!style.!!As!suggested,!his!scores!for!the!GPO!film!unit!gave!him!the!opportunity!to!compose!in!a!dramatic!style!that!enhanced!the!visual!image.!!In!his!later!works!it!is!apparent!that!Britten!maintained!his!illustrative!approach!to!composition,!Philip!Brett!suggesting!that!“[o]ne!of!the!greatest!strengths!of!the!opera![Peter%Grimes]!is!of!course!its!vivid!portrayal!of!the!moods!of!the!ocean.”54!!When!addressing!gesture!in!his!operas,!Britten’s!views!on!realism!in!opera!cannot!be!ignored!as!they!have!a!direct!impact!on!the!way!that!Peter%Grimes!was!filmed!and!performed.!!It!is!clear!from!his!comments!made!in!an!interview!with!British!scholar!Donald!Mitchell,!where!television!versions!of!opera!were!discussed,!that!he!did!not!want!it!to!be!too!realistic,!feeling!that!opera!was!an!artificial!art!form!that!should!be!treated!that!way.!!In!this!interview!Britten!discussed!his!views!on!the!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!52!Letter!from!Benjamin!Britten!to!Basil!Coleman,!September!12,!1966,!GBSALb.!!53!Letter!from!Benjamin!Britten!to!Basil!Coleman,!May!29,!1967,!GBSALb.!54!Philip!Brett,!“Britten!and!Grimes,”!in!Music%and%Sexuality%in%Britten,!ed.!George!Haggerty!(London:!University!of!California!Press,!2006),!14.!! 30!dangers!of!television!operas,!the!core!risk!being!that!of!the!opera!becoming!too!relatable!to!everySday!life:!I!have!seen!quite!a!few!television!versions!of!operas,!and!I!think!the!danger!can!easily!come!that!they!are!made![…]!too!reasonable,!too!realistic.55!!I!think!the!danger!can!come!that![television!operas]!are!made![…]!too!realistic.!And!then!one!asks![…]!why!in!the!blazes!people!are!singing!and!not!speaking.!You!have!got!to!keep!this!knifeSedged!balance!between!the!photography,!the!picture![…]!and!also!the!musical!excitement.56!!What!one!apologist!for!television!opera!said!to!me,!I!think!entirely!mistakenly,!that!the!greatest!praise!that!a!television!opera!can!have!was!that!the!viewer!forgot!that!it!was!opera!–!I’m!sure!that!is!the!greatest!mistake.!One!should!enjoy!it!because!it’s!opera.57!!These!statements!suggest!that!to!Britten!the!operatic!content!was!more!important!than!the!medium!through!which!it!was!conveyed.!!In!the!same!interview!Britten!reinforced!this!idea!of!the!need!to!move!away!from!realism:!Mitchell:![…]!so!what!you’re!saying,!Ben,!is!that!the!successful!television!opera!is!more!likely!to!succeed!in!so!far!as!specifically!musical!forms!in!a!sense!predominate,!and!the!drift!away!from!realism!is!pronounced?!Britten:!!!!Yes,!that’s!exactly!what!I!feel!about!it.58!!This!leads!us!to!the!question!of!how!Britten!felt!that!this!move!away!from!realism!could!be!achieved.!In!the!interview!with!Mitchell,!he!stated!that!in!order!to!ensure!that!Owen%Wingrave%was!not!too!realistic,!he!added!“arias!galore,”!believing!that!it!was!important!for!conventional!operatic!sections!to!be!apparent!in!the!production,!rather!than!constant!recitative,!which,!according!to!Britten!would!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!55!Mitchell!and!Britten,!“Mapreading,”!321.!56!Ibid.!57!Ibid,!323.!58!Ibid.!! 31!prompt!the!question!of!“[w]hy!in!the!blazes!is!he!singing!and!not!speaking?”59!Therefore,!his!concept!of!moving!away!from!realism!was!to!ensure!that!the!audience!was!aware!that!they!were!watching!an!opera!as!opposed!to!a!filmed!television!program!that!replicated!life.!!He!achieved!this!through!inserting!traditional!operatic!forms!to!make!the!scenes!and!music!adhere!to!a!rigid!structure!that!would!not!be!present!in!everyday!events!that!the!viewers!experienced.!!! This!chapter!has!demonstrated!that!Britten!felt!that!television!was!a!useful!educational!tool!and!saw!the!potential!in!it!as!a!way!of!communicating!his!operas!to!a!wide!audience.!!Having!examined!his!attitude!towards!his!television!operas!prior!to!Peter%Grimes,!I!have!also!shown!that!Britten!had!clear!ideas!in!regards!to!how!he!wanted!his!operas!to!be!conveyed!and!how!he!wanted!gesture!to!be!used!in!opera.!The!following!chapter!will!address!Britten’s!attitude!towards!the!character!of!Peter!Grimes!and!how!he!related!to!him.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!59!Ibid,!322,!323.!! 32!Chapter*2:*The*creation*of*Britten’s*Grimes*! Having!established!Britten’s!relationship!with!television!opera!and!his!views!on!gesture!in!opera,!I!will!now!consider!the!character!of!Peter!Grimes!that!was!present!in!Britten’s!opera.!!As!mentioned!previously,!Britten!began!working!on!the!concept!of!the!opera!in!1942!when!in!California.!On!securing!the!commission!from!the!Koussevitzky!Music!Foundation!in!1942,!he!returned!to!England!in!the!same!year!and!in!April!asked!Montagu!Slater!to!write!the!opera!libretto.!In!1944!he!began!working!on!the!music,!completing!it!in!February!1945.1!The!original!character!of!Peter!Grimes,!created!by!George!Crabbe!in!his!poem!The%Borough!(published!in!1810),!is!a!cruel!character,!with!his!“bullying,!sadistic,!and!murderous”!actions!towards!his!apprentices!and!those!living!in!the!Borough.2!!The!poem,!which!is!arranged!into!twentySfour!chapters,!tells,!among!others,!the!story!of!Peter!Grimes,!who!lives!in!the!Borough!and!works!as!a!fisherman.!!Chapter!XXII!discusses!Peter!Grimes!and!follows!his!life!from!his!youth!until!his!death.!!He!is!depicted!in!a!solely!negative!light,!a!man!of!brutal!actions!and!“cruel!soul.”3!!For!example,!lines!53S56!state:!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!1!For!a!more!detailed!timeline!of!the!process!involved!in!creating!the!opera!from!conception!to!premier,!see!Philip!Reed,!“A!‘Peter!Grimes’!Chronology,!1941S1945,”!in!The%Making%of%Peter%Grimes:%Essays%and%Studies,!ed.!Paul!Banks!(Woodbridge:!The!Boydell!Press,!2000).!2!Willard!Spiegelman,!“Peter!Grimes:!The!Development!of!a!Hero,”!Studies%in%Romanticism!25!(1986):!541.!3!George!Crabbe,!The%Borough,%Continued.%Occasional%Pieces.%The%world%of%dreams.%Tales!(London:!John!Murray,!Albemarle!Street,!1834),!41.!! 33!But!no!success!could!please!his!cruel!soul,!!He!wished!for!one!to!trouble!and!control;!!He!wanted!some!obedient!boy!to!stand!!And!bear!the!blow!of!his!outrageous!hand;!(XXII,!53S56)4!!Peter!Pears!remarked!that!the!original!Grimes!created!by!Crabbe!was!“quite!simply!an!unattractive!and!brutal!ruffian.”5!!However,!there!are!alternative!interpretations!of!the!character.!!For!example,!literary!critic!Willard!Spiegelman!argues!that!Britten’s!portrayal!of!Peter!Grimes!is!not!simply!a!faultless!version!of!Crabbe’s!absolutely!flawed!character.!He!instead!suggests!that!Crabbe’s!Peter!Grimes!is!not!totally!imperfect:!“Crabbe!has!not!painted!a!conventionally!preSByronic!hero;!rather,!the!vague!spirit!of!remorse,!of!wishing!to!fit!in!where!he!knows!he!will!never!be!accepted.”6!!Spiegelman!offers!the!example!of!Crabbe!implicating!Grimes!in!the!mistreatment!of!his!apprentices:!“two!workhouse!apprentices!appear,!are!mistreated,!and!eventually!die,!but!Crabbe!peculiarly!refrains!from!ever!incriminating!Grimes!with!more!than!circumstantial!evidence.”7!!Instead!of!assuming!that!Britten!and!librettist!Montagu!Slater!dramatically!changed!the!character,!Speigelman!suggests!that!Britten!merely!“smoothed!over!some!of!Crabbe’s!brutalities.”8!!It!is!clear!when!reading!Crabbe’s!work!that!Grimes!is!never!explicitly!involved!in!the!apprentices’!death,!suggesting!for!Spiegelman!that!this!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!4!Ibid.!5!Peter!Pears,!“Peter%Grimes!(1965),”!in!The%Making%of%Peter%Grimes:%Essays%and%Studies,!ed.!Paul!Banks!(Woodbridge:!The!Boydell!Press,!2000),!5.!6!Claire!Seymore,!The%Operas%of%Benjamin%Britten:%Expression%and%Evasion!(Woodbridge:!The!Boydell!Press,!2006),!46.!7!Ibid,!544.!8!Spiegelman,!“Peter!Grimes:!The!Development!of!a!Hero,”!553.!! 34!means!that!Crabbe!has!created!Peter!Grimes!to!be!“not!so!much!a!sadist!as!a!dreamer!incapable!of!regulating!the!violent!aspects!of!his!disposition.”9!!Yet,!although!there!are!alternative!interpretations!of!Grimes,!such!as!Spiegelman’s,!it!is!Britten!and!Pears’s!interpretation!of!the!character!that!we!must!understand,!as!this!was!the!character!that!they!were!attempting!to!convey!to!the!audience.!Britten!believed!that!he!had!changed!the!character!significantly!from!the!figure!in!Crabbe’s!work,!stating!that!“in!Peter%Grimes!I’m!quite!sure!Crabbe!would!not!have!approved!at!all!of!what!we!did!with!the!character!of!Peter!Grimes.”10!!He!perceived!the!character!in!the!opera!as!“a!character!of!vision!and!conflict,!the!tortured!idealist!he!is,!rather!than!the!villain!he!was!in!Crabbe.”11!!For!his!part,!Pears!believed!that!the!operatic!Grimes!was!“not!an!oldSfashioned!cruel!villain.”12!!According!to!Pears!in!an!interview!with!the!Radio%Times!on!March!8,!1946,!the!character!of!Grimes!in!Britten’s!opera!is!“not!a!sadist!nor!a!demonic!character,!and!the!music!quite!clearly!shows!that.”13!!He!emphasized!the!desire!for!the!audience!to!have!a!sympathetic!connection!with!the!character,!writing!that!“for!this!man![Grimes]!to!be!interesting,!he!must!be!sensitive,!must!suffer,!and!he!must!engage!the!interest!and!the!sympathy!of!the!audience!in!his!difficulties.”14*!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!9!Ibid.!10!Eric!Crozier,!E.M.!Forster,!and!Benjamin!Britten,!“Discussion!on!Billy%Budd,”!in!Britten%on%Music,%ed.!Paul!Kildea!(Oxford:!Oxford!University!Press,!2003),!207.!11!Raymond!Murray!Schafer!and!Benjamin!Britten,!“British!Composers!in!Interview:!Britten,”!in!Britten%on%Music,%ed.!Paul!Kildea!(Oxford:!Oxford!University!Press,!2003),!226.!12!Ibid.!13!Philip!Brett,!“Peter%Grimes:!The!Growth!of!the!Libretto,”!in!The%Making%of%Peter%Grimes:%Essays%and%Studies!ed.!Paul!Banks!(Woodbridge:!The!Boydell!Press,!2000),!73.!14!Pears,!“Peter%Grimes!(1965),”!5.!! 35!As!he!conveyed!in!a!1943!letter!to!musician!and!critic!Erwin!Stein,!Britten!wanted!this!more!sympathetic!image!of!Grimes:!!I!am!finding!lots!of!possibilities!of!improvement,!especially!the!character!of!Grimes!himself![…]!At!the!moment!he!is!just!a!pathological!case!–!no!reasons!&!not!many!symptoms!!He’s!got!to!be!changed!a!lot.15!!Britten!altered!the!character!so!as!to!fit!his!own!vision!of!a!misunderstood!outsider.!!When!speaking!with!Canadian!composer!Raymond!Murray!Schafer,!Britten!stated!that!“a!central!feeling!for!us![Britten!and!Pears]!was!that!of!the!individual!against!the!crowd,!with!ironic!overtones!for!our!situation.”16!!Outsider!characters!are!common!in!Britten’s!operatic!works.!!For!example,!in!Billy%Budd!the!character!of!Billy!is!presented!to!the!audience!as!a!wellSmeaning!character!with!a!speech!impediment,!which,!as!well!as!being!a!plot!device!leading!to!his!downfall,!evokes!sympathy!from!the!audience,!as!we!can!see!that!his!intentions!are!good,!but!as!a!result!of!the!speech!impediment,!his!actions!are!often!flawed.!!A!key!example!of!this!occurs!in!Act!II,!scene!ii,!when!Billy!is!questioned!by!TheSMasterSatSArms,!John!Claggart,!and!Captain!Vere,!regarding!the!planning!of!a!mutiny!on!the!ship.!!As!an!audience!we!are!aware!that!Billy!is!innocent!and!that!Claggart!is!attempting!to!frame!him!for!the!crime.!!However,!when!questioned!he!is!unable!to!respond!as!a!result!of!his!speech!impediment!and!physically!strikes!out!in!frustration,!killing!Claggart.!!Vere!believes!that!he!has!no!option!but!to!follow!the!law!and!sentence!Billy!to!death.!!Thus,!as!a!direct!result!of!his!speech!impediment,!which!he!cannot!overcome,!Billy!meets!his!downfall.!!As!Billy,!unlike!Peter!in!Peter%!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!15!Philip!Reed,!“A!Peter%Grimes!Chronology!1941S1945,”!in!The%Making%of%Peter%Grimes:%Essays%and%Studies!ed.!Paul!Banks!(Woodbridge:!The!Boydell!Press,!2000),!29.!16!Schafer!and!Britten,!“British!Composers!in!Interview:!Britten,”!226.%! 36!Grimes,!has!not!made!a!direct!appeal!to!us!as!an!audience,!we!feel!deep!sympathy,!but!not!empathy.!!Billy!does!not!meet!all!three!of!Coplan’s!conditions!laid!out!in!the!Introduction:!as!he!does!not!create!a!direct!attachment!with!the!audience!by!directly!addressing!us,!we!do!not!imagine!the!“target’s!situation,!experiences,!and!characteristics!as!though![we]!were!the!target.”17!In!Owen%Wingrave,!the!title!character!is!considered!a!weak!person!because!of!his!pacifism.!Owen!Wingrave!is!a!character!who!grows!up!in!a!military!family,!but!who,!in!contrast!to!his!family,!is!a!pacifist.!!This!conviction!leads!to!his!eventual!downfall,!after!he!attempts!to!prove!his!bravery!by!staying!in!a!room!that!is!haunted,!in!which!he!mysteriously!dies.!Britten!himself!was!a!societal!outsider.!In!his!own!life,!according!to!Paul!Kildea,!he!had!“the!appearance!of!belonging!to!Establishment!society!–!awards,!royal!patronage,!fiftiethSbirthday!tributes,!eventual!admittance!into!the!House!of!Lords,”!yet!in!reality!he!led!an!alternative!lifestyle!in!comparison!to!the!norm!in!Britain!at!the!time.18!!His!pacifist!conviction!was!perhaps!the!most!public!way!that!he!shunned!the!traditional!attitudes!that!were!prevalent!in!the!early!to!midStwentieth!century.!!During!the!Second!World!War,!Britten!registered!as!a!conscientious!objector!and!rejected!any!involvement!in!the!War.!!His!“Statement!to!the!Local!Tribunal!for!the!Registration!of!Conscientious!Objectors”!(1942)!suggested!that!he!believed!that!“there!is!in!every!man!the!spirit!of!God”!and!therefore!he!could!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!17!Amy!Coplan,!“Understanding!Empathy:!Its!Features!and!Effects,”!in!Empathy:%Philosophical%and%Psychological%Perspectives,!ed.!Amy!Coplan!and!Peter!Goldie!(New!York:!Oxford!University!Press,!2011).!18!Paul!Kildea,!“Britten,!Auden!and!‘otherness’,”!in!The%Cambridge%Companion%to%Benjamin%Britten,!ed.!Mervyn!Cooke!(Cambridge:!Cambridge!University!Press,!1999),!53.!! 37!not!“take!part!in!acts!of!destruction.”19!!This!type!of!attitude!led!to!hardships!for!some!during!the!Second!World!War!in!Britain.!!For!example,!according!to!the!Peace!Pledge!Union,!a!pacifist!organisation!founded!in!1934,!pacifisim!evoked!negative!reactions!in!Britain!during!this!time,!for!example,!the!BBC!“dismiss[ing]!all!its!conscientious!objector!staff.”20!As!an!active!member!of!the!Peace!Pledge!Union,!Britten!was!a!prominent!member!of!the!pacifist!community!and!he,!similar!to!Grimes,!encountered!negative!public!reactions!to!his!beliefs!and!lifestyle.!In!the!same!way!that!Grimes!was!shunned!for!leading!a!solitary!lifestyle!by!those!in!the!close!village!community!of!The!Borough,!Britten!was,!to!an!extent,!shunned!for!living!differently!from!those!who!took!an!active!part!in!the!War.!!A!letter!from!PilotSOfficer!E.!R.!Lewis!to!the!Musical%Times!states:!!The!favour!recently!shown!to!a!young!English!composer!now!in!America,!has,!to!my!knowledge,!caused!discontent!which!calls!for!notice![…]!Why!should!special!favour!be!given!to!works!which![…]!come!from!men!who!have!avoided!national!service?21!!!!While!composing!Peter%Grimes,!he!would!have!been!keenly!aware!of!the!negative!attitude!towards!pacifists,!having!recently!returned!from!America!where!he!had!lived!throughout!the!early!part!of!the!Second!World!War.22!!In!a!less!public!but!no!less!incisive!way,!Britten!was!rendered!an!outsider!by!his!homosexuality.!!He!and!Pears!were!partners,!and!homosexual!relationships!were!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!19!Benjamin!Britten,!“Statement!to!the!Local!Tribunal!for!the!Registration!of!Conscientious!Objectors,”!in!Britten%On%Music,!ed.!Paul!Kildea!(Oxford:!Oxford!University!Press,!2003),%40.!20!“British!Pacifism!in!World!War!Two,”!Peace!Pledge!Union,!accessed!June!26,!2014,!http://www.ppu.org.uk/pacifism/pacww2.html.!21!Humphrey!Carpenter,!Benjamin%Britten!A%Biography!(London:!Faber!and!Faber!Ltd,!1992),!152.!22!The!Second!World!War!lasted!from!1939!to!1945.!For!further!reading!on!Britten!in!the!Second!World!War,!see!Humphrey!Carpenter,!Benjamin%Britten%A%Biography!(London:!Faber!and!Faber!Ltd,!1992),!124S!220.!! 38!illegal!in!the!UK!until!1967.!!The!ban!on!homosexuality!was!lifted!in!this!year!as!a!result!of!the!United!Kingdom!Parliament!passing!the!“Sexual!Offenses!Act!1967.”23!!Although!Britten!and!Pears!lived!and!worked!together!for!over!three!decades,!it!seems!that!Britten!could!not!come!to!terms!with!his!homosexuality,!which!may!have!contributed!to!a!sense!of!being!a!social!outsider.!According!to!writer!Ronald!Duncan,!“[h]e![Britten]!remained!a!reluctant!homosexual,!a!man!in!flight!who!often!punished!others!for!the!sin!he!felt!he’d!committed!himself.”24!!According!to!novelist!and!journalist!Colin!MacInnes,!this!attitude!is!reflected!in!Peter%Grimes,!with!Grimes!being!“the!homosexual!hero.!The!melancholy!of!the!opera!is!the!melancholy!of!homosexuality.”25!!!Britten’s!personal!circumstances!may!therefore!answer!the!question!of!why!Britten!wanted!to!create!a!character!for!which!the!audience!could!feel!initially!sympathy!and!later!empathy.!It!seems!that!Britten’s!personal!relationship!with!Grimes!was!one!of!empathy!with!the!character!who!was!rejected!by!society!because!of!how!he!behaved,!but!who!also!had!the!desire!to!be!accepted.26!!Britten!would!have!felt!an!empathetic!connection!as,!in!line!with!the!definition!given!of!“empathy,”!he!felt!with!Grimes,!as!he!had!personal!experiences!of!Grimes’s!position!as!an!outcast.!!As!Britten!evidently!had!a!significant!personal!connection!with!the!themes!in!the!opera,!the!casting!of!Pears!as!Grimes!in!both!the!original!stage!production!and!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!23!“Sexual!Offences!Act,!1967,”!United!Kingdom!Government,!accessed!May!30,!2014,!http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1967/60/pdfs/ukpga_19670060_en.pdf.!24!Ronald!Duncan,!Working%with%Britten:%A%Personal%Memoir!(Rebel!Press,!1981),!28.!25!Philip!Brett,!“Britten’s!Dream,”!in!Musicology%and%Difference:%Gender%and%Sexuality%in%Music%Scholarship,!ed.!Ruth!Solie!(California:!University!of!California!Press),!264.!26!For!a!more!detailed!character!analysis!of!Grimes,!refer!to!Philip!Brett,!“Britten!and!Grimes,”!The%Musical%Times!118!(1977):!995S997!+!999S1000.!! 39!later!television!opera!was!an!important!choice!to!make,!as!he!was!required!to!convey!the!role!of!a!character!with!whom!Britten!felt!a!certain!empathetic!connection!with.!!Pears!had!a!distinct!interpretation!of!the!part,!which,!according!to!Seymore,!several!of!Britten’s!collaborators!objected!to:!Pears!was!chosen!for!the!title!role,![…]!he!was!considered!to!have!insufficient!stage!experience!and!to!lack!a!mode!of!‘heroic’!operatic!projection.!Britten,!however,!was!adamant!that!Pears!should!sing!the!part!of!Grimes.27!!Seymore’s!examination!of!the!portrayal!of!Peter!Grimes!by!Pears!and!Jon!Vickers,!a!Canadian!tenor,!analyzes!recordings!of!the!“What!harbor!shelters!peace”!monologue!in!Act!I.!!!She!suggests!that!“Pears’s!performance!is!more!deliberately!‘visionary’”!than!that!of!Vickers,!and!that!Pears’s!interpretation!is!lacking!an!“heroic”!vocal!quality.28!!The!suggestion!that!the!interpretation!lacked!an!“heroic”!quality!is!important!to!note,!as!it!suggests!that!Britten!did!not!want!to!create!a!hero!who!would!be!admired!by!audiences.!Instead,!the!character!of!Grimes!is!vulnerable,!making!him!an!object!of!empathy!for!the!audience.!It!is!apparent!that!Britten!had!Pears!in!mind!when!he!first!composed!Peter%Grimes.!Seymore!notes!that!he!wrote!to!Pears!on!11!February,!1944,!“I’m!writing!some!lovely!things!for!you!to!sing!–!I!write!every!note!with!your!heavenly!voice!in!my!head.”29!!She!argues!that!“clearly!the!role!was!shaped!by!Britten’s!artistic!and!emotional!response!to!Pears’s!voice!which!inspired,!embodied!and!could!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!27!Seymore,!The%Operas%of%Benjamin%Britten:%Expression%and%Evasion,!70,!72.!28!Ibid.!29%Benjamin!Britten,!“Letter!451,”!in!Letters%From%a%Life:%Selected%Letters%and%Diaries%of%Benjamin%Britten:%Volume%2:%1939H45,!ed.!Philip!Reed!et!al.!(Woodbridge:!The!Boydell!Press,!2004).!!! 40!communicate!Grimes’s!‘character.’”30!!This!would!suggest!that!Pears’s!interpretation!of!the!part!may!be!assumed!to!be!the!definitive!version!of!what!Britten!desired!the!role!to!contain,!certainly!in!terms!of!the!vocal!delivery.!Walter!Benjamin,!in!“The!Work!of!Art!in!the!Age!of!its!Technological!Reproducibility,”!discusses!the!separation!of!the!stage!actor!and!film!actor,!stating:!“[t]he!stage!actor!identifies!himself!with!a!role.!The!film!actor!very!often!is!denied!this!opportunity.”31!!This!suggests!that!the!film!actor!is!not!able!to!inhabit!as!fully!the!character!that!he!is!portraying.!However,!I!would!argue!that!the!separation!of!the!film!and!stage!actor!is!too!artificial!a!distinction,!with!the!case!of!Peter!Pears!playing!Grimes!being!an!example.!!With!this!television!production!of!the!opera!in!1969,!Pears’s!continuous!involvement!with!the!character!between!the!conception!of!the!opera!in!1941!and!his!final!performance!of!the!role!in!1969!must!be!taken!into!account!when!considering!the!extent!to!which!Pears!identified!with!the!character.!!The!deep!familiarity!with!the!part!that!Pears!had!is!apparent!from!the!television!production.!Pears’s!performance!in!1969!certainly!demonstrates!a!considerable!knowledge!of!the!part.!!On!the!most!basic!level!of!the!performance,!it!can!be!noted!that!Pears!does!not!make!the!audience!aware!that!they!are!observing!a!television!opera,!as!he!helps!the!audience!maintain!a!suspension!of!reality!through!not!watching!the!outSofSshot!Britten!conducting.32!!In!contrast!to!Pears,!it!is!evident!that!other!singers!who!did!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!30!Ibid.!31!Walter!Benjamin,!“The!Work!of!Art!in!the!Age!of!Its!Technological!Reproducibility,”!in!The%Work%of%Art%in%the%Age%of%Its%Technological%Reproducibility%and%Other%Writings%on%Media,!ed.!Michael!Jennings!et!al.,!trans.!Edmund!Jephcott!et!al.!(Harvard:!Harvard!University!Press,!2008),!32.!32!During!the!filming!of!the!opera,!Britten!conducted!the!orchestra!in!the!same!room!as!the!set.!! 41!not!know!their!parts!as!well!are!watching!Britten!conducting!off!set.!!For!example,!the!singer!playing!the!lawyer!Swallow!at!4:14!raises!his!eyes!to!look!offSset!in!order!to!watch!Britten.!!This!knowledge!would!have!enabled!Pears!to!fully!enter!into!the!part!of!Grimes,!as!he!knew!the!mindset!that!was!required!to!play!the!part.!In!addition,!Pears’s!own!experiences!as!an!homosexual!and!pacifist!probably!allowed!him!to!identify!with!Grimes!as!the!figure!of!the!social!outsider.!!From!the!evidence!presented!in!this!chapter,!it!is!apparent!that!Britten!identified!with!the!character!of!Grimes!and!intended!the!audience!to!see!him!and!empathise!with!him!as!a!tragic!character,!as!opposed!to!a!brutal!ruffian.!!Britten’s!composition!of!multiple!works!with!a!tragic!hero!as!the!main!character,!as!well!as!his!own!correspondence!and!interviews!suggesting!that!he!had!changed!Grimes!to!a!character!different!from!Crabbe’s!original,!lead!to!the!conclusion!that!he!had!a!fixed!idea!of!how!he!wanted!Grimes!to!be!portrayed,!something!which!Pears,!who!had!the!similar!mindSset!of!the!outsider!in!society,!could!convey.!!This!leads!to!the!need!to!examine!the!television!opera,!with!the!intention!of!seeing!how!Pears’s!gestures,!the!camera,!and!the!music!combine!to!represent!Britten’s!conception!of!the!character!and!the!audience’s!connection!with!him.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 42!Chapter*3:*The*Prologue:*The*creation*of*a*sympathetic*connection*through*the*interaction*between*gesture,*camera,*and*music*!! The!progression!of!the!television!production!of!the!opera!traces!a!gradual!increase!in!intensity!of!our!sympathetic!connection!with!Grimes.!!In!the!opening!Prologue!courtroom!scene,!a!sympathetic!connection!is!established!with!Grimes!as!we!observe!his!contrasting!public!and!private!personas!and!how!they!are!emphasized!through!gesture!and!camera!techniques.1!!This!chapter!will!demonstrate!how!these!public!and!private!gestures!help!create!and!develop!a!sympathetic!connection!between!the!viewer!and!Grimes.!!The!opera!opens!with!a!Prologue,!set!as!a!courtroom!scene!where!Grimes!is!being!tried!for!the!death!of!his!apprentice;!in!the!television!production,!however,!the!staging!shows!a!crowd!of!village!people!in!a!tiered!stall!at!the!back,!who!are!looking!down!on!the!witness!box.!!This!positioning!of!the!villagers!immediately!visually!pits!the!crowd!against!the!individual.!When!he!enters!after!being!summoned!by!the!lawyer!Swallow,!Grimes!stands!alone!in!the!witness!box!set!in!the!middle!of!the!scene,!his!physical!stance!suggesting!remorse!and!fear!of!retribution:!his!chin!is!dropped!down!on!his!chest!for!large!sections!of!the!scene,!with!his!eyes!focused!on!the!floor.!According!to!Rupprecht,!in!drafts!of!the!opera,!dating!from!around!1944,!court!scenes!were!a!prominent!feature!and!served!a!distinct!purpose!to!juxtapose!Grimes!with!the!villagers:!!Already!at!this!early!stage,!it!is!clear,!Britten!was!attracted!to!the!inherent!theatricality!of!the!courtroom!as!a!way!to!situate!Grimes,!in!a!highly!ritualized!and!formal!manner,!as!an!outsider!before!the!community.2!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!1!See!“Appendix!1”!for!a!table!of!gestures!throughout!the!scene.!2!Phillip!Rupprecht,!Britten’s%Musical%Language!(Cambridge:!Cambridge!University!Press,!2001),!38.!! 43!!Rupprecht!discusses!how!Grimes!is!musically!set!apart!from!the!crowd!in!the!Prologue:![T]he!two!words!of!hailing!–!“Peter!Grimes!”!–!do!more!than!announce!the!identity!of!the!witness!in!a!courtroom.!Set!to!the!music!of!this!opening![…],!the!delivery!of!Peter’s!name!interrupts!the!slightly!pompous!woodwind!tune!with!a!sudden!harmonic!and!rhythmic!swerve.3!!Even!the!tonal!centre!of!the!scene!is!skewed!when!Grimes!enters,!moving!from!a!BSflat!major!tonic,!representing!the!court,!to!an!E!tonic,!which!represents!Grimes’s!opposition!to!the!villagers.!!Brett!notes!that!this!forms!a!tritone!interval,!making!the!tonal!contrast!between!the!villagers!and!Grimes!uncomfortable!to!listen!to.4!!In!support!of!this!idea!of!the!courtroom!suggesting!the!opposition!between!Grimes!and!the!village,!Eric!Crozier,!the!director!of!the!original!1945!stage!production!of!Peter%Grimes,!stated!that!the!Prologue!was!intended!to!“illustrate!the!problem!of!Grimes’s!isolation!among!the!hostile!townsfolk.”5!!In!his!article!“Notes!on!the!Production!of!Benjamin!Britten’s!‘Peter!Grimes’”!Crozier!often!discusses!the!importance!of!the!crowd’s!movement!in!the!staged!production,!an!idea!which!no!doubt!would!have!been!transferred!to!the!BBC!television!production.6!When!discussing!physical!movement,!I!suggest!that!“large”!and!“small”!gestures!are!used!to!create!the!sympathetic!connection!with!Grimes.!Large!gestures!are!those!where!the!body!moves!or!takes!a!position!where!it!occupies!a!large!amount!of!space,!as!occurs!when!an!actor’s!arms!move!away!from!his!body,!or!the!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!3!Ibid!32.!4!Ibid!38.!5!Eric!Crozier,!“Notes!on!the!Production!of!Benjamin!Britten’s!‘Peter!Grimes,’”!in!The%Making%of%Peter%Grimes:%Essays%and%Studies,!ed.!Paul!Banks!(Woodbridge:!The!Boydell!Press,!2000),!8.!6!Ibid.!! 44!actor!running!across!a!space!in!the!set.!!Such!gestures!are!generally!associated!with!moments!when!Grimes!is!feeling!defensive,!frustrated,!or!aggressive.!!For!example,!when!Grimes!is!demanding!a!trial!from!the!lawyer,!Swallow,!he!pounds!his!fist!down!upon!the!table!(5:26).!!This!use!of!large!gestures!coordinates!with!one!of!GoldinSMeadow’s!theories!of!gesture.!!Although!she!does!not!name!them!in!a!category!of!gestures,!GoldinSMeadow!suggests!that!people!“gesture!more!when!the!task!becomes!difficult.”7!!In!the!context!of!Peter%Grimes,!Peter!Grimes!gestures!more!and!uses!faster!gestures!when!he!becomes!frustrated:!the!“difficult”!task!in!his!case!is,!in!keeping!with!GoldinSMeadow’s!theory!of!gesture,!that!of!living!as!an!outsider!alongside!the!villagers.!What!is!particularly!notable!about!Grimes’s!large!gestures!is!how!the!camera!captures!them!in!the!television!production.!!For!the!majority!of!the!scene,!the!camera!is!zoomed!out!in!order!to!give!a!wide!view!of!the!entire!set,!providing!us!with!the!clear!view!of!the!individual!Grimes!against!the!crowd.!Although!the!character’s!actions!are!unattractive!to!us!as!an!audience,!the!juxtaposition!of!Grimes!against!the!jeering!and!booing!crowd!evokes!a!certain!amount!of!sympathy!for!the!lone!figure!in!the!middle!of!the!set.!!The!camera!moves!to!slowly!pan!across!the!scene!and!change!perspective;!for!example,!at!1:11!it!begins!to!change!from!having!Grimes!and!Swallow!in!the!centre!of!the!shot!in!the!foreground!as!Grimes!swears!an!oath!and!the!crowd!in!the!background,!to!being!positioned!to!looking!diagonally!on!at!Grimes!with!Swallow!at!the!far!right!of!the!screen!(1:20).!!In!the!scene!there!are!multiple!changes!of!shots;!for!example,!there!is!a!closeSup!shot!of!Swallow!(1:21),!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!7!Susan!GoldinSMeadow,!Hearing%Gesture:%How%Our%Hands%Help%Us%Think!(Cambridge,!MA:!Harvard!University!Press,!2003),!166.!! 45!helping!the!viewer!identify!who!is!singing,!which!changes!seconds!later!to!a!shot!from!behind!Swallow,!looking!at!Grimes!face!on.!!The!shots!of!Grimes!can!be!placed!into!two!categories:!pulledSout!shots!to!emphasise!“large”!gestures!and!zoomedSin!shots!to!emphasis!“small”!ones.!!!The!latter!shots!in!particular!help!facilitate!a!sympathetic!connection!with!Grimes;!for!example,!there!is!a!closeSup!shot!of!Grimes’s!upper!torso!and!head!as!he!drops!his!chin!down!to!his!chest!and!takes!a!defensive!position!towards!Swallow,!who!is!describing!him!in!negative!terms!(3:53).!!This!shot!allows!us!to!observe!how!hurt!Grimes!is!by!Swallow’s!description,!particularly!as!we!are!able!to!see!the!expression!of!hurt!on!his!face.!!PulledSout!shots!can!also!help!create!a!sympathetic!connection!with!Grimes;!for!example,!there!is!a!pulled!out!shot!that!shows!Grimes!in!the!foreground!with!the!tiered!rows!of!the!villagers!gossiping!set!in!the!background!(2:05).!!The!shot!gives!the!viewer!the!impression!of!the!individual!against!the!crowd!and!therefore!encourages!sympathy!to!be!felt!towards!Grimes.!PulledSout!views!of!the!scene,!however,!also!give!the!viewers!the!image!of!Grimes!that!members!of!the!community!have.!We!see!from!the!perspective!of!the!crowd!who!dislike!the!character!of!Grimes.!Therefore!when!we!become!privy!to!the!more!intimate!side!of!Grimes,!which!is!revealed!at!various!points!in!the!opera,!particularly!when!he!is!with!Ellen!Orford,!we!become!aware!of!the!extent!to!which!the!village!is!mistaken!in!their!assumptions!regarding!Grimes.!!Yet,!we!are!also!informed!of!why!the!crowd!feels!negatively!towards!Grimes.!!In!essence,!Britten!is!having!us!understand!the!reaction!of!the!crowd,!while!at!the!same!time!revealing!this!reaction!to!be!largely!unfounded.!! 46!In!contrast,!“small”!gestures!are!those!that!involve!small!introverted!movements,!such!as!turning!the!head!slowly!or!taking!small!steps!when!moving!across!the!stage.!These!largely!occur!when!the!character!of!Grimes!feels!intimacy,!fear!or!sorrow.!!!For!example,!the!first!small!gesture!we!see!occurs!when!Swallow!is!describing!Grimes!as!“brutal,!callous!and!coarse”!to!Ellen!Orford,!who!Grimes!admires!(3:53).!!At!this!moment!he!slowly!drops!his!chin!down!onto!his!chest!and!turns!his!body!away!into!a!defensive!position,!away!from!Swallow.!!!Another!example!of!a!small!gesture!occurs!at!6:37,!when!Grimes!is!alone!after!being!confronted!by!the!villagers!at!the!trial!and!reflects!on!“the!truth.”!!A!third!example!of!a!small!gesture!in!this!scene!occurs!when!Grimes!slowly!reaches!out!to!hold!hands!with!Ellen!Orford!(7:49).!!These!smaller!gestures!help!create!a!sympathetic!connection!with!the!audience,!which!is!facilitated!by!the!use!of!the!camera.!!When!there!are!small!gestures!being!used,!such!as!at!6:37,!the!camera!zooms!in!and!focuses!on!the!head!and!upper!torso.!!This!camera!close!up!on!his!face!gives!us!a!sense!of!intimacy!with!Grimes.!!Instead!of!observing!Grimes!as!one!in!the!crowd!would,!as!we!do!when!he!makes!large!gestures,!we!get!to!see!the!gentler!side!of!Grimes,!one!that!only!Ellen!Orford!is!privy!to.!!Thus!we!are!encouraged!to!adopt!her!feelings!towards!Grimes,!those!of!sympathy,!as!we!see!Grimes!from!the!same!physical!perspective!as!her!through!closeSups.!!Gesture!also!emphasizes!the!continuous!separation!of!Grimes!from!society!through!physical!distance!between!him!and!the!other!members!of!the!village,!which!is!made!more!evident!in!the!television!opera!than!in!the!staged!opera!through!the!use!of!camera!shots.!!For!example,!in!Act!I,!scene!ii!when!Grimes!enters!the!pub,!his!! 47!distance!from!the!rest!of!the!village,!although!evident!in!a!stage!production,!is!made!clearer!with!distinct!camera!shots.!!The!shots!of!the!village!people!in!the!pub!alternate!with!shots!of!Grimes!framed!in!the!doorway,!with!occasional!long!shots!of!the!entire!scene.!!This!separation!is!also!shown!when!he!drinks!alone!at!his!own!table,!while!the!other!villagers!share!tables!in!the!tavern!(48:47).!!With!the!scene!being!filmed!from!a!raised!vantage!point,!Grimes!is!at!the!bottom!of!the!shot,!while!the!villagers!are!gathered!together!towards!the!top!of!the!shot.!!In!this!sense,!the!camera!acts!as!a!narrator!to!the!action,!as!it!cements!the!divide!between!Grimes!and!the!villagers!through!separating!them!with!alternate!shots!or!framing!them!in!such!a!way!as!to!suggest!a!physical!divide.!!In!addition!to!this!physical!divide,!Grimes!is!musically!set!apart!from!the!people!of!the!village.!!This!is!evident!from!the!first!time!that!he!is!summoned!by!Hobson!to!his!trial.!Rupprecht!states:!!The!delivery!of!Peter’s!name!interrupts!the!slightly!pompous!woodwind!tune!with!a!sudden!harmonic!and!rhythmic!swerve![…]!chromatic!pitches!pull!the!music!flatwards,!landing!the!phrase!rather!abruptly!on!Hobson’s!“Grimes!”!calls.!These!cut!across!the!previous!duple!meter!and!their!intonation!is!colored!by!an!alien!sounding!DSminor!triad,!superseding!the!bare!octaves!of!the!wind!tune!with!somber!conflation!of!chromatic!pitches!above!(DSsharp!in!the!flute!and!below!(the!sustained!GSsharp!in!the!bass).!A!form!of!the!opening!theme!returns!now!in!the!flute,!but!its!sound!is!spectral!and!distorted.!From!its!opening!moments,!the!opera!imbues!the!name!“Peter!Grimes”!alone!with!unsettling!disruptive!force.8!!This!type!of!musical!separation!of!Grimes!and!the!village!is!evident!at!other!moments!in!the!opera.!!It!is!used!most!starkly!in!the!tavern!scene!in!Act!I,!scene!ii,!during!which!Grimes!escapes!a!storm!by!entering!the!village!tavern!where!a!large!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!8!Rupprecht,!Britten’s%Musical%Language,!32.!! 48!Example!3.1:!The!first!half!of!the!villagers’!“Old!Joe”!melody!taken!from!Britten,!Peter%Grimes,!Act!I,!scene!ii,!pages!212S213.!©!Copyright!1963!by!Boosey!&!Hawkes!Music!Publishers!Ltd!Reproduced!by!permission!of!Boosey!&!Hawkes!Music!Publishers!Ltd!!!!number!of!villagers!are!also!sheltering.!!After!a!quarrel!breaks!out!among!the!villagers,!Captain!Balstrode!calls!for!someone!to!start!singing!a!song.!!Auntie,!the!landlady!of!the!village!tavern,!the!Boar,!and!Ned!Keene!the!apothecary,!begin!singing!a!round!together,!and!they!are!joined!in!the!song!by!the!rest!of!the!village!with!the!exception!of!Grimes.!As!the!song!is!started,!Grimes!is!positioned!in!the!foreground,!sitting!alone!on!a!stool!and!drinking!from!a!tankard!and!faced!away!from!the!crowd,!towards!the!camera!and!ignoring!his!fellow!villagers.!!Behind!him!the!rest!of!the!villagers!are!looking!towards!those!singing,!enjoying!their!song.!!Grimes!is!thus!separated!physically!from!the!villagers.!!!Midway!through!their!song,!Grimes!stands!from!his!stool!and!climbs!halfSway!up!the!stairs!that!are!situated!at!the!side!of!the!tavern!and!begins!singing!a!version!of!the!same!song!that!the!villagers!are!singing,!adding!new!lines,!such!as!“Oh!haul!away,”!and!adapting!what!has!been!sung!before,!but!out!of!sync!with!everyone!else.!!Example!3.1!demonstrates!the!villagers’!version!of!the!first!half!of!the!song,!while!Example!3.2!shows!Grimes’s!adaptation!of!the!music.!!!!!!!!!!!! 49!Example!3.2:!The!first!half!of!Grimes’s!“Old!Joe”!melody!taken!from!Britten,!Peter%Grimes,!Act!I,!scene!ii,!pages!216S217.!©!Copyright!1963!by!Boosey!&!Hawkes!Music!Publishers!Ltd!Reproduced!by!permission!of!Boosey!&!Hawkes!Music!Publishers!Ltd!!!!!!!!! !!! As!can!be!seen!when!comparing!Examples!3.1!and!3.2,!there!are!several!differences!between!the!two!versions,!which!enforce!the!idea!of!Grimes’s!differences!from!society.!!In!Grimes’s!version!he!expands!and!alters!the!melody,!making!it!last!double!the!duration!of!that!of!the!villagers!and!adapts!the!text,!making!the!story!about!himself!as!opposed!to!“Old!Joe.”!!The!ending!of!this!section!in!Grimes’s!version!is!distinctly!different!from!that!of!the!villagers,!both!in!text!and!melodically.!!The!villagers!finish!on!the!words!“and!found!them!a!shoal,”!which!is!a!positive!conclusion!for!the!“Old!Joe”!of!the!song.!!In!contrast,!Grimes!finishes!by!referencing!“Davy!Jones,”!who!in!nautical!mythology!is!a!“sea!devil,”!a!negative!conclusion!for!Grimes’s!own!version!of!the!first!phrase.9!!Musically,!he!finishes!on!a!rising!perfect!fourth,!making!the!first!phrase!feel!incomplete,!while!the!villagers’!version!of!the!song!ends!by!returning!to!the!tonic.!!The!surrounding!accompaniment!for!both!versions!is!also!different.!!When!the!villagers!are!singing!there!is!polyphony!with!all!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!9!The%Oxford%Companion%to%Ships%and%the%Sea!s.v.!“Davy!Jones,”!accessed!July!18,!2014,!http://www.oxfordreference.com.!! 50!parts!singing!in!a!round,!as!well!as!flourishes!in!the!woodwinds!and!the!timpani!playing!the!rhythm!of!the!melody.!!However,!when!Grimes!begins!to!sing!all!the!voices,!apart!from!the!chorus!who!sing!the!opening!“Old!Joe!has!gone!fishing”!on!monotone!unison!DSflats,!drop!out.!!The!only!instrumental!accompaniment!is!the!first!violins!and!violas,!which!also!play!unison!DSflats!in!the!same!rhythm!as!the!voices!and!sustained!thirds!in!the!bassoon.!!This!sudden!musical!change!echoes!the!directions!in!the!score!which!state:!“Peter’s!entry!upsets!the!course!of!the!round.”10!While!singing,!Grimes!performs!large!gestures,!like!throwing!!his!arm!out!and!swaying!his!upper!torso!(50:40).!!As!the!camera!pulls!out!from!Grimes!singing!to!a!shot!that!encompasses!the!villagers!(50:30),!the!viewer!notices!that!his!singing!is!disturbing!the!villagers,!who!keep!turning!their!heads!to!look!at!him,!or!try!to!ignore!him!by!turning!their!backs!on!him.!In!this!way,!Grimes’s!separation!from!the!villagers!is!emphasized!both!musically!and!physically.!Despite!the!rest!of!the!villagers’!dislike!of!Grimes,!Ellen!Orford!attempts!to!maintain!her!strong!friendship!with!him.!This!relationship,!unique!in!the!context!of!the!village!where!Grimes!is!almost!universally!disliked,!is!seen!most!clearly!in!the!duet!between!Ellen!and!Peter!at!the!end!of!the!Prologue.!!This!is!one!of!the!most!revealing!moments!in!the!scene!in!terms!of!Grimes!revealing!his!more!intimate,!less!aggressive!persona.11!!The!duet!begins!as!the!public!is!ushered!from!the!courtroom!and!Ellen!approaches!Grimes!to!talk!with!him.!!Grimes!at!first!reacts!by!walking!away!from!her!in!a!large!physical!gesture!in!a!manner!that!shows!the!“public”!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!10!Benjamin!Britten,!Peter%Grimes:%An%Opera%in%three%Acts%and%a%Prologue%derived%from%the%poem%of%George%Crabbe,!libretto!by!Montague!Slater!(London:!Boosey!&!Hawkes!Ltd.,!1963),!216.!11!See!from!6:37!in!“Appendix!1.”!! 51!persona!of!Grimes.12!!However,!as!Ellen!placates!him,!his!gestures!become!smaller!and!more!intimate,!slowly!reaching!out!to!hold!hands!with!her!(7:49).!!Although!there!are!no!stage!directions!in!the!score,!in!the!television!production!the!physical!interactions!between!Ellen!and!Grimes!are!enhanced!by!the!camera.!!Previously!in!the!scene,!few!closeSup!shots!feature!two!characters;!until!this!duet,!there!has!been!a!crowd!in!the!background,!suggesting!a!public,!as!opposed!to!private,!setting.!!By!contrasting!this!with!the!focus!on!the!two!characters!in!the!duet,!we!are!given!a!sense!of!the!closeness!of!their!relationship.!!The!closeSup!shot!also!exaggerates!their!“small”!gestures,!none!of!which!are!marked!in!the!score,!but!which!are!vital!in!showing!the!softer!side!of!Peter,!the!side!of!the!character!that!the!audience!sympathizes!with.!!For!example,!the!eye!contact!between!Ellen!and!Grimes!is!only!noticeable!because!of!the!closeSup!(8:20).!!In!addition!to!the!physical!portrayal!of!and!interaction!between!the!two!characters,!the!music!enhances!their!relationship!to!the!viewer.!Willard!Spiegelman!presents!an!analysis!of!this!duet!section!of!the!Prologue!in!his!article!“Peter!Grimes:!The!Development!of!a!Hero.”13!!Spiegelman’s!interpretation!demonstrates!how!the!movement!on!stage!can!dramatically!alter!the!interpretation!of!a!scene.!He!suggests!that!Grimes’s!F!minor!tonality!against!Ellen’s!E!major!tonality!indicates!conflict!between!the!characters,!stating!that!Grimes’s!“duet!with!Ellen![…]!pits!him!initially!against!her.”14!!The!resolution!of!this!bitonal!duet!to!the!unified!E!major,!Spiegelman!argues,!erases!this!tension!as!Grimes!has!been!“temporarily!won!over!to!her!tonic!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!12!7:45.!13!Willard!Spiegelman,!“Peter!Grimes:!The!Development!of!a!Hero,”!Studies%in%Romanticism!25!(1986):!541S560.!14!Ibid!554.!! 52!through!the!reconciling!mediation!of!ASflat!and!GSsharp.”15!!I!argue!that!his!physical!movements!and!gestures!do!not!create!the!impression!of!him!in!conflict!with!Ellen,!but!instead!show!him!reluctantly!trying!to!avoid!Ellen!in!order!to!protect!her!from!society’s!judgment.!!I!agree!with!Spiegelman!that!the!music!suggests!that!the!two!characters!are!not!united,!but!when!combined!with!the!physical!action!on!stage,!it!is!clear!that!Grimes!does!not!act!confrontationally!towards!her,!but!instead!avoids!her.!The!libretto!at!this!point!demonstrates!Grimes’s!attempts!to!dissuade!Ellen!from!supporting!him:! Grimes:!Where%the%walls%themselves%gossip%of%inquest!Ellen:!!!!!But%we’ll%gossip%too,%and%talk%and%rest%Grimes:!While%Peeping%Toms%nod%as%you%go…%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%You’ll%share%the%name%of%outlaw%too!%Ellen:!!!!!Peter%we%shall%restore%your%name%–%warmed%by%%%the%new%esteem%that%you%will%find…%Grimes:!Until%the%Borough%hate%poisons%your%mind%%This!section!demonstrates!that!Grimes!wants!to!avoid!Ellen!being!gossiped!about!and!persecuted!by!the!village!community,!rather!than!him!displaying!anger!towards!her.!!It!is!also!worth!noting!that!Grimes!never!makes!aggressive!movements!towards!Ellen,!which!we!see!him!do!earlier!in!the!same!scene!towards!Swallow.!Instead!any!large!gestures!that!he!makes!are!nonSconfrontational,!moving!away!from!Ellen!and!turning!away!from!her.!!The!moment!at!7:00!is!the!only!point!in!the!Prologue!where!we!see!Grimes!making!large!gestures,!which!would!ordinarily!suggest!anger!or!aggression,!with!the!shot!only!showing!his!upper!body.!!The!combination!of!a!large!gesture!with!a!camera!closeSup!normally!associated!with!a!small!gesture!gives!the!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!15!Ibid.!! 53!impression!of!Grimes!feeling!warmth!towards!Ellen,!yet!being!unable!to!express!it!through!small!gestures.!!The!tonal!progression!throughout!the!duet!demonstrates!the!move!towards!a!united!Ellen!and!Grimes.!!At!6:54,!as!Ellen!tries!to!comfort!him!by!stating!“but!we’ll!gossip!too,!and!talk!and!rest,”!Grimes!avoids!eye!contact!and!strides!away,!singing!about!his!anger!at!community,!stating!“While!Peeping!Toms!nod!as!you!go,!you’ll!share!the!name!of!outlaw,!too.”!!However,!as!Ellen!comforts!him!we!can!see!the!change!to!an!E!major!tonality!as!he!is!placated!by!her!words.!!!The!bitonality!that!represents!conflict!is!now!replaced!by!a!single!tonality.!!This!key!unification!emerges!gradually!over!this!passage.!!Example!3.1!reveals!the!musical!progression!from!the!characters’!conflict!to!a!united!Ellen!and!Grimes.!!Notably,!in!Britten’s!earlier!drafts!of!the!Prologue!the!characters!shared!the!same!E!major!key!signature!in!their!duet,!suggesting!that!he!intended!the!eventual!bitonality!to!serve!a!dramatic!and!musical!purpose.16!!In!the!duet!gesture!corresponds!with!the!music,!which!demonstrates!that!the!performers!were!aware!of!their!gestures!and!the!impact!that!they!would!have.!!The!characters’!opposing!keys!are!emphasized!in!the!way!they!move;!as!Grimes!strides!away!he!is!in!F!minor,!clashing!with!her!pleading!in!E!major.!!This!bitonality!remains!as!he!moves!towards!her,!turning!his!back!to!her!and!avoiding!eye!contact.!!During!these!actions,!the!camera!has!a!relatively!wide!shot,!imitating!the!distance!between!the!two!characters.!!However,!as!they!sing!against!each!other,!Grimes!gradually!turns!his!torso!to!face!Ellen,!reaching!for!her!hand!as!they!resolve!to!the!note!E.!!As!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!16!Philip!Reed,!“Finding!the!Right!Notes,”!in!The%Making%of%Peter%Grimes:%Essays%and%Studies,!ed.!Paul!Banks!(Woodbridge:!The!Boydell!Press,!2000),!99.!! 54!they!physically!and!emotionally!move!closer!together,!they!do!so!musically!as!well.!When!both!characters!sing!in!the!same!key!the!camera!zooms!in!as!close!as!possible,!keeping!both!Grimes!and!Ellen!in!the!shot.!This!close!shot!is!maintained!in!the!final!measures!of!the!scene!where!Ellen!and!Grimes!sing!in!unison.17!!As!a!result!of!the!camera!work,!there!is!a!sense!that!we!as!an!audience!are!sharing!this!intimate!moment!with!Grimes!and!Ellen,!particularly!as!we!are!able!to!observe!their!eye!contact,!which!is!an!intimate!action!that!can!only!be!observed!if!in!close!proximity!to!those!making!eye!contact.!!To!observe!this!connection!from!such!a!close!perspective!is!to!have!an!intimate!experience!of!their!relationship.!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!17!From!7:49!to!the!end!of!the!scene!at!8:34.!! 55!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Example!3.3:!Score!demonstrating!the!progressive!musical!unison!between!Ellen!and!Grimes!in!Britten,!Peter%Grimes,!page!26.!©!Copyright!1963!by!Boosey!&!Hawkes!Music!Publishers!Ltd!Reproduced!by!permission!of!Boosey!&!Hawkes!Music!Publishers!Ltd!!! 56!In!addition!to!this!reading!of!a!constant!struggle!to!achieve!the!same!key!that!is!apparent!in!the!score,!it!is!necessary!to!note!that!both!parts!are!approaching!the!same!key!all!the!time,!and!the!enharmonic!equivalents!are!being!used!throughout.!For!example,!on!the!fourth!system!of!the!score!in!Example!3.3,!Ellen!ends!her!phrase!on!a!GSsharp.!!Although!Grimes!is!in!a!different!key,!F!minor,!his!subsequent!phrase!ends!on!an!ASflat.!!!As!a!result!of!this!enharmonic!respelling,!the!listener!does!not!hear!as!strong!a!struggle!as!the!score!indicates.!!!However,!as!suggested,!visually!the!viewer!is!shown!the!conflict!through!the!gesture!of!the!two!singers!and!the!camera!techniques!that!narrate!their!conflict.!The!duet!is!one!of!the!crucial!moments!in!establishing!our!sympathetic!connection!with!Peter!Grimes.!!In!this!brief!section,!we!begin!to!understand!the!reasons!for!his!behavior!around!the!village!as!well!as!why!Ellen!has!a!personal!connection!with!him,!a!connection!that!we!as!the!audience!are!encouraged!to!form!with!the!character!of!Grimes.!In!contrast!to!Grimes,!Ellen!is!an!easily!likeable!character,!being!softly!spoken!towards!the!vulnerable,!such!as!the!apprentice!and!Grimes,!and!not!being!afraid!to!stand!up!against!the!crowd!of!angry!villagers.!By!giving!us!the!likeable!character!of!Ellen!as!our!role!model,!she!influences,!to!an!extent,!how!we!should!view!Grimes.!!This!chapter!has!examined!how!gesture,!music,!and!the!camera!interact!to!help!the!audience!have!a!sympathetic!connection!with!the!character!of!Peter!Grimes.!!It!has!laid!out!the!concepts!of!“large”!and!“small”!gestures,!and!the!implications!of!these!gestures!on!how!the!audience!reacts!to!Grimes.!!The!next!chapter!will!examine!! 57!Interlude!IV,!and!how!the!scene,!devoid!of!singing,!uses!gesture!and!music!to!enhance!the!audience’s!sympathetic!connection!with!Grimes.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 58!Chapter*4:*Interlude*IV:*Gesture*with*no*voice*Interlude!IV!follows!Act!II,!scene!i,!in!which!Ellen!confronts!Grimes!about!his!treatment!of!his!current!apprentice,!resulting!in!Grimes!striking!her!and!angrily!storming!away.!!It!leads!into!Act!II,!scene!ii,!which!takes!place!in!Grimes’s!hut,!at!the!end!of!which!the!boy!meets!his!death!by!falling!down!the!cliff!into!the!sea.!!The!fourth!Interlude!is!entitled!Passacaglia,!and!is!of!particular!note!in!the!BBC!production!as!it!deviates!in!terms!of!presentation!from!the!five!other!Interludes!in!the!opera!by!showing!a!silent!Grimes!and!his!apprentice!on!screen.!!In!contrast,!the!other!Interludes!feature!misty!overlays!with!changing!background!colours.!!This!presence!of!the!apprentice!and!Grimes!therefore!means!that!the!viewer!focuses!on!the!gestures!made!by!the!characters!as!opposed!to!the!vocal!elements!of!their!presence.!!Given!that!there!is!no!real!dramatic!action!in!the!Interlude,!we!are!able!to!look!solely!at!Grimes’s!gestures!towards!the!apprentice!and!realize!the!implications!of!his!gestures!alone!on!how!we!feel!about!the!character!and!how!well!we!understand!him!and!his!motivations.!!!The!film!of!the!Interlude!is!essentially!comprised!of!interchanging!closeSup!shots!of!Grimes!and!the!apprentice!walking!through!a!misty!setting!on!their!way!to!Grimes’s!hut.1!!During!stage!productions!of!the!opera,!the!Interludes!are!used!for!scene!changes;!for!example,!this!Interlude!falls!between!a!village!setting!and!Grimes’s!hut.!Indeed,!the!question!of!how!these!Interludes!were!to!be!treated!on!television!when!there!was!no!practical!need!for!them!was!an!issue!that!Basil!Coleman!raised!in!a!letter!to!Britten!on!May!14,!1967,!stating!“[I]!realized!the!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!1!See!“Appendix!2”!for!a!table!of!gestures!used!in!this!Interlude.!! 59!complexity!of!trying!to!realize!them!in!visual!terms.”2!!!As!Coleman!had!raised!the!issue!so!early!on,!it!suggests!that!Britten!would!have!been!aware!of!the!visual!element!of!the!Interludes!and!their!importance!in!the!visual!flow!of!the!television!production.!!Thus!it!is!necessary!to!question!why!this!scene!is!treated!differently!from!the!previous!Interludes!and!what!the!intentions!of!the!score!are.!!!The!use!of!gesture,!I!suggest,!is!intended!to!give!the!audience!an!insight!into!the!relationship!between!Grimes!and!the!apprentice,!as!well!as!Grimes’s!personal!feelings!towards!the!boy.!!Although!his!feelings!and!regrets!are!narrated!in!the!score!with!the!return!of!themes!from!earlier!scenes,!the!use!of!gestures!in!the!Interlude!makes!them!more!explicit!for!the!viewer.!!Although!the!filming!of!Interlude!IV!is!unique!in!the!fact!that!there!is!action!to!accompany!the!music,!it!is!worth!noting!that!all!six!Interludes!were!composed!programmatically!in!the!sense!that!Britten!had!a!fixed!image!in!mind!when!composing!them,!demonstrated!by!the!annotated!titles!that!they!were!given.!!For!example,!Interlude!I!was!“”EverySday,!grey!seascape.”3!!Philip!Reed!notes:!Britten!required!strikingly!concrete!images!on!which!to!focus!as!an!inital!stimulus!to!composition,!possibly!more!so!when,!as!in!the!purely!orchestral!interludes,!there!were!no!longer!any!words!to!sustain!the!narrative.4!!Reed’s!statement!both!gives!the!solution!as!to!why!Britten!titled!his!Interludes!and!provides!more!evidence!to!suggest!that!gesture!was!paramount!to!Britten!in!his!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!2!Letter!from!Basil!Coleman!to!Benjamin!Britten,!May!14,!1967,!GBSALb.!3!Philip!Reed,!“Finding!the!Right!Notes,”!in!The%Making%of%Peter%Grimes:%Essays%and%Studies,!ed.!Paul!Banks!(Woodbridge:!The!Boydell!Press,!2000),!81;!For!a!list!of!interludes!in!the!opera,!see!“Appendix!3.”!4!Ibid,!82.!! 60!compositional!process!and!trying!to!communicate!his!visual!and!dramatic!ideas!through!music.!!According!to!Claire!Seymore,!Interlude!IV!was!originally!to!be!entitled!“Boy’s!Suffering,”5!and!she!offers!the!following!musical!analysis!of!the!Interlude:!![the!bass!melody!is]!derived!from!Grimes’s!melodic!phrase!“God!have!mercy!upon!me”!and!the!chorus’s!related!melody,!“Grimes!is!at!his!exercise”.!The!counterSmelody,!played!by!the!viola,!represents!the!workhouse!boy.6!!!David!Matthews!suggests!that!“[t]he!frustration!of!Peter’s!hopes!is!implicit![in!this!melody].”7!He!points!to!the!thwarted!rising!intervals!that!occur!throughout!the!melody,!which!Seymore!describes!as!follows:!As!Grimes!aspires!to!a!more!lofty!future,!the!rising!pitch!and!widening!intervals!suggest!hope!and!optimism.!Moving!first!to!A!major!and!then!to!E!major,!the!increased!rhythmic!energy!implies!fulfillment.8!! These!readings!of!the!score!are!further!supported!by!Paul!Banks,!who!has!noted!that!in!Britten’s!own!copy!of!the!miniature!score!of!the!Passacaglia,!he!has!annotated!the!score.!!The!shots!in!the!television!production!reflect!this!musical!narrative.!!At!the!moment!the!boy!enters!the!scene,!the!viola!begins!its!melody,!linking!the!two!together.!!When!Grimes!is!first!shown!at!1:25:05,!in!the!strings!we!hear!rapidly!ascending!statements!that!accompany!Grimes!emerging!from!the!mist,!leading!into!forte!brass!statements.!!This!creates!a!vivid!contrast!between!the!accompanying!music!to!that!of!the!viola!melody!of!the!apprentice.!!It!is!apparent!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!5!Claire!Seymore,!The%Operas%of%Benjamin%Britten:%Expression%and%Evasion!(Woodbridge:!The!Boydell!Press,!2006),!53.!6!Ibid.!7!David!Matthews,!“Act!II!scene!i:!an!examination!of!the!music,”!in!Cambridge%Opera%Handbook:%Peter%Grimes,!ed.!Philip!Brett!(Cambridge:!Cambridge!University!Press,!1983),!145.!8!Seymore,!The%Operas%of%Benjamin%Britten,!53.!! 61!that!the!coordination!between!the!music!and!the!image!were!carefully!planned.!For!example,!as!Grimes!turns!and!changes!the!direction!in!which!he!is!walking!at!1:25:30,!the!music!shifts!from!rapid!string!scales!upwards!to!sustained!chords!in!the!flutes,!bassoons,!and!horns.!!This!Interlude!serves!to!reflect!Grimes’s!own!internal!battle.!!Matthews!states:![t]he!theme,!and!the!passacaglia!as!a!whole,!are!concerned![…]!with!the!conflicts!within!Grimes’s!own!personality.!The!relentless!emphasis!on!F!in!the!ground!bass![…]!refers!back!to!the!F!pedal!in!Peter’s!“creed.”!!The!bitonality!there!symbolized!the!gulf!between!Peter!and!Ellen;!here!the!tension!between!the!restlessly!modulating!counterSsubject!and!the!unyielding,!unchanging!bass!mirrors!the!two!conflicting!sides!of!Peter’s!nature,!his!visionary!aspirations!constantly!frustrated!by!his!obsessive,!selfSdestructive!will.9!!This!inner!turmoil!is!reflected!in!Grimes’s!gestures!and!facial!expressions.!His!repeated!looks!at!the!apprentice!are!evident!throughout,!often!with!a!puzzled!expression!on!his!face,!for!example!at!1:26:15!and!1:27:25.!!!Again,!the!conflict!is!evident!at!1:26:24,!when!Grimes!sees!something!in!the!distance!and!points!it!out!to!the!apprentice,!bending!down!to!be!at!the!boy’s!level.!!However,!as!Grimes!realizes!his!own!“small”!gesture!towards!the!apprentice,!he!straightens!up!and!his!smile!fades.!!Through!having!Grimes!interacting!with!the!boy!directly,!followed!by!physical!separation,!on!this!occasion!by!his!height,!the!scene!shows!the!contrast!between!Grimes’s!gentle!nature!and!his!public!cold!demeanor.!!Although!the!musical!narrative!is!evident!in!the!score!and!to!audience!members!who!have!a!grasp!of!the!musical!details!of!the!opera,!for!those!without!the!knowledge!of!the!score,!this!would!be!less!explicit.!!Therefore!the!television!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!9!Interlude!IV!takes!the!form!of!a!Passacaglia.!In!the!previous!scene,!Peter!and!Ellen!sing!above!the!chorus,!who!are!reciting!the!Creed!in!church;!Matthews,!“Act!II!scene!i:!an!examination!of!the!music,”!144.!! 62!production!serves!to!make!the!musical!narrative!clear!through!the!physical!gestures!of!Grimes!and!the!apprentice.!!This!change!from!previous!Interludes!of!featuring!characters!on!screen!indicates!that!Britten!wanted!us!to!know!more!about!Grimes’s!complex!character!and!have!sympathy!for!the!character.!At!this!point!in!the!opera,!the!exposure!of!the!audience!to!the!private!Grimes!and!a!reinforcement!of!our!sympathetic!connection!with!him!are!particularly!necessary.!!In!the!previous!scene,!the!sympathetic!connection!is!weakened!by!his!actions.!!Towards!the!beginning!of!the!scene,!Ellen!notices!that!the!apprentice!has!a!bruise!on!his!shoulder,!suggesting!that!Grimes!has!abused!his!apprentice.!!When!she!confronts!Grimes!about!his!treatment!of!the!boy,!concluding!that!they!have!“failed”!in!starting!a!new!life!for!themselves!together,!he!strikes!Ellen,!after!which!he!swiftly!leaves!with!the!apprentice.!!!These!two!events!make!the!audience!question!Grimes’s!character!and!lead!them!to!believe!that!he!may!be!a!character!with!no!redeeming!qualities.!!However,!through!this!Interlude!we!are!encouraged!to!adjust!our!views!of!Grimes!as!a!violent!man!by!observing!his!physical!interaction!with!the!apprentice.!!Although!the!apprentice!shows!his!fear!of!Grimes!throughout!the!Interlude!by!avoiding!eye!contact!and!holding!a!defensive,!hunched!position!when!walking!next!to!him,!Grimes!reveals!a!more!gentle,!caring!persona!around!the!boy.!For!example,!Grimes!bending!down!to!help!the!boy!up!when!he!falls!over!at!1:27:13!is!a!“small”!gesture!and!the!kindest!one!we!have!seen!him!perform,!reminiscent!of!Ellen’s!own!tender!treatment!of!the!boy.!!This!is!a!direct!contrast!to!his!violent!actions!in!the!previous!scene!and!serves!to!renew!our!faith!in!his!character.!!Other!gestures!that!Grimes!uses!that!suggest!tenderness!include!the!placement!of!his!hand!on!the!boy’s!! 63!shoulder!at!1:26:32!and!when!he!reaches!down!to!help!the!boy!up!after!he!has!fallen.!!These!gestures!are!classified!as!“small,”!as!they!are!performed!slowly!and!indicate!tenderness!as!opposed!to!aggression!towards!the!apprentice.!!!!!These!gestures!enforce!Grimes’s!vulnerability,!which!is!more!apparent!in!scenes!where!the!audience!sees!the!private!Grimes.!The!hesitation!with!which!Grimes!performs!small!gestures!in!this!Interlude!suggest!a!level!of!insecurity!that!evokes!sympathy!from!the!audience.!These!gestures!are!small!gestures!that!remind!the!audience!of!Grimes’s!interactions!with!Ellen!in!the!Prologue,!in!which!he!vocalized!his!sensitive!personal!feelings.!Thus!by!Grimes!performing!these!small!gestures,!the!audience!is!pushed!into!feeling!that!Grimes!is!behaving!sensitively!and!believing!that!his!intentions!are!positive!toward!the!apprentice,!as!they!were!to!Ellen!in!the!Prologue.!!This!contrast!with!the!violence!in!the!previous!scene!serves!to!remind!us!that!Grimes!is!a!multiSdimensional!character.!!!Grimes’s!hesitation!to!help!the!apprentice!also!reflects!the!idea!of!his!internal!conflict!discussed!earlier.!!!There!is!also!a!distinct!character!parallel!between!Grimes!and!the!apprentice,!with!the!boy!representing!Grimes’s!own!youth.!According!to!Seymore,!“his!presence!confronts!Grimes!with!his!own!former!innocence.”10!!This!connection!perhaps!accounts!for!Grimes’s!often!contemplative!countenance,!particularly!when!looking!at!the!boy,!the!proximity!of!the!camera!to!Grimes!shows!that!his!eyes!are!often!narrowed!and!he!appears!to!be!frowning!as!if!in!deep!thought.!!!Although!his!expression!in!itself!does!not!reveal!Grimes’s!internal!thoughts,!when!examined!in!conjunction!with!the!music!it!shows!that!he!is!contemplating!something.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!10!Seymore,!The%Operas%of%Benjamin%Britten,!50.!! 64!This!subtext!of!Grimes’s!thoughts!especially!comes!through!in!the!parallel!visual!imagery!between!the!apprentice!and!Grimes.!!The!two!characters!are!often!framed!by!the!camera!in!the!same!way,!with!just!their!heads!and!upper!torsos!being!shown.!Additionally,!their!entrances!and!exits!out!of!shot!are!often!mirrored.!!For!example,!the!Interlude!opens!with!the!apprentice!walking!through!the!mist!from!the!left!side!of!the!frame!with!his!upper!torso!and!head!showing.!!As!the!shot!cuts!to!Grimes,!we!can!see!that!the!same!entrance!is!used,!even!if!his!facial!expression!is!different!from!that!of!the!apprentice.!!Along!with!these!two!elements,!the!alternation!of!shots!of!the!two!characters!creates!a!visual!association!between!them.!!This!alternation!becomes!faster!towards!the!end!of!the!Interlude,!serving!to!both!build!the!intensity!of!the!scene!and!strengthen!the!visual!parallels!between!Grimes!and!the!apprentice.!!A!significant!element!of!the!scene!is!the!apprentice’s!reaction!to!Grimes’s!kind!gestures!towards!him.!!When!Grimes!moves!to!put!his!hand!on!his!shoulder!or!helps!him!up,!the!apprentice!reacts!by!rejecting!this!gesture,!moving!into!a!defensive!position,!or!looking!away!from!Grimes.!!Although!the!“large”!and!“small”!descriptions!of!gesture!mainly!apply!to!Grimes,!we!could!describe!the!gestures!made!by!the!apprentice!as!“small”!as!he!is!not!behaving!aggressively,!but!instead!trying!to!protect!himself.!!An!example!that!demonstrates!this!rejection!occurs!at!1:27:14,!when!the!apprentice!falls!and!Grimes!moves!to!help!him!up.!!Although!Grimes!is!actively!trying!to!help!him!up,!the!apprentice!moves!away!and!pulls!himself!up!without!aid.!!!Through!not!allowing!Grimes!to!help!him,!the!apprentice!represents!the!idea!that!Grimes!has!been!rejected!by!society!to!such!an!extent!that!! 65!he!cannot!redeem!himself,!as!no!one!will!be!able!to!forget!his!previous!wrongs.!!This!evokes!sympathy!from!the!audience!as!we!can!see!that!Grimes’s!intentions!are!good.!Indeed,!we!are!also!aware!of!how!unsure!Grimes!is!when!he!attempts!to!help!the!apprentice.!Instead!of!actively!picking!him!up,!Grimes!hovers!next!to!him!holding!out!his!arm!for!the!apprentice!to!take.!This!suggests!that!Grimes!is!nervous!of!exposing!his!private!self!to!anyone,!even!his!apprentice,!and!conveys!that!he!will!not!be!able!to!expose!his!private!self!to!the!village!and!therefore!he!will!never!gain!their!acceptance.!!Although!Grimes’s!actions!in!other!scenes!of!the!opera!suggest!that!he!is!not!one!to!act!kindly!towards!others,!his!concern!for!the!apprentice’s!welfare!is!confirmed!to!us!as!genuine!in!the!following!scene!where!he!cautions!the!boy,!who!is!about!to!climb!down!from!Grimes’s!hut!to!the!boat:!“Careful,!or!you’ll!break!your!neck.”!!He!is!only!distracted!from!looking!out!for!the!apprentice!by!a!knock!at!the!door!by!the!people!from!the!village,!who,!as!Philip!Brett!suggests,!are!thus!implicated!in!causing!the!boy!to!fall!to!his!death.11!Following!the!event!of!the!apprentice!falling!over!and!rejecting!Grimes’s!help,!there!is!a!rapid!progression!from!the!caring,!private!Grimes!to!the!public,!angry!Grimes!who!is!present!at!the!end!of!the!Interlude.!!His!dramatic!change!of!character!comes!with!a!change!in!the!character!of!the!music.!!In!the!section!that!corresponds!with!the!apprentice’s!falling!over,!the!oboes!and!clarinets!are!playing!repeated!staccato%and!piano!eighth!and!sixteenthSnotes!with!the!strings!playing!sustained!lines!and!the!horns!and!percussion!interjecting,!a!sense!of!anticipation!and!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!11!Philip!Brett,!“’Peter!Grimes’:!The!Growth!of!the!Libretto,”!in!The%Making%of%Peter%Grimes:%Essays%and%Studies,!ed.!Paul!Banks!(Woodbridge:!The!Boydell!Press,!2000),!64.!! 66!uncertainty.!!The!anticipation!is!resolved!in!the!music!with!Grimes’s!change!of!character,!with!rapid!ascending!scales!in!the!strings,!which!are!also!evident!with!Grimes’s!first!appearance!in!the!Interlude.!!Grimes’s!actions!become!brusquer,!implying!large!gestures.!!For!example,!he!quickly!changes!the!direction!that!he!is!walking!in!and!increases!his!walking!pace.!!Significantly,!he!stops!looking!at!the!apprentice,!focusing!his!attention!on!a!point!in!the!distance,!in!contrast!to!earlier!in!the!Interlude!when!the!camera!shows!that!his!visual!attention!is!largely!focused!on!the!apprentice.!!This!suggests!an!emotional!disconnect!between!the!two!characters,!despite!Grimes!being!willing!to!help!the!apprentice!earlier!in!the!scene.!!This!disconnect!is!significant!as!it!shows!the!distinction!between!the!public!and!private!Grimes.!When!Grimes!was!alone!with!the!apprentice!without!the!village!overshadowing!him,!he!was!able!to!show!a!more!caring,!intimate!persona.!!However,!as!he!returns!to!his!hut,!which!is!part!of!the!village,!his!public!aggressive!front!appears.!The!emotional!separation!turns!into!physical!separation!as!the!camera!only!focuses!on!the!apprentice!or!Grimes,!not!the!two!of!them!together.!In!contrast,!in!the!middle!of!the!Interlude!when!Grimes!was!performing!small!gestures,!the!apprentice!and!Grimes!were!frequently!in!the!same!shot!together.!!With!the!two!characters!in!one!shot,!the!audience!is!forced!into!identifying!one!with!the!other,!yet!by!separating!them!it!seems!that!they!have!no!direct!connection!with!one!another,!resulting!in!Grimes!returning!to!his!normal!public!persona!of!avoiding!connection!with!any!members!of!the!village.!!! 67!Essentially!this!Interlude,!although!having!no!scripted!action,!creates!a!distinct!narrative!arc!of!the!relationship!between!Grimes!and!the!apprentice,!conveyed!largely!through!physical!gesture!and!camera!shots.!The!arc!begins!with!Grimes!acting!indifferently!towards!the!apprentice,!only!focusing!on!his!end!goal!of!fishing.!!However,!as!the!Interlude!develops,!we!notice!that!Grimes!relates!to!the!boy!in!a!more!attentive!way!than!we!have!seen!before.!!Indeed,!he!attempts!to!create!a!connection!with!the!apprentice,!bending!down!and!pointing!into!the!distance.!!This!connection!develops,!and!Grimes’s!tenderness!is!revealed!in!full!as!he!attempts!to!help!the!apprentice!after!he!has!fallen!over.!!This!is!the!peak!of!the!narrative!arc!of!Grimes’s!and!the!apprentice’s!relationship,!as!Grimes!is!behaving!as!positively!as!he!has!up!to!this!point!towards!the!apprentice.!!However,!following!the!apprentice’s!rejection!of!Grimes’s!help,!Grimes!distances!himself!from!the!apprentice,!an!action!that!is!captured!in!particular!by!the!camera!shots.!!The!Interlude!concludes!with!Grimes!returning!to!his!persona!of!the!previous!scene,!acting!roughly!towards!the!apprentice.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 68!Chapter*5:*Act*III,*scene*ii:*The*emergence*of*an*empathetic*connection*! One!of!the!most!striking!moments!in!the!opera!occurs!in!Act!III,!scene!ii!when!Grimes!is!being!pursued!by!the!villagers!while!falling!into!a!state!of!madness.!!In!the!scene,!the!sympathetic!connection!between!the!audience!and!Grimes!is!strengthened!in!various!ways.!!For!one,!the!whole!community!is!chasing!him,!thus!making!him!not!just!an!outsider!but!also!a!victim!hunted!down!by!the!crowd.!!Therefore!we!feel!for!him!as!we!have!in!similar!situations!elsewhere!in!the!opera,!for!example,!the!Prologue.!!There!is!also!the!issue!of!Grimes!being!persecuted!for!something!that!he!did!not!do,!thus!making!the!viewers!object!to!the!crowd’s!actions!and!support!Grimes!in!the!conflict!between!him!and!the!village.!!Although!the!divide!between!Grimes!and!the!village!is!evident!throughout!the!opera,!this!scene!extends!our!emotional!connection!with!Grimes!to!such!a!level!that!we!feel!an!empathetic!connection!with!him.!!Instead!of!simply!feeling!sorry!for!the!character,!which!would!be!the!case!if!we!were!feeling!sympathy,!our!connection!becomes!such!that!we!begin!to!understand!Grimes’s!feelings!and!even!share!his!despair!at!his!situation,!meaning!that!we!are!feeling!empathy.!This!is!particularly!evident!in!the!“Truth”!segment,!which!will!be!discussed!shortly.!!In!order!to!discuss!the!scene,!which!is!rich!in!gestures,!it!is!most!effective!to!break!it!down!into!seven!segments:!Entrance,!Truth,!Madness,!Imagined!Ellen,!Anger,!Real!Ellen,!and!Resignation!to!Suicide.1!The!scene!begins!with!the!“Entrance,”!which!opens!as!a!continuation!of!Interlude!VI!with!the!shot!shrouded!in!mist!(2:07:22).!In!the!background!we!see!a!blurry!silhouette!of!Grimes!emerging!from!the!back!of!the!set,!while!the!chorus!of!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!1!See!“Appendix!4”!for!a!table!of!gestures!used!in!this!scene.!! 69!villagers!remains!invisible!but!can!be!heard!singing!“Grimes.”!!This!is!a!similar!effect!to!the!staged!version,!in!which!the!score!states!that!the!village!singers!should!be!off!stage.!!The!absence!of!the!physical!presence!of!the!chorus!leaves!ambiguity!to!whether!or!not!the!villagers!are!a!figment!of!his!imagination.!As!Grimes!emerges!out!of!the!mist,!we!notice!his!physical!weakness!in!both!his!language!and!his!gestures.!In!terms!of!the!libretto,!Grimes’s!madness!is!evident!through!the!fragmented!phrases!and!questions.!!As!there!are!no!onSstage!characters!to!answer!these!questions,!we!as!the!audience!of!the!opera!take!on!the!role!of!listener,!building!a!stronger!connection!with!Grimes;!thus!we!feel!as!though!he!is!addressing!us!directly.!!!His!physical!position,!directly!facing!the!camera,!enhances!this!connection.!!!The!text!evokes!sympathy!by!presenting!snippets!of!a!confused!train!of!thought.!For!example,!the!line!“Where’s!my!home?![…]!deep!in!calm!water”!is!followed!by!“water!will!drink!my!sorrows!dry.”!!These!statements!at!first!appear!to!make!little!sense,!as!they!do!not!discuss!the!events!occurring!in!the!opera.!!However,!the!text!gains!added!significance!towards!end!of!the!scene!when!it!becomes!apparent!that!Grimes!is!coming!to!the!realization!of!his!own!fate.!!This!is!a!kind!of!retrospective!sympathetic!connection;!through!the!content!of!the!scene,!we!can!reflect!upon!his!earlier!statements!and!attach!greater!meaning!to!them.!!As!well!as!the!content!of!his!speech!evoking!sympathy,!the!broken!recitative!style!of!delivery!suggests!his!unstable!mental!state.!!The!rapid!changes!between!different!vocal!timbres!in!successive!statements!also!convey!to!the!audience!that!Grimes!is!having!a!conversation!with!himself,!reinforcing!the!sense!of!madness.!! 70!This!“Entrance”!segment!is!littered!with!small!gestures,!which!Grimes!has!previously!only!used!at!times!of!tenderness!or!weakness!and!that!have!evoked!sympathy!from!the!audience.!!For!example,!he!leans!against!a!wooden!post!while!asking:!“What!is!home?”!(2:07:41).!!This!suggests!to!the!audience!Grimes’s!exhaustion!and!feeling!of!being!lost!and!is!in!stark!contrast!to!earlier!gestures!in!the!opera,!in!which!he!maintains!a!façade!of!not!caring!about!his!own!personal!position!within!society.!The!closeSup!shot!of!Grimes’s!face!with!his!eyes!half!closed!reinforces!this!sense!of!tiredness!and!fear.!!His!weakness!and!vulnerability,!which!strengthen!the!audiences’!sympathetic!connection!with!him,!are!enforced!by!attempts!to!make!large!gestures.!!At!various!points!when!the!chorus!is!heard!out!of!shot!searching!for!Grimes,!he!tries!to!physically!act!as!he!would!in!earlier!scenes!when!he!was!at!full!strength.!However,!he!is!so!physically!weak!that!he!cannot!realize!the!gestural!intention,!the!first!time!he!has!been!unable!to!keep!up!this!public!façade.!In!previous!scenes,!when!Grimes!has!attempted!a!large!gesture!to!show!anger!or!defense,!he!has!always!fulfilled!the!intention;!for!example,!in!banging!his!fist!on!a!table!or!turning!around!quickly!to!face!someone.!!However,!in!this!scene,!he!is!unable!to!do!this.!!For!example,!at!2:08:13!the!chorus!can!be!heard!singing!“Grimes,”!causing!him!to!open!his!eyes!wide!in!apparent!desperation!and!move!quickly!away!from!the!post.!However,!two!seconds!later!he!stumbles!and!falls!back!against!it.!!This!is!an!attempted!large!gesture!that!is!thwarted!by!his!physical!and!mental!incapacitation.!Instead!of!his!public!bravado,!we!see!him!cowering,!half!hidden!by!the!post.!!This!cowering!can!be!equated!to!a!small!gesture;!his!shoulders!are!hunched!and!his!body!is!protected!by!! 71!the!post,!a!gesture!that!makes!him!almost!childlike,!an!idea!that!becomes!more!evident!throughout!this!scene.!This!is!also!significant,!as!it!is!one!of!the!few!times!that!a!large!gesture!has!been!transformed!directly!into!a!small!gesture.!Grimes!rarely!shows!such!weakness!or!vulnerability,!both!physical!and!emotional,!converting!a!large!gesture!intention!into!a!small!gesture.!!An!empathetic!connection!is!firmly!established!in!the!following!“Truth”!section,!beginning!at!2:08:19.!!In!this!section,!Grimes!declares!his!innocence!in!contributing!to!the!deaths!of!his!apprentices.!!Although!this!is!significant,!what!is!most!striking!is!that!he!directly!addresses!us,!the!audience,!through!making!eye!contact!with!the!camera.!!Up!until!this!point!Grimes’s!gestures!have!been!erratic,!sometimes!eyes!wide!open!and!rolling!around,!sometimes!turning!his!head!slowly!and!half!closing!his!eyes.!!These!changes!demonstrate!to!the!audience!that!he!is!not!connecting!with!reality.!!Yet!at!2:08:19,!he!begins!his!statement!regarding!the!apprentices!by!singing!“[t]he!first!one!died.”!!!On!the!word!“died,”!he!looks!into!the!camera!lens,!as!if!making!eye!contact!with!the!audience.!!For!the!first!time!we!have!a!direct!connection!with!Grimes,!who!seems!to!be!acknowledging!us,!breaking!through!the!lens!and!links!us!directly!with!Grimes’s!emotions.!The!effect!of!this!connection!is!to!make!his!declaration!more!convincing,!as!it!has!been!stated!to!us,!and!the!direction!of!his!gaze!influences!our!connection!with!him.!Grimes’s!statement!regarding!the!deaths!of!his!apprentices!increases!his!vulnerability!to!the!audience,!as!he!is!connecting!with!us!on!a!personal!level!and!sharing!his!truth!to!us.!!!Even!though!he!is!mad,!rather!than!feeling!sorry!for!him!as!an!audience!watching!him,!we!are!now!directly!connected!with!him!on!a!human!! 72!level!and!at!this!point!feel!a!strong!empathetic,!as!opposed!to!sympathetic,!connection.!!The!result!of!the!direct!eye!contact!is!that!the!audience!is!drawn!more!deeply!into!the!drama.!!According!to!film!theorists!Thomas!Elsaesser!and!Malte!Hagener:!The!result![of!eye!contact]!is!a!“cinema!of!displeasure”!in!which!the!usual!subjectSeffects!of!plenitude!or!the!ideological!effects!of!illusionism!deriving!from!smooth!transitions!and!involvement!in!the!filmic!plot!are!foreclosed!or!denied.2!!In!other!words,!we!are!dragged!from!the!perspective!of!the!viewer!to!being!a!participant!in!the!drama.!Although!this!shift!is!uncomfortable,!it!also!changes!how!we!feel!about!Grimes.!!While!he!is!making!eye!contact!with!us,!we!feel!a!personal!connection,!as!opposed!to!having!the!position!of!an!observer.!!Arguably,!this!action!of!making!eye!contact!with!the!viewer!decisively!informs!us!that!Britten!believed!that!the!character!of!Grimes!as!created!by!Crabbe!had!no!direct!contribution!to!the!deaths!of!his!apprentices.!!To!make!such!a!decision!as!to!look!directly!into!the!camera!during!the!recounting!of!the!apprentices’!deaths!would!have!been!a!considered!and!carefully!planned!one,!with!the!expectation!that!this!action!would!add!weight!to!what!Grimes!was!saying.!This!decision!to!look!into!the!camera!forms!such!a!distinct!empathetic!connection!with!the!character!that,!as!Susan!Leigh!Foster!suggests!occurs!with!empathy,!the!viewer!feels!with!Grimes,!as!opposed!to!for!him.!!To!articulate!this!in!another!way,!at!the!beginning!of!the!opera!we!can!see!that!the!crowd!is!against!Grimes,!so!we!feel!sympathy!for!him.!!We!cannot!feel!empathy,!because!we!do!not!know!if!he!truly!deserves!their!scorn,!but!because!he!looks!weak,!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!2!Thomas!Elsaesser!and!Malte!Hagener,!Film%Theory:%An%Introduction%Through%the%Senses!(New!York:!Routledge,!2010),!93.!! 73!we!feel!sorry!for!him.!!However,!through!the!progression!of!the!opera,!we!get!to!know!Grimes!as!a!person,!rather!than!an!object!of!sympathy,!because!the!opera!shows!us!multiple!sides!of!his!personality,!such!as!his!caring,!vulnerable,!and!remorseful!traits.!Thus,!we!have!increasing!sympathy!for!him,!to!the!point!that,!when!Grimes!makes!a!direct!appeal!to!us!by!looking!us!in!the!eye!in!Act!III!Scene!ii,!we!feel!that!we!know!him!so!well!that!we!feel!empathy!for!him,!as!we!have!established!a!strong!enough!connection!that,!even!if!we!cannot!relate!to!the!situation!that!he!is!in,!we!can!relate!to!him!as!a!person.!!We!know!everything!that!he!has!been!through!to!such!a!degree!that!we!get!the!three!things!that!Coplan!suggests!are!necessary!for!empathy!to!be!felt:!“affective!matching,!otherSoriented!perspectiveStaking,!and!self–other!differentiation.”3!!This!segment!of!the!scene!clearly!demonstrates!how!the!intensity!of!the!audiences’!relationship!with!Grimes!is!far!greater!in!the!television!production!than!in!a!stage!production.!!This!is!where!the!potential!of!the!camera!is!realized;!Peter!Pears!as!Grimes!is!able!to!make!a!direct!connection!with!every!viewer.!!In!contrast,!the!singer!playing!Grimes!in!a!stage!production!cannot!maintain!this!connection!with!everyone,!as!he!is!looking!out!to!an!audience!of!many.!Through!Grimes!making!eyeScontact!with!the!camera!his!situation!becomes!more!personal!to!the!viewer.!!Thus,!although!in!a!stage!production!a!degree!of!sympathy!is!felt!for!Grimes!in!the!audience,!such!an!extreme!connection!that!evokes!empathy!from!an!audience!cannot!easily!be!achieved.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!3!Amy!Coplan,!“Understanding!Empathy:!Its!Features!and!Effects,”!in!Empathy:%Philosophical%and%Psychological%Perspectives!ed.!Amy!Coplan!and!Peter!Goldie!(New!York:!Oxford!University!Press,!2011),!6.!! 74!Madness!is!a!common!theme!throughout!this!scene,!with!Grimes!showing!various!symptoms!of!mental!instability,!including!facial!expressions,!inconsistently!paced!recitative,!and!rapid!changes!in!mental!and!physical!direction.!Grimes’s!madness!creates!a!sympathetic!connection!between!him!and!the!audience!in!much!the!same!way!as!his!love!duet!with!Ellen!does!in!the!Prologue:!it!demonstrates!his!vulnerability,!as!Pears’s!interpretation!of!madness!that!we!see!in!this!scene!is!a!vulnerable!madness!where!he!is!afraid!and!confused.!At!this!point,!it!is!necessary!to!consider!psychologist!George!Loewenstein’s!article,!“The!Scarecrow!and!the!Tin!Man:!The!vicissitudes!of!human!sympathy!and!caring,”!which!goes!some!way!to!attempt!to!explain!why!humans!feel!sympathy!for!the!vulnerable.4!Loewenstein!explores!different!causes!for!a!person!to!feel!sympathy!for!another!subject,!one!of!which!is!the!victim!being!an!“identifiable!victim.”5!!He!suggests!that!intense!visual!imagery!evokes!sympathy!that!“may!be!one!reason!why!successful!movies,!which!develop!stories!and!protagonists!in!a!highly!vivid!fashion,!evoke!so!much!sympathy,!even!for!fictitious!characters.”6!!In!the!case!of!Grimes,!he!is!clearly!mad,!and!is!thus!an!identifiable!victim.!This!scene!also!enhances!the!conflict!between!the!individual!and!the!crowd!that!has!been!present!throughout!the!opera!and!that!plays!a!role!in!his!eventual!madness.!!The!conflict!is!represented!in!various!ways,!with!Grimes!frequently!positioned!both!physically!and!musically!against!the!chorus!of!villagers.!!For!example,!in!the!Prologue!he!is!physically!separated!from!the!crowd!of!villagers!who!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!4!George!Loewenstein,!“The!Scarecrow!and!the!Tin!Man:!The!vicissitudes!of!human!sympathy!and!caring,”!Review%of%General%Psychology!11!(2007):!112S126.!5!Ibid,!118.!6!Ibid.!! 75!are!on!tiered!seating!together,!while!he!is!separated!as!an!individual!on!the!witness!stand.!Similarly,!he!is!separated!musically!from!the!chorus!in!Act!I!scene!ii!where!he!tries!to!overcome!the!crowd!in!their!singing!of!“Old!Joe!has!gone!fishing,”!during!which!Grimes!“distort[s]!each!of!its!three!tunes,!but!eventually!the!round!overwhelms!him.”7!!In!Act!III!scene!ii,!he!is!separated!both!physically!and!musically,!alone!in!the!mist!and!having!the!crowd!sing!as!one!calling!his!name.!!He!is!also!separated!from!the!villagers!by!virtue!of!singing!in!different!keys.!!This!opposition!evokes!the!sympathy!in!the!audience!that!has!been!created!in!the!more!explicit!scenes!of!division!between!Grimes!and!the!chorus,!such!as!the!two!previously!mentioned.!!Grimes’s!madness!is!physically!manifested!in!various!ways.!!When!considering!gestures!in!this!scene,!the!distinction!between!large!and!small!gestures!becomes!slightly!more!problematic!than!it!has!been!in!previous!scenes.!!The!lack!of!a!clear!distinction!between!small!and!large!gestures!both!stems!from!and!conveys!his!madness.!!For!example,!at!the!beginning!of!the!scene!at!2:07:34,!Grimes’s!face!pops!out!quickly!from!behind!a!wooden!post!while!the!chorus!are!singing!“Grimes.”!The!closeSup!shot!focuses!on!his!face,!but!his!gestures!are!quick,!suggesting!to!the!audience!that!something!is!wrong;!his!eyes!are!wide!and!he!looks!nervous.!This!is!the!first!contradiction!in!gestures!that!the!audience!have!seen!thus!far,!the!movements!are!small!in!terms!of!space!occupied,!but!large!in!the!sense!that!they!are!performed!quickly.!Thus!we!are!given!a!sense!of!Grimes’s!madness!through!his!unpredictability.!!Previously!we!could!interpret!his!mental!state!based!on!his!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!7!Hans!Keller,!“The!Story,!the!music!not!excluded,”!in!Cambridge%Opera%Handbook:%Peter%Grimes,!ed.!Philip!Brett!(Cambridge:!Cambridge!University!Press,!1983),!112.%! 76!gestures;!however,!we!are!now!unable!to!interpret!his!gestures!as!they!are!offering!contradictory!images!to!how!he!is!feeling.!!Throughout!the!scene,!the!camera!emphasizes!different!gestures!and,!to!an!extent,!narrates!his!madness.!Camera!closeSups!on!Grimes’s!face!create!a!stronger!sense!of!his!madness!for!the!audience.!For!example,!at!2:08:36!he!is!discussing!the!fate!of!a!third!apprentice,!a!subject!that!has!evoked!fear!and!sorrow!previously!when!he!is!sane,!but!through!the!closeSup!shot!of!the!camera,!it!is!clear!to!viewers!that!he!has!a!mad!grin!on!his!face.!!This!is!particularly!striking!as!at!no!previous!point!in!the!opera!have!we!seen!Grimes!wearing!a!smile!that!shows!his!teeth,!the!result!being!a!clear!demonstration!of!Grimes!not!being!in!a!“normal”!state!of!mind.!!Throughout!this!scene,!various!closeSup!shots!of!Grimes’s!face!show!gestures!that!would!not!be!perceptible!to!an!audience!in!a!theatre,!but!that!intensify!our!feelings!of!sympathy!towards!Grimes!by!illustrating!how!completely!madness!has!taken!hold!of!him.!!The!camera!also!emphasizes!changes!in!Grimes’s!character!as!he!moves!between!his!different!states!of!mind.!For!example,!during!the!“Truth”!segment,!the!camera!focuses!on!his!face!at!2:08:37.!However,!as!he!suddenly!changes!character!to!mimic!Swallow’s!pronouncement!on!the!death!of!his!apprentices,!the!camera!changes!angle!and!distance!from!Grimes.!!The!effect!of!this!change!in!perspective!is!to!emphasize!Grimes’s!change!of!character.!As!well!as!physical!gesture,!Grimes’s!madness!is!also!conveyed!through!music.!!According!to!Rupprecht:!!The!scene’s!madness,!musically!speaking,!is!an!effect!of!fragmentary!verbal!and!melodic!quotations,!continuing!the!pattern!! 77!of!wordless!leitmotivic!returns!in!Interlude!VI!(and,!more!distantly,!the!“dreams”!of!the!Act!2!hut!scene).8!!This!use!of!quotations!mirrors!Grimes’s!speech!and!physical!gestures:!erratic!and!unpredictable.!In!his!speech!he!continuously!quotes!ideas!from!different!parts!of!the!opera!and!different!characters,!just!as!the!music!does.!Additionally!Grimes’s!style!of!recitative,!the!ever!changing!and!unpredictable!pacing!of!his!words,!is!mirrored!in!the!constant!movement!between!semitones!in!the!accompaniment,!which!further!enhances!the!instability!of!his!voice.!Also!in!this!scene!is!the!idea!of!the!crowd!against!the!individual,!a!theme!that!echoes!the!Prologue!where!Grimes!is!set!against!the!crowd.!In!this!scene,!he!is!also!set!against!the!villagers!musically!with!what!Rupprecht!describes!as!the!“tonal!resistance”!of!the!crowd.9!!Grimes!is!musically!overpowered!by!the!villagers!and!is!forced!to!resolve!to!the!note!that!they!are!singing!in!the!background.!The!resolution!that!he!is!unable!to!counteract!the!will!of!the!village,!no!matter!how!much!he!wants!to.*! We!are!also!able!to!visibly!see!how!Grimes!reacts!to!the!villagers!as!when!he!imitates!their!speech!he!uses!large!gestures,!for!example!when!he!states!“Now!is!the!gossip!put!on!trial.”!!While!singing!this!line,!Grimes!swiftly!ascends!the!stairs!with!his!arms!waving!wildly;!mimicking!this!large!gesture,!the!camera!moves!swiftly!up!to!follow!him!up!the!stairs.!!The!effect!of!this!camera!movement!is!to!emphasize!his!large!gestures.!!As!suggested!in!Chapter!3,!large!gestures!include!moving!quickly!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!8!Rupprecht,!Britten’s%Musical%Language,!68.!9!Ibid,!69.!! 78!and!thus!by!the!camera!moving!quickly!to!follow!Grimes,!the!camera!is!in!effect!making!a!large!gesture!to!enhance!Grimes’s!movement.!In!the!next!segment,!“Imagined!Ellen,”!beginning!at!2:10:18,!we!see!Grimes!in!imaginary!conversation!with!Ellen,!whom!he!believes!to!be!standing!in!front!of!him.!We!recognize!his!change!in!mental!focus!from!the!villagers!to!Ellen!as!he!cries!“Ellen!”!before!stumbling!forward!down!a!step!with!his!hands!outstretched!and!using!a!soft!vocal!timbre.!At!this!point!the!camera!shot!changes!to!look!at!Grimes!face!on!as!Grimes!himself!physically!turns!90!degrees!and!stumbles!towards!the!camera,!his!actual!physical!direction!changing!as!his!mood!does.!!The!use!of!slower!gestures!in!this!section,!classed!as!small!gestures,!is!in!contrast!to!his!large!gesture!of!striking!Ellen!in!Act!II!Scene!i,!an!action!that!took!place!in!a!public!location,!the!village!square.!!By!using!small!gestures,!the!idea!that!Grimes!has!a!softer!private!persona!that!he!does!not!allow!the!villagers!to!see!is!reinforced.!However,!there!is!a!rapid!change!in!his!feelings!from!tender!love!to!anger!towards!his!imaginary!Ellen.!This!section!is!of!particular!note!because!of!the!sustained!emotion!and!the!contrast!it!shows!to!his!later!feelings!towards!Ellen.!!He!begins!his!angry!rave!with!“To!hell!with!all!your!mercy.”!!This!rant!is!accompanied!by!his!public!large!gestures.!It!seems!that!the!villagers!singing!his!name!in!the!background!again!provoke!this!reaction.!!As!before,!we!can!observe!how!Grimes!changes!when!he!believes!that!he!is!in!the!public!domain.!!The!move!into!the!“Real!Ellen”!segment!is!engineered!through!camera!closeSup!and!angle.!!The!shot!is!of!Grimes’s!head,!which!is!slumped!forward!with!his!eyes!moving.!!On!hearing!Ellen’s!voice!out!of!shot!we,!the!viewers,!realize!that!she!is!! 79!present.!!Grimes,!however,!apparently!does!not!hear!her!because!of!his!madness,!an!obliviousness!that!deepens!our!sympathetic!connection!with!him.!!Everything!that!he!has!expressed!a!desire!for!in!his!madness!is!happening:!he!is!alone!with!Ellen!comforting!him,!and!yet!he!cannot!mentally!register!this!event.!!The!use!of!the!camera!at!this!point!is!significant!in!building!a!sympathetic!bond.!!As!it!zooms!tightly!on!to!his!face,!we!feel!closely!connected!with!Grimes!and!have!a!glimpse!of!his!mental!world.!!Although!he!does!not!react!to!Ellen’s!singing!to!him,!he!always!responds!to!the!voices!of!the!crowd.!!Thus!we!can!see!that!Grimes!is!doomed!to!be!unhappy:!from!his!lack!of!reaction!to!her!voice!it!seems!that!he!cannot!hear!Ellen,!who!he!loves,!singing!to!him,!but!is!aware!of!the!villagers!hunting!him.!!!Here!it!is!necessary!to!discuss!Rupprecht’s!analysis!of!this!final!scene,!which!demonstrates!the!incompleteness!of!scholarship!on!this!work!that!this!thesis!is!attempting!to!address.!!He!states:!His!early!confusion!of!pronoun!deixes!–!“his!.!.!.!my!sorrows!.!.!.!Here!you!are!!Here!I!am!”!–!complicates!the!issue!of!who!he!is!addressing.!One!of!only!two!questions!he!asks!in!the!scene!would!appear!to!be!directed,!as!in!soliloquy,!at!the!theatre!audience!rather!than!the!Chorus:!“Do!you!hear!them!all!shouting!my!name?”!(were!he!merely!talking!to!himself,!he!would!say!“shouting!your!name”).10!!From!analysis!of!the!libretto!alone!this!is!indeed!a!problem,!we!cannot!know!for!certain!whom!Grimes!is!addressing.!However,!by!looking!at!the!television!production!we!can!confirm!what!Rupprecht!can!only!guess:!Grimes!is!directly!addressing!the!audience.!!!In!this!way!the!television!production!illuminates!the!opera,!making!ambiguous!events!have!clear!meanings.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!10!Ibid,!71.!! 80!The!final!segment!of!this!scene,!“Resignation!to!Suicide,”!is!where!Balstrode!tells!Grimes!to!take!his!ship!out!to!sea!and!sink!it.!Although!the!situation!itself!demands!sympathy!from!the!audience,!perhaps!one!of!the!most!striking!things!that!enforces!the!sympathetic!connection!here!is!Grimes’s!performance!of!childlike!gestures.!!For!example,!at!2:15:07!he!allows!himself!to!be!led!away,!holding!his!arms!close!to!his!body!with!hands!slightly!extended!out!front!as!if!to!steady!himself.!!This!conveys!vulnerability,!which,!as!has!been!suggested,!creates!a!sympathetic!connection.!!The!medium!of!television!in!this!segment!also!intensifies!this!sympathetic!connection.!With!the!camera,!we!are!able!again!to!see!closeSup!views!of!the!characters’!faces.!!In!Grimes’s!case!we!can!see!the!lack!of!focus!of!his!eyes!as!Balstrode!is!talking!to!him.!This!is!in!contrast!to!earlier!in!the!opera,!when!Grimes’s!gaze!is!always!directed!with!focus!at!the!subject!that!he!is!observing.!!Therefore!this!suggests!a!lack!of!both!mental!and!physical!focus.!!Thus!far!in!the!opera!there!have!been!standard!techniques!used!to!evoke!sympathy!from!the!audience;!however,!a!new!device!is!used!to!reach!the!peak!of!dramatic!and!sympathetic!intensity:!the!sudden!introduction!of!seconds!of!silence!before!Balstrode!tells!Grimes!to!sink!his!ship.!!This!is!a!moment!of!immense!import!and!stands!out!to!the!audience!for!two!reasons.!First,!is!that!this!is!the!one!time!in!the!opera!that!oral!communication!has!taken!the!form!of!speech!as!opposed!to!singing.!This!gives!added!gravitas!to!the!words!that!Balstrode!is!speaking.!!The!second!reason!is!that!the!music!stops!for!the!first!time!in!the!opera.!Up!until!this!point!there!has!been!continuous!music!with!the!Interludes!bridging!gaps!between!acts,!thus!the!silence!is!striking,!particularly!in!this!filmed!version!where!there!are!! 81!no!intervals.!This!break!in!the!musical!narrative!is!deeply!uncomfortable!as!the!momentum!of!the!opera!that!has!been!created!through!continuous!music!and!thematic!repetition!has!stopped.!!By!moving!away!from!singing!and!music,!the!event!of!Grimes!being!told!to!drown!himself!becomes!more!realistic!and!deviates!from!the!operatic!world!that!has!been!created.!As!discussed!in!this!chapter,!gestures!Act!III,!scene!ii!are!used!to!great!effect!to!enhance!the!dramatic!impact!of!Grimes’s!madness!and!draw!the!audience!into!Grimes’s!madness.!!In!this!scene!in!particular,!the!cameraSwork!is!of!utmost!importance,!as!it!plays!a!significant!role!in!enhancing!gestures!and!enabling!an!empathetic!connection!to!be!established!between!Grimes!and!the!audience!when!he!makes!his!statement!regarding!the!apprentices,!a!connection!that!does!not!occur!at!any!other!point!in!the!production.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!*****! 82!Conclusion*! As!demonstrated!by!the!Broadcast!Audience!Research!Board!statistics,!television!grew!in!popularity!in!the!UK!during!Britten’s!lifetime.1!!Given!his!early!experience!as!a!composer!for!films,!Britten!saw!potential!in!the!use!of!television!for!broadcasting!his!operas.!!Through!the!use!of!camera!angles!and!closeSups,!television!as!a!medium!can!be!employed!to!intensify!the!dramatic!and!emotional!impact!of!an!opera!by!creating!physical!and!psychological!vantage!points!that!are!not!possible!to!such!a!degree!in!stage!productions.!!In!this!production!of!Peter%Grimes,!an!example!of!this!is!seen!when!Grimes!makes!direct!eyeScontact!with!the!viewer.!As!suggested!in!Chapter!5,!this!connection!with!every!viewer!is!not!possible!in!stage!productions,!and!thus!the!viewer!of!staged!productions!cannot!achieve!such!an!intimate!connection!with!Grimes.!!!Through!the!analyses!of!three!separate!scenes!of!the!television!production,!this!thesis!demonstrates!that!gesture!was!a!considered!element!of!this!production,!with!evidence!that!both!Britten!and!Pears!thought!about!gesture!in!opera.!!The!considered!gestures!used!contribute!to!the!sympathetic!and!empathetic!connection!that!the!audience!has!with!Peter!Grimes.!!It!is!clear!from!correspondence,!interviews,!and!writings!that!for!Britten!gesture!was!an!important!element!of!operatic!productions.!!It!is!also!apparent!from!the!annotations!in!Pears’s!scores!that!he!thought!about!gesture!in!terms!of!how!it!would!enhance!his!performance.!!This!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!1!“Television!ownership!in!private!domestic!households!1956S2013!(millions),”!Broadcaster!Audience!Research!Board,!accessed!May!27,!2014,!http://www.barb.co.uk/resources/tvSfacts/tvSownership.!! 83!interest!from!Britten!and!Pears!in!gesture!is!significant!considering!the!extent!of!their!input!into!the!production.!Through!the!analyses!of!three!separate!scenes!of!the!television!production,!this!thesis!has!demonstrated!that!a!sympathetic!connection!is!created!and!strengthened!throughout!the!opera,!until!the!final!scene!when,!through!direct!interaction!with!the!audience,!an!empathetic!connection!is!forged.!!Gesture!plays!a!key!role!in!building!both!types!of!connections!by!revealing!Grimes’s!vulnerability!to!the!audience.!!Most!significantly,!the!use!of!different!gestures!for!the!public!and!private!Grimes!enable!us!to!connect!with!the!character.!!!When!he!performs!“small”!gestures,!we!can!see!his!private,!gentle!side,!which!most!often!appears!in!scenes!with!Ellen.!!Yet!when!confronted!by!the!villagers,!his!public!personality!emerges,!demonstrated!in!part!by!his!“large”!gestures.!!!For!example,!when!Grimes!is!accused!by!the!village!people!of!murder!in!the!opening!Prologue,!he!performs!“large”!gestures.!!However,!when!he!is!alone!with!Ellen!immediately!following!the!trial!he!performs!“small”!gestures.!The!medium!of!television!cannot!be!ignored!when!examining!the!sympathetic!and!empathetic!connection,!as!it!intensifies!gestures,!and!their!implications,!that!may!be!present!in!a!staged!version!of!the!opera.!!Through!closeSup!shots,!such!as!those!during!Grimes!and!Ellen’s!duet!in!the!Prologue,!the!viewer!is!able!to!see!the!facial!expressions!and!eyeScontact!between!the!characters!which!emphasises!the!intensity!of!their!emotions.!!Thus,!the!1969!television!production!of!Peter%Grimes,!although!not!reinventing!the!character,!intensifies!the!viewer’s!experience!of!the!! 84!opera!and!Grimes’s!gestures,!therefore!creating!a!strong!sympathetic!and!empathetic!connection!with!Peter!Grimes.!!******************************************! 85!Bibliography*Primary!Source!Material!*Film!Britten,!Benjamin.!Billy%Budd.!DVD.!Directed!by!Basil!Coleman.!1966;!London;!Decca,!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!2009.!!!Britten,!Benjamin.!Peter%Grimes.!DVD.!Directed!by!Brian!Large.!1969;!London;!!!!!!Universal!Classics!and!Jazz,!2008.!!*Britten,!Benjamin.!Owen%Wingrave.!DVD.!Directed!by!Brian!Large!and!Colin!Graham.!!!!!!!1971;!London;!Decca,!2009.!!Musical!Score!Britten,!Britten,!Billy%Budd:%An%Opera%in%Two%Acts:%1961%Revised%Version.!Libretto!by!!!!!!!E.M.!Forster!and!Eric!Crozier.!London:!Boosey!&!Hawkes!Ltd.,!1985.!!Britten,!Benjamin.!Billy%Budd:%Vocal%score.!Vocal!Score!by!Erwin!Stein.!Libretto!by!!!!!!!E.M.!Forster!and!Eric!Crozier.!London:!Boosey!and!Hawkes,!1961.!!Britten,!Britten,!Peter%Grimes:%An%Opera%in%three%Acts%and%a%Prologue%derived%from%the%%%%%%%poem%of%George%Crabbe.!Libretto!by!Montague!Slater.!London:!Boosey!&!Hawkes,!!!!!!!!1963.!!Britten,!Benjamin.!Peter%Grimes:%Vocal%Score.!Vocal!Score!by!Erwin!Stein.!Libretto!by!!!!!!!Montague!Slater.!London:!Boosey!and!Hawkes,!1945**BrittenSPears!Archive!(GBSALb)!Anglia%Television%Correspondence:!File:!BP/1/245!3 Letter!from!Aubrey!Buxton!to!Benjamin!Britten.!9!July!1962!3 Letter!from!Benjamin!Britten!to!Aubrey!Buxton.!2!August!1962!3 Letter!from!Brian!Connell!to!Benjamin!Britten.!4!April!1972!3 Letter!from!Rosamund!Strode,!Assistant!to!Benjamin!Britten.!12!April!1972!3 Letter!from!Benjamin!Britten!to!Anglia!Television.!9!August!1961!*Associated%Rediffusion%LTD:!File:!BP/1/388!3 Letter!from!Boris!Ford,!Head!of!School!Broadcasting!to!Benjamin!Britten.!10!!!!!!!April!1957!3 Letter!from!Boris!Ford!to!Benjamin!Britten.!12!July!1957!3 TV!Times!statement.!25!October!1957!3 Letter!from!Peter!Morley!to!Benjamin!Britten.!4!November!1960!3 Letter!from!Benjamin!Britten!to!Peter!Morley.!12!November!1960!3 Letter!from!Peter!Morley!to!Benjamin!Britten.!8!December!1960!3 Letter!from!Peter!Morley!to!Benjamin!Britten.!6!January!1961!**! 86!BBC%Correspondence%with%Britten:!File:!No!file!reference!3 Letter!from!Benjamin!Britten!to!Mr.!CrossleySHolland.!29!July!1960!3 Letter!from!Benjamin!Britten!to!Lionel!Salter.!14!November!1961!3 Letter!from!Benjamin!Britten!to!Lionel!Salter.!6!December!1961!3 Letter!with!rehearsal!schedule!for!Billy%Budd!attached!from!Basil!Coleman!to!!!!!!!!Benjamin!Britten.!22!July!1966!3 Letter!from!Sydney!Newman!(Head!of!Drama!Group!Television)!to!Benjamin!!!!!!!Britten.!13!December!1966!3 Letter!from!Gerald!Savory!(Head!of!Plays,!Drama,!Television)!to!Benjamin!!!!!!!Britten.!8!December!1966!3 Letter!from!David!Attenborough!to!Benjamin!Britten.!22!July!1968!3 Letter!to!David!Attenborough!from!Benjamin!Britten.!13!August!1968!3 Letter!from!John!Culshaw!to!Colin!Graham,!with!a!copy!for!Benjamin!Britten.!8!August!!!!!!!1968!3 Letter!from!John!Culshaw!to!Benjamin!Britten.!1!November!1968!3 Letter!from!John!Culshaw!to!(unnamedS!assumed!general!cast!members).!4!!!!!!!December!1968!3 Memorandum!of!Amendment!Dated!5!May!1969!3 Peter!Grimes!revised!Rehearsal!Schedule!–!Issue!No.2,!25!January!1969!3 Letter!from!Curtis!W.!Davis,!Director!of!Cultural!Programs!(National!!!!!!!Educational!Television,!New!York)!to!Benjamin!Britten.!19!December!!!!!!!1969!!Correspondence%with%Basil%Coleman:!File:!No!file!reference!S Letter!from!Basil!Coleman!to!Benjamin!Britten.!!26!August!1949!S Letter!from!Basil!Coleman!to!Benjamin!Britten.!!13!March!1951!S Letter!from!Basil!Coleman!to!Benjamin!Britten.!15!September!1952!S Letter!from!Basil!Coleman!to!Benjamin!Britten.!17!August!1953!S Letter!from!Basil!Coleman!to!Benjamin!Britten.!28!June!1955!S Letter!from!Basil!Coleman!to!Benjamin!Britten.!26!June!1960!!!S Letter!from!Basil!Coleman!to!Benjamin!Britten.!3!June!1962!S Letter!from!Basil!Coleman!to!Benjamin!Britten.!25!July!1966!S Letter!from!Basil!Coleman!to!Benjamin!Britten.!13!September!1966!S Letter!from!Basil!Coleman!to!Benjamin!Britten.!14!May!1967!S Letter!from!Basil!Coleman!to!Benjamin!Britten.!28!February!1968!S Letter!from!Basil!Coleman!to!Benjamin!Britten.!7!August!1968!S Letter!from!Basil!Coleman!to!Benjamin!Britten.!14!August!1968!S Letter!from!Basil!Coleman!to!Benjamin!Britten.!3!June!1969!S Letter!from!Basil!Coleman!to!Benjamin!Britten.!25!October!1975!S Letter!from!Benjamin!Britten!to!Basil!Coleman.!!8!January!1952!S Letter!from!Benjamin!Britten!to!Basil!Coleman.!!22!July!1957!S Letter!from!Benjamin!Britten!to!Basil!Coleman.!!2!February!1961!S Letter!from!Benjamin!Britten!to!Basil!Coleman.!12!September!1966!S Letter!from!Benjamin!Britten!to!Basil!Coleman.!24!April!1967!S Letter!from!Benjamin!Britten!to!Basil!Coleman.!29!May!1967!! 87!Correspondence%with%John%and%Doris%Culshaw:!File:!No!file!reference!!S Letter!from!John!Culshaw!to!Benjamin!Britten.!1!July!1967!S Letter!from!John!Culshaw!to!Benjamin!Britten.!18!March!1969!S Letter!from!John!Culshaw!to!Benjamin!Britten.!6!December!1970!S John!Culshaw.!“Recording!for!Audio!and!Video!with!Benjamin!Britten;!By!John!Culshaw.”!Draft!copy.!11!June!1975!!Peter!Pears’s!working!score!of!Billy%Budd:!Britten,!Benjamin.!Billy%Budd:%Vocal%score.!!!!!!!Vocal!Score!by!Erwin!Stein.!Libretto!by!E.M.!Forster!and!Eric!Crozier.!London:!!!!!!!Boosey!and!Hawkes,!1951:!ID:!2S9401142!%Peter!Pears’s!working!score!of!Peter%Grimes:!Britten,!Benjamin.!Peter%Grimes:%Vocal%%%%%%%Score.!Vocal!Score!by!Erwin!Stein.!Libretto!by!Montague!Slater.!London:!Boosey!!!!!!!and!Hawkes,!1945:!ID:!2S9401394%!Photographs%of%BBC%television%recording%of%Peter%Grimes:!File:!PHPN/14/14!!!Production%photographs%of%Benjamin%Britten's%opera%Peter%Grimes!(1945):!File:!!!!!!!PHPN/14!!!Shooting%score%of%“Turn%of%the%Screw”%from%1959:!File:!MSC3!!Theodor%Uppman’s%“Billy%Budd”%File:!File:!MSC11!!*Secondary!Source!Material!*Books!Banks,!Paul!ed.%The%Making%of%Peter%Grimes:%Essays%and%Studies.!Woodbridge:!The!!!!!!!Boydell!Press,!2000.!*Barnes,!Jennifer.!Television%Opera:%The%Fall%of%Opera%Commissioned%for%Television.!!!!!!!Rochester,!New!York:!Boydell!Press,!2003.!!Benjamin,!Walter.!“The!Work!of!Art!in!the!Age!of!Its!Technological!Reproducibility.”!!!!!!!In!The%Work%of%Art%in%the%Age%of%Its%Technological%Reproducibility%and%Other%%%%%%%Writings%on%Media,!edited!by!Michael!Jennings,!Brigid!Doherty,!and!Thomas!Levin,!!!!!!!translated!by!Edmund!Jephcott,!Rodney!Livingstone,!and!Howard!Eiland,!19S54.!!!!!!!Harvard:!Harvard!University!Press,!2008.!!Blyth,!Alan.!Remembering%Britten,!edited!by!Alan!Blyth.!London:!Hutchinson!&!Co.!!!!!!!Ltd,!1981.*!Brett,!Philip!ed.!Benjamin%Britten:%Peter%Grimes.!Cambridge:!Cambridge!University!!!!!!!Press,!1983.!!! 88!Brett,!Philip.!“Britten’s!Dream.”!In!Musicology%and%Difference:%Gender%and%Sexuality%in%%%%%%%Music%Scholarship,!edited!by!Ruth!Solie,!259S280.!California:!University!of!!!!!!!California!Press,!1995.!!Brett,!Philip.!Music%and%Sexuality%in%Britten:%Selected%Essays,!edited!by!George!E.!!!!!!!Haggerty.!California:!University!of!California!Press,!2006.!!!Carpenter,!Humphrey.!Benjamin%Britten!A%Biography.!London:!Faber!and!Faber!Ltd,!!!!!!!1992.!!Citron,!Marcia.!Opera%On%Screen.!New!Haven:!Yale!University!Press,!2000.!!Citron,!Marcia.!When%Opera%Meets%Film.!Cambridge:!Cambridge!University!Press,!!!!!!!2010.!!Cooke,!Mervyn.!The%Cambridge%Companion%to%Benjamin%Britten.!Cambridge:!!!!!!!Cambridge!University!Press,!1999.!!Cooke,!Mervyn,!and!Philip!Reed,!ed.%“Billy%Budd”:!Cambridge%Opera%Handbooks.!!!!!!!Cambridge:!Cambridge!University!Press,!1993.!!Coplan,!Amy.!“Understanding!Empathy:!Its!Features!and!Effects.”!In!Empathy:%%%%%%%Philosophical%and%Psychological%Perspectives,!edited!by!Amy!Coplan!and!Peter!!!!!!!Goldie,!Chapter!2.!New!York:!Oxford!University!Press,!2011.!Accessed!June!1,!!!!!!!2014.!!http://www.oxfordscholarship.com.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/view/10.1093/!!!!!!!!acprof:oso/9780199539956.001.0001/acprofS9780199539956SchapterS2.!!Crabbe,!George.!The%Borough,%continued.%Occasional%pieces.%The%world%of%dreams.%%%%%%%Tales.!London:!John!Murray,!Albemarle!Street,!1834.!!Accessed!February!22,!2014.!!!!!!!http://books.google.co.uk/.!!Duncan,!Ronald.!Working%with%Britten:%A%Personal%Memoir.!Rebel!Press,!1981.!!Elsaesser,!Thomas!and!Malte!Hagener.!Film%Theory:%An%Introduction%Through%the%%%%%%%Senses.!New!York:!Routledge,!2010.!!Fawkes,!Richard.!Opera%on%Film.!London:!Duckworth,!2000.!!Foster,!Susan!Leigh.!Choreographing%Empathy.!Oxford:!Routledge,!2011.!!GoldinSMeadow,!Susan.!Hearing%Gesture:%How%Our%Hands%Help%Us%Think.!Cambridge,!!!!!!!MA:!Harvard!University!Press,!2003.!!Gritten,!Anthony!and!King,!Elaine.!Music%and%Gesture.!Aldershot:!Ashgate,!2006.!!Gritten,!Anthony!and!King,!Elaine.%New%Perspectives%on%Music%and%Gesture.!Oxford:!!! 89!!!!!!Ashgate,!2011.!Accessed!May!14,!2014.!!!!!!!http://site.ebrary.com/lib/ubc/docDetail.action?docID=10460655/.!!Hatten,!Robert.!“A!Theory!of!Musical!Gesture!and!its!Application!to!Beethoven!and!!!!!!!Schubert.”!In!Music%and%Gesture.!Edited!by!Anthony!Gritten!and!Elaine!King.!!!!!!!Aldershot:!Ashgate,!2006.!!Howard,!Patricia.!The%Operas%of%Benjamin%Britten:%An%Introduction.!New!York:!!!!!!!Praeger,!1969.!!Jeongwon,!Joe,!and!Theresa!Rose.!Between%Opera%and%Cinema.!New!York:!Routledge,!!!!!!!2002.!!Kildea,!Paul.!Selling%Britten.!Oxford:!Oxford!University!Press,!2002.!!Kildea,!Paul,!ed.!Britten%on%Music.!Oxford:!Oxford!University!Press,!2003.!!Krauss,!Robert,!Yihsiu!Chen,!and!Rebecca!Gottesman.!“Lexical!gestures!and!lexical!!!!!!!access:!A!process!model.”!In!Language%and%Gesture.!!Edited!by!David!McNeill,!261S!!!!!!283.!Cambridge:!Cambridge!University!Press,!2000.!!Lewin,!David.!“Musical!Analysis!as!Stage!Direction.”!In!Studies%in%Music%with%Text.!!!!!!!Edited!by!David!Lewin,!19S30.!New!York:!Oxford!University!Press,!2006.!!McNeill,!David.!Hand%and%Mind:%What%Gestures%Reveal%About%Thought.!Chicago:!!!!!!!University!of!Chicago!Press,!1992.!!Mitchell,!Donald.!Britten%and%Auden%in%the%Thirties.!Woodbridge:!Boydell!Press,!2000.!!Mitchell,!Donald.!Benjamin%Britten:%“Death%In%Venice.”!Cambridge:!Cambridge!!!!!!!University!Press,!1987.!!Reed,!Philip.!“Billy%Budd!on!television.”!In!Benjamin%Britten:%Billy%Budd.!Edited!by!!!!!!!!Mervyn!Cooke!and!Philip!Reed.!New!York:!Cambridge!University!Press,!1993.*!Reed,!Philip,!Mervyn!Cooke,!and!Donald!Mitchell!ed.%Letters%From%a%Life:%Selected%%%%%%%Letters%and%Diaries%of%Benjamin%Britten:%Volume%2:%1939H45.!Woodbridge:!The!!!!!!!Boydell!Press,!2004.!*Reed,!Philip,!Mervyn!Cooke,!and!Donald!Mitchell!ed.!Letters%From%a%Life:%The%Selected%%%%%%%Letters%of%Benjamin%Britten:%Volume%4:%1952H1957.!Woodbridge:!The!Boydell!Press,!!!!!!!!2008.!%Rupprecht,!Philip.!Britten's%Musical%Language.!Cambridge:!Cambridge!University!!!!!!!Press,!2002.!!! 90!Rupprecht,!Philip.!Rethinking%Britten.!New!York:!Oxford!University!Press,!2013.!!Schroeder,!David.!Cinema’s%Illusions,%Opera’s%Allure:%The%Operatic%Impulse%in%Film.%%%%%%%New!York:!Continuum,!2002.!!Seymore,!Claire.!The%Operas%of%Benjamin%Britten:%Expression%and%Evasion.!!!!!!!Woodbridge:!The!Boydell!Press,!2006.!!Smart,!Mary!Ann.!Mimomania:%Music%and%Gesture%in%NineteenthHCentury%Opera.!!!!!!!Berkeley:!University!of!California!Press,!2004.!*Swynnoe,!Jan.!The%Best%Years%of%British%Film%Music,%1936H1958.!Woodbridge:!The!!!!!!!Boydell!Press,!2002.!*Tambling,!Jeremy.!A%Night%in%at%the%Opera:%Media%Representations%of%Opera.!London:!!!!!!!John!Libbey!&!Company!Ltd.,!1994.!*Journals!Brett,!Philip.!“Britten!and!Grimes.”!The%Musical%Times!118!(1977):!995S997!+!999S!!!!!!1000!!Ekman,!Paul!and!Wallace!Friesen.!“The!Repertoire!of!Nonverbal!Behavior:!!!!!!!Categories,!Origins,!Usage,!and!Coding.”!Semiotica!1!(1969):!49S98.!!Loewenstein,!George!and!Deborah!Small.!“The!Scarecrow!and!the!Tin!Man:!The!!!!!!!vicissitudes!of!human!sympathy!and!caring”!Review%of%General%Psychology!11!!!!!!!(2007):!112S126.!!McKellar,!Shannon.!“Music,!Image!and!Ideology!in!Britten's!'Owen!Wingrave’:!!!!!!!Conflict!in!a!Fissured!Text”!Music%&%Letters!80!(1999):!390S410.!!McN,,!W.!“Peter%Grimes.”!The%Musical%Times!86!(1945):!215S216!!McN.,!W.!“Britten’s!‘Billy!Budd.’”!The%Musical%Times%93!(1952):!31S32!!Payne,!Anthony.!“Billy!Budd!on!BBC!2.”!Tempo!80!(1967):!19–21!!Slater,!Montagu.!“The!Plot!of!'Peter!Grimes.’”!Tempo!9!(1944):!10S11.!!Spiegelman,!Willard.!“Peter!Grimes:!The!Development!of!a!Hero,”!Studies%in%%%%%%%Romanticism!25!(1986):!541S560.!!Stein,!Erwin.!“Opera!and!Peter%Grimes”!Tempo!12!(1945):!2S6.!!Wright,!Kenneth!A,!“Television!and!Opera.”!Tempo!45!(1957):!8S14!+!18.!!! 91!Newspaper!and!Magazine!Sources!Forster,!E.!M.!"George!Crabbe:!the!Poet!and!the!Man."!The%Listener,!29!May!1941,!!!!!!!769S770.!Accessed!April!24,!2014.!http://gale.cengage.co.uk/productS!!!!!!highlights/history/theSlistenerShistoricalSarchive.aspx.!!Hume,!Paul,!“Great!TV!Opera:!Television.”!In!The%Washington%Post,%Times%Herald%%%%%%%(1959H1973),!June!4,!1970.!!!!Williams,%Stephen.!“Premiere!of!Britten’s!‘Billy!Budd’!Stirs!London:!Disciples!!!!!!!Weakness,”!New%York%Times,!December!9,!1951.!!!!Websites!British!Broadcasting!Corporation.!“The!story!of!BBC!Television!–!TV!as!we!know!it.”!!!!!!!Accessed!July!19,!2014.!!!!!!!!http://www.bbc.co.uk/historyofthebbc/resources/tvhistory/tvasweknowit.shtml.!!British!Broadcasting!Corporation.!The!story!of!BBC!Television!–!Closedown.”!!!!!!!Accessed!July!19,!2014.!!!!!!!!http://www.bbc.co.uk/historyofthebbc/resources/tvhistory/closedown.shtml.!!British!Broadcasting!Corporation.!“The!story!of!BBC!Television!–!Television!!!!!!!returns.”!Accessed!July!19,!2014.!!!!!!!!http://www.bbc.co.uk/historyofthebbc/resources/tvhistory/afterwar.shtml.!!!BrittenSPears!Foundation.!“The!1959!TV!production.”!Accessed!May!29,!2014.!!!!!!!http://www.brittenpears.org/page.php?pageid=746.!!Broadcaster!Audience!Research!Board.!“Television!ownership!in!private!domestic!!!!!!!households!1956S2013!(millions).”!Accessed!May!27,!2014.!!!!!!!http://www.barb.co.uk/resources/tvSfacts/tvSownership.!!Oxford%English%Dictionary!online!s.v.!“Empathy.”!Accessed!March!23,!2014.!!!!!!!http://www.oed.com.!!Oxford!English!Dictionary!online!s.v.!“Sympathy.”!Accessed!November!20,!2013.!!!!!!!http://www.oed.com.!!Peace!Pledge!Union.!“British!Pacifism!in!World!War!Two.”!Accessed!June!26,!2014.!!!!!!!http://www.ppu.org.uk/pacifism/pacww2.html.!!The%Oxford%Companion%to%Ships%and%the%Sea%%s.v.!“Davy!Jones.”!Accessed!July!18,!2014.!!!!!!!!http://www.oxfordreference.com.!!United!Kingdom!Government.!“Sexual!Offences!Act,!1967.”!!Accessed!May!30,!2014.!!!!!!!http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1967/60/pdfs/ukpga_19670060_en.pdf.!!! 92!Appendix(1:(Peter(Grimes’s(Gestures(in(Prologue(! Time((minutes:(seconds)( (Gesture!( Large/(Small(Gesture((where(appropriate)( (Camera(shot( (Text/(Event( Performance(directions(in(score(0:19( Walking!with!hands!in!pockets!and!actively!avoiding!eye!contact!with!members!of!the!village.!!Large! Wide!shot!looking!down!from!above!with!crowd!shown!Grimes!enters!the!courtroom!! “Peter!Grimes!steps!forward!from!the!crowd”!1:48( Chin!on!chest!but!making!eye!contact!with!Swallow.! ! Showing!waist!up!of!Grimes!and!a!wall!of!villagers!behind!him!! “He!died!lying!there!among!the!fish”! !2:05( Turns!his!back!to!the!crowd.! ! Zoomed!out!at!Grimes’s!level,!villagers!behind!Grimes! Crowd!gossips!about!Grimes! !2:22( Large!head!nod.!! Large! Zoomed!out!at!Grimes’s!level,!villagers!behind!Grimes! “Somebody!called!the!parson”!–!crowd!begins!to!gossip!!3:08( Leans!in!towards!Mrs.!Sedley!with!a!large!head!nod.!! Large! Showing!waist!up!of!Grimes!and!a!wall!of!villagers!behind!him! “I!don’t!like!interferers!”! !3:53( Slowly!pulls!chin!into!chest!and!slowly!turns!his!body!away!with!an!expression!of!hurt!on!his!face.!Small! CloseMup!of!the!upper!half!of!his!torso!and!face! Swallow!describes!him!as!“brutal,!callous!and!coarse”!to!Ellen!Orford!!!! 93!Time((minutes:(seconds)( (Gesture!( Large/(Small(Gesture((where(appropriate)( (Camera(shot( (Text/(Event( Performance(directions(in(score(4:47( Turns!upper!body!quickly!to!face!the!crowd.!! Large! Zoomed!out!at!Grimes’s!level,!villagers!behind!Grimes( Crowd!starts!gossiping!when!Grimes!is!cleared!of!wrongMdoing!“Hubbub!again”!5:05( Gesticulating!with!his!hand!out!in!front!of!him!towards!Swallow.!! Large! Showing!waist!up!of!Grimes!and!a!wall!of!villagers!behind!him( Pleading!to!be!allowed!an!apprentice! “Peter!has!stepped!forward!and!is!trying!to!speak”!5:10( Nodding!vigorously!and!moving!his!hands!quickly!–!frowning.!! Large! Showing!waist!up!of!Grimes!and!a!wall!of!villagers!behind!him( Pleading!to!be!allowed!an!apprentice( !5:19( Spins!around!to!face!crowd.!! Large! Showing!waist!up!of!Grimes!and!a!wall!of!villagers!behind!him( Gossiping!of!villagers!when!he!says!he!doesn’t!want!a!wife!just!yet!!5:27( Hits!a!table!with!his!fist.!! Large! Showing!waist!up!of!Grimes!and!a!wall!of!villagers!behind!him( Being!brushed!off!by!Swallow!when!he!is!still!demanding!an!apprentice!!5:42( Throws!his!arms!out!in!front!of!him.!! Large! Showing!waist!up!of!Grimes!and!a!wall!of!villagers!behind!him( Accusing!the!villagers!of!continuing!to!gossip!about!him!!! 94!Time((minutes:(seconds)( (Gesture!( Large/(Small(Gesture((where(appropriate)( (Camera(shot( (Text/(Event( Performance(directions(in(score(5:47( Flinging!himself!forward.!! Large! Showing!almost!full!shot!of!Grimes!and!a!wall!of!villagers!behind!him( Begging!to!be!able!to!stand!trial! !5:51( Moving!with!arms!outstretched!and!rocking!side!to!side,!shaking!his!fist.!! Large! Showing!almost!full!shot!of!Grimes!and!a!wall!of!villagers!behind!him! “Let!me!thrust!into!their!mouths!the!truth!itself”! !5:57( Arms!wide!open,!looking!up!to!the!sky.!! Large! Overhead!shot!with!Grimes!looking!up!and!crowd!on!the!other!half!of!the!stage!“The!simple!truth,!the!truth!itself”! !6:32( Head!slightly!raised,!looking!up!to!the!sky,! ! CloseMup!on!Grimes!–!only!shoulders!and!head!visible!! “The!truth…”! !6:37( Head!drops!and!shoulders!slump.!! Small! CloseMup!on!Grimes!–!only!shoulders!and!head!visible! “the!pity…!and!the!truth”! “Ellen!comes!up!to!Peter”!6:49( Looks!away!from!Ellen!and!pulls!his!shoulders!back,!making!himself!appear!taller.!! CloseMup!on!Grimes!and!Ellen! “Where!the!walls!themselves!gossip!of!inquest”!!6:54( Quickly!turns!towards!Ellen.! Large! CloseMup!on!Grimes!and!Ellen! Ellen!pacifies!him!! !7:00( Strides!quickly!across!the!stage.! Large! Camera!zooms!out!quickly!to!keep!both!characters!in!shot! “While!peeping!Toms!nod!as!you!go,!you’ll!share!the!name!of!outlaw,!too.”!!7:14( Eye!contact!with!Ellen.! Small! CloseMup!on!Grimes!and!Ellen! Ellen!pacifies!him! !! 95!Time((minutes:(seconds)( (Gesture!( Large/(Small(Gesture((where(appropriate)( (Camera(shot( (Text/(Event( Performance(directions(in(score(7:21( Turns!his!back!on!Ellen.! Large! CloseMup!on!Grimes!and!Ellen! “Until!the!borough!hate!poisons!your!mind”! !7:26(–(7:47( Gradually!turns!towards!Ellen!and!makes!eye!contact.!! Small! CloseMup!on!Grimes!and!Ellen! Grimes!and!Ellen!coming!to!an!agreement! !7:49(–(8:05( Grimes!and!Ellen!slowly!reach!out!and!hold!hands.! Small! Camera!zooms!in!slowly! Unison!singing! !8:06(–(8:24( Grimes!and!Ellen!slowly!move!closer!together,!holding!eye!contact.! Small! Camera!continues!to!zoom!in! Unison!singing! !8:25(–(8:34( Grimes!and!Ellen!walk!slowly!away,!holding!hands!and!maintaining!eye!contact.!Small! Camera!turns!to!follow!them!and!zooms!out,!whilst!the!screen!fades!to!black!Leaving!the!courtroom! !!!!! ! ! ! ! 96! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !Appendix(2:(Peter(Grimes’s(Gestures(in(Interlude(IV(Time((hours:(minutes:(seconds)((Gesture( Grimes(Performing(Large/(Small(Gesture((as(appropriate)( (Camera(shot(1:23:20( Misty!image!begins.! ! !1:23:40( Apprentice!looks!furtively!around!head!moving!quickly.! ! Upper!torso!of!apprentice!facing!diagonally!towards!camera!1:24:26( Apprentice!head!down!walks!out!of!frame!as!shot!fades!to!mist.! ! Upper!torso!of!apprentice!1:25:05( Grimes!appears!looking!down!towards!the!ground,!with!shoulders!moving!as!he!walks.! ! Upper!torso!of!Grimes!walking!!1:25:13( Grimes!looks!out!into!the!distance!with!puzzled!expression!on!his!face.! ! Upper!torso!of!Grimes!walking.!Camera!begins!to!slowly!move!down,!looking!at!Grimes!from!a!lower!angle.!1:25:30( Turns!away!from!the!camera!so!he!is!in!profile.! ! Upper!torso!of!Grimes!walking!side!on!to!camera.!1:25:34( Continues!walking.! ! Fade!out!from!Grimes.!1:26:04( Fade!into!Grimes!with!his!hand!around!the!apprentice’s!shoulder,!holding!him!close!while!walking,!facing!towards!the!camera.! Small! Upper!half!of!Grimes!and!apprentice’s!upperHtorso!in!shot!on!the!leftHhand!side!of!the!image.!1:26:08( Apprentice!looks!up!at!Grimes,!Grimes!looking!away!into!the!distance.! ! Camera!begins!to!slowly!move!to!give!a!shot!of!Grimes!and!the!apprentice!diagonallyHon!instead!of!face!on.!! ! ! ! ! 97! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !Time((hours:(minutes:(seconds)((Gesture( Grimes(Performing(Large/(Small(Gesture((as(appropriate)( (Camera(shot(1:26:15( Grimes!looks!down!at!the!apprentice,!with!his!arm!still!around!his!shoulders.! Small! !1:26:17( Grimes!looks!up!–!pensive!thoughtful!face.!Apprentice!looks!up!and!Grimes!avoids!eye!contact.! ! !1:26:24( Grimes’s!eyes!focus!on!something!in!the!distance!and!quickly!points.!Bends!down!to!the!apprentice’s!level!and!the!apprentice!follows!his!gaze.!Small! Camera!moves!so!Grimes!and!the!apprentice!are!at!the!centre!of!the!shot.!1:26:28( Grimes!smiles!at!the!apprentice.! Small! Camera!begins!to!move!in!slowly.!1:26:31( Grimes’s!smile!fades,!apprentice!looks!down,!Grimes!straightens!up.! Large!!! !1:26:32( Pats!apprentice!on!shoulder.! Small! !1:26:35( Grimes!and!apprentice!turn!away!from!the!camera!and!continue!walking.!Grimes!continues!to!look!into!the!distance!with!a!contemplative!look!on!his!face.!! !1:26:36( Grimes!and!apprentice!walk!out!of!shot.! ! Fade!out!1:27:06( Grimes!looking!down!at!the!apprentice!with!his!hand!on!his!shoulder.!The!apprentice!is!looking!down!at!the!ground.! Small! Fade!in!! ! ! ! ! 98! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !Time((hours:(minutes:(seconds)((Gesture( Grimes(Performing(Large/(Small(Gesture((as(appropriate)( (Camera(shot(1:27:11( The!apprentice!falls!down.!Grimes!looks!down!at!him.! ! Camera!moves!quickly!down!to!focus!on!the!apprentice,!with!the!lowerHhalf!of!Grimes’s!body!in!shot.!1:27:14( Grimes!begins!to!bend!down!and!holds!his!arm!out!as!if!to!help!the!apprentice!up.! Small! Camera!remains!on!apprentice.!As!Grimes!bends!down,!his!upper!torso!moves!into!shot.!1:27:16( The!apprentice!stands!up!without!the!aid!of!Grimes.! ! The!camera!follows!the!apprentice!standing!up.!1:27:19( Grimes!continues!to!bend!down,!hovering!over!the!apprentice!with!his!hands!slightly!outstretched!as!if!he!is!conflicted!over!helping!him.!Small! The!upperHtorsos!of!Grimes!and!the!apprentice!are!both!in!shot.!!Camera!is!zoomed!in!so!the!two!fill!the!shot.!1:27:20( Grimes!puts!his!hand!on!the!apprentice’s!back!and!leans!over!as!if!to!check!that!he!is!not!hurt.! Small! !1:27:22( Apprentice!bends!over!and!Grimes!continues!to!look!at!him!to!check!that!he!is!not!hurt!–!hand!still!on!apprentice’s!back.! Small! !1:27:23( Apprentice!slowly!looks!up!and!Grimes!continues!to!look!concerned.! ! !1:27:25( Apprentice!stands!up!straight!and!Grimes!looks!at!him!–!standing!very!close!to!each!other.! Small! !! ! ! ! ! 99! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !Time((hours:(minutes:(seconds)((Gesture( Grimes(Performing(Large/(Small(Gesture((as(appropriate)( (Camera(shot(1:27:27( Grimes!straightens!up!and!continues!to!walk!with!his!hand!on!the!apprentice’s!shoulder.! Small! Camera!begins!to!pull!back,!zooming!out!from!the!apprentice!and!Grimes.!1:27:31( Grimes!takes!his!hand!off!the!apprentice’s!shoulder.! ! !1:27:33( Apprentice!walks!slightly!in!front!of!Grimes!with!his!head!down!–!Grimes!has!his!head!down!with!eyes!moving!between!looking!into!the!distance,!looking!at!the!floor,!and!looking!at!the!apprentice.!! Camera!slowly!moves!to!give!a!profile!shot!of!the!apprentice!and!Grimes.!1:27:37( Grimes!looks!down!at!the!apprentice.! ! Camera!begins!to!zoom!in!on!the!characters.!1:27:41( Grimes!and!apprentice!slowly!turn!away!from!camera!and!walk!out!of!shot!as!there!is!a!fadeHout.! ! !1:27:53( Fade!in!with!Grimes!facing!the!camera!–!walking!quickly.! ! Only!Grimes’s!upperHtorso!and!head!shown!1:27:55( Grimes!looks!into!distance!with!chin!raised!(implication!of!large!public!gesture).! ! Shot!moves!up!to!head!1:27:57( Grimes!turns!side!on!to!camera!whilst!walking!with!a!serious!expression!on!his!face.! ! Camera!follows!Grimes’s!walking.!1:28:01( Grimes!pauses!and!looks!angrily!out!at!the!distance.!He!turns!side!on!to!camera!and!walks!out!of!shot.! ! !! ! ! ! ! 100! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !(Time((hours:(minutes:(seconds)((Gesture( Grimes(Performing(Large/(Small(Gesture((as(appropriate)( (Camera(shot(1:28:04( Shot!of!apprentice!looking!around!and!looking!worried.! ! Apprentice’s!upperHtorso!and!head!shown!1:28:05( Apprentice!walking!quickly!and!looking!scared!face!on!to!camera.! ! !1:28:08( Close!up!shot!of!Grimes!walking!quickly!looking!face!on!to!camera,!frowning.! ! Camera!zooms!in!from!upper!torso!and!head!to!focus!on!the!head!1:28:13( Grimes!pauses!walking!and!changes!direction,!walking!quickly!away.! ! Upper!torso!and!head!1:28:15( Shot!of!apprentice!looking!around!with!a!scared!expression!on!his!face.! ! Upper!torso!and!head!1:28:19( Shot!of!Grimes’s!head!and!neck!as!he’s!walking!with!a!focused!expression!on!his!face.! ! !1:28:23( Shot!of!apprentice!looking!scared.! ! Upper!torso!and!head!1:28:27( Shot!of!Grimes!turning!quickly!and!looking!angry.! Large! Upper!torso!and!head!1:28:28( Grimes!grabbing!the!apprentice’s!coat!and!dragging!him!up!towards!his!hut.! Large! Shot!pulled!back!to!full!body!shot!of!Grimes!and!the!apprentice.!! ! 101!Appendix(3:(The(Interludes(!!!!Interlude( Title1( Britten’s(Annotations(on(a(September(1942(Draft(Libretto2(I! “Dawn”! ‘“Every1day,’!grey!seascape”!II! “Storm”! “Storm!at!its!height”!III! “Sunday!Morning”! “Sunny,!Sparkling!music”!IV! “Passacaglia”! “‘Boy’s!suffering’!fugato”!V! “Moonlight”! “Summer!night,!seascape,!quiet”!VI! [no!title]! “Foggy!sea1scape,!with!Fog1Horn”!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!1!Benjamin!Britten,!Peter%Grimes:%An%Opera%in%three%Acts%and%a%Prologue%derived%from%the%poem%of%George%Crabbe,!libretto!by!Montague!Slater!(London:!Boosey!&!Hawkes!Ltd.,!1963).!2!Taken!from!Philip!Reed,!“Finding!the!Right!Notes,”!in!The%Making%of%Peter%Grimes:%Essays%and%Studies,!ed.!Paul!Banks!(Woodbridge:!The!Boydell!Press,!2000),!81.!! ! ! ! ! ! ! 102!Appendix(4:(Table(of(gestures(in(Act(III,(scene(ii(! Section( Time((hours:(minutes:(seconds)(Gesture( Large/(Small(Gesture((as(appropriate)(or(contradiction(in(gestures(Camera(shot( Text/(event( Performance(directions(in(score(2:07:22( Blurry!silhouette!of!Grimes!emerging.! ! Continuous!camera!shot!from!Sea!Interlude!VI!–!shot!shrouded!in!fog!effect!Scene!II!begins! !2:07:27( No!image!of!Grimes!–!only!fog.! ! ! “Grimes”!sung!by!chorus!out!of!shot!!2:07:34( Grimes’s!face!emerges!from!behind!a!wooden!post.!! ! Grimes!appears! !2:07:35( Eyes!moving!quickly!and!held!wideIopen.!Grimes!facing!camera.!! Grimes’s!upperIshoulders!and!head! ! “Peter!comes!in,!weary!and!demented”!2:07:41( Leans!back!against!wooden!post!with!eyes!halfIshut.! Small! ! “What!is!home”! !Entrance(2:07:48( Slumps!forward,!eyes!open!wide.! ! ! “Where’s!my!home”! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! 103!Section( Time((hours:(minutes:(seconds)(Gesture( Large/(Small(Gesture((as(appropriate)(or(contradiction(in(gestures(Camera(shot( Text/(event( Performance(directions(in(score(2:07:51( Eyes!relax.! ! ! “Deep!in!calm!water”! !2:08:01( Begins!to!lean!back!against!post!and!eyes!look!around!quickly.!Contradiction:!physically!weak!but!attempting!to!be!alert!!! “Water!will!drink!my!sorrows!dry”! !2:08:10( Fog!horn!sounds!and!Grimes!looks!around!with!his!eyes!and!small!movements!of!his!head.!Small! Profile!view!of!face!and!upper!shoulders! Fog!horn!sounds! !2:08:13( Grimes!reacts!to!chorus!singing!his!name!and!opens!his!eyes!wide.!Begins!to!move!away!from!post.!! Sudden!change!of!camera!shot!to!show!upper!torso!and!face!with!post!in!foreground!Chorus:!“Grimes!”! !(Entrance)(2:08:15( Stumbles!and!falls!against!post,!indicating!not!in!control!of!body.!Finishes!gesture!with!hunched!shoulders,!half!hidden!behind!post.!! ! “Steady”! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! 104!Section( Time((hours:(minutes:(seconds)(Gesture( Large/(Small(Gesture((as(appropriate)(or(contradiction(in(gestures(Camera(shot( Text/(event( Performance(directions(in(score((Entrance)( 2:08:17( Pulls!chin!down!to!chest.! ! ! “[h]ere!you!are.!Nearly!home.”!! !2:08:19( Begins!to!look!up!slowly!with!head!and!eyes.! ! ! “The!first!one”! !2:08:21( Looks!directly!into!camera,!lifts!head!so!he!can!make!direct!eye!contact!with!camera!lens.!!! ! “died”! !2:08:22( His!arm,!which!has!been!held!across!his!body,!drops.! ! Camera!begins!to!slowly!zoom!in!on!his!face.! “just!died”! !2:08:25( Slowly!leans!head!against!post.! ! Camera!continues!to!zoom!in.! “the!other”! !2:08:27( Upper!body!making!small!jerky!movements!with!no!intention.!! Camera!continues!to!zoom!in!so!only!his!face!can!be!seen.! “slipped!and!died”! !2:08:29( Grimes!stumbles!forward.! ! ! ! !Truth(2:08:32( Grimes!looks!around!with!his!eyes.! ! ! “and!the!third!will…”! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! 105!Section( Time((hours:(minutes:(seconds)(Gesture( Large/(Small(Gesture((as(appropriate)(or(contradiction(in(gestures(Camera(shot( Text/(event( Performance(directions(in(score(2:08:35( Chin!falls!down!onto!chest!and!his!mouth!slowly!forms!a!grin!showing!his!teeth.!! ! ! !(Truth)(2:08:37( Turns!head!away!from!camera.! ! ! ! !2:08:38( Walks!slowly!towards!camera!waving!his!arms!in!the!air.!He!is!still!grinning!and!is!slightly!hunched!over!as!he!walks.!! Camera!changes!angle,!now!looking!at!Grimes!face!on!with!post!in!foreground!and!Grimes!walking!towards!the!camera.!“accidental!circumstances”! !2:08:41( Collapses!onto!post!with!head!looking!down.! ! CloseIup!of!upper!torso!and!head.! ! !2:08:44( Body!slowly!sinking!towards!the!ground!but!holding!onto!post.!! ! “Water!will!drink”! !Madness(2:08:48( Body!continues!to!sink.! ! ! “his!sorrows”! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! 106!Section( Time((hours:(minutes:(seconds)(Gesture( Large/(Small(Gesture((as(appropriate)(or(contradiction(in(gestures(Camera(shot( Text/(event( Performance(directions(in(score(2:08:49N50( Hand!slides!down!the!post!as!if!he!has!lost!his!grip!or!given!up!trying!to!hold!on.!! ! ! !2:08:51( Tries!to!stand!straighter!but!falls!back!onto!post.! ! ! “my!sorrows,!dry”! !2:09:01( Continues!to!fall!forward;!he!does!not!react!as!he!did!earlier!in!the!scene.!! ! Chorus:!“Grimes”! !2:09:05( Falls!forward!faster.! ! ! Chorus:!“Grimes”! !2:09:08( Grimes!stands!up!quickly!and!turns!towards!the!source!of!the!sound.!!He!staggers!slightly.!Large! ! Chorus:!“Peter!Grimes!”! !2:09:11( Walks!forward!quickly! Large! Grimes!is!diagonal!to!the!camera.! “here!I!am!here!you!are”! !(Madness)(2:09:13( Moves!forward!quickly!with!arms!wide!open!and!gesticulating.!!Large! Camera!pans!to!follow!him!moving!across!the!set.! “Hurry!hurry”! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! 107!Section( Time((hours:(minutes:(seconds)(Gesture( Large/(Small(Gesture((as(appropriate)(or(contradiction(in(gestures(Camera(shot( Text/(event( Performance(directions(in(score(2:09:16( Ascends!stairs!whilst!waving!his!arms!wildly.! Large! The!camera!pans!up!diagonally!to!follow!his!movement.! “Now!is!the!gossip!put!on!trial”! !2:09:22( Reaches!the!top!of!the!stairs!and!spins!around,!opening!arms!wide!and!throwing!his!chest!forward.!Large! Camera!looking!at!him!from!below.! “Come!on!”! !2:09:24( Slams!hands!down!on!posts!at!top!of!stairs!assertively!(not!using!them!for!support!as!he!was!earlier).!Large! ! “Land!me!”! !2:09:31( Looks!up!at!the!sky,!face!is!sad!and!pleading.! Small! Sudden!change!in!shot:!camera!closeIup!of!face! “Turn”! !2:09:34( Descends!a!stair.! Small! ! “the!skies!back”! !(Madness)(2:09:42( Begins!to!lean!forward!and!head!slumps!forward.! ! Camera!moves!closer!so!all!that!is!in!shot!is!his!face!that!is!partly!obscured!by!fog.!“and!begin!again”! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! 108!Section( Time((hours:(minutes:(seconds)(Gesture( Large/(Small(Gesture((as(appropriate)(or(contradiction(in(gestures(Camera(shot( Text/(event( Performance(directions(in(score(2:09:52( Grimes!turns!away!so!the!back!of!his!head!is!to!the!camera.!Small! ! Chorus:!“Peter!Grimes!”! !2:09:54( Head!slumped!forwards!but!his!arms!are!waving!wildly.!Contradiction:!he!is!making!large!gestures!with!his!arms,!but!is!obviously!showing!weakness!with!his!head!slumped!forward.!Pulled!back!to!upper!torso!and!head.! “Old!Joe!has!gone!finishing”! !2:09:57( Upper!body!moving!erratically.!Keeps!walking!forward!and!then!changing!direction!quickly.!! ! ! !2:10:01( Stumbles!and!leans!on!fence.! Small! ! “and!you’ll!know”! !(Madness)(2:10:05( Nodding!his!head!as!if!talking!to!someone.! ! ! “when!you!land”! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! 109!Section( Time((hours:(minutes:(seconds)(Gesture( Large/(Small(Gesture((as(appropriate)(or(contradiction(in(gestures(Camera(shot( Text/(event( Performance(directions(in(score(2:10:10( Remains!still!with!eyes!upturned!and!body!slumped.! ! ! Chorus:!“Peter!Grimes”! !(Madness)( 2:10:13( Slowly!begins!to!turn!and!closes!his!eyes!slowly.! Small! ! ! !2:10:18( Stumbling!towards!the!camera!as!quickly!as!he!seems!to!be!able!to!move.!! Grimes!at!back!of!shot!with!a!post!in!the!foreground.! “Ellen!”! !2:10:20( Leans!against!fence!and!moves!his!arms!slowly.! Small! ! “give!me”! !2:10:24( Reaches!hand!out!slowly.! Small! Camera!begins!to!move!in.! “your!hand”! !2:10:32( Moves!to!hold!the!imaginary!Ellen’s!hand.! Small! ! “there!now”! !Imagined(Ellen(2:10:34( Head!and!body!slumping!forward.! ! Camera!continues!to!move!in.! “my!hope!is!held!by!you.!If!you!leave!me”!!! ! ! ! ! ! ! 110!Section( Time((hours:(minutes:(seconds)(Gesture( Large/(Small(Gesture((as(appropriate)(or(contradiction(in(gestures(Camera(shot( Text/(event( Performance(directions(in(score(2:10:48( Eyes!drop!down! Small! Camera!continues!to!move!in!for!an!extreme!closeIup!of!his!face.!! !2:10:54( Swiftly!pulls!himself!up!and!wrenches!hand!back.! Large! Change!in!camera!shot:!side!view!of!Grimes’s!upper!torso!and!head.!“Take!away”! !2:10:56( Arm!pulled!up!over!face!and!staggering!away!from!imaginary!Ellen.!Large! ! “your!hand![…]!everything’s!said”!!(Imagined(Ellen)(2:11:01( Ascends!a!step!and!turns!around!quickly.! Large! Camera!pans!to!follow!him!up!a!step.! ! !2:11:04( Glares!at!the!imaginary!Ellen.! ! ! “To!hell!with!all!your!mercy,”!chorus!singing!in!background!!Anger(2:11:08( Raises!himself!up!and!gesticulates!with!his!right!arm.! Large!! ! “To!hell!with!your!revenge”! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! 111!Section( Time((hours:(minutes:(seconds)(Gesture( Large/(Small(Gesture((as(appropriate)(or(contradiction(in(gestures(Camera(shot( Text/(event( Performance(directions(in(score(2:11:17( Raises!his!head!and!left!arm!towards!the!sky!with!his!eyes!closed,!and!slumps!forward.!! Camera!moves!in.! “And!God!have!mercy!upon!you”! !2:11:22( Turns!his!back!to!camera!and!leaps!up!a!step.! ! ! Chorus:!“Peter!Grimes!”! !2:11:25( Turns!to!look!for!the!source!of!the!noise!with!a!wild!look!on!his!face!and!arms!flung!open.!! Camera!pulled!back!to!see!his!upper!torso!and!head.! ! “The!voices!are!now!close!at!hand!and!very!distinct”!2:11:28( Quickly!leans!over!in!a!hunched!position,!looking!furtively!around.!! ! “Do!you!hear!them!all!shouting!my!name?”!!!(Anger)(2:11:40( Holds!hands!in!front!of!face!as!a!megaphone,!competing!with!the!crowd.!Large! ! “Come!home!”! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! 112!Section( Time((hours:(minutes:(seconds)(Gesture( Large/(Small(Gesture((as(appropriate)(or(contradiction(in(gestures(Camera(shot( Text/(event( Performance(directions(in(score(2:11:51( Staggering!forward,!arms!swinging!wildly,!staggering!down!steps.!Large! Camera!follows!his!movements.! Declaration!and!repetition!of!his!own!name!“Peter!roars!back!at!the!shouters.”!2:12:05( His!body!slumps!and!he!stops!walking.! ! ! ! !2:12:06( Collapses!onto!floor.! ! ! Collapses!onto!floor! !2:12:10( Slowly!leans!back!with!his!eyes!open.! ! Camera!shot!of!Grimes’s!face.! ! !(Anger)(2:12:22( Slumps!forward!again.! ! ! Chorus:!“Peter!Grimes”!! !2:12:36( Remains!still.! ! Still!focused!on!Grimes’s!face.! Ellen:!“Peter”! !2:13:11( Makes!a!small!movement!as!if!to!stand!up.!! Small! ! Chorus:!“Peter!Grimes!”! !Real(Ellen(2:13:16( Begins!to!look!around!with!his!eyes.! ! Camera!slowly!pulls!away,!but!the!shot!is!still!focused!on!his!face.!! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! 113!Section( Time((hours:(minutes:(seconds)(Gesture( Large/(Small(Gesture((as(appropriate)(or(contradiction(in(gestures(Camera(shot( Text/(event( Performance(directions(in(score(2:13:20( Sits!up!slowly!and!leans!back!into!Ellen’s!arm.! Small! Camera!shot!begins!to!show!Ellen!sitting!beside!him.! ! “Peter!does!not!notice!her.!The!voices!are!now!very!distant.”!2:13:21( Leaning!further!into!Ellen’s!arm.! Small! ! “What!harbour!shelters!peace”!!2:13:42( Head!sways!to!the!side.! ! Camera!remains!fixed!on!a!shot!which!encompasses!Ellen’s!upper!torso!and!head!with!Grimes’s!shoulders!and!head.!“What!harbour!can!embrace!terrors!and!tragedies?”!!(Real(Ellen)(2:14:28( Contented!smile!appears!on!his!face.!!!!Small! ! ! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! 114!Section( Time((hours:(minutes:(seconds)(Gesture( Large/(Small(Gesture((as(appropriate)(or(contradiction(in(gestures(Camera(shot( Text/(event( Performance(directions(in(score(2:14:52( Swiftly!moves!to!his!feet.! Large! Camera!follows!him!standing!up!and!pulls!back!slightly.! Balstrode:!“Come!on”! !(Real(Ellen)( 2:14:54( Stands!upright,!sideways!on!to!Balstrode,!making!direct!eyeIcontact!with!Balstrode.!Large! All!three!characters!in!shot.! ! !2:14:56( Drops!eyeIcontact!and!shoulders!slump.! ! ! Balstrode:!“Sail!out!till!you!lose!sight!of!land”!!2:15:00( Makes!eyeIcontact!with!Balstrode!again.! ! ! Balstrode:!“sink!the!boat”! !Resignation(to(Suicide(2:15:07( Grimes!tries!to!maintain!eyeIcontact!with!Balstrode!but!drops!his!gaze!and!allows!himself!to!be!led!away!with!his!hands!held!out!slightly!in!front!of!him.!! ! Balstrode:!“Goodbye!Peter”! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! 115!!Section( Time((hours:(minutes:(seconds)(Gesture( Large/(Small(Gesture((as(appropriate)(or(contradiction(in(gestures(Camera(shot( Text/(event( Performance(directions(in(score(2:15:08( Continues!walking!slowly!and!unsteadily.! ! Change!of!camera!shot!showing!Grimes,!Balstrode,!and!Ellen!from!a!distance.!Grimes!is!led!away! !2:15:20( ! ! ! Fog!begins!to!obscure!view! !(Resignation(to(Suicide)(2:15:24( ! ! ! Fog!completely!obscures!view!!

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