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Development of an energy-absorbing seat base to reduce risk of whiplash injuries in rear end collisions Saffari, Payam 2013

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DEVELOPMENT OF AN ENERGY-ABSORBING SEAT BASE  TO REDUCE RISK OF WHIPLASH INJURIES IN REAR END COLLISIONS DEVLOEOPVMONNOT VFAMRAGVYP T-OD TVBS IUTC KEVWNVHURJSWbWsEGVtraa VVYVHceMfMVMBFlfHHeoVfnVLYiHfYgVuBgufgglenHVvuVVHceViedBfielenHMVuviVHceVoeyieeVvuVVVlYMHei VvuVYLLgfeoVMmfenmeV SVHJUVuOR1bKEVWNVyTOk1OKUVOSkVLWCKkWRKWTObVMK1k UCVVplURJOS RObVeSs SUUT SshVVVHceVBnfqeiMfH4VvuVFifHfMcVmvgBlFfYVpqOSRW1IUThVVoURUPDUTVtr a8V/VLOEOPVMONNOT GVtra8V  VVAbstract iUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSCVOTUVKJUVPWCKVNTU?1USKbEVWRR1TT SsVKE?UVWNVPWKWTVIUJ RbUVRWbb C WSCAVHJUVPWCKVRWPPWSVKE?UVWNV S?1T UCVTU?WTKUkGVOCVOVRWSCU?1USRUVWNVTUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSCGVOTUVCWNKVK CC1UVSUR-V S?1T UCwWNKUSVRObbUkV .J ?bOCJV  S?1T UCAVHJUCUV  S?1T UCVDT SsVODW1KVC sS N ROSKVRWCKCVKWVCWR UKEVOSkVUIUTEVEUOTVOVC1DCKOSK ObV?WTK WSVWNV SC1TOSRUVRbO PCVOTUVkUk ROKUkVKWVKJUCUV S?1T UCAVfSVFmVObWSUGV.J ? bOCJV S?1T UCVRWCKVWIUTV2j?rVP bb WSVOSS1ObbEAVHJUVO1KWPWD bUVCUOK SsVCECKUPV CVKJUV?TUkWP SOSKVCONUKEVkUI RUVUP?bWEUkVKWV?TWKURKVKJUVWRR1x?OSKVNTWPV.J ?bOCJV S?1TEVk1T SsVOVTUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSAVHWVUSJOSRUVKJUVCONUKEVWNVIUJ RbUVCUOKCGVCUIUTObVCONUKEVCECKUPCVJOIUVDUUSVkUIUbW?UkGV.J RJVNWR1CVPWCKbEVWSVKJUVJUOkVTUCKTO SKVOSkVKJUVCUOKVDOR-3VJW.UIUTGV1K b : SsVKJUVCUOKVDOCUVOCVOVRWP?WSUSKVKWVN1TKJUTVOCC CKV SV.J ?bOCJV?TWKURxK WSVJOCVTUPO SUkVTUbOK IUbEV1SU(OP SUkAVHJUVWD?URK IUVWNVKJ CVCK1kEV CVKWVkUIUbW?VOSVUSUTsExODCWTD SsVC1??bUPUSKObVCONUKEVCECKUPVPW1SKUkV SKWVKJUVCUOKVDOCUVKWVTUk1RUVKJUVkESOP RVUNxNURKCVWNVOVTUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSVWSVOVNTWSKVCUOKVWRR1?OSKGVOSkVKJ1CVTUk1RUVKJUVT C-VWNV.J ?bOCJV S?1xTEAVYb1P S1PVNWOPV CV1CUkVOCVKJUVUSUTsExODCWTD SsVUbUPUSKV SVKJUV?TW?WCUkVCECKUPAVHJ CVRWSxRU?KV.OCVN TCKV?TW?WCUkVDEVlOSCW1TVOSkViWP bbEVptraahGVOSkVKJUVR1TTUSKVC 1kEVRWSK S1UCVKJUV?TUI W1CVTUCUOTRJVDEVDT Ss SsV KVKWVOVbOKUTVCKOsUV SVKUTPCVWNVKJUVIOb kOK WSVOSkVORR1TOREVWNVKJUV?TUk RK IUVPWkUbCV1CUkGVOSkVKJUVkUC sSVWNVKJUV?TWKWKE?UVkUI RUAVYVN S KUVUbUPUSKVDOCUkVPWkUbVWNVOVF WifoxffVCUOKUkV SVOVylVc sJViUKUSK WSVMUOKV.OCVkUIUbW?UkV SVKJ CVCK1kEAVHWVOCCUCCVKJUVUNNURK IUSUCCVWNVKJUV?TW?WCUkVCECKUPGVKJUVTUC1bKCVWNVKJUVCUOKxk1PPEVPWkUbV. 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KJW1KVbOKUTObVRWSCKTO SKVAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAV?9Vu s1TUV,xa,V%VYDO?1CVRT1CJODbUVNWOPVPOKUT ObVPWkUbVIOb kOK WS7VVYhVe(?UT PUSKObVKUCKVC?UR PUSVFhVu S KUVUbUPUSKVPWkUbVAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAV?QV(VVu s1TUV ,xa?V%VuWTRUxk C?bORUPUSKVR1TIUCVWDKO SUkVNTWPVV1S O( ObVRWP?TUCC WSVKUCKVOSkVN S KUVUbUPUSKVOSObEC CVAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAV6rVu s1TUV?xaV%ViUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSVORRUbUTOK WSV?1bCUVpKO-USVNTWP08??hVAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAV68Vu s1TUV?xtV%VF WifoxffVORRUbUTWPUKUTCVOSkVbWOkVRUbbVC sSVRWSIUSK WSVAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAV6, Vu s1TUV?x8V%VFOCUb SUVPWkUbVTUC1bKCVOKVa6 -P?JVAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAV66Vu s1TUV?x,V%VFOCUb SUVPWkUbVTUC1bKCVOKVa6V-P?JVpRWSKAhVAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAV69Vu s1TUV?x?V%VF WifoxffVkESOP RVTUC?WSCUVWDKO SUkVNTWPVKJUVDOCUb SUVPWkUbVOKVa6V-P?JVAAAAAAAAAAV6ju s1TUV?x6V%VeSUTsEVRWP?WSUSKCVWNVKJUVDOCUb SUVPWkUbVAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAV9rVu s1TUV?x9V%VHJUVRT1CJODbUVPUPDUTVAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAV9aVu s1TUV?xjV%VHaVOSkVJUOkV(xORRUbUTOK WSVICAVK PUVAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAV9t Vu s1TUV?xQV%VnfmVICAVK PUVAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAV9t Vu s1TUV?xarV%VMUOKVDOR-VNWTRUVOSkVTWKOK WSVICAVK PUVAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAV98Vu s1TUV?xaaV%VB??UTVSUR-VCJUOTVNWTRUGVO( ObVNWTRUVOSkVPWPUSKVOSkVn-PVICAVK PUVAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAV9, Vu s1TUV?xatV%VgW.UTVSUR-VCJUOTVNWTRUGVO( ObVNWTRUVOSkVPWPUSKVOSkVgngVICAVK PUVAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAV9?Vu s1TUV?xa8V%VcUOkVOSsbUVICAVK PUAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAV9?Vu s1TUV?xa,V%Vz SUK RVOSkV?bOCK RVk CC ?OKUkVUSUTsEVICAVK PUVAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAV96Vu s1TUV?xa?V%VnfmPO(VICAVNWOPV. kKJVAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAV99Vu s1TUV?xa6VxVn-P PO(VICAVNWOPV. kKJVAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAV9j Vu s1TUV?xa9VxVgngPO(VICAVNWOPV. kKJVAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAV9QVu s1TUV?xajV%VHaxJUOkVTUbOK IUVk C?bORUPUSKVICAVNWOPV. kKJVAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAVjr Vu s1TUV?xaQV%VnfmPO(VICAVk CC ?OKUkVUSUTsEVAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA Vja Vu s1TUV?xtrV%VgngVPO(VICAVk CC ?OKUkVUSUTsEVAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA Vja Vu s1TUV?xtaV%VLOTOPUKUT :UkVCKTUCCxCKTO SVR1TIUVWNVKJUV6XVTUbOK IUVkUSC KEVmEPOKVNWOPAAAAAAAAAAAVjt Vu s1TUV?xttV%VnWTPOb :UkV S?1TEVRT KUT OVIOb1UCVICAVCKTO SVJOTkUS SsVTOKUVAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAVj8 Vu s1TUV?xt8V%VnWTPOb :UkV S?1TEVRT KUT OVIOb1UCVICAVkUSC N ROK WSVCKTO SVAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAVj, Vu s1TUV?xt,VxVnWTPOb :UkV S?1TEVRT KUT OVIOb1UCVICAVE UbkVCKTO SAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAVj, Vu s1TUV?xt?V%VnfmPO(VICAVNWOPV. kKJVOKVZq"VajAQV-P?JVAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAVj6 Vu s1TUV?xt6V%VnfmPO(VICAVNWOPV. kKJVOKVZq"V8tAtV-P?JAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAVj6 Vu s1TUV?xt9V%VnfmPO(VNWTVCUbURKUkVRWbb C WSVCUIUT K UCVAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAVj9 VV( VVu s1TUVYxVaxVMKTUCCx KTO SVR1TIUCVWNVC SsbUx?bEVC?UR PUSCGVTUbOK IUVkUSC KE7V?XAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAVarr Vu s1TUVYxVt xMKTUCCx KTO SVR1TIUCVWNVP1bK ?bUx?bEVC?UR PUSCGVTUbOK IUVkUSC KE7V?XAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAVara Vu s1TUVYxV8xMKTUCCx KTO SVR1TIUCVWNVC SsbUx?bEVC?UR PUSCGVTUbOK IUVkUSC KE7V6XAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAVara Vu s1TUVYxV, xMKTUCCx KTO SVR1TIUCVWNVNW1Tx?bEVC?UR PUSCGVTUbOK IUVkUSC KE7V6XAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAVart Vu s1TUVYxV?xMKTUCCx KTO SVR1TIUCVWNVP1bK ?bUx?bEVC?UR PUSCGVTUbOK IUVkUSC KE7VarXAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAVart Vu s1TUVYxV6xMKTUCCx KTO SVR1TIUCVWNVC SsbUx?bEVC?UR PUSCGVTUbOK IUVkUSC KE7Va?XAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAVar8 Vu s1TUVYxV9xMKTUCCx KTO SVR1TIUCVWNVNW1Tx?bEVC?UR PUSCV. KJVRWSCKTO SKGVTUbOK IUVkUSC KE7Va?XAAVar8 Vu s1TUVYxVj xMKTUCCx KTO SVR1TIUCVWNVNW1Tx?bEVC?UR PUSCGVSWVRWSCKTO SKGVTUbOK IUVkUSC KE7Va?XAAAAVar, Vu s1TUVYxVQxMKTUCCx KTO SVR1TIUCVWNVC SsbUx?bEVC? R PUSCGVTUbOK IUVkUSC KE7VajXAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAVar, Vu s1TUV YxVar xMKTUCCx KTO SV R1TIUCVWNV NW1Tx?bEV C?UR PUSCV . KJV OSkV. KJW1KV bOKUTObV RWSCKTO SKGVVTUbOK IUVkUSC KE7VajXAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAVar? 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KJVKJUVPO SVNWR1CVDU SsVWSV P?TWI SsVKJUVJUOkVTUCKTO SKVOSkVCUOKVDOCUVkUC sSV0a8?AVMONUKExTUbOKUkVkUC sSVPWk N ROK WSCVWSVIUJ RbUVCUOKCVJOCVCJW.SVKJOKVUV?TW?UTVkUC sSVOSkV?WC xK WS SsVWNVKJUVJUOkVTUCKTO SKV?TUIUSKCVU(RUCC IUVTUbOK IUVk C?bORUPUSKVDUK.UUSVKJUVWRR1?OSK)CVLower neck extension Upper neck flexion S-shaped deformation , VVJUOkVOSkVKWTC V SVOVTUOTVUSkVRWbb C WS3VKJ1CGV?TW?UTVJUOkVTUCKTO SKV?WC K WS SsV CVRT K RObVKWV.J ?xbOCJVP K sOK WSAVcW.UIUTGVOVTURUSKVWDCUTIOK WSObVCK1kEVROTT UkVW1KV SVKJUV?TWI SRUVWNVFT K CJVmWxb1PD OGVmOSOkOGVCJW.UkVKJOKVbUCCVKJOSV?rVXVWNVIUJ RbUVNTWSKVCUOKVWRR1?OSKCVJOkVKJU TVJUOkVTUxCKTO SKCV?WC K WSUkV?TW?UTbEV0a,?AVHWV P?TWIUV1?WSVKJUV.J ?bOCJV?TWKURK WSV?TWI kUkVDEVOSV Px?TW?UTVPOS1ObbEV?WC K WSUkVJUOkVTUCKTO SKGVTUCUOTRJUTCV JOIUVOKKUP?KUkVKWVRTUOKUVOVJUOkVTUxCKTO SKVKJOKVTU?WC K WSCV KCUbNV SVTUC?WSCUVKWVOVCUSCUkVRWbb C WSVUIUSKAVVMYYFVJOCV P?bUPUSKUkVC1RJVOVkUI RUV-SW.SVOCVKJUVMUbNxYb sS SsVcUOkViUCKTO SKVpMYcihVKJOKVPWIUV1?.OTkCVOSkVNWTx.OTkCVKW.OTkCVKJUVWRR1?OSK)CVJUOkV1T SsVOVTUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSAVFEVkURTUOC SsVKJUVDOR-CUKVWNVKJUVJUOkVTUCKTO SKGVKJUVOPW1SKVWNVkUNWTPOK WSVOSkVCKTO SVU(?UT USRUkVDEVKJUVWRR1?OSK)CVSUR-VOSkGVRWSCU?1USKbEGVKJUVT C-VWNV.J ?bOCJV S?1TEV VTUk1RUkV0a??AViUCUOTRJUTCVJOIUVObCWVNWR1CUkVWSVKJUVkUC s WNVKJUVCUOKVDOR-AVMUOKVDOR-VkUC sSCVJOIUVKE? RObbEVUP?bWEUkVWSUGVWTVOVRWPD SOK WSVWNVK.WVCUOKVkUC sSV kUObC7VKJUVE Ubk SsVCUOKVOSkVKJUVT s kVCUOKAVYVPWTUVE Ubk SsVCUOKVTUk1RUCVKJUVkESOP RVbWOk SsVWSVKJUVWRR1?OSKVDEV?bOCK RObbEVkUNWTP SsVOSkVKJ1CVkUNbURK SsVPWTUVC1DCKOSK ObbEVk1T SsVOVTUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSAVHJ CVkUNbURK WSV SRTUOCUCVKJUVT C-VWNVU?URK WSGVOCVKJUVCUOKVOSkVCONUKEVCECKUPVROSVSWVbWSsUTVTUKO SVKJUVWRR1?OSKV SVKJUVCUOKV.JUTUVKJUEVOTUVPWTUV?TWKURKUkAVVmWSIUTCUbEGVOVT s kVCUOKVkUNbURKCVbUCCVOSkVTUk1RUCVKJUVT C-VWNVU?URK WS3VJW.UIUTGVKJUVWRR1?OSKVkESOP RVbWOk SsVOCCWR OKUkV. KJVKJUVT s kVCUOKVkUC sSV CVJ sJUTVKJOSVKJOKVWNVKJUVE Ubk SsVCUOKV0a6?AVYVPWTUVTURUSKV SSWIOK WSV SVCUOKVkUC sSV CVKJUVc sJViUKUSK WSVMUOKVRWSRU?KGV.J RJV SkUUkV CVOVRWPD SOK WSVWNVDWKJVOVE Ubk SsVOSkVOVT s kVCUOKGVJOI SsVCWPUVsWWkVOKKT D1KUCVWNVDWKJAVfKVRWSC CKCVWNVOVCK NVW1KUTVNTOPUVOSkVOVRWP?b OSKVRUSKTO VCURK WSAVHJUVRUSKTObVCURK WSVODCWTDCVUSUTsEVOSkVsTOk1ObbEVbWOkCVKJUV RR1?OSK)CVKWTCWVOCV KVORRUbUTOKUCV JUVKWTCWVNWTx.OTkGV.J bUVKJUVCK NNVCUOKVDOR-VNTOPUVTUk1RUCVKJUVRJOSRUVWNVU?URK WSVDEVTUk1R SsVCUOKVDOR-VkUxNbURK WSV0a6?AVYSWKJUTV SSWIOK WSV SVCUOKVDOR-VkUC sSV CVqWbIW)CV5cfLMVCECKUPAVVfCVPO SVNUOK1TUV CVKJUVTURb SUTVPURJOS CPGVUSODb SsVKJUVCUOKVDOR-KWVKTOSCbOKUVOSkVTWKOKUVTUOT.OTkCVTUbOK IUVKWVKJUVCUOKVDOCUV.JUSVD  SsVbWOkUkVDEVOSVWRR1?OSKVk1T SsVOVTUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSAVo1T SsVKJ CVPWK WSGVOV?bOCK RObbEVkUNWTPODbUVUbUPUSKV SVKJUVTURb SUTVODCWTDCVUSUTsEVOSkGVRWSCU?1USKbEGVTUk1RUCVKJUVWRR1?OSK)CVORRUbUTOK WSV0a9?VOSkVKJ1CVKJUVkESOP RCVbWOkCVU(?UT USRUkAV?VVYbbVWNVKJUCUVOSK x.J ?bOCJVCECKUPCVOTUVNWR1CUkVWSVKJUVCUOKVDOR-VOSkVJUOkVTUCKTO SKGV.J bU VKJUVCUOKVDOCUVJOCVTUPO SUkVTUbOK IUbEV1SU(OP SUkV SVKUTPCVWNV.J ?bOCJV?TWKURK WSAVMUIUTObVCONUKEVCECKUPCVKJOKV1K b :UVCUOKVDOCUVOCVOVPUOSCVKWVP K sOKUV.J ?bOCJVOTUVOIO b DbUV SVKJUVb KUTOK1TUGVSWSUVWNVKJUPGVJW.UIUTGVOTUVDU SsV1CUkV SVR1TTUSKVIUJ RbUCAVHJUCUVCECKUPCV.WT-VDOCUkVWSVUSUTxsExODCWTD SsVCUOKVDOCUVRWSRU?K3VKJ CVRWSRU?KV CVkUCRT DUkV SVKJUVNWbbW. SsVCUR  WSA1.3 Energy-Absorbing Seat Base Concept MECKUPCVkUC sSUkVDOCUkVWSVKJUVU UTsExODCWTD SsVCUOKVDOCUVRWSRU?KVOTUVPW1SKUkVDUK.UUSVKJUVIUJ RbUVNbWWTVOSkVKJUVCUOKVDOCUGVOSkVObbW.VKTOSCbOK WSObVPWK WSVWNVKJUVCUOKVDOCUVTUbOK IUVKWVKJUVIUJ RbUVNbWWTAV lWTUWIUTGVSUTsExODCWTD SsVUbUPUSKCV  SRWT?WTOKUkV  SWVKJUCUV CECKUPCVkOP?CVKJ CVPWK WSVDEODCWTD SsVOVRUTKO SVOPW1SKVWNVRTOCJVUSUTsEGV.J RJVWKJUT. CUV.W1bkVDUVKTOSCxNUTTUkVKWVKJUVWRR1?OSKAVVFEVODCWTD SsVRTOCJVUSUTsEVOSkVObbW. SsVKJUVCUOKVKWVKTOSCbOKUVTUOT.OTkGVKJUCUVCECKUPCVU(KUSkVKJUVKWTCWVORRUbUTOK WSVD1 bkx1?VK PUVp AUAVTUk1R SsVKJUVORRUbUTOK WSVsTOk USKhVOSkVKJ1CVTUk1R SsVKJUVkESOP RVbWOkCVWSVKJUVWRR1?OSKAVfKV CVTURWsS :UkVKJOKVKJUVTUOT.OTkVKTOSCbOK WSVWNVKJUVCUOKVPOEVRO1CUVCWPUV CC1UCVNWTVKJUVTUOTVCUOKVWRR1?OSKCGVD1 KV CVDUb UIUkVKJOKVKJ CVROSVDUVTUCWbIUkVDEVRWSKTWbb SsVKJUVkUC sSVRJOTORKUT CK RCVWNVKJUVUSUTsExODCWTD SsVUbUPUSKCVOSkVCUOKVC?OR SsAVMUIUTObVTUCUOTRJUTCVJOIUV1CUkVKJ CVRWSRU?KV SVkUIUbW? SsVOSK x.J ?bOCJVCECKUPCGV1C SsVC?T SsxkOP?UTGV JEkTO1b RV REb SkUTCGV OSkV ?bOCK RObbEV kUNWTPODbUV PUPDUTCV OCVUSUTsExO CWTD SsVUbUxPUSKCAVYbKJW1sJVKJUCUVCECKUPCVJOIUVCJW.SVKWVDUVUNNURK IUV SVTUk1R SsVKJUVT C-VWNV.J ?bOCJV S?1xT UCGVSWSUVWNVKJUPVOTUVDU SsV1CUkV SVR1TTUSKVIUJ RbUCAVHJ CVROSVDUVOKKT D1KUkVPWCKbE KWVURWSWP RVOSkV .U sJKV  CC1UCVOCCWR OKUkV . 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Schematic view of energy-absorbing seat base concept: before collision (left), during collision (right)  HWVOCCUCCVKJUVUNNURK IUSUCCVWNVKJ CVCECKUPGVKJUEV1 UkVOVN S KUVUbUPUSKVPWkUbVWNV?rKJV?UTRUSK bUcEDT kVfffVPObUVk1PPEVCUOKUkV SVO ylVc sJViUKUSK WSVCUOKGVOSkV P?bUPUSKUkVCUIUTObV. kUbEx1CUkVOb1P S1PVNWOPVKE?UCV SVKJU TVC P1bOK WSCAVHJUVR1TTUSKVTUCUOTRJV.WT-VRWSK S1UCVlOSCW1TVOSkViWP bbE)CV.WT-VD1KV1K b :UCVSU.VCWNK.OTUVKWWbCVOSkVU(?UT PUSKObVKUCK SsVKWVWIUTRWPUVCWPUVWNVKJUVCJWTKRWP SsCV SVKJUV?TUI W1CbEVOIO bODbUVPUKJWkCGVkOKOOSkVKWWbCV1K b :UkV SVOKKUP?K SsVKWV?TWIUVKJUVN1SRK WSOb KEVWNVKJ CVRWSRU?KGVOSkV SV ?K P : SsVKJUVPO SV  SNb1USR SsV?OTOPUKUTCVSUUkUkVNWTVKJUV?JEC RObVkUC sSVWNVOV?TWKWKE?UVkUI RUAVoUOb SsV. KJVKJUCUVCJWTKRWP SsCVNWTPUkVKJUVPO SVWD?URK IUVWNVKJ CV.WT-AV1.4 Research Objective and Strategies mWSK S1 SsVKJUV?OCKVCK1kEGVKJUVWIUTObbVWD?URK IUVWNVKJ CVCK1kEV CVKWV1CUV JUVCUOKVDOCUVOCVOVPUOSCVKWVUNNRK IUbEVP K sOKUV.J ?bOCJV S?1TEV SVOVTUOTV P?ORKAVHJUV?TW?WCUkVO??TWORJV CVKWVkUIUbW?VOVC1??bUPUSKObVCONUKEVCECKUPVKWVDVPW1SKUkVDUK.UUSVKJUVCUOKVDOCUVOSkVKJ VIUJ RbUVNbWWTVOSkVFloor Seat Crushable member 9VVTUk1RUVKJUVWIUTObbV P?ORKVWNVKJUVRWbb C WSVWSVKJUVNTWSKVCUOKVWRR1?OSKAVHWVORRWP?b CJVKJ CVWD?URxK IUGVCUIUTObVTUCUOTRJVKOC-CV.UTUVkUN SUk7VahVHWVRTUOKUVOSkVIOb kOKUVOVRWP?1KOK WSObVPWkUbVRO?ODbUVWNV?TUk RK SsVKJUVkESOP RVTUC?WSCUVWNVOVNTWSKVCUOKVWRR1?OSKV SVOVTUOTVUSkRWbb C WSAVHJUVN S KUVUbUPUSKVpuehVPWkUbV1CUkV SVKJUV?TUI W1CVCK1kEV1K b :UkVOSVOIO bODbUV SkVIOb kOKUkVcEDT kVfffVk1PPEVPWkUbAV5J bUVKJUVcEDT kVfffVJOCVDUUSVCJW.SVKWVDUVTUOCWSODbEVJ1POS xb -UVNWTVNTWSKObVRTOCJUCGVPWTUVTURUSKbEV KVJOCVDUUSVCJW.SVKWVDUVbUCCVD WN kUb RV SVOVTUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSVKJOSVKJUVSU.VR1TTUSKVF WifoxffVk1PPEV 0aj?AVVYCVC1RJGVOVSU.VRWP?1KOK WSObVPWkUbV1K b : SsVKJUVPWTUVR1TTUSKVOSkVD WN kUb RVF WifoxffVk1PPEV.OCVSUUkUkVKWVIUT NEVWTVk C?1KUVKJUVTUC1bKCVNTWPVKJUV?TUI W1CVCK1kEV1C SsVKJUVcEDT kVfffAVVoUIUbW? SsVKJ CVSU.VPWkUbV.OCVKJUVN TCKVKO -VWNVKJ CVTUCUOTRJV.WT-AVthVHWVOCCUCCVKJUN1SRK WSOb KEVWNVKJUV?TW?WCUkV5lMV1C SsVKJUVkUIUbW?UkVPWkUbCAVHJ VPWkUbVRTUOKUkV SVKJUV?TUI W1CVKOC-VOR CVOCVKJUVDOCUb SUGVOSkVOVPWk N UkVPWkUbV. bbVDUVRTUOKUkVDEV SxRWT?WTOK SsVKJUV5lMVKWVKJUVDOCUb SUVPWkUbAVHWVUIOb1OKUVKJUVN1SRK WSOb KEVWNVKJUV5lMGVTUC1bKCVWNVKJUVPWk N UkVPWkUbVCJW1bkVDUVRWP?OTUkVKWVKJWCUVWNVKJUVDOCUb SUVPWkUbV1C SsVC1 KOD UV S?1TEVRT KUT OV CVKJUVRWP?OT CWSV?OTOPUKUTCAVVVlWTUWIUTGVDURO1CUVKJUVOb1P S1PVNWOPVPOKUT ObV. bbVDUV1CUkVU(KUSC IUbEV SVKJ CVC 1kEGVOSVU(?UT PUSKObVCK1kEVWSVKJUVPURJOS RObVDUJOI W1TVWNVKJ CVKE?UVWNVPOKUT ObV. bbVDUVROTT UkVW1KwKJUVTUC1bKCVWNV.J RJV. bbVDUV1CUkVOCV S?1KVKWVKJUVRWP?1KOxK WSObVPWkUbCAVHJUVkUKO bCVWNVKJUVWD?URK IUCGVPUKJWkCVOSkVTUC1bKCVWNVKJ CVU(?UT PUSKObVCK1kEVOTUVOIO bODbUV SVmJO?KUTV,AVVV8hVHWVN SkVW1KV?WCC DbUVTUbOK WSCJ ?CVDUK.UUSVRJOTORKUT CK RCVWNVKJUV?TW?WCUkV5lMVOSkVkESOP RVTUC?WSCUVWNVKJUVWRR1?OSKAVHJ CV. bbV SIWbIUVIOTE SsVKJUVkUC sSV?OTOPUKUTCVWNVKJUV5lMVOSkV1C SsVKJUVPWkUbCVkUIUbW?UkV SVKJUV?TUI W1CVKOC-CVKWVPWS KWTVKJUVkESOP RVTUC?WSCUVOSkV S?1TEVRT KUT OV SkU(UCVWNVKJUVWRR1?OSKAVVV,hVHWVkUKUTP SUVKJUVW?K PObVRJOTORKUT CK RCVWNVKJUVCONUKEVCECKUPVNWTVOVTOSsUVWNVRWbb C WSVCUIUT xK UCVDOCUkVWSVKJUVKTUSkCVCUUSV SV S?1TEVP K sOK WSAVHJUVN Sk SsCVWNVKJ CV?OTK WNVKJUV?TW?URKV. bbVbUOkVKWVkUIUbW?PUSKVWNVOV?TWKWKE?UVWNVKJUV?TW?WCUkVCECKUPAVj VV1.5 Thesis Overview HJ CVKJUC CV?TUCUSKCVKJUVkUIUbW?PUSKVOSkVUIOb1OK WSVWNVOVC1??bUPUSKObVCONUKEVCECKUPGV.J RJV?TW?WCUCVKWVTUk1RUVKJUVT C-VOSkVCUIUT KEVWNV.J ?bOCJV S?1T UCV SV UOTVUSkVRWbb C WSCAVYVkUKO bUkVDTUO-kW.SVWNVKJUVRJO?KUTCVWNVKJ CVKJUC CV CV?TUCUSKUkVDUbW.7VVVmJO?KUTVtV?TUCUSKCVTUbUIOSKVDOR-sTW1SkV SNWTPOK WSVWSVWRR1?OSK)CVkESOP RCVk1T SsVOVTUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSGV1CUN1bV.J ?bOCJV S?1TEVPURJOS CPCVOSkV S?1TEVRT KUT OGVOSkVkUCRT DUCVKJUVR1TTUSKVCUOKVkUC sSVPUKJWkWbWs UCVOSkVkUI RUCVUP?bWEUkVNWTV.J ?bOCJV S?1TEVP K sOK WSAVVmJO?KUTV8VkUCRT DUCVKJUVS1PUT RObVueVPWkUbVKJOKV .OCVRTUOKUkVNWTV?TUk RK SsVKJUVkESOP RVTUxC?WSCUVWNV OV NTWSKV CUOKVWRR1?OSKVpTUNUTTUkV KWV OCV KJUVSDOC b UTVP WkUbhGV OSkV KJUV?TWRUk1TUVOkW?KUkVNWTVCWbI SsVKJUVPWkUbAVHJ CVRJO?KUTVObCWVU(?bO SCVKJUVPWkUbVIOb kOK WSV?TWRUCCGVOSkVN xSObbEGV KVkUCRT DUCVJW.VOVSU.VPWkUbV.OCVRTUOKUkVDEVOkk SsVKJUV5lMVKWVKJUVDOCUb SUVPWkUbAVmJO?KUTV,V?TUkWP SOSKbEVNWR1CUCVWSVKJUVU(KUSk kVS1PUT RObOU(?UT PUSKObVCK1kEVWSVOb1P S1PVNWOPAVfKVU(?W1SkCVWSVKJUVU(?UT PUSKObV.WT-VROTT UkVW1KVWSVKJU Ob1P S1PVNWOPVKWVUCKODb CJV KCVPOKUT ObVDUJOI W1TVOSkVPURJOS RObV?TW?UTK UCV.JUSVbWOkUkGVOSkVKJUVUNNURKVWNVIOTE SsVbWOk SsVRWSk K WSCAVfKVN SObbEVC1PPOT :UCVKJUVTUC1bKCVWNVKJUVU(?UT PUSKObVCK1kEVORRWP?OS UkV. KJVOVk CxR1CC WSVWSVKJUV-UEV?W SKCVWDKO SUkVNTWPVKJUVTUC1bKCAVmJO?KUTV?VOCCUCCUCVKJUVP K sOK WSVUNNURK IUSUCCVWNVKJUV?TW?WCUkV5lMVWIUTVOVTOSsUVWNVRWbb C WSVCUIUT K UCVOSkV kUSK N UCVKJUVT bOK WSCJ ?CVDUK.UUSV  P?WTKOSKVRJOTORKUT CK RCVWNVKJUV?TW?WCUkV5lMVOSkVT C-VWNV S?1TEAVHJUCUVTUbOK WSCJ ?CV SRb1kUVKJUVUNNURKVWNVIOTE SsV JUV5lMVRJOTORKUT CxK RCVWSVCUbURKUkV S?1TEVRT KUT OAVmJO?KUTV6V?TWI kUCVRWSRb1C WSCVTUsOTk SsVKJUVUNNUR IUSUCCVWNVKJUV?TW?WCUkV5lMVWSVTUk1R SsVKJUVT C-VOSkVCUIUT KEVWNVOV.J ?bOCJV S?1TEVk1T SsVOVTUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSAVlWTUWIUTGVmJO?KUTV6VRWPx?bUKUCVKJ CVKJUC CVDEVW1Kb S SsVC?UR N RVTURWPPUSkOK WSCVNWTVN1K1TUV.WT-VSUUkUkVKWVN1TKJUTVkUxIUbW?VKJUV?TW?WCUkV5lMAQVV1.6  Summary 5J ?bOCJV S?1TEV CVOVCWNKVK CC1UVSUR-V S?1TEVRO1CUkVDEVC1kkUSVTUbOK IUVPWIUPUSKVDUK.UUSVKJUVDWkEVOSkVJUOkAVVfKV CVPWCKVRWPPWSbEVTU?WTKUkVOCVOVRWSCU?1USRUVWNVOVTUOTVUSkVWbb C WSGVOSkV KV CVOVCUT W1CV?1Db RVJUObKJV?TWDbUPVOCCWR OKUkV. KJVC1DCKOSK ObVRWCKCVKWVCWR UKEAVHJUVO1KWPWD bUVCUOK SsVCECKUPV CVKJUV?TUkWP SOSKVCONUKEVkUI RUVUP?bWEUkVKWV?TWKURKVKJUVWRR1x?OSKCVNTWPV.J ?bOCJV S?1TEVk1T SsVTUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSCAVHWVUSJOSRUVKJUVCONUKEVWNVIUJ RbUVCUOKCGVCUIUTObVC1??bUPUSKObVCONUKEVCECKUPCVJOIUVDUUSVkUIUbW?UkV.J RJVNWR1CVWSVKJUVJUOkVTUCKTO SKVOSkVKJUVCUOKVDOR-3VJW.UIUTGV1K b : SsVKJUVCUOKVDOCUVOCVOVRWP?WSUSKVKWVN1TKJUTVOCC C V SV.J ?bOCJV?TWKURK WSVJOCVTUPO SUkVTUbOK IUbEV1SU(OP SUkAVYCVC1RJGVKJUVWD?URK IUVWNVKJ CVCK1kEV CKWVkUIUbxW?VOSVUSUTsExODCWTD SsV C1??bUPUSKObVCONUKEVCECKUPVNWTVKJUVCUOKVDOCUVKWVTUk1RUVKJUVT C- WNV.J ?bOCJV S?1T UCVk1T SsVTUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSCAVHJUV?TW?WCUkVCECKUPV CVPW1SKUkVDUK.UUSVKJUVIUJ RbUVNbWWTVOSkVKJUVCUOKVDOCUAVfKVTUk1RUCVKJUVWRR1?OSK)CVORRUbUTOK WSVsTOk USKVOSkVkESOP RVbWOk SsVDEVObbW. SsVOVKTOSCbOK WSObVPWK WSVWNVKJUVCUOKVDOCUVTUbOK IUVKWVKJUVIUJ RbUVNbWWTV.J bUVODCWTD SsVRTOCJVUSUTsEAVfSVKJUV?TUCUSKV.WT-GVRT1CJxODbUVPUPDUTCVPOkUVNTWPVOb1  S1PVNWOPVOTUV?TW?WCUkVKWVORKVOCVUSUTsExODCWTD SsVUbUPUSKCAVHJ CVCK1kEVRWSK S1UCV?TUI W1CV.WT-VkWSUVDEVlOSCW1TVOSkViWP bbEV0a?VD1KV1K b :UCVSU.VTUCUOTRJVKWWbCVOSkVU(?UT PUSKObVKUCK SsVKWVUSJOSRUVKJUVORR1TOREVWNVKJUV?TUk RKUkVTUC1bKCAVVHWV kUIUbW?VOVN1SRK WSObV 5lMGVOV KJWTW1sJV 1SkUTCKOSk SsVWNV KJUV ?TWDbUPVOSkKJUVR1T USKbEVOIO bODbUVCWb1K WSCV.OCVSURUCCOTEAVVHJ CV1SkUTCKOSk SsV.OCVWDKO SUkVDEVRWSk1RK SsVOSVU(KUSC IUVTUI U.VWNVKJUVOIO bODbUVb KUTOK1TUAVVYVC1PPOTEVWNVKJUV?UTNWTPUkVTUI U.VOSkVKJUV P?WTKOSKVN Skx SsCVOTUV?TUCUSKUkV SVKJUVSU(KVRJO?KUTAVar VV2 Literature Review on Whiplash Injuries: Fundamentals and Injury Mitigation  2.1 Overview HJUVIUJ RbUVCUOKV CVKJUV?TUkWP SOSKVCONUKEVkUI RUVOIO bODbUVKWVWRR1?OSKCV SVOTUOTVUSkV Wbb C WSAVi UCUOTRJVUNNWTKCVTUbOKUkVKWVUSJOSR SsVKJUVCONUKEVbUIUbVWNVIUJ RbUVCUOKCVJOI DUUSVsW SsVWSVC RUVKJUVaQ6r)CAVHJUCUVUNNWTKCVJOIUVbUkVKWVOVDTWOkVTURWsS K WSVD1KVb P KUkV1SkUTCKOSk SsVWNVKJUVIOT xW1CV KE?UCVWNV.J ?bOCJV  S?1T UCGV KJU TVW1KRWPUCGV KJU TV PURJOS CPCVOSkV KJUVIOT W1CV ?WKUSK ObV.OECVKWVP K sOKUVWTV? UIUSKVKJUPAVVHWVkUIUbW?VOVSU.V.J ?bOCJVP K sOK WSVCECKUPp AUAVKJ VPO SVsWObVWNVKJ CV.WT-hVTU?1 TUCVJOI SsVOSV SxkU?KJV-SW.bUksUVWNVPOSEVTUbOKUkVOTUOCAVHJ1CGVOVb KUTOK1TUVTUI U.V.OCVROTT UkVW1KVKWVsO SVOSV1SkUTCKOSk SsVWNV?TUI W1CV.WT-VTUbOKUkVKWVWRR1?OSKVkESOP RCGV S?1TEVPURJOS CPCGVOSkVO1KWPWK IUVCUOKVkUC sSVOSkV P?ORKVOSObEC CAVHJ CVTUI U. VObCWVCUTIUkVKWV?TWI kUV SC sJKV SKWVKJUVIOT W1CVPUKJWkCV1CUkVNWTVKJUVkESOP RVOSObEC CVWNVKJUVWRR1?OSKVOSkVCUOKV SKUTORK WSVk1T SsVOVTUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSGVOCV.UbbVOCVUIOb1OK SsVKJUVR1TTUSKbEVOIO bODbUVOSK x.J ?bOCJVCUOKVkUC sSCAVVfSVKJ CVCURK WSGVKJUV.J ?bOCJV?TWDbUPVOSkVKJUVTUbOKUkVCEP?KWPCVOTUV SKTWk1RUkGV?b1CVKE? RObVWRxR1?OSKV PWK WSVOSkVKJUVD WPURJOS RCVWNVKJUV SUR-Vk1T Ss OVTUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSVOTUV kUCRT DUkAVVLTW?WCUkVKJUWT UCVNWTV.J ?bOCJV S?1TEVPURJOS CPCVOTUVKJUSVU(?bO SUkVOSkVC1DCU?1USKbEGVOIO bxODbUV S?1TEVRT KUT OVNWTV?1OSK NE SsVKJUVkUsTUUVWNV.J ?bOCJV S?1TEVU(?UT USRUkVDEVOSVWRR1?OSKVOTUVk CR1CCUkAVVu SObbEGVOVCKOSkOTkVPUOSCVNWTVUOTVUSkV P?ORKVKUCK SsGV?b1CVR1TTUSKVOSK x.J ?bOCJVCUOKVkUC sSV?J bWCW?J UCVOTUVU(?bO SUkAV2.2 Whiplash Injuries vSUV?TUkWP SOSKVNWTPVWNV.J ?bOCJV CVOVCWNKVK CC1UVSUR-V  S?1TEVRO1CUkVDEVKJUVC kkUSVTUbOK IUVPWIUPUSKVDUK.UUSVKJUVKWTCWVOSk KJUVJUOkAVfKVROSVDUVC1CKO SUkVNTWPVRWbb C WSCV SVObbVk TURK WSCVpUAsAVNTWSKObGVC kUVOSkVTUOTVUSkhGVD1KV KV CVPWCKVRWPPWSbEVOCCWR OKUkV. KJVTU TVUSkRWbb C WSCAVo1UVKWVJ sJVWRR1TTUSRUVTOKUVOSkVJ sJVRWCKVOCCWR OKUkV. KJV.J ?bOCJV S?1TEGV KVJOCVDUUSVOVCUT W1CVD1TkUSVNWTVCWR UKEAVaaVVHE? RObbEGVIUJ RbUVWRR1?OSKCV.JW U(?UT USRUkV.J ?bOCJVC1NNUTVNTWPV SRTUOC SsVCK NNSUCCVOSkV?O SV SVKJU TVSUR-CVk1T SsVKJUVN TCKVKJTUUVWTVNW1TVkOECAVHJUEVPOEVObCWVC1NNUTVNTWPVJUOkORJUGVTOk OK SsV?O SV SVKJUVOTPCGVI C1ObVOSkVRWSRUSKTOK WSVk CK1TDOSRUCGVk :: SUCCVOSkV.UO-SUCCV SVKJUVb PDCAVlWCKV?OK USKCVJUObV. KJ SVOVPWSKJV0aQ?GVD1KV88XVWNVKJUPVRWSK S1UVKWVCUU-VKTUOKPUSKVWIUTV88VPWSKJCVONKUTVC1CKO S SsVKJUV S?1TEV0aa?AV5J ?bOCJV S?1TEV CVRbOCC N UkVOCVOVP SWTV S?1TEGVD1KVCWPUK PUCV KVPOEVbUOkVKWVbWSsVKUTPVk COD b KEAVYVd1UDURVKOC-VNWTRUVObCWVSOPUkVOSkVRbOCC N UkVKJUVk CWTkUTCVOSkVk CRWPNWTKCVOCCWR OKUkV. KJV.J ?bOCJV  S?1TEVOCV5J ?bOCJV YCCWR OKUkVo CWTkUTCVp AUAV5YohV  SKWVNW1TV sTW1?CV . KJV k NNUTUSKVsTOkUCV0aQ?AVHJUVPO SV?1T?WCUVWNVKJ CVRbOCC N ROK WSV.OCVKWVs IUVs1 kOSRUV SVKJUVKTUOKP SKVWNV.J ?bOCJVOSkVkUOb SsV. KJV KCVCEP?KWPCV0tr?AVHJ CVRbOCC N ROK WSV CVOSVWTkUTUkVROKUsWT ROb CRObUV. KJVUORJVsTOkUVDU SsVPWTUVCUIUTUVKJOSVKJUV?TUI W1CVWSUAVHODbUt xaVCJW.CVKJ CVRbOCC N ROK WSAV5J bUVCWPUVRT K R CPVJOCVDUUSVO PUkVOKVKJ CVRbOCC N ROK WSGV KV CVCK bbVKJUVPWCKVORRU?KUkVWSUV1CUkVNWTVCEP?KWPWbWsEVRbOCC N ROK WSAVTable 2-1 - The Quebec classification of whiplash associated disorders 0aQ? WAD Grade Clinical Presentation r V nWVSUR-VRWP?bO SKAVVnWV?JEC RObVC sSpChAVfV nUR-V?O SVRWP?bO SKGVCK NNSUCCVWTVKUSkUTSUCCVWSbEAVVnWV?JEC RObVC sSpChAVffV nUR-VRWP?bO SKVYnoVP1CR1bWC-UbUKObVC sSpChAVVl1CR1bWC-UbUKObVC sSCV SRb1kUVkURTUOCUkVTOSsUVWNVPWK WSVOSkV?W SKVKUSkUTSUCCAVfffV nUR-VRWP?bO SKVYnoVSU1TWbWs RObVC sSpChAVVnU1TWbWs RObVC sSCV SRb1kUVkURTUOCUkVWTVODCUSKVkUU?VKUSkWSVTUNbU(UCGV.UO-SUCCVOSkVCUSCWTEVkUN R KCAVfqV nUR-VRWP?bO SKVYnoVNTORK1TUVWTVk CbWROK WSAVVlOSE VNORKWTCVONNURKVKJUVW1KRWPUVOSkVCUIUT KEVWNV.J ?bOCJV S?1T UCGVSOPUbEGVJUOkVTUCKTO SKVsUxWPUKTEVOSkVUSUTsEVODCWT?K WSV?TW?UTK UCGVCUOKVkUC sSGVIUJ RbUVCKT1RK1TUGVWRR1?OSKV S K ObVCUOKx SsV?WCK1TUGVRTOCJVCUIUT KEGVsUSkUTGVOsUGVUKRAVHJUEVROSVDUVRbOCC N UkV SKWVKJTUUVPO SVsTW1?C7VI UxJ RbUVkUC sSVTUbOKUkVNORKWTCGVD WbWs RObVNORKWTCVOSkVNORKWTCVTUbOKUkVKWVRTOCJVR TR1PCKOSRCV0ta?AVat VVe(?bO S SsVKJUVUNNURKCVWNVObbVWNVKJUCUVNORKWTCV CVDUE Sk KJUVCRW?UVWNVKJ CVKJUC CGVD1KVTURWsS K WSVWNVKJUPV CVUCCUSK ObAVVMWPUVWNVKJUVPWTUVkWP SOSKVOTUVk CR1CCUkV SVKJUVNWbbW. SsVCURK WSCAVvSUV P?WTKOSKVNORKWTVKJOKVCJW1bkVDUVSWKUkV SVKJ CVCURK WSV CVCUOK Ss ?WCK1TUA mWP? T SsVT C-VWNV S?1TEVDUK.UUSV?OCCUSsUTCVOSkVkT IUTCVCJW.CVKJOKVKJUVbOKKUTVJOIUVOVJ sJUTVT C-VWNV S?1TEAVHJUVTUOCWSV CVSWKV.UbbV1SkUTCKWWkGVD1KVOV?WCC DbUVU(?bOSOK WSVP sJKVDUVKJOKV?OCCUSsUTCVJOIUVOVPWTUVTUbO(UkV ?WC K WSV KJOSV kT IUTCwUAsAVKJUEVKUSkVKWVTUCKV KJU TVJUOkVWSVKJUV JUOkV TUCKTO SKV0tr?AVlWTUWIUTGVRWP?OT SsVKJUVT C-VWNV  S?1TEVDUK.UUSVNTWSKVC OKVOSkVTUOTVCUOKV?OCCUSsUTCVTUIUObCVKJOKVNTWSKV?OCCUSsUTCVOTU OKVJ sJUTVT C-AVHJ CVROSVDUVOKKT D1KUkVKWVOVPWTUVT s kVOSkVbUCCVUO K RVkUC sSVWNVKJUVTUOTVCUOKCVRWP?OTUkVKWVKJUVNTWSKVCUOKCV0a9?AVHJUTUNWTUGVKJUVNWR1CVWNVKJ CVCK1kEV. bbVDUVWSVkT IUTCV SVKJUVNTWSKVCUOKAV2.3 Occupant Motion in a Rear End Collision BSkUTCKOSk SsVKJUVkESOP RVTUC?WSCUVWNVOSVWRR1?OSKV SVOVTUOTVUSkRWbb C WSV CVRT1R ObVNWTVkUIUbxW? SsVKJUV5lMV?TW?WCUkV SVKJ CVCK1kEAVVYVKE? RObVTUC?WSCUVWNVOSVWRR1?OSKV SVOVTUOTVU kVRWbb C WSV CVCJW.SV SVu s1TUVt xaAVHJUVK P SsVOSkVKJUVU(KUSKVWNVKJUCUVPWK WSCVPOEVk NNUTVCb sJKbEVkU?USk SsVWSVKJUVCUOKV?TW?UTK UCGVKJUVRTOCJV?1bCUVOSkVKJUV S K ObV?WCK1TUVWNVKJUVWRR1?OSKAVYSVWRR1?OSK)CVDOC RVkESOP RCV SVOVTUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSV CV.Ubbx-SW.SVOSkV.UbbxkWR1PUSKUkV SVKJUVb KUTOK1TUVpCUUV0tt?hAVfSVOVTUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSGVKJUVIUJ RbUVOSkVKJUVCUOKVOTUVC1D?URKUkVKWVOVNWT.OTkVORRUbUTOK WSGVOSkVKJUVCUOKVDOR-V?1CJUCVKJUVWRR1?OSK)CVKWTCWVNWT.OTkAVFURO1CUVWNVKJUV SUTK OVWNVKJUVJUOkGV  KVKTOSCbOKUCVDOR-.OTkVTUbOK IUVKWVKJUVKWTCWVOSkVKJUVCUOKAVM1DCU?1US bEGVKJU 1??UTVRUTI RObVC? SUVOSkVbW.UTVRUTI RObVC? SUV1SkUTsWVNbU( WSVOSkVU(KUSC WSGVTUC?URK IUbEwKJ CV  K1OxK WSVDT SsCVODW1KVKJUVMxCJO?UVSUR-VkUNWTPOK WSAVYKVKJUVCOPUVK PUGVHaVPWIUCV1?.OTkCVk1UVKWVCKTO sJ KUS SsVWNVKJUVC? SUVOSkVIUTK RObVk C?bORUPUSKVWNVKJUV?UbI CVOCVKJUVWRR1?OSKVCb kUCVOSkTOP?CV1?V SVKJUVCUOKAVo1UVKWVJUOk)CVTUbOK IUVTUOT.OTkVKTOSCbOK WSGVKJUVJU k)CVRUSKUTVWNVsTOI KEVNObbCVDUJ SkVKJUVTWKOK WSVRUSKUTVWNVKJUVSUR-3VKJ CVNWTRUCVKJUVSUR-VKWVDUSkVDOR-.OTkVOSkVKWVsWV SKWVU(KUSC WSGV.J RJVRO1CUCVKJUVmxCJO?UVkUNWTPOK WSAVHJUV?TUCUSRUVWNVOVJUOkVTUCKTO SKV SKUTxT1?KCVKJUVmxCJO?UVkUNWTPOK WSVWNVKJUVSUR-VOSkVDW1SRUCVKJUV JUOkVNWT.OTkGV  AUAVKJUVTUDW1SkV?JOCUAVVHJ CVRO1CUCVKJUVSUR-VKWVsWV SVNbU( WSAVa8VVYVRWPD SOK WSVWNVO( ObVNWTRUGVCJUOTVNWTRUVOSkVDUSk SsVPWPUSKV CO??b Uk K VKJUVJ OkVOSkVSUR-Vk1T SsVKJ CVCUT UCVWNVPWK WSCAVHJUVPOsS K1kUVOSkVk TURK WSVWNVKJUCUVbWOkCVk ?USkCVPWCKbEVWSVKJUVRTOCJVCUIUT KEVOSkVKJUVCUOKVkUC sSV?OTOPUKUTCV0t8?AVVFigure 2-1 ? Occupant kinematics during rear end collision  (adopted from 0t,? with permission) 2.4 Whiplash Injury Mechanisms HJUV?TUI W1CVCURK WSVU(?bO SUkVKJUVkESOP RVTUC?WSCUVWNVOVKE? RObVWRR1?OSK)CV JUOkVOSkVSUR-Vk1T SsVOVTUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSAVHJ CVCURK WSVDT UNbEVkUCRT DUCVKJUVTUbOK WSCJ ?CVDUK.UUSVKJUVWRR1x?OSK)CVkESOP RCVOSkVKJUV?WCC DbUV.J ?bOCJ V S?1TEVPURJOS CPCVOSkV S?1TEVC KUCAVVVfKV CVOV-SW.SVNORKVKJOKV?JEC RObV S?1TEVKO-UCV?bORUV NVKJUVD WPURJOS RObVTUC?WSCUVWNVKJUVSUR-V (xRUUkCVOVKWbUTODbUVb P KAVfSVTUOT USkRWbb C WSCVKJUVJUOkVOSkVSUR-VOTUVU(?WCUkVKWV SUTK OVOSkVRWSxKORKVNWTRUCGV.J RJVPOEVbWOkVWTVkUNWTPVKJUVK CC1UCV SVKJUVSUR-VDUEWSkVKJUVKWb TODb Vb P KCGVTUxC1bK SsV SV S?1TEV0t8?AVHJUVPURJOS CPCVWNV.J ?bOCJVOTUVSWKVN1bbEV-SW.SVEUKAVFURO1CUV.J ?bOCJV  S?1T UCVWRR1TV SVKJUVCWNKVK CC1UCVWNVKJUVSUR-GVkUK K SsVKJUPVDEV1C SsVk OsSWCK RVKWWbCVpUAsAVUxTOECVWTVlOsSUK RViUCWxSOSRUV fPOs SshV  CV k NN R1bKAVlWTUWIUTGVs IUSVKJUV RWP?b ROKUkVD WPURJOS RObV CKT1RK1TUVWNVKJUVSUR-GVN Sk SsVKJUVbWROK WSVWNVKJUV S?1TEVOSkVKJUVRO1CUVWNVKJUVCEP?KWPCV CVObCWV(KTUPUbEVk NN xR1bKAVHWVRW?UV. KJVKJUCUVk NN R1bK UCGVTUCUOTRJUTCVJOIUVDUUSV.WT- SsVWSV.J ?bOCJV S?1T UCV1  SsV?WCKxP WTKUPVKUCKVCOP?bUCVWTVROkOIUTCVKWVDUVODbUVKWkUKUTP SUVKJUV?WCC DbUV  S?1TEVC KUCVOSkVa, VV?WCC DbUV S?1TEVPURJOS CPCVDEVk TURKbEV SC?URK SsVKJUVSUR-VK CC1UC3VKJU TVCK1k UCVJOIUVTUC1bKUkV SVCUIUTObVKJUWT UCVKJOKVU(?bO SV.J ?bOCJV S?1TEVPURJOS CPVOSkVC KUCAVHJUCUVKJUWT UCV Sk ROKUVKJOKVKE? RObV S?1TEVC KUCVOTUKJUVNORUKV?W SKGVk CRGVP1CRbUGVb sOPUSKGVOTKUTEGVRUSKTObVSUTIW1CVCECKUPGVWTVkWTCObVSUTIUVTWWKVsOSsb WSGV.J bUVKJUV ?1TEVPURJOS CPCVPOEVDUVODxSWTPObVIUTKUDTOVPWK WSGVU(RUCC IUVSUR-VbWOkCGVbWRObVJE?UTU(KUSC WSONbU( WSGVWTV?TUCC1TUV?1bCUCV SVKJUVC? SObVROSObAVH DbUVt xt VC1PPOT :UCVKJUVPWCKVUCKODb CJUkV S?1TEVPURJOS CPVKJUWT UC3VN TVN1TKJUTVkUKO bCGVTUOkUTCVOTUVUSRW1TOsUkVKWVTUNUTVKWVKJUVR KUkV?1Db ROK WSCATable 2-2 ?Whiplash injury mechanisms Injury site Injury mechanism Corresponding motion Reference mUTI RObVNORUKV?W SKCVV L RJ SsVOSkVWIUTCKTUKRJ SsV cE?UTVU(KUSC WSVOSkVJE?UTVNbU( WSV0t??VoWTCObVTWWKVsOSsb WSV q bUSKV?TUCC1TUVKTOSC USKV SVC? SObVRWTkVMxCJO?UVkUNWTPOK WSV 0at?VnUR-VP1CRbUV gUSsKJUS SsVWNVRWSKTORKUkVVVP1CRbUCViUKTORK WSV 0t6?VB??UTVSUR-VCWNKVVVVK CC1UVcE?UTVKTOSCbOK WSV iUKTORK WSV 0t9?VgW.UTVSUR-VCWNKVVVVK CC1UVe(RUCC IUVTWKOK WSVWNVIUTKUDTOUV MxCJ ?UVkUNWTPOK WSV 0tj?VVvSUGVWTVOVRWPD SOK WSVWNVKJUVPURJOS CPCVC1PPOT :UkVODWIUVPOEVDUVORK IUV  SVKJUVTUC1bK SsV.J ?bOCJV S?1TEAVoOPOsUVKWVObbVWNVKJUVONWTUPUSK WSUkVK CC1UCVRO VDUVRO1 UkVDEVU KJUTVTO? kVNbU(x WSOU(KUSC WSVPWK WSVWNVKJUVJUOkVOSkVSUR-VWTV (RUCC IUVTUbOK IUVk C?bORUPUSKVWNVJUOkVOSkVKWTxCWAVYbKJW1sJVKJUVORK1ObVORK IUVPURJOS CPCVNWTVOSEVC?UR N RV.J ?bOCJV S?1TEVPOEVTUPO SV1SRbUOTGV KVROSVDUVU(?URKUkVKJOKVTUk1RUkVJUOkVOSkVSUR-VPWK WSV. bbVTUk1RUVKJUVT C-VOSkVCUIUT KEVWNVKJUCUV.J ?bOCJV S?1T UCAV2.5 Whiplash Injury Criteria HWVOCCUCCV.JUKJUTVOVC?UR N RVCUOKVkUC sSV CVUNNURK IUV SVTUk1R SsVKJUT C-VWNV.J ?bOCJV S?1TEGV KCVbUIUbVCJW1bkVDUV?1OSK N UkAVYSV  S?1TEVRT KUT WSV CVOV?OTOPUKUTVKJOKVROSVTUbOKUVKJUVkESOP RVTUxC?WSCUVWNVOSVWRR1?OSKVKWVOVkUN S K IUVOSkVUOC bEVRWP?OTOK IUVbUIUbVWNV S?1TEGVOSkVROSVDUV1CUkVKWVa?VV?1OSK NEVKJUVb -Ub JWWkVOSkOWTVKJUVCUIUT KEVWNV S?1TEAVMUIUTObV S?1TEVRT KUT OVNWTV.J ?bOCJV S?1T UCVJOIUVDUUSV?TW?WCUkVOSkV1CUkV SVk NNUTUSKVNUkUTObVCONUKEVCKOSkOTkCAVHJUCUVRT KUT OV?TWI kUV?1OSxK N ODbUV S?1TEV?WKUSK ObVOSkVObbW.VTUCU TRJUTCVKWV kUSK NEVCONUKEVRWSRUTSCAVeIUTEV S?1TEVRT KUT OVTU?TUCUSKCVWSUVWTVOVsTW1?VWNVC?UR N RV S?1TEVPURJOS CPpChGV?b1CV KVC?UR N UCVOVNWTP1bOK WSVCRJUPUVOSkV S?1TEVKJTUCJWbkVIOb1UAVHJUVPWCKVUCKODb CJUkV S?1TEVRT KUT OwTUbUIOSKVKWVKJ CV.WT-wOTUVC1PPOT :UkV SVHODbUVt x8AVTable 2-3 ? Whiplash injury criteria Injury Criteria Calculation scheme Threshold nUR-VfS?1TEVmT KUT WSVpnfmhV0at?V = 0.2 +  V =VHaOmaVTUbOK IUVk C?bORUPUSKV =VHaOmaVTUbOK IUVIUbWR KEV < 15	VnUR-VLTWKURK WSVVVVmT KUT WSVpn-P hV0tQ?VNkm =+V =V1??UTVSUR-VCJUOTVNWTRUV =V j,?Oxj,?Vn V =V1??UTVSUR-VDUSk SsVPWPUSKV =V jjAaOx,9A?VnAP V < 1VgW.UTVnUR-VgWOkVVmT KUT WSVpgnghV08r?VLNL =||+||+||V =VbW.UTVSUR-VDUSk SsVPWPUSKV =a?VnAPV =VbW.UTVSUR-VCJUOTVNWTRUV =Vt?rVnV =VbW.UTVSUR-VO( ObVNWTRUV =QrrVnVnYVVm1TTUSKbEGVOSV1STUCWbIUkVkUDOKUV ( CKCVODW1KV.J RJVWNVKJUCUVRT KUT OVCJW1bkVDUVKO-USV SKWVORxRW1SKVKWVkUCRT DUVKJUVOD b KEVWNVOVCUOKVKWV?TWKURKVKJUVWRR1?OSKCV SVT OT USkVRWbb C WSCV?TW?UTbEV08a?AVFURO1CUVKJUVIOb k KEVWNVS V S?1TEVPURJOS CPVWTV S?1TEVRT KUT OVJOCVDUUSVN1bbEV?TWIUSGV1C SsVWSbEVWSUVRT KUT WSVNWTVOCCUCC SsVKJUVUNNURK IUSUCCVWNVOVCUOKVkUC sSVkWUCVSWKVE UbkVOVTUb ODbUVUIObx1OK WS3VPWTUVKJOSVWSUVRT KUT WSGVKJUTUNWTUGVP1CKVDUVOkW?KUkVNWTV S?1TEVOCCUCCPUSKCAVfSVRWSRb1xC WSGVKJUVnfmGVn-P VOSkVgngV.UTUVRJWCUSVKWVDUV1CUkV SVKJ CVCK1kEVDURO1CUVKJUEVRWIUTVOV. kUVTOSsUVWNV?WCC DbUV S?1TEVPURJOS CPCVOSkV S?1TEVC KUCAVa6VVHJUVPOsS K1kUVWNVKJUV S?1TEVRT KUT WSVIOb1UVOC ?1OSK N UkV SVKJ CVCK1kEV CVPUOSKVKWV Sk ROKUVKJUV?WKUSK ObVWTV?TWDOD b KEVWNV S?1TE3VTUk1R SsVKJUVRT KUT OVIOb1UCGVKJ1CGVTUk1RUCVKJUV?TWDOD b KEVWNV S?1TEAVlWTUWIUTGV  S?1TEVP K sOK WSV  SVKJ CVKJUC VTUNUTCVKWVKJUVTUk1RK WSVWNVOSV S?1TEVRT KUT WSVIOb1UVOSkVC1DCU?1USKVTUk1RK WSV SV S?1TEV?TWDOD b KEVWTVT C-AV2.6 Rear end Collision Testing HWV1SkUTCKOSkVKJUV P?WTKOSKVNORKWTCV SVWRR1?OSKVOSkVCUOKV SKUTORK WSVOSkVKWVOCCUCCVKJUVN1SRxK WSOb KEVWNVKJUVCONUKEVkUI RUCGVTUC OTRJUTCVJOIUVD USV1C SsVJ1POS VWTVJ1POSVU?1 IObUSKV UCKVC1D?URKCAVHJ CVCURK WSVk CR1CCUCVKJUCUK.WVk NNUTUSKVPUKJWkCVWNVWRR1?OSKVTU?TUCUSKOK WSAVvIUTVKJUV?OCKVN IUVkUROkUCGVTUCUOTRJUTCVJOIUV1CUkVJ1POSVIWb1SKUUTCVKWVP O 1TUVKJUVJ1POSVkESOP RVTUC?WSCUV S TUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSCAVYbKJW1sJVJ1POSVIWb1SKUUTCV?TWI kUVKJUVPWCKVTUOb CK RVTUC1bKCGVKJUEVJOIUVK.WVPO?WTVkTO.DOR-C7VV? FURO1CUVWNVKJUVT C-VWNV S?1TEGKJUEVROSSWKVDUV1CUkVNWTVKUCK SsV SVJ sJ C?UUkVRWbb C WSC3VKJ CVkTO.DOR-Vb P KCVKJUV1COsUVWNVJ1POSVKUCKVC1D?URKVKWVC?UUkCVDUbW.VarVzP?JAV? l UOC1T SsV SCKT1PUSKCVROSSWKVDUV SCKObbUkVWSVKJUVRUSKUTVWNVsTOI KEVWNVDWkEV?OTKCVpUAsAVJUOkVOSkVHah3VKJ CV SKTWk1RUCVCWPUVk NN R1bK UCVOSkVUTTWTCV SVKJUVKUCKVTUC1bKCAVVHWVWIUTRWPUVKJUCUVkTO.DOR-CGVTUCUOTRJUTCVJOIUVDUUSV1C SsVJ1POSVU?1 IObUSKC7V?WCKxPWTKUPVJ1POSVC1D?URKCVpLlcMVWTVROkOIUTChVOSkVOSKJTW?WPWT?J RVKUCKVkUI RUCVpYHohAVFURO1CUV.WT-x SsV. KJVROkOIUTCVDT SsCVODW1KVPOSEVk NN R1bK UCVpUAsAV1SOIO bOD b KEGVK CC1UVkUsUSUTOK WSCGVRWPx?b ROKUkVKUCKVCUK1?GVUKRAhGVTUCUOTRJUTCV?TUNUTVKWV1CUVYHoCwObCWVRObbUkVRTOCJVKUCKVk1PP UCAVHJUVcEDT kVfffGViUOTVfP?ORKVo1PPEVpifohGVOSkVKJUVF WN kUb RViUOTVfP?ORKVo1PPEVpF WifohVOTUVKJUVPWCKVRWPPWSVKUCKVk1PP UCVNWTVTUOTV P?ORKVKUCK SsAVVHJUVcEDT kVfffVk1PPEV.OCVkUIUbW?UkVWT s SObbEVOCVOVJ1POSVC1TTWsOKUVNWTV1CUV SVKJUVPWTUVNOKObVNTWSKObVRWbb C WSVKU K SsAVfKVJOCVOVT s kVb1PDOTVOSkVRUTI RObVC? SUGV SkV KCVSUR-VRWSC CKCVWNVCUIUTObVPUKObVOSkVT1DDUTVk C- V?bORUkVWSVKW?VWNVUORJVWKJUTAV5JUSVRWSC kUTUkVNWTVTUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSVKUCK SsGVTUCUOTRJUTCVRWP?OTUkVKJUVkESOP RVTUC?WSCUVWNVKJ CVk1PPEV. KJVKJOKVWNVJ1POSVC1Dx?URKCVOSkVNW1SkVKJOKV KVJOkV SC1NN R USKVD WN kUb KEVNWTVORR1TOKUV1CUV SVTUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSVKUCK SsV0aj?08t?AVHWV P?TWIUVKJUVD WN kUb KEVWNVKJUVcEDT kVfffVk1PPEGVOVSU.VSUR-VOCCUPDbEV.OCVkUIUbxa9VVW?UkVNWTV KVp AUAVifo xS R-hAVcW.UIUTGVKJUVJ sJVT s k KEVWNVKJUVcEDT kVfff)CVb1PDOTVTUs WSVTUCKT RKUkVKJUV?UTNWTPOSRUVWNVKJUVSU.VSUR-AVVoOI kCCWSVUKVObAV088?VkUIUbW?UkVKJUV S K ObVF WN kUb RViUOTVfP?ORKVo1PPEVpF WifohV.J RJVJOCVOVN1bbExOTK R1bOKUkVC? SUV . KJV t,V IUTKUDTOUV SkVOVKWTCWVPOkUVW1KVWNVC b RWSV T1DDUTAVfKCV SUR-V  CVU?1 ??UkV. KJVRODbUCV SVNTWSKVOSkVDOR-VOCVP1CRbUVC1DCK K1KUCGV.J RJVJUb?VKWV?TWI kUVDUKKUTVTUxKTORK WSVOSkVU(KUSC WSVPWK WSVWNVKJUVSUR-AVHJUVF WifoVk1PEV CVU?1 ??UkV. KJVcEDT kVfffVbUsCVOSkVOTPCGV.J bU VKJUVJUOkVOSkV?UbI CVOTUVPWk N UkVIUTC WSCVWNVKJUVcEDT kVfff k1PPE VkUC sSAVYVROI KEV SVKJUVbW.UTVOTUOVWNVKJUVKWTCWVKJOKV CVN bbUkV. KJV.OKUTVC P1bOKUCVKJUVJ1P S VDbOkkUTV08,?AVHJ CVk1PPEVJOCVDUUSVCJW.SVKWVDUVIUTEVD WN kUb RVOSkVKJUVbOKUCKVCUOKVUIOb1OK WSV?TWKWRWbVNWTVCONUKEV SVTUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSCVp AUAVff5LyVCUOKVTOK SsV?TWKWRWbhVTUR PPUSkCVKJUV1CUVWNVKJ CVk1PPEV08??AVHJUVSU.UCKVIUTC WSVWNVKJ CVk1PPEV CVDU SsVPOS1NORK1TUkVDEViWDUTKVYAVoUSKWSV1SkUTVKJUVSOPUVWNVF Wifoxf AVVFigure 2-2 ? Cross-section of BioRID-II computer model aj VVFURO1CUV?1TRJOC SsGVKUCK SsVOSkVPO SKO S SsVF WifoxffVNWTVTUCUOTRJV?1T?WCUCV  CVU(KTUPUbEVU(x?USC IUVp SVPOSEVROCUCVPO- SsV KVSWKVOIO bODbUVKWVTUCUOTRJUTChGV UC OTRJUTCVJOIUV SCKUOkVDUUSVUP?bWE SsVRWP?1KUTVPWkUbCVWNVKJ CVk1PPEGV.J RJVJOIUVDURWPUVOIO bODbUV SVKJUV?OCKVRW1?bUVWNVEUOTCAVHJUCUVRWP?1KUTVPWkUbCVOTUVOI  bODbUV  SVKJUVNWTPVWNVP 1bK xDWkEVkESOP RVpOIO bODbUV  SVlYo4lvh VOSkVN S KUVUbUPUSKVpuehVPWkUbCVpOIO bODbUV SVgMxo4nYVOSkVYDO?1ChAVueVPWkUbCVROSV?TWI kUVkUKO bUkV SNWTPOK WSVOSkVOTUVRWP?1KOK WSObbEVU(?USC IUGV.JUTUOCVP1bK xDWkEVPWkUbCVs IUVbUCCVkUKO bUkVTUC1bKCVOSkVOTUVRWP?1KOK WSObbEVUNN R USKAVY ueVPWkUbVWNVKJUVF WifoxffVk1PPEGVRTUOKUkVOSkVIOb kOKUkVDEVoOCCO1bKVMECKUPCGV.OCVRJWCUSVKWVDUV1CUkV SVKJ CVCK1kEAV2.7 Anti-Whiplash Seat Designs zSW.bUksUVWNVKJUVR1TTUSKbEVOIO bODbUV .J ?bOCJVP K sOK WSVCECKUPC  CVU(KT UbEV  P?WTKOSKVNWTVkUIUbW? SsVOVSU.VCONUKEVCECKUPAVHJ CV-SW.bUksUV.OCVWDKO SUkVDE TUI U. SsVKJUV?1Db CJUkVb KUTxOK1TUV ODW1KV KJUV OIO bODbUV CONUKEV CECKUPCwC?UR N RObbEV NWTV TUk1R SsV .J ?bOCJwOSkVRT K RObbEVUIOb1OK SsVKJU TVW?UTOK SsV?T SR ?bUCAVMUIUTObVTUCUOTRJV  S K OK IUCV JOIUVDU SV1SkUTKO-USVKWV  P?TWIUVKJUVCONUKEVNUOK1TUCVWNVIUJ RbUVCUOKCVOSkVP K sOKUV.J ?bOCJV S?1T UCVWIUTVKJUV?OCKVKJTUUVkUROkUCAVHJUCUVCK1k UCVJOIUVTUC1bKUkV SVKJUVkUIUbW?PUSKVWNVOVRWSC kUTODbUVS1PDUTVWNVCUOKVOSkVJUOkVTUCKTO SKVkUC sSCAVHJU TVW?UTOK SsV?T SR ?bUCVOSkVN1SRK WSOb KEVOCCUCCPUSKVTUC1bKCVO VTUI U.UkV SVKJ CVRJO?KUTAVHJ CUVkUC sSCVOTUVRbOCC N UkVDOCUkVWSVKJUV?OTKVWNVKJUVCUOKV SIWbIUkA2.7.1 Head Restraint HJUV PWCKV .Ubbx-SW.SV CONUKEV kUI RUVNWTV JUOkV TUCKTO SKV CV KJUVMUbNxYb sS SsV cUOkV iUCKTO SKVWTVMYYFVYRK IUV cUOkV iUCKTO SKVpMYcihw kUIUbW?UkVDEVKJUVMYYFVROTVPOS1NORK1T SsV RWP?OSEV  SVaQ9rAVfKV C OVPURJOS RObVCECKUPVKJOKV1CUCVKJUV SUTK OVWNVKJUVWRR1?OSK)CVKWTCWVk1T SsVOVUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSVKWVPWIUVKJUVJUOkVTUCKTO SKVNWT.OTkVOSkV1?.OTkAVHJ CVORK WSVTUk1RUCVKJUVDOR-xCUKVOSkVOKVKJUVCOPUVK PUV SRTUOCUCVKJUVJU sJKVWNVKJUVJUOkVTUCKTO SKGV.J RJVROSVDUVRWP?TWP CUkVDEVKJUVTWKOK WSVWNVKJUVCUOKVDOCUVk1T SsVOVTUOTV  P?ORKAVYCVOVTUC1bKGVKJUVMYciVP S P :UCVKJUVTUbOK IUVPWIUPUSKVDUK.UUSVKJUV1??UTVKWTCWVOSkVJUOkAVVaQVVq OSWVUKVObAV0a??VROTT UkVW1KVTUOTVDOTT UTVKUCKCV. KJVDW JVKJUVcEDT kVfffVOSkVF WifoxffVk1PP  UCVOSkVCJW.UkVKJOKVKJUVMYciVTUk1RUCVKJUVT C-VWNV S?1TEA ViUkRK WSV.OCVCUUSV SVnfmVOSkVnomVIObx1UCVWDKO SUkVNTWPVKJUVKUCK SsAVfSVOSWKJUTVOKKUP?KGVq OSWVUKVObA086?VOSObE:UkV SC1TOSRUVTURWTkCVNWTVRWSCUR1K IUVMYYFVTUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSCV SVM.UkUSVWIUTVOSajVPWSKJV?UT WkVOSkVNW1SkVW1KVKJOKVKJUVMYciVTUk1RUkVT C-VWNV.J ?bOCJV S?1T UCVDEV9?Waa XAViUCUOTRJUTCVJOIUVRWPUV1?V. KJVCUIUTObVWKJUTVJUOkVTUCKTO SKVkUC sSCVNWTV.J ?bOCJVP K sOK WSGVpCUUVb CKVDUbW.hGVD1KVSWSUVWNVKJUPV CVOCV.Ubbx-SW.SVOCVKJUVMYciAVHJUVPO SVsWObVWNVObbVWNVKJUCUVCECKUPCV  CVKWVTUk1RUVTUbOK IUVPWIUPUSKVDUK.UUSVWRR1?OSK)CVKWTCWVOSkVJUOkAVMWPUVWNVKJUCUVRWSRU?KCVOTUV? nemzxLivVORK IUVJUOkVTUCKTO SKV089?A? cUOkVTUCKTO SKV. KJV P?TWIUkVsUWPUKTEV08j?AV? fSNbOKODbUVpO TDOshVORK IUVJUOkVTUCKTO SKV08Q?AV2.7.2 Seat Back and Recliner vSUVWNVKJUVC1RRUCCN1bVCUOKVkUC sSCV CVKJUVy l Vc sJViUKUSK WSVMUOKVpCUUVu s1TUVt x8hAVfKVJOCVOVK NNVCUOKVDOR-VW1KUTVNTOPUV. KJVOVRWP?b OSKVRUSKTObVOTUOAVHJUVT Rb SUTV CVkUC sSUkVKWVDUVCK NNVOSkVKWV?TUIUSKVbOTsUVTWKOK WSCVWNVKJUVUOKVDOCUV.J bUVbWOk SsVKJUVWRR1?OSKAVHJUVRWP?b OSKVRUSKTObVOTUOVWNVKJUVCUOKVDOR-VJUb?CVKJUVWRR1?OSKVKWVUOC bEVC S- SK VKJUVCUOKVDOCUVDEV?bOCK RObbEVkUNWTP SsVKJUVCKT1RK1TObVPUPDUTCV?bORUkV. KJ  SVKJUVCUOKVDOCUVNTOPUAVHJUV1??UTVC OKVDOCUGV.J RJV CV SVRWSKORKV. KJV1??UTVKWTCWVOSkVCJW1bkUTVTUs WSVWNVKJUVWRR1?OSKGV CVkUC sSUkVKWVDUVPWTUVRWP?b OSKAVHJ CVJUb?CVKWVTUk1RUVKJUVUOTbEVORRU UTOK WSVWNVHaGVOSkGVRWSCU?1USKbEGV JUOkVTUKTORK WSVSkVKJU MxCJO?UkVSUR-VkUNWTPOK WSVOTUV?WCK?WSUkVKWV.JU VKJUVJUOkVTUCKTO SKVC1??WTKCVKJUVJUOkV0a6?AVVtr VVVFigure 2-3 ? A typical High Retention Seat  YSWKJUTVC1RRUCCN1bVkUC sSV  CVqWbIW)CV5cfLMVCUOKV0a9?GV.J RJVRWSC CKCVWNVOVPWk N UkVCUOKVDOR-VOSkVPWk N UkVTURb SUTCVWSVDWKJVC kUCVWNVKJUVCUOKVDOR-AVfSVOVTU TVUSkRWbb C WSVKJUVPWk N UkVTUxRb SUTVROTT UCVW1KVOVK.Wx?J CUkVPWK WS3V SVKJU N TCKV?JOCUGVKJUVCUOKVDOR-VPWIUCVDOR-.OTkVTUbOxK IUVKWVKJUVCUOKVDOCUGVOSkV SVKJUVCURWSkV?JOCUGVOVPUKObb RVPUPDUTV SVKJUVTURb SUTVkUNWTPCV?bOCxK RObbEVOSkVODCWTDCV P?ORKVUSUTsEVOCVKJU CUOKVTWKOKUCVD R-.OTkCAVVPOR-WDCCWSVUKVObAV0a9?V CCUCCUkVKJUVUNNURK IUSUCCVWNVKJUV5cfLMVCUOKw1C SsVOVqWbIWVCUOKVOSkVOVF WifoxfwDEVRWP?OT SsV KCV?UTNWTPOSRUV. KJVOVTUs1bOTVCUOKAV iUC1bKCVCJW.UkVKJOKVKJUV5cfLMVCUOKVTUk1RUkVKJUVPO( P1PVnfmVIOb1UVDEVJObN3VKWTCWVORRUbUTOK WSVbUIUbCV.UTUVTUk1RUkVObCWA2.7.3 Seat Base YSWKJUTVRW1SKUTPUOC1TUVKWVP  sOKUV.J ?bOCJV S?1T UCV SVTUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSCV CVKJUVRWSRU?KVWNVKJUVUSUTsExODCWTD SsVCUOKVDOCUAVfSVOVTUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSGVKJ CVRWSRU?KVObbW.CVKJUVI J RbUVCUOKVKWVCb kUVDOR-.OTkV SVOVRWSKTWbbUkVNOCJ WSVTUbOK IUVKWVKJUVNbWWTV.J bUVODCWTD SsVCWPUVWNVKJUVRTOCJVUSUTsEVKJOKVWKJUT. CUV.W1bkVDUVKTOSCNUTTUkVKWVKJUVWRR1?OSKAVYCVOVTUC1bKGV KVP K sOKUCV.J ?bOCJVStiff seat back frame Compliant central area ta VV S?1T UCVDEVTUk1R SsVKJUVkESOP RVNWTRUCVOSkVORRUbUTOK WSVWNVKJUVWRR1?OSKAVHJUTUVOTUVVTOSsUVWNV?WCC DbUVPUKJWkCVNWTVODCWTD SsVUSUTsEG C1RJVOCV1C SsV?bOCK RObbEVkUNWTPODbUVPOKUT ObCGVJEkTO1xb RCVkOP?UTCGVOSkVC?T SsxkOP?UTVCECKUPCVKWVSOPUVO NU.VWNVKJUVPWCKVSWKODbUAViUCUOTRJUTCVJOIUVkUIUbW?UkVCUIUTObVOSK x.J ?bOCJVkUI RUCVDOCUkVWSVKJ CVRWSRU?KGV.J RJVOTUVkUxC sSUkVKWVDUV SCKObbUkV SKUTPUk OKUbEVDUK.UUSVKJUVCUOKVDOCUVOSkVIUJ RbUVNbWWTAVVnWSUVWNVKJUPVJOIUVUPUTsUkV SKWVOVN SObV?TWk1RKVNWTVOVIUJ RbUVCUOKGV.J RJVROSVDUVOKKT D1KUkVPWCKbEVKWVURWSWPx RVOSkV.U sJKV CC1UCVOCCWR OKUkV. KJVKJUCUVCECKUPCAMWPUVWNVKJUV?TUI W1CbEVkUIUbW?UkVCECKUPCVOTUVDT UNbEVkUCRT DUkV SVKJ CVCURK WSAVn bCCWSV0,r?VROPUV1?V . KJVOVCbUksUxb - VUSUTsExODCWTD SsVCUOKVDOCUAV fSVKJ CV CECKUPGVJUV1CUkVR1TIUkVTO bCVCWVKJUVCUOKVK bKCVOCV KVPWIU DOR-.OTk3VKJUVR1TIUkVTO bCVObbW.VKJUVCUOKV WVKTOSCbOKUVNWTVOVbWSsUTVk CKOSRUAVHJUV?T POTEVUSUTsExODCWTD SsVUbUPUSKV SVJ CVkUI RUV CVOJEkTO1b RVkOP?UTV. KJVOVIOT ODbUVkOP? SsVRWUNN R USKAVvSUVk COkIOSKOsUVWNVKJ CVCECKUPV CVKJOKVJEkTO1b RVkOP?UTCVOTUVJUOIEVOSkVU(?USC IUAVfSVKJ CVUTOV.JU SVO1KWPWD bUVRWP?OS UCVOTUVkUC?UTOKUVKWVkURTUOCUVDWKJVKJUV.  sJK VOSkVRWCKVWNVKJU TV?TWk1RKCGVOkk SsOVC sS N ROSKbEVJUOIEVOSkVU(?USC IUVRWP?WxSUSKVKWVUORJVNTWSKVCUOKV CVSWKVTOK WSObAVVVMRJP KKVUKVObAV0,a?VkUIUbW?UkVOVkOP? SsVCUOKVCb kUAVHJUEV 1CUkVK.WVCKUUbV?TWN bUCVOCVUSUTsExODCWTD SsVUbUPUSKCV.J RJV kUNWTPV?bOCK RObbEVOSkVODCWTDVUSUTsEVk1T SsVKJUVDOR-.OTkVPWIUxPUSKVWNVKJUVCUOKVpCUUVu s1TUVt x, hAVHJUVCKUUbV?TWN bUCVOTUV SVOBVWT q CJO?UVOSkVJOIUVK.WVNTUUVUSkC3VWSUV CV? SSUkVKWVKJUVIUJ RbUVNbWWTV.J bUVKJUVWKJUTVWSUV CV? SSUkVKWVJUCUOKVCb kUAVVVFigure 2-4 ? The seat slide mechanism showing damping element in deformed (right), and  undeformed (left) condition (adopted from 0,t? with permission) tt VVMRJP KKVUKVObAV0,a?VOCCUCCUkVKJUVUNNURK IUSUCCVWNVKJ CVkUI RU1C Ss OVCKOSkOTkVe1TW?UOSVCUOKVOSkF WifoxffGVOSkVWDCUTIUkVOVTUk1RK WSV SVKJUVT C-VWNV.J ?bOCJV S?1T UCAVHJU TVPO SVN Sk SsCV.UTU7V? iUk1RUkVPO( P1PVnfmVDEV6rVXVRWP?OTUkVKWVKJUVTUNUTUSRUVCUOKAV? nWVRJOSsUV SVn-P VPO(VIOb1UAV? iUk1RUkVTUbOK IUVk C?bORUPUSKVDUK.UUSVJUOkVOSkVHaAV? iUk1RUkVHaVORRUbUTOK WSV SVKJUVTUKTORK WSV?JOCUAVYSWKJUTVU(OP?bUVWNV1C SsV?bOCK RObbEVkUNWTPODbUVPOKUT ObCV CVKJUVkUI R VkUIUbW?UkVDEVlAVg1WVUKVObAV0,8?AVHJUEV?TW?WCUkVK.WVk NNUTUSKVUS sExODCWTD SsVPURJOS CP CV.J RJV?bOCK RObbEVkUNWTPVOSkVODCWTDVUSUTsEVk1T SsVOVUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSAVHJUEVUIOb1OKUkVKJUV?UTNWTPOSRUVWNVKJUVkUI RUV. KJVOVlYo4lvVC P1bOK WS wOVF WifoxffVOSkVOVTUs1bOTVCUOKwOSkVTUORJUkVC P bOTVRWSRb1C WSCVOCVMRJP KKVUKVObAV0,a?Vc PPUKWsb1GVMAGVUKVObV0,,?RWSk1RKUkVOVCK1kEVKWV SIUCK sOKUVJUV?UTNWTPOSRUVWNVC (Vk NNUTUSKVRWSxN s1TOK WSCVWNVUSUTsExODCWTD SsVCUOKVkUC sSCGV .J RJV .UTUVU?1 ??UkV . KJC?T SsxkOP?UTCVOSkV?TUCC1TUxKT ssUTUkVORK IUVJUOkVTUCKTO SKVpCUUVu s1TUVt x?hAVHJUEVUIOb1OKUkVKJUVUNNURK IUSUCCVWNVKJUCUVRWSN s1TOK WSCVDE 1C SsVOVIOb kOKUkVJ1POSVRWP?1KUTVPWkUbGV.J RJVKJUEVRTUOKUkVOSkVIOb xkOKUkGVOSkVNW1SkVKJOKVObbVWNVKJUVRWSN s1TOK WSCVU(OP SUkVTUk1RUkVKJUVT C-VWNV.J ?bOCJV  S?1TEVOSkVTUk1RUkVKJUVMxCJO?UVkUNWTPOK WSVWNVKJUVSUR-AVcW.UIUTGV1C SsVC?  SsVUbUPUSKCV SVKJUCUOKVDOCUVPOEVRO1CUVJ sJVIUbWR KEVNWT.OTkVPWIUPUSKCV SVKJUVTUDW1SkV?JOCUVOSkVRW1bkVbUOkVKWVWRxR1?OSKVU?URK WSAVt8 VVVFigure 2-5 ? Six different energy-absorbing anti-whiplash seat configurations  (taken from 0ta? with permission) lOSC W1TVOSkViWP bbEV0a?V1CUkVOb1P S1PVNWOPVREb SkUTCVOCVUSUTsExODCWTD SsVUbUPUSKCV SVKJ CVRWSRU?KAVvSUVOkIOSKOsUVWNV1C SsVOb1P S1PVNWOPVWIUTVWKJUTVSUTsExODCWTD SsVPUKJWkCV CVKJOKVKJUCUVPOKUT ObCVOTUVRJUO?VOSkVb sJK3V1C SsVKJUPGVKJUTUNWTUGV. bbVSWKVOkkVP1RJVKWVKJUV.U sJKVOSkV?T RUVWNVOVIUJ RbUVCUOK SsVCECKUPAVlOSCW1TVOSkViWP bbEV0a?U(OP SUkVKJUV?UTNWTPOSRUVWNVKJUV.J ?bOCJVP K sOK WSVkUI RUV. KJVOVueVPWkUbVWNV?rKJV?UTRUSK bUVcEDT kVfffVPObUVk1PPEVCUOKUkV SVOVylVc sJViUKUSK WSVCUOKVpCUUVu s1TUVt x6hGVOSkV1CUkVk NNUTUSKVKE?UCVWNV. kUbEx1CUkVOb1P S1PVNWOPV SVKJU TVC P1bOK WSCAVHJUVN S KUVUbxUPUSKVC P1bOK WSCV.UTUVRWSk1RKUkV C SsVKJUVgMVo4nYVU(?b R KVCWbIUTGVOSkVPURJOS RObV?TW?UTxK UCVWNVKJUVPUKObb RVNWOPCV.UTUVOR?1 TUkVNTWPVRW TUC?WSk SsVKURJS RObVkOKOVCJUUKAVt, VVVFigure 2-6 ? WMS mounted between the seat base and the floor  (taken from 0,?? with permission) iUC1bKCVWDKO SUkVNTWPVKJUVN S KUVUbUPUSKVC P1bOK WSCVCJW.UkVKJOKV JUVkUI RUVTUk1RUkVKJUVT C-VWNV .J ?bOCJV  S?1T UCVDEVTUk1R SsVDWKJVKJUV?UO-VIOb1UVWNVnfmVOSkVKJUVJUOkxKWTCWVTUbOK IUVk Cx?bORUPUSKAVcW.UIUTGVDURO1CUVKJUVcEDT kVfffVk1PPEVJOCVDUUSVCJW.SVKWVDUV SC1NN R USKbEVDWN xkUb RV SVORR1TOKUbEVTU?TUCUSK SsVOSVWRR1?OSK)CVTUC?WSCUV SVOTVUSkVRWbb C WSCGVN1TKJUTVCK1kEV.OCVkUUPUkVSURUCCOTEVKWVIOb kOKUVKJUV?UTNWTPOSRUVWNVKJUV?TW?WCUkVCONUKEVCECKUPVDUNWTUVOV?TWKWxKE?UVkUI RUV.OCVRWSCKT1RKUkAVHJ1CGVO PWTUVD WN kUb RVk1PPEVPWkUbVpUAsAVF WifoxffhVkUC sSUkVKWVP P R VJ1POSVDWkEVkESOP RCV SVOVTUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSV.OCVCW1sJKVNWTV1CUV SVTUOCCUCC SsVKJUV?WxKUSK ObVUNNURK IUSUCCVWNVKJ CV kUI RUAV VlWTUWIUTGV KV .OCVObCWV kUR kUkV KWV IOb kOKUVKJUVP T ObV?TW?UTK UCVWNVKJUVPUKObb RVNWOPCV?TW?WCUkVNWTV1CUVKJTW1sJVU(?UT PUSKObVKUCK SsV SVKJUVU(?URKUkVkUC sSVRWSN s1TOK WSVOSkVbWOk SsVRWSN s1TOK WSVKWVU(OP SUVKJUVU(?URKUkVIOT OK WSVOSkVTUb OD b KEVWNVKJUV?1Db CJUkVTUC1bKCAVVVcUSRUG POKUT ObV?TW?UTK UCV.UTUVKWVDUVWDKO SUkVNTWPVU(?UT PUSKCV1SkUTVC?UR N UkVbODVbWOk SsVRWSk K WSCAVt? VV2.8 Summary YVb KUTOK1TUVTUI U.V.OCVROTT UkVW1KVKWVsO SVOSV1SkUTCKOSk SsVWNV?TUI W1CV.WT-VTUbOKUkVKWVWRR1x?OSKV kESOP RCGV  S?1TEVPURJOS CPCGVOSkVO1KWPWK IUVCUOKVkUC sSVOSkV  P?ORKVOSObEC CAVMUIUTOb P?WTKOSKVs1 kUb SUCV.UTUVU(KTORKUkVDEVROTTE SsVW1KVKJ CVb KUTOK1TUVTUI U.7V? oT IUTCVOTUVOKVJ sJUTVT C-VWNVC1CKO S SsV.J ?bOCJV S?1T UCV SVTUOT USkRWbb C WSCVRWP?OTUkVKWVDOR-VCUOKVOSkVNTWSKVCUOKV?OCCUSsUTCAV? YbKJW1sJVKJUVU(ORKVORK IUV S?1TEVPURJOS CPVWNVOSEVC?UR N RV.J ?bOCJV S?1TEVPOEVSWKVDUVN1bbEV-SW.SGV KV CVCKTWSsbEVDUb UIUkVKJOKVOVTO? kVU(KUSC WSONbU( WSVWNVKJUVSUR-VOSkVU(RUCxC IUVTUbOK IUVk C?bORUPUSKVDUK.UUSVKJUVJ OkVOSkVKWTCWVOTUVKJUVPO SVRO1CUCVWNV.J ?bOCJV S?1T UCAVHJUTUNWTUGV KVROSVDUVU(?URKUkVKJOKVOV5lMV.J RJVTUC1bKCV SVOVTUk1RUkVTUbOK IUVJUOkVOVKWTCWVp AUAVSUR-hVPWK WSV. bbVTUk1RUVKJUVT C-VOSkVCUIUT KEVWNV.J ?bOCJ  S?1T UCAV? o1UVKWVKJUVWSxsW SsVkUDOKUVOCVKWV.J RJV S?1TEVRT KUT WSV CVRWTTURKGVOSkVKJUVNORKVKJOKVKJUVIOb k KEVWNVSWVC?UR N RV S?1TEVPURJOS CPVOSkV S?1TEVRT KUT WSVJOCVDUUSVC1NN R USKbEV?TWIUSGV1C SsVWSbEVWSUVRT KUT WSVPOEVSWKVbUOkVKWVTUb ODbUVTUC1bKCAV HJ1CGVPWTUVKJOSVWSUVRT KUT WSVCJW1bkVDUV1CUkVNWTV S?1TEVOCCUCCPUSKAVHJ VnUR-VfS?1TEVmT KUT WSVpnfmhGKJUVnUR-VLTWKURxK WSVmT KUT WSVpn-P hVOSkVKJUVgW.UTVnUR-VgWOkVmT KUT WSVpgnghV.UTUVRJWCUSVKWVDUV1CUkV SVKJ CVCK1kEAVV? FURO1CUVWNVKJUVkTO.DOR-CVOCCWR OKUkV. KJVROkOIUTCVOSkVJ1POSVKUCKVC1D?URKCGVTUCUOTRJxUTCV?TUNUTVKWV1CUVRTOCJVKUCKVk1PP UCVNWTV.J ?bOCJV S?1TEVOCCUCCPUSKV SVUOTVUSkVKUCKCAVlWTUWIUTGVKJUVPWCKVC1 KODbUVOSkVJ1POSxb -UVk1PPEVNWTVR1TTUSKVTUOTVUSkVKUCK SsV CVKJUVF WifoxffVYHoAV? YbPWCKVObbVKJUVOSK x.J ?bOCJVCUOKVkUC sSCVORKVKWVTUk1RUVT C-VWNV S?1TEVDOCUkVWSVKJTUUVPO SVs1 kUb SUC7VahVTUk1R SsVKJUVORRUbUTOK WSVWNVKJUVWRR1?OSKGVthVP S P C sVTUbOK IUVPWIUxPUSKVDUK.UUSVJUOkVOSkVKWTCWVKJ1CVTUk1R SsVSUR-VCKTO SGVOSkV8hVTUk1R SsVKJUVTUDW1SkVWNVKJUVCUOKVDOR-VDEVODCWTD SsVKJUVRTOCJVUSUTsEAVHJUVkUIUbW?PUSKVOSkVIOb kOK WSVWNVOSObEC CVKWWbCVTU?1 TUkVKWVC P1bOKUVOVTUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSVO kVOCCUCCVKJUVN1SRK WSOb KEVWNVKJUV?TW?WCUkV5lMVOTUVk CR1CCUkV SVKJUVSU(KVRJO?KUTAVt6 VV3 Finite Element Simulation: Seat-Dummy Model for  Rear Impact Analysis 3.1 Overview HJUVN TCKVTUCUOTRJVKOC-GVOCVkUN SUkV SVmJO?KUTVaGV.OCVKWVkUIUbW?VOSkVIOb kOKUVOVRWP?1KOK WSObVKWWbVRO?ODbUVWNV?TUk RK SsVKJ VkESOP RVTUC?WSCUVWNVOVNTWSKVCUOKVWRR1?OSKV SVOVTUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSAVHWVROTTEVW1KVKJ CVKOC-GVOVueVPWkUb WNVOVRTOCJVKUCKVk1PPEVCUOKUkV S OVIUJ RbUVCUOKV.OCVRTUOKUkAVHJ CVPWkUbVRWSC CKCVWNVK.WV?OTKC7VahVOVueVPWkUbVWNVOVNTWSKVCUOKGVO KORJUkVKWVOV? URUVWNVKJ VIUJ RbUVNbWWTGVOSkthVOVueVPWkUbVWNVKJUVRTOCJVKUCKVk1PPEAVHJUVCUOKVPWkUbGV.J RJV CVPWkUbUkVONKUTVOVtrrt VLWSK ORVyTOSkVYlVNTWSKVCUOKGV CVOVPWk N UkVIUTC WSVWNVKJUVPWkUbVkUIUbW?UkVDEVM- ??UTVOSkViWP bbEV0,6?AVlWTUWIUTGVKJUVRTOCJVKUCKVk1PPEVWkUbV CVOVueVPWkUbVWNVKJUVF WN kUb RViUOTVfP?ORKVo1PPEVffVpF WifoxffhGV.J RJV  CVRTUOKUkGVROb DTOKUkVOSkVIOb k KUkVDEVoOCCO1bKVMECKUPCV0,9?AVHJUVCURWSkVkUN SUkVTUCUOTRJVKOC-V .OCVKWVOCCUCCVKJUVN1SRK WSOb KEVWNVKJUV?TW?WCUkVCUOKVDOCUVPW1SKUkV5lMAVHWVROTTEVW1KVKJ CVKOC-GVOVPWk N UkVPWkUbV.OCVRTUOKUkVDEV SRWT?WTOK SsVKJUV5lMV SVKJUVCUOKxk1PPEVPWkUbVkUIUbW?UkV SVKJUVN TCKVKOC-VpDOCUb SUVPWkUbhAVHJ CV?TWI kUkVK.WVPWkxUbCV C1RJV KJOKVKJUV C P1bOK WSV TUC1bKCV . KJVOSkV . KJW1KVKJUV 5lMVCECKUPVRW1bkVDUVRWP?OTUkAVVu Sk SsCVWDKO SUkVNTWPVKJ CVKOC-VOTUV?TUCUSKUkV SVmJO?KUTV?AVeSC1T SsVKJUVORR1TOREVWNVKJUVTUC1bKCVWDKO SUkVNTWPVKJUVDOCUb SUVPWkUbV CVSURUCCOTEVDURO1CUVOVDOCUb SUVPWkUbV?TWk1R SsVTUOb CK RVTUC1bCVs1OTOSKUUCVKJOKVKJUVWRR1?OSKV  S?1TEVTUC?WSCUV?TUxk RKUkVDEVKJUVPWk N UkVPWkUbVROSVDUVKT1CKUkAVHJ1CGVOI  bODbUVkOKOV  SV b KUTOK1TUV .OCV1CUkVKWV?TWIUVKJUVIOb k KEVWNVKJUVDOCUb SUVPWkUbVOSkVKJUVC P1bOK WSV?TWRUk1TUV1CUkV. KJVKJ CVPWkUbAVHJ CVRJO?KUTVkUCRT DUCVKJUVPWkUbCV1CUkV SVKJUV?TUI W1CVCK1kEVOSkVJW.VKJUEVOTUV1K b :UkV SVKJUVR1TTUSKVTUCUOTRJV.WT-GVOSkVKJUSV?TWRUUkCVKWVkUCRT DUVKJUV?TWRUCCVWNRTUOK SsGVCWbI SsVOSkVIOb xkOK SsVKJUVSU.VDOCUb SUVCUOKxk1PPEVPWkUbAV3.2 Finite Element Models Used in the Previous Study fSVKJUV?TUI W1CVCK1kEGVlOSCW1TVOSkViWP bbEV0a?VkUIUbW?UkVK.WVueVC P1bOK WSVPWkUbCAVHJUVN TCKVC P1bOK WSVPWkUbVpCUUVu s1TUV8xahVTU?TUCUSKUkVOVCUIUTUVT OT USkVRWbb C WSVDUK.UUSVOVCPObbVIUJ xt9 VVRbUVpCKT1R-V IUJ RbUhVOSkVOVbOTsUV? R-1?VKT1R-VpCKT - SsV IUJ RbUhAVVHJUVC P1bOK WSCV .UTUV1CUkVKWV?TWI kUVKJUVORRUbUTOK WSV?1bCUVOKVKJUVkT IUTVCUOKVDOCUVWNVKJU CKT1R-VIUJ RbUVNWTVOVCUIUTUVT OT USkV P?ORKVWIUTVOVTOSsUVWNV P?ORKVIUbWR K UCAVHJUVORRUbUTOK WSV?1bCUCVsUSUTOKUkVNTWPVKJ CVC P1bOxK WSV.UTUV1CUkVOCV S?1KVKWVKJUVCURWSkVPWkUbVkUCRT DUkVSU(KAVVVHJUVCURWSkVPWkUbVpCUUVu s1TUV8xt hVRWSC CKUkVWNVOVCUOKVOSkVk1PPEVPWkUbVKJOKV1CUkVKJUVcEDT kVfffV?rKJV?UTRUSK bUVk1PPEVCUOKUkV SVOVylVc sJViUKUSK WSVCUOKGVWT s SObbEVRTUOKUkVDEVM- ??UTVOSkViWP bbEV0,6?AVBC SsVKJUVORRUbUTOK WSV?1bCUCVOR?1 TUkVNTWPVKJUVN TCKVPWkUb OCV S?1KGVKJ C PWkUbVsUSUTOKUkVKJUVWRR1?OSK)CVkESOP RVTUC?WSCUAVFWKJVPWkUbCV.UTUVRTUOKUkVOSkVCWbIUkV SVgMxo4n YVNTWPVg IUTPWTUVMWNK.OTUVHURJSWbWsEVmWT?WTOK WSVpgMHmhAVVFigure 3-1 ? Vehicle collision model (adopted from 0,?? with permission) VFigure 3-2 ? Seat-dummy model (adopted from 0,?? with permission) tj VVHJUVcEDT kVfffV?rKJx?UTRUSK bUVP ObUVYHoV CVKJUVPWCKV. kUbEV1CUkVRTOCJVKUCKVk1PPEV SVKJUV.WTbkVNWTVKJUVUIOb1OK WSVWNVO1KWPWK IUVCONUKEVTUCKTO SKVCECKUPCV SVRTOCJVKUCK SsAVvT s SObbEVkUIUbW?UkVDEVyUSUTObVlWKWTCGVKJUVk1PPEV CVOVTUs1bOKUkVKUCKVkUI RUV SVKJUVBMYVOSkVe1TW?UVCONUKEVTUs1bOxK WSCAVfKV CVRWSC kUTUkVKWVJOIUVU(RUbbUSKVD WN kUb KEV SVNTWSKObVRWbb C WSCGVD1KV KV CVSWKVOCD WN kUb RV SVTUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSCAVMUIUTObVCK1k UC JOIUVRWP?OTUkVKJUVkESOP RVTUC?WSCUVWNVcEDT kVfffVk1PPEV. KJVWKJUTVKE?UCVWNVk1PP UCVOSkVJ1POSVC1D?URKC3VObbVWNVKJUPVJOIUVRWSN TPUkVKJOKVKJUVcEDT kVfffVk1PPEV CVSWKVC1NN R USKbEVD WN kUb RV SVTUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSCV0aj?08t?AVHJUTUNWTUGV KV.OCVC1DCU?1USKxbEVTURWsS :UkVKW.OTkCVKJUVUSkVWNVKJUV?TUI W1CV .WT-VDEV lOSCW1TVOSkV iWP bbEVKJOKV1C SsVKJ CVk1PPEV NWTV?TUk RK SsVKJUVTUC?WSCUVWNVKJUVWRR1?OSKV SVTUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSVOSkVOCCUCC SsVKJUVUNxNURK IUSUCCVWNVKJUV?TW?WCUkV5lMVPOEVSWKVDUVT b ODbU3VKJ1CGVKJUVR1TTUSKVTUCUOTRJV .OCVRWPxPUSRUkVKWVN1TKJUTVIUT NEVKJUV?UTNWTPOSRUVWNVKJUV?TW?WCUkV5lMV1C SsVKJUVF WifoxffAVV3.3 Seat-Dummy Model YVSU.V CUOKxk1PPEV PWkUbV.OCVkUIUbW?UkV KWV ?TUk RKV KJUV NTWSKV CUOKVRR1?OSK)CV kESOP RV TUxC?WSCUV SVOVTUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSVpCUUVu s1TUV8x8hAVHJ CVPWkUbVRWSC CKCVWNVOVueVPWkUbVWNVOVF WifoxffVCUOKUkV S OVueVPWkUbVWNVOVtrrtVLWSK ORVyTOSkVYlNTW KVCUOKVp AUAVKJ UVCUOKVPWkUbV.J RJV .OCVWT sx SObbEVkUIUbW?UkV SVgMxo4nYVDEVM- ??UTVOSkViWP bbEV0,6?hAVcW.UIUTGV SVKJ CVCK1kEGVKJUVCUOKVPWkxUbV.OCVKTOSCbOKUkVKWVYDO?1CGOCVKJUVF WifoxffVk1PPEVPWkUbV.OCV SVYDO?1CAVHWV P?TWIUVKJUVORxR1TOREVWNVKJUVCUOKVPWkUbGVCWPUVPWk N ROK WSCV.UTUVO??b UkVKWVKJUVWT s SObVPWkUb3VKJUCUVPWk N xROK WSCV. bbVDUVk CR1CCUkV SVNWbbW. SsVCURK WSAVfKVCJW1bkVDUVSWKUkVKJOKVKJUVsbWDObV(xk TURK WSVWNVKJUVPWkUbV CVKO-USVOCVKJUVIUJ RbUVbWSs K1k SObVO( CVpOSKUT WTVk TURK WSVWNVKJUVWRR1?OSKhGVOSkV:xk TURK WSV CV?OTObbUbVKWVIUJ RbUVIUTK RObVO( CVpC1?UT WTVk TURK WSVWNVKJUVWR 1?OSKhGV CVCJW.SV SVu sx1TUV8x8AVHJUVCUOKxk1PPEVDOCUb SUVPWkUbV.OCVSWKVU?1 ??UkV. KJVOVCUOKVDUbKVCECKUPGVDURO1CUVKJUVCUOKVDUbKVJOCVOVIUTEVCPObbVUNNURKVWSVkESOP RVDUJOI W1TVWN OSVWRR ?OSKV SVOVTUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSwU(RU?KV SVKJUVTUDW1SkV?JOCUAVYCVTURWPPUSkUkVDEVlAVg1WVUKVObAV0,8?G KJUVRWUNN R USKVWNVNT RK WSVDUxK.UUSVKJUVk1PPEVOSkVCUOKV.OCVCUKVOCVrA,?AVHJUV S K ObV?UbI RVOSsbUVWNVKJUVk1PPEV.OCVt6AjVkUxsTUUCGVOSkVKJUVCUOKVDOR-VOSsbUV.OCVajA?VkUsTUUCAVtQVVVFigure 3-3 ? Seat-dummy model (baseline model) 3.3.1 Modifications on the Seat Model MWPUVPWk N ROK WSCV.UTUVkWSUVKWVKJUVCUOKVDOR-VR1CJ WSGVJUOkVTUCKTO SKGVOSkVCUOKVDOCUVR1CJ WSVWNVKJUVCUOKVPWkUbVKWV P?TWIUV KCVORR1TOREAVHJUVCUOKVDOR-VR1CJ WSVWNVKJUVWT s SObVPWkUbVJOkVOVNbOKVNTWSKVNORUVpCUUVu s1TUV8x, GVT sJKhGV.J RJVbUkVKWVOS1STUOb CK RV SKUTORK WSVDUK.UUSVKJUVk1PPE)CVDOR-VOSkVKJUVCUOKVDOR-AVHJUVNbOKVNORUV.OCVC1DCK K1KUkV. KJVOVR1TIUkVNORUVpCUUVu s1TUV8x, GVbUNKhVKWVPOKRJVKJUVsUWPUKTEVWNVKJUV?JEC RObV?TWKWKE?UVWNVKJUVCUOKAVHJ Vs WPUKTEVOSkVKJUV SCKObbOK WSVOSsbUVWNVKJUVJUOkVTUCKTO SKV SVKJUVWT s SObVPWkUbV.UTUVk NNUTUSKVNTWPVKJUV?JEC RObV?TWKWKE?UVWNVKJUVCUOKAVHJUTUNWTUGVKJUVJ OkVTUCKTO SKV.OCVK bKUkVNWT.OTkV SVWTkUTVKWVDUKKUTVPOKRJVKJUVJUOkVTxCKTO SKVNW1SkVWSVOVtrrt VLWSK ORVyTOSkVYlVCUOKAVHJUVNWOPV SVKJUVJUOkVTUCKTO SKV.OCVObCWVPOkUVKJ R-UTVKWVPWTUVORR1TOKUbEVkU? RKVKJUVORK1ObVJUOkVTUCKTO SKAVHJUVJUOkVTUCKTO SKCG DUNWTUVOSkVONxKUTVKJUVPWk N ROK WSCGVOTUVCJW.SV SVu s1TUV8x?AVHJUVCUOKVDOCUVR1CJ WSV SVKJUVWT s SObVCUOKVPWkUbV.OCVPWkUbUkVOCVOVT s kVCJUUKVWNVPUKObVOSkV.OCVSWKV kUObVNWTVCUKKb SsVKJUVk1PPEAVHJUVCUOKVDOCUVR1CJ WSGVKJUTUNWTUGV.OCVTU?bORUkV. KJVOV? URUVWNVNWOPAVVUVQV4V8rVVVVFigure 3-4 ? Modified seat back cushion (left), original seat back cushion (right) VFigure 3-5 - Modified head restraint (left), original head restraint (right) 3.4 BioRID-II FE Model HJUVF WifoV.OCVWT s SObbEV kUIUbW?UkV DEVoOI kCCWSV UKV ObAV088?VOKV KJUVmJObPUTCV BS IUTC KEV SVyWKJUSD1TsGVM.UkUSAVfKCVk CK Ss1 CJ SsVNUOK1TUV  CV  KCV IUTKUDTObV RWb1PSGV .J RJV RWSC CKCVWNV t,VCU?OTOKUVIUTKUDTOC7V?Vb1PDOTGVatVKJWTOR RVOSkV9VRUTI RObIUTKUDTOCAVYVRWPD SOK WSVWNVKWTC WSObV8aVV.OCJUTCGV1TUKJOSUVD1P?UTCGVOSkVP1CRbUxC P1bOK SsVC?T SsCV?TWI kUV KCD WXkUb RV?UTNWTPOSRUAVHJUVIUTKUDTObVRWb1PSV CV SCKObbUkV SC kUVOVC b RWSUV?OR-UKVNUOK1T SsV? SVb S-OsUCVKWVKJUVIUTKUDTOVOSkVOV.OKUTVXbbUkVDbOkkUTV SVKJUVODkWP SObVTUs WSV08,?AVHJUV N S KUV UbUPUSKV PWkUbVWNVKJU F WifoxffGV 1CUkV  SV KJUVDOCUb SUVPWkUbGV.OCVRTUOKUkV  SVKJUVYDO?1CVRWPPUTR ObVN S KUVUbUPUSKV?OR-OsUVDEVoOCCO1bKVMECKUPCAVfKVRWSC CKCVWNVO??TW( POKUbEV66GrrrVUbUPUSKCVOSkVt?rGrrrVkUsTUUCVWNVNTUUkWPVpovuhAVHJUVKWKObVPOCCVWNVKJUVPWkUbV CV9QA,jV-s GV.J RJVRWP?OTUCVTUOCWSODbEV .UbbV. KJVKJUV?JEC RObVk1PPEVPOCCVWNV99AQV-sV0,9?A oOCCO1bKVMECKUPCVRTUOKUkVKJUVPWkUbVDOCUkVWSVKJUV?JEC RObV?TWKWKE?UVWNVKJUVk1PPEVOSkV IOb kOKUkV  KCV?UTNWTPOSRUVDOCUkVWSVU(?UT PUSKObVCbUkVKUCKCV0,9?AVHJUVNWbbW. SsVkESOP RV?OTOPUKUTCVROSVDUVPWS KWTUkV SVCOs KKObV?bOSUVWNVKJUVk1PPEVWkUbVpUQV?bOSUhAVu s1TUV8x6VCJW.CVKJUVbWROK WSVWNVORRUbUTWPUKUTCVOSkVbWOkVRUbbCVWNVKJUVF Wifo xffVPWkUbV? cUOkGVm,GVHaGVHjGVgaVOSkV?UbI CVORRUbUTOK WSCVpUVOSkVQVO(UChV? B??UTVSUR-VNWTRUGVbW.UTVSUR-VNWTR VpUVOSkVQVO(UChV? B??UTVSUR-VPWPUSKGVbW.UTVSUR-VPWPUSKVp4VO( ChV? nUR-Vb S-VTWKOK WSVODW1KVWRR ? ObVRWSkEbUVp4VO( ChV? nUR-Vb S-VTWKOK WSVODW1KVHaVp4VO( ChV? cUOkVTWKOK WSVOSkVJUOkVTWKOK WSObVIUbWR KEVp4VO( ChV? HaVTWKOK WSVOSkVHaVTWKOK WSObVIUbWR KEVp4VO( ChV? LUbI CVTWKOK WSVOSkV?UbI CVTWKOK WSObVIUbWR KEVp4VO( ChV8t VVVFigure 3-6 ? Location of accelerometers and load cells of BioRID-II model 3.5 Simulation Procedure YDO?1CVe(?b R KVCWbIUTV.OCV1CUkVNWTVT1SS SsVC P1bOK WSCV. KJV UVCUOKxk1PPEVPWkUbAVHJUVC P1xbOK WSV?TWRUk1TUVRWSC CKUkVWNVK.WVCKU?C7VahVKJUVCUKKb SsVC P1bOK WSGVOSkVthVKJUVkESOP RVC P1bOxK WSAV HJUV N TCKV CKU?V bUKCV KJUV k1PPEV ?TUbWOkV KJUV CUOKV OSkV  Sk1RUCV  S K ObV kUNWTPOK WSCV OSkVCKTUCCUCV SKWVKJUVk1PPE)CVDWkEGVCUOKVDOCUVOSkVCUOKVDOR-AVfSVKJUVCURWSkVCKU?GVKJUVRTOCJVORRUbUTxOK WSV?1bCUV CVO??b UkVKWVKJU CUOKVDOCUGVOSkVKJUVk1PPE)CVkESOP RVTUC?WSCUV CVsUSUTOKUkALT WTVKWVKJUVN TCKVCKU?GVKJUVk1PPEVPWkUbV  CV?WC K WSUkVWSVKJUVCUOKV1C SsVYbKO T)CVcE?UTPUCJVCWNK.OTUAVo1T SsVKJUVN TCKVCKU?GVKJUVWSbEVbWOkVO??b UkVKWVKJUVk1PPEV CVKJUVsTOI KEVbWOkGVOSkVDUxRO1CUVWNVKJUVUbOCK RV ?TW?UTK UCVWNVKJUVCUOKVNWOPVOSkVk1PPE)CVDWkEGVKJUVk1PPE) NbUCJVOSk?W SKCVI DTOKUVNWTVOV.J bUVOCV KVsUKCVCUKKbUkAVHWV?TUIUSKVKJUVk1PPEVNTWPVU(RUCC IUVI DTOK WSVOSkVPWI SsVW1KVWNV?bORUGVKJUVsTOI KEVbWOkV CVO??b UkV. KJVOT P VOP?b 1kU7VCKOTK SsVNTWPV:UTWVOKVKJUVWSCUKVOSkVT C SsVKWVKJUVPO( P1PVOKVKJUVUSkVWNVC P1bOK WSAVVY??bE SsVKJUVbWOkV. KJVKJ CVOP?b xK1kUVObCWVJUb?CVKJUVk1PPEVKWVsUKVCUKKbUkVNOCKUTwV A AbUCCVmLBVK PUAVVy IUSVKJOKVKJUVN TCKVCKU?V CV?1OC xCKOK RGVKJUVPWkUb)CVIUbWR K UCGVORRUbUT K WSCVOSkV- SUK RVUSUTsEVCJW1bkVDUVObPWCKV:UTWVk1T SsVKJUVC P1bOK WSAVu s TUV8x9VCJW.CVKJUVCKTO SVUSUTsEVOSkV- SUK RVUSxUTsEVWNVKJUVkUIUbW?UkVCUOKxk1PPEVPWkUbVk1T SsVKJUVCUKKb SsVC P1bOK WSAVfKVObCWVCJW.CVKJOKVKJUV- SUK RVUSUTsEV CVIUTEVCPObbVk1T SsVKJUVC P1bOK WSVRWP?OTUkVKWVKJUVCKTO SVUSUTsEAVVY VKJUVUSkVWNVUVQV88VVKJUVC P1bOK WSGVKJUV- SUK RVUSUTsEV CVRWSCKOSKVOSkVU?1ObVKWV:UTWGV.J RJV P?b UCVKJOKVKJUVk1PPEV CVRWP?bUKUbEVCUKKbUkVOSkV CVCKODbUVWSVKJUVCUOKAVFigure 3-7 ? Strain and kinetic energy vs. time in settling simulation HJUVN SObVCKOKUVWNVKJUVCUOKxk1PPEVPWkUbV SVKJUVN TCKVCKU?V CV1CUkVOCVKJUV S K ObVRWSk K WSVWNVKJUVPWkUbV SVKJUVC RWSkVCKU?Vp AUAVKJUVkESOP RVC P1bOK WShAVfSVKJ CVCKU?GVOSVORRUbUTOK WSV?1bCUV CVO?x?b UkVKWVKJUVCUOKVDOCUGVOSkVYDO?1CVe(?b R KVCWbIUCVNWTVKJUVkESOP RVTUC?WSCUVWNVKJUVk1PPEAFURO1CUVKJUVN TCKVCKU?V CV?1OC xCKOK RVOSkVKJUVsTOI KEVbWOkVCJW1bkVDUVO??b UkVCPWWKJbEGVKJUVk1TOxK WSVWNVKJUVC P1bOK WSV CVODW1KVaVCURWSk3VWSVOV?UTCWSObVRWP?1KUTV. KJVOV8ArjVyc:VmWTUV 9V?TWxRUCCWTGV KVKO-UCVODW1KV8VkOECVKWVRWP?bUKUAVHJ1CGVKJUVCUKKb SsVC P1bOK WSV CVROTT UkVW1KVWSbEVWSRUGVNWTVUORJVCUOKVPWkUbGVOSkV KCVTUC1bKCVOTUV1CUkVP1bK ?bUVK PUCVTOKJUTVKJOSVTUsUSUTOK SsVKJUPVNWTVUORJVkESOP RVC P1bOK WSAVlWTUWIUTGVa?rVPCV.OCVRJWCUSVOCVKJUVk1TOK WSVWNVKJUVCURWSkVCKU?GV.J RJV KWW-VQVJW1TCVKWVRWP?bUKUV SVKJUVCOPUVRWP?1KUTVPUSK WSUkVODWIUAVYbbVKJUVODWIUVPUSK WSUkVK PUVk1TOK WSCVOTUVORJ UIUkVDEVO??bE SsVC?UUkVDWWCK SsVKURJS ?1UCVKWVKJUVC P1bOK WSCAVHJUVPWkUbCV.UTUVC P1bOKUkV1C SsVKJUVYDO?1CVU(?b R KVCWbIUTGV.JUTUVKJUVU(?b R KVCWb1K WSVKURJS ?1UVOkIOSRUCVKJUVCWb1K WSVK PUVWNVKJUVPWkUbVp AUAVa?rVPCVNWTVkESOP RVC P1bOx8, VVK WShV SVIUTEVCJWTKVK PUVCKU?CwObCWVRObbUkVCKODbUVK PUV  SRTUPUSKCAVHJUVKWKObVK PUVTU?1 TUkVKWVRWP?bUKUVOVC P1bOK WSVkU?USkCVWSVKJUVS1PDUTVWNVKJUVK PUVCKU?CVSUUkUkAVVfNVKJ VK P VCKU?CVOTUVCPObbGVKJUVCWb1K WSVTU?1 TUCVPWTUVK PUVCKU?CVKWVRWP?bUKUGVOSkGVKJ1CGVbUOkCVKWVOVb SsUT mLBVK PUAVVHJUVbUSsKJVWNVKJUVK PUVCKU?CV CVRObR1bOKUkVNWTVUORJVUbUPUSKVWNV VPWk bGVOSkVKJUVCWb1K WSVK PUVCKU?VWNVKJUV.JWbUVPWkUbV CVU?1ObVKWVKJUVCPObbUCKVRObR1bOKUkVK PUVCKU?AVu1TKJUTPWTUGVKJUVCKODbUVK PUVCKU?VNWTVUORJVUbUPUSKV CVOVN1SRK WSVWNVKJUVC :UGVPOCCVkUSC KEVOSkVPOKUT ObVCK NNSUCCVWNVKJUVUbUPUSKCAVHJUVUbUPUSK)CVCK NNSUCCVkU?USkCVWSVKJUVPOKUT ObV?TW?UTK UCGVOSkVUbUPUSK)CVC :UV CVk RxKOKUkVDEVPUCJV?1Ob KEVOSkVsUWPUKTEVWNVKJUVPWkUbAVuWTVKJUVROCUVWNVKJUVF Wifoxff PWkUbGVKJUVsUxWPUKTEVOSkVPOKUT ObV?TW?UTK UCVOTUVN (UkAVHJUVWSbEVKJ SsVKJOKVROSVDUVRJOSsUkV CVKJUVPOCCVkUSC xKEVWNVKJUVUbUPUSKCGVOSkVORRWTk SsVKWVKJUVK PUVCKU?VRObR1bOK WSVNWTP1bOGVJ sJUTVkUSC KEVbUOkCVKWVOVbWSsUTVK PUVCKU?AVYDO?1CVJOCVOVNUOK1TUV SV KCVCWbIUTVKJOKVUSODbUCVKJUV1CUTVKWVP1bK ?bEVKJUVkUSC xK UCVWNVRT K RObVUbUPUSKCVDEVOVKT I ObVRWUNN R USKVKWVUbWSsOKUVKJUVK PUVCKU?AVHJ CVNUOK1TUV CVRObbUkVPOCCVCROb SsV0,j?GV.J RJV.OCV1K b :UkV SVKJ CVC P1bOK WSV.WT-VOCVkUCRT DUkVDUbW.AVVF WifoxffVPWkUb)CVK PUVCKU?V CV,A??ex9VCVbWSsGV.J RJVRWTTUC?WSkCVKWVKJUVCPObbUTVUbUPUSKCVRWSCK xK1K SsVKJUVk1PPE)CVkUNWTPODbUV?UbI CVOSkVKWTCWAVlOCCVCROb SsV.OCVO??b UkVKWVKJUVRT K RObVCURxK WSCGVOSkVKJUVbUSsKJVWNVKJUVK PUVCKU?G RWSCU?1USKbEGV.OCV SRTUOCUkVKWVaA88ex6VC3VKJ CVKURJS ?1UVTUk1RUkVKJUVmLBVK PUVWNVKJUVC P1bOK WSVDEVKJTUUVK PUCAVHJUVkESOP RVC P1bOK WSVTUC1bKCGV?T WTVKWVOSkVONKUTVO??bE SsVKJUVPOCCVCROb SsVKURJS ?1UGV.UTUVRWP?OTUkGVOSkVKJUVk NNUTUSRUCV.UTUVSUsb xs DbUVp8VXVPO( P1P hAVHJUVOsTUUPUSKVDUK.UUSVKJUVTUC1bKCV Sk ROKUCVKJOKV1C SsVKJ CVKURJS ?1UVU(?Uk KUkVKJUVC P1bOK WSCGVD1KVk kVSWKVONNURKVKJUVTUC1bKCAV3.6 Baseline Model Validation BC SsVRWP?1KOK WSObVPWkUbCVC1RJVOCVKJUVC OKxk1PPEVPWkUbVkUIUbW?UkV SVKJ CV.WT-GV CVOVNOCKVOSkVTUb ODbUVPUKJWkVNWTV ?TUk RK SsV KJUVWRR1?OSK)CV kESOP RV TUC?WSCUV  SVOVTUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSAVl WTUWIUTGV KV CVP1RJVRJUO?UTVKJOSVRWSk1RK SsVP1bK ?bUVRTOCJVKUCKCAVcW.UIUTGVKWVDUVODbUVKWV1bxK POKUbEV KT1CKV KJUV CUOKxk1PPEV PWkUb)CV TUC1bKCGV  KV CJW1bkV DUV IOb kOKUkVDOCUkVWSV KJUV U(?UT xPUSKObVKUCKCAVyUSUTObbEGVCbUkVKUCKCVOTUV1CUkVKWVOCCUCCVKJUV?UTNWTPOSRUVWNVCUOKCV SVTUOTVUSkVRWbb xC WSCAVfSVOVCbUkVKUCKGVOSV CWbOKUkVRTO JVKUCKVk1PPE V CVCUOKUkVWSVOVIUJ RbUVCUOKGV.J RJV CV SCKObbUkVWSVOVCbUkVPORJ SUGVOSkVOSVORRUbUTOK WSV?1bCUV CVO??b UkVKWVKJUVCUOKVDOCUAVlWCKVWNVKbUkVKUCKV8?VVPORJ SUCVOTUV?TWsTOPPODbUVOSkVROSVO??bEVk NNUTUSKV?1bCUVCJO?UCVKWVKJUVCUOKVDOCUAVo1T SsVKJUVKUCKCGVKJUVkOKOVPUOC1TUkVDEVKJUV SCKT1PUSKCV SCKObbUkVWSVKJUVk1PPEV CVTURWTkUkAVHJ CVkOKOVROSVDUV1CUkVKWV?bWKVKJUVkESOP RVTUC?WSCUVWNVKJUVk1PPEV.J RJVRWSC CKCVWNVk C?bORUPUSKCGVORRUbUTOxK WSCGVOSkVIUbWR K UCAVFURO1CUVORRUCCVKWVOVRTOCJVKUCKVNOR b KEVOSkVOVF WifoxffVYHoV. CVS KVOIO bODbUV SVKJ CVCK1kEGV KV.OCVkUR kUkVKWVIOb kOKUVKJUVDOCUb SUVPWkUbVDOCUkVWSVKJUVCbUkVKUCKVTUC1bKCV?1Db CJUkV SVKJUVb KUTOK1TUAVek.OTkCVUKVObAV0j?VROTT UkVW1KVCbUkVKUCKCV1C SsVOVtrrtVLWSK ORVyTOSkVYlVCUOKVOSkVOVF WifoxffYHoGV1C SsVKJUVff5LyVKUCKV?TWRUk1TUAVHWVIOb kOKUVKJUVDOCUb SUVPWkUbVDOCUkVWSVKJU TVKUCKVTUC1bKCGVKJUVDOCUb SUVPWkUbV.OCVTURWSN s1TUkVKWVTU?b ROKUVKJUV S K ObVRWSk K WSCVWNVKJUVKUCKCGVOSkVKJUSVKJUVCUKKb SsVOSkVkESOP RVC P1bOK WSCV.UTUVROTT UkVW1KAVu s1TUV8xj VOSkVu s1TUV8xQVCJW.VKJUVC P1bOxK WSVTUC1bKCVORRWP?OS UkV. KJVKJUVCbUkVKUCKVTUC1bKCAHJUVC P1bOK WSVTUC1bKCVkWVSWKVOsTUUVIUTEV. bbV. KJVKJUVCbUkVKUCKVTUC1bKCAVM IUTObVKUCKV?OTOPUKUTCVpb CKUkVDUbW.hV.UTUVSWKV.UbbxC?UR N UkV SVKJUV?1Db CJUkV?O?UTVOSkV.UTUVC?UR1bOK IUbEVOCC sSUkV SVKJUVDOCUb SUVPWkUbAVBSRUTKO SK UCVOSkV SRWSC CKUSR UCVKJOKVO C1PUk IOb1UCVWNVKJUCUV?OTOPUKUTCVDTW1sJKVODW1KVOTUVDUb UIUkVKWVDUVKJUVRO1CUVWNVKJ CVk COsTUUPUSKVDUK.UUSVKJUVTUC1bKCAVHJUCUV?OTOPUKUTCVOTUVKJ 7? l OKUT ObV?TW?UTK UCVWNVCUOKVDOCUVOSkVJUOkVTUCKTO SKVNWOPGV? MUOKV SCKObbOK WSVOSsbUVOSkVJU sJKVWSVKJUVCbUkVKUCKVPORJ SUGV? gWROK WSVWNVKJUVcx?W SKV. KJVTUC?URKVKWVKJUVCUOKVTURb SUTGVOSkV? uT RK WSVRWUNN R USKVDUK.UUSVKJUVCUOKVOSkVKJUVk1PPEAVYbKJW1sJVKJUVTUC1bKCVWNVKJUVDOCUb SUVPWkUbVk kVSWKVOsTUUVIUTEV.UbbV. KJVKJUVTUC1bKCVWNVKJUVCbUkVKUCKCGVKJ CVPWkUbV CVCK bbVTUb ODbUVDURO1CUVKJUVk1PPEVPWkUbVJOCVDUUSVIOb kOKUkVDOCUkVWSVCKOSkxOTkVCbUkVKUCKCV0,9?G OSkVKJUVCUOKGV.J RJV.OCVPWkUbbUkVDOCUkVWSVOVylVc sJViUKUSK WSVCUOKGV CVOV?TW?UTVTU?TUCUSKOK IUVWNVOVKE? RObVNTWSKVCUOKAVV86VVV VV VV VFigure 3-8 ? Comparison of baseline model results (dark line)  with sled test results (grey line) at 16 kmph 89VVV VV VFigure 3-9 ? Comparison of baseline model results (dark line)  with sled test results (grey line) at 16 kmph  3.7 Simulation Procedure Validation B?WSVKJUVNO b1TUV SV?TWI SsVKJUVIOb k KEVWNVKJUVDOCUb SUVPWkUbGV KV.OCVkUR kUkVKWVOCCUCCVKJUVIOb kx KEVWNVKJUVC P1bOK WSV?TWRUk1TUVDOCUkVWSVKJUVTUC1bKCVWNVOVCURWSkOTEVCbUkVKUCKAHJUTUNWTUGVOVCK1kEVkWSUVDEVmOTbCCWSVUKVObAV0,Q?V.OCVCUbURKUkVOCVKJUVTUNUTUSRU3VKJ CVCK1kEV SRb1kUCVOVCUT UCVWNVCbUkVKUCKCVKJOKV.UTUVROTT UkVW1KV1C SsVOVF WifoxffVYHoVOSkVOVR1CKWPVbODWTOKWTEVCUOKwKJUVmJ bPUTCVgODVMUOKVpCUUVu s1TUV8xar hAVHJ CVCK1kEGV  SkUUkGV.OCVRJWCUSVPO SbEVDURO1CUVKJUVmJObPUTCVgODVMUOKV  CVOVC P?b N UkVCUOKGV.J RJVkWUCVSWKV  SIWbIUVKJUVRWP?bU( K UCVOCCWR OKUkV . KJVOVCKOSkOTkVCUOKAVVHJ CVCUOKV.OCVkUC sSUkVDOCUkVWSVOVCKOSkOTkVqWbIWVj?rVNTWSKVCUOKGVOSkVRWSC CKUkVWNVOVT s kVCUOKVDOR-VNTOPUGVN IUVCUOKVDOR-V?OSUbCGVOSkVOVCKOSkOTkVuWTkVHO1T1CVCUOKVDOCUAVHJUVCUOKVDOR-VRWSC CKxUkVWNVNW1TV?OSUbCGV.J RJV.UTUVRWIUTUkV. KJVNWOPGVOSkVKJUVWKJUTV?OSUbVORKUkV CVKJUVJUOkVTUxCKTO SKAVHJUCUV?OSUbCV.UTUV SkU?USkUSKbEVPW1SKUkVDEVC?T SsVRW bCVKWVKJUVT s kVCUOKVDOR-VNTOPUAV8j VVVFigure 3-10 ? Schematic view of the Chalmers Lab Seat and a BioRID-II (left), schematic view of seat back of the Chalmers Lab Seat (right) (taken from 088? with permission) YVN S KUVUbUPUSKVPWkUbVWNVKJUVmJObPUTCVgODVMUOKV.OCVRTUOKUkV SVYDO?1CGVOSkVKJUVF WifoxffVPWkxUbV.OCV?WC K WSUkVWSVKJUVCUOKVpu s1T V8xaahAVHJUSGVKJUVCUKKb SsVC P1bOK WSVOSkVkESOP RVC P1bOxK WSV.UTUVROTT UkVW1KVN TVZq" 9V-P?JAViUC1bKCVWDKO SUkVNTWPVKJUVC P1bOK WSVOSkVKJUVCbUkVKUCKCVROSVDUVCUUSV SVu s1TUV8xat AVVFigure 3-11 ? Chalmers Lab Seat and BioRID-II FE model 8QVVFigure 3-12 ? Comparison of the simulation results (dark line) with the sled test (grey line)?test results are adopted from 0,Q? with permission u s1TUV8xat VCJW.CVKJOKVKJUVTUC1bKCVWNVJUVueVC P1bOK WSVRWTTUbOKUVTU CWSODbEV.UbbV. KJVKJUVTUxC1bKCVWNVKJUVCbUkVKUCKCAVHJUTUV CVOVRWS  CKUSKV,rVPCVK PUVk NNUTUSRUV SVKJUVK PUCVKJOKVRWTTUC?WSkVKWV?UO-VIOb1UCVWNVK.WVCUKVWNVTUC1bKC3VKJ CVK PUVk NNUTUSRUVROSVDUVOKKT D1KUkVKWVKJUV.OEVKJ V:UTWK PUV.OCVCUKV SVKJUVCbUkVKUCKCAVHJ CVOsTUUPUSKV P?b UCVKJOKVKJUVC P1bOK WSV?TWRUk1TUGVOCV1CUkV SVKJ CVCK1kEGVTUOb CK RObbEV P KOKUCVOVTUObVCbUkVKUCKVOSkVKJOKVKJUVk1PPEVDUJOIUCVJ1POSxb -UV SVOVTUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSAVHJ CVOsTUUPUSKVObCWV?TWIUCVKJUVTUb OD b KEVWNVKJUVDOCUb SUVPWkUbGV.J RJV1CUCVKJUVCOPUVk1PPEVOSkVC P1bOK WSV?TWRUk1TUAV3.8 Modified Model YVPWk N UkVPWkUbV.OCVRTUOKUkVDEV SRWT?WTOK SsVKJUV5lM V SVKJUVDOCUb SUVPWkUbAVuWTV?1T?WCUVWNVC P?b N ROK WSGVKJUV5lMV.OCVPWkUbbUkVOCVK.WVT s kV?bOKUCV?bORUkV SVKOSkUPVOSkVDUJ SkVKJUVCUOKVDOCUw?UT?USk R1bOTVKWVKJUVbWSs K1k SObVO( CVWNVKJUV IUJ RbUGV . KJVRT1CJODbUVPUPDUTCVbWROKUkVDUK.UUSVKJUV?bOKUCVpO VCJW.SV SVu s1TUV8xa8hAVFEV1C SsVT s kVRWSCKTO SKGVKJUVNTWSKV?bOKUVOSkVKJUV,r VVDOR-V?bOKUV.UTUVOKKORJUkVKWVKJUVCUOKVDOCUVOSkVKJUVIUJ RbUVNbWWTGVTUC?URK IUbEw SWVRWSSURK WSV.OCVDUK.UUSVCUOKVDOCUVOSkVNbWWTAVVFigure 3-13 ? Modified model uWTVC P1bOK SsVOVTU TVUSkVRWbb C WSGVKJUVRTOCJV?1bCUV C O??b kVKWVKJUVDOR-V?bOKUGVOCVW??WCUkVKWVKJUVCUOKVDOCUAVHJUVDOR-V?bOKUV?1CJUCKJUVRT1CJODbUVPUPDUTCVKW.OTkCVKJUVNTWSKV?bOKUGVOSkVk1UVKWVKJUV SUTK OVWNVKJUVCUOKVOSkVKJUVk1PPEGVKJUVRT1CJODbUVPUPDUTVsUKCVRT1CJUkVOCV KV?1CJUCVKJUVNTWSKV?bOKUVNWT.OTkAVFEVRWP?OT SsVKJUVTUC1bKCVWNVKJUVPWk N UkVPWkUbV. KJ VKJUVDOCUb SUVPWkUbGV KV CV?WCC DbUVKWVkUKUTP SUV.JUKJ TVKJUVOkk K WSVWNVUSUTsExODCWTD SsVNWOPV CVORK SsVKWVP K sOKUV S?1TEGVOSkVJW.VOkk SsVKJUV5lMVONNURKCVKJUVkESOP RVTUC?WSCUVWNVKJUVk1PPEAVVVu1K1TUVkUC sSCV. bbVCUUVKJUVkUI RUVDU SsV?bORUkV1SkUTSUOKJVKJUVCUOKVOCVW??WCUkVKWVDUJ SkV KAVmTUOK IUVkUC sSV. bbVDUVTU?1 TUkVKWVUSC1TUVKJOKVKJUVRT1CJODbUVPUPDUTCVkWVSWKV SKUTNUTUV. KJVWKJUTVCUOKVRWP?WSUSKCVC1RJVOCVKJUVPWKWT :UkVRWP?WSUSKCVTUC?WSC DbUVNWTVOk?1CK SsVKJUVCUOKA3.9 Summary    HJUVN TCKVTUCUOTRJVKOC-V.OCVKWVkUIUbW?VOSkVIOb kOKUVOVRWP?1KOK WSObVKWWbVRO?ODbUVWNV?TUk RK SsVKJUVkESOP RVTUC?WSCUVWNVOVNTWSKVCUOKVWRR1?OSKV SVOVTUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSAVHJUTUNWTUGVOVCUOKxk1PPE VC P1bOK WSVPWkUbVpDOCUb SUVPWkUbhV.OCVkUIUbW?UkV1C SsVYDO?1CAVHJ CVPWkUbVRWSC CKUkVWNVOVF WxFront Plate Back Plate Crushable Member ,a VVifo xffVk1PPEVOSkVOVtrrtVLWSK ORVyTOSkVYlVCUOKAVu1TKJUTPWTUGVKJUVIOb k KEVWNVKJUVC P1bOK WSV?TWRUk1TUGV1CUkVKWVC P1bOKUVKJUVDOCUb SUVPWkUbGV.OCV?TWIUkVOsO SCKVKJUVTUC1bKCVWNVOVCUT UCVWNVCbUkVKUCKCGV.J RJV.UTUVRWSk1RKUkV1C SsVOVmJObPUTCVgODVMUOKVOSkVOVF WifoxffVYHoAVHWVRWP?bUKUVKJUVCURWSkVTUCUOTRJVKOC-GVOVSU. PWkUbVpPWk N UkVPWkUbhV.OCVRTUOKUkVDEV SRWT?WxTOK SsVKJUV5lMV SVKJUVDOCUb SUVPWkUbAVHJUV5lMV.OCVPWkUbbUkVOCVK.WVT s kV?bOKUCV?bORUkV SVKOSkUPVOSkVDUJ SkVKJUVCUOKVDOCUGV. 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KJVOVTUbOK IUVkUSC KEVTOSs SsVNTWPV6VKWVajV?UTRUSKAVVvSbEVKJUVNWOPV. KJV?V?UTRUSKVTUbOK IUVkUSC KEV.OCVW?USxRUbbGV.J bUVObbVWKJUT NWOPVkUSC K UCV.UTUVWNVKJUVRbWCUkxR bbVKE? AVm TR1bOTVC?URx PUSCV. KJVOV8V SRJVp96AtVPPhVk OPUKUTV.UTUVR1KVNTWPVKJUVCbODCV1C SsVOSVODTOC IUV.OKUTV?UKVR1KK SsVPORJ SUAVYbbVKJUVC?UR PUSCVJOkVOVSWKODbUVC- SVWSVDWKJVKJUVKW?VOSkVKJUVDWKKWPVNORUCwU(RU?KVKJUV?V?UTRUSKVTUbOK IUVkUSC KEVC?UR PUSCVpCUUVu s1TUV, xt hAV,9 VVVFigure 4-2 ? 5%, 6% and 15 % density aluminum foam specimens BS O( ObV RWP?TUCC WSV KUCKCV .UTUV ROTT UkVW1KGV DWKJV . KJV OSkV . 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KJW1KVbOKUTObVRWSxCKTO SKGVOSkVKJUVWSUVWSVKJUVT sJKV CV?T WTVKWVKJUVKUCKAVV5 % 6 % 15 % ,j VVVFigure 4-3 - A) Custom fixture providing lateral constraint,  B) Custom cylindrical plunger installed on the moving jaw of the test machine V VFigure 4-4 ? Compression test setup: with lateral constraint (left),  without lateral constraint (right) ,QVVVFigure 4-5 ? Four-ply 15% aluminum foam specimens:  before (right) and after (left) the compression test HJUVKJ R-SUCCVOSkVTOk 1CVWNVUORJVC?UR PUSV.UTUVPUOC1TUkVOSkVTURWTkUkVDUNWTUV?UTNWTP SsVKJUVRWP?TUCC WSVKUCKCAVeSs SUUT SsVCKTUCCVOSkVCKTO SV.UTUVRObR1bOKUkVOCVKJUVTOK WVWNVbWOkVKWV S K ObVRTWCCx URK WSObVOTUOVp SRb1k SsV?WTUChGVOSkVKJUVTOK WVWNVRJOSsUV SVbUSsKJVKWVKJUV S K ObVbUSsKJGVTUxC?URK IUbEAVY( ObVRWP?TUCC WSVKUCKCV.UTUVROTT UkVW1KVWSV8QVC?UR PUSCGVkUKO bCVWNV.J RJVOTUV?TUCUSKUkV  SHODbUV, xaAVHJUVKUCKCV.UTUVRbOCC N UkV SKWVKJTUUVsUSUTObVKUCKVROCUC7VahVC SsbUx?bE . KJVRWSCKTO KGVthVP1bK ?bUx?bEV. KJVRWSCKTO SKGVOSkV8hVP1bK ?bUx?bEV. KJW1KVRWSCKTO SKAVHUCKCV. KJW1KVbOKUTObVRWSxCKTO SKV .UTUVROTT UkVW1KVWSbEVWSVP1bK ?bUx?bEVC?UR P SCAVuWTVUORJVNWOPVKE?UGVKJUVS1PDUTVWNVKUCKCVOSkVC?UR PUSVObbWROK WSwDU .UUSVKJUVKJTUUVKUCKVROCUCw .UTUVCUKVDOCUkVWSVKJUVOIO bODbUVOPW1SKVWNVPOKUT ObVC1RJVKJOKVKUCK SsVRW1bkV?TWI kUVC1NN R USKVkOKOVNWTVObbVKJTUUVROCUCAVVVVVV?r VVTable 4-1 ? List of test specimens Nominal relative density % Total number of tests Single-ply specimens Multiple-ply specimens Multiple-ply with lateral constraint Multiple-ply without lateral constraint ?V , V t V t V aV aV6V at V 6V 6V t V , Var V ?V rV ?V t V 8Va?V at V ?V 9V , V 8Vaj V 6V , V t V aV aV4.4 Results and Discussion YCVW1Kb SUkVODWIUGVOSVU(?UT PUSKObV?TWsTOPV.OCVROTT UkVW1KVKWVORJ UIUVKJTUUVPO SVWD?URK IUC7VVahVKWVRTUOKUVOVkOKOVDOCUVKJOKVRWSKO SCVPOKUT ObV?TW?UTK UCVWNVCUIUTObVk NNUTUSKVKE?UCVWNVOb1P xS1PVNWOPGVthVKWVOCCUCCVKJUVPURJOS RObVDUJOI W1TVWNVRT1CJODbUVPUPDUTCVKJOKVRWSC CKVWNVCUIUTObV?b UCVWNVOb1P S1PVNWOPGVOSkV8hVKWVOCCUCCVKJUVPURJOS RObVDUJOI W1TVOSkVUSUTsExODCWTD SsV?UTxNWTPOSRUVWNVOb1P S1PVNWOPVRWP?WSUSKCVC1??WT UkVDEVbOKUTObVRWSCKTO SKAVHWVORJ UIUVKJUCUVWDx?URK IUCGVOVCUT UCVWNVO( ObVRWP?TUCC WSVKUCKCV.UTUVROTT UkVW1KGVOSkVTUC1bKCVWDKO SUkVNTWPVKJUCUVKUCKCVOTUV?TUCUSKUkV SVKJ CVCURK WSAVnWKUVKJOKVWSbEVCUbURKUkVTUC1bKCVOTUV?TUC SKUkV SVKJ CVRJO?KUTGVOSkVObbVKJUVKUCKVTUC1bKCVOTUV?TUCUSKUkV SVY??USk (VYAV4.4.1 General Observations u s1TUV, x6VCJW.CVK.WVCKTUCCxCKTO SVR1TIUCVWNV6XVTUbOK IUVkUSC KEVOb1P S1PVNWOPVWDKO SUkVNTWPVKJUV1S O( ObVKUCKCVOSkVKJUVRWTTUC?WSk SsV kOKOVCJUUKAV fSV I U.VWNVKJUVTUC1bKCGVKJUVCKTUCCxCKTO SVR1TIUVWDKO SUkVNTWPVKJUVKUCKCV CV SVsWWkVOsTUUPUSKV. KJVKJUVWSUVWDKO SUkVNTWPVKJUVkOKOVCJUUKAVu1TKJUTPWTUGVKJTUUVTUbOK IUbEVk CK SRK IUVTUs WSCVROSVDUVCUUSV SVKJUVCKTUCCxCKTO SVR1TIUVWDKO SUkVNTWPVKJUVKUCKC7VahVb SUOT UbOCK RVkUNWTPOK WSV?J CUGVthV?bOCK RVRWbbO?CUVkUNWTPOK WSV?JOCUGVOSkV8hVkUSC N ROK WSV?JOCUAVV?aVVVFigure 4-6 ? Compressive stress-strain curve obtained from a single-ply specimen,  relative density: 6% u s1TUV, x9VCJW.CVKJUVCKTUCCxCKTO SVR1TIUCVWNVK.WVC SsbUx?bEVOb1P S1PVNWOPVC?UR PUSCV. KJVTUbOxK IUVkUSC KEVWNV?XVOSkV6XAVYCVROSVDUVCUUSVNWTPVKJUVTUC1bKCGVKJUVCKTUCCVbUIUbVOSkVCKTO SVJOTkUS SsVTOKUV SVRT1CJV?bOKUO1VWNVKJUV6XVNWOPV CVsTUOKUTVKJOSVKJOKVWNVKJUV?XVNWOPGVD1KVKJUVkUSC N ROK WSVCKTO SVWNVKJUV?XVNWOPV CVsTUOKUTVKJOSVKJOKVWNVKJUV6XVNWOPAVgOTsUVCROKKUTV.OCVWDCUTIUkV SVKJUVCKTUCCx KTO SVTUC1bKCVWNV6XVNWOPCGV.J RJV CVk CR1CCUkV SVKJUVSU(KVCURK WSAVVraGrrrtGrrr8Grrr,Grrr?Grrr6Grrrr rAa rAt rA8 rA, rA? rA6 rA9 rAjEngineering Strain (KPa)Engineering StrainHUCKoOKOVCJUUK?t VVVFigure 4-7 ? Compressive stress-strain curves obtained from two single-ply specimens,  relative density: 5% and 6% 4.4.2 High Scattering in Obtained Stress-Strain Curves uWTVUORJVNWOPVKE?UV  SVUORJVKUCKVROCUGVKJUVbWOk SsVRWSk K WSVOSkVC :UVWNVKJUVOb1P S1PVNWOPVC?UR PUSCV.UTUVC P bOT3VKJ1CGVRWSC CKUSKVTUC1bKCV.UTUVU(?URKUkAVcW.UIUTGVOVbOTsUVCROKKUTV.OCVWDCUTIUkV SVKJUVCKTUCCxCKTO SVR1TIUCVWDKO SUkVNTWPVCUIUTObVWNVKJUVKUCKVROCUCAVuWTVU(OP?bUGVu s1TU, xj VOSkVu s1TUV, xQVCJW.VKJUVCKTUCCxCKTO SVR1TIUCV NVKJUV6XVOSkVa?XVTUbOK IUVkUSC KEVNWOPCGVTUxC?URK IUbEAVHJUVWDCUTIUkVJ sJVCROKKUT SsVROSVDUV?1CK N UkVOCVDUbW.7V? HJUVCKTUCCVCKOD b KEVOSkVTU?TWk1R D b KEV SVKJUVRT1CJV?bOKUO1VkU?USkCVWSVKJUVbUSsKJVKWVRUbbVk OPUKUTVTOK WVpgOkhVWNVKJUVC?UR PUSAVFOCKO.TWCVUKVOb0???VTU?WTKUkVKJOKVTU?TWk1R xDbUVTUC1bKCVROSVDUVWDKO SUkVNTWPVKUCKVC?UR PUSCV. KJVbUSsKJVKW k OPUKUTVTOK WVWNVsTUOKUTVKJOSVC (VpgOk[6hAVfSVKJ CVCK1kEVgOkV.OCVbUCCVKJOSVC (VNWTVKJUVKUCKVC?UR PUSCV. KJVTUbOK IUVkUSC KEVWNV6XVpC SsbUx?bEVOSkVP1bK ?bUx?bEhGVarXVpP1bK ?bUx?bEhGVa?XVpC SsbUx?bEhVOSkVajXVpC SsbUx?bEh3VKJ1CGVCKTUCCxCKTO SVR1TIUCVWDKO SUkVNTWPVKJUCUVROCUCVCJW.UkVJ sJVCROKKUTx SsAV? fSV KJ CV CK1kEGVKJUV kUSC KEVWNVUORJV C?UR PUSV .OCV SWKV PUOC1TUkV ?T WTV KWVROTTE SsVW1KVRWP?TUCC WSVKUCKAVVHJ CVROSVObCWVDUVOSWKJUTVTUOCWSVNWTVKJUVJ sJbEVCROKKUTUkVKUCKVTUC1bKCAVr?rraGrrraG?rrtGrrrtG?rr8Grrr8G?rr,Grrrr rAa rAt rA8 rA, rA? rA6 rA9 rAjEngineering Stress (Kpa)Engineering Strain6X?X?8VVcW.UIUTGVJ sJVCROKKUT SsV SVKJUVORK1ObVIOb1UCVWNVC?UR PUSCV JOI SsVKJUVCOPUVSWP SObVTUbOK IUVkUSC KEV.OCVTU?WTKUkVDEVzWbb1T VUKVObAV0?6?AVVFigure 4-8 - Compressive stress-strain curve obtained from single-ply specimens,  relative density: 6%  VFigure 4-9 - Compressive stress-strain curve obtained from single-ply specimens,  relative density: 15%  r?rraGrrraG?rrtGrrrtG?rrr rAa rAt rA8 rA, rA? rA6 rA9 rAjEngineering Stress (KPa)Engineering StrainrtGrrr,Grrr6GrrrjGrrrarGrrrr rAa rAt rA8 rA, rA? rA6Engineering Stress (KPa)Engineering Strain?, VV4.4.3 A Database of Aluminum Foam Material Properties u s1TUV, xar V bb1CKTOKUCV KJUV PUOSV USs SUUT SsV CKTUCCxCKTO SV R1TIUCVWNV KE? RObV Ob1P S1PV NWOPVC?UR PUSCV. KJVOVTUbOK IUVkUSC KEVTOSs SsVNTWPV?XVKWVajVXAVVYRRWTk SsVKWVKJUVTUC1bKCGVKJUVPUxRJOS RObV?TW?UTK UCVWNVKJUVOb1P S1PVNWOPVC?UR PUSCVkU?USkVJUOI bEVWSVKJU TVTUbOK IUVkUSC KEAV5 KJVOSV SRTUOCUV SVTUbOK IUVkUSC KEGVKJUVCKTUCCVbUIUbVOSkVCKTO SVJOTkUS SsVTOKUV SVKJUVRT1CJV?bOKxUO1V SRTUOCUCGVOSkVKJUVkUSC N ROK WSVCKTO SVkURTUOCUCAVVVFigure 4-10 - Compressive stress-strain curves obtained from specimens  with selected relative densities  lWTUWIUTGVOTUOV1SkUTVCKTUCCxCKTO SVR1TIUGVOKVOVC?UR N RVCKTO SGV SRTUOCUCVOCVKJUVTUbOK IUVkUSC KEV SRTUOCUCAVHJ1CGVORRWTk SsVKWVKJUVkUN S K WSVWNVUSUTsEVODCWT?K WSVRO?OR KEGVNWOPVC?UR PUSCV. KJVJ sJUTVTUbOK IUVkUSC KEV?TWI kUVJ sJUTVUSUTsEVODCWT?K WSVRO?OR KEAVVu s1TUV, xaaVk C?bOECVKJUVTUbOK WSCJ ?VDUK.UUSVUSUTsEVODCWT?K WSVUNN R USREVOSkVRWP?TUCC IUVCKTO SVNWTVC?UR PUSCV. KJVOV?XVOSkVajXVTUbOK IUVkUSC KEAVfKVROSVDUVCUUSVKJOKVKJUCUVK.WVNWOPVKE?UCVCJW.VC P bOTVUSUTsEVODCWT?K WSVUNN R USREVDUJOI W1TAVHJUV?UO-VpNTWPVrAr?VKWVrA,VCKTO SVOSkVRWSCKTO SUkVDUK.UUSVKJUVkOCJVb SUChVRWTTUC?WSkCVKWVKJUVRT1CJV ?bOKUO1GVOSkVKJUVC1kkUSVr?GrrrarGrrra?GrrrtrGrrrt?Grrr8rGrrr8?Grrr,rGrrrr rAa rAt rA8 rA, rA? rA6 rA9 rAj rAQEngineering Stress (KPa)Engineering Strain?V?RK6V?RKarV?RKa?V?RKajV?RK??VVkTW?VpONKUTVrA,VCKTO ShVRWTTUC?WSkCVKWVkUSC N ROK WSV:WSUAVfKVROSVDUVRWSRb1kUkVNTWPVKJUVTUC1bKCVKJOKVKJUVNWOPVKE?UCV. KJVbW.VkUSC KEVU(J D KVJ sJUTVUSUTsEVODCWT?K WS UNN R USREVWIUTVOV. kUTVCKTO SVTOSsUGVRWP?OTUkVKWVJ sJUTVkUSC KEVNWOPVKE?UCAVVVFigure 4-11 - Energy absorption efficiency vs. strain curves  of 5% and 18% relative density specimens 4.4.4 Aluminum Foam Specimens Made from Several Plies u s1TUV, xat VCJW.CVKJUVOIUTOsUVCKTUCCxCKTO SVR1TIUCVWNVWSUx?bEVOSkVNW1Tx?bEVC?UR PUSCVWNV6XVTUbxOK IUVkUSC KEVNWOPAVfKVCJW1bkVDUVSWKUkVKJOKVk1UVKWVCROKKUT SsVWNVKJUVCKTUCCxC TO SVR1TIUCGVOIUTOsUVR1TIUCVOSkVUTTWTVDOTCVOTUVCJW.SVNWTVKJUV6XVTUbOK IUVkUSC KEVC?UR PUSCwDWKJVNWTVKJUVWSUx?bEVOSkVNW1Tx?bEAViUC1bKCV Sk ROKUVKJOKVP1bK ?bUx?bEVC?UR PUSCVU(J D KVOVbWSsUTVRT1CJV?bOKUO1VKJOSVC SsbUx?bEVC?UR PUSCAVHJ CVWDCUTIOK WSV CVRWSC CKUSKV. KJVTUC1bKCVTU?WTKUkVDEVeA zW:OVUKVObAV0?9?AVo1UVKWVKJUVC P bOTVCKTUCCVbUIUbVOSkVCKTO SVJOTkUS SsVTOKUV SVKJUVRT1CJV?bOKUO1GVKJUVUSUTsEVODCWT?xK WSVRO?OR KEVWNVC SsbUx?bEVOSkVP1bK ?bUx?bEVC?UR PUSCVOTUVObPWCKVU?1ObV SVKJ CV:WSU3VJW.UIUTGVDURO1CUVWNVKJUV. kUTVRT1CJV?bOKUO1VTUs WSGVKJUVUSUTsEVUNN R USREVWNVKJU P1bK ?bUx?bEVC?UR PUSVTUPO SCVJ sJVNWTVOV. kUTVCKTO SVTOSsUGVRWP?OTUkV. KJVKJUVC SsbUx?bEVC?UR PUSAVVrrAarAtrA8rA,rA?rA6rA9rAjr rAa rAt rA8 rA, rA? rA6 rA9Energy Absorprtion EffiiciencyEngineering StrainajX?X?6VVVFigure 4-12 - Mean compressive stress-strain curves obtained from one-ply and four-ply spec-imens of 6% relative density with lateral constraint  4.4.5 Aluminum Foam Specimen Supported by Lateral Constraint  u s1TUV, xa8VCJW.CVKJUVCKTUCCxCKTO SVR1TIUCVWDKO SUkVNTWPVNW1Tx?bE C?UR PUSCVWNVajXVTUbOK IUVkUSC KEVNWTVKJUVKUCKVROCUCVWNV. KJVOSkV. KJW1KVbOKUTObVRWSCKTO SKAVHJUVTUC1bKCV Sk ROKUVKJOKVKJUVbOKUTObVRWSCKTO KVORKCVKWVTUk1RUVKJUVkUSC N ROK WSVCKTO SGVOSkVRWSCU?1USKbEGV KVTUk1RUCVUSUTsEVODCWT?K WSVUNN R USREVWNVKJUVNWOPVC?UR PUSAVHJ CVWDCUTIOK WSV CVRWSC CKUSKV. KJVKJUVTUC1bKCVKJOKVzWbb1T VUKVObAV0?6?VTU?WTKUkAVHJUEVObCWVTU?WTKUkVOSV SRTUOCUV SVKJUVCKT  SVJOTkUS SsVTOKUVWNVKJUVCURWSkV?JOCUGV.J RJV.OCVSWKVWDCUTIUkV SVKJUV?TUCUSKVCK1kEAVHJUVRWSCKTO SKVRJOSsUCVKJUVCKTUCCVCKOKUVNTWPV1S O( ObVKWVKT O( ObAVVHJUVOb1P S1PVNWOPVPOKUT ObV SVOVKT O( ObVCKTUCCVCKOKUGV.J RJV CVIUTEVC P bOTVKWVOVJEkTWCKOK RVCKTUCCVCKOKUGVKUSkCVKWVRWSCWb kOKUVOKVOVbW.UTVCKTO SVKJOSV SVOV1S O( ObVCKTUCCVCKOKUAVVr?rraGrrraG?rrtGrrrtG?rr8Grrr8G?rr,Grrr,G?rrr rAa rAt rA8 rA, rA? rA6 rA9 rAjEngineering Stress (KPa)Engineering StrainaLbE,VLb UC?9VVVFigure 4-13 - Compressive stress-strain curves, obtained from four-ply 18% relative density specimens, for test cases of with and without lateral constraint  fSVKJUV?TW?WCUkV5lMGVbOKUTObVRWSCKTO SKVCJW1bkVDUV?TWI kUkVKWV?TUIUSKVKJUVRT1CJODbUVPUPDUTCVNTWPVD1R-b SsV1SkUTVO( ObVRWP?TUCC WSAVYRRWTk SsVKWVKJUVTUC1bKCVk CR1CCUkVODWIUGVOVRT1CJODbUVPUPDUTV. 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KJW1KVbOKUTObVRWSCKTO SKhV.OCVCUbURKUkGVOSkVOVN S KUVUbUPUSKVPWkUbV.OCVRTUOKUkVDOCUkVWSVKJUVsUWPUKTEVOSkVPOKUT ObV?TW?UTK UCVWNVKJUVCUbURKUkVKUCKVROCUAVHJ CVPWkUbVRWSC CKUkVWNVOVREb SkT RObV?OTKV?bORUkVDUK.UUSVK.WVT s kV?bOKUCGVWSUVWSVKW?VOSkVKJUVWKJUTVOKVKJUVDWKKWPAVHJUVDWKKWPV?bOKUV.OCVN (UkGVOSkVk C?bORUPUSKV.OCVO??b UkVKWVKJUVKW?V?bOKUAVHJUTUORK S NWTRUVORK SsVWSVKJUVKW?V?bOKUV.OCVTU?1UCKUkVOCVKJUVW1K?1KVWNVKJUVPWkUbAVu s1TUV, xa, VCJW.CVKJUVKUCKVC?UR PUSVOSkVKJUVN S KUVUbUPUSKVPWkUbVOCCWR OKUkV. KJV KAVYNKUTVT1SS SsVKJUVN S KUVUbUPUSKVC P1bOK WSGVKJUVNWTRUxk C?bORUPUSKVR1TIUCVWDKO SUkVNTWPVKJUVKUCKVOSkVKJUVN S KUVUbUPUSKVC 1bOK WSV.UTUVRWP?OTUkVpCUUVu s1T V, xa?hAVYCVROSVDUVCUUSGVKJUTUV CVU(RUbbUSKVOsTUUPUSKVDUK.UUSVKJUCUVK.WVR1TIUCGV.J RJV Sk ROKUCVKJOKVKJUVRT1CJODbUVNWOPVPOxKUT ObVPWkUbV?TW?UTbEVRJOTORKUT :UCVKJUVPURJOS RObVDUJOI W1TVWNVKJUVOb1P S1PVNWOPAVFigure 4-14 ? Abaqus crushable foam material model validation:  A) Experimental test specimen B) Finite element model 6rVVVFigure 4-15 ? Force-displacement curves obtained from  uniaxial compression test and finite element analysis  MKTO SVTOKUVkU?USkUSREVROSVObCWVDUVkUN SUkVNWTVKJUVRT1CJODbUVNWOPV?bOCK R KEVPWkUbAVi1OSVUKAV bAV0?j?VU(OP SUkVKJUVRWP?TUCC IUVDUJOI W1TVWNVmEPOKHl NWOPVOKVC TO SVTOKUCVWNVarx8VKWVarVaVCxaVOSkVWDCUTIUkVKJOKVKJUVRT1CJV?bOKUO1VCKTUCCVbUIUbVOSkVKJUVkUSC N ROK WSVCKTO SGV .J RJVOTUVKJUVPWCKV P?WTKOSKVNORKWTCV SVUSUTsEVODCWT?K WSVO??b ROK WSCGV.UTUV SCUSC K IU KWVKJUVCKTO SVTOKUAVy IUSVKJOKVKJUVCKTO SVTOKUVO??b UkVKWVKJUVOb1P S1PVNWOPVPUPDUTCV1CUkV SVKJUV?TW?WCUkV5lMV CVO?x?TW( POKUbEVarVCxaGVRWSC kUT SsVKJUVmEPOKHl VNWOPVKWVDUVCKTO SVTOKUV SCUSC K IUV CVCONUDVOSkV SRWTx?WTOK SsVCKTO SVTOKUVCUSC K I KEV SVKJUVPOKUT ObVPWkUbVkUN S K WSV CVSWKVSUUkUkAVy IUSVKJOKVObbVKJUVKUCKCV SVKJ CVCK1kEV.UTUVROTT UkVW1KV1C SsVOVCRTU.xkT IUSVKUCK SsVPORJ SUGV.J RJV CVSWKVC1 KODbUVNWTVJ sJVCKTO SVTOKUVKUCKCGVKJUVUNNURKVWNVKJUVCKTO SVTOKUVWSVKJUVPURJOS RObVDUJOI W1TVWNVKJUVC?Ux PUSCV.OCVSWKV SIUCK sOKUkAVMKTO SVTOKUV SVObbVKJUVKUCKCV.OCVU?1ObVKWVWTVbUCCVKJOSVrArr8VCxaAV4.6 Summary HJ CVRJO?KUTVW1Kb SUkVKJUV P?WTKOSKVNORKWTCVOCCWR OKUkV. KJVKJUVPURJOS RObV?TW?UTK UCVWNVOb1xP S1PVNWOPAVHJTUUV?JOCUCVWNVRT1CJ SsVDUJOI W1TVWNVOb1P S1PVNWOPV.UTUVObCWVkUCRT DUkVOSkVrarrrtrrr8rrr,rrr?rrr6rrr9rrrjrrrQrrrarrrrr ar tr 8r ,r ?r 6r 9r jrForce (N)Displacement (mm)BS O( ObVmWP?TUCC WSueY6aVVKJUV P?WTKOSRUVWNVKJUVCURWSkV?JOCUVpRT1CJV?bOKUO1hV SVUSUTsExODCWTD Ss O??b ROK WSCV.OCVUPx?JOC :UkAVYb1P S1PVNWOPVC?UR PUSCV . KJVk NNUTUSKVTUbOK IUVkUSC KEVOSkVP RTWCKT1RK1TUV.UTUV?TU?OTUkVOSkVRWP?TUCC WSVKUCKCV.UTUVROTT UkVW1KAVfKV.OCVWDCUTIUkVKJOKVOCVKJUVTUbOK IUVkUSC KEV SRTUOCUCGVKJUVCKTUCCVbUIUbVOSkVCKTO SVJOTkUS SsVTOK V SVKJUVRT1CJV?bOKUO1VOSkVUSUTsEVODCWT?K WSVRO?OR KEV SRTUOCUCGVD1KVKJUVkUSC N ROK WSVCKTO SVkURTUOCUCAVlWTUWIUTGVbW.VkUSC KEVOb1P S1PVNWOPVC?UR xPUSCVCJW.VOV. kUTVRT1CJV?bOKUO1GVOSkVRWSCU?1USKbEVOTUVODbUVKWVPO SKO SVJ sJVUSUTsEVODCWT?xK WSVUNN R USREVWIUTVOV. kUVTOSsUAVVHJUV UNNURKV WNV C?UR PUSV C :UV WSV PURJOS RObV DUJOI W1TV .OCV ObCWV U(OP SUkGV OSkV KJUV TUC1bKCVCJW.UkVKJOKVKJUVCKTUCCxCKTO SVR1TIUCVWDKO SUkVNTWPVC?UR PUSCVJOI SsVOVbUSsKJVWIUTVRUbbVk OPUxKUTVTOK WVWNVbUCCVKJOSVC (VpgOk^6hVOTUVCROKKUTUkGVOSkVKJURT1CJV?bOKUO1VWNVP1bK ?bUx? EVC?UR PUSCVRWIUTCVOV. kUTVCKTO SVTOSsUVRWP?OTUkV. KJVKJOKVWNVC SsbUx?bEVC?UR PUSCAVVHJUVUNNURKVWNV?TWI k SsVbOKUTObVRWSCKTO SKVNWTVKJUVKUCKVC?UR PUSCV.OCVOCCUCCUkGVOSkVKJUVTUC1bKCV Sk ROKUVKJOKVKJUVbOKUTObVRWSCKTO SKVORKCVKWVTUk1RUVKJUVkUSC N ROK WSVCKTO SVWNVOb1P S1PVNWOPVC?UR PUSCGV.J RJV  SVK1TSVObCWVORKCVKWV SRTUOCUVUSUTsExOD WTD SsVRO?OR KEVOSkVTUk1RUVUS TsExODCWTD SsVUNN R USREVWNVKJUVNWOPVC?UR PUSAVu SObbEGVYFYdBMVRT1CJODbUVNWOPV?bOCK R KEVPOKUT ObVPWkUbV.OCVCK1k UkGVOSkV KCVIOb k KEV.OCV?TWIUkVDOCUkVWSVkOKOVWDKO SUkVNTWPVRWP?TUCC WSVKUCKCAVVHJUVPOKUT ObV?TW?UTK UCVWDKO SUkVNTWPVKJUV1S O( ObVKUCKCwkUCRT DUkV SVKJ CVRJO?KUTw . TUV Px?bUPUSKUkV SVKJUVPWk N UkVPWkUbAVHWVOCCUCCVKJUVUNNURK IUSUCCVWNVKJUV?TW?WCUkV5lMGVKJUVTxC1bKCVWNVKJUVPWk N UkVPWkUbV.UTUVRWP?OTUkV. KJVKJWCUVWNVKJUVDOCUb SUVPWkUbAVVHJUVTUC1bKCVWNVKJ CVRWP?OT CWSGV.J RJVTU?TUCUSKVKJUVUNNURKVWNVKJUV5lMVWSVKJUV RR1?OSK)CVkESOP RVTUC?WSCUVOSkVKJUVRJOSsUV SV?WKUSK ObVT C-VWNV S?1TEGVOTUV?TUCUSKUkV SVKJUVNWbbW. SsVRJO?KUTAVVVV V6t VV5 Results and Discussion 5.1 Overview HJUVN TCKVOSkVCURWSkVKOC-Cw kUN SUkV SVmJO?KUTVaw .UTUVk CR1CCUkV SVKJUV?TUI W1CVRJO?KUTCAVHJUVN TCKVKOC-V.OCVRWP?bUKUkVDEVRTUOK SsVOVueVPWkUbVRO?ODbUVWNV?TUk RK SsVKJUVkESOP RVTUC?WSCUVWNVOVNTWSKVCUOKVWRR1?OSKV SVOVTUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSVp AUAVKJUVDOCUb SUVPWkUbhAVVYCVO ?OTKVWNVRWP?bUK SsVKJUVCURWSkVKOC-GVOVSU.VPWkUbV.OCVRTUOKUkVDEV P?bUPUSK SsVKJUV5lMV SVKJUVDOCUb SUVPWkUbVp AUAVKJUVPWk N UkVPWkUbhAVVHWVRWP?bUKUVKJUVCURWSkVKOC-Vp AUAVKWVOCCUCCVKJUVUNNURK IUSUCCVWNVKJUV?TW?WCUkV5lMhGVKJUVTUC1bKCVWNVKJUVPWk N UkVPWkUbV.UTUVRWP?OTUkV. KJVKJUVTUC1bKCVWNVKJUVDOCUb SUVPWkUbGVOSkVKJUVUNNURKCVWNVKJUV5lMVWSVWRR1?OSK)CVkESOP RVTUC?WSCUV.UTUVRT K RObbEVOCCUCCUkAVHJUVKJ TkVKOC-Vp AUAVKWVN SkVKJUVTUbOK WSCJ ?CVDUK.UUSVKJUVkUC sSV?OTOPU UTCVWNVKJU?TW?WCUkV5lMVOSkVKJUVWRR1?OSK)CVkESOP RVTUC?WSCUhV.OCVRWP?bUKUkVDEVIOTE SsVKJUV. kKJGVbUSsKJVOSkVPOKUT ObV?TW?UTK UCVWNVKJUVRT1CJODbUVPUPDUTCV SVOVCUT U WNVC P1bOK WSCGVOSkV SIUCK sOK SsVKJUVUNNURKVWNVIOTE SsVKJUVkUC sSV?OTOPUKUTCVWSVKJUVWRR1?OSK)CVkESOP CVOSkV1bK POKUbEVKJUV?WKUSxK ObVT C-VWNV S?1TEAVVHJUVNW1TKJVKOC-Vp AUAVKWVkUKUTP SUVKJUVW?K PObVRJOTORKUT CK RCVWNVKJUV5lMVOKVOVTOSsUVWNVRWbb C WSVCUIUT K UChV.OCVRWP?bUKUkVDEVROTTE SsVW1KVOVCUT UCVWNVC P1bOK WSCVOKVOVTOSsUVWNVRWbb C WSVCUIUT xK UCGV.J bUVIOTE SsVKJUV. kKJVWNVKJUVRT1CJODbUVPUPDUTAVHJUVW?K PObVkUC sSVRJOTORKUT CK RCV.UTUVkUKUTP SUkVDEVUIOb1OK SsVKJUV?UTNWTPOSRUVWNVk NNUTUSKVkUC sSVROCUCVDOCUkVWSVPO( P1PVTUk1RxK WSV SVIOb1UVWNVnfmPO(AViUC1bKCVWDKO SUkVNTWPVRWP?bUK SsVKJUVCURWSkGVKJ TkVOSkVNW1TKJVKOC-CVOTUV?TUCUSKUkV SVKJ CVRJO?xKUTAV5.2 Baseline Model Results YVTUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSVC P1bOK WSV. KJVKJUVDOCUb SUVPWkUbV.OCVROTT UkVW1KV1C SsVKJUVff5LyVCKOSkxOTkVRTOCJV?1bCUAVHJ CV?1bCUVpOCVCJW.SV SVu s1TUV?xahVTU?TUCUSKCVOVPUk 1PVCUIUT KEVRTOCJVCRUSOT WV68VV. KJVZqV"Va6V-P?JGVPO( P1PVORRUbUTOK WSVWNVarVsVOSkVPUOSVORRUbUTOK WSVWNV?VsAVHJ CV?1bCUV.OCVRJWCUSVKWVDUV1CUkV SVOCCUCC SsVKJUVUNNURK IUSUCCVWNVKJUV?TW?WCUk 5lM D RO1CUVKJUVORRUbUTOxK WSVC?UR N ROK WSVWNVKJ CVRTOCJV?1bCUGV SVs SUTObGV CVOVC P?b N ROK WSVWNVKJUVKE? RObVCJO?UVWNVORRUbxUTOK WSCVTURWTkUkV SVTUOTVCKT1R-VIUJ RbUCAVVHJ CV TO JV?1bCUV.OCVWT s SObbEVWDKO SUkVNTWPVOVRWSxIUS USRUVCOP?bUVWNVIUJ RbUVRTOCJVKUCKCVRWSk1RKUkVDEVKJUVfSC1TOSRUVfSCK K1KUVNWTVc sJ.OEVMONUKEpffcMhVOSkVHJOKRJOPVlWKWTVfSC1TOSRUViU?  TViUCUOTRJVmUSKUTGV?b1CVRTOCJVKUCKCVT1SVDEVuWTkV SVe1TW?UVOCV.UbbVOCVORRUbUTOK WSCVTURWTkUkV S ObVT OTVRTOCJUCV SVM.UkUSw IUJ RbUCV SC1TUkVDEVuWb-COPVfSC1TOSRUV0?Q?AVVYCVOV.UbbxORRU?KUkVsUSUT RVUOTVUSkVRTOCJV?1bCUGVPOSEVCK1k UCV SVKJUb KUTOK1TUVJOIUV1CUkVKJ CVRTOCJV?1bCUVKWVTURWSCKT1RKVTUOTVU kVRWbb C WSCV SVRWP?1KUTVC P1bOK WSCVOSkVCbUkVKUCKCAVfSVOkk K WSGVOVTURUSKVe1TW?UOSVTWOkxKTONN RVORR kUSKVCK1kEGV SV.J RJVNTWSKxCUOKVWRR1?OSKCV.JWV.UTUV SIWbIUkV  SVC SsbUVTUOTV P?ORKCVOSkVObCWVC1NNUTUkVNTWPV.J ?bOCJV  S?1T UCV.UTUVOSObECUkGVTUIUObUkVKJOKV??XVWN WRR1?OSKCVU(?UT USRUkVOVZqVDUK.UUSVQVOSkVtrV-P?J GVOSkVNWTVOVZq DUK.UUSVa8VOSkVt9V-P?JVKJUVbWSsxKUTPVCEP?KWPCV.UTUVNW1SkVKWVDUVC sS N ROSKV06r?AVHJUTUNWTUGVOVTUOTV P?ORKV. KJVOVZq"a6V-P?JVNObbCVNO TbEV.UbbV. KJ SVKJUVZqV SK TIObV.JUTUVPWCKVWNVKJUV.J ?bOCJV S?1T UCVWRR1TVOSkV KVROSVTU?TUCUSKG OKVKJUVCOPUVK PUGVTUOTVUSkVRTOCJUCV.JUTUVKJUTUV CVbWSsxKUTPV.J ?bOCJVT C-AVVFigure 5-1 ? Rear end collision acceleration pulse (taken from08??) 6, VVHWVOIW kVkOKOVRWTT1?K WSVk1UVKWVP CPOKRJVDUK.UUSVKJUVCOP?b SsVTOKUVOSkVKJUVW1K?1KVC sSOb)CVNTU?1USREGVOVTUObxK PUVOSK xOb OC SsVN bKUTV.OC 1CUkVNWTVObbV SCKT1PUSKOK WSVW1K?1KVWNVKJUVF WifoxffVPWkUbAVVlWTUWIUTGVPWk N UkVMYeVPtaaVmJOSSUbVu bKUT SsVmbOCCVpmumhVN bKUTCGVOCVTURWPPUSkUkVDEVff5LyVCUOKVUIOb1OK WSV?TWKWRWbV08??GV.UTUV1CUkVNWTVKJUV SCKT1PUSKOK WSVW1K?1KCVOCV.UbbAVHOxDbUV?xaV?TUCUSKCVKJUCUVN bKUTCAVTable 5-1 ? CFC filters Output signal Filter cUOkVORRUbUTWPUKUTV MYeVarrrVHaVORRUbUTWPUKUTV MYeVajrVB??UTVSUR-VOSkVbW.UTVSUR-VNWTRUCV MYeVarrrVB??UTVSUR-VOSkVbW.UTVSUR-VPWPUSKV MYeV6rrVVHJUVC sSVRWSIUSK WSVNWTVORRUbUTWPUKUTCVOSkVbWOkVRUbbCVNWTVKJUVF WifoxffVPWkUbVOTUV bb1CKTOKUkV SVu s1TUV?xt AVHJUV(xO( CGVOKKORJUkVKWVKJUVSUR-VOSkVJUOkVWNVKJUVk1PPEGV CV?OTObbUbVKWVKJUVbWSs K1k xSObVk TURK WSVWNVKJUVIUJ RbU3VKJUVExO( C  CV?OTObbUbVKWVKJUVbOKUTObVk TURK WSVWNVKJUVIUJ RbUGVOSkVKJUV:xO( CV  CV IUTK RObVOSkV kW.S.OTkAVHJUTUNWTUGVNbU( WSVPWPUSKGVO KUT WTVCJUOTGVOSkV SUR-V KUSC WSVKO-UV?WC K IUVC sSCAVVFigure 5-2 ? BioRID-II accelerometers and load cell sign convention X X Z Z 6?VVu s1TUV?x8VOSkVu s1TUV?x, VCJW.VKJUVTUC1bKCVWNVKJUVDOCUb SUVPWkUbGVOSkVu s1T V?x? CJW.CVKJUVTUxC?WSCUVWNVKJUVk1PPEVWDKO SUkVNTWPVKJUVDOCUb SUVPWkUbAVYCVs IUSVDUbW.GVKJUVDOCUVb SUVPWkUbV?TUk RKCVKJUVDUJOI W1TVWNVOVNTWSKVCUOKVWRR1?OSKV SVOVTUOTVUSkVRWbb C WS7VDEVDLOPMVo1T SsVKJ CV?JOCUGVKJUVCUOKVDOR-V?1CJUCVKJUVKWTCWVNWT.OTkV.J bUVKJUVWRR1?OSKVC S-CV SKWVKJUVRWP?b OSKVOTUOVWNVKJUVCUOKVDOR-VRO1C SsVWSbEVP SWTVbWOk Ssw W C sS N ROSKV JUOkVWTVSUR-VPWK WSVWRR1TCV SVKJ CV?JOCUA HJUVC? SUVCKOTKCVKWVCKTO sJKUSV1?VOSkVRO1CUCVRWP?TUCC WSV SVKJUVbW.UTVSUR-VOSkVOVNbU( WSVPWPUSKV SVKJUV1??UTVSUR-AVfSVKJUVN SObVCKOsUCGVHaVCKOTKCVKWVORRUbUTxOKUVNWT.OTkAVVDENTLOPMVo1T SsVKJ CV?JOCUGVHaVRWSK S1UCVKWVORRUbUTOKUV SVKJUV(xk TURK WSVOSkVKJUVJUOkVTUKTORKCV. KJVTUC?URKVKWVHaAVHJ CVDT SsCVODW1KVKJUVSUR-VMxCJO?UVNWTPOK WSGVOSkVKJUVPO( P1PVIOb1UVWNVnfmAVo1UVKWVKJUVk NNUTUSK ObVPWIUPUSKVWNVJUOkVOSkVKWTCWGVOV?WC K IUVCJUOTVNWTRUV CVWDCUTIUkV SVKJUV1??UTVOSkVbW.UTVSUR-AVHJUVO( ObVRWP?TUCC WSVNWTRUVObCWV SRTUOCUCV1SK bVKJUVC? SUV CVRWPx?bUKUbEVCKTO sJKUSUkAVVHJUVJUOkVCKOTKCVKWVTWKOKUVDOR-.OTkVOSkVN SObbEVJ KCVKJUVJUOkVTUCKTO SKVOKVKJUVUSkVWNVKJ CV?JOCUAVNTE FDLOPMVo1T SsVKJ CV?JOCUGVKJUVJUOkVTUCKTO SKVkT IUCVKJUVJUOkVNWT.OTkVOSkV CVRWP?TUCCUkAVHJ CVPO-UCVKJUVJUOkVKWVORRUbUTOKUVNWT.OTkV1SK bV KVTUORJUCV KC ?UO-VORRUbUTOK WSVOKVaarVPCAVy IxUSVKJOKVKJUVJUOkV CVSW.VC1??WTKUkVDEVKJUVJUOkVTUCKTO SKGVKJUV1??UTVSUR-VCJUOTVNWTRUVkURTUOCUCV?1 R-bEAVYCVKJUVHaV-UU?CVORRUbUTOK SsVNWT.OTkGVKJUVKWTCWV?1bbCVKJUVJUOkVNWT.OTkGVOSkV?WC K IUVO( ObVNWTRUVpKUSC WShVCKOTKCVKWVD1 bkV1?V SVKJUVSUR-AVFURO1CUVKJUVJUOkV(xORRUbUTOK WSVU(RUUkCVKJOKVWNVHaGVnfmV CVSUsOK IUAV FD E TDLOPMVo1T SsVKJ CV?JOCUGVKJUVHaVORRUbUTOK WSVTUORJUCV:UTWGVOSkVKJUVSUR-VCJUOTVNWTRUVkUxRTUOCUCAVHJUVJUOkVTWKOKUCVNWT.OTkVOSkVTUORJUCV KCV S K ObVCKOTK SsVOSsbUVp AUA IUTK RObhVOKVOTW1SkVa?rVPCAVVfSVPWCKVTUObx.WTbkVTUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSCGVKJUVWRR1?OSKV SKUTORKCV. KJVKJUVCUOKDUbKV SVKJ CV?JOCUVOCVKJUEVOTUVORRUbUTOKUkVNWT.OTk3VJW.UIUTGV KVkWUCVSWKVJWbkVKT1UV SVKJUVDOCUb SUVPWkUbVOCV KVkWUCVSWKV SRb1kUVKJUVCUOKVDOCUAV66VVV VV VV VV VFigure 5-3 ? Baseline model results at 16 kmph V69VVV VV VVFigure 5-4 ? Baseline model results at 16 kmph (cont.) V VV6j VVV VV VV VFigure 5-5 ? BioRID-II dynamic response obtained from the baseline model at 16 kmph t= 0 ms t= 30 ms t= 60 ms t= 90 ms t= 120 ms t= 150 ms 6QVV5.3 Baseline Model Energy Balance eSUTsEVW1K?1KV CVWNKUSVOSV P?WTKOSKV?OTKVWNVOVkESOP RVU(?b R KVOSObEC CAVmWP?OT CWSCVDUK.UUSVIOT W1CVUSUTsEVRWP?WSUSKCVROSVDUV1CUkVKWVJUb?VUIOb1OKUV NVOS OS EC CV CVE Ubk SsVOSVO??TW?T xOKUVTUC?WSCUV0,j?AVYSVUSUTsEVDObOSRUVNWTVKJUVUSK TUVPWkUbVROSVDUV.T KKUSVOCV +  +  +  ?  ?  =  = V Equation 5-1 5JUTUVefV CVKJUV SKUTSObVUSUTsEGVeqV CVKJUVI CRW1CVUSUTsEVk CC ?OKUkGVeuoV CVKJUVNT RK WSObVUSUTsEVk CC ?OKUkGVezeV CVKJUV- SUK RVUSUTsEGVe5 V C KJUV.WT-VkWSUVDEVKJUVU(KUTSObbEVO??b UkVbWOkCGVOSkVemLV CVKJUV .WT-VkWSUVDEVRWSKORKV?USObK UCAVHJUVC1PVWNVKJUC USUTsEVRWP?WSUSKCV  CVeKWKObG .J RJVCJW1bkVDUVRWSCKOSKAVfSVKJUVS1PUT RObVPWkUbCGVeKWKObV CV1C1ObbEVO??TW( POKUbEVRWSCKOSKVk1UVKWVS1xPUT RObVUTTWTCAVHJUV SKUTSObVUSUTsEVpefhV CVKJUVC1PVWNVCUIUTObVUSUTsEVRWP?WSUSKCVOSkVROSVDUV.T KKUSVOCV =  +  +  + V Equation 5-2 eeV CVKJUVTURWIUTODbUVUbOCK RVCKTO SVUSUTsEGVeLV CVKJ VUSUTsEVk CC ?OKUkVKJTW1sJV?bOCK R KEGVemoV CVKJUVUSUTsEVk CC ?OKUkVKJTW1sJVI CRWUbOCK R KEGVOSkVeYVCVKJUVOTK N R ObVCKTO SVUSUTsEA HJ VOTK N R ObVCKTO SVUSUTsEV SRb1kUCVUSUTsEVCKWTUkV SVKJUVPWkUbVk1UVKWVOkk K WSObVCK NNSUCCV Sk1RUkV SKWVKJUVUbUPUSKCVKWV?TUIUSKVJW1TsbOCCAVlWTUWIUTGVKJUVI CRW1CVUSUTsEVpeqh  CVKJUVUSUTsEVk CC ?OKUkVKJTW1sJVkOP? SsVPURJOS CPCGV SxRb1k SsVD1b-VI CRWC KEVkOP? SsVOSkVPOKUT ObVkOP? SsAVnWKUVKJOKVeq  CVSWKV?OTKVWNVKJUVUSUTsEVk CxC ?OKUkV KJTW1sJV I CRWUbOCK R KEVWTV  SUbOCK RV ?TWRUCCUCAV HJUV U(KUTSObV .WT-V pe5 hV  CV kUKUTP SUkPWCKbEVDEVSWkObVNWTRUCGVPWPUSKCVOSkV?TUCRT DUkVDW1SkOTEVRWSk K WSCVpUAsAVORRUbUTOK WSV?1bCUVKWVKJUVCUOKVDOCUhAVu s1TUV?x6VCJW.CVKJUVIOT W1CVUSUTsEVRWP?WSUSKCVWNVKJUVDOCUb SUVPWkUbAVfKV  CVSWKUkVNTWPVKJUVTUC1bKCVKJOKVeKWKOb CVObPWCKVRWSCKOSKVOSkV KCVIOT OK WSV CVCPObbVRWP?OTUkVKWVKJUVe5 VOSkVeze3VKJ CVC sS N UCVKJOKVKJUVDOCUb SUVPWkUbVE UbkUkV?TW?UTVTUC1bKCAVHJUVRWTTURKVUSUTsEVDObOSRUVWNVKJUVDOCxb SUVPWkUbVkWUCVSWKV?TWIUVIOb k KEVWNVKJUVTUC1bKCGV SCKUOkV KVIUT N UCVKJOKVKJUVPWkUbV?OTOPUKUTCVpUAsAVPUCJVC :UGVUbPUSKVKE?UCGVCKODbUVK PUV SRTUPUSKGVUKRAhV.UTUVRJWCUSV?TW?UTbEVOSkVKJUVS1xPUT RObVCWb1K WSV.OCVROTT UkVW1KVRWTTURKbEAV9rVVVFigure 5-6 ? Energy components of the baseline model 5.4 Whiplash Mitigation System Functionality Assessment HWVOCCUCCVKJUVN1SRK WSOb KEVWNVKJUV?TW?WCUkV5lM GVKJUVT C1bKCVWNVKJUVPWk N UkVPWkUbV.UTUVRWPx?OTUkV. KJVKJUVTUC1bKCVWNVKJUVDOCUb SUVPWkUbAVVHJUVk NNUTUSRUCVDUK.UUSVKJUCUVK.WVCUKCVWNVTUC1bKCVOSkVKJUVUNNURKCVWNVKJUV5lMVWSVKJUVWRR1?OSK)CVkESOP RVTUC?WSCUV.UTUVRT K RObbEVOCCUCCUkAVHJUVPWk N UkVPWkUbVTUC1bKCV.UTUVWDKO SUkVDEVROTTE SsVW1KVOVTUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSVC P1bOK WSV. KJVKJUVCOPUVk1PPEV?WC K WSVOSkVORRUbUTOK WSV?1bCUV1CUkV SVKJUVDOCUb SUVPWkUbAVHJUVRT1CJODbUVPUPxDUTGVOCV1CUkV SVKJUV5lMGV.OCVOVR1DW kVPOkUVWNV6XVTUbOK IUVkUSC KEVmEPOKVOb1P S1PVNWOPV. KJVOV. kKJGVbUSsKJVOSkVKJ R-SUCCVWNVarGV,VOSkVaV SRJVpt?,G araA6VOSkVt?A,VPPhVTUC?URK IUbEVp bb1CxKTOKUkV  SVu s1TUV?x9hAVnWKUVKJOKV  SVKJUVPWk N UkVPWkUbVKJUVRT1CJODbUVPUPDUTV  CVRWP?TUCCUkVObWSsV KCVbUSsKJAV9aVVVFigure 5-7 ? The crushable member  fSVKJUVC P1bOK WSVWNVKJUVPWk N UkVPWkUbGVKJUVNbWWTVOSkVKJUVDOR-V?bOKUV.UTUVORRUbUTOKUkVNWT.OTkVRO1C SsVKJUVNWOPVKWVDUVRWP?TUCCUkVDUK.UUSVKJUVDOR-VOSkVNTWSKV?bOKUCGVKJUVbOKKUTV.J RJV.OCVOKKORJUkVKWVKJUVCUOKVDOCUAVYCVKJUVNWOPV.OCVRT1CJUkGVKJUVIUJ RbUVNbWWTV-U?KVWSVORRUbUTOK SsGVOSkVKJUVCUOKV.OCVKTOSCbOKUkVTUOT.OTkVTUbOK IUVKWVKJUVNbWWTAVfSV I U.VWNVKJUVTUC1bKCGVOkk SsVKJUV5lMVKWVKJUVCUOKVDOCUVJOkVC sS N ROSKVUNNURKCVWSVKJUVWRR1x?OSK)CVkESOP RVTUC?WSCU3VKJUCUVUNNURKCVOTUVk CR1CCUkVDUbW.AVnWKUVKJOKV SVKJUVNWbbW. SsVN s1TUCGV.J RJVCJW.VKJUVRWP?OT CWSVDUK.UUSVKJUVDOCUb SUVPWkUbVTUC1bKCVOSkVKJUVPWk N UkVPWkUbVTUxC1bKCGVKJUV kOT-V b SUCVTU?TUCUSKVKJUVPWk N UkV PWkUbVTUC1bKCGVOSkVKJUV sTUEVb SUCV TU?TUCUSKVKJUVDOCUb SUVPWkUbVTUC1bKCAVVYCVCJW.SV SVu s1TUV?xj xYVOSkVFGVKJUV?UO-VIOb1UCVWNVHaVOSkVJUOkV(xORRUbUTOK WSCV.UTUVTUk1RUkAVYbCWGVKJUV?UO-VIOb1UVWNHaV(xORRUbUTOK WSV SVKJUVTUKTORK WSV?JOCUV.OCVTUk1RUkpCUUVu s1TUV?xj xYVOKVK PU"6?VPChGV.J RJVbUkVKWVOVTUk1RK WSV SVHaxJUOkVTUbOK IUVORRUbUTOK WSAVy IUSVKJOKVnfmVKO-UCV SKWVORRW1SKVKJUVHax OkVTUbOK IUVORRUbUTOK WSGVnfmPO(V.OCVTUk1RUkVNTWPVajA9?VKWVQA,9VPtOCtwOV, QA?VXVTUk1RK WSVk1UVKWV5lMV P?bUPUSKOK WSVpCUUVu s1TUV?xQhAVlWTUWIUTGVKJUVnfmPO(VWRR1TxTUSRUVK PUV.OCVCJ NKUkVNWT.OTkVDEV8rVPCVpCJW.SV SVu s1TUV?xQhAVVVV9t VVV VFigure 5-8 ? T1 and head x-acceleration vs. time  VFigure 5-9 ? NIC vs. time  YCVCJW.SV SVu s1TUV?xar xYGVKJUVPO( P1PVCUOKVDOR-VRWSKORKVNWTRUV.OCVTUk1RUkGVKJ1CVTUk1R SsVKJUV SKUTSObVkESOP RVNWTRUCVWSVKJUVWRR1?OSK)CVC? SUAVHJUVTUC1bK SsVkURTUOCUV SVCUOKVDOR-VbWOk SsVTUk1RUkV KCVTWKOK WSVpCUUVu s1TUV?xar xFhAVHJUVTUk1RUkVCUOKVDOR-VTWKOK WSTUC1bKCV Sk ROKUVKJOKVKJUV P?bUPUSKOK WSVWNVKJUV?TW?WCUkV5lMVORKCVKWVTUk1RUVKJUVT C-VWNVOVPWTUVCUIUTUVWRR1?OSKV S?1TEVWTVNOKOb KEVk1UVKWVWRR1?OSKVU?URK WSAVVVVB A 98VVV VFigure 5-10 ? Seat back force and rotation vs. time  YCVCJW.SV SVu s1TUV?xaaxFVOSkVmGVKJUVPO( P1PVIOb1UCVWNV1??UTVSUR-VPWPUSKVOSkVO( ObVNWTRUV.UTUVTUk1RUk3VJW.UIUTGVKJUV1??UTVSUR-VCJUOTVNWTRUV.OCV SRTUOCUkV SVDWKJVKJUV?WCKUT WTVOSkVOSKUT WTVk TURK WSCVpCUUVu s1TUV?xaaxYhAVu1TKJUTPWTUGVKJUVn-PPO(GV.J RJVRWTTUC?WSkCVKWVOV?xKUSK ObVNORUKV?W SKV  S?1TEGV.OCVTUk1RUkAVfKVCJW1bkVDUVSWKUkVKJOKGVn-PPO(VNWT DW JVKJUVDOCUb SUVPWkUbVOSkVKJUVPWk N UkVPWkUbV .UTUVUCCVKJOSVKJUV  S?1TEVKJTUCJWbkV NVaAVYCVCJW.SV  SVu s1TUV?xaaxmGVKJUV1??UTVSUR-VNbU( WSVPWPUSKV SVKJUVTUKTORK WSV?JOCUV.OCVTUk1RUk3 KJUTUNWTUGVKJUVCUxIUT KEVWNVKJUVSUR-VMxCJO?UVkUNWTPOK WSGV.J RJVRO1CUCV S?1TEVKWVsOSsb WSVSUTIUVTWWKCGV.OCVkUxRTUOCUkAVVVVVA B 9, VVV VV VFigure 5-11 ? Upper neck shear force, axial force and moment and Nkm vs. time  YCVCJW.SV SVu s1TUV?xat xYGFVOSkVmGVKJU PO( P1PVIOb1UCVWNVbW.UTVSUR-VCJUOT OSkVO( ObVNWTRUVOSkVPWPUSKV.UTUVTUk1RUkGVKJ1CVKJUV?TUk RKUkVgngPO(GV.J RJVRWTTUC?WSkCVKWV?WKUSK ObVbW.UTVSUR-V S?1TEVk1T SsVJUOkxSUR-VU(KUSC WSGV.OCVObCWVTUk1RUkwDEVO??TW( POKUbEV8tVXVpCUUVu s1TUV?xat xohAVVVA B C D 9?VVV VV VFigure 5-12 ? Lower neck shear force, axial force and moment and LNL vs. time  YCVCJW.SV SVu s1TUV?xa8xYGVKJUV?UO-VIOb1UVWNVKJUVJUOkVTWKOK WSVOSsbUV.OCVTUk1RUkAVVHJ CVROSVDUVOKKT D1KUkVKWVUOTb UTVJUOkVC1??WTKVOSkVbUCCVTWK K WSV NVKJUVCUOKVDOR-AVYCVCJW.SV SVu s1TUV?xa8xFGVKJUVHaxJUOkVTUbOK IUVk C?bORUPUSKV.OCVTUk1RUCVOCV.Ubb3VKJ1CGVSUR-VkUNWTPOK WSVOSkVCKTO SV.OCVTUk1RUkAVVV VFigure 5-13 ? Head angle vs. time  A B C D A B 96VVYCVCJW.SV SVu s1TUV?xa, xYGVKJUVKWKObV- SUK RVUSUTsEVpCUUVK PU"Aa?VChVOSkVKJUV S K ObVsTOk USKVWNVKJUV- SUK RVUSUTsEVpNTWPVAr?VKWVAaVChV.UTUVTUk1RUkAVFURO1CUVnfmPO(VWRR1TCVOKVUOTbEVCKOsUCVWNVKJUVRWbb C WSVpCJW.SVDEVkOCJVb SUVWSVu s1TUV?xa, xYhGV KV CVDUb UIUkVKJOKkUbOE SsVKJUVTOP?V1?VWNVUSUTsEVKWVKJUVWRR1?OSKVk1T SsVKJ CVRT K RObVK PUVTUC1bKCV SVOVkURTUOCUkVT C-VWNV S?1TEVkUN SUkVDEVVnfmPO(AVLbOCxK RVk CC ?OK WSVUSUTsEV.OCV SRTUOCUkVk1UVKWVKJUVUSUTsEVODCWTDUkVDEVKJUVRT1CJODbUVPUPDUTVpCUUVu s1TUV?xa, xFhAVfKVCJW1bkVDUVSWKUkVKJOKGVKJUVWKObV?bOCK RObbEVk CC ?OKUkVUSUTsEV SVKJUVPWk N UkVPWkUbV CVOVC1PPOK WSVWNVUSUTsEVODCWTDUkVDEVKJUVNWOPVRT1CJODbUVPUPDUTCVOSkVKJUVkUNWTPODbUVCKT1RK1TObVPUPDUTCV SVRUSKTObVCUR WS WNVKJUVCUOKVDOR-AVVFigure 5-14 ? Kinetic and plastic dissipated energy vs. time 5.5 Relationship between the Foam Size and Risk of Whiplash Injury HWV1SRWIUTVKJUVTUbOK WSCJ ?CVDUK.UUSVKJUVkUC sSV?OTOPUKUTCVWNVKJUV?TW?WCUkV5lMVOSkVT C-VWNV.J ?bOCJV S?1TEGVCUIUTObVC P1bOK WSCV. KJVPWk N UkVPWkUbV.UTUVROTT UkVW1KVOKVa6V-P?Jw1C SsVff5LyVCKOSkOTkVRTOCJV?1bCUw .J bUV IOTE SsVKJUVNWOPV . kKJVOSkVbUSsKJAVHJUVNWOPV . kKJV .OCVKUCKUkVOKV6A8GV9A?GVjAjGVarGVaaA8VOSkVatA?V SRJUCVp AUAVa?QGVaQaGVtt8GVt?,GVtj9VOSkV8aQVPPChV.J bUVKJUVNWOPVbUSsKJV .OCVKUCKUkVOKVtGV8VOSkV,V  SRJUCVp?rAjGV96AtVOSkVaraA6VPPChAVHJUVNWOPVKE?UV1CUkV SVKJ CVCUT UCVWNVC P1bOK WSCV.OCV6XVTUbOK IUVkUSC KEVmEPOKVOb1P S1PVNWOPAVu s1TUV?xa?GVu s1TUV?xa6VOSkVu s1TUV?xa9VCJW.VKJUVPO( P1PVIOb1UCVWNVnfmGVn-PVOSkVgngV ICAVNWOPV. kKJVNWTVKJUVKJTUUVk NNUTUSKVNWOPVbUSsKJCV SVKJUVPWk N UkVPWkUbVTUC1bKCAVnWKUVKJOKVKJUVDOCUb SUVIOb1UCVWNV S?1TEVRT KUT OVp AUAVKJUVTUC1bKCVWNVKJUVDOCUb SUVPWkUbhVOTUVPOT-UkVWSVKJUVN sx1TUCVKWVCJW.VKJUVTUbOK IUV P?TWIUPUSKVKWVWRR1?OSKV S?1TEVT C-AVA B 99VVu s1TUV?xa?VCJW.CVKJUVnfmPO(VICAVNWOPV. kKJVNWTVKJTUUVNWOPVbUSsKJCAVHJUVTUC1bKCVkUb SUOKUVKJOKVPWCKVWNVKJUVKUCKUkVRT1CJODbUVPUPDUTCVROSVUNNURK IUbEVTUk1RUVKJUVnfmPO(AVYCVk CR1CCUkV SVmJO?xKUTVtGVnfmVOCCUCCUCVKJUVT C-VWNV S?1TEVKWVsOSsb WSVTWWKVOSkVCWNKVK CC1UCVC1TTW1Sk SsVKJUVC? SUGVKJ1CVKJUV?TW?WCUkV5lMVROSVUNNURK IUbEVTUk1RUVKJUVT C-VWNV S?1TEVKWVKJUCUVTUs WSCVWNVKJUVSUR-AVVu1TxKJUTPWTUGVTUC1bKCVCJW.VKJOKVKJUTUV CVOVSWSb SUOTVTUbOK WSCJ ?VDUK.UUSVKJUVNWOPV. kKJVOSkVnfmxPO(AVVfKV CVSWKUkVKJOKVOCVKJUVNWOPV. kKJV SRTUOCUCGVKJUVnfmPO(VN TCKVkURTUOCUCGVD1KVONKUTVTUORJ SsVOP S P1PVpnfmPO( "QA,9hGV KVCKOTKCVKWV SRTUOCUAVVHJUVarV  SRJVpt?,VPPh . kUVPUPDUTVs IUCVKJUVDUCKV.J ?bOCJVP K sOK WSV?UTNWTPOSRUVOKVa6V-P?JGV.J bUV SVRWSKTOCKVKJUVCPObbUTVpPWTUVRWP?b xOSKhVRT1CJODbUVPUPDUTCw AsAV6A8VOSkV9A?V SRJVpa?QVOSkVaQaVPPhV. kUwkWVSWKVONNURKVnfmVPO(VKWOVsTUOKVU(KUSKAVHJUVTUC1bKCVObCWVCJW.VKJOKVKJUVCUOKVSWKVU?1 ??UkV. KJVKJUV?TW?WCUkV5lMVbUOkCVKWV?WKUSK ObV S?1TEVp AUAVnfmPO([a?VPtOCtVNWTV?rKJV?UTRUSK bUVPObUhGVD1KVDEV P?bUPUSK SsVKJUV5lMV SKWVKJUV CUOKGV nfmPO(V CV TUk1RUkV KWV bUCCV KJOSV a?V PtOCtGV .J RJV  Sk ROKUCV KJOKV .J ?bOCJV  S?1TEVCJW1bkVSWKVWRR1TVNWTVKJ CVWRR1?OSKAVVFigure 5-15 ? NICmax vs. foam width r?ara?trt?6 9 j Q ar aa at a8NIC max (m2/s2)Foam width (in),V S8V StV SFOCUb SUfS?1TEVHJTUCJWbkNIC max (m2/s2) 9j VVu s1TUV?xa6VCJW.CVn-P PO(VICAVNWOPV. kKJVNWTVKJTUUVNWOPVbUSsKJCAVHJUVTUC1bKCVCJW.VKJOKVObbVKJUVKUCKUkVRT1CJODbUVPUPDUTCVROSVUNNURK IUbEVTUk1RUVKJUVn-PPO(AVy IUSVKJOKVKJUVn-PV S?1TEVRT KUT OVOCCUCCUCVKJUVT C- WNV S?1TEVKWVNORUKV?W SKCGVTUk1R SsVn-PPO(VPUOSCVbUCCVT C-VWNV S?1TEVKWVKJUCUVTUxs WSCVWNVKJUVWRR1?OSK)CVSUR-AVHJUVTUC1bKCVObCWVCJW.VKJOKVIOTE SsVKJUV. kKJVOSkVbUSsKJVWNVKJUVPUPDUTCVWSbEVCb sJKbEVONNURKCVKJUVT C-VWNV S?1TEAVVVFigure 5-16 - Nkmmax vs. foam width u s1TUV?xa9VCJW.CVgngPO(VICAVNWOPV. kKJVNWTVKJTUUVNWOPVbUSsKJCVOSkV Sk ROKUCVKJOKVObbVKJUVKUCKUkVROCUCVROSVUNNURK IUbEVTUk1RUVKJUVT C-VWNV S?1TEVKWVKJUVbW.UTVSUR-AVlWTUWIUTGVNWTVObbVtGV8VOSkV,V SRJVp?rAjGV96AtVOSkVaraA6VPPhVbWSsVPUPDUTCGVOCVKJUV. kKJV SRTUOCUCGVKJUVU(KUSKVWNV S?1TEVTUk1RK W V SRTUOCUCGV. KJVKJUV,V SRJparaA6VPPhVbWSsVPUPDUTCVTUk1R SsVKJUVT C-VWNV S?1TEVPWTUVKJOSVN TVKJUV8VOSkVtV  SRJVp96AtVOSkV?rAjVPPhVbWSsVPUPDUTCAVHJUTUNWTUGVRWSC kUT SsVKJUV?WKUSK ObVNWTV S?1TEVKWVKJUVbW.UTVSUR-VTUs WSVOCVWSUVWNVKJUVPO SV S?1TEVPURJOS CPCGVKJU ,V SRJVparaA6VPPhVbWSsV(VatA?V SRJVp8aQVPPhV. kUVRT1CJODbUVNWOPVUbUPUSKV CV?TUk RKUkVKWVDUVKJUVPWCKVUNNURK IUVNWTV1CUV SVKJUV5lMVkUI RUwOKVKJUVa6V-P?JVRTOCJVCUIUT KEVOSkVNWTVKJUV?rXV?UTRUSK bUVPObUVWRxR1?OSKAVrrAtrA,rA6rAjaaAt6 9 j Q ar aa at a8Nkm maxFoam width (in),V S8V StV SFOCUb SUfS?1TEVHJTUCJW1bk9QVVVFigure 5-17 - LNLmax vs. foam width YCVk CR1CCUkV  SVmJO?KUTVtGVCWPUVWNVKJUVOSK x.J ?bOCJ CECKUPCVpUAsAVMYciVOSkVnemzxLivhVOTUVkUC sSUkVKWVTUk1RUVKJUVHax OkVTUbOK IUVk C?bORUPUSKAVy IUSVKJOKVKJUV5lMV CVUNNURK IUV SVTxk1R SsVSUR-VkUNWTPOK WSGVOCVkUCRT DUkV SVKJUV?TUI W1CVCURK WSGVTUbOK WSCJ ?CVDUK.UUSVNWOPVC :UVOSkVHaxJUOkVTUbOK IUVk C?bORUPUSKV .UTUVObCWV  SIUCK sOKUkVKWVOCCUCCVKJUVCUSC K I KEVWNVKJUVHaxJUOkVTUbOK IUVk C?bORUPUSKVKWVNWOPVC :UAVVu s1TUV?xaj VCJW.CVKJUVHaxJUOkVTUbOK IUVk C?bORUPUSKV ICAVNWOPV . kKJVNWTVKJTUUVNWOPVbUSsKJCAVHJUVC P1bOK WSVTUC1bKCVCJW.VKJOKVObbVKJUVKUCKUkVROCUCVROSVTUk1RUVKJUVHaxJU k bOK IUVk C?bORUxPUSKGVOSkVOCVKJUVNWOPV. kKJV SRTUOCUCVKJUVTUbOK IUVk C?bORUPUSKVkURTUOCUCw bKJW1sJVKJUVCUSxC K I KEVKWVNWOPV. kKJV CVSWKVJ sJAVVrrA?aaA?ttA?88A?6 9 j Q ar aa at a8LNL maxFoam width (in)FOCUb SU,V S8V StV Sjr VVVFigure 5-18 ? T1-head relative displacement vs. foam width 5.6 Relationship between Dissipated Energy and Whiplash Injury Risk uWTVKJUVCOPUVCUKVWNVC P1bOK WSCVOCVkUCRT DUkV SVKJUV?TUI W1CVCURK WSGVKJUVTUbOK WSCJ ?VDUK.UUSVKJUVT C-VWNV S?1TEVOSkVk CC ?OKUkVUSUTsEVDEVKJUVNWOPV.OCV SIUCK s KUkAVu s1TUV?xaQVOSkVu s1TUV?xtr VCJW.VKJUVnfmPO(VOSkVgngPO(VICAVk CC ?OKUkVUSUTsEGVTUC?URK IUbEAVnWKUVKJOKVKJUVTUC1bKCRWTTUxC?WSkVKWVOVRT1CJODbUVPUPDUTV. KJVOVtGV8VOSkV,V SRJVp?rAjGV96AtVOSkVaraA6VPPhbUSsKJGVaV SRJVpt?A,VPPhVKJ R-SUCCVOSkVIOT W1CV. kKJCAVfKVROSVDUVSWKUkVNTWPVKJUVTUC1bKCVKJOKVKJUTUV CVOVSWSb SxUOTVTUbOK WSCJ ?VDUK.UUSVnfmPO( OSkVk CC ?OKUkVUSUTsE7VOCVKJUVOPW1SKVWNVKJUVk CC ?OKUkVUSUTsEV SRTUOCUCGVKJUVnfmPO(VN TCKVkURTUOCUCGVD1KVONKUTVTUORJ SsVOVP S P1PVpnfmPO( "QA,9hV KVCKOTKCVKWV SxRTUOCUAVgngPO(GVWSVKJUVWKJUTVJOSkGVkURTUOCUCV  SVOVb SUOTVPOSSUTVOCVKJUVk CC ?OKUkVUSUTsEV  SxRTUOCUCAVHJUCUVTUC1bKCVObCWV Sk ROKUVKJOKGVDOCUkVWSVKJUV S?1TEV?TUk RK WSCV SVKJ CVCK1kEGVTUPWI SsVUSUTsEVNTWPVKJUVCECKUPVkWUCVSWKVSURUCCOT bEVPUOSVKJOKV S?1TEVT C-wOCVkUN SUkVDEVnfmPO(w . bbVDUVTUk1RUkGVD1KV KVkUN S KUbEVTUC1bKCV SV S?1TEVP K sOK WSVOCVkUN SUkVDEVgngPO(AVrtr,r6rjrarratr6 9 j Q ar aa at a8T1-head relative displacement  (mm)Foam width (in),V S8V StV SFOCUb SUja VVVFigure 5-19 ? NICmax vs. dissipated energy VFigure 5-20 ? LNL max vs. dissipated energy 5.7 Relationship between the Foam Material Properties and the Risk of Whiplash Injury MUIUTObVC P1bOK WSCV.UTUVROTT UkVW1KV. KJVKJUVPWk N UkVPWkUbw1C SsVKJUVff5LyVRTOCJV?1bCUwKWVkUKUTP SUVKJUVTUbOK WSCJ ?CVDUK.UUSVKJUVWRR1?OSK)CVkESOP RVTUC?WSCUVOSkVKJUVNWOPVPOKUxT ObV?TW?UTK UCAVHJUVRT1CJODbUVPUPDUTV SVKJUVPWkUbV.OCVOVR1DW kVPOkUVWNV6XVTUbOK IUVkUSC KEVr?ara?trt?aarrrr a?rrrr aQrrrr t8rrrrNIC max (m2/s2)Dissipated energy (mJ),V S8V StV SFOCUb SUrrA?aaA?ttA?88A?aarrrr a?rrrr aQrrrr t8rrrrLNL maxDissipated energy (mJ),V S8V StV SFOCUb SUInjury  No injury  NIC max (m2/s2) jt VVmEPOKVOb1P S1PVNWOPV. KJVOV. kKJGVbUSsKJVOSkVKJ R-SUCCVWNVatA?GV,VOSkVaV SRJVpt?,GVaraA6VOSkVt?A,VPPhVTUC?URK IUbEAVHJUVCKTUCCx O SVR1TIUVWNVKJ CVNWOPVKE?UVOCVWDKO SUkVNTWPVCPObbVCRObUVKUCKCVpmJO?KUTV ,hV .OCV?OTOPUKUT :UkV1C SsVKJTUUV?W SKCVpOCVCJW.SV  SVu s1TUV?xta h7VKJUVE UbkGVkUSC N ROK WSVOSkV1bK POKUV?W SKCAVHJUVIOb1UCVWNVKJUVE UbkVCKTO SVpZEhG kUSC N ROK WSVCKTO SVpZkUShVOSkV1bK POKUVCKTO SVpZ1hGVE UbkVCKTUSsKJVpMEhGVkUSC N ROK WSVCKTUSsKJVpMkUShVOSkV1bK POKUVCKTUSsKJVpM1hVOTUV?TUCUSKUkV SVHODbUV?xt AVHJUVRT1CJV?bOKUO1VCKT  S JOTkUS SsVTOKUVp AUAVKJUVCbW?UVWNVKJUVCKTUCCx KTO SVR1TIUV  SVKJUVCURWSkV :WSUhGVZkUSVOSkVZEVWNVKJUVNWOPV .UTUV IOT UkV  SVKJUVPWk N UkVPWkUbGVOSkVKJUVTUC1bKCV.UTUVRWP?OTUkVKWV SIUCK sOKUVKJUVUNNURKCVWSVnfmPO(GVn-PPO(VOSkVgngPO(AVVFigure 5-21 ? Parameterized stress-strain curve of the 6% relative density Cymat foam  Table 5-2 ? Stress and strain values for parameterized 6% foam Point Stress (MPa) Strain 4 UbkV rAtaV rAr86VoUSC N ROK WSV rA96V rA6tVBbK POKUV tAQ8V rAjaVVYield Densification Ultimate j8 VVfSVOVCUT UCVWNVC P1bOK WSCGVKJUVCKTO SVJOTkUS SsVTOKUVWNVKJUVRT1CJV?bOKUO1V.OCVIOT UkVDEVCUKK SsVMkUSVOCVA?6GVA96GVAQ6GVaAa6VOSkVaA86VlLOGV.J bUVMEGVZkUSGVZEGVZ1VOSkVKJUVCbW?UVWNVKJUVCKTUCCxCKTO SVR1TIUV SVKJUVkUSC N ROK WSV:WSUV.UTUV-U?KVRWSCKOSKAVu s1TUV?xtt VCJW.CVKJUVPO( P1PVIOb1UCVWNVnfmGVn-PVOSkV gngVWDKO SUkVNTWPVKJUCUVC P1bOK WSCV ?bWKKUkV ICAVCKTO SV JOTkUS SsV TOKUVWNVKJUVRT1CJV?bOKUO1AVVHJUV S?1TEVRT KUT OVIOb1UCV.UTUVSWTPOb :UkV. KJVTUC?URKVKWVKJWCUVWNVKJUVDOCUb SUVPWkUbAV iUC1bKCVCJW.VKJOKVnfmPO( OSkVgngPO(VKUSkVKWV  SRTUOCUV .J bUVn-PPO(VkURTUOCUCVOCVKJUVJOTkUS SsVTOKUV SRTUOCUCAVlWTUWIUTGVKJUVn-PPO(V CVPWTUVCUSC K IUVKWVCKTO SVJOTkUS SsVTOKUVIOT xOK WSVKJOSVnfmPO(VOSkVgngPO(VAVVVFigure 5-22 ? Normalized injury criteria values vs. strain hardening rate fSVC1DCU?1USKVC P1bOK WSCGVZkUSV.OCVCUKVOCVA?GVA6tGVA9VOSkVAjGV.J bUVKJUVCKTO SVJOTkUS SsVTOKUVWNVRT1CJV?bOKUO1GVCbW?UVWNVKJUVCKTUCCxC TO SVR1TIUV SVKJUVkUSC N ROK WSV:WSUGVZEVOSkVMEV.UTUVObbV-U?KVRWSCKOSKAVu s1TUV?xt8 VCJW.CVKJUVSWTPOb :UkVnfmPO(GVn-PPO(VOSkVgngPO(VTUC1bKCV?bWKKUkVICAVKJUVkUSC N ROK WSVCKTO SAVfKVROSVDUVSWKUkVNTWPVKJUVTUC1bKCVKJOKVOCVZkUSV SRTUOCUCGVKJUVnfmPO(VCJW.CVOVCb sJKVKUSkUSREVKWVkURTUOCUGVn-PPO(VRWSC kUTODbEVkURTUOCUCVOSkVgngPO(VkWUCVSWKVIOTEAVrrAtrA,rA6rAjaaAtaA,r rA? a aA? t tA?Nomalized injury criteriaStrain hardening rate (MPa/1)nfmn-Pgngj, VVVFigure 5-23 ? Normalized injury criteria values vs. densification strain fSVN1TKJUTVC P1bOK WSCGVZEV.OCVCUKVOCVArtGVArtjGVAr86VOSkVAr?GV.J bUVKJUVCKTO SVJOTkUS SsVTOKUVWNVKJUVRT1CJV?bOKUO1GVZkUS MkUSGVZ1VOSkVM1V.UTUVObbV-U?KVRWSCKOSKAVu s1TUV?xt, VCJW.CVKJUVSWTPOb :UkVnfmPO(GVn-PPO(VOSkVgngPO(VTUC1bKCV?bWKKUkV ICAVE UbkVCKTO SAVHJUVTUC1bKCV Sk ROKUVKJOKVKJUV  S?1TEVRT KUT OVIOb1UCVkWVSWKVRJOSsUVOCVKJUVE UbkVCKTO SV SRTUOCUCGV.J RJVPUOSCVKJOKVU KJUTVKJUVTUk1RxK WSVWNV S?1TEVT C-V CV SCUSC K IUVKWVE UbkVCKTO SGVWTVKJOKVKJUVE UbkVCKTO SVIOT OK WSVTOSsUV SRWT?WxTOKUkV SVKJ CVCK1kEV.OCVSWKV. kUVUSW1sJVKWVCJW.VKJOK OVkU?USkUSREVU( CKCAVVFigure 5-24 - Normalized injury criteria values vs. yield strain rrAtrA,rA6rAjaaAtrA, rA? rA6 rA9 rAj rAQNormalized injury criteriaDensification strainnfmn-PgngrrAtrA,rA6rAjaaAtrAra rArt rAr8 rAr, rAr? rAr6Normalized injury criteriaYield strainnfmn-Pgngj? VV5.8 Optimal Foam Selection fSVOkk K WSVKWVOCCUCC SsVKJUV S?1TEVP K sOK SsVRO?OD b KEVWNVKJUV5lMVOSkVkUKUTP S SsVKJUVCUSC xK I KEVWNVKJUV  S?1TEVP K sOK WSVKWVRT1CJODbUVPUPDUTVC :UVOSkVPOKUT ObV?TW?UTK UCVOKVa6V -P?JVff5LyVRTOCJV ?1bCUGV  KV.OC SURUCCOTEVKWVkUKUTP SUV .JUKJUTVKJUV5lMV  CVUNNURK IUVNWTV IOT W1CVRTOCJVCUIUT K UCVp AUAVOVTOSsUVWNVZqChAVVfKV.OC kUUPUkV1Sb -UbEVKJOKVWSUVRT1CJODbUVPUPDUTV. KJVOVRUTKO SVC :UV. W1bkVDUVC1NN R USKVNWTVObbVRWbb C WSVCUIUT K UCAVuWTVP SWTVRWbb C WSCGVNWOPVKJOKV CVKWWVCK NNVPOEVW?UTOKUVUSK TUbEV SVKJUVUbOCK RV:WSUVpLJOCUVahGV?TUIUSK SsVUSUTsEVk CC ?OK WSVNTWPVKO-x SsV ?bORUAVM P bOTbEGV k1T SsV J sJV  P?ORKV RWbb C WSCGVNWOPV KJOKV  CV KWWVRWP?b OSKV POEVRWSRb1kUVRT1CJ SsVDUNWTUVKJUVORRUbUTOK WSV ?1bCUV JOCVDUs1SV  SRTUOC SsGV ?WKUSK ObbEV TUk1R SsV KJUVNWOPCVOD b KEVKWVONNURKVKJUVWRR1?OSKVkESOP RCAVVYCVCJW.SV SVu s1TUV?xa?GVKJUVnfmPO(VU(J D KCVOVSWSb SUOTVTUbOK WSCJ ?V. KJVNWOPV. kKJ7VOCVKJUVNWOPV. kKJV SRTUOCUCGVKJUVnfmPO( N TCKVkURTUOCUCGVD1KVONKUTVTUORJ SsVOVP S P1PV KVCKOTKCVKWV SxRTUOCUAVHWVN SkVKJUVPWCKVC1 KODbUVNWOPVC :UVp AUAVKJUVWSUVKJOKVDT SsCVODW1KVKJUVJ sJUCKVTUk1RK WSV SVnfmPO(hVNWTVIOT W1CVRWbb C WSVCUIUT K UCGVOVCUT UCVWNVC P1bOK WSV.UTUVROTT UkVW1KV. KJVKJUVPWk xN UkVPWkUbVOKVZq"V8AjGV9A6GVatAQGVa?AQGVajAQGVt6A?VOSkV8tAtV-P?JAVHJUVRWTTUC?WSk SsVRTOCJVORxRUbUTOK WSV?1bCUCVp?TUCUSKUkV SVY??USk (VFhV.UTUVOR?1 TUkVNTWPVKJUVN1bbVIUJ RbUVC P1bOK WSCVROTxT UkVW1KVDEVlOSCW1TVOSkViWP bbEV0a?AVVYKVUORJVRWbb C WSVCUIUT KEVKJUVbUSsKJVOSkVKJ R-SUCC WN KJUVRT1CJODbUVPUPDUTV.OCVCUKVOCV,V  SRJVparaA6VPPhVOSkVaV SRJVpt?A,VPPhVTUC?URK IUbEGVOSkVKJUV. kKJVWNVKJUVRT1CJODbUVPUPDUTV.OCVIOT UkAVHJU 6XVTUbOK IUVkUSC KEVmEPOKVOb1P S1PVNWOPV.OCV1CUkV SVObbVKJUVC P1bOK WSCVk1UVKWV KCVCOK CNORKWTEV?UTNWTPOSRUVCUUSV SVKJUV?TUI W1CVCURK WSCAVViUC1bKCVWNVKJUVC P1bOK WSCV Sk ROKUVKJOKVOVSWSb SUOTVTUbOK WSCJ ?VU( CKCVDUK.UUSVKJUVnfmPO(VOSkVNWOPV. kKJVOKVWKJUTVRTOCJVCUIUT K UCVU(OP SUkVOCVC P bOTbEVNW1SkVNWTVKJUVa6V-P?JVC P1bOK WSAVVuWTVU(OP?bUGVu s1TUV?xt? VOSkVu s1TUV?xt6 VCJW.VKJUVnfmPO(V?bWKKUkVICAVNWOPV. kKJVOKVZq"ajAQVOSkV8tAtV-P?JGVTUC?URK IUbEAVfKVROSVDUVSWKUkVNWTPVKJUVTUC1bKCVKJOKVOCVKJUVNWOPV. kKJV SRTUOCUCGVKJUVnfmPO(VN TCKVkURTUOCUCGVD1KVONKUTVTUORJ SsVOVP S P1PV KVCKOTKCVKWV SRTUOCUVVj6 VVVFigure 5-25 ? NICmax vs. foam width at ?V= 18.9 kmph VFigure 5-26 ? NICmax vs. foam width at ?V= 32.2 kmph FOCUkVWSVN Sk SsCVWNVKJUVTUOTV P?ORKVC P1bOK WSCVOKVIOT W1CVC?UUkCGVKJUVNWOPVKE?UVOSkVsUWPUKTEVKJOKV?TWI kUVKJUVPO( P1PV?TUk RKUkVkURTUOCUV SVnfmPO(V.UTUVCUbURKUkVNWTV1CUV SVOV?TW?WCUkV S K ObV5lMV?TWKWKE?UVkUI RUGVOSkVOTUV?TWI kUkV SVHODbUV?x8AVr?ara?trt?8r8 ? 9 Q aa a8 a?NIC max (m2/s2)Foam width (in)5 KJVNWOP5 KJW1KVNWOPfS?1TEVKJTUCJW1bkr?ara?trt?6 j ar at a, a6 ajNIC max (m2/s2)Foam width (in)5 KJVNWOP5 KJW1KVNWOPfS?1TEVKJTUCJWbkNIC max (m2/s2) NIC max (m2/s2) j9 VVTable 5-3 ? Optimal foam geometries Speed change (?V) Foam type Dimension (WxLxT) V^ V9A6V-P?JV mEPOKV6XV ,(,(aV SRJVVparaA6(araA6(t?A,VPPhV9A6VKWV8tAtV-P?JV mEPOKV6XV ar(,(aV SRJ Vpt?,(araA6(t?A,VPPh VVHJUVnfmPO(VIOb1UCVWDKO SUkVNTWPVKJUVCUbURKUkVRWbb C WSVC P1bO WSCVOTUVCJW.SV SVu s1TUV?xt9 AVHJUVTUC1bKCVCJW.VKJOKVKJUV?TW?WCUkV5lMV . bbVTUk1RUVnfmPO(VNWT ObbVRWbb C WSVCUIUT K UCVU(OP SUkAVHJUVTUC1bKCVObCWVCJW.VKJOKVNWTVPUk 1PVKWVJ sJVCUIUT KEVRWbb C WSCVp AUAVatAQVKWV8tAtV-P?JhV.JUTUVKJUVCUOKV CVSWKVU?1 ??UkV. KJVKJUV?TW?WCUkV5lMGVKJUVRTOCJVbUOkCVKWV?WKUSK ObV S?1TEVp AUAVnfmxPO([a?VPtOCthGVD1KVDEV P?bUPUSK SsVKJUV5lMV SKWVKJUVCUOKGVnfmPO(V CVbUCCVKJOSVa?VPtOCtGV.J RJV Sk ROKUCVKJOKV.J ?bOCJV S?1TEV CVKJUWTUK RObbEV?TUIUSKUkAVHWVORRWP?b CJVKJ CVUSJOSRUkVbUIUbVWNV S?1TEV?TUIUSK WSVTU?1 TUCVKJOKVK.WVUSUTsExODCWTD SsVNWOPV? URUCVDUV SRWT?WTOKUkV SKWVKJUVkUxI RUVOSkVORK IOKUkVO??TW?T OKUbEVWSRUVOVR bb C WSVCUIUT KEV CVkUKUTP SUkAVVFigure 5-27 ? NICmax for selected collision severities Vr?ara?trt?8Aj 9A6 atAQ a6Ar ajAQ t6A? 8tAtNIC max (m2/s2)?V (kmph)5 KJW1KVNWOP5 KJVNWOP10x4x1"4x4x1"Injury  No injury  NIC max (m2/s2) jj VV5.9 Limitations YbKJW1sJVOVsTUOKVkUObVWNVUNNWTKV.OCVPOkUVKWV?TW?UTbEVTU?TUCUSKVKJ V?JEC RObVCECKUPVOSkVROTTEVW1KVKJUVPWkUb SsV.WT-VOSkVC P1bOK WSVCK1kEGV KVCJW1bkVDUVSWKUkVKJOKVCWPUVb P KOK WSCVOTUVTURxWsS :UkVKWVU( CKV SVKJ CVCK1kEAVHJUCUVb P KOK WSCVOTUV kUSK N UkVOSkVk CR1CCUkVDUbW.AVVHJUVTUC1bKCV?TUCUSKUkV SVKJ CVCK1kEV.UTUVWDKO SUkVNTWPVRWP?1KUTVDOCUkVC P1bOK WSCAVYbKJW1sJVKJUVPWkUbCV1CUkV SVKJUCUVC P1bOK WSCVPOEV?TWI kUVOV?TW?UTVkESOP RVTUC?WSCUVCUUSVk1T SsVOVTUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSGVKJUVORR1TOREVWNVKJUV?TUk RKUkVkESOP RVIOT ODbUCVpUAsAVNWTRUCGVIUbWR K UCGVORRUbxUTOK WSCGVUKRAhVU(?UT USRUkVDEVKJUVF WifoxffVTUPO SV SV?1UCK WSV1SK bV?JEC RObVIOb kOK WSVROSVDUVROTT UkVW1KAVVqOT OD b KEVU( CKCVDUK.UUSVKJUVDUJOI W1TVWNVKJUVC P1bOKUkVk1PPEVOSkVKJUVTUObVk1PPEGVOSkVDUK.UUSVKJUV TUObVk1PPEVOSkVOV J1POSV IUJ RbUVWRR1?OSKAVHJ CVNORKVPOEVORKVKWVRJOSsUVKJUV S?1TEVTUC?WSCUCVC sS N ROSKbEAVVlWTUWIUTGVOVk1PPEVROSSWKVORRW1SKVNWTVP1CRbUVTUxC?WSCUGVOsUVUNNURKCGV?TUI W1CVSUR-V S?1T UCGVUKRAVHJ CV CVOSV SJUT KV CC1UVTUbOKUkVKWV.WT- SsV. KJVRTOCJVKUCKVk1PP UCAVHJTW1sJW1KVKJ CV  SIUCK sOK WSVOVylV c sJ iUK USK WSVMUOKV .OCV1CUk3VKJ CVCUOKV .OCV kUIUbW?UkVDOCUkVWSVOVkUC sSV?J bWCW?JEVKJOKVTUb UCVWS OV OK IUbEVCK NNVTURb SUTVTUC?WSCUVOSkVPWTUVRWP?b xOSKVCUOKVDOCUVR SKTObVCURK WSVp SRTUOC SsVWRR1?OSKV?WR-UK SshV.JUSVRWP?OTUkVKWVPOSEVIUJ RbUVCUOKVkUC sSCAVHJ1CGVKJUV S?1TEVTUk1RK WSV TUSkCVCUUSV SVKJ CVCK1kEVPO VSWKVSURUCCOT bEVDUVTU?UOKxUkV SVWKJUTVCUOKVkC sSCAVfNVOVRUTKO SVCUOKVkUC sSV CVC1DCKOSK ObbEVk NNUTUSKNTWPVKJUVWSUV1CUkV SVKJ CVCK1kEGVOkk K WSObVOSObECUCVP1CKVDUV?UTNWTPUkV1C SsVKJOKVCUOKVkUC sSVKWVIUT NEVKJUV?WKUSK ObVCONUKEV?UTNWTPOSRUVsO SCVWNNUTUkVDEVKJUV?TW?WCUkV5lMAVH.WVPO?WTV CC1UCGVOCCWR OKUkV. KJVKJUVueVCUOKVPWkUbGVJOIUVDUUSV kUSK N UkVKJOKVJOIUVKJUV?WKUSxK ObVKWV SKTWk1RUV1SRUTKO SKEV SKWVKJUVWDKO SUkVTUC1bKC7VaA HJUVCUOKVPWkUbGVRTUOKUkVDEVM- ??UTVOSkViWP bbE0,6?GV.OCVSWKVIOb kOKUkVOsO SCKVKJUV?JECx RObVtrrtVLWSK ORVyTOSkVYPVCUOKAVtA HJUVCUOKVPWkUbV.OCVRTUOKUkVDOCUkVWSVkOKOVWDKO SUkVNTWPV?JEC RObVKUCKCVWSVCKT1RK1TObVRWP?WSUSKCVWNVKJUVCUOKAVHJUCUVKUCKCV.UTUVRWSk1RKUkV?1OC xCKOK ObbEVOSkVkWVSWKVRWSC kxjQVVUTV KJUV CKTO SV TOKUVUNNURKCVRUTKO SV CUOKVRWP?WSUSKCV POEVU(?UT USRUVOKV J sJV KWVCUIUTUVRTOCJVCRUSOT WCAVVfSVKJUVTUOTVUSkVRWbb C WSVC P1bOK WSCVROTT UkVW1KV SVKJ CVCK1kEGVKJUVJUOkVTUCKTO SKV.OCVCUKVKWVKJUVJ sJUCKVCUKK SsVOSkV.OCVSUOTV?TW?UTbEV?WC K WSUkVNWTVKJUVWRR1?OSKAVHJUWTUK RObbEGVKJ CVRWSk K WSVCJW1bkV?TWI kUVOVbW.UTVT C-VWNV S?1TEVRWP?OTUkVKWVOVCUOKV. KJVOSV P?TW?UTbEV?WC K WSUkVJ OkVTUCKTO SKAVHJUTUNWTUGVKJUVORK1ObV?UTNWTPOSRUVWNVKJUV?TW?WCUkV5lMVPOEVDUVk NNUTUSKVNTWPVKJUV?TUk RKUkVTUC1bKCV NVKJ CVTUbOK IUbEV kUObVRWSk K WSV.OCVSWKV?TUCUSKAV5.10  Summary HJUV?WKUSK ObVUNNURK IUSUCCVWNVKJUV?TW?WCUkV5lMV SVTUk1R SsVT C-VWNV.J ?bOCJV S?1TE .OC UIOb1xOKUkVDEVRWP?OT SsVKJUVTUC1bKCVWNVKJUVPWk N UkVPWkUbVOSkVKJUVDOCUb SUVPWkUbVOSkVRT K RObbEVOCxCUCC SsVKJUVUNNURKCVWNV P?bUPUSK SsVKJUV?TW?WCUkV5lMVWSVKJUVWRR1?OSK)CVkESOP RVTUC?WSCUAVYCVOVTUC1bKGVKJUV?WK SK ObVDUSUN KCVWNVKJUV?TW?WCUkV5lMVNWTVTUk1R SsVT C-VWNV S?1TEV.UTUV?TUk RKxUkAVVHJUVTUbOK WSCJ ?CVDUK.UUSVKJUVkUC sSV?OTOPUKUTCVWNVKJUV?TW?WCUkV5lMVOSkVT C-VWNV S?1TEV.UTUVkUKUTP SUkVDEVIOTE SsVKJUVkUC sSV?OTOPUKUTCVWNVKJUV5lMV.J bUVPWS KWT SsVKJUV S?1TEVRT KUT OVIOb1UCVOSkVRT1CJ SsVDUJOI W1TVWNVKJUVNWOPAVYCVOVTUC1bKGVKJUV S?1TEVTUk1R WSVRO?OD b K UCVWNVKJUV5lMVOSkVKJUVC sS N ROSRUVWNVKJUV5lMVkUC sSV?OTOPUKUTCV SV S?1TEVTUk1RK WSVOTUVPWTUVN1bbEV1SxkUTCKWWkVOSkV?1OSK N UkAVVHJUV S?1TEVTUk1RK WSV? KUSK ObVWNVKJUV?TW?WCUkV5lMV.OCV SIUCK sOKUkVWIUTVOVTOSsUVWNVRTOCJVCUxIUT K UCVNTWPVZqV" 8AjVKWV8tV-P?JVpRWTTUC?WSk SsVKWV P?ORKVRTOCJVC?UUkCVWNV?VKWV,? -P?JhABCx SsVOSVOCCUCCPUSKVDOCUkVWSVKJUVPO( P1PVTUk1RK WSV SVnfmPO(GVW?K PObVNWOPVk PUSC WSCV.UTUVkUN SUkVNWTVKJ CVTOSsUVWNVRTOCJVCUIUT K UCVNWTV1CUV SVKJUV?TWKWKE?UVkUI RUAVYCVOVTUC1bKVWNVKJ CVCK1kEGVOSV1SkUTCKOSk SsVWNVJW.V P?bUPUSK SsVKJUV?TW?WCUkV5lMV SKWVKJUVIUJ RbUVCUOKVDOCUVONNURKCVKJUVWRR1?OSK)CVkESOP RCVTUC?WSCUV .OCVsO SUkAVHJUVTUC1bKCV  Sk ROKUVKJOKVKJUVOkk K WSVWNVUSUTsExODCWTD SsVNWOPVKWVKJUVCUOKVDOCUVROSVTUk1RUVKJUVnfmPO(GVn-PPO(GVgngPO(VOSkV?UO-VIOb1UCVWNVHaxJUOkVTUbOK IUVk C?bORUPUSKGVHaVOSkVJUOkV(xORRUbUTOK WSGVCUOKVDOR-VQrVVRWSKORKVNWTRUGVCUOKVDOR-VkUNbURK WSGV- SUK RVUSUTsEGVHaxJUOkVTUbOK IUVk C?bORUPUSKGV1??UTVSUR-VOSkVbW.UTVSUR-VNWTRUCVOSkVPWPUSKCGVJUOkVTWKOK WSVOSsbUVOSkVMxCJO?UVkUNWTPOK WSAVVVV VQaVV6 Concluding Remarks 6.1 Conclusions  YCVKJUVPO SVWD?URK IUVWNVKJ CVCK1kEGVKJUVRWSRU?KVOSkVkUC sSVC?UR N ROK WSCVNWTVOVC1??bUPUSKObVCONUKEVCECKUPVRO?ODbUVWNVP K sOK SsVKJUVT C-VOSkVCUIUT KEVWNV.J ?bOCJV S?1T UCV SVTUOTVUSkVRWbb xC WSCV.OCVkUIUbW?UkAVHJ CVCECKUPVUP?bWECVOVRT1CJODbUVPUPDUTVpWTVPUPDUTChVPOkUVWNVOSVUSUTxsExODCWTD SsVOb1P S1PVNWOPV.J RJV. bbVODCWTDVKJUVUSUTsEVKE? RObbEVKTOSCP KKUkVKWVKJUVCUOKVOSkVWRR1?OSKGVKJUTUDEVObKUT SsVKJUVWRR1?OSK)CVkESOP RCVOSkVSUR-VbWOk SsVOSkVKJ1CVTUk1R SsVKJUV?WxKUSK ObVNWTV S?1TEAVHWVkUIUbW?VKJ CVCECKUPGVOVCUT UCVWNVS1PUT RObVC P1bOK WSCVOSkVU(?UT PUSKObV.WT-V.UTUVROTT UkVW1KAVHJUVN Sk SsCVOSkVRWSRb1C WSCVWNVKJ CVCK1kEVOTUV?TUCUSKUkVOCVDUbW.AVHWVTURWSCKT1RKVOVC?UR N RVk1PPEOCbUkVKUCKV1C SsVueVC P1bOK WSGV KV.OCVNW1SkVKJOKVKJUVC?UR N ROxK WSCVTUsOTk SsVKJUV S K ObV?WC K WSVWNVKJUVk1PPEVOTUVIUTEV P?WTKOSKVOSkVROSVJOIUVC sS N ROSKVUNNURKCVWS KCVKJUVkESOP RVTUC?WSCUAVHJUCUV?OTOPUKUTCVCJW1bkVDUVCUKVORRWTk SsVKWVKJUVCbUkVKUCK3VWKJUT. CUGVKJUVTUC1bKCVWNVKJUVC P1bO  WSV. b Vk NNUTVNTWPVKJWCUVWNVKJUVCbUkVKUCKAVHJUVC P1bOK WSV?TWRUk1TUVkUIUbW?UkV SVKJ CVCK1kEVKJOKVRWSC CKCVWNVDWKJVOVCUKKb SsVCKU?Vp?1OC xCKO  RVCKU?hVOSkVOVkESOP RVCKU?V.OCVNW1SkVKWVUNNURK IUbEV P KO UV?JEC RObVC UkVKUCKCV SVueVC P1bOK WSCAVFOCUkVWSVKJUVTUC1bKCVWNVOVCUT UCVWNV1S O( ObVRWP?TUCC WSVKUCKCVWSVOb1P S1PVNWOPVC?UR PUSCGVOVkOKODOCUVWNVmEPOKVOb1P S1PVNWOPVPOKUT ObV?TW?UTK UCV. KJVTUbOK IUVkUSC K UCVWNV?XGV6XGVarXGVa?XVOSkVajVXV.OCVRTUOKUkAVlWTUWIUTGV  KV.OCVRWSRb1kUkVKJOKVNW1Tx?bE Ob1P S1PVNWOPVC?UR xPUSCVCJW.VOV. kUTVRT1CJV?bOKUO1VRWP?OTUkVKWVWSUx?bEVC?UR PUSCGVOSkVKJOKV?TWI k SsVbOKUTObVRWSCKTO SKVKWVOb1P S1PVNWOPVC?UR PUSCVp1SkUTVRWP?TUCC IUVbWOk SshVORKCVKWVTUk1RUVKJUVkUSC xN ROK WSVCKTO SGV.J RJV SVK1TSVObCWVORKCVKWV SRTUOCUVU U sExODCWTD SsVRO?OR KEVWNVKJUVNWOPVC?UR xPUSCAVVFEV OCCUCC SsV KJUV YDO?1CV POKUT ObV PWkUbV RWTTUC?WSk SsV KWV RT1CJODbUV Ob1P S1PV NWOPV p AUAV\RT1CJODbUVNWOPhGV  KV .OCVRWSRb1kUkVKJOKVKJ CV POKUT ObVPWkUbV?TW?UTbEV RJOTORKUT :UCVKJUV PUxRJOS RObVDUJOI W1TVWNVOb1P S1PVNWOPVOKUT ObCV1SkUTVRWP?TUCC WSAVQtVVFOCUkVWSVTUC1bKCVWNVKJUVUNNURK IUSUCCVOCCUCCPUSKVWNVKJUV?TW?WCUkV5lMVOKVa6V-P?JGV KV.OCVRWSxRb1kUkVKJOKVKJUV?TW?WCUkV5lM V. bbVTUk1RUVKJUVT C-VWNV S?1TEVKWVKJUVWRR1?OSKV SVOVTUOTVUSkRWbb xC WSAVHJUVUNNURK IUSUCCVWNVC1RJVOVkUI RUVROSVDUV bb1CKTOKUkVDEVRWP?OT SsVKJUVnfmPO(GVn-PPO(VOSkVgngPO(VIOb1UCVNWTVRWbb C WSVCRUSOT WCV. KJVOSkV. KJW1KVKJUVkUI RUV SCKObbUkAVFOCUkVWSVKJUVN Sk SsCVNTWPVOVCUT UCVWNVC P1bOK WSCV1C SsVKJUVa6V-P?JVff5LyVRTOCJV?1bCUGV KV.OCVRWSRb1kUkVKJOKVKJUV S?1TEVTUk1RK WSVRO?OD b KEVWNVKJUV?TW?WCUkV5lMVIOT UCV. KJVKJUVC :UVOSkVPOKUT ObV?TW?UTK UCVWNVKJUVNWOPAVgngPO(VJOCVOVb SUOTVTUbOK WSCJ ?V. KJVNWOPV. kKJ7VOCVKJUVNWOPV. kKJV  SRTUOCUCV KJUV gngPO(VkURTUOCUCAV nfmPO(VCJW.CV OV SWSb SUOTV TUbOK WSCJ ?V . KJV KJUV NWOPV. kKJ7VOCVKJUVNWOPV. kKJV SRTUOCUCVKJUVnfmPO(VN TCKVkURTUOCUCV1SK bV KVTUORJUCVOVP S P1PGVNKUTV.J RJVKJUVnfmPO(V SRTUOCUCVOCVKJUVNWOPV. kKJV SRTUOCUCAVHJUVNWOPVk PUSC WSCVNWTVPO( P1PVTUxk1RK WSV SVnfmPO(wOKVa6V-P?J wOTUVarGV,VOSkVaV SRJUCVpt?,GVaraA6VOSkVt?A,VPPhwOCV. kKJGVbUSsKJVOSkVKJ R-SUCCGVTUC?URK IUbEwKJOKVTUk1RUCVnfmPO(VDEV ,QXAVuWOPVPOKUT ObCVKJOKVU(J D KVJ sJVUSUTsEVODCWT?K WSVUNN R USREVNWTVOV. kUVCKTO SVTOSsUwWTV SVWKJUTV.WTkCVJOIUVTUbOK IUbEVNbOKVOSkV. kUVRT1CJV?bOKUO1w  P?TWIUV S?1TEVTUk1RK WSVRO?OD b KEVWNVKJUV?TW?WCUkV5lMAVFOCUkVWSVKJUVTUC1bKCVWNVKJUVW?K PObVNWOPVCK1kEGV KV.OCVRWSRb1kUkVKJOKVKJUV?T ?WCUkV5lM V. bbVTUk1RUVKJUVT C-VWNV  S?1TEVOKV IOT W1CVRTOCJVCRUSOT WCVTOSs SsVNTWPVbW.VKWVJ sJVC?UUkV  P?ORKCAVV5 KJV kUC sSVC?UR N ROK WSCV .J RJVUP?bWEVK.WVNWOPCVPOkUVWNV6XVmEPOKVOb1P S1PVNWOP7V ahV,(,(aTVNWTVZq"V8AjVOSkV9A6V-P?JGVOSkVthVar(,(aTVNWTVZq"VatAQVKWV8tAtV-P?JGVKJUVTUC1bKCV Sk xROKUVKJOKVKJUCUVK.WVNWOPCVOTUVC1NN R USKbEVRO?ODbUVWNVP K sOK SsV  S?1TEVDEV VP S P1PVWNV88XVDOCUkVWSVnfmPO(V?TUk RK WSCVWIUTVKJUVUSK TUVTOSsUVWNVRWbb C WSV P?ORKVC?UUkCVU(OP SUkV SVKJ CVCK1kEAVu SObbEGVDOCUkVWSVKJUVT C-VWNV S?1TEV?TUk RK WSCV SVKJ CVCK1kEGV KV.OCVRWSRb1kUkVKJOKVTUPWI SsVUSxUTsEVNTWPVKJUVCECKUPVkWUCVSWKVSURUCCOT bEVPUOSVKJOKV S?1TEVT C- OCVkUN SUkVDEVnfmPO(V. bbVDUVTUxk1RUkAVcW.UIUTGV KV CV?WCC DbUVKWVTUk1RUVWRR1?OSKV S?1TEVDEVTUk1R SsVKJUVOPW1SKVWNVUSUTsEVU(x?UT USRUkVDEVKJUVWRR1?OSKVk1T SsVKJUVRT K RObV S?1TEVK PUAVvSVKJU WKJUTVJOSkGVKJUVTUC1bKCV Sk xROKUVKJOKVKO- SsVW1KVUSUTsEVNTWPVKJUVCECKUPVRUTKO SbEVTUk1RUCVKJUVT C-VWNV S?1TEVOCVkUN SUkVDEVgngPO(AVQ8VV6.2 Contributions HJ CVTUCUOTRJV?TW?URKVRWSKT D1KUCVKWVKJTUUVPO SVsTW1?CVWNVO1k USRUC7VOROkUP OGVCWR UKEVOSkV Sxk1CKTEAVARLGYG-BOSGMVHJUVC P1bOK WSV?TWRUk1TUVkUIUbW?UkVOSkVIOb kOKUkV SVKJ CVCK1kEVNWTVKJUVDOCUb SUVOSkVKJUVPWk N UkVPWkUbVROSVDUVTUb ODbEV1CUkVNWTVTURWSCKT1RK SsVOSkVC P1bOK SsVCbUkVKUCKCV.J bUV1C SsVIOT W1CVCUOKxk1PPEVPWkUbCAVHJUVDOCUb SUVCUOKxk1PPEVPWkUbVkUIUbW?UkV SVKJ CVCK1kEV CVOVIOb1ODbUVTUCUOTRJVKWWbVNWTVN1K1TUVTUCUOTRJVOSkVkUC sSV.WT-VTUbOKUkVKWV.J ?bOCJV?TUIUSK WSVOSkVCUOKVkUC sSAVHJUVkOKODOCUVWNVNWOPVPOKUT ObV?TW?UTK UCVOSkVNWOPVPURJOS RObVDUJOI W1TVkUKUTxP SUkV SVKJ CVCK1kEVROSVDUV1CUkVKWVkUIUbW?VUSUTsExODCWTD SsVPURJOS CPCAVARLPRYSBIUMVHJUVN1K1TUVk ?bWEPUSKVWNVKJUV?TW?WCUkV5lMV SVIUJ RbUCV. bbVC sS N ROSKbEV SRTUOCUVKJUVCONUKEVWNVWRR1?OSKCVDEVTUk1R SsVKJUVT C-VWNV.J ?bOCJV S?1T UCV SVOVTUOT USkVRWbb C WSAM1RJVOSVUNNURK IUVTUk1RK WSV SVKJU T C-VWNV S?1TEVPO-UCVOVC sS N ROSKVRWSKT D1K WSVKWVTUk1R SsVKJUVN SO R ObVRWCKVOSkVCWR UKObVD1TkUSVWNV S?1TEVNTWPVTUOTVUSkRWbb C WSCAVARLSC-KPIWUMVVu1TKJUTVkUIUbW? SsVKJUV?TW?WCUkV5lMVKWVKJUVCKOsUVWNVPOCCV?TWk1RK WSVOSkVkUx?bWEPUSKV  SVIUJ RbUCV. bbGV SVNORKGVRTUOKUVOVRWP?UK K IUVUksUVNWTVmOSOk OSVCUOKVPOS1NORK1TUTCV.J bUV?TWk1R SsVCONUTVCUOKCAV6.3 Future Work iUC1bKCVWNVKJ CVCK1kEVCJW.VKJOKVKJUVOkk K WSVWNVOVC1??bUPUSKObVCONUKEVCECKUPV1K b : SsVUSUTsExODCWTD SsVNWOPVROSVDUVDUSUN R ObV SVTUk1R SsVWRR1?OSKV S?1TEVT C-VNWTVOVTOSsUVWNVRTOCJ CRUSOT WCAVMUIUTObVCK1k UCVP1CKVDUVRWSk1RKUkVDUNWTUV SRWT?WTOK SsVKJ CVCECKUPV SVIUJ RbUC3VKJUCUVCK1k UCVOTUVC1PPOT :UkVDUbW.AVHJUVIOb k KEVWNVKJUVDOC b SUVPWkUbV CVWSUVWNVKJUV-UEVNORKWTCV SVkUKUTP S SsV.JUKJUTVWTVSWKVKJUVTUC1bKCVOR?1 TUkVNTWPVKJ CVCK1kEVOTUVORR1TOKUAVHJUVF WifoxffVPWkUbV1CUkV SVKJ CVCK1kEVJOCVObTUOkEVDUUSVIOb kOKUkGVD1KVSWKVKJUVCUOKVPWkUbAVfKV.OCVRTUOKUkVDOCUkVWSVkOKOVWDKO SUkVNTWPV?JEC RObVKUCKCVWSVCKT1RK1TObVRWP?WSUSKCVWNVOVtrrtVLWSK ORVyTOSkVYlVNTWSKVCUOKAVHJUCUVKUCKCV.UTUVRWSxk1RKUkV?1OC x KOK RObbEVOSkVkWVSWKVRWSC kUT KJUVCKTO SVTOKUVUNNURKCVKJOKVRUTKO SVCUOKVRWP?WSUSKCVQ,VVPOEVU(?UT USRUV SVJ sJVKWVCUIUTUVRTOCJVCRUSOT WCAVVHJUTUNWTUGVKW USC1TUVKJOKVKJUVTUC1bKCVCUUSV SVKJ CVCK1kEVOTUVORR1TOKUGVKJUVCUOKVCJW1bkVDUVKUCKUkV. 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R:GVMAV 5W?R URJW.C- GV OSkV uAVM POSR -GVSmWP?TUCC IUV CKTUSsKJV WNVOb1P S 1PVNWOPCGTVdRNB-TOiBNNTGVIWbAV?jGV??AVa8t%a8?GVtrr8AV0?j?V oAVi1OSGVyAVg1GVuAVgAVmJUSGVOSkVeAVM WTUCGVSmWP?TUCC IUVDUJOI W1TVWNVOb1P S 1PVNWOPCVOKVbW.VOSkVPUk 1PVCKTO SVTOKUCGTVWH?yHeTOEN-c NTGVIWbAV?9GV??AV88a%886GVtrrtAV0?Q?V oAVQ1DEGVSLUTCWSObVmWSKORKATVAV06r?V qAVe CGViAVMNUTRWGVOSkVLAVuOEGVSYVkUKO bUkVOSObEC CVWNVKJUVRJOTORKUT CK RCVWNVU1TW?UOSVTUOTV P?ORKCGTV SVbsNCOLEKOWHMJB-BM BGVtrr?AVVV Varr VVAppendix A.  Cymat Aluminum Foam Stress-Strain Curves HJUVNWbbW. SsVN s1TUCV?TUCUSKVKJUVCKTUCCxCKTO SVR1TIUCVWNVmEPOKVOb1P S1PVNWOPV . KJVTUbOK IUVkUSC K UCVWNV?XGV6XGVarXGVa?XVOSkVajVXAVHJUCUVR1TIUCV.UTU WDKO SUkVNTWPVTUC1bKCVWNV1S O( ObVRWP?TUCC WSVKUCKCGVkUKO bCVWNV.J RJVOTUV?TUCUSKUkV SVKJUVDUbW.VKODbUAVList of test specimens Nominal relative density % Total number of tests Single-ply specimens Multiple-ply specimens Multiple-ply with lateral constraint Multiple-ply without lateral constraint ?V , V t V t V aV aV6V at V 6V 6V t V , Var V ?V rV ?V t V 8Va?V at V ?V 9V , V 8Vaj V 6V , V t V aV aVVVFigure A- 1- Stress-strain curves of single-ply specimens, relative density: 5% r?rrarrra?rrtrrrt?rr8rrr8?rrr rAa rAt rA8 rA, rA? rA6 rA9 rAj rAQStress (Kpa)Strainara VVVFigure A- 2-Stress-strain curves of multiple-ply specimens, relative density: 5% VFigure A- 3-Stress-strain curves of single-ply specimens, relative density: 6% rarrtrr8rr,rr?rr6rr9rrjrrQrrarrrr rAa rAt rA8 rA, rA? rA6 rA9 rAjStress (Kpa)Strainr?rraGrrraG?rrtGrrrtG?rr8Grrr8G?rrr rAa rAt rA8 rA, rA? rA6 rA9 rAjStress (Kpa)Strainart VVVFigure A- 4-Stress-strain curves of four-ply specimens, relative density: 6% VFigure A- 5-Stress-strain curves of multiple-ply specimens, relative density: 10% r?rraGrrraG?rrtGrrrtG?rr8Grrrr rAa rAt rA8 rA, rA? rA6 rA9 rAjStress (Kpa)StrainraGrrrtGrrr8Grrr,Grrr?Grrr6Grrr9Grrrr rAa rAt rA8 rA, rA? rA6 rA9 rAjStress (Kpa)Strainar8 VVVFigure A- 6-Stress-strain curves of single-ply specimens, relative density: 15% VFigure A- 7-Stress-strain curves of four-ply specimens with constraint, relative density: 15% rtGrrr,Grrr6GrrrjGrrrarGrrratGrrra,Grrrr rAa rAt rA8 rA, rA? rA6 rA9Stress (Kpa)StrainrtGrrr,Grrr6GrrrjGrrrarGrrratGrrrr rAa rAt rA8 rA, rA? rA6 rA9Stress (Kpa)Strainar, VVVFigure A- 8-Stress-strain curves of four-ply specimens, no constraint, relative density: 15%  Figure A- 9-Stress-strain curves of single-ply specimens, relative density: 18% rtGrrr,Grrr6GrrrjGrrrarGrrratGrrra,Grrrr rAa rAt rA8 rA, rA? rA6 rA9 rAjStress (Kpa)Strainr?GrrrarGrrra?GrrrtrGrrrt?Grrr8rGrrrr rAa rAt rA8 rA, rA? rA6 rA9 rAjStress (Kpa)Strainar? VVVFigure A- 10-Stress-strain curves of four-ply specimens with and without lateral constraint,  relative density: 18% uWbbW. SsVKODbUCV?T USKVKJUV S?1KV?OTOPUKUTCVWNVYDO?1CVPOKUT ObVPWkUbVNWTVmEPOKa?XVOSkV6XVOb1P S1PVNWOPGVTUC?URK IUbEAVVTable A-1-Abaqus material input for Cymat 15 %  E (Mpa) 9aA?V? r VYield stress (Mpa) Plastic strain aAQj99a8V rVaAQj68QtV rArt9r8? VtA,999Q,V rArQaV8Arrt8j? V rAa?aV8A9r6Q8jV rAt?, V,A?r,9aa V rA8,V?A6,,?9 V rA,aQV6A???atQV rA,6QV9A6?at,?V rA?tVjA6r,?aj V rA??6VarAajjja V rA6Vr?GrrrarGrrra?GrrrtrGrrrt?Grrr8rGrrrr rAa rAt rA8 rA, rA? rA6 rA9 rAjStress (KPa)StrainBSRWSCKTO SUkmWSCKTO SUkar6 VVTable A-2-Abaqus material input for Cymat 6%  E (Mpa) ?A98V? r VYield stress (Mpa) Plastic strain rAta869V rVrAta8aQ?V rArt9r8?a68 VrAttr?68 V rArQaVrAt8tja6 V rAa?aVrAt?Q9t, V rAt?, VrAtQr69QV rA8,VrA88aa96V rA,aQVrA86,?rj V rA,6QVrA,r?a6QV rA?tVrA,89jja V rA??6VrA,jtaa V rA6VrA?Q9jt9V rA9VrA98t686V rAjVrAjQ66t8V rAQVaAa8a9Q?V aVaA?898aV aAaVaAQ8?9?9V aAa6V V Var9 VVAppendix B. Acceleration Pulses VFigure B-1-Selected acceleration pulses  HJUVNWbbW. SsVKODbUVTUbOKUCVKJUVZqVKW C? UkVk NNUTUSRUVDUK.UUSVKJUVD1bbUKVOSkVKOTsUKVIUJ RbUCV SVKJUVN1bbVRTOCJVUOTVUSkVC P1bOK WSCVROTT UkVW1KV SVKJUV?TUI W1CVCK1kEAV Table B-1-Relationship between ?V and vehicle speed ?V kmph Speed difference between vehicles kmph 8AjV ?V9A6V ar VatAQV a9Va6V ta VajAQV t? Vt6A?V 8?V8tAtV ,tA?VVxt8ja8ajt8rArr rArt rAr, rAr6 rArj rAar rAat rAa,Acceleration (g)Time (s)Zq"8AjV-P?JZq"9A6V-P?JZq"atAQV-P?JZq"ajAQV-P?JZq"t6A?V-P?JZq"8tAtV-P?J

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