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Plot evolution and character transformation in Shihou ji (The Lioness’s Roar) on the traditional Kunqu… Qiu, Yanting 2013

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 Plot Evolution and Character Transformation in Shihou ji (The Lioness?s Roar) On the Traditional Kunqu Stage by Yanting Qiu B.A., Nanjing Normal University, 2001  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in The Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies (Asian Studies)  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver) October 2013 ?  Yanting Qiu, 2013ii  Abstract The traditional Chinese theatre of Kunqu, also known as Kunju, is a highly stylized and conventionalized theatre genre evolved from the melody of Kunshan, which emerged in 14th century and became the dominant style of private, commercial, and even court stages from the 16th to 18th centuries. Defined by its conventions and regarded as ?the ancestor of hundreds of [Chinese] theatrical genres,? Kunqu became an audience-centered theatre, whereby audience?s preferences reshaped not only the characters but also the plots of plays on stage. Playscripts of Kunqu originated as chuanqi (southern drama), plays written by literati dramatists from the 15th to 18th centuries. Their arias follow very strict prosodic rules and follow the tonal patterns and rhyme schemes of classical poetry. Kunqu?s music also follows rules based on the tones of each character; such is the refinement of its lyrics that it was a nearly impossible task for the actors, who were mostly illiterate, to change the lines. However, Kunqu troupes still managed to convert the plots and characters of a play by changing the fundamental stage conventions rather than the texts. An example of such conversion is Shihou ji (The Lioness?s Roar), a play that has undergone an amazing transformation, from a shrew-taming chuanqi in thirty scenes written in the mid-Ming dynasty to a husband-taming play in four scenes popular in the mid-Qing. Regardless of the chuanqi playwright?s intention to inculcate the orthodox Confucian principle of the husband?s supremacy in the domestic sphere, the second half of his play, in which the wife gets tamed, was abandoned by actors. What survived on the Kunqu stage are four acts from the first half, in which the husband suffers punishments and gets convinced that following one?s wife is by all means a right thing to do. This thematic changeover was mainly achieved by the changing of role types, costumes, and make-up of the main characters. In addition, a few lines added as dialogue and some stage movements created by actors on stage also helped to give a new look to the play.  iii  Preface This thesis is original, unpublished, independent work by the author, Yanting Qiu.  iv  Table of Contents  Abstract ............................................................................................................................................ ii Preface ............................................................................................................................................ iii Table of Contents ............................................................................................................................ iv List of Tables .................................................................................................................................... v Glossary ........................................................................................................................................... vi Acknowledgements .......................................................................................................................... x Dedication ....................................................................................................................................... xi 1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 1 2 Shihou ji as a Chuanqi .................................................................................................................. 6 2.1 Publication of the Original Play and the Plots ....................................................................... 6 2.2 The Playwright?s Concern ...................................................................................................... 8 2.3 Literary Origins of the Play .................................................................................................. 13 2.3.1 Characters as Historical Figures .................................................................................... 13 2.3.2 Meaning of the ?Roars? ................................................................................................ 15 2.4 Potential Problems concerning the Play?s Plot ................................................................... 18 3 Shihou ji as Zheizixi and Xiao Quanben ...................................................................................... 25 3.1 History of Scene Selection ................................................................................................... 25 3.2 Zhezixi in the Four-scene Shihou ji ...................................................................................... 32 3.2.1 ?Shuzhuang? (Morning Toilette)................................................................................... 34 3.2.2 ?Guichi? (Kneeling by the Pond) ................................................................................... 36 3.2.3 ?Shuzhuang? and ?Guichi? on the Court Stage ............................................................ 38 3.2.4 ?Youchun? (Spring Outing) ........................................................................................... 40 3.2.5 ?Sanpa? (Three Fears) ................................................................................................... 45 4 Stage Conventions of Shihou ji ................................................................................................... 50 4.1 Basic Conceptions of Kunqu Theatre .................................................................................. 50 4.2 Changing of Role Types in Shihou ji ..................................................................................... 54 4.3 Detailed Studies of Three Characters .................................................................................. 59 4.3.1 Chen Zao ....................................................................................................................... 59 4.3.2 Liu shi ............................................................................................................................ 63 4.3.3 Su Dongpo ..................................................................................................................... 68 5 Who Holds the Power ................................................................................................................ 73 Bibliography .................................................................................................................................. 77 Appendices .................................................................................................................................... 85 Appendix A: Scene Summaries for Huancuitang Shihou ji ........................................................ 85 Appendix B: Translation of ?Naoci? from Huancuitang ............................................................ 95 Appendix C: Translation of ?Mengpa? in Zengji Liuye Qupu .................................................. 102 Appendix D: Translation of 17 Arias of ?Mengpa? and ?Sanpa? ............................................. 104 Appendix E: List of Abbreviations ........................................................................................... 111  v  List of Tables Table 1 Zhezixi of Shihou ji published in miscellanies in Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) ................... 26 Table 2 Zhezixi of Shihou ji published in miscellanies and qupu since Qing Dynasty ................... 30 Table 3 Qing Dynasty Actors who were good at performance of zhezixi from Shihou ji ............. 33 Table 4 Evolution of Shihou ji scene names from Huancuitang to Zhezixi ................................... 47 Table 5 Aria Changes from ?Naoci? to ?Sanpa? ............................................................................ 49 Table 6 Role types and subtypes in Kunqu ................................................................................... 56 Table 7 Evolution of role-types among Shihou ji characters ........................................................ 57  vi  Glossary  An?hui?? An Tizhe ??? Bizheng jin??? baimian ?? ?Bianyang? ?? cabi?? Cai Zhengren ??? canman?? cansan?? cangtou ?? Cao Chunshan ??? Changchun Gong ??? Changsheng dian ???  Chen Lian?er ??? Chen Sibao ??? Chen Suowen ??? Chen Zao?? chengshi?? ?Chibi? ??  chou? Chuandeng lu??? chuanqi?? Chuan zi bei??? Cilin yizhi???? cisha dan??? Dajiu ni de shendao zaici ???????? dan? ?Dang huchuan???? ?Dingdeng??? Dongpo jushi ???? Du Buyun ??? er?mian?? ?Fanbi? ?? Fangshanzi zhuan ???? ?Fangyou? ?? Fengsan wusi ???? Fo shuo zhangzhe n? An Tizhe shizi hou liaoyi jing??????????????  Foyin?? Fu? Fu Xihua??? ?Fuxing? ?? ?Fu?er? ?? gan?nian ?? Gao Lishi ??? Gaoyang ?? Gu Chuanjie ??? guimendan??? vii  ?Guichi??? Gui shi bei ren de bend eng na????????  ?Guiyan??? Han Xin ?? ?Haoyou? ??  Hedong shihou ???? heiman?? heisan?? Hong Sheng ?? Hua Wenyi??? Huancuitang ??? Huancuitang xinbian chuxiang shihouji?????????? Huang Chunquan ??? Jichang zhi pi ???? Jichang ?? Jicheng qupu ???? Jigu ge??? Ji Zhenhua ??? ?Ji Wu Deren jian jian Chen Jichang? ????????? ji yi wei nanzi, zenke quxi yu furen????????????? ?Jian Liu? ?? jietuo ?? jing? junei ?? kanjian?? ?Kuxiang??? Kunju ?? Kunqu?? Kunshan qiang ??? laodan?? laowai?? lata baimian???? lengshui ermian ???? Li Fu ?? Li Longji??? Li Yannong ??? Liu ? Liu Bang ?? Lu Xiaofen ??? Luo Di ?? L? Tiancheng??? majia?? man? Men?er kai zai ci, bumian jingru?????????? Mei Lanfang ??? ?Mengpa? ?? ?Mito si? ??? mingyi ?? ?Mingyou? ?? viii  mo? Mu Suhui ??? ?Naoci? ?? Ni Chuanyue ??? pi? pilu ?? Pipa ji??? Qi Biaojia ??? ?Qidu? ?? Qi Zhongmin gong riji?????? Qianjin ji ??? Qincao ?? Qing neifu sise chaoben shihouji chuanqi ???????????? Qian Jingfang??? qupu ?? Rixia kanhua ji ????? rankou?? san? ?Sanpa???  Sanqing yuan ??? ?Shang chun???  ?Shedui? ?? sheng? Shen Chuanzhi ??? Shen Shoulin??? Shen Siguan ??? Shen Zhiqiu ??? ?Shengzi??? Shihou ji ??? Shihou ji zacai zhu xiaoshuo???????? shiju ?? Shi Yongtang ??? ?Shuzhao? ?? ?Shuzhuang??? Shuihu ji ??? shuixiu?? shuopo ?? sidan?? Song Jiang?? Su Dongpo ??? Su Shi?? ?Suyuan? ?? ?Tanchan? ?? Tanhuang?? ?Tigang???  ?Tizong? ??  tie? "Tingjian"?? ?Tongrong? ??  ?Toule?  ?? tuanyuan ?? wai? ix  Wang Baishou??? Wang Guilin ??? Wang Tingne??? Wo zigan quxi, yu laoxiong shenme xianggan????????????? wudan?? Wu Mei ?? Wu Xinlei??? Xilou ji ??? ?Xigui? ?? ?Xiayou??? xiaomian?? xiao quanben??? xiaosheng?? xiao tiedi daoren????? ?Xieshi??? Xiuning?? ?Xubie? ?? xujia ?? Xu Xiaoxiang ??? Xu Zichang??? Xuanxue pu??? xuezi?? ?Xunji? ?? yamen ?? Yan Jupeng??? Yan Xijiao??? Yang ? Yaopian ?? Yiyang qiang ??? ?Yingxiang??? ?Yingku??? Yongjia ?? ?Youchun??? you ru shihou yiban ?????? Youyi ti ??? Yuhuatang riji????? Yu Juan ?? Yu Sulu ??? Yu Zhenfei ??? Yuan Yuling ??? Yuzhong qupu ???? Yue lu yin ??? Yue Meiti ??? za?  ?Zengqie? ?? Zhang Wenyuan ??? Zhao Jingshen ??? Zhao Shanhui ??? zhezixi ??? ?Zhengchong??? Zhou Chuanying??? x  Acknowledgements I wish to express my heartfelt thanks to my thesis supervisor, Dr. Catherine Swatek, for her invaluable gudience, support and patience throughout the years it took me to complete my research and write this thesis. Her encouragement and help have meant a lot to me. I am also particularly grateful to Dr. Steven Liu and Dr. Alison Bailey for being my thesis defense committee members and generously sharing their time and expertise to improve my thesis. Many thanks also to Dr. Leo Shin for the favor of chairing my thesis defense. I have received invaluable help from my friends Joshua Stenberg, Zhang Ningjing, Wang Lizhen and Hong Wei, who helped me collect first-hand materials, shared their thoughts about the thesis as I wrote, and, above all, offered most heart-warming encouragement. Last but not the least, special thanks to Professor Luo Di. It is his theories about traditional Chinese theatre that initially inspired me to undertake the research that led me to this topic.  xi  Dedication  This thesis is dedicated to my parents, who have encouraged me to keep my thinking independent and critical since my childhood. Their understanding and support are the source of my courage. This thesis is also dedicated to all the Kunqu masters and my friends in Kunqu circles. 1  1 Introduction There are two idioms in classical Chinese: ?Jichang zhi pi? (Jichang?s weakness) and ?Hedong shihou? (The Hedong lioness?s roar). ?Jichang?s weakness? [is] synonymous with ?being henpecked,? while ?lioness?s roar? means ?shouts of a shrew.?? (Lin 191). ?Jichang? is the courtesy name of a Song Dynasty scholar Chen Zao. Hedong is known as the hometown of a great clan, the Liu family, and Liu happens to be the family name of Chen?s wife. The two idioms are about an extremely henpecked husband Chen and his shrew wife Liu, the best known couple of this type. These two idioms come from Shihou ji (The Lioness?s Roar), a chuanqi play by the publisher and playwright Wang Tingne (1569-1628). Not much is known about the couple depicted in Wang?s play beyond a few poems and short biography of Chen composed by his friend Su Shi (1037-1101), a renowned writer, poet and calligrapher of the Song Dynasty. Su?s courtesy name is Zi Zhan. He is often referred to as Su Dongpo because his pseudonym is ?Dongpo jushi? (The lay Buddhist of East hill).  Wang ?glorified? the tidbits from Su?s writing and developed them first into a zaju (Yuan drama) in seven acts, and later into a chuanqi in thirty scenes, both on the theme of shrew taming. After the publication of Wang?s chuanqi, it moved to the Kunqu1 stage and became very                                                       1 Kunqu is often referred to in English scholarship as Kun Opera or Kunqu Opera, following the same translation convention of Peking Opera or Beijing Opera. This translation has been accepted in academic circles,, but strictly speaking the classification is improper. Kunqu should not be referred to as ?opera? because its basic theatrical elements include not only the arias and their musical accompaniment, but also other strictly conventionalized elements such as movements, costumes, and make-up patterns. It would be more precise if this genre were translated as ?the traditional Chinese theater of Kunqu,? similar to ?the traditional Japanese theater of Kabuki?. 2  popular. However, the staged version abandoned the original theme of the shrew?s domestication, turning instead to the theme of the husband?s taming.  A play on stage had considerably more impact on audiences than a play on page, given the high rate of illiteracy in late imperial China. It is not hard to understand that what really garnered fame for Wang?s couple was the successful image building of their characters on the Kunqu stage.2 From the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries, Kunqu was the most popular theatrical genre at both the court and in commercial theatres, which explains why these two idioms are known to refer to a story of a shrew but not a tamed shrew. Wang Tingne must be disappointed, because in his original play the wife finally gets converted into a very obedient woman who follows every dictate of her husband.  How Shihou ji on the Kunqu stage became a husband-taming play, instead of the shrew-taming one designed by the playwright, is very interesting. Its evolution reveals the secret of Chinese traditional theatre, namely, that as a highly conventionalized form of theatre it has become an audience-centered theatre over the past four hundred years. In Kunqu, because every movement on stage is symbolic and stylized instead of being realistic, it would only make                                                       2 One of the oldest genres of Chinese traditional theatre, Kunqu evolved from Kunshan qiang (the melody of Kunshan) in southern China about four hundred years ago. Kunshan qiang emerged at the end of Yuan dynasty after nanxi ?? (southern plays) had spread to Kunshan and merged with the local folk arias. This was accomplished with the promotion of the local musician Gu Jian (?-?). Also known as Kunju (??) in modern Chinese, this latter term refers to the theatrical genre of Kun(shan), while Kunqu ?? means the arias of Kun(shan)  However, Kunqu has been used to refer to both the arias and the theatrical genre since the late Ming.  The exact date when Kunju began to be used instead of Kunqu is not traceable, but the Institute for the Preservation and Transmission of Kunju (Kunju Chuanxisuo ?????) , established at Suzhou in August, 1921, used ?Kunju?. From then on, use of Kunju and Kunqu in Chinese texts is mixed and can be confusing. Generally speaking, Kunqu might be used for both the arias and the theatrical genre, but not the opposite. Therefore, I use Kunqu  3  sense if the audience had an active interpretative and imaginative role to play, based on their profund understanding of theatrical conventions. Like Kabuki, Kunqu is also a presentational theatre, in which ?the actor is [the] principle means of expression? (Ernst 18) and has ?its rapport with the audience? (105). Kunqu is comparatively more conventionalized, and thus has an even more close relationship with the audience than is true with Kabuki. Compared to the latter, Kunqu is a minimalist form of theatre that uses almost no realistic stage settings, instead relying heavily on the actors? performance skills and the audience?s imaginative ability to create a world onstage. Therefore, in Kunqu the relationship between actors and audiences is even more ?paramount? (Cavaye, Griffith & Senda, 19) than in Japanese traditional theatre as described by the Ky?gen actor Nomura Mansai.  In Chinese traditional theatre, especially in Kunqu, ?audience is the GOD? (2009, 11), in the words of Luo Di, a Chinese scholar specializing in traditional opera studies.  Luo notes that Kunqu troupes cater to audience preferences when staging the characters and changing plots. Moreover there was a tradition in Kunqu troupes of staging xiao quanben (shortened complete plays), which was enabled by selecting scenes from an original and much longer play, but with a different focuss (Luo 1986, 55). Some xiao quanben became so popular that once they dominated the stage, the original play would become an an?tou ben (desktop play for reading only). For example, Changsheng dian (The Palace of Everlasting life), a fifty-scene chuanqi play by Hong Sheng (1645-1704), when staged by Kunqu troupes shrank to a play of only eight zhezixi (selected scenes) 4  concerning the love story between Emperor Li Longji and Lady Yang.  Other scenes from the play based on historical or political issues might be performed as separate zhezixi, but they were not included in the xiao quanben Changsheng dian (Luo, 58). It also happened that in the staged version of Shuihu ji (Water Margin), only the scenes concerned with a love affair between Yan Xijiao and Zhang Wenyuan were included in the xiao quanben version, while Song Jiang, the leading male role in the original chuanqi by Xu Zichang (1578-1623), had at best a supporting role on the Kunqu stage. After several selected scenes were combined to create a new play, with the same title as the original chuanqi, they developed a new storyline based on the chuanqi, but with a different focus and ending as well as very different relationships between the characters.  The emergence of zhezixi on the Kunqu stage, started during the Kangxi and Yongzheng reigns (1662-1735), marked ?the beginning of the shift from a playwright-dominated drama centered in household troupes to an actor-dominated one centered in professional troupes based in urban areas? (Swatek 151).  Audiences would prefer to see these zhezixi rather than the whole play, given the limitations of their time. Calved from the whole chuanqi and often focused on dramatic highpoints, zhezixi were good theatrical material, and because audiences were familiar with the plots and characters they were easy to comprehend and fun to watch. However, with the passage of time, when only a few zhezixi extracted from a play were performed on stage, audiences might not be as familiar with the whole play as their elders had been. Then the practice began of linking several zhezixi together to make a play with a comparatively complete storyline. This trend of creating xiao quanben, according to Luo Di, 5  appeared at the time of the Qianlong emperor?s reign (1736-1795) and became very popular in the late Qing Dynasty and Republican China (1912-1949). There is no doubt that these reframed xiao quanben by no means recovered or replicated the playwright?s original work. Just as with the choosing of some scenes from the mother chuanqi play to become zhezixi, the audience also played an active role in the forming of xiao quanben. It is quite understandable that the choice of certain zhezixi over others to form a xiao quanben actually revealed the best-accepted interpretation of a certain play that the troupe could apply to reframe it according to the audiences? opinion. Then among all these chuanqi that have been converted into xiao chuanben and gained a different look on the Kunqu stage, Shihou ji is the one that experienced the most astonishing changes, from a shrew-taming play to a husband-taming one.  A study of this play will uncover the amazing transformation that a play can undergo, from a chuanqi in print to a play on the stage.  The scripts of Kunqu plays are based on qupai (fixed tunes) and composing a musically notated script had to be done according to strict prosodic rules, with attention to the tonal pattern and rhyme scheme designated for each qupai. The added requirement that the lyrics be refined made it almost mission impossible for illiterate actors to tinker with the lines of a qupai. Taking into consideration the hardships that actors faced when changing the plot of a zhezixi, the conversion of Shihou ji was achieved, largely, by making changes to the dialogue instead of the rigidly fixed qupai and by making changes to other theatrical elements concerning role type, costumes, and movement conventions. With this in mind, what follows is an examination of this process of change over a period of several hundred years, in the case of Shihou ji. 6  2 Shihou ji as a Chuanqi 2.1 Publication of the Original Play and the Plots The original chuanqi was written by Wang Tingne (1569-1628), a famous publisher and playwright, under the title Huancuitang xinbian chuxiang Shihouji3  (The newly composed Lioness?s Roar with illustrations published by Huancuitang, Huancuitang for short hereafter), which he published during the Wanli emperor?s reign (1573-1620). No exact publishing date is given. However, several scenes from it were published as zhezixi (selected scenes) in anthologies of playscripts or aria collections, an indication of their popularity in the theatre at that time. Two such anthologies of Ming popular dramas, Cilin yizhi (A branch from the forest of song) and Baneng zoujin (Eight facets [of ritual music] struck from a tapestry) were published around 1606-16084 (Guo & Wang, 61). The date of publication of the Huancuitang version of Shihou ji, according to its listed order in L? Tiancheng?s Qupin, should be between 1605 and 1608, about the same time as that for Cilin yizhi and Baneng zoujin (Guo & Wang, 58). The Huancuitang edition was published a bit earlier than the other two collections.   Though Wang claimed that he was the author of Shihou ji, whether all of the credit should be given to him has remained controversial. Chen Suowen, a friend of Wang, was probably the real author of several plays that Wang published as his own. Zhou Hui (1546-?), a                                                       3 Huancuitang is one of the most famous publishing houses of the Ming dynasty, Located in Nanjing and owned by Wang, it was named after the main building of Wang?s residence, Zuoyin Yuan in Xiuning.  4 Guo Yingde places the composing time and publication dates of Cilin yizhi and Baneng zoujin around 1605-1608. Yue lu yin was published around 1616.  7  Ming scholar, in his book titled Xu Jinling suoshi (Continuation of Trivial matters in Jinling), says that eight of Wang?s plays, including Shihou ji, were actually written by Chen (Zhou Hui 268). This claim is supported by a comment by Chen?s friend Gu Qiyuan, that ?most of Chen?s plays were published under others? names?(Huang Biao, 606). Another interpretation is that Wang was the real author of the play and Chen might have helped to edit and polish it. ?[We] can only believe that Chen had been Wang?s collaborator for a part [of Shihou ji]? (Zhao, 210). There is some support for both claims, but the identity of the real author of Shihou ji may remain a mystery for lack of sufficient clues. However, Wang was normally regarded as the author, or at east the principal author, of this play. The original Huancuitang version of the chuanqi play contains thirty scenes and the plots develop with interactions among several main characters: Chen Zao (the husband), Liu shi (the wife), Su Shi (a friend of the husband), Monk Foyin (a friend of Su), and some supporting roles such as a courtesan Qincao (an admirer and lover of Su), a maid Xiuying (one of Su?s maids, who becomes Chen?s concubine later on) and several servants with no exact names other than yuangong (male servant) or cangtou (old male servant with grey hair).  A summary of the original play goes like this:  (Scene 1-7) With the high-sounding excuse of seeking an official career, Chen leaves his hometown and lives an extravagant life in the capital city, Luozhong, in the company of his friend Su Shi. Chen?s wife, Liu shi, hears about this and sends him a letter telling him about his four new concubines. Chen hurries back to meet them but is frightened by their ugliness. 8  (Scene 8-15) As Chen has lost Liu?s trust because of his dishonesty, she punishes him by making him kneel beside a pool because he joined Su?s spring outing with courtesan Qincao. Su arrives to save his friend and intends to teach Liu a lesson, but instead he is defeated in debate with her. Su gives Chen a concubine, Xiuying, to bear a son for him. (Scene 16-21)  Liu maintains stricter surveilance over her husband after his boating excursion with Su at the Red Cliff. Chen pretends to be transformed into a sheep by his ancestors with the help of a female shaman and manages to marry Xiuying with the ancestors? support. Liu cannot hold in her anger, seeing that her husband loves the young concubine more, and becomes sick. (Scene 22-24)  The final taming of the wife is achieved only after she is taken to the underworld by ghost messengers, tortured and threatened, and brought back to life with Foyin?s ?help?. (Scene 25-30) After that, Liu becomes a very obedient wife and helps Xiuying to raise the son she bore to Chen. The whole family enjoys the great honor of both Chen and his son being recommended (by Su) to serve at the court. Foyin promises all of them that they will enjoy Buddhist deliverance at the end of their lives5. 2.2 The Playwright?s Concern As luck would have it, there is one copy of the original Huancuitang edition preserved in the Kyoto University Library6. It is the only known extant copy, with Wang?s original preface                                                       5 For more plot details, please read the Appendix A scene summaries. 6 Beside the Huancuitang version, Shihou ji has also been printed and published in Jiguge (A collection from ancient times) and also in Liushizhong qu (Sixty southern dramas) of Jiguge. Neither imprint includes the author?s preface. 9  announcing his purpose for creating this play for taming shrews. In the preface, Wang explained his motivation for writing a seven-act-zaju on this subject7: Women are born from Yin. Yin is just like water, which is deep and hard to predict. Men love them lustily. Love generates favor, favor generates disobedience, and disobedience generates jealousy; it has been like this from the beginning. If one is not a real man, he can hardly resist being deluded by women. The upright heart yields to the beauty and the heroic spirit withers between the sheets. There are even cases of men being controlled as if their hands were bound, and there is nothing anybody can do to help them. There is no special reason for that. In general, love is the origin of this problem. Alas! How can the sea of bitterness get people drowned? It is actually people who choose to drown themselves. I personally have worried that the relationship between husband and wife, as one of the three principal moral relations, is corrupted like this. What will it be like when this develops to an extreme in the future? Therefore, I picked the story of ?The Lioness?s Roar? and composed a seven-scene zaju out of it. My purpose is to make all viragos and shrews surrender to and obey [the husbands] on whom they rely. Some commenters may think that the first half [of my play] consists of too much banter and the second half is much too illusory. However, they fail to see that the orthodox is concealed in the banter and reality is fixed within the illusion; the meaning lies between the lines. As for detailed research of classic works and broad citation of historical biographies, all sentences in this                                                       7 The play script of this zaju version of Shihou ji hasn?t been found yet, but the existence of this zaju was proved by Qi Biaojia?s drama critcs Ju pin ?Shihou?was originally just a single play...?(XXSKQS, Vol1758, 151). 10  play are based on evidence and no story is without its origin. For those who do not agree, I only wish that they would follow the theatre spectators [and go to the theatre]. ??8: ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? The preface is followed by additional remarks on why and how the original zaju got expanded into a thirty-scene chuanqi play. Wang then encourages the reader to go to the theatre to appreciate his play and get a further education from it. It seems that Wang failed to see not only the real value of chuanqi, here refering to a genre of short fiction in classical Chinese, but also that of theatre: Additional remarks: [The author] Wang Wuru9 says: previously I wrote the zaju play titled ?The Lioness?s Roar? and widely printed and published it all over the country.                                                       8 These two articles are printed in calligraphy and with no punctuation. The Chinese scholars Tong Wancheng and Nie Wenli also include in their essays a copy of these two texts, but the characters and punctuation they recorded, based on their knowledge of calligraphy and classical Chinese, differ from mine. I have punctuated these two texts using period marks to separate every sense-group instead of sentence, and did the translations based on my own reading. 9 ?Wuru? is the pseudonym of Wang Tingne. 11  Everybody enjoyed reading and singing it. It is because the play is about a current problem and offers a proper remedy to it. Jiao, the Court Historian from Moling who is a very knowledgeable scholar of our time, thought that this play did not exhaust the stories about Su and Chen. Therefore, I again conducted very wide and deep research and collected almost all the anecdotes concerning Longqiu (Chen) and Meishan (Su) in their time, with nothing added or left out. Then I took the zaju play and revised it, extending it from the original seven scenes to the thirty scenes. The secret situations between the couples and the ugliness of the shrew are depicted thoroughly. The audience cannot wait to clap with laughter while the play is still on. This play also frightens the audience with the evil of the underworld and moves them by bodhi10. In this way, bad people will become good and good people will become Buddhas. [After all], who would be willing to act in an arbitrary manner and continue to do evil things forever? As for the decline of today?s moral ethics and the collapse of the husband?s authority, this play is not without some small compensation. ??: ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????                                                       10 Bodhi means the supreme wisdom or enlightment, necessary to the attainment of Buddhahood. 12  As Wang says here, he has published a seven-act zaju first. Here he refers to his friend Jiao Hong, a Ming Dynasty scholar who was interested in proofreading and writing notes or commentaries for playscripts (Tong 66). It seems that Jiao knew many more allusions to Chen Zao and Su Shi, so Wang accepted Jiao?s suggestion and did more intensive research, finally expanding this play into a much longer chuanqi.  Wang sounds pretty confident when he emphasises that ?all sentences in this play are based on evidence and no story is without its origin?. It seems that he intends to indicate that this play is based on very solid historical facts instead of fictional materials.  However, according to Yenna Wu, ?Wang Tingne?ingeniously incorporated a number of well known anecdotes on shrews into his play? (Wu,162). Her view is supported by Zhao Jingshen, a renowned Chinese scholar of theatre studies. In his article ?Shihou ji zacai zhu xiaoshuo (Shihou ji covers materials from several novels)?, Zhao points out that this play is almost ?a complete collection of all the envious wives past and present? (214), as it ?covers almost all the materials concerning henpecked husbands from earlier novels and in classical literature? (210). In fact, the meaning of chuanqi is ?transmission of marvels? and ?the more [these chuanqi] travel, the more extraordinary they become.?(Luo, 2000, 163) Therefore, the historical authenticity of a chuanqi should never be the concern of readers, not to mention the theatre audience. Wang?s emphasis on the authenticity of his story?s origins not only is untrustworthy, as Zhao Jingshen has pointed out, but is also unnecessary as Luo Di has noted. The idea of 13  indoctrinating married couples with the principles of Confucian moral conduct is Wong?s own wishful thinking. Once the plays moved to the stage, the audience might not be willing to take it in his way. With some of imperfections inherent in the original play, there exists the possibility of other interpretations, which can develop into another story. 2.3 Literary Origins of the Play 2.3.1 Characters as Historical Figures There is not much that we know about Chen Zao or his wife except for a biography of him written by Su Shi, in which a few lines reveal a bit about the relationship between Chen and his wife. In this Biography of Master Fangshan (Fangshanzi zhuan), Su recorded how, when he encountered his old friend Chen in Huangzhou, he was invited to spend the night at Chen?s home. ?His rooms were just bare walls, and his furnishings were rudimentary, yet his wife and children and maids all appeared happy and contented. I was quite astounded? (Pollard, 56). Su recalled the dates he spent with Chen at Fengxiang County nineteen years earlier, when Chen had lived a life of luxury with all kinds of entertainment. Su was astonished to see Chen abandoning this previous life style, of family property and great expectation of an official career. There is a note of adminration in his description of his friend and his family, especially his wife, who are content with their lives in such a remote area of Huangzhou.  According to Su?s biography, not only was Chen an aloof and detached person, but his wife was also a supporter, if not an originator, of the idea of living an otherworldly life. Thus it 14  would not be too bold to infer that Chen and Liu might be real soulmates, who enjoyed a largely harmonious relationship. Wu Mei (1884-1939), a noted scholar of drama, also criticized Wang?s selective quoting of Su Shi without studying the real intention underlying the writing, ?the reason that there were these two sentences in Su?s poem and essay [about Chen] is to praise Chen?s great happiness of living in harmonious seclusion with his wife and children, not to say that he was henpecked.? (Wu Mei 2009, 194)  Su ?was too good a philosopher to be a puritan? and was actually ?a poet of nature? (Lin, 165), who would never be constrained by rules and conventions. He once annoyed an austere Buddhist priest by taking to his chamber a courtesan, but succeeded in making him laugh by asking the girl to sing a comic poem. Even the Buddhist monk Foyin, who lived a life ?far from ascetic? (Lin, 166), also enjoyed a similar reputation of being as unconventional and unrestrained as his friend Su. It is not hard to understand why, for both of them, interfering in another?s domestic life as a Confucian moralist would be inconceivable. Wang Tingne?s portrayal of the two as apologists for Confucian?s ethical norms is not at all convincing in the eyes of most intellectuals who were familiar with the writings of Su and Foyin. As Lin Yutang has put it, ?[b]y a literary accident Chen became immortalised as a henpecked husband.? (Lin, 191)  Then, on the theatre stage and by dint of the co-efforts of the actors and the audience, the truth was to some degree restored.  15  2.3.2 Meaning of the ?Roars? The name of the play, The Lioness?s Roar, comes from one of the two sentences Wu Mei mentioned, quoted from a poem by Su Shi titled ?Ji Wu Deren jian jian Chen Jichang? (Poem sent for Wu Deren and for Chen Jichang as well. Su wrote four lines about Chen, as follows: The lay practitioner of Dragon Hill [ie. Chen] is also pitiful, he stays up discoursing on emptiness and fullness all night long. Suddenly he hears a lion?s roar from east-of-the river [ie. Liu], the cane drops from his hand, he is at a loss. ???????? ???????? ???????? ????????(Su 100) It is generally accepted that ?lioness?s roar? comes from this allusion.11 Su?s purpose in composing this poem was interpreted by Lin Yutang as ?making fun of his friend as friends often do,? but not necessarily as laughing at Chen for being henpecked. Lin believes that if Su ?had clearly referred to ?a lioness's roar? [rather than ?a lion?s roar?], the case could be better established? (Lin, 191). However, Su had already made it clear that the ?roar? was from Chen?s wife, by mentioning her hometown Hedong (east of the river) rather than the family name ?Liu?.                                                       11 This argument is based on the studies of scholars like Wu Mei, Zhao Jingshen, Huang Biao and Lin Yutang as well. 16  In this line, Su made it clear that it was the voice of the wife that Chen heard. Lin explains the dropping of the cane as because Chen?s wife had a loud voice and he was frightened (Lin, 191). This is the same interpretation that Wang had in his play. In Scene 11 of Shihou ji, Su is frightened by Liu?s loud shouts and says to Chen that ?it sounds just like the roar of a lioness.?  Lin also observes, ??lion's roar? was originally a Buddhist phrase signifying ?the voice of Buddha?? (Lin, 191), but he didn?t consider the possibility that ?Hedong? referred to Chen?s wife Liu, nor did he consider that ?lion?s roar? could refer to the content of her speech, i.e., that its meaning didn?t have to be about the volume of her voice. The ?voice of Buddha? is often referred to as ?the lion?s roar? in many Buddhist sutras because it is very loud and could be startling and enlightening as well.  Other than the three sutras titled ?The Lion?s Roar? that record the teachings of the Buddha himself, there are two others whose titles incorporate this phrase concerning female deities of extraordinary wisdom and eloquence. One is The Sutra of Queen Sr?m?l? or The Lion's Roar of Queen Sr?m?l? Sutra,12 the other is Fo shuo zhangzhe n? An Tizhe Shizihou liaoyi jing (The sutra of Buddha?s talks about elder?s daughter An Tozhe?s understanding of the lion?s                                                       12 The Sutra of Queen Sr?m?l? is an important early Mahayana text. It is a unique development within the Buddhist tradition because of its egalitarian and generous view concerning women, portraying, on the one hand, the dignity and wisdom of a laywoman and her concern for all beings, and, on the other, the role of woman as philosopher and teacher. The major philosophical emphases of the text are the theories of the "womb of the Buddha" and the One Vehicle. Taisho Tripitaka Vol. 12, No. 353 Shengman shizihou yicheng dafangbian fangguang jing????????????? (The Sutra of Queen Sr?m?l? ). http://www.cbeta.org/result/normal/T12/0353_001.htm 17  roar).13 Both of these sutras are about women?s wisdom in understanding Buddha?s teachings and their efforts in promoting these teachings to laymen.  In the second sutra, the very wise lady An Tizhe debates with Shariputra, one of Buddha?s disciples, about the most fundamental and profound Buddhist concepts, such as the relationship between emptiness and being, form and being, and life and death. Shariputra is astonished by her eloquence and asks why she is still in the inferior form of a woman instead of a man; the reply he gets from An Tizhe is that sexuality is merely a skin that does not really represent the real being of a person. Lady An Tizhe then gets praise from Buddha himself, who declares, ?this woman is extraordinary, [and her wisdom] is equal to that of the boundless Buddha. She will reach true enlightenment soon.?(Taisho Tripitaka Vol. 14, No. 580). This sutra of the lion?s roar is not only about the Buddha?s enlightenment, but also about a woman?s wisdom in understanding it. On top of that, the idea of equality between the two sexes is also brought up.  Taking into consideration Su Shi?s considerable knowledge of Buddhist teachings, the ?lion?s roar? in his poem could also be interpreted as admiration of Chen?s wife. It could be that Liu shi had a deeper understanding of Buddhist sutras and advanced some fairly enlightening arguments that startled her husband, so the latter was at a loss upon realizing his wife?s talent. Qian Jingfang, in his documentation of Wang?s Shihou ji, makes a similar argument. Qian cites the Biography of Master Fangshan and argues, ?Chen was a very gallant man with the least                                                       13 Taisho Tripitaka Vol. 14, No. 580 ??????????????. http://www.cbeta.org/result/normal/T14/0580_001.htm Translator unknown. 18  likeliness of being henpecked.? (Qian Jingfang, 94) He also takes ?lion?s roar? as complimenting Liu?s eloquence, ?somebody said Chen loved talking about Chan Buddhism but his eloquence was considerably below that of his wife. Whenever they debated, he would be defeated by her. That is why [Su] Dongpo quoted the term [?lion?s roar from Hedong?] from the Record of the Transmission of the Lamp [Chuandeng lu???] to make fun of him. [I found] this interpretation pretty convincing.?(Qian Jingfang, 94)  2.4 Potential Problems concerning the Play?s Plot It is a commonplace of Chinese chuanqi drama that all problems beyond man?s control will be solved by a supernatural power such as the Buddha, a Taoist deity, or an underworld judge. From Wang Tingne?s viewpoint, since the shrew?s behavior is so unconventional and unacceptable that even the underworld judge gets annoyed, then cruel torture is what the shrew deserves. At the same time, the Buddhist monk Foyin, as representative of the Buddha, appears to be indifferent when Liu is tortured and ends up with one eye blinded and one arm broken. Though she finally is converted and becomes a devout follower of Buddhism at the end of the play, it is not without irony that extreme violence toward a woman is used to prove the benevolence of Buddhist power. That just does not accord with Buddhist teachings. Therefore, Wu Mei once expressed his strong aversion to the scene of ?showing Liu around the underworld? in Shihou ji: 19  ?The reason that there are [scenes involving] ghosts and humans on the stage is because [the playwright] had so strong a desire to make [the play] grotesque that [he] drove it to a dead end. He had no choice but to create an illusory scene, so that the sheng and dan14 can have a reunion on the spot. It was actually because the clues are not clear and there is no remedy for that. I would say it is better [for him] to achieve something by writing a [short] zaju rather than showing weakness while trying to create a [much longer] chuanqi.  ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? (Wu Mei, 2000, 57) Wu Mei suggests that this play should be much shorter and the underworld scene should be cut because it actually reveals only the weakness of the play. The use of violence and threats from the underworld is not a convincing solution that develops naturally from the plot. It is very interesting that Wu brings up the issue of ?tuanyuan?, the final reunion of the sheng and dan, which according to Luo Di, is one of the basic and most important concepts of Chinese theatre. The sheng and dan have to be reunited at the end of the play, no matter what they have experienced in the process. Only with the elimination of all the factors or characters that separate the sheng and dan can they reunite in the final scene and the play be regarded as complete.                                                        14 Sheng and dan are two main role types in traditional Chinese theatre, playing the leading male and female roles. For more details of the role type system, please see Table 6. Here the sheng and dan in Shihou ji refer to Chen and Liu. 20  This ?tuanyuan? can be any kind of reunion of husband and wife (if the sheng and dan are married) or of lovers (on earth or in heaven), but it need not be restricted to the conventional understanding of ?tuanyuan? based on mainstream Confucian norms (Wu Mei, 2000, 170). The reunion of sheng and dan in chuanqi plays varies considerably. Being united in marriage is a common solution, as happens in the last scene of Peony Pavilion, in which the scholar Liu Mengmei and his lover Du Liniang, after the latter comes back to life, reunite when their marriage is confirmed by the emperor.  In the chuanqi Changsheng dian, Emperor Li Longji and Lady Yang reunite in heaven after their deaths. However, the xiao quanben of plays of the Kunqu stage may sometimes reveal a very different idea of ?tuanyuan?, which represents the audience?s understanding of the play. For example, in xiao quanben Changsheng dian, the plot ends with a zhezixi called ?Yingku? (a combination of ?Yingxiang? [Receiving the statue] and ?Kuxiang? [Weeping to the statue]).  It is almost a soliloquy, in which Emperor Li Longji tearfully addresses the statue of Lady Yang,15 telling her of his regret for forcing her to take her own life and his sorrow at being left alone in the world.  In this scene, all the characters on stage, including Li, Yang, Gao Lishi and two sedan-chair bearers, 16 ?all dress in red? (Lu 1980, 110) as if this is a celebration or happy ending of the play. The playwright Hong Sheng, annoyed, declared, ?[all] dressed in red is actually unreasonable? (Lu, 1980, 110). However, the fact that this practice has continued since the Kangxi reign to this day is proof positive that this scene of a                                                       15 The statue of Lady Yang would be played by a dan, who dressed up in the most formal and magnificent costumes of Lady Yan, sitting in the arm chair. It creates the illusion for both Li Longji and the audience that Li is talking to Yang. 16 The statue of Lady Yang, actually the actor/actress who plays the statue of Lady Yang, would sit on a chair with two poles, which would be carried by two bearers. 21  repentant emperor has been accepted as the final and most satisfying ?tuanyuan? of Yang and Li.  ?Tuanyuan? is of such great importance to Chinese theatre, but the form that ?tuanyuan? takes often deviates from the mainstream values. It could be more humanized and idealized than in the society of its day. That might be why Wu Mei found the reunion of Chen and Liu in the original Shihou ji, which involves underworld ghosts and scenes of torture, very unnatural and unconvincing. How to solve this problem and effectuate a natural and humanized ?tuanyuan? for Chen and Liu would be crucial to the success of a Kunqu troupe. They have to understand what the audience wanted. Wu Mei is not the only one who was not satisfied with Wang Tingne?s plot. Other male readers of the play who are not drama critics found the ending of the play hard to accept. It seems that Wang failed to notice the possibility that the solution he suggested in Shihou ji would indicate the incapability of all men in the mortal world. What happens in Shihou ji is totally different from what happens in Shakespeare?s Taming of the Shrew, where Petruchio tames the shrew Katherina with his own wisdom and power while the latter is in his household and under his control. In Shihou ji, on the other hand, none of the men, neither the husband, nor the talented scholar-official, nor the respected Buddhist master, succeed in making one woman obey the ?universal rule? that a wife should respect and be submissive to her husband ?as if [he represents] her heaven?.17 It is the power from outside the domestic sphere that gets                                                       17 See page 10-13, as Wang Tingne suggests in his foreword. 22  the problem solved. The more frightening and cruel the punishments for the shrews in the underworld are, the more powerless the males will appear to be onstage in their own household. In order to protect the husband?s authority, the playwright has unintentionally challenged male pride.  There was a poem on this issue composed by a Qing Dynasty Jingju (Peking Opera) actor and writer, Wang Xiaonong (1858-1918), which was published in the first issue of the magazine Dalu in 190518 In ?On shrew-taming?, Wang says: ?There are one hundred reasons why [Chen] Jichang should be motally ashamed.  How come a hen is expected to be the harbinger of dawn?  To get the devils defeated, it is not the v?jra19 that one should count on. It would be better to rely upon several roars released from a [male] lion.  ???????? ???????? ???????? ????????(A Ying, Vol 5, 588) Wang Xiaonong obviously did not like the idea of ?letting a wife become the head of a household?, but it seemed that he was even more uncomfortable with getting challenged in the                                                       18 It is the third year of its publication. 19 V?jra is a simblic ritual object used to symbolize both the properties of a diamond (indestructibility) and a thunderbolt (irresistible force). It is often used in Buddhism to represent the firmness of spiritual power. As the Chinese name for V?jra is jingang chu (diamond pestle) or xiangmo chu (devile-defeating pestle), this name would inevitably be associated with the idea of violence.  23  domestic sphere.  He was not happy getting the wife defeated by means of violence, even if that is achieved with the Buddha?s power. Wang thought domestic problems should be solved within the household, between the husband and wife. The only reasonable and acceptable solution lies in the manliness of the husband. Chen would not be henpecked if he could produce several masculine ?roars?. Otherwise, he should be ashamed, since he is the one to blame. As a man and a husband, Wang Xiaonong was ashamed by Chen?s failure to behave like a head of a household and solve the problem like ?a lion?, but what really bothered him is the idea that the problem got solved with interference from outside the household. Letting other powers invade the domestic sphere poses a big challenge to male pride.  Wang Xiaonong was probably not the only male who had this concern. Wang?s poem represents the aspirations of many, if not all, in the male audience. However, as the audience might already have noticed, he must at the same time have understood that if Chen suddenly became a real man and got the problem solved with a few ?roars? (and presuming that no domestic violence is involved), the scene of taming would either be dull or lacking in either drama or romance. Who wants to see a play about an ordinary couple who follows each and every teaching of Confucian norms? A play about a husband beating up his wife would not be attractive, either, since that might be a scene from everyday life and would not qualify as a chuanqi at all.  ?Theatre, as an art, is basically different from drama, as literature. A stage performance appeals to the audience by the combined visual and aural effects of the stage action but drama, 24  when read, produces its effects entirely by words.? (Hs? 137) Whether or not a good drama will become good theatre depends on the actor instead of the author. How the play would be performed on stage plays a crucial role in making a play good theatre, and audience?s reception is another key issue. Only scenes with great theatricality that do not conflict with the audience?s values can find favour with them. Such audience appreciation is the only reason that a play has long career on stage.  That Shihou ji has been performed on the Kunqu stage for over 400 years and is still among the most popular plays in the current repertoire demonstrates that audiences kept on appreciating it instead of turning their backs on it. There must be something that the troupes did to enable the play, at least a part of it, to survive on stage without injuring the male pride of audience members. How did they manage to bring along a natural and convincing ?tuanyuan? for the sheng and dan? The answer lies in this tradition of Kunqu called zhezixi. As Shihou ji was converted from a thirty-scene chuanqi into a four-scene play on stage, the story must then start somewhere, with the initial task of selecting which scenes to use. Only scenes with great theatricality, which can be appreciated and enjoyed by most of the audience, would be preserved on stage. How they got reframed into a new play is an interesting process.  25  3 Shihou ji as Zheizixi and Xiao Quanben 3.1 History of Scene Selection Wang Tingne, in his foreword to the Shihou ji, urged the readers to go to the theatre and watch this play on stage. As this chuanqi was published in two volumes,20 the thirty scenes might be designed to be performed over two nights. A Ming Dynasty drama critic L? Tiancheng (1580-1618) had a few lines of comments on this play in his book Qupin:  There has never been any nanxi [southern drama, meaning chuanqi] on the theme of henpecking. Wang originated a play to mock shrews, which was soon performed full length. [This play] involved the revolting manners [of the characters] and was very funny. The [wife?s] repentance at the end of the play should be a model [for others] in the domestic sphere.  ??????????????????????????????????????????????(L? 264)  L? watched the play and was pleased with the ending. Though nothing was mentioned of how ?full? this ?full length? play was, it is at least clear that the ending L? saw was faithful to the original play, when the play was being staged ?very soon? after its publication.  However, there is no guarantee that this play would always be staged in the way Wang foresaw. Another record of performance of Shihou ji can be found in Qi Zhongmin gong riji (Diary of Qi Biaojia) by                                                       20 Volume one is scene 1-15 and volume two is scene 16-30. 26  Qi Biaojia (1602-1645), another Ming Dynasty theatre critic, who watched several Kunqu plays in Beijing during the first two months of 1633. Shihou ji is listed among the plays he watched there that year (Wu Xinlei 2002, 973). It is a pity nothing of the content or length of the play was recorded in his diary. The practice of performing several zhezixi from different plays in one night started pretty early, as evident in Pan Yunduan?s Yuhuatang riji (Diary of Yuhua Studio), which records that his private troupe performed several zhezixi in 1588 (970). It went on to become a common practice on the Kunqu stage in the following 300 years, so there is the possibility that what Qi watched in Beijing was a series of zhezixi of Shihou ji instead of the whole play that Wang Tingne had written. Table 1 Zhezixi of Shihou ji published in miscellanies in Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) Scenes in HCT   Scripts 3 ?Fangyou? (Visiting Friends) 5 ?Haoyou? (Luxury Outing) 11  ?Jian Liu? (Admonish-ing Liu) 13 ?Naoci? (Farce in the Temple) 16 ?Dingdeng? (Lamp on the Head) 17  ?Bianyang? (Becoming a Sheep) 19 ?Fuxing? (Recover-ing Human Form) CLYZ21 1605-1608    ?Fuqi naoci?    BNZJ 1605-1608     ?Chen Zao j??nei dingdeng?22 ?Chen Zao bianyang fuxing? YLY 1616 ?Fangyou? ?Haoyou?      XXP 1644   ?Jian Liu?     Although there is no evidence to show how complete the staging of Shihou ji was, there                                                       21 The four miscellanies are Cilin yizhi, Baneng zoujin, Yue lu yin, Xuanxue pu. 22  Meaning Chen Zao?s being henpecked and having a lamp on his head.  J??nei means ?afraid of one?s wife?. 27  are some scenes, or arias, from this play that were published in drama miscellanies (xuanben), woodblock collectaneas of popular stage scenes or arias. Table 1 show that seven scenes were chosen as the most popular scenes on stage in late Ming miscellanies  Among the four publications listed, three were published in the Wanli reign (1573-1620), the same period that the Huancuitang version was published. The first is a selection of arias, while the other three are scripts of a whole scene that include both actors? lines and arias. These excerpts reveal, in part, the truth behind the staging of Shihou ji in theatres of the Ming. One remarkable fact is that among all seven scenes that were the most selected and therefore likely the most popular scenes of Shihou ji on Kunqu stage in Ming Dynasty, none of the violent scenes about the torturing and transforming of Liu was selected. It seems that even Ming Dynasty audiences were not very interested in the shrew-taming theme. They might have had the same concern that Wang Xiaonong expressed in his poem. Table 2 does not show any of the scenes from the second half of the play because none of them survived on the Kunqu stage after the Ming dynasty, which supports Wu Mei?s observation. According to Fu Xihua?s study, in the late nineteenth century, scenes 16, 17, and 19 were compiled into a shiju (contemporary play) for the Jingju stage called Bianyang ji (A stratagem of transforming into a sheep) 23 (Xie                                                       23 In the original Shihou ji of Wang Tingne?s Huancuitang version, a sharman happens to be at Chen?s door when he needs help and ramdomly comes up with the idea of borrowing the transformation excuse to set Chen free. However, in Bianyang ji, the transformation into a sheep is a plan of Su and the sharman is actually a servant of Su, who is sent to Liu to deceive her. (He 174) 28  480).  That play featured the performing skills of a chou in the role of a shaman who helps Chen deceive his wife (A Ying, Vol 4, 448). 24  Yue lu yin collected only the arias of plays. Four out of eight arias from the original scene 3 (Queqiao xian, Tianxia le, Er?fan bangzhuangtai, Qianqiang, Bushi lu, Changpai, Duanpai, Weisheng) and six out of eight arias from scene 5 (Jinju dui furong, Juhua xin, Putian le, Bei chao tianzi, Putian le, Bei chao tianzi, Putian le, and Bei chao tianzi)25 were selected.  The selection of arias might represent how these scenes got staged: some arias, which do not contain crucial content, were omitted.  According to Guo Yingde?s study, Baneng zoujin and Cilin yizhi were published around 1606-1608.26  This suggests that four scenes got selected as popular scenes, especially scenes 16, 17, 19, and that even if Shihou ji was not presented in its full length, at least some scenes from the second half were staged during the earlier seventeenth century. In 1644, only one scene, scene 11 (Admonishing Liu), was included in Xuanxuepu. This is the zhezixi that later became known as ?Guichi? (Kneeling by the Pond), which has ranked among the most popular zhezixi on the Kunqu stage from the Qing Dynasty until the present day.  The formation of Shihou ji as a four-scene play was no doubt a very long and complicated procedure, whose details may no longer be traceable. It is, however, demonstrable                                                       24 According to Lin Shu, a Chinese translator who was active in late Qing and Republican China, Bianyang ji was one of the best zhezixi of a famous chou actor called Liu Gansan. Liu was one of the thirteen most famous actors in late Qing, who were called ?Tong Guang shisan jue? (thirteen extraordinary actors during Tongzhi and Guangxu period). 25 The underlined arias are those collected in YLY. 26 See page 6 of the detail of Guo?s study. 29  that this version must have been formed during or before the Qianlong period, since there is a copy of a stage script, which consists of only four scenes, called Shihou ji - lian sichu (The lioness?s roar- in four continuous scenes). This copy is a very fine four-color- woodblock version preserved originally in the Qing court as an item in the collection of the Qianlong emperor.27 The exact printing date is unknown, but the copy was ?a tribute from a prince, because during the Qianlong era, the emperor and imperial princes were all interested in theatre, which is why there were tributes of play scripts from the residences [of the princes] now and then.?(QNF, 5)  The Neifu version, though printed by a prince for the emperor, is actually based on the stage performance of an actor-dominated type, which was in fact an audience-dominated, theatre. The Neifu version of Shihou ji is a play reframed through the joint efforts of the actors and audience in the commercial theatre around the beginning of the eighteenth century. The Neifu version contains only four scenes developed from the original scenes 9/10/11/13.  Scene 13 (Farce in the Temple) was changed slightly and served as the ending of the play in the newly framed four-scene version. This version was published under the title of Shihou ji but with a totally converted theme. Fu Xihua after studied this Neifu copy in Mei Lanfang?s studio, he then commented of it that ?there are even stage directions marked [in this version], it is not only for the convenience of troupes to put it on stage, but also offers a glimpse of a typical model for the old days? [performance].? (5)                                                        27 This copy was originally in Qianlong?s collection, so when it became a collection of Zhuiyu xuan, the studio of the Jingju master Mei Lanfang?s, this copy was labled ?Neifu wuse chaoben (five-color scripts from inner court).? As it was reprinted and published under the name Qing neifu sise chaoben Shihou ji chuanqi (Four-color script of Shihou ji from the inner court of Qing Dynasty) in 2010, I will hereafter refer to it as Neifu version and the abbreviation for it is QNF. 30  Table 2 Zhezixi of Shihou ji published in miscellanies and qupu since Qing Dynasty Scenes in Huancuitang  Scripts 9 ?Qidu? (Extraordinary Jealousy) 10 ?Shangchun? (Appreciating Spring) 11 ?Jian Liu? (Admonishing Liu) 13 ?Naoci? (Farce in the Temple) Qing Dynasty ?1644?1912? Neifu 1735-1795 ?Liushi shuaijing? (Liu Breaks a Mirror) ?Chen Zao youchun? (Chen Zao?s Spring Outing) ?Dongpo mingyi? (Su?s Admonition) ?Jichang mengpa? (Chen?s Fears in the Dream) ZBQ28 1777 ?Shuzhuang? (Morning Toilette)  ?Guichi? (Kneeling by the Pond)  NSYWJQP 1792 ?Shuzhuang?  ?Guichi? ?Mengpa? (Fears in the Dream)   Republican China ?1912?1949? ZJLYQP 1922 ?Shuzhuang?  ?Guichi? ?Mengpa? ?Sanpa? (Three Fears) JCQP 1924 ?Shuzhuang? ?Youchun? ?Guichi? ?Sanpa? CZBXMD29 1927 ?Shuzhuang? ?Youchun? ?Guichi? ?Mengpa? ?Sanpa? MYQP 1933 ?Shuzhuang?  ?Guichi?  YZQP 1940 ?Shuzhuang?  ?Guichi?  People?s Republic of China ?1949? ? SKSHJ30 1979 ?Shuzhuang? ?Youchun? ?Guichi? ?Sanpa? ZFQP 1982 ?Shuzhuang?  ?Guichi?                                                        28 The miscellanies and qupu here are Zhui baiqiu, Nashuyin waiji qupu, Zengji Liuye qupu, Chuanzibei ximudan, Mengyuan qupu, Yuzhong qupu, Shangkun Shihouji, Zhenfei qupu. See appendix E for details. 29 This record is not based on any script but on Chuanzibei ximu dan (A list of plays performed by ?Chuan? generation actors) recorded by Zhou Chuanying in his book Kunju shengya liushinian (A sixty-year career in Kunju). This was based on the program of Shihou ji that was performed by ?Chuan? generation actors as a quanben (full play) in Shanghai?s Xiao wutai theatre during 1927. 30 This is a mimeographic copy printed by Shanghai Kunju Company in Feburary 1979 for its actors and actresses, but not published. The Shihou ji script contains three selected scenes: ?Shuzhuang?,?Youchun?, and ?Guichi?, while ?Sanpai? is printed separately as a zhezixi script. 31  The Neifu version represents the standardization of the husband-taming version of Shihou ji on the Kunqu stage. This version was passed down through generations of Kunqu actors and was performed with very little changes, as can be demonstrated when comparing subsequent scripts to performances on stage today. Therefore, it can be demonstrated that even by the Qianlong period, this four-scene Shihou ji was already mature and, like many other zhengben (standard scripts),31 finally ?took the place of the original full-length play.? (Luo 1986, 55) Shihou ji became a husband-taming play instead of a shrew-taming one. From then on, it was accepted more as a story between a henpecked husband and his jealous wife, which has already been shown by the two idioms that originated from this play. Wang Tingne?s thirty-scene play then became an an?tou ben, not a play for performance.  As can be seen from Table 1, in the four anthologies of the Ming Dynasty, the scenes selected were all published under the name given in the original play, because they were not yet established on the stage as independent. However, as found in Table 2, these scenes all gained their own names as zhezixi in the Qing Dynasty. As such they were recognized more as zhezixi from the Kunqu play Shihou ji than as scenes from Wang Tingne?s shrew-taming chuanqi. This all happened after the standard version of Neifu Shihou ji had appeared.                                                         31 Zhengben ?? is the way Ming and Qing Dynasty theatre troupes called their staged scripts, in contrast to the original chuanqi play, which was called an ?an?tou ben ??? (desktop play [i.e. for reading, not performance])?.  32  3.2 Zhezixi in the Four-scene Shihou ji The four scenes of Shihou ji (original scenes 9/10/11/13), after they were reframed into a new play that was printed in Neifu version and appeared on stage as a husband-taming play, also established their names as separate zhezixi. However, these four scenes were not equally popular in this form.  Over time, the two most popular ones have been and remain ?Shuzhuang? (Morning Toilette) and ?Guichi? (Kneeling by the Pond); Sanpa (Three Fears) was sometimes performed as a single zhezixi, but ?Youchun? does not appear at all in records of the famous scenes of Qing performers, as can be seen from the Table 3.  Sixteen famous Kunqu actors of are listed here, together with their representative zhezixi, as mentioned by various theatre lovers in critiques published during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.  Here only the zhezixi of Shihou ji have been listed. One can see that no matter which jiao?se (role-type) these actors specialized in, they were all famous for their performances in ?Shuzhuang?, ?Guichi? or ?Sanpa?. The reason that ?Youchun? is not mentioned is not because it was not performed or these actors didn?t know how to perform it, but because it was not sufficiently appreciated as a top-class popular zhezixi, hence actors could not build a reputation by playing it. Therefore, theatre lovers turned a blind eye to ?Youchun? when commenting on their favourite stars. The fact that they didn?t even bother to mention ?Youchun? showed that it had little importance on the Kunqu stage. 33  Table 3 Qing Dynasty Actors who were good at performance of zhezixi from Shihou ji Reviews Publishing Date Actors? Names Role Type32 Zhezixi from Shihou ji, that actors were famous for XHXY33 1794-179534 Wang Baishou xiaosheng  ?Guichi?  YZHFL 1795 Shi Yongtang zhengsheng ?Shuzhuang? ?Guichi?  RXKHJ 1803 Shen Siguan dan ?Shuzhuang? ?Guichi?  ZXG 1806 Wang Guilin dan  ?Guichi?  SPSZL 1860 Du Buyun dan  ?Guichi? ?Sanpa? Huang Chunquan laosheng  ?Guichi? ?Sanpa? Chen Lian?er sheng  ?Guichi? ?Sanpa? JBQY 1874 Shen Zhiqiu dan ?Shuzhuang? ?Guichi?  Cao Chunshan laosheng ?Shuzhuang? ?Guichi?  Zhu Lianfen dan ?Shuzhuang? ?Guichi? ?Sanpa? Xu Xiaoqiang sheng/dan ?Shuzhuang? ?Guichi? ?Sanpa? Lu Xiaofen dan   ?Sanpa? DXYL 1883 Chen San   ?Guichi?  Lu Xinlin   ?Guichi?  JTJXL 1887 Li Yannong xiaosheng ?Shuzhuang? ?Guichi?  Chen Sibao dan  ?Guichi?  Audience preferences are clearly revealed in this table, but the reason why some scenes were more popular than others can be found only through detailed reading and comparison of the staged play scripts and audience reviews.                                                       32 For more information of the role type system in Kunqu theatre, please see Table 5. 33 The actor and performance reviews here in this table are Xiaohan xinyong, Yangzhou huafang lu, Zhongxiang guo, Rixia kanhua ji, Shengpingshu zhil?e, Jubu Qunying, Dao Xian yilai liyuan jinian xiaolu, and Jutan jixiu lu. Please see appendix E for details. 34 Some of the dates in this table are drawn from the diaries and notes compiled in Zhang Cixi?s Qingdai yandu liyuan shiliao zhengxubian (Compiled historical materials of pear garden in Beijing during Qing dynasty). 34  3.2.1 ?Shuzhuang? (Morning Toilette)  Scene 1 of 4, ?Shuzhuang (Morning Toilette),? is developed from Scene 9, ?Qidu? (Extraordinary Jealousy); scene 3 ?Guichi (Kneeling by the Pond),? is from the original scene 11 ?Jian Liu (Admonishing Liu)? of the Huancuitang version. These two scenes haven not changed much in either the Neifu version or when they were developed into zhezixi on the Kunqu stage. All eight arias from ?Qidu? were performed with almost no changes to the lyrics:  Yijian mei, N? Linjiang, four Lan huamei and two Jie san cheng.  There are three main characters in ?Shuzhuang?: Chen Zao (sheng), Liu shi (dan) and a servant of Su Dongpo called Su yuangong (old male servant).35 The action of the scene covers one morning, after Chen has returned from Luozhong and is shocked by the ugliness of his four new concubines. Intending to please his wife, Chen volunteers to assist in her morning toilette.  Liu catches a glimpse of Chen making a face behind her back while she looks in the mirror. Chen explains that he is actually fascinated by her beauty and compares her appearance to one of the neighbours? wives. Liu becomes jealous and feels insulted, so she throws away the mirror,36 which is caught by Chen. He takes out a fan to cool Liu down, but this effort also turns into a disaster, because Liu senses the possibility of ?a mysterious relationship? between Chen and somebody else, as that fan is ?a gift from a young friend.? She tears the fan into shreds. At that point, Su yuangong comes with a message from Su Shi inviting Chen to accompany him on a                                                       35 The role type of this servant is recorded as mo in Huancuitang, changed to za in Neifu, and settled as a fu in the zhezixi, also called er?mian (secondry painted face).  36 This is the reason why, in the Neifu version, this scene on stage is named ?Liu shi shuaijing? (Liu throws the mirror [on to the floor]).  See Table 2. 35  spring outing. Liu would not let Chen go when she hears mention of Qincao, a courtesan. Chen swears that she has heard wrong and promises her that no women will accompany them. He even agrees that he will be caned one hundred times if there turns out to be courtesan present.  Though all the arias are retained in the stage version, there are a few lines added to the original script and changes in role type, especially as regards Su Dongpo?s servant. In the zhezixi, when questioned closely by Liu about the spring outing, the servant attempts to assure Liu that there will be no courtesans; he even swears that Master Su himself ?is still a virgin,? which is, of course, a poor choice of words, but an addition guaranteed to make the audience laugh. In the original play, the servant replies, simply, ?Please rest your mind. Even the Master Su himself has in his own life never been very pleased to meet women.? In the zhezixi, after Liu extracts Chen?s promise, she tells him to fetch a green stick from his studio and insists on striking him before he leaves. The servant happens to witness the caning and makes fun of Chen?s being henpecked on their way to meet up with Su. All that happens on stage helped to achieve the character transformation of Su yuangong from a mo to za, fu, or er?mian, all role types designating a comic character of the painted face type. In turn, this change foreshadows some of the imperfections in Su Shi?s role, even before the character comes on stage. It is not hard for the audience to predict that since his servant is not very well behaved, master Su himself is probably not a very respectable figure of exemplary virtue. 36  3.2.2 ?Guichi? (Kneeling by the Pond) In ?Guichi?, the three main characters are Chen (sheng), Liu (dan) and Su (mo), the same as in the original playscript, with only one character, a servant of Chen, added. All nine arias from ?Jian Liu? remained on stage as well: two Shengcha zi, two Yichun ling, four Liangzhou xu and one Weisheng. The plot can be summarised as follows: the morning following the spring outing, before Chen gets up, Liu complains about her husband?s lying and decides to punish him. Chen first tries to deny that there is such a person as a courtesan Qincao, but Liu exposes the lie by threatening to summon the servant as a witness. Chen then admits the existence of Qincao, but still denies that he had promised to be caned 100 times. Liu is enraged, but even before she starts to beat Chen one of her nails breaks37 on the cane and she decides to demand that Chen kneel by the pond. Chen kneels by the pond in the back yard while Liu is having a rest indoors. He scares the frogs away because he worries that their noisy croaking will make Liu suspect that he is complaining about her to others. After that, he falls asleep.  Su comes to visit Chen as he supposes that Chen will be punished after the spring outing. Without knocking on the door, Su enters the garden and is shocked at the sight of Chen kneeling by the pond. He pretends to be a deity who has come to save Chen, only to discover that Chen is complaining about his friend Su, but not the wife Liu. He decides to teach Liu a                                                       37 The ?nail breaking? scene appears in the dialogue of the original play, but without stage directions. On stage, it is performed with fixed movements. Can you provide details about the fixed movements? 37  lesson. First, he chides Liu, informing her that the wife should be obedient to the husband and follow his words. Next, he is stunned by her rejoinder that the problem lies with the husband, who does not behave properly. Su is driven out, but he comes back in again after talking to Chen at the gate for awhile.  Strategically, Su first comforts Liu by saying that Chen had promised that he would in future behave decently so there is nothing to worry about.  Liu is pleased by these words and asks a servant to serve Su some good tea. However, Su changes tack and suggests that Liu should let Chen marry a concubine, this being their only chance to have a male heir. Liu falls into a rage and asks the servant to take back the tea. She then tells Chen that the only possibility for Chen to have a young concubine is if he is willing to endure being caned by her 100 times a day until he is 99.38 Chen swears that he wants no concubine and that there will be no problem if they have no son. Liu drives Su away again.  The added character is the servant who brings tea. He first replies from the back stage to Liu?s request that he ?serve tea to Master Su,? and when he brings the tea on stage, the audience is already aware that Su would not have the luck to enjoy it, not only because Su is about to bring up a very improper topic concerning the concubine, which will surely offend Liu, but also because the character who brings the tea is a chou. Chou is a role type that diverts the plot momentarily in an ?opposite direction? (Luo 2000, 120), and it is a convention that what a chou does on stage will generate unexpected consequences. Once the servant brings the tea on a tray and says to Liu, ?Your ladyship, tea is ready.? Liu shouts, ?Take it back!? The chou is                                                       38 In Huancuitang, Liu says ?till you are 60.? The stage performance further exaggerates the punishment for comic effect. 38  shocked and in his trembling hands, the cup flips and rests on the tray up-side-down. He then sighs: ?I knew all along that Master Su would not have the luck to drink this cup of tea.? Adding this character does not really alter the singing arias or contribute much to the plot development, but seems to be designed to offer another opportunity for the audience to laugh at Su. 3.2.3 ?Shuzhuang? and ?Guichi? on the Court Stage The popularity of ?Shuzhuang? and ?Guichi? in the commercial theatre during Qianlong?s reign is evinced by the fact that they are the two scenes that got selected in Zhui baiqiu39, an anthology of the most popular zhezixi in theatre. Moreover, these two scenes were also very popular on the court stage. According to the Chuandai tigang (Catalogue of costumes), a general guide to theatre costumes during the Qianlong (1736-1795) and Jiaqing (1796-1820) periods that was printed in 1811, among all the 312 Kunqu zhezixi performed at court during that period and before, ?Shuzhuang? and ?Guichi? were the only two scenes selected from Shihou ji (Zhu & Ding, 118). There are several records of performances of these two scenes in palaces of the Forbidden City. In the 24th year of the Jiaqing Emperor?s reign (1810), the emperor watched these two zhezixi five times?on the 11th of the first month, Zhao Shanhui and Li Fu performed ?Shuzhuang? in the Fengsan wusi Palace. Each of the two actors was specially rewarded with a                                                       39 See Table 2. 39  small ingot of silver, weighing 5-qian and a hebao40 from the emperor for the quality of their performance (100). On the 26th of the same month, in the same place, Xi Qin and Zhao Shanhui performed ?Guichi? for the emperor (101). On 8th of the seventh month that year, the Jiaqing Emperor watched ?Guichi? again in the Fengsan wusi Palace, as performed by Zhao Shanhui and Li Fu (105). Then on 30th of the eleventh month and 22nd of the twelfth month, these two zhezixi were performed together twice in the Yangxin Palace, the residence of the emperor (110-111). Each time they were performed with three other zhezixi.  According to court records, Emperor Xianfeng (1851-1861) was also interested in these two scenes. On the 15th of the first month of 1856, he required that a transcription of the play scripts of ?Shuzhuang? and ?Guichi? be presented as soon as possible (262). He also watched ?Guichi? on the 7th of sixth month of 1861 at Da Jitai (the stage of great sacrifice) together with fourteen other zhezixi (302). On the 21st of eleventh month of 1880, Empress Dowager Cixi (1835-1808), the widow of Emperor Xianfeng who exercised control of China during Emperor Guangxu?s reign (1875-1908), also watched a performance of ?Shuzhuang? and ?Guichi? in her residence, the Changchun Palace (368). Taking into consideration that the performance was ordered by herself only a few days after her recovery from sickness, it seems likely that she attached special importance to them.   The Neifu version produced by a prince for the Qianlong emperor in the mid-eighteenth century shows that there were performances of the four-scene version of Shihou ji in court                                                       40 Qian is a traditional Chinese measurement of weight. It is also referred to as mace. One mace is 3.779936375 grammes. A hebao is a pouch or a purse, often with rich embroidery.  40  during that period. Therefore, these two scenes must have been performed at the Qing court for about a century. ?Shuzhuang? and ?Guichi? have often been performed, with the scene ?Youchun? in between omitted. This is because what happens in ?Youchun? can be presented as an an?chang41 and the audience would have no problem understanding the plot without it. It seems these two scenes are a condensed version of the four-scene Shihou ji in revealing the domestic relationship of the couple.  3.2.4 ?Youchun? (Spring Outing) ?Youchun? (Spring Outing) is base on Scene 10 ?Shangchun? (Appreciating Spring) in Huancuitang. Its name came from the Scene 2 (?Chen Zao youchun?) in the Neifu version. Though the plot of this scene happens in between ?Shuzhuang? and ?Guichi?, because those two zhezixi often got performed together onstage, ?Youchun? often was omitted and became the least performed scene. The other three scenes all garnered fame as great zhezixi on the Kunqu stage, as demonstrated in Table 3, while this one owes its stage existence to its status only as Scene 2 of Shihou ji on the Kunqu stage. Five out of six arias from the original scene are kept in the staged version: Manting fang, Rao Honglou, and both of the two Shiliu hua, but one of the two Qi Yanhuis is omitted because it is sung by Qincao, who is not a crucial character in this play. This omission may have been out of a desire to save time and enable performances of the play in one night.                                                        41 ?? (dark scene) refers to a part of plot mentioned in the actors? lines but not performed.  41  In fact, on Nov. 26th, 1925, when the ?Chuan? generation actors staged the quanben (full play) Shihou ji at Xiao Wutai theatre in Shanghai, the four-scene version contained ?Shuzhuang?, ?Guichi?, ?Mengpa? and ?Sanpa?. ?Youchun? was added about a year later when this play was staged again at the Da Shijie (Great World) theatre. It seems that with or without ?Youchun,? the quanben version of Shihou ji was accepted by the audience. This establishing of a performance practice is what Zhou Chuanying has described as ?buxi? (adding scenes): first learn from the Kunqu masters several classical zhezixi from a same play; if the plots of those scenes are not continuous enough to form a whole play, add one or two scenes from the original play to make the new version more complete (Zhou & Luo, 43). The scene or scenes added in are performed according to the original script, but they lack standardized stage traditions compared to the well-preserved zhezixi inherited by generations of actors. ?Youchun? might have its own stage tradition in the Qianlong period as the Neifu version suggests, but it was not included in Zhui baiqiu, the anthology of popular zhezixi of the same period. The stage tradition may have been gradually lost because of a comparatively low frequency of performances. From Republican era music scores, we can determine that the arias were also rarely sung by amateurs.42 Only one score selection, the Zengji Liuye qupu, includes ?Youchun? in its collection of zhezixi.  As noted above, for the ?Chuan? generation Kunqu actors, this scene was not indispensible in the quanben Shihou ji. In his performance guide for ?Shuzhuang? and ?Guichi?,                                                       42 Please see Table 2. 42  Xu Lingyun (1886-1966)43, a Kunqu scholar and amateur player, remarks that the performance of ?Youchun? in Suzhou Kunqu troupes was nothing special compared to that of the Gaoyang and Ningbo troupes.44 Though the style of Suzhou Kunqu troupes represented the mainstream of performance traditions, the performances of Kunqu troupes from other areas can also provide evidence for audience tastes at that time. Foyin, who does not appear in the original Scene 10 in Huancuitang, or in the music scores or stage script of ?Youchun? scene, would sometimes appear on the Kunqu stage45 as a self-invited guest who joins Chen, Su and Qincao. ?They would sit on the ground,46 drinking wine and composing poems? (Xu Lingyun 83), as suggested in the original play. Foyin would be ?played by a mo, wearing the standard costumes of a monk?(83). Gaoyang troupes perform the scene in a similar way, the only difference being that Foyin would wear a dignified pilu hat,47 which detail prompts the audience to consider that drinking and laughing are very improper behaviors for a Buddhist monk such as Foyin (84).                                                       43 Xu was a qujia, an amateur expert of Kunqu with great knowledge as well as singing and performing skills. He also learned how to perform several selected scenes from a Kunqu master Shen Yuequan (1865-1936), who specialized in the male scholar role type. 44 Gaoyang is an area in Hebei province. Troupes there performed plays in both Kunshan and Yiyang musical styles, so they would sometimes be called Kunyi troupes. Ningbo troupes refers to those troupes operating in Ningbo and Yongjia area that perform Kunqu in a distinctive local style. Both styles were different from the Suzhou Kunqu style, and both have disappeared. Then as now, the Kunqu troupes in the Suzhou area were regarded as more standardized and authentic, so they were referred to as Kunban (Kunqu troupes), while other troupes might have other names according to their special style or location to differentiate them from the Suzhou-style Kunqu troupes. 45 Foyin?s appearance onstage in the ?Youchun? scene seems to be only a temporary practice of the Republican stage. 46 ?Sitting on the ground? is not a literal description of the stage performance. On stage, the sheng, dan and mo sit on small stools. 47 Pilu hat is a hat worn on stage by the eminent monks. 43  The Ningbo troupe48 went even further in making Foyin a satirical figure. According to Xu?s account, this scene was called ?Youchun taodai? (Spring Outing Wearing a Gunnysack). Foyin was the main character and would be played by a fujing/baimian role type. All of the main characters, Chen, Su, and Qincao are boating on a lake49 for their spring outing while all the dan actors of the troupe are costumed as courtesans. After each courtesan approaches in her own boat, singing for the males, Su and Chen tip the singer. Needless to say, it is very improper for Foyin, a monk, to be present on such an occasion. Since he has no money, Foyin tips the courtesans with the belongings he has on him: his hat, coat, shoes, shirt?and so on. When all the courtesans have finished singing, Foyin is the one left on the boat, half naked. He begs the boatman for help and ends up wearing a gunnysack back home. It is a sarcastic response to Foyin?s always ?having a free meal? (84) as a mendicant monk.50 According to Xu Lingyun, the performance of taking off every piece of costume on stage might be borrowed from the tradition of the zhezixi Mituo si (Mituo Temple) from Pipa ji (The Lute) on the Kunqu stage (84). In that scene, the jing and chou have no money, but are so moved by the singing of the dan Zhao Wuniang that they take off all that they have and give to her, from their fans, coat, shirt, shoes, collar ?to their headbands and even their rankou (artificial beard).51                                                        48 It is very possible that Xu is talking about the Kunqu troupe from Yongjia, a city close to Ningbo. Or he might be referring to Yongju troupes, a different genre specific to Ningbo. 49 In scene 15 of the original Huancuitang version, Foyin is invited to go boating with Chen, Su and Qincao at Chibi (Red Cliff). The Ningbo troupe version of Spring Outing ?on a boat? likely derived from that. 50 There are also other sarcasms directed at the mendicity of Buddist monks on the Kunqu stage, such as a joke about how even tigers are afraid of monks? demands for alms in the frequently-performed zhezixi You dian ?? (Visiting the Temple Halls) in Xixiang ji??? (Romance of the Western Chamber). 51 The performance of Mituo si has almost vanished on the Kunqu stage. Only some of the ?ji? generation actors (???) in Suzhou can perform it. The script of this scene can be found in the first Volume (Volume Jin ??) of 44  However, the performance of ?Youchun? on the boat seems more closely to resemble a play originated from Suzhou tanhuang, a local theatrical genre of Suzhou, which was very popular in Jingju troupes early in the twentieth century. Titled Dang huchuan (Boats Paddling on the Lake), it features a chou who plays a stupid lecher and has all his belongings from clothes to shoes stolen while watching a beautiful boat girl. That play demonstrates to perfection how ?Lust does not overpower men, men surrender themselves to lust.?(Ding 303-304). The ?gunnysack? version of ?Youchun? staged by the Ningbo troupes is obviously designed to call attention to the inappropriate appearance of Foyin in such an entertainment involving many sing-song girls and courtesans. He may not be overpowered by lust, but he is punished for being on the scene and made the butt of humor. The fact that Foyin was played by a painted face clown role in this scene reveals the audience?s attitude toward this role: Foyin is not at all the decent and respectful Buddhist monk portrayed in the original play of Wang Tingne. What happened in Ningbo troupes was very different from what happened in the Suzhou troupes, and this offers some explanation for why this scene was not very popular mainstream zhezixi. The performance of the standard ?Youchun? lacked any special features and the audience might not want to accept Foyin as a respectable eminent monk, even though in the original play he commanded great powers that could bring Liu shi back from the underworld.                                                                                                                                                                                 Jicheng qupu????. 45  3.2.5 ?Sanpa? (Three Fears) Among these 4 acts, the changes that scene 4 ?Sanpa? underwent in transforming from the original scene 13 ?Naoci? of Huancuitang version are the most remarkable. As in Wang Tingne?s original play, the farce in the local court and the local earth temple52 are represented as occurring to Chen in reality, including the episode between the local magistrate and the local earth god. Though the comic effect is great, the absurdity of a man bringing an ordinary legal case before the earth god to judge is obvious. To put this scene on stage and keep the plots in the mortal world, the Kunqu performers over time changed the real meeting with the earth god into a fantastical scene that takes place in Chen?s dream. When Chen awakens, he recalls what has happened in the dream and concludes that the right thing to do to is to obey his wife. Zhao Jingshen found this version to be ?much more reasonable than [what happens in] the original act? because ?one dreams at night what one thinks in the day? (214).  In order to change scene 13 into an ending scene for the four-scene play, it was necessary to make some changes to the original script, especially the arias. The original scene 13 of the Huancuitang version has only nine arias in it, while in the Neifu version, scene 4 contains twelve arias, with five newly composed arias not included in the original play. As can be seen from the Table 5, nine arias were divided into two acts: arias 1 & 2 Bei duanzheng hao and Gun xiuqiu, were separated from the remaining seven arias and became a new zhezixi                                                       52 Please see Appendix B for translation of ?Naoci?. 46  called ?Mengpa? (fears in the dream)53. In the process of ?Naoci? changing into ?Sanpa?, it was first divided into two acts: ?Mengpa? and ?Sanpa?. ?Mengpa? contains seven arias, with the original first two arias from ?Naoci?, Bei duanzheng hao and Gun xiuqiu, plus five newly composed arias: Tuo bushan, Xiao liangzhou, Yaopian, Manting fang and Chao tianzi. The composer of these five new arias is unknown, but he (or they) must have been literati with profound knowledge of classical poetry, because the composing of Kunqu qupai (arias) follows very strict rules and forms of composition with respect to such matters as tonal pattern, rhyme scheme, and use of extrametrical syllables. As Kunqu music composition is based on the tone of each character, and the literary refinement of the lyrics, it would have been almost impossible for Kunqu actors, most of whom were illiterate, to compose or even adjust the lines. These five new arias point to the involvement of literati in the thematic shift in Shihou ji.   ?Mengpa? begins as Chen enters, sighing about being henpecked. Then he falls asleep. Everything that happens thereafter on stage is in Chen?s dream. It is very unusual that all seven arias of ?Mengpa? are sung by Liu, the dan, as she complains of her husband and his friend Su, and expresses her determination to bring Chen to the court to seek justice. In the last line of Chao tianzi, Liu sings, ?[s]eeing all these implements of punishment and clear submission, I guarantee that you will perceive my true ability this time.? Judging by the last aria, it seems that the couple has arrived at court by the end of this act.                                                        53 Please see Appendix D for translation of all 17 arias. 47  It is a common practice in Yuan Dynasty zaju that one character sings all the arias in a whole scene while the other characters have only a few lines of dialogue, but it is quite unusual to find this in Kunqu plays,54 which are based on Ming Dynasty chuanqi. Given that Chen is the dreamer in this scene, it is also not very reasonable that all arias are sung by his complaining wife, even with the excuse of his being henpecked. Because most of the arias in ?Mengpa? repeat the same theme, it is reasonable to abandon four of them and retain only three in the stage version, when this scene was merged with the ?Sanpa?. Nine out of twelve arias of the last scene are from ?Sanpa?, so it was often called ?Sanpa? instead of ?Mengpa?. (See Table 4) Table 4 Evolution of Shihou ji scene names from Huancuitang to Zhezixi  Huancuitang Neifu Zhezixi performed in Xiao quanben Scene 9 ?Qidu? ?Liushi shuaijing?  ?Shuzhuang? Scene 10 ?Shangchun? ?Chen Zao youchun?  ?Youchun? Scene 11 ?Jian Liu?  ?Dongpo mingyi?  ?Guichi? Scene 13 ?Naoci?  ?Jichang mengpa? ?Mengpa? ?Sanpa?55    ?Sanpa?  The second part of ?Naoci? became ?Sanpa?, which starts with the county magistrate entering with his yamen runner. Two arias titles [Lihua?er] were composed for the magistrate and the earth god as dingchang shi, or poems used for a zibao jiamen (self-introduction).  According to the Neifu version, these two [Lihua?er] would be sung, while in the zhezixi recorded in Zhui Baiqiu and other musicically notated scores, they are marked as being recited                                                       54 It is not entirely impossible for one character to sing all the arias in a zhezixi, but it is not a common practice. There are several zhezixi in Kunqu that are famous for being sung by only one character, but under most circumstances such scenes feature one of the leading characters.  55 The changes of scene 13 will be discussed in the following chapters. 48  (nian), not sung. This change was caused by the change of the role type of the two characters. In Neifu, they are be played by za, meaning they could be played by any role type, while in the zhezixi tradition they are played by the painted face comic roles. Rhythmic recitation of a poem can create comic effects, so it is a very basic and distinctive skill of the painted face role. Once the role type of these two characters was settled as painted face roles, the style of reciting the two Lihua?er arias was fixed. Shawei, the last aria of ?Naoci?, is sung by all three male characters (Chen, magistrate and earth god), who express their helplessness at being henpecked. It was abandoned in the Neifu version, its place taken by a newly-composed aria title [Qingjiang yin], which only Chen sings about how he awakes from the dream and learns from it that he should resolve to enjoy life as a henpecked husband.  The practice of having ?Mengpa? and ?Sanpa? as two separate scenes may have existed on the Kunqu stage for only a short period of time before they got merged into one under the name of ?Sanpa?. The seven arias recorded in Nashuying waiji qupu document the existence of the zhezixi ?Mengpa?, while the Neifu version of Jichang ?Mengpa? shows how the two were combined into one.  Although in Zengji Liuye qupu there is still a zhezixi titled ?Mengpa?, only three arias are recorded. This indicates that it could not be staged alone as a zhezixi because it is too short, and requires ?Sanpa? as the second part. As can be seen from Jicheng qupu and present-day stage performances, a zhezixi of twelve arias titled ?Sanpa?, which is very similar with the Neifu version, became the standard ending of the four-scene Shihou ji.  49  Table 5 Aria Changes from ?Naoci? to ?Sanpa?                                                        56 Abbreviations for Huancuitang, Cilin yizhi, Qing Neifu, Nanshuying waiji qupu, Zengji Liuye qupu, Jicheng Qupu. Please see Appendix E for details. 57 Please see Appendix C for a translation of ?Mengpa? from the Zhengji Liuye qupu. The ?Sanpa? is very similar to the second part of original ?Naoci?, starting from [Shua hai?er].  58 You yiti indicates that the qupai used is the same as the previous one.  Yao pian has the same meaning as You yiti. This is the term used in music scores of Kunqu in beiqu tao (a set of nothern qu), while in nanqu tao (a set of southern qu) the term used would be Qian qiang. 59 Two Lihua?er qupai are added in the Neifu version of Shihou ji as self-introductions sung by the magistrate and the earth god. However, in Zhengji Liuye qupu and Jicheng qupu published in twentieth century, both of the two Lihua?er are marked as ?gan?nian?, which means ?recite only?. Scene   Arias HCT56 1573-1606 CLYZ 1573-1608 QNF 1735-1795 NSYWJQP 1792 ZJLYQP 1922 JCQP 1924 ?Naoci? (Farce in the Temple) ?Naoci? ?Jichang Mengpa? (Jichang?s Fears in the Dream) ?Mengpa? (Fears in the Dream) ?Mengpa?57 ?Sanpa? (Three Fears) ?Sanpa? 1 Bei duanzheng hao Bei duanzheng hao  [Bei] Duanzheng hao    2 Gun xiuqiu Gun xiuqiu  Gun xiuqiu    3   Tuo bushan Tuo bushan Tuo bushan  Tuo bushan 4   Xiao liangzhou Xiao Liangzhou Xiao liangzhou  Xiao liangzhou 5   Youyi ti Yao pian58 Yao pian  Yao pian 6    Manting fang    7    Chao tianzi    8   Lihua?er59   Lihua?er Lihua?er 9 Shua hai?er Shua hai?er Shua hai?er   Shua hai?er Shua hai?er 10 Wu shan Wu shan Wu shan   Wu shan Wu shan 11 Si sha Si sha Si sha   Si sha Si sha 12 San sha San sha San sha   San sha San sha 13   Lihua?er   Lihua?er Lihua?er 14 Er sha Er sha Er sha   Er sha Er sha 15 Yi sha Yi sha Yi sha   Yi sha Yi sha 16 Sha wei Sha wei      17   Qingjiang yin   Qingjiang yin Qingjiang yin Total 9 9 12 7 10/12 10/12 50  4 Stage Conventions of Shihou ji  4.1 Basic Conceptions of Kunqu Theatre Both the zhezixi published in different xuanben and the xiaoquan ben printed in the Neifu version record the changes that Shihou ji has undergone. The characters and their relationships had already been modified once they got staged, and were settled once the audience approved the changes.  Changes to the plot recorded in print are the result of, not the reason for, changes on stage. A close look into the stage conventions of Kunqu will be helpful in understanding how a play could be transformed so drastically once it moved from the page to the stage.  Through his studies of traditional Chinese theatre and his long friendship with a ?Chuan? generation actor Zhou Chuanying, a Kunqu master in sheng roles, Luo Di found that the basic artistic elements of traditional Chinese theatre are: expose, phoniness, and reunion (shuopo, xujia, and tuanyuan). Expos? means ?uncovering everything to the audience [or keeping no secret from the audience]?. Phoniness means ?frankly telling the audience that everything in the play [that happens on stage] is phony,? while reuni?n means, ?serving the audience with a satisfactory ending? (2000, 11). These artisitic elements of Chinese theatre,  the representative genre of which is Kunqu, are formed under the basic conception that ?the audience is the GOD of traditional Chinese theatre? (2009, 11).  51  For example, in the theatre of Kunqu, everything is taken care of for the audience. There is no concern about what will happen next to the characters, or any confusion about the relationships between the characters. The audience has an omniscient perspective throughout the play, such that their attention is focused on the performance as are their critiques. Without a doubt, Kunqu is theatre for the audience. As Donald H. Shively has observed of Kabuki, ?[it] was never intent upon sustaining the illusion of reality? (Brandon, Malm and Shively 20), Luo Di finds that it is the same for Kunqu. As a highly conventionalized and stylied theatre form, Kunqu is not meant to be ?real?; because of this it does not have to conceal any secrets from its audience but can choose to reveal everything at the very beginning. Expos? thus includes the following conventional practices:  ?Fumo kaichang?: Before a play even starts, a fumo actor steps onto the stage to tell the whole storyline and even comment on the characters. ?Zi bao jiamen?: Each time a new character steps onto the stage, he or she gives a self-introduction that includes not only background information but also information regarding his or her nature.  ?Da beigong?:  During the performance, some actors step out of their characters temporarily to communicate with the audience as an actor, not as a character. On top of these techniques of vocal communication with the audience, the role type setting with its specific make-up and prescribed costumes for the character speaks visually and directly to the audience. Because of these carefully coded conventions with 52  representative meanings, costumes reveal not only the social status of the character but also comments on his or her character traits.60  Since costumes and makeup set up a role immediately, the first step to take when making changes to characters and their relationships is to assign them to the proper role types and choose for them the right pieces of costume, sometimes with artificial beard, to complete their zi bao jiamen. Of course, only the role type and costume setting that has received the assent of the audience would become a stage convention to be preserved and inherited by generations of actors. Even these formed conventions, if they cease to be accepted by the audience in a certain period, must be modified again. Therefore, changes of role type and costume, though designed by the troupe, actually speak on behalf of the audience.  It is a pity that a certain part of the audience for Kunqu has been mute in studies of it. Most of the materials used by scholars emanate from the elites in Ming and Qing dynasty and intellectuals in Republican China. It is extremely hard to find comments or theatre reviews from any lower class audience members, simply because of their high rate of illiteracy. However, there are some traces in the writings of the elite concerning the common people and their understanding of a certain play. For example, Yuan Yuling (1592-1674), who wrote the chuanqi Xilou ji 61(The western bower), once overheard his                                                       60 Please see Table 6 for more details of role type system in Kunqu.  61 Xilou ji is a romantic story between a young scholar Yu Juan and a singing girl Mu Suhui.  53  sedan-chair bearer?s comments while hearing a household performance of Qianjin ji 62(A thousand pieces of gold), ?why don?t they sing ?xiuhu chuan jiaoyu? [the pleasant voice of a (young girl) coming out of the boudoir) on such a romantic night? What is the point of performing Qianjin ji? ?(Hong 1090) ?Xiuhu chuan jiaoyu? is a line of an aria quoted from Xilou ji. Yuan Yuling must have felt amazed, perhaps also flattered, by the bearer?s familarity with his play and his stated opinion about ?a romantic play for a romanic night.?  Readers today should be glad to see this proof that Kunqu, in its golden era, was the theatre for almost everybody in the society. Even a man of a very low social status who very possibly was illiterate was a fan of this genre and could make relevant comments concerning plays that he had seen. The lack of comments about Shihou ji by the illiterate lower class of people is not because they were not in the audience or had no comments to offer, but only because their comments were not written down and published. However, they were no doubt a very important part of the audience that had a role in shaping this play as well as other plays on Kunqu stage throughout the four hundred years.                                                       62 Qianjin ji is a historical play about Han Xin?s experience from his youth until he became a strategic expert and powerful general of Liu Bang, helping Liu to establish the Han Dynasty. 54  4.2 Changing of Role Types in Shihou ji In the transformation of Shihou ji from print to performance, Kunqu troupes changed not only the characters and their relationships but also plot developments, by rearranging the role types and costumes of the three main characters. As a result, Chen Zao and Liu shi are more closely related on the stage. Categorized as sheng and dan63, the lead romantic roles, the antagonism between them is changed to romance. Originally designated as a secondary female role, Liu gains a higher position because of a change of costume to that of a leading female role. Contrariwise, Su Dongpo, played by the wai role, is isolated as an elderly outside intruder into Chen?s household. Chen?s choice to follow his wife rather than Su results in making Su a negative character. His role type as a dignified elderly scholar was degraded by changes to his beard and performance style. As soon as the union between the two males was dissolved, the theme of the play was no longer a ?wrestling match between males and females? (Cai 179), and the shrew-taming play was transformed successfully into a husband-taming play. Through the efforts of troupes, the play was staged in accordance with the audience?s taste, no matter how wildly it differed from the playwright?s version64.                                                        63 Please see Table 6 for the role type system of Kunqu theatre. This table is based on the description in Zhou Chuanying?s autobiography, and derived from his studies and personal understanding of the role type system. Only the basic items have been listed here. What happens on Kunqu stage is sometimes much more complicated that that.  64 Please see Table 7 for the changing of role types of all the characters in the Shihou ji from Huancuitang to zhezixi. 55  This character transformation was achieved through the change of role types of the three main characters from script to stage, with additional subtle modifications of the costumes additions to the stage performance beyond the written script. A close look at these role types, costume changes and performance additions will help to explain the way Kunqu troupes categorize Chen, Liu and Su and reveal their interpretation of these characters. The following analysis of a stage performance is based on a yin pei xiang (old audio with new performance) video65 of a 1961 audio record of the Kunqu masters Yu Zhenfei 66 as Chen, Yan Huizhu67 as Liu, and Zheng Chuanjian68 as Su. The transmission of this version of Kneeling by the Pond can be dated back to late Qing Dynasty.69                                                       65 The taped performance was accompanied by an older audio recording. The actors seen (Cai Zhengren as Chen, Zhang Jingxian as Liu, and Ji Zhenhua as Su) are all disciples of the three actors who are heard. As Kunqu is a genre in which all the singing and performing skills as well as character interpretations were passed on to disciples by masters through oral presentations and movement demonstrations, this version could be regarded as a faithful reproduction of the 1961 version, given the direct teaching relationship.  http://www.tudou.com/programs/view/qQ_zhhrMrvo/ 66 Yu Zhenfei (1902-1993) was the son of Yu Sulu (1847-1930), a master of Kunqu singing. Yu Zhenfei learned singing skills from his father, and was trained by Shen Yuequan (1865-1936), a Kunqu sheng master, to learn his stage performance.  67 Yan Huizhu (1919-1966), daughter of a famous jingju (Beijing Opera) elderly male role type actor Yan Jupeng, is a famous female role type actress of Jingju and Kunqu. She was the vice-president and instructor of Shanghai xiqu xuexiao (Shanghai traditional opera institution) from 1957 to 1966. 68 Zheng Chuanjian (1910-1996) was a famous Kunqu mo. He was trained in Suzhou kunju chuanxi suo (kunju education institution) as a member of the chuan zi bei (the chuan generation) . 69 According to Sang Yuxi?s record in kunju chuanzibei (the chuan generation actors of Kunqu), Yu learned ?Guichi? from his master Shen Yuequan (1865-1936) in Hangzhou in 1921. Shen was the son of a Kunqu sheng master Shen Shouling (1825-1890) and one of the disciples of a Kunqu sheng master L? Shuangquan(dates unknown) during the early period of Emperor Guangxu?s reign(1875-1908).  56  Table 6 Role types and subtypes in Kunqu  Makeup styles Hangdang (Role types) Jiamen (Subtypes) Characters Junban (hand-some make-up) dan zhengdan Married women, not romantic laodan Older women sandan/zuodan Young males before adolescence sidan/cisha dan Women assassins or women being killed, often played by actors with martial skills wudan /xiaodan /guimen dan Well educated, elegant and beautiful women of good family, very romantic, also called ?boudoir? dan liudan Lively cute young women, not as mature or respectable as wudan tie Secondary dan, sometimes be similar to liudan, or when there is a wudan as the leading role, a second dan of a similar role type but not as important will be tie sheng xiaosheng /jinsheng Leading male character in romantic stories guansheng Young or middle-aged males, often married, with official positions, sometimes the emperors or deities in guansheng role would wear beards qiongsheng/xiepi sheng Males in temporary poverty, but with great expectation in the future zhiwei sheng Male warriers wearing Lingzi Mo/laosheng mo Older males wai/laowai Males who are older than mo fumo Secondary mo, with a lower status than mo; or sometimes not playing any dramatic character, but appearing on stage in the opening scene to introduce the plots Tumian (Paint-ed face) jing damian/zhengjing Highly masculine males, often generals or high officials, with whole face painted in color other than white baimian/baijing Villains and traitors, with distinctive white make-up over the whole face, wearing rankou (artificial beard) except for the comic female role called jingdan lata baimian Painted face role with lower social position, with white make-up over the whole face with some painted wrinkles chou fu/er?mian fuchou Villains and traitors, with a medium-sized patch of white make-up covering the area around the eyes chou/xiaomian /xiao chou Humorous characters with the lowest social position, having a small patch of white painting between the eyes, often wear funny-looking beards. Chou might also play comic female role called choudan or caidan. za Small characters, with optional role types according to troupe needs 57  Table 7 Evolution of role-types among Shihou ji characters Time Ming Dynasty Since Qianlong period (1735-1795) until the present day Version Characters HCT70 & JGG CLYZ & XXP QNF &  SHJQW & SHJLSC 71 ZBQ ZJLYQP & JCQP &  MYQP & YZQP TGXYL KJBYYD KQCD & KQJBJC Chen sheng sheng sheng xiaosheng xiaosheng xiaosheng xiaosheng jinsheng Liu dan dan xiaodan tie dan tie sidan wudan wudan Su xiaosheng  wai wai wai wai wai laosheng Qincao laodan  xiaodan  xiaodan   liudan Su yuangong mo  za  fu   er?mian Cangtou in Scene 2 jing  za  mo   Baimian Cangtou in Scene 3   za chou chou   Baimian Magistrate mo mo za  mo chou  Fumo Magistrate?s Wife jing jing chou  jing   Baimian Earth God wai wai za  wai   Laowai                                                       70 Abbreviations are for Huancuitang & Jiguge, Cilin yizhi & Xuanxue pu, Qing Neifu & Shihou ji lian si chu & Shihou ji quwen, Zhui baiqiu, Zengji Liuye qupu & Jicheng qupu & Mengyuan qupu & Yuzhong qupu, Tingge xiangying lu, Kunju biaoyan yide, Kunqu cidian & Kunqu jingbian jiaocai 300 zhong. Please see Appendix E for details.  71 Here Shihou ji quwen and Shihou ji lian si cu are actually identical stone-block lithograpic printing copies published in Republic China. The texts are all handwritten. Because the content and format of the Republican version are almost the same with the Neifu Shihou ji,  with only a few wrongly written characters, this handwritten copy might be based on some other handwritten copy of Neifu version instead of based on the Neifu copy itself. Quwen is the copy with the original cover, in the Shuanghongtang collection of Tokyo University, while the ?lian si chu? is a copy in Fu Xihua?s collection, without original cover. The ?Shihou ji lian si chu? is actually on an added cover to it in handwritten characters. 58  Time Ming Dynasty Since Qianlong period (1735-1795) until the present day Version Characters HCT70 & JGG CLYZ & XXP QNF &  SHJQW & SHJLSC 71 ZBQ ZJLYQP & JCQP &  MYQP & YZQP TGXYL KJBYYD KQCD & KQJBJC Earth Goddess chou chou chou  jingdan   Xiaomian Zaoli za Not mentioned za  sheng   Laosheng Foyin      chou mo or fujing  59  4.3 Detailed Studies of Three Characters 4.3.1 Chen Zao Because of its husband-taming ending, when the new version of Shihou ji is staged today it is often regarded as a feminist play. For the 2009 production of a 3-scene Shihou ji by the Taiwan Kunju Company, a poster promoted the play as ?overthrowing modern male chauvinism and revealing how women in imperial China already had their day in the sun.?72 The feminist theme of Shihou ji, though widely accepted in the twenty-first century, is actually a misreading of the four-scene play.  The Neifu copy has indicated that this husband-taming version of Shihou ji must have taken shape during the Qianlong reign or earlier, at which time most Kunqu audiences were male. Female audiences entered the commercial theatre beginning in Republican China (1912-1949). Shi Tinghua73, a Jingju (Peking Opera) fan from Japan, described the situation of theatres in the Republican period in the following manner: ?female audiences were prohibited in the commercial theatres of Beijing. They were allowed recently during the time of the Republic, but their seats would be in a separated area upstairs, while the males were seated on the main floor.? (Shi, 125) Therefore, even with a completely different ending                                                       72 http://album.blog.yam.com/show.php?a=taiwanKunqu&f=6626088&i=10513305. 73 Shi was actually a Japanese theatre aficionado called ??? (Takeo Tsuji), who lived in China during the late Qing and Republican periods. As a lover of Jingju (Peking Opera), he for the most part published critiques of performance as well as studies of Jingju under his pen name Shi Tinghua ???, meaning ?listening to huabu (Jingju)?. 60  from the original Shihou ji, the four-scene version generated by Kunqu troupes and male audiences in Ming and Qing Dynasties is a play that, while perhaps offering a unique male perspective on domestic affairs, is not at all a feminist play.   In the original playscript, Chen is a sheng, the leading male role.  In the zhezixi script, he is also a sheng, a male scholar. The male scholar role is the most important role type in the five main role types of Kunqu.74 The Chinese character of this role type, ???, also has the meaning of ?happening? or ?causing to happen?. This designation implies that the character is the most important role of the whole play. Everything that happens in the play is centred on him and the development of the plot is based on his choices (Luo 1986, 64). In Shihou ji, therefore, it seems that his inability to control his wife is what makes the story happen. In ?Guichi?, however, it is Chen?s breaking of his promise to Liu shi (made in the previous scene ?Shuzhuang?) that has resulted in his being made to kneel by the pond. Chen?s friendship with the officious poet Su Dongpo, who invited him to go on a spring outing with the courtesan Qincao, led to Su?s admonishing Liu and angering her. In fact, Liu?s victory over Su is achieved, in part, because Chen does not choose to stand together with Su but yields instead to his wife. It would be unusual for the audience to think that in the male-dominated society of Song Dynasty China, the wife?s winning a debate with a famous literatus and official like Su had absolutely nothing to do with the support or protection of her husband. It is more                                                       74 The five role types are sheng (young male scholar or official), dan (female role), jing (painted face role), mo (elderly male role) and chow (clown-like role). See Table 6 for details. 61  likely that they would imagine that Chen?s willingness to be submissive to his wife is what grounds the play.  As recorded in Kunqu chuandai (costumes of Kunqu), Chen?s costumes are a set of very standard pieces for the young scholar: the headgear in Pan Bizheng?s style75, a xuezi76 with silk embroidery and pink costume trousers. Chen?s costumes show that he is a young scholar with no official position who is quite romantic. His immaturity and romanticism are shown by the light color of his trousers.   Chen is the key character in this play, and the plot develops according to his actions. As a sheng, Chen is also the character that the male audience would mostly identify with,77 as evidenced in theater critic Zhang Liaogong?s review of the Jingju master Mei Lanfang (1894-1961)?s performance of Shihouji: ?In Shihou ji?Chen Zao is the most important character. The famous actor Wang Lengxian was best in the role of Chen. Zhu Qiufen, who played Liu, assisted [Wang] in performing [The Lioness?s  Roar] and his performance rendered the show more delightful? (Zhang Liaogong 178). In another review of a performance of ?Kneeling by the Pond? by Gu Chuanjie78 and Zhu                                                       75  The headgear of this style is common for scholars with no official position. Pan Bizheng is the lead male character of the Ming Dynasty chuanqi play The Jade Hairpin (TJH). TJH was extremely popular on the Kunqu stage and Pan became one of the most renowned and typical romantic young scholar roles. Thus, the hat for young male scholar roles was named after him and is called Bizheng jin. 76 Xuezi ?? is a long coat, made of silk with or without embroidery, which both female and male characters wear under ordinary circumstances.  77 If a character is not very popular with the audience, he would not be staged as a sheng even if he is a scholar. Such a character might be staged as a fu to show the ambivalent attitude of the audience towards him. 78 Gu (1910-1965) was a sheng actor of the Chuanzibei (Chuan generation). 62  Chuanming, published in The Player?s Press (Liyuan gongbao) on November 5th, 1930, the author Jian Ying described Gu?s interpretation of Chen as a glamorous and unrestrained scholar who fears his wife because of love (Wu Xinlei 2005, 132). Obviously, Chen?s attachment to Liu is more important than his friendship with Su on the Kunqu stage, and his being henpecked is interpreted as a reaction out of love. Several lines are added to his stage dialogue to demonstrate his willingness to be obedient to his wife; this solves the problem between the husband and wife and adds romantic ?clat to the punishments, as when Liu pulls his ear or commands him to kneel.  In the stage performance of ?Kneeling by the Pond? by Yu Zhenfei, after being asked to kneel near the pond Chen performs a cabi79and proudly declares, ?I am quite good at kneeling (Gui shi beiren de bendeng na)!? (ZBQ 1931, 160) This added line, compared to the original reply from the Huancuitang version in the block-printed version (?Kneeling is easy,? guime rongyi.), has a much more comic effect and reveals Chen?s cheekiness. When Su asks angrily, ?How can you, a man, humble yourself to kneel to your wife?? ((Ji yi wei nanzi, zenke quxi yu furen?), Chen?s reply goes beyond that of the original script. He replies, ?I am quite happy to kneel to my wife. What concern is it of yours?? (Wo zigan quxi, yu laoxiong shenme xianggan?). These added lines, in which Chen claims to be ?quite good at kneeling? and ?quite happy to kneel,?                                                       79 Using the index figure of right hand to touch the top of the nose quickly from right to left is used as a conventionalized movement indicating happiness and pride on the Kunqu stage. 63  show that he has no problem with showing deference to his wife. In this manner, Su?s subsequent rebuke of Liu then seems officious and unwarranted.  After Su fails to overcome Liu in argument, Chen obeys Liu?s instruction to expel Su from their home. He comes back immediately to comfort his wife by massaging her back. Chen tries to persuade Liu not to cane Su again by saying, ?my dear wife, it is not right to beat Su. After all, he is too old.? (Niangzi, zizhan xiong shi da bude de. Ta lao le.).80 Su Shi is not at all a very old man. Chen?s sarcastic comment about Su here is obviously based on Su?s role-type as laosheng (elderly male) with a long beard, which is very different from the original character design of Wang Tingne, as suggested in his Huancuitang edition. 4.3.2 Liu shi In the original Ming Dynasty script, Liu shi is played by a dan, which means a leading female role; in the Qing Dynasty collection of zhezixi titled Zhui baiqiu (A Patched Cloak of White Fur), she has become a tie, or secondary female role. Kunqu troupes made Liu to be a secondary role. This indicates that in this instance the actors sincerely followed the playwright?s will of insulting Liu, as the secondary female role was normally not as graceful and dignified as the lead female roles in romantic plays.  However, the troupes? real comment on Liu?s character lies in the way she is costumed.                                                       80 This ?Su being old? claim is not from either the chuanqi or the Zhui baiqiu script, but preserved only in the oral performance on stage. Yu Zhenfei so includes it in the 1961 audio and all his disciples have followed him. I have not been able to trace the earlier use (if any) of this line.  64  The changing of Liu?s costumes suggests another possibility of interpreting this character on stage as a romantic and positive role. When the Beijing Opera master Mei Lanfang played Liu in a four-scene version of Shihou ji81 at the Sanqingyuan Theatre in June 1918, the renowned critic Zhang Liaogong was in the audience. He noticed that Mei wore a long, respectable coat (pi) during the first act, ?Shuzhuang?, to show the dignity of Liu, and changed to a short coat (ao) in the following three acts (179).  Because Liu would cane both her husband and Su in the following acts, wearing a short coat would be more convenient than wearing a long decent one. Zhang mentioned that Liu was a tie, a secondary dan, and according to the old tradition a tie should wear the ao, a short coat, instead of the long, respectable pi.  Zhang mentions that Mei wore a pi in the first scene was because Liu shi ?was a relatively respectable? character in that act, and changed to an ao in the following acts because ?there would be many conventional movements to make? and it would be ?inconvenient to wear a pi? (169). Zhang appreciated Mei?s efforts in improving the fundamental tone of this character. This can be taken as a piece of evidence that both the actor and the audience agreed that Liu?s aggressiveness toward her husband and Su shouldn?t change her image as a dignified lady. Pi is an element of a respectable costume, being an overcoat for the leading female role, while ao is a shorter coat for a female role that is not as respectable.                                                       81 As mentioned in Zhang?s notes, Mei?s shortened version of The Lioness?s Roar consisted of four scenes: Morning Toilette, Spring Outing, Kneeling by the Pond, and Three Fears. 65  Though Zhang mentioned an ?old tradition? of a tie character wearing an ao instead of a pi, this tradition cannot be easily traced very far in the history of stage conventions, perhaps not even to the late Qing Dynasty. In his description of the costume ao in Zhongguoju de zezhi (The Orgnization of Chinese theatre) published in 1928, Qi Rushan notes: ?The ao did not become an element of standard [Chinese theatre] costuming until the Guangxu Emperor?s reign (1875-1908)?  Women only wear this piece of clothing under very informal circumstances?any female characters before the Ming Dynasty shouldn?t wear this piece? It is a fashionable piece of clothing for the huadan only, while the qingyi and guimendan do not habitually wear it?only in the recent decades have there been some [characters] wearing it (48-49).   Qi?s description of the practice of wearing the ao makes it clear that it could not be an old tradition for the Kunqu Shihou ji, whose performance tradition can be traced back to late Ming, perhaps the first decade of seventeenth century. Liu being costumed in an ao must be a ?new? and ?recent? practice drawn from the Jingju stage of Republican China.  In Fu Sinian?s discussion of theatre reform,82 he also mentions that the costume Liu wears in the scene of ?[Chen Zao being] afraid of his wife? (meaning ?Guichi?) looks more like shizhuang (contemporary clothes) than other pieces of                                                       82 Fu was not an expert on traditional theatre but an initiator of theatre reform in Republican China. His interpretation of the traditional stage and conventions might not be correct, but his descriptions here supports Mei?s idea of ao as a piece of contemporary costume on the traditional theatre stage.   66  guzhuang (ancient costume), and ?wearing the contemporary costume makes it more appropriate [when presenting a henpecking story] ?? (Fu Sinian 162). Fu, a layman where Chinese traditional theatre was concerned, noticed how the short coat helped to create the image of a shrew on stage. However, the wearing of ao as a standard piece for the role type of tie seems to have been a practice begun in Republican China and lasting for only a short period of time. On the Kunqu stage, Liu was often staged as a more respectable dan with comparatively more decent costumes. If we rely on the memoirs of Zeng Changsheng (1892-1966),83 a Kunqu dan actor, Liu is clearly categorized as a fifth dan, a highborn lady in the boudoir, traditionally the leading role of a romantic love story who typically wears highly respectable costumes. According to Zeng, Liu?s main costume elements in ?Shuzhuang? are: a xuezi84 with silk embroidery and a long majia85 over it, with the sleeves rolled up (Zeng 36). In ?Guichi?, Zeng describes the costume as a pi with a xuezi worn underneath (37). The basic pieces of Liu?s costume, as suggested here, are comparatively longer and more elegant, and therefore more suitable for a sophisticated and decent lady. In Rixia kanhua ji (A Record of Appreciating Flowers Under the Sun) by Xiao tiedi daoren (Daoist of the Little Iron Flute), there is a poem composed by the                                                       83 Zeng was a dan actor of the Suzhou Quanfu ban (all luck troupe) during the late Qing dynasty and was invited to manage the costumes of the Kunju chuanxi suo (Institute for the Preservation and Transmission of Kunju) in 1926. 84 Chen wears a standard xuezi for male characters. The female style for xuezi is similar. The function of this piece is similar to that for a shirt, which can be worn along or underneath some long formal coats. 85 Majia is a piece of sleeveless in-house clothing worn outside the xuezi to indicate that the character is enjoying her leisure at home. It is not a costume for any formal situation. 67  author from the perspective of an audience member appreciating the beauty of the actor Shen Siguan when playing the character Liu in ?Shuzhuang? and ?Guichi?. It says: ?A few lines of poetry from Su Shi originated all these comic scenes. The lay Buddhist of Longqiu (Chen) suffers the reputation of being henpecked.  [She] who plays with the parrot even before doing her morning toilette, still has great charm.?   The audience found that Liu on stage was more like a pretty and attractive lady with ?great charm? than a dreadful shrew. Staging Liu as a decent fifth dan instead of a tie was predictably more popular with audiences, and thus the fifth dan was kept as a standard role type for her character. The changing of Liu?s costume from a short piece to a longer one is in accordance with the changing of her role type: if Liu is a secondary role, she should wear the short piece; if she is a respectable role, she should wear the longer piece. Zeng?s memoir of costumes on the Kunqu stage is based on his experience in Kunqu troupes throughout the late Qing dynasty and the Republic of China, and his evidence on the matter can be trusted. We can thus conclude that long costumes would have been the standard for Liu in his time. On balance, the suggestion is that during the late Qing, Liu shi was staged more as a graceful and dignified female character than as a shrew. This more uplifting image was achieved by Kunqu troupes and the role type of Liu was designated as that for the leading role of a romantic play during late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China.   68  Hua Wenyi, a student of both Zhu Chuanming86 and Yan Huizhu, tried to reconcile the two versions of Liu?s costumes. During the first part of the play, while Liu is with Chen at home, she wears a long sleeveless garment called majia on her xuezi. She then takes off this piece and changes to the formal long costume, the pi, when she meets Su.  This sleeveless piece of majia was used in the first part of the scene to make a distinction between the circumstances of leisurely chatting with her husband and formally receiving a guest of her husband.  The changing of the two pieces of costume in ?Guichi? was designed by Hua87 to show Liu?s different images as housewife and dignified hostess. She intended to give the audience a more complete understanding of Liu in this single zhezixi, because under most circumstances ?Guichi? is performed alone, not in combination with ?Shuzhuang?. Audiences would thus not often have seen Liu in both costumes. By experimenting with the costume change, she intended to create a more detailed and complete image of Liu, which echoed Mei?s efforts eighty-seven years earlier.  4.3.3 Su Dongpo Su Dongpo is a xiaosheng (secondary male role) in the original play script, which made him the same role type as for Chen. The playwright further reinforces the                                                       86 Zhu (1900-1974) was a famous actor in the Kunqu female role type. He was trained in SuzhouS kunju chuanxi suo as one of the Chuanzibei actors. He became an instructor in the Shanghai xiqu xuexiao (Shanghai Traditional Opera School) beginning in 1954. 87 This is based on several conversations I had with Hua Wenyi when I visited her at Los Angles in mid August, 2013. 69  proximity of Chen and Su by giving them similar characteristics: they are close friends and share almost the same attitude toward Liu. They thus form an alliance against the shrew. However, there is a rule of the Kunqu stage that all main characters appearing on stage in one scene must be of different role types. According to this logic, Su cannot be a xiaosheng, hence his role type is changed to a wai, also called laowai, a sub-category of the elderly male role mo.  Wearing a black beard, Su on stage is no doubt a sermonising elder of Chen and Liu.  The change of role type is not only for the purpose of following the stage conventions, but also serves to separate the viewpoints of Chen and Su: Chen, as a xiaosheng is almost invariably in a romantic relationship with a female on stage; while Su as an elderly character played by the wai never has to do with romantic associations. This places the two men in separate camps and can ally Chen with Liu against Su and his conservative principles. Su?s costumes could be in the standard purple or blue of elderly characters, while the style of his rankou reveals the Kunqu troupes? interpretation of this character. According to Xu Lingyun?s memoir, although a laowai such as Su would normally wear a man (full-style beard),88 what was traditionally worn by this character on the Kunqu stage was a cang san89 (grey beard in three tufts). Xu believed that Su should wear a                                                       88 Man is a style of rankou, or artificial beard, and is made of horsetail especially for the role type of wai in mo or for some of the painted face roles. The fullness of this style, to a certain degree, symbolizes the noble morality of the character or very old age (if white). The color of the rankou represent the age of the character: black, the youngest, white the eldest, and grey in between. 89 San is the more commonly used whisker style of beard used for mo; the character might be comparatively more gentle and frail-looking scholars or any other elderly male role.  70  cang man (grey full-style beard); the reason that Su often wore a cang san was because most of the Kunqu troupes had only white man and black man, and cang man was seldom prepared in the troupe as a regular piece (Xu Lingyun 90).  However, according to Zeng?s account, Su should wear a black full-beard (36), According to Xu, black man was one of the basic style of rankou owned by the troupes. The reality that Su Dongpo on stage, as a wai, didn?t wear the standard rankou, but a three-tufted beard might result from the troupes? intention of not making Su a standard elderly character of moral rectitude and perfection. By making him wear an improper rankou, the image of Su was, to some degree, impugned.  The downgrading of Su Dongpo?s beard style effectively changed his image from that of an eminent writer and righteous moralist into that of an officious and meddlesome old man.  The changes in costume accessories are not the only element that alters Su?s image on stage. Su?s performance increases his embarrassment. In the performance of ?Guichi?, for example, from the moment he steps on stage, his behaviour is improper for an eminent poet. He enters Chen?s home without knocking on the door, saying, ?As the gate is open, I?ll just go straight into the garden? (men?er kai zai ci, bumian jingru). He then sneaks behind Chen, who is kneeling by the pond, and eavesdrops. When Chen asks the deity to help him out, Su changes his voice and speaks to Chen from behind, ?It is I, thy rescuing deity!? (dajiu ni de shendao zaici).? He then hides his face behind a fan and suddenly removes it when standing in front of Chen, shouting ?mou!? to startle him.  71  Su behaves like a lowclass illiterate clown rather than a respectful elderly scholar and official, with this game of peek-a-boo. Upon hearing Liu shouting to Chen, Su is extremely frightened by her voice, facing the audience with his beard and water sleeves trembling wildly. Even his voice trembles while he tells the audience that Liu?s voice was ?just like the roar of a lioness (youru shihou yiban)?. Through this aside, Su brings out the theme of the play: the lioness?s roar. His image as a gentle and calm literatus was already altered on stage in the first half of ?Guichi?, even before he meets with Liu. He then tries to admonish Liu by citing the classics in order to impress her with the Confucian principle that a wife should obey her husband, but Liu replies with some other citations from the Confucian classics and then says, ?Respect toward the husband should not come only from the obedience of the wife; our dispute is because of the husband?s lack of righteousness in his behaviour? (qimei zhi jing qi du fu shun neng zhang, fanmu zhi xian zhi yin fugang buzheng).  Zhang Liaogong suggests in his review of Wang Fengqin?s performance that the actor performing Su?s character should nod his head upon hearing these words, because ?[Liu?s] statements do make sense and Su should be surprised that a shrew like her could be so knowledgeable and reasonable.? (170) The audience not only notices that Su has lost the first round of the argument, but according to Zhang the actor should also do a more distinctive performance to show not only the result of the debate but also Su?s recognition of Liu?s eloquence.  Each time Su wants to teach Liu a lesson, Chen tries to stop him, but Su always 72  replies, ?There is nothing to worry about as long as you have me by your side (bubi danxin, youwo zaici).? However, when Liu raises her cane to strike, Su sneaks away and hides himself behind the seats, leaving Chen the trouble of calming his enraged wife.  As this happens twice, Su?s irresponsibility and Chen?s credulity become deeply implanted in the audience?s mind.  According to Zhang Liaogong?s account, there was a satirical tradition on the Kunqu stage that revealed the audience?s opinion of Su. The severely henpecked county magistrate in ?Sanpa? would be played by the same actor who played the part of Su in previous acts, so the audience would see the actor yielding to the curses and beatings of an ugly shrew wife. Although technically this is a separate character, there will certainly be a mental association (Zhang Liaogong, 170). In the humorous intertwined fights of the three couples, the dignity and righteousness of Su the poet would be dissolved completely in the audience?s laughter. Though Su is notmocked like Foyin as portrayed in ?Youchun? by the Ningbo troupes, he is still a character who tries to ?separate? the couple and destroy their ?tuanyuan? (amity) and who therefore deserves the audience?s rebuke.  73  5 Who Holds the Power The Jingju master Cheng Yanqiu (1904-1958) once criticised some chuanqi plays in the following way: ?[They] merely serve the subjectivity of the literati but forget the needs of the audience? (150). The same problem lies in the original version of Shihou ji, in which the playwright Wang Tingne tries to promote his model of the ideal relationship between husband and wife, without even bothering to consider male pride.  However, the problem seems to have been resolved on the Kunqu stage by the practice of selecting scenes to be performed separately. The perfection of a play was achieved by the joint efforts of the actors and audience. Troupes formed a new xiao quanben according to the audience?s taste. Their efforts to reframe a new play, according to Lu Eting, can be divided into three categories: ?selecting scenes, removing some of the arias, and editing the dialogue.? Among these, the last ?is almost equal to a kind of creation? (1980, 108). All three kinds of editing can be found in the conversion of Shihou ji into a four-scene play, by comparing the original chuanqi text to those preserved in drama miscellanies. On top of those changes, the design of role types, costumes and performance skills, all of which encode meanings according to theatrical convention, also have crucial importance in forming a new play.  Though this new play derives from the original chuanqi, it develops its own interpretation of the plot and characters, according to norms and values that can differ sharply from the original chuanqi. 74  In the process of scene selectiong and plot reframing in Kunqu, audiences were not bystanders. Without a doubt it was the actors who dealt with the technical problems, but no doubt the audience?s preferences also determined what changed and what would be kept on stage. This is similar to what happened in the Kabuki theatre: ?Virtuoso actors require virtuoso audiences to appreciate their skill, and in this sense the Kabuki audience forms part of the performance. Unless an actor can be sure that a slight change in kata will be noticed and appreciated, there is no temptation to study and vary the parts.?? (Keene 21)  The theatre of Kunqu is no doubt an actor-centered one, as pointed out by Lu Eting and others, but it is in many ways also an audience centred one. Once the selected scene system came into being, power in the theatre shifted from the elite playwrights who owned their own troupes to the actors and audiences of the commercial theatre, which emerged in the Qing dynasty. What the audience preferred would be encouraged, and performances of a play would be maintained on stage as long as audiences were content to watch them. What shaped the Kunqu theatre was the audience. The troupes and actors would be able to share power with the audience as long as their performances were approved and appreciated. In that sense, the audience is the god of the theatre, as Luo Di has said. Even after the formation of the ?complete? version of Shihou ji, among the four zhezixi that comprised it, the most popular one has been ?Guichi?, in which Liu-shi 75  actually wins the debate against Su Dongpo by virtue of her own wit and knowledge. The audience chose that scene for its extraordinary theatricality, as well as for the unique idea of ?tuanyuan? as a domestic choice based on mutual understanding and consent between the couple. The selection of scenes found in drama miscellanies, as well as performance reviews and comments on actors, all seem to show that when audiences wanted to watch a ?complete? version of Shihou ji they prefered the four-scene version, and this led to the disappearance of the thirty-scene chuanqi that Wang Tingne had written from the stage. When actors only had time for two zhezixi, they went for ?Shuzhuang? and ?Guichi?, which made these the most frequently staged zhezixi of Shihou ji.  If there was time for only one scene, the choice has been ?Guichi.?  ?Guichi? is thus the most representative zhezixi in Shihou ji, in terms of both its theatricality and its subject?the revelation of the unique relationship between Chen and Liu. Frequency of staging tells a lot about the audience?s preference. Part of the reason that ?Naoci? was changed into ?Sanpa? and became the ending of the play was because it perfectly followed the values encoded in ?Guichi?. At the end of ?Guichi?, Su Dongpo is driven out by Chen according to Liu?s instruction; that is the ?tuanyuan? of the sheng and dan.  Therefore, the xiao quanben Shihou ji, as an enlarged version of ?Guichi?, satisfied the audience in following the ?Guichi? model. 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Wenhua yichan????, 2 (2009): 64-68, 75. Taisho Tripitaka Vol. 12, No. 353 Shengman shizihou yicheng dafangbian fangguang jing????????????? (The Sutra of Queen Sr?m?l? ). Trans. Gunabhadra (394-468). http://www.cbeta.org/result/normal/T12/0353_001.htm Taisho Tripitaka Vol. 14, No. 580 Fo shuo zhangzhe n? An Tizhe Shizihou liaoyi jing?????????????? (The sutra of Buddha talks about an elder?s daughter An Tizhe?s understanding of the lion?s roar). Translator unknown. http://www.cbeta.org/result/normal/T14/0580_001.htm  Wang Ban. Laughter and Tears: Translations of Selected Kunqu Dramas. Beijing: Foreign Language Press, 2009. Wang Jilie ???, Comp. Yuzhong qupu ???? (Dramatic scores for the masses). 8 vols. Shanghai: Shangwu yinshuguan, 1947.  Wang Jilie ??? and Liu Fuliang ???, comps. Jicheng qupu????(Assembled dramatic scores). 32 vols. Preface dated 1923. Shanghai: Shangwu yinshuguan, 1947. Wang Tingne ???. Huangcui tang xinbian chuxiang Shi hou ji?????????? (Newly composed and illustrated The Lioness's Roar of Huancui Studio). Wanli (1573-1620) woodblock edition.  Wang Tingne???. Shihou ji??? (The lioness's roar). Comp. Mao Jin??. Late Ming Jiguge??? edition. Reprinted in SBXQCK. Vol.15.  _____. Shi hou ji??? (The lioness?s roar). Annot. ???. In Liushi zhong qu pingzhu?????? (Sixty southern dramas, critically annotated). Vol. 20. Changchun: Jilin renmin chubanshe, 2001 _____. Shuang lie ji??? (The valiant couple) and Shi hou ji???(The lioness?s roar). Annot. Huang Biao??. In Liushi zhong qu pingzhu?????? (Sixty southern dramas, critically annotated). Vol. 20. Changchun: Jilin renmin chubanshe, 2001. Wang Wenzhang???. Fu Xihua cang gudian xiqu zhenben congkan tiyao?????????????? (Abstract of the collectanea of rare books of classical dramas collected by Fu Xihua). In Fu Xihua cang gudian xiqu zhenben congkan????????????. 82  Comps. Wang Wenzhang??? and Liu Wenfeng???. Vol. 10. Beijing: Xuyuan chubanshe, 2010. Wang Zhizhang???. Zhongguo jingju biannianshi??????? (Chronicle of China?s Beijing Opera). Beijing: Zhongguo xiju chubanshe, 2003. Watson, Burton. The Columbia Book of Chinese Poetry: from early times to the thirteenth century. New York: Columbia University Press, 1984. Wu Mei ??. Guqu zhutan?Zhongguo xiqu gailun???????????? (Small talks on drama?a general discussion of Chinese theatre). Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe, 2000. Wu Mei??. Wu Mei jiang ciqu ????? (Wu Mei?s essays on poetry and drama). Nanjing: Fenghuang chubanshe, 2009. Wu Xinlei???, Yu Weimin ???, and Gu Lingsen???, eds.  Zhongguo Kunju dacidian ??????? (Great dictionary of Chinese Kunqu opera).  Nanjing: Nanjing daxue chubanshe, 2002. Wu Xinlei ???. Ershi shiji qianqi Kunqu yanjiu?????????? (Research on early twentieth-century Kunqu). Shenyang: Chunfeng wenyi chubanshe, 2005.  Wu Yenna. The Chinese Virago: A Literary Theme. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995. Xie Yongjun???. Fu Xihua gudian xiqu jianzheng????????? (Notes on Fu Xihua?s collection of classical drama). Beijing: Xueyuan chubanshe, 2010. Xinding shidiao Kunqiang Zhuibai qiu????????? (Newly edited dramas in the popular Kun style, A patched cloak of white fur). Comp. Wanhua zhuren???? and Qian Decang???. 1777 Hongwen tang ??? edition. Reprinted in SBXQCK. Vols. 58-72. Xinjuan xiuxiang pingdian Xuanxuepu????????? (Newly engraved, illustrated Dark snow collection, with punctuation and evaluative commentary). 4 vols. Chongzhen (1628-1644) edition. Comp. Chulan Renren????. Reprinted in SBXQCK. Vols. 50-51. Xinke Jingban qingyang shidiao Cilin yizhi ???????????? (Newly engraved capital imprint of  A branch in the forest of song in the popular Qingyang style). 4 vols. Wanli (1573-1620) woodblock edition. Comp.Huang Wenhua ???. Reprinted in SBXQCK. Vol. 4. 83  Xu Lingyun???. Kunju biaoyan yide?????? (My minor success in Kun Opera performance). Ed. Guan Ji'an??? and Lu Jianzhi???. Suzhou: Suzhou daxue chubanshe, 1993. Originally published in 3 vols. Shanghai: Shanghai xinwenyi chubanshe, 1959. Yasuji Toita and Don Keene. Kabuki, the popular theatre. New York: Walker/Wealthhill, 1970. Ying Guishen???. Zengji Liuye qupu?????? (Dramatic scores of Liuye, augmented and edited). Ed. Zhang Yushun???. 1922 stone plate edition published by Shanghai Zhaoji shuzhuang????. Reprinted. 24 Vols. Shanghai: Jiaojing shanfang, 1929. Yue Lu yin??? (Sounds drenched in moonlight). Wanli(1573-1620) woodblock edition. 4 vols. Comp. Lingxuzi???. Reprinted in SBXQCK. Vols. 15-16. Zhenfei qupu???? ([Yu] Zhenfei?s dramatic scores). Comp. Yu Zhenfei ???. Shanghai: Shanghai wenyi chubanshe, 1982.  Zeng Changsheng ???, Xu Lingyun???, and Bei Jingmei ??? eds. Kunju chuandai. di yi ji???? ??? (Costumes of Kun Opera). Vol. 1.  Suzhou : Suzhou shi xiqu yanjiu shi, 1963. Zhang Cixi ???. Qingdai yandu liyuan shiliao zhengxubian???????????(Compiled historical materials of the Pear Garden in Beijing during the Qing dynasty). Beijing: Zhongguo xiju chubanshe, 1988. Zhang Liaogong???. Tingge xiangyinglu ????? (A record of listening to songs and recalling the images).  Tianjin: Tianjin shuju, 1941. Zhao Jingshen???. Xiaoshuo xiqu xinkao?????? (New textual researches on novels and dramas). Shanghai: Shijie shuju, 1943. Zhou Chuanying??? and Luo Di ??. Kunju shengya liushinian??????? (A sixty year career in Kunju). Shanghai: Shanghai wenyi chubanshe, 1988. Zhou Hui ??. Jinling suoshi, Xu Jinling suoshi, Er xu Jinling suoshi ????????????????? (Trivial matters in Jinling , Continuation of Trivial matters in Jinling, second continuation of Trivial matters in Jinling). Nanjing: Nanjing chubanshe, 2007. Zhou Mingtai???. Daoxian yilai liyuan jinian xiaolu?????????? (Annual record of the Pear Garden since the Daoguang and Xianfeng periods). Reprinted as Jingju 84  bainian suoji?????? (Record of one hundred years of Jingju). Taibei: Zhuanji wenxue chubanshe, 1974. Zhu Jiajin??? and Ding Ruqin???. Qingdai neiting yanju shimo kao????????? (Textual researches on opera performance history in the imperial palace of the Qing dynasty). Beijing: Zhongguo shudian, 2007.  Published Audiovisual Materials Yu Zhenfei???, Yan Huizhu???, and Zheng Chuanjian???, Zhongguo jingju yinpeixiang jingcui: Shihou ji Guichi??????????????? (The Best of Chinese Peking Opera matching old audio records to video recordings: ?Kneeling beside the pond,? from  The lioness's roar). VCD. Tianjin: Tianjingshi wenhua yishu yinxiang chubanshe, 2004. Yue Meiti ???, Zhang Jingxian???, and Gu Zhaolin???. Kunju: Shihou ji,  Muyang ji??????, ??? (Kun Operas: The lioness?s roar & The tale of the shepherd). DVD. Shanghai: Shanghai shengxiang chubanshe, 2008.  Online Audiovisual Materials Unknown. "Kunqu Shihou ji Yue Meiti Zhang Jingxian? ?????????? ???  (Kunqu?s The lioness?s roar by Yue Meiti & Zhang Jingxian). Digital video, 2012. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K7x6hxfB-10 (accessed 9 Sep 2012) Yue Meiti???.?Shihou ji guichi de biaoyan? ????????? (Performance of ?Kneeling by the pond? from The lioness?s roar). Digital video of lecture at Hong Kong City University, 2010. http://www.cciv.cityu.edu.hk/video/player.php?video=http://144.214.148.63:8080/art/2009-2010-s/yue_meiti/video-yue_meiti-2-high.flv (accessed 10 Sept 2012) Yue Meiti???. ?Shihou ji shuzhuang de biaoyan? ????????? (Performance of ?Morning toilette? from The lioness?s roar). Digital video of lecture at Hong Kong City University. 2010. http://www.cciv.cityu.edu.hk/video/player.php?video=http://144.214.148.63:8080/art/2009-2010-s/yue_meiti/video-yue_meiti-1-high.flv (accessed 10 Sept 2012)  85  Appendices Appendix A: Scene Summaries for Huancuitang Shihou ji It is a pity that the whole chuanqi of Shihou ji has not yet been translated into English. These summaries are based on the original copy of the 30-scenes Shihou ji published by Wang Tingne in his Huangcuitang collection in the early seventeenth century.  The Jiguge version of Shihou ji, which was published in 1645, is essentially a reprint of the Huancuitang edition with only some slight differences of wording. As the plot is the same, I have only indicated where there are variances in scene titles between the two versions.   Part One Scene 1  Synopsis (Tigang?? , Tizong ?? in Jiguge) The mo gives the outline of the play.  Scene 2  Farewell (Xubie ??)  6 arias Chen Zao takes leave of his wife, Liu shi, and sets off from his hometown Huangzhou to the capital Luozhong. He plans to ask his friend L? to help him seek an opportunity to start an official career.  Scene 3 Visiting a Friend (Fangyou ??) 8 arias L? is not in Luozhong, having been sent on a diplomatic mission. Chen Zao visits his friend Su Shi and Su?s lover Qincao, a courtesan.  Scene 4 86  Lodging at a Temple (Zhuxi??) 7 arias The Buddhist monk Foyin arrives in Huangzhou and puts up at the Dinghui Temple. A little monk complains to Foyin that he has been taken advantage of by his master, the abbot of this temple. Foyin, indifferent to the monk?s laments, instructs the little monk to cultivate himself according to the religious doctrine.  Scene 5 Luxurious Outing (Haoyou ??, Xiayou?? in Jiguge, meaning Outing with the Courtesans) 8 arias Chen Zao takes a luxurious excursion with several courtesans and meets Su and Qincao on the road. The three enjoy themselves.  Scene 6 Recalling with a Letter (Shuzhao ??) 6 arias Liu hears from an old servant about Chen?s dissipated life in Luozhong and sends a servant with a letter to call Chen back home..   Scene 7 Welcome-Back Banquet  (Guiyan ??) 7 arias Chen receives Liu?s letter. He is frightened at first but is glad when the servant mentions that Liu may already have obtained several concubines for Chen. At the welcome-back banquet, Liu introduces to Chen his four new concubines, whose ugliness astonishes him. Chen regrets returning home.  Scene 8 Talking about Zen  (Tanchan ??) 8 arias 87  Su Dongpo is demoted to a position in Huangzhou. Foyin, Chen Zao and Qincao come to visit and celebrate the construction of his new cottage. Their talk starts from Zen but digresses to the subject of henpecking. Chen swears that he is not henpecked and that his wife is very obedient.     Scene 9 Extraordinary Jealousy  (Qidu ??) 8 arias One day, Chen offers to assist Liu in her morning toilette. He praises her beauty by comparing her to a neighbor?s wife, causing Liu to feel jealous; she throws the mirror away. Chen then uses a fan to cool her down. The fan happens to be a gift given to Chen by ?a young friend?, so Liu tears the fan because it seems to be a token of a suspicious relationship. A servant arrives with an invitation from Su Dongpo for Chen to accompany him and Qincao on a spring outing. Chen promises to Liu that there will be no courtesans in the group and agrees to be caned 100 times if he proves to be lying.  Liu insists on caning him at least once before he leaves to remind him of his promise. It happens that Su?s servant sees the scene of Chen being caned, and mocks Chen for being henpecked.Though the title would be changed to ?Morning Toilette? (Shuzhuang ??), when performed on the Kunqu stage as a zhezixi, the plots and arias of this scene would remain unchanged. Only a few lines of dialogue were changed. It is also the first scene of the four-scene version of Shihou ji. A translation of it can be found in Wang Ban?s Laughter and Tears as scene 1, ?At Her Coiffing?, in As the Lioness Roars. (110-127).   Scene 10 Appreciating Spring  (Shangchun ??) 6 arias While Chen, Su and Qincao are enjoying themselves outside the city, an old servant sent by Liu arrives to spy on Chen and remind him of his promise. Chen kneels down and begs him to keep the secret. Su tells Qincao that Chen must be henpecked, according to what his servant has reported to him. After Chen?s servant leaves, Su makes fun of Chen?s fear of 88  his wife while playing a drinking game and composing poems on the theme of the henpecked husband. Chen tries to defend himself and says his wife is very obedient. This scene is scene 2 of the four-scene play and is called ?Spring Outing? (Youchun ??). The stage script is also very similar to the original scene with only an aria sung by Qincao omitted. For a translation see Wang Ban, Laughter and Tears, 128-143.   Scene 11 Admonishing Liu (Jian Liu ??) 9 arias The next day of the spring outing with Su and Qincao, Chen is punished by Liu by being forced to kneel by the pond in their back yard. Su is shocked at Chen?s obedience to his wife when he pays him a visit. He tries to teach Liu a lesson about the proper behavior of a woman but is defeated by her arguments. After being driven away by Liu, Su returns and tries to convince Chen to marry a concubine so that he might have a male successor. Liu is annoyed by his suggestion and sends him off again. Su decides to take revenge.  This is the most popular zhezixi of Shihou ji and the title, ?Kneeling by the Pond? (Guichi ??), is almost a representative of the whole play. It serves as scene 3 in the four-scene version. Only a few lines of the dialogue are changed in the staged scripts and all the original arias are kept on stage. See Wang Ban, ?Kneeling by the Pond?, 144-175.  Scene 12 Admonishing the Maid (Xunji ??) 4 arias Su tells his maid Xiuying that he will give her to Chen and wishes that she can bear a son for Chen?s family.  Scene 13 Disputes in the Temple (Naoci ??) 9 arias Liu brings Chen to the county yamen and accuses him of not being loyal to his wife. The magistrate first wants to punish Liu for not being a submissive wife, only to be beaten by 89  his own wife. The two couples then visit the local temple to ask the earth god to try the case. The earth god is on the side of the husbands until the earth goddess, his wife, appears and beats him. The case dissolves into farce as the three wives beat their husbands. This scene is the fourth scene of the shortened version of Shihou ji on the Kunqu stage. What happens in the court and temple in the original play is changed into a dream on stage, and when Chen awakens from the dream, he is converted into being an obedient husband. As a zhezixi, this scene is often referred to as ?Three Fears? (Sanpa??) or ?Fears in a Dream? (Mengpa ??). Sometimes, the first half is ?Fears in a Dream? (3 arias), and the second is ?Three Fears? (6 arias). The script of scene 4 in Wang Ban?s translation, titled ?A Dream? (Meng Wu ??) has been changed drastically from both the original scene and the staged script standardized on stage in the Qing Dynasty and Republican period, so it cannot be taken as a standard ending scene of Shihou ji. See Appendix B for translations of all seventeen arias of ?Mengpa? and ?Sanpa?, and Appendix C for a translation of ?Naoci?.  Scene 14 Giving a Concubine (Zengqie ??) 6 arias Su invites Chen to his home and makes him marry Xiuying. Chen dares not take her home and installs her in one of his properties close to his own house.  Scene 15 Boating at Red Cliff (Fanbi ??, Chibi ?? in Jiguge) 8 arias Su invites Foyin, Qincao and Chen to go boating at the Red Cliff. Chen arrives late but has to leave early because Liu has ruled that Chen must come home before the water spilled on the floor dries and the incense burns down. Su and Qincao make fun of Chen?s being henpecked before letting him leave. Qincao asks Foyin to teach her Zen Buddhism and the latter agrees to take her on as a disciple.  90  Part Two Scene 16 Carrying a Lamp on One?s  Head  (Dingdeng ??) 10 arias Chen is late getting home, since the incense has burnt down and the water has dried. His punishment is to sit with a lamp on his head for a whole night. The next morning, Liu asks Chen to review his books in the study but Chen escapes to meet Xiuying. Liu becomes suspicious and finds out about Chen?s secret concubine by deceiving the old servant.   Scene 17 Becoming a Sheep  (Bianyang ??) 6 arias To prevent Chen from visiting his concubine again, Liu ties a string to his ankle. She holds the other end of the string to make sure he is at home all the times. A wizard passing by replaces Chen with a sheep and tells Liu that this is because Chen?s ancestors have become annoyed by her behavior. They will refuse to let Chen transform back to human form if she does not curb her jealousy. Liu is frightened and agrees to fast and stay indoors for three days.   Scene 18 Secret Pleasure  (Toule ??) 8 arias During these three days, Chen enjoys himself at Xiuying?s place. He complains to Xiuying at length about his wife, while the latter tries to comfort him.  Scene 19 Returning to Human Form  (Fuxing ??) 9 arias The wizard brings Chen back and makes Liu believe he has suffered during the three days of her fast. Chen demands that he be allowed to bring Xiuying 91  home. Once Liu refuses, he pretends that he w ill transform into a sheep again. Liu gives in.     Scene 20 Striving for the Husband?s Favor  (Zhengchong ??) 6 arias Two devils, Oxhead and Horseface, are sent by Yama to take Liu?s soul away to the underworld to be punished for her shrewishness . Liu is jealous that Chen favors Xiuying and quarrels with them both. She suffers from her jealousy and becomes very sick. While giving medicine to Liu, Chen puts some wet paper underneath his hat to pretend that he is worrying and crying for her. Liu is angered by his deceit.  Scene 21 Complaining about the Wife  (Suyuan ??) 8 arias Su visits. Chen complains about Liu and fills him in on the latest details. He regrets having ever married her. However, Su tells Chen that this is his destiny. It can be foretold from the lines in Liu?s hands that Chen w i ll  have a promising future career. Su also composes a poem on the subject of Chen?s being henpecked. Liu shouts upon hearing the two chatting, then suddenly loses consciousness.  Scene 22 A Soul Taken to Trial  (Shedui ??) 10 arias Liu?s soul is taken to the underworld court and is tortured by the judge when she refuses to plead guilty. She finally gives up after suffering many brutal bodily punishments, but the judge insists on beating her to death. Foyin appears and appeals to the judge so show mercy to Su and Chen. Liu?s life is 92  saved but Foyin, in order to teach her a lesson, asks the devils to show her around the underworld.   Scene 23  Looking Around the Underworld  (Mingyou ??) 7 arias Devils cut out Liu?s left eye and break her right hand. Instead of stopping the m, Foyin gives Chen a dressing down. The three then take Liu on a tour of the underworld and show her how all the other shrews are suffer ing from assorted very cruel tortures after their death. Liu is so frightened that she promises to be an obedient wife after returning to life.   Scene 24 Thanks to the Master  (Xieshi ??) 7 arias Liu comes back to life and tells Chen and Xiuying of her experience. She apologizes for being jealous and promises to serve Chen together with Xiuying as a good wife should. All of them thank Foyin for his help. Liu and Xiuying decide to become Foyin?s disciples and observe Buddhist practices at home.  Scene 25 Childbearing  (Shengzi ??) 5 arias Xiuying gives birth to a son. Chen and Liu are both happy to have a male heir.  Scene 26 Farewell Get-together  (Zuxi ??) 10 arias Su is promoted and will soon leave for the capital. All of his friends come to his cottage to attend a farewell gathering. Su composes a poem for Foyin and a biography for Chen as well. Su promises to seek opportunit ies for Chen at 93  the court. Foyin tells Su that he is the rein carnation of a Buddhist master and will become an immortal soon. He also encourages the three ladie s, Liu, Xiu Ying and Qin Cao to undertake a more diligent Buddhist practice.   Scene 27 Bringing up the Child  (Fu?er ??) 3 arias Liu and Xiuying work together to raise their son and teach him to be a Confucian scholar.  Scene 28 Return to the West  (Xigui ??) 3 arias Foyin will return to Soul Mountain in the West, as he has fulfilled yhe task, assigned him by the Buddha, of taming Chen ?s jealous wife.  Scene 29 Recommendation at the Imperial Court  (Tingjian ??) 5 arias Su recommends both Chen and his son to the emperor as being excellent talents. The emperor then issues an imperial edict summoning Chen to the capital to be an official and his son to be a reading partner of the crown prince.   Scene 30 Glory for All  (Tongrong ??) 4 arias Su comes to Chen?s home to present them with the imperial edict; Foyin also arrives to bring the three ladies to the West to be immo rtals because the Buddha is pleased with Liu?s transformation from shrew to good wife. Foyin also assures Su and Chen that all will reunite in the West after they have 94  finished their service at the court. Everyone is thankful to Foyin and happy about the future.   95  Appendix B: Translation of ?Naoci? from Huancuitang Dan: Liu Sheng: Chen Mo: County Magistrate Zao: Yamen runner(s) Jing: Magistrate?s wife Wai: Earth God Chou: Earth Goddess  Dan (enters and says): If a person does not intend to harm a tiger [first], a tiger will not develop any intent to hurt the person. Because of my husband?s incapability, he repays my good intention with evil intention. I have been sick since Su sneered at me. It was all caused by Chen, that beast of mine. The more I think about this, the more resentful I feel.  ?Bei duanzheng hao? My personality is not at all eccentric, and it is all because that he relied upon the power [of Su]. It really got me into a huff. I will remember all the nonsense in his heart and certainly avenge this foe90. ?Gun xiuqiu? I have thought through [the whole thing] and am burning in a rage. I shall fight against him. Why should I be afraid of going to the court? How can they beat a woman? There is no need to mention anything else, I shall [talk about] how he went to Luozhong, indulging in drunken stupor, abandoning his wife [in the hometown]. Since his return, I have not ever challenged him with any of my complaints, but that rascal [Su] makes vociferous allegations. How could I fail to know that a happy couple treats each other with gentleness and obedience? His friend?s goading is what has caused the problem. How can I forgive and forget this!                                                         90 All qupai are indicated in the square brackets, such as ?Bei duanzheng hao?, and the the arias that should be sung would be marked in bold. 96  Well, well, well. In for a penny, in for a pound. I will wait till he comes. I will wait till he comes. Sheng (entering): One needn?t ask if there is glory or gloom upon entering a room, just a glance at [her] face will speak the truth. My dear wife, you should take good care of yourself since you are ill. Why do you sit here, sullen and alone? Dan: Let me ask you, why did Su cast those vicious words toward me the other day? Sheng: He meant well, and was only trying to give you good advice. Don?t misunderstand him. Dan: It must be you who want to overpower me with the support of your friend. It is a pity that the cane is not in my hand now. Let me bite a piece of flesh off you.         (Dan intends to cane sheng. Sheng gets flurried and runs away.) Dan (falls onto the floor and shouts): Fine. Fine. You intend for me to fall and die. Why don?t you just divorce me then? (Dan catches sheng and grabs him.) Better to get it done in court than settle it between ourselves. Let?s wait till the yamen opens and I will make an accusation against you. Sheng (kneels down and says): My wife, you fell down by yourself. It has nothing to do with me, Chen Zao. I am willing to ne beaten with the cane. Dan: I certainly would not spare you [from the court].        (Dan grabs the sheng and they exit.Mo plays the magistrate and za play the yamen runner, who follows the mo onto the stage.) Mo: [If the people] all follow the law then I would be happy everyday, but if they break the law then I would be kept busy everyday. As a magistrate, I have my own problems. When I adjourn the court, my misery begins. Zao: Your majesty, why do you suffer so badly, and why are you so afraid of returning from the courtroom? Mo: My man, these are not words that I can share with you. Go see if there is any one who wants to make an accusation and bring him in. Dan (drags sheng and enters the stage): Your majesty, I want to make an accusation. 97  Zao (brings them in to meet the mo): Here is a woman dragging a man in. I guess the woman is the complainant. Dan: I am the complainant. Mo: Go ahead. Dan: My name is Liu. This is my husband Chen Zao. Mo: What could be the dispute between the couple? Zaoli, look behind the screen to see if Mistress is not there; then I can inspect this case. Zao: Report to your majesty, the Mistress is not there. Mo: Then Mrs Chen n?e Liu, please speak. Dan:?Shua hai?er?My husband is bold and unconstrained, he broke his own promise and made trouble. Mo: He must have been tempted.  Dan: It is Su Dongpo who asked a drunken beauty to seduce him.  Mo (very surprised): Scholar Su enjoys a very good reputation in the imperial court.How could he be a pimp? Dan: It was because of his great reputation that I took no precautions against him. He incited my husband to drive me to death with words, so that he would be able to pursue other females just as he wishes.  Mo: How could this be true?  Sheng: Your majesty, my wife is speaking nothing but lies.  Dan: I lied about nothing! I am here to make an accusation. Please make a careful investigation and let me know your sentence.     Mo: Chen Zao, what do you say? Sheng:?Wu sha?I swear that I am too kindhearted a man and yielded to Dongpo?s assertiveness. He made great efforts to teach ethics, intending to ease the jealousy of my wife. 98  Mo: This must be the truth. Great scholar! Great scholar!  Sheng: It is a pity that his concerns were all wasted.His sincere advice didn?t change the situation, on the contary; I again was beaten with the cane and became a mass of bruises.  There is nowhere that I can seek justice.  Mo (gnashing of his teeth): This woman is so hateful. Heaven will not tolerate it! Heaven will not tolerate it! Sheng: [She] would not escape the mirror-like justice. How can the law spare her?  Mo:?Si sha?The husband is gentle like a lamb while the wife is savage like a she-wolf. My belly fills with anger once I catch a glimpse of her. It is like the universe changed with the heaven becoming the earth, or the couple lost their love with the yin suppresses the yang. Which is more hateful is that [she] even slanders the scholar Su. This must be punished with penalty to restore the cardinal guides and constant virtues. Jing (shouts from behind the stage): What cardinal guides and constant virtues [are you talking about]? Wait and see what I have to say! Mo (falls off the seat): What can I do now? What can I do now? Mistress has heard it all. Jing (plays the magistrate?s wife, rushes out onto the stage and pull up the dan): You stand aside. Let me beat this muddled thing. (Jing grabs mo with one hand and beats off his gauze cap with another hand) Kneel down! Mo: Dear wife, my men are both here watching. Please leave me my dignity. Zao: Mistress is in a rage now. We should withdraw. (Exit) Jing (drags mo and condemn him): ?San sha?How can you, a piece of donkey dung, be an official? How can you, a pot of paste, sit in the court? How can you bring in a verdict without even being able to tell black from white? (She points at the sheng) A dishonest man like him should be sent into exile three thousand miles away. Dan: Your ladyship is quite right!  Jing (points at the dan): How can you condemn a good and virtuous wife like her?  99  Dan: Your ladyship is quite right!  Mo: Dear wife, please settle this suit as you like and do not nag me endlessly.  Jing: If I don?t speak, you would still show off your awesome prestige. You can only scare people in the court. People here never would know that once I get angry, you would koutou again and again to beg for pardon; once I stare at you, you would shiver like a falling leaf. Mo: Your majesty, you have said enough. Let me run into the back hall. (He stands up and runs.) Jing: The more you try to run, the more I will beat you.        (Jing beats mo and mo drags jing.) Mo: Why did you beat me? I cannot fight you. Let?s bring the case to the earth god. Jing: Let?s bring the case to the earth god. Dan (drags the sheng): Let?s go together with Mistress to see the earth god, too.        (All of them reach the temple and kneel down.) Mo: Please let me report to your highness, the earth god, Chen Zao is being maliciously persecuted by his wife. I just made a judgement in accordance with the law, but got beaten by my wife. I am innocent. Jing: Earth god, my husband and Chen Zao colluded and perverted the law, so I voiced my discontent. Please give us a judicious judgement. Wai (plays the earth god, enters and says): I have listened to your case for quite a while. You all stand up and listen to me.?Er sha?The official is reasonable.  Jing: What kind of reason does he have? Wai: His wife is too hard-hearted.  Jing: I am not hard at all. Wai: Then why did you make a scene at the court?  Jing: What is the harm of that? 100  Wai: Liu?s jealousy is really a wrongdoing, while the romantic tendencies of Chen are nothing unusual.  Sheng & mo: Your judgement is quite fair. Wai: You two, as wives, have become the laughing stock of all females. You should, from now on, listen to your husbands? instructions carefully and submissively.          (Chou plays the earth goddess, rushes onto the stage and grabs the wai to beat him. Mo and sheng run away in panic.)  Wai (kneels down): My goddess, I have not said anything. Chou (points at wai and scolds him):?Yi sha?The most important thing of being a god is to be just, that is why you could enjoy the temple the incense burnt for you. How could you make such a biased judgement? You ignored that the water-like characteristics of women should be given precedence to, but indulged with your male ambition. My fists and slaps will loudly resound.  Wai: My goddess, please forgive me. Chou: I will beat till you seek down for the underworld or up for heaven.          (Chou beats wai.) Wai (grabs jing and says) She beats me because of you, so I will beat you.         (Wai beats the jing.) Jing (grabs mo and says) He beats me because of you, so I will beat you.         (Mo beats dan.) Dan (grabs sheng and says) She beats me because of you, so I will beat you.          (Dan beats sheng. All of them beat each other chaotically. Chou faints in anger and falls onto the floor.) Jing & dan: Don?t make the goddess sick with anger. Let?s help her up and take her in.          (Jing & dan help chou up and quit the scene. Wai faints in anger and falls onto the floor. Mo & sheng help him up.) 101  Wai:?Sha wei?Don?t complain that you,as human, suffered this torture. I, as a god, have also been wounded. This disaster is like a bolt from the heaven. (Mo & sheng) She is a born scorpion, who knows no kindness at all. It is our destiny encounting this goddess of bad luck. From now on [we must] take such events in stride to avoid calamities. Once she is enraged, even the local earth god would feel like he is facing the ?Yama?from the underworld.   (They exit together.)  102  Appendix C: Translation of ?Mengpa? in Zengji Liuye Qupu Chen: Xiaosheng Liu: Dan (Xiaosheng enters): What is the purpose of my having been born in this world? I suffer greatly from my wife. If I know what I endure at the hands of my wife, why should I get married in the first place? My name is Chen Zao. It is my bad luck that my wife is a jealous virago. It must be my destiny, and I have been enduring this for some time. There is nothing I can do to change it, even by force. The only thing [I cannot endure] is that [she] cannot refrain from arguing with Scholar Su and swearing at him. Where is the dignity then? Sigh. I am also rather a manly person, why should a woman make me suffer? But wait. Though these are just the words out of anger, it could cause problems if she were to hear me. She has gotten tired of beating me and gone to sleep. Let me take a nap now for a while. I?ll wait and see how she will punish me once she wakes up. Indeed: Right after enduring beatings from the cane, let me go and have a dream now. (xiaosheng gives a yawn.) (Er Jing91 Dan enters the stage): It has nothing to with whether the man is weak or not, women have flaunted their superiority from ancient times. You beast! Xiaosheng: Well, my dear wife. Why are you here again? Dan:  Why did you ask Su to come and tease me yesterday? Xiaosheng: Dear wife, Su came of his own accord. It was not my fault.     Dan:  Ah! You beast! ?Tuo bushan?You rely on the power and prestige of Su Dongpo to bully and oppress your wife. Concerning the family troubles, even an upright official would not be able to settle them. How can your friend be allowed to interfere into the affairs in our boudoir? Xiaosheng: What pain from this beating! Dan:  Beating you with the cane is nothing. I wish I could bite you! Xiaosheng: Ouch! Ouch!                                                       91 Er jing is round 9 to 11 pm. 103  Dan:  Dear neighbours, Chen Jichang is trying to push me over and kill me.  Xiaosheng: Dear wife, you tripped me. It has nothing to do with me.      Dan:  Ah! You beast! ?Xiao liangzhou?You hastily condemned and beat me, without thinking of the dignity of law.      Xiaosheng: What law?     Dan: You know only how to read books, but have never studied the law.     Xiaosheng: What does the law say?     Dan: There is a scene that allows me to accuse you in court.     Xiaosheng: Even if you brought me to the court, I am innocent.     Dan: How dare you claim to be innoncent? The accusation of you maltreating your wife would be widely-known. The legislation is created by Xiao He and there is no chance that you can be spared from the punishment with a rod or exile. Xiaosheng:  My dear wife, please stop making a fool of yourself. Let me endure your canes from now on.      Dan: It is no longer a problem of the cane now!  ?Yao pian?In the past, your crime was minor, deserving only the pumishment of flogging, but today I would have to set up the authority of wives. Even if you are as hard as the steel or as solid as the gold, I have a stove with red flame and you are certain to melt right away. Let?s go!      Xiaosheng: Ouch! Ouch!      (Both of them exit the stage.) 104  Appendix D: Translation of 17 Arias of ?Mengpa? and ?Sanpa?92 ?Mengpa? (Fears in the dream) 1  Liu  ?Bei duanzheng hao?My personality is not at all eccentric, and it is all because that he relied upon the power [of Su]. It really got me into a huff. In my heart, I will take note of all his nonsense and certainly avenge this foe.   ??????????????????????????????????????????????????     2   Liu  ?Gun xiuqiu?I have thought through [the whole thing] and am burning in a rage. I shall fight against him. Why should I be afraid of going to the court? How can they beat a woman? There is no need to mention anything else, I shall [talk about] how he went to Luozhong, indulging in drunken stupor, abandoning his wife [in the hometown]. Since his return, I have not ever challenged him with any of my complaints, but that rascal [Su] makes vociferous allegations. How could I fail to know that a happy couple treats each other with gentleness and obedience? His friend?s goading is what has caused the problem. How can I forgive and forget this!    ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????                                                         92 This translation is based on a collection of all the arias of ?Mengpa? and ?Sanpa? that had been published in the original chuanqi, miscellanies and qupus. Please see Table 5 for details. 105   3  Liu  ?Tuo bushan?You rely on the power and prestige of Su Dongpo to bully and oppress your wife. Concerning the family troubles, even an upright official would not be able to settle them. How can your friend be allowed to interfere into the affairs in our boudoir? ??????????????????????????????????????????? 4  Liu  ?Xiao liangzhou?You hastily condemned and beat me, without thinking of the dignity of law. You will be widely-known for your shameful maltreatment of your wife. The legislation is created by Xiao He and there will be no possibility that you can be spared from the punishment with a rod or exile. ??????????????????????????????????????????????????  5  Liu  ?Yao pian?In the past, your crime was minor, deserving only the pumishment of flogging, but today I would have to set up the authority of wives. Even if you are as hard as the steel or as solid as the gold, I have a stove with red flame and you are certain to melt right away. ???????????????????????????????????????????????  6  Liu  ?Manting fang? He, with a gang of scoundrels,  has been revelling in the disreputable quarters of the city day and night, casting away the love between us. Any time I mention my fickle husband, I cannot restrain my anger. Why should I learn from the stupid Liang Hong, who 106  served her husband with great respect? What I should do is to seek justice from an official who is more upright than the judge Bao Longtu. Suddenly I heard the roll of drums. Let me take the night of light breeze and bright moon to bring my accusation of the local court. ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????  7  Liu  ?Chao tianzi?Take whatever excuse you have to the court and see what the judgement will be. I am not filing a suit of adultery, why should I be afraid of losing face or being slandered by others. [You] again want to ask for Su?s help in front of the official. I will rely upon my own eloquence. A wife does not always have to echo her husband. Who knows but that the official himself may be a muddler? Seeing all these implements of punishment and the clear submission, I guarantee that you will see my true ability this time.    ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????   Sanpa (Three Fears) 8  County Magistrate  ?Lihua?er?After ten years of hard study, I am lucky to be listed in the top rank of the imperial examination and have been assigned to become the magistrate of Huanggang. However, my headache starts the moment that I leave the courtroom. Sigh, my wife?s beating and scolding never stops.  ???????????????????????????????????????????? 107   9  Liu  ?Shua hai?er?My husband is very bold and unconstrained, (my husband is very bold and unconstrained93), he broke his own promise and has made trouble. It is Su Dongpo who seduced him with a drunken beauty. It was because of his great reputation that I took no precautions against him. He incited my husband to drive me to death with words, so that he would be able to pursue other females just as he wishes. I have not said an untrue word. I am here to make an accusation. Please give it a careful inspection and let me know your sentence.     ??????????????(????????)???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????  10 Chen  ?Wu sha?I regret that I am too kindhearted a man, but am grateful for Dongpo?s assertiveness. He made great efforts to teach the ethics, intending to ease the jealousy of my wife. His sincere advice didn?t change the situation, on the contrary; I again was beaten with the cane and became a mass of bruises.  There is nowhere that I can seek justice. [She] would not escape the mirror-like justice. How can she be spared from the law? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????  11 County Magistrate  ?Si sha?The husband is gentle like a lamb while the wife is savage like a wolf. My belly fills with anger upon catching a glimpse of her. It is like the universe changed with the heaven                                                       93 This line is repeated in the stage script. After Liu sings the first line, the magistrate would ask her to sing loudly and she would repeat the same line, only louder. 108  becoming the earth, or the couple lost their love with the yin suppresses the yang. What is more hateful is that [she] even slanders the scholar Su. This must be punished with penalty to restore the cardinal guides and constant virtues. ???????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????  12 Magistrate?s wife  ?San sha?How can you, a piece of donkey dung, be an official? How can you, a pot of paste, sit in the court? How can you bring in a verdict without even being able to tell black from white? (She points at the sheng) A dishonest man like him should be sent into exile three thousand miles away. How can you condemn a good and virtuous wife like her? You would still show off your awe prestige [if I don?t talk to you]. You can only scare people in the court. [They never know that] once I get angry, you would kowtow without stopping to beg pardon; once I stare at you, you would shiver like a falling leaf. ?Once you get beaten till your flesh gets torn to shreds, you would develop a comprehensive understanding of the whole thing.?94 ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????(?????????????)  13  Earth God ?Lihua?er?In all of this area, I am the most respectable personage, but upon seeing my wife, my soul flees with fear. I know not what kind of sin I have committed in my previous life that I am punished to be so oppressed in this life.                                                        94 The underlining here indicates the lines in the original Huancuitang play that would be changed to the lines in brackets in qupu as a record of the standard popular stage performance. 109  ????????????????????????????????????????  14  Earth God ?Er sha?The official [?s behavior] is reasonable. The wife is too hard-hearted. Then why did you make a scene at the court? Liu?s jealousy is really wrongful, while the romantic behaviour of Chen is nothing unusual. You two, as wives, would become laughing stock and bring shame to all other females. You should, from now on, listen to your husbands? instructions carefully and submissively.  (Once you get beaten up till you become quiet in the boudoir, you will be able to understand [your duty] completely.) ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????  15  Earth Goddess ?Yi sha?The most important thing of being a god is to be just, that is why you deserve the incense burnt for you at the temple. How could you make such a biased judgement? You ignored that the water-like characteristics of women should be given precedence, and have indulged only with your male ambition. My fists and slaps would be loud here. Let me beat till you seek down for the underworld or up for the heaven.  (I will beat and there is no way to escape from me either up in the heaven or down in the underworld.) ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????  16  Earth God & Chen & Magistrate 110  ?Sha wei?Don?t complaint that you,as human, suffered this torture. I, as a god, have also been wounded. This disaster is like descended bolt from the heaven. (Chen and magistrate) She is a born scorpion, who knows no kindness at all. It is our destiny to encounter this god of bad luck. From now on [we must] take things in stride to avoid calamities. Once she gets enraged, even the local earth god would feel like facing the living ?Yama?from the underworld. ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????  17  Chen ?Qingjiang yin?What a strange dream. It must be that my soul has been wandering. The official is just as henpecked as I am, and the earth god is as well. Now I have developed the willingness of enduring the beating of her cane.  ?????????????????????????????????????????? 111  Appendix E: List of Abbreviations  Abbreviation Full Title BNZJ Dingdiao kunchi xindiao yuefu Baneng zoujin ???????????? CLYZ Xinke Jingban qingyang shidiao Cilin yizhi ???????????? DXYL Dao Xian yilai liyuan jinian xiaolu ?????????? GBXQ Guben xiqucongkan er?ji Shihou ji ????????????? HCT Huancuitang xinbian chuxiang Shihou ji ?????????? JBQY Jubu qunying ???? JCQP Jicheng qupu ???? JGG Jiguge Shihou ji ???????? KJBYYD Kunju biaoyan yide ?????? KQJBJC Kunqu jingbian jiaocai 300 zhong ?????? 300? MYQP Mengyuan qupu ???? NSYWJQP Nashuying waiji qupu ??????? QNF Qing neifu sise chaoben Shihou ji chuanqi ???????????? RXKHJ Rixia kanhua ji ????? SBXQCK Shanben xiqu congkan ?????? SHJLSC Shihou ji lian sichu ?????? SHJQW Shijou ji quwen  ????? SKSHJ  Shijou ji  (printed by Shanghai Kunjutuan) ?????????? SPSZL Shengpingshu zhil?e ????? TGXYL Tingge xiangying lu ????? XHXY Xiaohan xinyong ???? XXP Xinjuan xiuxiang pingdian Xuanxuepu ??? YLY Yue lu yin ??? YZHFL Yangzhou huafang lu ????? YZQP Yuzhong qupu ???? ZBQ Xinding shidiao kunqiang Zhui baiqiu ????????? ZFQP Zhenfei qupu ???? ZJLYQP Zengji Liuye qupu ?????? 

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