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Contemporary kunqu composition Jones, Juliane 2014

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  Contemporary Kunqu Composition  by  Juliane Jones  B.A., The University of Chicago, 2005 MMus Composition, Royal Holloway University of London, 2009  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in The Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies (Ethnomusicology) THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver)  November 2014  © Juliane Jones, 2014    ii Abstract Kunqu is an operatic singing style that developed in the town of Kunshan near Suzhou, China in the sixteenth century.  Kunqu is currently experiencing a revival in China, but only five professional musicians are actively composing, continuing the tradition of creating kunqu melodies with qupai (preexisting tune structures) for the singing of literary lyrics.  This dissertation investigates current practices of kunqu composition with an ethnographic approach that employs a variety of research techniques including: translations of historical and contemporary compositional treatises, participant-observation in composition lessons, formal and informal interviews, as well as analysis of musical scores, sound recordings, and live performances.  I theorize kunqu composition as a process of composers’ translating personal and intellectual knowledge of historical Chinese and Western music as well as collective knowledge of the key branches of kunqu theory into performable and audible musical works (introduction).  To explain the genre’s musical vocabulary, I describe traditional and contemporary features such as: relationships between linguistic and musical tones, musical modes, qupai, rhythm and meter schemes, and use of musical instruments.  I then describe the process of composing an aria from qupai according to contemporary practice (chapter 2).  To contextualize kunqu composition, I trace the history of the genre (chapter 3).  Then I analyze how two contemporary kunqu composers engage in methods of kunqu composition in their own creative and theoretical ways (chapters 4 and 5).  Finally, I explore a musical dialogue between Western and Chinese musical cultures through examining Tan Dun’s version of the kun opera The Peony Pavilion performed at the Metropolitan Museum in 2012 (chapter 6).   iii Preface This dissertation is an original intellectual product of the author, Juliane Jones.  It was approved by the UBC Behavioural Research Ethics Board on April 17, 2013.  The approval department was Music, the department approver was Richard. B Kurth, and the Principal Investigator is Michael S. Tenzer.  The certificate number is H12-02158.    iv Table of Contents Abstract ............................................................................................................................................ ii Preface ............................................................................................................................................ iii Table of Contents ........................................................................................................................... iv List of Tables ................................................................................................................................. vii List of Figures ............................................................................................................................... viii Glossary of Key Terms ................................................................................................................. xiii Acknowledgements ....................................................................................................................... xx Dedication .................................................................................................................................... xxii 1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 1 1.1 Note on romanization and Chinese notation ....................................................................................... 3 1.2 The kunqu composer ......................................................................................................................... 10 1.3 The concept of the Chinese composer ............................................................................................... 14 1.4 The concept of the modern Chinese composer ................................................................................. 14 1.5 The concept of a Western composer ................................................................................................. 15 1.6 The contemporary kunqu composer in China ................................................................................... 18 1.7 Theorizing kunqu composition within Chinese opera studies ........................................................... 20  2 Kunqu Instrumentation, Melody, and Neo-traditional Qupai Composition ............................... 27 2.1 Kunqu sonority .................................................................................................................................. 27 2.2 Instruments and vocal role types in the contemporary kunqu ensemble ........................................... 30 2.2.1 Wind instruments ................................................................................................................... 30 2.2.2 Plucked string instruments .................................................................................................... 32 2.2.3 Bowed instruments ................................................................................................................ 34 2.2.4 Percussion instruments .......................................................................................................... 35 2.2.5 Kunqu vocal role types .......................................................................................................... 38 2.3 Kunqu melody: speech-tone, melisma shapes, and vocal gestures ................................................... 39 2.4 Kunqu meter (banshi) ........................................................................................................................ 54 2.5 Characteristic rhythm of kunqu melody ............................................................................................ 55 2.6 An experimental exercise of composing kunqu aria in the neo-traditional method .......................... 61 3 The Intellectual Tradition of Kunqu: Treatises on the Music of Kun Opera .............................. 89 3.1 A brief summary of kunqu history .................................................................................................... 89 3.2 The pillars of kunqu ........................................................................................................................... 94 3.3 The evolving concept of composition ............................................................................................. 100 3.4 Aesthetics of singing and enunciation criteria for kunqu ................................................................ 106 3.4.1 Contemporary composers’ perspectives on aesthetic standards .......................................... 110 3.5 The qupai system ............................................................................................................................ 114 3.5.1 The beginnings of the yin yang system ............................................................................... 114 3.5.2 The contemporary yin yang system ..................................................................................... 116 3.6 The northern and southern systems ................................................................................................. 118 3.7 Qupai ............................................................................................................................................... 119 3.7.1 The contemporary view of qupai ........................................................................................ 122 3.8 Gongdiao ......................................................................................................................................... 123 3.8.1 Ancient gongdiao ................................................................................................................ 123  v 3.8.2 Gongdiao associated kunqu flute keys (dise) ...................................................................... 124 3.8.3 Zhou and Sun’s view of gongdiao ....................................................................................... 125 3.8.4 Gongdiao grouping by emotional identity .......................................................................... 127 3.9 Qupai suites of arias liantao, taoshu ............................................................................................... 130 3.9.1 Contemporary composers’ view on qupai sets .................................................................... 132 3.10 Conclusion ..................................................................................................................................... 133 4 Zhou Xuehua’s Compositional Methods .................................................................................. 135 4.1 Zhou Xuehua’s story of becoming the inheritor ............................................................................. 140 4.1.1 Zhou Xuehua’s childhood ................................................................................................... 140 4.1.2 The Cultural Revolution: life in the countryside and the army ........................................... 140 4.1.3 Zhou Xuehua discovers kunqu ............................................................................................ 141 4.1.4 Becoming the inheritor ........................................................................................................ 145 4.1.5 Myth and fact in Zhou Xuehua’s autobiography ................................................................. 149 4.1.6 Zhou Xuehua’s life as a professional musician ................................................................... 151 4.2 Zhou Xuehua’s compositional methods .......................................................................................... 153 4.2.1 The altered method according to Zhou Xuehua .................................................................. 154 4.3 New concept kunqu (xin gainian kunqu 新概念昆曲) ................................................................... 164 5 Sun Jian’an’s Compositional Methods ..................................................................................... 174 5.1 Biographical portrait of Sun Jian’an ............................................................................................... 176 5.1.1 Discovery of kunqu in Nanjing (1978) ................................................................................ 179 5.1.2 Hangzhou Kunju Troupe (1981) .......................................................................................... 179 5.1.3 Return to Nanjing and life after university (1982 – 93) ...................................................... 180 5.1.4 Sun’s life as a professional composer (1997-) .................................................................... 181 5.2 Sun Jian’an’s compositional methods ............................................................................................. 182 5.3 New techniques in 1699 The Peach Blossom Fan .......................................................................... 185 5.4 New techniques in Butterfly Lovers ................................................................................................ 196 5.5 New concept kunqu ......................................................................................................................... 201 5.6 Conclusion: inheritance and innovation .......................................................................................... 204 6 Conclusion: A Musical Dialogue of Kunqu ............................................................................. 204 6.1 Contemporary kunqu as a modernity of translations ....................................................................... 204 6.2 The meaning of contemporary kunqu composition in a global context .......................................... 212 Bibliography ................................................................................................................................ 221 Appendices .................................................................................................................................. 228 Appendix A: Selected Translation of Wu Junda’s Treatise Kunqu changqiang yanjiu .............. 228 A.1 Zhiqu, zhipu, and duqu ................................................................................................................... 228 A.2 Qupai .............................................................................................................................................. 229 A.2.1 The difference between southern and northern systems ..................................................... 229 A.2.2 The introduction (yinzi) and the body (guoqu) of a qupai .................................................. 230 A.2.3 The body of a qupai (guoqu) .............................................................................................. 232 A.2.4 Endings (weisheng) ............................................................................................................. 232 A.2.5 Refined, medium tempo, and rough qupai (xiqu, zhongqu, and cuqu) .............................. 233 A.2.6 Linking qupai and repeating qupai ..................................................................................... 234 A.2.7 Huantou, chitou, and hetou techniques .............................................................................. 234 A.2.8 Jiqu qupai (montage qupai) ................................................................................................ 235 A.3 Meter (banshi) ................................................................................................................................ 235 A.3.1 Variations on meter ............................................................................................................ 238 A.4 Mode (gongdiao) ............................................................................................................................ 239   vi A.5 The four speech-tones and melody (qiangge) ................................................................................ 240 A.5.1 The four-tone speech-tone melody in the southern system ................................................ 241 A.5.2 The northern tonal system .................................................................................................. 243 A.5.3 Commonalities between the northern and southern system ............................................... 244 A.5.4 Additional explanation on the organization of tones .......................................................... 244 A.6 Melodic form .................................................................................................................................. 245 A.6.1 The main phrase .................................................................................................................. 245 A.6.2 Beginnings and endings of qupai ....................................................................................... 246 A.6.3 Melodic variation ................................................................................................................ 248 A.6.4 Supplementary words ......................................................................................................... 251 A.7 Rhythm ........................................................................................................................................... 252 A.7.1 Word groups in pairs (cipai) and word groups by meaning (yipai) ................................... 253 A.7.2 Rhythmic form .................................................................................................................... 255 A.7.3 Rhythm and word placement .............................................................................................. 257 A.7.4 Metrical placement ............................................................................................................. 260 A.8 The structure of the qupai suites .................................................................................................... 263 A.8.1 The structure of southern introductions and endings .......................................................... 264 A.8.2 The structure of the main body of the qupai ...................................................................... 265 A.8.3 Southern main body qupai and variations .......................................................................... 266 A.8.4 Variation of qupai structure ................................................................................................ 268 A.9 A survey of the development of qupai suites ................................................................................. 269 A.9.1 The structure of the main body of qupai suites .................................................................. 269 A.9.2 Southern basic qupai suites and their variations ................................................................ 271 A.9.3 Northern and southern juxtaposed qupai suites .................................................................. 272 A.9.4 The technical organization of linking qupai to form a suite ............................................... 272  Appendix B: Zhou Xuehua’s Lessons on Kunqu Composition ................................................... 277  Appendix C: The Yin Yang Eight-tone Speech-tone System by Zhou Xuehua ......................... 305 C.1 The southern speech-tone system ................................................................................................... 306 C.1.1 Level tone (pingsheng) characteristics ............................................................................... 307 C.1.2 Yangping tone characteristics ............................................................................................. 308 C.1.3 The shang speech-tone characteristics ................................................................................ 310 C.1.4 The falling speech-tone (qusheng) characteristics .............................................................. 315 C.1.5 The ru speech-tone characteristics ...................................................................................... 317  Appendix D: Sun Jian’an’s Articles ............................................................................................ 321 D.1 The Collaboration Between the Kunqu Composer and Other Major Artistic Roles of the Opera (April 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 321 D.2 Key Concepts of Kunqu Performance and Basic Music Theory (Sept. 2011) ............................... 324 D.3 The Kunqu Flute (Sept. 2001) ........................................................................................................ 331 D.4 Kunqu Instrumental Ensemble Training ......................................................................................... 338 vii List	  of	  Tables	   	   Table 2.1 Drum vocables (luogu dianzi) ....................................................................................... 35 Table 2.2 Zhou Xuehua’s rules for linking melismas ................................................................... 48 Table 2.3 Gongche to Chinese simplified notation ....................................................................... 75 Table 3.1 Nomenclature for composition .................................................................................... 100 Table 3.2 Aesthetic criteria .......................................................................................................... 106 Table 3.3 Qupai theory ................................................................................................................ 119 Table 3.4 Gongdiao ..................................................................................................................... 123 Table 3.5 Yannan Zhi’an’s mood-mode chart: style category .................................................... 128 Table 3.6 Yannan Zhi’an’s mood-mode chart: emotion category ............................................... 128 Table 3.7 Yannan Zhi’an’s mood-mode chart: structure category .............................................. 129 Table 4.1 Ye Tang lineage of kunqu ............................................................................................ 138 Table 4.2 Timeline of Zhou Xuehua’s music career ................................................................... 151                             viii List of Figures  Figure 1.1 Aspects of translation ..................................................................................................... 4 Figure 2.1 Basic seating arrangement for the contemporary kunqu ensemble  ............................ 29 Figure 2.2 Qudi .............................................................................................................................. 30 Figure 2.3 Comparison of vocal and flute range in the key of D (xiaogongdiao) ........................ 31 Figure 2.4 Chinese sheng .............................................................................................................. 31 Figure 2.5 Suona ............................................................................................................................ 32 Figure 2.6 Basic langtou rhythms  ............................................................................................... 33 Figure 2.7 Small sanxian ............................................................................................................... 33 Figure 2.8 Pipa .............................................................................................................................. 33 Figure 2.9 Erhu (two-stringed fiddle) ........................................................................................... 34 Figure 2.10 Small gong (xiaoluo), large gong (daluo), cymbals (naobo), ceremonial hall drum (tanggu), Chinese frame drum and clapper (bangu) ..................................................................... 35 Figure 2.11 Basic percussion patterns  ......................................................................................... 37 Figure 2.12 Annotated transcription of “Dainty Steps” from The Peony Pavilion ....................... 41 Figure 2.13 Southern yin yang speech-tone representation ........................................................... 43 Figure 2.14 Basic yinping tone ...................................................................................................... 44 Figure 2.15 Yinping melisma ......................................................................................................... 44 Figure 2.16 Yangping melisma ..................................................................................................... 44 Figure 2.17 Yinshang tone with hanqiang ..................................................................................... 45 Figure 2.18Yangshang tone in measure 23 of “Dainty Steps” ...................................................... 45 Figure 2.19 Yinqu .......................................................................................................................... 45 Figure 2.20 Yangqu ....................................................................................................................... 46 Figure 2.21 Yinru ........................................................................................................................... 46 Figure 2.22 Yangru melisma ......................................................................................................... 47 Figure 2.23 Pitch-height of melismas according to the yin yang system ...................................... 47 Figure 2.24 Descending melisma from “Dainty Steps” in measure one ....................................... 48 Figure 2.25 Ascending melisma from “Dainty Steps” in measure ten .......................................... 48 Figure 2.26 Saddle shape melisma from “Dainty Steps” in measure four .................................... 49 Figure 2.27 Revolving melisma from “Dainty Steps” ................................................................... 49 Figure 2.28 Saddle melisma with daiqiang and cuoqiang vocal gestures from “Dainty Steps” in measure two ................................................................................................................................... 50  ix Figure 2.29 Dianyin (padded note) from “Dainty Steps”. ............................................................. 50 Figure 2.30 Dieqiang (three gongche over two beats) from “Dainty Steps” in measure eight ..... 51 Figure 2.31 Chuoqiang and huaqiang vocal gestures from “Dainty Steps” ................................. 51 Figure 2.32 Shouqiang vocal gesture from “Dainty Steps” .......................................................... 52 Figure 2.33 Huoqiang vocal gesture from “Dainty Steps” ............................................................ 52 Figure 2.34 Hanqiang vocal gesture from “Dainty Steps” ............................................................ 53 Figure 2.35 Huoqiang (absorbing) gesture on yangshang ............................................................ 53 Figure 2.36 Two-word metric placement of lyrics from Pipa ji, Zui taiping ................................ 57 Figure 2.37 Two-word metric placement of lyrics (迁延) from Mudan ting “Shanpo yang” ....... 57 Figure 2.38 Two-word metric placement of lyrics from Basheng ganzhou .................................. 57 Figure 2.39 Two-word metric placement of lyrics from Hupo maoerzhui ................................... 57 Figure 2.40 Three-word placement of lyrics from Mudan ting, Youyuan, “Hao Jiejie” ............... 58 Figure 2.41 Seven-word metric placement from “Dainty Steps” .................................................. 58 Figure 2.42 Metric placement for phrases with more than three words in “Dainty Steps” ........... 58 Figure 2.43 Variation of seven-word rhythmic placement ............................................................ 59 Figure 2.44 Three-character word-group rhythm .......................................................................... 59 Figure 2.45 Seven-character rhythmic pattern .............................................................................. 60 Figure 2.46 Rhythmic pattern in unmeasured rhythm for two-syllable word groups ................... 60 Figure 2.47 Variation on two-syllable word groups ...................................................................... 60 Figure 2.48 Variation on two-syllable word groups ...................................................................... 60 Figure 2.49 Variation on two-syllable word groups ...................................................................... 60 Figure 2.50 Yipai rhythmic variation ............................................................................................. 61 Figure 2.51 “Xiaotao hong” qupai comparison ............................................................................. 67 Figure 2.52 Summary of symbols in kunqu gongche notation ...................................................... 76 Figure 2.53 “Xiaotao hong” Main phrase within the second phrase ............................................. 77 Figure 2.54 “Xiaotao hong” main phrase in the sixth phrase ........................................................ 77 Figure 2.55 Color phrases in “Xiaotao hong” ............................................................................... 78 Figure 2.56 “Xiaotao hong” Qiu Jiang version word grouping and tone-patterns ....................... 79 Figure 2.57 The yin yang system .................................................................................................. 80 Figure 2.58 Developing melismas in “Xiaotao hong” ................................................................... 85 Figure 3.1 “Dainty Steps” from The Collection .......................................................................... 102 Figure 3.2 The qupai system ....................................................................................................... 114  x Figure 3.3 The tones of Mandarin compared to Suzhou dialect .................................................. 116 Figure 3.4 Gongdiao to flute key associations ............................................................................ 125 Figure 3.4 Yinping: hua (flower) ................................................................................................. 107 Figure 3.5 Melodic endings associated with gongdiao by Wu Junda ......................................... 130 Figure 3.6 The rhythmic structure and performance of Tang court music .................................. 132 Figure 4.1 Juliane Jones and Zhou Xuehua in Zhou’s home in Shanghai .................................. 135 Figure 4.2 Nashuying excerpt: Ling gongche notation and expanded melody by Zhou Xuehua 138 Figure 4.3 Zhou Xuehua’s altered version of “Xiaotao hong” from Gai Jiaotian ...................... 156 Figure 4.4 The opening phrase of “Xiaotao hong” versions and altered version from Gai Jiaotian ..................................................................................................................................................... 158 Figure 4.5 Comparison of Autumn River “Xiaotao hong” and Gai Jiaotian transposed into the key of D ....................................................................................................................................... 159 Figure 4.6 Phrase 6 of Gai Jiaotian transposed into the key of D .............................................. 160 Figure 4.7 Phrase 2, the main phrase of “Xiaotao hong” ............................................................ 161 Figure 4.8 Gai Jiaotian phrase seven .......................................................................................... 161 Figure 4.9 Comparison of phrase 9 of “Xiaotao hong” versions and Zhou’s altered version Gai Jiaotian ........................................................................................................................................ 163 Figure 4.10 Short Song composed by Zhou Xuehua, lyrics by Cao Cao (transcription to Western notation by Juliane Jones) ........................................................................................................... 167 Figure 5.1 Sun Jian’an in his music studio in Nanjing ................................................................ 174 Figure 5.2 Ba Yan Shangchang Yinyue (1699: The Peach Blossom Fan) .................................. 186 Figure 5.3 The folksong Mengjiangnü from Jiangsu province ................................................... 179 Figure 5.4 “Qiu Ye Yue” Qupai in folksong form (1699 The Peach Blossom Fan) .................. 191 Figure 5.5 Dovetailing vocal lines in 1699 The Peach Blossom Fan ......................................... 192 Figure 5.6 Theme of Butterfly Lovers by Sun Jian’an m. 13-16 ................................................. 198 Figure 5.7 Excerpt from the overture of Butterfly Lovers by Sun Jian’an m. 25-26 ................... 199 Figure 6.1 Jean Berain’s engraving: Habit du’un Mandarin Chinois c1700 .............................. 209 Figure 6.2 Lully, Le bourgeois gentillhomme [ed. Weckerlin, 1833] ......................................... 210	  Figure 6.3 Xiao melody from Tan Dun’s Peony Pavilion ........................................................... 217 Figure 6.4 Opening percussion pattern from Tan Dun’s Peony Pavilion ................................... 217 Figure A.1 “Lanhuamei” ping-ze pattern .................................................................................... 242 Figure A.2 Elaboration of the yinping melisma .......................................................................... 242 Figure A.3 “Er lang shen” rhyme and sentences ......................................................................... 247 Figure A.4 “Er lang shen” main phrase and transposition .......................................................... 247  xi Figure A.5 Three to seven word basic rhythmic pattern ............................................................. 253 Figure A.6 Melismas between word groups ................................................................................ 254 Figure A.7 Three to seven word basic rhythmic pattern ............................................................. 254 Figure A.8 Word group rhythmic pattern .................................................................................... 254 Figure A.9 Word group rhythmic variation ................................................................................. 254 Figure A.10 “Ji xian bing” rhythm one ....................................................................................... 255 Figure A.11 “Ji xian bing” rhythm two ....................................................................................... 256 Figure A.12 “Duan zheng hao” rhythmic patterns ...................................................................... 256 Figure A.13 “Ji xian bing” rhythm one ....................................................................................... 256 Figure A.14 Rhythm imitating rain  ........................................................................................... 250 Figure A.15 Rhythm pattern in “Zui fu gui” ............................................................................... 258 Figure A.16 Word and rhyme structure of “Zao luo pao” ........................................................... 258 Figure A.17 Seven-character rhythmic pattern of “Zao luo pao” ................................................ 258 Figure A.18 Possible endings for gongdiao ................................................................................ 267 Figure B.1 The rhythmic development of Tang court music ...................................................... 279 Figure B.2 Gongche notation pitch positions .............................................................................. 282 Figure B.3 Names for beats in 4/4 (yiban sanyan) ...................................................................... 283 Figure B.4 Banyan ....................................................................................................................... 283 Figure B.5 Dieban ....................................................................................................................... 284 Figure B.6 Sanban ....................................................................................................................... 285 Figure B.7 Zengban ..................................................................................................................... 286 Figure B.8 Yaozengban ............................................................................................................... 287 Figure B.9 Cezhongyan ............................................................................................................... 288 Figure B.10 Cetouyan or cemoyan .............................................................................................. 288 Figure B.11 Gongche rest symbol ............................................................................................... 289 Figure B.12 Summary of gongche left and right symbols ........................................................... 290 Figure B.13 Middle gongche symbol example ............................................................................ 291 Figure B.14 Small gongche notation ........................................................................................... 291 Figure B.15 Shouqiang gongche symbol ..................................................................................... 292 Figure B.16 Ornamentation note gongche symbol ...................................................................... 292 Figure B.17 Summary of gongche symbols ................................................................................ 293 Figure B.18 Manjianghong form ................................................................................................. 295 Figure B.19 Kunqu keys .............................................................................................................. 303  xii Figure C.1 Yinping ....................................................................................................................... 307 Figure C.2 Yinping ....................................................................................................................... 307 Figure C.3 Yinping ....................................................................................................................... 308 Figure C.4 Yinping ....................................................................................................................... 308 Figure C.5 Yangping .................................................................................................................... 308 Figure C.6 Yangping .................................................................................................................... 309 Figure C.7 Yangping .................................................................................................................... 309 Figure C.8 Yangping .................................................................................................................... 309 Figure C.9 Yangping .................................................................................................................... 309 Figure C.10 Yangping .................................................................................................................. 310 Figure C.11 Yinshang .................................................................................................................. 311 Figure C.12 Yinshang .................................................................................................................. 312 Figure C.13 Yinshang .................................................................................................................. 312 Figure C.14 Yinshang .................................................................................................................. 312 Figure C.15 Yinshang .................................................................................................................. 312 Figure C.16 Yinshang .................................................................................................................. 313 Figure C.17 Yangshang ............................................................................................................... 314 Figure C.18 Yangshang ............................................................................................................... 314 Figure C.19 Yinqu ........................................................................................................................ 315 Figure C.20 Yinqu ........................................................................................................................ 315 Figure C.21 Yinqu ........................................................................................................................ 315 Figure C.22 Yangqu ..................................................................................................................... 316 Figure C.23 Yangqu ..................................................................................................................... 317 Figure C.24 Yangqu ..................................................................................................................... 317 Figure C.25 Yinru ........................................................................................................................ 318 Figure C.26 Yinru ........................................................................................................................ 318 Figure C.27 Yinru ........................................................................................................................ 318 Figure C.28 Yangru ..................................................................................................................... 319 Figure C.29 Yangru ..................................................................................................................... 319 Figure C.30 Yangru ..................................................................................................................... 319 Figure D.1 Traditional flute versus modern flute temperament .................................................. 335    	   xiii Glossary of Key Terms  anqiao 鞍桥: “Saddle form” is the name for the melisma that begins and ends on the same or neighbor note.  baixi百戏: A type of variety play popular in the Western Han dynasty (206 BC – 9 AD).  banshi 板式: Meter.    beiqu 北曲: The northern system of kun music.    bentao 本套: Basic qupai suite.  biantao 变套: Varied qupai suite.  biqu 毕曲: The ending of a qupai; the final of a tune.   Bubu jiao 步步娇: A well-known qupai from the play The Peony Pavilion in the scene “Wandering in the Garden.”  cetouyan侧头眼: When the first beat is expanded either to two beats or one and a half beats in  gongche notation.  cemoyan 側末眼: When the third beat is expanded either to two beats or one and a half beats in gongche notation.  cesha 側煞: When the ending note of the beginning section of a qupai ends on do or mi.  Endings on do are considered variations of endings on mi.   cheban 掣板: When the strike of the clapper falls within the sung character.  chenzi 衬字: Supplementary words in the lyrics, often translated as padded words.  changqiang 唱腔: Melodies to which aria lyrics are sung.  Changsheng dian 长生殿: Palace of Lasting Life is a famous opera by Hong Sheng that tells story of the Tang Dynasty Emperor Li Longji (Tang Xuanzong) and his consort Yang Guifei.  chizidiao 尺字调: A pitch collection that may be understood as the key of C major in Western music theory.  cipai 词牌: Word groups that consist of two Chinese characters.  ciyi 词意: Word groups organized by meaning rather than number of Chinese characters.  xiv  chouyan 抽眼: The compositional technique of contraction in which some of the original musical material is altered by shrinking the duration, cutting out half of the notes, and / or omitting phrases.  chuanqi 传奇: Short tales written in classical Chinese.  chuoqiang啜腔: The repetition of two pitches to accentuate the winding melody in kunqu.  cuoqiang 撮腔: A characteristic vocal gesture in kunqu in which the performer sings two consecutive sixteenth notes that occur on the first half of the last beat of the melisma.  dan 旦: The female role type in kunqu.  dapu 打谱: Another term for zhipu; as a kunqu practice, it refers to the creative process of designing and/or adjusting the melody and expression of a preexisting qupai so that it can be used to sing newly written lyrics, which means according to the contents of the lyrics and the four yin-yang tones to create and adjust the new melody so it matches the melody and expression of the original qupai.  daiqiang 带腔: A characteristic kunqu vocal gesture where the singer takes a quick breath, creating a small pause before quickly returning to the previous note and continuing to sing.    daqu 大曲: A form of Tang dynasty court music.  dianqiang 垫腔: A vocal gesture where the performer adds a “padded note” that fills the gap between the minor third or perfect fourth intervals.  dianyin 垫音: literally “padded note.” An added note that fills the gap between tones separated by a minor third.  diban 底板: The clapper strike that indicates the end of an aria phrase sung in unmetered rhythm. Diban is indicated by the line that extends horizontally in gongche notation.  dieqiang 迭腔: A vocal gesture where the singer repeats a note on the shangsheng (third tone in Mandarin) or qusheng (fourth tone in Mandarin) speech-tones.  dimo 笛膜: A membrane made of reed or bamboo that serves as a filter that creates the particular timbre of the qudi (Chinese transverse flute).  duqu 度曲: Kunqu singing pedagogy.   fanzidiao 凡字调: A pitch collection with its gong (fundamental) tone corresponding to the tone produced by the fan fingering on the kunqu flute.  xv geju 歌剧: Musical plays.  gongche 工尺: Chinese musical notation similar to solfege.  gongdiao 宫调: An historical Chinese concept that may be understood as that of a mode in Western music theory.  Qupai sets are grouped according to gongdiao.  gongtingyue宫廷乐: Court music.  guoqu 过曲: The main body of the qupai in the southern system of kunqu.  hanqiang: 罕腔: The tones of the short glissando leading into the yinshang speech-tone.  huaju 话剧: Spoken Plays.  huaqiang滑腔: A repeated note that occurs when a scale is descending to make it more lively. It may also be called rouqiang 揉腔.  huoqiang豁腔: an added ornamentation note within a speech-tone derived melisma that commonly occurs on the yinqu and yangqu speech-tone melismas.   jianpu 简谱: Simplified Chinese music notation; cipher notation.  jieban 截板: When the clappers strike after the completion of the sung character. Also called jueban 绝板.    jiqu 集曲: Montage qupai, which are created by borrowing lines from other qupai usually in the same gongdiao (mode).  kuoban 扩板: The compositional technique of expansion where the original musical material is expanded two-fold.  kunqu 昆曲: The music of kun opera.  kunshanqiang 昆山腔: Kun melodies sung in the town of Kunshan that became popular at the end of the Ming dynasty.    langtou浪头: The basic rhythm of the pipa and sanxian in kunqu music.  liuzidiao 六字调:  A pitch collection with its gong (fundamental) tone corresponding to the tone produced by the liu fingering on the kunqu flute.  luogu dianzi 锣鼓点子: The rhythmic patterns of the percussion ensemble.    xvi minyue 民乐: Literally the “nation or people’s music.” A general term for Chinese traditional music that has transformed according to the ideology of the respective historical period.  maozi tou帽子头: A kunqu drum pattern.  nanqu 南曲: Southern arias.    ping 平: Level tone.  pingjun kong dizi 平均孔笛子: Average (equally spaced) hole flute.  ping-ze 平仄: The scheme of even and oblique linguisitic tones in Chinese poetry.  qiangtou 腔头: The beginning of the melisma.  qiangwei 腔尾: The ending of the melisma, which leads to the next word.  qingchang 清唱: Non-theatrical kunqu.   qing 清: Transparent.  qu 去: Falling tone.  qu 曲: In kunqu qu refers to music or singing.  qudi 曲笛: The transverse bamboo flute that is the lead instrument in the kunqu melodic ensemble.  qudiao 曲调: Melody.  qupai 曲牌: Fixed tone-tune.    rupo 入破: A term specifically used in Tang court music. The third section in the progression of Tang court music at which the rhythm speeds up.    sanban散板: Unmeasured rhythm.  shang 上: Second tone in Mandarin.  shangchang luo 上场锣: The kunqu percussion pattern that accompanies actors when they come on stage.  sanqu 散曲: A genre of song poems written in fixed poetic meter that blossomed especially during the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368).  xvii  shangzidiao 上字调: A pitch collection with its gong (fundamental) tone corresponding to the tone produced by the shang fingering on the kunqu flute.  sanxu 散序: The unmetered instrumental prelude in Tang court music.  shawei 煞尾: A qupai that is often used as the last aria in a scene/suite of Northern arias (beiqu) in the northern system.  sheng 生: A male role type in kun opera.  shuimodiao 水磨调: The polished singing style of kunqu, first advocated by Wei Liangfu.  siji tou 四击头: A Chinese opera drum pattern.  sisheng qiangge 四声腔格: The system of four linguistic tones for writing operatic lyrics and dialogues.  shouqiang 擻腔: A characteristic four-note ornamentation figure in kunqu singing.  Song zaju 宋朝雜劇: Song dynasty variety plays.   Sun Jian’an 孙建安: The primary composer for the Jiangsu opera troupe based in Nanjing.  tuoqiang 拖腔: The ending of the melisma (after the initial consonant).  xianban险板: When the clapper strikes before the sung character. Also called shanban 闪板.     xiaogongdiao小宫调: A pitch collection with its gong (fundamental) tone corresponding to the tone produced by the xiaogong fingering on the kunqu flute.  Yannan Zhi’an 燕南芝庵: A Yuan dynasty qu theorist.   yaoban 腰板: When the clapper strikes within the sung character. Also called cheban.  Yuanqu 元曲: Yuan dynasty form of sung poetry. yinzi 引子: Introduction to a qupai. yizidiao乙字调: A pitch collection that may be understood as the key of A major in Western music theory.  zengban 增板: A type of meter where the original 4/4 meter has been doubled to create a phrase in 8/4 meter. Indicated by the “x” symbol in gongche notation.  xviii  zhengban 正版: When a sung character (zi) falls on the first beat of a phrase.  zhenggongdiao 正宫调: A pitch collection that may be understood as the key of G major in Western music theory.  zhengsha 正杀: The note of a qupai that is usually la, but may vary according to speech-tone.  zhipufua 制谱法: Tune accommodation.  zhiqu支曲: The main body of the qupai in the northern system of kun music.  zhiqu制曲: Like tianci, another word for “composing” or adapting lyrics to a song pattern.  zhongxu 中序: A term specific to Tang court music. The middle section with metered song and dance music.  Zhou Xuehua 周雪华: The primary composer for the Shanghai and Zhejiang opera troupes.  zhuan 賺: 1. A form of Song dynasty music. 2. A short qupai that modulates between keys in kunqu.  zhuqiang 主腔: The main phrase of a qupai that is a fixed melodic contour that can be transposed and varied.  zi 字: A word or character in the Han-Chinese language.  zuoqu 作曲: The contemporary Mandarin Chinese word for compose.  Chinese Instruments  bangu 板鼓: Small drum and clapper played simultaneously by a single player in traditional.  daluo大锣: Large gong.  daruan 大阮: Chinese tenor lute.  erhu 二胡: Chinese fiddle.  guan 管: double-reed pipe.   guzheng 古筝: Chinese plucked zither.  haidi 海笛: Small Chinese shawm.  xix  huqin 胡琴: String instruments.  pipa 琵琶: Chinese lute.  qudi 曲笛: Southern bamboo flute.  naobo 铙拨: Cymbols.  ruan 阮: Chinese lute.  sheng 笙: Mouth organ.  sanxian 三弦: Chinese three-stringed lute.  suona 唢呐: Chinese shawm.  tanggu 堂鼓: Ceremonial hall drum.  wenchang 文場: The melodic section of kunqu instrumental ensemble.  wuchang 武場: The percussion section of the kunqu instrumental ensemble.  xiao箫: Vertical flute.  xiansuo 弦索: Plucked instruments.  xiaoluo 小锣: Small gong.  yangqin 扬琴: Chinese hammered dulcimer.  zhonghu中胡: A member of the Chinese huqin family (lower pitched than the erhu).    	  	          xx Acknowledgements  I am fortunate to have many teachers.  I owe a great debt to Michael Tenzer, who has been a model of teaching, composing, and scholarship.  Professor Tenzer has helped me shape my ideas and compositions, and my dissertation has evolved under his careful reading.  Joseph Lam has shaped my thinking within Chinese music studies and has been a great source of encouragement.  I am thankful that Professor Lam has given me the opportunity to present with him in Michigan and Shanghai.  Nathan Hesselink’s thoughtful feedback and intellectual generosity never fails to inspire me.  I also extend gratitude to Kofi Gbolonyo, who showed me that music is like a heartbeat.  As a high school student at the Taft School, I was introduced to the Chinese language by Yen-Lung Liu.  George Chih-Ch’ao’s classes at the University of Chicago were instrumental in further developing my Chinese fluency.  I wrote my BA thesis at the University of Chicago with Philip Bohlman and Jenny Purtle; I am forever grateful for their belief in me and for being exemplars of grace and passion in teaching and learning. Over the years, my research and study of composition and performance have been aided by numerous individuals.  In Shanghai, my research was assisted by Zhao Weiping and Dai Wei at the Shanghai Conservatory of Music.  I studied guqin with the inspiring multi-instrumentalist Dai Shuhong.  The celebrated composer He Zhanhao instructed me in folk song composition.  I especially thank the kunqu composers who enabled this dissertation and generously shared their stories and music with me.  Zhou Xuehua and Sun Jian’an have always been available to answer my questions and to share music and good cheer.  I am grateful to the music students at the Shanghai Conservatory for sharing their interests with me.  In particular, Xu Lufan has helped me with documents, music scores, and has collaborated in writing the lyrics to my first Chinese album.    At Royal Holloway University of London, Mark Bowden shared his expertise in composition.  Tina Ramnarine and Henry Stobart shared their contagious enthusiasm for and insight into the field of ethnomusicology.  In China and in the States, my work has benefited from the comments of many friends.  I extend special thanks to my fellow graduate students at the University of British Columbia, Juan Diego Diaz Meneses and Mike Oppenheim, fellow scholars and guitarists.  I also am deeply grateful for Ho-Chak Law and Da Lin’s insights on kunqu. Many institutions have supported my studies, research, and writing.  A Fulbright  xxi fellowship from the Institute of International Education, sponsored by the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Education and Cultural Affairs, gave me the opportunity to conduct my first independent field research in Shanghai.  An International Excellence Scholarship from Royal Holloway University of London enabled me to pursue a MMus in Advanced Musical Studies.  The University of British Columbia granted me a Four Year Doctoral Fellowship, which supported my graduate studies in Vancouver.  The Vanier Canada Graduate Scholarship from the Government of Canada has generously supported the completion of my research and writing in Canada, China, and the United States.  I am deeply grateful to all of these programs and institutions for enabling my growth as a scholar and for making this project possible.  I am indebted to a few dear friends who defy any category.  I am grateful to Denise Ho who undertook her fieldwork alongside me in Shanghai in 2006-2007.  Vanessa Wood has collaborated on lyrics, shared insights on music and physics, and run alongside me on many trails.  We wrote “Woodcutter” together, and it is still my favorite song because it is about wandering, intellectual curiosity, and friendship.  I extend my thanks to the brilliant poet Anthony Madrid who taught me the importance of flow in writing.  I am grateful for Andrey Shlyakhter’s inspiration as a scholar and friend.  I am indebted to the talented voice teacher and scholar Sharon Radionoff.  Finally, I extend my love to my dear friend Ximena Osegueda.  We were neighbors at St. John’s College at the University of British Columbia during our first year of the Ph.D. program.  Ximena was tragically murdered in Mexico while conducting fieldwork.  She was a beautiful capoeirista, a warrior, a scholar of Hispanic studies, and the kindest friend.  I honor her and was lucky to have known her, even for a short time.   xxii Dedication  This project is dedicated to my parents, John and Betty Jones, and my brother Matthew, in appreciation, admiration, and love. 1 1 Introduction I have been interested in the creative process of composition since I started writing popular songs when I was in high school.  I started learning Chinese in my last year of high school and continued through college, when I became interested in Chinese music.  This project is a continuation of a project on musical Chinoiserie that I began as an undergraduate at the University of Chicago.  I initially examined the Western gaze on Chinese music, focusing on Puccini’s Turandot.  I investigated the history of the Western interpretation of Chinese music—what I termed the logic of Chinoiserie—the interaction of mood, mode, and motif.  In my interpretation of Chinoiserie, mood is an emotional archetype modeled on history.  Chinoiserie often portrays Chinese dynasties cyclically as they fall because of the Empress’s constant need for revenge.1  This emotional archetype of history—what I define as mood—is often expressed by associated musical modes.  In music studies, mode has been defined as either a ‘particularized scale’ determined by the relationship between musical pitches (intervals) and the overall span of the pitches (ambitus), or as a ‘generalized tune’ where each pitch has a specific function.2  I am referring to the latter definition of pitch mode.  In the logic of Chinoiserie, mode is the musical articulation of mood.  Finally, motif is an image, musical idiom, or dramatic structure that encapsulates and is defined by association with both mood and mode. In this project, although I still highlight the dialogue between Western and Chinese music, I primarily focus on Chinese music itself, particularly the art of contemporary kunqu composition.  I have come to understand contemporary kunqu composition through                                                 1 While blaming the fall of dynasties on empresses is also a trope present in Chinese literature, the specific musical articulations and motifs of affect differ in Chinoiserie. See chapter 6 for an elaborated discussion of the history of the Western gaze on Chinese music. 2 Harold S. Powers, et al., "Mode," Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press, accessed Sept 16, 2013: http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/43718pg1.  2 composition lessons and my relationships with two of the five primary contemporary kunqu composers in mainland China.3  In 2007, I started taking composition lessons from Zhou Xuehua, the primary composer for the Shanghai and Hangzhou opera troupes, and Sun Jian’an, the primary composer for the Jiangsu Kun Opera Troupe based in Nanjing.  Since then I have continued to communicate with these composers during research trips to China and as I am writing this dissertation.  I have found that both Zhou Xuehua and Sun Jian’an compose kunqu by drawing on the key music theory concepts of kunqu, personal interpretations of Chinese history, and Western music theory.  The composers with whom I studied root their compositional techniques in key branches of knowledge, what I term the pillars of kunqu that can be traced through treatises dating to the sixteenth century; however, their actual practice is much more modern.  In my own popular songs, music and lyrics often work in counterpoint to tell a story.  When I originally began taking composition lessons with these composers in Shanghai and Nanjing, I began to wonder how much of their music is their own story, especially since kunqu is a strict form rooted in a musical system established in the sixteenth century.  I wondered what drives these composers to create and how is their music intertwined with their stories?  To what extent is music bound to individual biographies and/or to social histories?  In studying kunqu, I was aware of the linguistic and structural restrictions, namely that kunqu is a speech-tone driven musical system where each word produces a melisma based on its speech-tone in Suzhou dialect, and that kunqu consists of qupai, preexisting tone-tunes that have a specific number of syllables and constrained melody.  However, I heard the personal voice of these                                                 3 I work with Sun Jian’an 孙建安 (b. 1961), the primary composer for the Jiangsu Kun Opera Troupe and Zhou Xuehua 周雪华 (b. 1951), the primary composer for the Zhejiang and Shanghai Kun Opera Troupes.  Zhou Youliang周友良(b. 1948) is a violinist and composer who has written for the Suzhou Kun Opera Troupe.  Gu Zhaolin顾兆琳 (b. 1943) is a theorist and composer at The Shanghai Opera Academy.  Wang Dayuan王大元 (b. 1941) is a flutist and composer for the Beijing Kun Opera troupe.    3 composers within the stringent structure, and I questioned how they negotiated the collapsing boundaries between tradition and innovation in Chinese music.  1.1 Note on romanization and Chinese notation  I use the pinyin romanization for Chinese words.  For key terms, refer to the glossary for the Chinese characters.  I use Chinese simplified characters because the contemporary composers in mainland China write in simplified Chinese.  In most cases I use standard Western musical notation.  However, following the contemporary convention of notating traditional Chinese music, in some cases I use jianpu (simplified) notation, or cipher notation.  In this system the seven notes are represented by numbers 1-7 and 0 indicates a rest.  The duration of a note is indicated by the line drawn under the number, except notes that are greater than one beat have no line underneath.  For example, in 4/4 meter a number without a line indicates a quarter note.  A number with one line underneath indicates an eighth note.  A number with two lines indicates a sixteenth note.  A dot after a number indicates that the duration is increased by half of the note’s duration.  Meter, key, tempo, bar lines, slurs, and ornamentation notes are also added within this system.  1.2 The kunqu “composer”  What does musical composition mean in its traditional, modern, and contemporary usages in China and the West?  In the West, the terms composer and composition have acquired specific social and cultural meanings in the course of Western modernity beginning circa 1500.  Centuries later, the concept of the modern composer was appropriated in China as a result of the New Culture Movement of the May Fourth Period (1917-1927).  In both  4 Western European and Chinese history, the role of the composer was professionalized only after oral musical traditions were formalized into a written system that emphasized a work-concept.4 In this dissertation I investigate the contemporary practice of the art of kunqu composition by questioning: what is the role of a contemporary kunqu composer and what is the “meaning” of contemporary kunqu composition?  Contemporary kunqu composers have reimagined their roles based on a new conception of modernity integrating traditional Chinese, modern Chinese, and Western musical aesthetics on the levels of personal identity, local cultural knowledge, and the world stage. Figure 1.1 Aspects of translation  I understand composition as a series of decisions that may be thought of as aspects of translation, where meaning is transferred from thinking to practice, from knowledge of the                                                 4 In Lydia Goehr’s The Central Claim, she identifies the work-concept as historically contingent and regulative in Western Europe in the late eighteenth century.  By work-concept, I refer to Goehr’s definition of the objectification of music into a written score and the conceptual shift towards revering the score over the performance (Goehr, 1992).  In China, the increasing reverence for the written score was an appropriated concept accepted by those in the conservatory system influenced by the disillusionment with Chinese culture expressed in the New Culture Movement.  This increasing reverence for the written score was adopted in the practice of Chinese and Western music, and was promulgated through conservatory training and social practices such as formal concerts and the further development of written solo repertoire for Chinese instruments.  This is not to say that Chinese traditional music in a traditional form and performance context was completely eclipsed.  5 pillars of kunqu ultimately to sound.5  By knowledge of kunqu, I mean both personal and shared knowledge.  Kunqu composers translate their personal conceptions of ancient Chinese music, as well as shared knowledge, or what I term the pillars of kunqu: the main theoretical concepts that have defined and developed with the tradition since the sixteenth century.  This includes knowledge of how emotions relate to musical modes, role types, plot development, and knowledge of how language relates to melody in the northern and southern musical systems.  Additionally, I mean knowledge of Western music theory, specifically harmony and counterpoint.  I refer to moments within the compositional process where meaning is retained, but transferred between mediums (such as different notation systems) as conversion points.6  Where does translation in the aesthetic experience occur?  These critical moments, where meaning is translated in contemporary kunqu composition, are a result of personal and cultural encounter, largely influenced by the dialogue between Chinese and Western music. 7  Accordingly, the majority of my research is rooted in conversations with composers in order to                                                 5 In recent scholarship in Chinese studies, the issue of translation has become increasingly central to reflections on modernity as a complex and multivocal process. For instance, Lydia Liu’s notion of translingual practice takes translation as a literal concept (loan words and neologisms between China, the West, and Japan) and also as a metaphorical concept. Liu takes translation as a trope: “Broadly defined, the study of translingual practice examines the process by which new words, meanings, discourses, and modes of representation arise, circulate, and acquire legitimacy with the host language due to, or in spite of, the latter’s contact/collision with the guest language. Meanings, therefore, are not so much ‘transformed’ when concepts pass from the guest language to the host language as invented within the local environment of the latter” (Liu, 26). My aspects of translation framework applied to composition similarly takes translation as metaphor in a dynamic meaning-making process where the individual composer makes compositional decisions complicated by collectivism (shared knowledge) in the context of twenty-first century China. However, my framework of translation is set up to investigate the asymmetrical translation from the mode of knowledge to sound, whereas Liu’s translation theory focuses mainly on inconmmensurability of language. 6 At conversion points the composer intends to retain meaning between “equivalent” notation systems, even though different notation systems may be considered prescriptive and incommensurate. 7 For another perspective on cross-cultural composition see Christopher Adler, "Reflections on Cross-cultural Composition," in Arcana II: Musicians on Music, ed. John Zorn (New York: Hips Road, 2007).  Adler argues that political considerations are a necessary part of the analysis of cross-cultural music. Adler focuses on the interconnections of music, discourse, and prior knowledge in cross-cultural music.  6 discover and analyze these critical moments in the compositional process.  I focus on the identities and music of two contemporary kunqu composers based in Shanghai and Nanjing.8 Since 2007, I have studied composition with Zhou Xuehua 周雪华, a Shanghai-based kunqu composer and with Sun Jian’an孙建安, the kunqu composer for the Jiangsu Province kun opera troupe based in Nanjing.  These composition lessons suggested to me that ethnography can be used to study the practice of composition.  I questioned: how do cultural practices and ways of knowing determine how one composes music?  While ethnomusicology has often focused on studying performance through participant-observation, my project uses the ethnography of composition as a lens to understand the aesthetic motivations of contemporary kun composers.  Studies of composition within ethnomusicology have broached issues of notation and oral systems, individual versus community creativity, as well as the composers' objective and social context.9  There have been two broad approaches to what could be termed the subfield of the ethnomusicology of composition: that of 1) the composer-ethnomusicologist who uses composition as a method of investigation and mode of realization.  For instance, the work of figures such as Charles Seeger (1886-1979), Béla Bartók (1881-1945), and José Maceda (1917-2004) who used their compositional space to generate new philosophical and social ideas, and 2) the ethnomusicologist who investigates the life, music, and compositional process of the composer by drawing parallels between the composers' experiences and creative                                                 8 In 2013, there are five professional contemporary kunqu composers of varying skill levels in mainland China.  I focused on Zhou Xuehua and Sun Jian’an because they are the most active kunqu composers in China and were also willing to teach me composition.  In addition to the composers I studied with in the Shanghai and Jiangsu regions, Zhou Youliang 周友良 is a regular composer for the Suzhou Kun Opera Troupe and Gu Zhaoling 顾兆琳 is a composer and theorist at The Opera Academy in Shanghai.  Wang Dayuan 王大元 is the composer for the Beijing Kunju Troupe.  At the height of kunqu in the “Qianjia” era (1736-1820), there were about 100 kunqu composers. 9 Stephen Blum, "Composition," in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2d ed., ed. Stanley Sadie, vol. 6 (London: MacMillan, 2001), 188-201.  7 life, and/or situating the composer in his/her historical lineage and social milieu:10 For example, Yung and Rees’s Understanding Charles Seeger: Pioneer in American Musicology.11  My project resonates with both methods.  I investigate composition through learning to compose kunqu aria based on qupai, through interviews that link the composers’ lives to their music, and through historical research that links the composers’ treatises to the intellectual tradition of kunqu.12  Kunqu is a Chinese operatic style that features vocal art of qupai (preexistent and fixed tunes) music, accompanied by the transverse flute (qudi) and small instrumental ensemble.  In Chinese kun is an abbreviated form for Kunshan, an area situated on the northwest border of present-day Shanghai in Jiangsu province in China, where kunqu originated.  In Chinese qu means songs; thus kunqu means “songs of Kunshan.”  Kunqu developed in Kunshan during the Yuan dynasty (1271-1368) and was most widespread in the Qing Dynasty “Qianjia” era (1736-1820).13  During this era, kunqu’s performing principles were formalized as recorded in A Mirror for Actors’ Hearts (Ming xin jian), revised and edited in the middle period of the Qing dynasty, and in A Collection of Kunqu Plays with Annotations for Critical Listening and Viewing (Shen yin jian gu lu) first published in the Daoguang period of the Qing dynasty (1821-1850).14  Kunqu declined in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, but was gradually                                                 10 For an introduction to Seeger, Bartók, and Maceda’s ideas relating to composition, see Charles Seeger, "Prescriptive and descriptive music-writing," The Musical Quarterly 44, no. 2 (1958): 184-195; Béla Bartók, Béla Bartók: Studies in Ethnomusicology, ed. Benjamin Suchoff (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997); and Jose Maceda, "Gongs & bamboo: a panorama of Philippine music instruments," Philosophy East and West 63 2 (2013). 11 Bell Yung and Helen Rees, eds., Understanding Charles Seeger, Pioneer in American Musicology (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1999). 12 Qupai are preexisting tunes that a composer may fill in with lyrics to create an aria (a sung qupai).  When linked together, qupai constitute a scene in a kun opera.  See chapter three for the history and analytical definition of qupai. 13 Zheng Songyi, “Globalization and the Transformation of Traditional Folk Arts in China and Japan”  (PhD Diss., The Pennsylvania State University, 2003), 67. 14 Zheng, “Globalization and the Transformation of Traditional Folk Arts in China and Japan,” 60-61.  8 revived with the founding of new schools and its use as a political tool by the Communist Party.  In May 2001, the United Nations Education, Science and Culture Organization (UNESCO) added kunqu to its list of "Masterpieces of Oral and Inheritable Heritage of Humanity," largely because of its influence on Chinese performance art and consequent capacity to maintain cultural diversity.15   In September of 2012, while writing this dissertation, I had a significant conversation with Zhou Qin, the kunqu scholar from Suzhou University, in which we discussed the complexity of the word “composer” and the differences between Western critical theory and the traditionalist school of Chinese thought.16  Zhou Qin and I were both attending a conference on kunqu at the University of Michigan.  When I explained my intention to investigate the lives and music of two contemporary kun composers, Zhou Xuehua and Sun Jian’an, the following conversation transpired: Juliane Jones: In contemporary China, who are the most skilled kunqu composers? Zhou Qin: According to kunqu, originally there was no composer needed.  If the lyrics are filled carefully, then the performers will be able to sing it themselves.  But the problem now is that these composers change the original music that sounded very good in the first place.  Originally a qupai like “Bubu Jiao” (Dainty Steps) was sung in a  certain way, but because of problems like the singer’s voice and other changes, the music has been changed... Jones: So now you feel that there are no kunqu composers in China? Zhou: Yes. Jones: Is this an imported idea [the idea of a composer who alters kunqu]?  Professor  Zhou, since you write music, do you consider yourself a scholar or a composer? Zhou: I am a scholar.  In the Chinese conception, composition means to fill in the words “tianci.”17  When they [these composers] say compose (zuoqu), they mean  “dingpu” (fix the score).  The thing that you are studying now is                                                 15 Kunqu is the oldest operatic tradition in China and has influenced Beijing opera and other regional operatic genres (Zheng, 59). 16 Generally speaking, Western critical theory is based on the concept of the modern subject and uses theoretical frameworks for explanation.  Chinese scholarship is rooted in traditional Confucian and Daoist literature.  Though the Western and Chinese viewpoints are increasingly converging, there are distinct differences in conceptions of the individual that manifest themselves in the practices of carrying out academic research and in the resulting scholarship. 17 Tianci literally means: “fill in the words,” but in kunqu this means adding melody to preexisting lyrics.  9 “dingpu” (fix  the score); these people cannot compose (zuoqu).  “Zuoqu” is to write Palace of Lasting Life.  The composition (zuoqu) of today is a Western conception. Jones: Why aren’t these composers “zuoqujia” [the contemporary Chinese word for  composer]?  They write new music at the piano?  Is this composing? Zhou: This is a Western conception of composition.  In the traditional Chinese sense, composition is filling in the words (tianci).   Despite Zhou Qin’s insistence that there are no contemporary kunqu composers, this dissertation focuses on the lives and music of Zhou Xuehua and Sun Jian’an, who both consider themselves to be kunqu composers.  Neither composer follows purely traditional methods nor adopts entirely Western techniques.  These composers operate within an intellectual tradition of kunqu theory, but their practice is actually more modern.  Considering composition as a series of decisions enabling the transformation of knowledge into sound, the contemporary kunqu composer must negotiate between theory and practice, between thinking and making within the context of twenty-first century China.  As I investigate aspects of translation in the compositional process, I consider how the composers interpret tradition through historical conception, mood-mode relations, and the relationship between language and melody.  In chapter two, I introduce the kunqu musical ensemble and the contemporary method for composing an aria from qupai that I was taught by Zhou Xuehua.  In chapter three, I outline the history of kunqu music theory as it relates to composition in order to situate the contemporary composers in the intellectual tradition of kunqu.  In chapter four I present Zhou Xuehua’s biography and compositional techniques.  Chapter five is devoted to Sun Jian’an’s biography and compositional techniques.  Finally, chapter six examines the musical dialogue between China and North America that underscores kunqu composition.  I will present this musical dialogue based on my interviews with the above-mentioned kunqu composers and a  10 public interview with New-York-based composer Tan Dun on his rendition of the kun opera The Peony Pavilion, performed at the Metropolitan Museum in New York City in 2012.  1.3 The concept of the Chinese kunqu composer  My conversation with Zhou Qin makes clear that the concept of composition and particularly the word zuoqu (literally “make tunes”), the contemporary Chinese word for composition, have different traditional, modern, and contemporary meanings in both Western and Chinese music.18  The different meanings of composition reflect specific compositional techniques as well as the ideological underpinnings of the historical period.  The historical meaning of Chinese kunqu composition refers to the poet-composer (sometimes termed poet-scriptwriter) in premodern China, whereas the modern meaning refers to the role of the composer that emerged as a result of the intellectual shift set forth by the May Fourth Movement.  There are multiple meanings of contemporary composition; however, in this study I focus on the narrative of the Chinese kunqu composer who is highly influenced by the minyue (literally “national or people’s music”) sonority that developed in the 1950s and was most prominent in the 1980s. 19   The specific minyue sonority to which I refer is Chinese                                                 18 In contemporary China, the word zuoqu is used to refer to the composition department at the conservatories and the students and professors who create new music. 19 Like the term composition, minyue has also transformed according to the underlying ideology of the respective historical period.  The term minyue was adopted in 1911 to refer to music written for traditional Chinese instruments.  In the 1930s, minyue meant Confucian and literati music, and only sometimes was extended to regional or folk genres (Lau, Music in China, 27, 30, 54).  In the 1950s, minyue took on the meaning of Chinese traditional music that adopted Western musical elements, such as orchestration.  The pre-Cultural Revolution minyue sonority is characterized by added tertiary harmony to Chinese melodies.  During the Cultural Revoluiton (1966-1976), the bass was more prominently figured in the orchestration of the Model Operas.  The twentieth century minyue sonority is generally more symphonic and often makes use of modes and changes in timbre within the orchestration.    11 instrumental music that maintains traditional Chinese instrumentation, but adopts Western orchestration techniques in the style of the Romantic Period.20 It is evident that the contemporary word composition (zuoqu) has varying meanings to different people according to their degree of acceptance of innovation in Chinese music.  From Zhou Qin’s perspective, there is no such role as a contemporary kunqu composer (zuoqujia), because Zhou Qin does not believe in altering the traditional qupai system.  Zhou Qin distinguishes between the traditional and modern meanings of the word zuoqu, but does not agree with the integration of these two meanings in theory or practice.  For Zhou Qin, the traditional meaning of the word zuoqu when applied to kunqu only refers to the poet-composer who originally wrote the musical lyrics in ancient times.  Zhou Qin does not associate the modern use of the word zuoqu with contemporary kun music: he understands zuoqu as an imported practice of Western composition that has the aesthetic goal of self-expression through new music.   Sun Jian’an, however, acknowledges the debate over the meaning of a composer in Chinese music, and argues that the word zuoqu (composition) can be applied to contemporary kunqu composition. There are many names for creating kunqu including puqu, bianqu, changqiang zhengli (organization of speech-tone melodies), yinyue sheji (musical design), and jipu, etc.  Some take a straightforward perspective and just call it “music.”  I feel that different names for creating kunqu is not the issue.  The issue lies in the fact that many people believe creating kunqu cannot be placed into the category of musical creation.  These people believe the creators of kunqu merely mechanically reproduce the music of previously existing qupai or simply remember the score.  These people believe that “zuoqu” (composer)—these two characters—are reserved for the creators of completely                                                 20 Joseph Lam, “Chinese Music and Its Globalized Past and Present,” Macalester International Volume 21: The Musical Imagination in the Epoch of Globalization (2008): 29-77.  12 new music.  This point of view, however, belittles the function and meaning of creating kunqu music.  This is a prejudice towards traditional opera music.21  Sun Jian’an believes that contemporary kunqu composition is a collaborative process where the composer is responsible for the music, but collaborates with the editor, musicians, and dancers.    For Sun, the contemporary kunqu composer is an arranger of preexisting tone-tunes and a creator of original music who bases his/her art in the traditional compositional methods of kunqu drawing from the qupai system, but may create new music through the altered or innovative methods of composition.22  It is necessary to further disentangle the meanings of the words composition in the Chinese and Western senses.  In this dissertation, I define composition as the authoring of an artistic work that expresses with sound or with sound and text, and I define kunqu composition as creating lyrics and/or music based on qupai structure.  Furthermore, I divide kunqu composition according to their cultural-historical categorizations: historical kunqu composition which was practiced before 1911; neo-traditional kunqu composition which is current, but is considered by contemporary composers to be a practice continued from before 1911; modern kunqu composition which has begun since the 1950s; and contemporary kunqu composition, which is the current and latest practice.  Appropriated by the educated elite from a type of folk theater popular in the sixteenth century from the Zhejiang and Jiangsu regions, the kunqu tradition was codified by Wei Liangfu (1522-1573) and other singing masters, who used the word “qu,” to mean music or singing.  Kunqu was originally an art of song defined by its inseparable melodic idioms and lyrics.  As Zhou Qin noted, the original notion of one who creates kun music was a poet-composer who                                                 21 Sun Jian’an, Kunqu zuoqu yu zhuchuang tuandui de goutong yu hezuo 昆曲作曲与主创团队的沟通与合作 (The collaboration between the kunqu composer and other major artistic roles of the opera troupe), unpublished article. 22 I will explain the compositional methods of contemporary kunqu in detail in chapters four and five.  13 wrote the lyrics and notated the melody based on the rules of speech-tone in gongche notation.23  In the Ming dynasty there were several words that denoted the act of creating poetry and music together including zuoju, zhiqu, zuoqu, zuoci, and dapu.  For example, in Wang Jide’s (1557?-1623) treatise Qü Prosody, he used the word zuoqu as a verb that means writing the lyrics and melody together, but within the formalized qupai system.24  In the Kunju dictionary Wu Xinlei distinguishes three meanings of the word zhiqu: The first meaning is to fill in the lyrics.  In ancient times this was called zuoju.  Now it is called bianju (to arrange a song).  One must use the speech-tones (of words in the lyrics) to make the melody.  The second meaning is to cleverly manipulate the structure of the words and melody—to be coherent, eliminate clichés and redundancies.  The third meaning is that the lyrics should be chosen carefully.  They should have good diction, interest, be easily accessible to the audience, and appeal to elite and lowbrow audiences alike.  Also, one has to carefully use the ping-ze tones so as to make the lyrics beautiful adding to the emotion.  The rules are even stricter for writing lyrics for qingqu (opera sung without accompaniment).25   Wu Xinlei further explains that the word zhiqu means composing lyrics and the melody.  He elucidates the meaning of zhiqu into four points: The first point is to determine the sound and measure of the lyrics including rhyme, the level tones (ru, zuo, and ping), yin yang tones, the beginning (wutou) and ending of the sentence.  The overarching principle is to clarify the speech-tones, then the melody, and then compose in accordance with the sounds.  The second point concerns rhetoric and theme including word choice and symmetry.  The third point is about referencing content or words.  The fourth point concerns qupai form.  There are 40 examples of exemplary form in Zhongyuan yinyun.26  “Compose” in its historical sense meant that a poet-composer would select qupai, create new melodic lyrics based on the qupai structure, and finally arrange the resulting arias (sung qupai)                                                 23 Gongche notation is a traditional music notation of ancient China that uses Chinese characters to represent pitch positions, similar to the movable do system in Western music. 24 Wang Jide can be considered the first theorist of kun music, thus it is appropriate to distinguish the meanings of “compose” based on his text. 25 Wu Xinlei 吳新雷, Yu Weimin 俞為民, and Gu Lingsen 顧聆森, eds. Zhongguo Kunju da cidian (Dictionary of Chinese kunqu opera) (Nanjing: Nanjing University Press, 2002), 501. 26 Wu Xinlei, Zhongguo Kunju da cidian, 501.  14 into suites.  Although poet-composers required knowledge of rhyme and meter in order to create melodic lyrics for qupai, they often worked with musical advisors.27 In the context of late imperial China, composing kunqu was associated with literati culture and included in the category of yayue.28  In a broad sense, yayue means music that is artistically and culturally cultivated.  Late imperial China was a male-dominated, hereditary class society where land ownership determined rights and obligations.  Literati engaged in activities of life cultivation such as singing and writing kunqu as part of the classical Chinese philosophy of lordship in which enlightened life cultivation established social order.  Literati practiced non-theatrical kunqu as a cultivating activity, and elite households owned private kun opera troupes as a symbol of high social status and cultural capital.  1.4 The concept of the modern Chinese composer  The emergence of the modern Chinese composer was largely a response to the historical force of the May Fourth New Culture Movement.  A reaction to Western stimuli, the role of a modern Chinese composer was bound up with the beginnings of Chinese musicology and the establishment of the conservatory.  The intellectual and political developments between 1917-1927, referred to as the May Fourth Movement, were driven by the student demonstrations led by Beida (the premier university in China) students after the Treaty of Versailles of 1919 awarded German rights to the Shandong province to Japan, rather than returning the province to                                                 27 Bell Yung, Cantonese Opera: Performance as Creative Process (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1989), 3. 28 In traditional Chinese music there was the distinction between yayue (elegant or cultivated music) and suyue (common, uncultivated music).  Narrowly defined, yayue refers to court and ceremonial. Broadly defined, yayue referes to upper class, refined music.  By the turn of the seventeenth to eighteenth centuries, kunqu was accepted as yayue in the broad sense.  15 China.29  Intellectuals broke away from the Confucian tradition and aligned traditional Chinese culture, including indigenous music, with the weakness of the nation.  In the struggle to define a modern Chinese nation state with a modern Chinese music, the word zuoqu took on a new dual meaning—to create new music informed by traditional Chinese music, yet also informed by the aesthetic goals of the modern Western composer.  “Chinese composer” came to be understood as one who creates music as an elite cultural activity (in the Confucian sense of civilized music), but with the Western aesthetic aim of self-expression by creating new musical material.  In modern Chinese music, Western musical techniques were largely viewed as ways to fix or ameliorate traditional Chinese music.  Similar to the adoption of the word yinyue in the process of creating a new national music, the word composer conveyed a dual Chinese and Western meaning.30  1.5 The concept of a Western composer   In this dissertation, I restrict my discussion of Western composition to the context of art music.  The role of the “composer” was professionalized and acquired prestige relatively late in the history of Western music.  There, composition was synonymous with the art of counterpoint, which dates to the 1330s.31  The change in conception of the modern composer in the West occurred during the period from 1450-1500, indicated by an emergence of a high                                                 29  For more information on the May Fourth Movement, see Chou Tse-tsung, The May Fourth Movement: Intellectual Revolution in Modern China (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard, 1964), “Introduction.”  30 For a detailed description of the appropriation of Western music see Maria Chow’s “Representing China Musically: A Chinese Conservatory and China’s Musical Modernity” (Chow, 208-227).  Chow explains that the evolution of meaning of the word music (yinyue) was an amalgamation of the two terms yin and yue.  The term yinyue did not exist until the early 20th century.  Traditionally yin referred to tones, but could also refer to music in a general sense, and yue often involved not only sound, but also dance and rituals.  Yue comprised yin.  By 1922, the term yinyue was adopted as the equivalent for the foreign word “music.” 31 Rob Wegman, “From Maker to Composer: Improvisation and Musical Authorship in the Low Countries, 1450-1500,” Journal of the American Musicological Society, 49, No. 3 (Autumn, 1996), 431.  16 valuation of authorship and the growing capacity of the composer to exercise authorial control over his work.32  Originally compositor and compositio were technical terms conferring no social status other than to serve God.  Emphasis was placed on performance of music rather than a written score.  In fact, counterpoint was primarily sung, and the distinction between oral and written counterpoint was only verbally established after about 1500.33  As we consider the meanings of the Chinese composer and Chinese composition, it is important to note that Western composition also began as a primarily oral tradition that only gained social status under the processes of modernity.  I do not wish to impose a Eurocentric historical paradigm on Chinese music history.  However, because Chinese modern music emulated Western aesthetic goals—albeit characterized by deep ambivalence—it is useful to identify similar historical patterns.  Despite the abstract nature of the process of composing, we can identify certain connotations of Western composition.  Western composition is often associated with notation, artistry, novelty, inspiration, learning in private lessons and/or a school setting, self-expression, attributed to an individual, and sometimes serving a social context.34  Western music holds the traditional notion of composing the self, a conviction that the individual is speaking through his/her music.  In recent scholarship, particularly in new musicology influenced by post-structuralist thought, this trope of the inherent value of the composer’s interpretive power has been challenged.  Recent scholarship on the multiple subjectivities of music locates musical meaning in the text, the social or cultural context, and/or a web of meaning that includes the                                                 32 Wegman, “From Maker to Composer: Improvisation and Musical Authorship in the Low Countries, 1450-1500,” 468. 33 Ibid., 432. 34 Stephen Blum, "Composition," 188-201.  17 composer.  Edward Cone provides a dramatic interpretation of an implicit, composite persona related to, but separate from the composer, to account for the communication of music: The concept of the complete musical persona must be as multifarious as that of musical composition itself.  The persona may be unitary as in a piano solo; or it may be implied, as by a group of instruments. […] These elements subsist in its consciousness, which is in turn awakened by the performance (in actuality or in imagination) of the gestures that express them.35   Naomi Cumming, however, rejects a monologic voice of the composer, and describes a semiotic interpretation, where the subject position is not located in the composer or the listener, but in the text itself: “Musical personae are not the ephemeral masks behind which the composer's face can be discerned, but neither are they the distorted reflection of one engaged in listening.  They inhere in the text of the work itself, as it is performed, inviting listening.”36  Both of these theories are viable within a broader perspective of the composer’s subject position located between self and world in the complex web of engagement between composer, musical material, and listener.  While all composition may be situated in a web of musical meaning, I feel this theoretical framework loses specificity when applied to contemporary Chinese music.  The assault on subjectivity as a humanist concept in Western scholarship has not occurred in Chinese scholarship.  Rather, as a consequence of the separation of cultural activity from the Party's political agenda, in contemporary China intellectuals have embraced subjectivity as a self-conscious effort to redefine the intellectual self as an autonomous, self-determining, self-regulating free subject.37  In light of these divergent academic trends, I am at pains to articulate a theoretical framework that best suits this study.  By investigating the role of the composer                                                 35 Edward Cone, The Composer’s Voice (Berkeley: The University of California Press, 1974), 109. 36 Naomi Cumming, “The Subjectivities of ‘Erbarme Dich,’” Music Analysis 16 (1997), 17. 37 Liu Kang, “Subjectivity, Marxism, and Cultural Theory in Modern China,” Social Text 31/32 (1992), 114-140.  18 through the aspects of translation framework, I explore the individual and the collective in a dialectic relationship where the composer translates from personal and shared knowledge.38 I unpack the process of kunqu composition that draws on the traditional pillars of kunqu, Western instrumentation and orchestration, and the composers’ own historical conceptions of ancient Chinese music.  1.6 The contemporary kunqu composer in China  We can begin to understand contemporary kunqu composition by investigating composers’ individual experiences, place in the community, approaches to text, and relationship to the history of kunqu composition.  The role of the contemporary kunqu composer can be distinguished from that of the traditional composer because of his/her musical and literary training, use of technology, division of labor (only writing the music, not the lyrics), and objectives, including adhering to tradition while incorporating self-expression.  Moreover, the contemporary kunqu composer is trained in kun singing as well as in Western harmony and counterpoint and piano skills.  From my observations in working with the contemporary kunqu composers, they write music at the piano, considering how the melody fits with the implied harmony (a Western musical practice).  They focus mainly on the musical aspects of kunqu, whereas the traditional creator of kunqu wrote new lyrics for qupai.  In contemporary kunqu, there is further division of labor between the composer and performer.  Finally, these                                                 38 My study of the individual musical lives of contemporary kunqu composers is part of a greater trend in ethnomusicology and Chinese music studies that focuses on individual creation and interpretation of music.  For a categorization of subject-centered musical ethnography see: Timothy Rice and Jesse Ruskin, "The Individual in Musical Ethnography," Ethnomusicology 56, no. 2 (Spring/Summer 2012): 299-327.  For a discussion of music creation of the individual in China see: Rees, Helen, ed., Lives in Chinese music, (University of Illinois Press, 2009).  Rees remarks on the better documented personal histories of select luminaries including Mei Langfang, Abing, and Nie Er, and the tendency in China to identify folk music as the property of an ethnic group. Rees also notes that recent scholarship in China and the West is increasingly free of the previously ideologically driven expectations.  19 composers take the liberty to fully express themselves in other media by scoring poems and writing new music that is influenced by the style of kunqu, but does not strictly follow its rules.  The contemporary kunqu composer forges a new identity negotiating the tensions within his/her compositional process and social philosophy: s/he projects the Western notion of composing the self, but also is invested in the music as traditionally received within Chinese society.  This struggle between the desire to innovate and experiment versus the desire to respect tradition is reflected in the music.  Sun Jian’an aptly describes this tension in his view of kun composition as “dancing in handcuffs.”  While these composers negotiate the divide between tradition and innovation, they increasingly eschew the Chinese modernist musical paradigm of traditional Chinese music ameliorated by Western techniques.  They opt instead for a new form that depicts their experiences impressionistically, rather than conveying hard lines between tradition and innovation aligned with the sonorities of ancient Chinese music versus Western Romanticism.  Zhou Xuehua merges her personal imagination of ancient Chinese music with the modernist techniques that she acquired in her training at the Shanghai Conservatory, a school modeled on the Western conservatory system.39  Sun Jian’an draws on the historical qupai system, but often orchestrates kunqu-inspired music with Western instrumentation and adds computer music.  He uses much of the same computer music software (Sibelius 7 and Logic Pro) that composers in North America and Europe use.  Both of these composers were partially educated in the Chinese modernist aesthetic of the conservatory system, but both have moved beyond the boundaries of the conservatory system.  In their work, we see that time is multiple                                                 39 The National Conservatory of Music (what is now the Shanghai Conservatory of Music) was established in 1927 by Cai Yuanpei and Xiao Youmei and was the first modern conservatory based on the  Beijing Institute.  While there are multiple historical narratives surrounding the birth of the NCM, for many it embodied the struggle between Western and Chinese music.  20 and mixed, their music is global in reach and changing in form.  There is not a complete erasure of boundaries, but the divide between tradition and innovation is nevertheless collapsing.  1.7 Theorizing kunqu composition within Chinese opera studies  I approach kunqu composition through the aspects of translation framework, which privileges the voice of the composer, highlights the meaning-making process of composition as a site of historical relationships, and is critically engaged with translation theory in contemporary Chinese studies.  While this framework fits my primary focus on kunqu as musical composition, kunqu may also be contextualized within broader scholarship on indigenous Chinese opera and in relation to the emerging body of scholarship on kunqu.  Since there are many English and Chinese-language works on Chinese theater and opera, I only discuss works that are most pertinent to my approach.  There is a minimal amount of scholarship on kunqu, and no previous study in English or Chinese specifically on contemporary kunqu composition; however kunqu composition as translation may be understood in relation to several key works on Chinese opera.  Elizabeth Wichmann’s book, Listening to Theater: The Aural Dimension of Beijing Opera, uses E.T. Kirby’s conception of total theater as a lens to examine the aural dimensions (defined as language, musical system, voice, and orchestra) of Beijing opera, focusing on the period 1977-1986.40  Borrowing from mid-twentieth-century conceptions of total theater, Kirby asserts that theater is the intersection of the arts, in which individual elements are bound                                                 40  Elizabeth Wichmann, Listening to Theatre: The Aural Dimension of Beijing Opera (Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 1991).  21 together.41  Wichmann argues that Beijing opera exemplifies Kirby’s understanding of total theater because it is bound together by inseparable elements: 1) the aesthetic aim of beauty; 2) the aesthetic principles of synthesis (story, music, song, speech, dance-action and stage combat, and acrobatics); 3) stylization (the difference between real life and stage presentation); 4) convention (specific practices to which precise meanings are ascribed like dance movements or the hand movement indicating opening or closing a door), and 5) role types.42   The idea of total theater as “effecting an integration of components” may be applied to kunqu, because it synthesizes elements of story, music, voice, movement, makeup, costume, and stage properties to accomplish the aesthetic aim of beauty, much like Beijing opera. 43  Wichmann’s application of the idea of total theater to Chinese opera studies particularly resonates with how contemporary kunqu composers stress the integral relationship between music and lyrics.  Kunqu composers develop melodic phrases according to the yin yang speech-tone system (where speech-tone determines melodic possibility).  While total theater may be intrinsic to Chinese opera aesthetics, it is also a concept through which Western theorists and composers have imagined Chinese music.  The most famous theoretical and practical historical examples are Bertol Brecht’s Alienation Effect based on his interpretation of Beijing Opera and Puccini’s Turandot (see Ch. 6 for a more extensive discussion).  On a large scale, the concept and historical application of total theater is useful in understanding how the                                                 41 Kirby, E.T, “Introduction,” in Total Theater: A Critical Anthology, ed. E.T. Kirby, (New York: E.P. Dutton, 1969), xiii-xxxi. 42 Wichmann, Listening to Theatre: The Aural Dimension of Beijing Opera, 2-11. 43 Kunqu is musically distinct from Beijing opera, but is historically considered a precursor to Beijing opera as well as other regional opera styles.  After kunqu’s decline in the late Qing dynasty, hundreds of regional opera styles developed, including Beijing opera (commonly cited 1850-present), which eclipsed kunqu as the national theater of China.  Regional opera styles may be divided into luantan (assorted melodies) and gaoqiang (high melodies).  In Luantan opera, the melody is based on modal structures, rather than determined by speech-tone of Chinese characters and poetic patterns, as in kunqu.  Gaoqiang operas are characterized by a recitative style solo vocal accompanied by choral and instrumentalists.  Beijing opera, which includes adaptations of kunqu chuanqi plays, falls in the luantan category.  (Luo Qin, 120) (Kirby, xiii).  22 interaction of artistic elements in kunqu facilitates its translation across cultures.  The initial Wagnerian concept of total theater may be viewed as obscuring the relationship between time and space and thus facilitating the global translation of Chinese opera that has been viewed as total theater by Western audiences.  Moreover, the historical pattern of open-ended interpretations and applications of total theater to East Asian drama may be viewed as encouraging today’s productions that circulate the world stage.  I further explore the cross-cultural translation of kun opera in chapter 6.  The main anthropological study of kunqu in English is Luo Qin’s dissertation: Kunju, Chinese Classical Theater and Its Revival in Social, Political, Economic, and Cultural Contexts.  Luo exposes the political meaning of kunqu, focusing on Zhou Chuanying (1912-1988), Zhou Xuehua’s mentor, the Zhejiang Kunju troupe and the kunju revival.  Luo explains how kunqu reflects the conflict between the Han and the non-Han during the period of China’s last empire, the struggle between music and socialist politics during the 1950s to 1970s, and the new tension between traditional culture and capitalist economy that developed during the 1990s.  Luo employs cultural contextualization, using Zhou Chuanying’s personal story to narrate the history of the Chuan (meaning “inheriting”) generation of kunqu, beginning with the founding of the private kunju school Suzhou Kunju Chuanxisuo in Suzhou in 1921.44  Luo also uses material from interviews with Zhou Chuanying to highlight the historical circumstances and political nature of kun opera.  For instance Luo quotes Zhou Chuanying and Premier Zhou Enlai’s conversations about the reform and political usage of the play 15 Strings of Cash to demonstrate how the play was first used to exemplify bureaucracy and subjectivism as a result of the “Hundred Flowers Bloom” policy, but later condemned as feudalistic during the Cultural                                                 44 Luo Qin, “Kunju, Chinese Classical Theater and Its Revival in Social, Political, Economic, and Cultural Contexts,” (PhD diss., Kent State University, 1997), 131-141.  23 Revolution.45  My study of kunqu composition similarly uses quotations from interviews with composers to contextualize their psychology within the history of the encounter between Chinese and Western musical culture.  While Luo is concerned with political and economic contextualization, I am primarily concerned with understanding the composers’ knowledge of traditional kunqu and the process through which they activate this knowledge.  There exist copious kunqu score collections and music theory treatises dating to the sixteenth century.  Many notated scores were published by the nineteenth century including four historically noteworthy compilations.  In 1893, Wang Xichun 王锡纯 published Eyunge qupu that preserved qupai performed in the late nineteenth century.  Zhang Yusun 张余荪 compiled Liuye Qupu before 1908 in Suzhou.  Zhang’s compilation preserved the work of the late Qing master Yin Guishen (1825?-after 1896).  Kunqu patrons and performers Wang Jilie 王季烈 (1873-1953) and Liu Fuliang 刘富梁 edited A Comprehensive Notated Score of Kunqu (Jicheng qupu), which preserves the notated music and dramatic speeches for 416 scenes from 88 kunqu plays.  Jicheng qupu also includes theoretical essays including an explanation of speech-tone theory.  In 1953 Yu Zhenfei published the notated score Master Yu Sulu’s Notated Score of Kunqu Arias (Sulu qupu) that his father Yu Sulu had compiled.  Sulu qupu preserves 29 scenes from 18 chuanqi dramas and is still widely used by kunqu practitioners.  It also claims to preserve the singing style and knowledge of the Ye Tang school of kunqu.46  In chapter 3, I review musical treatises that are most pertinent to contemporary kunqu composition and that were discussed in my composition lessons.  In chapter 2, I draw on Wu Junda’s Studies of Kunqu Melody (Kunqu changqiang yanjiu) originally published in 1987, because it is                                                 45 During the Hundred Flowers Bloom policy in 1956, the Communist Party encouraged the masses to openly express their opinions of the communist regime (Luo Qin, 178). 46 Joseph Lam, “Authentic Characters” in forthcoming monograph on kunqu.  24 seminal to the musical language and categories of knowledge that the contemporary composers employ today.  See Appendix A for a selected translation of Wu Junda’s study and chapter 3 for an analysis of the aesthetics presented in the treatise.  Contemporary musicological works that resonate with kunqu composition include Bell Yung’s works on Cantonese opera.  In Cantonese Opera: Performance as Creative Process, he explains melody-text relationship through analysis of speech-tone and padding syllables (what I refer to as supplementary words) amongst other musical characteristics and dramatic interpretation.47  In “Creative Process in Cantonese Opera I: The Role of Linguistic Tones," Yung compares tonal inflection, duration, and pitch level in nine versions of Seven Syllable Melody.  Like in kunqu (which relies on the yin yang speech-tone system based on Wu dialect), the correspondence between speech-tone and melody shapes the creation of vocal music, but does not define a specific melody—which may be shaped by dramatic situation and idiosyncrasies of the performer. 48   Other works on Chinese opera composition include Wichmann’s Listening to Theater, which contains a chapter on musical composition of Beijing opera and identifies three sequential stages of composition: “1) Modal systems and modes are selected and arranged for an entire play. 2) Metrical types are selected and arranged for passages of lyrics. 3) Standard compositional patterns (guilü) are usually followed in these first two steps.  In the third stage, individual melodic passages are interpretively composed.”49  Beijing opera diverges from kunqu in its modes, instruments, and speech-tone theory; however, kunqu composers similarly select qupai within a mode and follow compositional patterns to reconstruct qupai (See chapter 2 for a detailed explanation of composing a kunqu qupai in the                                                 47 Bell Yung, Cantonese Opera: Performance as Creative Process. 48 Bell Yung, "Creative Process in Cantonese Opera I: The Role of Linguistic Tones," Ethnomusicology (1983): 29-47. 49 Wichmann, Listening to Theatre: The Aural Dimension of Beijing Opera, 131.  25 “traditional” method).  Jonathan Stock’s Yang’s Eight Pieces also provides insight into musical creation in Chinese operatic oral traditions.  In Yang’s Eight Pieces, Stock investigates composition in the oral tradition of Shanghai opera (huju)—analyzing how the early 1950s singer Yang Feifei adapts melodic details, phrase structure, and form in the scene “Jin Yuan Seeks Her Son,” from the major dramatic work The Prostitute’s Tears.  Through musical transcription and analysis, Stock compares conventional musical elements with the changes introduced by Yang.  Yang draws on eight melodic elements (from set-tunes and tune families).  Although kunqu consists entirely of set-tunes, Yang’s method of reconstructing “Jin Yuan Seeks Her Son,” resonates with the jiqu technique in the southern musical system of kunqu.  Through the jiqu technique in kunqu, performers and/or composers borrow melodic phrases from qupai within a single gongdiao (modal set).  The newly composed qupai is named from its composite parts.50  English language articles on the interface between Western and Chinese musical compositional notably include Anthony Sheppard’s work on Tan Dun’s The First Emperor, in which Sheppard applies William Ashbrook’s concept of tinte (stylistic colors), identifying Chinese, European, and Orientalist elements.51  Frederick Lau’s “Voice, Culture, and Ethnicity in Contemporary Chinese Compositions” in Vocal Music and Contemporary Identities: Unlimited Voices in East Asia and the West investigates the resignification of Western vocal production in twentieth-century Chinese musical culture.52  Furthermore Locating East Asia in Western Art Music edited by Yayoi Uno Everett and Frederick Lau focuses on Asian and                                                 50 Wu Junda 武俊達, Kunqu changqiang yangjiu 崑曲唱腔研究 (Studies of kunqu melody) (Beijing: Renmin Yinyue Chubanshe, 1993), 43. 51 Sheppard, W. Anthony, "Blurring the Boundaries: Tan Dun's Tinte and The First Emperor," (2009): 285-326. 52 Christian Utz, and Frederick Lau, eds. Vocal Music and Contemporary Edentities: Unlimited Voices in East Asia and the West. Vol. 3. (New York and London: Routledge, 2013).  26 Western composers who make use of Asian musical elements in their music.53  In this compilation, Frederick Lau and Yu Siu Wah investigate ethnic markers in Tan Dun’s compositions.  Eric Lai relates Chou Wen-Chung’s use of variable modes in his compositions to his understanding of the Book of Changes.  The essays in Locating East Asia balance investigation of the individual composer’s aesthetics and his/her social context.  This methodological approach resonates with my objective to convey biographical portraits of the contemporary composers within the history of the encounter between Chinese and Western music.  Scholarly works on kunqu history include: Hu Ji's A History of the Developments of Kunju (Kunju fazhanshi) published in 1989, and Lu Eting's A Draft History of Kunqu Performances (Kunju yanchu shigao) published in 2002.  Most relevant to my study of contemporary kunqu composition, Joseph Lam’s forthcoming monograph on kunqu narrates the contemporary kunqu revival within the context of China’s rise as a global super power in the twenty-first century.  Lam challenges conventional historiography of kunqu, and explores China’s use of kunqu as a political tool to construct a positive identity and secure China’s position in the global order.54  In addition to written works on kunqu history, the 2007 globally broadcast television series 600 Years of Kunqu by CCTV (in English and Chinese) presents a populist history.  It includes biographies of leading kunqu practitioners and chronologically presents watershed events in kunqu history contextualized within Chinese history.  In chapter 3, I draw on these historical sources to analyze the pillars of kunqu as they relate to contemporary aesthetics and methods of composition.                                                 53 Yayoi Uno Everett, and Frederick Lau, eds. Locating East Asia in Western Art Music (Middleton, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 2004). 54 Joseph Lam, “Earthly Heritage” in forthcoming monograph on kunqu.  27 2 Kunqu Instrumentation, Melody, and Neo-traditional Qupai Composition  In this chapter I explain the historical, pre-Cultural Revolution, and contemporary kunqu sonorities as well as musical categories of kunqu, providing the foundational knowledge to understand qupai (preexisting tunes) and aria (sung qupai) composition.  I present musical categories of kunqu including the use of individual instruments, melody, meter, and rhythm.  The musical categories that I describe reflect the theories of the first modern kunqu theorist, Wu Junda, because his work has shaped the musical language and categories of knowledge that the contemporary composers employ today.  After explaining the sonority and musical elements, I analyze and carry out the neo-traditional method of composing an aria (a sung qupai) from a qupai that Zhou Xuehua taught me in composition lessons.  This neo-traditional method is considered to be traditional practice by contemporary kunqu composers, but actually was codified in the 1950s in the work of theorists including Wu Junda.  2.1 Kunqu sonority In historical southern-style kunqu singing there was originally an aesthetic and functional preference for bamboo wind rather than string instrument accompaniments.1  In the non-theatrical kunqu singing (qing chang), the transverse, southern flute qudi, vertical flute (xiao), and double-reed pipe (guan) were essential, while plucked strings (xiansuo) were used in the northern system.2  As kunqu became theatricalized during the late Ming and early Qing periods, instruments were added to the ensemble and divided into two categories: the melodic                                                 1 Conventional kunqu history identifies nanxi (southern drama) as the predecessor to southern-style kunqu (nanqu) and Yuan drama (zaju) as the predecessor to the northern kunqu (beiqu). 2 Aoki Masaru 青木正兒. Zhongguo jinshi xiqu shi中国近世戏曲史 (The history of modern Chinese opera), trans. Wang Gulu 王古魯 (Beijing : Zhonghua shuju中华书局, 2010), 375.  28 section (wenchang) and the percussion section (wuchang).3   Different instrumental groupings were codified to accompany certain role types and performance contexts:  Qudi, guban, and sanxian together forms the xiyue (small/delicate ensemble) that is usually used in scenes involving the shengdan (male and female lead roles); (2) qudi, haidi (small suona), guban, and gongs together forms what is called cu [passionate music], which is known as qing (transparent) when performed without luogu [percussion instruments] and hun (opaque) when performed with lougu, and usually used in scenes involving many roles.4 In the 1950s, minyue (people’s music) evolved into a specific style in which Western instruments and orchestration of the Romantic Period were often added to traditional Chinese music.  This minyue sonority was adopted by regional opera genres under the political influence of the Mao era and was present in kunqu since at least the early 1960s.5  The minyue sonority musical features of this period include instrumental part-writing, Western functional harmony, equal temperament, the addition of instrumental preludes and interludes, and additional instruments including huqin (bowed-string instruments), ruan (Chinese tenor lute), and yangqin (dulcimer).  This pre-Cultural Revolution minyue sonority is the root of contemporary kunqu instrumentation and orchestration, which draws on Western compositional techniques, namely functional harmony and sparsely used counterpoint, and selected Western instrumentation (often the contrabass and cello added to support the lower register) in addition to the expanded Chinese ensemble. The contemporary kunqu ensemble maintains the historical division between melodic                                                 3 Ho-chak Law, “Kun opera: A Study of its Notations and Instrumental Sonority” (MA thesis, The University of Hong Kong, 2011), 48. 4 Zhongguo xiqu zhi: Jiangsu juan 中國戲曲志:江蘇卷 (The annals of Chinese Opera: Jiangsu volume), 320-1. 5 For a discussion of the minyue sonority in regional opera genres since at least the 1950s, see Ma Longwen,Xiandai xiqu yinyue chuangzuo qiantan 現代戲曲音樂創作淺談 (On modern opera composition) (Shanghai: Shanghai wenyi chubanshe, 1963).   29 and percussion sections.  The melodic section usually includes: one qudi (Chinese transverse flute), one sheng (mouth organ), one pipa (Chinese lute), one sanxian (Chinese three-stringed lute), and one suona (Chinese shawm).  Additionally, there are typically six to eight bowed fiddles (usually erhu and zhonghu) as well as the guzheng (Chinese plucked zither) and the yangqin (Chinese dulcimer).6  Cello and/or double bass, when added, are typically positioned next to the daruan (Chinese tenor lute).  In the melodic section, the qudi, sheng, and erhu play in unison (or an octave above or below the vocal melody when unison is impossible) with the singer.  The guzheng, pipa, and sanxian play in unison with the vocal melody, but roll on extended notes during unmetered singing.  The percussion section includes six instruments of indefinite pitch including the small and large gongs, cymbals, ceremonial hall drum, Chinese frame drum and clapper (bangu).  Led by the bangu player, the percussion section plays fixed patterns (Figure 2.11) when a character goes on and off stage and also signals dramatic context such as the time of day and the weather.  The percussion instruments may be played individually or in groups.  The contemporary kunqu ensemble is usually arranged on the side of the stage in a seating arrangement similar to the following:  Figure 2.1 Basic seating arrangement for the contemporary kunqu ensemble7  [Stage front] Qudi     Erhu       Pipa  Sheng   Erhu       Yangqin Bangu     Zhonghu    Sanxian      Guzheng      Daruan     (Cello and/or Contrabass)  (Percussion section)                                                 6 For a general overview of Chinese instruments see: Alan R. Thrasher, Chinese Musical Instruments (Oxford University Press, 2000). 7 Based on chart in Sun Jian’an’s unpublished article, Kunqu Instrumental Ensemble Training. See Appendix D for English translation.  30 2.2 Instruments and vocal role types in the contemporary kunqu ensemble 2.2.1 Wind instruments  The contemporary kunqu ensemble may be further subdivided into wind, plucked string, bowed string, and percussion instruments.  The qudi, sheng, and suona are the primary wind instruments in the kunqu ensemble: Figure 2.2 Qudi  The qudi is a southern bamboo flute that is the main accompanying instrument in kunqu for both philosophical and functional reasons.  Its timbre is considered to be close to the human voice, and thus close to nature, which is a valued attribute according to traditional Chinese musical aesthetics.8  The qudi is also a fitting lead melodic instrument for the kunqu ensemble because its range matches the common kunqu vocal range (Figure 2.3).  In kunqu, the qudi primarily interacts with the vocalist during practice and performance, leading the singer and melodic instrumental section in melody, articulation, breath, rhyme, and rhythmic organization.9  The body of the qudi has a mouth hole, a membrane hole, and six finger holes.  The membrane, called dimo, is made of the inside layer of a piece of reed or bamboo and serves as a filter that creates the distinctive timbre, often described as clear, melodious, and lingering.  There are two types of traditional qudi.  The female flute has a brighter timbre and is used for                                                 8 Wei Liang-fu Rules of Singing Qu, research and trans. Gu Zhaoshen and Diana Yue (Hong Kong: Oxford University Press (China) Ltd., 2006), xxvii. 9 Sun Jian’an, The Kunqu Flute, unpublished article. See Appendix D.  31 accompanying the young male and female (sheng and dan) role types.  The male flute is roughly a major second lower in register than the female flute.  The qudi can be played in seven “keys” (either pentatonic or heptatonic scales):  C chizidiao, 2) D xiaogongdiao 3) E fanzidiao 4) F liuzidiao 5) G zhenggongdiao 6) A yizidiao 7) Bb shangzidiao. Figure 2.3 Comparison of vocal and flute range in the key of D (xiaogongdiao)      Vocal range              Qudi range  Figure 2.4 Chinese sheng    The sheng is an ancient metal reed instrument made of bamboo and copper that was widespread during the Southern and Northern Dynasties (420-589 AD).  Its timbre fuses the colors of wind and string instruments and is often said to have a magical and noble sound reminiscent of ancient court scenes.  The most common type of sheng has seventeen pipes and ranges from E1 to G#2.  In kunqu, the sheng is the supporting melodic instrument for the flute, and typically plays in unison with the flute, or creates harmonies of fourths, fifths, and octaves.        32 Figure 2.5 Suona  The suona (or shawm) has a conical wooden body and a reed attached to its tubular brass or copper bocal.  It has a bright timbre and loud volume.  In the key of D, the suona ranges from A1-B3.  In kunqu it is used as an accompaniment instrument to provide a musical atmosphere for large scenes including weddings and war.  Additionally, the suona is used to announce the entrance and accompany martial role types (wusheng 武生).   2.2.2 Plucked string instruments The plucked string section often includes the sanxian, pipa, daruan, yangqin, and guzheng.  The plucked string section has a similar timbre to folk music.  The main modes of articulation include the basic techniques: tiao挑 (pick), lun轮 (roll), gun ji tui滚及推 (roll and push), la 拉 (pull), yin 吟 (vibrato), rou or nao 揉 (wide vibrato).10  The plucked instruments play as a unit, providing a characteristic rhythm in kunqu that gives structure to the vocal melody.  The sanxian and pipa are the most prominent instruments in the plucked string section and play the characteristic langtou rhythmic pattern.                                                  10 Sun Jian’an, Kunqu Instrumental Ensemble Training.  33 Figure 2.6 Basic langtou rhythms  Figure 2.7 Small sanxian    The small sanxian’s (“three strings”) body is made from python skin stretched around the front and back of a rectangular resonator.  It has a long, fretless fingerboard usually made from a single piece of ebony.  The sanxian is characterized by its thick and bright timbre.  It is usually tuned to A-D-A and ranges from B1 to A6.  In kunqu, the sanxian plays in unison with the melody or plays variations of the langtou rhythm.  Figure 2.8 Pipa    The modern pipa has a pear-shaped, wooden body and a curved neck.  Modern pipas generally have six ledges and 26 frets.  The middle and lower notes have a thick and solid  34 sound, while the high notes are bright and clear.  The four strings are usually tuned to A-D-E-A, and the range is from A2 to E6.11  In kunqu, the pipa uses basic techniques.  The left hand techniques produce vibrato, portamento, and harmonics.  The most basic right hand techniques are tantiao, in which the thumb and index finger alternate plucking the same string, and lun zhifa, which is a tremolo.  2.2.3 Bowed instruments Figure	  2.9	  Erhu	  (two-­‐stringed	  fiddle)	    The bowed instruments in kunqu include the fiddles (huqin): erhu (two-stringed fiddle) and zhonghu (a two-stringed fiddle lower in register than the erhu).  Their timbre is described as similar to the voice.  The erhu is usually tuned to D4 and A4 and ranges from D1-D4.  The zhonghu is usually tuned to A and E and ranges from G to A2.  In kunqu, the bowed instruments aim to play with unified bowing and fingering to produce a consistent, calm, and elegant tone.12                                                        11 Tsun-Yuen Lui, et al. "Pipa." Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press, accessed January 14, 2014, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/45149. 12 Sun Jian’an, Kunqu Instrumental Ensemble Training.  35 2.2.4 Percussion instruments Figure	  2.10	  (From	  left	  to	  right)	  Small	  gong	  (xiaoluo),	  large	  gong	  (daluo),	  cymbals	  (naobo),	  ceremonial	  hall	  drum	  (tanggu),	  Chinese	  frame	  drum	  and	  clapper	  (bangu)	     The percussion section plays improvised rhythmic patterns led by the bangu player.  The compound name (bangu) for the clapper (ban) and the Chinese frame drum (gu) refers to the combination of the leading instruments of the percussion section.  When struck with one or two bamboo sticks, the Chinese frame drum produces a sharp, dry sound that quickly decays.  The frame drum is about 25 cm in diameter and 10 cm high and is made of animal skin stretched over wooden wedges.  Held together by a metal band, the wooden wedges leave a hole in the center called the drum’s heart, below where the drum is struck.  The clapper (ban) consists of two pieces of wood.  The player holds the clapper in the left hand and hits the lower ends of the pieces of wood together to mark the strong beats.  The bangu player leads the percussion section using vocal instruction and gestures to set the tempo and control the rhythmic patterns of the ensemble.  The rhythmic patterns are called luogu dianzi and are taught using vocables (Table 2.1). Table	  2.1	  Drum	  vocables	  (luogu	  dianzi)	  Vocable Action  大 da Loud single stroke of the drum 八 ba Loud two strikes on the drum  36 Vocable Action  嘟 du Drum roll 拉 la Trill 多 duo Soft single strike 仓 cang Strike the large gong or the large gong, small gong, and large  cymbals together 台 tai Single strike on the small gong 才 cai Hit the large cymbals together, or large cymbal crash with the small gong 另 ling Softly strike the small gong 乙, 一 yi or个 ge Rest  While there are many variations on these patterns, the four most basic are siji tou, wuji tou, maozi tou, and shangchang luo.  Siji tou and wuji tou can be used at entrances or in other dramatic contexts, but the shangchang luo pattern is just for entrances.   37 Figure 2.11 Basic percussion patterns in Chinese and Western notation13  Siji tou (sometimes performed with an unmetered first bar)  Wuji tou                                                      13 Based on a lesson with Sun Jian’an in 2011.  38 Maozi tou  Shangchang luo   2.2.5 Kunqu vocal role types In kun opera, the main role types are distinguished by gender, age, and dramatic function.  Each role type has specific stage makeup and costume.  For the purposes of this dissertation, I will just discuss the key and singing range of the main roles.  The main roles include sheng (male), dan (female), jing—also known as hualian (painted-face or literally flower face), mo (elder male), and chou (clown).  The main role types are subdivided by age into young male (xiaosheng), young female (guimendan), elder male (laosheng), and elder female (laodan) role types.  The xiaosheng (young male) and guimendan (“boudoir” dan) vocal lines are characterized by winding ornamentation notes.  They sing most often in the key of D major and sometimes in F major.  Xiaosheng (young male) usually sings in the key of D ranging from F#3 to E5.  The guimendan (“boudoir” dan) typically sings in the key of D normally between G3 and F#5 (rarely up to A5).  The laosheng (elder man division of sheng role) sings in A major, Bb major, or C major.  Laosheng usually sings in A major between E3 and A4.  The laodan (elder woman division of the dan role) most commonly sings in the key of C in the range of G3 to C5.  The dahualian (great painted-face) subcategory of the jing role  39 sings in the key of G major in the range of E3 to G4. The chou (clown) usually sings in falsetto and most often in the key of C.  A subdivision of chou, xiaohualian (small-painted-face) sings from F#3 up to C5 using falsetto.  The main role types are also subdivided into martial roles that specialize in acrobatics in addition to vocal skills.  For instance wusheng (martial men) and wudan (the martial female role).    2.3 Kunqu melody: speech-tone, melisma shapes, and vocal gestures Kunqu melody may be understood as tunes that result from compositional and performative decisions on speech-tones that produce characteristic melismas and the vocal gestures within these melismas.  In this section I look at southern kunqu melody through the yin yang system (a system in which linguistic tone generates melodic contour), analyzing the speech-tones that produce specific melisma shapes.14  I then consider the large-scale melisma shapes and the gestures within them.  There are four main kunqu melisma shapes: ascending, descending, saddle, and revolving (see Figure 2.12 for examples in context).15  These melisma shapes include specific vocal gestures depending on the speech-tone of the Chinese character.  To illustrate the relationships between melisma shapes and linguistic tones, I present the musical example “Dainty Steps,” the first metered, southern aria from the scene Wandering in the Garden (Youyuan jingmeng) from The Peony Pavilion.  In the aria, the female protagonist Du Liniang expresses her ambivalence about leaving her chamber to explore the garden.  In her dressing chamber, she contemplates her reflection in the mirror.                                                 14 While scholars of Western music might begin by looking at the form of an entire piece, I begin from the level of language (speech-tone generated melismas) because this is the core of kunqu and was also the starting point for analysis in my compositional lessons. 15 The kunqu theorist Wu Junda categorizes kunqu melismas into linear, cantle (curved), revolving, and fixed (the main phrase) (Wu Junda, 122). I have omitted his category of fixed phrases and instead distinguished between ascending and descending shapes.  40 袅晴丝吹来间庭院,摇漾春如线。转停半晌、整花钿,没揣菱花偷人半面,迤逗的彩云偏。我步香闺怎便把全身现。  The spring a rippling thread of gossamer gleaming sinuous in the sun borne idly across the court. Pausing to straighten the flower heads of hair ornaments, perplexed to find that my mirror stealing its half-glance at my hair has thrown these "gleaming clouds" into alarmed disarray. Walking here in my chamber how should I dare let others see my form!16  As the musical example in Figure 2.12 shows, the aria “Dainty Steps” features all kinds of tones and melisma shapes.  I first discuss the aria according to linguistic tones, and then by large-scale melisma shapes and vocal gestures.                                                  16 Tang Xianzu, The Peony Pavilion: Mudan Ting, Second Edition, trans. Cyril Birch (Indiana: Indiana University Press, 2002), 43.  41 Figure 2.12 Annotated transcription of “Dainty Steps” from The Peony Pavilion    E! # ) @ 9% ) >' -<) 	  ?&  daiqiang cuoqiang:*'  ) ;*! ) C*  8' /$'4)  7&  3 F%  ) 6+  chuoqiang 2' huaqiangH&  . B' D  2'=&!' ,$ 3 1  ) G*  $%%      %    % $%0   % &*&"%''!55A%    %    % $%0 %  %     %   %     %  %   %  	   %  (!( $!'  %      (!( $!'  $%0  %   %   %                                                                                                                       42     Kunqu melody may be understood from the Chinese linguistic perspective.  The characteristic melismas of kunqu are related to the Zhongzhouyun, a historical language that is artificially and artistically employed in the genre.  This stage language is close to modern-day Mandarin; for convenience of discussion in this dissertation, I will just discuss it as a variation of Mandarin, and will call it Mandarin.  Kunqu singing includes two systems; namely the system of northern arias (beiqu) from Yuan drama, and the system of southern arias (nanqu) from xiwen (a style of southern drama) from the Song-Yuan transition and chuanqi dramas from Ming and Qing China.  In the northern system, the lyrics have a close relationship to the four tone contours of Mandarin.  In Mandarin Chinese the four lexical speech-tone categories I II III and IV are referred to as level, rising, dipping, and falling.17  The first speech-tone is level in pitch, the second is rising (similar to the English question “what?”), the third descends and                                                 17 William SY Wang and Chin-Chuan Cheng, “Middle Chinese Tones in Modern Dialects” in In Honor of Ilse Lehiste: Ilse Lehiste Pühendusteos. Vol. 6., eds. Robert Channon and Linda Shockey (Walter de Gruyter, 1987). B C+' * H"  * .)! >' ?*  P':, < dianqiang* 7 * 4#' 8% 2*   %   (!( $!'   %   %    % (!(      % $%5(!( $!'  %                                                 43 then rises (like the English word “yes” can be pronounced), and the fourth falls (like the English word “no” when said angrily). The kunqu southern system’s tones are neither completely standard Mandarin nor pure Wu dialect.18  The southern system has eight tones that originate in Middle Chinese.  They are first categorized as ping, shang, qu, and ru tones (level, rising, departing, and entering tones), each of which is further divided into yin and yang tones, forming the yin yang eight-tone system.  In this system yin means high in pitch and yang means low.  In the aria “Dainty Steps,” (transcribed above) we can see examples of how each speech-tone generates specific melisma contours.  The open circles indicate a yin speech-tone and the dark circles indicate a yang speech-tone.  Lower left is ping, upper left is shang, upper right is qu, and lower right is ru (Figure 2.13).  Therefore, in the example shown in Figure 2.14 the open circle to the lower left indicates yinping.19  Figure	  2.13	  Southern	  yin	  yang	  speech-­‐tone	  representation	   The first of the eight-tone system is the yinping (high level tone), an extended level tone, which is usually held for a half note in kunqu melodies.  For example, the third beat of measure one in “Dainty Steps”: 	  	  	  	  	                                                  18 Wu 吴 is a dialect family spoken in the Zhejiang, Shanghai, and Jiangsu regions.  The main Wu dialects are Shanghai, Suzhou, Ningbo, Wenzhou, Hangzhou, Shaoxing, Jinghua, and Yongkang. 19 Zhenfei qupu 振飛曲譜, Shanghai kunjutuan bian Vol 2, (Shanghai: Shanghai yinyue chubanshe, 2002).  All of these examples may be found in Zhou Xuehua’s article on the yin yang system (translated in Appendix C) and some are listed in the introduction to Zhenfei qupu, though neither source uses the circles to represent speech-tone or Western staff notation.   44 Figure	  2.14	  basic	  yinping	  tone	   A melisma is typically added to a yinping tone.  Thus, the melody rises in stepwise motion, moving in major seconds or a minor third and then returning to the initial pitch or a neighbor tone usually one interval below the initial pitch of the melisma.  For example, measure six in “Dainty Steps”:  	  Figure	  2.15	  yinping	  melisma	      Yangping (low level tone) is similar to yinping, but theoretically begins slightly lower in relative pitch, and then rises.  For example the character xian 闲 in measure two rises from do to mi, and then descends to the final note.  Figure	  2.16	  Yangping	  melisma20	                                                    20 Zhou Xuehua, Lun nan kunde “yinyang ba sheng” 论南昆的阴阳八声 (The yin yang eight-tone speech-tone system), 4. See Appendix C for English translation.  45 Yinshang (high shang tone) is often matched with a melisma that begins with a short glissando gesture, and slides into the initial pitch.  In measure one, the glissando slides into the first pitch of the phrase on the character niao. 	  Figure	  2.17	  Yinshang	  tone	  with	  hanqiang	   Yangshang (low shang tone) is restricted to only using the huo gesture within a melisma.  Sometimes the huo gesture is indicated by a rest symbol and sometimes by a breath mark.  The rest is interpreted as a small pause that interrupts the gesture and produces the special characteristic.  The Zhenfei score calls this interrupted huo gesture chidiao, or absorb.21  	  Figure	  2.18	  Yangshang	  tone	  in	  measure	  23	  of	  “Dainty	  Steps”	    Yinqu (high falling tone) typically generates an ornamentation tone (huotou) marked by an extended line in the gongche notation.  For example in measure 19, the character 逗 dou: Figure	  2.19	  Yinqu	                                                    21 Zhou Xuehua, 9.  46 Yangqu (low falling tone) is matched with a melisma characterized by a dotted sixteenth note plus a passing tone (a 32nd note) ornamentation figure.  The yangqu tone, shown in figure 2.34, may be considered an extended huotou, as in measure five of “Dainty Steps”: 	  Figure	  2.20	  Yangqu	    The ru speech-tone is matched with a "broken" melisma.  Yinru (high entering tone) begins similarly to the yinping tone.  Yinru can be matched with a melisma that breaks earlier or later in the shape.  The “break” should be gentle and soft.  For example, in measure nineteen of “Dainty Steps” the character de的: 	  Figure	  2.21	  Yinru	     Yangru (low entering tone) begins lower than the yinru speech-tone.  The yangru phrase is a strong break in the melisma.  After the break, the phrase can rise in pitch; for example, the character luo落. 	  	  	  	  	  	  	   47 Figure	  2.22	  Yangru	  melisma	   The above examples indicate relationships between the speech-tone of individual words and melisma.  To connect individual melisma shapes, the yin yang system also regulates how they are linked according to the starting pitch of each melisma shape.  I have made the following equation to summarize Wu Junda’s rules on linking melismas.  For instance, if there is a yangping tone melisma followed by a yangshang melisma, the former should begin at a pitch higher than the latter. Figure 2.23 Pitch-height of melismas according to the yin yang system22  yinqu > yangqu >  yinping=yinru > yangping = yangru > yinshang > yangshang       [reference point]   The melismas in “Dainty Steps” follow Wu Junda’s rules, which do not permit linking the same speech tones together as Zhou Xuehua’s do (for instance yinping to yinping), 90% of the time.  The 10% that do not work in the aria can be found in measures marked with an X symbol.  For instance, there are two instances where yangqu linked to yangping does not follow the pitch height rules, one instance where yangping to yingping does not follow, and one instance where yangqu to yangshang does not follow.  Zhou Xuehua has developed a slightly different theory on the ways different melismas should be connected.  The following table summarizes her rules. The left hand vertical categories indicate the first melisma, and the horizontal categories on top indicate the second melisma.  Within the boxes, the arrows indicate the relationship between the initial pitch of the melismas.  For instance the upper left box indicates that when two yinping tones are linked the                                                 22 Based on examples from Wu Junda, Kunqu changqiang yangjiu, 99-119.  48 initial pitch of the melismas may be the same, or the second melisma may start a major second below the first. Table 2.2 Zhou Xuehua’s rules for linking melismas    In the annotated transcription of “Dainty Steps,” of the forty-three linking points between melismas, the speech-tone system (according to Zhou’s rules) works 76% of the time when applied to this historical qupai. Kunqu melody may be understood as it relates to speech-tone, and also as larger scale melisma shapes.  Descending and ascending melisma shapes usually move in stepwise motion.  Descending melismas may occur on any tone, but most often occur on shang 上 and qu 去tones. Figure	  2.24	  Descending	  melisma	  from	  “Dainty	  Steps”	  in	  measure	  one	   Figure	  2.25	  Ascending	  melisma	  from	  “Dainty	  Steps”	  in	  measure	  ten   49 In saddle form, the melisma begins and ends on the same note or neighbor tone.  It most often occurs on the level (ping) and falling (qu) speech-tones. Figure	  2.26	  Saddle	  shape	  melisma	  from	  “Dainty	  Steps”	  in	  measure	  four	   Revolving form is when the musical phrase revolves around one or two notes.  It also most commonly occurs on level and falling speech-tones.  Figure	  2.27	  Revolving	  melisma	  from	  “Dainty	  Steps”	  in	  measure	  25	   Within the melisma shapes, there are specific vocal gestures including: daiqiang 带腔 and cuoqiang 撮腔 vocal gestures.  The melodic gesture daiqiang usually occurs on the third beat in 4/4 meter (Figure 2.28), or after the beginning of the articulation of a word on the first beat.  For the daiqiang, the performer takes a quick breath creating a small pause and then quickly returns to the previous note and continues singing.  The daiqiang usually occurs on a level tone (ping).  In notation, it is indicated by the small dot between gongche that indicates to repeat the note (labeled carrying repeated note in Figure 2.52).  It often occurs in the saddle form melisma, which begins and ends on the same note or neighbor tone. The cuoqiang is two consecutive sixteenth notes that occur on the first half of the last beat of the melisma in order to tightly close the phrase (Figure 2.28).  Originally this type of cuoqiang was used on level tones to prevent the terminal note from rising or seeming like a  50 falling tone (qusheng).  It is marked by a small dot between the gongche, but unlike the daiqiang, the dot is closer to the previous gongche.23 	  Figure	   2.28	   Saddle	   melisma	   with	   daiqiang	   and	   cuoqiang	   vocal	   gestures	   from	   “Dainty	   Steps”	   in	  measure	  two.	   The dianqiang 垫腔 has no rest and the notes must move in stepwise motion.  The dianyin, literally translated as padded note, fills the gap between the minor third or perfect fourth intervals.  The dianyin is often used to express lingering, sorrowful lyrics to increase the mellowness and fullness.24  In the Southern style, there is no fa or ti, so the closest interval will be added. Figure	  2.29	  dianyin	  (padded	  note)	  from	  “Dainty	  Steps”	  in	  measure	  23	    Dieqiang has the same function as cuoqiang: to prevent the level tone from rising.  But the dieqiang is used on shangsheng and qusheng speech-tones.  The dieqiang and cuoqiang have the same symbol—a small dot between the gongche notation, however for the dieqiang the small dot is not as close to the first gongche character.  The rhythm is different: the cuoqiang                                                 23 Zhenfei qupu, 13. 24 Ibid.  51 has three gongche in one beat: two sixteenth notes (the repeated note) and the final note (an eighth note).  The dieqiang is either three or four gongche over two beats or three gongche over one beat.25 	  Figure	  2.30	  Dieqiang	  (three	  gongche	  over	  two	  beats)	  from	  “Dainty	  Steps”	  in	  measure	  eight	    Chuoqiang 啜腔  is a vocal gesture that occurs when two consecutive gongche are rising.  In this case, the pitches may be repeated to accentuate the winding melody.  For instance in “Dainty Steps” the character zheng 整 would normally be mi (quarter note) and re-mi (eighth notes), but the added chuoqiang on the second beat is re-mi-re-mi (Figure 2.31).  Huaqiang 滑腔 (may also be called rouqiang 揉腔) is a repeated note that occurs when a scale is descending to make it more lively.  For instance the character hua 花 in “Dainty Steps.”26  Figure	  2.31	  Chuoqiang	  and	  huaqiang	  vocal	  gestures	  from	  “Dainty	  Steps”	  in	  measure	  11	                                                       25 Ibid. 26 Ibid.  52 The shouqiang 擻腔 creates a winding effect by adding three sixteenth notes to a gongche.  It usually occurs on level or falling speech-tones.  The added notes are one step above the initial pitch and must return to that pitch.  For example the character yuan from “Dainty Steps”:27  Figure	  2.32	  Shouqiang	  vocal	  gesture	  from	  “Dainty	  Steps”	  in	  measure	  four	      The huoqiang 豁腔  is used on the falling speech-tone and is an added ornamentation note one interval above the previous note.  It can occur after any beat in the melisma.28 	  Figure	  2.33	  Huoqiang	  vocal	  gesture	  from	  “Dainty	  Steps”	  in	  measure	  five	  	     The hanqiang 罕腔 is a short glissando that occurs on the yinshang speech-tone.  When the yinshang speech-tone begins, the note produced by the word is relatively high, similar to the yinping speech-tone.  Then the tone moves from low to high.  For example 把 ba, 宝 bao, 晌 shang, 井 jing, 卷 juan, 剪 jian, etc… The han sliding gesture's pitch and length is                                                 27 Zhenfei qupu, 15. 28 Ibid., 16.  53 decided according to the previous pitch.  For example in the case of the shang character from Ting ban shang, the range of the sliding note is restricted because the descending note falls from do to la, which is only a minor third.  Therefore the sliding tone can only be slightly low and slightly short.  The han phrases’ speed is determined by the extent and closeness of the notes.29 Figure	  2.34	  Hanqiang	  vocal	  gesture	  from	  “Dainty	  Steps”	  in	  measure	  ten	    The huoqiang 嚯腔, or absorbing gesture is a quick pause where the singer “swallows the note.”  While it can occur on either yinshang or yangshang speech-tones, it is most characteristic of the yangshang speech-tone.30  Sometimes the huo gesture uses a rest symbol and sometimes it uses a breath mark; however, when singing the rest or taking a breath, it is not a real rest.  The breath or rest, rather, is interpreted as a small pause that interrupts the gesture, and produces the special effect. The shang speech-tone is less commonly encountered than the other speech-tones.31  For examples the character zen 怎: Figure	  2.35	  Huoqiang	  (absorbing)	  gesture	  on	  yangshang	  in	  measure	  23	                                                    29 Zhou Xuehua, The Yin Yang Eight-tone Speech-tone System, 7. 30 In composition lessons, Zhou Xuehua notes that the yangshang tone is very strict and can only use the huoqiang.  It starts like yangping tone.  She notes that it is an aesthetically pleasing sound, but should not be overused.   31 Zhou Xuehua, The Yin Yang Eight-tone Speech-tone System, 9.  54 2.4 Kunqu meter (banshi) Meter (ban or bantou) may be understood as a rhythmic and literary structure.  Kunqu meter is commonly notated in 4/4 (one strong beat and three weak beats), 2/4 (one strong beat and a weak beat), and 1/4, called flowing water meter (liushui ban).  Kunqu qupai may also be in unmeasured rhythm (sanban) or in 8/4, which is an expansion of 4/4 and is called zengban.  In the southern system, qupai for the young role types and slow qupai (manqu) use 8/4 zengban meter.  In the northern system, the slow qupai (manqu) mostly use 4/4 and the faster qupai (jiqu) use 2/4.  Flowing water meter is rarely used. In the southern system, within a qupai suite, there is usually a progression from unmeasured to slow to a faster meter.  The introduction qupai (yinzi) and connecting qupai (zhuan) are unmetered.  Otherwise, most southern qupai are metered.32  In the northern system, the first qupai and last qupai (shawei) of a scene are unmeasured and have a clapper stroke to mark the end of each phrase.  The qupai in the middle of a scene generally have measured rhythm.   Meter is also determined by literary structure.  In the southern system, the structure within a qupai suite is stricter than in the northern system.  Each qupai has specific rules regarding how many beats are in each measured qupai, the timing of each word with regard to the beat, and the connection between phrases within a qupai.  The supplementary words in the lyrics (chenzi) are usually only in the first sentence and do not take up a full beat.  The supplementary words in the lyrics cannot occur more than three times in a qupai.33  In the northern system, the beat structure is more flexible:   The same qupai can have measured or free rhythm.  In Wu Mei’s Guqu zhutan [Talks on Chinese Dramatic Poetry], he writes that the northern system does not have a fixed                                                 32 Wu Junda, Kunqu changqiang yangjiu, 48. 33 Ibid., 48-52.  55 form.  In the northern system, the beats are not fixed and can be moved to accommodate the extra words.  In the northern system, sometimes you can see several times more of the extra words than the main words in the lyrics.  This is because the beats in the northern system are used to separate phrases.  The melody is fixed but the beats are flexible.  The number of measures in a qupai in the northern system is not fixed.  The timing of characters within a measure is not fixed either.  Therefore the words in relation to the beats are more flexible than in the southern system.34    The final aspect of meter is the placement of the clapper stroke.  Zhengban or touban is when a sung character falls on the first clapper stroke at the start of a rhythmic cycle.  When the clapper stroke falls before the character, it is called xianban 险板 or shanban 闪板.  When the clapper stroke falls within a melisma, it is called cheban 掣板 or yaoban 腰板.  When the clapper stroke falls after the melisma, it is called jieban 截板 or jueban 绝板.35  In kunqu there are three variations of meter: kuoban, chouyan, and sanban.  In kuoban, the meter is expanded, and the beat is divided and enriched using small melismas.  This is most used for the southern system young male and female role types (shengdan).  For instance, kuoban is the method whereby 4/4 is expanded into 8/4.  Chouyan, the opposite of kuoban, is contraction.  The methods of contraction include reducing the duration, cutting out half of the notes, and omitting phrases.  The techniques of expanding and contracting qupai are dependent on the plot and the role type.  When dramatic action heightens, the qupai speeds up (contracts) and when the plot is more romantic, the musical phrases are often expanded.36  2.5 Characteristic rhythm of kunqu melody  In a qupai, the rhythm of the melody is regulated by strong and weak beats determined by semantic phrasing.  A qupai consists of a specified number of rhymed textual units that I                                                 34 Ibid. 35 Ibid., 48. 36 Ibid., 52-69.  56 will refer to as sentences if they include more than two Chinese characters.  In kunqu, a textual unit may range from one to ten Chinese characters.  In Chinese, words are usually formed from one or two monosyllabic characters.  Although meaning can influence word grouping, the rhythm of the music typically reflects the grouping of characters into pairs.  When the sentence has an odd number of words, the words are still grouped into pairs, and the last word is an independent unit regardless of the grammar.  There are certain metric conventions for one-word, two-word, three-word, and seven-word units.  A semantic unit longer than three words (a sentence) typically follows the conventions of seven-word sentences.37 Wu Junda summarizes the rules for grouping sentences as follows: There are few examples of phrases with one character, however they are useful.  One-word phrases have the effect of creating momentum and argumentative force.  The single words stand out musically and grammatically because of their singularity.  These single words can also be repeated.  The single word can be short, long, or inserted as a transition between two sentences.  One-word phrases may also be fixed auxiliary phrases that have a specific place and melody, but no concrete meaning, for instance “ye 也” in the qupai “Xiaotao hong.”  The “ye也” are adjusted to the context of the respective qupai.  Some of the one word auxiliary phrases are higher pitches and used to express exclamation.  Finally, one-word sentences may be leading phrases that are usually the falling speech-tone.  The leading phrase indicates that the following phrases are the key emotional meaning of the qupai.38    Two-word units are more common than one-word units and can be found anywhere in the qupai.  Two-word units usually form a complete musical phrase.  In the following examples, the clapper falls on the downbeat of the measure.  The “x” represents any Chinese character.  1) The first character is not accompanied by the clapper. The clapper strikes on the second sung character (the touban).                                                   37 Ibid., 175. 38 Ibid., 200-201.  57 Figure	  2.36	  Two-­‐word	  metric	  placement	  of	  lyrics	  from	  Pipa	  ji,	  “Zui	  taiping”	   2) Both characters are accompanied simultaneously by the clapper (touban).    Figure	  2.37	  Two-­‐word	  metric	  placement	  of	  lyrics	  (迁延)	  from	  Mudan	  ting,	  “Shanpo	  yang”	    3) The clapper strikes on the second sung character (touban), and during the second character’s melisma the clapper also “cuts” in before the end (jieban).  This is the most common two-word metric pattern. Figure	  2.38	  Two-­‐word	  metric	  placement	  of	  lyrics	  from	  “Basheng	  ganzhou”	    4) The second character falls on the strong beat and is accompanied by the clapper (touban).  The clapper also falls within the tie (yaoban) and also cuts in before the end of the phrase (jieban).  This is less common that the other forms.  Figure	  2.39	  Two-­‐word	  metric	  placement	  of	  lyrics	  from	  “Hupo	  maoerzhui”	    Three-word sentence can have long or short musical phrases.  There are variations in the metrical placement of the first two words, but the third word is usually accompanied by the clapper (touban).  For example, the opening rhythm of “Good Sister”:   58 Figure	  2.40	  Three-­‐word	  placement	  of	  lyrics	  from	  Mudan	  ting,	  Youyuan,	  “Hao	  jiejie”	     The metrical structure of sentences with more than three words is based on the structure of seven-word sentences.  The metric structure for “Dainty Steps” exemplifies a typical seven-word structure.  The (x) indicates a supplementary word, whereas “x” indicates a word that is counted in the qupai phrasing. Figure	  2.41	  Seven-­‐word	  rhythmic	  placement	  from	  “Dainty	  Steps”	    In the qupai “Dainty Steps,” the majority of the sematic units over three words follow this metric structure.39 Figure	  2.42	  Rhythmic	  placement	  for	  phrases	  with	  more	  than	  three	  words	  in	  “Dainty	  Steps”	     The other sentences apart from the opening follow a slightly varied rhythmic structure, also based on the seven-word structure.                                                 39 Ibid., 205.  59 Figure	  2.43	  Variation	  of	  seven-­‐word	  rhythmic	  placement	    Wu Junda makes the following generalizations about the rhythmic structure of seven-word sentences: 1. Seven-word sentences can take up two or three 8/4 structures (ban).  Those that take up two 8/4 structures usually emphasize the fifth and seventh character. 2. To stress a character, you can either put it on the beat or extend the melisma. 3. Sentences with less than seven words can use the metric structure of seven-word sentences with some deleted characters.  4. Supplementary words can be used before the entire sentence or after individual word groupings. 5. The word grouping is usually in pairs, but can be grouped according to meaning. 6. If the qupai is in 4/4, the rhythm is like 8/4, but proportionally compacted, while the structure is retained. 7. The placement of strong beats is fixed, but weak beats are more flexible. The emotional expression of the sentence can be more vivid by varying the emphasis of words.40  Metric structure can be thought of according to the number of words in a sentence, or on a smaller level, the rhythmic placement of word groups.  The following examples show the basic rhythmic patterns for three-word, seven-word, and variations of two-word groups.  In the following rhythmic patterns, the “x” symbol indicates one monosyllabic Chinese character. Figure	  2.44	  Three-­‐character	  word-­‐group	  rhythm	   	                                                  40 Ibid., 210. N ? 2 2 2  :     60 Figure	  2.45	  Seven-­‐character	  rhythmic	  pattern	    a) In unmeasured rhythmic passages, the variation is to add melismas between word groups of two syllables. Figure	  2.46	  Rhythmic	  pattern	  in	  unmeasured	  rhythm	  for	  two-­‐syllable	  word	  groups	   b) Another variation on two-character word groups is to make the first word group closer together. Figure	  2.47	  Variation	  on	  two-­‐syllable	  word	  groups	   	  Figure	  2.48	  Variation	  on	  two-­‐syllable	  word	  groups	   c) Another variation is where the first group starts on a strong beat and the second group starts on a weak beat.  Figure	  2.49	  Variation	  on	  two-­‐syllable	  word	  groups	    61 d) Another variation is called “beats that follow the meaning” (yipai 意拍) where the first group is a single character and the second group is two characters. Figure	  2.50	  Yipai	  rhythmic	  variation	    These basic rhythmic figures may occur in any kunqu meter and are varied according to the individual qupai.41  In order to unify the style, particularly in unmeasured rhythm, the composer can adhere to one type of the basic word group pattern or variations. In summary, kunqu melodies’ rhythmic grouping is influenced by grammatical word grouping and the rhythmic structure implied by the qupai structure.  Melismas can be added between word groups or phrases, but do not influence the basic groups.  To better express the lyrics, the rhythm can be expanded or contracted proportionately or varied so that the first word group is on a strong beat and the second is on a weak beat.  In order to emphasize important words, sometimes the words can be grouped according to grammar where the first word is singled out.  Word groups unify the style of the qupai, especially in umeasured rhythm.42  2.6 An experimental exercise of composing kunqu aria in the neo-traditional method  In the introduction, I discuss the different meanings of composition dependent on the technical methods and socio-political context of the time period.  While kunqu theorists including Wu Xinlei understand traditional composition in kunqu to mean filling in lyrics to preexisting melodies in the manner of kunqu composition of late imperial China, the                                                 41 Ibid., 175-181. 42 Ibid., 179.  62 contemporary composers use the word “traditional” to refer to a comparative process of composition that was most likely codified in the 1950s.  I refer to this method as neo-traditional.  In the neo-traditional method that I learned mainly from Zhou Xuehua in composition lessons, the composer follows analytical and creative steps to construct a qupai that maintains the original verbal structure (tone, word, and phrase patterns) and melodic identity (a skeletal literary-melodic structure that a qupai dictates), resulting in a slightly different melody determined by the speech-tone of the new lyrics.  A qupai is a song pattern based on melodic identity, number of words in each phrase, phrase construction (the number of word groupings in a phrase), singing style, and speech-tones.43  In the kunqu repertoire, an oral tradition that has been recorded in score collections, there are many same name qupai (tongming qupai) that have similar lyric and melodic patterns.  In kunqu each word has a speech-tone that produces a melisma with a specific contour and pitch-height relationship to the previous and following melismas as specified by the yin yang system explained above.  The neo-traditional method of “composing” a qupai balances lyric form and melodic contour based on a hierarchy of qupai models.  The composer derives the new qupai from comparing preexisting qupai versions and retaining the similar phrases (the most prominent of which is called the main phrase), yet slightly altering these phrases to accommodate the speech-tones of the new lyrics (the speech-tones generate restricted melodic possibilities as shown in the yin yang system above).  Originally the “composer” of kunqu would write the lyrics for an aria, but in contemporary kunqu the composer writes the vocal line and sometimes accompaniment, while the lyricist alters historical lyrics or writes new lyrics.  In the neo-traditional method, a composer usually sets preexisting lyrics to music, but if a script-writer (bianju) writes new lyrics, the contemporary composer may still consider the method “traditional” if the script-                                                43 For a more detailed explanation, see the section 3.5 on qupai theory.  63 writer has retained the original lyric form.  By lyric form, I mean the pattern of linguistic tonality, word grouping, and phrase grouping that are determined by the rules of regulated verse in Classical Chinese poetry.44  The pattern of tonality specifies whether a Chinese character should be a level ping 平 (similar to Mandarin’s first tone) or deflected ze 仄 tone (similar to Mandarin’s second, third, and fourth tones).  However, there are multiple possibilities within level and deflected tones.  In northern kunqu, a level tone may be either yinping or yangping, and a deflected tone may be yinshang, yangshang, yinqu, or yangqu.  In southern kunqu, the level tone is divided into yinping and yangping, the third tone is divided into yinshang and yangshang, the falling tone is divided into yinqu and yangqu, and the entering tone (ru) is divided into yinru and yangru.  Therefore, if the new lyrics have the same ping-ze tone pattern, but different tones according to the yin yang system, the new melody should retain the melodic skeleton of the qupai, but the melismas will differ because they are composed according to the new speech-tones.  Word grouping (cizu) refers to the concept of fixed word groups where groups of words convey a unified meaning based on their grammatical function.  Because Chinese words and expressions are naturally constituted by two or three characters, there is a small pause between each word group, forming Chinese poetry's unique poetic meter.45  When discussing word groups with the contemporary composers, they distinguish them by concept and grammatical divisions.  For instance in the first phrase of The Autumn River version of “Xiaotao hong,” the subject and actions are divided into separate word groups: In the first word                                                 44 The rules of regulated verse in Classical Chinese poetry include number of lines, line length, rhyme scheme, pattern of tonality, parallelism (grammatical or phonological), and caesura between phrases.  (Yang 2006, 114-121).   45 Fixed word groups are considered either simple and complex.  Simple word groups consist of two Chinese characters that have a direct grammatical relationship.  Complex word groups consist of multiple words with a more complicated structural and grammatical relationship.  To distinguish word groups, one must pay attention to three main points: part of speech, the relationship between words, and the position of the words.    64 group, the setting of the autumn river is established (the subject of the sentence); in the next word group, the protagonist glances at the river; in the third word group the protagonist is in tears.  Phrase grouping is also a concept in regulated verse, and refers to the fixed caesura between phrases.  When composing the new lyrics written by the script-writer, the composer must be careful to retain the melodic idiom of the main phrase (the characteristic melodic motif of the qupai that is present in all versions and usually repeats within the qupai) and to respect the original beginning and ending of each phrase.  In kunqu historical treatises, the concept of keeping the main phrase was referred to as wutou 务头, though Zhou Xuehua does not use this term in her lessons.    As in the art of interlingual transaction between a source and target language, there are accepted categories of “equivalence” and practices that become codified and part of the tradition.  When one explains how to translate between languages, one states these practices as a tradition.  Similarly, when Zhou Xuehua taught me the neo-traditional compositional method for composing a kunqu qupai, this may be seen as an assembly of all that she was taught by her teachers, but not necessarily a set of concrete rules governing composition.  To demonstrate the process of composing in the neo-traditional method, under Zhou Xuehua’s guidance, I explain how I composed a version of a qupai with the lyrics from Hong liji (notated on the fifth staff of Figure 2.51) based on three preexisting versions of “Xiaotao hong.”  Theorists and composers of kunqu follow this neo-traditional method by comparing between three and ten qupai.  In A Collection of Model Kunqu Arias and Suites (Kunqu qupai ji taoshu fanli ji) edited by Wang Shoutai, he explains the analysis process where he compares the lyric form and vertical relationship of the melodies between ten versions of “Xiaotao hong.”   By way of analytical comparison, we will identify the relationships between variations of word expansions, sentences, and stopping points.  From this we can completely  65 generalize a unified model and point out the position of the variations.  Moreover, we can take “Xiaotao hong” from the scene The Autumn River as a fixed model.46  In his analysis, Wang Shoutai indicates that there is a modelized qupai melody (a melodic skeleton of most important pitches) based on comparing the different qupai versions, but also that there is a hierarchy of models, from the original and standard to the barely recognizable.  He refers to The Autumn River as the most standard model of “Xiaotao hong” and lists in order the other models based on the degree of variation.  In my lessons, Zhou Xuehua also takes The Autumn River version as the primary model of “Xiaotao hong.”  When writing a new qupai, she compares each line first to The Autumn River model.  If the melody is incompatible because of a different number of words or speech-tone, she then checks to see if the new lyric is compatible with the word grouping and speech-tone of one of the other models of the qupai.  She creates the new melody from the model that best matches the speech-tone of the new lyric.  Following Zhou Xuehua’s analysis method, in our lessons we analyzed three versions of the qupai “Xiaotao hong,” comparing each character’s melismas in order to find the main phrase, color phrases, and lyric form (Figures 2.51).  Based on the similar melodic and lyrical pattern of “Xiaotao hong” and the new speech-tones, under Zhou’s guidance I was able to create the melody for the new lyrics.  The following score comparison of “Xiaotao hong” was originally in Chinese simplified notation.  As in the above speech-tone explanations, in this comparative analysis I have indicated the speech-tones by marking an open or dark circle on the corner of each Chinese character.  The triangle symbol on the lower right of a character indicates that the character                                                 46 Wang Shoutai王守泰, Kunqu qupai ji taoshu fanli ji昆曲曲牌及套数范例集 (A collection of model kunqu arias and suites, southern set 2) (Shanghai: Shanghai wenyi chubanshe, 1997), 1386.       66 must rhyme.  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Then you select new lyrics.  The text is different and the four tones are different.  Your job is to figure out how to organize the text [the linguistic tones of words in the text] and to enter it into the musical form [into the basic tune-skeleton prescribed by the qupai].”47  Zhou was also careful to delineate where the composer is restricted and where s/he can compose more freely.  She instructed that one has to respect the skeletal notes (gugan yin 骨干音) of the qupai especially at the main phrases and color phrases.48  However, when the new lyrics differ in speech-tone from the original model, it may be impossible to retain the model.  In this case, the composer considers the alternative versions (in our analysis there are three versions of “Xiaotao hong,” but in other analyses that I have found, there may be ten or more versions).  The composer must look for the version that has a speech-tone similar to the new lyric.  When composing in the neo-traditional method, the composer should maintain the original melody and text placement as much as possible.  The new melody, however, will differ slightly if there are new lyrics (which will produce slightly different tone contours). I followed these steps in my compositional process in the neo-traditional method. 1) Convert from the original gongche notation into Chinese simplified notation.  In gongche notation, each symbol represents a pitch position (Table 2.3).  The most commonly used pitches are indicated in bold (from 合 sol to仜 mi).  The character for the number five and six in gongche notation are the opposite of the name for the numbers five and six in Mandarin Chinese.                                                 47 Zhou Xuehua, Instructions during our composition lessons. 48 When I asked Zhou for a definition of gugan yin, she said these notes are strong beats typically at the beginning of a word group.  She said she learned this concept at The Shanghai Conservatory of Music.  75 Table 2.3 Gongche to Chinese simplified notation Gongche 上̗ 尺̗ ⼯工̗ 凡̗ 合 四 ⼀一 上 尺 ⼯工 凡 六 五 ⼄乙 Pronunciation Shang che gong fan he si yi shang che gong fan liu wu yi Chinese Simplified   1 ·   2 ·   3 ·   4 ·   5 ·   6 ·   7 · 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Solfege do re mi fa sol la ti do re mi fa sol la ti  仩 伬 仜 𠆩 𠆾 伍 亿 Shang Che Gong Fan Liu Wu Yi · 1   · 2   · 3   · 4   · 5   · 6   · 7   do re mi  fa sol la ti  In gongche notation, there are additional symbols to the right, middle, and left of the main gongche notation symbols that indicates the pitch.  Although the notation system indicates pitch and rhythm, the singer will add ornamentation figures based on the idiomatic vocal gestures.  The following figure summarizes the notation symbols.  76  Figure 2.52 Summary of symbols in kunqu gongche notation49  2)  Begin the analysis by comparing the qupai versions.  Identify the main phrase (the characteristic musical motif of the qupai that usually is repeated) and the color phrases (secai qiang), which are secondary characteristic motifs.  One can identify the main phrase and color phrases by examining the vertical relationship between the three qupai and finding the musical phrases that are common to all of the versions.  Eventually composers will internalize the main phrase and color phrases, and will not need to write out the qupai analysis.  In this case, the main phrase appears in the second and sixth phrases.                                                 49 Zhou Xuehua, Lecture Notes.  See Appendix B for English translation. Simplified notationGongchi notationrest or breath markcarrying repeated noterepeated noterestcarrying repeated noterepeated noteFixed ornamentation figure (shouqiang)breath mark 77 Figure 2.53 “Xiaotao hong” Main Phrase within the second phrase  Figure 2.54 “Xiaotao hong” main phrase in the sixth phrase   According to Zhou Xuehua’s method, the composer must also identify and retain the color phrases.  The concept of color phrases was introduced to Zhou Xuehua by her mentor Zhou  78 Dafeng.  According to Zhou Xuehua, color phrases are distinct motifs that may repeat in a qupai, but are secondary to the more prominent main phrase.  This terminology is unique to Zhou Xuehua’s analysis method.  Also, it is important to note that according to the analysis that Zhou guided me through, the main phrase appears twice, beginning at measures 7 and 31, yet one can find similarities between the qupai variations beginning one measure before the main phrase. Figure	  2.55	  Color	  phrases	  in	  “Xiaotao	  hong”	  	  Measure four; the second measure of the second phrase in “Xiaotao hong.”  Measure 18; the second and third measures of the fourth phrase.  Measure 42; the third measure of the eighth phrase.  3) Know the word grouping and tone pattern of the text.  I have shown the ping-ze tonal pattern and word grouping for the Qiu jiang version of “Xiaotao hong.”  Composers take this form as the primary model.  The word groupings and ping-ze form are almost exactly the same  79 for the other models, but may vary by one extra word per line or a small tonal variation.  In my English translation, I have expressed the meaning, but not retained the word grouping or rhyme.50  Ping is represented by — and ze by |. Figure 2.56 “Xiaotao hong” Qiu Jiang version word grouping and tone-pattern  1) I gaze at the river tearfully, 秋江一望泪潸潸, — — | | | — — 2, 2, 3  2) Afraid to look at that lonely sail. 怕向那孤篷看,也。 | | | — — | | 2, supplementary word, 3, ye (也)  3) From this parting a bitterness arises that is hard to express. 这别离中⽣生出⼀一种苦难⾔言。 | — — — — — | | | — — supplementary word, 3, 2, supplementary word, supplementary word, 3  4) I hate this sundering of an instant, 恨拆散在霎时间, | — | | | — — 3, supplementary word, 3  5) How all because in heart and from eyes, 都只为⼼心⼉儿⾥里眼⼉儿边, — | | — — | | — — word grouping: 3, 3, 3  6) Blood’s flow lays waste my fragrant flesh. 血儿流把我的香肌减,也。 | — — | | | — — | word grouping: 3,3,3, ye (也)  7) How hateful are those wild rivers and calm streams, 恨煞那野水平川,                                                 50 In Mandarin Chinese ping 平 indicates a level tone, and ze 仄 indicates a deflected tone, which includes the shang, qu, and ru tones.    80 | | | | | — — 8) That create a Milky Way to divide us, ⽣生隔断银河⽔水, — — | — — | 3, 3  9) Forfeiting my life, like the cuckoo who wept in late spring. 断送我春⽼老啼鹃。 | | | — | — — 3, 4 From the word grouping and tone-pattern, develop the musical phrases and link the characters according to the yin yang system (explained above).  Figure 2.57 generalizes the above rules.  The yin tone is descending and yang tone is rising. Figure 2.57 The yin yang system  Follow the speech-tone rules for linking the melismas together.  In this case, I followed Zhou Xuehua’s table for linking melismas.  4) After creating the melodic contour of the melismas and keeping the possibilities of linking these melismas in mind, follow the fixed rules for setting the text to music that are unique to each qupai based on your analysis.  According to Zhou Xuehua, the rules for setting the text to music are called the gelü (prosody) and dianban (beat placement), which are •阴 Yin     •阳 Yang•In the southern system, the 4 tones, 平 ping, 上 shang,去 qu, 入 ru each have yin and yang tones.•Each tone is constrained by specific rules.  For example the yin ping tone moves in major seconds.•Each Chinese character produces a speech tone phrase.  On the next level, there are more constraints for linking the melismas together. 81 particular terms to kunqu.  The rules for setting text delineate how the text is placed into the rhythmic structure of the music.  “Xiaotao hong’s” formal pattern includes:  1. Musical system: Southern Musical System (南曲) 2. Meter: 8 / 4 or Zengban 贈板  3. Key and Mode: D major xiaogongdiao, Shang mode (小工调,商調式) 4. Main role types: Male (sheng) and Female (dan) role types sing mostly  5. Mood: Sad, forlorn, (悲涼, 情緒細曲) 6. Complete Form (曲式完整): Free散, 8/4, Ending尾 7.  “Xiaotao hong” has nine total phrases.  It has a fixed form including two “ye” (也) characters at the end of the second and sixth phrases.  Other than the sixth musical phrase, which begins on the first beat, in all of the other musical phrases, the first word grouping and first character begin on the third beat (zhongyan). 8. The middle word groups can be composed more freely. 9. In each musical phrase that has more than one group of three characters, the last word group consisting of three characters follows a fixed form: The first character is on the first beat, the second character is on the second beat, and the third character is on the third beat. 10. In the musical phrases that end with a word group of four characters, the first and second character are both on the first beat, the third character is on the third beat and the fourth character is on the first beat of the next measure. In summary, in order to compose my own “Xiaotao hong” in the neo-traditional method, I first translated the three versions of “Xiaotao hong” from the original gongche notation into Chinese simplified notation.  Then by comparing the melodies of the three versions, I identified the main phrase and color phrases of the qupai.  I was able to hear the main phrase  82 because I had learned to sing the qupai and could recognize the prominent melodic figures.  I was able to confirm that the second and sixth phrases are the main phrase by comparing the three qupai and seeing that the melodies are similar, only differentiated by added ornamentation figures.  Next, I wrote down the lyric form, considering the ping-ze tonal pattern and word grouping.   After the preliminary melodic and text form analysis, Zhou Xuehua selected lyrics from the scene Kui zui 窥醉 (Gazing at a Drunk) in Hongli ji 红梨记 (The Tale of Red Pear Blossoms).  Zhou wrote the speech-tones under the lyrics, and then gave them to me to take home and set to music.  I created the melismas for the new qupai by referring to the dianban, which is a summary of the fixed melodic and lyric form of the qupai.  At home composing my own version, I compared the word groupings of the new lyrics with the word grouping of the other versions.  Then I expanded each word into a melisma according to the yin yang speech-tone system.  Next I linked the words according to the yin yang speech-tone rules that Zhou had taught me.  By comparing the word groups in the new lyrics with the other versions that I had translated, I constructed new musical phrases that are similar in pitch and rhythm to the older phrases, but that fit the speech-tone’s of the new lyrics.  I was careful to retain the melody of the main phrase and the color phrases, which Zhou views as the place where the emotion of the qupai is conveyed most intensely.  When comparing the main phrases, if there are slight rhythmic variations, Zhou instructs that it is acceptable to choose the melody that best fits the speech-tone of the new lyric.  For example, to compose the first two phrases of the qupai I followed these steps (See Figure 2.60).  According to Zhou the beginning and ending phrases of the qupai are more fixed than other phrases.  In this case, I based the first phrase in unmeasured rhythm on the opening phrase from Palace of Lasting Life.   83 The second character 脸 lian is scored slightly higher because it is yinshang tone, and the character 儿 er is a supplementary word, so it is scored as an unaccented eighth note.  The next word 旖 yi (yinshang speech-tone) should begin lower than the yangping tone.  Shang speech-tone is scored lower than all of the other speech-tones.  Here, the character 旖 yi is yinshang so it should be slightly higher than the initial pitch of the next yangshang melisma (because yinshang begins higher than yangshang).  性  xing is a yinqu tone, so when comparing it to the other models, it is appropriate to choose the model with a similar speech-tone.  In this case 醉 zui from the Mudan ting version is also yinqu speech-tone.  Because 性 xing is yinqu speech-tone, the melisma is elaborated with the characteristic huotou sixteenth note grace note.  The next characters in the lyric structure all have a similar melodic contour, which I have labeled A.  Therefore the characters 儿 er and 和 he in the new qupai must strictly follow the melody at this point.  I followed the melody from Palace of Lasting Life here because the characters are both level tone.  For the next new character 料 liao, there are no restrictions for linking yangping to yangqu speech-tones.  However, one must include an added ornamentation note (huotou) because it is falling tone.  In this case, the closest match when comparing the new word 料 liao to the models, is to 怕 pa, which is a falling yin tone, although it is yin while 料 liao is yang falling tone.  The next words fall within what Zhou has marked as a "color" phrase.  According to her, the color phrase is the second most prominent motif in the qupai, and should be retained in the new version.  The word 不 bu is yinru tone, so must include a small break (usually scored as a sixteenth note) and should begin lower than the following melisma, which is yangqu speech-tone.  The next word 放 fang is scored like the falling tone character from the The Autumn River version.  The next word 情  84 qing is the same tone (yangping) as 残 can from the Mudan ting version and 梧 wu from the Palace of Lasting Life version, so the contour may follow either version.  In this case, it follows the Palace of Lasting Life model. The new character 情 qing is yangping and therefore the melisma should begin lower than the previous yinqu melisma.  The next characters 薄 bao and 也 ye fall within the main phrase, and therefore must closely follow the models.  Because the new lyric 薄 bao is yangping tone, it should not include the ornamentation note (huoyin) that is included in the top two models.  However, it follows the same pitches after the third beat.    85 Figure 2.58 Developing melismas in “Xiaotao hong”   86    87 The rules for creating a new qupai are supposedly "fixed," but like most systems, musical and linguistic, there are exceptions and fluidity within the rules.  In my “Xiaotao hong,” the opening phrase does follow the rules for linking melismas on the first two beats (the character 脸 lian is yinshang and should technically be lower than the preceding and following level tones).  It is important for the opening of the qupai to closely resemble one of the models so the listener can immediately identify the qupai.  There are often transgressions of the yin yang rules for linking melismas especially at the beginning and endings of the qupai as a whole and at the beginnings and endings of individual phrases.  One might ask, how is adhering to an internal melodic model (the main phrase and skeletal notes) and switching between models depending on speech-tone correspondence in order to craft a melody from speech-tone rules “composition”?  It seems more like arranging previously composed parts.  In a way, this is like composing with a preconceived structure such as with the chords of I IV V I, antisequent and consequent phrases, or idiomatic phrases for the violin or harpsichord.  However, in kunqu the composer does have some liberty even within the neo-traditional method.  According to the contemporary composers I have studied with, the composer has most freedom in linking the melismas together in the middle of phrases (the beginnings and endings should correspond most closely to the models), and on determining the pitches of the level tone.   It is useful to think of kunqu composition in the context of traditional Chinese aesthetics, which operated as a culture of copies and replicas.  The crafting of kunqu melody may be thought of as the movement of the brush in calligraphy.  The ornamentation notes of kunqu are like the flicking and turning of the brush in wrapping its movements left and right round the central axis (which could be compared to the modelized melody).  The space around the brush  88 strokes might be thought of as the melodic possibilities around the modelized melody.  The metaphor can extend to the “trace of brush.”  In Chinese calligraphy, the brush strokes have a dual meaning, representing the physical presence of the original maker and the new maker.  Like in Chinese calligraphy, the process of replication and transformation of the qupai melody is both historical and new.51  The general concept in composing in the traditional method is to craft a melody that adheres to the model (the lyric form and melodic identity), but also respects the new speech-tones.  Thus, the process of “composing” a qupai in the traditional method is a balance of respecting the models and the melodic possibilities determined by the new speech-tones, in other words respecting the brush strokes and the surrounding space.                                                51 Wen C. Fong, "Why Chinese painting is history," Art Bulletin (2003): 261.  89 3 The Intellectual Tradition of Kunqu: Treatises on the Music of Kun Opera  3.1 A brief summary of kunqu history  There is a long intellectual tradition of kunqu theories and practice, and many manuscripts and essays in Chinese and English on the topic.  The history of this tradition is too vast and complex to be summarized within the scope of my dissertation.  Thus, I first provide a brief summary of kunqu history to provide a context, and then focus on selected sources that pertain to kunqu composition: the writings of the contemporary composers Zhou Xuehua and Sun Jian’an, and the historical writings of Wei Liangfu, Wang Jide, and Wu Junda.  During the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368) zaju (variety plays) thrived in northern China, while nanxi (Southern drama) was popular in the south.  In the Ming dynasty (1368-1644), chuanqi drama (marvel tales) developed largely from nanxi.  Chuanqi were thirty- to fifty-scene romantic plays with regulated literary and musical patterns.  The scripts of chuanqi could be sung in the musical style of local tunes, one of which was Kunshan tunes (kunshangqiang 昆山腔) that originated in the Kunshan area at the beginning of the Ming dynasty.  Kunqu was the reformed singing style of kunshanqiang that incorporated traditional and folk theatrical art forms including the preexisting Song dynasty repertory of nanxi (southern drama).    The kunqu style of singing and repertoire first appeared in the early sixteenth century in the form of qing chang 清唱 (pure singing).1  In this form, kunqu was sung by literati with or without instrumental accompaniment in non-theatrical form.  Because intellectuals at the time viewed nanxi as unrefined and catering to the masses, they aimed to create a more sophisticated                                                 1 Isabel KF Wong, "The Heritage of Kunqu: Preserving Music and Theater Traditions in China," in Intangible Heritage Embodied, ed. D. Fairchild Ruggles and Helaine Silverman (The Netherlands: Springer, 2009), 17.  90 vocal style that emphasized the tripartite aesthetics of excellence in exemplary words (pronunciation and word choice zi), flowing musical phrases (qiang), and accurate rhythm (correct use of the clapper in coordination with the vocal melody).  Wei Liangfu (1522?-1573?) and other singing masters established the kunqu singing style shuimodiao (tunes polished with water).  Wei is credited as a founder because he wrote the earliest manuscript on kunqu: Nanci yinzheng南词引证 (The correct way of singing southern arias), with a preface dated 1547.2  In Nanci yinzheng, Wei mentions the singer of kunshangqiang from Kunshan named Gu Jian 顾坚.  Wei believed that Gu lived in the early fourteenth century and was the first renowned singer of kunshangqiang.  Wei is most known for the later version of the same treatise: Qulü (Writings on the Theory of Kunqu Singing) (1616), which was circulated and later elaborated and annotated.  Although Wei’s style of singing developed into three distinct regional styles, Kunshan, Suzhou, and Wuxi, contemporary kunqu scholars still take Wei Liangfu’s rules of singing and enunciation as the fundamental aesthetics of kunqu.3  Kunqu gained popularity in the late sixteenth century when it was transformed into a stage drama.  In the late 1570s the scholar and kunqu connoisseur Liang Chenyu (1519-1591) created a kunqu libretto, Huansha ji 浣沙記 (Washing The Silken Gauze) specifically for stage adaptation in the form of chuanqi (marvel tales), which set the trend for the association of kunqu singing and the stage conventions of chuanqi drama.4  With the success of Huansha ji, nearly 300 new or adapted plays were created by roughly 100 playwrights.  The two most notable writers of the time were Shen Jing (1553-1610) and Tang Xianzu (1550-1616).  Shen Jing was an official who returned to his hometown of Wujiang in Jiangsu province and created                                                 2 Isabel Wong, “The Printed Collections of K’un-ch’ü Arias and their Sources,” Chinoperl Papers, 8 (1978): 116. 3 Xiao Li, Chinese Kunqu Opera (Long River Press, 2005), 67. 4 Wong, “The Heritage,” 18-19; Wu Xinlei, 457.  91 seventeen chuanqi.  Seven of Shen’s plays (six complete, one arias only) are collected in Guben xiqu congkan, a collection of Ming and Qing chuanqi; ten others are no longer extant.  Shen emphasized the importance of lyrics complying with form, whereas Tang Xianzu was concerned with the charm of the lyrics independently of the rules.  Tang Xianzu, a native of Linchuan, was the most famous playwright of his time and is known for his Four Dreams, which include Zichai ji (Legend of the Purple Hairpin), Mudan ting (The Peony Pavilion), Nanke ji (The Dream of Nanke), and Handan ji (Dream of Handan).5 By the mid-sixteenth century, the Ming dynasty reached its zenith as a result of the rise of the urban merchant class and the growth of cities as commercial centers.6  The literati adopted kunqu as a fashionable form of artistic expression, and it was common for literati to create their own kunqu plays.  Retired scholar-officials established family troupes that performed selected scenes of a play called zhezixi (opera highlights) exclusively for the family in their private gardens or the family hall.7  These family troupes that thrived during the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries usually consisted of twelve young boys or girls.  The family troupes were directed by a singing master and performed works written by patrons who also directed and sung kunqu.8  Kunqu was most prosperous in Suzhou, where there were forty-seven kunqu troupes and more than ten theaters.  Diaries of Ming literati (biji) document kunqu singing and performance competitions including the “Hu Qiu Singing Fair,” an annual kunqu contest in Suzhou during the Mid-autumn Festival that took place for roughly 300 years                                                 5 Xiao Li, Chinese Kunqu Opera, 85. 6 Zheng Songyi, “Globalization and the Transformation of Traditional Folk Arts in  China and Japan,” 68. 7 “600 Years of Kunqu by China Central Television.”  Special Series of New Frontiers on CCTV.  Online Video Clips.  Accessed January 2014. <http://english.cntv.cn/english/special/kunqu/01/index.shtml> 8 Lu Eting 陸萼庭, Kunju yanchu shigao 崑劇演出史稿 (Taipei: Guojia chubanshe, 2002), 116-130.  92 beginning in the early sixteenth century.9  Nanjing and Hangzhou were also active centers of kunqu, and kunqu continued to spread to the middle, south, and north of China throughout the seventeenth and early eighteenth century. Although kunqu suffered during the Manchu conquest, it flourished again during the Qing Emperor Kangxi’s reign.  However, in 1724 the Qing Emperor Yong Zheng (r. 1723–1735) issued an edict to forbid the custom of entertaining friends at home with family opera troupes, because he considered it a fiscal drain.10  As a result, members of family troupes joined itinerant public troupes and public theaters were established to accommodate the demand for performance.11  Along with the formation of public theaters, kunqu was increasingly performed as zhezixi.  The mid-eighteenth century popularity of kunqu is reflected in the fourteen-volume collection Nashuying qupu (hereafter The Collection), edited by Ye Tang, a famous kunqu master born in Suzhou.12   By the mid-nineteenth century, because of rebellions that challenged the Manchu rule, kunqu faced a crisis.  The Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864) advocated replacing Confucianism with a form of Christianity and Suzhou was taken over in 1860.  By the end of the Taiping Rebellion, many kunqu performers had been killed or fled, and the art of kunqu suffered irrecoverable damage.  Audiences shifted their attention to other local styles of drama, namely to Beijing opera that would eventually eclipse kunqu.13 Kunqu continued to decline after the formation of the Republic of China in 1911.  Even                                                 9 Zheng Songyi, “Globalization and the Transformation of Traditional Folk Arts in  China and Japan,” 67. 10 Xiao Li, Chinese Kunqu Opera, 157-159. 11 Lu Eting, Kunju yanchu shigao, 202–232.   12 The words Nashuying reference the traditional Chinese idiom “Setting up pillars to build houses for collecting books” (zaoying nashu), meaning “safeguarding books for everlasting inheritance.”  The title reflects the importance Ye Tang placed on his own collection and as well as his musical sophistication. 13 Hu Ji 胡忌 and Liu Zhi-zhong 劉致中, Kunju fazhan shi 昆劇發展史 (History of the Development of Kunju) (Beijing: Zhongguo Xiju Chubanshe, 1989), 511–532, 567–583, 609–633.  93 the famous “Four Great Troupes” of Suzhou folded.14  In an attempt to save the art, Yu Sulu and industrialist Mo Ouchu founded the Society for the Preservation of Kunqu, and in 1921 along with Yu Zhenfei (Yu Sulu’s son) established the Kunju chuanxisuo (School for the Perpetuation of Kunju) near Suzhou.15  Over the course of its seven years, the school graduated about fifty students who learned to sing and to play an instrument.  The students kept their family name, but adopted a new given name that included the word chuan (perpetuation).  The group of students have since been known as the Chuanzi bei (the Chuan actors).  After the Kunju chuanxisuo closed, kunqu actors were not trained again for thirty years.16  In 1927, Chuanzi bei members formed a professional company called Xin yuefu (The New Tunes Troupe), but disbanded by 1931 after a failed mission to promote kunqu.  In 1937, during the Japanese bombardment of Shanghai, the kunqu performers lost all their costumes and props.  Kunqu opera disappeared from the public stage for the next ten years.  Kunqu regained favor after the Communist Party established the People’s Republic in 1949.  The Ministry of Culture featured the kunqu actor Yu Zhenfei, a famous sheng (young male) actor and the Beijing Opera dan (young female) actor Mei Lanfang (1894–1961), who had trained in kunqu performance.  The party supported the remaining ten Chuanzi bei actors and reorganized the troupes into state-owned schools in Suzhou, Hangzhou, Shanghai, and Beijing.17 However, during the Cultural Revolution (1966-76), kunqu was yet again almost put to an end when Mao Zedong (1893–1976) and his wife Jiang Qing (1914–1991) ordered the closing of all theater schools and companies.  Kunqu actors including the Chuan actors were                                                 14 Xiao Li, Chinese Kunqu Opera, 235. 15 Wu Xinlei, Zhongguo Kunju da cidian, 437. 16 Sang, Yuxi桑毓喜, Kunju Chuanzi bei崑曲傳字輩 (The Chuan Kunju actors) (Shanghai: Shanghai Guji chubanshe, 2010), 31–32. 17 Wu Xinlei, Zhongguo Kunju da cidian, 247–249.  94 humiliated or sent to the countryside to be reeducated.18 When Deng Xiaoping (1904-1997) assumed leadership after Mao’s death, kunqu again received the support of the Communist Party.  Troupes and schools were re-established, and in 1981 the Ministry of Culture commemorated the founding of the School for the Perpetuation of Kunqu at which nine Chuanzi bei members performed.  Kunqu has gradually been revived, and has an increasing international presence since its enlistment on the UNESCO list of Masterpieces of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity in 2001.  Kunqu has been increasingly performed in North America, Europe, and Asia over the last decade in a variety of musical forms ranging from jazz, Western Classical orchestration, atonal accompaniment, and orchestration for Chinese instruments. 3.2 The Pillars of Kunqu In their personal narratives and treatises on kunqu theory, contemporary kunqu composers present themselves as part of the historical, intellectual tradition of kunqu. 19  However, within the intellectual tradition, there are shifting definitions and connotations of what I term the pillars of kunqu including: the concept of composition, aesthetic criteria, the yin yang speech-tone system, differences between the northern and southern systems, and qupai theory.  This puts into question, what are the pillars of kunqu as they have been presented in treatises since the sixteenth century, and how much common knowledge constitutes a tradition?  Moreover, how can we understand contemporary kunqu composers as translating from the pillars of kunqu—namely from the yin yang system (the linguistic aspect of translation) and qupai theory (the emotional aspect of translation)—when these concepts are themselves                                                 18 Wong, The Heritage, 30. 19 Zhou Xuehua claims to be the last inheritor of the Ye Tang school of kunqu.  Sun Jian’an was also trained by members of the Chuanzibei school of kunqu.    95 shifting?  In order to study the meaning of contemporary kunqu composition and the role of contemporary composers, I approach the ethnography of composition from a practical standpoint—learning to compose as a mode of ethnography—and by situating the composers in their social milieu through interviews.  In this chapter, I investigate the history of the tradition from which these composers are drawing their knowledge.  I selected key music theory and compositional treatises that are representative of their time periods including: Writings on the Theory of Kunqu Singing (published 1616)20 by Wei Liangfu (1522?-1573), Rules of Singing Qu (published 1610) by Wang Jide (1557?-1623), Master Ye Tang’s Collection of Kun Opera Arias (published between 1792-1795) by Ye Tang (?-?), Rules of Composing Qu (published 1934) by Wang Jilie (1873-1952), and Studies of Kunqu Melody (published 1993) by Wu Junda (1916-1997).21  This chapter traces the shifting connotations of the pillars of kunqu to clarify how the contemporary composers engage with and diverge from this intellectual tradition in their own writings.  Situating the contemporary composers in the intellectual tradition of kunqu, I view the contemporary kunqu composers’ theories and methods as a continuation of a gradual shift in which kunqu melody has become increasingly liberated from language.  While historical poet-composers were concerned with pronunciation and word choice, the contemporary composer specializes in music (as separate from poetry), recreates the style of historical music through manipulating melody, realizes the yin yang system considering                                                 20 “The text of Qu Lu, which consists of eighteen sections, has never been independently published as a book.  It was collected in the beginning pages of An Anthology of Outstanding Songs from Wu (Wu Yi Cai Ya) edited by Zhou Zhibiao and published in 1616.” (Gu Zhaoshen and Yudan, introduction to Wei Liang-fu: Rules of Singing Qu, 35). 21 This is not a comprehensive list, but these are some of the more significant theoretical treatises on kunqu, and the main treatises that Zhou Xuehua and Sun Jian’an cite in their own writings.     96 melodic continuity, and primarily defines qupai by melodic identity.22  Before explaining the pillars of kunqu as they have evolved, I first present brief biographical information on the authors of these key treatises.  Wei Liangfu (1522?-1573) was a native of Kunshan and is regarded as the founder of kunqu.  The late Ming qu theorist Shen Chongsui (?-1645) first mentioned Wei Liangfu’s contribution to the development of kunqu in Duqu xuzhi 度曲須知 (Essentials of kunqu writing and Singing):  There is a specific method of singing that makes music stand out from stage singing.  This method is ‘kun qiang’ [kun style singing], also known as ‘popular tune.’ (Wei) is known as ‘the sage of qu singing’ within the field, and his successors regard him as the father [of kunqu]. Since (Wei) Liangfu, the interaction between music and texts in Southern ci singing has become very sophisticated.23  Wei’s treatise, Writings on the Theory of Kunqu Singing, shows the beginnings of kunqu as a non-theatrical singing style (qing chang). Wang Jide (1540?-1623), a student of Xu Wei (1521-93) was a qu composer and scholar from Huiji in Zhejiang province known for his theoretical writings on kunqu.24  Although he wrote two northern dramas: Nanwanghou男王后 (The male queen) and Qiannü lihun倩女离魂 (The soul of Qiannü leaves her body), and one chuanqi: Tihongji题红记 (Written on red leaves), the works never gained popularity.  In Rules of Singing Qu (1610), he organizes his thoughts into forty chapters covering the origin of qupai, the concept of gongdiao, the yin yang                                                 22 By “considering melodic continuity” I mean linking the melismas in kunqu to create a flowing melodic line without large leaps between the final note of a melisma and the initial note of the next melisma.  In some cases, if the composer were to following the yin yang rules by the book, there would be awkward leaps.  When there is a conflict, the cotemporary composers will follow their personal aesthetics over the yin yang rules. 23  Shen Chong-sui 沈寵綏 , Duqu xuzhi 度曲須知  (Required knowledge in opera making), in Zhongguo gudian xiqu lunzhu jicheng中國古典戲曲論著集成 (A collection of treatises on Classical Chinese opera), (Beijing: Zhongguo xiju chubanshe, 1980), 183-319. 24 Xu Wei was the author of Nanci xulu 南詞序錄 (An account of southern style drama), the earliest surviving written source on the principles and criticisms of southern drama nanxi 南戲.  97 system, rhyme, pronunciation, singing technique, the history of meter (banyan), and extensive sections on the art of writing successful lyrics.  Additionally, he summarizes his theories in his later work Rules of Qu from Bronze Mirror Studio (published 1642).25  The grandson of a respected doctor, Ye Tang was a singer-composer of non-theatrical kunqu from Suzhou who studied with Xu Dachun (1693-1771 A.D.), the Qing dynasty physician and expert on qu.  Ye Tang came from a wealthy background and was thus free to devote his life to pursue kunqu in a private, non-commercial setting.26  He recognized that the authoritative text on kunqu in his time was Jiugong dacheng nanbeici gongpu九宮大成南北詞宮譜 (The comprehensive anthology of texts and notation of southern and northern opera tunes in nine modes) (hereafter The Comprehensive Anthology) and lamented that performers lacked adequate teachers and texts to show them how to sing properly.27  In order to fill this pedagogical gap, Ye Tang wrote Nashuying qupu (Master Ye Tang’s collection of kun opera arias) (hereafter The Collection).  It includes twenty-four fascicles of kun opera aria vocal melodies in gongche notation with a preface in each installment.28  The Collection is known in modern studies of Chinese music as the authoritative representation of the vocal melodies of eighteenth-century kunqu qupai.                                                  25 Wang Jide, Bronze Mirror Studio woodblock edition, fourth year of the Tianqi reign period (1642), Ming dynasty. 26 Joseph Lam, “Notational Representation and Contextual Constraints: how and why did Ye Tang notate his Kun Opera Arias?” in Themes and Variations: Writings on Music in Honor of Rulan Chao Pian, ed. Bell Yung and Joseph S.C. Lam (Hong Kong: The Institute of Chinese Studies, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 1994): 35. 27 The Comprehensive Anthology is a collection of scores published in 1746 by the government of the Qing dynasty.  It collected a total of 4466 qupai and is considered one of the most important collections of qupai. 28 Katherine Carlitz, “Printing as Performance: Literati Playwright-Publishers of the Late Ming,” in Printing and Book Culture in Late Imperial China, eds. Cynthia J. Brokaw and Kai-Wing Chow (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2005), 283.  98  Wang Jilie (1873-1952) was a Qing dynasty physicist and amateur kunqu scholar originally from Jiangsu province.  He was learned in the classics and was an expert on kunqu melody.  In his work Yinlu qutan蚓庐曲谈 (Talks on qu from Earthworm Hut) he collected and organized qupai according to mode (gongdiao).  Wu Junda’s (1916-1997) treatise, Kunqu changqiang yanjiu (Studies of kunqu melody) (see Appendix A for selected translation) draws on Chinese and Western music theory to understand the musical structure of kunqu.  He considers the Chinese traditional music theory of gongdiao and the yin yang system, but creates categories for rhythmic patterns, melodic structures, and different sections of the qupai by looking at kunqu from a musical perspective informed by Western music theory rather than as a primarily literary art form.  Wu graduated from the Chongqing National Academy of Vocal Music in 1946 where he studied Western theory and composition courses in the conservatory system.  Reflected in his analysis by musical categories (meter, rhythm, melody) rather than literary form, Wu applied his conservatory training to opera and kunqu later in his career after 1956, when he immersed himself in Chinese opera and drama as a teacher at The Jiangsu Drama School.29  My teacher Zhou Xuehua (b. 1951), the leading composer for the Shanghai and Zhejiang (Hangzhou-based) kun opera troupes, sets forth her theories on kunqu in her complete lecture notes (see Appendix B for the English translation of her lectures) and article on the yin yang speech-tone system (see Appendix C for the English translation).  In her lectures, Zhou presents an evolutionist model of history, explaining how kunqu has developed from Tang dynasty court music while absorbing elements of folk music.  Because much of Zhou’s professional work has been translating Ye Tang’s The Collection into Chinese simplified and                                                 29 Zhongguo yinyue cidian 中国音乐词典 (Chinese music dictionary), ed. Chinese Academy of Art (Beijing: Renmin yinyue chubanshe, 1984).  99 Western notation, a large part of her lectures focus on issues of notation.  Zhou also presents an analysis system that underpins tune accommodation (presented in Chapter 2) and an index of qupai sets grouped by gongdiao.30 Sun Jian’an’s (b. 1961) understanding of kunqu is informed by his experiences as a flutist and consequently the relationships he finds between instrumentalists and within the musical material.  He experiences kunqu not only as a lead flutist and member of the ensemble, but also through his collaboration as a composer with other creative directors in the opera troupe.  Sun’s articles take the study of instrumentation as a basis for the music theory of kunqu.  His articles on kunqu include: The Collaboration Between the Kunqu Composer and Other Major Artistic Roles of the Opera Troupe (Tan kunqu yinyue chuangzuo de tihui yu ganxiang 谈昆曲音乐创作的体会与感想); An Introduction of Kunqu Instruments (Kunqu Yuedui Jieshao昆曲乐器介绍); Key Concepts of Kunqu Performance and Basic Music Theory (Kunqu Yanchang Yaoling yu Kunqu Yinyue Lilun Qianjie昆曲演唱要领与昆曲音乐理论浅解); The Kunqu Flute (Kunqu Zhudi 昆曲主笛); Kunqu’s Influence on Contemporary Chinese Flute Performance and Creation of Works On Equal Temperament in China Training the Kunqu Ensemble (Kunqu Dui Dangdai Zhongguo Zhudi Yanzou yu Zuopin Chuangzuo de Yinxiang昆曲对当代中国竹笛演奏与作品创作的影响); Kunqu Instrumental Ensemble Training (Kunqu Yuedui Xunlian昆曲乐队训练).  (See Appendix D for selected translations in alphabetical order).                                                    30 Qupai are grouped into sets according to their gongdiao (which can be understood as mode).    100   3.3 The evolving concept of composition Table 3.1 Nomenclature for composition Wei Liangfu Qu 曲 (to sing) Wang Jide Zuoqu 作曲 (To compose lyrics and music together) Ye Tang Duqu 度曲 (to realize music) Wang Jilie Zuoqu 作曲 (composing poetry and / or music) Wu Junda Zhipu  制谱 (tune accommodation) Zhou Xuehua Zuoqu作曲(to compose vocal and instrumental music) Sun Jian’an Zuoqu作曲(to compose vocal and instrumental music)  The conception of composition has developed from the traditional notion of the poet-composer, to a prescribed system of improvisation set forth by Ye Tang in the eighteenth century, to today’s form of composition in which the composer deals mainly with the musical aspects of kunqu and collaborates with the editor concerning the lyrics.  Today’s contemporary kunqu composer writes the vocal line and sometimes the accompaniment.  Although the word zuoqu has been used since the sixteenth century, its meaning has transformed from a primarily literary to a musical one.31  While theorists initially emphasized correct singing style and lyric writing, the contemporary composer specializes in the musical aspect of kunqu (dealing with writing the vocal melody and instrumental parts on the piano underpinned by Western functional harmony), collaborates with the editor and director, and produces a vocal and instrumental score in Chinese simplified notation. In Wei Liangfu’s treatise Writings on the Theory of Kunqu Singing (Qulü), he considers kunqu an art of song in which the conceptions of music and poetry were inseparable.  Wei does                                                 31 See the introduction for a discussion on the historical forces that caused this shift.    101 not include any notation, but explains in prose (using the word qu曲 to refer to songs, singing, and music) how to sing well and write exemplary lyrics. For Wei, the basis of creating kunqu music was knowing how to sing properly in the polished singing style.32 In the later sixteenth century, Wang Jide uses the term compose (zuoqu作曲), but still in the traditional sense in which lyrics and music are written together.  Regarding composition, Wang explains the literary art of sentence structure, word choice, and the use of supplementary words in the text.  Wang asserts: Composition (zuoqu) is like architecture.  One needs to know the structure—what is the  beginning, how it continues, how it expands, and how to finish.  One has to know all  of this before one can start writing.  This method is similar to writing an essay, lyrics,  and poems.  But when people compose songs (qu), they write randomly by collecting  a ball of string.  This cannot pass our standards.  Foremost, we have to improve the  structure of the texts.33  Wang views composition as a process in which the poet-composer writes structured musical lyrics. By the eighteenth century, kun melody began to separate from the lyrics.  In Ye Tang’s The Collection (written between 1784-95), for the first time he used a notation that indicated pitch in addition to rhythm and speech-tone.  Before The Collection there were two types of notation, neither of which explicitly indicated melody.  Jiugong predates The Collection, and features gongche and dianban.  Gelüpu (collections of song formulas) indicated tone-patterns and rhyme scheme of a qupai, and song anthologies denoted simple phrasing and rhythmic patterns for the literati’s musical interest.34  Ye Tang’s Collection uses a unique notation that                                                 32 Shuimodiao literaly means “tunes polished with water” (Gu, Wei Liangu, 65).  It refers to the “un-acted singing accompanied by clapper-beats and drum-beats. In this less emotional style of singing, the four phonetic tones (level, rising, falling, pausing) of zi are smoothened and harmonized” (Gu, Wei Liangfu, 43). 33 Wang Jide, Mingdai Wang Jide Qulü baihua quanyi, 23. 34 For a detailed analysis of kunqu notation, see Ho-chak Law, “Kun opera: A Study of its Notations and Instrumental Sonority” (MA thesis, The University of Hong Kong, 2011), 8-39.  102 indicates the skeleton of the melody by marking the initial clapper beat and the middle drum-beat, guiding performers by indicating the first and third beats, yet giving the performer space for interpretation.  In the following excerpt from The Collection, the lyrics are written in vertical columns and read right to left.  The small gongche to the right of each word indicate pitch and rhythm.  The black dot to the right of the gongche indicates the first beat, and the circle indicates the third beat. Figure	  3.1	  "Dainty	  Steps"	  from	  The	  Collection	   By fixing the melodies and creating a strict notation system, Ye Tang sets forth a more modern view of the composer-singer.  Although Ye Tang did not use the word zuoqu, his notion of duqu (realizing music) formalized fixed melodies and thus is closer to the modern sense of contemporary kunqu composition than notions of previous kunqu theorists.  103 Wang Jilie uses the term compose (zuoqu 作曲) to refer to lyric writing and in other cases to refer to writing music as distinct from poetry.  He opens his treatise by comparing the writing of poetry and music, claiming that they are similar processes with certain distinctions including attention to order and personal expression.  Wang writes: Words are poems; music is words.  The way of composition is no different from the way of writing poetry.  Poems are divided into a poem, a stanza.  But in music we say a single piece (xiaoling), free suites, or legends (chuanqi).  A xiaoling only has one piece of music. This can be compared to the composition of a poem.  If music is linked into several pieces, it is a suite.  Suites are made of qupai.  There are certain rules about what comes before and after in the suites.  You can't confuse the order.  Here, you cannot compare music to poetry composition.  Ten compositions make a legend.  Another difference is that the gongdiao cannot overlap in music.  You use one gongdiao for a scene, but not repeatedly for all scenes.  Also, poetry makes statements.  This is expressing yourself.  This is not expressing someone else.  It is for personal expression.  [...] Legends, however, are expressions of someone else.35  In Wu Junda’s twentieth century treatise, he analyzes music as distinct from the composition of language in order to expand on the definition of tune accommodation (zhipufa).  Wu defines tune accommodation:  Zhipu (or dapu) means: according to the contents of the lyrics and the four yin-yang tones, create and adjust the new melody so it matches the melody and expression of the original qupai.  Kunqu has long accumulated a complete theory for tune accommodation.  Yinlu Qutan, Lun Qupu [On Tune Accommodation] reveals four methods for tune accommodation: identify the beats, distinguish the four tones, recognize the main phrase, link the gongche.  The Qing collection Jiugong dacheng nanbeici gongpu also provides a reference for tune accommodation.36  Rather than focusing on the creation of the play and the lyrics (zhiqu or tianci), Wu demonstrates the analysis that enables tune accommodation including identifying melodic patterns, rhythmic patterns, and the metrical structure of sentences with varying word groupings.  Wu analyzes music as a distinct system separate from literature.  For instance,                                                 35 Wang Jilie 王季烈, “Juan er lun zuoqu” 卷二论作曲 (Book two, on composition),” in Yinlu qutan 螾庐曲谈 (Talks on qu from Earthworm Hut) (Taiwan Commercial Press, 1961). 36 Wu Junda, Kunqu changqiang yangjiu, 6.  104 Wu speaks of musical meter as an independent concept defined as rhythmic structure, whereas the earlier treatises consider rhyme and phrasing of the lyrics as determinants of poetic meter.   The contemporary kunqu composers take the ancient theoretical conceptions of creating kunqu as a basis.  Resonating with Wei Liangfu’s original conception of kunqu as a singing style, both Zhou and Sun teach composition students to sing as the first pedagogical step.  A composer must be able to sing at least a hundred qupai, in order to manipulate the melodies and understand the emotional identities of the qupai.  However, unlike Wei Liangfu, the contemporary composers think of melody as independent from language: They are concerned with linking the melismas and the qupai in personal ways that they perceive as musical.  Moreover, unlike previous theorists who focused on non-theatrical singing, the contemporary kunqu composers focus on accuracy of notation, orchestration, and acoustics so that the vocal line and instrumental parts work together in theatrical productions. Both contemporary composers follow the original conception of the steps for tune accommodation in their conception of composition.  Sun writes:   Kunqu has a relatively complete, previously existing compositional form that must be adhered to; kunqu must be composed upon the achievements of previous generations.  It is said: “know where to place the text within the beat structure, distinguish the four tones, recognize the main phrase, link the words together" (Wang Jilie, Yinlu qutan).  It is also said: "Judge the yin yang tone of each character in the lyrics; then according to one's judgment, decide on the gongche, then depending on the qupai's melodic phrases, make changes accordingly" (Wu Mei, Guqu zhutan).  In the compositional process, the composer must also pay attention to the use of the qupai and its order in the scene, the singing style of the role type, the organization of the melodic phrases, the emotional changes of the character, the aesthetic appeal of the vocal performance, and the actors' vocal conditions and characteristic tone quality.  These traditional compositional methods are all part of our inheritance.37                                                  37 Sun Jian’an, “Inheritance and Innovation,” unpublished letter.  105 Sun adheres to the ancient steps of tune accommodation, yet in his actual practice he also orchestrates kun melodies for instrumental parts and adds innovative techniques (as discussed in chapter 5). Unlike the historical notions of the poet-composer, in contemporary kunqu, the arts of writing lyrics, composing music, and singing have become specialized.  The composer is responsible for the musical aspect of the opera, and collaborates with the editor and director.  Zhou explains that the editor first writes the lyrics to the play; then Zhou selects the qupai according to the emotions of the role types; then she returns the lyrics with the selected qupai to the editor; the editor must then change the text to fit the rhyme and speech-tone patterns of the qupai.  Sun also explains that kunqu composition is collaborative in nature: the composer must communicate with the editor and assist in choosing the qupai.  The composer also collaborates with the director in considering which parts of the play will have musical accompaniment and other issues of instrumentation.  The composer further assists the performers with notation and theoretical issues that they may not recognize.  Finally, the composer must also collaborate with dancers.  Overall, the contemporary composers take the traditional conception of composition as a point of departure.  Singing is the basis of kunqu, but the contemporary focus is on adapting and notating the vocal and instrumental parts (see the new concept methods in chapters 4 and 5) as the composer collaborates with the editor and the director.         106 3.4 Aesthetics of singing and enunciation criteria for kunqu Table 3.2 Aesthetic criteria Wei Liangfu Tripartite aesthetics including pronunciation, flowing melismas, and accurate rhythm. Wang Jide Advocated the Zhongzhou pronunciation (once the capital of the Song dynasty, what is now the cities of Luoyang and Kaifeng in Henan province).38 Ye Tang The literary merit and accuracy of duqu. Wang Jilie The quality of the lyrics. Wu Junda Melodic variation and text-setting. Zhou Xuehua Melody created through the yin yang system. Sun Jian’an Ancient elements including use of the yin yang system, historical sonority, and control re-framed according to xinjiubujiu philosophy.   The aesthetic criteria for kunqu developed from the Confucian and Daoist philosophies in which music was the expression of harmony between humans and nature.  The Confucian philosophy recognizes the importance of nature, but also places importance on humans’ use of music as a tool for adjusting emotions and morality.  The Daoist view of music holds that the sounds of nature itself are the best music.39  According to Confucian and Daoist philosophies, the human voice is closer to nature than all other musical instruments.  The first mention of this perspective is recorded in the official history of the Jin Dynasty (1115-1234 AD) in The Biography of Meng Jia.40  Huan Wen asked: “As I listened to musicians performing, I felt silk could not compare with bamboo, and bamboo could not compare with flesh.  Why is that so?”  Meng Jia answered, “The latter are closer to nature.”41  Kunqu aesthetics developed from this traditional philosophy that valued the human voice as the highest of musical art forms. In his sixteenth century treatise, Wei Liangfu established the tripartite aesthetic standard for kunqu that demanded excellence in exemplary words (pronunciation and word choice zi), flowing musical phrases (qiang), and accurate rhythm.  Wei asserts: “The singing of qu calls                                                 38 Gu Zhaoshen, Wang Jide: Rules of Qu from Bronze Mirror Studio, 65. 39 Jin Jie, Chinese Music (Cambridge, UK; New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press, 2011), 38-39. 40 Official History of the Jin Dynasty (Jin shu晉書), Biography of Meng Jia (Meng ji zhuan 孟嘉傳).  The Jin Dynasty: A.D. 265-420. 41 Gu Zhaoshen, Wei Liang-fu: Rules of Singing Qu, xxvii.  107 for excellence in three things: first, excellence in clearly presenting all the phonetic elements to be sung; second, excellence in correctly mouthing and shaping the sung zi so that they match the musical notes; third, excellence in accurately capturing the beat and rhythm.”42  Wei used these criteria to evaluate the level of a singer.  He begins by focusing on fundamental vocal pedagogy including pronunciation: When first learning to sing qu, begin by practicing breathing and voice-projection, then grasp the pronunciation of each zi [word] correctly, and then find the best way to mouth and shape each zi as you sing.  While practicing one song, do not mix in other songs and try to learn by rote, for that will make you confuse the different song-patterns.  For example, when practicing [the qupai of “Scholars Gathering”] Ji xian bin, only sing Ji xian bin; when practicing Gui zhi xiang, only sing Gui zhi xiang.  At length your musicianship will mature, and you will be able to move between different sets of song-patterns and different keys and grasp their commonalities.43   Wei further explains how to sing successfully in phrases by following the speech-tones and singing flowing melismas: The musical notes in a song should obey the tones of the zi used in the lyrics.  If the tones of the zi are not captured appropriately, the artistic effect of the musical notes will be defeated. Take every zi in turn and examine all its four tones meticulously so that the very heart of the right tone is captured. Any careless error in pronunciation will distort the tone of the zi, and that is unacceptable, no matter how charming the singing is. Twisting the rising (shang) tone into the level (ping) tone or confusing the falling (qu) tone with the pausing (ru) tone will blur the distinctness of each zi that is being sung, and this is because while adding flourishes to the sung phrase the singer might over-do it. Those who know how to sing well must understand this.44 When practicing a song for the first time, study and relish it with humility and open-mindedness. For example, a long musical phrase in which one zi is carried through many musical notes or many beats should be sung fully and fluidly but should not be over-prolonged, whereas a short musical phrase in which one zi covers only a few musical notes or a few beats should be sung simply and curtly but should not be adjourned too abruptly. The process of polishing a sung phrase and linking it to the next zi is very crucial, and the speed should vary with the circumstances. Handle this steadily and seriously, as if in the presence of an important guest.45                                                 42 Ibid., 67. 43 Ibid., 54.   44 Ibid., 55.   45 Ibid., 56.    108 Wei explains successful rhythm in kunqu where the singer transforms the lyrics into music by counting the beats. Accompany your singing by counting the beats in order to distinguish strong and weak beats.  For example yintou is when the beat is simultaneous with the initial vocal.  Cheban is when the beat is at the beginning of the melisma (after zi).  Jueban is when the beat is at the end of the melisma.  If you don’t understand the tones, you can’t recognize where the beats should fall within the melisma.46  Wang Jide and Wang Jilie later elaborated on Wei Liangfu’s tripartite aesthetic, with specific focus on the pronunciation and selection of words.  Wang Jide explains exemplary singing in the southern system: “Nanqu is exclusively from Wu dialect.  There was a saying that the singer must melt the characters in songs so they are smooth.   Each character has a different pronunciation, but the characters should be melted together so the transitions are not abrupt.  This was called ‘lining up the pearls’ by the ancient people.  A good singer integrates the characters into the melody.”47  Wang Jide further explains his aesthetic appraisal of vocal styles by quoting earlier scholars and commenting on them in Rules of Qu from Bronze mirror studio, a later of version of Rules for Qu.  Wang quotes the Song dynasty scholar Shen Kuo’s Essays Written In Dream Stream Garden: “In the sound of singing there should be no zi, and in the zi there should be the sound of singing.”  Wang encourages singers to uphold the aesthetic requirements of the Song dynasty.48 Ye Tang evaluated kun operas and qupai based on the literary merit of their texts and structured The Collection according to this aesthetic appraisal.  He dedicated the first two installations of The Collection to five kun operas, each of them a masterpiece of Chinese literature, and he divided the third installation into four anthologies, i.e., the “proper” (zheng) that presents the most refined vocal melodies, the “complementary” (xu) that includes those of                                                 46 Ibid., 55-57. 47 Wang Jide, Mingdai Wang Jide Qulü baihua quanyi, 19. 48 Gu Zhaoshen and Yudan, introduction to Wang Ji-de: Rules of Qu from Bronze Mirror Studio, 59-60.  109 lesser critical acclaim, the “extra” (wai) that collects the popular ones, and the “supplementary” (buyi) that comprises the ones in fashion.49  Within this structure where qupai were ordered by opera titles rather than gongdiao, he was most concerned with the musical performance and creativity of the sung portion of kunqu.  He was not concerned with dialogues, dances, and other musical and non-musical elements commonly found in theatrical productions.50  Ye Tang stressed the importance of preserving the artistry of duqu in The Collection.  Ye’s philosophical influence from Zhuangzi also contributed to his emphasis on duqu.51  By quoting Zhuangzi’s idea “the piping of heaven without rigidity” (tianlai wufang), Ye argued that one can naturally sing a harmonious tune if he or she correctly follows the word tones of a song-text.52 Wu Junda highlights the importance of the lyrics corresponding with the melody, but stresses how rhythm and meter establish a skeleton of the melody, and that opera must especially be appreciated according to the fashions and aesthetic sensibilities of the time.53  Wu Junda bases his aesthetic appraisal for vocal melody mainly on stylistic unity and variation of melody.  Wu splits the qupai into half endings and full endings where half endings end on do or mi and full endings on la. In order to maintain the stylistic unity of a qupai, it is important to emphasize the structure (the order) of the ending. Biqu is the name for the ending of the qupai.  The yin yang tones of the last two words of each phrase are relatively fixed.  The structure is important on the larger scale of the qupai and the smaller scale of the phrase endings.  In order to unify the style of the qupai, the ending borrows the structure of the main phrase (zhuqiang), however the endings have more flexibility because their tones are less restricted.  The final notes of the first phrase of the ending can change, although the last phrase of the ending is stricter.  The qupai can be divided into half endings and                                                 49 Ye Tang, Nashuying qupu fanli, 3; Ye, Nashuying buwei qupu zixu, 4-5. 50 Lam, Notational Representation , 35. 51 Zhuangzi was a Chinese, Daoist philosopher who lived in the fourth century BC. He is known for writing the 33-chapter book, the Zhuangzi. 52 Ye Tang, Nashuying qupu zixu, 2. 53 Wu Junda, Kunqu changqiang yangjiu, 140-155.  110 full endings.  Half endings are mid-sentence, while full endings are at the closing of a sentence.  Half endings end on 1 (do) or 3 (mi), while full endings end on the low 6 (la).54  Wu cites the classic Jiugong score to legitimize his belief that melody may vary according to emotion and the aesthetic trends of the time: Jiugong says: ‘the melody comes from the beats, changes from the words, and people like it depending on their time and the current fashions.’  This means that the rhythm and meter establish the skeleton of the melody, the four tones influence the contour of the melody, and opera must especially be appreciated according to the fashions and aesthetic sensibilities of the time.  Jiugong also says: ‘the melodies can be simplified or complicated, can be connected or broken.’55  3.4.1 Contemporary composers’ perspectives on aesthetic standards Zhou Xuehua believes the beauty of kunqu lies in the accurate representation of ancient melodies.  She views kunqu’s beauty as the realization of the melody through the ancient yin yang system.  In her lectures, she spends the majority of the time teaching students to transcribe gongche notation into Chinese simplified notation according to her interpretations. Sun Jian’an appraises kunqu based on speech-tone articulation, ancient flute sonority, the singer’s control of the melody, and what he terms internal rhythm (neizai jiezou).  Sun values kunqu according to the realization of these ancient musical elements, but particularly as specified by his philosophy xinjiubujiu 新旧不旧 (using the old to become new) that echoes the Daoist principles of the interdependence of things and that change is the most basic character of things.  Sun believes: Kunqu’s greatest aesthetic beauty and characteristic element is its speech-tone articulation.  Producing a melisma from a single character must follow the contours of the four tones as it creates a melody.   We use the convention of “good articulation of the character and a rounded melisma (zi zheng qiang yuan)” to produces the detailed and winding melodic style of kunqu.56                                                 54 Wu Junda, Kunqu changqiang yangjiu, 132-134. 55 Ibid., 140. 56 Sun Jian’an, Key Concepts of Kunqu Performance and Basic Music Theory, unpublished manuscript.  111  Furthermore, Sun believes that the beauty of kunqu lies in the ancient temperament evoked by the flute: We should cautiously and soberly recognize that kunqu music’s real aesthetic beauty lies in its ancient temperament, a comprehensive and rigorous system of musical modes as well as its elegant melodic style.  The ancient kunqu temperament system holds the centuries old lineage of kunqu music.  This ancient temperament system can even be traced back to the tenth century AD in the time of Tang and Song banquet music.  Its modal system’s independent charm and the structure of the scales are only realized if one uses the traditional (pingjun kong) flute.57  Therefore, when one performs kunqu with the equal tempered flute, one must pay special attention to the “fa” and “si” notes, the slightly leaning tones, in the seven-tone scale in the northern system.  If the flutist seeks the equal tempered sound when playing these leaning notes, he will lose the characteristic of kunqu’s intervals within its seven basic modes and will damage the traditional sound and enchantment of kunqu music.58  In the 1950’s, kunqu flutists switched from the average tempered flute to the equal tempered flute.  Sun, however, encourages performers to mimic the ancient temperament system as part of his aesthetics. Reminiscent of the balance and control demanded by Wei Liangu’s polished singing method, Sun also finds the beauty in the exercise of control by singers and instrumentalists.  Sun writes:  Control is manifested in the singer’s diction, breath, volume, timbre, rhythm, speed and musical expressiveness.  Control is learned by: [. . .] engaging in long term and synthetic singing exercises.  Second, control is achieved through drills for the fundamental quality of singing.  For instance, strictly according with the qupai, fixed melodic phrases (qiangge), diction, final notes (guiyin), and theoretical skills.59  Moreover, Sun believes that the internal rhythm of kunqu, which is the variation of tempo (even within metered rhythm), embodies kunqu’s charm. It is important to mention that kunqu music has both external and internal rhythm that is                                                 57 The traditional kunqu flute (literally average hole) has holes that are opened equidistantly on the instrument but produces pitches that do not subscribe to equal-temperament and tuning.  According to Sun, using the flute with the new temperament is the reason for losing the “flavor.” 58 Ibid. 59 Ibid.  112 difficult to be aware of.  External rhythm is the fundamental regulator and inertia of the music.  Internal rhythm is the highest aesthetic value and is where the unique charm of kunqu lies.  More precisely, a concrete manifestation of kunqu’s charm is the proportions that are the rhythm.  Both rhythm and melody can express smooth thinking and feelings.  Only with the sharp realization of the internal rhythm located in the kunqu fixed melodic figures can kunqu express its external rhythm.  In fact, the nuanced rhythmic variations embody the true sense of kunqu music.  The practice of kunqu opera singing contains an internal rhythm that can be felt, but cannot be fully described.  This inner rhythm does exist and can be utilized and confirmed.  However, this rhythm cannot be explained and is not regulated by any law.  It is the natural result of the customized habits of the kunqu opera singer in the practice of his/her art.  In the practice of singing in performance, this inner rhythm makes the music more attractive and flexible.  A good grasp of this internal rhythm gives kunqu music more charm.  Internal rhythm is the characteristic that makes kunqu stand out from other opera genres.  It is the spirit of kunqu music.60   For Sun, internal rhythm is the minute durational and pitch variations within the idiomatic melismas of kunqu and consequent irregular tempo that evoke the charm.   Sun’s conception of internal rhythm in kunqu is reminiscent of the distinction between external and internal rhythm described by the Qing dynasty physician and musician Xu Dachun (1693-1771 A.D.) in The Tradition of Sung Poetry (Yuefu chuansheng 樂府傳聲).  In their commentary on Xu Dachun’s treatise, Gu and Yue explain: “In the terminology of qu singing, the terms ‘clappers’ and ‘clapper-beats’ are synonymous with ‘rhythm,’ for it is the beating of the wooden clappers which generates punctuation and supports the rhythmic flow of the music.”61 […] the use of clapper-beats had sprung from certain formal considerations that were inseparably linked to zi, pauses, phrases, rhymes, breathing etc.  This “external” function is aptly described by Xu in the chapter “Following the prescribed clapper-beats”: “Clapper beats are used to control the rhythmic progression of sung zi and sung phrases and to define the rhythmic form of the melodies, so that singers can have approximately uniform idea to follow.”62                                                 60 Sun Jian’an, Key Concepts, unpublished manuscript. 61 Gu Zhaoshen and Diana Yue, introduction to Xu Da-chun: The Tradition of Sung Poetry, 124. 62 From Xu Da-chun: The Tradition of Sung Poetry, Ch. 32, "Show the line-structure and rhyme arrangement clearly.” Quoted in introduction to Xu Da-chun: The Tradition of Sung Poetry by Gu and Yue, 125.  113  In the eighteenth century, Xu was already lamenting the tendency for singers to follow the external instead of internal rhythm: “ […] singers today only concentrate on voice manipulation and clappers’ rhythm but have no sense of line structure and rhyming pattern at all.”  According to Xu, the singer who adopts this internally-oriented approach must follow the “clapper-beats in the heart” xinban心板 which is what the composer ultimately endorses.  By clapper-beats in the heart, Xu means giving the grammatical structure and literary contents priority over the externally prescribed clapper-beat arrangements.  For instance, breathing according to the grammatical structure of the phrase, following the line structure and rhyming pattern…63 Sun’s overall philosophy is xinjiubujiu (using the old to become new.)  He believes that he can innovate through bringing back former musical elements.  For instance, Sun thinks that by writing an older suona melody in the ending of the opera, the audience will find this so “ancient” and unfamiliar sounding, that it will seem new.64  Sun’s aesthetic appraisal of kunqu is through the mind of the flutist.  For Sun, beauty is articulating the fixed speech-tone phrases, adhering to the historical tonality, exercising control, and bringing out the internal rhythm in singing and flute performance.  But beauty is not just following the historical sonority and techniques; the beauty of kunqu is bringing the historical performance tradition into the present.   Zhou and Sun idealize the ancient aesthetics in their writings, which is a common pattern in Chinese music scholarship.  However, Zhou’s concern with accuracy of transcription and speech-tone melody as seen in her precise notation shows a shift towards a focus on expressivity and listening in contemporary kunqu music.  Sun’s aesthetic is paradoxical—                                                63 Ibid. 64 Sun Jian’an, Inheritance and Innovation, unpublished letter.  114 though perhaps typical of contemporary composers in many contexts—in that in theory he highly values the historical sonority, but in actuality has re-imagined this sonority in his innovative techniques.    3.5 The qupai system  The qupai system can be thought of in five levels (See Figure 3.2).  At the smallest level, the melody is produced according to the yin yang speech-tone system (explained in chapter 2 section 3), which regulates the contour of a melisma.  Every Chinese character has an inherent tone in Suzhou dialect (Suzhou dialect is a tonal language).  There are eight possible speech-tones, and each tone produces a melisma with a specific tone contour.  The yin yang system also regulates the melisma’s starting pitch height in relation to the starting pitch of the previous melisma.  The melismas are linked according to the yin yang system to create the melodic phrases in a qupai.  Qupai are then ordered into sets (which constitute a scene in a kun opera) according to their gongdiao (mode).  Figure	  3.2	  The	  qupai	  system	  Yin yang system?Melismas?Qupai?Qupai Sets?Gongdiao  3.5.1 The beginnings of the yin yang system  The yin yang system determines the rules for how the consonant of a monosyllabic Chinese word (zi) is projected into a melody—in other words the rules to transform a word into a melisma.  Chinese scholars examined the relationship between poetry and music as early as the pre-Qin period (the five dynasties before the establishment of the Qin in 221 B.C.)65  This musical-poetic aesthetics focused on the harmony between speech sounds and musical sounds,                                                 65 Gu and Yue, introduction to Wei Liang-fu: Rules of Singing Qu, xxx, xxxi.  115 and continued to develop in the poetry of the Song (A.D. 960-1279) and Yuan (A.D. 1260-1368) dynasties.  The yin yang linguistic and tonal system was first established by the Yuan dynasty phonologist and musicologist Zhou Deqing in his classic rhyme-book, Tones And Rhymes Used In The Central Region of China.66  Scholars have since debated its application to the northern and southern systems: Previously in Tang and Song times, all zi were divided into the clear-sound category and the turbid-sound category.  "Clear" meant zi that were high-pitched and voiceless, and "turbid" meant that zi were low-pitched and voiced.  The terms indicated two qualities of a zi - its voiced or voiceless quality and its pitch quality.  But since then many speech sounds had changed, and in Zhou De-qing's time, particularly in the north, many zi had changed from turbid-sound into clear-sound and their pitch also changed.  Thus, though the term "turbid" could still literally indicate a zi's voiceless quality, the two terms could no longer be used to indicate the zi's pitch quality.  That was why, for northern Qu, Zhou replaced these terms with two other terms -- "yin," by which he strictly meant low-pitched zi, and "yang," by which he strictly meant high pitched zi.67    Concerning the yin yang system and the northern and southern systems, Wang Jide explained the differences as follows (from Gu Zhaoshen):  In Northern Qu all zi with ascending sounds are referred to as yang, and all zi with descending sounds are referred to as yin.  In Southern Qu it is the other way round: all clear voiceless zi have ascending sounds, and all turbid voiced zi have descending sounds."  The explanation showed that Wang was applying the ideas of "ascending" and "descending' sounds, i.e., tonal pitch, within the concepts of "clear or turbid" to interpret Zhou De-qing's use of the terms "yin" and "yang."  In this respect he showed that he was not begging to differ with Zhou.  But he also pointed out emphatically that in the southern pronunciation of zi "yin" meant high pitch and "yang" meant low pitch which was exactly the opposite of northern pronunciation.  For this reason he insisted that on the question of yin and yang Southern Qu should not blindly follow Northern Qu, because that could affect Qu-composition and Qu-singing seriously.68  3.5.2 The contemporary yin yang system  In the mid-Qing dynasty, the yin yang system was formalized into the northern system and southern system based on the influence of dialects on music and poetry.  The northern                                                 66 Gu and Yue, introduction to Wei Liang-fu: Rules of Singing Qu, xxxvii-xxxviii. Zhou Deqing (Yuan dynasty, 1277-1365): Zhongyuan yinyun. 67 Ibid., xxxix-x1. 68 Gu and Yue, introduction to Wang Jide: Rules of Qu from Bronze Mirror Studio, 53.  116 system includes four tones, yinping, yangping, shang, and qu, that follow the contour of modern Chinese’s four-tone system.  The northern system's tunes are not as detailed and less constrained compared to the southern tone system.  Moreover, the northern tone system uses a seven-tone scale and does not use zengban meter (equivalent to 8/4 meter).  In the southern system the ping, shang, qu, and ru tones are each divided into yin and yang tones, forming an eight-tone system influenced by the Wu dialect.  In comparing the tone contour of standard Mandarin to Wu dialect, there is little difference between the yinping and yangping speech-tones, but there is a clear difference between shangsheng and qusheng.  The main differences between Mandarin and Suzhou dialect are: 1) Yangping tone in Suzhou dialect is lower than Mandarin, but both are rising.  2) Shangsheng tone in Suzhou dialect is similar to Mandarin’s qusheng.  3) Qusheng tone in Suzhou dialect is similar to Mandarin’s shangsheng.  Qusheng range of pitch tone can be similar or slightly smaller than in Mandarin.69 Figure	  3.3	  The	  tones	  of	  Mandarin	  compared	  to	  Suzhou	  dialect	   	   For further explanation on how the yin yang system regulates the contour of melismas, see chapter 2 sections 2.2 and 2.3. Zhou Xuehua presents each of the eight speech-tones in the southern system and provides musical examples from Sulu Qupu粟廬曲譜 (Score by Yu Sulu) (see Appendix C), and provides rules for linking the melismas.  However, she does not divide the rules for linking                                                 69 Wu Junda, Kunqu changqiang yangjiu, 99.  117 melismas according to the southern system.  She applies the rules generalized from four tones to both systems.  Sun Jian’an is also careful not to transgress the yin yang system, but considers it a mathematical calculation that often lacks musicality.  Sun learned the system in theory courses while studying at the Hangzhou Kunju Troupe in 1981.  Wang Zhenglai, one of the teachers at the Hangzhou troupe, would give students a Chinese character and ask them to write the melody according to the yin yang system.  The yin yang system is the main concept in the pillars of kunqu for which contemporary composers still think of melody as inseparable from language.  In her article on the yin yang system, Zhou Xuehua presents her interpretation of ornamentation figures in her precise examples of tone contours (see Appendix C for translation).  Sun Jian’an also claims that “lyrics and music are inter-dependent—they cannot be separated.” 70   In theory, both composers adhere to the yin yang system, but in practice they often transgress the system for the sake of making a continuous, balanced melody.  Often times, if the composer were to follow the system exactly, there would be an awkward leap between melismas.  Both Zhou and Sun criticize the musicality of theorists who blindly follow the system without adapting it.  In conclusion, Zhou and Sun understand the theory of the yin yang system, but when they encounter a conflict between language and music, they adhere to melodic continuity over the rules of language.   3.6 The northern and southern systems Qupai developed from Tang and Song dynasty poetry that was musically chanted.  The Tang dynasty (618-907) Tang shi had eight phrases with either five or seven characters in each                                                 70 Sun Jian’an, Key Concepts, unpublished manuscript.  118 phrase, whereas the Song dynasty (970-1279) ci had mixed long and short phrases.  When the ci was matched with a melody, it was called cipai.  According to Song dynasty scholars, cipai of the Song dynasty had origins in Tang yuefu (poetic lyrics) and Tang daqu (suites with long sections including combined performance of songs, dance, and music).  In the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368), because of the north-south political division, opera developed as zaju in the northern region of China and as nanxi in the south.71  At the end of the Yuan dynasty and the beginning of the Ming dynasty, northern zaju became unpopular.  Nanxi absorbed elements of the northern zaju and became the dominant genre.  Based on the historical divide between zaju and nanxi, the northern and southern musical systems still have distinct rules to this day.  Beginning with Wei Liangfu, theorists have delineated the differences between the northern and southern system.  Wei differentiates as follows: Northern Qu and Southern Qu are extremely different; for example, there is a distinction between Mo-diao (fine, polished singing) and Xian-suo-diao (strings-accompanied singing). In Northern Qu there are more zi and the musical phrases are short and fast-moving, and where the music speeds on its linear structure tightens like tendons, which is why in Northern Qu the sung words offer more musical interest than the melodies. In Southern Qu there are fewer zi and the musical phrases are long and slow-moving, and as the music drags on drum-beats mark the pace like eyes, which is why in Southern Qu the melodies offer more musical interest than the sung words. The strength of Northern Qu lies in its strings accompaniment; this favors accompanied singing, but may coarsen the singer's breathing. The strength of Southern Qu lies in its polished singing; this favors unaccompanied singing, but may weaken the singer's breathing. Lately there are singers who perform Xian-suo-diao (strings-accompanied singing) as if they were songs for Mo-diao (fine polished singing), and there are others who introduce strings accompaniment into works of Southern Qu. This is like putting a round lid on a square pot - maybe the singers think there is no connoisseur in the audience.72  The subsequent historical treatises reiterate Wei’s distinctions.  Expanding on previous works, in his modern treatise, Wu Junda defines more differences between the northern and                                                 71 Zaju (variety shows) were four-act musical dramas of the Yuan dynasty.  Nanxi (Southern drama originated in Wenzhou in Southern China.  They combined spoken passages with sung versus and developed into the more complex genre of chuanqi (marvel tales) that developed into kunqu. 72 Gu and Yue, Wei Liang-fu: Rules of Singing Qu, 65-66.  119 southern systems:  In the northern system (beiqu) there are more words, the words are closer together, and the melismas are shorter.  There are more high-pitched tones, a more excited feeling, and generally more leaps in the melody.  The melody can leap in fourths, fifths, and octaves; the second half of the phrase returns to the original pitch.  In the southern system (nanqu), there are less words and the melismas are longer, creating a flowing melody.  The music is gentle and emotional and expresses the profound, precise inner feelings of the characters.  The same qupai may be used for different characters and different scenes.  The melody is ornamented and the main lyrics are fixed on specific beats within the measure.  The same qupai within different operas will retain the same structure where the characteristic melismas are fixed at certain points within the piece.  Typically the fixed structure for the end of each phrase is strictly followed.  Variation is only allowed at the beginning of the last phrase where there are supplementary words.73    Both Zhou and Sun similarly remark on the difference between the number of words and length of the melismas in the northern and southern systems as well as the string and flute instrumentation.  Both also emphasize not mixing the northern and southern styles.74 3.7 Qupai Table 3.3 Qupai theory Century Theorist Conception of Qupai 16th Wei Liangfu Polished singing style of Southern qu.  Fixed keys associated with qu. 17th  Wang Jide Retains criteria for singing style.  Qupai names from poems, rhythmic patterns, names of seasons, people, and birds.   18th  Ye Tang  Focuses on duqu (realizing by singing) with attention to articulation rather than qupai theory. Early 20th  Wang Jilie Wang Jilie lists qupai from the Qinding score 欽定曲譜 grouped according to gongdiao. Late 20th  Wu Junda Qupai categories and division of qupai into introduction, main body, and endings. Contemporary Zhou Xuehua Qupai defined by the main phrase and color phrases. Contemporary Sun Jian’an Qupai defined by main phrase.   Qupai are basic formulae for melody that indicate the number of words in each phrase, phrase construction by word grouping, singing style and speech-tone (ping-ze).  In ancient                                                 73 Wu Junda, Kunqu changqiang yangjiu, 22. 74 See Zhou Xuehua’s delineation between the northern and southern system in Appendix B, 23-25 and Sun’s views in Appendix D, Key Concepts of Kunqu Performance and Basic Music Theory.  120 times qu meant music, and paizi were the announcement boards on which the titles of the music were written.75  Thus the word qupai came to refer to the basic units of kunqu music, which are general names for song patterns derived from folk practice and poetry of the Song and Yuan dynasties.76  In the eleventh year of the Qianlong rule, the book Jiugong Dacheng Nanbeici Gongpu collected 4,466 qupai.  Contemporary kunqu, however, uses no more than a thousand qupai.  In kunqu, qupai ordered within a set constitute a scene.  Qupai within a set are from the same gongdiao (mode, see full explanation below), which usually consists of a group of qupai from the southern system, northern system, or a mixture of the two systems.  The concept of qupai can be convoluted and unclear at times.  For instance there are qupai of the same name, but with different melodies that are usually similar, but not always.77 In the history of kunqu composition and theory, theorists have developed and expanded the definition of qupai.  Wei Liangfu identified qupai with a single key and instructed not to mix the northern and southern systems. In singing Qu, there are five "do not’s: do not choose a key that is higher than the prescribed one; do not choose a key that is lower than the prescribed one; do not put in too much weight; do not put in too little weight; do not follow your own preferences.78 By the seventeenth century, Wang Jide adds to the definition of qupai by explaining the origin of qupai names.  He asserts that some qupai names are from poems, rhythmic patterns, names of seasons, people, and birds.79  In Yinlü qutan音律曲谈 (Rules of composing qu), Wang Jilie adds to qupai theory by grouping qupai according to gongdiao, contributing to the qupai set                                                 75 Gao Hongyoung and Zhou Li, “On Qupai,” Asian Music, Vol. 20, No. 2 (Spring - Summer, 1989): 4. 76 In Chinese qupai may be used as a singular or plural noun. 77 For an analysis of qupai, see Qiao Jianzhong乔建中 Qupai lun曲牌论 (On qupai) in Zhongguo yinyue guoji yantao hui lunwen ji (Collected essays from the international symposium on Chinese music, Hong Kong 1988), ed. Qiao Jianzhong and Tsao Penyeh (Ji’nan: Shandong jioayu chubanshe, 1990), 319-36. 78 Gu, Wei Liang-fu: Rules of Singing Qu, 69.   79 Wang Jide, Mingdai Wang Jide Qulü baihua quanyi, 3.  121 theory.  Wu Junda defines qupai as relatively fixed melodies with a defined form in which people may fill in the lyrics according to the melody and structure.  Wu asserts that qupai have three defining characteristics: 1) They are widespread, passed down through generations, and constantly renew themselves; 2) they have many origins but have a unified style; 3) the lyrics and melody must correspond, and the qupai must have the flexibility to express different emotions.80  Informed by Western music theory, Wu Junda divides qupai into more musical categories than previous theorists.  He explains the introduction (yinzi), main body (guoqu), and ending (weisheng) qupai and further divides the main corpus of qupai into refined qupai, medium tempo qupai, and rough qupai (xiqu, zhongqu and cuqu).  Large body qupai (daqu) are usually more refined (xiqu), longer, and usually sung by the young male and female role types.  Small body qupai (xiaoqu) are usually short, rough, and sung by warlord and clown role types.  Refined qupai (xiqu) are also called slow qupai (manqu).  They are slow and emotional and fit the sentiments of the young male and female role types.  The same refined qupai is often repeated.  Repeated, refined qupai can be a real qupai (zhengqu) or montage qupai (jiqu).  They are often in the equivalent of  8/4 or the first qupai are in 8/4 and the following are in 4/4.  Jiqu, what I term montage qupai, are created through a technique in the southern system where you take sentences from different qupai and piece them together.  Originally this was called “fandiao” until Jiugong dacheng nanbeice gongpu started referring to it as “jiqu.”  Jiugong Dacheng collected 507 montage qupai in several gongdiao.  The names of montage qupai are drawn from the qupai from which the parts originate.  To create a montage qupai, one must use qupai from the same gongdiao or the same gongdiao at the start and end.                                                  80 Wu Junda, Kunqu changqiang yanjiu, 12.  122 Alternatively, one can use qupai from the same flute key.  Montage qupai are common in the southern system, but there are rare examples of montage qupai in the northern system.81  3.7.1 The contemporary view of qupai In addition to the concepts of previous theorists, the contemporary composers define qupai by the main phrase (zhuqiang).  Zhou defines the main phrase as: 1) When one compares three similar qupai of the same name, the main phrase is the phrase that has the exact same word placement [as the other two versions] within the beat structure (banshi).  2) The main phrase has a characteristic melody that stands out.  3) The main phrase must repeat at least twice.  4) The placement of the main phrases are fixed within the structure of the qupai.  For instance, the main phrase in Gui zhi xiang is always the fifth phrase.   In kunqu, some main phrases stand out.  For instance, the main phrases from the qupai “Shanpo yang” and “Xiaotao hong” are very clear.  Some qupai, however, don’t have a main phrase.  Conversely, in some qupai, every phrase is the main phrase.  For instance in the northern qupai “Yingerluo” and “Deshengling.”  The main phrase gives the qupai its soul, its individual character.  It is beautiful sounding and characteristic in style.82  Sun similary identifies qupai by their main phrase and fixed phrases. Kunqu singing uses different characteristic melodies of the qupai known as main phrases as well as fixed phrases [by fixed phrases Sun means the characteristic vocal gestures in certain melismas] in a series known as (qiangge).  [For Sun, the main phrase is a type of fixed phrase].  The main phrases and fixed phrases are used in order to make the literary aspect, the speech-tone, and the intonation into a balanced melody.  They also can serve to make the melody emotional or lively according to the artist’s conception, or to make the beginning and ending of the melody communicate effectively.83                                                        81 Wu Junda, Kunqu changqiang yanjiu, 43. 82 Zhou Xuehua, Lectures. 83 Sun Jian’an, Key Concepts of Kunqu Performance and Basic Music Theory, (September 2011).  123 3.8 Gongdiao Table	  3.4	  Gongdiao	  Wei Liangfu A qupai has a fixed key. Wang Jide Based on the ancient gongdiao (Originally 84, 48 in the Song dynasty), but reduced to 12 gongdiao in nanqu and 13 in beiqu.  Each gongdiao has an emotion associated with it.  Cites Yan-nan Zhian’s mood-mode chart from Changlun. Ye Tang Organizes by Opera name, not gongdiao. Wang Jilie Lists qupai from the Qinding score 欽定曲譜 grouped according to gongdiao. Wu Junda Converts gongdiao to flute keys. Zhou Xuehua Ancient gongdiao, Yan-nan Zhian’s mood-mode chart, and flute keys Sun Jian’an Yannan Zhi’an’s mood-mode chart and flute keys  3.8.1 Ancient gongdiao  The gongdiao system has its roots in ancient Chinese music, in which there were 12 lü (absolute pitches) based on the pitch produced by blowing different lengths of bamboo pipes.  Huangzhong (yellow bell) is the name of the first absolute pitch.  It is said to be between middle C and the F above depending on the dynasty, but this is debated amongst scholars of Chinese temperament theory.84 The other absolute pitches are derived from lengthening or shortening the bamboo pipe by 1/3, thus forming 12 discreet pitches within an octave.  Each pipe produced five main sounds plus two subordinate sounds: gong, shang, jiao, zhi, yu, bian gong, biang zhi (商、角、征、羽而外, 有变宫、变征).  In ancient times the lü (absolute pitch) were thought of as longitude and the seven series of intervals at each of those absolute pitch levels were thought of as latitude.  Gong was the name for the tonic of the scale at each lü, and diao referred to the other tones.  Through a “spinning” method, a mode was derived at a specified interval from the gong tone.  For instance the scale beginning on the huangzhong tonic pitch would be called zhenghuang zhenggong 正黄政宫.  12 absolute pitch heights multiplied by 7 possible intervals makes 84 possible modes.85                                                  84 For further information, consult: Wu Nanxun, Lüxue-huitong (Kexue-Chubanshe, 1964). 85 Wang Jide, Mingdai Wang Jide Qulü baihua quanyi, 9.  124 According to Wang Jide, by the Song dynasty (960-1279), the 84 gongdiao were reduced to 48 gongdiao (based on 12 absolute pitch positions x 4 interval positions).86  By the Qing dynasty (1644-1912) Jiugong dacheng lists the nine gongdiao of the southern and northern systems including five modes starting on gong tone (xianlügong, nanlügong, huangzhonggong, zhenggong) and four diao from starting on shang tone (dashidiao, shuangdiao including xianlü entering shuangdiao, shangdiao, and yuediao), retained from the nine modes of the Yuan variety plays.87  3.8.2 Gongdiao associated kunqu flute keys (dise) In kunqu, each gongdiao is associated with one or more flute keys (dise).  Because of the fingerings of the qudi, gongdiao can only be summarized into seven keys for kunqu: 1) Chizidiao (beginning from C) 2) Xiaogongdiao (D) 3) Fanzidiao (E) 4) Liuzidiao (F) 5) Zhenggongdiao (G) 6) Yizidiao (A) 7) Shangzidiao (Bb).  Every qupai has a single gongdiao.                                                   86 Wang Jide, Mingdai Wang Jide Qulü baihua quanyi, 9.  48 gongdiao is used across scholarship on Chinese modes.  However, there are various numbers presented between the periods where 48 gongdiao were used and the nine gongdiao from Yuan variety plays were adopted.   87 Wu Xinlei, Zhongguo Kunju da cidian, 127.  125 Figure 3.4 Gongdiao to flute key associations88    3.8.3 Zhou and Sun’s view of gongdiao  In her lectures, Zhou Xuehua presents ancient gongdiao theory similar to the theories of previous scholars: Each qupai has a gongdiao, which is the double meaning of key and mode.89  When gong is the tonic, the piece is said to be in gongdiao.  According to 12 tone temperament theory [she means 12 absolute pitches], seven notes and 12 lü together make 84 keys.  But in common practice, keys are repeated and many have fallen out of use.  In Tang dynasty court music, there were only 28 keys.  In Song dynasty music there were seven gong and 12 diao.  In the Yuan dynasty there were six gong and 11 diao, which make 17 gongdiao. As the successive dynasties changed the temperament system, the absolute degree of the ancient gongdiao was difficult to confirm.  Later on kunqu used the flute to fix keys.  It brought the ancient idea of gongdiao into the flute keys.  Every qupai’s gongdiao is fixed according to the table below [she references Wu Junda’s table].   Gongdiao contains the dual meaning of key and mode.  There are seven common keys in kunqu.  The terms from the keys used in kunqu opera are different from those used in gongche notation.                                                 88 Wu Junda, Kunqu changqiang yanjiu, 79. 89 According to Kunju dacidian (Kunju Dictionary) in the past the concepts of gong and diao were used interchangeably.  Gongdiao are categorized by their characteristics including the emotional identity of the qupai and flute fingering.  When you combine qupai from the same gongdiao they form a set.  (Kunju dacidian, 488).  126  The young male and female role types most often sing in the four keys of D, Eb, F, G.  The old man role type and painted face role types usually sing in the three keys of F, Bb, C.  Chinese traditional music usually uses the five modes: gong, shang, jiao, zhi, and yu.  The southern system is usually in yu mode.  The northern system is mostly in jiao mode.  In the northern system, the entire scene is usually sung on one mode, for instance: gong, jiao, and zhi modes.  The sequence of gongdiao in an opera is very intricate and concerned with the quality of the sound and the success of the opera.  How did people of previous generations fix gongdiao?  They used the flute to fix the key.  The flute would not go out of tune even when the weather changed.  Kunqu used the flute as the main instrument for accompaniment.  They used it first to fix the key and then to set the quality of the sound for the ensemble.90  Sun similarly acknowledges the ancient origins of gongdiao and cites Wu Junda’s summary as an explanation.  Sun understands gongdiao as flute fingerings as well as their emotional identity. The concept of gongdiao has a long history, from the pre-Qin (before 221 B.C. when the First Emperor of Qin united China usually referring to the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States) concept of bell temperament (Zhonglü) to Zhu Zaiyu’s Ming dynasty work, “On Equal Temperament.”  But kunqu still follows the flute temperament (dilü).  China’s traditional music studies have long put into practice and explained the logical relation of the concepts of tone (yin), temperament (lü) sound (sheng) and diao in order to represent the concepts of mode and key.  Wu Junda’s book An Outline of Kunqu Music explains the principle of gongdiao based on the theories outlined in Chang Lun.  We see that gongdiao is a basis of kunqu and cannot be discarded.   Kunqu’s fixed key principle, dise, and gongdiao concepts must be understood and firmly fixed in the mind of the kunqu flute accompanist.  Because of contemporary performers’ vocal conditions and limited range, the arbitrary addition and deletion in the scripts, and the reckless breaking of the rules for linking qupai, the changqiang and music sometimes are first in a higher key and then a lower key, and there is no way to link them in an orderly way.  Therefore the “rising” keys have already reached a widespread condition of plight.  Dise and gongdiao, these traditional concepts already have become more and more indistinct and have thus been gradually ignored by kunqu flute players.  This practice has undoubtedly hampered the succession of traditional kunqu music.  The words “The inheritance and development of Kunqu’s outstanding tradition” have quickly become meaningless.     Specialized kunqu performers and musical accompanying ensemble members likely all know kunqu’s xiaogongdiao or “small key” is equivalent to the Western key of D major.  But if you ask them why, I’m afraid that kunqu flute players rarely will be able to answer this question.  But they must understand the meaning of fixed key principle, dise, and gongdiao.  For kunqu flutists, this is extremely important.  It is the                                                 90 Zhou Xuehua, Appendix B Lecture Notes, 28-29.  127 principle they must follow and cannot confuse.   Western music’s modes and keys have a specialized theory.  Mode (diaoshi) is the group consisting of certain tones (pitch material).  According to theory, this group of notes is organized in a scale form.  Key (diaoxing) points to the pitch placement of the tonic note of the mode and its intervallic relationship to other notes in the mode.  The tonic’s pitch and mode constitute its key.  They are also endowed with a certain meaning associated with its acoustic color.  For instance, major keys are considered masculine and bright whereas minor keys are considered feminine, dim, and gloomy.      But in kunqu, dise is China’s ethnic and folk musical modal system and is an important part of kunqu.  The seven dise’s meaning of mode and key are not evident.  The concept of diao actually is flute fingering. It endows kunqu with color and emotion as well as a structural meaning. This is very similar to the fixed diao principle in Beijing opera (jingju).  Xipi is the fixed jinghu “6, 3”strings. Erhuang has fixed strings of “5, 2.”     The dise (diao) names use the open note (open cylinder note) as “he.” In Western music theory it is called “5” that is the fundamental (diao).  In kunqu it is called “xiaogongdiao,” where the “gong” or fundamental of xiaogongdiao is placed on any of its seven notes to form the new diao.  For instance fanzidiao’s tonic is placed on xiaogongdiao’s fan note.  Therefore it is called fanzidiao.  Liuzidiao’s tonic is moved to the liu note of xiaogongdiao and is therefore called liuzidiao.  Aurally, these diao have different acoustic colors.  Xiaogongdiao evokes riches and honor as well as a lingering and touching effect.  Fanzidiao evokes the feelings of tragedy and sadness as well as penetrating and lifeless.  To understand the meaning of dise one has to distinguish between the colors endowed in the modes.  In practice, we cannot randomly pick a diao and cannot misuse the flute fingerings.91  3.8.4 Gongdiao grouping by emotional identity In kunqu, qupai within a single gongdiao may have dissimilar keys or range, but they are grouped according to similarity of melodic contour and affect.  Wang Jide and Wu Junda as well as the contemporary composers Zhou and Sun cite the Yuan qu connoisseur Yan-nan Zhian’s (?-?) mood-mode chart in their treatises.  Theorists agree upon the theoretical beginning of gongdiao grouping from Yannan Zhi’an’s mood-mode chart (See Figure 3.7).  	  	  	  	  	                                                  91 Sun Jian’an, The Kunqu Flute.  128 Table	  3.5	  Yannan	  Zhi’an’s	  mood-­‐mode	  chart:	  style	  category92	  Gongdiao Mood 仙吕宫 xianlügong 清新绵邈 fresh, peaceful; faraway, remote 道宫 daogong 飘逸清幽 floating, elegant; quiet, beautiful ⼩小⽯石 xiaoshi 旖旎妩媚 charming; lovely 双调 shuangdiao 键捷激袅; energetic, lively (emotion) 黄钟宫 huangzhonggong 富贵缠绵 riches and honour; melodious and moving ⼤大⽯石 dashi 风流酝藉 refined and tasteful; educated and sophisticated  ⾼高平 gaoping 条物滉漾 agile; floating 宫调 gongdiao 典雅沉重 elegant; grave   Table	  3.6	  Yannan	  Zhi’an’s	  mood-­‐mode	  chart:	  emotion	  category	  	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	    Gongdiao Mood 南吕宫 nanlügong 感叹伤悲 sigh with emotion; sorrowful 商⾓角 shangjiao 悲伤完转 sorrowful; winding and melodious ⾓角调 jiaodiao 呜咽悠扬 sobbing; melodious 正宫 zhenggong 惆怅雄壮 trajic; heroic 商调 shangdiao 凄怆怨慕 desolate; romantic trajedy 越调 yuediao 陶写冷笑 comic, ridicule                                                 92 Wu Junda, Kunqu changqiang yanjiu, 75.  129 Table	  3.7	  Yannan	  Zhi’an’s	  mood-­‐mode	  chart:	  structure	  category	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   	   Gongdiao Mood 中吕宫 zhonglügong 高下闪赚 emotional, fast 歇指 xiezhi 急并虚歇 fast rhythm with regular rests 般涉 banshe 拾缀坑 deep grief  In the Yuan dynasty Zhou Deqing presented 17 gongdiao (6 gong plus 11 diao) in Zhongyuan yinyun based on Yannan Zhi’an’s grouping.93  Wu Junda explains how the emotional identities of gongdiao were set forth by associations established in Yuan dynasty variety plays:  Because every gongdiao has a different characteristic mood or emotion associated with it, certain gongdiao are usually used in a specific sequence within the play.  Generally, the first suite is in xianlü and the fourth suite is in shuangdiao.  In Yuan zaju, a play consists of four suites, which are four scenes.  The reason most first scenes are in xianlü gongdiao is because it conveys the emotion of “fresh (new) and far away.”  In the beginning of a new play, the composer should give the audience a sense of newness and impending development.  The second and third suite should use gongdiao according to the plot and style of the opera.  The fourth suite or last scene uses the emotion of “swift and robust,” characterized by the shuangdiao.  This is usually where the conflict reaches its climax in the play.  This gongdiao gives the audience the sense of the music lingering after the performance.    The composer’s choice of gongdiao reflects the emotional development of the plot.  For instance, in the northern opera Dou E Yuan, in the first scene the heroine is peaceful and relaxed, therefore the gongdiao is in the fresh and placid xianlü gong.  In the second scene, the conflict starts to build.  Dou E Yuan receives and unjust verdict.  There is an atmosphere a tragedy, so the gongdiao is the sorrowful nanlü gong.  In the third scene, Dou E is sentenced to death and executed.  The gongdiao is the solemn and tragic zhenggong.  In the fourth scene, Dou E’s spirit returns and seeks revenge--the gongdiao reflects a desolate feeling and uses shuangdiao.    In the southern system, huangzhong and zhenggong can be used for comic scenes. Nanlü, shuangdiao, xianlü, shuangdiao can be used in both comedy and tragedy.                                                    93 Shi Zhongwen 時钟雯 and Wang Jisi 王季思,Zhongguo xiju de huangjin shidai : Yuan Zaju中国戏剧的黄金时代: 元杂剧 (The golden age of Chinese drama, Yuan drama), trans. Xiao Shanyin萧善因 and Wang Hongxiao王红箫 (Shanxi renmin chubanshe, 1991).  130   Comedy    <---------------------|-----------------|------------------->        Tragedy       Huangzhong Zhonglü      Shangdiao Yuediao       Zhenggong Dashi  Wu also finds melodic endings that he associates with certain gongdiao.94  Figure	  3.5	  Melodic	  endings	  associated	  with	  gongdiao	  by	  Wu	  Junda	   In the Qing dynasty, nanqu were said to have absorbed the categories of beiqu, and 13 gongdiao in nanqu were listed and arranged by text in the Qinding qupu 钦定曲谱.  Zhou Xuehua and Sun Jian’an both include qupai identity in their writings on qupai theory.  When an editor gives them a text, the composers’ first step is to select qupai according to how the emotional identity aligns with the role type and the dramatic context.  3.9 Qupai suites of arias liantao, taoshu  A qupai set is a group of qupai that are usually all in the same gongdiao.  A qupai set makes up a scene in a kun opera. Wang Jide explains the art of ordering the qupai:  The method of connecting qupai can be clearly seen in the work of ancient songs.  The qupai have to be in the right order and compatible with each other.  You also have to look to see if the qupai’s melody is rough or smooth and fast or slow.  The ending of                                                 94 Wu Junda, Kunqu changqiang yanjiu, 220.  131 the previous qupai and the start of the following qupai should be compatible.  The linked qupai also have to have compatible rhythm.95  Wang writes about how to structure the qupai suite: There are starts and endings, openings and summaries.  You need to determine the structure of the qupai, then the main idea of the suite, and then you need to organize the qupai within the suite.  Then you fill in the sentences in the qupai to make all the lyrics.  To make the qupai suites you cannot randomly piece them together.  The start and end of the qupai suite must correspond to each other.  You cannot add or delete a qupai from the qupai suite.  Its beauty lies not in the sounds, words, or sentences.  It is something abstract that fascinates people when the writer writes about happiness and it makes people full of grief when the writer writes about sadness.  The beauty of the qupai suite is not to make people happy, but to move people emotionally.  This ability to move people emotionally is so called “feng shen” etc...  The writer moves people emotionally without knowing how.  This is the best technique.  This ability to move people is hard to find in a writer.  […] I think there are good parts in beiqu, but it is rare in nanqu. 96     Wu Junda divides qupai suite into northern basic, northern varied, southern basic, and southern varied qupai suites. Northern Basic Qupai Suites (bentao): The basic structure of the northern basic suite: [a specific qupai associated with the gongdiao that acts as an introduction] -- [unrestricted number of qupai] -- [ending].  Northern qupai suites are made up of northern qupai.  In northern qupai suites, the number of qupai in a suite is not restricted, but its length is determined by the plot ranging from three to 26 qupai.  There are no specific names for introductions, but within the gongdiao, there are several traditional qupai that are used as introductions.  The second and the third qupai in a suite are often determined by the gongdiao.  [See p. 240 of the original text for a list of the first three qupai associated with each gongdiao].  Northern Varied Qupai Suites (变套) can be altered structurally (in terms of order) or by the composers’ choice of qupai and usage of gongdiao.    In the southern system: A basic suite consists of the introduction, main body, and ending.  Sometimes the ending can be omitted and the introduction can be substituted with an introduction from the same flute mode.  The formula for a basic qupai suite is the following: [Introduction]----[multiple qupai in the main body] (these can be either regular qupai or montage qupai, there is no restriction for the number of qupai) ---- (ending).                                                  95 Wang Jide, Mingdai Wang Jide Qulü baihua quanyi, 26. 96 Ibid., 28.  132 Varied Qupai Suites in the Southern System: In each gongdiao, there are groups of qupai that are normally used directly after the introduction, but this rule is not as strict as in the northern system [see p. 245 for examples].97  3.9.1 Contemporary composers’ view on qupai sets  Zhou Xuehua believes the progression from slow to fast comes from Tang dynasty court music, and is maintained within the qupai suites.  In her lectures, she teaches the following diagram (I inserted the romanization): Figure	  3.6	  The	  rhythmic	  structure	  and	  performance	  of	  Tang	  court	  music	   2) Sanxu (unmetered prelude) is unmetered instrumental music performed softly. 3) Zhongxu (middle prelude) or Paixu (metered prelude) is metered instrumental and vocal singing at mid-range dynamics. 4) Po or Rupo (break) is the climax of the spectacle.  Rupo develops from mid-tempo to fast-tempo.  It includes instrumental music, singing, and dancing at a louder dynamic.  Zhou explains:  Tang court music and opera are intimately related.  Tang court music has had a profound impact on the development of Chinese opera music including the following: 1) Kunju music has absorbed the tonality of Tang court music.  2) The formalized rhythmic progression from unmetered, to slow tempo, to mid-tempo, to fast tempo has become the principle for linking qupai in kunqu.  Additionally, the Tang dynasty form of simultaneously singing and dancing developed into the characteristic style of kunju performance.98                                                   97 Wu Junda, Kunqu changqiang yanjiu, 244. 98 Zhou Xuehua, Appendix B.  133 Sun Jian’an generally follows the qupai suites described in Kunqu qupai ji taoshu fanlie ji99   Concerning the order of qupai, both of the contemporary composers follow Wu Mei’s Guqu Qutan, which asserts:  The order of the main qupai suite (excluding the intro and ending) is from slow to fast.  Slow qupai (manqu) are also called refined (xiqu) and are always in 8/4.  Medium tempo qupai (zhongqu) are always in 4/4.  Fast tempo (jiqu) are in 2/4 or 1/4 (flowing water meter).  When the same qupai is repeated four times, the first two qupai are in 8/4, the third is in 4/4, and the fourth is in 2/4.”  Medium tempo qupai (zhongqu) are also called pingqu and are between the tempos of the slow and fast qupai.  Medium tempo qupai can be refined or rough and are widely used.100  3.10 Conclusion  In their conceptions of the pillars of kunqu, Zhou Xuehua and Sun Jian’an’s theories may be viewed as a continuation of the shift from non-theatrical kunqu where language and music were intimately related, to the specialization of melody as separate from lyrics.  The contemporary composers maintain that singing and the yin yang system are still the core features of kunqu.  However, in theory and practice they think of kunqu melody as independent from lyrics.  For instance they identify qupai primarily by melodic motifs and Western keys.  The contemporary composers’ aesthetic objective to accurately re-create ancient kunqu through the yin yang system may also be seen as a continuation of the intellectual tradition of kunqu.  The act of recreating ancient music is itself a part of the tradition of ancient Chinese music that can be traced back to the Song dynasty.101  Based on my analysis, Zhou and Sun engage with this body of shared knowledge that is the evolving intellectual tradition of kunqu by maintaining the key concepts in their own treatises.  Based on their theories, these composers are a continuation of the intellectual tradition of kunqu, however, in practice these key concepts are a                                                 99 Kunqu qupai ji taoshu fanlie ji昆曲曲牌及套数范例集. Xuelin chubanshe, 1997. 100 Quoted in Kunqu changqiang yangjiu by Wu Junda, 35. 101 Song and Ming dynasty scholars were determined to find the accurate huangzhong pitch to restore harmony in yayue.  For a detailed explanation of Song and Ming scholars’ music theories see The Concept of Beauty and Virtue in Chinese Music by Lam Ching-wah.  134 point of departure in the creative process.  In the next chapters, we will see how Zhou Xuehua and Sun Jian’an draw on the shared knowledge that is the pillars of kunqu, yet incorporate self-expression, Western functional harmony, an