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Towards sustainable rare earth mining : a study of occupational & community health issues Zhang, Linlin 2014

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TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE RARE EARTH MINING:  A STUDY OF OCCUPATIONAL & COMMUNITY HEALTH ISSUES by   Linlin Zhang  M.A.Sc, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 2011 B.Eng., University of Science and Technology Beijing, 2009  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE AND POSTDOCTORAL STUDIES (Mining Engineering)  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver)  September 2014  © Linlin Zhang, 2014                                                                                           ii  Abstract Rare earth elements (REEs) are a group of actinide minerals that have been widely used in many areas of industry, such as: electronics, petro-chemistry, metallurgy, and defense. They will continue to become a dominant contributor to global economic development. In the wake of REE exploration, mining and processing, concern has grown over potential associated occupational and community health issues and risks. There has traditionally been little specific health and safety guidance associated with REE mining to date.  The motivation of this research is to raise an awareness of known REE mining occupational and community health risks. This aims to contribute to a sound foundation for the development of effective occupational and community health and safety management as part of sustainable REE mining. The thesis addresses four objectives: 1) to characterize the geological characteristics, current global production, uses and recycling of REEs, especially for the dominant producer: China; 2) to review the REE life cycle and identify key activities, contaminants, tailings, water management and closure processes that present potential occupational and community health and safety risks; 3) to present the results of a literature review, particularly focused on REE mining and occupational and community health in China that identifies issues and risks; and 4) to review policy and governance strategies, particularly the USA, Canada and China.   This work has sought to assemble and analyze prior Chinese REE research and governance literature reviews and translation. The findings relate to REE’s characteristics, toxicity, the routes and mechanism of inducing contaminates into the environment. Major known occupational health issues relate to lung/ liver/ bone/ brain/ blood/skin and reproductive. Major community health issues relate to indigestion, diarrhea, abdominal distension, anorexia, and low IQ in children. This thesis makes an original contribution in presenting what are considered to be a clearly justified and comprehensive set of occupational and community health indicators. The priority and considerations for future research on occupational and community health and safety management associated with REE mining have also been recommended, particularly for control measures and health impacts assessment. iii  Preface Chapter 5: A version of Chapter 5 has been submitted for publication: Zhang L.L., Shandro J.A., Scoble M., Li Z.X. 2013 Health and Rare Earth Elements Mining on World Mining Congress 2013.  Contributions: I am the first author of this paper. I completed most of the literature review, data collection and analysis as well as conclusions. Co-authors provided a portion of the literature review, effective methodology, etc. My research supervisors (Dr. Malcolm Scoble and Dr Janis Shandro) provided precious feedback and assisted in final paper.  iv  Table of Contents Abstract	  .................................................................................................................................	  ii	  Preface	  ..................................................................................................................................	  iii	  Table of Contents	  ..................................................................................................................	  iv	  List of Tables	  .......................................................................................................................	  viii	  List of Figures	  .......................................................................................................................	  ix	  List of Abbreviations	  .............................................................................................................	  x	  Acknowledgements	  ..............................................................................................................	  xii	  Chapter 1: Introduction	  .........................................................................................................	  1	  1.1	   Background	  ........................................................................................................................	  5	  1.1.1	   International health and safety issues of mining	  .........................................................	  5	  1.1.2	   Health and safety principles and priorities	  ..................................................................	  6	  1.1.3	   Health and safety principles and priorities for mining communities	  ...........................	  7	  1.1.4	   International perspectives on health and safety in REE mining	  ..................................	  7	  1.2	   Research questions	  ............................................................................................................	  7	  1.3	   Thesis objectives	  ...............................................................................................................	  8	  Chapter 2: Research methodology	  .......................................................................................	  10	  2.1	   Current state of REE mining with the focus of the main global producer-China.	  ...........	  10	  2.2	   Aspects of the REE mining life cycle holding potential occupational and community health and safety risks.	  .............................................................................................................	  10	  2.3	   Known occupational and community health risks associated with REE mining.	  ............	  10	  2.4	   REE occupational & community health, global policy, regulation and training environments.	  ...........................................................................................................................	  11	  Chapter 3: Current state of REE mining	  .............................................................................	  12	  3.1	   Introduction	  .....................................................................................................................	  12	  v  3.1.1	   REE uses	  ...................................................................................................................	  13	  3.1.2	   REE geology	  .............................................................................................................	  16	  3.1.3	   REE global production	  ..............................................................................................	  18	  3.1.4	   REE life cycle	  ...........................................................................................................	  22	  3.1.5	   REE recycling	  ...........................................................................................................	  24	  3.2	   REE toxicity	  ....................................................................................................................	  25	  Chapter 4: OH and CH risks in the REE mining life cycle	  ..................................................	  35	  4.1	   Sources and release mechanisms of REE	  ........................................................................	  35	  4.1.1	   REE	  ...........................................................................................................................	  38	  4.1.2	   Radioactive substances	  .............................................................................................	  38	  4.1.3	   Carbonate minerals	  ...................................................................................................	  38	  4.1.4	   Sulfide minerals	  ........................................................................................................	  39	  4.1.5	   Heavy metals	  .............................................................................................................	  39	  4.1.6	   Asbestos minerals	  .....................................................................................................	  39	  4.2	   Transport or retention medium of REE	  ...........................................................................	  39	  4.3	   Human exposure points of REE	  ......................................................................................	  41	  4.4	   Human exposure routes of REE	  ......................................................................................	  43	  Chapter 5: Known OH and CH issues associated with REE	  ...............................................	  45	  5.1	   Occupational health issues	  ...............................................................................................	  45	  5.1.1	   Lung disease	  .............................................................................................................	  47	  5.1.2	   Liver diseases	  ............................................................................................................	  48	  5.1.3	   Bone disease	  .............................................................................................................	  49	  5.1.4	   Skin disorders	  ...........................................................................................................	  49	  5.1.5	   Brain disease	  .............................................................................................................	  50	  5.1.6	   Cardiovascular disease	  ..............................................................................................	  50	  5.1.7	   Reproductive health	  ..................................................................................................	  51	  5.2	   Community health issues	  .................................................................................................	  52	  Chapter 6: Regulations and policies on REE health and safety	  ...........................................	  56	  vi  6.1	   The United States of America	  ..........................................................................................	  56	  6.1.1	   REE overall situation	  ................................................................................................	  56	  6.1.2	   Federal government	  ..................................................................................................	  56	  6.1.3	   United States government	  .........................................................................................	  57	  6.1.3.1	   Alaska	  .................................................................................................................	  57	  6.1.3.2	   North Carolina	  .....................................................................................................	  58	  6.1.3.3	   South Carolina	  .....................................................................................................	  58	  6.1.3.4	   New Mexico	  ........................................................................................................	  58	  6.1.4	   USA REE mines EIA/ permitting case study	  ............................................................	  61	  6.2	   Canada	  .............................................................................................................................	  62	  6.2.1	   REE overall situation	  ................................................................................................	  62	  6.2.2	   Federal government	  ..................................................................................................	  63	  6.2.3	   Provincial government	  ..............................................................................................	  65	  6.2.3.1	   Ontario	  ................................................................................................................	  65	  6.2.3.2	   Saskatchewan	  ......................................................................................................	  65	  6.2.3.3	   British Columbia	  .................................................................................................	  65	  6.2.3.4	   Quebec	  ................................................................................................................	  65	  6.2.3.5	   Newfoundland & Labrador	  .................................................................................	  66	  6.2.4	   Canada REE mines EIA/ permitting case studies	  .....................................................	  67	  6.2.4.1	   Avalon project	  .....................................................................................................	  67	  6.2.4.2	   Quest Rare Minerals Ltd	  .....................................................................................	  69	  6.2.4.3	   Matamec	  ..............................................................................................................	  69	  6.3	   China	  ...............................................................................................................................	  71	  6.3.1	   REE overall situation	  ................................................................................................	  71	  6.3.2	   Government	  ..............................................................................................................	  71	  Chapter 7: REE health indicators	  ........................................................................................	  73	  7.1	   Introduction	  .....................................................................................................................	  73	  7.2	   Indicator review methodology	  .........................................................................................	  74	  7.3	   Indicators	  .........................................................................................................................	  74	  vii  7.3.1	   Occupational health indicators	  ..................................................................................	  74	  7.3.2	   Community health indicators	  ....................................................................................	  76	  Chapter 8: Recommendations	  ..............................................................................................	  80	  8.1	   Counter measures (clinical control)	  .................................................................................	  80	  8.2	   REE health impacts assessment (HIA)	  ............................................................................	  81	  8.3	   Future research	  ................................................................................................................	  83	  Chapter 9: Conclusion	  .........................................................................................................	  84	  References	  ............................................................................................................................	  86	  Appendices	  ...........................................................................................................................	  97	  Appendix A Classification of rare earth element bearing mineral deposits (USGS, 2011)	  ......	  97	  Appendix B Principal REE projects in USA (USGS, 2011)	  ..................................................	  101	  Appendix C PART IX Licensing of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) - South Carolina, USA.	  .............................................................................................................	  103	  Appendix D Title 20 Environmental Protection, Chapter 3 Radiation Protection, Part 4 Standards for protection against radiation-New Mexico, USA.	  .............................................	  105	  Appendix E Principal REE projects in Canada (NRC 2012)	  .................................................	  106	  Appendix F Workers Compensation Act-Occupational Health and Safety Regulation-Part 7: Noise, Vibration, Radiation and Temperature-Division 3: Radiation Exposure-British Columbia, Canada.	  .................................................................................................................	  109	  Appendix G Principal REE projects in China (USGS, 2013)	  ................................................	  113	  Appendix H Water pollutants emission limits and benchmarks displacement per unit of product (Unit: mg/L, except for pH) (GB 26451-2011).	  ........................................................	  114	  Appendix I Air pollutants emission limits (unit:mg/m^3) (GB 26451-2011).	  .......................	  115	  Appendix J Compare occupational dose limits of Ur, Th and REE for adults (Title 20 Environmental Protection, Chapter 3 Radiation Protection, Part 4 Standards for protection against radiation, 20.3.4.405)	  .................................................................................................	  116	   viii  List of Tables Table 1.1 Ranking system of TSM indicators (MAC, 2012). ................................................... 4	  Table 3.1 Rare earth element end uses (Geology.com, 2013). ................................................ 13	  Table 3.2 Crustal abundance of REE (Keith et al, 2010). ...................................................... 17	  Table 3.3 World mine production and reserves in tonnes (t) (Humphries, 2011; Greta, 2002) ... 19	  Table 3.4 China’s REE production and export quotas between 2007-2011 (Tse, 2011) ............ 21	  Table 4.1 Workforce’s exposure points of REE risks (U.S.EPA, 2012) .................................. 42	  Table 4.2 Residents’ exposure points of REE risks (U.S.EPA, 2012) ..................................... 43	  Table 4.3 Human exposure routes of REE (MSDS, Dierks, 2005-2012) ................................. 44	  Table 6.1 Molycorp’s major permits on health and safety (Bair et al., 2012) ........................... 62	  Table 6.2 Effective radiation dose limits-Quebec (McGill, 2012) .......................................... 66	  Table 6.3 Equivalent radiation dose limits to organs-Quebec (McGill, 2012) .......................... 66	  Table 6.4 Maximum permissible dose accumulation by radiation workers (O.C.96-479) ......... 67	  Table 6.5 Maximum permissible dose accumulation by persons who are not radiation workers (O.C.96-479) .................................................................................................................... 67	   ix  List of Figures Figure 1.1 Towards Sustainable Mining (TSM) performance areas (MAC, 2012). .................... 3	  Figure 1.2  Indicators under performance protocols- safety & health (MAC, 2012). .................. 4	  Figure 1.3 A woman recovers valuable metals from electronic waste components (Burtynsky, Oct 7, 2012). ...................................................................................................................... 9	  Figure 3.1 Classification of rare earth elements ................................................................... 12	  Figure 3.2 Various REE applications (REE handbook 2012). ................................................ 13	  Figure 3.3 Global REE production trend (Pui-Kwan, 2011) .................................................. 20	  Figure 4.1 Potential risk sources from REE mines (Justin 2011; REE handbook; USGS; EPA) 35	  Figure 5.1 REE mine in Nancheng, Jiangxi, China (Oct 20, 2010) ......................................... 45	  Figure 5.2 Air pollution at REE smelting plant Xinguang Village, Baotou, Inner Mongolia, China (Oct 31, 2010) ........................................................................................................ 46	  Figure 5.3 Smelting plant, Baotou, Inner Mongolia, China (Oct 31, 2010) ............................. 47	  Figure 5.4 Rubbish dump near REE smelting plant and tailing dam, Xinguang Village, Baotou, Inner Mongolia, China (Oct 31, 2010) ................................................................................ 53	  Figure 5.5 Crushed REE ore pile, Xinguang Village, Baotou, Inner Mongolia, China (Oct 31, 2010) ............................................................................................................................... 54	  Figure 5.6 A farmer guided buffalo at REE mine site Nancheng, Jiangxi, China (Oct 9, 2010) . 55	   x  List of Abbreviations AGDRET         Australian Government Department of Resources, Energy and Tourism ASTDR        Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry BMD                       Benchmark Dose Modeling CASRN                   Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number CEAA                     Canadian Environmental Assessment Act CH                          Community Health CHIA                      Community Health Impact Assessment CIHR                      Canadian Institutes of Health Research CMLR                    China’s Ministry of Land Resources CNSC                     Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission CO                          Carbon Monoxide DHHS                     Department of Health and Human Service EIA                         Environment Impact Assessment EIR                         Environment Impact Report EIS                         Environment Impact Statement EPA                      Environmental Protection Agency ESHIA                   Environmental, Social, Health Impact Assessment HIA                        Health Impact Assessment HID                        High Intensity Discharge HREE                    Heavy Rare Earth Element IAIA                      International Association for Impact Assessment IARC                     International Agency for Research on Cancer ICMM                   International Council on Mining and Metals  IRIS                      Integrated Risk Information KT                        Knowledge Translation LD                        Lethal Dose LREE                  Light Rare Earth Element MAC                   The Mining Association of Canada xi  MSDS                  Material Safety Data Sheets MSHA                 Mine Safety and Health Administration NIOSH                National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NiMH                  Nickel Metal Hydride NMAC                 New Mexico Administrative Code NMED                 New Mexico Environment Department NMRPR              New Mexico Radiation Protection Regulations NMHSA              National Mine Health and Safety Academy NMSA                 New Mexico Statutes Annotated NORM                 Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material NOX                    Nitrogen Oxides OH                       Occupational Health OHIA                   Occupational Health Impact Assessment OSHA                  Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSM                    Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement PET                      Positron Emission Tomography PM                      Particulate Matter PPE                      Personal Protective Equipment RCB                    Radiation Control Bureau REE                     Rare Earth Element RfC                      Reference Concentration RfD                      Reference Dose SIA                      Social Impact Assessment SOX                    Sulphur Oxides TERA                  Toxicity Excellence for Risk Assessment TSM                     Towards Sustainable Mining TSP                      Total Suspended Particulate  xii  Acknowledgements I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my supervisors Prof. Malcolm Scoble and Dr. Janis Shandro for the continuous support of my MASc study and research, particularly for their patience, motivation, enthusiasm, and knowledge.   I would also like to thank the other member of my thesis committee and Prof. Zhongxue Li, University of Science and Technology Beijing (USTB) for his encouragement and insightful comments.   Acknowledgement for assistance is also given to Peter Del Duca (Mine Safety and Health Administration, Department of Labor, USA), Paul Schafer (Senior Advisor, Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency, Canada), James Boyd (Ontario Ministry of Northern Development and Mines Information & Marketing Services, Canada), Jason Berenyi (Government of Saskatchewan, Assistant Chief Geologist, Minerals and Northern Geology, Saskatchewan Geological Survey Saskatchewan Ministry of the Economy, Canada).  Last but not least, I would like to acknowledge the strong support of my family: my parents Changmin Zhang and Xia Liu as well as my young brother Peng Zhang for their strong support during this MASc research.    1 Chapter 1: Introduction Rare earth elements (REEs) are a group of actinide minerals that have been widely used in many areas of industry, such as: electronics, petro-chemistry, metallurgy, and defense. Their demand has increased sharply in the past decades. Some countries now consider them as strategic metals for the future. It is forecast that they will become a dominant contributor to global economic development.   During the past 15 years, China has supplied more than 80% of the world’s REE as concentrates, intermediate products, and chemicals. Chinese consumption of REE has increased continuously from around 20% of the world’s REE consumption in 2000 (Pui-Kwan, 2011) to approximately 70% in 2013 (Industry News, 2013). China has keep cutting down the REE production and export quota in recent years as part of its pollution cleanup. It is forecast to drive REE prices higher and also violate global trade rules according to the World Trade Organization (Bloomberg, 2014). The other countries have to reopen and seek for new REE projects in order to maintain the global REE stock and satisfy the REE demanding.   Canada has significant potential to be a primary producer of REE as evidenced by the currently active exploration and development projects for rare-earth deposits (Policy Brief, 2012). These Canadian REE projects are estimated to potentially represent 13 million tonnes reserves that would account for approximately 47% of global new REE reserves (Institute of Mineral Resources Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, 2013).   In the wake of REE exploration, mining and processing, concern has grown over potential associated occupational and community health issues and risks. There has traditionally been little specific health and safety guidance associated with REE mining to date. A significant portion of technical literature on this topic has been available in the Chinese language. This research resource related to health and REE mining, however, has not been readily accessible to mineral development planners in countries such as Canada, where REE mining is now evolving. These perspectives on REE production, as an important strategic commodity, underpin the framework   2 for this thesis that focuses on prevention and mitigation efforts that need to be associated with REE occupational and community health risks.  “Occupational health should aim at the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations; the prevention among workers of departures from health caused by their working conditions; the protection of workers in their employment from risks resulting from factors adverse to health; the placing and maintenance of the worker in an occupational environment adapted to his physiological and psychological capabilities and; to summarize: the adaptation of work to man and of each man to his job. The main focus in occupational health is on three different objectives: (1) the maintenance and promotion of workers’ health and working capacity; (2) the improvement of working environment and work to become conductive to safety and health and (3) development of work organizations and working cultures in a direction which supports health and safety at work and in doing so also promotes a positive social climate and smooth operation and may enhance productivity of undertaking. The concept of working culture is intended in this context to mean a reflection of the essential value systems adopted by the undertaking concerned. Such a culture is reflected in practice in the managerial systems, personnel policy, principles for participation, training policies and quality management of the undertaking (International Labour Office 1998). ” (Frank, 2010). Occupational and community health is not simply a medical issue. However, in reality the second and third parts of the statement can only be achieved through application of engineering, human factors and ergonomic solutions (Frank, 2010). Thus, occupational health and safety is in part an engineering problem. Therefore, REE occupational and community health issues are what mining engineering needs to address on behalf of the mining industry and society at large.   Overall, this thesis aims to support the Chinese and Canadian REE mining industries in developing sustainable practices for the future. What can be learned from Canada’s Towards Sustainable Mining (TSM) initiative that was launched by the Mining Association of Canada in 2004.     3 “The Towards Sustainable Mining (TSM) initiative is the Mining Association of Canada’s (MAC) commitment to responsible mining and participation in the program is mandatory for our members. It is a set of tools and indicators to drive performance and ensure that our members are doing the right things for the right reasons at each of their facilities. Adhering to the guiding principles of TSM, mining companies demonstrate leadership by: 1) Engaging with communities; 2) Driving world-leading environmental practices; 3) Committing to the safety and health of employees and surrounding communities. Today, communities expect more of mining companies and the industry expects much more of itself. TSM helps mining companies meet society’s needs for minerals, metals and energy products in the most socially, economically and environmentally responsible way. At its core, TSM is accountable: assessments are conducted at the facility level where mining activity takes place-the only program in the world to do this in our sector; transparent: members publicly report their performance against 23 indicators annually in MAC’s TSM Progress Reports and results are externally verified every three years; credible: TSM is overseen by an independent Community of Interest (COI) Advisory Panel, which shapes the program for continual advancement.” (MAC, 2012). There are three core areas and six performance protocols (Figure 1.1) in TSM performance areas. They were developed by MAC to translate TSM commitments into action.   Figure 1.1 Towards Sustainable Mining (TSM) performance areas (MAC, 2012).    4 In addition, every protocol includes a set of indicators that help mining facilities build, measure and publicly report on the quality of management systems and performance as shown in Figure 1.2 (MAC, 2012).  Figure 1.2  Indicators under performance protocols- safety & health (MAC, 2012).  For each indicator, they assign a letter grade that reflect their performance ranging from level C to level AAA as shown in table 1.1.  AAA Excellence and leadership. AA Integration into management decisions and business functions. A Systems/processes are developed and implemented. B Procedures exist but are not fully consistent or documented; systems processes planned and being developed. C No systems in place; activities tend to be reactive; procedures may exist but they are not integrated into policies and management systems.   Table 1.1 Ranking system of TSM indicators (MAC, 2012).  According to TSM, mining facilities are required to establish clear accountability for safety and health management and performance. A formal management system must be adopted to prevent all incidents. Continuous improvement and a monitoring program must be set up for targets. A training program must be provided by facilities for all employees, contractors and visitors. The criteria to achieve each level in this area are outlined in the Safety and Health protocol. (MAC, 2012).   5 1.1 Background In today’s scenario where many mining operations use robotics, computers and other high-tech equipment, mining health and safety issues still exist. For example, according to the U.S. Department of Labor’s Mine Safety and Health Administration, 42 miners died in work-related accidents in the nation’s mines in 2013 (http://www.dol.gov/opa/media/press/msha/MSHA 20140009.htm). According to the China State Administration of Work Safety 1973 coal miners died in work-related accidents nationwide in 2011 (http://www.chinasafety.gov.cn/newpage/). In the case of REE mining fatalities, during the period of 1987 to 2002, 10 out of 36 REE miners died from lung cancer at the Bayan Obo REE mine site in Inner Mongolia, China (http://www.0735czzc.com/Zyb/View/565.aspx); during the period of 1977 to 2001, 27 REE miners died from lung cancer at that mine site. During the period of 1993 to 2005, 66 people died from lung or brain cancer living in Dalahai Village (REE mining community), Inner Mongolia, China (http://www.kangaiweb.com/sy/sy-kadt2/sy-kadt2-0608072/kadt-0608103.htm). China has suffered significantly from the consequences of the hazards related to the REE production.   This thesis represents the results of a detailed study on the occupational and community health and safety issues associated with REE mining at an international level for current operating and future REE projects. This research study was initiated to contribute to identifying and future mitigation of those REE health issues associated with the mining workforce and its communities.  Mining health and safety continues to be an important objective globally for research, regulation, policy and management. Mining industry health and safety standards, need to be continually improved with research, technological advances and training. The mining industry continues to strive to protect the health and safety of employees, contractors and people living in its communities. This will continue to be significant in an evolving REE industry.  1.1.1 International health and safety issues of mining Health and safety is always the first priority in the mining industry. It requires not only to provide a safe workplace for mining operations, but also to offer a safe and sustainable environment for the communities around the mine-site. According to World Bank Group Environmental, Health and Safety Guidelines, the principal occupational health and safety issues   6 that arise during an entire mine life cycle include the following categories: general workplace health and safety, hazardous substances, use of explosives, electrical safety and isolation, physical hazards, ionizing radiation, fitness for work, travel and remote site health, thermal stress, noise and vibration and specific hazards in underground mining (fires, explosions, confined spaces and oxygen deficient atmospheres) (IFC, 2007). The World Bank Group initialed a three-year process review and update of its Environmental, Health, and Safety (EHS) Guidelines and the technical revision in 2012, decided to update the 2007 EHS Guideline (IFC, 2012). The revision includes Performance Standard 2 Labor and Working Conditions requiring to promote safe and healthy working conditions, and the health of workers (IFC, 2012). For occupational health and safety, Performance Standard 2 requires providing a safe and healthy work environment, taking into account inherent risks in work areas, including physical, chemical, biological and radiological hazards, and specific threats to women (IFC, 2012). Community health and safety issues associated with mining activities include transport safety, handling of dangerous goods, impacts to water, soil and air as well as diseases (IFC, 2007). The 2012 revision also includes Performance Standard 4: Community Health, Safety, and Security requiring to anticipate and avoid adverse impacts on the health and safety of the affected community, evaluate the risks and impacts to the health and safety of the affected communities during the project life cycle and will establish preventive and control measures consistent with good international industry practice, such as in the World Bank Group Environmental, Health and Safety Guidelines.’ (IFC, 2012). It also points to ‘avoid or minimize the potential for community exposure to water-borne, water based, water related, and vector-borne diseases, and communicable diseases that could result from project activities; avoid or minimize transmission of communicable diseases that may be associated with the influx of temporary or permanent project labor’ (IFC, 2012).  1.1.2 Health and safety principles and priorities The basic requirements for mine health and safety were established by the International Labor Organization in ‘C176 Safety and Health in Mines Convention, 1995 (No. 176)’. The International Labor Office issued a report entitled ‘Safety and Health in Small-Scale Surface Mines’ and described the basics of a health and safety approach for small scale mines. REE mining is frequently undertaken by artisanal miners informally. The International Council on   7 Mining and Metals (ICMM) has also adopted principle #5 ‘Seek continual improvement of our health and safety performance’ for mining health and safety. In the USA, mining health and safety is supervised by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and National Institute of Safety and Health (NIOSH) (ICMM, 2012). 1.1.3 Health and safety principles and priorities for mining communities The International Council on Mining and Metals (ICMM) has adopted principle #5 ‘Seek continual improvement of our health and safety performance’ and points to ‘implement a management system focused on continual improvement of all aspects of operations that could have a significant impact on the health and safety of our own employees, those of contractors and the communities where we operate’ (ICMM, 2012).   The International Finance Corporation (IFC) has announced performance standard 4 ‘Community Health, Safety, and Security’. It requires to ‘anticipate and avoid adverse impacts on the health and safety of the affected community, evaluate the risks and impacts to the health and safety of the affected communities during the project life cycle and will establish preventive and control measures consistent with good international industry practice, such as in the World Bank Group Environmental, Health and Safety Guidelines.’  It also points to ‘avoid or minimize the potential for community exposure to water-borne, water based, water related, and vector-borne diseases, and communicable diseases that could result from project activities; avoid or minimize transmission of communicable diseases that may be associated with the influx of temporary or permanent project labor’ (IFC, 2012).  1.1.4 International perspectives on health and safety in REE mining There has been little specific health and safety guidance on REE mining to date. Most of the potential hazards for miners and communities associated with REE activities are considered by general mining health and safety guidance, as well as radioactive substance guidance. 1.2 Research questions This thesis addresses four principal questions:    8 1) What is the current state of global REE mining, with a particular focus on the main global producer, China?  2) What are the known occupational and community health risks associated with REE mining?  3) What aspects of the REE mining life cycle hold potential occupational and community health and safety risks? 4) How are the identified health risks associated with REE mining presently addressed in global policy, regulation and training environments? Where may there be needs for government institutes to facilitate change?  It is hypothesized that REE miners and people living in REE associated mining communities face health risks associated with REE mining and that thesis risks are currently not addressed specifically in policy, regulation or training environments. The appropriate policy, regulation and training are required to mitigate REE health risks and to further ensure the sustainable development of this mining activity.  1.3 Thesis objectives This thesis has found a lack of research on REE occupational and community health risks and issues. The overall purpose of this thesis has been to contribute to rectifying this deficiency, in order to contribute to responsible REE mining for sustainable development. Four main objectives in this thesis aim to:  1) characterize the geological characteristics, current global production, uses and recycling of REE, especially the dominant producer: China. 2) review the REE life cycle identify key activities, contaminants, tailings, water management and closure processes that present potential occupational and community health and safety risks.  3) present the results of a literature review on REE mining and occupational and community health that identifies known issues and risks.  4) review policy and governance strategies adopted by key producing countries, particularly the USA, Canada and China.   Key deliverables of this thesis are intended to include the recommendation of policy, regulatory and, will guide if appropriate, the development of occupational and community   9 educational/support initiatives specific to the Canadian and Chinese contexts to support responsible REE mining development. Other deliverables relate to health issues control measures; key considerations related to REE occupational health impact assessment (OHIA); and community health impact assessment community health impact assessment (CHIA), REE occupational and community health indicators and knowledge translation to apply research results to practice. A good example can be found in Figure 1.3 is an example of exposure to risk in handling REE in electronic waste recycling, a process that may hold significant health risk.   Figure 1.3 A woman recovers valuable metals from electronic waste components (Burtynsky, Oct 7, 2012). http://graduateglobalissues.wordpress.com/2012/10/07/edward-burtynsky-manufactured-landscapes/   10 Chapter 2: Research methodology The main methodology that guided this thesis involved a detailed review of technical, scientific and policy related literature. 2.1 Current state of REE mining with the focus of the main global producer-China. The current state of REE mining was investigated through a desktop review of relevant online literature associated with different countries and email communications with government agencies. Sources for the literature review included national REE production statistics, databases of REE operating projects and databases of REE exploration projects. Additionally, Chinese technical literatures associated with REE mining were also gathered with the assistance of collaborating researchers in China. 2.2 Aspects of the REE mining life cycle holding potential occupational and community health and safety risks. A literature review was conducted to clarify the phases of mining life cycle leading to the identification of potential occupational and community health and safety issues. The occurrence, characteristics and processing of REE was also studied. 2.3 Known occupational and community health risks associated with REE mining.  Known occupational and community health risks associated with REE mining were characterized through a detailed literature review in both English and Chinese languages. Literature sources included scientific peer reviewed journal publications sourced from Google Scholar, Baidu, CNKI Database and Science Direct using the following key words: mining, rare earth element, health, disease, miners, communities. In addition, advices from experts in China and Canada supported the research significantly.     11 2.4 REE occupational & community health, global policy, regulation and training environments. Scientific and policy related literature available in the public domain associated with REE producing countries was searched. Contact was made with the primary regulatory agencies in REE producing countries for additional policy related literature associated with REE mining. The review of mining policy literature also included EIA documentation for proposed and operating mines, especially relating to occupational and community health considerations that were required.    12 Chapter 3: Current state of REE mining  3.1 Introduction Rare earth elements (REE) are a group of metals, increasingly consumed, for example, in plasma TVs, wind turbines, smartphones, and other high-tech products. REE are indispensable for technological applications due to their unique properties. Therefore, the business of rare earths has become a dominant contributor to global economic development.  According to the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, REE are a set of 17 chemical elements in the periodic table, including the 15 lanthanides (lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, and lutetium) plus scandium and yttrium, which have similar chemical properties. However, the definitions of REE vary between geologists, technologists and chemists. Chemists and technologists consider 17 elements as the rare earth element. Geologists only consider actual minerals, which means that the 14 natural lanthanides are considered except for promethium. Geochemists usually include 15 lanthanides and yttrium, and sometimes include scandium and thorium, for a total of 18 elements.   REE are typically categorized into two groups according to their electron configuration /atomic weight (Figure 3.1): 1) Cerium Group - the light rare earth element (LREE): La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, and Gd (atomic numbers 57 through 63); 2) the Yttrium Group - the heavy rare earth element (HREE): Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, and Y (atomic numbers 64 through 71). Because of common chemical and physical characteristics, Yttrium has been categorized as HREE although its atomic number is 39.   Figure 3.1 Classification of rare earth elements   13 3.1.1 REE uses Due to the REE unique properties, they are used in a wide variety of applications (as shown on Figure 3.2), often without separation. Table 3.1 shows the main end uses of REE in USA (Geology.com, 2013).  Percentage % Production 29 Metallurgical Applications and Alloys 18 Electronics 14 Chemical Catalysts 12 Rare-Earth Phosphors for Computer Monitors, Lighting, Radar, Televisions, and X-Ray-Intensifying Film 9 Automotive Catalytic Converters 6 Glass Polishing and Ceramics 5 Permanent Magnets 4 Petroleum Refining Catalysts 3 Other Table 3.1 Rare earth element end uses (Geology.com, 2013).   Figure 3.2 Various REE applications (REE handbook 2012). Scandium can be used in High-Intensity Discharge (HID) lamps for sports stadia and arena lighting. It can also provide daytime-like color for television. Airframes use scandium to make aircraft lighter and more maneuverable. Scandium-aluminum alloy is also used in bicycle frames, lacrosse sticks, golf clubs, and baseball bats; Gadolinium-scandium-gallium garnet is used in defense applications; Dentists use yttrium-scandium-gallium garnet for cavity preparation and in endodontics, while revolver frames is also made using scandium-aluminum.    14 In order to improve visual clarity, lanthanum can be used in camera lenses, microscopes, telescopes, riflescopes, and binoculars. It is also used in fiber optics to increase data transmission rates; in nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) rechargeable batteries for power tools, toys, laptop computers, telephones, and cameras. It is an essential component of fuel for planes, trains and automobiles, while Lanthanum oxide is also used in the glass of night vision goggles. Polished glass, metal, and gemstones like mirror bevels, stemware, computer chips, focal plane arrays, transistors, and other electronic components all contain cerium oxide. This is also widely used in automotive catalytic converters and added in the glassmaking process to decolorize glass. Cerium is good for treating seasickness and morning sickness. Cerium can strengthen other metals by addition to aluminum, magnesium, cast iron, steel, and super alloys. In order to protect the eyes from yellow flare and UV light, praseodymium has to be added in welder and glass blower goggles. Vibrant yellow ceramic tiles and dinnerware come from combining praseodymium and zirconium oxides. Praseodymium oxide is widely used for soda bottles, bubble wrap, food plastic wrap, sandwich bags and milk cartons. Neodymium-iron-boron magnets could be used in wind turbine generators to create electricity. Neodymium yttrium aluminum garnet is the most widely used laser in cutting, welding, scribing, boring, ranging, and targeting. Neodymium magnets also used on Electric motors and electric vehicles to power the car. It can also be used to gain an internal view of the body without radiation. Promethium is used in the targeting sights of shoulder-fired missiles and also applied on watch hands and dials to glow in the dark. A starter switch in energy-efficient compact fluorescent lamps also needs promethium. A thickness gauge for thin plastics, sheet metal, rubber, textiles, and paper can be done by the radiation from promethium. High-strength samarium cobalt magnets allowed cassette tape players, computer disk drives, headphones, boom boxes, and speakers. Samarium cobalt magnets are applied on fender manufacturers single coil noiseless guitar pickups. Samarium X-ray lasers have also used in radiography. Lots of defense applications including servo-motors to adjust the flight control surfaces on missiles contain samarium-cobalt permanent magnets. Anti-forgery marks on various currencies are made by taggant phosphors with europium. As the main component of phosphors, it can be used in pilot display screens, televisions, and trichromatic fluorescent lights. Europium can also apply to control the fission process.    15 In order to enhance the clarity of MRI scans, gadolinium could be injected into the patient. It also can be used to control the fission process in nuclear reactor control rods. Yttrium gadolinium garnet or yttrium gallium garnets are used as electronic components for radar and communications. Terbium has been widely used in flat panel displays, trichromatic fluorescent bulbs and tubes, and X-ray intensifying screens. Terbium-iron-cobalt coating has great applications in data storage like CDs and DVDs. Fiber-optic temperature sensors also contain terbium. Terbium is an additive in hybrid and electric vehicle motors allowing them to operate at high temperatures. In order to produce sonar sensors, positioning actuators, active noise and vibration cancellation, seismic waves, and tool machining, dysprosium in Terfenol-D could be used. Laser diodes and high power, high-frequency applications also need dysprosium phosphide as a semiconductor; dysprosium also increases the operating temperature range for use in hybrid and electric vehicles. Dysprosium oxide could control the fission process in nuclear reactor control rods. Dysprosium can also be used to treat rheumatoid arthritis by injecting into joints in the body. Dysprosium is used to detect and monitor radiation exposure. Coating compact disks need dysprosium as well to store digital data. In order to create 3D images and detect objects at great distances, holmium solid state lasers are used. It can also be used to confuse shoulder-launched, infrared "heat-seeking" missiles firing at jets and helicopters. Holmium is the most widely used laser in medical surgical procedures. Holmium coherent laser-based radar systems are used to detect hidden remote targets. Erbium is used in dermatology for skin resurfacing to remove wrinkles. Erbium oxide enhances color perception and improves both contrast and depth perception in sunglasses. Erbium oxide can lead to a delicate light pink color by adding to cubic zirconia jewelry, decorative glass and ceramic glazes. Erbium oxide also allows the light signal to travel great distances without boosting the signal. Erbium and zinc oxides are also used in recycling by adding to brown glass making it almost colorless. During medical and dental procedures, thulium can be used as the leading X-ray intensifying screen phosphor to minimize radiation exposure. Thulium also used in metal halide lamps on sports stadium illumination, movie and stage lighting, and commercial interior-exterior lighting. Thulium can also be applied in surgery, dentistry, atmospheric testing, and remote sensing. Ablation, micromachining, texturing and marking vehicle part identification numbers, medical products, and implants all use Pulsed green ytterbium fiber lasers. In order to drill into diamonds to remove imperfections, ytterbium lasers could be a good choice. It is also used to surface-harden turbine blades, threads   16 on industrial tools, and piston rings. To fight cancerous cells, implanted radioactive ytterbium-169 could be there. Lutetium is used in meteorology to measure wind speed and direction, moisture and pollution. Lutetium can be used in high refractive index optical lenses for manufacturing high-tech integrated circuits in immersion lithography. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans for medical diagnostics at the molecular level is another big usage area for Lutetium orthosilicate scintillator crystals. A good resource for radiation therapy of small, soft tumors is the radioisotope Lutetium-177. A big contributor in energy efficient fluorescent lamps and bulbs is yttrium phosphors. It is also useful in creating zirconia jewelry, a diamond simulant. In industrial, medical, graphic arts, and defense applications, yttrium based lasers have a wide usage, especially for precision cutting, welding, etching, boring, ranging and targeting. The electronic components contain yttrium-iron garnets for missile defense systems. In cutting tools, yttrium could provide a high temperature corrosion resistance.  3.1.2 REE geology REE are rarely found in concentrations that are commercially mineable. Even though rare earth element are relatively plentiful in the Earth’s crust. Typically, in rock-forming minerals, rare earth element occurs in compounds like carbonates, oxides, phosphates, and silicates as trivalent cations. The crustal abundances of rare earth element in the Earth’s crust has been estimated and shown in Table 3.2 that only include economically mined element. Obviously, their abundance exceeds many other metals, such as copper (55 parts per million) and zinc (70 parts per million).               17 REE Mason and Moore (1982), parts/million Lide (1997), parts/million McGill(1997), parts/million Lanthanum 30 39 5 to 18 Cerium 60 66.5 20 to 46 Praseodynium 8.2 9.2 3.5 to 5.5 Neodymium 28 41.5 12 to 24 Samarium 6 7.05 4.5 to 7 Europium 1.2 2 0.14 to 1.1 Gadolinium 5.4 6.2 4.5 to 6.4 Terbium 0.9 1.2 0.7 to 1 Dysprosium 3 5.2 4.5 to 7.5 Holmium 1.2 1.3 0.7 to 1.2 Erbium 2.8 3.5 2.5 to 6.5 Thulium 0.5 0.52 0.2 to 1 Ytterbium 3.4 3.2 2.7 to 8 Lutetium 0.5 0.8 0.8 to 1.7 Yttrium 33 33 28 to 70 Scandium 22 22 5 to 10 Total 206.1 242.17  Table 3.2 Crustal abundance of REE (Keith et al, 2010).  Only 16 rare earth element are shown, excluding Promethium which does not occur in sufficient quantities in the Earth’s crust to be economically mined. No Promethium minerals have been discovered. The abundance of rare earth element is pretty affluent. However, in nature, REE do not occur as native elemental metals. There are more than 200 known REE bearing minerals. Bastnasite, Xenotime and monazite are considered to be three principal REE mineral ores (Gupta and Krishnamurthy, 2004). Bastnasite, as one kind of carbonate mineral, is the most abundant REE mineral ores. Normally, it could be found in carbonate-silicate rocks associated with alkaline intrusions (e.g., Mountain Pass mine) containing elevated LREE. Xenotime and monazite can occur together in a similar igneous environment with different temperature and pressure. Generally, monazite occurs in acidic igneous rocks, metamorphic and vein deposit. It is   18 enriched with LREE (e.g., cerium, lanthanum, neodymium) and HREE, particularly yttrium (Ni et al., 1995). The lower crystallization temperature and pressures of monazite lead to the dominance of LREE. Thorium may occur with monazite. Xenotime contains a higher ratio of HREE (e.g., terbium through lutetium and yttrium) than monazite because of higher temperatures and pressures. Typically, xenotime could be found in granitic and gneissic rocks. Uranium and thorium can occur as constituents of xenotime. All these REE bearing minerals could be found in various REE deposits. USGS data identify that the classification of REE-bearing minerals deposits can be regarded as carbonatite (12 in Canada and 8 in China), carbonatite with residual enrichment (2 in Canada), alkalic igneous (13 in Canada and 9 in China), hydrothermal Fe-oxide (5 in Canada and 3 in China), ion adsorption (18 in China), metamorphic (3 in China), placer-shoreline (21 in China), placer-alluvial (9 in China), placer-paleoplacer (7 in Canada), phosphorite (3 in China) and others (5 in Canada and 19 in China). For instance, Bayan Obo REE mine in Inner Mogolia is a carbonatite type deposit. The REE minerals (bastnaesite, monazite, and several other minerals contains niobium and REE) are associated with the primary iron ores. The iron ore grade is around 30%, and the REE oxide grade is around 5%. After crushing the iron ore feed, it is transported to the processing plant of Baotou Iron and Steel Group by train. The mill will increase the grade of Fe2O3 from 33% to 55% and above. The ore is then ground and graded by conical ball mill first, and then employ cylinder magnetic separation to produce a primary 62-65% Fe2O3 concentrate. The tailing will be floatation and magnetic processes to produce the secondary 45% Fe2O3 concentrate. The REE is beneficiated in the floatation bubbles at a grade of 10-15%. This concentrate can be further beneficiated using table concentration to produce a rough concentrate at 30% REO. After re-processing, the final REE concentrate will be above 60% REO. This is then followed by organic solvent extraction, from which the individual REE will be produced (Yahoo, 2013). 3.1.3 REE global production Until 1948, REE were mainly found in placer sand deposits in India and Brazil. In the 1950s, large veins of rare earth (RE) bearing monazite were discovered in South Africa. Through the 1960s until the 1980s, the Mountain Pass REE mine in California was the leading REE producer. However, during the past 15 years, China has supplied > 80% of the world’s REE as concentrates, intermediate products, and chemicals (Tse, 2011). China’s global annual   19 productions of REE have averaged 133,600 tons (India is second with 2700 tons/annum) with future demand potentially spiking above 200,000 tons (Humphries, 2011). The demand of REE by the global community, for strategic materials related to innovative energy technologies and military applications, is so pressing that China is viewed as manipulating and monopolizing the REE market by some developed nations. As an example, in March 2012 the USA, Japan and the European Union filed a complaint with the World Trade Organization against China for restricting exports (Canadian Chamber of Commerce, 2012). “China is studying changes after the World Trade Organization ruled in March that it had violated global trade rules by imposing export restrictions such as quotas and duties on rare earths. Global stocks of rare earths were depleted after China, which consumes about 70 per cent of global supplies, cut exports from 2010. Above, workers use machinery to dig at a rare earth mine in northern China.” (Bloomberg, 2014). Other countries with significant production and reserves include the USA, Australia, Brazil, India and Malaysia (Table 3.3).  Country Mine production 2010 (t) Reserves (t) USA - 13,000,000 Australia - 1,600,000 Brazil 550 48,000 China 130,000 55,000,000 India 2,700 3,100,000 Malaysia 350 30,000 Other Countries N/A 22,000,000 Table 3.3 World mine production and reserves in tonnes (t) (Humphries, 2011; Greta, 2002)  China holds large REE resources. Twenty one provinces and autonomous regions in China have been proven to be rich in REE including Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Yunnan, and Zhejiang. RE reserves of 18.6 Mt in rare-earth-oxide were reported by China’s Ministry of Land and Resources (CMLR) in 2009.    20 The production of REE in China mainly occurs in the provinces of Fujian, Guangdong, Jiangxi, and Sichuan and in the autonomous region of Nei Mongol. The leading producer is Nei Mongol, which accounts for between 50 and 60% of China’s total REE concentrate output. The second is Sichuan, accounting for between 24 and 30%. Fujian, Guangdong and Jiangxi hold the remaining output, especially for the HREE (Geological Publishing House, 2010). China’s production increased by 450% to 73,000 t from 1990–2000, whilst production from other countries decreased by 60% to 16,000. In other words, the world production increased over 150%. From 2000–2010, the REE production of China and the world continued to increase. By 2009, world production increased to 133,000 t, while Chinese production increased to 129,000 t. China’s REE output as a percentage of total world output increased to 96% in 2009, as described by Tse, 2011. The global REE production trend could be found on Figure 3.3.    Figure 3.3 Global REE production trend (Pui-Kwan, 2011)  During the past decades, more than 80% of the world’s REE production has been supplied by China. Detailed Chinese REE production and export can be found in Table 3.4.           21   2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Production quota MIIT -- 119,500 110,700 89,200 NA  MLR 87,020 90,180 87,620 89,200 NA Production Est 120,000 125,000 129,000 120,000 NA Export quota Domestic producers and traders 43,574 34,156 31,310 22,512 14,446  Sino-foreign joint ventures 16,069 15,834 16,845 7,746 NA *Abbreviations (Est: estimated; MIIT: China Ministry of Industry and Information Technology; MLR: China Ministry of Land and Resources; NA: not available) Table 3.4 China’s REE production and export quotas between 2007-2011 (Tse, 2011)  David Stringer (Bloomberg, 2014) in an article “Chinese cleanup opens door to rare earth rivals”, discussed the toxic time bomb set by China’s rare earth mining boom is set to boost the REE projects being developed outside the world’s biggest supplier-China. Despite market growth, Chinese REE producers have struggled to maintain profitability. Throughout the last decade, various ways of controlling production and exports have been discussed by Government and REE producers in order to conserve Chinese mineral resources and protect the environment. In 2010, a significant restriction on REE exports was announced by China to guarantee the demand of domestic manufacturing. The policy initially focused on particular REE, for instance, dysprosium, terbium, thulium, lutetium, yttrium, and other heavy REE. China’s ultimate goal is to establish an integrated REE industry, exporting value-added materials, not only serving its domestic manufacturing industry, but also attracting foreign investors (Marc, 2012). “Shutting down unregulated mines was a major aim of China’s campaign to constrain rare earth production. It can create waste gas, including deadly fluorine, and waste water laced with cancer-causing heavy metals such as cadmium.” (Bloomberg, 2014). Mitigating safety, health and environmental issues is also becoming a priority for China (Marc, 2012). As part of pollution cleanup, China is studying the new taxes and regulations, such as a value tax on REE producers, environmental compliance certificates may be required for REE exports (Bloomberg, 2014). All these REE pollution cleanup measures are forecast to drive prices higher and “Higher REE prices may spur the development of overseas rare earths’ mining projects” according to Chen Huan, a   22 rare earth analyst with Beijing Antaike Information Development, a research unit of the state-backed China Nonferrous Metals Industry Association (Bloomberg, 2014). 3.1.4 REE life cycle The typical mining company life cycle includes Exploration, Feasibility, Planning & Design, Construction, Operations (Progressive Rehabilitation), Decommissioning and Closure (AGDRET, 2011). A mining company must examine each step in the life cycle for its key activities: contaminants, tailings, water management, and closure considerations. Mining activities can then considered from the point of view of sustainability, as per the following:   Exploration Stage: the exploration activities have to be managed properly to minimize adverse effects on the environment. The primary considerations are a) the clearance of vegetation and fauna; b) control of light, noise REE dust and radiation level; c) relationships with other land users like famers and local communities; d) contamination of soil, water and air; e) negative impact on the health of employees and other people living around; f) a detailed community engagement plan; g) identify health and other issues need to be addressed in future environmental impact assessments (EIAs) or social impact assessments (SIAs); h) collect environmental data including water quality and quantity, soil types, vegetation types, meteorological data; i) collect medical data of miners and people living in local communities.  Feasibility Study Stage: after a mineral resource been located, feasibility studies need to be conducted to determine whether the resource can be mined economically.  It’s a process of evaluation on economic, environmental, and social impacts resulting from the potential mining project. The major objectives are: a) identify the basic factors affecting project success; b) clarify the main risks resulting to project failure; c) an accurate REE mine closure plan needs to be considered; d) determine the financial investment allocatable to the project; e) commission environmental impact assessments (EIAs) and social impact assessments (SIAs).  Planning & Design Stage: the purpose of the planning and design stage is to achieve an integral mine system design. A minimum REE unit cost also needs to be clarified under the current market condition. The REE cost has to satisfy environmental, social, legal and regulatory   23 constraints.  During this stage, the influence of mining engineers and mine geologists is more prevalent. Before making any decisions, they must take into account REE mine closure plan, economic, environmental and social impacts.  Construction Stage: the construction of a mining project is a critical stage of mine life cycle. Typically, the major construction activities include: a) to establish roads and airstrips; b) to construct accommodation camps, workshops, warehousing, and offices; c) to ensure a power supply such as electricity, gas, fuel, and chemical; d) to provide sufficient water supply; e) to construct REE processing plant, crushing plant; f) storage facilities for tailings, waste rock, low-grade and other dumps. During the construction stage, there are many tasks, such as earth moving, generate a high level of REEs. Ventilation fans are essential in underground mining construction, but these can cause serious noise contamination. In order to achieve effective biodiversity protection, all the employees and contractors need to be appropriately managed. In addition, community expectations like employment and economic opportunities in the construction stage and beyond must be addressed. An evaluation of REE waste materials should be undertaken to ensure they don’t create adverse.  Operation Stage: mining operation is the stage of a mining project designed to make a profit. It covers a range of activities including REE minerals mining, processing, refining. This stage also has the greatest potential impact on the environment and communities, particularly in the form of health issues. During mining operations, noise pollution lasting 24 hours, 7 days a week is an irritant to nearby communities and can have serious health impact such as heart disease or death. Air blasting must be carefully managed if a mine site is near residential areas. This entails many factors including the design of blast, the distance from the blast to the receiver, and the prevailing atmosphere. The REE dust emanating from a mine site may lead to pneumoconiosis and other health issues for miners and people living in local communities. In order to minimize biodiversity issues, employees and contractors need to be restricted from access to raw materials. The mining company also needs to share information openly, listen, and respond to people’s concern. REE tailings may contain significant rare-earth mineralization that has the potential to add significant value. The water contaminations from REE have serious consequences on human health inducing liver, brain and bones diseases.   24  Mine Closure: a mine closure plan should be conducted throughout the whole mining life cycle.  The major tasks in developing a mine closure plan include: a) to identify the potential area of disturbance; b) to conduct environmental survey on flora, fauna, surface and ground water quality; c) to identify REE wastes to be stored, including waste rock and tailings; d) to confirm geotechnical stability of ground surface and engineered structures; e) to address social and economic development issues, especially the REE influence on human health.  During the whole REE mining life cycle, water is used in a broad range of activities. In order to minimize adverse effect on water users, all water sources associated with REE mining need to be managed carefully. The following techniques could be used: 1) intercept and divert surface water, build dams to reduce the potential for water contamination from exposed ore and waste rock; 2) recycle water used for REE processing; 3) capture drainage water; 4) allow the water to evaporate in tailing ponds; 5) install liners and covers on waste rock and ore piles (Lottermoser, 2012). It is critical to successfully produce REE concentration. Even though the REE processing is extremely complex, two basic steps need to be followed: 1) separate REE and impurity ores by flotation; 2) separate individual REE by leaching and electrowinning. The other significant concern is REE tailings management because there are a big amount of valuable minerals could be recovered such as REE, iron, thorium, etc. Different recycling methods can be applied on REE tailings due to specific tailings characteristics.  Foe example, in China, gravity and flotation are used widely on REE tailings by using H205 as collector, J102 as frother under the condition of pH 9~9.5, temperature 35~40 ℃ (Zhang, 2012).  3.1.5 REE recycling REE recycling involves control over the availability of REEs. Rare earth materials have to be recycled and reused wisely. Until recently, there were only a few industrial recycling examples currently implemented for REE, which were from magnets, batteries, lighting, and catalysts. The rare earth recycling processes are complex and energy-intensive. In the past, the most significant restrictions on rare earth recycling have been identified as following: a) Lack of efficient rare earth post-consumer collection system; b) The prices of rare earth compounds are not high enough; c) Export rare earth post-consumer goods to developing countries; d) Cannot return to   25 recycling system due to the long lifetime of rare earth products such as wind turbines (10-20 years); e) Lack of efficient technologies and infrastructures of recycling.   According to research on pre-consumer and post-consumer of rare earth, the recycling amount of rare earth from magnetic separation has increased significantly. The main methods applied are as follows: a) recovering in an un-oxidised state and re-melting the rare earth magnet scrap; b) rare earth is mainly recovered as oxide and then goes through an energy-intensive reduction and refining process; c) the magnetic materials could be re-used as new magnets without a separation from mixed materials; d) using molten magnesium chloride to extract Nd and Dy from magnet scrap. The rare earths metals (lanthanum and cerium) could be recovered from used Ni-MH batteries, and then refining the recovered metals for re-use in new batteries. A hydrometallurgical process can be used to recover rare earth metals from the slag of the Ni-MH batteries-derived pyro-metallurgical treatment. Leaching with sulphuric acid can recover Ni, Co and rare earth metals (lanthanum, cerium, neodymium and praseodymium) from Ni-MH batteries. Yttrium and europium could be recycled not only from discharge lamps and fluorescent lamps but also from TV tubes and computer monitors. In the past, due to low prices of rare earth, the recycling of rare earth element from spent catalysts was uncommon and depended on the price of lanthanum. Strong business relationships rely on the high recovery rate of the platinum group metals. The rare earth metals can also be recovered from solid waste generated from red mud (aluminium production) or smelting ferrosilicon (Molycorp, 2013). 3.2 REE toxicity Scandium is a soft, silvery transition element that is found primarily in uranium minerals. The Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number (CASRN) is 7440-20-2. When exposed to air, it reveals a yellowish or pinkish cast and that is easily tarnished or burned. When exposed to acids, it will dissolve and react with water to hydrogen gas (ZLX, 2013). In 1879, Lars Fredrik Nilson, a professor of analytical chemistry at the University of Uppsala at Uppsala, discovered the element Scandium. It was named in honor of the location where it was found, Scandinavia (Nilson, 1879, p. 645). http://www.reehandbook.com/scandium.html Scandium has no biological role in the body. Its toxicological properties have not been thoroughly investigated. Little animal testing of scandium compounds toxicity has been conducted. Some reference values show a bio-  26 reaction like 4mg/kg for intraperitoneal and 755 mg/kg for oral absorption demonstrate the half lethal dose (LD50) levels for scandium chloride on rats. In 1999, a literature review on lanthanides health effects was conducted by Toxicity Excellence for Risk Assessment (TERA). They stated non-radiological, non-cancer risk assessment values through oral and/or inhalation exposure routes. Human health benchmark values are shown as following: the Oral Reference Dose (RfD) of Scandium oxide is 5E-3 mg/kg-day (TERA, 1999).  Lanthanum (CASRN: 7439-91-0) is a soft, malleable, ductile, silver-white metal which is mainly produced from the minerals monazite and bastnasite. Lanthanum metal occurs in three crystal systems due to temperature difference, including hexagonal form (ambient  temperature ), face-centered cubic form (above 310℃), body-centered cubic form (above 868℃) (REE handbook , 2012). As one of the most reactive REE, Lanthanum oxidizes rapidly when exposure to air and reacts with carbon, nitrogen, boron, selenium, silicon, phosphorus, sulphur and halogens. Exposure to water can lead to the formation of the hydroxide lanthanum (Lenntech, 2013). Lanthana (lanthanum oxide) was extracted from an impure cerium nitrate and recognized as a new element by Carl Gustav Mosander in 1839 (Mosander, 1839). Lanthanum has a low to moderate level of toxicity. In animals, the injection of lanthanum solutions produces hyperglycemia, low blood pressure, spleen degeneration, and hepatic alterations. The half lethal dose (LD50) of lanthanum oxide is above 8500 mg/kg in rats through oral exposure. In 1999, a literature review on lanthanides health effects was conducted by Toxicity Excellence for Risk Assessment (TERA). They stated a non-radiological, non-cancer risk assessment values through oral and/or inhalation exposure routes. Human health benchmark values are shown as following: the Oral Reference Dose (RfD) of lanthanum carbonate is 5E-1 mg/kg-day (NSF International, 2010). The RfD of lanthanum chloride is 5E-3 mg/kg-day (TERA, 1999). The RfD of lanthanum oxide is 2E-2 mg.kg-day (TERA, 1999).  Cerium (CASRN: 7440-45-1) is a malleable, soft, ductile, Iron-grey metal, which is mainly found in monazite and bastnasite. When exposed to air, it is tarnished and oxidizes readily and also can get burned when heated or scratched with a knife. Cerium can also dissolve in acids (ZLX, 2013). In 1751, Axel Fredrik Cronstedt found a new mineral with high specific gravity in copper and bismuth ores at Bastnäs Mine, Riddarhyttan, Sweden. Its rare earth content remained   27 elusive for years until it was examined independently by Martin Heinrich Klaproth in Germany and Jöns Jakob Berzelius and Wilhelm Hisinger in Sweden in 1803 (Klaproth, 1803). In addition, the element was initially named cerium by Klaproth. Many studies on cerium toxicity were conducted on radioactive cerium, which was expected in a similar behavior with stable cerium.   There are two significant exposure routes: 1) Oral Exposure. Studies on human’s oral absorption of cerium compounds are not available. In animals, cerium compounds are absorbed poorly when ingested. However, suckling animals showing higher absorption and retention of cerium in the gastrointestinal GI tissues (Kostial et al., 1989a,b; Inaba and Lengemann, 1972). According to experiments on rats, the bone and liver held the highest cerium levels (Shiraishi and Ichikawa, 1972). Furthermore, the kidney, liver, lungs, and spleen contained significantly elevated cerium concentrations in male ICR mice following the oral exposure to 20 or 200 ppm cerium chloride for 6 and 12 weeks (Kawagoe et al., 2005). 2) Inhalation Exposure. The deposition of cerium compound within human body through inhalation exposure is still uncertain. But the lung tissue and alveolar macrophages have been detected containing cerium occupationally according to a series of case studies. (Vocaturo et al., 1983; Sabbioni et al., 1982; Porru et al., 2001; McDonald et al., 1995; Pairon et al., 1995; Thomas et al., 1972). Cerium oxide particles easily deposit within the respiratory system (Schulz et al., 2000). Cerium concentrations in the lungs have been found 2800-207000 times than those in the urine, blood and nails (Pietra et al., 1985) Furthermore, even slowly accumulated cerium compound within the lungs can still be dissolved into systemic circulation on liver, skeleton and lymph nodes with respect to time (Hahn et al., 2001).  Metabolism: Cerium is an unnecessary element for human health and is primarily accumulated in the bone, liver, heart and lung. All cerium compounds, for example, cerium chloride and cerium oxide, may exhibit various chemical behaviors within the body, particularly during their dissolution and chemical conversion.  This is because the dispersion rate and the retention time in organs and tissues are determined by dissolution rate (Mitsutoshi et al., 2006). The rare earth oxides solubility was low in water but increased in fluids containing salts like bodily fluids (Mitsutoshi et al., 2006). Till now, no data has demonstrated if cerium ions can present in the   28 form of hydrated ions, hydroxides or re-precipitated. That is significant for cerium toxicity experiments because cerium may still exist in organs and tissues even when undetected microscope.  Elimination: The elimination of cerium compound within a human or an animal body is a lengthy process even though the quantitative estimates are rare. The orally administered cerium elimination depends on the age in animals (Inaba and Lengemann, 1972). Eventually, it may be eliminated in the feces because remaining in the intestinal cells is not systemically available. The inhalation exposed cerium can be released by transporting through respiratory tract due to the mucociliary escalator. Different particle sizes can lead to different clearance rates where the smaller particle size taking more time for elimination (Boecker and Cuddihy 1974). No matter how the cerium compounds are inhaled, ingested or injected, the primary elimination is through feces which can be applied on the systemically absorbed cerium due to biliary function and hepatic clearance (Lustgarten et al., 1976; Durbin et al., 1956). The secondary cerium elimination is through urine with small amounts generally less than 10% (Lustgarten et al., 1976).   Dose Response: The Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) indicates the assessment of cerium compound hazard in terms of oral reference dose (RfD) and inhalation reference concentration (RfC) for chronic and less than lifetime exposure. The oral RfD (mg/kg-day) is an estimate of a daily exposure to human being. The inhalation RfC (mg/m3) is a continuous inhalation exposure estimate. All the reference values could be divided into acute (less than 24 hours), short term (24 hours to 30 days) and subchronic (30 days to 10% of average lifetime). Some studies have demonstrated that there is an association between cerium exposure in food and the development of endomyocardial fibrosis (Eapen, 1998; Kutty et al., 1996; Valiathan et al., 1989). However, an RfD for cerium was not derived because of the lack of dose-response, uncertain toxicological significance and study design. USA Environmental Protection Agency has given a reference value on RfC through a complicated assumption and analysis based on Benchmark Dose Modeling (BMD). The RfC was calculated as follows:     29 RfC=BMCLRfC = BMCL™? ÷ UF = 0.86mg/m? ÷ 1000 = 9×10??mg/m? However, the confidence in this RfC was reported to be low (U.S. EPA, 2011d).  Praseodymium (CASRN: 7440-10-0) is a soft, malleable, ductile and silvery-yellow metallic metal which is mainly found in monazite and bastnasite. When exposed to air, it reacts slowly with oxygen. Even though it is more resistant to corrosion than the other rare earth metals, it still needs to be protected under oil or the other appropriate way. It has a rapid reaction rate with water (Lenntech, 2013). Technically, praseodymium and neodymium were discovered at the same time. They were believed to be didymium as a mixture of element until Baron Carl Auer von Welsbach accomplished the separation and resulted in the discovery of two new elements, which were named as praseodymium and neodymium (Auer von Welsbach, 1885). Praseodymium is of low to moderate toxicity. The soluble praseodymium salts are slightly toxic by ingestion and the insoluble salts are non-toxic. The comprehensive research on praseodymium toxicological properties has not been performed well. The s-RfD of praseodymium chloride is 5E-1 mg.kg-day (U.S. EPA, 2009b).  Neodymium (CASRN: 7440-00-8) is a soft, ductile and silvery-white metal which is mainly found in monazite and bastnasite. When exposed to air, it can quickly oxidizes and turns a yellow color. It reacts slowly with cold water and rapidly with hot water (Lenntech, 2013). Technically, neodymium and praseodymium were discovered at the same time. They were believed to be didymium as a mixture of element until Baron Carl Auer von Welsbach accomplished the separation and resulted in two new element, which were named as praseodymium and neodymium (Auer von Welsbach, 1885The amount of neodymium in human body is quite small. Its toxicological characteristics have not been completely investigated. Neodymium metals are considered to be moderate to highly toxic. Even though the neodymium metal is not necessary for body, its dust is irritating to the eyes, mucous membranes and moderately irritating to the skin. The half lethal dose (LD50) level is more than 5000 mg/kg in rat oral and 86mg/kg in mouse. The s-RfD of neodymium chloride is 5E-1 mg/kg-day (U.S.EPA, 2009a).    30 Promethium (CASRN: 7440-12-2) is a silver-white metal and no promethium has been discovered which means it is practically non-existent in nature. When exposed to air, it tarnishes slowly to a pink color and burns readily at 150℃. According to temperature, the promethium oxide can occur in different crystal systems , for instance, cubic form at ambient temperatures, monoclinic form above 750-800℃ and hexagonal form above 1740℃(Chikalla, McNeilly, and nteRoberts, 1972). In 1945, Jacob A. Marinsky, Lawrence E. Glendenin, and Charles D. Coryell discovered promethium which was separated from the fission products of uranium fuel. In order to conform to the other element, it was accepted and renamed to promethium by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (Weeks and Leicester, 1968, p. 835). There are few studies on promethium since due to its radioactive rarity and radioactivity but no other dangers have been shown. It does not serve a biological purpose for the human body. Which human organs will be the target of promethium is still elusive. Because of the insufficient data, the impacts of promethium on human beings are uncertain but bone is thought to be potentially impacted. (U.S. EPA, 2007c).    Samarium (CASRN: 7440-19-9) is a silvery-yellow lustrous metal found primarily in monazite and bastnasite. In air, Samarium is relatively stable at room temperature but ignites at about 150℃. In 1879, Paul Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran discovered the new element, Samarium when conducting spectroscopic work on various rare-earth minerals (REE handbook, 2012) Like the other REE element, Samarium has no biological role but stimulates metabolism somehow. Exposure to samarium can cause skin and eye irriration (Lenntech, 2013). A subchronic oral p-RfD of 5E-1 mg/kg/day (subchronic p-RfD=9E-1 mg SmCl3/kg/day) was derived for samarium chloride following ingestion in rats in a 2009 PPRTV document. It also showed there was no influence on body weight, hematology, and histopathology. In addition, when rats were exposed to samarium nitrate in drinking water, their liver, pancreas, and lung weights increased and the malondialdehyde concentrations in liver had the same trend. A screening subchronic oral p-RfD of 2E-5 mg/kg/day (screening subchronic p-RfD= 4E-5 mg (SmNO3)3/kg/day) was derived for samarium nitrate. All these data demonstrated different samarium chemical forms induced different toxic potencies. There is no inhalation RfC derived due to the lack of data. (U.S.EPA, 2009d).    31 Europium (CASRN: 7440-53-1) is a silvery-white, soft, very ductile, and the most reactive of lanthanide group which is mainly found in monazite and bastnasite. In air, Europium tarnishes quickly at room temperature and burns at about 150℃ to 180℃. It also reacts readily with water. In 1890, Paul E. Lecoq de Boisbaudran and his student Eugène-Anatole Demarçay identified a new element by conducting an improved induction and providing superior spark spectra from the sample (Weeks and Leicester, 1968, p. 689). Europium has no biological role as well. Its toxicological properties need more investigation (Lenntech, 2013). Human health benchmarksare shown as follows: the Oral Reference Dose (RfD) of europium chloride is 3E-2 mg/kg-day (TERA, 1999) and RfD of europium oxide is 2E-3 mg/kg-day (TERA, 1999).   Gadolinium (CASRN: 7440-54-2) is a soft, shiny, silvery-white metallic, malleable and ductile metal which is mainly found in monazite and bastnasite. In dry air, gadolinium is relatively stable but in moist air, an oxide film will form. It is strongly magnetic at room temperature. When exposure to water, it reacts slowly but gadolinium will dissolve when exposed to acid (Lenntech, 2013). In 1880, Jean-Charles Gallisard de Marignac separated a new earth from the mineral samarskite. With Marignac’s approval, Lecoq de Boisbaudran proposed the name gadolinium (Weeks and Leicester, 1968, p. 684) (REE handbook, 2012). There is little information about gadolinium’s biological roles and insufficient data to derive quantitative health benchmarks. However, in biomedicine, gadolinium compounds are used as research tools (Yongxing W, Xiaorong W et, al 2000, 64: 611-6). Gadolinium can lead to weight gain and liver histology which were reported in a 2007 PPRTV document following its ingestion in rats. Based on the observation in mice and guinea pigs through gadolinium oxide inhalation, mortality resulted from the decreased lung compliance and pneumonia (U.S.EPA, 2007a).   Terbium (CASRN: 7440-27-9) is a silvery-grey, malleable and ductile metal which is mainly found in gadolinite and monazite. Terbium is relatively stable in air. In 1843, Carl Gustav Mosander separated three oxides (white, yellow and rose pink) from an impure yttria. The white one is previously discovered element yttria. The other two new elements were named by Mosander as erbia (yellow) and terbia (rose pink), respectively. Over time, there was an interchange of the names from original descriptions. Terbium turned to be the yellow oxide (Weeks and Leicester, 1968, p.677). Terbium is relatively stable in air and can be cut with a   32 knife.. Also,, terbium compounds hold low to moderate toxicity but the details have not been investigated.   Dysprosium (CASRN: 7429-91-6) is a bright silver metallic, soft and ductile metal which is mainly found in xenotime and monazite. Dysprosium is relatively stable in air. In 1886, Paul Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran discovered dysprosium by a series of separations using potassium sulfate (Lecoq de Boisbaudran, 1886). Even though insoluble salts are non-toxic, soluble dysprosium salts, like dysprosium chloride and dysprosium nitrate, are slightly toxic by ingestion. Based on the experiment on mice, an estimated ingestion of 500g or more would put human in high risk of fatality (Kutty, et al., 2013).   Holmium (CASRN: 7440-60-0) is a relatively soft, bright, silver metal which is mainly found in xenotime and monazite. When exposed to dry air, it is stable, but easily oxidized in moist air especially elevated temperatures (REE handbook, 2012). In 1879, Per Teodor Cleve discovered holmium by refining impure erbia by fractional crystallization into three ‘earths’, erbia, holmia and thulia. Both holmium and thulium were new rare earths (REE handbook, 2012). Holmium has no biological role and it is considered one of the least abundant elements in human body (Lenntech, 2013).  Erbium (CASRN: 7440-52-0) is a soft, bright, silvery metal which is mainly found in Gadolinite and monazite. In air, it is fairly stable. It also reacts very slowly with water but dissolves in acid (Lenntech, 2013). In 1843, Carl Gustav Mosander separated three oxides (white, yellow and rose pink) from an impure yttria. The white one is previously discovered element yttria. The other two new element were named by Mosander as erbia (yellow) and terbia (rose pink) respectively. By the time, there was an interchange of the names from original descriptions. Erbium turned out to be the pink colored oxide (Weeks and Leicester, 1968, p.677). Even though erbium  stimulates metabolism, it has no biological role in human body. Due to lack of detailed investigation, erbium toxicological level can only described as low to moderate (Kutty, et al., 2013).  Thulium (CASRN: 7440-30-4) is a soft, bright silvery metal which is mainly found in xenotime and synchysite. It slowly tarnishes in air but is more resistant than most other REE (Lenntech,   33 2013). In 1879, Per Teodor Cleve discovered holmium by refining impure erbia by fractional crystallization into three ‘earths’, erbia, holmia and thulia. Both holmium and thulium were new rare earths (REE handbook, 2012). The soluble thulium compounds salts are completely not toxic. Thulium is not taken up by plant roots to any extent, thus not get into human food chain (Kutty, et al., 2013).  Ytterbium (CASRN: 7440-64-4) is a soft, quite ductile and bright silvery metal which is mainly found in xenotime and gadolinite. When exposed to air, it is relatively stable and slowly oxidizes. It also reacts slowly in water and easily disolves in acid (Lenntech, 2013). In 1878, Jean-Charles Galissard Marignac discovered ytterbium from an impure erbia. As the other REE, ytterbium has no biological role but can stimulate metabolism. It can also cause skin and eye irritation or even teratogenic. Therefore, all ytterbium compounds need to be treated as highly toxic (Kutty, et al., 2013). Human health benchmark values are shown as following: the Oral Reference Dose (RfD) of ytterbium chloride is 4E-3 mg/kg-day (TERA, 1999).  Lutetium (CASRN: 7439-94-3) is a soft, malleable, ductile and bright silvery lustrous metal which is mainly found in gadolinite and xenotime. It is the hardest and densest lanthanides and relatively stable in air (Lenntech, 2013). In 1907, Georges Urbain discovered lutetium by using fractional crystallization of an impure ytterbium nitrate (REE handbook, 2012). The insoluble lutetium compounds salts are non-toxic and lutetium is low degree of toxicity. For example, lutetium fluoride is dangerous by inhalation and can cause skin irritation. Lutetium is also toxic if inhaled or ingested (Kutty, et al., 2013). Human health benchmark values are shown as follows: the Oral Reference Dose (RfD) of lutetium chloride is 9E-4 mg/kg-day (U.S.EPA, 2007b).  Yttrium (CASRN: 7440-65-5) is a soft, ductile and silvery-metallic dark grey lustrous metal which is mainly found in gadolinite and xenotime. In air, it is relatively stable but it becomes unstable if finely divided. Yttrium can be oxidized readily when heated. It can release hydrogen gas when reacting with water. Furthermore, yttrium is reactive with acids  (Lenntech, 2013). In 1787, Carl Axel Arrhenius collected a black dense mineral which was sent to the lab of Bengt Reinhold Geijer, who made a short description of this mineral. In 1794, this mineral was   34 forwarded to Johan Gadolin who discovered approximately 38% of the new earth. In 1797, Anders G. Ekeberg of Uppsala confirmed the findings (Weeks and Leicester, 1968, p. 667). Yttrium is named for the mine location in Sweden where the yttrium-bearing mineral was discovered, Ytterby (REE handbook, 2012). The soluble yttrium compounds are considered low degree of toxicity while insoluble correspondence is non-toxic. Yttrium and its compounds lead to lung and liver damage based on animal experiments. In rats, yttrium inhalation caused pulmonary edema and dyspnea and at the same time the liver edema, pleural effusions and pulmonary hyperemia can also be induced by inhalation of yttrium chloride (Kutty, et al., 2013). Human health benchmark values are shown as following: the Oral Reference Dose (RfD) of yttrium chloride is 4E-3 mg/kg-day (TERA, 1999).      35 Chapter 4: OH and CH risks in the REE mining life cycle In 1989, the USA Environmental Protection Agency stipulated that a completed exposure pathway must contain the following criteria in the risk guidance:  (a) Source and mechanism for release of chemicals; (b) Transport or retention medium; (c) Point of potential human contact (exposure point) with affected medium; (d) Exposure route (e.g., dermal contact, inhalation, or ingestion) at the exposure point. There would be no human health risk exists if any one of the four criteria is missing.  4.1 Sources and release mechanisms of REE It has been known for decades that REE mines pose potential risks and hazards to surround environment, miners and people living nearby. Not only due to the REE themselves, but also all the impurities associated with the REE mine. The principal REE risks sources and mechanism are shown in Figure 4.1.   Figure 4.1 Potential risk sources from REE mines (Justin 2011; REE handbook; USGS; EPA)   36 As mentioned before, REE is a set of 17 chemical elements in the periodical table, including 15 lanthanides (lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, and lutetium) plus scandium and yttrium, which have similar chemical properties. The abundance of REE is relatively plentiful in the earth’s crust. However, the minerals from which REE can be mined are quite uncommon. Normally there are three major REE-bearing minerals that need to be considered, bastnasite, xenotime, and monazite as shown in yellow triangle on Figure 4.1 (REE handbook, 2012). Bastnasite, as a carbonate mineral, is the most abundant REE mineral ores which mainly contain LREE, for example, Ce, La, and Y. Essentially, bastnasite includes bastnasite-(Ce) with a formula of (Ce, La) CO3F, bastnasite-(La) with a formula of (La, Ce) CO3F and bastnasite-(Y) with a formula of (Y, Ce) CO3F. Bastnasite-(Ce) accounts for most of bastnasite and cerium is the most common REE so far (Handbook of mineralogy, 2012). Xenotime (phosphate mineral) has been demonstrated to contain yttrium orthophosphate as a major component  anddysprosium, erbium, terbium, ytterbium as well as thorium and uranium (two metal element) as secondary components. Some xenotime specimens may be strongly radioactive week by week due to the alpha decay of thorium and uranium impurities (Handbook of mineralogy, 2012). As significant sources of lanthanum, cerium and thorium, four different kinds of monazite (phosphate mineral) have been discovered like monazite-Ce with the formula of (Ce, La, Pr, Nd, Th, Y) PO4, monazite-La with the formula of (La, Ce, Nd, Pr) PO4, monazite-Nd with the formula of (Nd, La, Ce, Pr) PO4 and monazite-Sm with a formula of (Sm, Gd, Ce, Th) PO4. Lanthanum presents in monazite as the most common element together with silica, SiO2, uranium and thorium in trace amount (Handbook of mineralogy, 2012).   After the review of REE-bearing minerals, the REE ore deposits need to be considered. According to a different literature, various REE deposit classifications exist. The most classic one is from the United States Geological Survey with sufficient supporting data. The USGS divided REE deposit types into 11 categories including carbonatite, carbonatite with residual enrichment, alkalic igneous, hydrothermal Fe-oxide, ion adsorption, metamorphic, placer-shoreline, placer-alluvial, placer-paleoplacer, phosphorite and others. Due to the REE mines, deposits and occurrences information from mineral resources online spatial data on USGS   37 website, almost all the REE mineral deposits with grade, tonnage and mineralogy around the world have been illustrated. It also indicates three principal deposit types: carbonatite, alkalic igneous and ion adsorption. After collecting the data associated with REE in China and Canada, it appears that there are 12 carbonatite deposits in Canada and 8 in China, 13 alkalic igneous deposits in Canada and 9 in China, 18 ion adsorption deposits in China and 0 in Canada (Refer to Appendix A for details). Intrusive carbonatite mineral is rich in igneous rocks and carbonatite, containing abundant apatite, magnetite, barite and fluorite. All these can be used to extract REE, phosphorus, niobium, uranium, thorium, copper, iron, titanium, barium, fluorine, and zirconium. Since most carbonatite deposits are likely to be mined by the open-pit mining method, the associated environmental impacts include radioactivity from REE ore impurities uranium and thorium, REE dust from mining activities, acid drainage from pyrite rich carbonatites, water contamination from chemical solutions in leaching. All the asbestiform amphiboles which are present in tailing dumps pose health risks (Peter, et al., 1986). Alkalic igneous rocks are one classification of igneous rocks with 5 – 15% alkali (K2O + Na2O) content or with a molar ratio of alkali to silica greater than 1:6. They are composed of feldspar, nepheline and amphibole. The major minerals contained are niobium, zirconium, iron, titanium, phosphorus, gold, copper and rare earth metals. Ion adsorption deposits are the predominant source of HREE and Y, which are composed of weathered granite formed in warm, moist climates (Sanematsu et al., 2013). The low pH soil water can degrade the REE-bearing minerals in granites because REE can be extracted by an ion exchange reaction with electrolyte solutions. That means REE could be transported downward in a weathering profile by complexing with humic substances and bi-carbonate ions in soil and ground water (Sanematsu et al., 2011).  All REE mining and mineral processing activities present the potential to introduce contaminants into environments at a high rate and create risks and hazards to human health and safety. Obviously, the contaminants with various toxicological properties will differ significantly due to the range of REE-mineral ores and REE deposit types. All the potential risks associated with REE mines come from the following six principal pollution sources: (a) REE, (b) Radioactive substances, (c) Carbonate minerals, (d) Sulfide minerals, (e) Heavy Metals and (f) Asbestos minerals.     38 Mining and processing activities have the potential to introduce risks to human health and environment. Compared to other hard rock mining, the risks associated with REE mining is highly variable between mine and mine depending on the REE mineral ore, the contaminants from the waste rock, ore stockpiles and process waste streams (U.S.EPA, 2012). Each rare earth deposit is unique and consists of different REEs in varying proportions. Sometimes other metals of economic values are found in REE ore. Therefore, uniquely processing methods have to be developed according to each REE deposit characteristics. Generally, the first step is to separate REEs from other minerals and waste rocks. The next step is to separate REEs themselves.   4.1.1 REE The potential health impacts and toxicity of REE have been reviewed in section 3.2 REE toxicity with details.  4.1.2 Radioactive substances Radioactive substances from REE mines are threaten to the environment and human health. The primary reason is that most REE minerals are occur together with uranium and thorium whose delay chain can produce a group of dangerous radioactive substances including radium, radon, and bismuth (Argonne National Laboratory, 2005). Furthermore, another threat can be represented by the energetic particles (small fast moving pieces of atoms) and rays (a form of electromagnetic radiation) from radioactive decay. The electrons from biological molecules like water, protein and DNA could be dislodged. What makes the situation much worse is that normally the ores containing uranium and thorium are mobile, and the dust which can be inhaled and travel long distance before settling in water and soil. Duraski (2011) described thorium is generally insoluble and seldom a groundwater concern, uranium is soluble in water and radium is less soluble but still results in groundwater pollution. A big concern leading to human carcinogen is ionizing radiation from radioactive decay.  4.1.3 Carbonate minerals Normally, REE could make their way into the environment from carbonate minerals dissolving Carbonate minerals are frequently the predominant minerals in REE ores. Alkaline materials from carbonate dissolution can raise the water pH to elevated levels which can slow acid   39 generation and metals end up in water during sulfide mineral dissolution. Bastnasite, as one of the major REE bearing minerals, is a carbonate mineral and would release REE into the environment by dissolution. Another associated concern is fluorine, which is an important constituent of bastnasite (Justin, 2011). 4.1.4 Sulfide minerals Sulfide minerals often accompany REE ores and their dissolution may release metals like pyrite and chalcopyrite into the environment. These also have the potential to form sulfuric acid and cause acid mine drainage. Sulfuric acid lowers the water pH and enhances sulfide mineral dissolution, releasing more metals and acid into the environment which is a positive feedback loop. Luckily, however, r sulfide minerals are not the major constituents in REE ores (Justin, 2011). 4.1.5 Heavy metals Another geochemical concern in REE production arises from the associated heavy metals such as aluminum, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, copper, lead, manganese, and zinc. Most of the potential metal contaminants are associated with sulfide minerals. They are present in elevated concentrations within REE minerals and are mobile under particular conditions. Metals only change forms in the environment without being destroyed. Therefore, the forms of metals and the dose of metal compounds are two significant aspects when investigating the toxicological influence on organisms (Justin, 2011) 4.1.6 Asbestos minerals The last REE ore geochemical consideration is associated with the asbestos mineral such as riebeckite. Only some REE deposits contain these minerals.  4.2 Transport or retention medium of REE  When a substance is termed a transport or retention medium, this means it is able to carry REE risks in certain forms and deposits that are dangerous for human beings. Knowledge about the transportation routes of REE in the environment is generally lacking. Based on the above analysis of REE properties, they always present in the form of compounds in nature and easily   40 react with air, water, and acid at certain conditions. The toxicological effects would largely depend on the REE existing form and the dose taken. Therefore, REE transport or retention mediums are air and groundwater on and near REE mine sites. Radioactive substances associated with REE are primarily transported by air and settle on the surface of buildings, plants, soil and groundwater. This speed accelerates with rain. There are four, basic ways that radioactive materials enter the human body. These are inhalation, ingestion, dermal adsorption, and wound irruption. It follows that people can be affected by radioactive substances existing in air directly and/or absorb them accompany with food and water indirectly. The carbonate and sulfide minerals associated with REE ore contain a group of metals like aluminum, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese and zinc. Air, soil and water can redistribute them under right conditions like proper pH, etc. All of them these minerals pose a threat to the environment and human health on mine sites and nearby communities. Aluminum is a naturally reactive element and often combined with oxygen, silicone and fluorine. Most aluminum compounds are insoluble in water but dissolve in acid (ATSDR, 2006). They are found in all three environmental medium: air, soil and water. Aquatic organisms suffer the greatest impacts from aluminum toxicity. Contrastingly, plants do not take aluminum into their systems for further bio-transformation even though abundance of aluminum compounds residing in soil (EPA, 2008). Arsenic is often combined with other elements in the environment such as oxygen, chlorine and sulfur. Most of arsenic compounds are found in soil. They may also travel long distances through air or water. Arsenic has been classified as a human carcinogen by The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), the EPA, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (ASTDR, 2007). Barium is present in high concentrations at REE mines and has been considered a potential threat to human beings. There is no barium present in groundwater near mine waste sites because of its relatively insoluble properties. However, there are large amounts of soluble barium compounds (barium chloride and barium sulfide) in water that can cause negative impacts on human (ASTDR, 2007). Another elevated concentration at REE mines can be found is beryllium which makes its way into air, water and soil. Beryllium exists as tiny particles in air which represents the most probable means of human exposure to beryllium. It can cause lung diseases and increase the risk of lung cancer by inhalation. Beryllium has been determined to be a human carcinogen by DHHS, IARC and EPA (ASTDR, 2002). Its solubility in water depends on the compound and the soluble beryllium forms pose a   41 significant danger to organisms. A majority of beryllium compounds can reside in soil for thousands of years without dissolving into groundwater. Copper is often of elevated concentrations in carbonatite and is widespread in the environment because of the fact that low levels of copper can be measured in all air, soil and water. The solubility of copper largely depends on its compound forms as well. The majority of copper compounds can be easily absorbed to soil organic matter and other component and have little chance of touching groundwater (ASTDR, 2004). Lead easily binds with soil and remains there for years. Small parts of lead compounds can make their way into water and travel into streams. Furthermore, the lead can eventually settle into sediments if soluble. The lead concentrations in soil can be taken up by plants which have an obvious decrease in growth, photosynthesis and water absorption (EPA, 2008). Lead can also float in the air as tiny particles (ASTDR, 2007). Manganese is capable to move in all three environmental mediums. In soil column, manganese can travel at difference rates which largely depend on the soil type and manganese compounds. When exposed to solution, manganese tends to latch onto particles floating in solution and eventually settle into the sediment (ASTDR, 2008). Zinc can be found naturally in air, soil and water. Although it has been determined to be an essential element for many organisms, excess zinc may still cause problems (ATSDR, 2005).   Whether in open-pit or underground mines, all the mining and processing activities associated with REE ores can create numerous interaction opportunities with bacteria, oxygen, acid, etc. A number of health risks can be induced on all organisms living nearby. Based on the above analysis, all the three environmental mediums, air, soil and water are capable of carrying hazardous materials associated with REE mining and redistributing them in the environment where people are more easily exposed. The potential human exposure points and locations will now be considered below: 4.3 Human exposure points of REE  In this section, a general concept will be presented to illustrate the mechanism of contamination sources and their function reaction associated with REE mines. Through the whole REE mine life cycle, environmental and health effects can occur at all phases, including exploration, feasibility, planning & design, construction, operations (progressive rehabilitation),   42 decommissioning, and closure. Employees at the mine site and those living in nearby communities present the greatest potential exposure to the hazards and risks from REE ores at specific locations and points.  The first significant concern is construction workers who may have connection with surface water, air around, sediment, soil. The second important aspect is outdoor workers who play significant role in REE ores extractions, waste and tailings management, etc.  The third ones sharing the same level of concern are indoor workers who take part in REE mineral processing. All those dangerous exposure points relative to them have been summarized in Table 4.1 as following:  Type of workers Exposure points/Contact with Construction Workers Surface Water; Sediment; Soil; Particulates and Vapors; External Radiation. Outdoor Workers Surface Water; Ground Water; Sediment; Soil; Particulates and Vapors; External Radiation; Tailings. Indoor Workers External Radiation; Particulates and Vapors; Ground Water; Soil; Dust. Table 4.1 Workforce’s exposure points of REE risks (U.S.EPA, 2012)  In addition to the mine’s employees, those living in a close proximity to the site represent an important concern. They may encounter similar or different level of health threats comparing with miners. For example, traditional tribal people are relying on their ancient life way, engaging in activities such as hunting and collecting plants for nutritional or cultural reasons. . Most of the animals and plants integral to their way of life may already be contaminated by REE and associated pollutants. The residents experience REE hazards through various ways. Those exposure points threatening people’s health and safety have been summarized in the following table 4.2.       43 Type of residents Exposure points/Contact with Traditional tribal Particulates; Wild game and waterfowl; Native plants; Smoke. Residents on-site Surface Water; Ground Water; Sediment; Soil; Particulates and Vapors; External Radiation; Tailings; Indoor dust; REE produce; Livestock and wild game. Residents off-site Particulates; Ground Water; Soil; Indoor dust; REE produce; Livestock and wild game. Table 4.2 Residents’ exposure points of REE risks (U.S.EPA, 2012) 4.4 Human exposure routes of REE The exposure mechanisms of REE risks mean people may take the REE contaminants into human body through a variety of processes including dermal contact, inhalation, and ingestion, etc. Based on analysis of REE risks sources, their mechanism of release, transport process, and points of human exposure, most REE compounds and metal compounds relative to REE ores can make their own way into air, soil and water. According to MSDS, the routes of REE getting into the human body have been demonstrated on the following table 4.3 where ☆ means that element can access, ★ means that element can access smoothly.                44 REE Dermal Inhalation Ingestion La ☆ ☆ ★ Ce ☆ ☆ ☆ Pr ☆ ★ ☆ Nd ☆ ★ ★ Pm ★ ★ ★ Sm ☆ ☆ ★ Eu ☆ ☆ ★ Gd ☆ ☆ ☆ Tb ★ ★ ★ Dy ☆ ★ ☆ Ho ☆ ☆ ★ Er ☆ ★ ☆ Tm ☆ ★ ☆ Yb ☆ ★ ☆ Lu ☆ ★ ★ Sc ☆ ☆ ☆ Y ☆ ★ ☆ Table 4.3 Human exposure routes of REE (MSDS, Dierks, 2005-2012)  Although each single REE mechanisms of exposure has been summarized, they tend never to occur alone in nature but always to bind with other impurities and exist in the form of compounds. Therefore, when conducting research on REE toxicity characteristics, all the associated impurities need to be considered as well.    45 Chapter 5: Known OH and CH issues associated with REE 5.1 Occupational health issues It is important to establish what working conditions exit for REE miners are working at. The following pictures (Figure 5.1, 5.2, 5.3) are some examples of how that can be a hazardous environment.  http://bbs.jxnc.org/thread-823-1-1.html Figure 5.1 REE mine in Nancheng, Jiangxi, China (Oct 20, 2010)  A man works at a REE mine site in Nancheng country, Jiangxi province, China on Oct 20, 2010. He carries the REE ore on his back directly without any personal protection.    46  http://in.reuters.com/article/slideshow/idINRTXU5XY#a=5 Figure 5.2 Air pollution at REE smelting plant Xinguang Village, Baotou, Inner Mongolia, China (Oct 31, 2010)  REE miners walk through thick haze in front of an REE smelting plant next to a vast tailings dam near Xinguang Village, located on the outskirts of the city of Baotou in China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region October 31, 2010. The massive Baogang corporation, located on the outskirts of Baotou city, is a major producer of REE metals. Villagers live near the smelting plants and a tailings dam used to store the black refuse from ore processing were reported to have said that the REE boom was threatening their livelihood and health.     47  http://in.reuters.com/article/slideshow/idINRTXU5XY#a=14 Figure 5.3 Smelting plant, Baotou, Inner Mongolia, China (Oct 31, 2010)  A REE worker at the Jinyuan Company's smelting plant, pouring the REE metal Lanthanum into a mould near the town of Damao, in China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region October 31, 2010.  5.1.1 Lung disease Exposure to REE and the formation of lung disease was first reported by Schepers (1955). He observed that exposure to REE dust can lead to granulomatosis, which is a chronic lesion resulting from the inhalation of certain beryllium compounds (Schepers, 1955). Using animal experiments, Schepers observed that REs can be deposited on the lung tissue (Schepers, 1955). This initial observation was followed by the identification of three cases of cerium pneumoconiosis in carbon arc lamp operators (Heuck & Hoschek, 1968). Nappee et al. (1972) reviewed one case from the La Rochelle district of France where two workers developed pulmonary shadows suggestive of pneumoconiosis, but without alteration in pulmonary functions. The main reason was the exposure to cerium oxide dust over a number of years in a plant used for RE extraction. Husain et al. (1980) studied a man employed for > 10 years in a dry process RE concentrate. They confirmed that in order to protect individuals exposed to respirable REE dust, adequate precautions are needed to avoid occupational lung diseases (Husain et al.,   48 1980). Sabbioni et al (1982) discussed the association between pneumoconiosis and REE dusts (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu) exposure in a photoengraver. They suggested the relationship existed. Sulotto et al. (1986) described a new case of RE pneumoconiosis by chest X-ray. The subject had worked as a photoengraver for 13 years. REs were found in the nails, suggesting absorption from the lung. Palmer et al. (1987) suggested rare earth metals (cerium, lanthanum, neodymium) need to be considered cytotoxic to lung tissue due to an evaluation in an in-vitro cytotoxicity assay system on rats. Both the soluble and insoluble REE metals had been researched on rat pulmonary alveolar macrophages. Haley (1991) showed that RE metals cause lung parenchymal inflammation and fibrosis. Lei et al. (1991) found that that REE can induce upper respiratory tract diseases, nasopharynx diseases, pulmonary ventilation function reduction, and pneumoconiosis. McDonald et al. (1995) described that RE (cerium oxide) pneumoconiosis is an uncommonly occupational disease based on an investigation on a male patient who had a chronic history of cerium oxide exposure due to optical lens grinding. A series of respiratory issues had been examined on him including progressive dyspnea, an interstitial pattern on chest X-ray, an interstitial fibrosis on open lung biopsy, and numerous particulate deposits in the lung (most containing cerium) on scanning electron microscopy. Qin et al. (2002) demonstrated that REE are first deposited in the upper respiratory tract and lung tissue, then transported to the lymph nodes, and then to various organs. Chronic inhalation of RE dust can cause pulmonary fibrosis, and garnered the name RE pneumoconiosis. Qin also found that the RE workers’ bronchitis, upper respiratory tract (rhinitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis) incidence increased sharply compared with normal level. Chen et al. (2002) reported that long-term inhalation of high concentrations of thorium-containing RE mineral dust can contribute to the development of lung cancer. Finally, in 2005 it was reported by Yoon et al. (2005) that RE pneumoconiosis is an uncommon occupational disease resulting from the inhalation of REE dust. Usually, it is mistaken for more serious diseases, such as interstitial pneumonia or fibrosis, bronchiectasis, or a lymphangitic tumour (Yoon et al., 2005).  5.1.2 Liver diseases The liver has long been considered a target organ for REE toxicity and pharmacological action (Snyder et al., 1959). Among the pharmacological effects of REE, the induction of fatty liver was described by Haley (1965). Lei (1985) and Chen et al. (2008) confirmed that the target organ   49 of REE, especially LREE, is the liver after a series of physical examinations like chest X-ray, blood coagulation time, liver functions and so on. They also found that the main impacts are fatty liver, detoxification, protein synthesis and excretion function obstacles. Qin et al. (2002) demonstrated the long-term intake of REE must increase the pathological change rate of human liver and kidney. Chen et al. (2008) stated that REE can cause fatty liver by damaging glucose and lipid metabolism and this can further result in liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Ran and Jiazuan (2002) showed REs can lead to the morphological changes of the liver. After REs enter the liver they will interact with many proteins and other cellular molecules. REs also impact the activities of enzymes and interfere with physiological functions of the liver via informational molecules (Ran & Jiazuan, 2002). Palasz and Czekaj (2000) reviewed several lanthanides toxicological effects and reported gadolinium can decrease cytochrome P450 activity in hepatocytes, praseodymium produces the same effect in liver tissue, different calcium channels in human and animal cells can be blocked by trivalent lanthanide ions, especially La3+ and Gd3+.  5.1.3 Bone disease Chen (2008) observed that heavy REE are mainly deposited in bones and the concentration of REE in bones, teeth and hair is higher than in other tissues and organs. REE have also been identified to interfere with the formation and aging of the bones and can contribute to the development of osteoporosis (Chen, 2008). High-doses of REE can restrain osteoblast proliferation and differentiation or inhibit osteoclast viability. Low doses of REE can promote osteoclast viability and cause enhanced bone resorption (Chen, 2008). Qin (2002) found that the terbium content in the tissue of patients with bone cancer is higher than normal bone tissue. 5.1.4 Skin disorders Wang (1996) demonstrated that RE dust can cause skin, hair and nail damage. The main symptoms are itching, dry skin, pigmentation, hair loss, nail deformation, folliculitis and telangiectasia. Longer period of contact with RE dust causes more serious skin damage. All symptoms were significantly higher than the non-RE workers. Similar evidence was found by Qin (2002), who described a localized impact of REE on the skin. Specifically, REE absorbed by skin were found to have little impact on systemic metabolism but did cause local dermal damage.   50 Sharma (2010) described the use of high concentrations of gadolinium can induce epidermis thickening as skin toxicity.  5.1.5 Brain disease A recent study has demonstrated that REE may have a negative impact on brain function. Chen (2005) indicated that the human brain can accumulate REE, especially lanthanum, cerium and neodymium. The lanthanum ion La3+ can function as a nerve blocker. Compared to LREE, HREE such as lanthanum, cerium and neodymium can accumulate readily in the brain and are thought to have enhanced toxic effects (Chen, 2005). REE have also been shown to decrease central nervous conduction velocity (Chen, 2005). Feng (2006) studied the neurobehaviorial effects from lanthanum exposure. The results showed lanthanum may disturb central cholinergic system function, decrease monoamines neurotransmitters and impair learning ability. Palasz and Czekaj (2000) reviewed several lanthanides toxicological effects and reported numerous enzymes can be affected by lanthanides (Dy3+, La3+, Mg2+, Eu3+, Tb3+). Furthermore, lanthanide ions can block some neurons membrane receptors and regulate synaptic transmitters transport and release.  5.1.6 Cardiovascular disease REE can impact blood and body fluids, with implications for immune system functioning. Lei et al. (1991) reported that platelet count, serum calcium, and IgA concentrations decreased sharply due to exposure to REE. Sun et al. (1994) reported that REE low-dose irradiation had no significant effect on routine blood examination. Guo (1997) demonstrated REE have a significant effect on the humoral immune function of workers exposed to REE. A significant difference in humoral immune function indicators have been observed between workers who worked < 10 years and those who worked > 10 years in the REE mining industry. Qin et al. (2002) described that long-term REE exposure results in changes in total blood cell counts and component percentages. Leukocyte, lymphocyte and oxyphil cells increased, whereas neutrophilic granulocytes have decreased. Lanthanum content in laryngeal cancer patients’ plasma and implications for carcinoma has also been studied. Lanthanum in the plasma of cancer patients has been found to be, on average, 11 times higher than normal. Wang (2006) showed high density RE ion decreased erythrocyte membrane fluidity. Gomez-Aracena et al. (2006)   51 suggested cerium may be associated with an increased risk of first acute myocardial infarction (AMI) based on comparison studies between significantly higher degree of cerium exposure group and controls. Bussi et al. (2007) performed couple of single and repeated intravenous administrations on rats in order to estimate gadolinium content in liver, kidneys, spleen, femur and brain. As a positive control, the gadolinium acetate (GdAc) was used and demonstrated the increased white blood cell count and serum cholesterol. Additionally, there was no blood chemistry, hematology, or histopathology changes were seen. Yu et al (2007) conducted a study about REE effects on human telomerase and apoptosis of mononuclear cells from peripheral blood (PBMNCs). Telomerase activity can be increased and the same trend happened on cells percentages in the S-phase and the G2/M phase in PBMNCs. However, there was no effect on the apoptotic rate had been discovered in PBMNCs. Zhang et al (2000) conducted an examination on human hematological parameters with elevated REE exposures. They reported there was a decrease trend on total serum protein, albumin, beta-globulin, glutamic pyruvic transitanase, serium triglycerides and immunoglobulin and an increase trend on cholesterol. 5.1.7 Reproductive health It is also questionable if REE can have impact on reproductive health. Jin (1991) found that the incidence of menstrual abnormalities, spontaneous abortion and preterm birth amongst female REE mine workers was significantly higher compared to non-RE female workers. It was recommended to strengthen health surveillance of workers, especially female workers during pregnancy and suggested that married and pregnant female workers could be removed out of position temporarily. However, Liu (1996) demonstrated there was no significant difference between RE and non-RE female workers on spontaneous abortion rate, fetal mortality, pregnancy complications incidents, premature infants incidents and congenital malformation incidents.   In addition to the above mentioned RE occupational diseases, other health issues have been encountered in China for workers. Lei et al. (1991) found concentrations of REE were high in RE workers’ urine. These researchers also identified that Urinary NAG activity increased by a significant amount, indicating serious kidney damage. Lei et al. (1991) and Jin et al. (1991) showed REE may cause neurasthenia. Qin et al. (2002) stated chronic and acute exposure to radiation from RE may cause leukemia and liver cancer. They also showed RE operations could   52 harm the functioning of the heart and may induce arrhythmia. The RE content in the myocardium of patients with myocardial infarction is higher than patients without myocardial infarction. RE concentration in the synovial fluid of patients with rheumatic arthritis has also been shown to be significantly higher. They also showed lanthanum concentration in the lens of the eye was significantly higher in patients with cataracts compared to patients without cataracts. Ji et al. (2005) found RE workers’ cancer mortality rate is lower than normal level. That means current RE density in workplaces could help workers prevent tumors.  5.2 Community health issues The literature review identified several studies related to RE community health issues. Liu et al. (1996) conducted a survey related to impacts of radiation on the health of residents at the Shandong Weishanhu REE mining community. The γ radiation dose in the mining community was 1.63 times of that in a non-REE community. Nuclide levels in the mining community’s soil were 1.5–2.8 times that of the levels in a non-REE community. By studying 8,000 residents lived in RE mining community across generations, residents who were > 60 years old accounted for 9% of local population. The percentage was higher than the Chinese average of 7.6%. That meant RE radiation did not affect human mortality. Mine residents’ tumor mortality was 107.93/100,000. Except for lung cancer mortality, there was no difference in tumor mortality between the local community and Shandong province. Chen et al. (1996) studied RE mine village drinking well water, agricultural soils and vegetables. The results showed that all RE content of water, soil, and crops was 3.7–24 times higher than that of non-mining areas. The residents living in the RE mining community were exposed to higher levels of RE environment, where they could ingest more REE through drinking the water and eating their crops.  Zhu et al. (1997) researched long-term ingestion of REE and the health effects on villagers living in high REE areas in the South Jangxi province of China. Major health issues included indigestion, diarrhea, abdominal distension, anorexia, weakness, and fatigue, especially after high-fat or high-protein intake. Zhu et al (2005) investigated the health effects of long-term ingestion of REE on villagers living in high REE background area. A contrast study showed the serum total protein and globulin and albumin were lower than controls. Wu et al (2003) demonstrated leukemia was associated with REE pollution in mining area. Fan (2004) studied the children’s health effects from REE exposure and reported significant differences in immunological parametres (IgM,   53 CD3, CD4, CD4/CD8), lower IQ, decreased percentage of high IQ and increased percentage of low IQ. Chen (2005) concluded that children living in a RE mining community had significantly lower IQs. Qin et al. (2002) concluded that the RE content in the hair of RE miners and those living in mining communities was extremely higher than the RE content in the hair of people living in non-mining communities. Chen et al. (2008) stated that REE could cause chromosome aberration (Any change in the normal structure or number of chromosomes; often results in physical or mental abnormalities). Chen (2008) demonstrated that human hair REE concentration can quantitatively reflect the characteristics of human RE exposure, and qualitatively reflected the REE distribution patterns. The RE distribution in mine hair samples was very similar with that of the ore body and mine atmosphere. Hollriegl et al (2010) demonstrated that the Ce content in human breast milk and blood plasma, serum was in relatively high degree. The serum values were ranging from 21.6 to 70.3 ng/L as shown by Spanish mothers serum samples. It can be a possible indicator for environmental Ce that the serum content in plasma and serum but not breast milk. There are lots of significant examples (Figure 5.4, 5.5, 5.6) showing the polluted environment people are living in.    http://in.reuters.com/article/slideshow/idINRTXU5XY#a=6 Figure 5.4 Rubbish dump near REE smelting plant and tailing dam, Xinguang Village, Baotou, Inner Mongolia, China (Oct 31, 2010)    54 Villagers sit near a rubbish dump located in front of a REE smelting plant and next to a tailings dam near Xinguang Village, located on the outskirts of the city of Baotou in China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region October 31, 2010.    http://in.reuters.com/article/slideshow/idINRTXU5XY#a=18 Figure 5.5 Crushed REE ore pile, Xinguang Village, Baotou, Inner Mongolia, China (Oct 31, 2010)  A villager shovels cast-off tailings of crushed mineral ore that contain REE metals behind a field of dead crops in Xinguang Village, located on the outskirts of the city of Baotou in China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region October 31, 2010.    55  http://in.reuters.com/article/slideshow/idINRTXU5XY#a=22 Figure 5.6 A farmer guided buffalo at REE mine site Nancheng, Jiangxi, China (Oct 9, 2010) A farmer guided his buffalo at REE mine site and the buffalo was drinking the water contaminated by REE at Nancheng country, Jiangxi province, China on Oct 9, 2010.   56 Chapter 6: Regulations and policies on REE health and safety 6.1 The United States of America 6.1.1 REE overall situation  For the purpose of a detailed study of REE within USA, the Office of Industrial Policy initiated a program to assess and summarize the domestic REE reserves and resources. It was implemented by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The principal REE districts in USA are distributed in the provinces of Alaska, California, Colorado, Idaho, Illinois, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, New York, Wyoming and Florida-Georgia. More details have been provided in Appendix B.   The federal government and state governments share the responsibility of mining health and safety management throughout USA. The corresponding federal government departments consist of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM) and National Mine Health and Safety Academy (NMHSA). Each state takes charge of their own mining activities under the supervision of the federal government. Focusing on REE mining health and safety issues, there are few corresponding regulations, policies, and training resources available. Nevertheless, the accessed, associated information has been collected and described in the following sections. 6.1.2 Federal government The U. S. Government oversees an abundance of programs on REE mining impediments and restrictions with the purpose of maintaining environmental safeguards. There is predominant evidence from Authenticated U.S. Government Information as described in H.R. 2011 Report No. 112-248: “SEC. 4. Secretary of the interior reports on access and authorizations for mineral development. An inventory of REE potential on Federal Lands and impediments or restrictions on the exploration or development of those REE, and recommendations to lift the impediments or restrictions while maintaining environmental safeguards.” Email correspondence from Peter Del Duca at the Mine Safety and Health Administration, Department of Labor, USA, reported that the only specific standard for REE is Yttrium, which is limited to 1 mg/m3 of air. Since   57 Yttrium is commonly associated with areas rich in uranium ores, it is likely that alpha and gamma radiation regulations can also play a part.  Otherwise, their standards were reported to not address these specifically. According to previous research, radon and uranium are typically occurring together within REE mines. So the regulations about smoking prohibition in mine areas wherever radon daughters monitor is required may be taken further to implement on REE mines. More technical measurements are required to determine whether or not the radon daughters reach the health and safety limitations on a specific REE mine, which is thereby restricted by these regulations (Long et al., 2012). The principal radioactive impurities in REE bearing minerals are thorium, uranium, and radon. Not only are such radioactive materials difficult to handle safely, but also the cost of disposing of them is an impediment to the economic extraction of REE. In the 1980s, many monazite sources were driven out of the REE market in the USA due to the tighter regulations on radioactive materials (Long et al., 2012). An occupational illness and injury prevention program has been conducted by the MSHA Metal and Nonmetal Health Division. One of the significant health topics considered is Radon Daughter Measurement. As described in that report “Radon is a radioactive gas associated with uranium mining and with several other underground mining industries. Radon daughters are fine solid particles which result from the radioactive decay of radon gas, and are hazardous because of the alpha radiation, or alpha particles, which they emit. Radon daughter particles have a tendency to attach themselves to airborne particles such as dust, smoke, and water mist. These particles are fine enough to reach the deepest parts of the lungs when inhaled, and the alpha radiation emitted can do much damage. For this reason, smoking is discouraged where radon gas is present. Regulations prohibit smoking in areas of a mine where monitoring of radon daughters is required. ” (MSHA 2013). 6.1.3 United States government 6.1.3.1 Alaska It is no exaggeration to consider that Alaska is the potential storehouse of America’s strategic mineral wealth with more than 150 REE occurrences that can become a new, stable source of REE for domestic use. Alaska also supports federal legislation to increase domestic production of strategic minerals and endorses the National Strategic and Critical Minerals Policy Act of 2011 and the Resource Assessment of Rare Earths Act of 2011, which set out to improve a stable   58 supply of minerals, (Dan 2011). Pursuant to the National Strategic and Critical Minerals Policy Act of 2011’s 112th congress 1st session report No. 112-248, “ P 8 (8) an inventory of the rare earth element potential on Federal lands, and impediments or restrictions on the exploration or development of those rare earth element, and recommendations to lift the impediments or restrictions while maintaining environmental safeguards”.  6.1.3.2 North Carolina As described in the regulation 15A NCAC 11 .0302 Exemptions For Source Material: “Any person is exempt from licensure to the extent that any person receives, possesses, uses, or transfers: any quantities of thorium contained in: rare earth metals and compounds, mixtures, and products containing not more than 0.04 percent by weight thorium, uranium or any combination of these.”  6.1.3.3 South Carolina In the regulation “PART IX Licensing of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM)”, radiation protection standards have been established for the possession, use, transfer, transport, and/or storage of naturally occurring radioactive material or the recycling of NORM contaminated materials not subject to regulation under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. Any persons who engage in the extraction, mining, processing and/or storage of NORM in a manner that alters the chemical properties or physical state of natural sources of radiation or the potential exposure pathways to humans or environment (Refer to Appendix C for original regulation content). 6.1.3.4 New Mexico In New Mexico, pursuant to the authority of the Radiation Protection Act, it is the Radiation Control Bureau (RCB) of the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED)’s responsibility to issue and regulate radioactive material licenses (Richardson et al., 2008). It would appear to be appropriate that the protection of occupational and community health and safety is ensured by radioactive materials licensing. This can be applied on REE mines because of the existence of radioactive minerals like uranium, thorium and radon. Ensuring the compliance with 20.3 New Mexico Administrative Code (NMAC), New Mexico Radiation Protection Regulations under the statutory authority of Radiation Protection Act, New Mexico Statutes Annotated (NMSA) 1978, 7431through 74316 (Richardson et al., 2008), REE mines may be required to apply for Radioactive Materials Licenses in New Mexico. During the permission process, REE mines need   59 to submit an application along with a radiation safety program and environmental impact reports. The radiation protection program must be adequate including an assessment of radiation doses to workers, the public, and the environment to ensure compliance with the New Mexico Radiation Protection Regulations (NMRPR). Pursuant to the regulation of Title 7 Health, Chapter 4 Disease Control (Epidemiology), Part 3 Control of Disease and Conditions of Public Health Significance issued by New Mexico Department of Health, occupational illness and injury which needs to be reported to epidemiology and response division includes coal worker’s pneumoconiosis, other illnesses or injuries related to occupational exposure, etc. It would appear to be appropriate that REE related pneumoconiosis needs to be considered as well. Secondly, the health conditions related to environmental exposures and certain injuries which warrant a report to epidemiology and response division, and it should include the environmental exposures of uranium in urine greater than 0.2 micrograms/liter or 0.2 micrograms/gram creatinine. This restriction may apply on REE mines. Thirdly, cancer needs to be reported to designee with all malignant and in situ neoplasms and all intracranial neoplasms. All the REE mining associated cancers may be considered accordingly. Last but not the least, all the birth defects diagnosed during pregnancy or on fetal deaths must be reported to epidemiology and response division. This restriction should be adopted by REE mines as well because of the injuries on female workers and women living in around communities. The regulation of “Title 20 Environmental Protection, Chapter 3 Radiation Protection, Part 14 Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in The Oil and Gas Industry” were issued by Environmental Improvement Board of New Mexico. Any person who engages in the extraction of NORM by altering the chemical properties, physical state or concentration of the NORM or its potential exposure pathways to humans should compliance with this regulation. In addition, according to 20.3.4.405 in the same regulation, the detailed “occupational dose limits for adults” associated with REE mining can be found on Appendix J   20.3.14.1403 EXEMPTION: Persons who work under the following situations are exempt from the requirements of these regulation if the NORM presents at concentrations of 30 picocuries per gram or less of radium 226, or 150 picocuries per gram or less of any other NORM radionuclide, or averaged over 100 square meters in 15 cm layers of soil. They are also exempt if the maximum radiation exposure at any accessible point does not exceed 50 microroentgens per hour   60 (mR/hr) (0.5 mSv/hr). Sludges and scales are exempt from the requirements if the maximum radiation exposure within 1 cm of the surface of the sludge or scale does not exceed 50 microroentgens per hour (50 mR/hr) (0.5 mSv/hr). Even though the radiation exceeds 50 mR/hr (0.5 mSv/hr),  it is still exempt as long as sludges and scales are removable and concentration of Radium 226 does not exceed 30 picocuries per gram in a representative sample. 20.3.14.1404 Radiation Survey Instruments: Radiation survey instruments used to determine exemptions pursuant to 1403.C [Subsection C., Section 1403 of 20.3.14.1403 NMAC] shall be capable of measuring from 1 microroentgen per hour through at least 500 microroentgens per hour. 20.3.14.1405 Protection of workers during operations: All general and specific licenses shall conduct operations. As required by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) or by the Board, licensees shall incorporate hazard identification and training into hazard communication programs according to the Occupational Health and Safety Act, and this regulation subpart [Part] 10 for personnel working on materials containing regulated NORM. To any general licensee employee, the total radiation dose in any one year shall not exceed the standards for exposure to members of the public as described in Subpart [Part] 4 “STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION”. Employees engaged in a Specific License as required by 1411 [Section 1411 of 20.3.14.1411 NMAC], shall not exceed the limits for radiation workers as specified in Subpart [Part] 4 “STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION”. Whoever is likely to receive an accumulative dose in excess of 500 mrem (5 mSv) within one year shall be monitored. 20.3.14.1406 Protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity: In compliance with the standards for radiation protection in Subpart [Part] 4, all licensees’ concentrations of radioactive materials which are released to the general environment do not result in an annual dose exceeding 100 mrem (1 mSv) in a year. 20.3.14.1410 General License: A general license is issued to extract regulated NORM without regard to quantity. 20.3.14.1411 Specific License: All the manufacturing and distribution of any material or product containing regulated NORM shall be specifically licensed unless It is exempted under the provisions of 1403 [Section 1403 of 20.3.14.1403 NMAC], or licensed under the provisions of Subpart [Part] 3 “LICENSING OF RADIOACTIVE” these regulations. The regulation of “Title 20 Environmental Protection, Chapter 3 Radiation Protection, and Part 4 Standards for protection against radiation” were issued by Environmental Improvement Board of New Mexico. This part applies to persons licensed registered by the department to receive,   61 possess, use, transfer or dispose of sources of radiation (Refer to Appendix D for original regulation content). 6.1.4 USA REE mines EIA/ permitting case study The Molycorp-Mountain Pass Project is on the south flank of the Clark Mountain Range and north of the unincorporated community of Mountain Pass, California, USA (http://www.molycorp.com/about-us/our-facilities/molycorp-mountain-pass/). The permitting of mining was scrutinized by multiple agencies including the public, and several NGOs throughout the Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) process. The radioactive ores thorium and radium occur along with the REE at Mountain Pass. In the 1980s, the company began piping wastewater to evaporation ponds on or near Ivanpah Dry Lake. Later, a federal investigation found 60 spills (some unreported) occurred from 1984 to 1998. Then the processing and pipeline were shut down after this series of water leaks carrying radioactive waste in 1998. By the end of the 1990s, the company paid more than $1.4 million in fines and settlements. The other risks assessed on Mountain Pass included human health impacts. In 2003, a primary school was closed because it was too close to mine site. All the fugitive dust, windblown tailings, and groundwater contamination negatively impact neighboring communities of Baker, Nipton. In June 2004, after preparing a cleanup plan and completing an extensive environmental study, the final Environment Impact Report (EIR)/ Environment Impact Statement (EIS) was released for another 30 years operation even though it concluded that the Molycorp would result in significant aesthetic, air quality, biological resource, geology/soils, and hydrology/ water quality effects. Neveretheless, the final permitting was issued in the third quarter of 2010 (Juetten, 2011).   According to the NI43-101 report 2012, Molycorp holds conditional use and minor use permits from the County of San Bernardino. The continued operations of the Molycorp Mountain Pass facility have been allowed through 2042. The major permits associated with health and safety have been summarized as following table 6.1 (Bair et al., 2012):       62 Permit Agency Expiration Date San Bernardino County Domestic Water Supply Permit #36000172 San Bernardino County Department of Public Health No Expiration Radiation Machine Tube Registration FAC66764 California Department of Public Health 5/30/2012 Radioactive Materials License #3229-36 for ongoing operations and Paste Tailings California Department of Public Health — Radiologic Health Branch 12/21/2020  Table 6.1 Molycorp’s major permits on health and safety (Bair et al., 2012) 6.2 Canada 6.2.1 REE overall situation  Canada is a federal state, implementing federal, provincial, regional and municipal governments system. Canada consists of 10 provinces, three territories and each provincial and territorial government has independent legislative and administrative jurisdiction. When it comes to mining industry, the provinces and territories are the responsible for issuing mining permits. Provinces also regulate the development, operation, closure and post-closure of all types of mines. REE mining in Canada has a promising future. Even though Canada currently has no REE production, there are more than 200 REE exploration projects potentially underway. For all stages of development, the distribution of REE projects across Canada is: Quebec, 73; Ontario, 39; British Columbia, 38; Newfoundland and Labrador, 21; Saskatchewan, 9; New Brunswick, 8; Manitoba, 7; Nova Scotia, 4; the Yukon, 3; the Northwest Territories, 2; and Nunavut, 2. Quebec accounts for 35% of the projects, Ontario for 19%, British Columbia for 18%, Newfoundland and Labrador for 10%, and all other provinces and territories for less than 10%. Alberta and Prince Edward Island have no projects (REE NRC, 2012). Among the 200 REE exploration projects in Canada, 14 of them have been classified as advanced level of mineral resources or reserves shown in Appendix E. Concerning REE mining health and safety issues, there are few corresponding regulations, policies and training available. Nevertheless, the available associated information has been collected and described in the next sections.    63 6.2.2 Federal government The federal government has an interest in mining projects where they may affect areas of federal jurisdiction, including: fish and fish habitat, migratory birds, aquatic species, and Aboriginal communities. The Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency (CEAA) is responsible for conducting environmental assessments (EAs) pursuant to the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, 2012 (CEAA 2012) for mining projects that are listed in the Regulations Designating Physical Activities. Mining projects for REEs are listed in the Regulations Designating Physical Activities and proponents are required to submit a project description to the Agency to determine if an EA of their project is required (Paul Schafer, Senior Advisor, Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency, Email). The federal government is seeking opportunities for Canadian energy technologies in global markets. In 2012, five natural ‘clusters’ of opportunity were created by government to maximize energy technologies. One of the clusters promotes next generation transportation with the goal of becoming a leader in regulations and standards. One of the associated technology areas are inexpensive electric motors that rely heavily on rare earth magnets. Therefore, the infrastructure investment in creating a rare earth supply in Canada as well as regulations and standards related to the REE mining environmental impact is significant (McKinsey & Co, 2012). The radiation associated with REE mines has been regulated in Canada, because ionizing radiation penetrates the human body with emitted energy and biological damage can arise in various organic tissues thereby causing burns, cancers, and death. For workers in some associated industries, such as REE, uranium and thorium miners, the risk is slightly higher. Radiation dose quantities are described in three ways: absorbed, equivalent, and effective. The absorbed dose means absorbed by matter and the measurement is given in grays (Gy).  Since different types of radiation have different effects on tissue, the absorbed dose is multiplied by a radiation weight factor resulting from the type and amount of radiation. That is called equivalent dose and expressed in sieverts (Sv). Different tissues and organs are affected differently by radiation. For example, lung tissue is more likely to be affected by radiation than the skin. In order to account for the differing sensitivities, the equivalent dose is multiplied by a tissue weighting factor: the resulting unit is referred to as the effective dose. The effective dose is also given in sieverts. Many tissues and organs are affected differently by radiation. For example, lung tissue is more sensitive to radiation than skin. The effective dose can be calculated by the equivalent dose multiplying a tissue weight factor and also given in   64 Sieverts (Health Canada, 2013). The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is the federal regulator and responsible for setting radiation dose limits to promote occupational health. The current Canadian dose limits for exposure to licensed sources of radiation is 100 mSv/ 5 years and 50 mSv/ year for workers as well as 1 mSv/ year for public. It is Health Canada’s role to monitor, track and record radiation doses received by workers exposure to ionizing radiation. There is a database maintained and monitored by Health Canada of all Canadians exposed to workplace radiation, dating back to the 1950s. In order to minimize the radiation risks, the Government of Canada suggest workers wearing a dosimeter which is a badge measuring the accumulated dose of radiation over a period of time (3 months usually). The dosimeter can also help specialists to assess the occupational health risk.  All pregnant workers should wear a personal dosimeter and lead apron and have the badge processed every 2 weeks rather than 3 months. They may also re-assign tasks or rotate positions (Health Canada, 2013).   All the detailed radiation doses limits have been regulated provincially and discussed in the following content. Environmental Impacts Assessments (EIA) is required by Government Canada when a mine project applying for permission. The Canadian Environmental Assessment Act is verbally limited to environmental issues (Government of Canada, 1992). Shandro (2011) states that if a mining project is located near communities, additional information associated with health impacts may be enforced by the provincial legislature, the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency, Health Canada , or other authorities with jurisdiction . The determinants of health have been detailed described in the Canadian Handbook on Health Impact Assessment (Shandro, 2011).  According to Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA) 2012, the Government of Canada must exercise their powers to protect the environment and human health. The purpose of this Act is to respect aboriginal peoples and take into account any effect caused to the environment on health and socio-economic conditions. It is also the Minister’s responsibility to carry out the designated project without delay on preventing damage to environment and protecting public health or safety (CEAA 2012).    65 6.2.3 Provincial government 6.2.3.1 Ontario   As Boyd, James (Ontario Ministry of Northern Development and Mines Information & Marketing Services) described through email that there are no specific policies, regulations, permitting requirements, and health training requirements governing REE mining in Ontario.  They are treated the same as any other mineral mined in Ontario 6.2.3.2 Saskatchewan In an email from Jason Berenyi (who is a P.Geo working at the Government of Saskatchewan, Assistant Chief Geologist, Minerals and Northern Geology, Saskatchewan Geological Survey Saskatchewan Ministry of the Economy), since there has never been any production of REE in Saskatchewan, the province does not have a regulatory policy specific to this commodity. Exploration for REE is currently governed by the province's Mineral Dispositions Regulations 1986. Health and safety training for explorers is the onus of the exploration companies, and the Saskatchewan Ministry of the Environment provides a Mineral Exploration Best Practices Guidelines for companies which REE mines must comply. The purpose of this guideline is to assist government and industry in the application and approval process for activities on land administered by the ministry. This guide provides information to assist in the planning, initiation, and completion of a mineral exploration program in a fashion that will help minimize environmental impacts and meet relevant legislative requirements.  6.2.3.3 British Columbia REE mines are currently governed by ‘Health, Safety and Reclamation Code for Mines in British Columbia’ and ‘Radiation Protection Guidelines for Mineral Exploration’, both of them issued by the Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources Mining and Minerals Division, 2008, but no detailed consideration on REE’s characteristics. The radiation dosage limits have been regulated by the “Workers Compensation Act-Occupational Health and Safety Regulation-Part 7: Noise, Vibration, Radiation and Temperature-Division 3: Radiation Exposure” (Refer to Appendix F for original regulation content). 6.2.3.4 Quebec Based on the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the Public Health Protection Act of Quebec provided a legal radiation limits (both the effective dose limit and the equivalent dose limit) by the NSC Act Radiation Protection   66 Regulations and Regulations O.C. 554-79 (1979).  Please find table 6.2 for the effective or whole body dose limits and table 6.3 for equivalent dose limits to organs (McGill, 2012).  Classification Effective Dose mSv (mrem) Requirements Nuclear Energy Worker (Include Pregnant) 100 (10000) / 5 yrs Note: A maximum of 50 (5000) in any one year or an average of 20 (2000)/yr One year dosimetry period; Doses likely to surpass 1 mSv/yr; Mandatory personnel monitoring; Medical surveillance. Pregnant Nuclear Energy Worker 4(400) Balance of pregnancy; Mandatory personnel monitoring; Medical surveillance. Radiation User 1 (100)/yr Doses not to surpass 1 mSv/yr; Recommended personnel monitoring. Table 6.2 Effective radiation dose limits-Quebec (McGill, 2012)   Organ Nuclear Energy Worker Radiation User&Public Lens of Eye 150 mSv 15 mSv Hands and Feet 500 mSv 50 mSv Skin 500 mSv 50 mSv Table 6.3 Equivalent radiation dose limits to organs-Quebec (McGill, 2012)  6.2.3.5 Newfoundland & Labrador As described in the Consolidated Newfoundland and Labrador Regulation 1154/96 relating to Radiation Health and Safety Regulations under the Radiation Health and Safety Act (O.C. 96-479) amended by 12/02, the maximum dose for radiation workers should comply with the following 6.4 and table 6.5.          67  Subject  Worker Category Period/Weeks Maximum Permissible Accumulated Dose  Pelvic & abdominal 1 13/52 1.3 rads/5 rads Pelvic & abdominal 2 Balance of term 0.5 rads Bone Marrow 1,2,3 13 3 rads Whole body & gonads 3 13/52 3 rads/5 rads Skin, bone, thyroid 1,2,3 13/52 15 rads/30 rads Hands and forearms, feet & ankles 1,2,3 13/52 38 rads/75 rads Other single organ 3 13/52 8 rads/15 rads  Not pelvic or abdominal 1,2 13/52 8 rads/15 rads Table 6.4 Maximum permissible dose accumulation by radiation workers (O.C.96-479) Note:  • Category 1 - Female radiation workers not known to be pregnant but in the child-bearing years. • Category 2 - Female radiation workers known to be pregnant. • Category 3 - All other radiation workers. • One rad equals one rem, "rem" means a unit of dose equivalent as defined and used in the Atomic Energy Control Regulations (Canada) in relation to nuclear radiation and applicable as a unit of X-ray dose.   Subject  Maximum Permissible Dose / year Whole body, gonads and bone-marrow 0.5 rads Skin, bone, thyroid 3 rads Hands and forearms, feet and ankles 7.5 rads Table 6.5 Maximum permissible dose accumulation by persons who are not radiation workers (O.C.96-479) 6.2.4 Canada REE mines EIA/ permitting case studies 6.2.4.1 Avalon project The radiation associated with the ore deposit states that low levels of uranium and thorium occur. The primary risks to workers in the prospective Avalon REE mine are the inhalation or inadvertent ingestion of radioactive materials or radon gas associated with uranium. The   68 estimated dose of radiation exposure at the proposed mine is 1.4mSv (millisievert)/year. While the amount of natural, background radiation people receive each year in Canada is between 2 and 4 mSv according to the statement of occupational exposure to radiation from Health Canada (Health Canada, 2013). Furthermore, a limit of 50 mSv in a single year and 100 mSv over 50 years (a 20 mSv per year average) people received in the workplace have been regulated by The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission. In particular, the limit for pregnant worker is 4 mSv (Health Canada, 2013). The feasibility study of Avalon REE mine is based on the assumption that the emission of radon and thorium gas will not be an issue and will be appropriately exhausted with the mine air. Avalon will establish proper health and safety procedures for closing and sealing unused areas and checking areas before reopening unventilated areas to make sure there are no noxious gases. The paste backfill will be a good choice when sealing mined area and reduce the gases emission from host rock (Tudorel, 2013). Avalon’s safety procedures and mine training programs will be developed for all personnel working in the mine. Emergency procedures as required under the Mining Regulations will be prepared and submitted for approval as required. All crew will be issued TLDs to monitor the exposure to radiation in the work place. Records will be maintained and exposure limits will be set such that if workers are exposed to radiation above a certain limit they will be moved to a different work area to reduce their exposure and to maintain safe working conditions. In addition, radon and thoron (radon isotope produced by thorium) levels within the mine and plant air would be monitored to ensure that mine ventilation is sufficient to reduce radon and thoron to acceptable concentrations. Refuge stations will be installed in the vicinity of the most active work places and a secondary egress will be in place before production commences. Site crews will be trained in mine rescue procedures and a mine rescue station will be set up and equipped to respond to an emergency. The mine will purchase and maintain a set of BG-4 breathing apparatus as well as SCBA’s for use on surface. Procedures for maintaining contact with other operating mines with regards to their mine rescue teams will be implemented (Jason et al, 2011). After review of the Canadian Guideline for the Management of Naturally Occuring Radioactive Element and in order to concern the particularly levels of uranium and thorium, a screening-level radioactivity pathways assessment has been conducted by Avalon determining the potential pathways of radioactive substance to vegetation, wildlife, miners, communities people. In conclusion, no potential pathways from the Hydrometallurgical plant site have been identified and the release of low   69 levels of radionuclides from Avalon tailings and REE concentrate is expected to be no threat to workers, environment, wildlife and people living in communities. (Avalon 2013). An air quality assessment on Avalon REE mine concluded that the emissions might lead to air quality contaminants including nitrogen oxides (NOX); sulphur oxides (SOX); carbon monoxide (CO); total suspended particulate (TSP); particulate matter (PM 2.5); and dust. All these atmospheric emissions have negative impacts on human health and the environment (Avalon 2013). At a public hearing, March 2013, Avalon committed to ISO 14001 (Environment) and OHSAS 18001 (Health and Safety) and reporting of monitoring results in sustainability reports every year. As required by NWT Mine Health and Safety Regulations, all underground activities have to monitor the air quality at each working location, during each shift, on a daily basis and maintain records which Avalon REE Mine will need to comply with as well (Avalon 2013). With compliance of the Public Health Act and the purpose of monitoring employees’ health and safety properly, several vaccinations have been recommended by Avalon Health and Social Services Department, for example: Varicella; Measles, Mumps and Rubella; Influenza; Diphtheria; Tetanus; and Hepatitis A&B as well as a baseline tuberculosis skin test and/or chest x-ray (Avalon 2013). 6.2.4.2 Quest Rare Minerals Ltd According to NI 43-101 technical report on the pre-feasibility study for the Strange Lake Property, the key permits and approvals to be required for health and safety purpose on Quest Rare Minerals projects include: (1) Government of Canada (Richard, 2013): According to the law Nuclear Safety and Control Act, License of processing radioactive materials has been required on Quest Rare Minerals projects. (2) Government of Newfoundland and Labrador (Richard, 2013): According to the law Health and Community Act, Food and Drug Act, Food Premises Regulations, Food Establishment License in kitchens has been required on Quest Rare Minerals projects. A Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment will be conducted as a discrete section within the EIA on the northern project since the nearby communities need information on the impacts on human and ecological health (Richard, 2013). 6.2.4.3 Matamec Matamec has committed to protect the health and safety of workers and the public in its NI 43-101 report.  Among the primary concerns raised by nearby communities are the risks relative to radioactive substances in the REE for the health of surrounding communities.  There is a   70 Directive 019 criteria available to determine whether or not substances are radioactive. Because of the existence of thorium and uranium based radioactivity, all the associated guidelines and exposure limits need to be complied with and a radiation protection plan need to be developed on the Kipawa site. A report was prepared on this issue by SENES Consultants Ltd, “Evaluation and Management of Radioactivity for the Kipawa Rare Earth Project”, December 2012. Because of the pressure on public health and social services, ten beds and four doctors have been designed in Temiscaming in accordance with the estimated 3350 people living in a 45km radius of the project to provide basic health services. The specialized health services are the responsibility of the North Bay hospital under an associated agreement. The preliminary economic assessment for the Kipawa project was filed on March 14th 2012. As a follow-up, a Feasibility Study was started with environment and human health risk assessment as one of its objectives. There are 71 risks that have been evaluated in the feasibility study for the Kipawa Project (Saucier, 2013). The risk priorities are classified as high, important, medium, and low..  In order to mitigate the risk of ‘the major decrease in demand of final REE product in the long term’, Matamec will do the following: (1) Develop a first class health and safety programs for the miners working on site and for the people living in nearby communities. (2) Develop first class environmental controls to minimize the negative impacts on miners, community people, and environment. In order to mitigate the risk of ‘higher radioactivity in the process plant tailings than anticipated’, Matamec will hire a specialist in radioactivity to analyse the test work results and compare them to other mining operations dealing with radioactive substances (Saucier, 2013). In order to evaluate the risks associated with possible leaching of radioactive materials from mine wastes and hydrometallurgical tailings, radiological analyses were carried out on samples and solid for health and safety purpose. None of the samples are classified as high risky waste but the hydrometallurgical tailings are higher risky but very manageable (Saucier, 2013). In order to ensure the health and safety of the miners and people living in nearby communities, all the radioactive elements have to be managed properly.   71 6.3 China 6.3.1 REE overall situation  China holds large REE resources. Twenty one provinces and autonomous regions in China have been proven to be rich in REE including Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Yunnan, and Zhejiang. RE reserves of 18.6 Mt in rare-earth-oxide were reported by China’s Ministry of Land and Resources (CMLR) in 2009. The production of REE in China mainly occurs in the provinces of Fujian, Guangdong, Jiangxi, and Sichuan and in the autonomous region of Nei Mongol. The leading producer is Nei Mongol, which accounts for between 50 and 60% of China’s total REE concentrate output. The second is Sichuan, accounting for between 24 and 30%. Fujian, Guangdong and Jiangxi hold the remaining output, especially for the HREE (Geological Publishing House, 2010). The major REE projects in China have been shown on Appendix G.  6.3.2 Government The next few years will be a time of change as China actively works to increase regulation, promote industry consolidation, and decrease production in an effort to recognize economies of scale, prevent environmental degradation, improve health and safety standards, and avoid fuelling a black economy. China’s REE national policies has changed a lot during the last decades: • 1985: REE export tax refund- encourage exports and economic growth. • 1991: REE has been defined as national protection ore type. • 1998: REE export quota imposed and banned in processing trade. • 2000: Production quota imposed. • 2002: Restriction on foreign direct investment  • 2003: Export tax refund rate decreased • 2004: Foreign investment & access limited, export licenses decreased. • 2006: Mining permissions & export tax refund stopped. • 2007: Export tariff imposed.   72 • 2009: Export licenses & production quota decreased. REE production export       enterprises decreased to 20 instead of 39. • 2010: Strategic planning, merging & consolidating. • 2011: Royalty & export tariff increased.  The price of LREE/ Bastnaesite ore, Monazite ore is RMB60/ton; HREE/ Xenotime ore, Ioning REE ore is RMB30/ton. • 2013:  WTO has basically approved USA, Japan and Europe’s proposition that China’s policy   about export limit and high tariff violated the commitment of revoking tariff when China joining WTO on 2001. However, China stands for the decrease on REE export due to the environment protection policy.  According to the Emission Standards of Pollutants from Rare Earths Industry (GB 26451-2011), the Appendix H and I need to be considered when setting up pollutants emission limits for REE industry. China’s Government also issued State Council Document-Guideline to Promote Healthy Development of Rare Earth Industry and Situation and Policies of China’s Rare Earth Industry on 2012 but no details accessible.  China’s ultimate goal is to establish an integrated REE industry, exporting value-added materials, not only serving its domestic manufacturing industry, but also attracting foreign investors (Marc, 2012). Mitigating safety, health and environmental issues is also becoming a priority for China (Marc, 2012).   73 Chapter 7: REE health indicators 7.1 Introduction The well-being of people is an overriding priority to the mining industry. There can be no effective mining health policy and regulation without information on the health status of the workforce and community people through indicators. To support strategy, policy and regulation makers at a company, region, provincial, federal or even international level, a set of occupational and community health related indicators will be proposed according to previous research. An indicator can be measured or observed to achieve goals through measurement, data, facts, standards and judgment. In order to track progress on goals, strategies and activities, indicators can be applied either quantitatively or qualitatively for short or long term (Coumans, 2009). It has been for many years that indicators have been used in the mining industry (Grabowski, 2006). However, health performance is a complicated phenomenon at various levels (individual, group and organizational). It is difficult to identify and clarify the health cause and effect relationships (Mearns, 2009). In order to help mining companies and affected communities assess occupational and community health and to prevent and mitigate all associated health problems, a set of REE health indicators have been proposed. These aim to characterize health status and the health influencing conditions of a REE workforce and those people living around. That could be sum as lagging indicators and leading indicators. Lagging indicators is normally called downstream or after-the-fact indicators. The historical information of health performance like damage, injury or harm occurred can be provided with lagging indicators thereby nothing can be changed to alter the past performance. For example, the injury statistics (injury frequency rate, occupational disease rate, etc.) are classic lagging indicators (ICMM, 2012). Leading indicators are sometimes called upstream indicators that can be used to predict health performance and prevent future harm. Actions can be taken to change the results of health performance which is a major benefit from leading indicators. Leading indicators can provide guidance to increase the probability of improved health performance (ICMM, 2012).   74 7.2 Indicator review methodology A review of existing literature was conducted and was further developed by feedback from the REE industry, especially in Canada, China and USA. Additional discussions were held with REE mining company representatives through email and telephone. This information has been assembled to create the comprehensive, effective and functional set of indicators about REE occupational and community health issues.  7.3 Indicators 7.3.1 Occupational health indicators The REE occupational health indicators set comprises three categories: (a) Workforce Health Profile; (b) Health Leading Indicators and (c) Health Lagging Indicators.  a) Workforce Health Profile:  (a.1) Size of workforce on REE mine sites (a.2) Gender Ratio; (a.3) Age of maturity; (a.6) The medical status/diseases database; (a.7) Health and safety committee members number/ratio.  b) Health Leading Indicators:   (b.1) Training on REE health (Azapagic, 2004) (b.1.1) Percentage of hours of training on REE health to the total work hours; (b.1.2) Number of employees at risk have undergone effective job-related health training. (b.2) Exposure assessment   (b.2.1) Number of employees/contractors exposed to REE, radiation and associated dangerous substances separately on weekly, quarterly or yearly basis.  (b.2.2) Number of hours employees/contractors exposed to REE, radiation and  associated dangerous substances separately. (b.2.3) Amount of REE, radiation and associated dangerous  substances exist in the following potential human contact/exposure points: surface water, ground water, sediment, soil, dust, vapors, tailings, etc (U.S. EPA, 2012).   75 (b.2.4) Amount of REE, radiation and associated dangerous substances accumulated in employees/contractors according to medical surveillance. (b.2.5) Comparison of the amount of REE, radiation and associated dangerous substances in the human body with relative standards/limitations.   (b.3) Health Impact Assessment (b.3.1) The REE company conducts Health Impact Assessment (HIA) or not, for example ICMM guideline about HIA; (b.3.1.1) REE health risks/hazards identification, refer to Chapter 3. (b.3.1.2) Health Improvement plan, for example: use of PPE as control of REE risks; medical consultations for health surveillance issues; feedback on positive and negative issues; personnel and medical assessed for fitness of work.  (b.4) Occupational health expenditure:  (b.4.1) Percentage of occupational health budget to total operational budget. (b.4.2) Budget spent on exposure assessment, medical surveillance, control measures, health training, etc. (b.5) Occupational health management: (b.5.1) Relative management system certifications/permissions; (b.5.2) Compliance with relative REE health policies/regulations provincially and federally.   c) Health Lagging Indicators:  (c.1) Number (rate per 1000 persons) of employees/contractors with recognized REE occupational diseases per year. (c.2) Number (rate per 1000 persons) of fatalities at work caused by REE per year: (c.2.1) Fatalities per year from lung disease/cancer; (c.2.2) Fatalities per year from liver diseases; (c.2.3) Fatalities per year from bone disease; (c.2.4) Fatalities per year from skin disorders; (c.2.5) Fatalities per year from brain disease; (c.2.6) Fatalities per year from cardiovascular disease;  (c.2.7) Fatalities per year from reproductive health.   76 (c.3) Number of hours lost as a result of REE related accidents.  7.3.2 Community health indicators The REE associated community health indicators set consists of five categories: (a) Community Health Profile; (b) Health Care Resources; (c) Health Issues Mitigation; (d) Health Communication and (e) Health Status.  It can also be classified into leading indicators and lagging indicators.  a) Community Health Profile: (a.1) Size of population in community (Attrill, 1997); (a.2) Gender Ratio (Attrill, 1997); (a.3) Reproductive life span (Attrill, 1997); (a.4) Life expectancy (Surján, 2006); (a.5) Age of maturity (Attrill, 1997); (a.6) The medical status/diseases database; (a.7) Self-care medical treatment (Coumans, 2009): (a.7.1) Take the medication treatments as prescribed vs missed; (a.7.2) The number of people regularly attend mental health support vs not;  (a.7.3) The umber of people practice good personal hygiene vs not.  b) Health Care Resources (Leading): (b.1) Health care providers database: (b.1.1) Number of physicians, doctors, nurses, mental health specialists, traditional healers, naturopaths, acupuncturists, etc, enough or not (Surján, 2006); (b.1.2) Number of acute care hospital beds, facilities, enough or not; (b.1.3) Access to a hospital/ clinic or not; (b.1.4) Affordable health care or not. (b.2) Community health expenditure:  (b.2.1) Cost to REE Mining company; (b.2.2) Capital invested by government; (b.2.3) Capital invested by NGO, charity institutes, etc.   77  c) Health issues mitigation (Leading): (c.1) Measure levels of REE, associated dangerous substances and radiation accumulated within surface water, ground water, sediment, soil, air, vapors, indoor dust, wild game, waterfowl, plants, livestock and tailings, etc on weekly, quarterly or yearly basis; (c.2) Compare measured data with health standards/limitations. (c.3) Research ways to keep polluted dust, water out of residences and reduce human exposure to REE.  d) Health communication (Leading): (d.1) Training and increase of awareness about REE’s community health; (d.2) Build and expand relationship with media, government, regulators, unions, health professional, industry representatives, communities, etc.  e) Health status (Lagging): (e.1) Lung diseases/cancer cases: (e.1.1) 0-18 years old per 1000 citizens: (e.1.1.1) 0-18 years old per 1000 citizens-male; (e.1.1.2) 0-18 years old per 1000 citizens-female. (e.1.2) 19-65 years old per 1000 citizens: (e.1.2.1) 19-65 years old per 1000 citizens-male; (e.1.2.2) 19-65 years old per 1000 citizens-female. (e.1.3) 65+ years old per 1000 citizens: (e.1.3.1) 65+ years old per 1000 citizens-male; (e.1.3.2) 65+ years old per 1000 citizens-female. (e.1.4) all ages per 1000 citizens: (e.1.4.1) all ages per 1000 citizens-male; (e.1.4.2) all ages per 1000 citizens-female. (e.2) Leukemia cases:  (e.2.1) 0-18 years old per 1000 citizens: (e.2.1.1) 0-18 years old per 1000 citizens-male;   78 (e.2.1.2) 0-18 years old per 1000 citizens-female. (e.2.2) 19-65 years old per 1000 citizens: (e.2.2.1) 19-65 years old per 1000 citizens-male; (e.2.2.2) 19-65 years old per 1000 citizens-female. (e.2.3) 65+ years old per 1000 citizens: (e.2.3.1) 65+ years old per 1000 citizens-male; (e.2.3.2) 65+ years old per 1000 citizens-female. (e.2.4) all ages per 1000 citizens: (e.2.4.1) all ages per 1000 citizens-male; (e.2.4.2) all ages per 1000 citizens-female. (e.3) chromosome aberration cases: (e.3.1) 0-18 years old per 1000 citizens: (e.3.1.1) 0-18 years old per 1000 citizens-male; (e.3.1.2) 0-18 years old per 1000 citizens-female. (e.3.2) 19-65 years old per 1000 citizens: (e.3.2.1) 19-65 years old per 1000 citizens-male; (e.3.2.2) 19-65 years old per 1000 citizens-female. (e.3.3) 65+ years old per 1000 citizens: (e.3.3.1) 65+ years old per 1000 citizens-male; (e.3.3.2) 65+ years old per 1000 citizens-female. (e.3.4) all ages per 1000 citizens: (e.3.4.1) all ages per 1000 citizens-male; (e.3.4.2) all ages per 1000 citizens-female. (e.4) Lower IQ cases: (e.4.1) 0-18 years old per 1000 citizens: (e.4.1.1) 0-18 years old per 1000 citizens-male; (e.4.1.2) 0-18 years old per 1000 citizens-female. (e.4.2) 19-65 years old per 1000 citizens: (e.4.2.1) 19-65 years old per 1000 citizens-male; (e.4.2.2) 19-65 years old per 1000 citizens-female. (e.4.3) 65+ years old per 1000 citizens:   79 (e.4.3.1) 65+ years old per 1000 citizens-male; (e.4.3.2) 65+ years old per 1000 citizens-female. (e.4.4) all ages per 1000 citizens: (e.4.4.1) all ages per 1000 citizens-male; (e.4.4.2) all ages per 1000 citizens-female. (e.5) Lower protein/globulin/albumin in serum cases: (e.5.1) 0-18 years old per 1000 citizens: (e.5.1.1) 0-18 years old per 1000 citizens-male; (e.5.1.2) 0-18 years old per 1000 citizens-female. (e.5.2) 19-65 years old per 1000 citizens: (e.5.2.1) 19-65 years old per 1000 citizens-male; (e.5.2.2) 19-65 years old per 1000 citizens-female. (e.5.3) 65+ years old per 1000 citizens: (e.5.3.1) 65+ years old per 1000 citizens-male; (e.5.3.2) 65+ years old per 1000 citizens-female. (e.5.4) all ages per 1000 citizens: (e.5.4.1) all ages per 1000 citizens-male; (e.5.4.2) all ages per 1000 citizens-female. (e.6) Higher REE in hair, human breast milk, blood plasma and serum cases: (e.6.1) 0-18 years old per 1000 citizens: (e.6.1.1) 0-18 years old per 1000 citizens-male; (e.6.1.2) 0-18 years old per 1000 citizens-female. (e.6.2) 19-65 years old per 1000 citizens: (e.6.2.1) 19-65 years old per 1000 citizens-male; (e.6.2.2) 19-65 years old per 1000 citizens-female. (e.6.3) 65+ years old per 1000 citizens: (e.6.3.1) 65+ years old per 1000 citizens-male; (e.6.3.2) 65+ years old per 1000 citizens-female. (e.6.4) all ages per 1000 citizens: (e.6.4.1) all ages per 1000 citizens-male; (e.6.4.2) all ages per 1000 citizens-female.   80 Chapter 8: Recommendations 8.1 Counter measures (clinical control) People working on REE mines especially in China can suffer the consequences of environmental contaminants and induced health problems. For example, the experience of Bayan Obo REE Mine located in Inner Mongolia, China, was that 10 out of 36 investigated fatalities of miners were from lung cancer during 1987 to 2002. There was a total of 27 who died from lung cancer from 1977 to 2001 (Chen, 2002). Effective measures need to be taken in order to prevent such health impacts and provide protection for REE miners. First of all, appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is essential on mine sites. Except for the common safety issues, some special concerns associated with REE need to be considered carefully. For example, professional masks with specific filters which can effectively prevent REE particulates inhalation, and professional vests with the function of blocking radiation coming with REE ores. Secondly, all miners also need a routine medical examination for tracking the REE content in their body.  This may include but not be limited to examinations of peripheral blood (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peripheral_blood_cell), liver function, chest X-Ray, lung function determination, and histological examination (http://www.cancer.gov/dictionary?cdrid=44834). In addition, other means can improve the control of REE health risks: Job position rotation can work well because those REEs which already been absorbed and accumulated within the human body can be excreted by metabolism, faeces and urine after a certain period of time even though this is a long term process. Improving the ventilation conditions can also be another effective way of reaching the ultimate goal of REE health issues mitigation.   For purpose of REE health risk management there remain several gaps and detailed problems need to be solved in the near future. Thus, future REE miners can work safely within the context of sustainable mining development. Residents living on and off the REE mine-sites cannot be ignored when building a health issues mitigation plan. For example, people can be moved away and relocated to other relatively safe areas with the support of REE mining companies and government if necessary. This largely depends on the level of health risks posed by mining   81 containments. A professional and REE-focused medical plan in terms of prevention, tracking, and therapy is essential in such circumstances.  8.2 REE health impacts assessment (HIA) Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Social Impact Assessment (SIA) are two well established components of the mine permitting process. While Health Impact Assessment (HIA) has to be conducted as well when a project or operation is deemed to hold the potential for adverse effects on the health of miners and associated community members. HIA according to the International Association for Impact Assessment (IAIA) is ‘A combination of procedures, methods and tools that systematically judges the potential, sometimes unintended, effects of a policy, plan, program or project on the health of a population, including the distribution of those effects within the population, and identifies appropriate actions to manage those effects.’ (IAIA, 2006) The HIA can be combined together with EIA and SIA in the form of Environmental, Social, Health Impact Assessment (ESHIA) as described by the International Council on Mining & Metals (ICMM, 2010). It is usually initiated at the completion of advanced exploration, interacting with the feasibility study. Health issues clearly need to be one of the top priorities for consideration among all the REE mining design and planning. Shandro (2013) described ‘If we’re not doing impact assessments to protect human health and well-being for current and future generations, why are we doing them at all? Really, if impact assessments are of any use, don’t they have to give us tools primarily to predict and mitigate impacts on human health and well-being?’ (MonkeyforestConsulting, 2013, http://monkeyforestconsulting.com/2013/06/17/heres-why-environmental-and-social-impact-assessments-must-be-guided-by-health-considerations/).   It is logical in such situations that EIA and SIA should be guided by HIA. Although a variety of HIA process models and HIA good practice guidelines have been published with a focus on regional, national and international levels, the basic major steps are very similar according to an International Council on Mining & Metals (ICMM) literature review (ICMM, 2010). HIA can be typically classified into two categories: Occupational HIA (OHIA) and Community HIA (CHIA). These are comprised of different detailed procedures. The potential HIA process related to REE mining will now be reviewed.    82 1) Occupational HIA at REE mines A large number of hazards on REE mines hold potential risks to health and wellbeing of the miners through various types of exposure in workplaces. First of all, miners can be affected in the physical environment where exploration, construction, ore extraction and mineral processing occur. For instance, the physical injury from accidents, musculoskeletal disorders from manual handling and whole-body vibration, hearing loss from noise exposure, skin cancer from outdoor sunlight, ionising and non-ionising radiation, heat exhaustion and hypothermia, etc (ICMM, 2009). Secondly, major health problems can result from hazardous substances encountered on REE mines, including REE themselves, radioactive substances, heavy metals and other dangerous impurities occurring together which have been previously reviewed. Last but not least, all the miners cannot avoid the stress and other mental health influences which arise from shift work, chronic fatigue. Generally, the REE occupational health impact assessment is a cyclical and iterative process rather than a simple linear one based on the nature of the occupation. However, assessment can still follow the fundamental steps outlined by ICMM: 1) identify REE hazards and their adverse health effects; 2) identify the exposed REE miners; 3) identify the process, tasks and areas where REE dangerous exposures occur; 4) assess and measure the REE exposure levels; 5) analyze the effectiveness of REE control measures; 6) analyze the health risks of REE hazardous exposures like comparing against REE occupational exposure limits; 7) prioritize the REE health risks from high to medium to low; 8) develop a REE health risks control plan (ICMM, 2009). In order to identify REE health hazards, a wide range of employment records need to be reviewed as a first step in the analysis. Useful documents would include incident reports, audit reports, occupational illness and injury reports, equipment maintenance and fault reports, health surveillance records, sickness absence reports, previous occupational hygiene surveys, site inspections, Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). In addition, a review of blueprints and schematics of every single working area, process and relative health records will be useful when identifying REE health hazards. A walk-through site survey of area, process and tasks can provide numerous clues and evidence on health hazards, exposure levels and the harm receptors. Exposed workers or REE health hazards receptors are another significant aspect need to be identified. The most effective and efficient way is to divide workers into groups with similar REE hazards exposure levels by process and areas of exact work, for example, ore extraction worker, ore transfer truck drivers, processing plant staff, office   83 administrative staff, lab technicians, mine geologists and engineers, etc. It is very important to understand the primary process and the tasks undertaken by each group thereby identifying the hazards systematically and comprehensively.  2) Community HIA at REE mines Communities close to REE mine sites are potentially high risk areas in which to live. The main reason is that the environment has been potentially contaminated by the outcomes from REE mining like REEs, heavy metals, radioactive substance, and acid as reviewed in chapter 4. Community members may develop problems in a wide range of infectious diseases, chronic diseases, nutritional disorders, physical injury, and mental health. There are important steps in performing an effective and efficient community HIA. The first important need is to gather the appropriate health determinants with a focus on REE. Secondly, the hazards exposure levels related to different determinants need to be assessed and also compared to the limits. The next critical step is to investigate how much dangerous substances are associated already as having been accumulated within each human body. Lastly, a medical treatment plan needs to be established with collaboration between local health care and medical facilities from the REE mines themselves. Due to the above analysis on REE toxicity and characteristics, as well as other relative pollutants exposure routes, the REE community health determinants are generally focused on land use, air quality, water quality, soil quality and mine waste management. All the hazards exposure levels and REE accumulated levels need sound technical support with precise data collection and analysis.  8.3 Future research There are research gaps in the field of REE health that appear to justify further research. First, most research studies have considered REE mixtures instead of individual REE. Different REE compounds may exhibit various chemical behaviors within the human body, particularly upon their dissolution and chemical conversion as discussed in chapter 3 and 4. Secondly, in most situations data on REE health and safety standards/limitations are limited. Thirdly, during the exposure assessment, current survey instruments may not be adequate and advanced facilities may need to be tested. Fourthly, medication surveillance facilities need to be more improved in details. Finally, REE water and tailing management need to be integrated into TSM.    84 Chapter 9: Conclusion This thesis has characterized the global REE mining development situation, where China has traditionally been the dominant REE producer and other countries are now also looking to develop REE mines. It shows in its survey shows that new REE mines will potentially be developed by the USA, Canada, Australia and Malaysia. This work has demonstrated the potentially significant occupational and community health risks and issues that may arise from this evolution in REE mining.   Identified occupational health risks have included lung disease, liver diseases, bones disease, skin disorders, brain diseases, blood diseases, and reproductive health issues. Community health issues have included indigestion, diarrhea, abdominal distension, anorexia, weakness, and fatigue and low IQ in children.   This research has clearly identified a need for indicators on REE health issues. It proposes as an original contribution a preliminary comprehensive set of occupational and community health indicators. Their intent would be to enable the management and control of REE health and safety risks for the protection of both miners and associated community members.   The proposed indicators can also be important in supporting the principals of REE HIA and furthering the principle of sustainable REE mining.   This research demonstrates that the continuation as well as the new development of responsible REE mining will need to consider the health risks associated with that form of mineral resource.  It has been clearly demonstrated that these can be significant in affecting workers and communities. A set of tools and indicators to drive performance and ensure that industry engages in responsible practices would appear to be needed for health and safety monitoring and management. Government also needs to be involved.   It would be logical to consider implementing a REE health dimension into such industry-driven initiatives as Canada’s TSM (MAC, 2012). REE companies could be called upon to adhere to the   85 guiding principles of TSM, demonstrating leadership by: 1) Engaging with communities; 2) Driving world-leading environmental practices; 3) Committing to the safety and health of employees and surrounding communities (MAC, 2012).   In addition, TSM also provides a ranking system for each indicator to reflect mining companies performance (MAC, 2012). Therefore, this work can be integrated into a component of such a TSM system. That component will very much depend upon the REE indicators and the form of knowledge that has been assembled on REE occupational and community health issues including: 1) REE geological characteristics; 2) REE toxicity 3) Key REE mining activities, contaminants, tailings, water management and closure processes that present potential occupational and community health and safety risks; 4) The routes and mechanism of inducing contaminates in the environment and health issues on human beings; 5) The regulation and policy frameworks in place to ensure sustainable REE mining, particularly in USA, Canada and China. This thesis has aimed to contribute to some of this basic knowledge to create a health and safety management system for use in this emerging mining sector.     86 References Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ‘Public Health Statement: Aluminum.’ September 2006. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp22-c1-b.pdf (Accessed 15 January 2013).   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Available at http://www.zlxtech.com.cn/element/Ce.htm (Accessed 19 February 2013).     97 Appendices Appendix A  Classification of rare earth element bearing mineral deposits (USGS, 2011) Deposit Type Example Carbonatite Aley, Canada; Argor (South Bluff Creek, James Bay, Alpha- B), Canada; Bayan Obo (Baotou), China; Big Spruce Lake ,Canada; Carb Lake Canada; Eldor Carbonatite Complex Canada; Gatineau Canada; Francon Quarry - Orleans (Eastview) Canada; Megiscane Lake Canada; Miaoya China; Rock Canyon Creek (Candy) Canada; Springer (Lavergne) Canada; St. Honoré Canada; Taohulashan China; Venturi Township (Township 107, Spanish River) Canada; Wajiertage (Wajiltag) China; Weishan (Chisan, Xishan,1010) China; Yangdun China; Yinachange (Yenachang) China; Zijingshan China; Carbonatite with residual enrichment Martison Lake Canada; Oka Canada;   98 Deposit Type Example Alkalic igneous  Akitskii Russia; Baerzhe China; Bancroft-Haliburton area Canada; Cida China; Coldwell complex Canada; Eden Lake Canada; Fanshan (Fangshan) China; Flowers Bay Canada; Jarud Qi, no. 801 China; Kamloops Canada; Kipawa Lake Canada; Lackner Lake (Nemegos) Canada; Letitia Lake - Mann 1 Canada; Maoniuping China; Mianning China; Nemegosenda Lake Canada; Qiganlaing China; Red Wine Canada; Rexspar (Birch Island) Canada; Saima China; Shallow Lake Canada; Strange Lake (Lac Brisson) Canada; Yousuobao China Hydrothermal       Fe-oxide  Atlin-Ruffner Canada; Guposhan China; Huashan China; MacDonald Pegmatite Canada; McKeel Lake Canada; Nipissis Canada; Nisikkatch-Hoidas Lakes Canada; Xihuashan China Ion adsorption  Chenxian County China; Dingnan China; Gannan Mine China; Guangdong China; Guidong China; Jianghua area China; Lanshan area China; Linwu China; Longchuan Heping China; Longnan (Zudong?) China; Pingyuan China;   99 Deposit Type Example Qingyuan China; Rucheng area China; Ruyuan China; Tongsalin China; Xunwun (Xunwu, Xun wa, Heling, Nanqiao) China; Zhangding (Longyan) China; Zixing China; Metamorphic  Guangshui China; Shengtieling China; Wuhe China Placer, Shoreline  Beihei (Beihai, Peibhai?) District China; Changan China; Chingshankangchow Taiwan; Dianbai China; Foulun Taiwan; Haifengtao Taiwan; Haikang China; Haishanchow Taiwan; Nanyang (Nangang) China; Nanshanhai China; Putaichow Taiwan; Sai-Lao (Quoinghi) China; Tingtouechow Taiwan; Tungshanchow Taiwan; Waisantingchow Taiwan; Wangtzeliaochow Taiwan; Wangyehchow Taiwan; Wuzhaung (Baoding) China; Xinglong China; Xitou China; Yangjiang (Nanshanhai) China; Zhanjiang district China. Placer, Alluvial Beihei District China; Dianbai China; Madianhe China; Mageng (Magang) China; Qinzhou (Qinxian) China; Xintou China; Xun Jiang China; Yueyang China; Zhanjiang China; Placer, Paleoplacer Archie Lake Canada;   100 Deposit Type Example Elliott Lake (Blind River)- Denison Canada; Elliott Lake (Blind River)- Quirke-Panel Canada; Elliott Lake (Blind River)- Stanleigh Canada; McLean Lake Canada; Wheeler River Canada; Williams Lake- Maw zone Canada; Phosphorite  Kunyang China; Xinhua China; Zhijin China Other Agnew Lake Canada; Bancroft-Haliburton area Canada; Denison Canada; McArthur River Canada; Wheeler River Canada; Baima China; Changling China; Dalucao China; Dongqing China; Gangkou China; Hueyang Mine China; Mengwang China; Moshikeng China; Nanshanxia China; No. 101 China; Ryunan China; Sanlangyan China; Shuitai China; Tanmen China; Taohualashan China; Urumqi China Gansu; Wuzhou China Guangxi/Hexian 23; Xing'an China; Xueshan China Guangdong/Xinfeng, China   101 Appendix B  Principal REE projects in USA (USGS, 2011) Province Mine Status Estimated Resources/Reserves Alaska Bokan Mountain Active, ongoing exploration 6.8 million tons of ore with an average 0.264% REE Alaska Salmon Bay Little geologic work has been done Total reserves was not calculated with average content of 0.79% REEO California Mountain Pass Deposit and Mine Molycorp ceased its mining of the Mountain Pass rare earth element deposit in 2002 when its permit expired. In 2009, Molycorp announced its intentions to resume min-ing at Mountain Pass by the year 2012 20 to 47 million metric tons of ore with an estimated average grade of 8.9% REEO California Music Valley Area Reported but no current exploration 3.5 to 8.8 weight percent yttrium Colorado Iron Hill Carbonatite Complex Not actively conducting work 655.6 million metric tons with 0.4% total REEO Colorado Wet Mountains Area No apparent exploration activity LREE Reserves of 26600 metric tons; HREE reserves of 17700 metric tons Idaho Diamond Creek Area No apparent exploration activity 2600 metric tons of ore with an average grade of 1.22% total REEO Idaho Hall Mountain No apparent exploration activity Thorium reserves of 104300 metric tons with an average of 0.05% REEO. Idaho Lemhi Pass District, Idaho-Montana Has evaluated the thorium and REE resources On average, roughly equal concentrations of thorium and total REE. Reserves of 64000 metric tons of ThO2 Illinois Hicks Dome No apparent exploration activity Only 64m samples with Thorium and REE Missouri Pea Ridge Iron Deposit and Mine Large surface reserves but no active development 600000 metric tons of REE reserves with an average grade of 12% REEO. Nebraska Elk Creek Carbonatite On May 4, 2010, Quantum Rare Earth Developments Corp. announced that it had acquired the Elk Creek carbonatite properties 39.4 million tons of 0.82% Nb2O5   102 Province Mine Status Estimated Resources/Reserves New Mexico Capitan Mountains No apparent exploration activity No estimation yet New Mexico El Porvenir District No apparent exploration activity No estimation yet New Mexico Gallinas Mountains No apparent exploration activity No estimation on reserves but 74.39% total REEO New Mexico Gold Hill Area and White Signal District No apparent exploration activity No estimation yet New Mexico Laughlin Peak Area No apparent exploration activity No estimation yet New Mexico Lemitar and Chupadera Mountains No apparent exploration activity No estimation yet New Mexico Petaca District No apparent exploration activity No estimation yet New Mexico Red Hills Area No apparent exploration activity No estimation yet New Mexico Wind Mountain Cornudas Mountains No apparent exploration activity No estimation yet New York Mineville Iron District No reported exploration, Iron ore was mined from the district intermittently from 1804 until the last operation closed in 1971. 80200 metric tons of REEO in the tailing Wyoming Bear Lodge Mountains Has explored for REE 9.8 million tons averaging 4.1% REEO Idaho Placer Deposits No active exploration 9130 metric tons of thorium oxide reserves and REE resources would be ten times the thorium resource. North & South Carolina Placer Deposits No reported exploration Total reserves of 4800 metric tons of thorium oxide. REE resource of roughly 53000 metric tons of REE oxide Florida Georgia Beach Placer Deposits No reported exploration reserves of about 198000 metric tons of REEO, 14700 metric tons of thorium oxide and 1490 metric tons of uranium oxide   103 Appendix C  PART IX Licensing of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) - South Carolina, USA. “[RHA 9.3 Exemptions] 9.3.1 Persons who receive, possess, use, process, transfer, transport, store, and/or commercially distribute NORM are exempt from the requirements of the provisions of this Part if the materials contain, or are contaminated at, concentrations of: 9.3.1.1 Thirty (30) picocuries per gram or less of TENR due to radium 226 or radium 228 in soil, averaged over any 100 square meters and averaged over the first 15 centimeters of soil below the surface, provided the radon emanation rate is less than 20 picocuries per square meter per second.  9.3.1.2 Thirty (30) picocuries per gram or less of TENR due to radium 226 or radium 228 in media other than soil, provided the radon emanation rate is less than 20 picocuries per square meter per second; or  9.3.1.3 Five (5) picocuries per gram or less of TENR due to radium 226 or radium 228 in soil, averaged over any 100 square meters and averaged over the first 15 centimeters of soil below the surface, in which the radon emanation rate is equal to or greater than 20 picocuries per square meter per second,  9.3.1.4 Five (5) picocuries per gram or less of TENR due to radium 226 or radium 228 in media other than soil, in which the radon emanation rate is equal to or greater than 20 picocuries per square meter per second; or  9.3.1.5 One hundred fifty (150) picocuries or less per gram of any other NORM radionuclide in soil, averaged over any 100 square meters and averaged over the first 15 centimeters of soil below the surface,  9.3.1.6 One hundred fifty (150) picocuries or less per gram of any other NORM radionuclide in media other than soil;  9.3.1.7 Materials in the recycling process contaminated with scale or residue not otherwise exempted, and other equipment containing NORM are exempt from the requirements of these rules if the maximum radiation exposure level does not exceed 50 microroentgens per hour including the background radiation level at any accessible point; or    104 9.3.2 Persons who possess facilities, equipment or land contaminated with NORM in quantities less than the following levels are exempt from the requirements of the provisions of this part:  9.3.2.1 Surface contamination which averages 5000 disintegrations per minute per 100 centimeters squared over the entire measured surface;  9.3.2.2 Not to exceed a maximum reading of 15000 disintegrations per minute per 100 centimeters squared to an area of not more than 100 centimeters squared, notwithstanding the maximum aforementioned limit. The maximum radiation exposure level shall not exceed the limit specified in RHA 9.3.1.7; or  9.3.2.3 Removable contamination not to exceed 1000 disintegrations per minute per 100 centimeters squared.  [RHA 9.5 General License] 9.5.1 A general license is hereby issued to mine, receive, possess, own, use, process, transport, store, and transfer for disposal NORM or to recycle NORM contaminated materials not exempted in RHA 9.3 3 without regard to quantity. This general license does not authorize the manufacture or commercial distribution of products containing NORM in concentrations greater than those specified in RHA 9.3 or of NORM in any food, beverage, cosmetic, drug, or other commodity designed for ingestion or inhalation by, or application to, a human being. The melting of scrap metal is authorized by the general license if the dilution of the NORM in the end products or melt byproducts is sufficient to reduce any expected average concentration of NORM to levels not to exceed the concentration specified in RHA 9.3.”      105 Appendix D  Title 20 Environmental Protection, Chapter 3 Radiation Protection, Part 4 Standards for protection against radiation-New Mexico, USA. “[20.3.4.405 Occupational dose limits for adults] Annual limits.  The licensee or registrant shall control the occupational dose to individual adults to the following dose limits: (1) an annual limit, which is the more limiting of: (a) the total effective dose equivalent being equal to 5 rems (0.05 sievert); or (b) the sum of the deep dose equivalent and the committed dose equivalent to any individual organ or tissue other than the lens of the eye being equal to 50 rems (0.5 sievert); and (2) the annual limits to the lens of the eye, to the skin of the whole body, and to the skin of extremities which are: (a) a lens dose equivalent of 15 rems (0.15 sievert); and (b) a shallow dose equivalent of 50 rems (0.5 sievert) to the skin of the whole body or to the skin of any extremity.”              106 Appendix E  Principal REE projects in Canada (NRC 2012) Province/Mine Status & Estimated Resources/Reserves Northwest Territories/ Avalon Rare Metals Inc. Nechalacho-Thor Lake Deposit. Feasibility study is to be completed by 2013 and construction could begin in 2014. Target production of roughly 10 000 t/y is projected to commence in 2016/17. Approximately 28% HREE. 14.5 million tonnes (Mt) of probable reserves grading 1.53% total rare earth oxides. Quebec/ Commerce Resources Corporation.  Ashram Project A preliminary economic assessment has been completed in 2012. Estimates an annual production of 16 000-17 000 t of rare earth oxides over a mine life of 25 years. 29 Mt of measured and indicated resources and 219 Mt of inferred resources averaging 1.88% total rare earth oxides at a cut-off grade of 1.25%, of which roughly 9% was heavy and middle REE. Alberta/ DNI Metals Inc. Buckton Project Exploration, an initial NI 43-101 technical report has been issued. An initial NI 43-101 technical report that classified inferred resources representing 227 t of mineralized black shale grading 0.03% total REE. Quebec/ GéoMéga Resources Ltd. Montviel Project Exploration, NI 43-101 report has been issued. A 2011 NI 43-101 resource estimate noted 183.9 Mt of indicated resources grading 1.453% total rare earth oxides with a cut-off grade of 1.00% and containing less than 1% HREE content. The estimate noted a further 66.7 Mt of inferred resources grading 1.460% total rare earth oxides using a 1.00% cut-off grade. A 2012 drilling program revealed a HREE enrichment zone located on the southern periphery of the Core Zone. Saskatchewan/  Great Western Minerals Group Limited. Hoidas Lake Project The project could proceed through the preliminary feasibility stages with a goal of being in production by 2016/17. It has one of the highest proportions of neodymium present in any known rare earth deposit (22%), making it strategically important to the permanent magnet industry. Resource estimates include measured resources of 0.983 Mt grading 2.568% rare earth oxides, indicated resources of 1.597 Mt grading 2.349% rare earth oxides, and inferred resources of 0.286 Mt grading 2.139% rare earth oxides. Quebec/ Exploration, NI 43-101 report has been issued.   107 Province/Mine Status & Estimated Resources/Reserves IAMGOLD Corporation.        Niobec Project Based on a 2011 drill program, a NI 43-101 technical report indicated inferred resources of 466.8 Mt at a grade of 1.65% total rare earth oxides, including 0.031% heavy rare earth oxides. This corresponds to approximately 98.1% LREE and 1.9 % HREE. Quebec/ Matamec Explorations Inc.  Kipawa Project Production of roughly 5000 t/y is estimated to begin by 2016 An estimated mineral resource of 19 Mt of indicated and inferred resources grading 0.428% total rare earth oxides with a 36% concentration of HREE plus yttrium. Quebec/ Orbite Aluminae Inc.  Grande Vallée Project In production. Orbite has the capacity to produce roughly 1000 t/y of rare earth oxides. Importantly, REE are to be considered as by-products arising from the production of alumina. A 2012 NI 43-101 compliant report identified over 1 billion t of aluminous clay in this deposit containing roughly 600 000 t of total rare earth oxides, of which close to 16% are HREE plus yttrium. Ontario/ Pele Mountain Resources.  Eco Ridge Project Mine construction to begin in 2016. May potentially produce 5000 t/y of REE over a 14-year span. Pele’s recent NI 43-101 preliminary economic assessment provided an assessment of 48.7 Mt of indicated resources grading 0.1157% total rare earth oxides and 37.8 Mt of inferred resources grading 0.1100% total rare earth oxides using a cut-off grade of 0.028% U3O8. Quebec/ Quest Rare Minerals Ltd.  Strange Lake “B” Zone Project Annual production of 10 000-12 000 t is expected to commence in 2017/18. 0.50% total rare earth oxides cut-off grade were indicated resources of 278.1 Mt grading 0.933% total rare earth oxides plus yttrium and an inferred resource of 214.4 Mt grading 0.85% total rare earth oxides plus yttrium. The “B” Zone mineral resource estimate indicates a concentration of roughly 38% HREE contained in the total rare earth deposit. Ontario/  Exploration.   108 Province/Mine Status & Estimated Resources/Reserves Rare Earth Metals Inc- Clay-Howells Project The mineral resource estimate for the deposit, at a 0.6% total rare earth oxides cut-off grade, is an inferred resource of 8.5 Mt at 44.15% iron oxide (Fe2O3) and 0.73% total rare earth oxides. The project contains an estimated 9% concentration of HREE. Ontario/ Rare Earth Metals Inc Lavergne-Springer Project Exploration In 2012, the company announced its initial NI 43-101 compliant resource estimate in respect of the Lavergne-Springer project indicating 4.2 Mt of an indicated resource grading 1.14% total rare earth oxides with an approximate 6% concentration of HREE at a cut-off grade of 0.9% and 12.7 Mt of inferred resources grading 1.17% total rare earth oxides with an approximate 4% concentration of HREE at a 0.9% cut-off grade. Newfoundland/ Rare Earth Metals Inc Two Tom Project Exploration. A 2012 NI 43-101 technical report has been issued.  Inferred resources of 41 Mt at 1.18% total rare earth oxides with a 0.6% cut-off grade and containing roughly a 6% HREE content. The resource further identifies 0.26% niobium pentoxide and 0.18% beryllium oxide. Newfoundland & Labrador/ Search Minerals Inc.  Foxtrot Project Exploration. A 2012 NI 43-101 report has been issued. A 2012 NI 43-101 compliant mineral resource estimate identified 3.41 Mt of indicated resources grading 1.09% total rare earth oxides and containing 0.21% HREE (20%) and 5.85 Mt of inferred resources grading 0.96% total rare earth oxides and containing 0.21% HREE.   109 Appendix F  Workers Compensation Act-Occupational Health and Safety Regulation-Part 7: Noise, Vibration, Radiation and Temperature-Division 3: Radiation Exposure-British Columbia, Canada. [Exposure limits] 7.19     (1) A worker's exposure to ionizing radiation must not exceed any of the following: (a) an annual effective dose of 20 mSv; (b) an annual equivalent dose of (i) 50 mSv to the lens of the eye, (ii) 500 mSv to the skin, averaged over any 1 cm2area at a nominal depth of 7 mg/cm2, regardless of the area exposed, or (iii) 500 mSv to the hands and feet. (2) If a worker declares her pregnancy to the employer, her effective dose of ionizing radiation, for the remainder of the pregnancy, from external and internal sources, must be limited by the employer to the lesser of (a) 4 mSv, or (b) the dose limit specified for pregnant workers under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act (Canada). (3) The employer must ensure that the exposure of workers to ionizing radiation is kept as low as reasonably achievable below the exposure limits. (4) The employer must ensure that a worker's exposure to non-ionizing radiation does not exceed the exposure limits specified in (a) for radiofrequency: (i) Health Canada Safety Code 25, Short-Wave Diathermy Guidelines for Limiting Radiofrequency Exposure, 1983, as amended from time to time; (ii) Health Canada Safety Code 26, Guidelines on Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Magnetic Resonance Clinical Systems, 1987, as amended from time to time; (iii) Health Canada Safety Code 6, Limits of Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields in the Frequency Range from 3 kHz to 300 GHz, 1999, as amended from time to time, and   110 (b) for lasers: (i) ANSI Standard Z136.1-2000, Safe Use of Lasers, as amended from time to time; (ii) ANSI Standard Z136.2-1997, Safe Use of Optical Fiber Communication Systems Utilizing Laser Diode and LED Sources, as amended from time to time; (iii) ANSI Standard Z136.3-1996, Safe Use of Lasers in Health Care Facilities, as amended from time to time; (iv) CSA Standard Z386-01, Laser Safety in Health Care Facilities, as amended from time to time, except as otherwise determined by the Board. (5)  A worker's exposure to ultraviolet radiation produced by equipment or industrial processes must not exceed the threshold limit values specified in the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists publication entitled Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices, dated 2003, as amended from time to time. [en. B.C. Reg. 382/2004.]  [Exposure control plan] 7.20  (1) If a worker exceeds or may exceed an action level, ionizing radiation or action level, non-ionizing radiation, the employer must develop and implement an exposure control plan meeting the requirements of section 5.54 (2). (2) The instructions to workers developed under subsection (1) must be posted or otherwise available in the work area or near the applicable equipment controls. [en. B.C. Reg. 382/2004.]  [Reproductive hazards] 7.21  (1) The employer must ensure that every worker who exceeds, or may exceed, the action level, ionizing radiation is fully informed of any potential reproductive hazards associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. (2) When requested by a pregnant worker or by a worker intending to conceive a child, the employer must make counselling available with respect to the reproductive hazards associated with exposure to ionizing radiation.   111 [en. B.C. Reg. 382/2004.]  [Monitoring exposure] 7.22 Unless exempted by the Board, if a worker exceeds or may exceed the action level, ionizing radiation, the employer must ensure that the worker is provided with and properly uses a personal dosimeter acceptable to the Board. [en. B.C. Reg. 382/2004.]  [Standards for use of equipment] 7.23 Equipment producing ionizing or non-ionizing radiation or ultrasonic energy must be installed, operated and maintained in accordance with the following: (a) for ionizing radiation: (i) Health Canada Safety Code 20A, X-Ray Equipment in Medical Diagnosis Part A: Recommended Safety Procedures for Installation and Use, 1980, as amended from time to time; (ii) Health Canada Safety Code 27, Requirements for Industrial X-Ray Equipment Use and Installation, 1987, as amended from time to time; (iii) Health Canada Safety Code 28, Radiation Protection in Veterinary Medicine — Recommended Safety Procedures for Installation and Use of Veterinary X-Ray Equipment, 1991, as amended from time to time; (iv) Health Canada Safety Code 29, Requirements for the Safe Use of Baggage X-Ray Inspection Systems, 1993, as amended from time to time; (v) Health Canada Safety Code 30, Radiation Protection in Dentistry — Recommended Safety Procedures for the Use of Dental X-Ray Equipment, 1999, as amended from time to time; (vi) Health Canada Safety Code 31, Radiation Protection in Computed Tomography Installation, 1994, as amended from time to time; (vii) Health Canada Safety Code 32, Safety Requirements and Guidance for Analytical X-Ray Equipment, 1994, as amended from time to time; (viii) Health Canada Safety Code 33, Radiation Protection in Mammography, 1995, as amended from time to time;   112  [Radiation Surveys] 7.24 Except as otherwise determined by the Board, the employer must conduct a radiation survey for ionizing radiation in accordance with the standard practice specified under the applicable Safety Code listed in section 7.23 (a) or the regulations under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act (Canada), (a) at the times required by the Safety Code or regulations, as the case requires, (b) if equipment has been damaged or modified, or (c) if there is an indication of an unusually high exposure of a worker to ionizing radiation. [en. B.C. Reg. 382/2004.]   [Records] 7.25 The employer must (a) maintain and make available to the Board, (i) for at least 10 years, records of radiation surveys, and (ii) for the period that the worker is employed plus 10 years, records of exposure monitoring and personal dosimetry data, and (b) make the records available to workers. [en. B.C. Reg. 382/2004.]        113 Appendix G  Principal REE projects in China (USGS, 2013) Province /Mine Status & Estimated Resources/Reserves  Inner Mongolia/ Bayan Obo (Baotou) REE mine Current producer 48 Mt @ 6% REO of reserves; annual production around 55 thousand tons of total rare earth oxides. Fujian/ Xiamen Tungsten CO., Ltd Current producer 0.13 million tonnes (Mt) of reserves; annual production around 2000 tons of rare earth oxides. Hainan/  Rising nonferrous metals share Co., Ltd. Current producer 7.13 million tonnes (Mt) of reserves; less than 20 thousand of annual production rare earth oxides. Xinjiang/ Wajiertage (Wajiltag) Potential resource 0.15-4.3% REO. Liaoning/ Saima Potential resource 0.3-4.5% REO estimated resource. Shandong/ Weishan Current producer >1.6% REO in production Hubei/ Miaoya Potential resource Average grade of ~ 1.7% REO Sichuan/  Cida Potential producer 0.05% REO estimated resource Guizhou/  Zijin Occurrence > 0.05% REO estimated resource Guizhou/  Xiuwen Occurrence 0.1-0.2% REO estimated resource Hunan/  Chenxian County Current producer 8000 t, 0.05-0.30% REO Jiangxi/  Longnan Exploration 1 Mt REO estimated resource Guangxi/  Xun Jiang Prospect 1993 66.7 Mt @ 6% HM estimated resource (1982)    114 Appendix H  Water pollutants emission limits and benchmarks displacement per unit of product (Unit: mg/L, except for pH) (GB 26451-2011).  Item  Contaminant Direct / Indirect discharge limits Monitor positions 1 PH 6~9 6~9 Enterprise sewage discharge port 2 Suspended matter 10 10 3 Fluoride 5 5 4 Petroleum N/A N/A 5 Chemical oxygen demand 80 100 6 Total phosphorus 3 5 7 Total nitrogen 50 70 8 Ammonia nitrogen 25 50 9 Total zinc 1.5 1.5 10 Total thorium, uranium 0.1 Plant or facility wastewater discharge port.  11 Total cadmium 0.08 12 Total lead 0.5 13 Total arsenic 0.3 14 Total chromium 1.0 15 Hexavalent chromium 0.3 Benchmark effluent volume per unit product    Mineral processing (based on raw ore) M3/t 1.0 Displacement measurement location should be the same one with emissions monitoring control position Decomposition extraction (based on REO) M3/t 30 Extraction (based on REO) M3/t 35 Metal and alloy preparation M3/t 8    115 Appendix I  Air pollutants emission limits (unit:mg/m^3) (GB 26451-2011). Item  Contaminants Process and equipment Limits Monitor positions 1 Sulfur dioxide Decomposition extraction 500 Plant or facility exhaust stack  2 Sulfuric acid mist Decomposition extraction 45 3 Particulate matter  Mining and mineral processing 80 Decomposition extraction 50 Extraction 50 Metal and alloy preparation 60 Rare earth ferrosilicon alloy 60 4 Fluoride  Decomposition extraction 9 Metal and alloy preparation 7 Rare earth ferrosilicon alloy 7 5 Chlorine Decomposition extraction 30 Extraction 30 Metal and alloy preparation 50 6 Hydrogen chloride Decomposition extraction 60 Extraction 80 7 Nitrogen oxides Decomposition extraction 240 Extraction 200 8 Total uranium and thorium Total 0.10 Benchmark effluent volume per unit product  Mineral processing (Based on raw ore) M3/t  300 Displacement measurement location should be the same one with emissions monitoring control position Decomposition Extraction (Based on REO) M3/t 25000 Extraction (Based on REO)  M3/t 30000 Metal and alloy preparation M3/t 25000     116 Appendix J  Compare occupational dose limits of Ur, Th and REE for adults (Title 20 Environmental Protection, Chapter 3 Radiation Protection, Part 4 Standards for protection against radiation, 20.3.4.405) Radionuclide Class Table 1 Occupational Values Table 2 Effluent Concentrations Table 3 Releases to Sewers Col.1 Col.2 Col.3 Col.1 Col.2 Monthly Average Concentration (µCi/ml) Oral Ingestion ALI(µCi) Inhalation Air (µCi/ml) Water (µCi/ml) ALI (µCi) DAC (µCi/ml) Lanthanum-1312 D, all compounds, Except those given for W, oxides and hydroxides 5E+4 - 1E+5 2E+5 5E-5 7E-5 2E-7 2E-7 6E-4 - 6E-3 - Lanthanum-132 D, see 131La W, see 131La 3E+3 - 1E+4 1E+4 4E-6 5E-6 1E-8 2E-8 4E-5 - 4E-4 - Lanthanum-135 D, see 131La W, see 131La 4E+4 - 1E+5 9E+4 4E-5 4E-5 1E-7 1E-7 5E-4 - 5E-3 - Lanthanum-137 D, see 131La  W, see 131La 1E+4 - - - 6E+1 Liver (7E+1) 3E+2 Liver (3E+2) 3E-8 - 1E-7 - - 1E-10 - 4E-10 2E-4 - - - 2E-3 - - - Lanthanum-138 D, see 131La W, see 131La 9E+2 - 4E+0 1E+1 1E-9 6E-9 5E-12 2E-11 1E-5 - 1E-4 - Lanthanum-140 D, see 131La W, see 131La 6E+2 - 1E+3 1E+3 6E-7 5E-7 2E-9 2E-9 9E-6 - 9E-5 - Lanthanum-141 D, see 131La W, see 131La 4E+3 - 9E+3 1E+4 4E-6 5E-6 1E-8 2E-8 5E-5 - 5E-4 - Lanthanum-1422 D, see 131La W, see 131La 8E+3 - 2E+4 3E+4 9E-6 1E-5 3E-8 5E-8 1E-4 - 1E-3 - Lanthanum-1432 D, see 131La W, see 131La 4E+4 St wall (4E+4) - 1E+5 - 9E+4 4E-5 - 4E-5 1E-7 - 1E-7 - 5E-4 - - 5E-3 -   117 Radionuclide Class Table 1 Occupational Values Table 2 Effluent Concentrations Table 3 Releases to Sewers Col.1 Col.2 Col.3 Col.1 Col.2 Monthly Average Concentration (µCi/ml) Oral Ingestion ALI(µCi) Inhalation Air (µCi/ml) Water (µCi/ml) ALI (µCi) DAC (µCi/ml) Cerium-134 W, all compounds, Except those given for YY, oxides, hydroxides, and fluorides 5E+2 LLI wall (6E+2) - 7E+2 - 7E+2 3E-7 - 3E-7 1E-9 - 9E-10 - 8E-6 - - 8E-5 - Cerium-135 W, see 134Ce Y, see 134Ce 2E+3 - 4E+3 4E+3 2E-6 1E-6 5E-9 5E-9 2E-5 - 2E-4 - Cerium-137m W, see 134Ce Y, see 134Ce 2E+3 LLI wall (2E+3) - 4E+3 - 4E+3 2E-6 - 2E-6 6E-9 - 5E-9 - 3E-5 - - 3E-4 - Cerium-137 W, see 134Ce Y, see 134Ce 5E+4 - 1E+5 1E+5 6E-5 5E-5 2E-7 2E-7 7E-4 - 7E-3 - Cerium-139 W, see 134Ce Y, see 134Ce 5E+3 - 8E+2 7E+2 3E-7 3E-7 1E-9 9E-10 7E-5 - 7E-4 - Cerium-141 W, see 134Ce Y, see 134Ce 2E+3 LLI wall (2E+3) - 7E+2 - 6E+2 3E-7 - 2E-7 1E-9 - 8E-10 - 3E-5 - - 3E-4 - Cerium-143 W, see 134Ce Y, see 134Ce 1E+3 LLI wall (1E+3) - 2E+3 - 2E+3 8E-7 - 7E-7 3E-9 - 2E-9 - 2E-5 - - 2E-4 - Cerium-144 W, see 134Ce Y, see 134Ce 2E+2 LLI wall (3E+2) - 3E+1 - 1E+1 1E-8 - 6E-9 4E-11 - 2E-11 - 3E-6 - - 3E-5 -   118 Radionuclide Class Table 1 Occupational Values Table 2 Effluent Concentrations Table 3 Releases to Sewers Col.1 Col.2 Col.3 Col.1 Col.2 Monthly Average Concentration (µCi/ml) Oral Ingestion ALI(µCi) Inhalation Air (µCi/ml) Water (µCi/ml) ALI (µCi) DAC (µCi/ml) Praseodymium-1362 W, all compounds, Except those given for YY, oxides, hydroxides, carbides, and fluorides 5E+4 St wall (7E+4) - 2E+5 - 2E+5 1E-4 - 9E-5 3E-7 - 3E-7 - 1E-3 - - 1E-2 -  Praseodymium-1372 W, see 136Pr Y, see 136Pr 4E+4 - 2E+5 1E+5 6E-5 6E-5 2E-7 2E-7 5E-4 - 5E-3 - Praseodymium-138m W, see 136Pr Y, see 136Pr 1E+4 - 5E+4 4E+4 2E-5 2E-5 8E-8 6E-8 1E-4 - 1E-3 - Praseodymium-139 W, see 136Pr Y, see 136Pr 4E+4 - 1E+5 1E+5 5E-5 5E-5 2E-7 2E-7 6E-4 - 6E-3 - Praseodymium-142m2 W, see 136Pr Y, see 136Pr 8E+4 - 2E+5 1E+5 7E-5 6E-5 2E-7 2E-7 1E-3 - 1E-2 - Praseodymium-142 W, see 136Pr Y, see 136Pr 1E+3 - 2E+3 2E+3 9E-7 8E-7 3E-9 3E-9 1E-5 - 1E-4 - Praseodymium-143 W, see 136Pr Y, see 136Pr 9E+2 LLI wall (1E+3) - 8E+2 - 7E+2 3E-7 - 3E-7 1E-9 - 9E-10 - 2E-5 - - 2E-4 - Praseodymium-1442 W, see 136Pr Y, see 136Pr 3E+4 St wall (4E+4) - 1E+5 - 1E+5 5E-5 - 5E-5 2E-7 - 2E-7 - 6E-4 - - 6E-3 - Praseodymium-145 W, see 136Pr Y, see 136Pr 3E+3 - 9E+3 8E+3 4E-6 3E-6 1E-8 1E-8 4E-5 - 4E-4 -    119 Radionuclide Class Table 1 Occupational Values Table 2 Effluent Concentrations Table 3 Releases to Sewers Col.1 Col.2 Col.3 Col.1 Col.2 Monthly Average Concentration (µCi/ml) Oral Ingestion ALI(µCi) Inhalation Air (µCi/ml) Water (µCi/ml) ALI (µCi) DAC (µCi/ml) Praseodymium-1472 W, see 136Pr Y, see 136Pr 5E+4 St wall (8E+4) - 2E+5 - 2E+5 8E-5 - 8E-5 3E-7 - 3E-7 - 1E-3 - - 1E-2 - Neodymium-1442 W, all compounds, Except those given for YY, oxides, hydroxides, carbides, and fluorides 1E+4 - 6E+4 5E+4 2E-5 2E-5 8E-8 8E-8 2E-4 -  2E-3 - Neodymium-138 W, see 136Nd Y, see 136Nd 2E+3 - 6E+3 5E+3 3E-6 2E-6 9E-9 7E-9 3E-5 - 3E-4 - Neodymium-139m W, see 136Nd Y, see 136Nd 5E+3 - 2E+4 1E+4 7E-6 6E-6 2E-8 2E-8 7E-5 - 7E-4 - Neodymium-1392 W, see 136Nd Y, see 136Nd 9E+4 - 3E+5 3E+5 1E-4 1E-4 5E-7 4E-7 1E-3 - 1E-2 - Neodymium-141 W, see 136Nd Y, see 136Nd 2E+5 - 7E+5 6E+5 3E-4 3E-4 1E-6 9E-7 2E-3 - 2E-2 - Neodymium-147 W, see 136Nd Y, see 136Nd 1E+3 LLI wall (1E+3) - 9E+2 - 8E+2 4E-7 - 4E-7 1E-9 - 1E-9 - 2E-5 - - 2E-4 - Neodymium-1492 W, see 136Nd Y, see 136Nd 1E+4 - 3E+4 2E+4 1E-5 1E-5 4E-8 3E-8 1E-4 - 1E-3 - Neodymium-1512 W, see 136Nd Y, see 136Nd 7E+4 - 2E+5 2E+5 8E-5 8E-5 3E-7 3E-7 9E-4 - 9E-3 -    120 Radionuclide Class Table 1 Occupational Values Table 2 Effluent Concentrations Table 3 Releases to Sewers Col.1 Col.2 Col.3 Col.1 Col.2 Monthly Average Concentration (µCi/ml) Oral Ingestion ALI(µCi) Inhalation Air (µCi/ml) Water (µCi/ml) ALI (µCi) DAC (µCi/ml) Promethium-1412 W, all compounds Except those for YY, oxides, hydroxides, carbides, and fluorides 5E+4 St wall (6E+4) - 2E+5 - 2E+5 8E-5 - 7E-5 3E-7 - 2E-7 - 8E-4 - - 8E-3 - Promethium-143 W, see 141Pm Y, see 141Pm 5E+3 - 6E+2 7E+2 2E-7 3E-7 8E-10 1E-9 7E-5 - 7E-4 - Promethium-144 W, see 141Pm Y, see 141Pm 1E+3 - 1E+2 1E+2 5E-8 5E-8 2E-10 2E-10 2E-5 - 2E-4 - Promethium-145 W, see 141Pm Y, see 141Pm 1E+4 - - 2E+2 Bone surf (2E+2) 2E+2 7E-8 - 8E-8 - 3E-10 3E-10 1E-4 - - 1E-3 - - Promethium-146 W, see 141Pm Y, see 141Pm 2E+3 - 5E+1 4E+1 2E-8 2E-8 7E-11 6E-11 2E-5 - 2E-4 - Promethium-147 W, see 141Pm Y, see 141Pm 4E+3 LLI wall (5E+3) - 1E+2 Bone surf (2E+2) 1E+2) 5E-8 - 6E-8 - 3E-10 2E-10 - 7E-5 - - 7E-4 - Promethium-148m W, see 141Pm Y, see 141Pm 7E+2 - 3E+2 3E+2 1E-7 1E-7 4E-10 5E-10 1E-5 - 1E-4 - Promethium-148 W, see 141Pm Y, see 141Pm 4E+2 LLI wall (5E+2) - 5E+2 - 5E+2 2E-7 - 2E-7 8E-10 - 7E-10 - 7E-6 - - 7E-5 -      121 Radionuclide Class Table 1 Occupational Values Table 2 Effluent Concentrations Table 3 Releases to Sewers Col.1 Col.2 Col.3 Col.1 Col.2 Monthly Average Concentration (µCi/ml) Oral Ingestion ALI(µCi) Inhalation Air (µCi/ml) Water (µCi/ml) ALI (µCi) DAC (µCi/ml) Promethium-149 W, see 141Pm Y, see 141Pm 1E+3 LLI wall (1E+3) 2E+3 - 2E+3 8E-7 - 8E-7 3E-9 - 2E-9 - 2E-5 - - 2E-4 - Promethium-150 W, see 141Pm Y, see 141Pm 5E+3 - 2E+4 2E+4 8E-6 7E-6 3E-8 2E-8 7E-5 - 7E-4 - Promethium-151 W, see 141Pm Y, see 141Pm 2E+3 - 4E+3 3E+3 1E-6 1E-6 5E-9 4E-9 2E-5 - 2E-4 - Samarium-141m^2 W, all compounds 3E+4 1E+5 4E-5 1E-7 4E-4 4E-3 Samarium-1412 W, all compounds 5E+4 St wall (6E+4) 2E+5 - 8E-5 - 2E-7 - - 8E-4 - 8E-3 Samarium-1422 W, all compounds 8E+3 3E+4 1E-5 4E-8 1E-4 1E-3 Samarium-145 W, all compounds 6E+3 5E+2 2E-7 7E-10 8E-5 8E-4 Samarium-146 W, all compounds 1E+1 Bone surf (3E+1) 4E-2 Bone surf (6E-2) 1E-11 - - 9E-14 - 3E-7 - 3E-6 Samarium-147 W, all compounds 2E+1 Bone surf (3E+1) 4E-2 Bone surf (7E-2) 2E-11 - - 1E-13 - 4E-7 - 4E-6 Samarium-151 W, all compounds 1E+4 LLI wall (1E+4) 1E+2 Bone surf (2E+2) 4E-8 - - 2E-10 - 2E-4 - 2E-3 Samarium-153 W, all compounds 2E+3 LLI wall (2E+3) 3E+3 - 1E-6 - 4E-9 - - 3E-5 - 3E-4   122 Radionuclide Class Table 1 Occupational Values Table 2 Effluent Concentrations Table 3 Releases to Sewers Col.1 Col.2 Col.3 Col.1 Col.2 Monthly Average Concentration (µCi/ml) Oral Ingestion ALI(µCi) Inhalation Air (µCi/ml) Water (µCi/ml) ALI (µCi) DAC (µCi/ml) Samarium-1552 W, all compounds 6E+4 St wall (8E+4) 2E+5 - 9E-5 - 3E-7 - - 1E-3 - 1E-2 Samarium-156 W, all compounds 5E+3 9E+3 4E-6 1E-8 7E-5 7E-4 Europium-145 W, all compounds 2E+3 2E+3 8E-7 3E-9 2E-5 2E-4 Europium-146 W, all compounds 1E+3 1E+3 5E-7 2E-9 1E-5 1E-4 Europium-147 W, all compounds 3E+3 2E+3 7E-7 2E-9 4E-5 4E-4 Europium-148 W, all compounds 1E+3 4E+2 1E-7 5E-10 1E-5 1E-4 Europium-149 W, all compounds 1E+4 3E+3 1E-6 4E-9 2E-4 2E-3 Europium-150 (12.62 h) W, all compounds 3E+3 8E+3 4E-6 1E-8 4E-5 4E-4 Europium-150 (34.2 y) W, all compounds 8E+2 2E+1 8E-9 3E-11 1E-5 1E-4 Europium-152m W, all compounds 3E+3 6E+3 3E-6 9E-9 4E-5 4E-4 Europium-152 W, all compounds 8E+2 2E+1 1E-8 3E-11 1E-5 1E-4 Europium-154 W, all compounds 5E+2 2E+1 8E-9 3E-11 7E-6 7E-5 Europium-155 W, all compounds 4E+3 9E+1 Bone surf (1E+2) 4E-8 - - 2E-10 5E-5 - 5E-4 - Europium-156 W, all compounds 6E+2 5E+2 2E-7 6E-10 8E-6 8E-5 Europium-157 W, all compounds 2E+3 5E+3 2E-6 7E-9 3E-5 3E-4 Europium-1582 W, all compounds 2E+4 6E+4 2E-5 8E-8 3E-4 3E-3   123 Radionuclide Class Table 1 Occupational Values Table 2 Effluent Concentrations Table 3 Releases to Sewers Col.1 Col.2 Col.3 Col.1 Col.2 Monthly Average Concentration (µCi/ml) Oral Ingestion ALI(µCi) Inhalation Air (µCi/ml) Water (µCi/ml) ALI (µCi) DAC (µCi/ml) Gadolinium-1452 D, all compounds Except those given for WW, oxides, hydroxides, and fluorides 5E+4 St wall (5E+4) - 2E+5 - 2E+5 6E-5 - 7E-5 2E-7 - 2E-7 - 6E-4 - - 6E-3 - Gadolinium-146 D, see 145Gd W, see 145Gd 1E+3 - 1E+2 3E+2 5E-8 1E-7 2E-10 4E-10 2E-5 - 2E-4 - Gadolinium-147 D, see 145Gd W, see 145Gd 2E+3 - 4E+3 4E+3 2E-6 1E-6 6E-9 5E-9 3E-5 - 3E-4 - Gadolinium-148 D, see 145Gd W, see 145Gd 1E+1 Bone surf (2E+1) - - 8E+3 Bone surf (2E-2) 3E-2 Bone surf (6E-2) 3E-12 - 1E-11 - - 2E-14 - 8E-14 - 3E-7 - - - 3E-6 - - Gadolinium-149 D, see 145Gd W, see 145Gd 3E+3 - 2E+3 2E+3 9E-7 1E-6 3E-9 3E-9 4E-5 - 4E-4 - Gadolinium-151 D, see 145Gd W, see 145Gd 6E+3 - - 4E+2 Bone surf (6E+2) 1E+3 2E-7 - 5E-7 - 9E-10 2E-9 9E-5 - - 9E-4 - - Gadolinium-152 D, see 145Gd W, see 145Gd 2E+1 Bone surf (3E+1) - - 1E-2 Bone surf (2E-2) 4E-2 Bone surf (8E-2) 4E-12 - 2E-11 - - 3E-14 - 1E-13 - 4E-7 - - - 4E-7 - -   124 Radionuclide Class Table 1 Occupational Values Table 2 Effluent Concentrations Table 3 Releases to Sewers Col.1 Col.2 Col.3 Col.1 Col.2 Monthly Average Concentration (µCi/ml) Oral Ingestion ALI(µCi) Inhalation Air (µCi/ml) Water (µCi/ml) ALI (µCi) DAC (µCi/ml) Gadolinium-153 D, see 145Gd W, see 145Gd 5E+3 - - 1E+2 Bone surf (2E+2) 6E+2 6E-8 - 2E-7 - 3E-10 8E-10 6E-5 - - 6E-4 - - Gadolinium-159 D, see 145Gd W, see 145Gd 3E+3 - 8E+3 6E+3 3E-6 2E-6 1E-8 8E-9 4E-5 - 4E-4 - Terbium-1472 W, all compounds 9E+3 3E+4 1E-5 5E-8 1E-4 1E-3 Terbium-149 W, all compounds 5E+3 7E+2 3E-7 1E-9 7E-5 7E-4 Terbium-150 W, all compounds 5E+3 2E+4 9E-6 3E-8 7E-5 7E-4 Terbium-151 W, all compounds 4E+3 9E+3 4E-6 1E-8 5E-5 5E-4 Terbium-153 W, all compounds 5E+3 7E+3 3E-6 1E-8 7E-5 7E-4 Terbium-154 W, all compounds 2E+3 4E+3 2E-6 6E-9 2E-5 2E-4 Terbium-155 W, all compounds 6E+3 8E+3 3E-6 1E-8 8E-5 8E-4 Terbium-156m (5.0 h) W, all compounds 2E+4 3E+4 1E-5 4E-8 2E-4 2E-3 Terbium-156m (24.4 h) W, all compounds 7E+3 8E+3 3E-6 1E-8 1E-4 1E-3 Terbium-156 W, all compounds 1E+3 1E+3 6E-7 2E-9 1E-5 1E-4 Terbium-157 W, all compounds 5E+4 LLI wall (5E+4) 3E+2 Bone surf (6E+2) 1E-7 - - 8E-10 - 7E-4 - 7E-3 Terbium-158 W, all compounds 1E+3 2E+1 8E-9 3E-11 2E-5 2E-4 Terbium-160 W, all compounds 8E+2 2E+2 9E-8 3E-10 1E-5 1E-4   125 Radionuclide Class Table 1 Occupational Values Table 2 Effluent Concentrations Table 3 Releases to Sewers Col.1 Col.2 Col.3 Col.1 Col.2 Monthly Average Concentration (µCi/ml) Oral Ingestion ALI(µCi) Inhalation Air (µCi/ml) Water (µCi/ml) ALI (µCi) DAC (µCi/ml) Terbium-161 W, all compounds 2E+3 LLI wall (2E+3) 2E+3 - 7E-7 - 2E-9 - - 3E-5 - 3E-4 Dysprosium-155 W, all compounds 9E+3 3E+4 1E-5 4E-8 1E-4 1E-3 Dysprosium-157 W, all compounds 2E+4 6E+4 3E-5 9E-8 3E-4 3E-3 Dysprosium-159 W, all compounds 1E+4 2E+3 1E-6 3E-9 2E-4 2E-3 Dysprosium-165 W, all compounds 1E+4 5E+4 2E-5 6E-8 2E-4 2E-3 Dysprosium-166 W, all compounds 6E+2 LLI wall (8E+2) 7E+2 - 3E-7 - 1E-9 - - 1E-5 - 1E-4 Holmium-1552 W, all compounds 4E+4 2E+5 6E-5 2E-7 6E-4 6E-3 Holmium-1572 W, all compounds 3E+5 1E+6 6E-4 2E-6 4E-3 4E-2 Holmium-1592 W, all compounds 2E+5 1E+6 4E-4 1E-6 3E-3 3E-2 Holmium-161 W, all compounds 1E+5 4E+5 2E-4 6E-7 1E-3 1E-2 Holmium-162m^2 W, all compounds 5E+4 3E+5 1E-4 4E-7 7E-4 7E-3 Holmium-1622 W, all compounds 5E+5 St wall (8E+5) 2E+6 - 1E-3 - 3E-6 - - 1E-2 - 1E-1 Holmium-164m^2 W, all compounds 1E+5 3E+5 1E-4 4E-7 1E-3 1E-2 Holmium-1642 W, all compounds 2E+5 St wall (2E+5) 6E+5 - 3E-4 - 9E-7 - - 3E-3 - 3E-2   126 Radionuclide Class Table 1 Occupational Values Table 2 Effluent Concentrations Table 3 Releases to Sewers Col.1 Col.2 Col.3 Col.1 Col.2 Monthly Average Concentration (µCi/ml) Oral Ingestion ALI(µCi) Inhalation Air (µCi/ml) Water (µCi/ml) ALI (µCi) DAC (µCi/ml) Holmium-166m W, all compounds 6E+2 7E+0 3E-9 9E-12 9E-6 9E-5 Holmium-166 W, all compounds 9E+2 LLI wall (9E+2) 2E+3 - 7E-7 - 2E-9 - - 1E-5 - 1E-4 Holmium-167 W, all compounds 2E+4 6E+4 2E-5 8E-8 2E-4 2E-3 Erbium-161 W, all compounds 2E+4 6E+4 3E-5 9E-8 2E-4 2E-3 Erbium-165 W, all compounds 6E+4 2E+5 8E-5 3E-7 9E-4 9E-3 Erbium-169 W, all compounds 3E+3 LLI wall (4E+3) 3E+3 - 1E-6 - 4E-9 - - 5E-5 - 5E-4 Erbium-171 W, all compounds 4E+3 1E+4 4E-6 1E-8 5E-5 5E-4 Erbium-172 W, all compounds 1E+3 LLI wall (1E+2) 1E+3 - 6E-7 - 2E-9 - - 2E-5 - 2E-4 Thulium-1622 W, all compounds 7E+4 St wall (7E+4) 3E+5 - 1E-4 - 4E-7 - - 1E-3 - 1E-2 Thulium-166 W, all compounds 4E+3 1E+4 6E-6 2E-8 6E-5 6E-4 Thulium-167 W, all compounds 2E+3 LLI wall 2E+3) 2E+3 - 8E-7 - 3E-9 - - 3E-5 - 3E-4 Thulium-170 W, all compounds 8E+2 LLI wall (1E+3) 2E+2 - 9E-8 - 3E-10 - - 1E-5 - 1E-4   127 Radionuclide Class Table 1 Occupational Values Table 2 Effluent Concentrations Table 3 Releases to Sewers Col.1 Col.2 Col.3 Col.1 Col.2 Monthly Average Concentration (µCi/ml) Oral Ingestion ALI(µCi) Inhalation Air (µCi/ml) Water (µCi/ml) ALI (µCi) DAC (µCi/ml) Thulium-171 W, all compounds 1E+4 LLI wall (1E+4) 3E+2 Bone surf (6E+2) 1E-7 - - 8E-10 - 2E-4 - 2E-3 Thulium-172 W, all compounds 7E+2 LLI wall (8E+2) 1E+3 - 5E-7 - 2E-9 - - 1E-5 - 1E-4 Thulium-173 W, all compounds 4E+3 1E+4 5E-6 2E-8 6E-5 6E-4 Thulium-1752 W, all compounds 7E+4 St wall (9E+4) 3E+5 - 1E-4 - 4E-7 - - 1E-3 - 1E-2 Ytterbium-1622 W, all compounds Except those given for YY, oxides, hydroxides,& fluorides 7E+4 - 3E+5 3E+5 1E-4 1E-4 4E-7 4E-7 1E-3 - 1E-2 - Ytterbium-166 W, see 162Yb Y, see 162Yb 1E+3 - 2E+3 2E+3 9E-7 8E-7 3E-9 3E-9 2E-5 - 2E-4 - Ytterbium-1672 W, see 162Yb Y, see 162Yb 3E+5 - 8E+5 7E+5 3E-4 3E-4 1E-6 1E-6 4E-3 - 4E-2 Ytterbium-169 W, see 162Yb Y, see 162Yb 2E+3 - 8E+2 7E+2 4E-7 3E-7 1E-9 1E-9 2E-5 - 2E-4 - Ytterbium-175 W, see 162Yb Y, see 162Yb 3E+3 LLI wall (3E+3) - 4E+3 - 3E+3 1E-6 - 1E-6 5E-9 - 5E-9 - 4E-5 - - 4E-4 - Ytterbium-1772 W, see 162Yb Y, see 162Yb 2E+4 - 5E+4 5E+4 2E-5 2E-5 7E-8 6E-8 2E-4 - 2E-3 -   128 Radionuclide Class Table 1 Occupational Values Table 2 Effluent Concentrations Table 3 Releases to Sewers Col.1 Col.2 Col.3 Col.1 Col.2 Monthly Average Concentration (µCi/ml) Oral Ingestion ALI(µCi) Inhalation Air (µCi/ml) Water (µCi/ml) ALI (µCi) DAC (µCi/ml) Ytterbium-1782 W, see 162Yb Y, see 162Yb 1E+4 - 4E+4 4E+4 2E-5 2E-5 6E-8 5E-8 2E-4 - 2E-3 - Lutetium-169 W, all compounds Except those given for YY, oxides, hydroxides,and fluorides 3E+3 - 4E+3 4E+3 2E-6 2E-6 6E-9 6E-9 3E-5 - 3E-4 - Lutetium-170 W, see 169Lu Y, see 169Lu 1E+3 - 2E+3 2E+3 9E-7 8E-7 3E-9 3E-9 2E-5 - 2E-4 - Lutetium-171 W, see 169Lu Y, see 169Lu 2E+3 - 2E+3 2E+3 8E-7 8E-7 3E-9 3E-9 3E-5 - 3E-4 - Lutetium-172 W, see 169Lu Y, see 169Lu 1E+3 - 1E+3 1E+3 5E-7 5E-7 2E-9 2E-9 1E-5 - 1E-4 - Lutetium-173 W, see 169Lu Y, see 169Lu 5E+3 - - 3E+2 bone surf (5E+2) 3E+2 1E-7 - 1E-7 - 6E-10 4E-10 7E-5 - - 7E-4 - - Lutetium-174m W, see 169Lu Y, see 169Lu 2E+3 LLI wall (3E+3) - 2E+2 Bone surf (3E+2) 2E+2 1E-7 - 9E-8 - 5E-10 3E-10 - 4E-5 - - 4E-4 - Lutetium-174 W, see 169Lu Y, see 169Lu 5E+3 - - 1E+2 Bone surf (2E+2) 2E+2 5E-8 - 6E-8 - 3E-10 2E-10 7E-5 - - 7E-4 - - Lutetium-176m W, see 169Lu Y, see 169Lu 8E+3 - 3E+4 2E+4 1E-5 9E-6 3E-8 3E-8 1E-4 - 1E-3 -   129 Radionuclide Class Table 1 Occupational Values Table 2 Effluent Concentrations Table 3 Releases to Sewers Col.1 Col.2 Col.3 Col.1 Col.2 Monthly Average Concentration (µCi/ml) Oral Ingestion ALI(µCi) Inhalation Air (µCi/ml) Water (µCi/ml) ALI (µCi) DAC (µCi/ml) Lutetium-176 W, see 169Lu Y, see 169Lu 7E+2 - - 5E+0 Bone surf (1E+1) 8E+0 2E-9 - 3E-9 - 2E-11 1E-11 1E-5 - - 1E-4 - - Lutetium-177m W, see 169Lu Y, see 169Lu 7E+2 - - 1E+2 Bone surf (1E+2) 8E+1 5E-8 - 3E-8 - 2E-10 1E-10 1E-5 - - 1E-4 - - Lutetium-177 W, see 169Lu Y, see 169Lu 2E+3 LLI wall (3E+3) - 2E+3 - 2E+3 9E-7 - 9E-7 3E-9 - 3E-9 - 4E-5 - - 4E-4 - Lutetium-178m2 W, see 169Lu Y, see 169Lu 5E+4 St. wall (6E+4) - 2E+5 - 2E+5 8E-5 - 7E-5 3E-7 - 2E-7 - 8E-4 - - 8E-3 - Lutetium-1782 W, see 169Lu Y, see 169Lu 4E+4 St wall (4E+4) - 1E+5 - 1E+5 5E-5 - 5E-5 2E-7 - 2E-7 - 6E-4 - - 6E-3 - Lutetium-179 W, see 169Lu Y, see 169Lu 6E+3 - 2E+4 2E+4 8E-6 6E-6 3E-8 3E-8 9E-5 - 9E-4 - Scandium-43 Y, all compounds 7E+3 2E+4 9E-6 3E-8 1E-4 1E-3 Scandium-44m Y, all compounds 5E+2 7E+2 3E-7 1E-9 7E-6 7E-5 Scandium-44 Y, all compounds 4E+3 1E+4 5E-6 2E-8 5E-5 5E-4 Scandium-46 Y, all compounds 9E+2 2E+2 1E-7 3E-10 1E-5 1E-4   130 Radionuclide Class Table 1 Occupational Values Table 2 Effluent Concentrations Table 3 Releases to Sewers Col.1 Col.2 Col.3 Col.1 Col.2 Monthly Average Concentration (µCi/ml) Oral Ingestion ALI(µCi) Inhalation Air (µCi/ml) Water (µCi/ml) ALI (µCi) DAC (µCi/ml) Scandium-47 Y, all compounds 2E+3 LLI wall (3E+3) 3E+3 - 1E-6 - 4E-9 - - 4E-5 - 4E-4 Scandium-48 Y, all compounds 8E+2 1E+3 6E-7 2E-9 1E-5 1E-4 Scandium-492 Y, all compounds 2E+4 5E+4 2E-5 8E-8 3E-4 3E-3 Yttrium-86m^2 W, all compounds, Except those given for YY, oxides and hydroxides 2E+4 - 6E+4 5E+4 2E-5 2E-5 8E-8 8E-8 3E-4 - 3E-3 - Yttrium-86 W, see 86mY Y, see 86mY 1E+3 - 3E+3 3E+3 1E-6 1E-6 5E-9 5E-9 2E-5 - 2E-4 - Yttrium-87 W, see 86mY Y, see 86mY 2E+3 - 3E+3 3E+3 1E-6 1E-6 5E-9 5E-9 3E-5 - 3E-4 - Yttrium-88 W, see 86mY Y, see 86mY 1E+3 - 3E+2 2E+2 1E-7 1E-7 3E-10 3E-10 1E-5 - 1E-4 - Yttrium-90m W, see 86mY Y, see 86mY 8E+3 - 1E+4 1E+4 5E-6 5E-6 2E-8 2E-8 1E-4 - 1E-3 - Yttrium-90 W, see 86mY Y, see 86mY 4E+2 LLI wall (5E+2) - 7E+2 - 6E+2 3E-7 - 3E-7 9E-10 - 9E-10 - 7E-6 - - 7E-5 - Yttrium-91m^2 W, see 86mY Y, see 86mY 1E+5 - 2E+5 2E+5 1E-4 7E-5 3E-7 2E-7 2E-3 - 2E-2 - Yttrium-91 W, see 86mY Y, see 86mY 5E+2 LLI wall (6E+2) 2E+2 - 1E+2 7E-8 - 5E-8 2E-10 - 2E-10 - 8E-6 - - 8E-5 -   131 Radionuclide Class Table 1 Occupational Values Table 2 Effluent Concentrations Table 3 Releases to Sewers Col.1 Col.2 Col.3 Col.1 Col.2 Monthly Average Concentration (µCi/ml) Oral Ingestion ALI(µCi) Inhalation Air (µCi/ml) Water (µCi/ml) ALI (µCi) DAC (µCi/ml) Yttrium-92 W, see 86mY Y, see 86mY 3E+3 - 9E+3 8E+3 4E-6 3E-6 1E-8 1E-8 4E-5 - 4E-4 - Yttrium-93 W, See 86mY Y, see 86mY 1E+3 - 3E+3 2E+3 1E-6 1E-6 4E-9 3E-9 2E-5 - 2E-4 - Yttrium-942 W, see 86mY Y, see 86mY 2E+4 St wall (3E+4) 8E+4 - 8E+4 3E-5 - 3E-5 1E-7 - 1E-7 - 4E-4 - - 4E-3 - Yttrium-952 W, see 86mY Y, see 86mY 4E+4 St wall (5E+4) 2E+5 - 1E+5 6E-5 - 6E-5 2E-7 - 2E-7 - 7E-4 - - 7E-3 - Uranium-230 D, UF, UO2F2,  UO2(NO3)2  W, UO3, UF4, UC14 Y, UO2, U308 4E+0  Bone surf  (6E+0)  -  - 4E-1  Bone surf  (6E-1)  4E-1  3E-1 2E-10   -  1E-10  1E-10 -   8E-13  5E-13  4E-13 -   8E-8  -  - -   8E-7  -  - Uranium-231 D, see 230U    W, see 230U  Y, see 230U 5E+3  LLI wall  (4E+3)  -  - 8E+3   -  6E+3  5E+3 3E-6   -  2E-6  2E-6 1E-8   -  8E-9  6E-9 -   6E-5  -  - -   6E-4  -  - Uranium-232 D, see 230U    W, see 230U  Y, see 230U 2E+0  Bone surf  (4E+0)  -  - 2E-1  Bone surf  (4E-1)  4E-1  8E-3 9E-11   -  2E-10  3E-12 -   6E-13  5E-13  1E-14 -   6E-8  -  - -   6E-7  -  -   132 Radionuclide Class Table 1 Occupational Values Table 2 Effluent Concentrations Table 3 Releases to Sewers Col.1 Col.2 Col.3 Col.1 Col.2 Monthly Average Concentration (µCi/ml) Oral Ingestion ALI(µCi) Inhalation Air (µCi/ml) Water (µCi/ml) ALI (µCi) DAC (µCi/ml) Uranium-233 D, see 230U    W, see 230U  Y, see 230U 1E+1  Bone surf  (2E+1)  -  - 1E+0  Bone surf  (2E+0)  7E-1  4E-2 5E-10   -  3E-10  2E-11 -   3E-12  1E-12  5E-14 -   3E-7 -  - -   3E-6  -  - Uranium-234^3   D, see 230U    W, see 230U  Y, see 230U 1E+1  Bone surf  (2E+1)  -  - 1E+0  Bone surf  (2E+0  7E-1  4E-2 5E-10   -  3E-10  2E-11 -   3E-12  1E-12  5E-14 -   3E-7  -  - -   3E-6  -  - Uranium-235^3   D, see 230U    W, see 230U  Y, see 230U 1E+1  Bone surf  (2E+1)  -  - 1E+0  Bone surf  (2E+0)  8E-1  4E-2 6E-10   -  3E-10  2E-11 -   3E-12  1E-12  6E-14   3E-7  -  - -   3E-6  -  - Uranium-236 D, see 230U    W, see 230U  Y, see 230U 1E+1  Bone surf  (2E+1)  -  - 1E+0  Bone surf  (2E+0)  8E-1  4E-2 5E-10   -  3E-10  2E-11 -   3E-12  1E-12  6E-14 -   3E-7  -  - -   3E-6  -  - Uranium-237 D, see 230U    W, see 230U  Y, see 230U 2E+3  LLI wall  (2E+3)  -  - 3E+3   -  2E+3  2E+3 1E-6   -  7E-7  6E-7 4E-9   -  2E-9  2E-9 -   3E-5  -  - -   3E-4  -  -    133 Radionuclide Class Table 1 Occupational Values Table 2 Effluent Concentrations Table 3 Releases to Sewers Col.1 Col.2 Col.3 Col.1 Col.2 Monthly Average Concentration (µCi/ml) Oral Ingestion ALI(µCi) Inhalation Air (µCi/ml) Water (µCi/ml) ALI (µCi) DAC (µCi/ml) Uranium-238^3   D, see 230U    W, see 230U  Y, see 230U 1E+1  Bone surf  (2E+1)  -  - 1E+0  Bone surf  (2E+0)  8E-1  4E-2 6E-10   -  3E-10  2E-11 -   3E-12  1E-12  6E-14 -   3E-7  -  - -   3E-6  -  - Uranium-239^2   D, see 230U  W, see 230U  Y, see 230U 7E+4  -  - 2E+5  2E+5  2E+5 8E-5  7E-5  6E-5 3E-7  2E-7  2E-7 9E-4  -  - 9E-3  -  - Uranium-240 D, see 230U  W, see 230U  Y, see 230U  1E+3  -  - 4E+3  3E+3  2E+3 2E-6  1E-6  1E-6 5E-9  4E-9  3E-9 2E-5  -  - 2E-4  -  - Thorium-226^2   W, all compounds  except those given for Y  Y, oxides and  hydroxides 5E+3  St wall  (5E+3)  - 2E+2  -  1E+2 6E-8   -  6E-8 2E-10   -  2E-10 -  7E-5   - -  7E-4   - Thorium-227 W, see 226Th  Y, see 226Th 1E+2  - 3E-1  3E-1 1E-10  1E-10 5E-13  5E-13 2E-6  - 2E-5  - Thorium-228 W, see 226Th   Y, see 226Th 6E+0  Bone surf  (1E+1)  - 1E-2  Bone surf  (2E-2)  2E-2 4E-12   -  7E-12 -   3E-14  2E-14 -   2E-7  - -   2E-6  - Thorium-229 W, see 226Th   Y, see 226Th 6E-1  Bone surf  (1E+0)  -  9E-4 Bone surf (2E-3)  2E-3 Bone surf (3E-3) 4E-13   -  1E-12  - -   3E-15  -  4E-15 -   2E-8  -  - -   2E-7  -  -   134  Radionuclide Class Table 1 Occupational Values Table 2 Effluent Concentrations Table 3 Releases to Sewers Col.1 Col.2 Col.3 Col.1 Col.2 Monthly Average Concentration (µCi/ml) Oral Ingestion ALI(µCi) Inhalation Air (µCi/ml) Water (µCi/ml) ALI (µCi) DAC (µCi/ml) Thorium-230 W, see 226Th   Y, see 226Th 4E+0  Bone surf  (9E+0)  -  - 6E-3  Bone surf  (2E-2)  2E-2  Bone surf  (2E-2) 3E-12   -  6E-12   - -   2E-14  -   3E-14 -   1E-7  -   - -   1E-6  -   - Thorium-231 W, see 226Th  Y, see 226Th 4E+3  - 6E+3  6E+3 3E-6  3E-6 9E-9  9E-9 5E-5  - 5E-4  - Thorium-232 W, see 226Th   Y, see 226Th 7E-1  Bone surf  (2E+0)  -  - 1E-3  Bone surf  (3E-3)  3E-3  Bone surf  (4E-3) 5E-13   -  1E-12   - -   4E-15  -   6E-15 -   3E-8  -   - -   3E-7  -   - Thorium-234 W, see 226Th   Y, see 226Th 3E+2  LLI wall  (4E+2)  - 2E+2   -  2E+2 8E-8   -  6E-8 3E-10   -  2E-10 -   5E-6  - -   5E-5  -   135 Explanation of terminology in Appendix G above.  The regulation of “Title 20 Environmental Protection, Chapter 3 Radiation Protection, Part 4 Standards for protection against radiation” issued by Environmental Improvement Board of New Mexico. 20.3.4.405 Occupational dose limits for adults Annual limits.  The licensee or registrant shall control the occupational dose to individual adults to the following dose limits: (1) An annual limit, which is the more limiting of: (a) The total effective dose equivalent being equal to 5 rems (0.05 sievert); or (b) The sum of the deep dose equivalent and the committed dose equivalent to any individual organ or tissue other than the lens of the eye being equal to 50 rems (0.5 sievert); and (2) The annual limits to the lens of the eye, to the skin of the whole body, and to the skin of extremities which are: (a) A lens dose equivalent of 15 rems (0.15 sievert); and (b) A shallow dose equivalent of 50 rems (0.5 sievert) to the skin of the whole body or to the skin of any extremity.  Table I "Occupational Values". (1) Note that the columns in table I of this section titled "Oral Ingestion ALI," "Inhalation ALI" and "DAC," are applicable to occupational exposure to radioactive material. (2) The ALI's in this section are the annual intakes of given radionuclide by "reference man" which would result in either a committed effective dose equivalent of 5 rems (0.05 sievert) (stochastic ALI), or a committed dose equivalent of 50 rems (0.5 sievert) to an organ or tissue (non-stochastic ALI). The stochastic ALIs were derived to result in a risk, due to irradiation of organs and tissues, comparable to the risk associated with deep dose equivalent to the whole body of 5 rems (0.05 sievert). The derivation includes multiplying the committed dose equivalent to an organ or tissue by a weighting factor, wT. This weighting factor is the proportion of the risk of stochastic effects resulting from irradiation of the organ or tissue, T, to the total risk of stochastic effects when the whole body is irradiated uniformly. The values of wT are listed under   136 the definition of weighting factor in 20.3.4.7 NMAC. The non-stochastic ALI's were derived to avoid non-stochastic effects, such as prompt damage to tissue or reduction in organ function. (3) A value of wT = 0.06 is applicable to each of the five organs or tissues in the "remainder" category receiving the highest dose equivalents, and the dose equivalents of all other remaining tissues may be disregarded. The following portions of the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract - stomach, small intestine, upper large intestine and lower large intestine - are to be treated as four separate organs. (4) Note that the dose equivalents for an extremity, skin and lens of the eye are not considered in computing the committed effective dose equivalent, but are subject to limits that must be met separately. (5) When an ALI is defined by the stochastic dose limit, this value alone is given. When an ALI is determined by the non-stochastic dose limit to an organ, the organ or tissue to which the limit applies is shown, and the ALI for the stochastic limit is shown in parentheses. Abbreviated organ or tissue designations are used: (a) LLI wall = lower large intestine wall; (b) St wall = stomach wall; (c) Blad wall = bladder wall; and (d) Bone surf = bone surface. (6) The use of the ALI's listed first, the more limiting of the stochastic and non-stochastic ALI's, will ensure that non-stochastic effects are avoided and that the risk of stochastic effects is limited to an acceptably low value. If, in a particular situation involving a radionuclide for which the non-stochastic ALI is limiting, use of that non-stochastic ALI is considered unduly conservative, the licensee may use the stochastic ALI to determine the committed effective dose equivalent. However, the licensee shall also ensure that the 50 rems (0.5 sievert) dose equivalent limit for any organ or tissue is not exceeded by the sum of the external deep dose equivalent plus the internal committed dose equivalent to that organ, not the effective dose. For the case where there is no external dose contribution, this would be demonstrated if the sum of the fractions of the non-stochastic ALI's (ALIns) that contribute to the committed dose equivalent to the organ receiving the highest dose does not exceed unity, that is, the sum (intake in microcuries of each radionuclide/ALIns) is less than or equal to 1.0. If there is an external deep dose equivalent contribution of Hd, then this sum must be less than 1 - (Hd/50), instead of less than or equal to   137 1.0. Note that the dose equivalents for an extremity, skin and lens of the eye are not considered in computing the committed effective dose equivalent, but are subject to limits that must be met separately. (7) The derived air concentration (DAC) values are derived limits intended to control chronic occupational exposures. The relationship between the DAC and the ALI is given by: 20.3.4 NMAC 38 DAC = ALI (in microcuries) / (2000 hours per working year x 60 minutes/hour x 20000 milliliter per minute) = (ALI / 2.4 x 109 ml) microcuries/milliliter, where 20000 milliliter is the volume of air breathed per minute at work by reference man under working conditions of light work. (8) The DAC values relate to one of two modes of exposure: either external submersion or the internal committed dose equivalents resulting from inhalation of radioactive materials. DACs based upon submersion are for immersion in a semi-infinite cloud of uniform concentration and apply to each radionuclide separately. (9) The ALI and DAC values include contributions to exposure by the single radionuclide named and any in-growth of daughter radionuclides produced in the body by decay of the parent. However, intakes that include both the parent and daughter radionuclides should be treated by the general method appropriate for mixtures. (10) The values of ALI and DAC do not apply directly when the individual both ingests and inhales a radionuclide, when the individual is exposed to a mixture of radionuclides by either inhalation or ingestion or both, or when the individual is exposed to both internal and external irradiation (see 20.3.4.406 NMAC). When an individual is exposed to radioactive materials which fall under several of the translocation classifications of the same radionuclide, such as class D, class W or class Y, the exposure may be evaluated as if it were a mixture of different radionuclides. (11) It should be noted that the classification of a compound as class D, W or Y is based on the chemical form of the compound and does not take into account the radiological half-life of different radionuclides. For this reason, values are given for class D, W and Y compounds, even for very short-lived radionuclides.  Table II "Effluent Concentrations".   138  (1) The columns in table II of this section titled "effluents," "air" and "water" are applicable to the assessment and control of dose to the public, particularly in the implementation of the provisions of 20.3.4.414 NMAC. The concentration values given in columns 1 and 2 of table II are equivalent to the radionuclide concentrations which, if inhaled or ingested continuously over the course of a year, would produce a total effective dose equivalent of 0.05 rem (0.5 millisievert). (2) Consideration of non-stochastic limits has not been included in deriving the air and water effluent concentration limits because non-stochastic effects are presumed not to occur at or below the dose levels established for individual members of the public. For radionuclides, where the non-stochastic limit was governing in deriving the occupational DAC, the stochastic ALI was used in deriving the corresponding airborne effluent limit in table II of this subsection. For this reason, the DAC and airborne effluent limits are not always proportional as was the case in appendix A of part D of the eighth edition of volume I of the suggested state regulations for control of radiation. (3) The air concentration values listed in column 1 of table II of this subsection were derived by one of two methods. For those radionuclides for which the stochastic limit is governing, the occupational stochastic inhalation ALI was divided by 2.4x109 milliliter, relating the inhalation ALI to the DAC, as explained above, and then divided by a factor of 300. The factor of 300 includes the following components: a factor of 50 to relate the 5 rems (0.05 sievert) annual occupational dose limit to the 0.1 rem (1 millisievert) limit for members of the public, a factor of 3 to adjust for the difference in exposure time and the inhalation rate for a worker and that for members of the public; and a factor of 2 to adjust the occupational values, derived for adults, so that they are applicable to other age groups. (4) For those radionuclides for which submersion, that is external dose, is limiting, the occupational DAC in column 3 of table I was divided by 219. The factor of 219 is composed of a factor of 50, as described above, and a factor of 4.38 relating occupational exposure for 2,000 hours per year to full-time exposure (8,760 hours per year). Note that an additional factor of 2 for age considerations is not warranted in the submersion case. (5) The water concentrations were derived by taking the most restrictive occupational stochastic oral ingestion ALI and dividing by 7.3x107. The factor of 7.3x107 milliliter includes the   139 following components: the factors of 50 and 2 described above and a factor of 7.3x105 milliliter which is the annual water intake of reference man. (6) Note 2 of Subsection F of this section provides groupings of radionuclides which are applicable to unknown mixtures of radionuclides. These groupings, including occupational inhalation ALIs and DACs, air and water effluent concentrations and releases to sewer, require demonstrating that the most limiting radionuclides in successive classes are absent. The limit for the unknown mixture is defined when the presence of one of the listed radionuclides cannot be definitely excluded as being present either from knowledge of the radionuclide composition of the source or from actual measurements.  Table III "Releases to Sewers".  The monthly average concentrations for release to sanitary sewerage are applicable to the provisions in 20.3.4.435 NMAC. The concentration values were derived by taking the most restrictive occupational stochastic oral ingestion ALI and dividing by 7.3x106 milliliter. The factor of 7.3x106 20.3.4 NMAC 39 milliliter is composed of a factor of 7.3x105 milliliter, the annual water intake by reference man, and a factor of 10, such that the concentrations, if the sewage released by the licensee were the only source of water ingested by reference man during a year, would result in a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.05 rem (5 millisiever.) 

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