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The mineralogy, geochemistry and geochronology of the Wicheeda Carbonatite Complex, British Columbia Dalsin, Mallory Linda 2013

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 THE MINERALOGY, GEOCHEMISTRY AND GEOCHRONOLOGY OF THE WICHEEDA CARBONATITE COMPLEX, BRITISH COLUMBIA by MALLORY LINDA DALSIN B.Sc., The University of Alberta, 2007  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF                                                                     THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF SCIENCE  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE AND POSTDOCTORAL STUDIES (Geological Sciences)  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver)  October 2013        ? Mallory Linda Dalsin, 2013   ii  Abstract  Carbonatites are rare magmatic rocks composed of greater than 50% carbonate minerals. They are generally associated with continental rift-related tectonic settings and are commonly enriched in rare earth elements (REE), Nb, and P. The Wicheeda carbonatite complex, located 80 km northeast of Prince George in British Columbia, Canada, has been historically explored for its REE potential, but until recently there has been very little scientific study. The purpose of this study was to explore the geology, mineralogy, geochemistry, and geochronology of the Wicheeda Carbonatite Complex.    The complex consists of a carbonatite plug with a number of carbonatite and potassic-syenite dykes and sills emplaced into the sedimentary rocks of the upper Cambrian and lower Ordovician Kechika Group. Sodic-fenitization is common around the carbonatites and the degree of alteration and abundance of syenite outcrops increases away from the carbonatite plug. The complex was mapped over an area of 1.45 km?. The REE mineralogy of the Wicheeda carbonatite was defined through optical petrography (86 thin sections), scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis (371 points on 14 mineral species), and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (7 samples). The REE mineralogy is complex, with multiple stages of primary, late-stage, rapidly cooling crystallization. It consists of Ca-REE-fluorocarbonates, Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates, ancylite-(Ce), monazite-(Ce), euxenite-(Y), and allanite-(Ce); the majority of these minerals are LREE rich. Whole rock isotopic analysis was completed for the Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd systems. An isochron age of 316 ? 36 Ma was determined using the Sm-Nd system, giving values for ?NdT and 87Sr/86SrT that range from -0.5 to 0.5 and 0.70526 to 0.70659, respectively. Evidence from the Wicheeda Carbonatite Complex along with comparisons with other worldwide carbonatites, suggests that the complex formed from a dominantly silicate, parental, mantle melt emplaced into the continental lithosphere. The lithosphere underwent metasomatism and, potentially, low degrees of partial melting and/or the incorporation of previously subducted sediments for carbonatite generation.     iii  Preface This thesis is original, unpublished, independent work by the author, M. Dalsin.     iv  Table of Contents Abstract ..................................................................................................................................... ii Preface ...................................................................................................................................... iii Table of Contents ..................................................................................................................... iv List of Tables .......................................................................................................................... vii List of Figures .......................................................................................................................... ix List of Abbreviations ............................................................................................................. xix Acknowledgements ................................................................................................................. xx Chapter 1. Introduction ............................................................................................................. 1 Chapter 2. Previous Geological Investigations and Mineral Exploration ................................. 4 Chapter 3. Geology ................................................................................................................. 14 3.1. Regional Geology ......................................................................................................... 14 3.2. Local Geology .............................................................................................................. 17 Chapter 4. Methods ................................................................................................................. 20 Chapter 5. Results ................................................................................................................... 28 5.1. Geological Mapping ..................................................................................................... 28 5.2. Mineralogy ................................................................................................................... 30 5.2.1. Carbonatite Matrix ................................................................................................. 31 5.2.2. Syenite Matrix ....................................................................................................... 31 5.2.3. Altered Phyllite ...................................................................................................... 31 5.2.4. REE Mineralogy .................................................................................................... 32 5.2.5. Accessory Minerals ............................................................................................... 41 5.3. Mineral Chemistry ........................................................................................................ 43 5.3.1. Ca-REE-Fluorocarbonates ..................................................................................... 44 5.3.2 REE-Carbonates ..................................................................................................... 44 v  5.3.3. Ba-REE-Fluorocarbonates ..................................................................................... 47 5.3.4. Phosphates ............................................................................................................. 52 5.3.5. Silicates .................................................................................................................. 52 5.3.6. Oxides .................................................................................................................... 52 5.3.7. Unknowns .............................................................................................................. 56 5.3.8. REE Diagrams ....................................................................................................... 56 5.4. Geochemistry ............................................................................................................... 59 5.4.1 Analysis of Historic Soil Geochemistry ................................................................. 59 5.4.2. Comparison of 2010 Drill Core Assay Results from ALS Chemex Limited and Activation Laboratories Ltd. ............................................................................................ 60 5.4.3. Analysis of Drill Core Geochemical Results ......................................................... 61 5.4.3.1. Carbonatite ...................................................................................................... 63 5.4.3.2. Syenite ............................................................................................................. 69 5.4.3.3. Other Rock Types ........................................................................................... 72 5.5. Isotopes ......................................................................................................................... 80 Chapter 6. Discussion ............................................................................................................. 85 6.1. Rare Earth Element Mineralogy and Mineral Chemistry............................................. 85 6.2. Analysis of Historic Geochemical Soil Sampling ........................................................ 89 6.3. 2010 Drill Core Assay Comparison ............................................................................. 90 6.4. Geological and Geochemical Trends in the Lithologies of the Wicheeda Carbonatite Complex .............................................................................................................................. 90 6.4.1. Carbonatites ........................................................................................................... 91 6.4.2. Syenites .................................................................................................................. 93 6.4.3. Fenitization and Other Alteration of the Phyllite on the Carbo Property .............. 94 6.5. Isotopic Analysis .......................................................................................................... 95 6.6. Geological and Mineralogical Comparisons to Other Carbonatites ............................. 96 vi  Chapter 7. Conclusions ......................................................................................................... 102 Chapter 8. Recommendations for Future Research .............................................................. 104 References ............................................................................................................................. 107 APPENDIX A Polished Thin Section Descriptions ............................................................. 119 APPENDIX B Mineral Content and Amount in Percent for Polished Thin Sections .......... 190 APPENDIX C EDX Spectra for Minerals ............................................................................ 199 APPENDIX D Electron Microprobe Analysis Data for REE Minerals ............................... 217 APPENDIX E Drill Core and Soil Geochemical Data ......................................................... 264                     vii  List of Tables Table 1. List and origin of polished thin-section samples (distances in m) ............................ 22 Table 2. Element standards for electron microprobe analysis ................................................ 24 Table 3. Element interference corrections for electron microprobe analysis ......................... 25 Table 4. REE minerals found at the Wicheeda carbonatite complex and their accompanying formulae. ................................................................................................................................. 33 Table 5. Average composition of Ca-REE-fluorocarbonate group minerals. ......................... 45 Table 6. Average composition of ancylite-(Ce). ..................................................................... 47 Table 7. Average composition of Ba-REE-fluorocarbonate group minerals. ......................... 49 Table 8. Average composition of monazite-(Ce). ................................................................... 53 Table 9. Average composition of allanite-(Ce). ...................................................................... 54 Table 10. Average composition of euxenite-(Y). ................................................................... 55 Table 11. Average composition of the unknown minerals. .................................................... 56 Table 12. Average major and minor element chemistry of the carbonatites (in wt% for oxides and ppm for elements). ........................................................................................................... 64 Table 13. Major and minor element chemistry of the syenites (in wt% for oxides and ppm for elements). ................................................................................................................................ 70 Table 14. Major and minor element chemistry of the unaltered phyllite (in wt% for oxides and ppm for elements. ............................................................................................................. 73 Table 15. Major and minor element chemistry of the altered phyllite (in wt% for oxides and ppm for elements). .................................................................................................................. 74 Table 16. Major and minor element chemistry of the carbo-hydrothermal banded intercepts (in wt% for oxides and ppm for elements). ............................................................................. 75 Table 17. Major and minor element chemistry of the feldspar flooded intervals (in wt% for oxides and ppm for elements). ................................................................................................ 77 Table 18. Major and minor element chemistry of the breccias (in wt% for oxides and ppm for elements) ................................................................................................................................. 78 Table 19. Major and minor element chemistry of the mafic igneous dykes (in wt% for oxides and ppm for elements) ............................................................................................................ 79 Table 20. Results of Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotope analysis of seven carbonatite rock samples from the Wicheeda carbonatite complex. ............................................................................... 80 viii  Table 21. Mineral content and amount in percent (determined visually) for polished thin-sections. ................................................................................................................................. 191 Table 22. Composition of bastn?site-(Ce). ........................................................................... 218 Table 23. Composition of parisite-(Ce). ............................................................................... 229 Table 24. Composition of synchysite-(Ce). .......................................................................... 235 Table 25. Composition of ancylite-(Ce). .............................................................................. 238 Table 26. Composition of cordylite-(Ce). ............................................................................. 240 Table 27. Composition of qaqarssukite-(Ce). ....................................................................... 248 Table 28. Composition of huanghoite-(Ce). ......................................................................... 249 Table 29. Composition of cebaite-(Ce). ................................................................................ 250 Table 30. Composition of kukharenkoite-(Ce). .................................................................... 251 Table 31. Composition of monazite-(Ce). ............................................................................ 254 Table 32. Composition of allanite-(Ce). ............................................................................... 258 Table 33. Composition of euxenite-(Y). ............................................................................... 261 Table 34. Composition of unknown 1. .................................................................................. 263 Table 35. Composition of unknown 2. .................................................................................. 263               ix  List of Figures Figure 1. Location of the Wicheeda carbonatite complex. ....................................................... 2 Figure 2. Overview map of the Wicheeda carbonatite complex showing the location of Wicheeda Lake, Wichika Creek and the Wicheeda plug along with the claim boundary for Canadian International Ltd.?s Carbo property. ......................................................................... 3 Figure 3. Soil Sampling Grid lines of the Wicheeda carbonatite complex, with the exception of the Lake grid. ........................................................................................................................ 5 Figure 4. Soil sampling geochemical Ce (ppm) results. ........................................................... 6 Figure 5. Historic diamond drill hole locations. ....................................................................... 8 Figure 6. 2010 Airborne Magnetic Survey ? Total Magnetic Intensity (TMI). The Wicheeda carbonatite plug is visible as a circular magnetic anomaly (purple) in the top left of the map; the magnetic highs visible as parallel NW-SE lines show the various dykes and sills investigated as part of this study. ............................................................................................ 10 Figure 7. 2010 Airborne Radiometric Survey of Th. Purple is high Th, blue is low. ............. 11 Figure 8a. Regional geology map of the area surrounding the Wicheeda carbonatite complex and CIN claim boundaries. Modified from Bruland (2011). .................................................. 15 Figure 8b. Legend for regional geology map of the area surrounding the Wicheeda carbonatite complex and CIN claim boundaries. Modified from Bruland (2011)...................35 Figure 9. 2011 outcrop locations. The dots on this scale are larger than actual outcrops on the ground, but accurately display where outcrops exist. ............................................................. 29 Figure 10. New geological bedrock map showing the surface extent of carbonatite mineralisation and local geological structures. ....................................................................... 30 Figure 11. Diamond drill core with pinkish-brown REE mineral aggregates in a carbonatite matrix. ..................................................................................................................................... 32 Figure 12. Photomicrograph (in transmitted light, plane-polars) of an REE mineral aggregate including bastn?site-(Ce) synchysite-(Ce), parisite-(Ce), and cordylite-(Ce). ....................... 33 Figure 13. Backscattered electron images showing syntaxial intergrowths of the following minerals: (a) bastn?site-(Ce), parisite-(Ce) and synchysite-(Ce); (b) bastn?site-(Ce), parisite-(Ce), synchysite-(Ce) and strontianite; (c) bastn?site-(Ce) and parisite-(Ce) with strontianite; (d) bastn?site-(Ce), parisite-(Ce) and unknown 1. .................................................................. 35 x  Figure 14. Photomicrograph (in transmitted light, cross polars) of : (a) Bastn?site-(Ce) with albite in a carbonatite matrix; (b) Dominantly parisite-(Ce) with some synchysite-(Ce) in a carbonatite matrix. .................................................................................................................. 36 Figure 15. (a) Backscattered electron map image showing where the Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates (blue) occur in relation to syntaxial intergrowths of bastn?site-(Ce) and parisite-(Ce); (b) Backscattered electron image of Figure 13a. .............................................. 36 Figure 16. (a), (c) and (e) are photomicrographs (in transmitted light, plane-polars). (b), (d), and (f) are  backscattered electron images.  (a) monazite-(Ce), and cordylite-(Ce) in a carbonatite matrix; (b) Figure 14a with monazite-(Ce), cordylite-(Ce) and parisite-(Ce) and bastn?site-(Ce); (c) cordylite-(Ce) (yellow) in a carbonatite matrix; (d) cordylite-(Ce) in a carbonatite matrix; (e) monazite-(Ce), and kukharenkoite-(Ce) in a carbonatite matrix; (f) Figure 14e with monazite-(Ce) and kukharenkoite-(Ce). ....................................................... 38 Figure 17. Backscattered electron images of: (a) kukharenkoite-(Ce), cebaite-(Ce) and cordylite-(Ce); Kukharenkoite-(Ce) and cebaite-(Ce) cannot be distinguished from each other; (b) Kukharenkoite-(Ce), huanghoite-(Ce) and cordylite-(Ce). Kukharenkoite-(Ce) and huanghoite-(Ce) cannot be distinguished from each other; (c) Huanghoite-(Ce) and cordylite-(Ce); (d) Qaqarssukite-(Ce), cebaite-(Ce), unknown 2 and monazite-(Ce), none are distinguishable from each other; (e) An aggregate of kukharenkoite-(Ce), cordylite-(Ce) and ancylite-(Ce). .......................................................................................................................... 39 Figure 18. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, cross-polars) of allanite-(Ce). ..................... 40 Figure 19. Backscattered electron image of euxenite-(Y). ..................................................... 40 Figure 20. REE spider diagram of: (a) Ca-REE-fluorocarbonates;( b) Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates; (c) ancylite-(Ce) and unknown 2; (d) monazite-(Ce); (e) allanite-(Ce); (f) euxenite-(Y). ........................................................................................................................... 58 Figure 21. Scatter plots using historic soil geochemistry of: (a) La (ppm) versus Ce (ppm); (b) Nd (ppm) versus Ce (ppm); (c) Pr (ppm) versus Ce (ppm); (d) Nb (ppm) versus Ce (ppm). ................................................................................................................................................. 60 Figure 22. Scatter plot of 2010 assay data comparing results from Activation Laboratories Ltd. versus ALS Chemex Limited. ......................................................................................... 61 Figure 23. Scatter plots from 2010 and 2011 drill-core assays of: (a) Ce (ppm) versus TREE+Y (ppm); (b) Ce (ppm) versus Sr (ppm); (c) Ce (ppm) versus Th (ppm); (d) Ce (ppm) xi  versus Ba (ppm); (e) Ce (ppm) versus U (ppm); (f) Ce (ppm) versus Zr (ppm); (g) Ce (ppm) versus Pb (ppm); (h) CaO (wt% oxide) versus SiO2 (wt% oxide); i) Zr (ppm) versus U (ppm). ................................................................................................................................................. 63 Figure 24. Carbonatite ternary discrimination diagram of: (a) carbonatite intervals that were logged as being 100% carbonatite and unaltered; (b) altered carbonatite and carbonatites that were analyzed with a secondary, silicate-rich lithology. ........................................................ 66 Figure 25. REE spider diagrams of different types of carbonatites: (a) shallow, relatively straight; (b) relatively straight, LREE enriched; (c) with a small negative Eu anomaly and a flat pattern through the HREE; (d) LREE enriched with no negative Eu anomaly and flattening through the final HREE; (e) with a very weak negative Eu anomaly and flattening through the final HREE; (f) with elevated LREEs and a straight pattern. .............................. 68 Figure 26. REE spider diagram of altered carbonatite. ........................................................... 69 Figure 27. REE spider diagram of syenites with xenoliths. .................................................... 71 Figure 28. REE spider diagram of syenites without xenoliths. ............................................... 72 Figure 29. Isochron for measured 87Sr/86Sr versus 87Rb/86Sr. ................................................. 81 Figure 30. Isochron for measured 147Sm/144Nd versus 143Nd/144Nd, calculated from all seven samples. ................................................................................................................................... 82 Figure 31. Isochron for measured 147Sm/144Nd versus 143Nd/144Nd was calculated with using samples MGL035 and MGL043 ............................................................................................. 83 Figure 32. Plot of 87Sr/86SrT versus 143Nd/144NdT showing where EM1 is located. Bulk Silicate Earth and CHUR shown as solid lines for reference (Faure et al., 2005). ................. 84 Figure 33. Backscattered electron image of the formation of syntaxial intergrowths of bastn?site-(Ce) (white) and parisite-(Ce) (grey) with strontianite (dark grey) ....................... 87 Figure 34. Plot of 87Sr/86SrT versus ?NdT with data from the Wicheeda carbonatite complex compared to other carbonatites in the world (data from: Bell and Blenkinsop, 1987; Bell and Kramm, 1993; Huang et al., 1995; Simonetti et al., 1995; Zaitsev and Bell, 1995; Tilton et al., 1998; Verhulst et al., 2000; Dunworth and Bell, 2001; Tilton, 2001; Tappe et al., 2006; Yang et al., 2011). ................................................................................................................. 100 Figure 35. Fractional and batch melting and crystallization model for the genesis of carbonatites (Mitchell, 2005) ................................................................................................ 101 Figure 36. Polished section cut-off of MGL-RS-10-008. ..................................................... 123 xii  Figure 37. Photomicrograph (in transmitted light, plane-polars) of aegirine (pale green) in a mostly calcite matrix. ............................................................................................................ 124 Figure 38. Photomicrograph (in transmitted light, plane-polars) of biotite (green to brown) in nepheline. .............................................................................................................................. 124 Figure 39. Backscattered SEM electron map image of cordylite-(Ce) (orange), strontianite (green), ankerite (blue). ......................................................................................................... 128 Figure 40. Backscattered electron image of cordylite (white) and parisite-(Ce) (grey) infilling a fracture. .............................................................................................................................. 129 Figure 41. Photomicrograph (in transmitted light, plane-polars) of cordylite-(Ce) in a calcite matrix. ................................................................................................................................... 130 Figure 42. Backscattered electron map image of monazite-(Ce) (green), strontianite (light blue), baryte (dark blue) and ankerite (red). ......................................................................... 131 Figure 43. Photomicrograph (in transmitted light, cross-polars) of the phyllite matrix with albite, aegirine, and calcite. ................................................................................................... 131 Figure 44. Photomicrograph (in transmitted light, cross-polars) of bastn?site-(Ce) with albite and calcite. ............................................................................................................................ 134 Figure 45. Polished section scan in cross-polars of MGL-RS-10-022. ................................ 134 Figure 46. Photomicrograph (in transmitted light, plane-polars) of nodules within the feldspar flooding. ................................................................................................................................ 135 Figure 47. Backscattered electron image of bastn?site-(Ce) being replaced by hyalophane.136 Figure 48. Photomicrograph (in transmitted light, cross-polars) of bastn?site-(Ce) rimmed by muscovite in a calcite matrix. ............................................................................................... 137 Figure 49. Photomicrograph (in transmitted light, plane-polars) of bastn?site-(Ce) and parisite-(Ce) forming around magnetite in a calcite matrix .................................................. 138 Figure 50. Backscattered electron image of figure 37 showing syntaxial intergrowths of bastn?site-(Ce) (white) and parisite-(Ce) (grey). .................................................................. 138 Figure 51. Backscattered electron image of monazite-(Ce) (white) and syntaxial intergrowths of bastn?site-(Ce) and parisite-(Ce). ..................................................................................... 138 Figure 52. Polished section cut-off of MGL-RS-10-027 in normal light. ............................ 139 Figure 53. Polished section cut-off of MGL-RS-10-029 in normal light. ............................ 140 xiii  Figure 54. Backscattered electron image of syntaxial intergrowths of bastn?site-(Ce) (white) and parisite-(Ce) (light grey) with synchysite-(Ce) (grey) and strontianite (dark grey). ...... 141 Figure 55. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) of monazite-(Ce) (high relief) in quartz and an ankerite matrix. ............................................................................................... 143 Figure 56. Backscattered electron image of monazite-(Ce) (white) and cordylite-(Ce) (grey). ............................................................................................................................................... 144 Figure 57. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, cross-polars) of REE minerals, and albite in an ankerite matrix. ................................................................................................................ 144 Figure 58. Backscattered electron image of REE aggregate with unknown 2 (left) and cebaite-(Ce) (white, right) forming with alstonite. ............................................................... 144 Figure 59. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, cross-polars) of monazite-(Ce) in a dolomite matrix with muscovite. .......................................................................................................... 145 Figure 60. Backscattered electron image of monazite-(Ce) (white) and an unknown phosphate mineral (light grey) with strontianite (grey) and ilmenite (dark grey). ............... 146 Figure 61. Backscattered electron image of Nb-ilmenite and pyrochlore. ........................... 147 Figure 62. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, cross-polars) of a albite in a ankerite matrix. ............................................................................................................................................... 147 Figure 63. Backscattered electron map image of monazite-(Ce) (green), kukharenkoite-(Ce), strontianite (blue) in an ankerite matrix (red). ...................................................................... 148 Figure 64. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, cross-polars) of recrystallized calcite with primary calcite. ..................................................................................................................... 149 Figure 65. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, cross-polars) of monazite-(Ce) and bastn?site-(Ce) with ilmenite in an ankerite matrix. .............................................................................. 150 Figure 66. Photo of polished thin-section cut-off of MGL-RS-10-037. ............................... 150 Figure 67. Backscattered electron image of monazite-(Ce) (white) with sphalerite (grey) and strontianite (dark grey). ......................................................................................................... 151 Figure 68. Backscattered electron image of bastn?site-(Ce) (white) with strontianite (dark grey) and ankerite (black). .................................................................................................... 151 Figure 69. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) of biotite in a feldspar and carbonate matrix. ................................................................................................................... 152 xiv  Figure 70. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) of aegirine-augite (dark green), and chlorite (green) in an albite matrix. ................................................................................ 153 Figure 71. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) of aggregate with monazite-(Ce), magnetite, and calcite. ................................................................................................. 153 Figure 72. Backscattered electron image of monazite-(Ce) in the aggregate. ...................... 154 Figure 73. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, cross-polars) of chlorite with anomalous blue birefringence in a calcite and strontiantite matrix. ................................................................ 154 Figure 74. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, cross-polars) of possible dissolved quartz (grey) in a deformed calcite matrix. ...................................................................................... 155 Figure 75. Photo of polished thin-section cut-off of MGL-RS-10-043 in SWNFUV light. . 155 Figure 76. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, cross-polars) of apatite around a calcite vein. ............................................................................................................................................... 156 Figure 77. Photo of polished thin-section cut-off of MGL-RS-10-044. ............................... 157 Figure 78. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) of magnesio-riebeckite (blue) with biotite in a albite and calcite matrix. ............................................................................. 157 Figure 79. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, cross-polars) of REE clouds. ..................... 158 Figure 80. Backscattered electron image of Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates (white) and ancylite-(Ce) (grey). ............................................................................................................................ 158 Figure 81. Backscattered electron image of Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates, and ancylite-(Ce) (grey) surrounded by strontianite (dark grey). ...................................................................... 159 Figure 82. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, cross-polars) of dolomite being replaced by albite. ..................................................................................................................................... 159 Figure 83. Backscattered electron image of Ba-REE-fluorcarbonate(s), cordylite-(Ce) (grey) and strontianite (dark grey). .................................................................................................. 160 Figure 84. Slide scan of polished thin-section MGL-RS-10-047. ........................................ 161 Figure 85. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) of niksergievite in a calcite matrix. ................................................................................................................................... 162 Figure 86. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, cross-polars) of monazite-(Ce) with albite in a calcite matrix. ........................................................................................................................ 162 Figure 87. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, cross-polars) of bastn?site-(Ce) and parisite-Ce) in a calcite matrix. .......................................................................................................... 163 xv  Figure 88. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) of aegirine and pyrochlore (dark and cloudy) in a calcite matrix. ............................................................................................. 164 Figure 89. Backscattered electron image of Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates (light grey), ancylite-(Ce) (grey) and strontianite (dark grey). ............................................................................... 164 Figure 90. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) of aggregates that occur as irregularities within the calcite with pyrite and sphalerite. ................................................... 165 Figure 91. Backscattered electron image of ancylite-(Ce) (white), strontianite (grey) and albite (black). ........................................................................................................................ 166 Figure 92. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) of arfvedonsite in a recrystallized calcite matrix. ................................................................................................. 166 Figure 93. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, cross-polars) of albite and K-feldspar with calcite. ................................................................................................................................... 167 Figure 94. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, cross-polars) of K-feldspar with infilling biotite. ................................................................................................................................... 168 Figure 95. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars)of zircon and pyrochlore (cloudy) with K-feldspar and calcite. .................................................................................... 169 Figure 96. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, cross-polars) of calcite matrix with clasts showing alteration with aegirine-augite and biotite. ............................................................. 169 Figure 97. Slide scan of polished thin-section MGL-RS-11-090. ........................................ 170 Figure 98. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) of an aggregate of zircon, pyrochlore and titanite with ilmenite and pyrite in a K-feldspar matrix. .............................. 171 Figure 99. Backscattered SEM electron map image of zircon (orange), and pyrochlore (green) with ilmenite (light grey), and titanite (grey). .......................................................... 171 Figure 100. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) of pyrochlore, aegirine-augite, biotite, and pryrite. ................................................................................................................ 172 Figure 101. Backscattered electron image of pyrochlore showing zoning. .......................... 172 Figure 102. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) of albite mineralisation rimmed by a brown mineral with aegirine and K-feldspar. .................................................. 173 Figure 103. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) of witherite and strontianite. ............................................................................................................................................... 174 xvi  Figure 104. Backscattered electron image of witherite (white) and strontianite (grey) in a calcite matrix. ........................................................................................................................ 174 Figure 105. Backscattered electron image of an aggregate of parisite-(Ce) (grey), monazite-(Ce) (light grey) and an unknown Y silicate (white). ........................................................... 175 Figure 106. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) aegirine-augite and magnesio-riebeckite in a K-feldspar matrix. ......................................................................................... 176 Figure 107. Photo of polish thin-section cut-off of MGL-RS-11-117. ................................. 176 Figure 108. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) of a pod of albite and biotite in a K-feldspar matrix. .............................................................................................................. 177 Figure 109. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) of sodalite (brown) with aegirine-augite. ...................................................................................................................... 178 Figure 110. Backscattered electron image of an aggregate of ancylite-(Ce), cordylite-(Ce), alstonite, and baryte. ............................................................................................................. 179 Figure 111. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) of a sodalite and calcite veinlet in an albite matrix. ................................................................................................................ 180 Figure 112. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, cross-polars) of pods of albite and an unknown mineral. ................................................................................................................. 181 Figure 113. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) of biotite and a cryptocrystalline mineral in a calcite matrix. ........................................................................ 181 Figure 114. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) of nepheline. ...................... 182 Figure 115. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, cross-polars) of fluorite (black) in a matrix of recrystallized calcite. ........................................................................................................ 183 Figure 116. Slide scan of polished thin-section MGL-RS-11-170. ...................................... 183 Figure 117. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) of an aggregate (yellow) in a dolomite matrix. .................................................................................................................... 184 Figure 118. Backscattered electron map image of an aggregate with baryte (red), cordylite-(Ce) (grey) and witherite (dark grey). ................................................................................... 184 Figure 119. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, cross-polars) of REE minerals (center) in a matrix of albite and calcite. ................................................................................................... 186 Figure 120. Backscattered electron image of cordylite-(Ce) (grey) and Ba-REE-fluorocarbonate (light grey) with strontianite (dark grey). ................................................... 186 xvii  Figure 121. Backscattered electron image of cordylite-(Ce) (grey) with Ba-REE-fluorocarbonate(s) (light grey) and strontianite (dark grey). ................................................ 187 Figure 122. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) of calcite and albite nodules in a matrix of biotite and unknown mineral(s). ......................................................................... 188 Figure 123. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, cross-polars) of an REE mineral aggregate (center) in a dolomite matrix. ................................................................................................ 189 Figure 124. Backscattered electron image of monazite-(Ce) (light grey), cordylite-(Ce) (grey) and parisite-(Ce) (dark grey). ................................................................................................ 189 Figure 125. EDX spectra of calcite. ...................................................................................... 200 Figure 126. EDX spectra of ankerite with a Mg peak. ......................................................... 200 Figure 127. EDX spectra of dolomite. .................................................................................. 201 Figure 128. EDX spectra of bastn?site-(Ce). ........................................................................ 201 Figure 129. EDX spectra of parisite-(Ce). ............................................................................ 201 Figure 130. EDX spectra of parisite-(Ce) with slightly more Ca. ........................................ 202 Figure 131. EDX spectra of synchysite-(Ce). ....................................................................... 202 Figure 132. EDX spectra of cordylite-(Ce). .......................................................................... 203 Figure 133. EDX spectra of Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates. ....................................................... 203 Figure 134. EDX spectra of ancylite-(Ce). ........................................................................... 203 Figure 135. EDX spectra of monazite-(Ce). ......................................................................... 204 Figure 136. EDX spectra close up of unknown Dy phosphate. ............................................ 204 Figure 137. EDX spectra of unknown Dy phosphate. .......................................................... 204 Figure 138. EDX spectra of allanite-(Ce). ............................................................................ 205 Figure 139. EDX spectra of unknown Y silicate. ................................................................. 205 Figure 140. EDX spectra of euxenite-(Y). ............................................................................ 205 Figure 141. EDX spectra of strontianite with a small Ca peak. ............................................ 206 Figure 142. EDX spectra of strontianite with a large Ca peak. ............................................ 206 Figure 143. EDX spectra of alstonite. ................................................................................... 207 Figure 144. EDX spectra of witherite. .................................................................................. 207 Figure 145. EDX spectra of ilmenite. ................................................................................... 208 Figure 146. EDX spectra of rutile. ........................................................................................ 208 Figure 147. EDX spectra of Nb-ilmenite. ............................................................................. 208 xviii  Figure 148. EDX spectra of phyrochlore. ............................................................................. 209 Figure 149. EDX spectra of Fe-columbite. ........................................................................... 209 Figure 150. EDX spectra of apatite. ...................................................................................... 209 Figure 151. EDX spectra of albite. ....................................................................................... 210 Figure 152. EDX spectra of K-feldspar. ............................................................................... 210 Figure 153. EDX spectra of hyalophane. .............................................................................. 210 Figure 154. EDX spectra of celsian. ..................................................................................... 211 Figure 155. EDX spectra of sodalite. .................................................................................... 211 Figure 156. EDX spectra of aegirine-augite. ........................................................................ 211 Figure 157. EDX spectra of aegirine. ................................................................................... 212 Figure 158. EDX spectra of magnesio-riebeckite. ................................................................ 212 Figure 159. EDX spectra of biotite. ...................................................................................... 213 Figure 160. EDX spectra of phlogopite. ............................................................................... 213 Figure 161. EDX spectra of chlorite. .................................................................................... 214 Figure 162. EDX spectra of thorite. ...................................................................................... 214 Figure 163. EDX spectra of zircon. ...................................................................................... 215 Figure 164. EDX spectra of titanite. ..................................................................................... 215 Figure 165. EDX spectra of baryte. ...................................................................................... 216 Figure 166. EDX spectra of niksergievite. ............................................................................ 216  xix  List of Abbreviations ?m micrometre Fl fluoritemm millimetre Rt rutilecm centimetre NbRt Nb-rutilekm kilometre Ilm ilmenitem metres NbIlm Nb-ilmeniteppm part per million Hem hematitewt% weight percent Pcl pyrochloreMa million years Colb columbiteREE rare earth element Mag magnetiteLREE light rare earth element Ap apatiteHREE heavy rare earth element Fsp feldsparTREE Total Rare Earth Elements Pl plagiclaseTREO Total Rare Earth Element Oxides Hyl hyalophaneBast bastn?site Cls celsianPari parisite Sdl sodaliteSyn synchysite Ne nephelineCord cordylite Aeg aegirineKukh kukharenkoite Agt aegirine - augiteHaung haunghoite Mrbk magnesio-riebeckiteCeb cebaite Arf arfvedsoniteQaq qaqarssukite Bt biotiteBa-REE Ba-REE-fluorocarbonate Phl phlogopiteAncy ancylite Ms muscoviteUk1 unknown 1 Chl chloriteUk2 unknown 2 Qtz quartzMnz monazite Thor thoriteAllan allanite Zrn zirconEux euxenite Ttn titaniteCal calcite Brt baryteAnk ankerite Py pyriteDol dolomite Sph sphaleriteStr strontiantie and/or strontian-aragonite Po pyrrhotiteAb albite Gn galenaKfs K-feldspar Cpy chalcopyriteAlst alstonite Mo molybdeniteWth witherite   xx  Acknowledgements  The author would like to thank the following people: Dr. Lee Groat for his assistance and support throughout the project, my committee of Dr. James Scoates and Dr. Jim Mortenson for their advice, Dr. Tony Mariano for his help and advice throughout the project, Dr. Jim Evans for his help with the single-crystal X-ray diffraction , and the X-ray Crystallography Laboratory in Chemistry, Dr. Steven Creighton and the Saskatchewan Research Council?s advanced microanalysis center for the use of their microprobe, the Scanning Electron Microscope laboratory in Earth and Ocean Sciences, Mackenzie Parker for her assistance with editing and overall great advice, Mackevoy Geosciences Ltd. for their support and analytical equipment during field work and Shaun Todd for his assistance during mapping, Andrew Fagan, Leo Millonig, David Turner, and the rest mineralogy lab group for their help, support, and assistance, and my family and friends who supported me during this experience.  1  Chapter 1. Introduction  Carbonatites are rare magmatic rocks that can be both intrusive and extrusive and are composed of over 50% carbonate minerals (Bell, 1989). They occur as small plugs within alkali intrusive complexes, or as dikes, sills, breccias, and veins. Carbonatites are found on all continents and are generally associated with continental rift-related tectonic settings, but can also be associated with collisional settings or large igneous provinces. The majority of carbonatites are found within rocks that are Proterozoic or Phanerozic in age. They can be classified based on where they plot on the CaO-MgO-(FeO+Fe?O?+MnO) ternary diagram developed by Wolley and Kempe (1989) and by the dominant carbonate mineral phase present: calcite, dolomite, ferrocarbonate, or natrocarbonate. Carbonatites may contain anomalous concentrations of REE`s, niobium, phosphorus, uranium, thorium, copper, iron, titanium, barium, fluorine, zirconium, and other rare or incompatible elements.   The Wicheeda carbonatite complex, located 80 km northeast of Prince George, B.C. (Fig. 1), consists of a carbonatite plug together with several carbonatite and syenite dykes and sills (Fig. 2) emplaced into the sedimentary rocks of the Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician Kechika Group. The complex is part of the ?Rocky Mountain Rare Metal Belt?, and was previously studied by M?der and Greenwood (1988) through mapping and basic petrography.   The purpose of this study was to further examine the geology, mineralogy, and geochronology of the complex in order to develop a model of carbonatite formation and REE enrichment. This was completed through geological mapping and the collection of research samples in the form of both outcrop and drill-core samples; both were used to produce polished thin sections. Determination of the REE minerals and their chemistry was especially important, because many minerals found in these types of deposits are rare and their presence is critical in determining the economic potential of the deposit. Collectively, this information has allowed the complex to be compared geologically, geochemically, and mineralogically to other carbonatites in B.C. and globally. The majority of work was completed on dykes and sills in the southeast part of the complex and owned by Canadian International Minerals Ltd. (CIN), as permission was not obtained from Spectrum Mining Corporation (Spectrum) for access to the main carbonatite plug.  2   Figure 1. Location of the Wicheeda carbonatite complex. 3   Figure 2. Overview map of the Wicheeda carbonatite complex showing the location of Wicheeda Lake, Wichika Creek and the Wicheeda plug along with the claim boundary for Canadian International Ltd.?s Carbo property.     4  Chapter 2. Previous Geological Investigations and Mineral Exploration  In 1961 the Geological Survey of Canada completed a 1:63360 aeromagnetic survey across parts of B.C., including the Wicheeda Lake district (Guo and Dahrouge, 2006). This survey showed a magnetic anomaly within the district. Regional geological mapping was completed by Armstrong et al. (1969).   From 1976 to 1977, Kol Lovang prospected and staked two claims in the area based on minor base metal showings (Betmanis, 1987). There was no follow up on this work until 1986, when Teck Exploration Ltd. assayed the samples, and showed anomalous niobium.  In 1979 additional regional geological mapping of the area was completed by Taylor and Stott (1979) for the Geological Survey of Canada  Teck Exploration Ltd. (Teck) entered a prospecting agreement with Lovang in 1986 (Betmanis, 1987). Teck personnel explored the main intrusive using geological mapping, soil sampling, hand trenching, and geophysics. Stream silt sampling of the Wichika Creek drainage basin was also completed. The results prompted Teck to stake additional claims (PG1, PG2, Fata, Morgana, Prince, Lake, and George) and outline initial areas for more advanced exploration. Due to the continuous nature of the claims, they were combined into two groups: the Prince and the George. The Prince and George grids were chosen for follow up work based on geochemical sampling (Figs. 3 and 4). The D and F grids were also selected for reconnaissance scale exploration grids in order to investigate secondary silt anomalies. Exploration concluded with in-fill sampling on the Lake grid.   The Prince, George, and F grid soil sampling took place at a line spacing of 150 m, with sampling stations every 50 m (Betmanis, 1987). The Lake grid soil sampling had a line spacing of 250 m and station intervals of 50 m. The D grid soil sampling had line spacing of 300 m and 50 m station spacing. Soil samples were primarily analyzed for Ba, Ce, Nb, Sr, and Zn. Magnetometer surveys to identify and track local magnetic variations in the sub-surface took place at 25 m intervals on the Prince, George, and Lake grids.   Additional claims were staked as the exploration program advanced and the various intrusive bodies were more clearly defined (Betmanis, 1987). Geological mapping was carried out at 1:5,000 scale on the Prince and George grids. Seven trenches, totaling 79.5 m length, were blasted and cleared on the Prince grid.  Results from the advanced exploration 5  included a sample from trench pit-6, which had 0.955% Nb2O5, and three samples from trench PT 5-7 that had high concentrations of both niobium and REE.    Figure 3. Soil Sampling Grid lines of the Wicheeda carbonatite complex, with the exception of the Lake grid. 6   Figure 4. Soil sampling geochemical Ce (ppm) results.  In 1987 Teck completed a follow-up trenching and silt and soil sampling program (Lovang and Meyer, 1987). Three hand trenches totalling 87 meters, chip sampled every five meters for geochemical assay, were dug on the George grid. Sampling was conducted in a stream that enters Wicheeda Lake from the south. Thirty-seven silt samples were collected and panned with a 20-mesh screen. Three soil samples were also taken from a tributary gully. Results from the season included trench samples with high concentrations of REE and several silt samples with anomalous Nb and REE values. No record of exploration by Teck of the Wicheeda area was found after 1987.   Jody Dahrouge acquired the bulk of the property in 2005 and 2006 on behalf of Commerce Resource Corp. (?Commerce?). Soil sampling, rock sampling, and geophysical surveys were completed by Dahrouge Geological Consulting Ltd. for Commerce during this 7  period. Exploration focused within the Prince grid and produced 291 soil samples collected at 50 m stations on 150 m grid lines (Figs. 3 and 4); 40 rock samples taken from intrusive outcrops, bedrock, and float; and 15 km of scintillometer and magnetometer surveys at 12.5 m stations on 150 m grid lines (Guo and Dahrouge, 2006). Results from rock samples averaged 1741 ppm TREO+Y (total rare earth oxide + Y) and 709 ppm Nb.  Dahrouge followed up on these results in 2007, again on behalf of Commerce. This program included 54 in-fill soil samples taken at 50 m intervals, five rock samples from alkaline intrusive outcrops, and 11 rock samples mainly from the phyllite outcrops (Guo and Dahrouge, 2007). The five intrusive rocks samples averaged 1208 ppm TREO+Y and 607 ppm Nb. Five line-kms of scintillometer surveys were also completed, with stations every 12.5 m. In 2008 Spectrum Mining Corporation (?Spectrum?) began exploration drilling on the carbonatite plug associated with the George grid (Lane, 2009). Four BTW (40.7 mm diameter) sized drill holes were completed from a single drill pad; drilling totalled 866 m. The drill pad was located 10 m from the north end of trench GT-2, a 1987 trench sampled by Teck (Fig. 5). The drill holes intersected several units of the intrusive body, including dolomite carbonatite, calcite carbonatite, carbonatite breccias, syenite breccias, and syenite.  After analysing the drill core, Lane (2009) commented that the carbonatite transitions from being more dolomite-rich to more calcite-rich deeper in the intrusive system. The minimum width of the body drilled at George was approximately 110 m in a northwest direction and 180 m in a northeast direction. Results from the drilling showed that the carbonatite is enriched in light REEs (Ce, La, Pr, and Nd) as well as Sm, Eu, Gd, and Y. The highest grade intersection from the drilling was 3.55% TREO over 48.6 m (Graf et al., 2009). Other elements present in anomalous concentrations were Mo, Ba, Sr, Mn, As, P, Th, and Nb (Graf et al., 2009; Lane, 2009). The highest REE values were found to occur near the top of the drill holes, typically in association with oxidized dolomite carbonatite. Niobium values were found to increase within syenitic breccias and syenites. Eight sections of core were made into thin sections and examined by P.C. Le Couteur, on behalf of Spectrum (Lane, 2009). The results of this study confirmed accessory amounts of strontianite, K-feldspar, and albite, and trace amounts of ilmenorutile, magnetite, phlogopite or biotite, pyrochlore, 8  thorite, and several sulphide phases. Rare Earth Element phases recognized were monazite-(Ce), a Ca-REE-fluorocarbonate phase, allanite-(Ce), and euxenite-(Y).    Figure 5. Historic diamond drill hole locations.   In 2009, additional diamond drilling was done by Spectrum on the main carbonatite plug, associated with the George grid. A total of 14 NTW (56.00 mm in diameter) diamond drill holes were completed, totalling 1835 m (Fig. 5) (Graf et al., 2009). The first drill pad was located 100 m northeast of the 2008 drilling area and had seven 150 m long holes completed; all seven intersected rare earth mineralization. The second drill pad was 100 m north of the first 2009 drill site and 150 m northeast of the 2008 drill site. Four diamond drill holes were completed from this second pad and, as before, all intersected rare earth mineralization. Results from the two 2009 pads included 2.2% TREO over 144 meters and 2.9% TREO over 72 m (Graf et al., 2009). In 2009 a further three diamond drill holes were completed 400 m north of the Main Zone; two drill holes were completed from one pad, while the final pad had only one drill hole (Fig. 5). Carbonatite-syenite breccias were intersected from the two drill holes on the third pad and the one drill hole on the fourth pad 9  intersected dolomite carbonatite with significant rare earth mineralization. Process mineralogical work was completed by Anthony Mariano, on behalf of Spectrum (Graf et al., 2009), who concluded that the mineralization consisted of coarse-grained monazite and Ca-REE-fluorocarbonate. Metallurgical analysis was completed using heavy liquids and magnetic separation on a composite sample of the drill core; this produced a REE concentrate containing 56 wt% REE.   In 2009, CIN contracted Mackevoy Geosciences Ltd. to conduct reconnaissance exploration on their claim block (Turner et al., 2011).  A total of 17 rock, 45 silt, and 56 soil samples were collected between July 12th and 15th, 2009. Promising REE values were returned from all sample types, with a new thin carbonatite dyke outcrop being discovered on the southwest flank of Wicheeda Ridge. They also confirmed the presence of REE ? Nb mineralization in the historical carbonatite outcrops along the ridge top.  In 2010, CIN again contracted Mackevoy Geosciences Ltd. to conduct follow-up exploration on the claim block. Field work included soil sampling, prospecting, and reconnaissance work and took place in June, August, and September (Turner et al., 2011). A total of 418 soil, 21 rock, and 10 silt samples were collected. Soil samples were taken from four different grids, which were positioned based on their proximity to known prospective ground and airborne radiometric and magnetic survey anomalies (Figs. 3 and 4). Results from the sampling show that the rock samples from the 425 grid area and the historic Teck trenches have elevated REE ? Nb. Soil samples from these areas returned grades of up to 7620 ppm Ce, 2670 ppm La, and 9564 ppm TREO+Y, and rock samples returned values up to 4875 ppm TREO+Y (Turner, 2011).   In July of 2010, CIN contracted Aeroquest International to perform a 566.1 line-km helicopter-borne AeroTEM electromagnetic, magnetic, and radiometric survey (Bruland, 2011). The survey delineated a magnetic anomaly along the Copley Range ridge and a semi-circular anomaly to the south of Wicheeda Lake (Fig. 6) corresponding to several Th radiometric anomalies along the ridge with the largest located south of Wicheeda Lake (Fig. 7).  10   Figure 6. 2010 Airborne Magnetic Survey ? Total Magnetic Intensity (TMI). The Wicheeda carbonatite plug is visible as a circular magnetic anomaly (purple) in the top left of the map; the magnetic highs visible as parallel NW-SE lines show the various dykes and sills investigated as part of this study. 11   Figure 7. 2010 Airborne Radiometric Survey of Th. Purple is high Th, blue is low.    In October 2010, CIN commenced a nine-hole NQ-2 (50.6 mm diameter) diamond drill program, totalling 1,939 m of core. Support for this program was provided by  Mackevoy Geosciences Ltd., who completed all core logging and drill supervision (Bruland, 2011). Drilling occurred at the northwestern edge of the property (Fig. 5). A total of 1,503 drill core samples were taken. No down hole surveys were completed at the request of the company geologist. Lithologies encountered during the drill operation include carbonatite, mafic igneous dykes, phyllite, altered phyllite, and carbo-hydrothermal alteration (Bruland, 2011; Dalsin and Groat, 2012). Scintillometer measurements were taken systematically along the core to identify areas of Th enrichment; these may be associated with REE-bearing minerals. Short-wave ultra violet (UV) light was used to identify fluorescent minerals. The bedding angles recovered from the core interfaces were translated into a near-vertical dip for 12  the majority of the encountered units. Results from the sampling included 1.4% TREO over 37 m, 2.5% over 2.5 m, and 2.7% over 3 m (Bruland, 2011). A mineralogical report was compiled by Brand (2010) from three thin sections, using optical microscopy and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). This report identified several rare earth mineral phases including bastn?site-(Ce), parisite-(Ce), allanite-(Ce), monazite-(Ce), aeschynite-(Y), and burbankite-(Ce) along with accessory strontianite, biotite, ilmenite, fluorite, sphalerite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, galena and rutile.  In August 2011, CIN again contracted Mackevoy Geosciences Ltd. to conduct exploration on the claim block. The field work focussed on geological mapping and in-fill soil sampling (Dalsin, 2012). The mapping was completed as part of this thesis and is discussed in detail in later sections. Mapping and sampling areas were accessed by hiking from the camp at the base of the ridge to the top of the ridge. Despite having a helicopter on site for drill support, the company did not allow it to be used to assist with accessing areas of the ridge for sampling and mapping support. A total of 99 soil samples were collected from one grid on the Carbo Main claim block (Figs. 3 and 4).  Samples were analyzed using a Niton p-XRF and returned maximum concentrations of 208 ppm La, 267 ppm Ce, 639 ppm Nd, 345 ppm Pr, and 72 ppm Nb. Soil sampling was completed alongside a handheld GPS-paired RS-125 Gamma Ray spectrometer capable of discriminating K, U, and Th radioactivity. The Th radiation was used for homing in on anomalous areas of radioactivity possibly related to the occurrence of REE mineralization and/or syenites when compared to the background of the bedrock. This proved to be a very valuable mapping tool as it assisted in locating outcrops. Overall radioactivity was not high, but the signal of the prospective rocks was distinct from that of non-mineralized areas. A total of 1744 geo-referenced points were collected with the RS-125 Super-Spec portable spectrometer.  This surface exploration program was followed by an 11 hole NQ (47.6 mm diameter) diamond drill hole program totalling 3,090 m, with support from Mackevoy Geosciences Ltd. for core logging and drill supervision. Drilling was done at six locations along the ridge (Dalsin, 2011). Locations were picked based on known proximity to carbonatite and syenite outcrops, historic trenching, and Th anomalies (Fig. 5). The first 8 drill holes were sited by CIN without reference to the geological map prepared by the author. The Th anomalies were found to be related to syenites hosting zircon rather than new 13  carbonatite mineralization. No further drilling was targeted in the high grade zone discovered by the 2010 drill program, and proximal to the known carbonatite plug. Down hole surveys were not completed at the request of the company geologist. A total of 671 samples were taken from the drill core. Lithologies identified include carbonatite, syenites, carbo-hydrothermal alteration, mafic igneous dykes, phyllite, altered phyllite, and argillite. Off-ridge and non-proximal 2011 drilling results did not yield significant amounts of REEs.  Despite the unfortunate placement of the 2011 drill holes, and consequent poor drilling results, no exploration work has been completed on the Wicheeda Claim block since 2011.                       14  Chapter 3. Geology  3.1. Regional Geology  The Wicheeda carbonatite complex is located in the Foreland belt, a belt trend of imbricated and folded miogeoclinal rocks that forms the eastern mountain ranges and foothills of the Canadian Cordillera (Gabrielse et al., 1991).  Other carbonatites and alkaline complexes of the belt include the Aley, Kechika, Bearpaw, Ice River, and Rock Canyon occurrences (Pell, 1994).  Millonig et al. (2012) obtained ages of zircons from 11 meta-carbonatite and meta-alkaline rock samples from British Columbia  using U-Pb and Th-Pb dating methods. This study produced three distinct ages for alkaline magmatism over a period of 460 Ma. The events occurred at ~800 to 700 Ma (Neoproterozoic), ~500 Ma (Late Cambrian), and ~360-340 Ma (Upper Devonian to Lower Carboniferous) The first corresponding to the postulated initial break-up of Rodinia extensional tectonics that affected the western continental margin of North America and the latter two corresponding to renewed extensional tectonics.   The regional geology was described by Armstrong et al. (1969) and Taylor and Stott (1979). The regional bedrock comprises mainly limestone, marble siltstone, argillite, and calcareous sedimentary rocks of the Upper Cambrian to Lower Ordovician Kechika Group (Fig. 8). To the east of the property the rocks of the Kechika Group are in fault contact with unassigned carbonates, slates and siltstones of Cambrian to Devonian age. To the west rocks of the Kechika Group are in fault contact with quartzitic rocks of the Upper Proterozoic to Permian Gog Group and unassigned Devonian to Permian felsic volcanic rocks (Gadd, 1995; Lane, 2009). The Kechika Group lies on top of an erosional surface of uplifted Atan Group beds (Gadd, 1995).  The complex is located within the McGregor Plateau, which is defined by two dominant faults. The first is the McLeod Lake Fault to the west and to the east is the northwest trending Rocky Mountain Trench (Armstrong et al., 1969). The latter likely follows the Parsnip River valley, dominates the structural and geographical setting of the region, and occurs to the west of the complex. A number of other major northwest-trending faults occur in the area.  15   Figure 8a. Regional geology map of the area surrounding the Wicheeda carbonatite complex and CIN claim boundaries. Modified from Bruland (2011). 16   Figure 8b. Legend for regional geology map of the area surrounding the Wicheeda carbonatite complex and CIN claim boundaries. Modified from Bruland (2011). 17  3.2. Local Geology  The study area is underlain by Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician Kechika Group sedimentary rocks (Armstrong et al., 1969). The Kechika Group in this area consists mainly of interbedded limestone with calcareous argillite and phyllite (Guo, 2009). Mapped faults are primarily parallel to Wichika Creek (040?/050?NW), with the exception of one fault that strikes northeast (Guo, 2009). Glacial transport in the region is from SSW towards NNE. Outcrops are limited to the ridge tops and occasional rock bluffs (Pell, 1994); surficial cover is locally thick. Carbonatites and associated alkaline intrusive rocks are the host rocks for the REE and Nb mineral occurrences at Wicheeda. The carbonatites and associated alkaline rock trend stretches approximately 7 km in a northwesterly fashion along the ridge crest.  Teck Corporation (Betmanis, 1987) mapped portions of the Carbo property in 1986 (Prince and George grids). Work completed on the Prince grid suggests that it is predominantly underlain by limestone, calcareous argillite, and phyllite. Limestones to the southwest are siltier, whereas to the northeast lithologies are mostly massive white limestone with thinly bedded medium to dark grey limestone. The southwest part of the grid also includes interbedded light-grey calcareous argillite and weakly calcareous phyllite.  Several dike or sill-like intrusions are sub-parallel to the bedding of the host rocks (Betmanis, 1987), and appear to follow the trend of the Rocky Mountain structures (Mader and Greenwood, 1988). The carbonatite and alkaline sills that run through the historic Prince grid can be followed for almost 3 km along strike. The intrusions are carbonatitic or syenitic, range in colour from white to black, and are usually rich in pyroxene (Betmanis, 1987). The sills show distinct changes from the northwest to the southeast with more silicic units concentrated in the southeast (Mader and Greenwood, 1988). The sills are divided by a northwest trending, steeply dipping fault.  The carbonatites have been described as coarse- to fine-grained, dominated by carbonate minerals with accessory feldspar, pyroxene, and mica (Betmanis, 1987; Mader and Greenwood, 1988; Graf et al., 2009; Dalsin and Groat, 2012). The carbonatites range from relatively unaltered calico- to ferro-carbonatite to altered with pyroxene, chlorite, and biotite. The plug has been described by Graf et al. (2009) as a carbonatite with a fine to coarse-grained dolomitic matrix with dolomite to ankerite phenocrysts up to 5 cm in diameter. Drill 18  programs in 2010 and 2011 divided the carbonatites into the following categories: those with visible alteration (ACb), those showing bands with varying amounts of mafic minerals (BdCb), rounded and coarse-grained (CgCb), having significant albite content making the carbonatite turn grey in colour (GyCb), and a fine-grained, silicate rich carbonatite (Cb1), as well as a ?catch-all? category, carbonatite (Cb), for any unit that did not fit into the other categories. These divisions allowed for the visual identification of altered carbonatites showing specific minerals or textures. Rare earth element phases that were identified in both hand specimens and drill core include coarse-grained monazite, bastn?site, parisite, and synchysite. Minor and accessory minerals include calcite, K-feldspar, plagioclase, micas, magnetite, ilmenorutile, pyrite, and pyrochlore.   Several types of syenite have been identified, ranging from very fine-grained to coarse-grained (Mader and Greenwood, 1988; Dalsin and Groat, 2012). The very fine-grained syenite hosts syenitic xenoliths and sodalite phenocrysts and veinlets. This unit has only been identified at the northwest end of the ridge, and was logged in the 2011 drill program as a clast or xenolith bearing syenite (CtSy). Other syenites logged in the 2011 drill program include an altered syenite (ASy) and a syenite composed of coarse- to medium-grained, grey albite crystals (GySy). The term syenite (Sy) was used for any rock that did not fit into either of the above three categories.  Mader and Greenwood (1988) characterized the differences between the northwest and southeast part of the sill. They describe the northwest as medium to coarse-grained calcite carbonatites with mineral layering. These are interbedded with felsic rocks that include albite-rich and minor potassium feldspar-rich leucocratic to mesocratic rocks. Both the carbonatites and felsic units host accessory aegirine and biotite. There was little visible alteration or contact metamorphism found at the contacts with the host-rock sediments. The southeast part of the sill is described as a white layered carbonatite with a coarse-grained leucosyenite, an augite leucite syenite, and a fine-grained mesocratic augite syenite (Mader and Greenwood, 1988). All of the rock types host titanite. The relationship between the two parts of the sill remains unclear.  Other rock types identified historically and during the 2010 and 2011 commercial exploration programs, and during fieldwork for this study include mafic and ultramafic dykes, mineralized and unmineralized breccias, carbo-hydrothermally altered host rocks and 19  pyroxene and magnesio-riebeckite fenites (Millonig, 2010; Dalsin and Groat, 2012). The carbo-hydrothermally altered rocks are generally very fine-grained carbonates with associated biotite, chlorite and aegirine. Some of the phyllite has undergone extensive feldspar +/- feldspathoid flooding creating a grey to grey-blue rock composed of very fine-grained minerals. The dykes are generally mafic, locally altered and locally contain carbonate nodules. The breccias are commonly clast supported with altered phyllite clasts and a carbonatite matrix that is variably mineralised. Fenites were not identified as separate rock types but as altered phyllite with the differences in alteration noted.  High magnetic anomalies weakly correlate with high radiometric anomalies on the Carbo Main claims; however, the carbonatite structures do provide significant magnetic differences from their adjacent host rocks (Dalsin, 2012). Magnetic anomalies do not seem to be unambiguously correlated with elemental enrichments of ore minerals or pathfinders. Ground and airborne magnetic surveys are useful for delineating possible intrusive rocks, and regional geological structures that may or may not control mineralization.  Elevated radioactivity observed during scintillometer surveys was caused primarily by above-background Th concentrations, rather than K or U (Dalsin, 2012). There is a relatively strong relationship between Th content (radioactivity) and the concentration of Nb and REE in mineralized samples; however, overall levels of Th are relatively low. Barium and Sr were used as geochemical ore vectors; however, there is not an unambiguous relationship between these elements and REE or Nb at Wicheeda. The main carbonatite plug lies to the NW of the study area; the carbonatite dyke and sill complex (the tail) was the focus of this study. The mineralogy of the carbonatite units is complex, and ranges from relatively unaltered carbonatite to altered with pyroxene, chlorite, and biotite with accessory feldspar, pyroxene, and mica. Several phases of metasomatic alteration are present, characterized by feldspar/feldspathoid flooding.  Localised faulting and the development of significant cover sequences typically characterise the area.     20  Chapter 4. Methods  Many different analytical techniques were utilized during the course of this study, including in the field, at commercial laboratories and at UBC. The author selected samples for inclusion in this study while logging drill core in the field. Table 1 shows where each polished section originated. Each interval of core was halved and then one half was quartered on-site. This provided a quarter core for reference, a half core for geochemical assay, and one quarter for polished thin-section production as part of this study. Samples were selected based on their mineralogy, radiometrics, and textures, ensuring that all rock units and a variety of areas of the property were represented. The area selected for petrographic study was then drawn onto the sample surface and was sent to either Vancouver Petrographics or the Saskatchewan Research Council for polished thin section production.   Thin sections were initially studied with short-wave filtered and unfiltered ultraviolet light (SWFUV and SWNFUV) and then described in more detail with a petrographic microscope.  Mineralogy and textures were described for all 86 thin sections and any samples or areas requiring more detailed observations were highlighted.   Additional analysis was completed using the Philips XL30 scanning electron microscope (SEM) at UBC; utilizing the energy dispersive spectrometer and backscattered electron (BSE) imaging capability of this instrument to examine the mineralogy and textures of the polished sections in greater detail.  All potential rare earth minerals were observed with the SEM and examined using energy-dispersion X-ray spectrum (EDX). This confirmed if the minerals were correctly identified as rare earth minerals during optical petrology and allowed possible identification of unknown minerals. The Ca-REE-fluorocarbonates were relatively easy to identify given the differences in Ca and REE content; the analytical peak overlaps between these elements is not as severe as those between Ba and the REEs. For example, bastn?site-(Ce) typically displays only REEs peaks with no Ca, where as parisite-(Ce) displays approximately the same peak height for Ca and REEs, and synchysite-(Ce) displays more Ca than REEs. This qualitative identification scheme proved valid after secondary testing was completed using electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) with quantitative wavelength dispersive spectrometers (WDS). However, the Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates are significantly more difficult to identify, using EDX, due to the extreme analytical overlaps between Ba and the REE suite, and the 21  similarity of the chemistry between many of the minerals. Only cordylite-(CE) was easy to identify due to the presence of Ca and Sr peaks in the EDX spectra and because the Ce peak is higher than the Ba peak. The other Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates had minimal Ca and Sr with Ba peaks higher than REE peaks. Allanite-(Ce), ancylite-(Ce), monazite-(Ce) and euxenite-(Ce) all had unique EDX spectra making it easy to differentiate them from other minerals. Backscattered electron imaging was used to observe any zonation within the minerals, textures and crystal shapes. Many of the REE minerals commonly appear dark and cloudy under the optical microscope, making grain boundary determination and differentiation between various minerals difficult. Backscattered electron imaging makes this identification easier, with small differences in the grey-scale colours normally associated with differences in REE and Ba content of the minerals. In some cases element mapping was utilized to determine where the Ca- and Ba-rich fluorocarbonates were located in the thin section.  Major element chemistry of the rare earth minerals was determined using a fully automated Cameca SX-100 electron microprobe operating with five tunable wavelength dispersive spectrometers (WDS) located at the Saskatchewan Research Council (SRC) facility in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Typical operating conditions included: 40? takeoff angle, beam energy of 15 keV, beam current of 20 nA, beam diameter of 5 um. The MAN background intensity data was calibrated and continuum absorption corrected.  The following element suite was analyzed with the  microprobe: F, Cl, Na, Si, Al, Mg, P, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Sr, Zr, Nb, Ba, Ta, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb Lu, Th, U. This suite of elements enabled the analysis and identification of most rare earth mineral phases by measuring the concentrations of the main rare earth elements as well as their known substitutions. The standards used for these elements are listed in Table 2. Peak count times were 10 seconds for Zr and P and 15 seconds for all other elements and off-peak count times were 10 seconds for all elements.  Elemental interference corrections were developed by Dr. Steven Creighton of the Saskatchewan Research Council, and were applied to this data set. These interferences corrections were applied to the elements in Table 3. Fluorine and Cl have numerous potential interferences with other elements, and as such I must acknowledge there may be problems with the precise measurement of their concentrations. However, when attempting to accurately determine the concentration of REEs, Ca and Ba are the most important part of the 22  analysis as the differences in concentrations of these elements in the REE-fluorocarbonate minerals allow for the minerals to be differentiated from each other.  Table 1. List and origin of polished thin-section samples (distances in m) Thin Section Hole # From To Lithological ComponentsMGL-RS-10-006A-C CA-10-002 17.89 18.02 CarbonatiteMGL-RS-10-007A-D CA-10-001 136.25 136.39 Igneous DykeMGL-RS-10-008 CA-10-003 73 73.07 Altered Phyllite with carbo-hydrothermal bandsMGL-RS-10-009 CA-10-003 77.7 77.77 Mineralized brecciaMGL-RS-10-010 CA-10-003 84 84.06 Altered CarbonatiteMGL-RS-10-011A-B CA-10-003 82.57 82.68 Mineralized brecciaMGL-RS-10-012A-B CA-10-003 114.41 114.59 CarbonatiteMGL-RS-10-013 CA-10-004 10.71 10.92 CarbonatiteMGL-RS-10-014 CA-10-001 38.33 38.42 CarbonatiteMGL-RS-10-015 CA-10-001 39.35 39.41 Carbonatite at feldspar flooded phyllite contactMGL-RS-10-016 CA-10-002 81.8 81.85 CarbonatiteMGL-RS-10-017 CA-10-002 5.92 6.02 Carbonatite at altered phyllite contactMGL-RS-10-018 CA-10-002 77.3 77.4 Carbonatite veinlets cross-cutting altered phylliteMGL-RS-10-019 CA-10-002 124.27 124.36 CarbonatiteMGL-RS-10-020 CA-10-002 35.86 35.95 CarbonatiteMGL-RS-10-021 CA-10-002 154.49 154.59 Carbonatite at altered phyllite contactMGL-RS-10-022 CA-10-003 68.29 68.35 Altered Phyllite with carbo-hydrothermal bandsMGL-RS-10-023 CA-10-003 79.31 79.43 Feldspar/feldspathoid flooded altered phylliteMGL-RS-10-024 CA-10-003 80.98 81.1 Carbonatite veinlets cross-cutting altered phylliteMGL-RS-10-025 CA-10-003 88.39 88.47 Carbonatite veinlet cross-cutting feldspar floodingMGL-RS-10-026 CA-10-004 27.18 27.23 Carbonatite cross-cutting altered phylliteMGL-RS-10-027 CA-10-005 51.95 52.07 Altered Phyllite with carbo-hydrothermal bandsMGL-RS-10-028 CA-10-005 65.38 65.41 Carbonatite veinlets cross-cutting altered phylliteMGL-RS-10-029 CA-10-005 159.33 159.44 Carbonatite veinlets cross-cutting altered phylliteMGL-RS-10-030 CA-10-006 149.13 149.23 Carbonatite with fine feldspar flooding bandsMGL-RS-10-031 CA-10-006 163.83 163.95 Carbonatite with fine feldspar flooding bandsMGL-RS-10-032 CA-10-002 44.58 44.66 Carbonatite vein in altered phylliteMGL-RS-10-033 CA-10-006 249.14 249.19 CarbonatiteMGL-RS-10-034 CA-10-006 251.6 251.72 Carbonatite veinlets cross-cutting altered phylliteMGL-RS-10-035 CA-10-008 116.42 116.54 Carbonatite at altered phyllite contactMGL-RS-10-036 CA-10-008 150.38 150.48 CarbonatiteMGL-RS-10-037 CA-10-008 152.83 152.92 CarbonatiteMGL-RS-10-038 CA-10-008 159.78 159.87 Mafic dykeMGL-RS-10-039 CA-10-008 211.16 211.2 Carbonatite veinlet cross-cutting feldspar floodingMGL-RS-10-040 CA-10-005 172.82 172.89 Altered phylliteMGL-RS-10-041 CA-10-009 118.37 118.47 CarbonatiteMGL-RS-10-042 CA-10-009 170.42 170.5 CarbonatiteMGL-RS-10-043 CA-10-009 247.73 247.83 CarbonatiteMGL-RS-10-044 CA-10-009 273.88 273.98 Altered phylliteMGL-RS-10-045 CA-10-009 299 299.05 Carbonatite and feldspar flooded altered phyllite  23  Table 1 continued. List and origin of polished thin-section samples  Thin Section Hole # From To Lithological ComponentsMGL-RS-10-046 CA-10-009 306.24 306.32 Carbonatite veinlet cross-cutting feldspar floodingMGL-RS-10-047 CA-10-003 78.33 78.5 BrecciaMGL-RS-10-048 CA-10-005 48.78 48.89 Altered Phyllite with carbo-hydrothermal bandsMGL-RS-10-049 CA-10-006 135.04 135.13 Carbonatite and feldspar flooded altered phylliteMGL-RS-10-050 CA-10-006 206.09 206.17 CarbonatiteMGL-RS-11-051 CA-11-011 180.4 180.47 Altered Banded CarbonatiteMGL-RS-11-065 CA-11-011 146.1 146.24 Banded CarbonatiteMGL-RS-11-073 CA-11-011 178.71 178.8 Banded CarbonatiteMGL-RS-11-083 CA-11-013 133.51 133.61 CarbonatiteMGL-RS-11-084 CA-11-013 143.01 143.11 Grey CarbonatiteMGL-RS-11-086 CA-11-013 152.7 152.82 Grey SyeniteMGL-RS-11-087 CA-11-013 160.7 160.87 Grey SyeniteMGL-RS-11-088 CA-11-013 161.71 161.81 BrecciaMGL-RS-11-090 CA-11-013 191.87 192 Altered SyeniteMGL-RS-11-092 CA-11-013 207.25 207.36 Grey SyeniteMGL-RS-11-093 CA-11-013 225.18 225.3 Grey SyeniteMGL-RS-11-103 CA-11-013 347.01 347.12 Grey SyeniteMGL-RS-11-105 CA-11-017 33.45 33.58 Altered phyllite with a carbonatite veinletMGL-RS-11-107 CA-11-017 230.46 230.56 Altered phyllite with a carbonatite veinletMGL-RS-11-110 CA-11-017 322.39 322.51 Altered phyllite with a carbonatite veinletMGL-RS-11-116 CA-11-014 145.9 145.99 Carbonatite veinlets cross-cutting syeniteMGL-RS-11-117 CA-11-014 151.45 151.59 Coarse-grained CarbonatiteMGL-RS-11-121 CA-11-014 177.57 177.71 SyeniteMGL-RS-11-123 CA-11-014 182.16 182.3 Grey SyeniteMGL-RS-11-135 CA-11-014 379.64 379.76 CarbonatiteMGL-RS-11-140 CA-11-015 64.61 64.7 Syenite with clastsMGL-RS-11-141 CA-11-015 72.03 72.19 Syenite with clasts and cross-cutting carbonatiteMGL-RS-11-142 CA-11-015 74.62 74.7 Syenite with clastsMGL-RS-11-146 CA-11-020 84.9 85.1 Mafic dykeMGL-RS-11-154 CA-11-019 95.53 95.67 Syenite with clastsMGL-RS-11-157 CA-11-010 163.53 163.65 Banded CarbonatiteMGL-RS-11-164 CA-11-013 384.93 385.05 Altered PhylliteMGL-RS-11-170 CA-11-017 367.94 368.06 Mafic dykeMGL-RS-11-173 CA-11-018 135.71 135.77 Altered phyllite with carbonatite veinletsMGL-RS-11-175 CA-11-018 204.11 204.19 Altered phyllite with a carbonatite veinMGL-RS-11-176 CA-11-018 212.84 213 Altered phyliiteMGL-RS-11-178 CA-10-001 39.83 39.93 Carbonatite11-MLD-029 outcrop Mafic dyke11-SMT-031 outcrop Carbonatite grab sample from plug    24  Table 2. Element standards for electron microprobe analysis Element Line StandardAnalyzing CrystalElement Line StandardAnalyzing CrystalF K? Smithsonian Apatite LTAP Ta L? SPI2 - Ta LLIFNa K? Harvard Albite LTAP La L? SPI2 - La LLIFMg K? Smithsonian Cr-augite LTAP Ce L? SPI2 - Ce LLIFAl K? SPI - YAG LTAP Pr L? SPI2 - Pr LLIFSi K? Harvard Albite LTAP Nd L? SPI2 - Nd LLIFP K? Smithsonian Apatite PET Sm L? SPI2 - Sm LLIFCl K? SPI2 - TlCl PET Eu L? SPI2 - Eu LLIFK K? Smithsonian Microcline PET Gd L? SPI2 - Gd LLIFCa K? Smithsonian Cr-augite PET Tb L? SPI2 - Tb LLIFTi K? Smithsonian Ilmenite PET Dy L? SPI2 - Dy LLIFMn K? Cameca Mn LLIF Ho L? SPI2 - Ho LLIFFe K? Smithsonian Ilmenite LLIF Er L? SPI2 - Er LLIFSr L? SPI - Celestite PET Tm L? SPI2 - Tm LLIFY L? SPI - YAG PET Yb L? SPI2 - Yb LLIFZr L? Smithsonian Zircon PET Lu L? SPI2 - Lu LLIFNb L? SPI2 - Nb PET Th M ? SPI2 - Th PETBa L? SPI - Barite LLIF U M ? SPI2 - U PET   25  Table 3. Element interference corrections for electron microprobe analysis ElementF Zr HoNa U HoSi TaP GdK UCa Y YbTi U BaFe MnY TaZr Lu YbBa TiLa Ta NdCe BaPr LaNd CeSm CeEu Mn Pr NdGd Nd La CeDy Mn EuHo U GdEr TbTm Ta Dy SmLu Ho DyTa Er TmU Th TaInterference correction  After analysis and interpretation of the EMPA dataset there were several minerals that remained unidentified or required further confirmation. These unknown or rare minerals were analyzed using a Bruker DUO APEX II diffractometer with graphite monochromated MoK? radiation at UBC. Analysis was completed by drilling a small circular disk in the mineral from a polished section, adding acetone to the area to dissolve any epoxy and then extracting the sample disk from the section. This disk was then broken up and the samples were attached to glass fibers using epoxy. A series of 36 images were collected at a distance of 40 mm at 5 to 10 second exposures depending on the size and shape of the mineral grain and whether twinning was present in previous attempts. The only exception to this was kukharenkoite-(Ce) which was analyzed with 60 second exposures as it proved difficult to obtain enough spots for analysis. The analysis was then used to determine the space group 26  and unit cell parameters of the mineral. This data can be compared to the published parameters for the minerals, as well as entered into a database for comparison against all known minerals - this will identify an unknown mineral or confirm the identity of a rare mineral. Half-core samples from the 2010 and 2011 drilling programs were sent to commercial laboratories for high-precision ICP. In 2010 the samples were initially sent to ALS Chemex Limited; however, the Canadian International Mineral Ltd. project geologist stated they did not have confidence in the lab or the initial set of results and subsequently the samples were re-assayed at Activation Laboratories Ltd (personal communication, 2010). In 2011 all samples were sent to Activation Laboratories Ltd. All logged units of carbonatite and syenite were sent for geochemical assay, as well as any other samples that looked like they may host mineralization. In 2010 at least one sample from all rock types was sent for analysis. The lab analyzed for 10 major element oxides and 45 trace elements. Of the 45 trace elements Zn, Mo and Nb2O5 a second analysis at a higher detection limit was also added to the analysis package if they were found to be over the detection limit of the initial analysis. Following analysis, any pulps from the 2010 exploration program were donated to the university to be used during this study if needed required.   Isotopic analysis was completed on seven carbonatite pulp samples; these samples were received at UBC by the author after geochemical ICP assay analysis had been completed at ActLabs. The samples selected were from intersections that appeared to be as close to unaltered carbonatite as possible. The analysis was completed at the University of Alberta in the Radiogenic Isotope Facility using their NuPlasma multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS). Analyses were completed to determine the radiogenic Sr, Sm and Nd concentrations, and the distribution of the isotopes, and were then used to determine an approximate age of the carbonatite and characterize its mantle source. The samples were dissolved in HF + HNO? acid for five days at 150 ?C followed by standard separations described by Untershutz et al. (2002) and Buzon et al. (2007). Both Sr and Nd isotopic compositions were determined in solution mode following the procedures of Schmidberger et al. (2007) and Buzon et al. (2007). Processing blanks are <300 pg for Sr and <200 pg for Nd. All of the samples for Sm and Nd collected are relative to La Jolla 143Nd/144Nd. 27  Remapping of the property was completed by the author in 2011 as part of this study. The study area can be accessed from B.C. Highway 97 out of Prince George, followed by the No. 700 gravel road from the village of Bear Lake towards the Chuchinka forest service road (FSR) and Arctic Lakes FSR. These maintained forest service roads and unmaintained logging roads allow relatively easy access to the northeast and southwest edges of the property. From these points access to the internal part of the study area was limited to hiking. Approximately 1.45 km? was geologically mapped on Copley Ridge at a scale of 1:5,000. A total of 68 representative rock samples were collected from all lithological and alteration types encountered, and from most of the carbonatite and syenite outcrops found. Of these samples, 48 were sent for multi-element geochemical assay at Actlabs Ltd. Historic geochemical assays have never been previously analyzed in detail. As part of this study the assay database was acquired from Canadian International Minerals Ltd. and augmented with historical results from assessment reports; this was then compiled in order to analyze the data set as a whole, because this had not been completed previously.  28  Chapter 5. Results 5.1. Geological Mapping  In 2011, geological mapping  uncovered numerous previously unmapped outcrops; the majority were found in the middle of the ridge to the southeast of the ridge, with a few outcrops being located towards the northeast (Fig. 9). Most outcrops had a width of one to five meters. The airborne magnetic and radiometric data was used to determine potential areas of alkaline rock outcrop and in general there was a reasonable fit. Areas of high magnetism sometimes led to areas of alkaline rock outcrops. Radiometric data was more difficult to correlate, as the steep topography has led to a greater mobility of Th and U with the highs have moved downhill and away from the primary source rocks. Uranium highs were associated with syenite outcrops whereas the Th highs were potentially related to some carbonatite and syenite outcrops.  Lithologies of the Kechika Group which were encountered included argillite, phyllite, and altered phyllite. Two outcrops of riebeckite fenite were found close to the historic Teck trenches. The riebeckite was identified visually in the field. A small zone of pyroxene fenite was also identified within the historical Teck trenches. Carbonatite outcrops ranged from very fine-grained to medium-grained. It is possible that the very fine-grained outcrops may be a form of carbo-hydrothermal alteration, as seen in the 2010 and 2011 drill programs. The carbonatite samples ranged from appearing to be relatively unmineralized to hosting REE minerals and accessory phases such as amphibole, pyroxene, sulphides, oxides, baryte, and pyrochlore. Two types of syenite dykes were found on the property. One is white to grey and fine- to medium-grained, while the second is grey with a very fine-grained matrix and sodalite phenocrysts and was only found in the northwest area of the ridge. Both syenite types show strong radiometric anomalies that were identified with a scintillometer.  29   Figure 9. 2011 outcrop locations. The dots on this scale are larger than actual outcrops on the ground, but accurately display where outcrops exist.  Carbonatite and syenite outcrops did not display much in the way of deformation textures. Phyllite and altered sedimentary samples had foliations that generally trend 140? magnetic with varying degrees of dip (Fig. 10). The majority of the carbonatite and syenite outcrops trend at an orientation of 140?. There is a northerly trending fault separates the northwest and southeast carbonatite/syenite sill, and this explains the thickening of the altered sedimentary unit to the northeast. Two large-scale folds can be identified through the structural measurements in the southeast and this was accompanied by microfolding observed in the field.  Overall, historical carbonatite and syenite outcrops were mapped, somewhat expanding these zones. New carbonatite outcrops on the northwest end of the ridge and a small outcrop on the southernmost part of the southeast end were also discovered while mapping for this study.  30   Figure 10. New geological bedrock map showing the surface extent of carbonatite mineralisation and local geological structures.   5.2. Mineralogy  The mineralogy of the thin sections was analyzed using short-wave filtered and unfiltered ultraviolet light (SWFUV and SWNFUV), conventional optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction.  In most cases the minerals could be identified using optical microscopy, BSE imaging and EDX; none of the Ba-REE-fluorocarbonate minerals could be identified more closely than belonging to that family, with the exception of cordylite-(Ce). A representative set of samples with REE minerals were sent for EMPA; not all of the samples hosting REE minerals were analysed due to time and funding constraints.  Detailed petrographic descriptions of all thin sections in this study are provided in Appendix A. Mineral content in percentages for each thin section or group of sections are 31  given in Appendix B.  Energy-dispersive  spectra for the individual minerals are in Appendix C.  5.2.1. Carbonatite Matrix  Most of the carbonatites have primary magmatic textured carbonates characterised by straight crystal edges and triple junctions; however, some of the smaller veins have rounded recrystallized crystals and locally these grains are aligned in the same orientation. Some of the grains within the carbonatites that show unaltered carbonate minerals are subhedral, but generally the carbonates show an allotriomorphic texture. The carbonates making up the carbonatites are inequigranular due to a decrease in grain size of the carbonates in proximity to REE mineralization. Those carbonates in close proximity to the REE mineralization display increasingly irregular grain boundaries.  The carbonatites are composed of calcite, ankerite, and dolomite. EDX spectra of the ankerite commonly have associated Mg peaks; the dolomite may or may not have a small Fe peak associated with it.  5.2.2. Syenite Matrix  The syenites are dominantly composed of K-feldspar, which is typically coarse- to occasionally medium-grained. As well a unit of carbonate occurs within the matrix. The exception to this is the clast- and sodalite-bearing syenite, which is very fine-grained and composed dominantly of albite. The syenite is variably altered to aegirine and/or aegirine-augite.  5.2.3. Altered Phyllite   The altered phyllites are dominantly composed of albite with some carbonate, generally calcite. The altered phyllite shows three types of alteration; all of which were also observed in drill core and in the field. The alteration phases are biotite, aegirine/aegirine-augite or magnesio-riebeckite. The biotite is commonly very fine-grained and gives the rock a brown colour. The aegirine/augite forms very fine-grained, acicular crystals and masses and gives the rock a green to green-blue colour. Magnesio-riebeckite is rarer and forms fine-grained, fibrous to tabular crystals and gives the rock a blue to dark-blue colour. 32  5.2.4. REE Mineralogy  The REE mineralogy of the samples is very complex. The minerals are commonly fine-grained, ranging from 1 mm to a few micro-meters in size, and typically occurs in anhedral aggregates that range in size from a few mms to 7 cm (Figs. 11 and 12). Table 4 lists the REE minerals observed and their chemical formulae. The occurrence as aggregates, along with optical similarities among the minerals and the usual cloudy appearance of the minerals when observed in polished section, makes them difficult to identify using standard petrographic techniques. This is especially true for the REE-fluorocarbonate minerals, which require BSE imaging to observe syntaxial intergrowths, EDX to identify most of the minerals, and in some cases EMPA or single crystal X-ray diffraction to accurately identify the individual minerals. Defining the crystal size of the Ca-REE-fluorocarbonates is especially difficult since they mostly form as syntaxial intergrowths; this is discussed further below.   Figure 11. Diamond drill core with pinkish-brown REE mineral aggregates in a carbonatite matrix.    33   Figure 12. Photomicrograph (in transmitted light, plane-polars) of an REE mineral aggregate including bastn?site-(Ce) synchysite-(Ce), parisite-(Ce), and cordylite-(Ce).  Table 4. REE minerals found at the Wicheeda carbonatite complex and their accompanying formulae. Mineral Group Mineral Chemical formulabastnaesite-(Ce) (Ce, La, Pr, Y...)CO?Fparisite-(Ce) Ca(Ce,La...)?(CO?)?F?synchysite-(Ce) Ca(Ce, La, Nd, Y...)(CO?)?Fhuanghoite-(Ce) BaCe(CO?)?Fqaqarssukite-(Ce) BaCe(CO?)?Fcebaite-(Ce) Ba?Ce?(CO?)?F?kukharenkoite-(Ce) Ba?Ce(CO?)?Fcordylite-(Ce) (Na,Ca)BaCe?(CO?)?FCarbonates ancylite-(Ce) Sr(Ce, La)(CO?)?(OH)?H?OPhosphates monazite-(Ce) (Ca, La...)PO?Oxides euxenite-(Y) (Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ti,Ta)?O?Silicates allanite-(Ce) (Ca,Y,Nd,Ce,La)(Al?Fe)(Si?O?)(SiO?)O(OH)Ca-FluorocarbonatesBa-Fluorocarbonates  In most of the occurrences the Ca-REE-fluorocarbonate minerals form as syntaxial intergrowths (Fig. 13). This has also been observed to a lesser extent with the Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates. It commonly appears that these minerals formed around the grain boundaries of most of the carbonates. Bastn?site-(Ce) is typically the most abundant mineral in the syntaxial intergrowths; however, locally parisite-(Ce) is the dominant mineral. Synchysite-(Ce) is the least common mineral in the syntaxial intergrowths besides unknown 1, which only occurred in two polished sections. Locally the Ca-REE-fluorocarbonate minerals do form independently of syntaxial intergrowths. Unknown 1 was observed in syntaxial intergrowths with bastn?site-(Ce) and parisite-(Ce). Due to the syntaxial 34  intergrowths unknown 1 could not be mounted for single crystal X-ray diffraction; as the individual minerals can only be observed in backscattered electron imaging.  Bastn?site-(Ce) locally occurs as fine-grained subhedral to euhedral crystals with no other REE mineral associated with it (Fig. 14a). This is more commonly seen in rocks that were slightly altered or appeared to be at least in part recrystallized. However, parisite-(Ce) is the more common Ca-REE-fluorocarbonate to occur on its own as fine- to very fine-grained, subhedral to anhedral, lath shaped crystals (Fig. 14b); these crystals locally form with Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates and/or monazite-(Ce). Synchysite-(Ce) occurs with the same crystal habit, and along with parisite-(Ce) they are both observed to occasionally infill around Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates with very fine-grained, euhedral, acicular crystals (Figs. 16a and 16b).  These observations show three distinct periods of Ca-REE-fluorocarbonate mineralisation: (1) syntaxial intergrowths, which are thought to show primary magmatic mineralisation (Ni et al., 1993; Zaitsev et al., 1998); (2) very fine-grained crystals forming around Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates, generally cordylite-(Ce), and locally infilling fractures amongst crystals; and (3) singular crystals disseminated throughout the carbonatite. The first occurs with all of the Ca-REE-fluorocarbonates identified. The second occurs dominantly with parisite-(Ce) and synchysite-(Ce). The latter occurs with bastn?site-(Ce); these crystals locally have small syntaxial intergrowths of parisite-(Ce) and are commonly altered and occur in carbonatites that have been recrystallized and may themselves be recrystallized from other REE minerals. The Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates are rare in carbonatites (Zaitsev et al., 1998) and have been identified at few locations. For example, qaqarssukite-(Ce) has only been identified at one other deposit to date. The Ba-REE-fluorocarbonate minerals require EMPA and/or single crystal X-ray diffraction to identify the individual minerals; only cordylite-(Ce) can be identified from EDX spectra. The minerals are also difficult to distinguish with BSE imaging, as their chemistry is so similar that the grey scale differences are very small. Not all instances of Ba-REE-fluorocarbonate mineralisation were successfully analysed with EPMA or single crystal X-ray diffraction, so in some cases only the group of minerals the crystals belong to could be identified.  35   Figure 13. Backscattered electron images showing syntaxial intergrowths of the following minerals: (a) bastn?site-(Ce), parisite-(Ce) and synchysite-(Ce); (b) bastn?site-(Ce), parisite-(Ce), synchysite-(Ce) and strontianite; (c) bastn?site-(Ce) and parisite-(Ce) with strontianite; (d) bastn?site-(Ce), parisite-(Ce) and unknown 1.      36   Figure 14. Photomicrograph (in transmitted light, cross polars) of : (a) Bastn?site-(Ce) with albite in a carbonatite matrix; (b) Dominantly parisite-(Ce) with some synchysite-(Ce) in a carbonatite matrix.   Figure 15. (a) Backscattered electron map image showing where the Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates (blue) occur in relation to syntaxial intergrowths of bastn?site-(Ce) and parisite-(Ce); (b) Backscattered electron image of Figure 13a.   The Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates occur with each other and other REE minerals, with the exception of cordylite-(Ce) which, like the Ca-REE-fluorocarbonates and monazite-(Ce), is observed to occur on its own. Figure 13 shows an example of the interaction between the Ca- and Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates. Cordylite-(Ce) is the most common of the Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates and generally the most well formed (Figs. 16c and 16d). The crystals are commonly fine- to medium-grained, and anhedral to subhedral, but euhedral crystals are observed locally. It is also observed occurring in proximity to oxide mineralisation. The identification of cordylite-(Ce) was confirmed using single crystal X-ray diffraction. Kukharenkoite-(Ce) was the only other Ba-REE-fluorocarbonate observed to form euhedral 37  crystals and to occur without any other Ba-REE-fluorocarbonate minerals nearby (Figs. 16e and 16f). More commonly, kukharenkoite-(Ce) forms in the same way as qaqarssukite-(Ce), huanghoite-(Ce), and cebaite-(Ce), with very fine- to fine-grained, anhedral crystals (Figs. 17a to 17d). Locally there is evidence of some very fine syntaxial intergrowths between these minerals. The identification of kukharenkoite-(Ce) and qaqarssukite-(Ce) was confirmed using single crystal X-ray diffraction, but crystals of huanghoite-(Ce) and cebaite-(Ce) were too small to be mounted for single crystal X-ray diffraction. Ancylite-(Ce) and unknown 2 are the only REE-carbonates observed. Ancylite-(Ce) is commonly observed within the REE aggregates as a fine- to very fine-grained, anhedral mineral. It was often infilling around other REE minerals and strontianite (Fig. 17e). Unknown 2 is only observed in MGL-RS-10-032 in aggregates with Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates, monazite-(Ce), alstonite, and strontianite. It is very fine-grained and anhedral. The crystals from Unknown 2 were too small (<100 ?m) to be mounted for single crystal X-ray diffraction. Monazite-(Ce) and an unknown phosphate mineral (unknown 3) are the only known REE-bearing phosphates that have been observed. Monazite-(Ce) generally occurs as fine-grained, euhedral to locally subhedral crystals (Figs. 16a, 16b, 16d, and 16e). It occurs both on its own as well as with aggregates of Ca- and Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates. Locally it appears somewhat cloudy and fractured, which is likely due to radiation damage and subsequent alteration due to the presence of Th and U. The unknown 3, which was only observed in one polished thin-section, is very fine-grained and EDX spectra show minor amounts of Ca, Th, and HREE.     38        Figure 16. (a), (c) and (e) are photomicrographs (in transmitted light, plane-polars). (b), (d), and (f) are  backscattered electron images.  (a) monazite-(Ce), and cordylite-(Ce) in a carbonatite matrix; (b) Figure 14a with monazite-(Ce), cordylite-(Ce) and parisite-(Ce) and bastn?site-(Ce); (c) cordylite-(Ce) (yellow) in a carbonatite matrix; (d) cordylite-(Ce) in a carbonatite matrix; (e) monazite-(Ce), and kukharenkoite-(Ce) in a carbonatite matrix; (f) Figure 14e with monazite-(Ce) and kukharenkoite-(Ce).  39       Figure 17. Backscattered electron images of: (a) kukharenkoite-(Ce), cebaite-(Ce) and cordylite-(Ce); Kukharenkoite-(Ce) and cebaite-(Ce) cannot be distinguished from each other; (b) Kukharenkoite-(Ce), huanghoite-(Ce) and cordylite-(Ce). Kukharenkoite-(Ce) and huanghoite-(Ce) cannot be distinguished from each other; (c) Huanghoite-(Ce) and cordylite-(Ce); (d) Qaqarssukite-(Ce), cebaite-(Ce), unknown 2 and monazite-(Ce), none are distinguishable from each other; (e) An aggregate of kukharenkoite-(Ce), cordylite-(Ce) and ancylite-(Ce). 40   Allanite-(Ce) is observed rarely. Typically it is in the form of coarse-grained, euhedral crystals, and more rarely it is observed as anhedral masses (Fig. 18). In BSE imaging it shows a mottled texture, which is a result of small changes in the chemistry of the mineral. A very fine-grained Y-silicate occurs in one section, as EDX spectra show very small peaks for Ca Ce, Nd, Pr, Gd, and Dy.   Figure 18. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, cross-polars) of allanite-(Ce).  Euxenite-(Y) was only observed in one polished section. It occurs as a fine-grained, anhedral crystal and several very fine-grained crystals at the same location (Fig. 19). It is associated with ilmenite and allanite mineralisation.   Figure 19. Backscattered electron image of euxenite-(Y).  41  5.2.5. Accessory Minerals  Numerous accessory phases exist within the Wicheeda carbonatite complex; these include strontianite, fluorite, ilmenite, apatite, albite, potassium feldspar, hyalophane, celsian, sodalite, nepheline, aegirine-augite, aegirine, magnesio-riebeckite, arfvedonsite, biotite, phlogopite, muscovite, chlorite, thorite, zircon, titanite, quartz, hematite, magnetite, Fe-columbite, pyrochlore, niksergievite, baryte, and various sulphide minerals.  Strontianite is commonly found associated with the REE minerals. It is generally anhedral and infilling between the REE minerals. In BSE imaging it appears mottled due to changes in Sr content. In some sections it has a small to moderate Ca peak, showing that it may be more strontio-aragonite than strontianite. Other carbonates observed are alstonite and witherite. These occurred rarely and are usually fine-grained and anhedral.  Fluorite occurs locally in the carbonatite samples. It is anhedral and fine- to coarse-grained.  Ilmenite and rutile are the most common accessory oxide minerals. They locally both occur with some amount of Nb present. Pyrochlore occurs in both carbonatite and syenite samples. In the carbonatites it is very fine-grained and anhedral, whereas in the syenites it is euhedral and medium-grained. Energy-dispersive spectra showed the pyrochlore in these samples to be enriched in Nb, Ca, Ti, Na, and varying amounts of Th. Some hematite, magnetite, and Fe-columbite were also observed. The hematite occurs in small veinlets, generally in rocks located away from the plug. Magnetite occurs more commonly. Very fine-grained Fe-columbite was observed in one sample.  Apatite occurs locally in carbonatites that are located distal to the carbonatite plug. It is fine-grained, anhedral, and appears to be altered. It commonly occurs in masses; however, in one section a few fine-, rounded grains have formed.  Albite, K-feldspar, hyalophane, and celsian are feldspars that occur in both the carbonatite and syenite samples. Albite is generally fine-grained with euhedral crystals. Potassium feldspar is fine- to medium-grained with subhedral to euhedral crystals. Hyalophane and celsian occur more rarely and are usually very fine- to fine-grained and anhedral. Celsian locally shows a zoning pattern. 42   Sodalite and nepheline were the two feldspathoids observed. Both blue and white sodalite were found to occur as single crystals in syenites or in carbonate veinlets cross-cutting syenite. Nepheline occurs as the dominant mineral in one veinlet.   Aegirine-augite, aegirine, magnesio-riebeckite and arfvedonsite are all common alteration minerals in the carbonatites and syenites. The classification aegirine-augite was used for all occurrences of the mineral that were not confirmed as pure aegirine through EDX spectra. All four of these minerals have very similar chemistry and can appear very similar in hand-specimen; however, the birefringence colours observed under crossed polars differ, making this a useful tool to differentiate between them, along with other optical properties. Aegirine-augite and aegirine are commonly coarse-grained, with the exception of in the carbo-hydrothermal bands, where they are very fine-grained, and form subhedral to euhedral crystals. Arfvedonsite is medium-grained and commonly subhedral. Magnesio-riebeckite occurs both as very fine-grained crystals within carbo-hydrothermal bands, within areas of phyllite alteration, and also within grains of aegirine.   Biotite, phlogopite, muscovite, and chlorite are common alteration minerals within carbonatites and the altered phyllite. Biotite is the most common alteration mineral for the altered phyllite and carbonatites, followed by phlogopite. Biotite and phlogopite range in grain sizes from very fine- to coarse-grained and are commonly euhedral but in some sections are deformed. Muscovite and chlorite occur more rarely and are usually fine-grained. Muscovite is occasionally deformed and the chlorite usually shows anomalous blue birefringence.  Thorite occurs within carbonatites, usually with the REE mineral aggregates as fine-grained, anhedral crystals. Zircon occurs within syenites and is commonly associated with pyrochlore. The crystals are fine-grained, and euhedral to subhedral. Titanite commonly occurs in syenites as euhedral to locally subhedral, fine- to medium-grained crystals. In some sections the titanites are weakly deformed, appearing broken or curved. Quartz occurs locally within carbonatites and can be weakly altered, showing yellow birefringence. Some REE mineralisation is associated with quartz.   Baryte is a common accessory phase in the carbonatites. Its formation ranges from anhedral to euhedral and very fine- to coarse-grained. The anhedral and finer grained crystals 43  are more commonly associated with REE mineral aggregates, whereas the subhedral to euhedral and coarser-grained crystals are not.  Sulphides occur within all of the rock types. Pyrite, sphalerite, and galena are more commonly seen in the carbonatites whereas, pyrrhotite was observed in areas of feldspar flooding and in the syenites, and chalcopyrite and molybedenite occur more rarely.  Pyrite is usually euhedral and besides carbonatites it also occurs in the altered phyllite. Sphalerite is usually anhedral and red-brown in colour. Galena is commonly seen rimming other sulphide or oxide minerals. Pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite and molybdenite occur as fine-grained blebs.  Locally, some cryptocrystalline minerals occur which could not be identified. As well there is an unconfirmed mineral that could be niksergievite, [Ba1.33Ca0.67Al(CO3)(OH)4][Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2)]?nH2O, which has third order birefringence and forms curved, platy crystals (Saburove et al., 2005).  5.3. Mineral Chemistry  Fourteen REE-bearing mineral species were analyzed from 20 thin sections using EMPA for major and minor element chemistry determination.   The EMPA data were averaged for each thin section to give an average for each mineral identified. The resulting data was then used to create REE diagrams normalized to chondrite. In general Ce was the most abundant element measured, followed by La, Nd and Pr. A few exceptions were recorded and are discussed below.  The minerals that contain F all show lower than expected values.  This may be due to it being analyzed near the beginning of the experiment since it has a very light mass and some may have been lost in the analysis process, or it is potentially underrepresented due to spectroscopic overlaps with some of the other minerals in these complex samples.   Some of the minerals in thin sections MGL-RS-10-30 and MGL-RS-10-31 had wt% values of Sm2O3 greater than 1, were elevated in Eu2O3, Gd2O3, and Y2O3, and showed overall elevations of the REEs in all the minerals as compared to other thin sections.  Most analyzed minerals had ThO2 values lower than 1 wt% with the exception of two or more of the minerals from sections MGL-RS-10-006B, MGL-RS-10-006C, and MGL-RS-10-030. The minerals monazite-(Ce) and euxenite-(Ce) generally showed ThO2 values of around 1 wt% or slightly higher. 44  The atoms per formula unit (apfu) were calculated for the identified minerals. This was completed using stoichiometry to determine the amount of CO?, H?O, OH, and F, and then calculated based on the number of anions for each mineral.  5.3.1. Ca-REE-Fluorocarbonates The three identified Ca-REE-fluorocarbonates were analyzed; Table 5 shows the average results of this analysis. Bastn?site-(Ce) was analyzed from 11 thin sections. The mineral contained average major element oxide values (measured as TREO) of 70.05 wt% and F values of 5.02 wt%. Some samples had minor amounts of CaO, SrO, UO2, and ThO2, generally all below 1wt%.  Three areas had ThO2 values greater than 1 wt%. Minor to trace amounts of Sm2O3, Eu2O3, Gd2O3, and Y2O3 were measured in approximately half of the samples and Tb2O3 and Dy2O3 were measured in trace amounts from one sample each.  Parisite-(Ce) was analyzed from eight thin sections. The average measured major element oxide values measured shows 59.65 wt% TREO, 9.51 wt% CaO, and 3.26 wt% F. Some samples had minor amounts of SrO, UO2, and ThO2, generally below 1 wt%. Minor to trace amounts of Sm2O3, Y2O3, Gd2O3, and Eu2O3 were measured in decreasing order. Trace amounts of Tb2O3 were measured in three samples and Dy2O3 was measured from four samples.  Synchysite-(Ce) was analyzed from five thin sections. The average measured major element oxide values measured was 52.71 wt% TREO, 15.92 wt% CaO, and 2.96 wt% F. Some samples had minor amounts of SrO, UO2, and ThO2, generally below 1 wt%. Minor to trace amounts of Sm2O3, Y2O3, Gd2O3, and Eu2O3 were measured in decreasing order. Minor amounts of Dy2O3 were measured from two samples.  5.3.2 REE-Carbonates  Ancylite-(Ce) was analyzed from five thin sections; Table 6 shows the average results of this analysis. Measured major element oxide values are 15.21 wt% SrO, 2.60 wt% CaO, and 46.75 wt% TREO. Minor to trace amounts of BaO, UO2, and ThO2 ,Sm2O3, Gd2O3, and Y2O3 were measured from most samples.  45  Table 5. Average composition of Ca-REE-fluorocarbonate group minerals. Mineralaverage ? minimum maximum average ? minimum maximumn 98 39P2O5 0.11 0.69 0.00 4.38Nb2O5 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.06SiO2 0.09 0.27 0.03 2.73 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.15ThO2 0.33 0.50 0.00 2.67 0.56 0.61 0.00 2.48UO2 0.58 0.09 0.36 0.77 0.41 0.09 0.19 0.63Y?O? 0.05 0.08 0.00 0.44 0.23 0.15 0.00 0.60La?O? 27.80 2.17 23.20 32.70 21.91 1.27 19.76 24.38Ce?O? 32.59 0.88 26.69 34.71 27.49 1.03 24.79 29.38Pr?O? 2.43 0.23 1.95 2.90 2.11 0.15 1.84 2.44Nd?O? 6.53 1.14 4.66 8.98 6.47 0.57 5.40 7.70Sm?O? 0.53 0.38 0.02 1.52 0.91 0.41 0.22 1.82Eu?O? 0.02 0.04 0.00 0.19 0.07 0.09 0.00 0.32Gd?O? 0.10 0.16 0.00 0.70 0.45 0.36 0.00 1.53Dy?O? 0.01 0.03 0.00 0.16CaO 0.20 0.25 0.01 1.27 9.51 0.59 6.94 10.10FeOSrO 0.11 0.16 0.00 0.88 0.65 0.24 0.23 1.16BaO 0.05 0.28 0.00 1.78Na2O 0.03 0.02 0.00 0.12 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.07CO?  * 19.23 0.27 17.90 21.11 24.24 0.86 23.12 29.24F    * 8.30 0.12 7.73 9.11 6.98 0.25 6.65 8.41-O=F -3.49 0.05 -3.84 -3.25 -2.94 0.10 -3.54 -2.80Total 95.42 1.07 87.53 97.69 99.27 1.97 97.00 109.15P apfu 0.007 0.044 0.000 0.279Nb 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.002Si 0.003 0.009 0.001 0.095 0.004 0.002 0.002 0.011Th 0.003 0.004 0.000 0.023 0.011 0.012 0.000 0.051U 0.005 0.001 0.003 0.006 0.008 0.002 0.003 0.013Y 0.001 0.002 0.000 0.009 0.011 0.007 0.000 0.029La 0.391 0.031 0.322 0.459 0.734 0.051 0.598 0.836Ce 0.455 0.013 0.401 0.486 0.914 0.049 0.746 1.022Pr 0.034 0.003 0.027 0.040 0.070 0.005 0.054 0.081Nd 0.089 0.015 0.063 0.122 0.210 0.019 0.157 0.253Sm 0.007 0.005 0.000 0.020 0.028 0.013 0.007 0.057Eu 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.000 0.010Gd 0.001 0.002 0.000 0.009 0.013 0.011 0.000 0.046Dy 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.005Ca 0.008 0.010 0.000 0.051 0.924 0.058 0.707 0.990FeSr 0.002 0.004 0.000 0.020 0.034 0.012 0.012 0.061Ba 0.002 0.010 0.000 0.063Na 0.002 0.001 0.000 0.009 0.003 0.002 0.000 0.013C 1 3F 1 2O 3 9** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralBastn?site-(Ce) Parisite-(Ce)* Determined by stoichiometry   46  Table 5 continued. Average composition of Ca-REE-fluorocarbonate group minerals. Mineralaverage ? minimum maximumn 24P2O5Nb2O5SiO2 0.07 0.11 0.01 0.51ThO2 0.35 0.56 0.00 2.01UO2 0.24 0.08 0.09 0.39Y?O? 0.24 0.39 0.00 1.66La?O? 17.73 1.36 14.31 19.51Ce?O? 24.76 1.63 21.01 27.29Pr?O? 1.97 0.15 1.71 2.33Nd?O? 6.19 0.64 5.37 7.95Sm?O? 0.73 0.25 0.41 1.29Eu?O? 0.02 0.03 0.00 0.10Gd?O? 0.35 0.26 0.02 1.13Dy?O? 0.01 0.04 0.00 0.19CaO 15.92 1.36 12.38 18.80FeO 0.08 0.17 0.00 0.61SrO 0.57 0.22 0.17 1.14BaONa2OCO?  * 27.19 0.51 26.10 28.42F    * 5.87 0.11 5.63 6.13-O=F -2.47 0.05 -2.58 -2.37Total 99.81 0.83 97.64 100.99P apfuNbSi 0.004 0.006 0.001 0.026Th 0.004 0.007 0.000 0.025U 0.003 0.001 0.001 0.005Y 0.007 0.011 0.000 0.046La 0.353 0.031 0.272 0.402Ce 0.489 0.039 0.397 0.561Pr 0.039 0.003 0.032 0.048Nd 0.119 0.012 0.102 0.152Sm 0.013 0.005 0.008 0.024Eu 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.002Gd 0.006 0.005 0.000 0.020Dy 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.003Ca 0.918 0.063 0.745 1.038Fe 0.003 0.008 0.000 0.026Sr 0.018 0.007 0.006 0.036BaNaC 2F 1O 6** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralSynchysite-(Ce)* Determined by stoichiometry   47  Table 6. Average composition of ancylite-(Ce). Mineralaverage 1? minimum maximumn 13SiO? wt% 0.31 0.36 0.08 1.12ThO? 1.29 0.75 0.43 2.77UO? 0.37 0.09 0.17 0.52Y?O? 0.04 0.03 0.00 0.08La?O? 18.83 1.19 15.93 20.37Ce?O? 21.97 0.90 20.19 22.88Pr?O? 1.50 0.15 1.19 1.80Nd?O? 4.11 0.44 3.46 4.94Sm?O? 0.20 0.09 0.00 0.35Gd?O? 0.10 0.10 0.00 0.41CaO 2.60 0.29 2.19 3.18FeO 0.20 0.37 0.00 1.36SrO 15.21 1.22 12.72 17.33BaO 1.03 1.14 0.00 4.37Na?O 0.03 0.02 0.00 0.06CO?  * 23.00 0.54 22.01 23.94H?O  * 7.06 0.17 6.76 7.35Total 97.85 1.61 95.19 100.8Si apfu** 0.019 0.022 0.005 0.070Th 0.019 0.011 0.006 0.039U 0.005 0.002 0.002 0.008Y 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.003La 0.443 0.030 0.366 0.469Ce 0.513 0.027 0.452 0.546Pr 0.035 0.003 0.027 0.040Nd 0.093 0.008 0.079 0.108Sm 0.004 0.002 0.000 0.007Eu 0.002 0.002 0.000 0.009Ca 0.178 0.021 0.151 0.219Fe 0.011 0.020 0.000 0.071Sr 0.562 0.041 0.481 0.616Ba 0.026 0.030 0.000 0.114Na 0.003 0.003 0.000 0.008C 2H 3O 8** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralAncylite-(Ce)* Determined by stoichiometry   5.3.3. Ba-REE-Fluorocarbonates The five identified Ba-REE-fluorocarbonate minerals were analyzed; Table 7 shows the average results of this analysis.  Cordylite-(Ce) was analyzed from eight thin sections. The measured major element oxide values show average wt% oxide values of 22.05, 41.71, and 1.2 for BaO, TREO, and F, 48  respectively. CaO and SrO are common substitutions and have averages of 2.50 and 3.33 wt%, respectively and minimum and maximums of 0.61 and 3.87 wt% and 0.42 and 5.84, respectively. Minor to trace amounts of Na2O, UO2, ThO2, Sm2O3, Gd2O3, and Y2O3 were measured from most points; rarely, trace amounts of Eu2O3 were measured. Qaqarssukite-(Ce) was analyzed from three thin sections. The average measured major element oxide values show wt% oxide values of 28.34, 40.00, and 1.54 for BaO, TREO, and F respectively. CaO and SrO are common substitutions and have an average of 1.72 and 3.71 wt%, respectively and minimum and maximums of 1.17 and 2.55 wt% and 2.84 and 4.91 wt%, respectively. Minor to trace amounts of Na2O, UO2, ThO2, Sm2O3, Gd2O3 and Y2O3 were measured. Eu2O3, Dy2O3 and Tb2O3 all reported trace values for five, three and one points, respectively.   Huanghoite-(Ce) was analyzed from two thin sections. The average major element oxide values measured were 37.17 wt% BaO, 34.23 wt% TREO, and 1.78 wt% F. A common substitution is SrO with an average, minimum and maximum of 1.46, 0.58, and 2.49 wt% respectively. Minor amounts of CaO, Na2O, UO2, and ThO2 were measured, generally less than 1 wt%. Minor to over 1 wt% Sm2O3 was measured for all points and minor amounts of Eu2O3, Gd2O3, and Y2O3 were measured for most points. Two points showed trace amounts of Dy2O3 and one point reported trace amounts of Tb2O3. Cebaite-(Ce) was analyzed from three thin sections. Average major element oxide values measured were 41.27 wt% BaO, 31.28 wt% TREO, and 1.28 wt% F. A common substitution is Sr, which ranges from 0.97 wt% to 2.11 wt%, with an average of 1.61wt%. Minor amounts of CaO, Na2O, UO2, ThO2, Sm2O3, Gd2O3, and Y2O3 were measured from most points and one point showed trace amounts of Eu2O3. Kukharenkoite-(Ce) was analyzed from three thin sections. The average measured major element oxide values show wt% oxide values of 46.56, 26.16, and 1.48 for BaO, TREO, and F, respectively. SrO is a common substitution with an average, minimum, and maximum wt% of 1.52, 2.16, and 0.79, respectively. Minor to trace amounts of CaO, Na2O, UO2, and ThO2 were measured. Trace amounts of Sm2O3 appear in most analyses, 11 points show trace amounts of Y2O3, and four points reported trace amounts of Gd2O3. 49  Table 7. Average composition of Ba-REE-fluorocarbonate group minerals. Mineralaverage ? minimum maximum average ? minimum maximumn 66 9P2O5Nb2O5SiO2 0.07 0.08 0.02 0.67 0.04 0.01 0.04 0.06ThO2 0.39 0.39 0.00 1.63 0.22 0.43 0.00 1.32UO2 0.53 0.09 0.36 0.73 0.57 0.08 0.47 0.70Al2O3 0.09 0.01 0.06 0.11 0.16 0.01 0.14 0.18Y?O? 0.05 0.07 0.00 0.26 0.22 0.18 0.00 0.60La?O? 15.35 1.67 11.96 18.35 16.05 1.51 12.77 18.14Ce?O? 20.03 1.30 17.47 23.17 18.20 0.89 16.48 20.04Pr?O? 1.46 0.19 1.13 2.10 1.34 0.07 1.19 1.44Nd?O? 4.35 0.81 2.97 7.58 3.48 0.39 3.12 4.47Sm?O? 0.34 0.23 0.05 1.08 0.40 0.16 0.21 0.67Eu?O? 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.09 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.04Gd?O? 0.12 0.15 0.00 0.54 0.26 0.18 0.00 0.60Dy?O? 0.04 0.06 0.00 0.17CaO 2.50 0.87 0.61 3.87 1.72 0.47 1.17 2.55MnOFeOSrO 3.33 1.33 0.42 5.84 3.71 0.59 2.84 4.91BaO 22.05 0.66 19.79 23.16 28.34 1.09 26.30 29.54Na2O 0.70 0.19 0.33 1.32 0.18 0.21 0.09 0.76CO?  * 24.44 0.35 23.80 25.13 22.27 0.36 21.61 22.89F    * 2.64 0.04 2.57 2.71 4.80 0.08 4.66 4.94-O=F -1.11 0.02 -1.14 -1.08 -2.02 0.03 -2.08 -1.96Total 97.29 1.29 93.99 100.57 99.99 1.45 96.34 101.32P apfu**NbSi 0.008 0.010 0.002 0.081 0.003 0.000 0.003 0.004Th 0.011 0.011 0.000 0.045 0.003 0.007 0.000 0.020U 0.014 0.002 0.010 0.020 0.008 0.001 0.007 0.010Al 0.013 0.002 0.009 0.016 0.012 0.001 0.011 0.014Y 0.003 0.004 0.000 0.017 0.008 0.006 0.000 0.020La 0.679 0.076 0.524 0.812 0.389 0.032 0.319 0.438Ce 0.880 0.066 0.746 1.035 0.439 0.026 0.395 0.497Pr 0.064 0.009 0.050 0.093 0.032 0.002 0.028 0.036Nd 0.187 0.036 0.128 0.330 0.082 0.010 0.073 0.108Sm 0.014 0.009 0.002 0.045 0.009 0.003 0.005 0.015Eu 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.004 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001Gd 0.005 0.006 0.000 0.022 0.006 0.004 0.000 0.013Dy 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.004Ca 0.320 0.109 0.080 0.483 0.121 0.032 0.083 0.175MnFeSr 0.230 0.090 0.030 0.395 0.141 0.022 0.112 0.191Ba 1.036 0.028 0.933 1.083 0.731 0.029 0.678 0.761Na 0.163 0.046 0.075 0.314 0.023 0.027 0.011 0.100C 4 2F 1 1O 12 6** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineral* Determined by stoichiometryCordylite-(Ce) Qaqarssukite-(Ce) 50  Table 7 continued. Average composition of Ba-REE-fluorocarbonate group minerals.  Mineralaverage ? minimum maximum average ? minimum maximumn 7 9P2O5 0.06 0.08 0.00 0.19Nb2O5 0.03 0.03 0.00 0.07 0.03 0.03 0.00 0.10SiO2 0.31 0.42 0.05 1.17 0.04 0.01 0.03 0.06ThO2 0.88 0.47 0.22 1.75 0.04 0.05 0.00 0.15UO2 0.58 0.07 0.47 0.68 0.66 0.04 0.59 0.71Al2O3 0.27 0.02 0.25 0.30 0.30 0.03 0.27 0.36Y?O? 0.16 0.12 0.00 0.38 0.09 0.06 0.00 0.19La?O? 11.39 0.96 10.31 12.70 12.69 0.76 10.87 13.59Ce?O? 16.16 1.15 14.31 17.72 14.36 0.44 13.61 15.09Pr?O? 1.30 0.13 1.07 1.46 1.04 0.12 0.81 1.24Nd?O? 4.02 0.47 3.54 4.89 2.80 0.46 1.78 3.64Sm?O? 0.73 0.38 0.20 1.27 0.20 0.10 0.00 0.32Eu?O? 0.09 0.07 0.00 0.17Gd?O? 0.38 0.27 0.00 0.74 0.10 0.09 0.00 0.24Dy?O?CaO 0.33 0.14 0.18 0.55 0.62 0.35 0.09 0.97MnO 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.06FeO 0.03 0.06 0.00 0.18SrO 1.46 0.60 0.58 2.49 1.61 0.36 0.97 2.11BaO 37.17 0.84 35.65 38.03 41.27 0.42 40.47 41.85Na2O 0.15 0.01 0.12 0.16 0.16 0.01 0.14 0.17CO?  * 21.39 0.58 20.57 22.43 22.09 0.49 21.40 22.56F    * 4.62 0.13 4.44 4.84 3.81 0.08 3.69 3.90-O=F -1.95 0.05 -2.04 -1.87 -1.61 0.03 -1.64 -1.56Total 99.49 1.53 96.42 101.79 100.36 1.57 98.16 102.20P apfu** 0.008 0.010 0.000 0.026Nb 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.000 0.007Si 0.021 0.027 0.003 0.076 0.007 0.002 0.005 0.010Th 0.013 0.007 0.004 0.026 0.002 0.002 0.000 0.006U 0.009 0.001 0.007 0.010 0.024 0.001 0.022 0.027Al 0.022 0.001 0.020 0.024 0.058 0.006 0.052 0.073Y 0.006 0.005 0.000 0.014 0.008 0.005 0.000 0.017La 0.288 0.027 0.254 0.331 0.776 0.040 0.686 0.826Ce 0.406 0.038 0.348 0.462 0.872 0.028 0.832 0.924Pr 0.032 0.004 0.025 0.038 0.063 0.008 0.048 0.077Nd 0.098 0.012 0.087 0.121 0.166 0.030 0.103 0.223Sm 0.017 0.009 0.005 0.030 0.110 0.006 0.000 0.018Eu 0.002 0.002 0.000 0.004Gd 0.009 0.006 0.000 0.017 0.005 0.005 0.000 0.013DyCa 0.024 0.009 0.013 0.038 0.109 0.061 0.017 0.171Mn 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.003Fe 0.001 0.003 0.000 0.010Sr 0.057 0.023 0.024 0.096 0.154 0.032 0.096 0.201Ba 0.998 0.023 0.973 1.034 2.682 0.065 2.602 2.806Na 0.019 0.002 0.016 0.022 0.050 0.003 0.044 0.056C 2 5F 1 2O 6 15** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralCebaite -(Ce)Huanghoite-(Ce)* Determined by stoichiometry 51  Table 7 continued. Average composition of Ba-REE-fluorocarbonate group minerals. Mineralaverage ? minimum maximumn 24P2O5 0.04 0.04 0.00 0.14Nb2O5 0.02 0.03 0.00 0.10SiO2 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.16ThO2 0.16 0.12 0.00 0.39UO2 0.63 0.06 0.50 0.76Al2O3 0.33 0.02 0.31 0.38Y?O? 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.06La?O? 11.31 1.02 9.84 13.12Ce?O? 11.79 0.61 11.06 12.99Pr?O? 0.83 0.10 0.62 0.99Nd?O? 2.14 0.38 1.53 2.91Sm?O? 0.07 0.07 0.00 0.26Eu?O?Gd?O? 0.01 0.03 0.00 0.13Dy?O?CaO 0.44 0.37 0.05 1.47MnOFeOSrO 1.52 0.31 0.79 2.16BaO 46.56 1.14 43.73 48.17Na2O 0.16 0.01 0.13 0.18CO?  * 22.13 0.41 20.82 22.61F    * 3.18 0.06 3.00 3.25-O=F -1.34 0.03 -1.37 -1.26Total 100.02 1.85 94.02 102.11P apfu** 0.003 0.004 0.000 0.012Nb 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.004Si 0.004 0.003 0.002 0.017Th 0.004 0.003 0.000 0.009U 0.014 0.001 0.011 0.017Al 0.039 0.003 0.036 0.046Y 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.003La 0.414 0.036 0.366 0.481Ce 0.429 0.021 0.402 0.468Pr 0.030 0.004 0.023 0.035Nd 0.076 0.014 0.054 0.101Sm 0.002 0.002 0.000 0.009EuGd 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.004DyCa 0.047 0.039 0.005 0.153MnFeSr 0.087 0.017 0.046 0.122Ba 1.812 0.039 1.705 1.861Na 0.030 0.003 0.024 0.035C 3F 1O 9** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralKukharenkoite -(Ce)* Determined by stoichiometry 52  5.3.4. Phosphates  Monazite-(Ce) was analyzed from six thin sections; Table 8 shows the average results of this analysis. The major element oxides measured were P2O5 and TREO with average wt% values of 28.61 and 69.6, respectively. Trace amounts of UO2 were measured and all of the samples showed around 1 wt% ThO2, with the exception of section MGL-017. Minor to 1 wt% values were recorded for Sm2O3 in all analyses, minor to trace amounts for Tb2O3 and Y2O3 were measured in all but one, and trace amounts of Eu2O3 were observed in all but three. Most points showed trace amounts of Gd2O3, and 12 points reported trace amounts of Dy2O3.  5.3.5. Silicates  Allanite-(Ce) was analyzed from two thin sections; Table 9 shows the average results of this analysis. The major element oxides average wt% values measured were 26.81 wt% SiO2, 15.00 wt% Al2O3, 14.94 wt% FeO, 9.45 wt% CaO, and 25.03 wt% TREO. Trace amounts of ThO2 were measured for a few data points. Minor amounts of Sm2O3 were measured from all of the points; most points showed values for Tb2O3 and Dy2O3 and few points reported Eu2O3, Gd2O3, and Y2O3.   5.3.6. Oxides  Euxenite-(Y) was analyzed from only one thin section; Table 10 shows the average results of this analysis. The average major element oxide wt% values measured were 18.52 wt% TiO2, 41.32 wt% Nb2O5, 34.75 wt% TREO, and 2.08 wt% CaO. Minor amounts of UO2 and ThO2 were measured at average wt% values of 1.10 and 1.03, respectively. Minor to trace amounts of Ce2O3, Pr2O3, Eu2O3, Ho2O3, and Yb2O3 were observed for all of the points; Tm2O3, and Lu2O3 were measured for eight, and one samples respectively.        53   Table 8. Average composition of monazite-(Ce). Mineralaverage 1? minimum maximumn 36P?O? wt% 28.61 0.64 25.63 29.48SiO? 0.34 0.94 0.07 5.77TiO? 0.04 0.02 0.00 0.08ZrO? 0.06 0.05 0.00 0.17ThO? 1.11 0.82 0.22 3.88UO? 0.28 0.11 0.04 0.59Y?O? 0.11 0.11 0.00 0.51La?O? 26.31 1.69 23.57 30.73Ce?O? 32.84 1.13 30.14 35.29Pr?O? 2.64 0.20 2.16 3.01Nd?O? 6.68 0.74 5.17 8.36Sm?O? 0.71 0.16 0.45 1.14Eu?O? 0.07 0.05 0.00 0.20Gd?O? 0.14 0.12 0.00 0.43Tb?O? 0.07 0.04 0.00 0.16Dy?O? 0.03 0.05 0.00 0.23CaO 0.13 0.07 0.05 0.38SrO 0.25 0.18 0.00 0.65BaO 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.06Total 100.44 0.82 98.34 102.88P apfu** 0.964 0.021 0.846 0.980Si 0.013 0.037 0.003 0.225Ti 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.002Zr 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.003Th 0.010 0.007 0.002 0.035U 0.003 0.001 0.000 0.005Y 0.002 0.002 0.000 0.011La 0.386 0.023 0.349 0.449Ce 0.478 0.018 0.430 0.514Pr 0.038 0.003 0.031 0.044Nd 0.095 0.011 0.072 0.119Sm 0.010 0.002 0.006 0.016Eu 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.003Gd 0.002 0.002 0.000 0.006Tb 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.002Dy 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.003Ca 0.005 0.003 0.002 0.016Sr 0.006 0.004 0.000 0.015Na 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.005O 4** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralMonazite-(Ce)* Determined by stoichiometry     54    Table 9. Average composition of allanite-(Ce). Mineralaverage 1? minimum maximumn 25P?O? wt% 0.14 0.18 0.00 0.60SiO? 26.81 0.60 25.94 28.13TiO? 0.48 0.26 0.11 1.13ThO? 0.04 0.07 0.00 0.22Al?O? 15.00 1.28 13.55 18.64La?O? 9.47 0.69 8.26 10.90Ce?O? 11.98 0.91 9.93 13.08Pr?O? 0.96 0.10 0.77 1.20Nd?O? 2.34 0.28 1.78 3.00Sm?O? 0.19 0.06 0.10 0.34Gd?O? 0.02 0.04 0.00 0.19Tb?O? 0.04 0.04 0.00 0.13Dy?O? 0.03 0.03 0.00 0.09CaO 9.45 0.69 8.67 11.48MgO 0.19 0.07 0.09 0.39MnO 0.30 0.08 0.17 0.47FeO 14.94 0.96 12.27 16.32SrO 1.19 0.74 0.16 2.47Na2O 0.06 0.03 0.01 0.14H?O  * 1.43 0.03 1.39 1.51Total 95.06 0.82 93.51 96.66P apfu** 0.012 0.016 0.000 0.054Si 2.820 0.018 2.787 2.854Ti 0.039 0.021 0.009 0.091Th 0.001 0.002 0.000 0.005Al 1.857 0.118 1.712 2.188La 0.368 0.030 0.317 0.421Ce 0.462 0.040 0.362 0.513Pr 0.037 0.004 0.028 0.046Nd 0.088 0.011 0.063 0.111Sm 0.007 0.002 0.004 0.013Gd 0.001 0.002 0.000 0.007Tb 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.004Dy 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.003Ca 1.064 0.055 0.996 1.225Mg 0.030 0.011 0.014 0.061Mn 0.027 0.007 0.015 0.040Fe 1.317 0.107 1.022 1.462Sr 0.073 0.046 0.010 0.152Na 0.013 0.007 0.002 0.029H 1O 13** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralAllanite-(Ce)* Determined by stoichiometry   55  Table 10. Average composition of euxenite-(Y). Mineralaverage 1? minimum maximumn 10Nb?O? wt% 41.32 1.94 39.16 45.08SiO? 0.67 0.50 0.05 1.32TiO? 18.52 0.84 17.71 20.66ThO? 1.03 0.48 0.30 1.77UO? 1.10 0.52 0.31 2.09Y?O? 14.70 1.42 12.57 17.29Ce?O? 0.32 0.07 0.20 0.45Pr?O? 0.08 0.04 0.02 0.13Nd?O? 1.28 0.27 0.83 1.74Sm?O? 2.09 0.42 1.56 2.98Eu?O? 0.65 0.10 0.45 0.84Gd?O? 5.33 0.57 4.61 6.46Tb?O? 1.30 0.11 1.14 1.45Dy?O? 6.34 0.19 6.02 6.64Ho?O? 0.76 0.16 0.55 0.98Er?O? 1.52 0.13 1.34 1.78Tm?O? 0.13 0.12 0.00 0.38Yb?O? 0.25 0.09 0.12 0.43CaO 2.08 0.40 1.11 2.69MnO 0.40 0.30 0.03 0.93FeO 1.11 0.68 0.19 2.12SrO 0.07 0.07 0.00 0.21BaO 0.31 0.32 0.00 0.96Na2O 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.03Total 101.34 2.40 98.28 105.12Nb apfu** 1.096 0.035 1.048 1.168Si 0.040 0.030 0.003 0.079Ti 0.818 0.033 0.767 0.898Th 0.014 0.007 0.004 0.024U 0.015 0.007 0.004 0.028Y 0.459 0.036 0.402 0.521Ce 0.007 0.002 0.004 0.010Pr 0.002 0.001 0.000 0.003Nd 0.027 0.005 0.017 0.036Sm 0.042 0.008 0.032 0.059Eu 0.013 0.002 0.009 0.017Gd 0.104 0.010 0.092 0.124Tb 0.025 0.002 0.023 0.028Dy 0.120 0.003 0.116 0.124Ho 0.014 0.003 0.010 0.018Er 0.028 0.002 0.025 0.032Tm 0.002 0.002 0.000 0.007Yb 0.004 0.001 0.002 0.007Ca 0.131 0.024 0.069 0.165Mn 0.020 0.015 0.001 0.047Fe 0.055 0.035 0.009 0.107Sr 0.002 0.002 0.000 0.007Ba 0.007 0.008 0.000 0.023Na 0.002 0.001 0.000 0.004O 6** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralEuxenite-(Y)* Determined by stoichiometry 56  5.3.7. Unknowns Table 11 shows the average results of the analysis for the two unknowns. Unknown 1 was analyzed from two thin sections. The average measured major element oxide values are similar to those of parisite-(Ce) and reported as 60.46 wt% TREO, 7.36 wt% CaO, and 3.48 wt% F. There are minor to trace amounts of SrO, UO2, ThO2, Sm2O3, Y2O3, Gd2O3, and Eu2O3. The chemistry seen does not match any known mineral and since the grain forms in syntaxial intergrowths it could not be removed for single crystal X-ray diffraction.  Unknown 2 was analyzed from one thin section. The average major element oxide values that were measured are 37.92 wt% BaO, 28.11 wt% TREO, and 4.61 wt% CaO. Minor amounts of Na2O, SrO, UO2, and ThO2 were measured and no F was recorded. Minor amounts of Sm2O3, Gd2O3, and Y2O3 were obtained for all points. This mineral has no known analogue, nor is it similar to any thus far recorded. The samples identified were too small for extraction for single crystal X-ray diffraction.  Table 11. Average composition of the unknown minerals. Mineral GroupCa-REE-FluorocarbonatesBa-REE-CarbonatesMineral Unknown 1 Unknown 2n 6 5ThO? wt% 0.71 0.15UO? 0.49 0.56Y?O? 0.35 0.12La?O? 22.97 11.47Ce?O? 26.60 12.84Pr?O? 2.15 0.91Nd?O? 6.47 2.49Sm?O? 1.16 0.21Eu?O? 0.10Gd?O? 0.66 0.07CaO 7.36 4.61SrO 0.49 1.86BaO 37.92Na2O 0.14F 3.48Total 74.81 73.32   5.3.8. REE Diagrams  Of the 14 REE-bearing minerals discovered in the rocks from Wicheeda, all but euxenite-(Y) are dominantly light REE-enriched, with the majority having zero to minor 57  amounts of elements heavier than Sm. All of the following REE diagrams were normalized to CI chondrite using the primitive mantle values of McDonough and Sun (1995).   From the LREE dominated mineral diagrams, La to Nd all follow the same trend and are closely related, showing only small changes which reflect the actual amount of REEs within the mineral rather than the relative proportion of the concentrations. There is a little more variation in Sm and a larger variation within the medium to heavy lanthanides. Some of the variation in the heavy lanthanides is due to averaging of the sample points; for example, in some cases only one or two points may have been analyzed and this would make for a low average and therefore low precision.  The Ca- and Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates show very similar REE patterns (Figs. 20a and 20b) with a steady decrease through La to Nd with a steeper drop at Sm. This is then followed by a steep drop at Eu, followed by an increase at Gd; this gives a negative Eu anomaly pattern. The degree of negative Eu anomaly varies and generally the drop is the most significant in samples that only showed Eu from fewer than 50% of the spots. This also explains some of the more unusual patterns for Gd, Tb, and Dy; generally Gd was more consistently measured above detection than Eu, Tb, and Dy.  Ancylite-(Ce) and unknown 2 were the only REE-carbonates measured (Fig. 20c). They show similar patterns from the fluorocarbonates for La to Sm, with no measurements for Eu and small drops at Gd.  Monazite-(Ce) has a REE pattern that differs from the carbonate minerals (Fig. 20d). Although similar from La to Sm the steady decline continues to Gd followed by an increase at Tb. It should be noted that Eu, Gd, and Tb values were acquired for most or all of the spots; however, Dy was more inconsistent with the exception of MGL-035 and only one spot was measured from MGL-037.  Allanite-(Ce) has a similar pattern as the other LREE dominant minerals for La to Sm (Fig. 20e). Both patterns show a steeper drop at Eu; however, very few points in both samples analyzed showed Eu. One sample measured Gd and it shows a flattening pattern after Eu, but only 5 of the 18 points analyzed showed Gd. Analyses for Tb and Dy were measured for more of the points than the previous two and show an increase at Tb and then a continued drop at Dy, similar to that of monazite-(Ce). 58   As expected, euxenite-(Y) shows a pattern of enrichment in heavy lanthanides (Fig. 20f). This gives a convex-upwards REE pattern with a peak at Tb. There is a small drop at Eu. Elements were consistently measured from all of the spots with the exception of La and Lu.         Figure 20. REE spider diagram of: (a) Ca-REE-fluorocarbonates;( b) Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates; (c) ancylite-(Ce) and unknown 2; (d) monazite-(Ce); (e) allanite-(Ce); (f) euxenite-(Y). 59  5.4. Geochemistry  5.4.1 Analysis of Historic Soil Geochemistry  Looking at the geochemical data as a whole provides some interesting geological insights to the overall Wicheeda carbonatite complex. When plotting soil sample results it appears that the majority of the highest values of Ce occur at the north east end of the ridge - the area closest to the carbonatite plug. There is also a small elevated area where historic trenches were dug. Historically, Ce was the only REE consistently analyzed for. Other elements more consistantly analyzed include La, Nd, Pr, Ba, Sr, Nb, Th, U, Y, and Zr.  Soil sample results from Turner (2011) and Dalsin (2012) showed that total REE (TREO) and La values show a moderate to strong correlation with Ce and a rough correlations with Nb. The results also demonstrate relatively low levels of Th with mineralised rock showing Th levels above background. Plots of Th against Ce show two possible trends. There are enrichments of Sr and Ba in the geochemical dataset, but there does not appear to be a strong association between these elements and REE mineralisation. Inspection of the compiled set of both historic and recent geochemical data a strong correlation is apparent with Ce and La, Nd, and Pr, especially at low elemental concentrations (Fig. 21a to 21c). Two weak trends exist on plots of Ce against Nb (Fig. 21d). There is no apparent correlation between Ce and Sr, Ba, Nb, Th, U, Y, or Zr. Rock samples collected in during 2011 show distinct trends (Dalsin, 2012). There appears to be two distinct trends in the Ce vs. Th data. Generally high Th and low Ce are associated with syenite samples, whereas high Ce is associated with carbonatite samples. This trend was observed during the 2010 prospecting program (Turner, 2010). Overall the Th concentrations are relatively low. The same pattern observed for Th versus Ce is also observed with Zr versus Ce. Niobium and Ce show a weak correlation and potentially two trends, one of increasing Nb and one of increasing Ce. There is also a moderate correlation between Sr and Ce and a weak correlation between Ba and Ce.  60      Figure 21. Scatter plots using historic soil geochemistry of: (a) La (ppm) versus Ce (ppm); (b) Nd (ppm) versus Ce (ppm); (c) Pr (ppm) versus Ce (ppm); (d) Nb (ppm) versus Ce (ppm).  5.4.2. Comparison of 2010 Drill Core Assay Results from ALS Chemex Limited and Activation Laboratories Ltd.  The 2010 drill core assays were completed first at ALS Chemex Limited (ALS) and subsequently were re-analysed at Activation Laboratories Ltd (ActLabs). The assay results have been compared, in order to identify any inconsistencies in the analysis between the laboratories. An analysis of the differences in TREO+Y of the 603 assays shows that 377 assays were higher from ActLabs and 226 were higher from ALS. For samples over 10,000 ppm, 33 samples were highest from Activation Laboratories and 36 were highest from ALS. In the examination of the differences it was found that samples J660012 and J660013 were switched in shipping with analyses giving values for ALS and ActLabs of 5014 and 263.6, and 277.1 and 5082.84 ppm for each sample, respectively.  The standard deviations for each set of samples were calculated and the deviation tends to have higher values for higher assay 61  values. A plot of the ActLabs versus ALS results show a trendline with an R2 statistical value of 0.9844 (Fig. 22). These points generally lie relatively close to the linear correlation line with increasing scatter for samples with highly anomalous concentrations.  Figure 22. Scatter plot of 2010 assay data comparing results from Activation Laboratories Ltd. versus ALS Chemex Limited.  5.4.3. Analysis of Drill Core Geochemical Results  In 2010 and 2011 Canadian International Minerals Ltd. had all potentially mineralized drill core assayed for REE along with major element and trace element concentrations. Samples analyzed mostly included carbonatite and syenite rock types. The values for each intersection of carbonatite and syenite were calculated using weighted averages from the assay results, and sample intervals. Breccias with a carbonate matrix were not used for this analysis, as they have an increased risk of contamination by alteration, and there is difficulty differentiating between the silicate-rich clasts and carbonate matrix.  The geochemical data from drill core demonstrates similar trends to those observed in the historic soil and rock sample data (described above). Plots of Ce versus TREE+Y show a strong linear correlation with an R2 of 0.99 (Fig. 23a). However, the Ce versus Sr plot (Fig. 23b) and Ce versus Th plot (Fig. 23c) only show weak linear correlations with R2 values of 0.51 and 0.58, respectively, whereas the Ce versus Ba plot (Fig. 23d) shows a very weak linear correlation with a R2 of 0.27. Plots of Ce versus U, Ce versus Zr, and Ce versus Pb show distinct independent controls, in which one element increases in concentration while the other remains very low (Figs. 23e to 23g). There is a strong negative linear correlation 62  between SiO2 and CaO (Fig. 23h). There is very little correlation between Zr and U (Fig. 23i).         63     Figure 23. Scatter plots from 2010 and 2011 drill-core assays of: (a) Ce (ppm) versus TREE+Y (ppm); (b) Ce (ppm) versus Sr (ppm); (c) Ce (ppm) versus Th (ppm); (d) Ce (ppm) versus Ba (ppm); (e) Ce (ppm) versus U (ppm); (f) Ce (ppm) versus Zr (ppm); (g) Ce (ppm) versus Pb (ppm); (h) CaO (wt% oxide) versus SiO2 (wt% oxide); i) Zr (ppm) versus U (ppm).  5.4.3.1. Carbonatite  The major element geochemistry of the carbonatites shows distinct variations depending on the amount and type of accessory phases present, as well as the degree of alteration (Table 12). However, in general the amount of SiO2 remains low compared to other types of melt. The median amount of SiO2 for the carbonatites is 19 wt%; however, there were 19 core intervals that contained over 35 wt%. This most commonly occurred in samples logged as GyCb, and Cb1, as described in Chapter 3, or those that contained a component of altered phyllite or feldspar flooding. The median amount of CaO was 26 wt% with samples with low CaO corresponding to those intervals with high SiO2.   64  Table 12. Average major and minor element chemistry of the carbonatites (in wt% for oxides and ppm for elements). Element minimum maximum median average ? Element minimum maximum median average ?P?O? 0.01 6.63 0.34 0.73 1.09 Ag < 0.5 4.26 0.89 1.16 0.70SiO? 1.23 56.2 19.8 22.2 12.3 In < 0.2 < 0.2 < 0.2 < 0.2 < 0.2TiO? 0.02 4.40 0.31 0.44 0.49 Sn < 1 25.00 2.17 4.07 4.48Al?O? 0.35 17.2 5.34 6.09 3.64 Sb < 0.5 4.88 1.50 1.85 1.24Fe?O?(T) 0.85 27.5 6.10 6.61 3.48 Cs < 0.5 11.8 2.03 2.63 2.08MgO 0.10 11.4 2.34 2.64 1.90 Ba 163 82990 3051 6285 9672CaO 4.92 51.7 25.8 27.7 10.8 La 20.5 32500 658 3600 5462MnO 0.06 2.62 0.47 0.68 0.54 Ce 40.5 41500 1125 4504 6653Na?O 0.06 9.26 2.13 2.55 1.74 Pr 4.09 3210 112 355 503K?O 0.03 11.01 1.32 1.89 1.96 Nd 15.3 8230 353 922 1263LOI 5.91 39.1 25.1 23.8 8.07 Sm 3.40 820 37.9 89.6 119Total 75.3 101 97.1 95.4 4.80 Eu 0.82 192 8.90 20.7 28.4Be < 1 18.0 2.00 2.93 2.67 Gd 2.90 607 25.9 58.3 82.5Sc < 1 35.0 7.00 9.09 7.04 Tb 0.50 50.6 2.55 5.07 6.74V 6.00 379 59.1 81.5 71.6 Dy 2.32 187 11.6 20.2 22.9Cr < 20 860 40.0 65.5 94.7 Ho 0.39 22.2 1.90 2.84 2.61Co 1.00 107 6.00 9.22 11.62 Er 1.07 36.1 4.89 6.20 4.53Ni < 20 290 36.9 52.0 48.1 Tm 0.13 3.21 0.62 0.74 0.48Cu < 10 170 20.0 24.5 21.6 Yb 0.70 17.2 3.40 4.22 2.77Zn 30.0 23200 242 723 2121 Lu 0.12 2.26 0.45 0.61 0.41Ga 3.00 379 19.5 34.8 42.1 Hf 0.20 11.0 1.40 1.86 1.59Ge < 1 33.0 2.43 4.31 4.51 Ta < 0.1 43.1 0.90 3.45 5.87As < 5 97.0 13.8 17.8 15.4 W < 1 28.9 2.00 3.15 3.95Rb 2.00 306 63.47 80.19 68.42 Tl < 0.1 1.00 0.27 0.30 0.18Sr 517 78200 7655 10964 11657 Pb 6.00 1300 49.6 139 226Y 13.00 486 55.0 72.5 58.3 Bi < 0.4 15.20 0.92 1.61 2.25Zr 4.19 889 72.00 115 135 Th 5.20 1650 71.76 149 206Nb 5.00 3929 239 434 615 U 0.20 200 4.42 17.2 33.5Mo < 2 598 12.5 51.2 10565  Carbonatites show a range between calcio- to ferro- carbonatite on a standard carbonatite ternary discrimination diagram (Fig. 24). Results from 100% carbonatite samples plot over 90% weighted average CaO to just under 50% (Fig. 24a). As expected, there is more variation in the discrimination plots for altered carbonatite, and for some intervals that were logged as a combination of carbonatite and another, generally silicate rich lithology (Fig. 24b). The mafic end members (Fe2O3+MnO) vary to a maximum of 30%. Since the field for calcio-carbonatites is very small, most are classified as ferro-carbonatites. This classification corresponds well to the trend observed in the mineralogy that shows the presence of more ankerite and calcite than dolomite. Many of the ?normal? trace elements used in geochemical classification, plot as major elements in carbonatite systems. In the studied samples the REE are strongly elevated, the Sr content has an average concentration of 10,964 ppm, and Ba an average of 6284 ppm. Trace elements that occur in sulphides, such as Zn and Pb, show the local anomalous value but are not elevated overall, with averages of 722 and 139 ppm, respectively. High field strength elements (HFSE) show some anomalous values but in general are not elevated; Nb, Ta, Zr, and Hf all have levels below detection limit and TiO2 shows an average of 0.44 wt% oxide, with a minimum of 0.02 wt% oxide. TiO2, Ta, Zr, and Hf are consistently low for all of the carbonatite intervals with averages of 0.44 wt%, 3.45 ppm, 115 ppm, and 1.86 ppm, respectively and maximums of 4.4 wt%, 43.1 ppm, 889 ppm, and 11 ppm, respectively. Niobium is more variable with a maximum of 3929 ppm and an average of 433 ppm.  Commonly the anomalous concentrations of Zn, Pb and HFSE occur within narrow carbonatite units. In general, the REE contents vary greatly throughout the carbonatite intervals with a minimum of 110 ppm, maximum of 87,447 ppm, and an average of 9663 ppm.  The REE values were normalized to chondrite using the primitive mantle values of McDonough and Sun (1995), and plotted on a standard discrimination diagram. The overall pattern shows enrichment in LREE and depletion in HREE. The samples were examined based on the geological units they were logged as. 66    Figure 24. Carbonatite ternary discrimination diagram of: (a) carbonatite intervals that were logged as being 100% carbonatite and unaltered; (b) altered carbonatite and carbonatites that were analyzed with a secondary, silicate-rich lithology.     The intervals that were logged as carbonatite (Cb) can be divided into six observable patterns. There is one group of nine samples that have very shallow, nearly flat lying, and relatively straight slopes (Fig. 25a). Samples CbJ661302 and CbJ660134 have a small increase at Eu and CbJ661307 has a slight decrease at Eu.  67   Figure 25b shows a pattern that has a range of REE values, but overall shows more enrichment than the previous pattern and is similar to that of the BdCb unit. It has a steep slope for La to Nd, a very steep slope to Sm, shallow from Sm to Gd with a generally steeper slope from Gd to Dy and then gently slopes downward before starting to level off around Er or Tm.   The third pattern is similar to the previous, except that there is a weak negative Eu anomaly, so there is a slight decrease between Sm to Gd (Fig. 25c). These samples are also elevated in REEs and the degree of Eu anomaly varies slightly.   The fourth pattern has high light lanthanides and is similar at the start to pattern two (Fig. 25d). However, after Gd the slope becomes steeper and then suddenly becomes flat around Tm.   The fifth pattern (Fig. 25e) is similar to the fourth except between Sm and Gd there is a weak curvature at Eu due to a minor anomaly.   Pattern six has seven intervals that are relatively elevated in REEs and have relatively consistent sloping patterns with no leveling off upon reaching the heavy lanthanides (Fig. 25f). There is a mild to moderate change in slope between Sm and Gd.  The carbonatite intervals for the altered carbonatite units, ACb, BdCb, Cb1, and GyCb, all show relatively similar REE patterns. This includes a shallow negative slope from La to Nd, a steep drop in Sm content, then a relatively flat pattern from Sm to Gd. Finally there is a slightly steeper slope from Gd into the heavy rare earths (Fig. 26). Minor variations exist, including the amount of REEs, with the BdCb generally having elevated amounts followed by ACb, Cb1, and then GyCb. The carbonatite intervals for CgCb have a relatively flat slope from La to Lu and have REE values in the higher ranges for these units.      68        Figure 25. REE spider diagrams of different types of carbonatites: (a) shallow, relatively straight; (b) relatively straight, LREE enriched; (c) with a small negative Eu anomaly and a flat pattern through the HREE; (d) LREE enriched with no negative Eu anomaly and flattening through the final HREE; (e) with a very weak negative Eu anomaly and flattening through the final HREE; (f) with elevated LREEs and a straight pattern.  69   Figure 26. REE spider diagram of altered carbonatite.  5.4.3.2. Syenite  The syenites show very consistent geochemistry with minimal variations in their major and trace element chemistry, with the exception of a few units and intervals (Table 13). Excluding one sample (discussed below), SiO2 values stay consistent at around 44 wt%. There is little variation in the other oxides, with the exception of CaO, which ranges between a minimum of 3 wt% and a maximum of 34 wt%, with an average around 14 wt%.   The syenites hosting micro-syenitic xenoliths (referred to as clasts during logging) and the syenites showing feldspar/feldspathoid veins in CA-11-015 (corresponding to samples Sy 986102 and Sy 986103-6) have elevated Zn and Pb. For these intervals the average concentrations of Zn and Pb are 2354 and 1468 ppm, as compared to 217 and 96 ppm for Zn and Pb in the unmineralized syenite units.  These two anomalous units also display sinusoidal REE patterns (Fig. 27), suggesting that the syenite with the feldspar/feldspathoid veins may have been incorrectly logged, or that previously unrecognised metasomatic processes may have been at work; the former is more likely.  70  Table 13. Major and minor element chemistry of the syenites (in wt% for oxides and ppm for elements). Element minimum maximum median average ? Element minimum maximum median average ?P?O? 0.03 2.74 0.41 0.56 0.55 Ag 0.22 4.87 1.60 1.85 1.07SiO? 18.5 49.9 44.3 42.3 7.06 In < 0.2 < 0.2 < 0.2 < 0.2 < 0.2TiO? 0.17 1.31 0.40 0.45 0.20 Sn < 1 18.6 2.48 4.35 4.37Al?O? 5.49 17.9 13.3 12.9 3.05 Sb 0.53 1.61 1.05 1.04 0.36Fe?O?(T) 2.16 9.29 5.45 5.39 1.86 Cs 0.60 6.69 2.11 2.50 1.45MgO 0.08 2.21 0.74 0.80 0.49 Ba 595 9354 3514 3814 1817CaO 3.12 34.5 12.1 13.9 7.44 La 60.2 419 126 154 77.4MnO 0.08 0.70 0.19 0.23 0.14 Ce 98.8 614 219 271 137Na?O 1.12 7.77 3.64 3.93 1.78 Pr 9.66 81.0 21.8 27.9 16.4K?O 0.21 9.49 6.39 6.07 2.25 Nd 29.1 328 71.1 92.8 64.6LOI 3.73 26.3 9.23 10.7 4.71 Sm 4.30 69.3 9.57 14.1 13.0Total 78.7 99.3 98.0 97.3 3.13 Eu 1.05 18.3 2.34 3.62 3.40Be < 1 4.81 2.18 2.48 1.09 Gd 3.30 40.3 6.51 9.44 7.70Sc < 1 5.93 2.76 2.77 1.04 Tb 0.40 3.60 0.79 1.03 0.75V 7.78 294 64.3 81.6 63.9 Dy 2.06 13.4 4.04 4.72 2.82Cr < 20 80.00 29.0 34.2 15.8 Ho 0.35 1.90 0.70 0.79 0.40Co 1.96 18.0 5.00 5.92 3.41 Er 1.00 4.28 1.93 2.01 0.89Ni < 20 27.4 27.4 27.4 0.00 Tm 0.14 0.58 0.26 0.27 0.12Cu < 10 65.7 14.9 24.2 18.8 Yb 0.84 3.58 1.55 1.63 0.70Zn 30.0 2952 100 565 878 Lu 0.11 0.55 0.24 0.25 0.11Ga 12.3 33.0 26.3 25.5 5.17 Hf 1.60 18.6 4.61 5.58 3.32Ge < 1 2.07 1.44 1.48 0.41 Ta 3.33 218 13.3 20.6 35.0As < 5 33.6 9.36 13.7 9.75 W < 1 19.1 2.00 4.83 4.90Rb 9.54 290 195 181 69.0 Tl 0.10 0.76 0.28 0.32 0.17Sr 1343 7602 3007 3320 1323 Pb 7.49 2052 24.1 328 568Y 10.6 47.6 20.1 21.9 9.97 Bi < 0.4 3.43 0.90 1.32 1.03Zr 135 1214 366 457 267 Th 14.7 356 49.7 75.3 63.9Nb 406 2989 737 943 557 U 11.5 182 36.0 50.0 41.4Mo < 2 129.75 7.83 17.9 31.071    Figure 27. REE spider diagram of syenites with xenoliths.  Interval ASy 985229-31 has low SiO2 and elevated Ca and Sr compared to the rest of the syenites. This interval has been logged as having 55% carbonatite associated with it; this is the likely cause of the anomaly.   The HFSE are elevated compared to the carbonatite values with TiO2 having the lowest values and range (minimum of 0.17 wt%, a maximum of 1.31 wt%, and an average of 0.45 wt%) and Nb having the highest range with a minimum of 406 ppm, maximum of 2988 ppm, and average of 943 ppm. The minimum, maximum, and average for the other elements are as follows; Zr: 135 ppm, 1214 ppm and 456 ppm; Hf: 1.6 ppm, 18.6 ppm, and 5.6 ppm; and Ta: 3.3 ppm, 218 ppm, and 20.6 ppm.  The REE concentrations are low, with a minimum of 225 ppm and a maximum of 1441 ppm. The REEs for each interval were normalized to CI chondrite and plotted on a discrimination diagram.  All of the samples (with the exception of those with mafic xenoliths) were found to have gently sloping lines decreasing from the light lanthanides to the heavy lanthanides (Fig. 28). There are a few small variations in the degree of slope; however, overall for these samples the general curve does not change. The only exception to this is sample GySy 986201-5, which displays a weak Eu anomaly. For the samples containing xenoliths, the curves are weakly to moderately sinusoidal with a gentle slope for La to Nd and a steep slope for Sm to Ho and then a shallow slope for Er to Lu. 72   Figure 28. REE spider diagram of syenites without xenoliths.  5.4.3.3. Other Rock Types  The other rock types logged and sampled were also examined in detail for this study.   The unaltered phyllite unit is generally high in SiO2 and Al2O3 and low in CaO (Table 14). In general no other elements are elevated, with the exception of the occasional anomalous sample that is related to nearby carbonatitic activity - either as part of the sample interval (not 100% phyllite) or in close proximity to the interval.   The altered phyllite unit have relatively high SiO2 and Al2O3 values with medians of 47 wt% and 13 wt%, respectively; CaO is generally low (Table 15). Many of the trace elements are elevated compared to that of the unaltered phyllite; this includes 9660 ppm Zn, 1985 ppm Nb, 4500 ppm Pb, and 26,020 ppm TREE. However, these elevated samples occur across intervals where a percentage of the unit contains carbonatite veining. This would explain the anomalous values, as the assay technique is based on whole rock geochemistry and thus only provides a total value for an interval rather than the individual phases within that interval. The carbo-hydrothermal banded intervals show an average of 26.4 wt% SiO2, 7.4 wt% Al2O3, 28.8 wt% CaO (Table 16); similar to the carbonatite values. Trace element values are similar to those of the altered phyllite and there are no anomalous values to note.    73  Table 14. Major and minor element chemistry of the unaltered phyllite (in wt% for oxides and ppm for elements. Element minimum maximum median average ? Element minimum maximum median average ?P?O? 0.05 0.48 0.10 0.11 0.03 Ag < 0.5 2.80 0.70 0.75 0.23SiO? 21.4 60.8 52.9 51.3 5.88 In < 0.2 0.30 0.25 0.25 0.05TiO? 0.21 1.00 0.62 0.61 0.09 Sn 1.00 17.0 3.00 2.69 1.30Al?O? 5.13 19.1 15.3 15.0 2.15 Sb < 0.5 11.1 0.70 1.04 1.34Fe?O?(T) 2.22 12.0 5.36 5.30 0.91 Cs 0.50 12.1 4.70 4.85 1.78MgO 0.34 5.73 3.08 3.20 0.58 Ba 158 10740 1296 1522 1054CaO 1.75 36.0 8.33 9.29 5.01 La 25.6 1040 69.3 114 142MnO 0.04 0.74 0.09 0.11 0.07 Ce 43.8 2300 122 188 224Na?O 1.01 7.18 4.41 4.21 1.30 Pr 5.00 236 13.0 18.7 20.1K?O 0.81 6.13 3.22 3.21 0.85 Nd 17.0 707 45.2 60.8 57.9LOI 1.70 28.8 6.24 6.98 4.35 Sm 2.90 67.3 7.70 9.58 7.18Total 95.2 101 99.2 99.3 0.86 Eu 0.53 19.6 1.56 2.03 1.82Be 1.00 11.00 3.00 3.51 1.40 Gd 2.10 52.6 5.80 7.03 4.88Sc 3.00 19.0 12.0 11.9 2.00 Tb 0.30 6.90 0.90 1.00 0.59V 19.0 106 66.0 64.5 9.89 Dy 1.60 31.1 4.80 5.37 2.67Cr 20.0 110 70.0 68.8 12.2 Ho 0.30 5.30 0.90 1.03 0.46Co 2.00 32.0 13.0 12.8 3.35 Er 0.90 13.5 2.60 2.88 1.21Ni 20.0 50.0 30.0 30.7 6.24 Tm 0.12 1.98 0.39 0.43 0.17Cu < 10 320 20.0 22.9 21.4 Yb 0.80 11.6 2.50 2.73 0.99Zn 30.0 8340 70.0 120 461 Lu 0.12 1.65 0.40 0.42 0.14Ga 7.00 32.0 20.0 20.3 3.41 Hf 0.80 21.2 4.50 4.46 1.35Ge 1.00 4.00 2.00 1.94 0.40 Ta 0.40 8.00 1.10 1.14 0.51As < 5 28.0 8.00 9.77 4.58 W < 1 41.0 2.00 3.44 4.97Rb 27.0 261 125 123 33.0 Tl 0.10 1.30 0.60 0.63 0.18Sr 336 3155 676 739 307 Pb < 5 907 12.0 35.4 88.7Y 9.00 141 25.0 28.2 13.2 Bi < 0.4 4.20 0.75 1.09 0.97Zr 34.0 1714 175 178 87.4 Th 4.80 261 20.4 27.6 26.8Nb 9.00 606 20.0 28.1 47.9 U 0.20 22.3 2.60 2.63 1.32Mo < 2 60.0 4.00 6.80 7.92  74  Table 15. Major and minor element chemistry of the altered phyllite (in wt% for oxides and ppm for elements). Element minimum maximum median average ? Element minimum maximum median average ?P?O? 0.01 1.80 0.12 0.15 0.16 Ag < 0.5 4.90 0.70 0.83 0.49SiO? 8.41 61.5 46.7 43.9 9.29 In < 0.2 < 0.2 < 0.2 < 0.2 < 0.2TiO? 0.08 1.58 0.55 0.53 0.17 Sn 1.00 29.0 3.00 3.97 3.37Al?O? 1.40 19.9 13.2 12.5 3.09 Sb < 0.5 11.2 0.75 1.02 1.02Fe?O?(T) 1.30 24.7 5.35 5.37 1.74 Cs 0.50 16.0 4.80 5.11 2.57MgO 0.24 11.8 3.18 3.33 0.95 Ba 118 26010 1155 2016 2609CaO 2.46 46.0 11.2 13.8 7.79 La 11.70 10500 172 531 1131MnO 0.05 1.69 0.19 0.24 0.20 Ce 24.90 12300 270 711 1376Na?O 0.25 8.93 5.18 4.84 1.76 Pr 3.19 876 24.8 59.2 106K?O 0.14 6.70 2.27 2.31 0.95 Nd 13.6 2310 76.7 163 267LOI 2.26 36.5 9.99 11.9 6.35 Sm 3.00 198 11.1 18.1 22.6Total 90.8 101 99.0 98.9 1.29 Eu 0.74 41.4 2.55 3.98 4.65Be 1.00 68.0 3.00 4.52 4.96 Gd 2.20 126 8.00 11.7 12.3Sc 1.00 45.0 10.0 10.43 4.37 Tb 0.30 8.90 1.10 1.41 1.09V 7.00 247 64.0 65.7 28.1 Dy 1.70 40.2 5.70 7.25 4.92Cr 20.0 550 60.0 59.8 30.1 Ho 0.30 6.70 1.10 1.33 0.83Co 2.00 75.0 10.0 10.4 5.43 Er 0.70 18.3 3.10 3.67 2.17Ni 20.0 250 30.0 29.4 14.1 Tm 0.08 2.55 0.46 0.52 0.29Cu 5.00 400 20.0 25.0 31.4 Yb 0.50 14.8 2.90 3.30 1.76Zn 30.0 9660 100 200 498 Lu 0.07 1.99 0.45 0.49 0.24Ga 4.00 120 20.0 20.1 8.64 Hf 0.20 10.5 3.60 3.53 1.62Ge 1.00 9.00 2.00 2.04 0.96 Ta 0.20 16.4 0.90 1.19 1.53As < 5 79.0 8.00 11.1 9.68 W < 1 93.0 2.00 4.51 8.49Rb 5.00 433 116 115 48.8 Tl 0.10 1.60 0.60 0.58 0.24Sr 316 25720 1095 1758 2464 Pb < 5 4500 32.0 84.1 257Y 7.00 207 30.0 37.0 23.5 Bi < 0.4 37.2 0.85 1.70 3.31Zr 6.00 923 153 153 93.4 Th 2.80 1010 23.3 43.5 74.3Nb 4.00 1985 43.0 79.3 132 U 0.20 51.6 1.90 2.55 3.89Mo < 2 507 9.00 24.9 52.9  75  Table 16. Major and minor element chemistry of the carbo-hydrothermal banded intercepts (in wt% for oxides and ppm for elements). Element minimum maximum median average ? Element minimum maximum median average ?P?O? 0.07 0.24 0.11 0.12 0.04 Ag 0.60 1.80 0.60 0.84 0.48SiO? 13.1 38.6 24.2 26.4 6.62 In < 0.2 < 0.2 < 0.2 < 0.2 < 0.2TiO? 0.11 0.61 0.25 0.30 0.15 Sn < 1 8.00 3.50 4.00 2.74Al?O? 2.37 13.1 6.93 7.43 2.52 Sb < 0.5 < 0.5 < 0.5 < 0.5Fe?O?(T) 1.77 5.56 3.82 3.94 0.92 Cs < 0.5 7.20 3.80 3.68 2.16MgO 1.14 3.98 3.56 3.24 0.85 Ba 249 3617 1518 1646 934CaO 18.9 43.7 29.5 28.8 5.89 La 42.6 2190 569 633 534MnO 0.05 0.60 0.33 0.34 0.18 Ce 96.2 2400 661 817 655Na?O 1.10 5.11 2.99 2.97 1.00 Pr 11.2 159 44.9 62.5 50.2K?O 0.48 2.38 1.89 1.67 0.52 Nd 45.1 424 110 167 132LOI 13.9 33.8 24.6 23.8 4.84 Sm 6.10 43.8 12.5 18.5 12.6Total 97.8 100 99.0 99.0 0.68 Eu 1.29 10.4 3.03 4.36 2.86Be < 1 5.00 2.00 2.64 1.37 Gd 4.10 31.9 11.7 14.7 8.56Sc 2.00 17.0 5.50 6.00 3.30 Tb 0.50 3.60 1.45 1.73 0.86V 18.00 126 31.5 38.6 24.3 Dy 2.70 19.1 7.90 9.18 4.33Cr < 20 70.0 30.0 34.4 13.7 Ho 0.50 3.60 1.65 1.82 0.79Co 3.00 26.0 6.00 8.17 5.89 Er 1.40 10.8 5.05 5.38 2.38Ni < 20 30.0 20.0 24.0 4.90 Tm 0.20 1.57 0.80 0.82 0.35Cu < 10 70.0 10.0 20.8 18.2 Yb 1.30 9.40 5.20 5.28 2.13Zn 40.0 450 140 169 119 Lu 0.20 1.39 0.80 0.79 0.32Ga 7.00 31.0 11.5 12.7 5.19 Hf 0.30 4.00 1.95 1.84 1.08Ge < 1 4.00 1.50 1.83 1.07 Ta 0.10 2.00 0.55 0.61 0.43As < 5 6.00 6.00 6.00 0.00 W < 1 39.0 3.00 10.0 14.6Rb 24.0 139 89.5 87.8 33.3 Tl < 0.1 0.70 0.45 0.40 0.18Sr 608 6154 1932 2308 1472 Pb 5.00 217 117 109 57.8Y 13.0 108 54.0 56.7 24.7 Bi < 0.4 3.80 1.30 1.50 1.04Zr 13.0 187 106 93.3 50.1 Th 5.00 90.8 11.9 22.7 23.0Nb 11.0 190 43.5 55.0 40.8 U 0.20 3.70 1.20 1.34 0.95Mo < 2 127 16.0 29.7 33.076  The feldspar flooded units commonly have a component of the unit with some carbonatite veining (Table 17). SiO2 and Al2O3 show values similar to the altered phyllite with averages of 47 and 13 wt%, respectively. CaO displays a median value of 9 wt% and is generally low. Overall trace elements have low medians; however, anomalous values for Zn, Sr, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ba, Pb, and TREE should be noted with medians of 4230, 25,690, 652, 1999, 1020, ppm, 27,240, 2500, and 27,836 ppm, respectively. Several breccias were described throughout the drill logs and these can be split into two distinct groups: mineralized and unmineralized (Table 18). One set has visible mineralisation in the core and this appears in the geochemical results. Both types have similar values for their major element chemistry, but in the unmineralized breccias CaO is slightly higher, and Fe2O3(T) is slightly lower. The more abundant trace elements vary, with the exception of Nb and Ba. The only two elements that are elevated in both breccias are Zn and Pb. The mineralized breccias have a maximum and median Zn and Pb of 4800 and 265 ppm and 3500 and 41 ppm, respectively, as compared to the unmineralized samples, which have a maximum and median for Zn and Pb of 2050 and 100 ppm and 1360 and 25 ppm, respectively. The mineralized breccias have a median of 980 ppm for Mo and a maximum of 8590 ppm as compared to the unmineralized; which have median and maximum values of 5 and 77 ppm, respectively. The TREE show a maximum of 2564 ppm and average 498 ppm for the unmineralized breccias and 23,531 and 2017 ppm for a maximum and median for the mineralized breccias, respectively.  The igneous dykes have higher SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3(T) with medians of 37, 11, and 10 wt%, respectively, and a CaO median of 13 wt% (Table 19). Overall trace elements are low, with the exception of one  sample with elevated TREE sample and one with elevated Nb.   77  Table 17. Major and minor element chemistry of the feldspar flooded intervals (in wt% for oxides and ppm for elements). Element minimum maximum median average ? Element minimum maximum median average ?P?O? 0.01 0.49 0.12 0.14 0.10 Ag < 0.5 3.00 1.00 1.37 0.79SiO? 17.5 61.0 46.9 44.8 9.54 In < 0.2 < 0.2 < 0.2 < 0.2 < 0.2TiO? 0.12 1.50 0.44 0.47 0.23 Sn < 1 12.00 3.00 3.56 2.38Al?O? 4.87 20.9 13.5 13.1 3.28 Sb < 0.5 3.70 0.70 1.01 0.76Fe?O?(T) 1.87 11.4 5.57 5.62 1.81 Cs < 0.5 9.00 1.20 1.84 1.70MgO 0.21 7.00 2.51 2.54 1.28 Ba 180 27240 1999 4444 5367CaO 0.46 30.6 8.75 10.1 6.66 La 30.1 11200 495 1266 1785MnO 0.07 1.27 0.55 0.56 0.29 Ce 46.0 12900 676 1591 2165Na?O 1.45 10.1 6.58 6.24 1.81 Pr 4.21 944 55.6 127 169K?O 0.06 12.6 0.70 1.58 2.36 Nd 12.5 2490 156 337 433LOI 2.70 31.1 11.4 12.6 6.39 Sm 2.00 215 17.20 37.8 45.6Total 91.4 100 98.1 97.8 1.54 Eu 0.37 59.2 4.28 9.28 11.2Be < 1 8.00 2.00 2.91 2.15 Gd 1.50 160 11.6 24.0 28.3Sc 1.00 15.0 4.00 4.82 2.96 Tb 0.20 17.2 1.20 2.26 2.56V 9.00 103 27.0 31.0 17.7 Dy 1.20 57.4 5.20 8.93 9.25Cr 20.0 180 40.0 41.0 20.8 Ho 0.20 6.20 0.80 1.23 1.19Co 1.00 40.0 5.00 7.11 6.72 Er 0.50 14.8 2.00 2.67 2.60Ni < 20 60.0 26.5 27.4 9.22 Tm 0.06 2.02 0.25 0.33 0.33Cu < 10 50.0 20.0 18.8 10.2 Yb 0.40 11.8 1.50 1.96 1.95Zn < 30 4230 220 423 587 Lu 0.05 1.60 0.21 0.29 0.28Ga 9.00 75.0 23.0 26.4 11.9 Hf 0.20 9.00 0.50 1.34 1.94Ge 1.00 6.00 2.00 2.17 1.26 Ta 0.10 49.3 1.00 7.39 11.3As < 5 132 8.00 13.3 18.7 W < 1 22.0 2.00 4.34 4.75Rb < 2 269 23.0 47.2 53.0 Tl 0.10 0.90 0.30 0.34 0.23Sr 149 25690 1751 3686 4702 Pb < 5 2500 68.0 159 321Y 4.00 164 20.0 29.8 30.7 Bi < 0.4 13.6 1.10 1.64 2.23Zr 4.00 652 12.0 63.1 132 Th 3.20 492 30.5 63.8 76.4Nb 29.0 1999 237 466 463 U 0.10 45.5 1.30 9.07 12.4Mo 2.00 1020 62.0 150 232  78  Table 18. Major and minor element chemistry of the breccias (in wt% for oxides and ppm for elements) Element minimum maximum median average ? Element minimum maximum median average ?P?O? 0.01 3.85 0.38 0.48 0.59 Ag < 0.5 4.20 0.90 1.17 0.78SiO? 20.0 56.1 33.8 34.4 7.05 In < 0.2 < 0.2 < 0.2 < 0.2 < 0.2TiO? 0.15 1.97 0.38 0.49 0.32 Sn 1.00 20.0 3.00 3.92 3.21Al?O? 3.78 15.4 8.01 8.27 2.29 Sb < 0.5 1.30 1.10 1.00 0.27Fe?O?(T) 1.63 14.6 6.72 7.32 2.78 Cs 0.50 14.8 1.80 3.69 3.92MgO 0.31 17.0 2.28 3.80 3.85 Ba 348 13440 1917 2591 2650CaO 6.16 35.2 20.8 20.1 7.28 La 31.5 9230 149 637 1428MnO 0.08 1.26 0.28 0.40 0.30 Ce 54.2 10900 258 866 1739Na?O 0.26 9.53 3.53 3.55 1.75 Pr 6.32 816 25.3 74.6 136K?O 0.25 8.94 3.81 3.61 1.87 Nd 22.4 2170 78.0 212 357LOI 6.31 26.0 16.1 16.1 4.59 Sm 3.60 185 10.5 22.6 31.4Total 83.0 101 99.0 98.6 2.17 Eu 0.97 37.1 2.62 5.03 6.34Be < 1 13.0 3.00 3.72 2.11 Gd 2.90 102 7.45 13.7 16.1Sc 1.00 31.0 6.00 6.96 5.15 Tb 0.30 6.60 0.90 1.31 1.15V 12.0 407 117 127 73.1 Dy 1.60 31.6 4.35 5.93 4.60Cr 20.0 910 40.0 83.3 130 Ho 0.20 5.10 0.80 0.99 0.66Co < 1 62.0 5.00 8.23 10.7 Er 0.60 12.0 2.05 2.55 1.62Ni 10.0 400 40.0 72.9 87.2 Tm 0.08 1.41 0.28 0.35 0.22Cu < 5 432 20.0 36.2 73.7 Yb 0.50 7.60 1.85 2.22 1.38Zn 1.81 4800 130 282 580 Lu 0.08 1.17 0.30 0.35 0.21Ga 9.00 98.0 16.0 20.1 12.8 Hf 0.20 10.0 3.20 3.34 1.98Ge < 1 9.00 1.00 1.88 1.50 Ta 0.30 17.6 1.40 2.41 2.54As < 5 25.0 8.00 9.60 4.42 W < 1 54.0 2.00 5.78 13.3Rb 7.00 429 126 143 85.1 Tl 0.10 1.50 0.30 0.47 0.41Sr 535.00 15200 4032 3851 2250 Pb 1.48 3500 29.0 141 450Y 4.00 148 22.0 27.1 19.0 Bi < 0.4 10.3 1.40 2.66 2.91Zr < 2 661 182 190 141 Th 2.40 279 27.0 44.8 48.6Nb 10.0 1118 287 337 225 U 0.23 403 7.30 29.4 61.1Mo < 2 8590 48.0 781 1680  79  Table 19. Major and minor element chemistry of the mafic igneous dykes (in wt% for oxides and ppm for elements) Element minimum maximum median average ? Element minimum maximum median average ?P?O? 0.03 2.10 0.72 0.87 0.60 Ag < 0.5 2.20 0.90 1.07 0.40SiO? 5.37 59.4 36.9 37.9 9.81 In < 0.2 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.00TiO? 0.18 3.48 1.75 1.75 0.96 Sn < 1 11.0 4.00 4.52 2.30Al?O? 1.15 20.4 10.6 11.8 3.68 Sb < 0.5 6.90 0.80 1.51 1.77Fe?O?(T) 4.73 15.5 10.4 9.93 3.26 Cs 0.50 21.3 5.50 8.15 6.15MgO 0.36 14.5 6.55 6.10 3.56 Ba 401 10950 1703 2573 2538CaO 1.63 47.1 13.2 13.7 7.60 La 48.9 3330 188 324 581MnO 0.07 0.81 0.21 0.25 0.17 Ce 79.1 3950 316 479 693Na?O 0.25 9.02 2.47 2.92 2.25 Pr 7.20 287 30.9 43.2 51.5K?O 0.36 5.29 3.62 3.24 1.30 Nd 21.2 721.0 98.2 135 135LOI 2.96 34.1 10.1 10.5 5.50 Sm 3.00 61.7 13.1 19.2 15.5Total 96.1 101 99.1 98.9 1.09 Eu 0.69 17.6 3.48 5.01 4.02Be 1.00 8.00 3.00 3.25 1.60 Gd 2.30 50.2 9.40 13.9 11.3Sc 1.00 33.0 15.5 15.7 9.09 Tb 0.40 5.10 1.20 1.71 1.14V 13.0 286 206 177 83.3 Dy 2.50 25.9 6.20 8.34 5.12Cr < 20 660 80.0 203 190 Ho 0.50 4.60 1.15 1.48 0.89Co 1.00 52.0 32.0 30.0 15.9 Er 1.40 12.0 3.00 3.85 2.34Ni < 20 300 60.0 104 78.5 Tm 0.26 1.63 0.40 0.51 0.31Cu < 10 160 50.0 50.7 28.0 Yb 1.80 9.70 2.50 3.12 1.87Zn 30.0 2830 165 313 502 Lu 0.26 1.54 0.38 0.47 0.28Ga 10.0 34 20.0 20.2 5.14 Hf 1.60 14.0 3.90 5.34 3.18Ge 1.00 3.00 2.00 1.83 0.52 Ta 0.70 36.5 5.90 9.57 7.28As < 5 48.0 11.5 16.4 13.0 W < 1 24.0 3.50 5.00 4.94Rb 19.0 312 146 151 77.8 Tl < 0.1 2.00 0.65 0.79 0.48Sr 257 7782 1042 1675 1661 Pb < 5 652 40.5 112 178Y 12.0 131.00 28.5 38.3 24.1 Bi < 0.4 7.10 0.65 2.09 2.39Zr 45.0 1254 203 300 240 Th 11.30 140 27.4 39.3 33.4Nb 13.0 950 189 263 207 U 1.90 40.1 4.75 8.44 8.93Mo < 2 26.0 6.50 7.36 5.1780   5.5. Isotopes  Seven samples, six of which have corresponding polished thin sections, were sent for isotopic analysis at the University of Alberta. Table 20 shows the results of these analyses.  Table 20. Results of Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotope analysis of seven carbonatite rock samples from the Wicheeda carbonatite complex. SampleRb (ppm)Sr (ppm)87Rb/86Sr 87Sr/86Sr ? 2? 87Sr/86Sr(T)MGL006 6 10,590 0.0016 0.70627 0.00003 0.70626MGL019 2 3,381 0.0017 0.70660 0.00004 0.70659MGL030 7 22,050 0.0009 0.70527 0.00003 0.70527MGL035 11 42,010 0.0008 0.70540 0.00003 0.70540MGL036 44 38,920 0.0033 0.70532 0.00002 0.70531MGL043 6 3,322 0.0052 0.70611 0.00003 0.70609MGL179 37 78,200 0.0014 0.70574 0.00002 0.70574  SampleSm (ppm)Nd (ppm)147Sm/144Nd 143Nd/144Nd ? 2? 143Nd/144Nd(T)  ?Nd(T)TCHUR (Ma)MGL006 495 5190 0.0577 0.512355 0.000008 0.512245 -0.4 311.0MGL019 119 1172 0.0612 0.512347 0.000005 0.512230 -0.7 328.0MGL030 344 2079 0.0999 0.512436 0.000009 0.512246 -0.4 318.0MGL035 483 5627 0.0519 0.512312 0.000006 0.512214 -1.0 343.0MGL036 153 1406 0.0658 0.512350 0.000007 0.512225 -0.8 336.0MGL043 174 2587 0.0408 0.512339 0.000008 0.512261 -0.1 293.0MGL179 558 3484 0.0968 0.512421 0.000007 0.512237 -0.5 332.0  The 87Rb/86Sr ratio was calculated using the values obtained from whole rock geochemical assaying of the drill-core pulps and gave a range of 0.0008 to 0.0052. The 87Sr/86Sr0 ratio was measured and gave a range of 0.70527 to 0.70660. The isochron for Rb/Sr did not yield a reasonable age using standard slope regression (Fig. 29); this may be a result of extremely low Rb values, but it may also be due to the fact that Rb and Sr are readily mobile and therefore more easily disturbed by hydrothermal fluids or alteration; this may affect the calculated age. The first is the most likely reason as the low Rb values which subsequently yield a low 87Rb/86Sr and thus can not produce a meaningful isochron. In other carbonatites the commonly used technique is to analyze whole rock and mineral separates (Huang et al., 1995; Zaitsev and Bell, 1995; Dunworth and Bell, 2001), and generally the calcite, dolomite, and phologopite phases are used to determine a Rb-Sr age for the carbonatite. The age found using this technique is 4.8 Ga, which is obviously incorrect. 81   Figure 29. Isochron for measured 87Sr/86Sr versus 87Rb/86Sr.  Isotopic dilution for Sm and Nd of drill core pulps gave results ranging from 0.0408 to 0.0999 for 147Sm/144Nd and a range for 143Nd/144Nd0 of 0.512312 to 0.512436. The Sm/Nd isochron age calculated from these values is 290 ? 48 Ma (Fig. 30). The error was calculated using the simple linear regression method. Removing the two points (MGL035 and MGL043) that lie off the regression line and are the most altered samples gives a better R2 fit to the line and results in an age of 316 ? 36 Ma (Fig. 31). This age is close to the calculated CHUR model ages. Using an age of 316 Ma, the ?NdT and 87Sr/86SrT values range from -0.1 to -1.0 and 0.70526 to 0.70659 respectively. On a discrimination diagram the points plot close to bulk earth and EM1 (Fig. 32). The plot demonstrates the spread in values for Sr and the small range for Nd. Points MGL030, MGL035, and MGL036 plot closest together. Overall the data gives a wider range of 87Sr/86SrT values compared to ?NdT values.  82   Figure 30. Isochron for measured 147Sm/144Nd versus 143Nd/144Nd, calculated from all seven samples. 83   Figure 31. Isochron for measured 147Sm/144Nd versus 143Nd/144Nd was calculated with using samples MGL035 and MGL043   84   Figure 32. Plot of 87Sr/86SrT versus 143Nd/144NdT showing where EM1 is located. Bulk Silicate Earth and CHUR shown as solid lines for reference (Faure et al., 2005).  0.5121000.5122000.5123000.5124000.5125000.5126000.5127000.5128000.5129000.70200 0.70300 0.70400 0.70500 0.70600 0.70700 0.70800143Nd/144Nd T87Sr/86Sr TwicheedaEM185  Chapter 6. Discussion  The following sections integrate the results presented above with historically acquired data and current theories of carbonatite formation and development in order to characterize the mineralogy and describe a likely deposit model for the Wicheeda carbonatite complex. This analysis is then put in context via comparison with other carbonatites from British Columbia and around the world.   This analysis includes an examination of the REE minerals in the Wicheeda complexand their order of crystallization, which assists with determining how the carbonatite formed and enables better comparison to other carbonatites. Geological and geochemical trends throughout the complex are examined to assist with determining the deposit model, and to suggest potential geochemical indicators for further exploration. An examination of the formation of associated lithologies of the syenites and fenites is presented in order to assist with determining the deposit model and comparison with other carbonatites. The isotope data are used to determine the possible ways the carbonatite formed in the mantle or through other processes. The apparent age determined from the isotopic study is used to determine where the Wicheeda carbonatite complex fits with other alkaline magmatism in B.C.  6.1. Rare Earth Element Mineralogy and Mineral Chemistry  Analysis of the REE mineralogy and textures of these minerals shows a complex formational history. In polished thin sections of areas of larger carbonatite intersections from the drill core, more pristine carbonate textures are observed, and it appears that the REE minerals formed at the same time as most of the carbonatite. Textural analysis of the sections shows that some of the minerals formed from continuous accelerating nucleation and growth and, more rarely, collapse growth.    The carbonate minerals have increasingly irregular grain boundaries when situated closer to the various REE bearing minerals.  The observations of increasingly irregular grain boundaries of the carbonate minerals as well as a decrease in grain size may be explained by the wider variety of carbonate minerals forming from available nucleation sites, thus decreasing the space available to grow large, well-formed carbonate minerals. The small 86  grain sizes of the multiple fluorocarbonate phases would also explain the irregular crystal shapes of the concurrently forming carbonate minerals.  The REE minerals commonly form as small aggregates (Fig. 11). In some intersections the aggregates are more abundant; rarely, individual REE minerals are observed disseminated throughout an intersection (Fig. 14a).  These aggregates are composed of very fine- to fine-grained REE minerals, strontianite, and carbonate; locally, albite, baryte, Ba-carbonate, Ba-feldspar, quartz, sulphides, and oxides may also occur (Figs. 14 and 16).  The carbonate is commonly ankerite, but may also be calcite, dolomite, or a mix. The REE aggregates form amongst the coarser-grained ankerite, calcite, and/or, more rarely, dolomite. The aggregates are variable in their REE mineral compositions. There is a range in the concentration of Ca- and Ba-dominated REE minerals. The aggregates occur in an area of enrichment of REEs, F, Ba, and Sr. This is likely due to the fact that the REEs readily bond with F, Ba, and Sr, so an area will become concentrated with these elements. Formation of the aggregates likely begins with the crystallization of a few of the REE minerals, which creates more nucleation sites for minerals of a similar chemistry, leading to heterogeneous nucleation where aggregates are formed, rather than homogeneous nucleation.   Within the aggregates there are several phases of mineral growth, all of which appear to be primary mineralisation and not alteration minerals. Nor do the aggregates appear to have undergone any alteration. This is seen in the REE patterns of the minerals as they do not show any LREE depletion, which is common in minerals that have undergone metasomatic alteration by alkaline hydrothermal fluids (Zaitsev et al., 1998; Yang et al., 2000). Monazite-(Ce) appears to always form early, commonly forming larger, euhedral crystals. Monazite-(Ce) locally forms with syntaxial intergrowths of the Ca-REE-fluorocarbonates, but there is no distinct textural observation to determine whether they formed at the same time or separately. The syntaxial intergrowths of the Ca-REE-fluorocarbonates (Fig. 13) form earlier than the Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates, as the latter is commonly found with monazite-(Ce), including infilling around it. Syntaxial intergrowths are thought to show primary magmatic mineralisation and to record changes in the chemical composition of the fluid (Ni et al., 1993; Zaitsev et al., 1998). Yang et al. (2000) describes three origins of syntaxial intergrowths, by formation through eutectic crystallization of the host carbonatite magma, slow cooling of the carbonatite causing the exsolution of subsolidus 87  phases, and later during metasomatic reactions with other minerals. The syntaxial intergrowths occur via formation along identical axes and similar REE-F structural layers (Ni et al., 1993; Wang et al., 1994; Ni et al., 2000; Yang et al., 2000; Ruberti et al, 2008). Evidence suggests that the syntaxial intergrowths observed at Wicheeda cooled quickly. This is observed in several sections where fine, needle-like crystals were observed around larger syntaxial intergrowths, and appear to be in the process of forming these larger intergrowths (Fig. 33).  Figure 33. Backscattered electron image of the formation of syntaxial intergrowths of bastn?site-(Ce) (white) and parisite-(Ce) (grey) with strontianite (dark grey)   Following the Ca-REE-fluorocarbonates that form syntaxial intergrowths in the aggregates are the Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates. These are recognized as being late-stage forming and generally fine-grained crystals of varying morphologies (Zaitsev et al., 1996). In some cases Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates are then subject to rimming and infilling by fine-grained parisite-(Ce), synchysite-(Ce), and monazite-(Ce) (Fig. 14a and b) and locally by syntaxial intergrowths of the Ca-REE-fluorocarbonates. The last minerals of the main aggregates to form are ancylite-(Ce), strontianite, and baryte. These minerals are all observed to be very fine-grained and anhedral; they infill around the other REE minerals. Likely ancylite-(Ce) continues to form as the melt cools, and until the REEs are no longer available, and strontianite and locally baryte continue to form. Ancylite-(Ce) is commonly described as a hydrothermal mineral (Wall and Zaitsev, 2004), but the REE discrimination diagram and other associated minerals do not show any evidence of this. Strontianite and baryte are common in late-stage carbonatites (Zaitsev et al., 1998). Syntaxial intergrowths of the Ca-88  REE-fluorocarbonates were almost never observed in the same aggregate as the Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates. Monazite-(Ce) was not observed with the same frequency in aggregates with the Ca-REE-fluorocarbonates as it was in aggregates with the Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates. The aggregates and distribution of the REE minerals suggests heterogeneity within the magma, with some areas containing more Ba and REEs. Another explanation is in-situ crystallization with internal differentiation. This would involve the accumulation of incompatible elements in restitic fluids after the growth of major phases. Since the scale of observation is small at thin section size it is unclear at this time which explanation is the most viable. The Ba-REE-fluorocarbonate minerals are commonly more enriched in Ca and Sr than the ideal formula suggests. These two elements, along with Th, are known to commonly substitute for REEs, Na, and Ba in the REE minerals via the relationship 2(Sr2+, Ca2+) + Th4+ = Ba2+ + 2REE3+ and/or Ca2+ + Sr2+ = Na+ + REE3+ (Geister et al. 1998; Zaitsev et al., 1998; Yang et al, 1999; Yang et al., 2000).  Elsewhere in the carbonatite monazite-(Ce), cordylite-(Ce), and bastn?site-(Ce) form as individual crystals rather than in aggregates. The method of formation and relationship of allanite-(Ce) and euxenite-(Y) is unknown at this time due to the small number of samples hosting these minerals.   Wall and Zaitsev (2004) summarize the temperature and pressure conditions of Ca-REE-fluorocarbonates, monazite-(Ce), and ancylite-(Ce) crystallization based on experimental studies and evidence from mineral paragenetic sequences (Wall and Zaitsev, 2004). Monazite-(Ce) has the largest temperature range from 750?C to 150?C. The Ca-REE-fluorocarbonates range from 650?C to 150?C, with bastn?site-(Ce) having the largest range. Ancylite-(Ce) has the lowest temperatures, with formation conditions of 450?C to 150?C. The temperature range of these minerals supports the crystallization sequence observed with monazite-(Ce), and Ca-REE-fluorocarbonates forming early, and ancylite-(Ce) forming later; pressure conditions were at 0.1Gpa. It can be assumed that the Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates form at temperatures lower than the Ca-REE-fluorocarbonates, and their formation with ancylite-(Ce) in Figure 15e suggests that they form at temperature conditions closer to that of ancylite-(Ce).  Cordylite-(Ce) was locally observed within proximity to areas of oxide mineralisation, but the relationship between these is unclear at this time.  89   Unknown 1 appears to be a distinct mineral, although its chemistry is similar to that of parisite-(Ce). It forms discrete intergrowths next to parisite-(Ce) and with bastn?site-(Ce). Unfortunately, due to the diminutive size of the intergrowths it could not be extracted and analyzed using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Similarly, Unknown 2 was too small to be analyzed.  In general the LREE-dominant minerals show a similar trend for the first four elements on the REE diagram (La, Ce, Pr, Nd) (Fig. 20a to 20e). The only variation between these minerals is that those with lower amounts of REEs plot at lower values than the ones with higher REEs. The trend from Nd to Sm is relatively similar between these minerals; they all have little to no HREE. There was no specific change in most of the minerals' pattern or chemistry between early, primary magmatic, or late stage magmatic minerals, or minerals found in a recrystallized area, despite the changes in grain size, texture, and habit. The exception is some small changes observed with the Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates due to the substitutions discussed above. Strong depletion in LREE or a decrease in La resulting in a Ce anomaly, commonly occurs in REE minerals that have undergone metasomatic alteration (Yang et al., 2000). Since the distribution patterns for the REE minerals show neither of these, it is unlikely that the REE minerals analyzed have undergone appreciable alteration since primary crystallization.  The low F contents (Appendix D) reported may be due to a partial substitution of OH- for F- or due to the lightness of the element and the associated difficulty in accurately measuring its true concentration using EMPA. A lower F content than the theoretical values has been noted at several other deposits including Bayan Obo (Yang et al., 2000), and Khibina (Zaitsev et al., 1998). The common reason for the lower F at these deposits is ascribed to a partial substitution of OH with F.  6.2. Analysis of Historic Geochemical Soil Sampling   Although geochemical data was previously collected, as described in Chapter 2, a systematic analysis was never conducted.  Analyzing all of the geochemical data can provide some interesting insights into the overall complex. The highest values of Ce occur in the area closest to the carbonatite plug, which supports the theory that mineral(s) in the carbonatites are the cause of the strong correlations between TREO, La and Ce.  90  There are two distinct trends in the data when plotting Ce versus Th and Ce versus Zr (see Figures in section 5.4.3.). The two trends indicate that these elements are hosted predominately in different mineral phases, different mineralisation events, or most likely, that they are more strongly associated with differing rock types. Since Ce preferentially occurs within mineral(s) in the carbonatite, it is likely that the majority of Th and Zr occurs within the syenites; this is supported by rock sample analysis.  The remaining elemental comparisons do not show any strong trends, but from the above trends it can be said that the REEs are best used to determine the location of carbonatite, and Th and Zr can be used to determine the location of syenite.  6.3. 2010 Drill Core Assay Comparison  The assay results from the two laboratories used in 2010 did not show any definite preference for one lab or the other in terms of the analysis measuring the same concentration of REE. Approximately 56% of the sample analyses from Activation Laboratories showed higher TREE+Y than the corresponding analyses from ALS Chemex; the remaining 44% showed higher TREE+Y in the analyses from ALS Chemex. 48% and 52% of samples containing over 10,000 ppm REE+Y were from Activation Laboratories and ALS Chemex respectively.  There is more scatter for the higher values; this is to be expected due to the increase in error. Points below 10,000 ppm rarely show a large scatter. A R2 value of 0.9884, calculated from the trendline, supports the conclusion that the results from the two labs are not significantly different and no systematic errors were incorporated in the data set as a result of using two laboratories and their slightly different assay techniques.  6.4. Geological and Geochemical Trends in the Lithologies of the Wicheeda Carbonatite Complex  Overall the geology of the deposit shows an increase in carbonatite prevalence toward the plug. This was observed in the drill-core and while mapping. This is especially evident in the drill core; very little syenite was observed in the 2010 drilling, which was closest to the plug, but it was quite abundant in the more distal 2011 drilling. The length of the syenite intersections also increases away from the plug.  91   6.4.1. Carbonatites  The carbonatite occurrences observed at Wicheeda vary depending on their proximity to the plug and their local relationship with the syenites. The carbonatite closest to the plug is generally less altered, as observed in core samples, surface samples, and polished thin sections, and the sills and dykes appear to be wider, as observed in drill core. This is evident in the lack of alteration minerals, including sodic-pyroxene, sodic-amphibole, and biotite, and the lack of recrystallization of the carbonate minerals. The carbonatites further away from the plug commonly occur as smaller, more altered occurrences. The alteration results in the formation of new minerals, such as aegirine(-augite) and biotite, but also causes recrystallization of small grains that coalesce to form aggregates. The aegirine(-augite) and biotite occur in variable abundances in different carbonatite intersections.  Titanite is an accessory phase, and was only observed in carbonatite and syenite samples occurring on the southeast side of the fault separating this area from the northwest.   Geological reports on the Wicheeda plug itself describe elevated amounts of TREO compared to values from either the edge of the plug or more distal areas. Rock and polished section analyses from this study concur with the earlier geological reports. This variation in TREO is also apparent in the polished sections, in which even small cross-cutting veinlets in drill-core samples from the central northwest part of the property host REE minerals more often and in greater abundance than veinlets in the southeast part of the complex.   The REE mineralisation may be heterogeneous; two twinned holes, CA-10-001 and CA-10-002, have large intersections of carbonatite in the same trend, but one was rich in Ca-REE-fluorocarbonates with some Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates, and the other only appeared to host Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates (as observed in polished sections MGL-10-RS-006A-B and MGL-RS-11-178). However, this observation may be skewed due to the small number of samples as compared to the size of the carbonatite intersections themselves, and because there were no downhole surveys, so it is possible the holes were not actually parallel.  Many of the carbonatite complexes in the ?Rocky Mountain Rare Metal Belt? have undergone amphibolite-facies metamorphism (Pell, 1994). This is not observed at Wicheeda despite the fact that it is similar in age to many of the other carbonatites in the Belt, but because they have had a different tectonometamorphic history. The overall grade of 92  metamorphism observed in the Wicheeda rocks is recorded to a maximum of greenschist facies; in large intervals of carbonatite intersections the rocks appear to be relatively unaltered to weakl metamorphosed altered. It appears that Wicheeda lies in a metamorphic window with a lower degree of regional metamorphism.  The REE discrimination diagrams of the carbonatites show a very similar pattern, with some small differences (Fig. 25). All of the patterns show enrichment in the LREE, followed by a generally steady decrease towards Lu, which is expected for a carbonatite enriched in LREE. There are some changes in the overall steepness of the patterns that is dependent on the abundance of REE minerals in the intersection. Carbonatites with a shallow pattern have less REE and are generally more altered or have a high proportion of silicate minerals. These types of carbonatites feature recrystallization of the carbonates and/or alteration minerals, such as pyroxene and micas, or host a proportion of minerals common in the syenites. The remaining discrimation diagrams occur in intersections that are more enriched in REEs, although they still have the same general pattern described above. Three of these diagrams have varying degrees and combinations of negative Eu anomaly, small to large flattening of the pattern across the HREE; the last diagram shows a straight pattern. No specific reason for these variations can be determined from the drill-core logs and geochemistry. They are likely due to either small changes in the mineralogy of the carbonatite itself that allowed for certain elements to go preferentially into another mineral in a different rock type, such as a syenite, or, more likely, a varying degree of metasomatism.  The concentrations of HFSE at Wicheeda are somewhat different from the average carbonatite. The average carbonatite has ratios for Nb/Ta, Zr/Hf, Zr/Nb and Zr/Ta of 35, 60, 1 and 29 respectively (Chakhmouradian, 2006). The ratios for Wicheeda average 313, 52, 1 and 131, respectively, with only Zr/Hf and Zr/Nb being close to the average carbonatite values. This difference is largely because Wicheeda is depleted in Ta and Zr, with an average of 3.4 ppm and 115 ppm, and Nb is slightly elevated with 434 ppm compared to the average carbonatite, which has values of 8.9 ppm, 256.4 ppm and 308.9 ppm, respectively (Chakhmouradian, 2006). The depletion is observed in the mineralogy with a lack of Ta- and Zr- bearing minerals, with occasional intersections of pyrochlore that would explain the slightly elevated Nb.  93   6.4.2. Syenites  In syenite-associated carbonatite systems else where in the world, the syenite is generally older than the carbonatite, although usually not by much. Due to the Quaternary cover at the Wicheeda carbonatite complex, direct field relationships between syenite and carbonatite are not exposed, and no crystallization age has yet been obtained for the syenite. However, the units logged as grey carbonatite and the syenite units are obviously related, due to the similarities in mineralogy, specifically the presence of K-feldspar. Within the grey syenite unit the syenite component is more abundant, but there is, at the very least, a carbonate component to the matrix, suggesting that the age of formation of the two lithologies must be close. Contacts between the carbonatite and syenite can be both sharp and gradational, which may indicate closely timed pulses of melt emplacement, or perhaps in situ differentiation within the dyke or sill. There was no conclusive evidence as to whether the carbonatite or syenite was emplaced first, but syenite abundance is increasingly abundant away from the plug, and the gradational contacts between the grey carbonatite and syenite suggests that at least one type of syenite formed before the carbonatite. Locally, layering of both carbonatite and syenite is observed.   The overall chemistry of the syenites is fairly uniform with the largest observable difference occurring in the syenite that contains xenoliths. The remainder of the syenites show little variation in chemistry, with the exception of the occasional drill-core intersection displaying somewhat elevated Nb, and Zr and locally Sr and CaO are sometimes present due to the occurrence of carbonatite in (or near) the intersection. The Nb and Zr likely partitioned  preferentially into the syenite melt since their values are low in the carbonatites.  Mader and Greenwood (1987) described three alkaline dykes on the property. Two of which have been observed and sampled in the course of this study; however, the third type of dyke was never observed in the field or drill core.  The first type of dyke is the common K-feldspar rich syenite. While logging the drill core this syenite was described as altered syenite, grey syenite, or syenite; based on mineralogical analysis these variations of syenites are actually the same. All three are composed dominantly of K-feldspar with accessory albite, zircon, pyrochlore, ilmenite, 94  titanite, and calcite, although some have varying amounts of alteration phases, including biotite and aegirine-augite.   The second dyke is composed of clast-rich syenite that was only observed on the central northwest part of the ridge, both in outcrop and drill core. This syenite hosts xenoliths of what appears to be microsyenite that has been altered largely to biotite. It also hosts phenocrysts of blue sodalite, as well as white sodalite and albite in the matrix. The REE discrimination diagram of this syenite shows a distinct sinusoidal pattern compared to that of the syenite discussed above and can be distinguished further via its elevated Zn and Pb contents. The sinusoidal pattern may be explained by the micro-syenite xenoliths or may be a sign of metasomatism. Rare earth element minerals that have undergone metasomatism commonly have a flatter pattern through the LREE similar to what is observed in this syenitic pattern (Yang et al., 2000). The flattening of the pattern through the HREE may also be a sign of metasomatism, with these elements being mobilized into other minerals, although the other syenites all show a general flattening through the HREE.  The third dyke discussed by Mader and Greenwood (1987) was described as a feldspar-augite-phryric with an aphanitic ground mass that appeared to cross-cut the sodalite dykes. This field relationship was not observed by the author; it may be referring to what has been logged as feldspar/feldspathoid flooding. From evidence in the polished thin sections, the feldspar/feldspathoid flooding appears to be more of an alteration of surrounding phyllite and carbonatite with the albite likely sourced from silicate-rich fluids that cooled rapidly.  6.4.3. Fenitization and Other Alteration of the Phyllite on the Carbo Property  A common characteristic of carbonatite complexes is a metasomatic aureole in which the wall rock has undergone desilification and the original minerals have been replaced by alkaline pyroxene and amphibole (Winter, 2001; Le Bas, 2008). This process is commonly referred to as fenitization and the rock produced is called a fenite. Through analysis of field relationships, rock samples, and polished thin sections, two varieties of sodic fenites have been identified on the property. Sodic fenites are typically composed of Na-rich amphibole, albite, K-feldspar, and Na-rich pyroxene (Le Bas, 2008). The dominant mineral in the two varieties at Wicheeda is one of either magnesio-riebeckite or pyroxene (aegirine or aegirine-augite). These minerals are commonly fine- to very fine-grained and occur with biotite, 95  phlogopite, albite, and carbonate minerals. The fenites formed from magnesio-riebeckite are easily identified in the field due to their blue colour and fibrous nature; the pyroxene-dominated fenites are harder to distinguish from the more common brown-coloured altered phyllite. Other major deposits that show this type of fenitization include Bayan Obo and Mountain Pass (Le Bas, 2008; Caster, 2008). Where the phyllite has not been fenitized it is commonly weakly to strongly altered to very fine-grained biotite at the contact with the alkaline rocks.   6.5. Isotopic Analysis  The age of 316 ? 36 Ma is younger than anticipated, as the nearest phase of alkaline magmatism recorded in the ?Rocky Mountain Rare Metal Belt? of British Columbia ended around 328 Ma (Pell, 1994; Gorham, 2008); however, it is within error of these earlier values and thus Wicheeda represents one of the youngest alkaline complexes in B.C.. It is also within error of the carbonatite magnetism described by Millonig et al. (2012) for the period of extensional tectonics from 360 ? 340 Ma.  The isotopic ratios suggest that the Wicheeda carbonatite complex is isotopically heterogeneous. The composition plots relatively close to bulk earth and shows little variation in ?Nd but a large range in Sr values. The ?Nd values lie within the mantle array and suggest that a large component of the melt has a mantle source. The Sr isotopic ratios may be explained by magma mixing of sources with similar 144Nd/143Nd but different 87Sr/86Sr.  However, the more common explanations for this variation in other carbonatites is that the range observed in Sr values is due to alteration and localized contamination during differentiation within the crust, or metasomatism in the lithosphere (Roden et al., 1985; Huang et al., 1995; Simonetti et al., 1995). These processes are more likely to lead to disturbances in Sr, since Sm and Nd are not as mobile. Therefore, the isotopic ratios suggest an enriched mantle source, for a parental melt that has been contaminated with crustal material, likely through metasomatism during ponding of the melt in the lower crust or upper mantle. Although many of the world's carbonatites have been described as having some involvement with a mantle plume source, there is no currently known mantle plume activity in British Columbia around the time the Wicheeda complex formed. 96  6.6. Geological and Mineralogical Comparisons to Other Carbonatites  The Wicheeda carbonatite complex differs in many ways from the rest of the studied carbonatites in the Canadian Cordillera, but has many properties similar to a variety of deposits worldwide. This assists with determining the mechanisim of formation and history of the complex.  Pell (1994) summarized a number of carbonatite related complexes in B.C., which are typically sub-circular to elongate in plan and commonly have well developed metasomatic alteration haloes. Many of these intrusions follow the trend of the Rocky Mountain Trench, are Devono-Mississippian in age, and are thought to have a strong relationship to the continental margin of ancestral North America. Two currently well studied carbonatite showings in the same trend are the Aley carbonatite complex, and the Blue River carbonatites and syenites. These other carbonatite and syenite complexes within the trend are relatively depleted in REE-bearing minerals compared to Wicheeda. Most of the complexes within the trend have been subjected to sub-greenschist to amphibolite facies metamorphism and have seen variable amounts of deformation (Pell, 1994; Millonig et al., 2013). This differs from the Wicheeda carbonatite complex, in which, around the plug, little to no metamorphism or deformation was observed. A reason for this may be that the complex appears to occur within a structural and metamorphic window that avoided the processes that caused the metamorphism of other carbonatite localities of a similar age. A large amount of carbonatite emplacement occurred in the Canadian Cordillera circa 316 ? 36.4 Ma (Pell, 1994; Millonig et al., 2012). This included the formation of the Serpentine Creek carbonatite, Mount Grace carbonatite, Loonie carbonatite, Vergil carbonatite, Aley carbonatite, and Blue River alkaline rocks (Pell, 1994; Millonig et al., 2012). This series of emplacement post-dates the conversion of the intra-plate continental margin to an inter-plate, mainly convergent margin at around ~390 Ma and was followed by renewed extensional tectonics, presumably due to slab rollback (Lund et al, 2010; Millonig et al., 2012). In this type of setting the carbonatites would have likely intruded in proximity to the continental margin, where the continental lithosphere was present (Wolley and Bailey, 2012). This type of environment would support the idea of the emplacement of a mantle melt in the lithosphere followed by metasomatism and potentially a degree of partial melting for carbonatite generation. The processes occurring in the lithosphere, and the incorporation of 97  potential sediments from the continental margin would account for the range and enrichment in Sr ratios, which is more susceptible to outside processes. The Wicheeda data plots between Jacupiranga, Brazil and Amba Dongar, India on the 87Sr/86SrT vs ?NdT discrimination diagram (Fig. 34). However, Wicheeda does not have the same geological associations: a mantle plume and continental flood basalts (Roden et al. 1985; Huang et al., 1995; Simonetti et al., 1995; Simonetti et al., 1998; Ruberti et al., 2002). It follows a trend and values similar to the Bayan Obo carbonatite dykes, with the exception that the 87Sr/86SrT spread for Bayan Obo is much wider. The Bayan Obo carbonatite dykes formed from a rift setting and it has been suggested that their range in values shows a heterogeneous magma below the region, followed by further geochemical changes associated with the subduction of oceanic sediments, which would affect the 87Sr/86Sr values (Yang et al. 2011). Samples from the Superior and Grenville provinces of Canada and, more specifically, Aillik Bay, Labrador (Tappe et al., 2006), show a wide range in Sr and a more constrained, although more positive ?Nd, to that of Wicheeda. Theories of formation for these carbonatites include a source that has evolved from a depleted mantle reservoir, that the melt was derived from within the lithosphere itself, or that some degree of partial melting occurred within the rifted mantle under CO2-rich conditions, creating a small amount of carbonatite melt (Bell and Blenkinsop, 1987; Kramm, 1993; Simonetti et al., 1995; Tappe et al., 2006). With samples showing similar patterns to those of Bayan Obo and Aillik Bay it could be suggested that the mantle component for Wicheeda is similar to these.   Most carbonatites are associated with at least one other alkaline lithology that commonly occurs earlier than the carbonatite unit itself. The Wicheeda carbonatite is associated with potassic syenites. Other carbonatites related to potassic syenites include Mountain Pass (California), Rocky Boy (Montana), Little Murun (Yakutia), Dunkeldyksky (Tajikistan), and Loch Borralan (Scotland) (Mitchell, 2005). At Wicheeda, least one type of syenite appears to form before the carbonatites, as shown by the gradation contact between the grey carbonatite and syenite units, and the incorporation of carbonatite within the syenite. This syenite may be the parental melt for the carbonatite. Processes described by Mitchell (2005), suggest the formation of a nephelinitic magma followed by fractional or batch melting. The fractional or batch melting model would decrease the amount SiO? in the system upon the crystallization of the syenite and allow for the formation of a residual, late-98  stage, REE-rich, carbonatite melt, if CO? was still present (Fig. 35). This association, sodic peralkaline syenites (Khibina complex, Russia), and a rare group of REE-F-rich carbonatites not related to alkaline rocks (Bayan Obo, China; Rock Creek Canyon, British Columbia) all have enrichments in Ba, Sr, and REEs (Mitchell, 2005).   These complexes are commonly thought to be late-stage carbonatites in the igneous environment with REE-fluorocarbonate minerals. This idea is supported at the Wicheeda Carbonatite Complex with the presence of kukharenkoite-(Ce) and qaqarssukite-(Ce), which are known to occur in late-stage forming REE carbonatites (Zaitsev et al., 1996; Grice et al., 2006). These deposits have a variety of models of formation, including as primary magmatic, and more commonly, as a result of a residual carbonatite melt or carbothermal residua derived from the fractional crystallization of the associated silicate magma (Mitchell, 2005).   Accessory minerals associated with the potassic-suite of carbonatites include baryte, fluorite, bastn?site, parisite, monazite, siderite, synchysite, ancylite, calcioancylite, burbankite, huanghoite, strontianite, celestine, witherite, and kukharenkoite (Mitchell, 2005).  A few other worldwide localities have these types of minerals, such as Mont St. Hilaire (Canada) and Qaqarrsuk (Greenland); however, they do not have the same alkaline rock association. The Khibina complex has much of the same REE-fluorocarbonate associations in its late stage, low temperature, carbonatites, but the multiple phases of carbonatite emplacement and replacement of burbankite by Ca-REE-fluorocarbonates are not observed at Wicheeda (Zaitsev et al., 1998). The Khibina and Kovodor massif also have similar ages to Wicheeda, with a range of 360 ? 380 Ma (Zaitsev and Polezhaeva, 1994; Zaitsev et al., 1998).  Although the Wicheeda carbonatite complex shows significant differences from other carbonatites in British Columbia in terms of mineralogy, REE enrichment and metamorphism there are similarities between the complex and several world carbonatites. In summary, these similarities suggest that the Wicheeda carbonatite complex is late stage, forming from a syenitic, parental mantle melt emplaced in the continental lithosphere. The lithosphere underwent metasomatic processes and, potentially, low degrees of partial melting and/or the incorporation of previously subducted sediments for carbonatite generation and to give the observed isotopic ratios. Fractional or batch melting, and subsequent crystallization of the 99  syenitic parental melt allowed for the concentration of a REE-rich residual carbonatite melt, allowing for the formation of the REE-phases in the last stages of the magmatic evolution.     100   Figure 34. Plot of 87Sr/86SrT versus ?NdT with data from the Wicheeda carbonatite complex compared to other carbonatites in the world (data from: Bell and Blenkinsop, 1987; Bell and Kramm, 1993; Huang et al., 1995; Simonetti et al., 1995; Zaitsev and Bell, 1995; Tilton et al., 1998; Verhulst et al., 2000; Dunworth and Bell, 2001; Tilton, 2001; Tappe et al., 2006; Yang et al., 2011).  101   Figure 35. Fractional and batch melting and crystallization model for the genesis of carbonatites (Mitchell, 2005) 102  Chapter 7. Conclusions  The Wicheeda carbonatite complex is an intricate deposit requiring further work to better determine the relationships between the alkaline rocks of the plug and tail and REE minerals as well as its economic viability. However, REE mineralogy, geochemical trends, alkaline lithologies, and a date have been determined as part of this study, and we can hypothesize the order of mineral formation, and the origin of the carbonatite melt.   The REE mineralisation within the carbonatite is composed of mostly fluorocarbonates, including a series of Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates that are only found at a few places in the world. The mineralisation is complex, with multiple stages of primary, late-stage, rapidly cooling crystallization, from Ca-REE-fluorocarbonates in the form of syntaxial intergrowths and monazite-(Ce) forming earliest, to Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates and local Ca-REE-fluorocarbonates, and ending with ancylite-(Ce). These minerals commonly formed in aggregates along with calcite, ankerite, and a variety of Sr- and Ba- accessory minerals; they appear to be unaltered. These types of mineral assemblages are also common in several highly economic deposits, including Mountain Pass (California), the Khibina complex (Russia), and the carbonatite dykes from Bayan Obo (China). The majority of the carbonatite outcrops, carbonatite drill core intersections and REE mineralisation are located in and around a carbonatite plug and are associated with at least two types of potassic syenites, as well as sodic-fenite formation. Potential carbonatite bedrock covered by overburden can be found by identifying elevated areas of Ce in soils at surface, and syenite bedrock can be found by identifying elevated areas of Th and Zr in surface soils.  The carbonatite formed around 316 ? 36 Ma, approximately the same time as one of the three main carbonatite emplacements in British Columbia.  Isotopic evidence from Sr and Nd suggests that the carbonatite formed from the emplacement of a syenitic mantle melt in the lithosphere, followed by at least one secondary crustal process, such as the incorporation of subducted sediments or a low degree of partial melting, to account for the wide range of 87Sr/86Sr ratios. Examination of other deposits and the geologic history from around 316 Ma supports this method of formation. Isotope results from Brazil, India and especially Canada and China plot in a similar location and/or similar pattern and these deposits are thought to have formed from at least one secondary process within the lithosphere. Complexes with 103  similar potassic syenite associations and similar Sr, Ba, and REE mineral assemblages are thought to be late stage, low pressure and temperature, carbonatites that form from a parental magma that has undergone secondary processes within the lithosphere. The alkaline magmatism that took place around 316 ? 36 Ma intruded in proximity to the continental margin where the continental lithosphere would be present, supporting the idea of a mantle melt being emplaced into the lithosphere where it would undergo secondary processes. Evidence from the type of REE-mineral assemblages, syenite and carbonatite relationships, and where the Sr and Nd isotopes plot on a discrimination diagram, suggests that the Wicheeda carbonatite complex formed from a syenitic mantle melt emplaced in the continental lithosphere, where the lithosphere underwent metasomatism and potentially a low degree of partial melting and/or the incorporation of previously subducted sediments. This was followed by fractional or batch melting, subsequent crystallization of a silica rich melt as a syenite allowed for the formation of an REE-rich residual carbonatite melt, that later crystallized and allowed for the formation of the REE minerals in the last stages of the magmatic evolution.                 104  Chapter 8. Recommendations for Future Research After evaluation of the results and analysis of the geology and samples of the Wicheeda carbonatite complex, several recommendations can be made for future work both in the laboratory and for exploration.  Further analysis should be completed on the REE minerals observed, specifically the Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates. Ideally samples would be collected from the carbonatite plug to look for the mineral assemblages within the plug and determine if they become coarser grained, similar to that of monazite and bastn?site-(Ce). Further EMPA should be completed on the remaining  polished thin sections where the REE minerals were identified as well as from any REE minerals identified from any further samples collected. This analysis and examination of where the Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates occur and the mineral association would assist in the understanding of how and why the Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates form. For example, if there are any particular mineral assemblages certain Ba-REE-fluorocarbons form more commonly with or if there are changes in the crystal habit or texture of these minerals depending on the area of crystallization or mineral assemblage. This may help to further explain why a sample such as MGL-RS-10-035 had coarser grained kukharenkoite-(Ce) forming with monazite-(Ce), whereas other polished thin-sections from other drill-core intersections are very fine-grained.  An attempt at characterizing the unknown minerals should be done. Larger crystals should be looked for and examined using backscattered imaging, EDX, and EMPA. Characterization can be completed using single crystal X-ray diffraction or electron backscatter diffraction, which can be done without having to extract the crystal.   The creation of REE-bearing and heavy mineral concentrates from a range of carbonatite samples from the region would allow for a more accurate analysis of the REE minerals, including their grain size, shape, and the frequency of occurrence of the mineral groups. It would also show the relative ease of extraction of the REE minerals from the carbonatite, which would assist in future metallurgical and ore recovery work. The individual grains extracted could be used for analysis and study, instead of using polished sections.   A closer examination of some of the accessory minerals in the carbonatites and syenites could provide more details on the formation of these rock types. Accessory phases that should be included in such a study would be carbonate, pyroxene, amphibole, and oxide 105  phases. Determining the behavior of these accessory minerals would help to further develop the deposit model. Analysis to determine the exact types of minerals and potential zoning, as well as the distribution of trace elements such as Rb, Sr, Ba, REEs, Zr, and Hf could assist with further defining the type of carbonatite and may be of help for later exploration purposes. This would also assist in determining any changes in the characteristic of the carbonatites between those that host different types of certain minerals; for example pyroxene (Reguir, 2012); or establish if the trace elements effect the mass balance of the lithology. Strontianite should be analyzed to assist with determining the mineralisation and potential alteration in the deposit. Primary strontianite can have minor substitution of Sr by Ca but hosts low amounts of other elements such as Ba and REEs (Zaitsev et al., 1998).  Secondary strontianite will have more Ba and REEs. Baryte is another mineral common in late-stage carbonatites and an analysis of it would assist with further linking the deposit to others. Baryte in these deposits commonly shows only a small replacement of Ba by Sr, Ca, and Na (Zaitsev et al., 1998). It should also be confirmed that the silicate mineral identified is indeed niksergievite.  Further isotopic work should be completed in order to ensure an accurate date and to further investigate the source of the alkaline magmatism. Ideally this would include at least one whole-rock sample from the Wicheeda plug along with mineral separates. In many other deposits both whole rock and mineral separates are used to determine the age. Monazite-(Ce) is abundant at Wicheeda and could be used to better date the carbonatite. Dating of the syenite would also assist with examining the alkaline magmatism of the region and confirm that the syenite and carbonatite formed at nearly the same time, as was concluded through rock and polished section samples. Zircon is common in the samples and would be a good mineral to use. Both in situ LA-ICP-MS or if enough sample was obtained individual zircons extracted from the samples could be analyzed using TIMS. Ideally the use of Pb, and stable isotopes such as C and O would be used in order to assist in complimenting the Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd systems used in this study. Any further Rb-Sr work should include mineral separates as in the literature they appear to yield a better isochron for dating; access to separates was not forthcoming for this study. Together the whole rock and mineral separates would help to delineate the story of where and when the alkaline magmatism was generated. 106   Further exploration should be completed on or as close to the plug as possible. Closer to the carbonatite plug the rocks are more pristine demonstrating little recrystallization and alteration as compared to further from the plug. Along with this the mineralisation forms larger aggregates with generally larger and better-formed REE minerals. Although Sr and Ba are not found to be a strong correlation for TREE+Y they are still elements that are elevated in the carbonatites relative to other rock types studied on the property to date. Therefore as an exploration tool they are a good indicator of carbonatite when examining soil sampling results and may assist with tracking the location of carbonatites throughout the property. Thorium works for large-scale exploration but for finer detailed work it is poor. Uranium is especially poor as an exploration tool at Wicheeda. Elevated U and to an extent Th values are associated with areas of syenite rather than carbonatite. However, low but slightly higher than background Th may assist with defining areas of carbonatite emplacement due to the generally small amounts of Th that are in the REE minerals. 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Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 14, 493-571.     119  APPENDIX A Polished Thin Section Descriptions                              120  All of the following thin sections come from drill core with the exception of 11-MLD-029 and 11-SMT-031 which come from hand-specimen rock samples. MGL-RS-10-006A, B and C are all cut from the same carbonatite interval but have some differing mineralogy and textures so they are described separately.   MGL-RS-10-006A This section comes from an intersection of carbonatite with extensive REE mineral aggregates and was taken from the center of one of these aggregates. Figure 9 shows an example of this intersection. The matrix is of variable grain size with small local zones of medium-grained calcite matrix; however, the majority is very fine-grained and dominated by aggregates of rare earth minerals and other minor and accessory phases. Although the majority of the matrix is dominated by very fine-grained calcite, there is also some ankerite. Approximately 30% of the matrix is composed of aggregates of rare earth minerals and strontianite. These aggregates are complex; they appear to be anhedral. The rare earth minerals in this section are bastn?site-(Ce), parisite-(Ce), synchysite-(Ce), ancylite-(Ce), monazite-(Ce) and euxenite-(Y). Bastn?site-(Ce), parisite-(Ce), and synchysite-(Ce) often appear as fine-grained syntaxial intergrowths with each other, and with the main REE-fluorocarbonates, as synchysite-(Ce) followed by parisite-(Ce). The crystals are commonly very fine-grained, long and tabular, and more rarely these make up larger, blocky intergrowths (Figs. 13a and 14b). Locally there is some larger bastn?site-(Ce) crystals with few syntaxial intergrowths of parisite-(Ce). Very fine-grained ancylite-(Ce) was observed locally. Very fine-grained monazite-(Ce) and euxenite-(Y) was noted by Brand (2010).  Trace and accessory phases include strontianite, baryte, thorite, galena, chalcopyrite, and zircon. Strontianite and barite are most commonly found around the rare earth mineral aggregates. Strontianite is commonly very fine-grained, anhedral crystals and infilling around and throughout the aggregates. In BSE images it appears mottled due to variations in the amount of Sr within the crystals. Baryte is often euhedral to subhedral and has a small Sr peak on EDX. Baryte is very fine-grained and anhedral with an EDX spectra that has a small Sr peak. Galena is found as blebs or infilling fractures. Thorite occurs as very fine-grained anhedral blobs. Chalcopyrite and zircon are cryptocrystalline and only found at high magnification on the SEM. 121  MGL-RS-10-006B This section comes from the same carbonatite intersection as above; however, it is from an area that has undergone some alteration in the form of oxidation along fractures. The matrix is of a more variable grain size with local zones of medium to fine-grained calcite; however, the majority is very fine-grained calcite with aggregates of minor and accessory minerals. The main matrix is dominantly calcite with some local minor ankerite. Approximately 25% of the section is aggregates hosting REE minerals including monazite-(Ce), bastn?site-(Ce), parisite-(Ce), synchysite-(Ce), ancylite-(Ce), and cordylite-(Ce). Monazite-(Ce) forms as fine- to very fine-grained, euhedral to locally subhedral crystals and appears to be unaltered. It occurs as both isolated masses as well as in proximity to other REE minerals. Cordylite-(Ce) commonly forms as fine-grained, anhedral to subhedral, fractured crystals. It generally occurs within proximity to monazite-(Ce) and Ca-REE-fluorocarbonates. Synchysite-(Ce) followed by parisite-(Ce) are the dominant Ca-REE-fluorocarbonate minerals and occur with fine syntaxial intergrowths of bastn?site-(Ce). They form as very fine-grained, lath to fibrous shaped crystals infilling around crystals of monazite-(Ce) and cordylite-(Ce) (Figs. 16a and 16b). The common infilling of the Ca-REE-fluorocarbonates around cordylite-(Ce) and along the fracture-zones may be a form of alteration. Locally the Ca-REE-fluorocarbonates also appear to be replacing or growing into strontianite and ancylite-(Ce). Ancylite-(Ce) is seen as fine-grained, anhedral crystals that infill around other rare earth minerals.  Trace and accessory phases within the matrix include strontianite, and baryte. The strontianite forms around REE minerals within the aggregates as anhedral crystals. It commonly appears mottled in BSE images. The baryte forms as local anhedral crystals in the REE aggregates.  MGL-RS-10-006C This section comes from the same carbonatite intersection as those above; however, it has been cut from an area at the edge of one of the aggregates. The matrix is of variable grain size with a few local zones of medium to fine-grained calcite, with the majority of the matrix being very fine-grained calcite with aggregates of minor and accessory minerals. The main portion of the matrix is calcite with local ankerite. 122  Approximately 25% of the section is aggregates composed in part of REE minerals including bastn?site-(Ce), parisite-(Ce), synchysite-(Ce), monazite-(Ce), ancylite-(Ce), qaqarssukite-(Ce), and huanghoite-(Ce) (Fig. 12). The majority of the REE minerals are bastn?site-(Ce), parisite-(Ce), and synchysite-(Ce), in order of abundance, with the majority of the occurrences forming syntaxial intergrowths. Locally there are subhedral to anhedral clusters of bastn?site-(Ce), with small intergrowths of parisite-(Ce); similar to what was observed in MGL-RS-10-006A. The very fine-grained, fibrous, lath shaped crystals (as seen in the previous sections) were rarely observed in this section. Monazite-(Ce) forms locally with very fine-grained, euhedral crystals. Qaqarssukite-(Ce), and huanghoite-(Ce) form together as very fine-grained anhedral masses. Distinguishing between them was accomplished using EPMA since no differences were observed in SEM-BSE imaging. Ancylite-(Ce) forms as anhedral crystals infilling around the other minerals. Minor and accessory phases include strontianite, and baryte. Strontianite forms both subhedral to euhedral crystals as well as infilling anhedral masses. The better formed strontianite crystals are commonly seen within medium- to coarse-grained baryte crystals. Baryte forms local large masses as well as fine-grained crystals around the REE minerals.   MGL-RS-10-007A, MGL-RS-10-007B, MGL-RS-10-007C and MGL-RS-10-007D These sections come from an interval of sulphide-mineralized igneous dyke. The matrix consists of fine- to medium-grained biotite, plagioclase, and calcite with traces of Fe, Mn and Sr in EDX. The biotite is pleochroic green to brown and in BSE imaging appears zoned with patches of higher Ti content.  There are zones of medium- to fine-grained anhedral to euhedral masses of sulphides including pyrrhotite, pyrite, galena and sphalerite in order of abundance. The sulphides can occur as fine- to very fine-grained, disseminated grains in the main matrix. Pyrrhotite forms anhedral to subhedral, variably but moderately altered masses, which are rimmed, be similarly altered pyrite and less-altered very fine-grained galena. Sphalerite appears to be altered to the same degree as the pyrrohotite and occurs at the edges of the sulphide masses.  Trace and accessory phases include zircon, ilmenite, and parisite. The parisite contains a small Th peak and occurs at the periphery of the sulphide masses. The zircon and ilmenite occurs as fine-grained subhedral, disseminated grains.  123  MGL-RS-10-008 This thin section is from an interval of altered phyllite alternating with carbo-hydrothermal bands of very fine-grained calcite that are blue to blue-green and white in colour (Fig. 36). The altered phyllite sections are approximately 30% of the section with another 5% comprising a calcite veinlet. The phyllite sections have a very fine-grained matrix of biotite, calcite, plagioclase and quartz. The calcite veinlet is dominantly medium-grained subhedral crystals; however, there are local zones of re-crystallisation that forms fine-grained and rounded crystals. The blue carbo-hydrothermal areas have a matrix that is dominantly composed of very fine- to fine-grained calcite, and plagioclase. Very fine-grained, euhedral, aegirine is what likely creates the rocks blue-green colour and where this mineral is concentrated the blue colour is stronger (Fig. 37).  Accessory phases include pyrite and baryte. The pyrite is fine- to medium-grained and euhedral and mostly appears in the carbonate sections close to the boundaries with the phyllite. The baryte is very fine-grained and occurs within the carbonate bands.   Figure 36. Polished section cut-off of MGL-RS-10-008.   124   Figure 37. Photomicrograph (in transmitted light, plane-polars) of aegirine (pale green) in a mostly calcite matrix.  MGL-RS-10-009 This thin section is from a breccias with clasts of altered phyllite that has been broken up and weakly altered by intruding carbonatite.  The matrix of the altered phyllite is mostly very fine-grained biotite with some very fine-grained albite and rare calcite. The biotite is mostly green but can be locally brown or have a brown center. Some of the altered phyllite is rimmed at the contact with the carbonatite by very fine-grained albite. The carbonatite matrix is fine to very fine-grained calcite with few albite crystals and very fine-grained biotite. Locally the calcite is deformed and has slightly elongate crystals that occasionally appear weakly oriented. In one part of the slide there are large green biotite crystals near a medium-grained cluster of nepheline crystals (Fig. 38).    Figure 38. Photomicrograph (in transmitted light, plane-polars) of biotite (green to brown) in nepheline.  125  MGL-RS-10-010 This thin section is from an interval of altered carbonatite. The carbonatite is composed dominantly of anhedral, fine- to medium-grained calcite. Locally the calcite crystals have been re-crystalized and are very fine-grained with rounded faces. Throughout the section are areas of fine-grained albite mineralisation and patches of fine-grained muscovite. The section has been fractured; along which there is muscovite and an unknown, cryptocrystalline mineral(s). Locally there is fine-grained, euhedral to subhedral pyrite.   MGL-RS-10-011A and MGL-RS-10-011B These two slides come from a breccia that is composed of altered phyllite clasts in a carbonatite matrix with molybedenite mineralisation. The clasts are variable in size and are very irregularly shaped. The clasts are composed dominantly of very fine-grained biotite that has rounded crystal shapes with some infilling feldspar and carbonate. The feldspar and carbonate were too fine grained to confirm their exact identity. The majority of the clasts show rims of very fine-grained molybdenite, with fine-grained blebs throughout the clasts in decreasing abundance away from the mineral rims.  Two types of carbonate occur within the two slides. The first appears more as a late stage veinlet, cross-cutting through one of the clasts. It comprises coarse-grained calcite and hosts few accessory minerals with none of the same textures as the other carbonatite. The second is the dominant carbonatite matrix of the breccias and it is fine-grained, weakly altered ankerite. Near, and at the contact with the phyllite clasts and this carbonatite are coarse-grained, deformed phlogopite crystals. These are semi-rounded and have curved cleavage faces.   Accessory and trace phases include albite, parisite-(Ce), bastn?site-(Ce), thorite, and Fe-columbite. Around some of the clusters of biotite are medium-grained albite crystals. Locally within the carbonatite matrix are irregular shaped clusters of parisite-(Ce) with some fine syntaxial intergrowths of bastn?site-(Ce). Very fine-grained thorite occurs locally. The Fe-columbite was identified by EDX spectra in one spot - it is very fine-grained.    126  MGL-RS-10-012A and MGL-RS-10-012B These two thin sections were taken from the same drill core interval and maintain very similar mineralogy and textures so they are described and discussed together here. They come from an intersection where carbonatite intruded into phyllite and some clasts of the phyllite are held within the carbonatite. Section A is from an area with more clasts (and thus the reactions and alteration with the clasts), whereas section B includes more of the carbonatite itself. They both have clasts of biotite and altered phyllite which have been locally carbonate altered and have some recrystallized medium- to coarse-grained biotite at the rims of the clasts.  The altered phyllite clasts have a similar mineralogy and texture to the previous two thin sections. Biotite is the dominant mineral in the clasts, with crystals that are rounded and very fine-grained; there is a small amount of carbonate and feldspar associated with it. The reaction rims on the clasts have a higher calcite content along with very fine-grained biotite.  The carbonatite matrix is dominantly fine- to medium-grained ankerite with local areas of deformed coarse-grained ankerite and local calcite. The ankerite shows peaks for Fe, Mg, and a small peak of Mn on EDX. The deformed crystals have curved cleavage faces. The matrix also hosts albite, REE minerals and biotite. The albite is fine-grained and euhedral. The REE minerals are in the form of bastn?site-(Ce) with local fine syntaxial intergrowths of parisite-(Ce). The minerals are euhedral to anhedral and locally appear in albite crystals (Fig. 14a). They may be locally replacing the albite.  Minor and accessory phases include stontianite, hyalophane, rutile, ilmenorutile, pyrochlore, and chlorite. Strontianite is fine-grained and anhedral occurring around bastn?site-(Ce). The remaining phases in this category were observed in areas of alteration around the clasts. They were fine- to very fine-grained and subhedral to anhedral.  MGL-RS-10-013 This section is from a carbonatite interval. The matrix is of variable grain size with the majority of the slide hosting fine- to very fine-grained calcite - with approximately 10% being medium-grained calcite. The medium-grained area is concentrated around an area of fluorite mineralisation. Throughout the section areas of very fine-grained calcite with 127  rounded grain boundaries are observed, these appear to be recrystallized from the fine-grained calcite. Approximately 10% of the slide is composed of REE mineral aggregates which are concentrated to one area of the section. These aggregates are dark brown in polished section and in BSE imaging appear as very fine-grained, poorly formed, fibrous crystals concentrated in one area with an ankerite and calcite matrix. The very fine-grained crystals are composed mostly of bastn?site-(Ce) with occasional very fine syntaxial intergrowths of parisite-(Ce). Minor and accessory phases include fluorite, pyrite, sphalerite and muscovite. The fluorite is coarse-grained and occurs along-side coarse-grained calcite.  The sulphides occur locally with fine-grained pyrite crystals, and irregular sphalerite crystals. Rarely there are fine-grained laths of muscovite.   MGL-RS-10-014 This section is from a mineralised carbonatite interval. The matrix is of variable grain sizes with the majority being medium to fine-grained dolomite with local very fine-grained dolomite and ankerite. The very fine-grained carbonates occur closest to the REE-fluorocarbonate mineralisation. The dolomite does not appear to be recrystallized, and forms generally sharp edges and triple junctions. It usually has a small Fe peak under EDX. Approximately 5% of the slide is composed of REE mineral aggregates. The aggregates appear as brown to greenish and orange areas on the slide. The areas of brown to green mineralisation are fine grained bastn?site-(Ce) and parisite-(Ce) whereas the areas of orange mineralisation are cordylite-(Ce). The cordylite-(Ce) forms irregularly shaped fine-grained crystals next to an area of Nb-rutile mineralisation and occurs at the opposite end of the section from the Ca-REE-fluorocarbonates. The Ca-REE-fluorocarbonate mineralisation is dominantly composed of bastn?site-(Ce) with some minor syntaxial intergrowths of parisite-(Ce). The parisite-(Ce) is concentrated at the edges of the bastn?site-(Ce) mineralisation. At the edges of the intergrowths these minerals can be some very fine-grained, fibrous parisite-(Ce) with local bastn?site-(Ce) syntaxial intergrowths. Some areas of Ca-REE-flourocarbonate growth are better formed, where as other areas still show very fine-grained fibrous growth (Figs. 13c and 33). These minerals are in a matrix of ankerite, dolomite and strontianite.   128  Minor and accessory phases include strontianite, Nb-rutile and galena. The strontianite forms around the Ca-fluorocarbonate minerals as anhedral crystals which appear mottled in BSE imaging due to changes in Sr content. The Nb-rutile forms fine to very fine-grained crystals locally and has a small Fe peak associated with it in EDX. The galena is very fine-grained and forms near the edges of the rutile and infilling some of the fractures within the rutile.  MGL-RS-10-015 This section shows a contact between carbonatite and an area of feldspar flooding. The feldspar flooding is dominantly very fine-grained albite with local patches of very fine-grained, anhedral carbonate. The carbonatite is dominantly composed of ankerite of variable grain sizes. Where there is REE mineralisation the ankerite is very fine- to fine-grained; outside of these areas the ankerite is fine- to locally medium-grained.  The REE mineralogy occurs in aggregates consisting of synchysite-(Ce), cordylite-(Ce), qaqarssukite-(Ce) and strontianite. In ppl the aggregates appear brown and very cloudy.  The dominant REE mineral is cordylite-(Ce) which occurs as fine-grained anhedral to subhedral crystals (Fig. 39). In BSE imaging there are white areas associated with the cordylite-(Ce) this is the qaqarssukite-(Ce) which is very fine-grained and anhedral. The parisite-(Ce) occurs infilling a fracture (Fig. 40). Strontianite is very fine-grained and anhedral with a weakly mottled appearance due to changes in Sr content.   Figure 39. Backscattered SEM electron map image of cordylite-(Ce) (orange), strontianite (green), ankerite (blue). 129    Figure 40. Backscattered electron image of cordylite (white) and parisite-(Ce) (grey) infilling a fracture.  MGL-RS-10-016 This section is from a carbonatite interval in contact with the phyllite and contains some allanite mineralisation. The matrix is composed of very fine-grained to locally fine-grained recrystallized calcite. The grains have curved boundaries and are generally oval shaped. Approximately 15% of the slide is composed of coarse-grained allanite crystals. The allanite has a mottled texture in BSE imaging which shows changes in the amount of Fe, and REEs.  Minor and accessory phases include biotite, sphalerite and galena. The biotite is generally oval shaped with a poiklitic texture. The middle of the crystal has inclusions of very fine-grained calcite. Locally some of the biotite appears to be replacing the allanite. The sphalerite forms very fine-grained crystals at the edge of some allanite crystals and with galena rim around it.   MGL-RS-10-017 This section is from an interval of altered phyllite in contact with a coarse-grained, REE mineralised carbonatite veinlet that has intruded between the phyllite unit and a fine-grained carbonatite veinlet. The altered phyllite is composed of very fine-grained bioitite, carbonate and feldspar with frequent belbs of opaque minerals. At the boundary between the phyllite and the mineralised carbonatite there is a band of medium-grained K-feldspar with a 130  few grains of fine-grained muscovite and calcite. This type of mineralisation is also seen at the contact between the mineralised and unmineralised carbonatites. However, the grain size and distribution of the K-feldspar is not as evenly distributed and the majority of the muscovite occurs in one pod. Locally the K-feldspar has a small Ba peak under SEM-EDX. The mineralised carbonatite is dominantly composed of medium-grained, subhedral to anhedral calcite with local fine-grained ankerite. Locally the calcite is deformed showing curved cleavage planes. Throughout the unit are small to moderately sized aggregates of REE mineralisation, strontianite, and baryte. The REE mineralisation consists of cordylite-(Ce) and monazite-(Ce) which were not observed in the same mineral aggregates. The cordylite-(Ce) occurs in a group of fine-grained, euhedral to subhedral crystals that appear to have a yellowish, altered core and a clearer rim in ppl (Fig. 41); however, in BSE imaging they appear uniform with no sign of zonation (Fig. 16d). The monazite-(Ce) occurs as fine-grained, subhedral to euhedral crystals (Fig. 42). The strontianite and baryte are very fine-grained and anhedral and infill around the REE minerals.  The unmineralised carbonatite is composed of very fine-grained to fine-grained re-crystallised calcite. The crystals are generally round or elongate, and locally align in the same direction. There are also localized plagioclase crystals.   Figure 41. Photomicrograph (in transmitted light, plane-polars) of cordylite-(Ce) in a calcite matrix. 131   Figure 42. Backscattered electron map image of monazite-(Ce) (green), strontianite (light blue), baryte (dark blue) and ankerite (red).  MGL-RS-10-018 This thin section comes from an area of altered phyllite that has been crosscut by several small carbonatite veinlets. It shows two veinlets and two intersections of phyllite with varying kinds and amounts alteration minerals. The phyllite is composed of varying amounts of very fine-grained albite with aegirine, some biotite and local fine-grained carbonate (Fig. 43). Aegirine is the dominant alteration mineral and although it is more common in the altered phyllite, is also observed locally within the carbonatite. Within the carbonatite the aegirine appears to be altering the albite.    Figure 43. Photomicrograph (in transmitted light, cross-polars) of the phyllite matrix with albite, aegirine, and calcite.  132  The carbonatite is dominantly composed of medium- to fine-grained calcite. The calcite is locally weakly deformed. There is local medium-grained albite and the REE mineralisation is hosted in aggregates along with strontianite. The REE mineralisation is cordylite-(Ce), kukharenkoite-(Ce), cebaite-(Ce) and ancylite-(Ce) (Fig. 17a). Kukharenkoite-(Ce) and cebaite-(Ce) cannot be distinguished through BSE imaging but were identified by EPMA. All of the REE minerals are very fine-grained and generally anhedral but can be locally subhedral with the exception of ancylite-(Ce). They are all found together in the REE aggregates.   MGL-RS-10-019 This section is from a carbonatite interval with oxide and allanite-(Ce) mineralisation. The matrix is composed mostly of coarse-grained to locally fine-grained calcite. Some grains have slightly curved boundaries; however the majority are straight. The grain size decreases around the REE minerals. Coarse-grained ilmenite is centered in the middle of the slide with medium- to coarse-grained ilmenite and local Nb-rutile scattered throughout the rest of the section. The oxides predominantly form along the margins of the calcite grains; however some oxide grains are hosted in the calcite. Among the ilmenite is REE minerals, the majority of which are allanite. The allanite shows two distinct crystal shapes; one coarse-grained and prismatic and the other more rounded and medium-grained (Fig. 18). Both shapes are subhedral to euhedral. Locally amongst the ilmenite and allanite is some very fine- to fine-grained monazite and synchysite-(Ce). In one fracture between grains of ilmenite is a anhedral bleb and several smaller crystals of euxenite (Fig. 19). Other minor minerals include albite and one small grain of bastn?site-(Ce).  MGL-RS-10-020 This section shows the carbonatite matrix of a carbonatite vein on approximately 65% of the section with the 35% mostly an irregular aggregate hosting REE mineralisation. The matrix is mostly medium- to fine-grained and locally deformed calcite. The REE mineralisation is composed of the following Ba-REE-fluorocarbonate minerals; cordylite-(Ce), kukharenkoite-(Ce) and huanghoite-(Ce). They are very fine- to fine-grained and anhedral to locally subhedral. Cordylite-(Ce) is the dominant REE mineral 133  and unfortunately due to its fine-grained nature and similar chemistry kukharenkoite-(Ce) and huanghoite-(Ce) cannot be distinguished between by conventional optical microscopy or BSE imaging; thus differentiation was only possible using EPMA. The kukharenkoite-(Ce) and huanghoite-(Ce) are observed forming in contact and infilling between cordylite-(Ce) as well as individual crystals (Fig. 17b). Strontianite is the dominant mineral infilling around the Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates along with calcite and local baryte. The strontianite has a significant Ca peak on EDX so it may be strontio-aragonite. It is very fine-grained and anhedral. Accessory phases include pyrite, biotite and baryte. The pyrite forms as very anhedral blebs. The biotite is broken and deformed with some pyrite infilling between crystals. Locally there is some baryte which is anhedral.   MGL-RS-10-021 This section is the contact of a carbonatite vein with altered phyllite. There are small off shoots of the carbonatite crosscutting the phyllite. The matrix of the phyllite is composed dominantly of biotite with feldspar and carbonate. Rimming the phyllite is medium-grained, recrystallized biotite crystals. The biotite is weakly deformed showing curved cleavage faces and locally low birefringence colours. The carbonatite is weakly to moderately altered and has small areas of REE mineralisation visible in SWNFUV light. The matrix is mostly calcite with some local patches albite. REE minerals are allanite-(Ce) and bastn?site-(Ce). The allanite is found as a very fine-grained mineral, red-brown in colour and clustered in one area. The bastn?site-(Ce) is very fine- to fine-grained, anhedral crystals disseminated throughout the carbonatite including within grains of albite and calcite (Fig. 44). Trace and accessory phases include albite, pyrite and sphalerite. Albite is medium-grained and subhedral with characteristic albite and Carlsbad twinning. It is being partially replaced by bastn?site-(Ce). The pyrite is medium- to coarse-grained, subhedral to euhedral clusters. It occurs in both the phylite, one of the shoots and fine clusters in the carbonatite itself. The rims and fractures throughout the pyrite are altered. Sphalerite is observed around the pyrite found within the carbonatite and is anhedral fine- grained.   134   Figure 44. Photomicrograph (in transmitted light, cross-polars) of bastn?site-(Ce) with albite and calcite.  MGL-RS-10-022 This thin section shows the contact of a carbo-hydrothermal green-blue band and an altered phyllite with fine-grained nodules and a cross cutting veinlet in both units. This section is similar to MGL-RS-10-008. The matrix of the altered phyllite consists of very fine grained biotite, aegirine, calcite and feldspar. The exact type of feldspar cannot be accurately determined as they are cryptocrystalline. The biotite is deformed and bends around fine- to medium-grained carbonate grains that make up the observed nodules. The carbo-hydrothermal band is composed of very fine-grained carbonate with some minor feldspar and aegirine along with the same types of calcite nodules. The cross cutting, very fine-grained calcite veinlet is fairly linear across the band and then becomes sinusoidal through the altered phyllite (Fig. 45). There are a few crystals of fine-grained euhedral pyrite that follow along the calcite veinlet.  Figure 45. Polished section scan in cross-polars of MGL-RS-10-022. 135   MGL-RS-10-023 This thin section is from an interval of feldspar flooding with rimmed nodules composed of very fine-grained minerals. The feldspar flooding matrix is dominated by very fine-grained feldspar.  The nodules are zoned into three or four distinct mineralogical parts (Fig. 46). In two, the center of the nodule is composed of carbonate with some minor amounts of chlorite followed by a black rim of unknown, extremely fine-grained material which is rimmed by a fine layer of fine-grained chlorite and a brown outer rim of extremely fine-grained biotite and feldspar. The remainder of the nodules do not have the central mineralisation and just start with the black minerals. Associated with the majority of the nodules is medium- to coarse-grained calcite. The calcite occurs in small bands and local patches and crystals through the flooding lending to the idea that the feldspar flooding has altered previous carbonatite mineralisation.  Figure 46. Photomicrograph (in transmitted light, plane-polars) of nodules within the feldspar flooding.  MGL-RS-10-024 This thin section has three carbonate veinlets that cross cut altered phyllite, these are then cross cut by another (late stage) carbonate veinlet.  The altered phyllite has undergone two phases of alteration. The first has a matrix of mostly very fine-grained biotite with some feldspar. At the contact with the veinlets and periodic pods in the biotite is feldspar dominating matrix. This occurs for three of the four altered units seen. The other altered section is all very fine-grained feldspar. The three 136  carbonate veinlets are composed of calcite that is weakly deformed as demonstrated by their slightly curved cleavage faces. The late-stage veinlet is composed of ankerite and appears to be undeformed. Locally this veinlet is rimmed by albite.  MGL-RS-10-025 This section is from a small, altered, carbonatite vein that cross-cuts an area of feldspar flooding. The matrix of this section is composed mostly of medium-grained, subhedral, ankerite. The one edge of the slide is composed of fine-grained muscovite with some fine-grained albite. This is the same as the minerals and textures rimming the clusters of hyalophane that are replacing bastn?site-(Ce) (Fig. 47). The bastn?site-(Ce) is generally concentrated near the edge of the clusters but also occures sporadically throughout. Two clusters show less replacement and subhedral to euhedral, tabular crystals of bastn?site-(Ce) (Fig. 48). The rims are fine- to medium-grained muscovite, albite and calcite. Fine- to medium-grained ilmenite also occurs in the section and is mostly concentrated in one area.    Figure 47. Backscattered electron image of bastn?site-(Ce) being replaced by hyalophane.  137   Figure 48. Photomicrograph (in transmitted light, cross-polars) of bastn?site-(Ce) rimmed by muscovite in a calcite matrix.  MGL-RS-10-026 This section is a carbonatite veinlet that has cross-cut altered phyllite. The altered phyllite is composed dominantly of very fine-grained albite, while the main matrix of the carbonatite veinlet is deformed medium- to locally very fine-grained calcite. The majority of the calcite has curved faces and many show curved cleavage planes. Some fine-grained K-feldspar occurs within the carbonatite near the boundary of the altered phyllite.  The REE minerals occur within the carbonatite; however, some occur at the edge of the veinlet in the area of feldspar flooding. The REE minerals present are bastn?site-(Ce), parisite-(Ce) and monazite-(Ce). The bastn?site-(Ce) and parisite-(Ce) occur as syntaxial intergrowths with each other (Figs. 49 and 50). These intergrowths appear to be best formed closer to the edge of the carbonatite and subsequently around the area of K-feldspar mineralisation. Nearer the center of the carbonatite anhedral to subhedral monazite are present with some well defined sytaxial intergrowths and others that are more raggedy and fine-grained (Fig. 51). The majority of the REE phases present are bastn?site-(Ce). Accessory phases include magnetite, hyalophane, chlorite, biotite, pyrite and sphalerite. The magnetite is found mostly in the altered phyllite near the contact with the carbonatite veinlet. Very fine-grained hyalophane, biotite and chlorite are found rimming some of the grains of ilmenite and Ca-REE-carbonates within the carbonatite. Pyrite and sphalerite are fine-grained and occur locally in the carbonatite.  138   Figure 49. Photomicrograph (in transmitted light, plane-polars) of bastn?site-(Ce) and parisite-(Ce) forming around magnetite in a calcite matrix  Figure 50. Backscattered electron image of figure 37 showing syntaxial intergrowths of bastn?site-(Ce) (white) and parisite-(Ce) (grey).   Figure 51. Backscattered electron image of monazite-(Ce) (white) and syntaxial intergrowths of bastn?site-(Ce) and parisite-(Ce). 139  MGL-RS-10-027 This thin section is from an area of deformed altered phyllite that has been cross cut by carbo-hydrothermal veining. The altered phyllite and carbonate veinlets form alternating curved bands that have then been crosscut by another veinlet that connects with a larger area of carbonate mineralisation (Fig. 52). The altered phyllite is composed of very fine-grained biotite and feldspar with some minor carbonate. The majority of the carbo-hydrothermal veining is composed of approximately 55% carbonate and 45% feldspar. The cross cutting veinlet is calcite, and joins with small veinlet at one end of the section, this then spills into the large veinlet at the other end of the section. This veinlet is composed of fine- to medium-grained calcite and fine-grained albite. Where the vein intersects the larger zone there is a small grouping of very poorly formed cordylite-(Ce) and monazite-(Ce). At the edge of the cross cutting veinlet there is aegirine and this is also seen clustered throughout the larger veinlet.   Figure 52. Polished section cut-off of MGL-RS-10-027 in normal light.  MGL-RS-10-028 This thin section is from an interval of alternating altered phyllite, small veinlets of carbo-hydrothermal alteration material and further areas of carbonatite veining. The altered phyllite is in the center of the section with a fine veinlet of carbonate and albite running through it. The altered phyllite is composed of carbonate, feldspar and an unknown mineral cryptocrystalline mineral. The mineral appears to have first to second order birefringence colours and greenish interference colours.  140  The carbo-hydrothermal veining is composed of fine-grained calcite that is oval shaped and elongated in the same direction. Between some of the grains are unknown, cryptocrystalline minerals that are cloudy in appearance. There are local patches of fine-grained albite and witherite. At the contact between the altered phyllite and the carbo-hydrothermal veining is a carbonatite veining area that hosts both medium-grained calcite and elongate areas of very fine-grained feldspar. There is accessory fine-grained fluorite and witherite. These carbonates are not elongate like the carbo-hydrothermal areas.  MGL-RS-10-029 This thin section is similar in formation to MGL-RS-10-024 and MGL-RS-10-028. It is made up of several fine bands of altered phyllite and carbonatite veinlets (Fig. 53). The altered phyllite varies in colour from brown to green and there are several different shades of both these colours. There are three defined, larger carbonatite veinlets along with several very fine ones. Fine-grained blebs of ilmenite are observed through the phyllite and parts of the veining.  Figure 53. Polished section cut-off of MGL-RS-10-029 in normal light.  The altered phyllite is composed of multiple fine bands with varying amounts of very fine-grained aegirine, chlorite, feldspar and carbonate. The larger carbonatite veinlets are composed of mostly calcite with some ankerite. Two of the veinlets are nearly next to each other at one end of the section and have accessory REE minerals. The area of strongest REE mineralisation is visible as the bright green area under SWNFUV and corresponds to the vein second from the end of the section. The vein at 141  the end of the section hosts its REE minerals in what appear to be pods. They are composed of some subhedral to anhedral strontianite and minor amounts of an unknown mineral that is isotropic; likely nepheline. The REE minerals in these pods are mostly unidentified Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates and minor amounts of bastn?site-(Ce) with syntaxial intergrowths of parisite-(Ce). The adjacent carbonate vein is composed calcite, and ankerite with a few pods of albite. There are two groupings of strontianite and REE minerals. The minerals are bastn?site-(Ce) and parisite-(Ce) syntaxial intergrowths with some very fine grained fibrous synchysite-(Ce) that has minor bastn?site-(Ce) intergrowths (Fig. 54). The other veinlet has fine to medium-grained calcite that appears to be recrystalised. The crystals are slightly rounded and the cleavage planes are weakly curved. There are patches of chlorite alteration, Ca-REE-fluorocarbonate mineralisation and fine-grained fluorite.    Figure 54. Backscattered electron image of syntaxial intergrowths of bastn?site-(Ce) (white) and parisite-(Ce) (light grey) with synchysite-(Ce) (grey) and strontianite (dark grey).  MGL-RS-10-030 and MGL-RS-10-031 These two polished sections come from the same interval of carbonatite intrusion hosting REE mineral aggregates with MGL-RS-10-031 being approximately 15 m away from MGL-RS-10-030. Amongst the carbonatite are small fine bands of feldspar flooding. This is seen throughout the entire length of the intrusion. The areas of feldspar flooding dominantly comprise very fine-grained albite and carbonate. The carbonatite is composed of medium- to very fine-grained ankerite with local calcite. 142  The areas of REE mineralisation are clearly visible with SWNFUV light. The REE mineralogy consists mostly of bastn?site-(Ce) and parisite-(Ce) with some cordylite-(Ce) and huanghoite-(Ce) identified in MGL-RS-10-030. An unknown mineral (unknown 1) also forms with the bastn?site-(Ce) and parisite-(Ce) as syntaxial intergrowths, it has a similar chemistry to that of parisite-(Ce) but appears distinctly different in BSE images (Fig. 13d). It was too small to extract and identify using single crystal x-ray diffraction. Cordylite-(Ce) and huanghoite-(Ce) are very fine-grained and anhedral (Fig. 17c). Locally huanghoite-(Ce) appears to be infilling between crystals of cordylite-(Ce); however, where there are both the Ba- and Ca-REE-fluorocarbonates this is not observed. Using BSE imaging the cordylite-(Ce) and huanghoite-(Ce) are very difficult to tell apart via the grey scale difference from parisite-(Ce) and bastn?site-(Ce). However, when looking at both the BSE image and a Ba elemental map the areas of Ba-REE-fluorocarbonate mineralisation are clearly evident, and can be recognised next to the Ca-REE-fluorocarbonates (Fig. 15). Minor and accessory phases are strontianite, quartz, thorite, and ilmenite. Strontianite forms fine-grained, anhedral crystals with the REE mineral aggregates. The quartz occurs in very anhedral blebs near some of the REE aggregates in MGL-RS-10-030 and has yellow to yellow-orange birefringence colours. The thorite is fine-grained and occurs locally through the carbonatite. Ilmenite is observed in MGL-RS-10-031 near the edge of the slide.   MGL-RS-10-032 This section comes from an interval of carbonatite veining intruding into altered phyllite. At the contact with the carbonatite the phyllite has undergone a secondary alteration to have less mafic?s and become more enriched in feldspar and carbonate. The phyllite is composed of varying amounts of very fine-grained carbonate, albite, and an unknown greenish-brown, cryptocrystalline mineral and possible some opaque?s; although this may be just concentrated areas of the unknown mineral. The two intersections of carbonatite observed in this polished section are composed of medium-grained, subhedral to anhedral ankerite with small Mg peak under EDX. Locally there are some very-fine grains of albite. The REE mineralogy consists of very fine-grained cordylite-(Ce) qaqarssukite-(Ce), cebaite-(Ce), monazite-(Ce) and an unknown Ba-REE-carbonate (unknown 2). Unknown 2 143  was too fine-grained to identify using single crystal x-ray diffraction. Monazite-(Ce) is euhedral and in one of the veinlets is found surrounded by quartz with cordylite-(Ce) at the edge (Fig. 55 and 56), and in the other it is found as an aggregate with qaqarssukite-(Ce) and cebaite-(Ce). The Ba-REE-fluorocarbonate minerals occur as anhedral to subhedral blocky crystals and may locally be fibrous; it is difficult to tell if it is only unknown 2 that is fibrous or if the other Ba-REE minerals appear this way as well. Cordylite-(Ce) was only found at the edge of the quartz crystal with monazite. Qaqarssukite-(Ce) and cebaite-(Ce) occur in aggregates with monazite-(Ce), unknown 2, alstonite, and strontianite. One aggregate appears to be dominantly qaqarssukite-(Ce) with unknown 2 and minor monazite-(Ce), and cebaite-(Ce) (Fig. 57 and 17d). The qaqarssukite-(Ce) occurs in blocky crystals on its own and with alstonite and strontianite. In the second aggregate cebaite-(Ce) is found adjacent to an area of intense unknown 2 mineralisation and is forming around fine-grained alstonite (Fig. 58). Within the aggregates there is minor local thorite.    Figure 55. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) of monazite-(Ce) (high relief) in quartz and an ankerite matrix.  144   Figure 56. Backscattered electron image of monazite-(Ce) (white) and cordylite-(Ce) (grey).   Figure 57. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, cross-polars) of REE minerals, and albite in an ankerite matrix.   Figure 58. Backscattered electron image of REE aggregate with unknown 2 (left) and cebaite-(Ce) (white, right) forming with alstonite.  145  MGL-RS-10-033 This thin section is from a carbonatite vein of altered and recrystallised dolomite. One edge of the slide is the contact with a biotite altered phyllite. The phyllite consists of a cryptocrystalline matrix; however from the colour of the grains in ppl and xpl along with observations in previous sections it appears to be dominantly composed of feldspar with some carbonate and biotite..  The dolomite is medium- to coarse-grained. Some of the cleavages are weakly curved and the zones of dolomite are separated by a pod of muscovite that runs through the center of section. There are several opaque minerals present which are mostly euhedral pyrite and local ilmenite. Around one cluster of pyrite is a euhedral monazite-(Ce) (Fig. 59).   Figure 59. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, cross-polars) of monazite-(Ce) in a dolomite matrix with muscovite.  The cross cutting pod of muscovite has some deformed albite and a few dolomite crystals within it. The muscovite is medium-grained and weakly deformed as shown by the weakly curved cleavage planes.  MGL-RS-10-034 This section is from an interval of feldspar flooded altered phyllite that has been cross-cut by mineralised carbonatite veinlets. The section is composed of approximately 50% host rock and 50% carbonatite veining. The host rock is composed of a matrix of very fine-grained albite with minor amounts of carbonate. Locally through the altered phyllite there are 146  small nodules of altered carbonate. At the contact with the phyllite, the ankerite grains have been broken up and locally recrystallized.  The carbonatite veining is mostly medium- to coarse-grained, subhedral, ankerite. Within the carbonatite is medium-grained, euhedral pyrite and clusters of fine-grained subhedral to anhedral ilmenite. In one area of ilmenite mineralisation is strontianite and REE mineralisation. The REE mineralisation is very fine-grained and composed of euhedral, monazite and an unknown phosphate mineral with minor amounts of Ca, Th, and HREE shown on the EDX spectra (Fig. 60). Dy appears to be the dominant HREE. Along some of the grain boundaries of the ankerite is very fine-grained albite.   Figure 60. Backscattered electron image of monazite-(Ce) (white) and an unknown phosphate mineral (light grey) with strontianite (grey) and ilmenite (dark grey).   MGL-RS-10-035 This section is the edge of a carbonatite vein which is itself at the contact between the carbonatite and the altered phyllite host. There are two small sections of the vein that branch off into the phyllite. The one branch is larger, well mineralized and extends for longer than the other small, poorly mineralized one. Throughout the carbonatite and locally in the phyllite are very fine-grained, blebs of Nb-ilmenite mineralisation. Locally with the Nb-ilmenite is very fine-grained pyrochlore (Fig. 61). This was observed in one area close to the contact with the phyllite. The pyrochlore is enriched in Nb, Ca, Na, Sr, and Ti and is likely calcio-pyrochlore. 147   Figure 61. Backscattered electron image of Nb-ilmenite and pyrochlore.  The altered phyllite is composed dominantly of albite with a small zone of extensive phlogopite mineralisation. The albite is very fine-grained. The phlogopite is greenish-brown and ranges from very fine-grained, recrystallized, rounded crystals and coarse-grained, euhdedral crystals. It has a minor Fe peak.  The carbonatite is largely mineralised with small pockets of albite mineralisation (Fig. 62). It is dominantly composed of fine- to medium-grained, anhedral ankerite with a moderate Mg peak. The albite is fine- to medium grained and anhedral. It is commonly included with ankerite and has very irregular grain boundaries. Strontianite occurs as an accessory mineral throughout the aggregates with a moderate Ca peak. There is local, euhedral, pyrite.   Figure 62. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, cross-polars) of a albite in a ankerite matrix.  148  The REE mineralogy consists of ancylite-(Ce), cordylite-(Ce), kukhraenkoite-(Ce), monazite-(Ce), and local synchysite-(Ce) and parisite-(Ce). These minerals form dark, cloudy, anhedral aggregates extensively throughout the carbonatite. Monazite-(Ce) is the only REE mineral that is clearly defined and apparent even on the slide scan. Monazite-(Ce) occurs throughout the carbonatite as medium- to fine-grained, euhedral crystals that are commonly forming next to kukharenkoite-(Ce) and ancylite-(Ce) (Figs. 16e, 16f and 63). It does not occur to the same extent with the aggregates, but generally occurs more in its own small aggregates with the previously listed minerals and most of these occur in the larger carbonatite off shoot vein. The kukharenkoite-(Ce) forms anhedral masses in the proximity of monazite-(Ce) and is found infilling around very fine-grained ancylite-(Ce) and cordylite-(Ce) (Fig. 17e). Kukharenkoite-(Ce) generally has a small Sr peak on the EDX spectra. Cordylite-(Ce) was only observed within the aggregates in the main part of the carbonatite. It is very fine-grained and locally appears as fine syntaxial intergrowths within kukharenkoite-(Ce). Ancylite-(Ce) is very fine-grained to locally fine-grained and anhedral. It is more abundant within the REE mineral aggregates and forms locally with the areas of monazite-(Ce) and kukharenkoite-(Ce) mineralisation. Synchysite-(Ce) and parisite-(Ce) are very fine-grained, needle-like crystals that occur locally in the aggregates.   Figure 63. Backscattered electron map image of monazite-(Ce) (green), kukharenkoite-(Ce), strontianite (blue) in an ankerite matrix (red).    149  MGL-RS-10-036 This section is from an interval with multiple carbonatite events from mineralised, to poorly mineralised to unmineralised and contains varying amounts of feldspar. This section intersects a well mineralised part of the carbonatite and a poorly mineralized part with abundant albite mineralisation.  The first carbonatite intersection is composed of medium-grained, anhedral calcite that has been locally recrystallized to fine, rounded grains. The second intersection of carbonatite is composed of about 50% fine-grained, subhedral albite and 50% fine- to very fine-grained, deformed, and locally recrystallized calcite (Fig. 64). Throughout both intersections there is fine-grained ilmenite; however, it is more concentrated at the contact between the two. Clusters of an unknown, fibrous mineral are located in the second carbonatite unit in this contact zone. It has high third order interference colours, and curved, platey to fibrous crystals that form small aggregates.  It has an appearance similar to an extremely deformed muscovite. From EDX spectra it has chemistry of Ba, Ca, Al and Si and based on this and it?s optical characteristics it may be the mineral niksergievite.    Figure 64. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, cross-polars) of recrystallized calcite with primary calcite.  The REE mineralogy consists of bastn?site-(Ce) monazite-(Ce) and local parisite-(Ce). These are found in both carbonatites; however, they are more common in the first one, in the second they appear to be near the contact to the unknown silicate mineral. Bastn?site-(Ce) is the most abundant, very fine-grained and anhedral with the occasional syntaxial 150  intergrowth of parisite-(Ce). Monazite-(Ce) is very fine-grained and found locally with the bastn?site-(Ce) (Fig. 65).   Figure 65. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, cross-polars) of monazite-(Ce) and bastn?site-(Ce) with ilmenite in an ankerite matrix.  MGL-RS-10-037 This section is from an ankerite carbonatite with significant sulphide mineralisation and REE mineral aggregates. The matrix is composed of medium to fine-grained ankerite except in the REE mineral aggregates where the ankerite is very fine-grained. The areas of very fine-grained mineralisation also host strontianite and local albite. The crystal shapes of these fine-grained areas are generally anhedral. Accessory phases include an aggregate of fine- to medium-grained sphalerite, pyrite, magnetite and localized galena (Fig. 66). REE minerals are found forming within this aggregate generally at the contact with ankerite.   Figure 66. Photo of polished thin-section cut-off of MGL-RS-10-037. 151   The REE minerals include bastn?site-(Ce) and monazite-(Ce). Monazite-(Ce) is euhedral and observed as a cluster in one area of the section around sphalerite and strontianite (Fig. 67).  The bastn?site-(Ce) occurs as fine-grained, anhedral crystals both around the sulphides and oxides as well as part of the aggregates with strontianite, ankerite and local albite (Fig. 68).   Figure 67. Backscattered electron image of monazite-(Ce) (white) with sphalerite (grey) and strontianite (dark grey).   Figure 68. Backscattered electron image of bastn?site-(Ce) (white) with strontianite (dark grey) and ankerite (black).  MGL-RS-10-038 This polished section is from a mafic dyke interval. The matrix is composed of fine- to very fine-grained biotite with the remainder very fine-grained feldspar and carbonate (Fig. 152  69). The biotite is generally green to brown-green in colour with some local crystals having brown centers and green rims. It occurs as both lath shaped crystals and recrystallized, very fine-grained, rounded crystals. The calcite is recrystallized and occurs as rounded grains. There are a few fine cross cutting veinlets of calcite. The albite is anhedral. There is very-fine grained opaque throughout that I was unable to identify.   Figure 69. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) of biotite in a feldspar and carbonate matrix.  MGL-RS-10-039 This section is from an interval of feldspar flooding with a cross cutting dolomite veinlet. The matrix is dominantly very fine-grained albite with local very fine-grained subhedral to euhedral calcite crystals. The dolomite veinlet is locally deformed. At the contact with the host rock there is very fine-grained ilmenite.   MGL-RS-10-040 This is from a section of altered rock. The cut-off is green to brown with a small cross-cutting veinlet that has a dark alteration halo. The matrix is fine- to very fine-grained albite and may have previously been a syenite or a feldspar flooded zone. The veinlets are composed of very fine-grained calcite. The green is colour is caused by aeigirine-augite and chlorite mineralisation both of which are very fine-grained (Fig. 70). The chlorite is green with anomalous blue to blue-green interference colours.   153   Figure 70. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) of aegirine-augite (dark green), and chlorite (green) in an albite matrix.  MGL-RS-10-041 This is from an interval of carbonatite that is in contact with an aggregate that is dark and cloudy in polished section. The majority of the carbonatite is composed of medium-grained ankerite with a local veinlet of fine-grained calcite. There is one small cluster of ilmenite close to the veinlet that also hosts very fine-grained monazite-(Ce) The aggregate is composed of cryptocrystalline magnetite forming around cryptocrystalline calcite, REE minerals and local pyrite (Fig. 71). The calcite was identified using EDX spectra. The cloudiness appears in part from the magnetite as well as areas of intense, very fine-grained monazite-(Ce) (Fig. 72). One local grain of anhedral allanite was also observed.   Figure 71. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) of aggregate with monazite-(Ce), magnetite, and calcite.  154   Figure 72. Backscattered electron image of monazite-(Ce) in the aggregate.  MGL-RS-10-042 This section is from an area of weakly altered carbonatite with medium-grained crystals of red-brown sphalerite. The carbonatite matrix is a mix of fine- to locally medium-grained calcite and fine-grained strontianite. Chlorite is the main alteration mineral and has anomalous blue birefringence (Fig. 73). Locally the carbonate appears altered with curved cleavage faces. The strontianite is observed frequently throughout the section but is not associated with significant amounts of REE mineralisation.   Figure 73. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, cross-polars) of chlorite with anomalous blue birefringence in a calcite and strontiantite matrix.  There are some areas within the carbonatite that have albite mineralisation that is being replaced by calcite. There are a few pockets of very fine-grained albite mineralisation. There is one observed grain of euhedral but possibly dissoloved quartz (Fig. 74). A few local very fine-grains of monazite-(Ce) were also observed.  155   Figure 74. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, cross-polars) of possible dissolved quartz (grey) in a deformed calcite matrix.  MGL-RS-10-043 This section is from an interval of carbonatite that appears completely white in the off-cut with sulphide veinlets; however, upon closer inspection using both SWFUV lights and optical microscopy there is an apparent divide halfway along the polished section (Fig. 75). Under the UV lights half of the thin section has a white-blue appearance while the other half is dark. Optical microscopy showed that one half contained fine grained dolomite and local calcite where as the other half is very fine-grained and cloudy in appearance with more apatite. The calcite generally occurs with areas of apatite.   Figure 75. Photo of polished thin-section cut-off of MGL-RS-10-043 in SWNFUV light.  The apatite forms as fine-grained aggregates and is more common within the altered carbonatite (Fig. 76).  Monazite-(Ce) occurs throughout the section. In the more unaltered carbonatite it is generally fine-grained euhedral to subhedral and commonly forms as 156  individual crystals, along a veinlet of galena, and surrounded by apaitite. In the altered carbonatite it forms very fine-grained, small patches within areas of apatite mineralisation.    Figure 76. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, cross-polars) of apatite around a calcite vein.  Accessory and minor phases include galena, calcite, pyrite, quartz and albite. Galena occurs in a veinlet of calcite. Fine-grained, euhedral pyrite occurs locally. Fine-grained, euhedral, dissolved quartz occurs in the altered carbonatite and appears to have been replaced by recrystallized carbonate. Fine-grained albite occurs in small patches locally.   MGL-RS-10-044 This section is similar to MGL-RS-10-027 with deformed, fractured and curved altered phyllite with the exception that the surrounding alteration is mostly silica based (Fig. 77). The altered phyllite has a matrix of very fine-grained albite, calcite and biotite. Infilling between the fractures of the phyllite is very fine-grained biotite, and magnesio-riebeckite with albite and calcite (Fig. 78).  The magnesio-riebeckite creates a blue colouration of the rock. Several fractures are cross-cutting through the rock and are concentrated with magnesio-riebeckite and bioitite with the magneiso-riebeckite commonly forming at the edges with biotite at the center. These fractures cross-cut through the altered phyllite and a very fine-grained albite, biotite, magnesio-riebeckite and local calcite matrix but are themselves cross cut by an area of fine-grained albite, calcite with fine-grained riebeckite and some biotite. The coarser grained area is apparent when looking at the section in xpl.   157   Figure 77. Photo of polished thin-section cut-off of MGL-RS-10-044.   Figure 78. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) of magnesio-riebeckite (blue) with biotite in a albite and calcite matrix.  Accessory phases include calcite, strontianite and pyrite. The calcite occurs locally as fine-grained crystals. The strontianite occurs around a cross cutting fracture. Coarse-grained, euhedral pyrite is found within the altered phyllite.  MGL-RS-10-045 This section is from an area of silicate altered carbonatite with some pockets of primary carbonatite still visible. In the rock the alteration appears black with a fibrous, net-like texture. In the section the alteration occurs as a combination of albite, biotite, opaque minerals, and local clouds of REE minerals (Fig. 79). The matrix is very fine- to fine-grained and locally cryptocrystalline. The unaltered area is fine-grained ankerite and albite. The biotite forms as green to greenish-brown very fine-grained, rounded crystals and fine-grained laths. There is local fine-grained pyrite. 158    Figure 79. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, cross-polars) of REE clouds.  The REE minerals are ancylite-(Ce) and Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates; both minerals are very fine-grained and anhedral. Ancylite-(Ce) is more common and forms around the Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates (Fig. 80). The Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates are fibrous and locally occur as very fine crystals within the ancylite-(Ce). Enveloping the REE minerals is strontianite (Fig. 81).    Figure 80. Backscattered electron image of Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates (white) and ancylite-(Ce) (grey).  159   Figure 81. Backscattered electron image of Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates, and ancylite-(Ce) (grey) surrounded by strontianite (dark grey).  MGL-RS-10-046 This section comes from an area where the host rock has undergone feldspar flooding to the point where the original rock type and textures cannot be determined. This unit also lies in contact with a carbonatite vein which it has altered. The host rock is very fine-grained albite with a few local pockets of carbonate mineralisation and euhedral to subhedral fine-grained pyrite. The remaining 40% of the slide comprises patchy areas of medium-grained dolomite with a small Fe peak, surrounded by fine- to medium-grained albite. The albite is altering the carbonatite. Remnant grains of dolomite can be seen within the feldspar matrix and the amount of feldspar alteration decreases towards the center of the visible carbonate area (Fig. 82).   Figure 82. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, cross-polars) of dolomite being replaced by albite. 160  REE minerals observed are cordylite-(Ce) and one of the other Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates. These are very fine-grained, anhedral masses within the carbonatite (Fig. 83). The Ba-REE-fluorocarbonate is more abundant than the cordylite-(Ce). Strontianite is observed forming around the REE minerals.   Figure 83. Backscattered electron image of Ba-REE-fluorcarbonate(s), cordylite-(Ce) (grey) and strontianite (dark grey).  MGL-RS-10-047 This section is from a breccia interval. The clasts are comprised of altered phyllite that has been altered to various degrees a second time by feldspar flooding (Fig. 84). The breccia is clast dominated and the matrix between the clasts is carbonate.  Within this section there are three larger clasts composed of very fine-grained albite, and then a grouping of three larger clasts that are medium-grained albite. The matrix separating the clasts is dominantly calcite with some local albite crystals. Areas of medium to coarse-grained feldspar appear to be replacing calcite crystals. Green to brown, fine-grained biotite forms in clusters as well as at the contact between the clasts and the carbonate matrix. The biotite forms both as fine-grained laths as well as very fine-grained, rounded crystals.   161   Figure 84. Slide scan of polished thin-section MGL-RS-10-047.  MGL-RS-10-048 This section is from an area of blue, carbo-hydrothermal banding between medium bands of biotite altered phyllite. Cross-cutting the banding are very fine veinlets that create halos into the bands and small halos into the phyllite but these never cut the phyllite itself. This alteration halo and the fine veinlets are also apparent under SWFUV light but are not as clearly visible using optical microscopy. The phyllite is composed of very fine-grained biotite, feldspar and calcite. The calcite crystals appear oval and elongate with very fine-grained crystals of aeigirne-augite through the veinlets. There are a few calcite nodules within the phyllite.  MGL-RS-10-049 This section is from an area of carbonatite veining that has been partially altered by feldspar flooding. The areas of feldspar flooding host very fine-grained albite with local fine-grained albite at the contact with the carbonatite and local grains throughout the carbonatite.  The carbonatite is composed of fine-grained, anhedral to subhedral calcite. Within the carbonatite is an unknown silicate mineral that EDX spectra shows a major elemental composition dominated by Ba, Ca and Al. It has high third order birefringence colours, and curved, platey to fibrous crystals that form small aggregates. It has an appearance similar to that of deformed muscovite (Fig. 85). It is colourless in plain light and has third order birefringence colours in crossed polars. From its chemistry, optical appearance and pale greyish-green appearance in the cut-off it may be the mineral niksergievite. There is also local, fine-grained, subhedral sphalerite and local strontianite. Monazite-(Ce) is the only REE 162  mineral present. It occurs as fine-grained, euhedral crystals throughout the carbonatite (Fig. 86).   Figure 85. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) of niksergievite in a calcite matrix.  Figure 86. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, cross-polars) of monazite-(Ce) with albite in a calcite matrix.  MGL-RS-10-050 This section is from an area of carbonatite mineralisation. The carbonatite has been weakly altered and partially recrystallized. REE mineralisation is still maintained and areas where it is strongest are apparent in SWNFUV light and under the microscope.   The carbonatite matrix itself has areas of medium-grained calcite and very fine-grained, rounded, recrystallized calcite. Two types of very fine-grained mineralisation occur; one which has fine-grained minerals around fluorocarbonate minerals and the other which is being recrystallized from the coarse-grained carbonate minerals; locally there is very fine-grained albite.  163  Accessory phases include sphalerite and pyrite which occur in one band at one edge of the slide. Bastn?site-(Ce) and parisite-(Ce) occur as syntaxial intergrowths as very fine-grained crystals with some strontianite (Fig. 87).    Figure 87. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, cross-polars) of bastn?site-(Ce) and parisite-Ce) in a calcite matrix.  MGL-RS-11-051 This section is from a strongly altered and friable carbonatite. The matrix is composed of very fine-grained to cryptocrystalline calcite.  The most common accessory and alteration phase is aegirine which medium- to fine-grained, euhedral to subhedral and locally the crystals are deformed by being either slightly rounded or broken (Fig. 88). There is also very fine-grained biotite locally.  Mineralisation includes pyrochlore, ancylite-(Ce) and an unknown Ba-REE-fluorocarbonate. Pyrochlore with peaks of Nb, Ca, and Na are found as medium- to fine-grained, subhedral to anhedral crystals throughout. There is also fine-grained euhedral pyrite. Ancylite-(Ce) and the Ba-REE-fluorocarbonate are very fine-grained and occur locally (Fig. 89). Infilling between all of these minerals is strontianite. 164   Figure 88. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) of aegirine and pyrochlore (dark and cloudy) in a calcite matrix.   Figure 89. Backscattered electron image of Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates (light grey), ancylite-(Ce) (grey) and strontianite (dark grey).  MGL-RS-11-065 This section is from an area of banded carbonatite where the cut-off shows areas of white to pink mineralisation with small bands of mafic mineralisation. This is not as clear on the polished section. The carbonatite is recrystallised which is visible in the cut-off and the scan of the polished section as fine-grained, rounded calcite grains. The areas of banding include an increased concentration of aegirine and biotite. The aegirine occurs as both subhedral to euhedral, fine-grained crystals occur in clusters to very fine-grained asciular crystals locally altering areas of calcite and biotite. Trace and accessory phases include strontianite, albite, pyrite and ancylite-(Ce). Albite is fine-grained and occurs locally as anhedral crystals. Ancylite-(Ce) occurs as very 165  fine-grained anhedral blebs surrounded by strontianite. Local fine-grained, euhedral pyrite occurs throughout the section.  MGL-RS-11-073 This section is from an area of banded carbonatite mineralisation. On the cut-off there are several patches of pale pink mineralisation which in some spots have a blue colour under SWFUV light. The matrix is composed of calcite and local feldspar mineralisation. The calcite is highly altered and appears grainy and locally without cleavages in thin section; it is fine- to medium-grained. There are some local grains of fine-grained pyrite and sphalerite. There are small aggregates of very fine- to fine-grained albite, strontianite, and ancylite-(Ce) mineralisation (Figs. 90 and 91). Strontianite is the dominant mineral and forms around the albite and ancylite-(Ce).   Figure 90. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) of aggregates that occur as irregularities within the calcite with pyrite and sphalerite.    166   Figure 91. Backscattered electron image of ancylite-(Ce) (white), strontianite (grey) and albite (black).  MGL-RS-11-083 This is from a section of altered carbonatite where the calcite has been recrystallized to very fine-grained, rounded grains. There is arfvedonsite mineralisation throughout the slide; however, there is a concentration of it in one section. The arfvedonsite is medium- to locally fine-grained and euhedral to subhedral. Local fine-grained, euhedral titanite also occurs, commonly around the arfvedonsite (Fig. 92). There is local very fine-grained biotite and pyrite.  Figure 92. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) of arfvedonsite in a recrystallized calcite matrix.  MGL-RS-11-084 This section is from an area of what was logged as grey carbonatite. Areas of carbonate mineralisation are visible as a bright pink colour under SWFUV light. The matrix is composed dominantly of medium- to fine-grained K-feldspar. The K-feldspar commonly 167  has small inclusions of carbonate within it (Fig. 93). There are some trace amounts of albite that are well formed without other crystals throughout it.    Figure 93. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, cross-polars) of albite and K-feldspar with calcite.  The areas of carbonate mineralisation of fine-grained and appear recrystallized with rounded grain boundaries. There are several darker patches on the slide scan in plain light. In BSE imaging these appear to be areas of Ba-alumino-silicate mineralisation amongst the albite and K-feldspar.  This is most likely the Ba-feldspar celsian. It occurs as fine-grained, anhedral crystals.  Accessory phases include very-fine grained aegirine-augite that is commonly associated with the carbonate mineralisation. It forms as both tabular to blocky crystals and acicular crystals.   MGL-RS-11-086 This section is from an area of grey syenite that is weakly to moderately altered. The syenite matrix is composed of medium- to coarse-grained K-feldspar with medium- to fine-grained biotite as the alteration mineral. Locally very fine-grained, recrystallized calcite and/or biotite are infilling around the K-feldspar grains (Fig. 94).  168   Figure 94. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, cross-polars) of K-feldspar with infilling biotite.  The trace and accessory minerals consist of pockets of calcite and sodalite. In the cut-off sodalite occurs as a white mineral which appears extinct in cross-polars and was identified using EDX spectra. The sodalite has very fine-grained, rounded crystals and the majority occurs in one corner of the section.   MGL-RS-11-087 This section is from a grey syenite with sulphide mineralisation. Areas of infilling carbonate are apparent on the cut-off in SWFUV light. The majority of the matrix is medium-grained K-feldspar with small pockets of fine- to very fine-grained calcite and local albite. Locally the K-feldspar has small inclusions of calcite. Accessory phases include zircon, pyrochlore, aegirine, biotite and pyrite. The zircon and pyrochlore are commonly found associated with each other although the pyrochlore occurs a little more frequently throughout the section in the form of the occasional very fine-grained crystal (Fig. 95). EDX shows the pyrochlore as being rich in Nb, Ca, Na, and Ti, with Nb being the dominant element in calciopyrochlore. These two minerals are fine-grained and subhedral to euhedral in shape. The aegirine occurs as very fine-grained asicular and locally tabular grains with occasional very fine-grained biotite. Pyrite is very fine-grained and occurs locally.  169   Figure 95. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars)of zircon and pyrochlore (cloudy) with K-feldspar and calcite.  MGL-RS-11-088 This section is from a breccia interval with altered phyllite clasts, a carbonate matrix with deformed biotite within that matrix. The clasts appear green on the cut-off and are composed of very fine-grained feldspar and very fine- to medium-grained aegirine-augite, calcite and local albite crystals. The amount of aegirine-augite throughout the clasts appears variable. The matrix is medium- to fine-grained calcite that is locally deformed, showing curved cleavage faces (Fig. 96). The biotite is deformed with curved crystals and an irregular, undulating extinction. The shape of deformation appears similar to that of the calcite.   Figure 96. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, cross-polars) of calcite matrix with clasts showing alteration with aegirine-augite and biotite.   170  MGL-RS-11-090 This section is from an interval of altered syenite which is composed dominantly of coarse- to medium-grained K-feldspar. Throughout the section there is medium-grained euhedral, undeformed titanite; however, locally some of the crystals show curved cleavage faces (Fig. 97). The syenite is largely altered by arfvedonsite and biotite. The arfvedonsite is fine-grained and is relatively equally disseminated throughout the section. The biotite is deformed showing curved cleavage faces. There are small pockets of very fine- to fine-grained sodalite and calcite that occur in small pockets and along fractures and grain boundaries. There may be the occasional aegirine crystal; however, it may just be an arfvedonsite with slightly higher order birefringence.   Figure 97. Slide scan of polished thin-section MGL-RS-11-090.  MGL-RS-11-092 This section is from a grey syenite interval with an area of coarse-grained feldspar crystals. The matrix is composed dominantly of fine- to coarse-grained K-feldspar. Locally there are crystals of relatively unaltered fine-grained albite and calcite.  Trace and accessory phases include zircon, pyrochlore, titanite, ilmenite, pyrite and aegirine. The zircon and pyrochlore are commonly found in small aggregates together; similar to what was observed in MGL-RS-10-087 but the minerals are not as euhedral (Figs. 98 and 99). The zircon is subhedral to anhedral and generally occurs in a cluster with anhedral pyrochlore. From EDX the pyrochlore has peaks of Nb, Ti, Ca, and Na suggesting that it is calcio-pyrochlore. The titanite occurs as anhedral blebs infilling around the zircon and pyrochlore. Fine-grained anhedral ilmenite and euhedral pyrite occur locally throughout 171  and commonly are what the pyrochlore and zircon are associated with. The aegirine-augite occurs as very fine-grained crystals throughout the syenite.   Figure 98. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) of an aggregate of zircon, pyrochlore and titanite with ilmenite and pyrite in a K-feldspar matrix.   Figure 99. Backscattered SEM electron map image of zircon (orange), and pyrochlore (green) with ilmenite (light grey), and titanite (grey).  MGL-RS-11-093 This is from a section of altered, grey syenite with coarse-grained pyroxene. The matrix is composed dominantly of coarse- to medium-grained K-feldspar. Aegirine-augite is both coarse- to medium-grained and very fine-grained. The coarser crystals are visible throughout the section and the very fine-grained aegirine-augite is observed locally replacing K-feldspar. There are local medium-grained calcite crystals and patches of very fine-grained plagioclase that can be associated with calcite, biotite, pyrochlore and apatite. The 172  plagioclase has a strong Na peak with a small Ca peak on EDX spectra. The apatite is very fine- grained and observed locally.   Accessory phases include pyrochlore, pyrite, titanite, and biotite. The pyrochlore is found clustered in one location and the crystals are euhedral to subhedral, with zoning showing changes in Th concentration (Figs. 100 and 101). The pyrochlore shows elemental highs of Nb Ca, Ti, Na and varying amounts of Th suggesting it is calcio-pyrochlore. Fine-grained pyrite and very fine-grained titanite occur locally throughout the section. Fine- to very fine-grained biotite are found along the edges of the aegirine-augite.   Figure 100. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) of pyrochlore, aegirine-augite, biotite, and pryrite.   Figure 101. Backscattered electron image of pyrochlore showing zoning.    173  MGL-RS-11-103 This section is from an altered grey syenite with extensive green and pink mineralisation on the cut-off. The matrix is dominated by medium-grained K-feldspar. The syenite has been altered by very fine-grained, rounded biotite crystals and medium- to fine-grained subhedral to euhedral aegirine. The biotite occurs on small patches. There are also areas of very fine-grained albite mineralisation that are rimmed by a brown cryptocrystalline mineral(s) (Fig. 102). This mineral also occurs locally as small patches and bands without rimming the albite.  Figure 102. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) of albite mineralisation rimmed by a brown mineral with aegirine and K-feldspar.  MGL-RS-11-105 This section is from an area with a carbonatite vein cross-cutting a feldspar altered phyllite with small folded bands of carbonate. The phyllite is composed of very fine-grained albite and some calcite. The carbonatite veins and fine bands of dolomite have been altered by hematite (identified from the cut-off) and muscovite. The muscovite is weakly deformed - showing curved cleavage faces. There is local very fine-grained albite within the carbonatite vein, and where the carbonate vein and the bands contact the phyllite a dark brown alteration halo occurs; this halo is cryptocrystalline.  MGL-RS-11-107 This section is from an interval of altered phyllite with a cross-cutting carbonatite veinlet. The cut-off shows a veinlet with interesting mineral textures and red to orange-yellow colours. The altered phyllite is pale green to white with some feldspar flooding. In 174  thin section the phyllite is composed of very fine-grained albite, biotite and aegirine-augite. At the contact with the carbonatite is a fine reaction rim of fine-grained albite. The carbonatite veinlet is medium-grained to very fine-grained, recrystallized ankerite at the contact with the phyllite which grades into a very fine-grained beige/yellow to reddy-brown mineralisation in the center. The mineralisation is mostly witherite with some infilling strontianite (Figs. 103 and 104). The witherite forms very fine- to fine-grained, anhedral crystals.  Figure 103. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) of witherite and strontianite.   Figure 104. Backscattered electron image of witherite (white) and strontianite (grey) in a calcite matrix.  MGL-RS-11-110 This is from an interval of altered phyllite with a cross cutting carbonatite veinlet. The carbonatite veinlet is strongly mineralised with magnetite. The magnetite is strongest 175  near the contact with the phyllite and the magnetite has disseminated into the phyllite. The phyllite is dominated by very fine-grained albite and some biotite.  The carbonatite veinlet is weakly altered. There are small to moderate sized patches of albite throughout and the calcite is deformed and locally is partially replaced by the albite. Alongside the magnetite are some localized fine-grained sphalerite crystals.  REE minerals within the carbonatite occur as small aggregates and are very fine- to fine- grained. The majority of the REE aggregates are composed of parisite-(Ce) with local anhedral masses of monazite-(Ce) and very fine-grained crystals of an unknown Y-silicate (Fig. 105). The Y-silicate has very small peaks for Ca Ce, Nd, Pr, Gd, and Dy on SEM-EDX. Locally within the aggregates there is very fine-grained thorite, some localized strontianite can also be associated with these aggregates.   Figure 105. Backscattered electron image of an aggregate of parisite-(Ce) (grey), monazite-(Ce) (light grey) and an unknown Y silicate (white).  MGL-RS-11-116 This section is from an interval of syenite with medium-grained K-feldspar and local cross-cutting calcite veinlets and local pods of calcite. It is similar in appearance to MGL-RS-11-093. The section also hosts medium-grained aegirine-augite with small intergrowths of magnesio-riebeckite (Fig. 106). Locally fine-grained riebeckite stands alone. Titanite also occurs as an accessory phase and is commonly fine-grained with subhedral crystal habits. The calcite is fine-grained within the veins and fine- to medium-grained within the pods.   176   Figure 106. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) aegirine-augite and magnesio-riebeckite in a K-feldspar matrix.  MGL-RS-11-117 This section is from an interval of coarse-grained carbonatite that is dominantly composed of calcite (Fig. 107). The calcite has rounded crystal edges and curved cleavage faces suggesting that has been recrystallized.  Accessory phases include strontianite, biotite, and aegirine which occur between grains. The biotite occurs in local patches and is weakly to moderately deformed with many of the crystals displaying curved cleavage faces. The aegirine generally occurs as single tabular crystals and there is one local cluster of crystals. Strontianite occurs locally.    Figure 107. Photo of polish thin-section cut-off of MGL-RS-11-117.  MGL-RS-11-121 This section is from a syenite interval where the mineralogy between the commonplace K-feldspar grains is comprised mostly of opaque minerals and some calcite. 177  The K-feldspar is sub-rounded and medium- to locally fine-grained. Very fine- to fine-grained calcite is found locally infilling around the K-feldspar as well as some extremely fine-grains that occur within the feldspar itself. The dominant opaque mineral is pyrrhotite. There are also some localized very fine-grained chlorite crystals.   MGL-RS-11-123 This section is from an altered grey syenite interval with some infilling calcite, accessory biotite and local pods of albite (Fig. 108). The K-feldspar occurs as medium- to fine-grained anhedral crystals with slightly curved grain boundaries. Many of the grains have inclusions of very fine-grained calcite. The pods of albite are fine-grained, while the biotite is fine-grained and locally the grains are deformed and show curved cleavage faces and irregular extinction patterns. The calcite is fine-grained with curved grain boundaries and in-fills between grains of K-feldspar as well as occurring in a poikolitic relationship within the feldspar.  Figure 108. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) of a pod of albite and biotite in a K-feldspar matrix.  MGL-RS-11-135 This section is from a carbonatite interval where the carbonatite appears dark grey and altered. There is abundant sulphide mineralisation as well as amphibole and phlogopite alteration minerals. The calcite of the carbonatite is very fine-grained with rounded crystal boundaries suggesting that it has been recrystallized. The sulphides occur as large aggregates as well as small, disseminated blebs. The dominant sulphide mineral is pyrrhotite which has an accompanying small Mn and Mg peak on SEM-EDX. Patches of aegirine and phlogopite 178  alteration occur throughout the section both at the edges of the sulphide mineralisation and in small clusters by themselves. The phlogopite is green to pale brown in colour, very fine-grained, with generally rounded crystal habit. The aegirine is yellow-brown to brown, fine- to very fine-grained with a tabular crystal habit.  MGL-RS-11-140 This section comes from a syenite interval with xenoliths clasts and a cross-cutting carbonate vein. The syenite is composed mostly of very fine-grained albite and K-feldspar and is altered by biotite, chlorite, and aegirine-augite. The intensity of alteration varies through the section. The area of greatest alteration is a section with a xenolith and nodules of sodalite (Fig. 109). There are several small clusters of very fine-grained sodalite throughout the syenite. In the off-cut the sodalite appears to be white and there are localized fine-grained albite crystals. The cross-cutting vein is composed dominantly of fine-grained ankerite and witherite and is rimmed by biotite, aegirine-augite and small pods of sodalite along the contacts with the syenite. Within the vein there are some fine-grained pyrite crystals.   Figure 109. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) of sodalite (brown) with aegirine-augite.  MGL-RS-11-141 This section is from a carbonatite vein that was cross-cutting a syenite with xenoliths. The carbonatite has undergone some alteration from biotite. The carbonatite is composed dominantly of medium-grained ankerite with finer grained ankerite occurring near the center of the slide where other carbonate and REE mineralisation occurs, as well as the majority of 179  the alteration minerals. The ankerite has a small Mg peak under EDX and the alteration phases are aegirine, and biotite, which occur throughout the section but are more concentrated around the aggregates in the center.  The center of the slide is composed of aggregates of very-fine grained ancylite-(Ce), cordylite-(Ce), alstonite, and baryte (Fig. 110). Baryte occurs locally and generally near the edges of the aggregates. The other minerals all form as an interesting texture together. It may also host some local cryptocrystalline sodalite mixed with extremely fine-grained albite.   Figure 110. Backscattered electron image of an aggregate of ancylite-(Ce), cordylite-(Ce), alstonite, and baryte.  MGL-RS-11-142 This section comes from a syenite interval with cross cutting veinlets of calcite and blue sodalite. This syenite is the same type of syenite that hosts the xenoliths. It is composed of very fine- to fine-grained albite, while the veinlets host medium- to fine-grained sodalite, and calcite (Fig. 111). Fine-grained calcite grains occur occasionally throughout the syenite matrix. Locally there is very fine-grained aegirine-augite throughout the syenite and local pods of a cryptocrystalline mineral.  180   Figure 111. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) of a sodalite and calcite veinlet in an albite matrix.  MGL-RS-11-146 This is from a mafic dyke interval and is similar to the sample MGL-RS-10-038 except with a finer grain size. The main component of the matrix is fine-grained biotite. What appear as small, white nodules on the cut-off are in-fact areas with little mafic mineralisation, albite crystals and some calcite mineralisation.   MGL-RS-11-154 This section is from a syenite interval with xenolith clasts. The clasts are very altered by biotite and they host very fine-grained ilmenite; the clast encompasses the majority of the section. The biotite is very fine-to fine grained and occurs throughout the clast. There are local pods of very fine-grained albite and a cryptocrystalline mineral that may be sodalite as it appears isotropic; these pods are similar to those seen in MGL-RS-11-141 around the REE mineralisation (Fig. 112). There is local fine-grained, anhedral calcite. The syenite host appears at the edge of the section and consists of very fine- to fine-grained albite and local K-feldspar with biotite alteration.  181   Figure 112. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, cross-polars) of pods of albite and an unknown mineral.  MGL-RS-11-157 This section is from an interval of banded carbonatite. The calcite within the carbonatite has been partially deformed with some of the crystals showing curved cleavage planes and rounded faces. Locally the calcite has been elongated to an oval shape. Albite is prominent throughout the mineral and is the dominant phase. There is biotite replacing some of the carbonate as well as areas of very fine-grained feldspar mineralisation. Throughout the section the calcite and albite are composed of very fine-grained needles of aegirine-augite that creates the pale green colour seen on the cut-off; this is more commonly associated with the albite.   There are cross cutting bands of a cryptocrystalline black mineral that cannot be identified (Fig. 113).   Figure 113. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) of biotite and a cryptocrystalline mineral in a calcite matrix.   182  MGL-RS-11-164 This section is from an interval of altered phyllite with cross-cutting, irregular, veinlets. The altered phyllite is composed of very fine-grained albite and some calcite. It has local areas of increased carbonate alteration at the contact with some areas of the veinlets. There is very fine-grained biotite throughout and local aegirine-augite. One veinlet that is highly irregularly shaped and beige in ppl is composed dominantly of nepheline with a local pod of sodalite (Fig. 114). It hosts some local fine-grained calcite and occasional albite. There are several cross-cutting calcite veinlets, the largest of which occurs near one end of the polished section and hosts fluorite. The carbonate veinlets are fine- to medium-grained and have rounded crystal edges suggesting they have been recrystalised. They appear to be dominantly composed of calcite. The fluorite is purple in the cut-off with subhedral to anhedral and fine-grained crystals (Fig. 115). Within the fluorite hosting veinlet there are some medium-grained, irregularly shaped arfvedonsite crystals.   Figure 114. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) of nepheline.   183   Figure 115. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, cross-polars) of fluorite (black) in a matrix of recrystallized calcite.  MGL-RS-11-170 This section is from a mafic dyke interval with a small calcite and albite veinlet running through the center. The dominant matrix of the dyke is carbonate and biotite (Fig. 116). There are some local dark cryptocrystalline minerals throughout the dyke that could not be identified. There are several altered nodules of isotropic minerals that appear to be nepheline, as well as nodules of albite and calcite. A unique feature of this dyke is that it hosts very coarse-grained, elongate, biotite crystals. The veinlet also hosts ilmenite opaque minerals.   Figure 116. Slide scan of polished thin-section MGL-RS-11-170.  MGL-RS-11-173 This section is from an interval of altered phyllite and carbonatite veining. The phyllite has undergone secondary alteration from carbo-hydrothermal fluids which is strongest at the contact with the vein. The matrix of the phyllite is very fine-grained and the 184  composition varies slightly in the amount of albite and aegirine-augite; this changes the colour as seen on the cut-off.  The carbonatite vein is coarse-grained dolomite with a small Fe peak. There are a few grains of albite, quartz, baryte, witherite, and cordylite-(Ce). The baryte, cordylite-(Ce) and an unknown Ba-REE-fluorocarbonate form very irregular shaped aggregates of anhedral crystals (Figs 117 and 118). There are local grains of fine-grained ilmenite and a small section of fine-grained quartz.  There is local thorite and witherite.    Figure 117. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) of an aggregate (yellow) in a dolomite matrix.   Figure 118. Backscattered electron map image of an aggregate with baryte (red), cordylite-(Ce) (grey) and witherite (dark grey).    185  MGL-RS-11-175 This is from a section of altered phyllite with both a cross-cutting carbonatite veinlet and albite veinlet that does not extend through the carbonatite. The phyllite is composed of very fine- to fine-grained albite with biotite and aegirine-augite alteration. The grain size increases toward the carbonatite. Near the vein there is some fine-grained carbonate within the matrix. The veinlet is composed of unaltered albite. The carbonatite vein hosts coarse-grained magnetite which becomes medium- to fine-grained blebs in the host phyllite. The carbonatite itself is medium-grained, anhedral, calcite. Near the contact with the phylllite is an area of fine-grained cordylite-(Ce) mineralisation (Fig. 16c). The minerals have a somewhat rounded habit and this mineralisation continues to form into the phyllite. Strontianite occurs as an accessory phase within the carbonatite.   MGL-RS-11-176 This section is from an altered phyllite interval that also hosts irregular pods of carbonatite material. There is a small section with very fine grained aegirine mineralisation corresponding to a green area on the cut-off. This patch of pyroxene is concentrated from which the crystals disseminate out into the dolomite, weakly altering the area around it. The majority of the section is composed of a mix of very fine-grained albite and local fine-grained K-feldspar. Disseminated throughout the section is fine-grained rutile and pyrite. The carbonatite areas are dominantly calcite with some dolomite.  The carbonates appear deformed with rounded grains and local curved cleavage faces. Within the carbonatite are areas of irregular and poorly formed cordylite-(Ce). Associated with this are localised very fine-grained synchysite and an unknown Ba-REE-fluorocarbonate mineral; these areas also host some very fine-grained strontianite and baryte (Figs. 119 and 120).  186   Figure 119. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, cross-polars) of REE minerals (center) in a matrix of albite and calcite.   Figure 120. Backscattered electron image of cordylite-(Ce) (grey) and Ba-REE-fluorocarbonate (light grey) with strontianite (dark grey).  MGL-RS-11-178 This is from an interval of carbonatite veining that has intense REE mineralisation. Where there are no REE minerals present the carbonatite is generally medium-grained, this becomes fine- to very fine-grained around the REE mineralisation. The matrix is composed dominantly of ankerite.  The REE mineralisation occurs as one large aggregate that takes up most of the section. It is composed dominantly of cordylite-(Ce) with some local other Ba-REE-fluorocarbonate(s). The cordylite-(Ce) occurs as larger, anhedral crystals with very fine-grained crystals of Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates within this may be a form of syntaxial 187  intergrowth (Fig. 121). Strontianite forms locally around the REE mineralisation along with a few local grains of ilmenite and pyrite.   Figure 121. Backscattered electron image of cordylite-(Ce) (grey) with Ba-REE-fluorocarbonate(s) (light grey) and strontianite (dark grey).  11-MLD-029 This section is from a hand specimen rock sample of a mafic dyke with carbonate nodules collected on the Carbo property during geological mapping. The host rock has two phases of calcite mineralisation. One phase is fine grained, with irregular crystal shapes and is visible through the main matrix of fine- to very fine-grained laths of biotite and an unknown highly altered mineral (Fig. 122). The unknown mineral is very altered, tabular in shape and has high Mg, Al, and Si with a small Fe peak on the SEM-EDX spectra. This unknown mineral comprises the majority of the section. The phase of calcite mineralisation is medium-grained and encapsulated entirely within the nodules. The first phase appears to be altering the nodules as well as fine-grained, anhedral albite that also occurs within the nodules. Opaques are visible in polished section within the main matrix and are likely from oxidation of the rock at surface. Nodules comprise approximately 15% of the section.   188   Figure 122. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, plane-polars) of calcite and albite nodules in a matrix of biotite and unknown mineral(s).  11-SMT-031 This section is from a carbonatite rock sample collected from the trenches at the Wicheeda property. The matrix dominantly consists of subhedral to euhedral, coarse- to very fine-grained dolomite with a very small Fe peak. The very-fine grained dolomite occurs in patches and commonly this is where the REE minerals also occur but was not always observed. The dolomite decreases in grain size around the REE-fluorocarbonate minerals and the smaller sized dolomite crystals account for approximately 30% of the total dolomite. A couple of pockets of infilling, euhedral, zoned dolomite were also observed.  The REE mineralisation consists of cordylite-(Ce), parisite-(Ce), synchysite-(Ce) and monazite-(Ce). Monazite-(Ce) which is found rimming a small veinlet of albite, and at the edges (and within) fractures of cordylite-(Ce). Cordylite-(Ce) is found as an anhedral mineral on its on its own as well as in proximity to the Ca-REE-fluorocarbonate minerals and monazite-(Ce) (Figs. 123 and 124). Parisite-(Ce) is the dominant Ca-REE-fluorocarbonate mineral with sychysite-(Ce) forming very fine-grained, euhedral, acicular grains where the parisite-(Ce) contacts the dolomite. Parisite-(Ce) formed as fine-grained, anhedral crystals. Accessory phases are albite and strontianite. There are small pockets and of fine-grained albite mineralisation. The albite occurs within proximity to the REE mineralisation and in the areas of finer grained dolomite. Local strontianite occurs within the areas of REE mineralisation; however, in this section dolomite is still the most common carbonate. The strontianite is anhedral with fine- to very fine-grained crystals.  189   Figure 123. Photomicrograph (transmitted light, cross-polars) of an REE mineral aggregate (center) in a dolomite matrix.   Figure 124. Backscattered electron image of monazite-(Ce) (light grey), cordylite-(Ce) (grey) and parisite-(Ce) (dark grey).   190  APPENDIX B Mineral Content and Amount in Percent for Polished Thin Sections                                            191  Table 21. Mineral content and amount in percent (determined visually) for polished thin-sections.  HalidesCal Ank Dol Str Ab Kfs Alst Wth FlMGL-RS-10-006A 65 5 10 20MGL-RS-10-006B 70 5 5 20MGL-RS-10-006C 73 5 5 15MGL-RS-10-007A-D 5-10 50-55 traceMGL-RS-10-008 80 7MGL-RS-10-009 65 10MGL-RS-10-010 75 23MGL-RS-10-011A-B 10 30-35 2 traceMGL-RS-10-012A-B 7 60-75 trace 3 traceMGL-RS-10-013 80 5 10 3MGL-RS-10-014 5 90 trace 4MGL-RS-10-015 60 trace 40 traceMGL-RS-10-016 85 15MGL-RS-10-017 80 10 trace 5 traceMGL-RS-10-018 45 2 37 1 xMGL-RS-10-019 60 10MGL-RS-10-020 75 20 5MGL-RS-10-021 60 3 1MGL-RS-10-022 70MGL-RS-10-023 45 10 25MGL-RS-10-024MGL-RS-10-025 80 2 1MGL-RS-10-026 70 5 20 2 traceMGL-RS-10-027 30 25 traceMGL-RS-10-028 60 15 5 traceMGL-RS-10-029 20 5 2 65 trace 1MGL-RS-10-030-031 5 65 7 20 2MGL-RS-10-032 70 1 15 1 1MGL-RS-10-033 65 20 traceMGL-RS-10-034 60 trace 40 traceMGL-RS-10-035 50 5 40 4MGL-RS-10-036 70 27 1MGL-RS-10-037 75 3 trace 2MGL-RS-10-038 13 20MGL-RS-10-039 10 90MGL-RS-10-040 5 85MGL-RS-10-041 19 70 trace trace 3MGL-RS-10-042 90 6 1MGL-RS-10-043 5 90 trace traceMGL-RS-10-044 5 trace 85MGL-RS-10-045 80 2 15 traceThin SectionRock forming mineralsREE mineralsCarbonatesAccessory Minerals192  Table 21 continued. Mineral content and amount in percent (determined visually) for polished thin-sections.  Phosphates SulphatesAp Brt Rt NbRt Ilm NbIlm Hem Pcl Clb MagMGL-RS-10-006A traceMGL-RS-10-006B traceMGL-RS-10-006C 2MGL-RS-10-007A-D traceMGL-RS-10-008 traceMGL-RS-10-009MGL-RS-10-010MGL-RS-10-011A-B traceMGL-RS-10-012A-B trace trace traceMGL-RS-10-013MGL-RS-10-014 1MGL-RS-10-015MGL-RS-10-016MGL-RS-10-017 traceMGL-RS-10-018 traceMGL-RS-10-019 25 5MGL-RS-10-020MGL-RS-10-021MGL-RS-10-022MGL-RS-10-023MGL-RS-10-024MGL-RS-10-025 5MGL-RS-10-026 3MGL-RS-10-027MGL-RS-10-028MGL-RS-10-029 1MGL-RS-10-030-031 1MGL-RS-10-032 traceMGL-RS-10-033 1MGL-RS-10-034 traceMGL-RS-10-035 trace traceMGL-RS-10-036 1MGL-RS-10-037 10MGL-RS-10-038MGL-RS-10-039 traceMGL-RS-10-040MGL-RS-10-041 trace 8MGL-RS-10-042MGL-RS-10-043 5MGL-RS-10-044MGL-RS-10-045Accessory MineralsThin Section Oxides193  Table 21 continued. Mineral content and amount in percent (determined visually) for polished thin-sections.  Py Sph Po Gn Cpy Mo Fsp Plg Hyl Cels Sdl NeMGL-RS-10-006A trace traceMGL-RS-10-006BMGL-RS-10-006CMGL-RS-10-007A-D trace trace trace traceMGL-RS-10-008 2MGL-RS-10-009 traceMGL-RS-10-010 traceMGL-RS-10-011A-B 1 2MGL-RS-10-012A-B traceMGL-RS-10-013 1 1MGL-RS-10-014 traceMGL-RS-10-015MGL-RS-10-016 trace traceMGL-RS-10-017 traceMGL-RS-10-018MGL-RS-10-019MGL-RS-10-020 traceMGL-RS-10-021 5 traceMGL-RS-10-022 traceMGL-RS-10-023MGL-RS-10-024MGL-RS-10-025 5MGL-RS-10-026 trace trace trace traceMGL-RS-10-027MGL-RS-10-028MGL-RS-10-029MGL-RS-10-030-031MGL-RS-10-032MGL-RS-10-033 4MGL-RS-10-034 traceMGL-RS-10-035 traceMGL-RS-10-036MGL-RS-10-037 3 7 traceMGL-RS-10-038MGL-RS-10-039MGL-RS-10-040MGL-RS-10-041 traceMGL-RS-10-042 trace 2MGL-RS-10-043 trace traceMGL-RS-10-044 traceMGL-RS-10-045 traceAccessory MineralsFeldspathoidsThin Section Sulphides Feldspars194  Table 21 continued. Mineral content and amount in percent (determined visually) for polished thin-sections.  Aeg Agt Rieb Arf Bt Phl Ms Chl Qtz Thor Zrn TtnMGL-RS-10-006A traceMGL-RS-10-006B traceMGL-RS-10-006CMGL-RS-10-007A-D 35-40 trace traceMGL-RS-10-008 1 10 traceMGL-RS-10-009 25MGL-RS-10-010 2MGL-RS-10-011A-B 50-55 traceMGL-RS-10-012A-B 15-30 traceMGL-RS-10-013 traceMGL-RS-10-014MGL-RS-10-015MGL-RS-10-016 traceMGL-RS-10-017 5 traceMGL-RS-10-018 15MGL-RS-10-019MGL-RS-10-020 traceMGL-RS-10-021 35MGL-RS-10-022 1 29MGL-RS-10-023 20MGL-RS-10-024MGL-RS-10-025 7MGL-RS-10-026 trace traceMGL-RS-10-027 trace 45MGL-RS-10-028 20MGL-RS-10-029 4 2MGL-RS-10-030-031 trace traceMGL-RS-10-032 trace trace 12MGL-RS-10-033 10MGL-RS-10-034MGL-RS-10-035 1MGL-RS-10-036 1MGL-RS-10-037MGL-RS-10-038 65 2MGL-RS-10-039MGL-RS-10-040 7 3MGL-RS-10-041MGL-RS-10-042 1 traceMGL-RS-10-043MGL-RS-10-044 3 7MGL-RS-10-045 3Thin SectionAccessory MineralsPyroxenes Amphiboles Micas Other Silicates unknown mineral195   Table 21 continued. Mineral content and amount in percent (determined visually) for polished thin-sections.    HalidesCal Ank Dol Str Ab Kfs Alst Wth FlMGL-RS-10-046 25 trace 75 traceMGL-RS-10-047 15 82MGL-RS-10-048 80 13MGL-RS-10-049 80 trace 20 traceMGL-RS-10-050 99 trace traceMGL-RS-11-051 85 trace traceMGL-RS-11-065 99 trace traceMGL-RS-11-073 95 2 3 traceMGL-RS-11-083 95MGL-RS-11-084 5 1 90MGL-RS-11-086 5 90MGL-RS-11-087 3 trace 97MGL-RS-11-088 10 75MGL-RS-11-090 3 94MGL-RS-11-092 2 trace 95MGL-RS-11-093 1 82MGL-RS-11-103 trace 5 87MGL-RS-11-105 29 63MGL-RS-11-107 55 3 20 18MGL-RS-11-110 57 trace 25 1MGL-RS-11-116 2 88MGL-RS-11-117 99 traceMGL-RS-11-121 2 93MGL-RS-11-123 10 88MGL-RS-11-135 83MGL-RS-11-140 5 17 50 5MGL-RS-11-141 87 3 5MGL-RS-11-142 2 90MGL-RS-11-146 7 20MGL-RS-11-154 2 51 5MGL-RS-11-157 25 60MGL-RS-11-164 20 60 3MGL-RS-11-170 25 15MGL-RS-11-173 30 65 trace traceMGL-RS-11-175 25 trace 53 1MGL-RS-11-176 34 10 40 12 traceMGL-RS-11-178 65 10 2511-SMT-031 95 411-MLD-029 25 5REE mineralsCarbonatesThin SectionRock forming mineralsAccessory Minerals196   Table 21 continued. Mineral content and amount in percent (determined visually) for polished thin-sections.    Phosphates SulphatesAp Brt Rt NbRt Ilm NbIlm Hem Pcl Clb MagMGL-RS-10-046MGL-RS-10-047MGL-RS-10-048MGL-RS-10-049MGL-RS-10-050MGL-RS-11-051 1MGL-RS-11-065MGL-RS-11-073MGL-RS-11-083MGL-RS-11-084MGL-RS-11-086MGL-RS-11-087 traceMGL-RS-11-088MGL-RS-11-090MGL-RS-11-092 2 traceMGL-RS-11-093 trace traceMGL-RS-11-103MGL-RS-11-105 1MGL-RS-11-107MGL-RS-11-110 15MGL-RS-11-116MGL-RS-11-117MGL-RS-11-121MGL-RS-11-123MGL-RS-11-135 2MGL-RS-11-140MGL-RS-11-141 1MGL-RS-11-142MGL-RS-11-146MGL-RS-11-154 1MGL-RS-11-157MGL-RS-11-164MGL-RS-11-170 traceMGL-RS-11-173 traceMGL-RS-11-175 x 20MGL-RS-11-176 trace 3MGL-RS-11-178 trace11-SMT-03111-MLD-029OxidesThin SectionAccessory Minerals197   Table 21 continued. Mineral content and amount in percent (determined visually) for polished thin-sections.    Py Sph Po Gn Cpy Mo Fsp Plg Hyl Cels Sdl NeMGL-RS-10-046 traceMGL-RS-10-047MGL-RS-10-048MGL-RS-10-049 traceMGL-RS-10-050 trace 1MGL-RS-11-051 3MGL-RS-11-065 traceMGL-RS-11-073 trace traceMGL-RS-11-083MGL-RS-11-084 traceMGL-RS-11-086 2MGL-RS-11-087 traceMGL-RS-11-088MGL-RS-11-090 1MGL-RS-11-092 1MGL-RS-11-093 trace 2MGL-RS-11-103MGL-RS-11-105MGL-RS-11-107MGL-RS-11-110 traceMGL-RS-11-116MGL-RS-11-117 traceMGL-RS-11-121 5MGL-RS-11-123MGL-RS-11-135 trace 13 traceMGL-RS-11-140 trace 1MGL-RS-11-141MGL-RS-11-142 7MGL-RS-11-146MGL-RS-11-154MGL-RS-11-157MGL-RS-11-164 trace 7MGL-RS-11-170 traceMGL-RS-11-173MGL-RS-11-175 xMGL-RS-11-176 traceMGL-RS-11-178 trace11-SMT-03111-MLD-029Thin SectionAccessory MineralsSulphides Feldspars Feldspathoids198   Table 21 continued. Mineral content and amount in percent (determined visually) for polished thin-sections.    Aeg Agt Rieb Arf Bt Phl Ms Chl Qtz Thor Zrn TtnMGL-RS-10-046MGL-RS-10-047 3MGL-RS-10-048 trace 7MGL-RS-10-049 traceMGL-RS-10-050MGL-RS-11-051 10 1MGL-RS-11-065 1 trace xMGL-RS-11-073MGL-RS-11-083 5MGL-RS-11-084MGL-RS-11-086 3MGL-RS-11-087 trace trace traceMGL-RS-11-088 15 5MGL-RS-11-090 2 trace 1MGL-RS-11-092 trace trace traceMGL-RS-11-093 15 trace traceMGL-RS-11-103 5 3 1MGL-RS-11-105 5 2MGL-RS-11-107 2 3MGL-RS-11-110 2 traceMGL-RS-11-116 9 1 traceMGL-RS-11-117 1 traceMGL-RS-11-121 traceMGL-RS-11-123 2MGL-RS-11-135 trace 2MGL-RS-11-140 2 10 5MGL-RS-11-141 1 4MGL-RS-11-142 1MGL-RS-11-146 73MGL-RS-11-154 30 7MGL-RS-11-157 10 5MGL-RS-11-164 trace trace 10MGL-RS-11-170 45 15MGL-RS-11-173 5 trace traceMGL-RS-11-175 1MGL-RS-11-176 1MGL-RS-11-17811-SMT-03111-MLD-029 5 65Thin SectionAccessory MineralsPyroxenes Amphiboles Micas Other Silicates unknown mineral199  APPENDIX C EDX Spectra for Minerals                                     200   The following spectra could be of use for future studies because reference EDX spectra of such unusual minerals are themselves exceedingly rare.  Figure 125. EDX spectra of calcite.  Figure 126. EDX spectra of ankerite with a Mg peak. 201   Figure 127. EDX spectra of dolomite.  Figure 128. EDX spectra of bastn?site-(Ce).  Figure 129. EDX spectra of parisite-(Ce). 202   Figure 130. EDX spectra of parisite-(Ce) with slightly more Ca.  Figure 131. EDX spectra of synchysite-(Ce). 203   Figure 132. EDX spectra of cordylite-(Ce).  Figure 133. EDX spectra of Ba-REE-fluorocarbonates.  Figure 134. EDX spectra of ancylite-(Ce). 204   Figure 135. EDX spectra of monazite-(Ce).  Figure 136. EDX spectra close up of unknown Dy phosphate.  Figure 137. EDX spectra of unknown Dy phosphate. 205   Figure 138. EDX spectra of allanite-(Ce).  Figure 139. EDX spectra of unknown Y silicate.  Figure 140. EDX spectra of euxenite-(Y). 206   Figure 141. EDX spectra of strontianite with a small Ca peak.  Figure 142. EDX spectra of strontianite with a large Ca peak. 207   Figure 143. EDX spectra of alstonite.  Figure 144. EDX spectra of witherite. 208   Figure 145. EDX spectra of ilmenite.  Figure 146. EDX spectra of rutile.  Figure 147. EDX spectra of Nb-ilmenite. 209   Figure 148. EDX spectra of phyrochlore.  Figure 149. EDX spectra of Fe-columbite.  Figure 150. EDX spectra of apatite. 210   Figure 151. EDX spectra of albite.  Figure 152. EDX spectra of K-feldspar.  Figure 153. EDX spectra of hyalophane. 211   Figure 154. EDX spectra of celsian.  Figure 155. EDX spectra of sodalite.  Figure 156. EDX spectra of aegirine-augite. 212   Figure 157. EDX spectra of aegirine.  Figure 158. EDX spectra of magnesio-riebeckite. 213   Figure 159. EDX spectra of biotite.  Figure 160. EDX spectra of phlogopite. 214   Figure 161. EDX spectra of chlorite.  Figure 162. EDX spectra of thorite. 215   Figure 163. EDX spectra of zircon.  Figure 164. EDX spectra of titanite. 216   Figure 165. EDX spectra of baryte.  Figure 166. EDX spectra of niksergievite.            217  APPENDIX D Electron Microprobe Analysis Data for REE Minerals                   218   Table 22. Composition of bastn?site-(Ce). Thin Section MGL-006A Point 339 340 327 333 335 399 404 405SiO? 0.06 0.05 0.06 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.04ThO? 0.00 0.07 0.00 0.02 0.17 0.00 0.00 0.12UO? 0.59 0.75 0.50 0.57 0.59 0.52 0.63 0.66Y?O? 0.00 0.07 0.05 0.00 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00La?O? 28.43 28.10 27.27 30.60 28.69 28.47 26.18 31.54Ce?O? 33.25 33.28 32.50 31.94 32.40 33.10 34.71 32.38Pr?O? 2.54 2.52 2.42 2.16 2.24 2.27 2.57 2.23Nd?O? 6.16 5.79 6.91 5.50 5.92 5.39 6.68 4.66Sm?O? 0.28 0.28 0.73 0.45 0.41 0.25 0.44 0.08Eu?O? 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00Gd?O? 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00CaO 0.17 0.07 0.55 0.27 0.30 0.18 0.01 0.12SrO 0.00 0.00 0.15 0.05 0.11 0.06 0.02 0.12Na?O 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.05CO?  * 19.24 19.07 19.29 19.31 19.14 18.94 19.15 19.37F    * 8.31 8.23 8.33 8.34 8.26 8.18 8.26 8.36F    ** 4.54 4.82 5.06 5.23 5.54 4.63 4.86 4.67-O=F -3.50 -3.47 -3.51 -3.51 -3.48 -3.44 -3.48 -3.52Total 95.55 94.84 95.43 95.80 94.94 94.01 95.26 96.21Si apfu*** 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002Th 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.001U 0.005 0.006 0.004 0.005 0.005 0.004 0.005 0.006Y 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000La 0.399 0.398 0.382 0.428 0.405 0.406 0.369 0.440Ce 0.463 0.468 0.452 0.444 0.454 0.469 0.486 0.448Pr 0.035 0.035 0.033 0.030 0.031 0.032 0.036 0.031Nd 0.084 0.079 0.094 0.075 0.081 0.074 0.091 0.063Sm 0.004 0.004 0.010 0.006 0.005 0.003 0.006 0.001Eu 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Gd 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Ca 0.007 0.003 0.022 0.011 0.012 0.007 0.000 0.005Sr 0.000 0.000 0.003 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.000 0.003Na 0.001 0.001 0.003 0.004 0.004 0.002 0.002 0.004C 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1O 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3* Determined by stoichiometry** EPMA measured value*** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralMGL-006A 3 MGL-006A 4b MGL-006C 1Note: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (P, Nb, Ta, Zr, Al, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mg, Mn, Fe, K).    219  Table 22 continued. Composition of bastn?site-(Ce). Thin Section MGL-006C 2Point 376 379 383 387 393 394 396 397SiO? 0.15 0.05 0.05 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07ThO? 0.05 0.00 0.14 0.00 0.03 0.06 0.00 0.09UO? 0.52 0.43 0.36 0.45 0.55 0.66 0.64 0.69Y?O? 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.05 0.07 0.00 0.01La?O? 27.10 27.41 27.60 25.09 24.48 25.16 25.19 24.09Ce?O? 32.29 34.24 32.69 33.20 33.31 33.33 32.81 33.02Pr?O? 2.52 2.65 2.42 2.71 2.84 2.75 2.81 2.70Nd?O? 5.76 6.28 5.99 7.51 8.91 8.58 8.66 8.98Sm?O? 0.34 0.32 0.38 0.73 1.01 0.86 0.92 1.18Eu?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.03Gd?O? 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.24 0.17 0.20 0.47CaO 0.57 0.03 0.59 0.93 0.04 0.10 0.01 0.16SrO 0.53 0.01 0.13 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00Na?O 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.04 0.04 0.02 0.02CO?  * 19.02 19.19 19.05 19.23 19.21 19.30 19.13 19.19F    * 8.21 8.28 8.22 8.30 8.29 8.33 8.26 8.28F    ** 4.56 4.48 5.22 4.94 4.70 5.03 5.08 4.80-O=F -3.46 -3.49 -3.46 -3.50 -3.49 -3.51 -3.48 -3.49Total 93.74 95.44 94.19 94.79 95.61 96.01 95.28 95.49Si apfu*** 0.006 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003Th 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.001U 0.004 0.004 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.005 0.006Y 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.000La 0.385 0.386 0.391 0.352 0.344 0.352 0.356 0.339Ce 0.455 0.478 0.460 0.463 0.465 0.463 0.460 0.461Pr 0.035 0.037 0.034 0.038 0.039 0.038 0.039 0.038Nd 0.079 0.086 0.082 0.102 0.121 0.116 0.118 0.122Sm 0.005 0.004 0.005 0.010 0.013 0.011 0.012 0.016Eu 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000Gd 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.003 0.002 0.003 0.006Ca 0.024 0.001 0.024 0.038 0.002 0.004 0.000 0.007Sr 0.012 0.000 0.003 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Na 0.004 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.003 0.003 0.001 0.001C 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1O 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3* Determined by stoichiometry** EPMA measured value*** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralMGL-006C 2b MGL-006C 4Note: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (P, Nb, Ta, Zr, Al, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mg, Mn, Fe, K).    220  Table 22 continued. Composition of bastn?site-(Ce). Thin SectionPoint 142 143 144 145 147 148 149 150 152 154 155SiO? 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.08 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.05 0.05ThO? 0.04 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.02 0.13 0.00 0.20UO? 0.53 0.53 0.49 0.52 0.62 0.63 0.58 0.64 0.68 0.50 0.66Y?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00La?O? 28.78 30.36 30.26 30.58 30.61 29.74 29.47 31.11 32.70 30.24 30.71Ce?O? 32.84 32.26 32.03 31.91 32.35 32.79 33.46 32.24 31.32 32.86 32.75Pr?O? 2.37 2.20 2.31 2.18 2.04 2.22 2.26 2.27 1.95 2.09 2.08Nd?O? 5.90 5.28 5.36 5.10 5.12 5.19 5.65 4.98 4.70 5.04 4.97Sm?O? 0.31 0.17 0.26 0.24 0.02 0.20 0.14 0.08 0.08 0.11 0.12Eu?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00Gd?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00CaO 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.15 0.12 0.10 0.06 0.06 0.03 0.05 0.14SrO 0.04 0.00 0.01 0.03 0.03 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.02Na?O 0.05 0.04 0.12 0.01 0.05 0.05 0.07 0.05 0.03 0.05 0.03CO?  * 19.06 19.08 19.10 19.05 19.10 19.12 19.30 19.22 19.24 19.10 19.29F    * 8.23 8.24 8.24 8.22 8.25 8.26 8.33 8.30 8.30 8.24 8.33F    ** 5.45 5.50 5.53 5.76 5.09 4.85 5.03 4.85 5.17 5.08 5.37-O=F -3.47 -3.47 -3.47 -3.46 -3.47 -3.48 -3.51 -3.49 -3.50 -3.47 -3.51Total 94.77 94.81 94.82 94.58 94.88 94.92 95.88 95.51 95.70 94.88 95.85Si apfu*** 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.002 0.002Th 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.002U 0.005 0.005 0.004 0.004 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.006 0.004 0.006Y 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000La 0.408 0.430 0.428 0.434 0.433 0.420 0.413 0.437 0.459 0.428 0.430Ce 0.462 0.453 0.450 0.449 0.454 0.460 0.465 0.450 0.437 0.461 0.455Pr 0.033 0.031 0.032 0.031 0.029 0.031 0.031 0.032 0.027 0.029 0.029Nd 0.081 0.072 0.073 0.070 0.070 0.071 0.077 0.068 0.064 0.069 0.067Sm 0.004 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.000 0.003 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002Eu 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Gd 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Ca 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.006 0.005 0.004 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.002 0.006Sr 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Na 0.004 0.003 0.009 0.001 0.004 0.004 0.005 0.004 0.002 0.004 0.002C 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1O 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3* Determined by stoichiometry** EPMA measured value*** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralMGL-012A 5MGL-012A 3Note: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (P, Nb, Ta, Zr, Al, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mg, Mn, Fe, K).    221  Table 22 continued. Composition of bastn?site-(Ce). Thin SectionPoint 156 157 158 159 160 161 170 171SiO? 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.04 0.09 0.05 0.05 0.05ThO? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00UO? 0.50 0.56 0.67 0.55 0.62 0.51 0.44 0.64Y?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00La?O? 30.18 29.99 29.47 30.12 30.14 31.04 28.31 29.26Ce?O? 32.53 32.64 33.15 33.04 32.42 31.99 34.05 33.06Pr?O? 2.14 2.15 2.30 2.22 2.22 2.07 2.57 2.46Nd?O? 5.23 5.31 5.64 5.48 5.23 5.18 5.95 5.71Sm?O? 0.13 0.21 0.21 0.16 0.18 0.09 0.29 0.16Eu?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00Gd?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00CaO 0.02 0.01 0.04 0.04 0.08 0.14 0.05 0.06SrO 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.03 0.00 0.05 0.00Na?O 0.05 0.01 0.03 0.02 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.02CO?  * 19.04 19.05 19.23 19.26 19.13 19.14 19.29 19.19F    * 8.22 8.22 8.30 8.31 8.26 8.26 8.33 8.28F    ** 5.08 5.22 4.84 4.99 5.23 5.26 4.92 5.05-O=F -3.46 -3.46 -3.50 -3.50 -3.48 -3.48 -3.51 -3.49Total 94.63 94.74 95.61 95.75 94.97 95.02 95.89 95.40Si apfu*** 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.002Th 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000U 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.005 0.005 0.004 0.004 0.005Y 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000La 0.428 0.425 0.414 0.423 0.426 0.438 0.397 0.412Ce 0.458 0.459 0.462 0.460 0.454 0.448 0.473 0.462Pr 0.030 0.030 0.032 0.031 0.031 0.029 0.036 0.034Nd 0.072 0.073 0.077 0.074 0.072 0.071 0.081 0.078Sm 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.004 0.002Eu 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Gd 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Ca 0.001 0.000 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.006 0.002 0.002Sr 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.001 0.000Na 0.004 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.003 0.002 0.001 0.001C 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1O 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3* Determined by stoichiometry** EPMA measured value*** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralMGL-012B 1MGL-012A 9Note: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (P, Nb, Ta, Zr, Al, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mg, Mn, Fe, K).     222  Table 22 continued. Composition of bastn?site-(Ce). Thin SectionPoint 172 173 174 175 176 177 162 163 164 165SiO? 0.05 0.04 0.06 0.05 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.04ThO? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.11 0.00 0.01 0.25 0.04 0.25 0.00UO? 0.64 0.43 0.54 0.48 0.60 0.70 0.62 0.58 0.53 0.55Y?O? 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.03La?O? 28.77 29.52 29.31 29.78 29.85 29.74 28.96 28.97 28.07 28.26Ce?O? 33.68 33.41 32.79 33.31 32.67 33.47 33.23 33.98 33.12 33.06Pr?O? 2.33 2.24 2.30 2.36 2.33 2.21 2.32 2.49 2.25 2.37Nd?O? 6.33 5.78 5.97 5.50 5.50 5.55 5.87 5.70 6.19 6.20Sm?O? 0.30 0.19 0.23 0.33 0.14 0.19 0.20 0.30 0.31 0.34Eu?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00Gd?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00CaO 0.01 0.14 0.07 0.07 0.27 0.07 0.11 0.04 0.07 0.17SrO 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.03 0.08 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.03 0.04Na?O 0.05 0.04 0.02 0.05 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.04 0.05 0.04CO?  * 19.38 19.32 19.18 19.39 19.28 19.37 19.26 19.40 19.04 19.13F    * 8.37 8.34 8.28 8.37 8.32 8.36 8.31 8.37 8.22 8.26F    ** 5.13 5.07 5.22 5.29 5.19 5.17 5.10 5.24 5.17 5.01-O=F -3.52 -3.51 -3.49 -3.52 -3.51 -3.52 -3.50 -3.53 -3.46 -3.48Total 96.41 95.93 95.29 96.33 95.62 96.28 95.75 96.48 94.71 95.01Si apfu*** 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002Th 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.000 0.002 0.000U 0.005 0.004 0.005 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005Y 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001La 0.401 0.413 0.413 0.415 0.418 0.415 0.406 0.403 0.398 0.399Ce 0.466 0.464 0.459 0.461 0.454 0.463 0.463 0.470 0.466 0.463Pr 0.032 0.031 0.032 0.032 0.032 0.030 0.032 0.034 0.032 0.033Nd 0.085 0.078 0.081 0.074 0.075 0.075 0.080 0.077 0.085 0.085Sm 0.004 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.004 0.004Eu 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Gd 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Ca 0.000 0.006 0.003 0.003 0.011 0.003 0.004 0.002 0.003 0.007Sr 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001Na 0.004 0.003 0.001 0.004 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.003 0.004 0.003C 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1O 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3* Determined by stoichiometry** EPMA measured value*** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralMGL-012B 1 MGL-012B 2Note: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (P, Nb, Ta, Zr, Al, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mg, Mn, Fe, K).    223  Table 22 continued. Composition of bastn?site-(Ce). Thin SectionPoint 166 167 168 169 178 179 180 181 131 132SiO? 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.06 0.04 0.04 0.22 0.05 0.08 0.08ThO? 0.00 0.27 0.44 0.73 0.00 0.19 0.10 0.04 0.20 0.30UO? 0.45 0.50 0.69 0.43 0.56 0.61 0.46 0.48 0.70 0.66Y?O? 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.10La?O? 28.92 29.42 30.31 28.18 28.72 28.92 25.92 28.71 25.26 23.74Ce?O? 33.38 33.53 33.53 33.40 32.99 33.27 29.69 33.84 33.38 33.36Pr?O? 2.49 2.23 2.15 2.35 2.52 2.41 1.98 2.32 2.68 2.87Nd?O? 6.25 5.49 4.80 5.96 6.46 5.88 5.35 5.98 7.97 8.36Sm?O? 0.33 0.18 0.03 0.34 0.33 0.23 0.27 0.20 0.96 1.08Eu?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.08Gd?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.12 0.25CaO 0.03 0.07 0.05 0.05 0.21 0.51 1.11 0.29 0.26 0.16SrO 0.00 0.06 0.00 0.08 0.01 0.11 0.03 0.03 0.06 0.03Na?O 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.02 0.00 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02CO?  * 19.33 19.29 19.34 19.21 19.32 19.50 17.90 19.40 19.30 19.09F    * 8.34 8.33 8.35 8.29 8.34 8.42 7.73 8.37 8.33 8.24F    ** 5.25 5.34 5.14 5.30 5.27 5.23 4.72 5.06 3.76 4.05-O=F -3.51 -3.51 -3.52 -3.49 -3.51 -3.54 -3.25 -3.53 -3.51 -3.47Total 96.11 95.93 96.26 95.62 95.99 96.57 87.53 96.20 95.85 94.96Si apfu*** 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.009 0.002 0.003 0.003Th 0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.000 0.002 0.001 0.000 0.002 0.003U 0.004 0.004 0.006 0.004 0.005 0.005 0.004 0.004 0.006 0.006Y 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.002La 0.404 0.412 0.423 0.396 0.401 0.401 0.391 0.400 0.354 0.336Ce 0.463 0.466 0.465 0.466 0.458 0.458 0.445 0.468 0.464 0.469Pr 0.034 0.031 0.030 0.033 0.035 0.033 0.030 0.032 0.037 0.040Nd 0.085 0.074 0.065 0.081 0.087 0.079 0.078 0.081 0.108 0.115Sm 0.004 0.002 0.000 0.004 0.004 0.003 0.004 0.003 0.013 0.014Eu 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001Gd 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.003Ca 0.001 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.009 0.021 0.049 0.012 0.011 0.007Sr 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.002 0.000 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001Na 0.001 0.002 0.004 0.001 0.000 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.001C 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1O 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3* Determined by stoichiometry** EPMA measured value*** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralMGL-013 6MGL-012B 2 MGL-014 4Note: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (P, Nb, Ta, Zr, Al, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mg, Mn, Fe, K).     224  Table 22 continued. Composition of bastn?site-(Ce). Thin SectionPoint 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141SiO? 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.15 0.07ThO? 0.34 0.65 0.24 0.93 0.31 0.79 0.36 1.31 0.66UO? 0.53 0.55 0.76 0.57 0.63 0.64 0.55 0.49 0.51Y?O? 0.03 0.11 0.05 0.08 0.07 0.10 0.05 0.01 0.05La?O? 24.36 23.20 25.27 23.38 23.79 23.72 24.53 23.56 23.90Ce?O? 33.04 32.25 33.17 32.66 33.26 32.71 33.35 31.95 32.41Pr?O? 2.81 2.77 2.69 2.77 2.83 2.56 2.90 2.43 2.55Nd?O? 7.98 8.83 7.61 8.46 8.73 8.21 8.03 8.18 8.18Sm?O? 0.90 1.14 0.90 1.12 1.05 0.81 0.99 0.99 0.96Eu?O? 0.04 0.04 0.02 0.12 0.09 0.03 0.07 0.06 0.08Gd?O? 0.13 0.41 0.22 0.37 0.43 0.23 0.36 0.45 0.15CaO 0.08 1.27 0.13 0.48 0.03 0.18 0.05 0.93 0.64SrO 0.07 0.21 0.07 0.35 0.03 0.26 0.01 0.40 0.16Na?O 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.03 0.04 0.02 0.03 0.03CO?  * 18.90 19.47 19.11 19.21 19.11 18.88 19.12 19.26 19.01F    * 8.16 8.40 8.25 8.29 8.25 8.15 8.25 8.31 8.20F    ** 4.04 4.13 4.07 3.58 4.29 4.00 4.80 4.45 4.34-O=F -3.44 -3.54 -3.47 -3.49 -3.47 -3.43 -3.47 -3.50 -3.45Total 94.05 95.86 95.10 95.39 95.22 93.93 95.22 95.01 94.11Si apfu*** 0.003 0.003 0.002 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.006 0.003Th 0.003 0.006 0.002 0.008 0.003 0.007 0.003 0.011 0.006U 0.005 0.005 0.006 0.005 0.005 0.006 0.005 0.004 0.004Y 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.000 0.001La 0.348 0.322 0.357 0.329 0.336 0.339 0.347 0.331 0.340Ce 0.469 0.444 0.465 0.456 0.467 0.465 0.468 0.445 0.457Pr 0.040 0.038 0.038 0.038 0.040 0.036 0.040 0.034 0.036Nd 0.110 0.119 0.104 0.115 0.120 0.114 0.110 0.111 0.113Sm 0.012 0.015 0.012 0.015 0.014 0.011 0.013 0.013 0.013Eu 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.002 0.001 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001Gd 0.002 0.005 0.003 0.005 0.005 0.003 0.005 0.006 0.002Ca 0.003 0.051 0.005 0.020 0.001 0.007 0.002 0.038 0.026Sr 0.002 0.005 0.002 0.008 0.001 0.006 0.000 0.009 0.004Na 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.001 0.002 0.002C 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1O 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3* Determined by stoichiometry** EPMA measured value*** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralMGL-014 4 MGL-014 5Note: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (P, Nb, Ta, Zr, Al, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mg, Mn, Fe, K).    225  Table 22 continued. Composition of bastn?site-(Ce). Thin SectionPoint 292 293 294 295 296 297 281 283 284 286SiO? 0.42 2.73 0.06 0.08 0.08 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.05ThO? 0.07 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.54 1.02 2.67 1.14UO? 0.49 0.41 0.73 0.56 0.49 0.62 0.60 0.56 0.53 0.66Y?O? 0.08 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.11 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.08 0.06La?O? 26.44 25.60 26.39 26.71 26.28 27.58 28.50 29.24 28.36 24.77Ce?O? 32.21 31.55 31.99 32.39 32.44 32.15 30.68 31.26 30.08 33.21Pr?O? 2.62 2.50 2.43 2.49 2.46 2.43 2.18 2.04 2.22 2.77Nd?O? 7.73 7.23 7.60 7.62 7.71 7.15 5.44 5.54 5.32 7.86Sm?O? 0.86 0.83 0.86 0.78 0.93 0.79 0.16 0.21 0.29 0.57Eu?O? 0.05 0.07 0.03 0.00 0.04 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00Gd?O? 0.09 0.00 0.11 0.04 0.00 0.20 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00CaO 0.32 0.30 0.69 0.74 0.77 0.28 0.15 0.15 0.39 0.08SrO 0.30 0.05 0.05 0.07 0.06 0.07 0.88 0.60 0.88 0.44Na?O 0.02 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.02 0.03 0.06 0.02CO?  * 19.58 21.11 19.21 19.41 19.38 19.23 19.05 18.99 19.06 19.18F    * 8.45 9.11 8.29 8.38 8.37 8.30 8.22 8.20 8.23 8.28F    ** 5.63 4.95 5.54 5.92 5.13 5.27 5.27 5.24 4.59 5.38-O=F -3.56 -3.84 -3.49 -3.53 -3.52 -3.49 -3.46 -3.45 -3.46 -3.49Total 96.17 97.69 95.02 95.82 95.62 95.45 95.02 94.47 94.75 95.60Si apfu*** 0.016 0.095 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002Th 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.022 0.009 0.023 0.010U 0.004 0.003 0.006 0.005 0.004 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.006Y 0.002 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.001La 0.365 0.328 0.371 0.372 0.366 0.388 0.404 0.416 0.402 0.349Ce 0.441 0.401 0.447 0.448 0.449 0.448 0.432 0.441 0.423 0.464Pr 0.036 0.032 0.034 0.034 0.034 0.034 0.031 0.029 0.031 0.039Nd 0.103 0.090 0.103 0.103 0.104 0.097 0.075 0.076 0.073 0.107Sm 0.011 0.010 0.011 0.010 0.012 0.010 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.008Eu 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Gd 0.001 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.003 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Ca 0.013 0.011 0.028 0.030 0.031 0.011 0.006 0.006 0.016 0.003Sr 0.007 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.002 0.020 0.013 0.020 0.010Na 0.001 0.003 0.002 0.003 0.002 0.003 0.001 0.002 0.004 0.001C 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1O 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3* Determined by stoichiometry** EPMA measured value*** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralMGL-025 7 MGL-025 7a MGL-026 2Note: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (P, Nb, Ta, Zr, Al, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mg, Mn, Fe, K).     226  Table 22 continued. Composition of bastn?site-(Ce). Thin Section MGL-030 3bPoint 288 291 419 421 427 437 438 439SiO? 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.07 0.05 0.06 0.05ThO? 0.61 0.62 1.48 1.58 0.83 0.20 0.91 0.43UO? 0.50 0.74 0.54 0.55 0.52 0.70 0.61 0.66Y?O? 0.01 0.19 0.44 0.32 0.22 0.15 0.14 0.04La?O? 25.80 24.70 24.74 26.32 26.68 27.50 29.56 29.54Ce?O? 33.02 32.72 31.10 30.84 31.39 31.70 30.77 31.79Pr?O? 2.66 2.88 2.60 2.34 2.71 2.64 2.26 2.39Nd?O? 7.37 8.72 7.67 6.76 6.99 7.39 6.34 6.43Sm?O? 0.42 0.88 1.52 1.04 1.17 1.33 0.90 0.89Eu?O? 0.00 0.00 0.19 0.16 0.07 0.02 0.08 0.03Gd?O? 0.03 0.06 0.70 0.44 0.33 0.47 0.37 0.08CaO 0.44 0.16 0.43 0.40 0.07 0.04 0.02 0.02SrO 0.33 0.41 0.30 0.31 0.22 0.05 0.06 0.10Na?O 0.04 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.01 0.04 0.05 0.03CO?  * 19.22 19.37 19.31 19.14 19.12 19.38 19.33 19.43F    * 8.30 8.36 8.34 8.26 8.26 8.37 8.35 8.39F    ** 4.06 5.15 4.95 4.75 4.91 5.11 4.78 5.22-O=F -3.49 -3.52 -3.51 -3.48 -3.48 -3.52 -3.51 -3.53Total 95.32 96.36 95.92 95.06 95.18 96.50 96.30 96.77Si apfu*** 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.002Th 0.005 0.005 0.013 0.014 0.007 0.002 0.008 0.004U 0.004 0.006 0.005 0.005 0.004 0.006 0.005 0.006Y 0.000 0.004 0.009 0.007 0.004 0.003 0.003 0.001La 0.363 0.345 0.346 0.372 0.377 0.383 0.413 0.411Ce 0.461 0.453 0.432 0.432 0.440 0.439 0.427 0.439Pr 0.037 0.040 0.036 0.033 0.038 0.036 0.031 0.033Nd 0.100 0.118 0.104 0.092 0.096 0.100 0.086 0.087Sm 0.006 0.011 0.020 0.014 0.015 0.017 0.012 0.012Eu 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.000 0.001 0.000Gd 0.000 0.001 0.009 0.006 0.004 0.006 0.005 0.001Ca 0.018 0.006 0.017 0.016 0.003 0.002 0.001 0.001Sr 0.007 0.009 0.007 0.007 0.005 0.001 0.001 0.002Na 0.003 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.003 0.004 0.002C 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1O 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3* Determined by stoichiometry** EPMA measured value*** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralMGL-030 4MGL-026 2a MGL-031 1Note: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (P, Nb, Ta, Zr, Al, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mg, Mn, Fe, K).     227  Table 22 continued. Composition of bastn?site-(Ce). Thin SectionPoint 440 443 444 448 451 489 490 491 492 493 494SiO? 0.05 0.04 0.06 0.07 0.06 0.04 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.05ThO? 0.16 0.45 0.22 0.00 0.27 0.98 0.44 0.83 0.95 0.67 1.25UO? 0.50 0.69 0.77 0.67 0.66 0.52 0.51 0.58 0.41 0.63 0.52Y?O? 0.03 0.10 0.22 0.24 0.17 0.15 0.21 0.04 0.08 0.15 0.09La?O? 29.79 28.54 26.62 27.60 27.96 28.52 26.92 28.42 28.15 28.10 28.30Ce?O? 31.35 31.15 31.97 31.51 31.26 32.18 32.58 32.59 32.21 32.51 31.84Pr?O? 2.29 2.29 2.56 2.39 2.74 2.45 2.71 2.41 2.40 2.34 2.40Nd?O? 6.03 6.83 7.71 7.22 7.50 6.20 7.11 6.42 6.37 6.79 6.53Sm?O? 0.66 1.04 1.24 1.27 1.35 0.38 0.52 0.39 0.46 0.36 0.45Eu?O? 0.00 0.06 0.10 0.10 0.08 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00Gd?O? 0.39 0.33 0.50 0.34 0.40 0.06 0.17 0.00 0.00 0.11 0.08CaO 0.15 0.06 0.03 0.05 0.04 0.10 0.10 0.09 0.02 0.05 0.06SrO 0.03 0.06 0.08 0.06 0.05 0.16 0.01 0.18 0.14 0.21 0.09Na?O 0.02 0.05 0.02 0.04 0.04 0.06 0.09 0.01 0.03 0.05 0.02CO?  * 19.21 19.22 19.33 19.23 19.47 19.27 19.20 19.32 19.12 19.34 19.21F    * 8.29 8.30 8.35 8.30 8.40 8.32 8.29 8.34 8.25 8.35 8.29F    ** 4.72 4.83 4.84 4.96 5.03 5.05 4.94 5.07 5.02 4.90 4.72-O=F -3.49 -3.49 -3.51 -3.50 -3.54 -3.50 -3.49 -3.51 -3.48 -3.52 -3.49Total 95.46 95.71 96.26 95.60 96.91 95.89 95.42 96.15 95.18 96.22 95.69Si apfu*** 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002Th 0.001 0.004 0.002 0.000 0.002 0.008 0.004 0.007 0.008 0.006 0.011U 0.004 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.004 0.004 0.005 0.003 0.005 0.004Y 0.001 0.002 0.004 0.005 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.002La 0.419 0.401 0.372 0.388 0.388 0.400 0.379 0.397 0.398 0.392 0.398Ce 0.438 0.435 0.443 0.439 0.431 0.448 0.455 0.452 0.452 0.451 0.445Pr 0.032 0.032 0.035 0.033 0.038 0.034 0.038 0.033 0.033 0.032 0.033Nd 0.082 0.093 0.104 0.098 0.101 0.084 0.097 0.087 0.087 0.092 0.089Sm 0.009 0.014 0.016 0.017 0.018 0.005 0.007 0.005 0.006 0.005 0.006Eu 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Gd 0.005 0.004 0.006 0.004 0.005 0.001 0.002 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.001Ca 0.006 0.002 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.001 0.002 0.002Sr 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.004 0.000 0.004 0.003 0.005 0.002Na 0.001 0.004 0.001 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.007 0.001 0.002 0.004 0.001C 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1O 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3* Determined by stoichiometry** EPMA measured value*** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralMGL-031 4 MGL-031 5 MGL-037 5Note: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (P, Nb, Ta, Zr, Al, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mg, Mn, Fe, K).     228  Table 22 continued. Composition of bastn?site-(Ce). Thin SectionPoint 495 496 497 498 499SiO? 0.05 0.04 0.06 0.05 0.06ThO? 0.54 0.69 0.71 0.36 0.40UO? 0.60 0.71 0.54 0.63 0.60Y?O? 0.10 0.03 0.08 0.05 0.26La?O? 27.44 28.11 27.54 28.29 26.08Ce?O? 32.98 33.14 32.42 33.20 33.48Pr?O? 2.50 2.37 2.59 2.52 2.68Nd?O? 6.84 6.63 6.72 6.78 7.03Sm?O? 0.46 0.38 0.38 0.48 0.48Eu?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.00Gd?O? 0.00 0.00 0.15 0.00 0.18CaO 0.07 0.07 0.04 0.04 0.16SrO 0.11 0.13 0.11 0.08 0.05Na?O 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.03CO?  * 19.24 19.38 19.14 19.46 19.23F    * 8.30 8.37 8.26 8.40 8.30F    ** 4.91 4.88 4.59 4.64 3.10-O=F -3.50 -3.52 -3.48 -3.54 -3.50Total 95.73 96.53 95.27 96.84 95.53Si apfu*** 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002Th 0.005 0.006 0.006 0.003 0.003U 0.005 0.006 0.005 0.005 0.005Y 0.002 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.005La 0.385 0.392 0.389 0.393 0.366Ce 0.460 0.459 0.454 0.458 0.467Pr 0.035 0.033 0.036 0.035 0.037Nd 0.093 0.089 0.092 0.091 0.096Sm 0.006 0.005 0.005 0.006 0.006Eu 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Gd 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.000 0.002Ca 0.003 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.007Sr 0.002 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.001Na 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002C 1 1 1 1 1F 1 1 1 1 1O 3 3 3 3 3* Determined by stoichiometry** EPMA measured value*** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralMGL-037 6Note: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (P, Nb, Ta, Zr, Al, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mg, Mn, Fe, K).     229  Table 23. Composition of parisite-(Ce). Thin Section MGL-006B 2 MGL-006C 1Point 325 326 334 336 361 402P?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.38 0.00Nb?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.00SiO? 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.15 0.04ThO? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.12 0.00UO? 0.30 0.39 0.48 0.33 0.19 0.35Y?O? 0.16 0.14 0.22 0.15 0.16 0.09La?O? 22.34 22.52 20.85 20.80 21.58 22.00Ce?O? 28.23 28.15 28.52 28.64 27.10 28.40Pr?O? 2.03 2.01 2.20 2.23 1.99 2.22Nd?O? 5.69 5.52 6.53 6.35 5.84 5.68Sm?O? 0.70 0.59 0.88 0.82 0.59 0.56Eu?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.00Gd?O? 0.31 0.22 0.57 0.48 0.29 0.08Dy?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00CaO 10.00 9.85 9.93 9.83 9.73 9.64SrO 0.43 0.47 0.41 0.34 0.86 0.41BaO 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00Na?O 0.00 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01CO?  * 24.07 23.95 24.17 23.97 29.24 23.75F    * 6.93 6.89 6.96 6.90 8.41 6.84F    ** 3.69 3.36 3.545 4.03 3.72 3.800-O=F -2.92 -2.90 -2.93 -2.90 -3.54 -2.88Total 98.30 97.85 98.85 98.02 109.15 97.19P apfu*** 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.279 0.000Nb 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000Si 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.004 0.011 0.004Th 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.036 0.000U 0.006 0.008 0.010 0.007 0.003 0.007Y 0.008 0.007 0.011 0.007 0.006 0.004La 0.752 0.762 0.699 0.703 0.598 0.751Ce 0.943 0.946 0.949 0.961 0.746 0.962Pr 0.068 0.067 0.073 0.074 0.054 0.075Nd 0.185 0.181 0.212 0.208 0.157 0.188Sm 0.022 0.019 0.028 0.026 0.015 0.018Eu 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000Gd 0.009 0.007 0.017 0.015 0.007 0.002Dy 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Ca 0.978 0.969 0.967 0.966 0.784 0.956Sr 0.023 0.025 0.022 0.018 0.037 0.022Ba 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Na 0.000 0.005 0.004 0.004 0.003 0.002C 3 3 3 3 3 3F 2 2 2 2 2 2O 9 9 9 9 9 9* Determined by stoichiometry** EPMA measured valueMGL-006A 4 MGL-006A 4b*** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralNote: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (Ta, Zr, Al, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mg, Mn, Fe, K,Cl).  230  Table 23 continued. Composition of parisite-(Ce). Thin Section MGL-012A 3Point 381 385 388 395 398 146 151 153P?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.01Nb?O? 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00SiO? 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.04 0.06 0.04 0.04ThO? 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.41 0.67 0.29UO? 0.32 0.55 0.36 0.44 0.53 0.36 0.38 0.46Y?O? 0.00 0.08 0.19 0.16 0.08 0.00 0.15 0.00La?O? 22.30 20.43 20.61 20.50 23.63 23.57 21.48 24.25Ce?O? 28.46 28.86 28.76 28.17 29.38 27.87 28.18 28.99Pr?O? 1.96 2.21 2.06 2.42 2.04 1.84 2.02 2.05Nd?O? 5.47 6.99 7.05 7.70 6.17 5.40 6.34 5.46Sm?O? 0.40 0.82 0.77 0.97 0.65 0.22 0.45 0.25Eu?O? 0.00 0.04 0.07 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00Gd?O? 0.13 0.35 0.53 0.36 0.28 0.00 0.01 0.00Dy?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00CaO 9.83 9.93 9.76 9.27 6.94 9.57 9.73 7.97SrO 0.45 0.37 0.36 0.23 0.26 0.49 0.61 0.37BaO 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00Na?O 0.03 0.01 0.00 0.03 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.07CO?  * 23.78 24.15 24.11 23.87 23.12 23.85 23.93 23.50F    * 6.84 6.95 6.94 6.87 6.65 6.86 6.89 6.76F    ** 3.58 3.26 3.13 3.97 3.51 3.71 3.57 4.18-O=F -2.88 -2.93 -2.92 -2.89 -2.80 -2.89 -2.90 -2.85Total 97.13 98.86 98.72 98.15 97.00 97.67 97.99 97.62P apfu*** 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.001Nb 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Si 0.004 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.004 0.006 0.004 0.004Th 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.009 0.014 0.006U 0.007 0.011 0.007 0.009 0.011 0.007 0.008 0.010Y 0.000 0.004 0.009 0.008 0.004 0.000 0.007 0.000La 0.760 0.686 0.693 0.696 0.828 0.801 0.728 0.836Ce 0.963 0.961 0.960 0.949 1.022 0.940 0.947 0.993Pr 0.066 0.073 0.068 0.081 0.071 0.062 0.068 0.070Nd 0.181 0.227 0.229 0.253 0.209 0.178 0.208 0.182Sm 0.013 0.026 0.024 0.031 0.021 0.007 0.014 0.008Eu 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000Gd 0.004 0.011 0.016 0.011 0.009 0.000 0.000 0.000Dy 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Ca 0.973 0.968 0.953 0.914 0.707 0.945 0.957 0.799Sr 0.024 0.020 0.019 0.012 0.014 0.026 0.032 0.020Ba 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Na 0.005 0.002 0.000 0.005 0.002 0.007 0.002 0.013C 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3F 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2O 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9* Determined by stoichiometry** EPMA measured value*** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralMGL-006C 2b MGL-006C 4 MGL-012A 5Note: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (Ta, Zr, Al, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mg, Mn, Fe, K,Cl).  231  Table 23 continued. Composition of parisite-(Ce). Thin Section MGL-013 6Point 182 282 285 287 289 276 277P?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00Nb?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.02 0.00SiO? 0.09 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.03ThO? 0.19 0.83 0.01 0.80 0.78 0.68 0.54UO? 0.36 0.40 0.46 0.45 0.38 0.36 0.28Y?O? 0.09 0.13 0.17 0.09 0.11 0.02 0.00La?O? 21.42 23.10 20.83 20.13 20.52 22.38 22.57Ce?O? 28.45 27.53 28.23 28.76 28.44 27.44 27.21Pr?O? 2.25 2.14 2.43 2.44 2.30 2.24 2.14Nd?O? 6.60 6.21 6.71 7.01 7.00 6.20 6.11Sm?O? 0.27 0.56 0.54 0.66 0.60 0.38 0.41Eu?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00Gd?O? 0.08 0.00 0.07 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.10Dy?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00CaO 9.77 9.82 9.95 10.10 9.89 9.69 10.10SrO 0.29 0.62 0.69 0.87 1.00 0.60 0.56BaO 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00Na?O 0.00 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.01CO?  * 23.93 24.34 24.04 24.44 24.27 23.91 24.02F    * 6.89 7.00 6.92 7.03 6.98 6.88 6.91F    ** 3.606 2.87 3.20 3.07 2.937 3.41 3.47-O=F -2.90 -2.95 -2.91 -2.96 -2.94 -2.90 -2.91Total 97.77 99.78 98.20 99.93 99.39 97.96 98.08P apfu*** 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Nb 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.000 0.001 0.000Si 0.008 0.003 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.003 0.003Th 0.004 0.017 0.000 0.016 0.016 0.014 0.011U 0.007 0.008 0.009 0.009 0.008 0.007 0.006Y 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.004 0.005 0.001 0.000La 0.726 0.769 0.702 0.668 0.685 0.759 0.762Ce 0.957 0.910 0.945 0.947 0.943 0.923 0.911Pr 0.075 0.070 0.081 0.080 0.076 0.075 0.071Nd 0.216 0.200 0.219 0.225 0.226 0.204 0.200Sm 0.009 0.017 0.017 0.020 0.019 0.012 0.013Eu 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Gd 0.002 0.000 0.002 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.003Dy 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Ca 0.961 0.950 0.974 0.973 0.960 0.954 0.990Sr 0.015 0.032 0.037 0.045 0.053 0.032 0.030Ba 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Na 0.000 0.004 0.004 0.002 0.004 0.005 0.002C 3 3 3 3 3 3 3F 2 2 2 2 2 2 2O 9 9 9 9 9 9 9* Determined by stoichiometry** EPMA measured value*** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralMGL-026 2 MGL-026 2a MGL-026 4Note: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (Ta, Zr, Al, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mg, Mn, Fe, K,Cl).  232  Table 23 continued. Composition of parisite-(Ce). Thin Section MGL-030 3bPoint 412 420 422 425 428 429 430 431P?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00Nb?O? 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00SiO? 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.06 0.03 0.09 0.04 0.04ThO? 0.90 1.48 1.79 2.48 1.27 0.49 0.89 0.52UO? 0.42 0.35 0.63 0.46 0.34 0.50 0.56 0.36Y?O? 0.26 0.39 0.44 0.51 0.41 0.60 0.34 0.36La?O? 23.72 20.15 20.13 19.94 20.90 19.76 21.54 21.90Ce?O? 25.92 27.16 26.86 24.79 26.94 26.85 25.92 26.47Pr?O? 2.03 2.11 2.02 2.03 2.11 1.99 2.19 1.98Nd?O? 6.20 6.88 7.21 7.28 6.93 7.14 6.76 6.64Sm?O? 1.15 1.34 1.58 1.82 1.42 1.57 1.38 1.41Eu?O? 0.12 0.22 0.21 0.26 0.17 0.32 0.09 0.26Gd?O? 0.65 0.78 0.87 1.53 0.94 0.98 0.79 0.85Dy?O? 0.00 0.00 0.07 0.00 0.00 0.16 0.00 0.04CaO 8.43 9.71 9.64 9.89 8.99 9.62 9.79 9.71SrO 0.71 0.70 0.90 0.75 0.82 0.59 0.70 0.83BaO 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00Na?O 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.01CO?  * 23.68 24.25 24.51 24.38 24.03 24.11 24.19 24.31F    * 6.82 6.98 7.05 7.02 6.91 6.94 6.96 7.00F    ** 3.74 3.09 2.941 3.57 3.06 3.008 3.26 3.19-O=F -2.87 -2.94 -2.97 -2.95 -2.91 -2.92 -2.93 -2.95Total 98.20 99.63 100.98 100.24 99.30 98.80 99.22 99.74P apfu*** 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Nb 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Si 0.004 0.003 0.003 0.005 0.003 0.008 0.004 0.004Th 0.019 0.031 0.037 0.051 0.026 0.010 0.018 0.011U 0.009 0.007 0.013 0.009 0.007 0.010 0.011 0.007Y 0.013 0.019 0.021 0.024 0.020 0.029 0.016 0.017La 0.812 0.673 0.666 0.663 0.705 0.664 0.722 0.730Ce 0.880 0.901 0.882 0.818 0.902 0.896 0.862 0.876Pr 0.069 0.070 0.066 0.067 0.070 0.066 0.072 0.065Nd 0.205 0.223 0.231 0.234 0.226 0.232 0.219 0.214Sm 0.037 0.042 0.049 0.057 0.045 0.049 0.043 0.044Eu 0.004 0.007 0.006 0.008 0.005 0.010 0.003 0.008Gd 0.020 0.023 0.026 0.046 0.028 0.030 0.024 0.025Dy 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.000 0.000 0.005 0.000 0.001Ca 0.838 0.943 0.926 0.955 0.881 0.939 0.953 0.940Sr 0.038 0.037 0.047 0.039 0.043 0.031 0.037 0.044Ba 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Na 0.004 0.002 0.002 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.002 0.002C 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3F 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2O 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9* Determined by stoichiometry** EPMA measured value*** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralMGL-030 4 MGL-030 5Note: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (Ta, Zr, Al, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mg, Mn, Fe, K,Cl).  233  Table 23 continued. Composition of parisite-(Ce). Thin SectionPoint 432 433 434 435 436 441 445 446P?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00Nb?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00SiO? 0.05 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.04ThO? 0.95 0.53 1.10 0.13 0.05 0.34 0.39 0.13UO? 0.41 0.40 0.59 0.40 0.50 0.43 0.49 0.29Y?O? 0.27 0.33 0.42 0.41 0.34 0.34 0.32 0.45La?O? 22.76 22.88 22.76 22.65 22.79 22.22 22.89 21.45Ce?O? 26.61 26.17 26.74 27.11 26.73 27.03 26.12 27.38Pr?O? 1.97 2.06 1.90 2.15 2.22 2.08 1.95 2.32Nd?O? 6.58 6.04 6.50 6.64 6.66 6.83 6.55 7.45Sm?O? 1.24 1.25 1.17 1.22 1.19 1.16 1.21 1.25Eu?O? 0.09 0.23 0.08 0.09 0.00 0.13 0.03 0.18Gd?O? 0.87 0.57 0.75 0.68 0.65 0.62 0.49 0.67Dy?O? 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.00CaO 9.27 9.74 9.46 9.28 9.32 9.22 9.06 9.56SrO 0.48 0.80 1.01 0.81 0.82 0.90 0.88 0.90BaO 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.78 0.00Na?O 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.03 0.02CO?  * 24.21 24.21 24.58 24.33 24.21 24.18 24.24 24.53F    * 6.97 6.97 7.07 7.00 6.97 6.96 6.98 7.06F    ** 3.303 3.44 2.81 3.14 3.14 2.96 3.03 3.01-O=F -2.93 -2.93 -2.98 -2.95 -2.93 -2.93 -2.94 -2.97Total 99.79 99.27 101.25 100.05 99.57 99.57 100.52 100.70P apfu*** 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Nb 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Si 0.005 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.003 0.003 0.004Th 0.020 0.011 0.022 0.003 0.001 0.007 0.008 0.003U 0.008 0.008 0.012 0.008 0.010 0.009 0.010 0.006Y 0.013 0.016 0.020 0.020 0.016 0.016 0.015 0.021La 0.762 0.766 0.751 0.755 0.763 0.745 0.765 0.709Ce 0.884 0.870 0.875 0.897 0.888 0.899 0.867 0.898Pr 0.065 0.068 0.062 0.071 0.073 0.069 0.064 0.076Nd 0.213 0.196 0.208 0.214 0.216 0.222 0.212 0.238Sm 0.039 0.039 0.036 0.038 0.037 0.036 0.038 0.039Eu 0.003 0.007 0.002 0.003 0.000 0.004 0.001 0.006Gd 0.026 0.017 0.022 0.020 0.020 0.019 0.015 0.020Dy 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000Ca 0.902 0.947 0.906 0.898 0.906 0.898 0.880 0.918Sr 0.025 0.042 0.052 0.042 0.043 0.047 0.046 0.047Ba 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.063 0.000Na 0.000 0.002 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.005 0.005 0.003C 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3F 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2O 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9* Determined by stoichiometry** EPMA measured value*** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralMGL-031 4MGL-031 1MGL-030 5Note: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (Ta, Zr, Al, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mg, Mn, Fe, K,Cl).  234  Table 23 continued. Composition of parisite-(Ce). Thin SectionPoint 449 452P?O? 0.00 0.00Nb?O? 0.03 0.00SiO? 0.03 0.02ThO? 0.97 0.19UO? 0.38 0.44Y?O? 0.19 0.28La?O? 23.81 24.38Ce?O? 26.90 26.48Pr?O? 1.98 1.89Nd?O? 6.33 5.83Sm?O? 1.02 0.91Eu?O? 0.08 0.11Gd?O? 0.53 0.44Dy?O? 0.00 0.00CaO 9.59 9.26SrO 0.94 1.16BaO 0.00 0.00Na?O 0.01 0.00CO?  * 24.69 24.21F    * 7.10 6.97F    ** 2.869 3.01-O=F -2.99 -2.93Total 101.59 99.63P apfu*** 0.000 0.000Nb 0.001 0.000Si 0.003 0.002Th 0.020 0.004U 0.008 0.009Y 0.009 0.014La 0.782 0.816Ce 0.877 0.880Pr 0.064 0.063Nd 0.201 0.189Sm 0.031 0.028Eu 0.002 0.003Gd 0.016 0.013Dy 0.000 0.000Ca 0.915 0.901Sr 0.049 0.061Ba 0.000 0.000Na 0.002 0.000C 3 3F 2 2O 9 9* Determined by stoichiometry** EPMA measured value*** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralMGL-031 5Note: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (Ta, Zr, Al, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mg, Mn, Fe, K,Cl).  235  Table 24. Composition of synchysite-(Ce). Thin SectionPoint 319 320 321 322 343 345 324 329SiO? 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.02 0.04ThO? 0.00 0.06 0.16 0.00 0.00 1.74 0.26 0.08UO? 0.35 0.33 0.22 0.29 0.30 0.11 0.09 0.26Y?O? 0.07 0.07 0.04 0.07 0.09 0.11 0.21 0.14La?O? 19.18 17.45 18.63 19.05 16.80 18.94 15.49 16.53Ce?O? 27.13 26.51 26.81 26.32 25.38 24.24 25.64 25.38Pr?O? 2.09 2.00 1.93 2.10 2.23 1.85 1.99 2.00Nd?O? 6.02 6.48 5.71 5.94 6.70 5.61 7.21 7.11Sm?O? 0.45 0.70 0.49 0.56 0.83 0.63 1.19 1.01Eu?O? 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.05 0.10 0.00Gd?O? 0.02 0.22 0.25 0.11 0.42 0.35 0.67 0.38Dy?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00CaO 14.36 14.31 14.27 14.28 16.30 13.99 16.56 16.40FeO 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00SrO 0.38 0.73 0.88 0.83 0.44 0.53 0.41 0.37CO?  * 26.95 26.55 26.71 26.76 27.36 26.17 27.51 27.44F    * 5.82 5.73 5.77 5.78 5.90 5.65 5.94 5.92F    ** 3.02 3.43 3.09 3.24 2.99 3.91 2.98 2.92-O=F -2.45 -2.41 -2.43 -2.43 -2.49 -2.38 -2.50 -2.49Total 100.40 98.77 99.47 99.68 100.35 97.64 100.79 100.57Si apfu*** 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.001 0.002Th 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.000 0.000 0.022 0.003 0.001U 0.004 0.004 0.003 0.004 0.004 0.001 0.001 0.003Y 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.006 0.004La 0.384 0.355 0.377 0.385 0.332 0.391 0.304 0.325Ce 0.540 0.536 0.538 0.527 0.498 0.497 0.500 0.496Pr 0.041 0.040 0.039 0.042 0.044 0.038 0.039 0.039Nd 0.117 0.128 0.112 0.116 0.128 0.112 0.137 0.136Sm 0.008 0.013 0.009 0.011 0.015 0.012 0.022 0.019Eu 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.000Gd 0.000 0.004 0.005 0.002 0.007 0.006 0.012 0.007Dy 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Ca 0.836 0.846 0.839 0.837 0.935 0.839 0.945 0.938Fe 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Sr 0.012 0.023 0.028 0.026 0.014 0.017 0.013 0.011C 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1O 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6* Determined by stoichiometry** EPMA measured value*** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralNote: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (P, Nb, Ta, Ti, Zr, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mg, Mn, Ba, Na, K, Cl).MGL-006A 4MGL-006A 1 MGL-006A 3  236  Table 24 continued. Composition of synchysite-(Ce). Thin SectionPoint 337 338 347 350 360 362 364 367 369SiO? 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.27 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.02ThO? 0.00 0.00 0.99 1.13 2.01 0.22 0.04 0.01 0.91UO? 0.23 0.29 0.31 0.22 0.22 0.21 0.39 0.28 0.13Y?O? 0.18 0.15 0.00 0.06 0.10 0.17 0.06 0.06 0.21La?O? 18.61 18.48 18.99 18.40 17.22 18.20 17.74 19.41 17.49Ce?O? 24.70 25.06 24.33 24.71 22.93 24.17 25.50 27.29 24.76Pr?O? 1.88 1.98 1.83 1.92 1.85 1.74 2.06 2.33 2.01Nd?O? 5.67 5.90 5.37 5.87 5.60 5.37 5.80 6.41 6.05Sm?O? 0.67 0.67 0.41 0.51 0.55 0.54 0.62 0.64 0.74Eu?O? 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00Gd?O? 0.24 0.30 0.13 0.10 0.30 0.11 0.20 0.35 0.30Dy?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00CaO 16.57 16.67 16.20 16.41 15.67 17.23 16.14 12.38 15.87FeO 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.53 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.00SrO 0.49 0.41 0.65 0.52 1.14 0.82 0.88 0.17 0.77CO?  * 27.37 27.61 27.18 27.47 27.01 27.45 27.28 26.10 27.12F    * 5.91 5.96 5.87 5.93 5.83 5.93 5.89 5.63 5.85F    ** 2.83 3.08 2.60 2.94 3.01 2.86 2.72 2.91 2.53-O=F -2.49 -2.51 -2.47 -2.50 -2.45 -2.50 -2.48 -2.37 -2.46Total 100.06 100.99 99.81 100.81 98.77 99.73 100.14 98.72 99.76Si apfu*** 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.015 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.001Th 0.000 0.000 0.012 0.014 0.025 0.003 0.000 0.000 0.011U 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.003 0.003 0.002 0.005 0.003 0.002Y 0.005 0.004 0.000 0.002 0.003 0.005 0.002 0.002 0.006La 0.367 0.362 0.378 0.362 0.344 0.358 0.351 0.402 0.349Ce 0.484 0.487 0.480 0.482 0.455 0.472 0.501 0.561 0.490Pr 0.037 0.038 0.036 0.037 0.037 0.034 0.040 0.048 0.040Nd 0.108 0.112 0.103 0.112 0.108 0.102 0.111 0.129 0.117Sm 0.012 0.012 0.008 0.009 0.010 0.010 0.011 0.012 0.014Eu 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Gd 0.004 0.005 0.002 0.002 0.005 0.002 0.004 0.007 0.005Dy 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Ca 0.950 0.948 0.936 0.938 0.911 0.985 0.929 0.745 0.919Fe 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.024 0.002 0.000 0.000 0.000Sr 0.015 0.013 0.020 0.016 0.036 0.025 0.027 0.006 0.024C 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1O 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6* Determined by stoichiometry** EPMA measured value*** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralNote: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (P, Nb, Ta, Ti, Zr, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mg, Mn, Ba, Na, K, Cl).MGL-006B 3MGL-006A 4b MGL-006B 1 MGL-006B 2  237  Table 24 continued. Composition of synchysite-(Ce). Thin Section MGL-006C 1 MGL-015 3Point 403 380 384 386 196 229 230SiO? 0.02 0.02 0.07 0.03 0.51 0.12 0.15ThO? 0.00 0.24 0.17 0.00 0.36 0.00 0.00UO? 0.31 0.18 0.35 0.21 0.13 0.17 0.09Y?O? 0.04 0.00 0.21 0.11 1.66 1.26 0.59La?O? 17.71 18.83 15.33 16.34 14.31 16.97 19.51Ce?O? 25.12 24.80 24.68 24.81 21.01 21.15 21.80Pr?O? 2.08 1.85 2.02 2.18 1.71 1.90 1.72Nd?O? 5.88 5.61 7.95 6.78 6.92 6.13 6.54Sm?O? 0.60 0.49 1.29 1.01 1.00 1.15 0.79Eu?O? 0.00 0.00 0.09 0.07 0.09 0.04 0.00Gd?O? 0.10 0.14 0.80 0.47 0.48 1.13 0.82Dy?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.19 0.05 0.00CaO 16.06 16.26 16.17 16.19 18.80 18.02 16.96FeO 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.61 0.30 0.32SrO 0.55 0.60 0.35 0.49 0.49 0.43 0.36CO?  * 26.94 27.17 27.29 27.04 28.42 27.92 27.82F    * 5.81 5.87 5.89 5.84 6.13 6.03 6.01F    ** 2.51 3.17 2.67 2.63 3.02 3.16 3.50-O=F -2.45 -2.47 -2.48 -2.46 -2.58 -2.54 -2.53Total 98.78 99.59 100.18 99.11 100.24 100.23 100.95Si apfu*** 0.001 0.001 0.004 0.002 0.026 0.006 0.008Th 0.000 0.003 0.002 0.000 0.004 0.000 0.000U 0.004 0.002 0.004 0.003 0.001 0.002 0.001Y 0.001 0.000 0.006 0.003 0.046 0.035 0.017La 0.355 0.374 0.303 0.326 0.272 0.328 0.379Ce 0.500 0.489 0.485 0.492 0.397 0.406 0.420Pr 0.041 0.036 0.040 0.043 0.032 0.036 0.033Nd 0.114 0.108 0.152 0.131 0.127 0.115 0.123Sm 0.011 0.009 0.024 0.019 0.018 0.021 0.014Eu 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.000Gd 0.002 0.003 0.014 0.008 0.008 0.020 0.014Dy 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.003 0.001 0.000Ca 0.936 0.939 0.930 0.940 1.038 1.013 0.957Fe 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.026 0.013 0.014Sr 0.017 0.019 0.011 0.015 0.015 0.013 0.011C 2 2 2 2 2 2 2F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1O 6 6 6 6 6 6 6* Determined by stoichiometry** EPMA measured value*** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralNote: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (P, Nb, Ta, Ti, Zr, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mg, Mn, Ba, Na, K, Cl).MGL-019 4MGL-006C 2b  238  Table 25. Composition of ancylite-(Ce). Thin Section MGL-006A 3 MGL-006B 3 MGL-006C 2bPoint 344 368 382 310 311SiO? 0.13 1.01 0.08 1.12 0.67ThO? 0.97 2.77 0.43 2.74 1.91UO? 0.52 0.41 0.42 0.23 0.39Y?O? 0.00 0.05 0.00 0.05 0.06La?O? 18.09 20.37 18.93 15.93 16.92Ce?O? 22.61 20.19 22.88 20.46 21.92Pr?O? 1.57 1.80 1.57 1.19 1.60Nd?O? 3.62 4.67 4.27 4.46 4.94Sm?O? 0.00 0.19 0.14 0.23 0.35Gd?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.08 0.09CaO 2.39 2.79 3.12 2.62 2.35FeO 0.31 0.41 0.00 1.36 0.50SrO 15.01 13.70 12.72 15.46 17.33BaO 1.71 0.28 2.11 0.94 0.53Na?O 0.00 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.01CO?  * 22.47 23.94 22.48 23.54 23.89H?O  * 6.90 7.35 6.90 7.23 7.34Total 96.3 99.96 96.07 97.66 100.8Si apfu** 0.008 0.062 0.005 0.070 0.041Th 0.014 0.039 0.006 0.039 0.027U 0.008 0.006 0.006 0.003 0.005Y 0.000 0.002 0.000 0.002 0.002La 0.435 0.460 0.455 0.366 0.383Ce 0.540 0.452 0.546 0.466 0.492Pr 0.037 0.040 0.037 0.027 0.036Nd 0.084 0.102 0.099 0.099 0.108Sm 0.000 0.004 0.003 0.005 0.007Gd 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.002Ca 0.167 0.183 0.218 0.175 0.154Fe 0.017 0.021 0.000 0.071 0.026Sr 0.567 0.486 0.481 0.558 0.616Ba 0.044 0.007 0.054 0.023 0.013Na 0.000 0.004 0.003 0.002 0.001C 2 2 2 2 2H 3 3 3 3 3* Determined by stoichiometry** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralMGL-018 7Note: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (P, Nb, Ta, Ti, Zr, Al, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mg, Mn, Ba, Na, K, F, Cl).      239  Table 25 continued. Composition of ancylite-(Ce). Thin Section MGL-035 2Point 506 507 508 509 512 523 539 540SiO? 0.17 0.10 0.10 0.15 0.10 0.08 0.09 0.19ThO? 0.45 1.59 1.21 0.81 1.08 1.21 0.49 1.06UO? 0.34 0.39 0.36 0.43 0.36 0.17 0.47 0.27Y?O? 0.05 0.01 0.02 0.08 0.03 0.05 0.00 0.06La?O? 19.22 19.02 19.53 19.72 19.87 19.78 18.61 18.83Ce?O? 22.87 22.80 22.34 22.56 22.40 21.41 20.89 22.26Pr?O? 1.63 1.51 1.43 1.61 1.52 1.37 1.37 1.36Nd?O? 4.48 4.36 3.87 4.07 3.85 3.46 3.59 3.85Sm?O? 0.27 0.31 0.12 0.24 0.19 0.20 0.14 0.18Gd?O? 0.00 0.41 0.11 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.12 0.09CaO 2.37 2.56 2.19 2.34 2.75 3.18 2.42 2.74FeO 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.00 0.02SrO 15.86 14.53 16.26 16.64 15.53 15.67 13.81 15.20BaO 0.38 0.38 0.30 0.83 0.18 0.00 4.37 1.42Na?O 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.00 0.06 0.02 0.06 0.01CO?  * 23.02 22.87 22.79 23.41 23.04 22.77 22.01 22.82H?O  * 7.07 7.02 7.00 7.19 7.07 6.99 6.76 7.01Total 98.23 97.9 97.66 100.21 98.17 96.56 95.19 97.37Si apfu** 0.011 0.006 0.006 0.009 0.006 0.005 0.006 0.012Th 0.007 0.023 0.018 0.012 0.016 0.018 0.007 0.015U 0.005 0.006 0.005 0.006 0.005 0.002 0.007 0.004Y 0.002 0.000 0.001 0.003 0.001 0.002 0.000 0.002La 0.451 0.449 0.463 0.455 0.466 0.469 0.457 0.446Ce 0.533 0.535 0.526 0.517 0.522 0.504 0.509 0.523Pr 0.038 0.035 0.033 0.037 0.035 0.032 0.033 0.032Nd 0.102 0.100 0.089 0.091 0.087 0.079 0.085 0.088Sm 0.006 0.007 0.003 0.005 0.004 0.004 0.003 0.004Gd 0.000 0.009 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.002Ca 0.162 0.176 0.151 0.157 0.187 0.219 0.173 0.188Fe 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.003 0.000 0.001Sr 0.585 0.540 0.606 0.604 0.573 0.585 0.533 0.566Ba 0.009 0.010 0.008 0.020 0.004 0.000 0.114 0.036Na 0.006 0.005 0.004 0.000 0.007 0.002 0.008 0.001C 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2H 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3* Determined by stoichiometry** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralMGL-035 1 MGL-035 5aNote: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (P, Nb, Ta, Ti, Zr, Al, Tb, Eu, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mg, Mn, Ba, Na, K, Cl).      240  Table 26. Composition of cordylite-(Ce). Thin SectionPoint 356 357 358 359 363 365 366 370 371SiO? 0.04 0.07 0.04 0.05 0.04 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.05ThO? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00UO? 0.64 0.73 0.62 0.54 0.66 0.68 0.73 0.67 0.61Al?O? 0.09 0.10 0.08 0.10 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.11 0.10Y?O? 0.24 0.09 0.19 0.26 0.19 0.02 0.03 0.15 0.04La?O? 16.05 12.33 16.82 16.09 18.10 15.35 14.84 15.62 17.37Ce?O? 21.70 23.01 21.66 21.74 21.80 23.17 21.67 21.89 22.56Pr?O? 1.68 2.10 1.53 1.77 1.47 1.90 1.86 1.80 1.81Nd?O? 5.66 7.58 4.72 5.40 4.06 5.99 6.07 5.51 4.75Sm?O? 0.73 1.08 0.74 0.65 0.42 0.77 0.82 0.70 0.48Eu?O? 0.03 0.09 0.02 0.07 0.00 0.03 0.01 0.07 0.00Gd?O? 0.49 0.54 0.37 0.48 0.29 0.38 0.51 0.47 0.16CaO 1.04 0.78 1.09 0.98 1.09 0.66 1.33 0.99 0.61SrO 0.71 0.66 0.96 0.86 0.79 0.49 1.22 0.78 0.42BaO 21.57 21.61 21.65 21.22 21.74 21.58 22.09 21.71 21.69Na?O 0.78 0.95 0.81 0.85 0.85 0.81 0.82 0.82 0.84CO?  * 23.98 24.00 23.95 23.91 24.08 24.02 24.25 23.92 23.86F    * 2.59 2.59 2.58 2.58 2.60 2.59 2.62 2.58 2.58F    ** 1.23 1.33 1.31 1.25 1.21 1.21 1.22 1.24 1.28-O=F -1.09 -1.09 -1.09 -1.09 -1.09 -1.09 -1.10 -1.09 -1.08Total 96.93 97.22 96.75 96.46 97.18 97.50 97.91 96.74 96.84Si apfu*** 0.005 0.009 0.005 0.006 0.005 0.007 0.006 0.005 0.006Th 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000U 0.017 0.020 0.017 0.015 0.018 0.018 0.020 0.018 0.017Al 0.013 0.014 0.012 0.014 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.016 0.014Y 0.016 0.006 0.012 0.017 0.012 0.001 0.002 0.010 0.003La 0.723 0.555 0.759 0.727 0.812 0.690 0.661 0.706 0.787Ce 0.971 1.028 0.970 0.975 0.971 1.035 0.958 0.982 1.014Pr 0.075 0.093 0.068 0.079 0.065 0.084 0.082 0.080 0.081Nd 0.247 0.330 0.206 0.236 0.176 0.261 0.262 0.241 0.208Sm 0.031 0.045 0.031 0.027 0.018 0.032 0.034 0.030 0.020Eu 0.001 0.004 0.001 0.003 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.003 0.000Gd 0.020 0.022 0.015 0.019 0.012 0.015 0.020 0.019 0.007Ca 0.136 0.102 0.143 0.129 0.142 0.086 0.172 0.130 0.080Sr 0.050 0.047 0.068 0.061 0.056 0.035 0.085 0.055 0.030Ba 1.033 1.034 1.038 1.019 1.037 1.031 1.046 1.042 1.044Na 0.185 0.225 0.192 0.202 0.201 0.192 0.192 0.195 0.200C 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1O 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12* Determined by stoichiometry** EPMA measured value*** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralNote: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (P, Nb, Ta, Ti, Zr, Tb, Eu, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mg, Mn, Fe, K, Cl).MGL-006B 3MGL-006B 2 241  Table 26 continued. Composition of cordylite-(Ce). Thin SectionPoint 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 183 184 185SiO? 0.05 0.21 0.13 0.09 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.08 0.06 0.05ThO? 0.55 0.77 0.89 0.83 0.44 0.30 0.38 1.15 0.53 0.17UO? 0.58 0.45 0.67 0.49 0.51 0.50 0.45 0.65 0.59 0.50Al?O? 0.10 0.08 0.07 0.09 0.08 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09Y?O? 0.07 0.13 0.12 0.13 0.13 0.04 0.15 0.08 0.03 0.03La?O? 13.20 12.38 12.89 12.60 12.12 13.35 11.96 14.67 13.62 13.20Ce?O? 19.90 19.51 19.28 19.61 19.55 19.53 19.13 22.11 21.04 19.75Pr?O? 1.47 1.49 1.46 1.43 1.58 1.31 1.57 1.76 1.66 1.52Nd?O? 4.51 4.90 4.70 5.04 4.99 4.41 4.97 5.23 5.08 4.63Sm?O? 0.24 0.32 0.32 0.37 0.46 0.26 0.39 0.44 0.32 0.18Eu?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00Gd?O? 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.17 0.05 0.09 0.12 0.05 0.00 0.04CaO 3.32 3.70 3.84 3.52 3.50 3.49 3.54 1.50 2.01 3.38SrO 4.77 5.26 4.88 4.72 4.70 4.74 4.79 2.03 2.63 4.88BaO 22.24 20.71 21.24 21.59 22.76 22.58 22.86 20.63 21.67 22.07Na?O 0.65 0.70 0.72 0.62 0.65 0.70 0.69 0.88 0.78 0.71CO?  * 24.80 24.87 24.97 24.81 24.77 24.76 24.65 24.21 23.84 24.70F    * 2.68 2.68 2.69 2.68 2.67 2.67 2.66 2.61 2.57 2.67F    ** 1.22 1.19 1.23 1.16 1.24 1.32 1.21 1.17 1.17 1.16-O=F -1.13 -1.13 -1.13 -1.13 -1.13 -1.13 -1.12 -1.1 -1.08 -1.12Total 98.01 97.03 97.74 97.66 97.88 97.75 97.33 97.08 95.44 97.45Si apfu*** 0.006 0.025 0.015 0.011 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.010 0.007 0.006Th 0.015 0.021 0.024 0.022 0.012 0.008 0.010 0.032 0.015 0.005U 0.015 0.012 0.017 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.012 0.018 0.016 0.013Al 0.014 0.011 0.010 0.013 0.011 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013Y 0.004 0.008 0.007 0.008 0.008 0.003 0.009 0.005 0.002 0.002La 0.575 0.538 0.558 0.549 0.529 0.583 0.524 0.655 0.617 0.577Ce 0.861 0.842 0.828 0.848 0.847 0.846 0.833 0.979 0.947 0.858Pr 0.063 0.064 0.062 0.062 0.068 0.056 0.068 0.078 0.074 0.066Nd 0.190 0.206 0.197 0.213 0.211 0.186 0.211 0.226 0.223 0.196Sm 0.010 0.013 0.013 0.015 0.019 0.011 0.016 0.018 0.014 0.007Eu 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Gd 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.007 0.002 0.004 0.005 0.002 0.000 0.002Ca 0.420 0.467 0.483 0.445 0.444 0.442 0.451 0.194 0.265 0.430Sr 0.327 0.359 0.332 0.323 0.322 0.325 0.330 0.142 0.187 0.336Ba 1.030 0.956 0.977 0.999 1.055 1.047 1.065 0.978 1.044 1.026Na 0.149 0.160 0.164 0.142 0.149 0.161 0.159 0.206 0.186 0.163C 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1O 12 2 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12* Determined by stoichiometry** EPMA measured value*** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralMGL-015 3 MGL-015 4Note: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (P, Nb, Ta, Ti, Zr, Tb, Eu, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mg, Mn, Fe, K, Cl).  242  Table 26 continued. Composition of cordylite-(Ce). Thin SectionPoint 186 188 189 190 192 193 194 195 253 254SiO? 0.05 0.06 0.17 0.07 0.13 0.05 0.05 0.11 0.03 0.04ThO? 0.36 0.45 0.89 0.94 0.73 0.71 0.91 0.79 0.18 0.02UO? 0.39 0.67 0.46 0.44 0.36 0.59 0.48 0.48 0.52 0.48Al?O? 0.10 0.10 0.09 0.10 0.11 0.08 0.10 0.10 0.09 0.09Y?O? 0.04 0.06 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.04 0.04 0.17 0.00 0.00La?O? 13.24 14.84 14.95 14.72 13.47 12.73 14.83 13.52 15.92 15.66Ce?O? 19.58 22.74 20.88 21.49 20.64 21.32 22.22 20.77 19.90 20.04Pr?O? 1.48 1.58 1.49 1.42 1.26 1.70 1.66 1.57 1.31 1.52Nd?O? 4.37 4.95 4.76 5.10 4.35 5.67 5.11 4.88 4.24 4.39Sm?O? 0.25 0.28 0.27 0.28 0.20 0.56 0.38 0.29 0.37 0.31Eu?O? 0.00 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00Gd?O? 0.00 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.15 0.07 0.00 0.06 0.12CaO 3.37 1.15 2.22 1.50 2.28 2.18 0.95 2.52 2.37 2.27SrO 4.82 1.71 2.08 1.94 3.36 3.36 1.61 4.27 3.37 3.23BaO 22.73 21.70 21.07 21.55 20.84 22.54 22.09 20.89 22.38 22.70Na?O 0.70 0.84 0.70 0.85 1.32 0.70 0.92 0.78 0.78 0.76CO?  * 24.74 23.96 24.01 23.80 23.89 24.57 23.91 24.57 24.41 24.40F    * 2.67 2.59 2.59 2.57 2.58 2.65 2.58 2.65 2.63 2.63F    ** 1.14 1.25 1.08 1.09 1.36 1.26 1.24 1.11 1.23 1.25-O=F -1.12 -1.09 -1.09 -1.08 -1.09 -1.12 -1.09 -1.12 -1.11 -1.11Total 97.76 96.70 95.53 95.71 94.43 98.48 96.82 97.24 97.46 97.55Si apfu*** 0.006 0.007 0.021 0.009 0.016 0.006 0.006 0.013 0.004 0.005Th 0.010 0.013 0.025 0.026 0.020 0.019 0.025 0.021 0.005 0.001U 0.010 0.018 0.012 0.012 0.010 0.016 0.013 0.013 0.014 0.013Al 0.014 0.014 0.013 0.015 0.016 0.011 0.014 0.014 0.013 0.013Y 0.003 0.004 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.003 0.003 0.011 0.000 0.000La 0.578 0.669 0.673 0.668 0.609 0.560 0.670 0.595 0.705 0.694Ce 0.849 1.018 0.933 0.969 0.927 0.931 0.997 0.907 0.874 0.881Pr 0.064 0.070 0.066 0.064 0.056 0.074 0.074 0.068 0.057 0.067Nd 0.185 0.216 0.207 0.224 0.191 0.241 0.224 0.208 0.182 0.188Sm 0.010 0.012 0.011 0.012 0.008 0.023 0.016 0.012 0.015 0.013Eu 0.000 0.002 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Gd 0.000 0.002 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.006 0.003 0.000 0.002 0.005Ca 0.428 0.151 0.290 0.198 0.300 0.279 0.125 0.322 0.305 0.292Sr 0.331 0.121 0.147 0.138 0.239 0.232 0.114 0.295 0.235 0.225Ba 1.055 1.040 1.008 1.040 1.002 1.053 1.061 0.976 1.053 1.068Na 0.161 0.199 0.166 0.203 0.314 0.162 0.219 0.180 0.181 0.177C 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1O 12 2 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12* Determined by stoichiometry** EPMA measured value*** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralMGL-015 7MGL-015 4 MGL-017 5Note: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (P, Nb, Ta, Ti, Zr, Tb, Eu, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mg, Mn, Fe, K, Cl).  243  Table 26 continued. Composition of cordylite-(Ce). Thin SectionPoint 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264SiO? 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.21 0.04 0.02 0.08 0.04 0.04ThO? 0.28 1.11 0.09 0.20 0.69 0.22 1.31 0.89 0.20 0.27UO? 0.49 0.49 0.41 0.39 0.56 0.50 0.49 0.48 0.49 0.50Al?O? 0.09 0.10 0.09 0.08 0.11 0.07 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.09Y?O? 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.00La?O? 14.42 16.93 15.28 15.70 15.76 16.07 16.64 16.45 15.35 16.29Ce?O? 19.48 20.10 20.68 19.79 18.65 19.59 20.11 19.04 20.28 19.47Pr?O? 1.43 1.33 1.55 1.44 1.23 1.25 1.19 1.19 1.47 1.13Nd?O? 4.69 4.04 4.55 3.94 4.12 4.06 3.85 3.85 4.59 3.73Sm?O? 0.37 0.15 0.32 0.18 0.13 0.15 0.18 0.19 0.33 0.21Eu?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00Gd?O? 0.16 0.09 0.00 0.05 0.05 0.14 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.00CaO 2.83 1.92 2.35 2.49 2.85 2.58 2.14 3.32 2.31 2.60SrO 3.80 2.91 3.49 3.42 3.02 3.71 2.84 3.40 3.52 3.46BaO 22.60 22.41 22.03 22.34 22.02 22.71 22.32 21.23 21.98 22.55Na?O 0.70 0.59 0.71 0.73 0.91 0.74 0.66 0.50 0.71 0.80CO?  * 24.46 24.41 24.49 24.20 24.37 24.57 24.35 24.51 24.36 24.36F    * 2.64 2.63 2.64 2.61 2.63 2.65 2.63 2.65 2.63 2.63F    ** 1.23 1.18 1.19 1.24 1.16 1.22 1.22 1.13 1.22 1.21-O=F -1.11 -1.11 -1.11 -1.1 -1.11 -1.12 -1.11 -1.11 -1.11 -1.11Total 97.36 98.15 97.65 96.50 96.20 97.96 97.75 96.80 97.25 97.02Si apfu*** 0.004 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.025 0.005 0.002 0.010 0.005 0.005Th 0.008 0.030 0.002 0.006 0.019 0.006 0.036 0.024 0.005 0.007U 0.013 0.013 0.011 0.011 0.015 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013Al 0.013 0.014 0.013 0.011 0.016 0.010 0.011 0.010 0.010 0.013Y 0.000 0.000 0.003 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.000 0.002 0.000 0.000La 0.637 0.749 0.674 0.701 0.699 0.707 0.738 0.725 0.681 0.723Ce 0.854 0.883 0.906 0.877 0.821 0.855 0.886 0.833 0.893 0.857Pr 0.062 0.058 0.068 0.064 0.054 0.054 0.052 0.052 0.064 0.050Nd 0.201 0.173 0.194 0.170 0.177 0.173 0.165 0.164 0.197 0.160Sm 0.015 0.006 0.013 0.008 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.014 0.009Eu 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Gd 0.006 0.004 0.000 0.002 0.002 0.006 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.000Ca 0.363 0.247 0.301 0.323 0.367 0.330 0.276 0.425 0.298 0.335Sr 0.264 0.203 0.242 0.240 0.211 0.257 0.198 0.236 0.246 0.241Ba 1.061 1.054 1.033 1.060 1.038 1.061 1.052 0.994 1.036 1.063Na 0.163 0.137 0.165 0.171 0.212 0.171 0.154 0.116 0.166 0.187C 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1O 12 2 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12* Determined by stoichiometry** EPMA measured value*** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralMGL-017 5 MGL-017 5bNote: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (P, Nb, Ta, Ti, Zr, Tb, Eu, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mg, Mn, Fe, K, Cl).  244   Table 26 continued. Composition of cordylite-(Ce). 245  Thin SectionPoint 265 266 267 315 316 317 300 301 302 304SiO? 0.03 0.67 0.11 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.04ThO? 0.07 1.63 0.96 0.16 0.14 0.13 0.17 0.08 0.20 0.09UO? 0.42 0.41 0.48 0.52 0.55 0.44 0.47 0.58 0.49 0.47Al?O? 0.09 0.06 0.10 0.09 0.10 0.08 0.11 0.11 0.09 0.10Y?O? 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00La?O? 15.81 16.32 15.46 14.95 14.68 14.93 16.78 17.17 17.11 17.18Ce?O? 20.52 17.56 18.61 19.09 19.29 18.61 18.46 18.64 18.94 18.70Pr?O? 1.48 1.22 1.36 1.26 1.51 1.30 1.36 1.44 1.38 1.32Nd?O? 4.35 2.97 3.76 3.85 4.01 3.94 3.38 3.33 3.49 3.40Sm?O? 0.30 0.14 0.27 0.18 0.15 0.13 0.14 0.05 0.10 0.07Eu?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00Gd?O? 0.07 0.00 0.07 0.00 0.05 0.08 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00CaO 2.37 3.63 3.08 3.22 3.20 3.35 2.91 2.58 2.75 2.57SrO 3.41 3.09 3.47 3.81 4.32 4.44 4.03 3.64 3.90 3.39BaO 22.10 19.79 21.10 23.07 22.24 22.96 21.72 22.06 22.17 22.25Na?O 0.75 0.60 0.74 0.75 0.82 0.82 0.81 0.75 0.77 0.82CO?  * 24.54 24.35 24.12 24.45 24.61 24.64 24.33 24.17 24.55 24.15F    * 2.65 2.63 2.60 2.64 2.66 2.66 2.63 2.61 2.65 2.61F    ** 1.24 0.95 1.16 1.20 1.27 1.15 1.13 1.16 1.12 1.17-O=F -1.12 -1.11 -1.10 -1.11 -1.12 -1.12 -1.11 -1.1 -1.12 -1.1Total 97.84 93.99 95.20 96.95 97.25 97.46 96.3 96.1 97.5 96.1Si apfu*** 0.004 0.081 0.013 0.004 0.005 0.004 0.005 0.004 0.004 0.005Th 0.002 0.045 0.027 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.005 0.002 0.005 0.002U 0.011 0.011 0.013 0.014 0.015 0.012 0.013 0.016 0.013 0.013Al 0.013 0.009 0.014 0.013 0.014 0.011 0.016 0.016 0.013 0.014Y 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.003 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000La 0.696 0.724 0.693 0.661 0.645 0.655 0.745 0.768 0.753 0.769Ce 0.897 0.773 0.828 0.838 0.841 0.810 0.814 0.827 0.827 0.831Pr 0.064 0.053 0.060 0.055 0.065 0.056 0.060 0.064 0.060 0.058Nd 0.186 0.128 0.163 0.165 0.170 0.167 0.145 0.144 0.149 0.147Sm 0.012 0.006 0.011 0.007 0.006 0.005 0.006 0.002 0.004 0.003Eu 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Gd 0.003 0.000 0.003 0.000 0.002 0.003 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Ca 0.303 0.468 0.401 0.413 0.408 0.427 0.375 0.335 0.352 0.334Sr 0.236 0.216 0.244 0.265 0.298 0.306 0.281 0.256 0.270 0.238Ba 1.034 0.933 1.004 1.083 1.038 1.070 1.025 1.048 1.037 1.058Na 0.174 0.140 0.174 0.174 0.189 0.189 0.189 0.176 0.178 0.193C 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1O 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12* Determined by stoichiometry** EPMA measured value*** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralMGL-020 2MGL-018 8MGL-017 5bNote: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (P, Nb, Ta, Ti, Zr, Tb, Eu, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mg, Mn, Fe, K, Cl).  Table 26 continued. Composition of cordylite-(Ce). 246  Thin Section MGL-030 4Point 306 307 308 406 407 408 424 453 455SiO? 0.09 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.03ThO? 0.20 0.08 0.06 1.02 0.47 0.73 0.41 0.03 0.06UO? 0.46 0.60 0.52 0.50 0.64 0.45 0.51 0.52 0.49Al?O? 0.10 0.09 0.11 0.09 0.08 0.08 0.09 0.10 0.09Y?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.16 0.14 0.16 0.03 0.01 0.00La?O? 16.39 16.13 16.79 12.96 14.73 13.87 13.79 17.88 16.88Ce?O? 18.52 19.71 19.19 18.58 18.79 17.47 19.00 19.20 18.41Pr?O? 1.22 1.48 1.25 1.38 1.31 1.31 1.32 1.30 1.49Nd?O? 3.53 3.72 3.67 4.23 3.96 3.99 3.99 3.19 3.52Sm?O? 0.17 0.07 0.18 0.97 0.65 0.86 0.62 0.19 0.22Eu?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.00 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00Gd?O? 0.11 0.00 0.00 0.41 0.29 0.40 0.26 0.02 0.23CaO 2.84 2.30 2.50 3.56 3.13 3.87 3.57 2.71 3.15SrO 3.87 3.21 3.58 5.45 4.61 5.84 5.24 3.46 4.21BaO 22.05 22.10 22.12 22.61 22.07 22.72 22.18 22.72 22.71Na?O 1.05 0.93 0.81 0.49 0.51 0.50 0.51 0.35 0.33CO?  * 24.44 24.11 24.28 25.05 24.60 25.13 24.80 24.51 24.66F    * 2.64 2.60 2.62 2.70 2.66 2.71 2.68 2.65 2.66F    ** 1.21 1.25 1.21 1.1 1.20 1.11 1.20 0.99 0.98-O=F -1.11 -1.10 -1.10 -1.14 -1.12 -1.14 -1.13 -1.11 -1.12Total 96.57 94.20 94.71 99.11 97.56 99.05 99.05 97.77 98.02Si apfu*** 0.011 0.006 0.004 0.004 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.006 0.004Th 0.005 0.002 0.002 0.027 0.013 0.019 0.011 0.001 0.002U 0.012 0.016 0.014 0.013 0.017 0.012 0.013 0.014 0.013Al 0.014 0.013 0.016 0.012 0.011 0.011 0.013 0.014 0.013Y 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.010 0.009 0.010 0.002 0.001 0.000La 0.725 0.723 0.747 0.559 0.647 0.596 0.601 0.788 0.740Ce 0.813 0.877 0.848 0.796 0.819 0.746 0.822 0.840 0.801Pr 0.053 0.066 0.055 0.059 0.057 0.056 0.057 0.057 0.064Nd 0.151 0.161 0.158 0.177 0.168 0.166 0.168 0.136 0.149Sm 0.007 0.003 0.007 0.039 0.027 0.035 0.025 0.008 0.009Eu 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.000 0.002 0.000 0.000 0.000Gd 0.004 0.000 0.000 0.016 0.011 0.015 0.010 0.001 0.009Ca 0.365 0.299 0.323 0.446 0.399 0.483 0.452 0.347 0.401Sr 0.269 0.226 0.251 0.370 0.318 0.395 0.359 0.240 0.290Ba 1.036 1.052 1.046 1.036 1.030 1.038 1.027 1.064 1.057Na 0.244 0.219 0.190 0.111 0.118 0.113 0.117 0.081 0.076C 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1O 12 2 12 12 12 12 12 12 12* Determined by stoichiometry** EPMA measured value*** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralMGL-020 3 MGL-030 3a MGL-032 1Note: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (P, Nb, Ta, Ti, Zr, Tb, Eu, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mg, Mn, Fe, K, Cl).   247  Table 26 continued. Composition of cordylite-(Ce). Thin SectionPoint 456 457 458 460 503 504 505 510SiO? 0.06 0.03 0.03 0.07 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.04ThO? 0.00 0.00 0.12 0.10 0.16 0.35 0.54 0.44UO? 0.49 0.47 0.46 0.55 0.71 0.58 0.62 0.52Al?O? 0.09 0.11 0.09 0.10 0.08 0.09 0.07 0.08Y?O? 0.00 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.03La?O? 18.35 17.50 17.48 17.45 17.41 17.33 17.17 15.19Ce?O? 19.68 19.55 19.31 19.50 20.68 20.74 20.43 19.48Pr?O? 1.28 1.40 1.47 1.35 1.41 1.47 1.52 1.41Nd?O? 3.29 3.56 3.32 3.39 3.81 4.24 4.08 3.99Sm?O? 0.14 0.13 0.29 0.28 0.26 0.36 0.34 0.28Eu?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00Gd?O? 0.00 0.05 0.00 0.12 0.15 0.06 0.12 0.27CaO 2.46 2.64 2.82 2.99 2.20 2.17 2.38 3.32SrO 3.26 3.43 3.73 3.91 3.32 3.47 3.60 4.45BaO 22.17 22.70 23.16 23.03 22.75 22.01 22.62 22.40Na?O 0.36 0.35 0.33 0.35 0.35 0.56 0.37 0.33CO?  * 24.45 24.58 24.78 25.11 24.83 25.02 25.10 24.87F    * 2.64 2.65 2.67 2.71 2.68 2.70 2.71 2.68F    ** 0.94 0.98 0.97 1.02 1.01 1.04 1.06 1.06-O=F -1.11 -1.12 -1.13 -1.14 -1.13 -1.14 -1.14 -1.13Total 97.61 98.09 98.94 99.87 99.70 100.07 100.57 98.66Si apfu*** 0.007 0.004 0.004 0.008 0.004 0.005 0.005 0.005Th 0.000 0.000 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.009 0.014 0.012U 0.013 0.012 0.012 0.014 0.019 0.015 0.016 0.014Al 0.013 0.015 0.013 0.014 0.011 0.012 0.010 0.011Y 0.000 0.004 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.002La 0.811 0.769 0.762 0.751 0.758 0.748 0.739 0.660Ce 0.863 0.853 0.836 0.833 0.893 0.889 0.873 0.840Pr 0.056 0.061 0.063 0.057 0.061 0.063 0.065 0.061Nd 0.141 0.152 0.140 0.141 0.161 0.177 0.170 0.168Sm 0.006 0.005 0.012 0.011 0.011 0.015 0.014 0.011Eu 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Gd 0.000 0.002 0.000 0.005 0.006 0.002 0.005 0.011Ca 0.316 0.337 0.357 0.374 0.278 0.272 0.298 0.419Sr 0.227 0.237 0.256 0.265 0.227 0.236 0.244 0.304Ba 1.041 1.060 1.073 1.053 1.052 1.010 1.035 1.034Na 0.084 0.081 0.076 0.079 0.080 0.127 0.084 0.075C 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1O 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12* Determined by stoichiometry** EPMA measured value*** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralNote: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (P, Nb, Ta, Ti, Zr, Tb, Eu, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mg, Mn, Fe, K, Cl).MGL-035 1MGL-032 1 248  Table 27. Composition of qaqarssukite-(Ce). Thin Section MGL-006C 2 MGL-015 7Point 375 191 464 465 466 467 468 469 470SiO? 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.04ThO? 1.32 0.59 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.08 0.00 0.00UO? 0.47 0.54 0.64 0.69 0.49 0.51 0.70 0.51 0.54Al?O? 0.14 0.14 0.18 0.17 0.17 0.15 0.15 0.14 0.17Y?O? 0.00 0.03 0.21 0.39 0.07 0.19 0.36 0.60 0.16La?O? 14.53 12.77 15.91 15.84 16.91 16.72 18.14 17.44 16.17Ce?O? 17.89 20.04 18.53 17.99 18.51 18.45 16.48 17.59 18.33Pr?O? 1.36 1.44 1.38 1.36 1.32 1.39 1.19 1.32 1.33Nd?O? 3.45 4.47 3.50 3.72 3.18 3.29 3.12 3.38 3.22Sm?O? 0.21 0.27 0.50 0.67 0.38 0.28 0.62 0.39 0.26Eu?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.03 0.00Gd?O? 0.18 0.00 0.23 0.36 0.02 0.33 0.60 0.40 0.21Dy?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.17 0.00 0.00 0.14 0.00 0.02CaO 1.27 1.79 1.33 1.17 1.86 2.31 1.25 2.55 1.93SrO 4.91 2.84 3.61 3.39 3.38 3.89 4.20 4.04 3.13BaO 28.37 26.30 29.36 29.39 28.92 27.48 28.70 27.04 29.54Na?O 0.10 0.76 0.11 0.12 0.10 0.09 0.10 0.10 0.10CO?  * 21.83 21.61 22.25 22.18 22.38 22.59 22.38 22.89 22.28F    * 4.71 4.66 4.80 4.79 4.83 4.87 4.83 4.94 4.81F    ** 1.58 1.45 1.69 1.50 1.58 1.54 1.49 1.46 1.69-O=F -1.98 -1.96 -2.02 -2.02 -2.03 -2.05 -2.03 -2.08 -2.02Total 98.82 96.34 100.58 100.47 100.54 100.54 101.06 101.32 100.21Si apfu*** 0.004 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003Th 0.020 0.009 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000U 0.007 0.008 0.009 0.010 0.007 0.007 0.010 0.007 0.008Al 0.011 0.011 0.014 0.013 0.013 0.011 0.012 0.011 0.013Y 0.000 0.001 0.007 0.014 0.002 0.007 0.013 0.020 0.006La 0.360 0.319 0.386 0.386 0.408 0.400 0.438 0.412 0.392Ce 0.440 0.497 0.447 0.435 0.444 0.438 0.395 0.412 0.441Pr 0.033 0.036 0.033 0.033 0.031 0.033 0.028 0.031 0.032Nd 0.083 0.108 0.082 0.088 0.074 0.076 0.073 0.077 0.076Sm 0.005 0.006 0.011 0.015 0.009 0.006 0.014 0.009 0.006Eu 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000Gd 0.004 0.000 0.005 0.008 0.000 0.007 0.013 0.008 0.005Dy 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.004 0.000 0.000 0.003 0.000 0.000Ca 0.091 0.130 0.094 0.083 0.130 0.161 0.088 0.175 0.136Sr 0.191 0.112 0.138 0.130 0.128 0.146 0.159 0.150 0.119Ba 0.746 0.699 0.758 0.761 0.742 0.698 0.736 0.678 0.761Na 0.013 0.100 0.014 0.015 0.013 0.011 0.013 0.012 0.013C 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1O 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6* Determined by stoichiometry** EPMA measured value*** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralMGL-032 5Note: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (P, Nb, Ta, Ti, Zr, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mg, Mn, Fe, K, Cl).  249  Table 28. Composition of huanghoite-(Ce). Thin SectionPoint 377 378 409 410 411 423 426Nb?O? 0.01 0.00 0.07 0.05 0.06 0.00 0.01SiO? 0.05 0.05 0.71 0.06 0.06 1.17 0.09ThO? 0.59 0.22 1.08 0.47 1.03 1.75 1.01UO? 0.53 0.61 0.51 0.58 0.65 0.68 0.47Al?O? 0.25 0.25 0.30 0.28 0.27 0.29 0.26Y?O? 0.00 0.00 0.16 0.38 0.14 0.25 0.17La?O? 12.70 12.60 12.05 10.49 11.02 10.54 10.31Ce?O? 17.46 17.72 14.31 16.59 15.44 15.17 16.44Pr?O? 1.25 1.46 1.25 1.46 1.27 1.07 1.34Nd?O? 3.54 3.58 3.72 4.89 4.24 3.75 4.40Sm?O? 0.20 0.22 0.69 1.27 0.82 0.73 1.16Eu?O? 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.16 0.12 0.17 0.10Gd?O? 0.00 0.00 0.39 0.74 0.43 0.63 0.50CaO 0.38 0.18 0.49 0.18 0.31 0.55 0.22MnO 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.00FeO 0.00 0.00 0.18 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00SrO 2.00 0.58 2.49 0.98 1.49 1.59 1.06BaO 36.49 35.65 37.33 36.75 38.03 38.03 37.89Na?O 0.12 0.16 0.15 0.14 0.16 0.14 0.15CO?  * 21.29 20.57 22.03 21.20 21.11 22.43 21.11F    * 4.60 4.44 4.76 4.58 4.56 4.84 4.56F    ** 1.79 2.13 1.61 1.83 1.65 1.70 1.78-O=F -1.94 -1.87 -2.00 -1.93 -1.92 -2.04 -1.92Total 99.52 96.42 100.77 99.32 99.29 101.79 99.32Nb apfu*** 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.000 0.000Si 0.003 0.004 0.047 0.004 0.004 0.076 0.006Th 0.009 0.004 0.016 0.007 0.016 0.026 0.016U 0.008 0.010 0.008 0.009 0.010 0.010 0.007Al 0.020 0.021 0.024 0.023 0.022 0.022 0.021Y 0.000 0.000 0.006 0.014 0.005 0.009 0.006La 0.322 0.331 0.296 0.267 0.282 0.254 0.264Ce 0.440 0.462 0.348 0.420 0.392 0.363 0.418Pr 0.031 0.038 0.030 0.037 0.032 0.025 0.034Nd 0.087 0.091 0.088 0.121 0.105 0.087 0.109Sm 0.005 0.005 0.016 0.030 0.020 0.016 0.028Eu 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.004 0.003 0.004 0.002Gd 0.000 0.000 0.009 0.017 0.010 0.014 0.012Ca 0.028 0.014 0.035 0.013 0.023 0.038 0.016Mn 0.000 0.000 0.003 0.000 0.000 0.003 0.000Fe 0.000 0.000 0.010 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Sr 0.080 0.024 0.096 0.039 0.060 0.060 0.043Ba 0.984 0.995 0.973 0.995 1.034 0.973 1.031Na 0.016 0.022 0.019 0.019 0.022 0.018 0.020C 2 2 2 2 2 2 2F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1O 6 6 6 6 6 6 6* Determined by stoichiometry** EPMA measured value*** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralMGL-006C 2 MGL-030 3a MGL-030 4Note: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (P, Ta, Ti, Zr, Dy, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mg, K, Cl).  250  Table 29. Composition of cebaite-(Ce). Thin Section MGL-018 7 MGL-032 5Point 314 298 303 463 472 474 475 476 477P?O? 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.19 0.08 0.05 0.00 0.19 0.00Nb?O? 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.02 0.10 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.05SiO? 0.04 0.06 0.06 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.04ThO? 0.00 0.06 0.04 0.00 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.15UO? 0.65 0.59 0.71 0.69 0.69 0.63 0.67 0.70 0.63Al?O? 0.27 0.32 0.36 0.27 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.30 0.29Y?O? 0.14 0.00 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.07 0.19 0.17 0.08La?O? 10.87 12.42 13.09 13.59 12.93 12.26 12.66 13.44 12.97Ce?O? 14.74 14.25 13.61 15.09 13.99 14.80 14.36 13.98 14.43Pr?O? 1.18 1.24 1.04 0.81 1.10 1.04 1.00 0.92 1.04Nd?O? 3.64 3.00 2.64 1.78 2.70 3.01 2.81 2.66 2.93Sm?O? 0.29 0.21 0.00 0.05 0.20 0.26 0.32 0.15 0.29Gd?O? 0.09 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.21 0.07 0.21 0.06 0.24CaO 0.20 0.10 0.09 0.89 0.83 0.97 0.84 0.79 0.87SrO 1.24 1.29 0.97 1.66 1.73 2.11 1.88 1.58 2.01BaO 41.13 40.94 41.85 41.65 41.07 40.47 41.31 41.83 41.20Na?O 0.15 0.15 0.17 0.15 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.14 0.16CO?  * 21.40 21.45 21.40 22.55 22.28 22.32 22.34 22.52 22.56F    * 3.69 3.70 3.70 3.89 3.85 3.85 3.86 3.89 3.90F    ** 1.67 1.70 1.58 1.28 1.32 1.28 1.22 1.26 1.21-O=F -1.56 -1.56 -1.56 -1.64 -1.62 -1.62 -1.62 -1.64 -1.64Total 98.16 98.26 98.22 101.75 100.80 100.78 101.33 101.72 102.20P apfu*** 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.026 0.011 0.007 0.000 0.026 0.000Nb 0.000 0.002 0.000 0.001 0.007 0.000 0.002 0.000 0.004Si 0.007 0.010 0.010 0.006 0.005 0.007 0.005 0.007 0.006Th 0.000 0.002 0.002 0.000 0.004 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.006U 0.025 0.022 0.027 0.025 0.025 0.023 0.024 0.025 0.023Al 0.054 0.064 0.073 0.052 0.056 0.056 0.056 0.057 0.055Y 0.013 0.000 0.004 0.005 0.007 0.006 0.017 0.015 0.007La 0.686 0.782 0.826 0.814 0.784 0.742 0.765 0.806 0.776Ce 0.924 0.891 0.853 0.897 0.842 0.889 0.862 0.832 0.857Pr 0.074 0.077 0.065 0.048 0.066 0.062 0.060 0.055 0.062Nd 0.223 0.183 0.161 0.103 0.158 0.176 0.165 0.154 0.170Sm 0.017 0.012 0.000 0.003 0.011 0.015 0.018 0.008 0.016Gd 0.005 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.011 0.004 0.011 0.003 0.013Ca 0.037 0.018 0.017 0.155 0.146 0.171 0.148 0.138 0.151Sr 0.123 0.128 0.096 0.156 0.165 0.201 0.179 0.149 0.189Ba 2.759 2.739 2.806 2.650 2.645 2.602 2.654 2.665 2.620Na 0.050 0.050 0.056 0.047 0.051 0.051 0.051 0.044 0.050C 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5F 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2O 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15* Determined by stoichiometry** EPMA measured value*** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralMGL-032 7aMGL-020 2Note: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (Ta, Ti, Zr, Eu, Dy, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mg, Mn, Fe, K, Cl).  251  Table 30. Composition of kukharenkoite-(Ce). Thin Section MGL-020 2Point 312 313 299 305 309 500 501 502P?O? 0.01 0.00 0.05 0.01 0.08 0.14 0.12 0.13Nb?O? 0.02 0.09 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.07 0.03SiO? 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.04ThO? 0.39 0.01 0.11 0.10 0.00 0.11 0.29 0.26UO? 0.68 0.71 0.60 0.74 0.58 0.66 0.62 0.70Al?O? 0.32 0.34 0.38 0.31 0.36 0.31 0.31 0.31Y?O? 0.02 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00La?O? 9.94 9.84 10.33 12.13 10.66 9.98 10.29 10.69Ce?O? 12.49 12.53 11.33 11.96 11.30 11.21 11.29 12.99Pr?O? 0.87 0.86 0.85 0.66 0.78 0.82 0.77 0.93Nd?O? 2.44 2.69 2.02 2.11 2.09 2.10 2.13 2.91Sm?O? 0.10 0.10 0.03 0.01 0.05 0.03 0.10 0.12Gd?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01CaO 0.31 0.14 0.98 0.10 0.86 1.32 1.47 0.56SrO 1.42 0.79 1.41 1.51 1.35 2.05 2.16 1.94BaO 46.01 46.84 45.32 45.14 46.37 45.62 46.47 44.66Na?O 0.17 0.17 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.17 0.13 0.15CO?  * 21.82 21.67 21.62 21.74 21.90 22.09 22.61 22.55F    * 3.14 3.12 3.11 3.13 3.15 3.18 3.25 3.24F    ** 1.33 1.38 1.35 1.48 1.36 1.15 1.07 1.10-O=F -1.32 -1.31 -1.31 -1.32 -1.33 -1.34 -1.37 -1.37Total 98.87 98.65 97.02 98.55 98.43 98.49 100.75 100.86P apfu*** 0.001 0.000 0.004 0.001 0.007 0.012 0.010 0.011Nb 0.001 0.004 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.003 0.001Si 0.005 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.003 0.004Th 0.009 0.000 0.003 0.002 0.000 0.002 0.006 0.006U 0.015 0.016 0.014 0.017 0.013 0.015 0.013 0.015Al 0.038 0.041 0.046 0.037 0.043 0.036 0.036 0.036Y 0.001 0.002 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000La 0.369 0.368 0.387 0.452 0.395 0.366 0.369 0.384Ce 0.461 0.465 0.422 0.442 0.415 0.408 0.402 0.463Pr 0.032 0.032 0.031 0.024 0.029 0.030 0.027 0.033Nd 0.088 0.097 0.073 0.076 0.075 0.075 0.074 0.101Sm 0.003 0.003 0.001 0.000 0.002 0.001 0.003 0.004Gd 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Ca 0.033 0.015 0.107 0.011 0.092 0.141 0.153 0.058Sr 0.083 0.046 0.083 0.088 0.079 0.118 0.122 0.110Ba 1.816 1.861 1.805 1.788 1.823 1.779 1.769 1.705Na 0.033 0.033 0.032 0.033 0.035 0.033 0.024 0.028C 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1O 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9* Determined by stoichiometry** EPMA measured value*** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralNote: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (Ta, Ti, Zr, Eu, Dy, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mg, Mn, Fe, K, Cl).MGL-018 7 MGL-020 3 MGL-035 1 252  Table 30 continued. Composition of kukharenkoite-(Ce). Thin Section MGL-035 1Point 511 515 517 518 520 521 524P?O? 0.08 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.06 0.00 0.02Nb?O? 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.00SiO? 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.04ThO? 0.31 0.18 0.09 0.00 0.07 0.10 0.14UO? 0.60 0.70 0.57 0.63 0.50 0.76 0.61Al?O? 0.31 0.36 0.32 0.35 0.33 0.33 0.34Y?O? 0.06 0.00 0.03 0.03 0.00 0.06 0.01La?O? 10.47 12.57 11.87 13.12 12.84 11.44 12.06Ce?O? 12.20 11.55 12.07 11.07 11.58 11.82 11.06Pr?O? 0.87 0.76 0.95 0.69 0.75 0.80 0.62Nd?O? 2.57 1.76 2.05 1.53 1.64 2.11 1.62Sm?O? 0.25 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00Gd?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.00CaO 0.60 0.18 0.29 0.18 0.15 0.32 0.27SrO 2.16 1.38 1.27 1.49 1.41 1.35 1.46BaO 46.22 48.17 47.40 47.11 47.94 47.42 46.39Na?O 0.15 0.15 0.13 0.17 0.15 0.16 0.16CO?  * 22.58 22.45 22.28 22.13 22.41 22.21 21.65F    * 3.25 3.23 3.21 3.18 3.22 3.20 3.12F    ** 1.10 1.09 1.02 1.09 1.06 1.15 1.31-O=F -1.37 -1.36 -1.35 -1.34 -1.36 -1.35 -1.31Total 101.45 102.11 101.19 100.39 101.74 100.83 98.26P apfu*** 0.007 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.005 0.000 0.002Nb 0.004 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000Si 0.003 0.003 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.004Th 0.007 0.004 0.002 0.000 0.002 0.002 0.003U 0.013 0.015 0.013 0.014 0.011 0.017 0.014Al 0.036 0.042 0.037 0.041 0.038 0.038 0.041Y 0.003 0.000 0.002 0.002 0.000 0.003 0.001La 0.376 0.454 0.432 0.481 0.464 0.417 0.451Ce 0.435 0.414 0.436 0.402 0.416 0.428 0.411Pr 0.031 0.027 0.034 0.025 0.027 0.029 0.023Nd 0.089 0.062 0.072 0.054 0.057 0.075 0.059Sm 0.008 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Gd 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.000Ca 0.063 0.019 0.031 0.019 0.016 0.034 0.029Sr 0.122 0.078 0.073 0.086 0.080 0.077 0.086Ba 1.762 1.848 1.832 1.833 1.842 1.839 1.845Na 0.028 0.028 0.025 0.033 0.029 0.031 0.031C 3 3 3 3 3 3 3F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1O 9 9 9 9 9 9 9* Determined by stoichiometry** EPMA measured value*** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralNote: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (Ta, Ti, Zr, Eu, Dy, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mg, Mn, Fe, K, Cl).MGL-035 2 253  Table 30 continued. Composition of kukharenkoite-(Ce). Thin SectionPoint 528 529 530 533 534 535 536 537 541P?O? 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.05Nb?O? 0.05 0.00 0.05 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.03 0SiO? 0.03 0.04 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.16 0.02 0.03 0.04ThO? 0.29 0.25 0.29 0.05 0.00 0.34 0.24 0.18 0.08UO? 0.62 0.59 0.59 0.53 0.56 0.61 0.63 0.68 0.65Al?O? 0.33 0.35 0.33 0.32 0.36 0.32 0.34 0.33 0.32Y?O? 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01La?O? 12.44 11.57 11.81 12.26 12.56 9.89 10.72 10.95 10.92Ce?O? 11.54 12.06 11.30 11.25 11.22 11.11 12.28 12.67 12.98Pr?O? 0.81 0.85 0.89 0.64 0.78 0.91 0.99 0.97 0.98Nd?O? 1.80 2.17 2.06 1.86 1.56 2.37 2.48 2.62 2.74Sm?O? 0.02 0.13 0.11 0.04 0.00 0.06 0.13 0.12 0.26Gd?O? 0.00 0.00 0.13 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02CaO 0.14 0.05 0.10 0.48 0.37 0.32 0.63 0.34 0.43SrO 1.37 1.47 1.60 1.39 1.15 1.50 1.79 1.33 1.65BaO 47.66 47.32 47.69 47.48 47.89 43.73 46.62 47.01 44.93Na?O 0.17 0.15 0.15 0.17 0.16 0.14 0.17 0.15 0.13CO?  * 22.32 22.22 22.25 22.24 22.22 20.82 22.47 22.54 22.32F    * 3.21 3.20 3.20 3.20 3.20 3.00 3.23 3.24 3.21F    ** 1.17 1.08 1.11 1.13 1.08 1.25 1.09 1.05 1.12-O=F -1.35 -1.35 -1.35 -1.35 -1.35 -1.26 -1.36 -1.37 -1.35Total 101.46 101.07 101.27 100.66 100.77 94.02 101.38 101.89 100.37P apfu*** 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.005 0.003 0.000 0.000 0.005 0.004Nb 0.002 0.000 0.002 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000Si 0.003 0.004 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.017 0.002 0.003 0.004Th 0.006 0.006 0.007 0.001 0.000 0.008 0.005 0.004 0.002U 0.014 0.013 0.013 0.012 0.012 0.014 0.014 0.015 0.014Al 0.038 0.041 0.038 0.037 0.042 0.040 0.039 0.038 0.037Y 0.000 0.000 0.003 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001La 0.452 0.422 0.430 0.447 0.458 0.385 0.387 0.394 0.396Ce 0.416 0.437 0.409 0.407 0.406 0.429 0.440 0.452 0.468Pr 0.029 0.031 0.032 0.023 0.028 0.035 0.035 0.034 0.035Nd 0.063 0.077 0.073 0.066 0.055 0.089 0.087 0.091 0.096Sm 0.001 0.004 0.004 0.001 0.000 0.002 0.004 0.004 0.009Gd 0.000 0.000 0.004 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001Ca 0.015 0.005 0.011 0.051 0.039 0.036 0.066 0.036 0.045Sr 0.078 0.084 0.092 0.080 0.066 0.092 0.102 0.075 0.094Ba 1.839 1.834 1.846 1.838 1.856 1.808 1.787 1.796 1.733Na 0.032 0.029 0.029 0.033 0.031 0.029 0.032 0.028 0.025C 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1O 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9* Determined by stoichiometry** EPMA measured value*** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralNote: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (Ta, Ti, Zr, Eu, Dy, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mg, Mn, Fe, K, Cl).MGL-035 4 MGL-035 5a 254  Table 31. Composition of monazite-(Ce). Thin SectionPoint 348 349 351 352 353 354 355 268 269P?O? 28.89 28.28 28.71 28.29 28.67 28.05 28.28 28.60 27.91SiO? 0.30 0.42 0.13 0.12 0.12 0.22 0.17 0.12 0.12TiO? 0.02 0.04 0.05 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.07 0.06ZrO? 0.00 0.05 0.01 0.05 0.02 0.15 0.17 0.03 0.10ThO? 0.91 3.88 0.33 0.67 0.84 1.36 0.30 0.30 0.27UO? 0.39 0.19 0.19 0.38 0.31 0.28 0.36 0.25 0.59Y?O? 0.02 0.08 0.01 0.00 0.10 0.01 0.04 0.11 0.19La?O? 25.29 23.73 25.21 23.57 23.88 23.97 24.77 26.78 26.70Ce?O? 34.61 32.37 34.38 34.66 35.29 33.61 34.33 32.80 32.60Pr?O? 2.67 2.77 2.45 2.89 2.93 3.01 2.75 2.62 2.67Nd?O? 6.65 7.13 6.09 7.94 7.23 7.33 7.51 6.98 6.77Sm?O? 0.74 0.65 0.55 1.14 1.01 0.97 0.97 0.60 0.61Eu?O? 0.01 0.05 0.03 0.10 0.08 0.08 0.13 0.03 0.09Gd?O? 0.00 0.11 0.00 0.43 0.19 0.33 0.29 0.00 0.12Tb?O? 0.01 0.07 0.09 0.09 0.05 0.09 0.07 0.13 0.12Dy?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00CaO 0.08 0.17 0.08 0.06 0.06 0.11 0.05 0.09 0.23SrO 0.10 0.46 0.00 0.04 0.17 0.19 0.00 0.13 0.65Na?O 0.06 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.03Total 100.75 100.47 98.34 100.49 101.02 99.89 100.26 99.69 99.83P apfu* 0.969 0.959 0.980 0.962 0.966 0.959 0.961 0.970 0.955Si 0.012 0.017 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.009 0.007 0.005 0.005Ti 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.002Zr 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.003 0.003 0.001 0.002Th 0.008 0.035 0.003 0.006 0.008 0.012 0.003 0.003 0.002U 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.002 0.005Y 0.000 0.002 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.004La 0.369 0.351 0.375 0.349 0.350 0.357 0.367 0.396 0.398Ce 0.502 0.475 0.507 0.510 0.514 0.497 0.504 0.481 0.483Pr 0.039 0.040 0.036 0.042 0.042 0.044 0.040 0.038 0.039Nd 0.094 0.102 0.088 0.114 0.103 0.106 0.108 0.100 0.098Sm 0.010 0.009 0.008 0.016 0.014 0.013 0.013 0.008 0.008Eu 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.000 0.001Gd 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.006 0.003 0.004 0.004 0.000 0.002Tb 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.002Dy 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000Ca 0.003 0.007 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.005 0.002 0.004 0.010Sr 0.002 0.011 0.000 0.001 0.004 0.004 0.000 0.003 0.015Na 0.005 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.002* apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralNote: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (Nb, Ta, Al, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mg, Mn, Fe, Ba, K, F, Cl).MGL-006B 1 MGL-006B 2 MGL-017 6  255  Table 31 continued. Composition of monazite-(Ce). Thin SectionPoint 270 271 272 273 274 278 279 280P?O? 28.65 29.25 29.14 29.07 29.28 28.86 28.65 28.49SiO? 0.13 0.11 0.12 0.10 0.10 0.19 0.08 0.08TiO? 0.08 0.01 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.00 0.06 0.05ZrO? 0.00 0.06 0.02 0.10 0.09 0.00 0.10 0.05ThO? 0.28 0.53 0.63 0.58 0.25 2.02 0.55 0.46UO? 0.10 0.47 0.08 0.04 0.32 0.21 0.27 0.33Y?O? 0.04 0.01 0.01 0.11 0.07 0.00 0.29 0.18La?O? 26.26 24.88 26.40 27.00 26.91 24.22 23.97 26.51Ce?O? 33.36 34.15 33.18 33.42 33.33 35.17 32.88 32.56Pr?O? 2.63 2.89 2.71 2.84 2.65 2.72 3.01 2.73Nd?O? 7.36 7.88 7.39 7.16 6.99 6.32 8.36 7.23Sm?O? 0.84 0.83 0.76 0.72 0.77 0.50 0.87 0.67Eu?O? 0.14 0.07 0.09 0.05 0.00 0.04 0.09 0.12Gd?O? 0.00 0.00 0.17 0.05 0.07 0.00 0.24 0.00Tb?O? 0.11 0.12 0.02 0.00 0.06 0.14 0.07 0.00Dy?O? 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00CaO 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.11 0.08 0.16 0.37 0.38SrO 0.05 0.08 0.07 0.10 0.07 0.25 0.59 0.53Na?O 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.01 0.04 0.03 0.02Total 100.14 101.45 100.99 101.52 101.09 100.84 100.48 100.39P apfu* 0.969 0.974 0.974 0.969 0.976 0.970 0.966 0.963Si 0.005 0.004 0.005 0.004 0.004 0.008 0.003 0.003Ti 0.002 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.002 0.002Zr 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.002 0.002 0.000 0.002 0.001Th 0.003 0.005 0.006 0.005 0.002 0.018 0.005 0.004U 0.001 0.004 0.001 0.000 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.003Y 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.001 0.000 0.006 0.004La 0.387 0.361 0.384 0.392 0.391 0.355 0.352 0.391Ce 0.488 0.492 0.480 0.482 0.480 0.511 0.479 0.476Pr 0.038 0.041 0.039 0.041 0.038 0.039 0.044 0.040Nd 0.105 0.111 0.104 0.101 0.098 0.090 0.119 0.103Sm 0.012 0.011 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.007 0.012 0.009Eu 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.002Gd 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.003 0.000Tb 0.001 0.002 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.000Dy 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Ca 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.005 0.003 0.007 0.016 0.016Sr 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.006 0.014 0.012Na 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.003 0.002 0.002* apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralNote: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (Nb, Ta, Al, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mg, Mn, Fe, Ba, K, F, Cl).MGL-026 4MGL-017 6  256  Table 31 continued. Composition of monazite-(Ce). Thin Section MGL-032 5Point 454 459 461 462 471 513 514 516P?O? 28.83 25.63 27.70 29.48 28.49 28.63 28.90 29.15SiO? 0.40 5.77 1.34 0.26 0.28 0.09 0.08 0.07TiO? 0.07 0.00 0.04 0.04 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.03ZrO? 0.13 0.05 0.03 0.08 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.09ThO? 1.80 0.68 2.83 1.59 1.74 1.51 0.65 1.10UO? 0.36 0.28 0.12 0.28 0.31 0.19 0.37 0.29Y?O? 0.09 0.00 0.01 0.16 0.01 0.33 0.21 0.22La?O? 26.40 27.16 26.41 30.60 26.34 25.74 27.45 27.83Ce?O? 32.51 30.14 31.94 31.78 32.99 32.97 32.34 32.15Pr?O? 2.42 2.18 2.51 2.47 2.44 2.48 2.59 2.58Nd?O? 6.21 5.53 5.82 5.17 6.04 6.52 6.31 5.96Sm?O? 0.85 0.51 0.66 0.55 0.76 0.72 0.61 0.53Eu?O? 0.14 0.00 0.08 0.02 0.20 0.02 0.10 0.00Gd?O? 0.13 0.25 0.29 0.00 0.14 0.25 0.13 0.16Tb?O? 0.00 0.07 0.04 0.05 0.03 0.09 0.10 0.13Dy?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.12 0.10 0.11CaO 0.16 0.10 0.14 0.12 0.10 0.14 0.11 0.18SrO 0.31 0.01 0.30 0.22 0.14 0.39 0.24 0.39Na?O 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.03Total 100.84 98.38 100.28 102.88 100.15 100.30 100.40 101.00P apfu* 0.965 0.846 0.935 0.968 0.965 0.968 0.973 0.974Si 0.016 0.225 0.053 0.010 0.011 0.004 0.003 0.003Ti 0.002 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.001Zr 0.003 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.002Th 0.016 0.006 0.026 0.014 0.016 0.014 0.006 0.010U 0.003 0.002 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.002 0.003 0.003Y 0.002 0.000 0.000 0.003 0.000 0.007 0.004 0.005La 0.385 0.391 0.389 0.438 0.389 0.379 0.402 0.405Ce 0.471 0.430 0.466 0.451 0.483 0.482 0.471 0.465Pr 0.035 0.031 0.036 0.035 0.036 0.036 0.038 0.037Nd 0.088 0.077 0.083 0.072 0.086 0.093 0.090 0.084Sm 0.012 0.007 0.009 0.007 0.010 0.010 0.008 0.007Eu 0.002 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.003 0.000 0.001 0.000Gd 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.000 0.002 0.003 0.002 0.002Tb 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.002Dy 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.001 0.001Ca 0.007 0.004 0.006 0.005 0.004 0.006 0.005 0.008Sr 0.007 0.000 0.007 0.005 0.003 0.009 0.006 0.009Na 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.002* apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralNote: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (Nb, Ta, Al, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mg, Mn, Fe, Ba, K, F, Cl).MGL-032 1 MGL-035 2  257  Table 31 continued. Composition of monazite-(Ce). Thin SectionPoint 525 526 527 531 532 483 484 485 486 487 488P?O? 28.31 28.66 28.49 29.10 28.76 28.54 28.36 28.77 29.46 28.89 28.84SiO? 0.09 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.14 0.12 0.16 0.17 0.16 0.09TiO? 0.06 0.04 0.00 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.05 0.04 0.05ZrO? 0.07 0.00 0.00 0.14 0.13 0.00 0.02 0.06 0.08 0.01 0.08ThO? 0.72 1.26 0.77 0.33 0.22 2.38 1.59 1.86 1.57 1.70 1.52UO? 0.33 0.33 0.40 0.35 0.29 0.17 0.18 0.35 0.31 0.12 0.45Y?O? 0.13 0.13 0.51 0.08 0.16 0.10 0.14 0.12 0.09 0.16 0.20La?O? 26.99 27.35 26.27 30.73 29.75 25.37 25.97 26.55 26.86 25.70 27.63Ce?O? 32.45 31.79 32.09 31.08 31.59 31.93 32.17 32.64 32.66 32.54 31.61Pr?O? 2.71 2.71 2.54 2.25 2.16 2.64 2.70 2.53 2.66 2.66 2.72Nd?O? 6.29 6.21 6.57 5.34 5.60 7.06 7.30 6.51 6.65 6.91 6.13Sm?O? 0.60 0.53 0.74 0.45 0.49 0.78 0.79 0.63 0.67 0.70 0.62Eu?O? 0.03 0.12 0.06 0.09 0.00 0.08 0.13 0.15 0.10 0.03 0.06Gd?O? 0.21 0.18 0.36 0.12 0.17 0.18 0.30 0.00 0.01 0.10 0.07Tb?O? 0.08 0.09 0.16 0.04 0.02 0.09 0.01 0.08 0.06 0.01 0.02Dy?O? 0.01 0.00 0.23 0.07 0.10 0.00 0.12 0.00 0.06 0.00 0.01CaO 0.11 0.11 0.15 0.08 0.10 0.14 0.11 0.09 0.09 0.11 0.17SrO 0.37 0.37 0.22 0.12 0.25 0.55 0.29 0.21 0.27 0.34 0.54Na?O 0.03 0.06 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.03Total 99.59 100.01 99.65 100.53 99.96 100.21 100.36 100.76 101.85 100.22 100.84P apfu* 0.966 0.971 0.969 0.975 0.971 0.968 0.964 0.969 0.975 0.973 0.969Si 0.004 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.006 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.006 0.004Ti 0.002 0.001 0.000 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001Zr 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.003 0.003 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.000 0.002Th 0.007 0.011 0.007 0.003 0.002 0.022 0.015 0.017 0.014 0.015 0.014U 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.003 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.001 0.004Y 0.003 0.003 0.011 0.002 0.003 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.002 0.003 0.004La 0.401 0.404 0.389 0.449 0.438 0.375 0.384 0.389 0.387 0.377 0.405Ce 0.479 0.466 0.472 0.450 0.461 0.468 0.473 0.475 0.467 0.474 0.459Pr 0.040 0.040 0.037 0.032 0.031 0.039 0.039 0.037 0.038 0.039 0.039Nd 0.091 0.089 0.094 0.075 0.080 0.101 0.105 0.092 0.093 0.098 0.087Sm 0.008 0.007 0.010 0.006 0.007 0.011 0.011 0.009 0.009 0.010 0.008Eu 0.000 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.000 0.001Gd 0.003 0.002 0.005 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.004 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.001Tb 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.000Dy 0.000 0.000 0.003 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.002 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000Ca 0.005 0.005 0.006 0.003 0.004 0.006 0.005 0.004 0.004 0.005 0.007Sr 0.009 0.009 0.005 0.003 0.006 0.013 0.007 0.005 0.006 0.008 0.012Na 0.002 0.005 0.002 0.002 0.004 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.002* apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralNote: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (Nb, Ta, Al, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mg, Mn, Fe, Ba, K, F, Cl).MGL-035 4 MGL-035 5a MGL-037 2  258  Table 32. Composition of allanite-(Ce). Thin SectionPoint 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 231 232 233 234P?O? 0.08 0.03 0.04 0.20 0.05 0.19 0.07 0.49 0.17 0.06 0.08SiO? 27.97 27.23 27.23 27.95 27.21 28.13 27.54 26.23 26.60 26.10 25.94TiO? 0.15 0.24 0.33 0.22 0.11 0.17 0.27 0.53 0.44 0.63 0.64ThO? 0.00 0.06 0.22 0.00 0.00 0.20 0.00 0.16 0.00 0.02 0.17Al?O? 18.20 15.88 15.09 16.75 14.63 18.64 15.63 13.59 15.05 14.05 13.84La?O? 8.78 10.27 9.73 9.21 10.90 8.66 9.50 9.25 8.87 9.70 9.89Ce?O? 10.69 12.56 13.08 10.73 12.82 9.93 12.68 11.03 11.39 12.30 12.22Pr?O? 0.87 0.90 0.91 0.80 0.93 0.77 0.97 0.84 0.94 0.92 1.00Nd?O? 1.97 2.31 2.52 1.84 2.01 1.78 2.25 2.20 2.33 2.38 2.37Sm?O? 0.12 0.10 0.17 0.16 0.13 0.15 0.15 0.20 0.23 0.12 0.14Gd?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.00Tb?O? 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.07 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.09 0.10 0.00 0.01Dy?O? 0.00 0.03 0.06 0.09 0.09 0.08 0.02 0.09 0.01 0.07 0.00CaO 11.33 9.84 9.63 10.57 9.53 11.48 9.87 8.86 9.30 9.01 8.86MgO 0.15 0.20 0.18 0.38 0.39 0.19 0.23 0.27 0.11 0.10 0.11MnO 0.32 0.38 0.34 0.47 0.19 0.31 0.35 0.34 0.29 0.33 0.30FeO 12.84 14.35 15.48 13.75 15.38 12.27 14.80 16.32 15.29 15.07 16.18SrO 0.87 0.28 0.20 0.86 0.16 1.08 0.28 2.39 2.20 1.19 1.08Na?O 0.04 0.03 0.01 0.05 0.01 0.07 0.02 0.08 0.09 0.07 0.08H?O  * 1.50 1.45 1.44 1.48 1.43 1.51 1.45 1.40 1.42 1.39 1.39Total 95.90 96.14 96.66 95.58 96.01 95.61 96.08 94.36 94.87 93.51 94.30P apfu** 0.007 0.003 0.004 0.017 0.004 0.016 0.006 0.044 0.015 0.005 0.007Si 2.802 2.820 2.830 2.836 2.852 2.802 2.843 2.810 2.807 2.823 2.801Ti 0.011 0.019 0.026 0.017 0.009 0.013 0.021 0.043 0.035 0.051 0.052Th 0.000 0.001 0.005 0.000 0.000 0.005 0.000 0.004 0.000 0.000 0.004Al 2.149 1.938 1.848 2.003 1.807 2.188 1.902 1.716 1.872 1.791 1.761La 0.324 0.392 0.373 0.345 0.421 0.318 0.362 0.365 0.345 0.387 0.394Ce 0.392 0.476 0.498 0.399 0.492 0.362 0.479 0.433 0.440 0.487 0.483Pr 0.032 0.034 0.034 0.030 0.036 0.028 0.036 0.033 0.036 0.036 0.039Nd 0.070 0.085 0.094 0.067 0.075 0.063 0.083 0.084 0.088 0.092 0.091Sm 0.004 0.004 0.006 0.006 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.007 0.008 0.004 0.005Gd 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000Tb 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.003 0.003 0.000 0.000Dy 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.001 0.003 0.000 0.002 0.000Ca 1.216 1.092 1.072 1.149 1.070 1.225 1.092 1.017 1.051 1.044 1.025Mg 0.022 0.031 0.028 0.057 0.061 0.028 0.035 0.043 0.017 0.016 0.018Mn 0.027 0.033 0.030 0.040 0.017 0.026 0.031 0.031 0.026 0.030 0.027Fe 1.076 1.243 1.345 1.167 1.348 1.022 1.278 1.462 1.349 1.363 1.461Sr 0.051 0.017 0.012 0.051 0.010 0.062 0.017 0.148 0.135 0.075 0.068Na 0.008 0.006 0.002 0.010 0.002 0.014 0.004 0.017 0.018 0.015 0.017H 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1* Determined by stoichiometry** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralMGL-016 4 MGL-019 4Note: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (Nb, Ta, Zr, U, Y, Eu, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Ba, K, F, Cl).  259  Table 32 continued. Composition of allanite-(Ce). Thin SectionPoint 235 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249P?O? 0.00 0.03 0.59 0.60 0.43 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.04 0.13 0.01SiO? 26.70 26.32 26.18 26.21 26.22 26.50 27.16 26.54 26.33 26.83 26.62TiO? 0.24 0.69 0.41 0.37 0.39 0.92 0.57 0.83 1.13 0.34 0.85ThO? 0.00 0.00 0.09 0.00 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.12 0.00Al?O? 15.32 14.73 14.67 14.96 13.83 14.48 16.23 14.35 13.80 14.62 14.10La?O? 8.68 9.03 8.69 8.88 9.09 9.96 8.26 10.69 9.99 9.00 10.52Ce?O? 12.68 12.58 10.96 11.20 11.03 12.94 12.26 12.64 13.03 10.85 12.61Pr?O? 1.20 0.98 1.05 0.88 0.96 1.05 0.97 0.87 1.05 0.92 1.10Nd?O? 2.87 2.69 2.27 2.22 2.24 2.47 3.00 2.23 2.35 2.28 2.26Sm?O? 0.28 0.13 0.15 0.29 0.22 0.15 0.28 0.22 0.19 0.19 0.23Gd?O? 0.09 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.19 0.00Tb?O? 0.06 0.00 0.02 0.03 0.10 0.09 0.13 0.00 0.03 0.01 0.06Dy?O? 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.03CaO 9.09 9.41 9.09 9.21 9.18 9.35 9.31 9.07 8.91 9.38 9.04MgO 0.19 0.10 0.22 0.21 0.25 0.19 0.12 0.19 0.15 0.19 0.19MnO 0.30 0.23 0.38 0.38 0.39 0.20 0.27 0.21 0.18 0.32 0.17FeO 14.89 15.28 14.89 14.47 15.68 14.82 13.60 15.10 15.36 15.27 15.46SrO 1.02 0.98 2.44 2.16 2.38 0.73 1.56 0.83 0.65 2.47 0.84Na?O 0.09 0.05 0.14 0.13 0.11 0.04 0.06 0.04 0.04 0.12 0.03H?O  * 1.42 1.41 1.41 1.41 1.40 1.41 1.44 1.41 1.40 1.42 1.41Total 95.15 94.66 93.67 93.61 93.95 95.30 95.29 95.28 94.63 94.65 95.53P apfu** 0.000 0.003 0.053 0.054 0.039 0.000 0.000 0.005 0.004 0.012 0.001Si 2.818 2.799 2.790 2.787 2.813 2.809 2.823 2.816 2.821 2.839 2.826Ti 0.019 0.055 0.033 0.030 0.031 0.073 0.045 0.066 0.091 0.027 0.068Th 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.003 0.000Al 1.905 1.846 1.842 1.874 1.749 1.809 1.988 1.795 1.743 1.823 1.764La 0.338 0.354 0.342 0.348 0.360 0.389 0.317 0.418 0.395 0.351 0.412Ce 0.490 0.490 0.428 0.436 0.433 0.502 0.466 0.491 0.511 0.420 0.490Pr 0.046 0.038 0.041 0.034 0.038 0.041 0.037 0.034 0.041 0.035 0.043Nd 0.108 0.102 0.086 0.084 0.086 0.093 0.111 0.085 0.090 0.086 0.086Sm 0.010 0.005 0.006 0.011 0.008 0.005 0.010 0.008 0.007 0.007 0.008Gd 0.003 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.007 0.000Tb 0.002 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.004 0.003 0.004 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.002Dy 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001Ca 1.028 1.072 1.038 1.049 1.055 1.062 1.037 1.031 1.023 1.063 1.028Mg 0.030 0.016 0.035 0.033 0.040 0.030 0.019 0.030 0.024 0.030 0.030Mn 0.027 0.021 0.034 0.034 0.035 0.018 0.024 0.019 0.016 0.029 0.015Fe 1.314 1.359 1.327 1.287 1.407 1.314 1.182 1.340 1.376 1.351 1.373Sr 0.062 0.060 0.151 0.133 0.148 0.045 0.094 0.051 0.040 0.152 0.052Na 0.018 0.010 0.029 0.027 0.023 0.008 0.012 0.008 0.008 0.025 0.006H 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1* Determined by stoichiometry** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralMGL-019 4 MGL-019 5Note: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (Nb, Ta, Zr, U, Y, Eu, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Ba, K, F, Cl).  260   Table 32 continued. Composition of allanite-(Ce). Point 250 251 252P?O? 0.11 0.00 0.00SiO? 27.02 26.75 26.62TiO? 0.42 0.64 0.58ThO? 0.03 0.00 0.00Al?O? 14.42 14.52 13.55La?O? 9.36 10.24 9.69Ce?O? 11.57 12.61 13.06Pr?O? 1.05 1.02 1.06Nd?O? 2.43 2.49 2.72Sm?O? 0.24 0.15 0.34Gd?O? 0.01 0.00 0.10Tb?O? 0.01 0.00 0.02Dy?O? 0.05 0.00 0.04CaO 9.15 9.19 8.67MgO 0.19 0.21 0.09MnO 0.31 0.18 0.37FeO 15.67 15.10 16.28SrO 1.73 0.79 0.49Na?O 0.07 0.05 0.06H?O  * 1.42 1.42 1.40Total 95.26 95.36 95.14P apfu** 0.010 0.000 0.000Si 2.850 2.830 2.854Ti 0.033 0.051 0.047Th 0.001 0.000 0.000Al 1.793 1.811 1.712La 0.364 0.400 0.383Ce 0.447 0.488 0.513Pr 0.040 0.039 0.041Nd 0.092 0.094 0.104Sm 0.009 0.005 0.013Gd 0.000 0.000 0.004Tb 0.000 0.000 0.001Dy 0.002 0.000 0.001Ca 1.034 1.042 0.996Mg 0.030 0.033 0.014Mn 0.028 0.016 0.034Fe 1.382 1.336 1.460Sr 0.106 0.048 0.030Na 0.014 0.010 0.012H 1 1 1* Determined by stoichiometry** apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralNote: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (Nb, Ta, Zr, U, Y, Eu, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Ba, K, F, Cl).  261   Table 33. Composition of euxenite-(Y). Thin SectionPoint 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 228P?O? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00Nb?O? 42.12 40.15 45.08 41.30 39.65 39.16 44.18 40.20 39.34 42.02SiO? 0.23 0.05 0.15 0.48 1.32 1.23 0.05 0.94 1.25 0.99TiO? 18.57 20.66 17.78 18.22 17.76 18.59 19.11 18.73 18.07 17.71ThO? 1.31 1.36 0.43 0.71 1.05 1.77 0.30 1.63 1.14 0.55UO? 1.10 0.71 0.31 1.48 1.55 1.13 0.44 1.37 2.09 0.77Y?O? 14.35 16.62 15.58 14.60 13.08 13.39 17.29 14.82 12.57 14.67Ce?O? 0.31 0.36 0.36 0.29 0.26 0.36 0.27 0.20 0.32 0.45Pr?O? 0.10 0.09 0.13 0.03 0.08 0.02 0.10 0.03 0.07 0.11Nd?O? 1.49 1.74 1.57 1.45 1.01 1.13 1.30 0.83 1.06 1.23Sm?O? 2.13 2.98 2.57 2.20 1.56 1.73 2.14 1.66 1.76 2.18Eu?O? 0.72 0.84 0.73 0.63 0.45 0.67 0.63 0.59 0.53 0.66Gd?O? 5.54 6.46 5.83 5.66 4.61 4.67 5.51 4.77 4.78 5.44Tb?O? 1.42 1.45 1.42 1.34 1.19 1.17 1.40 1.20 1.14 1.24Dy?O? 6.49 6.64 6.28 6.42 6.33 6.13 6.44 6.51 6.02 6.15Ho?O? 0.84 0.85 0.59 0.72 0.94 0.55 0.90 0.98 0.55 0.66Er?O? 1.40 1.61 1.64 1.48 1.48 1.38 1.78 1.58 1.34 1.47Tm?O? 0.22 0.06 0.18 0.05 0.16 0.00 0.38 0.20 0.02 0.00Yb?O? 0.25 0.38 0.26 0.21 0.16 0.21 0.43 0.23 0.12 0.25CaO 2.13 1.11 2.69 1.87 1.98 2.03 2.21 2.03 2.23 2.49MnO 0.15 0.03 0.08 0.38 0.69 0.64 0.06 0.59 0.93 0.40FeO 0.88 0.31 0.26 1.23 2.04 1.76 0.19 1.33 2.12 1.02SrO 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.07 0.15 0.06 0.01 0.08 0.21 0.12BaO 0.03 0.00 0.03 0.09 0.96 0.60 0.00 0.27 0.59 0.53Na?O 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.03 0.03 0.00 0.02 0.03 0.01Total 101.81 104.46 103.96 100.91 98.49 98.41 105.12 100.79 98.28 101.12MGL-019 9                262   Table 33 continued. Composition of euxenite-(Y). Thin SectionPoint 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 228P apfu* 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Nb 1.119 1.048 1.168 1.106 1.079 1.061 1.130 1.070 1.070 1.113Si 0.014 0.003 0.009 0.028 0.079 0.074 0.003 0.055 0.075 0.058Ti 0.821 0.898 0.767 0.812 0.804 0.838 0.814 0.830 0.818 0.781Th 0.018 0.018 0.006 0.010 0.014 0.024 0.004 0.022 0.016 0.007U 0.014 0.009 0.004 0.020 0.021 0.015 0.006 0.018 0.028 0.010Y 0.449 0.511 0.475 0.460 0.419 0.427 0.521 0.464 0.402 0.457Ce 0.007 0.008 0.008 0.006 0.006 0.008 0.006 0.004 0.007 0.010Pr 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.001 0.002 0.000 0.002 0.001 0.002 0.002Nd 0.031 0.036 0.032 0.031 0.022 0.024 0.026 0.017 0.023 0.026Sm 0.043 0.059 0.051 0.045 0.032 0.036 0.042 0.034 0.036 0.044Eu 0.014 0.017 0.014 0.013 0.009 0.014 0.012 0.012 0.011 0.013Gd 0.108 0.124 0.111 0.111 0.092 0.093 0.103 0.093 0.095 0.106Tb 0.027 0.028 0.027 0.026 0.024 0.023 0.026 0.023 0.023 0.024Dy 0.123 0.124 0.116 0.123 0.123 0.118 0.117 0.124 0.117 0.116Ho 0.016 0.016 0.011 0.014 0.018 0.010 0.016 0.018 0.011 0.012Er 0.026 0.029 0.030 0.028 0.028 0.026 0.032 0.029 0.025 0.027Tm 0.004 0.001 0.003 0.001 0.003 0.000 0.007 0.004 0.000 0.000Yb 0.004 0.007 0.005 0.004 0.003 0.004 0.007 0.004 0.002 0.004Ca 0.134 0.069 0.165 0.119 0.128 0.130 0.134 0.128 0.144 0.156Mn 0.007 0.001 0.004 0.019 0.035 0.032 0.003 0.029 0.047 0.020Fe 0.043 0.015 0.012 0.061 0.103 0.088 0.009 0.066 0.107 0.050Sr 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.005 0.002 0.000 0.003 0.007 0.004Ba 0.001 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.023 0.014 0.000 0.006 0.014 0.012Na 0.001 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.004 0.003 0.000 0.002 0.003 0.001* apfu are calculated based on the anions for each mineralMGL-019 9Note: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (Ta, Zr, Y, La,  Lu, Mg, K, F, Cl).                 263   Table 34. Composition of unknown 1. Thin Section MGL-031 5Point 415 416 417 442 447 450SiO2 0.06 0.03 0.06 0.03 0.04 0.05ThO2 0.98 1.47 1.57 0.45 0.28 0.03UO2 0.49 0.50 0.54 0.35 0.48 0.50Y2O3 0.30 0.34 0.42 0.60 0.18 0.23La2O3 21.24 22.15 22.36 24.24 24.08 23.74Ce2O3 24.90 25.10 26.52 27.16 27.99 27.97Pr2O3 2.04 2.08 2.14 2.15 2.19 2.32Nd2O3 5.78 6.27 6.67 6.27 6.84 7.02Sm2O3 1.15 1.18 1.21 0.99 1.11 1.34Eu2O3 0.08 0.02 0.18 0.10 0.11 0.11Gd2O3 0.90 0.65 0.62 0.66 0.63 0.51CaO 7.07 7.61 7.95 8.00 6.79 7.11SrO 1.17 1.13 0.76 0.64 0.52 0.53BaO 3.84 2.68 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00Na2O 0.15 0.09 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.02Total 70.14 71.28 71.02 71.63 71.27 71.48MGL-030 3b MGL-031 4Note: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (P, Nb, Ta, Ti, Zr, Al, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mg, Mn, Fe, K, F, Cl).   Table 35. Composition of unknown 2. Thin SectionPoint 478 479 480 481 482Nb2O5 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.04SiO2 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.07 0.04ThO2 0.15 0.12 0.00 2.30 0.23UO2 0.57 0.56 0.76 0.53 0.49Al2O3 0.24 0.26 0.25 0.20 0.25Y2O3 0.05 0.20 0.17 0.10 0.11La2O3 11.44 11.11 11.31 11.54 11.92Ce2O3 12.85 12.81 12.77 12.93 12.86Pr2O3 0.95 0.90 0.92 0.93 0.83Nd2O3 2.52 2.68 2.33 2.53 2.41Sm2O3 0.24 0.32 0.11 0.17 0.19Gd2O3 0.11 0.09 0.01 0.11 0.05CaO 4.78 4.47 4.61 4.66 4.55SrO 1.89 1.39 1.78 3.40 1.86BaO 37.24 38.23 37.92 34.29 38.10Na2O 0.13 0.14 0.16 0.14 0.14Total 73.19 73.32 73.14 73.90 74.10MGL-032 7bNote: All other elements analyzed were below detection limits (P, Ta, Ti, Zr, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mg, Mn, Fe, K, F, Cl).   264  APPENDIX E Drill Core and Soil Geochemical Data                                       265  The soil and drill core geochemical data was acquired from assessment reports listed in the Chapter 9, and Canadian International Minerals for data not yet available to the public. All of the data can be found within the assessment reports or by contacting Canadian International Minerals Ltd.                          

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