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Reducing the vulnerability of the urban poor to climatic change : experiences from Colombo and Dhaka Kananke Arachchilage, Kumudu Jayaratne 2013

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!! Reducing)the)Vulnerability)of)the)Urban)Poor)to)Climatic)Change:)Experiences)from)Colombo)and)Dhaka)by#Kumudu#Jayaratne#Kananke#Arachchilage## A#THESIS#SUBMITTED#IN#PARTIAL#FULFILLMENT#OF#THE#REQUIREMENTS#FOR#THE#DEGREE#OF#MASTER#OF#ADVANCED#STUDIES#IN#ARCHITECTURE##in#The#Faculty#of#Graduate#and#Postdoctoral#Studies#(Architecture)###THE#UNIVERSITY#OF#BRITISH#COLUMBIA##(Vancouver)#October#2013##©Kumudu#Jayaratne#Kananke#Arachchilage,#2013#! ii!Abstract In#many#megacities#of#the#developing#world#the#combination#of#rapid#population#growth#and#demand#for#land#results#in#people#settling#in#areas#prone#to#natural#hazards.##Dhaka,#Bangladesh#and#Colombo,#Sri#Lanka#are#no#exceptions.##This#thesis#discusses#the##challenges#faced#as#a#result#of#seal#level#rise#and#increased#flooding,#and#solutions#realized#in#urban#areas#of#low#and#middleZincome#nations.#It#attempts#to#find#solutions#to#reduce#the#vulnerability#of#these#communities#in#context#to#housing#and#infrastructure.##These#regions#contain#a#third#of#the#world’s#population,#and#in#addition#to#having#significant#social#and#economic#difficulties#they#also#face##high#risks#from#volatile#climatic#conditions.##Overall#much#of#the#urban#populations#in#the#developing#world#have#no#adequate#infrastructure#and#live#in#poor#quality#housing.##The#initial#part#of#the#thesis#analyzes#the#vulnerability#of#slum#dwellers#in#Dhaka#and#Colombo#by#highlighting#the#major#factors#behind#their#sensitivity#to#floods#and#their#ability#to#adapt#to#post#disaster#conditions.##The#lowZincome#communities#in#South#Asia#have#achieved#successful#innovations#in#disasterZ#risk#reduction.##The#two#case#studies#of#Halgaha#Kubura#in#Colombo#and#Korail#in#Dhaka#exemplify#these#successful#innovations#and,#as#such,#represent#the#primary#research#of#this#thesis.##These#case#studies#demonstrate#the#importance#of#understanding#hazards,#socioeconomic,#resource#availability,#vulnerability,#social#networks,#and#current#construction#of#housing#and#infrastructure.#Transect#mapping#is#used#as#a#tool#to#map#these#locations,#through#which#significant#lessons#can#be#drawn.###Knowledge#of#existing#coping#strategies#for#disaster#risk#reduction#can#help#to#strengthen#planning#strategies#of#adaptation#to#climate#change#elsewhere.##Finally,#though#these#slum#dwellers#have#their#own#adaptation#and#coping#strategies#to#overcome#the#crisis,#they#are#not#a#viable#longZterm#solution.#The#goal#of#the#thesis#is#to#build#an#Adaptation#and#Disaster#Resilient#Design#Guideline#by#extracting#significant#lessons#from#the#mapped#locations#while#taking#into#account#the#current#strategies#developed#by#flood#reduction#programs.#! iii!Preface))##This#dissertation#is#original,#unpublished,#independent#work#by#the#author,#Kumudu#Jayaratne#Kananke#Arachchilage.#Part#of#the#research#for#this#thesis#was#conducted#in#Colombo,#Sri#Lanka#and#Dhaka,#Bangladesh.##))) ))))))))))))! iv!Table)Of)Contents)Abstract)......................................................................................................................)ii)Preface)........................................................................................................................)iii)Table)Of)Contents).......................................................................................................)iv)List)Of)Tables)................................................................................................................)x)List)Of)Figures)..............................................................................................................)xi)Acknowledgements)..................................................................................................)xvii)Chapter)1:)Introduction)...............................................................................................)1)1.1#Colombo,#Sri#Lanka#.....................................................................................................#2#1.1.1#Halgaha#Kubura:#lowZincome#settlement#.........................................................#11#1.2#Dhaka,#Bangladesh#...................................................................................................#12#1.2.1#Korail,#Dhaka#.....................................................................................................#16#1.3#Research#goals#..........................................................................................................#18#1.3.1#Mapping#historical#background#of#the#study#location#......................................#19#1.3.2#Various#coping#strategies#adapted#before,#during#and#after#the#disaster#........#20#1.3.3#The#adaptation#and#disaster#resilience#design#guidelines#.................................#20#1.4#Methodology#............................................................................................................#21#1.4.1#The#adaptation#and#disaster#resilience#design#guidelines#.................................#23#Chapter)2:)Context)of)Korail,)Dhaka)and)Halgaha)Kubura,)Colombo)..........................)32)2.1#Migration#to#the#City#................................................................................................#32#2.1.1#Slums#in#Colombo#and#Dhaka#............................................................................#36#2.2#Social,#political#and#economical#backgrounds#..........................................................#38#2.2.1#Legal#and#illegal#land#tenure##............................................................................#38#2.3#History#of#Halgaha#Kubura#........................................................................................#41#2.4#History#of#Korail#........................................................................................................#46#2.4.1#The#development#slums#and#squatter#settlements#in#Dhaka#...........................#47#! v!2.4.2#Eviction#..............................................................................................................#49#2.4.3#Livelihood#and#assets#........................................................................................#50#2.5#Social#networks#........................................................................................................#55#2.5.1#Community#Development#Council#(CDC)#..........................................................#56#Chapter)3:)Hazard,)vulnerability)and)resilience)..........................................................)60)3.1#The#vulnerability#of#the#urban#poor#.........................................................................#62#3.1.1#Encroachment#...................................................................................................#66#3.1.2#Lack#of#infrastructure#and#maintenance#...........................................................#68#3.1.3#Health#and#economic#issues#..............................................................................#70#3.1.4#Social#vulnerability#............................................................................................#70#3.2#Strategic#advise#taken#to#reduce#the#risk#.................................................................#71#3.2.1#The#disaster#cycle##.............................................................................................#71#3.2.2#Disaster#resilience#.............................................................................................#74#Chapter)4:)Assessment)of)existing)housing)in)Korail,)Dhaka).......................................)76)4.1#VZ1#zone,#Korail#........................................................................................................#81#4.1.1#Main#transportation#system#..............................................................................#82#4.1.2#Security#tenure#..................................................................................................#82#4.1.3#Source#of#skilled#and#unskilled#labour#...............................................................#83#4.1.4#General#description#...........................................................................................#83#4.1.5#Dwelling#layout:#Floor#plans#and#section#..........................................................#84#4.1.6#Building#materials#.............................................................................................#87#4.1.7#Construction#and#design#details#........................................................................#89#4.1.8#Social#capital#.....................................................................................................#92#4.1.9#Livelihood#..........................................................................................................#93#4.1.10#Drainage#..........................................................................................................#95#4.1.11#Water#supply#...................................................................................................#96#4.1.12#Sanitation#........................................................................................................#98#4.1.13#Garbage#collection#..........................................................................................#99#! vi!4.2#VZ2#zone,#Korail#......................................................................................................#100#4.2.1#Main#transportation#system#............................................................................#101#4.2.2#Security#tenure#................................................................................................#103#4.2.3#Source#of#skilled#and#unskilled#labour#.............................................................#103#4.2.4#General#description#.........................................................................................#105#4.2.5#Dwelling#layout:#Floor#plans#and#section#........................................................#105#4.2.6#Building#materials#...........................................................................................#106#4.2.7#Construction#and#design#details#......................................................................#107#4.2.8#Social#capital#...................................................................................................#110#4.2.9#Livelihood#........................................................................................................#110#4.2.10#Drainage#........................................................................................................#112#4.2.11#Water#supply#.................................................................................................#113#4.2.12#Sanitation#......................................................................................................#114#4.2.13#Garbage#collection#........................................................................................#114#4.3#VZ3#zone,#Korail#......................................................................................................#115#4.3.1#Main#transportation#system#............................................................................#116#4.3.2#Security#tenure#................................................................................................#117#4.2.3#Source#of#labour#..............................................................................................#118#4.3.4#General#description#.........................................................................................#118#4.3.5#Dwelling#layout:#Floor#plans#and#section#........................................................#119#4.3.6#Building#materials#...........................................................................................#121#4.3.7#Construction#and#design#details#......................................................................#122#4.3.8#Social#capital#...................................................................................................#123#4.3.9#Livelihood#........................................................................................................#124#4.3.10#Drainage#........................................................................................................#124#4.3.11#Water#supply#.................................................................................................#125#4.3.12#Sanitation#......................................................................................................#125#4.3.13#Garbage#collection#........................................................................................#126#4.4#VZ4#zone,#Korail#......................................................................................................#127#! vii!4.4.1#Main#transportation#system#............................................................................#128#4.4.2#Security#tenure#................................................................................................#128#4.2.3#Source#of#skilled#and#unskilled#labour#.............................................................#128#4.4.4#General#description#.........................................................................................#128#4.4.5#Dwelling#layout:#Floor#plans#and#section#........................................................#129#4.4.6#Building#materials#...........................................................................................#132#4.4.7#Construction#and#design#details#......................................................................#132#4.4.8#Social#capital#...................................................................................................#133#4.4.9#Livelihood#........................................................................................................#134#4.4.10#Water#supply#.................................................................................................#134#4.4.11#Sanitation#......................................................................................................#135#Chapter)5:)Assessment)of)existing)infrastructure)in)Halgaha)Kubura,)Colombo).........)138)5.1#The#objectives#of#the#vulnerability#transect#walk#...................................................#138#5.2#VZ1#zone,#Halgaha#Kubura#......................................................................................#143#5.2.1#Main#transportation#system#............................................................................#143#5.2.2#Security#tenure#................................................................................................#143#5.2.3#Social#network#.................................................................................................#144#5.2.4#Strom#water#management:#Drainage#..............................................................#146#5.2.5#Sanitation#........................................................................................................#151#5.2.6#Water#..............................................................................................................#152#5.2.7#Garbage#collection#waste#and#environmental#awareness#..............................#156#5.2.8#Condition#of#dwelling#......................................................................................#158#5.2.9#Livelihood#and#education#................................................................................#159#5.3#VZ2#zone,#Halgaha#Kubura#......................................................................................#160#5.3.1#Main#transportation#system#............................................................................#160#5.3.2#Security#tenure#................................................................................................#160#5.3.3#Social#network#.................................................................................................#161#5.3.4#Strom#water#management:#Drainage#..............................................................#161#! viii!5.3.5#Sanitation#........................................................................................................#162#5.3.6#Water#..............................................................................................................#162#5.3.7#Garbage#collection#waste#and#environmental#awareness#..............................#166#5.3.8#Condition#of#dwelling#......................................................................................#169#5.4#VZ3#zone,#Halgaha#Kubura#......................................................................................#172#5.4.1#Main#transportation#system#............................................................................#172#5.4.2#Security#tenure#................................................................................................#172#5.4.3#Social#network#.................................................................................................#173#5.4.4#Strom#water#management:#Drainage#..............................................................#174#5.4.5#Sanitation#........................................................................................................#174#5.4.6#Water#..............................................................................................................#174#5.4.7#Garbage#collection#waste#and#environmental#awareness#..............................#178#5.4.8#Condition#of#dwelling#......................................................................................#179#5.4.9#Livelihood#and#education#................................................................................#181#Chapter)6:)Adaptation)and)disaster)resilience)design)guidelines)...............................)183)6.1#Location#and#legal#tenure#rights#.............................................................................#185#6.1.1#Tenure#rights:#VZ1#and#VZ2#zones#in#Korail#and#Halgaha#Kubura#.....................#185#6.2.2#Lunawa#Environmental#Improvement#&#Community#Development#Project,#Sri#Lanka#........................................................................................................................#186#6.2#Housing#...................................................................................................................#187#6.2.1#Flood#damage#resistant#building#materials#.....................................................#187#######6.2.2.1#Exploring#all#the#VZzones#.........................................................................#187#######6.2.2.2#Use#of#bamboo#as#building#material#.......................................................#188#6.2.2#Building#construction#detailsZ#Plinth#...............................................................#190#6.2.3#Building#construction#detailsZ#Columns#or#post#..............................................#191#6.2.4#Building#construction#detailsZ#walls#................................................................#191#6.2.5#Building#construction#detailsZ#Roof#.................................................................#191#6.3#Infrastructure#.........................................................................................................#194#! ix!6.3.1#Water#..............................................................................................................#194#6.3.2#Sanitation#........................................................................................................#200#6.3.3#Drainage#..........................................................................................................#204#6.4#Livelihood#...............................................................................................................#207#6.5#Social#network#........................................................................................................#209#6.5.1#Community#participation:#Korail#and#Halgaha#Kubura##...................................#209#6.5.2#Saving#groups:#Korail#VZ1,#VZ2#and#VZ3#zones#.................................................#210#6.5.3#Ideas#from#other#projects#...............................................................................#213#Chapter)7:)Conclusion)..............................................................................................)217)7.1#Future#implementation#..........................................................................................#224#References)...............................................................................................................)226)Appendices)..............................................................................................................)243)Appendix#A:#Pressure#and#Release#(PAR)#model:#the#progression#of#vulnerability#......#243#Appendix#B:#Existing#disaster#resilience#plans#and#guidelines#......................................#244#))))))))! x!List)Of)Tables))# #Table#1.1# Transect#zone#definitions.#…………………………………………………………………..……………………..# 25#Table#1.2# Vulnerability#transect#zone#definition#for#Korail#–#housing.…………………#### 28#Table#1.3# Vulnerability#transect#zone#definition#for#Halgaha#KuburaZ#infrastructure#……………………………………………………………..………………………..…………………………# 30#Table#3.1# Definitions#of#vulnerability.……#……………………..……………………..………………………….# 61#Table#3.2# Definitions#of#disaster#resilience………………………………………………………………….…………## 74#Table#4.1# Clarification#of#vZ#zones#in#Korail.……………………………………………………………………………## 78#Table#4.2# Vulnerability#transect#map#vZ1#zone:#Korail#……………………………………………………# 82#Table#4.3# Vulnerability#transect#map#vZ2#zone:#Korail#……………………………………………………# 100#Table#4.4# Vulnerability#transect#map#vZ3#zone:#Korail#………………………………………………# 114#Table#4.5# Vulnerability#transect#map#vZ4#zone:#Korail#………………………………………………## 128#Table#5.1# Vulnerability#transect:#Halgaha#Kubura.……………………………………………………..### 140#Table#5.2# Vulnerability#transect#map#vZ1#zone#Halgaha#Kubura………..………………..# 143#Table#5.3# Vulnerability#transect#map#vZ3#zone#Halgaha#Kubura………………………….# 160#Table#5.4# Vulnerability#transect#map#vZ3#zone#Halgaha#Kubura………………………….# 172#))))! xi!List)of)Figures))# #Figure#1.1# Map#of#Colombo,#Sri#Lanka…………………………………………………………………..……………………..# 3#Figure#1.2# Climatic#conditions#in#Colombo…………………………………………………………………..……………#### 5#Figure#1.3# Greater#Colombo#canal#systems…………………………………………………………………..…………# 7#Figure#1.4# Halgaha#Kubura#and#Kolonnawa#oil#installation#in#the#distance………# 11#Figure#1.5# Dhaka,#Bangladesh#during#monsoon#season…………………………..………………………## 13#Figure#1.6# View#of#Korail#Slums…………………………………………………………………..………………………# 17#Figure#1.7# Smartcode,#released#by#Duany#PlaterZZyberk#&#Company…………………# 24#Figure#1.8# Image#of#VZ1#zoneZ#Korail………………………………………………………..………………………….## 28#Figure#1.9# Image#of#VZ2#zoneZ#Korail…………………………………………………………………..………………………….## 28#Figure#1.10# Image#of#VZ3#zoneZ#Korail…………………………………………………………………..………………………….## 29#Figure#1.11# Image#of#VZ4#zoneZ#Korail…………………………………………………………………..………………………….## 29#Figure#1.12# Image#of#VZ1#zoneZ#Halgaha#Kubura…………………………………………………………………..….## 30#Figure#1.13# Image#of#VZ2#zoneZ#Halgaha#Kubura…………………………………………………………………..….## 30#Figure#1.14# Image#of#VZ3#zoneZ#Halgaha#Kubura…………………………………………………………………..….## 31#Figure#2.1## Wanathamulla#shantytown#in#1980’s……………………………………………………………………# 42#Figure#2.2# Primary#school#in#Korail#slums…………………………………………………………………..………………## 51#Figure#2.3# An#infrastructure#development#in#Halgaha#Kubura#in#2005…………………## 57#Figure#3.1## PAR$model$in$the$context$to$Korail…………………………………………………………………..…….# 64#Figure#3.2# PAR$model$in$the$context$to$Halgaha$Kubura………………………………………………….## 65#Figure#3.3# People#dumping#garbage#to#the#canal………………………………………………………………….# 69#! xii!#Figure#3.4# The#Disaster#Cycle…………………………………………………………………..………………………………………….## 72#Figure#4.1# Bird#eye#view#of#Korail#slums#and#Gulshan#ZBanani#River………………………## 79#Figure#4.2# Vulnerability#Transect#Map#of#Korail.……………………………………………………………………## 80#Figure#4.3# Perspective#view#of#VZ1#dwelling…………………………………………………………………..…………## 81#Figure#4.4# Main#access#road#to#Korail#slums…………………………………………………………………..………..## 82#Figure#4.5# Skilled#mason…………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………….## 83#Figure#4.6# VZ1#dwellingZ#Ground#floor#plan…………………………………………………………………..…………..## 84#Figure#4.7# VZ1#dwellingZ#First#floor#plan…………………………………………………………………..………………….## 85#Figure#4.8# VZ1#dwellingZ#Section#AZA…………………………………………………………………..…………………………## 86#Figure#4.9# Brick#columns#and#footing…………………………………………………………………..……………………….## 87#Figure#4.10# Cement#concrete#flooring#detail…………………………………………………………………..………….## 87#Figure#4.11# VZ1#dwelling…………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………………….## 88#Figure#4.12# First#floor:#wood#and#cement#flooring………………………………………………………………….## 88#Figure#4.13# Perimeter#wall…………………………………………………………………..………………………………………………….## 89#Figure#4.14# Indoor#drainage…………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………….## 90#Figure#4.15# Multiple#floor#levels#and#raising#furniture#in#the#house…………………………..## 91#Figure#4.16# Flood#resistance#cooker#in#shared#Kitchen……………………………………………………….## 92#Figure#4.17# Lady#breaking#bricks#for#livelihood…………………………………………………………………..…….## 94#Figure#4.18# Developed#drainage…………………………………………………………………..……………………………………..# 95##Figure#4.19# Shared#water#point…………………………………………………………………..……………………………………….## 97#Figure#4.20# Underground#water#tank…………………………………………………………………..………………………….# 97#! xiii!#Figure#4.21# A#simple#pit#latrine…………………………………………………………………..………………………………………..## 98#Figure#4.22# Garbage#collection…………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………## 99#Figure#4.23# Perspective#of#VZ2#zone…………………………………………………………………..……………………………..## 100#Figure#4.24# Transporting#goods.#(Cargo)…………………………………………………………………..…………………..## 101#Figure#4.25# Livelihood…………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………………………## 101#Figure#4.26# Barber’s#shop/#tailor’s/#general#merchant/#Pharmacy…………………………….## 102#Figure#4.27# Ground#floor#plan#of#VZ2#dwelling…………………………………………………………………………..## 104#Figure#4.28# Section#AZA#of#VZ2#dwelling…………………………………………………………………..…………………….## 105#Figure#4.29# Use#of#glvanized#wires…………………………………………………………………..…………………………………## 106#Figure#4.30# Use#of#canopies#made#out#of#cloths………………………………………………………………………## 107#Figure#4.31# Raised#Plinth…………………………………………………………………..………………………………………………………## 107#Figure#4.32# Adaptive#methods…………………………………………………………………..………………………………………….## 108#Figure#4.33# Cross#Bracing…………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………………..## 109#Figure#4.34# Purchasing#water#from#an#illegal#connection………………………………………………….## 111#Figure#4.35# Monsoon#floods…………………………………………………………………..………………………………………………## 112#Figure#4.36# Drainage#covered#with#garbage…………………………………………………………………..……………## 112#Figure#4.37# Unconnected#Water#pipes…………………………………………………………………..……………………….## 113#Figure#4.38# Community#pit#latering…………………………………………………………………..………………………………## 114#Figure#4.39# Perspective#view#of#VZ3#zone#dwellings………………………………………………………………## 115#Figure#4.40# VZ3#zone,#encroached#riverbank…………………………………………………………………..………….# 116##Figure#4.41# Alleyway…………………………………………………………………..………………………………………………………………..## 117#! xiv!Figure#4.42# Floor#Plan#of#a#VZ3#dwelling…………………………………………………………………..…………………….## 119#Figure#4.43# Section#AZA#of#a#VZ3#dwelling…………………………………………………………………..…………………## 120#Figure#4.44# Dwelling#in#VZ3#zone…………………………………………………………………..…………………………………….## 121#Figure#4.45# Dykes#made#out#of#sand#bags…………………………………………………………………..………………..## 122#Figure#4.46# Storage#space#between#wood#rafter#and#CI#sheet…..………………..………………..## 123#Figure#4.47# View#of#GulshanZ#Banani#River#from#the#VZ3#zone………………………………………## 125#Figure#4.48# Garbage#dumping………………….…………………………..……………………………………………..………………..## 126#Figure#4.49# Perspective#view#of#VZ4#zone#dwellings………………………………………………………………## 127#Figure#4.50# Floor#plan#VZ4#dwelling…………………………………………………………………..………………………………# 129##Figure#4.51# Section#AZA#VZ4#dwelling…………………………………………………………………..………………………….# 130##Figure#5.1# Areal#view#of#Halgaha#Kubura…………………………………………………………………..……………….# 141##Figure#5.2# Vulnerability#Transect#map#in#Halgaha#Kubura………………………………………………# 142##Figure#5.3# Community#participation#and#involvement#of#women……………………………# 145##Figure#5.4# Households#involving#in#design#process………………………………………………………………# 147##Figure#5.5# Use#of#Precast#materials…………………………………………………………………..……………………………# 148##Figure#5.6# Design#Detail#drawing…………………………………………………………………..………………………………….# 148##Figure#5.7# Road#/#drainage…………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………….# 149##Figure#5.8# Slum#upgrading#Project…………………………………………………………………..………………………………# 150##Figure#5.9# Coping#Method#to#collect#garbage…………………………………………………………………..…….# 151##Figure#5.10# Community#waiting#in#Water#point#for#drinking#water……………………………# 153##Figure#5.11# Improved#kitchen#with#water#supply…………………………………………………………………….# 154##Figure#5.12# Water#meter…………………………………………………………………..………………………………………………………# 154#! xv!#Figure#5.13# Traditional#methods#of#cleaning#drain…………………………………………………………………## 158#Figure#5.14# Condition#of#dwellings…………………………………………………………………..………………………………..## 159#Figure#5.15# Road/#drainage…………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………## 161#Figure#5.16# Community#latrines#Z#Inside…………………………………………………………………..…………………….## 163#Figure#5.17# Community#latrines#Z#Outside…………………………………………………………………..………………# 164##Figure#5.18# Lack#of#drinking#water…………………………………………………………………..…………………………………# 165##Figure#5.19# Garbage#collection#either#side#of#the#road……………………………………………………….# 166##Figure#5.20# Inventive#methods#for#garbage#collection…………………………………………………………# 168##Figure#5.21# Dwelling#(2005)#…………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………….## 169#Figure#5.22# Dwelling#(2013)#…………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………….## 169#Figure#5.23# Traditional#method#of#rainwater#harvesting……………………………………………………## 170#Figure#5.24# Innovative#method#of#rainwater#harvesting…………………………………………………….## 171#Figure#5.25# Growing#Vegetables…………………………………………………………………..……………………………………..# 172##Figure#5.26# Community#gathering#place…………………………………………………………………..……………………## 173#Figure#5.27# Drainage#directed#to#canal…………………………………………………………………..……………………….# 175##Figure#5.28# Shows#the#drainage#system#available#in#the#VZ3#zone………………………………# 176##Figure#5.29# Community#latrine…………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………## 177#Figure#5.30# Water#point…………………………………………………………………..………………………………………………………..## 178#Figure#5.31# Dematagoda#Canal#in#2005…………………………………………………………………..……………………..## 180#Figure#5.32# Dematagoda#Canal#in#2013…………………………………………………………………..……………………..# 180##Figure#6.1# Intermodal#Injection#Method…………………………………………………………………..…………………# 190##! xvi!Figure#6.2# Gutter#system#and#down#pipe#system:#Halgaha#Kubura………………………….# 192##Figure#6.3## Lateral#Drainage#from#gutter……………………………………………………..……………………………….# 193#Figure#6.4# Potential#for#rain#water#harvesting#……………………………………………………………..………# 195##Figure#6.5# Roofs#in#Korail…………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………..# 196##Figure#6.6# Traditional#water#purification#method…………………………………………………………………# 197##Figure#6.7# Water#level#during#monsoon#season………………………………………………………..…………# 199##Figure#6.8# Component#of#the#bioZsand#filter#and#operation………………………………………….## 200#Figure#6.9# Failures#in#Septic#tanks#and#pit#laterings…………………………………………………………….## 202#Figure#6.10# Advantage#of#composite#toilet…………………………………………………………………..……………..## 203#Figure#6.11# Before#Lunawa#Environmental#Improvement…………………………………………………## 205#Figure#6.12# Current#Development…………………………………………………………………..………………………………….# 206##Figure#6.13## Different#modes#of#community#Participation……………………..…………………………# 214#Figure#6.14## Sahaspura#Housing#Project……………………..……………………………………………………………………# 215#)))))))! xvii!Acknowledgements))The#pleasures#of#completion#are#to#look#over#the#past#years#and#remember#all#the#friends#and#family#who#have#helped#and#supported#me#along#this#long#but#fulfilling#journey.##My#heartfelt#gratitude#goes#to#my#mentor#and#advisor,#Professor#Dr.#Raymond#J#Cole,#for#his#excellent#guidance,#caring,#patience,#and#providing#me#with#an#excellent#atmosphere#for#doing#research.#I’m#thankful#for#his#use#of#humour#in#effectively#encouraging#me#to#overcome#the#difficulties#encountered#in#my#pursuit#of#my#Masters#Degree.#Thanks#to#him#I#had#the#opportunity#to#complete#my#studies#from#“Cold#Edmonton”.##I#am#grateful#for#every#single#minute#he#spent#giving#me#invaluable#advice#and#comments#to#build#up#my#thesis.#Last,#but#not#least,#I#am#thankful#for#the#financial#support#he#has#given#to#my#field#visits#in#Dhaka#and#Colombo.#I#really#appreciate#your#valuable#contributions#in#fulfilling#this#journey.##I#am#especially#indebted#to#my#thesis#committee#members,#who#have#been#simply#wonderful.##To#Dr.#Stephanie#Chang#and#Dr.#Jagath#Premakumara#for#their#encouraging#words,#constructive#criticism,#and#for#their#time#in#attending#committee#meetings#during#busy#semesters.#Thank#you#for#your#precious#support.#I#thank#the#University#of#British#Columbia#for#providing#me#with#a#scholarship#and#travel#expenses#for#the#field#visits.##I#would#like#to#dedicate#this#thesis#to#my#family:##most#of#all#to#my#loving,#supportive,#encouraging,#and#patient#husband#Chalaka,#who#has#been#by#my#side#throughout#this#thesis,#living#every#single#minute#of#it,#and#without#whom#I#would#not#have#had#the#courage#to#embark#on#this#journey.##You#are#the#person#behind#my#success.##My#heartfelt#thanks#to#my#father,#Thaththi,#the#person#to#whom#I#owe#everything#I#am#today.##His#unwavering#love#towards#me#and#his#faith#and#confidence#in#my#abilities#is#what#has#shaped#me#to#be#the#person#I#am#today.##Thank#you#so#much#for#everything#you#have#done#for#me.##! xviii!My#mother,#Amma#and#my#aunt,#Loku#Amma#who#resignedly#accepted#my#separation#from#them#and#still#gave#me#nothing#but#caring#support,#day#by#day,#both#emotionally#and#financially:#I#have#no#words#to#express#my#affection#and#gratitude#to#them.##I#would#like#to#thank#my#inZlaws,#who#supported#me#in#every#conceivable#ways#to#see#the#completion#of#my#masters.##I#would#like#to#thank#Professor#Patrick#Wakely#for#encouraging#and#inspiring#me#to#do#further#studies#on#lowZincome#communities.#I#really#appreciate#your#advice.##Special#thanks#goes#to#my#friend#Judith#Acevedo#for#very#valuable#remarks#and#detailed#proofreading.#My#friend#Tunajjina#Jalil,#your#hospitality#and#friendship#always#draw#me#back#to#UBC.##And#finally,#my#thanks#also#go#out#to#the#support#I#received#from#Aunt#Myat.#Your#words#encouraged#me#to#complete#my#journey#successfully.#Thank#you.###)))))))))))))! 1!Chapter)1:)Introduction))#The#poor#often#live#in#the#most#hazardous#and#unhealthy#environments#of#the#urban#areas,#particularly#in#developing#countries.#As#cities#grow,#land#becomes#scarce#and#thus#more#expensive.#The#choice#of#where#to#live#is#driven#by#a#series#of#trade#offs#between#what#is#affordable,#proximity#to#income#earning#opportunities,#and#where#individuals#may#have#social#networks#and#kinship#ties.#The#areas#that#are#affordable#to#the#poor#are#typically#on#hazardZprone#lands,#in#areas#that#are#deemed#undesirable#to#others.#They#are#also#often#informal#settlements#with#insecure#tenure.## #The#impacts#of#natural#hazards#and#climate#change#can#vary#substantially#with#important#distinction#in#spatial#and#location#characteristics.#For#example,#inner#city#slums#which#are#typically#located#in#the#historic#core#of#the#city#and#are#highly#dense#Z#cities#like#Delhi,#Dhaka,#Colombo,#Cairo#and#Istanbul#Z#face#risks#due#to#the#dilapidated#condition#of#structures,#poor#construction#methods#and#overcrowded#conditions#which#lead#to#difficulties#in#the#mitigation#processes#before#the#disaster#occurs#and#responding#processes#after#a#disaster#(UNZHabitat,#2006).#For#any#city,#the#scale#of##risk#from#these#extreme#weather#events#is#also#much#influenced#by#the#quality#of#housing#and#infrastructure#in#that#city#and#the#level#of#preparedness#among#the#city’s#population#and#key#emergency#services.##(D#Satterthwaite,#2007)#!This#thesis#discusses#the##challenges#faced#and#solutions#realized#in#urban#areas#in#low#and#middleZincome#nations#as#a#result#of#sea#level#rise#and#increased#flooding.##These#regions#contain#a#third#of#the#world’s#population#and,#in#addition#to#having#significant#social#and#economic#difficulties,#are#also#facing#high#risks#from#volatile#climatic#conditions.##The#absence#of#adequate#infrastructure#is#a#major#obstacle#in#realizing#solutions#for#challenges#faced#with#rising#water#levels.##Overall#much#of#the#urban#populations#in#Africa,#Asia#and#Latin#America#have#no#adequate#infrastructure#such#as#allZweather#roads#and#proper#water#supply#and#drainage#facilities.#(International#! 2!Federation#of#Red#Cross#and#Red#Crescent#Societies,#2010)#Most#people#live#in#poorZquality#housing#in#floodplains#or#on#slopes#where#they#face#highs#risks#from#landslides.##There#are#few#governmental#and#nonZgovernmental#organizations#that#have#offered#successful#innovations#in#disasterZrisk#reduction#in#these#lowZincome#nations.##Two#case#studies#Z#Halgaha#Kubura#in#Colombo,#Sri#Lanka#and#Korail,#in#Dhaka,#Bangladesh#Z#exemplify#these#successful#innovations#and,#as#such,#represent#the#primary#research#of#this#thesis.##These#case#studies#demonstrate#the#importance#of#understanding#hazards,#socioeconomic#conditions,#resource#availability,#vulnerability,#social#networks#and#current#construction#of#housing#and#infrastructure.###1.1)Colombo,)Sri)Lanka))In#Sri#Lanka#today,#as#in#many#other#developing#countries,#there#is#a#growing#urgency#to#come#up#with#creative#and#sustainable#solutions#to#tackle#the#pressures#of#infrastructure#needs#and#the#interests#of#communities.#These#communities,#which#are#affected#by#such#projects,#often#lose#their#homes,#lands#and#livelihoods#in#the#process.#(UNZHABITAT,#2009).##Rapid#industrialization#has#catapulted#Colombo,#Sri#Lanka’s#commercial#capital,#into#an#economic#hub#(UNZHABITAT,#2009).#Geographically,#Sri#Lanka#is#an#island#situated#in#the#tropics#in#the#Indian#subcontinent,#just#at#the#southern#tip#of#India.#It#covers#an#area#of#64,454#km2#including#the#large#inland#water#bodies#(Sevanatha,#2003).##The#country’s#history#reflects#its#close#links#with#the#subcontinent#by#having#undergone#the#same#colonization#from#European#countries.#The#colonial#European#powers#arrived#on#the#island#in#1505.#The#territory,#which#was#then#known#as#Ceylon,#was#ruled#first#by#the#Portuguese,#then#the#Dutch#and#finally#the#British#until#the#country#gained#independence#in#1948.#(Georg#Frerks,)##Since#independence#Ceylon,#which#was#renamed#“Sri#Lanka”#in#1972,#has#faced#the#perennial#problem#of#attempting#to#reconcile#the#two#ethnic#groups,#the#Buddhist#Sinhalese#majority,#and#the#Hindu#Tamil#minority#in#the#! 3!northeast#of#the#country.#Colombo#is#the#former#official#capital#of#Sri#Lanka#with#a#population#of#2.3#million#(Department#of#Census#and#Statistics,#2013)#and#with#an#average#residence#density#of#3,330#individuals#per#km2#(Department#of#Census#and#Statistics,#2012).##The#annual#population#growth#rate#has#been#varying#between#0.5%#and#3.7%#in#recent#years#(Department#of#Census#and#Statistics,#2010).##The#slow#population#growth#rate#with#high#density,#172#people/hector,#within#the#city#may#be#attributed#to#competing#land#values#(Department#of#Census#and#Statistics,#2010).##As#well#the#lack#of#buildable#lands#within#the#city#pushes#residential#land#seekers#towards#the#suburbs#of#Colombo#where#increasing#population#growth#is#evident#(DFID#/#UNDP#/#UNZHABITAT#/#UMP#Urban#Poverty#Reduction#Project,#2002).)Figure#1.1#Z#Map#of#Colombo,#Sri#Lanka.#############################(Source:#Sevanatha,#2002) #Sri#Lanka#is#frequently#subjected#to#several#natural#hazards#such#as#floods,#landslides,#coastal#erosion#and#droughts.#The#Tsunami#of#2004#was#the#most#devastating#disaster#in#! 4!recent#history.#Cyclones#are#less#felt#in#the#island#than#in#the#Indian#subcontinent#as#Sri#Lanka#is#situated#outside#the#cyclone#belt,#although#the#impacts#of#several#serious#cyclones#are#experienced#periodically.#The#country#receives#a#variety#of#rainfall#throughout#the#year.#The#rainfall#can#be#classified#into#three#types:#monsoon,#convection#and#depression.#Monsoon#rain,#which#is#the#dominant#type,#occurs#two#times#per#year.#These#two#periods#have#been#identified#as#the#southwest#and#northeast#monsoons.#Convection#rain#and#depression#rain#occur#mainly#during#the#interZmonsoon#periods.#The#annual#average#rainfall#varies#between#1,000#ml#in#the#arid#parts#of#the#northwest#and#southeast#of#the#island#to#over#5,000#ml#on#the#southZwestern#hill#slopes#(Sevanatha,#2003).#The#frequency#and#intensity#of#these#hazards#are#expected#to#increase#with#the#effects#of#climate#change#such#as#the#rise#in#sea#level,##coastal#flooding,#changes#in#rainfall#regimes#and#the#rise#in#ambient#temperature#(Ministry#of#Environment,#2010;#Punyawardena,#2011)#In#South#Asian#countries,#monsoons#are#the#rainy#seasons#of#the#year#and#also#one#of#the#main#sources#of#water#for#irrigation.#However,#each#year#the#amount#of#monsoon#rainfall#and#its#distribution#across#the#region#is#greatly#influenced#by#the#variations#in#the#pattern#of#the#monsoon#weather#systems.#The#variability#of#monsoons#may#result#in#flooding#in#some#areas#and#drought#conditions#in#others.#In#the#recent#past,#it#has#been#observed#that#the#variation#in#the#monsoon#pattern#has#altered,#possibly#due#to#climate#change.#This#has#been#witnessed#through#the#occurrence#of#extreme#weather#events#in#South#Asia,#which#has#experienced#an#increase#in#the#frequency#and#intensity#of#floods#and#droughts#(SDMC,#2012).#Sri#Lanka#is#hot#and#humid#with#significant#variations#in#climate#throughout#the#year#and#by#region.#These#variations#are#reinforced#by#the#country’s#topography,#which#creates#its#unique#rainfall#pattern.#The#country#has#two#major#rainfall#seasons: ) The#Southwest#monsoon#period,#May#to#September,#accounts#for#up#to#55%#of#the#annual#precipitation#and#often#exceeds#3000#mm#of#rain. ! 5!) The#first#interZmonsoon#period,#October#to#November,#contributes#to#over#500#mm#of#rain. ) The#Northeast#monsoon#period,#December#to#February,#contributes#200#to#1200#mm#of#rain.##) The#second#interZmonsoon#period,#March#to#April,#contributes#250mm#of#rain.#(The#World#Bank#Group,#2011)##Figure:#1.2###Z#Climatic#conditions#in#Colombo##############Source:#(Colombo!climate!chart!images)!#http://pics6.thisZpic.com/key/colombo%20climate%20chart#Figure#1.2#shows#the#typical#climate#conditions#in#and#around#the#Colombo#district,#in#which#Halgaha#Kubura#is#located.#During#the#monsoon#seasons#Halgaha#Kubura#used#to#get#flooded,#as#shown#in#the#graph#above,#with#the#region#receiving#high#rain#falls#during#the#months#of#May,#October,#and#November.##As#a#result#of#climate#change#the#region#is#now#receiving#even#more#rain#during#these#seasons,#which#significantly#increases#the#occurrences#of#floods.#! 6!A#dominant#physical#aspect#of#the#city#is#its#harbour#and#the#extensive#network#of#watercourses.#The#Greater#Colombo#Water#Basin#comprises#some#85#km2#of#land#around#Colombo.#The#basin#is#bordered#by#the#Kalani#River#in#the#North,#the#Weras#River#in#the#Southeast#and#the#Indian#Ocean#in#the#West.#The#basin#slopes#from#the#Southeast#to#the#Northwest,#with#elevations#of#10Z20m#+#Mean#Sea#Level#in#the#upper#reaches#to#about#1m#+#Mean#Sea#Level#downstream#(The#World#Bank,#2012).##The#Colombo#Metropolitan#region,#the#country's#political#and#economic#center,#is#vulnerable#to#floods#as#most#of#its#areas#are#less#than#six#meters#above#sea#level.#The#flood#damage#in#this#region#tends#to#be#serious#particularly#in#the#areas#where#adequate#drainage#systems#are#lacking#(UNZHABITAT,#2009).#During#the#rainy#season#settlements#located#in#lowZlying#land#go#underwater.#Numerous#canals,#constructed#for#water#transportation#purposes,#supplement#the#rivers#by#draining#the#rainwater#from#lowZlying#lands#(The#World#Bank,2012;#UniZConsultancy#Services,2011).##The#hydraulic#infrastructure#is#formed#by#a#microZdrainage#system#managed#by#the#three#municipal#councils#and#a#macroZdrainage#system#maintained#by#the#Sri#Lanka#Land#Reclamation#and#Development#Corporation#(SLLRDC)#under#the#Ministry#of#Defense.#The#microZdrainage#system#consists#of#storm#water#drains#that#drain#to#the#macroZdrainage#system#of#secondary#and#main#canals#systems#as#shown#in#Figure#1.3#(The#World#Bank,#2012).########! 7!Figure#1.3:##Greater#Colombo#Canal#System.# Source:#(The#World#Bank,#2012,#p.#81)##Halgaha Kubura ! 8!Colombo#is#situated#adjacent#to#the#Kelani#River#Delta.#The#city#originally#developed#on#clusters#of#isolated#and#scattered#hillocks#situated#in#low#lying#and#marshy#lands.#Flood#bunds#and#other#flood#prevention#mechanisms#protect#the#area#from#the#sea#and#an#elaborate#canal#system#provides#drainage#of#runoff#water.#(UNCHS/#Habitat)##The#physical#characteristics#of#the#Colombo#area#cause#special#problems#in#the#delivery#of#housing;#similarly,#these#physical#characteristics#are#important#determinants#of#the#type#of#shanty#development#that#take#place.#Undeveloped#lowZlying#and#marshy#areas#function#as#additional#storm#water#retention#areas#during#times#of#heavy#rains.#Increasingly,#however,#shanties#have#developed#on#this#excess#lowZlying#land.#Furthermore,#increased#reclamation#of#marshy#areas#has#been#carried#out#in#recent#years#for#new#urban#development#projects.#These#developments#have#caused#a#severe#escalation#of#the#drainage#problems#in#the#city.##(UNCHS/#Habitat)#At#the#same#time#the#condition#of#the#canal#system#has#increasingly#deteriorated.#Although#officially#excluded#from#development,#shanty#dwellings#have#heavily#encroached#upon#the#canal#banks.#The#presence#of#these#shanty#houses#has#caused#a#serious#problem#of#pollution#and#blockage#of#the#canals#and#has#made#the#task#of#maintenance#of#the#canal#system#much#more#complicated#(UNCHS/#Habitat).#The#problem#of#shanty#upgrading#and#relocation,#therefore,#has#a#special#dimension#in#the#Colombo#area.#In#addition,#the#special#drainage#problems#enormously#increase#the#costs#of#developing#low−lying#land#for#housing#projects.#These#complicating#factors#add#to#the#problem#of#providing#affordable#housing#to#the#majority#of#the#urban#residents.#During#the#last#40#to#50#years,#worldwide#urban#migration#has#also#been#observed#in#Sri#Lanka.#This#trend#has#degraded#the#city’s#environment#and#threatened#economic#efficiency,#social#equity#and#urban#sustainability#(UNESCAP).#These#consequences#are#experienced#in#their#worst#form#in#Colombo#and#its#suburbs,#where#settlements#have#degraded#to#a#very#low#level.#Since#most#of#these#settlements#are#illegally#occupied,#! 9!even#local#authorities#and#nonZgovernmental#organizations#are#unwilling#to#upgrade#these#urban#lowZincome#settlements.#Colombo#remains#a#city#of#diversity#in#terms#of#its#ethnic#mix,#economic#activities,#physical#characteristics#and#income#disparities#of#its#population.#It#was#revealed#that#about#50%#of#the#city’s#population#lives#in#lowZincome#settlements,#which#are#locally#known#as#"under#serviced#settlements"#(CMC,#2000).#Economically,#Sri#Lanka's#development#has#been#well#below#its#potential#income.#In#the#1960s,#Sri#Lanka#had#the#same#per#capita#income#as#Korea,#Malaysia,#and#Singapore.#Thirty#years#later#these#three#countries#have#per#capita#incomes#that#are#several#times#higher#than#Sri#Lanka's.#Several#reasons#explain#this#divergence#in#economic#performance.#The#first#and#most#obvious#one#is#the#17Zyear#long#war.2##(Sri#Lankan#Ministry#of#Defence:#ESRI,#2009)#This#has#taken#a#heavy#social#and#economic#toll#on#the#country's#performance.#Secondly,#relative#to#the#early#1970s,#public#institutions#and#governance#weakened#which#resulted#in#a#decline#in#the#economy.#Thirdly,#Sri#Lanka#has#for#many#years#given#the#public#sector#a#significant#role#in#creating#jobs#and#transferring#resources#across#groups.#While#the#size#of#the#public#sector#has#declined#slightly#over#the#years#it#continues#to#dominate#the#financial#sector#and#utilities,#while#owning#a#large#number#of#commercial#enterprises.#Per#capita#employment#in#the#public#sector#of#Sri#Lanka#is#the#largest#in#Asia#with#productivity#in#the#public#sector#being#typically#well#below#that#of#the#private#sector.#This#has#meant#foregone#opportunities#in#terms#of#growth#and#employment.#Regulations#regarding#land#transfers#and#exit#policies#in#the#labor#market#have#exacerbated#the#situation#by#constraining#efficiency#in#the#private#sector.#It#is#a#testimony#to#the#private#sector’s#strength#that#employment#in#the#private#sector#has#increased#significantly#during#the#last#decade#despite#these#constraints.#(The#World#Bank,#2000)#!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!2In#July#1983#LTTE#(Liberation#Tigers#of#Tamil#Eelam)#ambushed#the#army#patrol#in#Jaffna,#leading#to#the#start#of#the#Civil#War.#After#26#years#of#war#the#Rebels#laid#down#their#arms#on#May#17,#2009#(Sri#Lankan#Ministry#of#Defense;#ESRI,#2009).# ! 10!The#Colombo#Municipal#Council,#the#local#government#authority,#has#two#major#roles#in#the#city.#It#acts#as#the#implementing#body#for#laws#and#as#a#service#provider#for#roads,#sewage#and#waste#disposal,#rainwater#disposal,#sports#and#recreation,#libraries,#community#health#services,#curative#health#services,#and#prevention#of#communicable#diseases.#Most#of#the#council#services#reach#the#poor#communities.##The#city#of#Colombo#itself#accounts#for#nearly#30%#of#Sri#Lanka’s#GDP:#27.6%#from#the#service#sector,#24.3%#from#manufacturing#and#20.2#%#from#trade#and#tourism#(ADB,#2004).#OneZthird#of#the#city’s#inhabitants,#mostly#those#from#underZserved#settlements,#find#their#livelihood#in#informal#sector#activities#(ADB,#2004).#Some#of#the#city’s#problems#are#slum#and#squatter#settlements,#a#degraded#environment#and#an#overZloaded#physical#infrastructure#(DFID#et#al,#2002).#A#vast#majority#of#the#city’s#population#lives#in#improvised#housing#structures,#slums,#and#shanty#settlements#lacking#proper#basic#facilities#such#as#water#supply,#lighting,#and#toilets.#Many#of#these#settlements#are#located#in#areas#unsuited#for#residence#such#as#inside#canal#banks,#road#reservations,#and#floodZ#prone#areas#(Sevanatha,#2002).#In#contrast#to#many#other#cities#in#the#world,#free#education#is#available#and#accessible#to#all#residents#of#Colombo#including#those#from#slums#and#shanty#settlements#(Colombo#Municipal#Council,#2000).#However,#residents#from#these#settlements,#lowZincome#individuals,#are#unable#to#access#this#service#due#to#the#time#and#energy#they#allocate#to#meet#their#basic#needs#and#services.#The#cyclical#nature#of#poverty#traps#caused#by#low#levels#of#education,#poor#nutrition#and#underemployment#being#mostly#associated#with#the#informal#sector,#are#evident#at#these#household#levels#(World#Bank,#2007).#In#contrast,#middle#class#households#enjoy#the#basic#facilities#and#services#of#the#city.###! 11!1.1.1)Halgaha)Kubura:)lowVincome)settlement)As#some#70#million#people#in#the#developing#world#move#to#urban#areas#each#year,#cities#are#increasingly#stretched#to#provide#urban#infrastructure,#services,#and#safe#land.#Some#one#billion#people#already#live#in#slums,#and#this#is#projected#to#double#by#2030#(UNZHABITAT,#2008;#The#International#Bank#for#Reconstruction#and#Development/The#World#Bank,#2011).#Halgaha#Kubura#is#one#of#the#oldest#informal#lowZincome#settlements#in#the#core#of#Colombo,#which#has#formed#as#a#result#of#people#migrating#in#search#for#better#livelihoods#and#a#way#to#meet#their#basic#needs#(Sevanatha,#2002).###Figure#1.4#Halgaha#Kubura#and#Kolonnawa#oil#Installation#in#the#distance.  (Source:#Ashley,#2010)#Halgaha#Kubura#is#a#mixed#ethnic#community,#with#the#majority#of#the#residents#engaging#in#both#formal#and#informal#income#earning#activities#within#the#city#area#(K.#Ashley,#2010).#It#is#located#in#Ward#32,#Wanathamulla#on#approximately#10#acres#of#land.#The#settlement#comprises#2,742#people#living#in#556#housing#units.#Of#these#units#only#79,#less#than#15%,#can#be#considered#permanent#housing#units#(Sevanatha,#2005).#The#current#number#of#housing#units#has#increased#up#to#630#houses,#which#contain#700#families#with#an#average#of#4#to#5#people#living#in#each#house#(Sevanatha,#CMC,#2013).#! 12!The#shanty#settlement#was#formed#by#the#illegal#occupation#of#an#area#formerly#used#as#a#dumpsite.#It#is#located#along#side#the#Dematagoda#canal,#one#of#the#city’s#major#waterways.#As#there#were#no#earlier#objections#from#the#authorities#responsible#for#the#easements#kept#for#the#canals#and#the#electricity#transmission#lines#located#overhead,#people#continued#to#move#in.#(Ashley,#2010)#1.2 Dhaka,)Bangladesh))#Geographically#Bangladesh#is#located#in#the#South#Asian#continent#similar#to#Sri#Lanka.##Bangladesh#is#frequently#cited#as#one#of#the#most#vulnerable#countries#to#climate#change#because#of#its#disadvantageous#geographic#location,#flat#and#lowZlying#topography,#high#population#density,#high#levels#of#poverty,#reliance#of#many#livelihoods#on#climate#sensitive#sectors,#particularly#agriculture#and#fisheries,#and#inefficient#institutional#aspects#(A.#Nayeem#et#al,#2010;#A.Khan,#2010).##Dhaka,#the#Capital#of#Bangladesh#is#one#of#the#fastest#growing#cities#in#the#world;#in#2006#it#ranked#11th#among#the#world’s#megacities3#with#an#estimated#population#of#12.4#million#(Roy,#2009)#with#an#area#of#1,353km2(M.#alam#et#al,#2007).##According#to#the#United#Nations#Department#of#Economic#and#Social#Affairs,#the#calculated#population#in#Dhaka#is#15.4#million#as#of#2011.#(United#Nations,#2012)#There#is#no#city#in#the#world#that#has#experienced#such#a#high#growth#rate#in#population#during#this#period.#During#2000Z2015#it#is#expected#to#grow#at#a#3.6%#annual#growth#rate#and#reach#a#total#population#of#21.1#million#in#2015#(Hossain,#2006;#Wendt,#1997).#By#2025#the#population#of#Dhaka#is#expected#to#reach#22.9#million#(United#Nations,#2012).#It#is#projected#that#by#2025#eight#of#the#ten#megacities#will#be#in#Asia#with#Dhaka#ranking#in#4th#following#on#the#heels#of#Tokyo,#Bombay#and#New#Delhi#(Khondker,#2010).##Although,#the#city#has#its#share#of#rich#inhabitants,#the#bulk#of#the#population#is#very#poor#(S.#Wendt,#1997).##!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!3A#megacity#is#usually#defined#according#to#the#United#Nation#as#a#metropolitan#area#with#a#total#population#in#excess#of#10#million#people.#Some#definitions#also#set#a#minimum#level#for#population#density#(at#least#2,000#persons/square#km).#A#megacity#can#be#a#single#metropolitan#area#or#more#metropolitan,#depending#on#the#definitions#and#boundaries#being#used#(Makinde,#O.O.,#2012)!! 13!Figure#1.5#–#Dhaka,#Bangladesh#during#monsoon#season#####(Source:#Photo#by#K.A.#Jayaratne,#2012)#An#estimated#oneZthird#of#the#city’s#population#lives#in#slums.#The#people#who#live#in#slums#are#lacking#in#wealth,#power#and#social#connections;#probably#underZcounted#in#national#surveys;#and#underZserved#by#both#government#and#nonZgovernment#organizations,#whose#focus#has#traditionally#been#on#rural#development#(CREATE,#2010).###Dhaka#has#survived#for#the#past#400#years,#during#which#time#it#has#seen#rise#and#decline,#opulence#and#poverty.#Dhaka#is#old#and#has#been#known#to#be#in#existence#since#the#7th#century#(Ahsan,#2012).#The#city#was#made#a#provincial#capital#in#the#late#7th#century#by#the#Mogul#ruler#Emperor#Zhangir#(G.#Parvinet#al,#2011).#During#the#British#rule#the#city#flourished#and#since#1971#it#has#been#the#capital#of#Bangladesh.#Since#becoming#a#capital,#the#city#is#growing#but#in#an#unplanned#manner#leading#to#vulnerability#to#disasters.#Under#a#capable#and#democratic#city#government,#Dhaka#may#regain#its#past#glory#transforming#itself#from#a#megacity#of#despair#into#a#thriving#! 14!megapolis#(Khondker,#2010).#Dhaka#was#built#haphazardly;#its#houses,#pucca4#or#kutcha5,#are#closely#packed#and#laid#in#narrow#streets#and#lanes.#Only#houses#situated#on#the#riverfront,#owned#or#occupied#by#Europeans#and#wealthy#Indians#were#built#according#to#a#plan.#(Wendt,#1997)#Dhaka’s#formal#settlements#have#grown#in#a#linear#direction#towards#the#North,#due#to#a#main#river#being#situated#on#the#Southern#border#of#the#city.#Floods#frequently#affect#the#area#around#the#river.#Although#the#metropolis#area#of#the#city#is#fairly#large,#a#shortage#of#land#suitable#to#build#on#has#been#a#hindrance#to#efficient#growth.#Suitable#land#in#Dhaka#has#already#been#developed#for#housing,#industrial#or#other#urban#uses.#(Wendt,#1997)#Flooding#from#river#waters#overflowing#the#banks,#particularly#during#a#monsoon,#is#an#annual#phenomenon.#On#average,#oneZthird#of#the#country#goes#under#water#every#year.#The#people#living#in#the#lowZlying#flood#plains#have#learned#to#adjust#their#lifestyles#to#this#annual#flooding#(J.#Choudhury,#2005).#Dhaka#lies#within#the#pathway#of#tropical#cyclones#and#can#be#affected#by#extreme#storm#surges.#Studies#show#that#both#the#frequency#and#intensity#of#these#cyclones#are#on#the#rise#in#the#region.#Another#cause#for#flooding#in#the#region#is#the#high#rainfall#and#deforestation#in#the#upstream#catchment#area.#Drainage#congestion#and#inadequate#pumping#facility#in#turn#lengthen#the#flooding#period.#(Ahsan,#2012)#Over#its#last#400#years#of#urban#development,#Dhaka#has#completely#lost#its#image#as#the#“Venice#of#the#East#or#the#City#of#Channels”!as#remarked#on#by#James#Taylor#and#presently#stands#as#a##“City#of#Concrete”##Ahsan,#2012).##Dhaka#is#predominantly#a#waterZbased#city#located#in#the#central#part#of#Bangladesh.#The#city#lies#on#an#alluvial#terrace#above#the#northern#bank#of#the#Buriganga#!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!4Pucca#House:#Has#walls#made#out#of#Burnt#bricks,#stones#(packed#with#lime#or#cement),#cement#concrete,#and#timber.#The#roof#is#made#out#of#tiles,#GCI#(Galvanized#Corrugated#Iron)#sheets,#asbestos#cement#sheets,#RBC#(Reinforced#Brick#Concrete),#RCC#(Reinforced#Cement#Concrete)#and#timber#etc.#(Wendt,#1997)##5Kutcha#House:#Has#walls#and/or#roofs#which#are#made#out#of#material#other#than#those#used#in#Pucca#houses,#such#as#unZburnt#bricks,#bamboos,#mud,#grass,#reeds,#thatch,#loosely#packed#stones,#etc.#(Wendt,#1997)#!! 15!River,#which#provides#access#to#the#major#regional#rivers#(Ahsan,#2012).##Dhaka’s#surface#water#area#is#approximately#10Z15%#of#the#total#land#area.#The#surface#water#of#this#city#is#closely#dissected#by#a#number#of#rivers,#canals#and#lakes.#The#Buriganga,#Turag,#Tongi,#Khal#and#Balu#River#are#the#main#river#streams#that#surround#Dhaka.#The#major#lakes#are#Dhanmondi,#Ramna,#Gulshan#and#Cresent#Lake.#It#has#been#known#from#different#government#and#nonZgovernment#organizations#and#available#surface#water#drainage#maps#that#there#was#once#more#than#35#canals#within#the#Dhaka#metropolitan#area.#The#conditions#of#the#remaining#canals#are#very#critical#at#present#and#some#have#already#vanished#(Islam#et#al,#2010).##The#Journal#of#Social#and#Development#Science#states#there#were#originally#43#canals#in#the#city#that#worked#as#major#drainage#systems#and#transportation#corridors#into#the#city.#However,#at#present#restoration#plans#for#only#17#canals#have#been#proposed#(Ahsan,#2012).#Urbanization#has#marked#effects#on#global#and#local#environmental#conditions,#including#climate#change#and#related#hazards.#Unfortunately,#among#the#megacities#Dhaka#is#considered#the#most#vulnerable#to#climate#change.#Its#recent#rapid#urbanization#is#taking#place#in#the#lowlands,#which#serve#as#retention#ponds#during#flooding#seasons.#Like#most#parts#of#the#country,#flooding#is#a#common#environmental#problem#for#Dhaka,#and#its#severity#is#increasing#every#year#(M.#Roy,#2008).#Dhaka#has#experienced#nine#major#floods#in#the#last#55#years,#and#those#of#1988,#1998#and#2004#were#severe#due#to#the#overflow#of#the#surrounding#rivers#(H.#Jabeen#et#al,#2009).#Most#of#its#natural#drainage#and#canals#used#to#drain#excess#water#have#been#encroached#upon.##Unlike#some#other#megacities#of#the#world,#Dhaka#faces#the#extreme#problem#of#inefficiency#and#corruption#in#its#local#government#authorities.#Due#to#their#lack#of#coordination#the#urban#development#authorities#of#Dhaka#have#failed#to#play#their#role#in#the#planning,#implementation,#administration#and#management#of#the#various#types#of#urban#development#activities#and#infrastructure#services#(Khan,#1997).#Multiplicity#of#institutions#and#the#overlapping#nature#of#their#jurisdictions#have#created#major#! 16!problems#in#terms#of#coordination.#The#extensive#and#rigid#control#of#the#central#government#over#the#elected#urban#councils#has#to#some#extent#made#them#inefficient.#Khan#(1997)#shows#that#due#to#inadequate#funds#of#their#own#the#urban#development#authorities#are#absolutely#dependent#on#government#grants#and#hence#have#to#work#within#limits#set#by#the#procedures#of#such#grants.#The#inefficient#personnel#of#the#urban#development#authorities#are#appointed#through#political#connections.#Nepotism#and#bribes#are#also#making#the#urban#government#inefficient.#All#mechanisms#of#the#urban#government#are#more#or#less#corrupted.##The#absence#of#real#democratic#representation#and#participation#of#the#people#makes#the#city#corporation#and#other#related#bodies#corrupt#(Md.#Hossain,#2006).#1.2.1)Korail,)Dhaka)The#informal#settlement#of#Korail#is#considered#to#be#the#biggest#slum#in#Dhaka#and#started#to#develop#during#the#late#1980s#on#vacant#higher#ground#(H.#Jabeen#et#al,#2009).#The#vacant#land#was#owned#by#the#department#of#Telephone#&#Telegraph#(T&T),#now#known#as#Bangladesh#Telecommunication#Company#Limited#(BTCL).###Korail’s#history!begins#in#1961,#during#Pakistani#governance,#when#the#area,#180#acres,#was#under#private#ownership#prior#to#being#bought#by#T&T.##An#important#aspect#of#this#purchase#was#the#stringent#condition#that#this#land#could#only#be#used#by#T&T.#In#1990,#the#then#T&T#Chairman,#Maksud!Ali!Khan,!and#Minister#KaziFiroz!Rashid,!jointly#discharged#90#acres#of#the#land#to#the#Public#Works#Department#of#Bangladesh#(PWD),#violating#the#initial#agreement.#When#PWD#began#development#of#this#newly#acquired#land,#the#previous#private#owners#sued#T&T#for#“breach#of#contract”.#They#demanded#that#the#land#be#returned#them.#In#order#to#avoid#further#legal#complications,#T&T#reclaimed#the#90#acres#of#land#they#had#given#to#PWD.#Furthermore,#they#presented#the#previous#development#work#begun#by#PWD#as#illegitimate.#From#this#moment,#three#parties#became#clear#stakeholders#in#Korail’s#present#slum#areaZ#T&T,#PWD#and#the#former#private#landowners#(M.#Mridha#et#al,#2009).#! 17!In#the#middle#of#the#1990’s#uninhabited#pieces#of#land#of#the#original#180#acres#slowly#became#illegally#captured#by#various#T&T#affiliates,#staff,#gang#leaders#known#as#“godfathers”#and#city#ward#commissioners#which#they#rented#out#to#the#low#income#individuals.#As#a#result#of#the#growing#demand#for#inexpensive#housing#these#inhabitants#slowly#expanded#to#create#the#Korail#slum#as#it#is#today.#Today#many#of#the#inhabitants#of#Korail!are#becoming#owners#of#their#living#space#by#unlawfully#purchasing#the#land#from#their#current#landlords#(Sinthian,#2013).#Figure#1.6Z#View#of#Korail#Slums#from#GulshanZ#Banani#river.##(Source:#photo#by#author,#2013)#At#present,#the#Korail#slum#covers#an#area#of#approximately#90#acres#with#an#estimated#population#of#more#than#100,000.#(H.#Jabeen#et#al,#2009;#Khan,#2010).#Geographically#the#Korail#slum#is#like#a#peninsula#,#which#is#situated#in#the#northern#side#of#Mohakhali4Gulshan!Road#of#Dhaka#(Minoshi).#The#Eastern#and#Southern#edges#of#the#area#are#defined#by#Lake#Gulshan,#a#main#water#reservoir#for#the#adjoining#areas#(H.#Jabeen#et#al,#! 18!2009;#A.#Nayeem#et#al,#2010).#Korail#can#be#accessed#by#many#roads#and#is#also#accessible#by#water#through#the#Gulshan#Lake.#Because#of#its#location#near#the#highZend#residential#and#commercial#areas#of#Gulshan,#Banani#and#Mohakhali,#the#settlement#has#attracted#lowZincome#people#engaged#mostly#in#service#jobs#such#as#cleaners,#household#help,#rickshaw#pullers#and#workers#in#the#readyZmade#garment#industries.#(H.#Jabeen#et#al,#2009)#The#high#population#density,#the#lack#of#proper#services#and#the#location#close#to#the#vulnerable#water’s#edge#imposes#threats#from#climate#variability#and#climate#change.#Almost#every#year,#the#people#of#Korail#experience#climatic#hazards#from#excessive#rainfall,#increased#heat#and#flooding.#(H.#Jabeen#et#al,#2009)#(Khan,#2010)#More#than#20,000#families#now#reside#in#Korail,#comprising#a#significant#amount#of#Dhaka’s#work#force#in#the#garment,#transportation,#construction,#land#development,#domestic#help,#waste#management,#small#industry#and#informal#sectors.#Despite#their#significant#contribution#to#the#economy#slum#dwellers#from#Korail#and#elsewhere#remain#excluded#from#basic#services#principally#because#slums#are#considered#to#be#“illegal#settlements”#(DSK,#2012).#1.3)research)goals))The#main#aim#of#this#thesis#is#to#map#out#the#different#coping#strategies#in#Korail#and#Halgaha#Kubura#and#to#discover#the#ways#they#responded#before,#during#and#after#the#disaster.#The#primary#goal#of#this#thesis#is#to#develop#an#Adaptation#and#Disaster#Resilient#Design#Guidelines#to#also#assist#atZrisk#households#and#communities#to#help#people#cope#with#hazard#risk#in#the#future.#This#Guideline#will#ensure#safer#housing#and#building#guidelines#in#land#use#planning#and#the#development#of#buildings#and#infrastructure.#And#will#also#help#to#overcome#the#vulnerabilities#caused#by#regular#monsoon#flooding#in#the#case#of#future#floods#and#sea#level#rise.#This#thesis#is#organized#into#three#sections.#Two#sets#of#Transect#maps#have#been#produced#to#identify#the#existing#drainage#systems,#infrastructure#systems#and#land#use#! 19!planning#in#both#cities.#The#various#coping#strategies#adapted#before,#during#and#after#the#disaster#have#also#been#mapped.#As#a#result#of#these#transect#maps#the#Guideline#has#been#created.###1.3.1)Mapping)historical)background)(infrastructure)and)land)use)planning)##Although#floods#are#natural#phenomena,#the#damages#and#losses#from#floods#are#the#consequences#of#human#actions.#The#increasing#climatic#variability,#storm#activity#and#more#frequent#flooding#driven#by#climate#change#will#affect#poor#urban#communities#far#more#than#individuals#living#in#formal#residential#areas.##The#expansion#of#cities#is#driven#by#population#growth#demands#for#development#of#infrastructure,#which#in#turn#causes#the#destruction#of#natural#ground#cover#and#landscape.#These#developments,#when#not#planned#well,#increase#the#severity#of#weather#related#disasters.##The#links#between#changes#in#land#use#and#in#heavy#rainfall#patterns,#the#frequency#and#depth#of#flooding#and#the#problems#of#the#urban#poor#are#clear.###It#is#important#to#investigate#how#the#historical#infrastructure#and#drainage#system#was#created#by#the#local#organizations#as#well#as#colonized#nations#in#the#past.#In#depth#transect#mapping#will#be#done#to#identify#the#flood#plains,#historical#infrastructure#and#drainage#systems#before#the#Korail#(early#1980s)#and#Halgaha#Kumbura#(early#1950s)#urban#settlements#were#established.##The#coping#strategies#of#the#two#communities#will#be#assessed#using#transect#mapping#which#further#combined#with#information#regarding#development#of#current#infrastructure#and#land#use#(for#example,#residential#construction,#road#and#drainage#development)#of#informal#settlements#in#the#other#developing#countries#in#the#world.#It#would#also#be#useful#to#consider#the#techniques#adapted#to#reduce#the#impact#of#climatic#change#in#these#countries.####! 20!1.3.2)various)coping)strategies)adapted)before,)during)and)after)the)disaster)by)the)poor)in)Korail,)Dhaka)and)Halgaha)Kubura,)Colombo.)#Flooding#in#urban#areas#is#not#just#related#to#heavy#rainfall#and#extreme#climatic#events;#it#is#also#related#to#changes#in#the#builtZup#areas#themselves.#Urbanization#aggravates#flooding#by#restricting#where#flood#waters#can#go,#by#covering#large#parts#of#the#ground#with#roofs,#by#roads#and#pavements,#by#obstructing#sections#of#natural#channels,#and#by#building#drains#that#ensure#that#water#moves#to#rivers#more#rapidly#than#it#did#under#natural#conditions.##Floods#in#Dhaka#and#Colombo#have#different#causes#that#are#unique#to#the#two#cities,#which#range#from#uncontrolled#urbanization#to#illegal#developments#by#poor#communities.#Dhaka#and#Colombo#have#already#undertaken#a#number#of#measures#to#reduce#the#impact#of#flooding#in#urban#poor#communities#by#two#different#aspects.#The#communities#in#Korail#have#improved#their#shelters#while#communities#in#Halgaha#Kubura#have#improved#their#infrastructure.###1.3.3)The)adaptation)and)disaster)resilience)design)guidelines))The#central#argument#of#this#thesis#is#that#significant#lessons#can#be#drawn#from#examining#how#the#urban#poor#are#already#coping#with#conditions#of#increased#vulnerability#induced#by#changing#climate#as#well#as#extreme#weather#events#such#as#monsoon#floods#and#heavy#rains,#and#how#they#respond#to#hazards.#Population#increase#in#developing#countries#is#a#wellZknown#fact.##With#the#increase#of#the#population#the#development#of#infrastructure#and#shelter#also#need#to#be#achieved#in#order#to#build#resilient#communities.#Designed#adaptation#and#disaster#resilience#Design#Guidelines#play#a#crucial#role#by#ensuring#that#land#use#planning#and#the#development#of#buildings#and#infrastructure#take#into#account#climate#change#risks.#This#poses#several#challenges#since#it#requires#planning#and#regulatory#frameworks#that#not#only#prevent#further#development#in#highZrisk#areas#and#support#mitigation#efforts#but#! 21!also#reduce#the#vulnerability#of#the#urban#poor#and#of#collective#infrastructure#without#imposing#additional#costs#on#the#poor#or#obstructing#their#right#to#the#city.#This#implies#that#local#adaptation#to#climate#change#cannot#be#divorced#from#a#wider#development#perspective#that#simultaneously#focuses#on#tackling#risk#through#lifeline#infrastructure#in#areas#where#such#risk#has#historically#accumulated#while#planning#to#reduce#disaster#risk#in#future#urban#developments.##1.4)Methodology))Mapping#the#hazards#that#threaten#a#community#allows#one#to#begin#a#process#of#identifying#the#areas#that#are#most#at#risk#and#therefore#the#areas#where#to#concentrate#community#riskZmitigation#efforts.#It#also#provides#an#objective#basis#for#strategic#decisions.#The#more#refined#maps#of#natural#and#technological#hazards#are#the#more#refined#the#decisions.##Maps#help#to#visualize#a#space#and#how#that#space#should#be#occupied.#Maps,#like#graphs,#are#common#tools#in#humanitarian#action.#They#usually#show#physical#features#such#as#overland#routes,#dwellings,#administrative#boundaries,#infrastructure,#waterways#(hydrography)#and#relief.#It#is#best#to#keep#them#as#simple#as#possible#for#field#use#and#to#restrict#them#to#necessary#elements.#A#map#can#be#produced,#either#because#an#appropriate#one#does#not#exist#or#to#suit#specific#purposes,#by#using#a#compass#and#a#mile#counter,#or#even#just#by#observation#(IFRC,#2008).#The#reason#for#focusing#on#housing#in#one#case#and#infrastructure#in#the#other#is#that#these#two#sites#do#not#address#both#each,#rather#they#have#focused#only#on#one#in#order#to#counter#floods.##In#Korail#the#people#have#found#solutions#for#flooding#through#housing,#while#in#Halgaha#Kubura#the#people#have#realized#flood#resilient#methods#through#the#development#of#infrastructure,#rather#than#through#housing.#Since#the#residents#of#Korail#lack#legal#ownership#to#the#land#and#experience#high#percentages#of#eviction,#they#try#to#achieve#fundamental#human#needs#such#as#housing.#! 22!Where#as#people#in#Halgaha#Kubura#have#achieved#the#legal#ownership,#they#are#motivated#to#find#solutions#as#a#group#by#developing#infrastructure.#These#two#sites#were#chosen#due#to#my#work#and#academic#experiences#with#them#and#through#literature#reviews.##Through#my#experiences#I#have#realized#that#these#two#sites#experience#frequent#monsoon#floods,#poverty,#and#high#urban#migration,#ergo#these#two#sites#are#ideal#for#this#study.##Further,#the#solutions#that#have#been#implemented#at#these#two#sites#have#been#indigenously#developed#by#the#local#communities#rather#than#been#entirely#funded#and#implemented#by#local#and#international#organizations.##To#achieve#the#sustainability#of#Adaptation#and#Disaster#Resilient#Design#Guidelines#the#local#practices,#resources#of#the#lowZ#income#people,#financial#capacities#and#their#coping#strategies#against#floods#have#been#consulted.###This#thesis#is#a#result#of#my#work#and#student#portfolio.#It#is#a#description#and#an#explanation#of#my#professional#and#academic#life#over#the#past#years.##While#working#in#Sevanatha,#a#nonZgovernmental#organization#in#Sri#Lanka,#from#2003#to#2005#I#was#fortunate#enough#to#work#in#Halgaha#Kubura.#My#experience#in#this#slum#provided#me#the#information#to#create#a#detailed#map#of#the#area#in#2013.##In#Oxford#Brookes#University#I#earned#my#undergraduate#degree#and#wrote#a#thesis#titled:#Building#Back#Better.#This#thesis#focused#on#a#systematic#search#to#draw#strategic#lessons#from#the#work#carried#by#various#stakeholders#involved#in#reconstruction#of#living#environment#for#people#affected#by#2004#Asian#tsunami#as#well#as#internal#civil#conflicts.#This#experience#allowed#me#to#gain#more#knowledge#on#the#organizational#structures#of#lowZincome#communities#and#their#capabilities.##After#graduation#I#was#privileged#to#work#with#the#International#Federation#of#Red#Cross#on#the#Community#Recovery#and#Reconstruction#Project.#I#was#involved#in#building#997#houses#and#infrastructure#for#people#who#were#affected#by#30#years#of#Civil#War#and#the#2004#Tsunami#in#Sri#Lanka.#This#experience#helped#me#in#building#the#disaster#guidelines#for#this#thesis.#I’m#able#to#assess#whether#these#guidelines#will#be#realistic#and#effective.#While#doing#my#studies#and#work#I#was#also#able#to#access#many#useful#documents#and#! 23!visit#lowZincome#sites#and#developed#projects#in#Sri#Lanka,#Myanmar,#Thailand#and#Bangladesh.##The#research#presented#in#this#thesis#was#based#on#secondary#sources,#with#available#literature#and#internet#search#on#secondary#information#relating#to#low#income#communities#in#Dhaka#and#Colombo,#floods,#disaster#resilience#coping#and#adapation#statergies,#followed#by#a#field#experience#in#Halgaha#Kumbura,#Colombo#and#Korail,#Dhaka#that#took#place#between#January#and#February#2013.##A#key#part#of#the#field#study#involved#transect#mapping.#1.4.1)Transect)mapping:)vulnerability)transect)map))Transect#mapping#is#a#tool#used#to#describe#the#location#and#distribution#of#resources,#the#landscape#and#main#land#uses.#It#further#allows#participants#to#identify#constraints#and#opportunities#with#reference#to#locations#or#particular#ecosystems#situated#along#the#Transect.#Once#completed,#transect#maps#depict#geographic#features#(e.g.#infrastructure,#local#markets,#schools)#as#well#as#land#use#types,#vegetation#zones,#problems,#and#opportunities#observed#or#perceived#along#a#transect#line.##For#this#research,#the#transect#mapping#involved#walking#through#the#two#caseZstudy#communities#to#observe#the#people,#the#surroundings#and#the#resources#used#within#the#community#to#cope#with#monsoon#flooding.#It#is#used#to#note#the#sites#and#topography#of#the#area#and#to#understand#interZrelationships#in#their#natural#surroundings.#A#transect#walk#is#usually#done#early#in#the#research#process#because#it#gives#an#overall#view#of#the#community.##Over#the#past#few#years,#a#number#of#urban#planners#associated#with#New#Urbanism,#and#specially#associated#with#a#compendium#of#principles#organized#as#The!Lexicon!of!New!Urbanism!published#by#Duany#PlaterZZyberk#&#Co.#(2000),#have#formulated#a#new#approach#to#planning#urban#environments#which#is#a#very#pragmatic#alternative#system#to#zoning.#The#approach#has#been#termed#the#‘transect’#after#a#wellZestablished#method#! 24!of#ecological#analysis.##To#systemize#the#analysis#and#coding#of#traditional#patterns,#a#prototypical#American#ruralZtoZurban#transect#has#been#divided#into#six#Transect#Zones,#or#TZzones,#for#application#on#zoning#maps.#The#components#include#the#disposition,#configuration,#function#of#buildings,#thoroughfares,#and#civic#spaces,#which#are#coordinated#by#TZzone#number#to#ensure#"immersive#environments,"#i.e.#human#habitats#with#distinctive#character.#(DuanyPlaterZZyberk&#Company).##Figure#1.7#Z#SmartCode,#released#in#2003#by#Duany#PlaterZZyberk#&#Company#Source:#(Duany,#Speck,#&#Lydon,#2010)##This#kind#of#approach#constitutes#a#fundamental#change#in#current#planning#practice.#Not#only#does#it#require#a#much#stronger#integration#of#plan#and#implementation,#it#also#requires#a#new#system#of#land#classification#and#regulation—one#that#arranges#the#elements#of#urbanism#according#to#the#principles#of#a#transectZbased#distribution.##(Duany#&#Talen,#2001)##“#To#achieve#this,#transect#planners#have#given#maximum#focus#to#the#coding!of#a#transectZbased#system.#Such#a#system#must:#(1)#spatially#locate#a#discrete#number#of#transect#environments,#ranging#from#urban#to#rural;#(2)#apply#standards#within#each#environment#so#that#development#within#them#does#not#detract#from#the#integrity#of#each#place;#and#(3)#be#flexible#enough#to#allow#one#transect#Eco#zone#to#evolve#into#! 25!another,#thereby#incorporating#a#dynamic,#rather#than#static,#approach#to#guiding#urban#development.#The#most#well#developed#transect#code#is#Duany#PlaterZZyberk#&#Co.’s#‘Smart#Code’.#In#it,#a#generalized#transect#is#segmented#into#six#different#zones:#Rural#Preserve,#Rural#Reserve,#SubZUrban,#General#Urban,#Urban#Centre#and#Urban#Core.”#(E.#Talen,#2002)#A#diagram#of#the#nomenclature#of#the#Smart#Code#transect#is#given#in#Figure#1.7,#and#a#list#of#the#main#elements#is#given#in#Table#1.##Table)1.1)Transect#zone#definitions.#Drawing#courtesy#of#Duany#PlaterZZyberk#&#Company.###(Source:#http://designobserver.com/media/pdf/Building_Commu_1336.pdf)#! 26!According#to#(Criterion#Planners,#2005),#Transect#Map#owes#the#SmartCode#considerable#credit#for#organization,#content,#and#process,#which#consist#of#several#differences6.##! Regional#Sectors#####Square#miles########################################! Transect#Zones######Square#blocks#######! Pedestrian#sheds#Square#feet##At#a#fundamental#level,#the#geography#of#a#planning#area#is#a#collection#of#pedestrian#sheds.#Pedestrian#sheds#are#catchment#areas#of#dwellings#and#jobs#surrounding#important#walking#destinations,#such#as#transit#stops,#shops,#schools,#and#parks.#Pedestrian#sheds#are#sized#according#to#the#gravitational#pull#of#their#destinations,#with#more#significant#destinations#having#greater#pull,#i.e.#longer#walking#distances7.##Instead#of#straightZline#distances#that#can#be#misleading#in#urban#environments,#pedestrianZshed#boundaries#should#be#defined#by#actual#walk#distances#on#travel#!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!6!There#are,#however,#several#differences#that#should#be#noted:#Transect#Map#is#designed#to#be#applied#areaZwide#to#a#multiZjurisdiction#region#or#a#county,#whereas#the#SmartCode#is#usually#offered#as#an#option#to#conventional#zoning#on#a#caseZbyZcase#project#site#basis#rather#than#adoption#“wall#to#wall”#across#jurisdictional#geography.#The#SmartCode#designates#“community#types”#between#the#establishments#of#regional#sectors#and#TZzoning.#In#contrast,#Transect#Map#proceeds#from#regional#sectors#directly#to#TZzoning#because#of#the#necessity#to#account#for#all#geography#in#a#planning#area,#including#that#which#exists#outside#of#communities.#The#SmartCode’s#scope#extends#down#to#the#level#of#building#plans,#but#Transect#Map#stops#at#the#pedestrian#shed#level.#FormZbased#coding,#such#as#the#SmartCode,#should#be#used#to#supplement#Transect#Map#within#pedestrian#sheds#at#the#building#site#and#streetscape#levels.#Transect#Map’s#scheme#of#landZuses#and#travel#networks#appropriate#to#each#TZzone#is#similar,#but#not#identical,#to#those#found#in#the#SmartCode.#The#same#is#true#for#Transect#Map’s#scheme#of#TZzones#allowable#in#sectors.#7!For#purposes#of#Transect#Map,#important#aspects#of#pedestrian#sheds#include:##Three#distinguishing#physical#characteristics:#their#SmartCodeZderived#“standard”#or#“long”#size#based#on#destination#significance;#the#presence#of#single#or#multiple#destinations#within#them;#and#their#location#in#either#an#infill/redevelopment#sector#(SZ6)#where#walking#conditions#are#already#defined#because#of#existing#rightsZofZway#and#built#environments,#versus#a#greenfield#sector#(GZ1,#4#or#5)#where#a#designer#may#have#a#nearly#clean#sheet#of#paper#for#optimizing#pedestrian#circulation.#!! 27!networks.#The#extent#and#quality#of#an#area’s#travel#network#can#have#a#significant#effect#on#the#actual#amount#of#a#pedestrian#shed#that#is#comfortably#walk#able.#The#principle#introduced#by#(Criterion#Planners#2005),#is#used#in#developing#a#Vulnerability#Transect#Map#(VZ1,#VZ2,#VZ3#and#VZ4)#for#this#thesis.#The#map#is#used#to#identify#the#impact#of#flooding#and#to#understand#how#the#communities#in#Korail#and#Halgaha#Kubura#cope#with#regular#monsoon#floods.#The#transect#walk#done#on#Halgaha#Kubura#was#conducted#on#the#30th#of#January#2013#while#Korail’s#was#carried#out#on#the#6th#of#February#2013.#Initially#the#study#started#with#a#transect#walk#in#the#both#communities#in#order#to#have#an#understanding#about#the#geographic#location,#community#groups,#social#capital#and#organizations,#housing#patterns,#special#adaptations#to#floods;#and#infrastructure#such#as#drainage,#water,#and#sanitation#facilities.#Information#was#collected#through#‘nonZparticipatory’#and#‘own#photographic’#observations.##The#zoning#of#the#transect#map#was#based#on#two#factors:#the#distance#from#the#water#body#to#the#housing#and#infrastructure,#and#the#distance#from#the#main#road#to#the#infrastructure.##The#smaller#the#distance#is#between#the#water#body#and#the#houses#the#higher#the#risk.#The#smaller#the#distance#is#between#the#main#road#and#the#houses#the#lower#the#risk.############! 28!Table#1.2Z#Vulnerability#transect#Zone#definition#for#Korail#–#housing.##VV1:)Vulnerability)Low)Figure#1.8:#Image#of#VZ1#zoneZ#Korail#(Source:#photo#by#author,#2013)#)##Very#High#in#Flood#Mitigation#standards#in#Housing.##Highly#dense#in#permanent#construction#with#a#greater#variety#including#residential,#retail,#and#spaces#providing#access#to#basic#needs.#The#type#of#building#construction#is#resistant#to#regular#flooding,#which#people#have#achieved#through#high#level#of#coping#and#adaptation#strategies.#Eviction#rate#is#Null.#The#distance#from#the#river#or#the#hazard#zone#is#greater,#which#reduces#the#risk#of#flooding.##Higher#chances#of#water#clogging.##High#in#Hazard#Mitigation#standards#in#infrastructure.#Good#standards#of#hygienic#conditions.#VV2:)Vulnerability)Moderate.)Figure#1.9:#Image#of#VZ2#zoneZ#Korail#(Source:#photo#by#author,#2013)##High#in#Hazard#Mitigation#standards.#Consist#of#a#mixedZuse#but#primary#residential#urban#fabric,#which#has#wide#ranges#of#building#types:#single,#twoZfloors#and#courtyard#sharing#houses.#The#distance#from#the#river#or#the#hazard#zone#is#less,#which#increases#the#risk#of#flooding.#Moderate#standards#of#hygienic#conditions.#! 29!)VV3:)Vulnerability)High)Figure#1.10:#Image#of#VZ3#zoneZ#Korail.)(Source:#photo#by#author,#2013)#)#Low#in#Hazard#Mitigation#standards.#Consist#of#higher#density#temporary#dwellings#on#dump#filled#land#and#riverbank.#The#encroachment#and#change#of#natural#conditions#to#the#river#is#high#with#temporary#building#constructions.#The#construction#is#done#on#riverbanks#so#there#is#a#greater#chance#of#flooding#but#less#chance#of#water#clogging.##Irregular#road#patterns,#accommodating#a#large#number#of#temporary#shelters.#Higher#rate#of#eviction.#VV4:)Vulnerability)Very)high.##Figure#1.11:#Image#of#VZ4#zoneZ#Korail#(Source:#photo#by#author,#2013)###Very#Low#in#Hazard#Mitigation#standards.#Consists#of#higher#density,#with#temporary#construction#done#on#the#water#body#or#river.#Very#low#standards#of#Hygienic#conditions.###! 30!Table#1.3:#Vulnerability#Transect#zone#definition#for#Halgaha#KuburaZ#Infrastructure.#VV1:)Vulnerability)Low))Figure#1.12:#Image#of#VZ1#zoneZ#Halgaha#Kubura.###(Source:#photo#by#author,#2013)###Very#High#in#Hazard#Mitigation#standards#in#infrastructure.#Consists#of#Developed#infrastructure,#which#reduces#the#regular#monsoon#flooding#through#stormZwater#management,#developed#drainage#channelling#systems#and#garbage#disposal#arrangements.#Higher#and#developed#standards#of#hygienic#conditions.#Achieved#legal#ownership#of#the#individual#land.#VV2:)Vulnerability)Moderate))Figure#1.13:#Image#of#VZ2#zoneZ#Halgaha#Kubura.# #(Source:#photo#by#author,#2013)###High#in#Hazard#Mitigation#standards#in#infrastructure.#Consists#of#a#partially#developed#infrastructure,#which#reduces#the#risk#of#flooding.#Water#clogging#is#low#as#it#is#resistant#to#greater#level#of#floodwater.#Moderate#in#Hazard#Mitigation#standards#in#Housing.#Partially#achieved#legal#ownership#to#the#individual#land.#! 31!VV3:)Vulnerability)High)Figure#1.14:#Image#of#VZ3#zoneZ#Halgaha#Kubura.##(Source:#photo#by#author,#2013)###Low#in#Hazard#Mitigation#standards#in#infrastructure.#The#availability#to#standard#hygienic#conditions#is#low.#No#legal#ownership#to#the#land#and#high#in#eviction.#Higher#in#migration#and#unauthorized#temporary#shelters.##))))))))))! 32!Chapter)2:)context)of)Korail,)Dhaka)and)Halgaha)Kubura,)Colombo.))The#vast#majority#of#slums#Z#more#than#90%#Z#are#located#in#cities#of#the#developing#world#(United#Nations#Human#Settlements#Programme,#2006).##According#to#the#United#Nations,#the#proportion#of#urban#dwellers#living#in#slums#decreased#from#47%#to#37%#in#the#developing#world#between#1990#and#2005.#However,#since#then#the#number#of#slum#dwellers#is#rising#primarily#from#the#fringes#of#urban#developments#located#in#legal#and#illegal#settlements#with#insufficient#housing#and#sanitation.#This#has#been#caused#by#massive#migration#into#cities,#both#internally#within#countries#and#transnational,#which#has#caused#growth#rates#of#urban#populations#and#spatial#concentrations#not#seen#before#in#history.#Given#that#slum#dwellers#often#have#minimal#or#no#access#to#education,#healthcare,#or#the#urban#economy,#this#raises#considerable#political,#social,#and#economic#problems#(Makinde,#2012)#2.1)Migration)to)the)city))Historically,#urbanization#was#the#result#of#industrialization.#In#the#developing#world,#urbanization#without#employment#generating#industrialization#or#even#informal#work#is#often#the#norm.#This#norm#results#in#a#concentration#of#the#poor.#(Khondker,#2010)#Urbanization#has#brought#tremendous#opportunity#to#many#and#cities#like#Colombo#and#Dhaka#are#centers#of#economic#activity,#innovation,#and#wealth.#In#addition#to#the#natural#growth#of#the#population,#large#scale#rural#to#urban#mitigation#is#one#of#the#principal#factors#responsible#for#rapid#urban#growth.#They#attract#migrants#in#search#of#better#jobs,#services#and#prospects#for#improved#living#conditions.#While#many#individuals#who#come#are#poor#or#low#income,#they#represent#an#enormous#contribution#to#a#city’s#economy#through#employment#in#manufacturing,#services,#and#other#sectors.#(The#World#Bank,#2011)#In#Dhaka,#Bangladesh,#migration#to#the#city#is#also#due#to#climatic#change#and#vulnerability#to#weather#conditions.##Many#migrants#from#environmentally#vulnerable#! 33!regions#of#Bangladesh#end#up#in#the#country's#urban#slums,#particularly#those#of#Dhaka.#Although#existing#data#suggests#that#many#urban#migrants#come#from#districts#prone#to#natural#disasters,#it#is#not#detailed#enough#to#identify#the#role#played#by#environmental#factors#in#driving#migration#from#these#areas.#The#movement#of#people#is#influenced#by:##1.# Intensification#of#natural#disasters#–#sudden#and#slowZonset#Z#leading#to#increased#displacement#and#migration#2.# Adverse#consequences#of#increased#warming#climate#variability#and#of#other#effects#of#climate#change#on#livelihoods,#public#health,#food#security#and#water#availability#3.# Rising#sea#levels#that#make#coastal#areas#uninhabitable##4.#Competition#over#scarce#natural#resources#potentially#leading#to#growing#tensions#and#even#conflict#and,#in#turn,#displacement.#(IMO,2010)##In#Bangladesh,#the#potential#displacement#every#year#due#to#some#environmental#events#is#estimated#as:#Erosion#(coastal#and#riverine#chars)#Z#60,000;#Salinity#Z#10,000Z15,000;#Storm#surge#Z#100000Z120000;#and#water#logging#Z#30,000.#By#analyzing#major#natural#events#like#floods#and#cyclones#over#40#years#(1970Z2009),#it’s#a#known#fact#that#on#average#25%#(39#million)#and#2%#(3#million)#of#the#population#is#displaced#in#each#major#flood#and#cyclone.#“Akter,#T.”#Moreover,#coastal#areas#are#under#threat#because#of#sea#level#rise.#Since#the#coastal#population#constitute#28%#of#the#total#population,#about#43#million#people#from#coastal#area#will#be#dislocated#if#the#sea#level#rises#by#88#cm#and#proper#adaptation#measures#are#not#taken.#(Akter,#T.,nd;#Unnayan#OnneshanZThe#Innovators,#2009)##It#is#expected#that#the#frequency#and#intensity#of#natural#disasters#will#increase#due#to#extreme#climatic#events.#Whereas,#major#floods#used#to#occur#every#4#years#between#1970Z1989,#the#frequency#of#major#flood#occurrences#has#increased#to#every#3#years#from#1990Z2009.#Moreover,#the#frequency#of#one#or#more#severe#disasters#in#a#year#has#already#been#experienced#in#Bangladesh#such#as##Cyclone#Sidr#and#flood#in#2007#and##Cyclone#Aila#and#Cyclone#Bijli#in#2009.#Future#occurrences#of#major#natural#events#may#! 34!indeed#be#an#annual#occurrence.#Akter,#T.#(n.d.)##Friedman#(2009)#observes#that#in#a#city#“exploding#with#climate#migrants”,#about#500,000#people,#mainly#from#coastal#and#rural#areas,#move#to#Dhaka#every#year#from#the#banks#of#the#Buriganga#River.#According#to#International#Organization#for#Migration#(IOM),#about#70%#of#slum#dwellers#in#Dhaka#experienced#some#kind#of#“environmental#shock.”##Growth#trends#show#an#increase:#275,000#in#1974,#718,143#(2,156#slums)#in#1991,#1.5#million#(3007#slums)#in#1996#and#3.4#million#(4,966#slums)#in#2005.#Akter,#T.#(n.d.)###As#a#result#of#ruralZurban#migration#the#slum#population#has#increased,#a#phenomenon#more#accurately#termed#“slumnization”#than#urbanization#(Khondker,#2010).#The#formation#of#Halgaha#Kubura#and#Korail#is#a#result#of#this#“slumnization”.#While#there#is#a#tendency#to#conceptualize#slum#dwellers#as#a#problem#population,#almost#70%#of#the#workforce#operates#in#the#informal#sector#and#the#economy#of#Bangladesh's#cities#is#highly#dependent#upon#its#poorer#residents.#Furthermore,#urban#migration#is#not#only#a#livelihood#strategy#it#also#significantly#contributes#to#diversifying#rural#incomes#and#rural#development.#(IOM,#2010)#The#reliance#of#Bangladesh's#fastZgrowing#urban#economy#on#ruralZurban#migrants#–#including#people#from#regions#of#environmental#vulnerability#–#points#to#the#need#to#support#poor#slum#dwellers#as#the#“engine#of#the#economy”#rather#than#seeking#to#evict#them.#It#also#highlights#the#importance#of#a#sustainable#urban#policy#and#planning#which#facilitates#the#integration#of#migrants.#(IOM,#2010)#The#term#‘slum’,#or#its#equivalent#local#term,#often#refers#to#innerZcity#residential#areas#that#were#laid#out#and#built#several#decades#ago#in#line#with#the#then#prevailing#urban#planning,#zoning#and#construction#standards,#but#which,#over#time,#have#progressively#become#physically#dilapidated#and#overcrowded#to#the#point#where#they#became#the#near#exclusive#residential#zone#for#lowestZ#income#groups.#(UNZHabitat,#2003)#“#UNZHabitat,#2003.”#The#word#“slum”#appeared#in#London#at#the#beginning#of#the#19th#century,#designating#initially#“a#room#of#low#repute”#or#“low,#unfrequented#parts#of#the#! 35!town”.#During#the#major#part#of#the#19th#century,#the#word#appeared#in#the#written#language#in#quotation#marks#mostly#as#“backZ#slum(s)”.#At#the#end#of#the#19th#century,#the#word#is#used#as#defined#in#the#Oxford#English#Dictionary#as,#“A!street,!alley,!court,!etc.,!situated!in!a!crowded!district!of!a!town!or!city!and!inhabited!by!people!of!a!low!class!or!by!the!very!poor;!a!number!of!these!streets!or!courts!forming!a!thickly!populated!neighborhood!or!district!where!the!houses!and!the!conditions!of!life!are!of!a!squalid!and!wretched!character”.#The#word#then#underwent#a#series#of#changes#during#the#Housing#Reform#Movement#in#England.#It#became#a#legal#and#technical#acceptable#term#to#describe#“a#house#materially#unfit#for#human#habitation”.#It#became#a#common#word,#losing#its#quotation#marks,#in#the#1880s.#The#Housing#Reform#changed#a#popular#word#that#once#described#an#awkward#phenomenon#into#a#general#operational#concept#that#made#possible#the#delimitation#of#“slum#areas”#on#current#city#maps#for#planning#purpose.#It#became#a#common#word#in#the#Anglophone#world,#used#for#example#in#India#to#this#day#in#order#to#designate#without#distinction#the#"bustees",#"chawls",#or#"cheris"#of#Mumbai,#Delhi#or#Chennai.#(UNZHABITAT,#2003)#Other#similar#definitions#are#provided#in#many#policy#documents;#for#example#the#Cities#Alliance#Action#Plan#describes#slums#as#follows:#Slums!are!neglected!parts!of!cities!where!housing!and!living!conditions!are!appallingly!poor.!Slums!range!from!high4density,!squalid!central!city!tenements!to!spontaneous!squatter!settlements!without!legal!recognition!or!rights,!sprawling!at!the!edge!of!cities.!Slums!have!various!names,!favelas,!kampungs,!bidonvilles,!tugurios,!yet!share!the!same!miserable!living!conditions.#(World#Bank,#UNCHS)!The#Centre#for#Urban#Studies#defines#slum#and#squatter#settlements#as#follows:#slum#settlements#are#areas#with#a#high#population#concentration#(more#than#300#persons#per#! 36!acre),#bad#housing#conditions#(kutcha#or#semiZpucca#structure)#and#old#buildings.#The#areas#are#characterized#by#inadequate#water#supply,#sewerage#systems#and#infrastructure.#Squatter#settlements#are#defined#as#illegally#occupied#land.#(Wendt,#1997)#2.1.2)Slums)in)Colombo)and)Dhaka)The#most#common#slums#in#Colombo#are#the#inner#city#slums#and#the#shanties.#Slums#are#located#on#highZ#lands#in#the#old#parts#of#the#inner#city#areas.#Shanties#are#mostly#located#in#the#periphery#of#city#on#roads#and#canal#reservation#lands#that#are#mostly#lowZlying#areas#liable#to#frequent#floods.#Other#types#of#slums#are#scattered#throughout#the#city.#According#to#the#Poverty#Profile#of#the#City#of#Colombo#report#done#by#Sevanatha#and#Colombo#Municipal#Council#in#2002#and#the#Global#Report#on#Human#Settlements#in#2003#done#by#the#United#Nations#Human#Settlements#Programme#there#are#four#main#types#of#slums#in#Colombo:##1.##Slums:!Old!deteriorating!tenements!or!subdivided!derelict!houses.!The!slum!tenements,!built!mostly!of!permanent!materials,!are!very!often!singled!roomed!and!compactly!arranged,!in!back!to!back!rows.!The!occupants!have!a!definite!legal!status!of!occupancy.!2.# Shanties:!Improvised!and!unauthorized!shelters!constructed!by!the!urban!squatters!on!state!or!privately!owned!land,!without!any!legal!rights!of!occupancy.!The!areas!are!badly!serviced!and!very!often!unsanitary.!3.#Un2serviced#Semi2urban#Neighborhoods:!Badly!serviced!residential!areas!in!the!suburban!areas!of!Colombo!and!secondary!towns.!One!difference!from!the!squatter!areas!is!that!residents!of!these!settlements!have!definite!legal!titles!and!the!plot!sizes!are!relatively!larger!than!the!shanties.!4.# Labour#Lines#or#Derelict#Living#Quarters:#These!are!derelict!housing!areas!! 37!belonging!to!the!local!authority!or!government!agencies!occupied!by!temporary!or!casual!labourers.!These!settlements!are!in!unsanitary!and!derelict!conditions!due!to!lack!of!maintenance!over!a!period!of!long!time.!At#an#Expert#Group#Meeting#in#November#2002,#UNZHABITAT#and#its#partners#came#up#with#a#provisional#definition#of#“slum”:#a#settlement#in#an#urban#area#in#which#more#than#half#of#the#inhabitants#live#in#inadequate#housing#and#lack#basic#services.#Developing#an#operational#definition#–#one#with#measurable#indicators#–#required#further#refinement,#recognizing#that#slums#can#be#geographically#contiguous#or#isolated#units.#UNZHABITAT#therefore#focuses#on#the#household#as#the#basic#unit#of#analysis.##Considering#the#conditions#in#Dhaka#and#Colombo,#a#single#operational#definition#of#slums#is#used#throughout#this#thesis,#which#has#been#introduced#by#UNZHABITAT#in#2002:###A#slum#household#is#a#group#of#individuals#living#under#the#same#roof#in#an#urban#area#who#lack#one#or#more#of#the#following#five#conditions;#1.)Durable)housing:)A#house#is#considered#“durable”#if#it#is#built#on#a#nonZhazardous#location#and#has#a#structure#permanent#and#adequate#enough#to#protect#its#inhabitants#from#the#extremes#of#climatic#conditions,#such#as#rain,#heat,#cold#and#humidity.#2.))Access)to)sanitation:)A#household#is#considered#to#have#adequate#access#to#sanitation#if#an#excreta#disposal#system,#either#in#the#form#of#a#private!toilet!or#a#public!toilet!shared!with!a!reasonable!number!of!people,!is#available#to#household#members.#3.)Sufficient)living)area:)A#house#is#considered#to#provide#a#sufficient#living#area#for#the#household#members#if#not!more!than!three!people!share#the#same#room.#4.)Secure)tenure:)Secure#tenure#is#the#right#of#all#individuals#and#groups#to#! 38!effective#protection#against#forced#evictions.#People#have#secure#tenure#when#there#is#evidence!of!documentation!that#can#be#used#as#proof#of#secure#tenure#status#or#when#there#is#either#de!facto!or#perceived!protection!against!forced!evictions.#5.)Access)to)improved)water:)A#household#is#considered#to#have#access#to#improved#water#supply#if#it#has#a#sufficient!amount!of!water!for#family#use,#at#an#affordable!price,!available#to#household#members#without#being#subject#to#extreme!effort,!especially#on#the#part#of#women#and#children.## #2.2)Social,)political)&)economic)backgrounds))2.2.1)Legal)and)illegal)land)tenure)One#of#the#most#obvious#problems#facing#lowZincome#people#occupying#housing#in#the#informal#sector#relates#to#tenure#security#(UNZHABITAT,#2003).#Informal#settlements#are#characterized#by#flexible,#responsive,#and#affordable#housing#processes#that#enable#families#to#extend#and#improve#their#dwellings#over#time.#At#the#same#time,#their#legal#status#is#usually#insecure;#they#are#underZserviced#by#urban#infrastructure,#are#often#unhealthy#living#environments,#and#in#some#cases#are#physically#unsafe.#(The#Cities#Alliance,#2011)#Land#tenure#can#be#defined#as#the#mode#by#which#land#is#held#(land#rights)#or#owned,#or#the#set#of#relationships#among#people#concerning#land#or#its#product.#Land#rights#may#cover#access,#use,#development,#or#transfer#and,#as#such,#land#rights#exist#in#parallel#with#ownership.#Land#in#urban#informal#settlement#fall#into#two#broad#categories:#Squatting#and#Unregistered#land#sales.#)Squatting!occurs#when#households#or#groups#of#families#settle#on#vacant#land#by#constructing#rudimentary#shelters.#If#they#are#not#immediately#evicted,#they#gradually#consolidate#their#dwellings.#Encouraged#by#the#! 39!success#of#the#original#squatters,#other#households#subsequently#join#them.#The#settlements#usually#exhibit#a#high#degree#of#community#cohesion#borne#out#of#solidarity#during#the#illegal#process#of#squatting.##These#largeZscale#actions#are#known#as#land#invasions,#and#they#often#have#politically#motivated#organizational#support.#Squatting#occurs#on#any#vacant#or#undeveloped#land#within#urban#areas#or#on#the#periphery#of#towns#and#cities.#The#land#may#be#suitable#for#development,#or#it#may#have#been#left#vacant#because#it#is#not#safe,#such#as#steep#slopes#subject#to#erosion;#land#prone#to#flooding;#or#road,#rail,#river,#and#coastal#reserves.#Although#squatting#occurs#on#both#public#and#privately#owned#land,#in#most#situations#squatters#choose#public#land#on#the#assumption#that#public#institutions,#which#have#a#weaker#sense#of#ownership#or#opportunity#to#gain#financially#from#the#sale#or#rental#of#their#land,#are#less#likely#to#evict#them#than#private#and#commercial#landowners.####In#many#cases,#informally#organized#squatting#is#done#in#plots#with#some#semblance#of#regularity#to#allow#for#access#ways#and#the#eventual#installation#of#water#and#drainage#lines.#The#majority#of#squatter#settlements,#however,#particularly#in#South#Asian#and#African#cities,#have#been#irregularly#developed#with#high#densities,#making#servicing#difficult#and#creating#serious#obstacles#to#both#access#and#escape#routes#in#the#case#of#fires,#flooding,#or#other#emergencies.#Unregistered#land#sales#differ!significantly#from#squatting#and#are#based#on#an#exchange#of#money#at#a#price#that#is#agreed#on#by#both#the#landowner#and#the#purchaser.#What#renders#this#land#affordable#to#the#lowZincome#groups#is#that#the#land#use#is#not#legally#recognized.#This#is#either#because#it#is#unsafe,#inappropriate#for#habitation,#in#contravention#of#official#! 40!regulations,#or#because#the#vendor#lacks#a#recognized#title#to#the#land#that#he#is#selling.#Furthermore,#informal#developers,#recognizing#the#potential#risk#that#such#transactions#entail,#tend#to#sell#their#land#in#small#plots#that#are#affordable#to#lowerZincome#groups.#The#process#of#parceling#land#varies,#ranging#from#direct#sale#by#the#owners#of#urban#agricultural#land,#to#the#wholesaling#of#tracts#of#land#to#informal#developers.#These#developers#then#subdivide#the#land#and#retail#it#to#households,#sometimes#even#providing#credit#facilities.#A#common#characteristic#of#parceling#is#the#high#density#of#saleable#plots,#which#allows#only#minimal#provision#for#access#ways#and#little,#if#any,#for#service#buildings#(such#as#schools#and#clinics)#or#recreational#space.#Though#the#provision#of#public#infrastructure#and#services#at#a#later#date#is#generally#anticipated,#if#not#informally#“finessed”#by#the#developers#in#the#first#place.#(The#Cities#Alliance,#2011)#In#Bangladesh,#local#politicians#and#business#interests#largely#control#the#land#market.#In#other#countries#there#are#traditional#systems#where#“chiefs”#or#slum#landlords#play#an#important#role#in#allocating#land#to#residents.#(WaterAid,#2001)#These#systems#are#generally#outside#the#legal#system#and#are#under#the#authority#of#politicians#and#business#interests.##According#to#S.#Sinthia#(2013):#Dhaka#has#formal#municipal#planning#strategies#though#the#informal#development#exceeds#the#regulated#development#due#to#political#interests.#These#planned#documents#could#not#give#any#comprehensive#solution#for#conventional#urban#problems#like#housing/shelter,#transportation#and#so#on.#These#disappointments#are#because#of#land#speculation#and#unfair#land#ownership#pattern,#lack#of#understanding#of#the#people’s#socio#economic#condition,#lack#of#implementation,#capacity#and#resources#and#above#all#lack#of#political#support#and#interests.#The#slow#and#inadequate#responses#from#different#government#authorities#along#with#government#are#the#basic#reason#behind#the#existing#phenomenon#of#housing#the#urban#poor.#(p.#349)#! 41!2.3)History)of)Halgaha)Kubura))Slums#in#the#city#of#Colombo#came#into#existence#with#the#expansion#of#the#export#trade#associated#with#the#rubber#boom#after#World#War#II,#especially#during#the#Korean#War#in#1953.#Its#character#changed#in#keeping#with#the#new#economic#demands#for#warehousing,#workers’#housing#and#road#networks.#It#also#became#more#congested#as#the#city#elite#moved#into#more#spacious#residential#areas#in#the#suburbs.#In#the#present#day#the#central#area#of#Colombo#is#characterized#by#predominantly#lowZincome#residential#areas,#mainly#slums.#While#the#northern#and#eastern#parts#contained#most#of#the#shanties.#Slums#on#the#high#lands#of#the#old#city#consist#of#the#oldest#lowZincome#housing#–#mostly#from#the#1930s#with#a#definite#legal#occupancy#status.#Shanties#along#canal#banks#and#road#reserves#have#emerged#since#Sri#Lanka’s#independence#in#1948,#and#now#consist#of#unauthorized#and#improvised#shelter#without#legal#rights#of#occupancy#of#the#land#and#structures.#About#half#of#the#urban#poor#have#no#security#of#tenure#(only#unauthorized#occupation#or#user#permits),#37#percent#have#freehold#tenure#and#13#percent#have#leasehold#tenure#(Sevanatha,#2002),#(Sevanatha,#2003),#(Wakely,#2007).#However,#under#the#impacts#of#strong#political#will#and#effective#housing#improvements,#regularization,#community#development#and#selfZhelp#efforts,#the#growth#of#slums#and#shanties#has#been#brought#under#control.#Clear#impacts#have#also#been#made#in#improving#the#general#housing#conditions#of#the#urban#poor.#Close#to#a#half#of#Colombo’s#population#consists#of#communities#that#have#been#living#in#inadequate#housing#conditions#for#many#years.#16#percent#of#the#urban#poor#depend#on#povertyZrelief#assistance.#Most#economically#active#slum#dwellers#are#unskilled#workers,#petty#traders#or#hawkers.#Youth#unemployment#rates#are#around#40%,#and#some#20%#of#households#receive#public#financial#assistance#(Sevanatha,#2002).#! 42!Figure#2.1#–#Wanathamulla#shantytown#in#1980’s#(Source:#UNCHS#/Habitat,#1985)#Prior#to#1970,#there#was#minimal#government#intervention#as#the#housing#of#the#poor#either#consisted#of#privately#owned#or#illegal#property.#Between#1970#and#1977,#the#government#acknowledged#the#poor’s#requirement#for#basic#needs#and#took#action#regarding#the#housing#issues#of#the#urban#poor.#This#included#interventions#in#ensuring#housing#rights,#direct#housing#construction#and#the#provision#of#tenure#rights.#Between#1978#and#1994,#a#shift#from#provision#towards#enabling,#recognition#of#the#role#of#local#authorities,#promotion#of#community#participation,#and#selfZhelp#and#establishment#of#nationZwide#housing#programs#occurred.#In#this#period,#the#“One#Hundred#Thousand#Houses”,#the#“One#Million#Houses”#and#the#“1.5#Million#Houses”#programs#were#established#with#strong#political#support#from#the#central#government.#The#postZ1994#period#witnessed#interventions#including#the#private#sector#in#housing#provision,#urban#renewal#programs#and#urban#settlements#improvement#programs.#(UNCHS/#Habitat,1985)#! 43!The#principles#of#the#“One#Million#Houses#Program”#clearly#promote#an#enabling#environment#(legal,#institutional,#financial#and#technical#support)#for#people#to#improve#their#own#houses.#In#particular,#the#institutional#mechanism#created#by#the#government#to#implement#the#national#housing#programed#were#very#effective.#The#establishment#of#the#National#Housing#Development#Authority#under#the#Ministry#of#Housing#and#Construction,#with#district#offices#of#the#authority#for#each#administrative#district#of#the#country,#and#the#linking#of#program#activities#at#the#local#level#through#urban#and#rural#local#authorities,#were#notable#initiatives#in#this#context.#BottomZup#information#flows#and#decisionZmaking#processes#were#encouraged.#Numerous#shanty#settlements#have#been#regularized#and#improved,#and#very#few#shanties#have#been#built#in#Colombo#over#the#past#20#years.#(DFID#et#al,#2002)#In#the#1930s,#the#higher#lands#next#to#Halgaha#Kumbura#owned#by#the#railway#was#leased#to#a#Muslim#by#the#name#of#Cadar#who#built#shanty#houses#to#rent#to#immigrants.#This#is#the#oldest#part#of#the#shanty#area,#still#occupied#by#the#children#of#38#original#tenants,#who#stayed#there#even#after#their#lease#expired#in#1956.#This#area#is#even#today#referred#to#as#Cadar#nana#Watte#(Cadar’s#Garden).#The#rest#of#the#area#was#lowZlying#marshland,#prone#to#regular#flooding#from#the#drainage#canal#and#not#immediately#attractive#for#occupation.#Officially#Halgaha#Kumbura#was#used#as#a#dump#yard#for#Colombo#Municipal#Council.##To#this#day#the#area#is#still#referred#to#as#Dump#Watte#(Garbage#Garden).#(Ashley,2010)#In#the#late#1950s,#when#the#land#was#partly#filled#because#of#the#construction#work#to#the#canal,#more#and#more#people#built#their#houses#in#this#location,#particularly#since#this#was#a#period#of#heavy#immigration#into#the#city.#People#filled#their#respective#sections#of#land#with#dirt#to#build#their#houses#on#the#marshland,#thus#illegally#occupying#the#land.#Today#only#a#small#marshy#area#remains,#which#will#inevitably#be#filled#in#as#part#of#the#housing#project.#Even#though#the#area#floods#regularly#in#times#of#heavy#rains.#! 44!Houses#built#by#the#National#Housing#Development#Authority#in#1980s#for#the#poor#as#lowZrise,#low#cost#flats#were#considered#by#the#occupants#as#unacceptably#small#and#poorly#designed.#It#was#recognized#that#a#better#result#might#have#been#produced#if#the#dwellers#had#been#more#directly#involved#in#the#planning#and#building#of#their#own#houses.#After#Cabinet#approval#was#given#for#the#legalization#of#tenure#for#the#shanty#dwellers#then#in#Wanatamulla,#a#draft#plan#for#the#upgrading#of#the#shanty#area#was#prepared.#The#households#in#Wanatamulla#were#able#to#get#the#legalization#but#communities#in#Halgaha#Kubura#could#not#get#the#benefit#of#it.#(UNCHS#(Habitat),1985)#Halgaha#Kubura#previous#use#as#a#municipal#dump#is#still#evident#today#with#compacted#layers#of#rubbish#forming#the#canal#embankments.#This#problem#is#exacerbated#by#the#community’s#irregular#rubbish#collection.#Households#have#little#choice#but#to#dispose#of#at#least#some#of#their#waste#directly#into#the#waterway.#Recurrent#flooding#causes#contamination#of#the#canal#and#the#lowZlying#surrounding#area,#posing#a#risk#to#the#community#itself#as#well#as#the#city.#Located#across#the#canal#and#opposite#from#the#settlement#is#the#Kolonnawa#Oil#Installation.#Municipal#authorities#now#recognize#Halgaha#Kubura#as#one#of#the#largest#shanties#in#the#city#and#a#major#highZdensity#urban#settlement,#currently#housing#around#seven#hundred#families.#The#settlement’s#location#and#informal#nature#meant#that#government#agencies#had#been#reluctant#to#carry#out#formal#onZsite#upgrading.#In#the#early#1990s#the#settlement#had#not#been#included#into#any#governmentZinitiated#programs#and#no#loans#or#any#other#type#of#grant#had#ever#been#given#to#the#community.#The#area#was#classified#as#some#of#the#city’s#worst#housing#by#government#authorities#and#the#majority#of#the#community#was#described#as#not#having#a#‘permanent#way#of#living’.#Since#1980#people#in#Halgaha#Kumbura#have#been#electing#members#annually#for#its#CDC#called#Community#Development#Council#under#the#guidance#of#the#Public#Health#Department#of#Colombo#Municipal#Council.#CDC#is#the#channel#between#community#and#the#external#support#agencies#that#improves#their#tenure#security,#infrastructure#and#health#facilities.##! 45!The#major#problem#of#the#settlement#is#the#lack#of#proper#sanitation#facilities.##As#is#it#located#in#a#lowZlying#area,#the#provision#of#common#or#individual#toilets#connected#to#the#city#sewer#system#is#not#possible.#Twenty#years#ago,#only#48#households#had#individual#water#connections.#The#other#508#were#sharing#8#water#standZposts#to#collect#their#water.#Only#162#houses#had#improvised#individual#toilets#and#there#was#no#proper#drainage#system,#which#increased#the#risk#of#flooding.##However,#individual#households#now#enjoy#a#meteredZpiped#water#service#for#drinking#purposes#that#is#provided#by#the#National#Water#Supply#and#Drainage#Board.#The#community#has#improved#internal#access#paths#with#concrete#surface#and#side#drains#with#the#support#of#a#local#NGO.#The#main#income#sources#of#the#people#are#unskilled#labour#and#informal#business#activities.#After#achieving#tenure#rights,#people#in#Halgaha#Kumbura#have#built#their#own#homes,#obtained#basic#water#supply#needs#and#enjoyed#other#municipal#services#such#as#education#and#health#facilities.#They#now#also#have#voting#rights#to#elect#members#for#the#municipal#council#and#national#assembly.#(Sevanatha,#2002)#By#giving#hope#and#a#possibility#for#security#of#tenure#and#access#to#services,#poor#households#in#Halgaha#Kubura#have#been#able#to#invest#in#housing#and#neighbourhood#development.#Halgaha#Kubura#in#Colombo#would#be#able#to#get#land#ownership#and#legal#rights#through#the#following:#• Strong!community!leadership.#This#is#important#because#they#have#found#that#it#is#necessary#for#the#community#to#have#a#representative#body,#which#can#also#facilitate#the#carrying#out#of#this#process.##• Establish!financial!stability.#This#is#an#essential#aspect#of#the#redevelopment#process#because#funds#are#needed#in#order#to#demonstrate#to#the#landowner#that#the#community#has#the#ability#to#pay#rent.#This#will#also#aid#them#in#obtaining#a#loan#and#maintaining#their#community#after#redevelopment.##• Well4structured!and!organized!community!to!the!landowner.##This#will#show#the#! 46!landowner#that#the#community#will#no#longer#be#a#slum,#but#rather#a#lowZincome#housing#development,#once#some#form#of#security#has#been#granted.##• Partner!with!outside!organizations.#This#element#is#also#important#throughout#the#redevelopment#process.#How#and#when#outside#assistance#is#necessary#depends#upon#the#unique#situation#of#the#community.##(Hamdi,#2010;#J.#DiNino#et#al,#2006)#2.4)History)of)Korail))Korail#is#one#of#the#largest#slums#in#Dhaka.#Households#have#moved#to#Korail#from#various#parts#of#the#country#because#of#the#availability#of#vacant#land,#familiarity#with#the#area#and#proximity#to#livelihood#opportunities.##Ninety#per#cent#of#households#in#the#area#have#past#experiences#of#eviction.#In#general,#most#households#have#migrated#to#the#city#from#their#original#villages#with#the#hope#of#a#better#life.#Only#seven#per#cent#of#the#households#identified#river#erosion#and#loss#of#livelihood#as#one#of#their#reasons#for#migrating#from#the#villages#to#Dhaka#(source).#Most#of#the#households#either#try#to#settle#near#their#extended#families#or#near#people#from#the#same#village#or#region.#Nahiduzzaman#(2012)#elaborates#on#a#number#of#land#tenure#categories#in#the#context#of#urban#land#in#Bangladesh,#which#may#not#exist#in#all#urban#jurisdictions:#1. Legal!tenant!no!contract:!Under#this#typology,#tenants#live#in#legal#housing#under#oral#agreements.#2. Legal!tenant!with!contract:!Here#tenants#rent#legally#developed#land/houses#with#a#legal#contract—normally#it#is#a#yearZround#contract.#3. Tied!Tenant:!Tenants#of#this#kind#occupy#residential#quarters#as#employees#of#government,#semiZgovernment,#and#private#commercial#and#industrial#organizations.#Therefore,#tenure#security#is#tied#to#retaining#employment.#According#to#Titumir#&#Hossain#(2004),#the#people#who#were#interviewed#claimed#that#! 47!the#process#of#obtaining#legal#title#is#both#expensive#and#laborious.#The#major#form#of#title#known#to#most#of#them#is#the#building#plan#and#land#registration#and#even#then#most#of#them#do#not#have#these#documents.##According#to#Titumir#&#Hossain#(2004),#it#can#be#inferred#from#the#interviews#that#most#of#the#respondents#simply#do#not#see#the#importance#of#legal#titles#in#light#of#the#poor#quality#of#the#buildings#and#the#general#environment.#When#the#process#is#measured#against#the#anticipated#benefits#of#the#exercise,#many#do#not#consider#it#worth#the#effort.#2.4.1)The)development)of)slum)and)squatter)settlements)in)Dhaka#Dhaka#is#characterized#by#a#highly#unequal#land#distribution.#The#middle#and#highZincome#groups,#which#make#up#30%#of#Dhaka's#population,#occupy#80%#of#the#city's#total#residential#areas.#Most#land#in#Dhaka#is#privately#owned:#90%#of#housing#in#the#city#is#provided#by#the#private#sector#which#includes#rental#and#ownerZoccupied#accommodation;#a#majority#of#which#constitute#slum#and#squatter#settlements.#The#landowners#have#the#right#to#use#the#land#within#existing#planning#regulations.#The#land#surrounding#Dhaka#is#owned#by#former#rural#landowners#who#either#divide#the#land#and#sell#it#or#use#it#for#speculative#purposes.#In#the#previously#mentioned#study#of#1125#slum#and#squatter#settlements#in#Dhaka,#66%#of#the#settlements#were#located#on#private#land#(Wendt,#1997).#The#municipality#could#not#expand#its#services#as#fast#as#the#population#was#growing#and#the#migrants#were#believed#to#constitute#a#liability#rather#than#an#asset#to#the#authority.#They#were#seen#as#putting#a#severe#strain#on#city#services#like#sewerage,#water,#transport#and#housing.#It#was#estimated#that#1/4#of#the#population#of#the#city#did#not#have#proper#housing#accommodation#and#lived#in#unauthorized#settlements.#The#Centre#for#Urban#Studies#(CUS)#has#estimated#that#there#were#around#1500#slum#and#squatter#settlements#in#Dhaka#in#1987.#In#1981,#CUS#found#771#slum#and#squatter#settlements#! 48!and#that#75%#of#all#the#slum#and#squatter#settlements#have#emerged#since#the#independence#of#Bangladesh.#More#than#60%#of#the#total#land#covered#by#slums#and#squatters#are#concentrated#in#the#fringe#areas.#The#slum#settlements#in#the#periphery#are#comparatively#compact,#contiguous#and#large#in#size.#A#major#reason#for#the#peripheral#location#of#a#significant#number#of#slum#settlements#is#the#availability#of#land#and#housing#at#a#much#cheaper#rent.#(Wendt,1997).#Since#the#ownership#of#the#land#in#Korail#is#disputed#between#the#Ministry#of#Telephone#and#Telegraph,#the#Public#Works#Department#(PWD)#and#various#private#owners#any#new#development#plans#other#than#for#the#original#intended#use#raise#legal#disputes.#As#the#population#density#increases,#the#construction#of#houses#takes#place#by#their#owners#without#any#governance#by#the#local#authorities.#Given#the#precarious#tenure#situation,#inhabitants#are#unwilling#to#invest#in#improving#their#living#conditions,#even#though#some#of#them#have#lived#in#Korail#for#as#long#as#20#years.#This#insecurity#has#also#meant#that#serviceZproviding#authorities#are#reluctant#to#give#legal#access#to#the#citywide#infrastructure#system,#and#thus#inhabitants#(Jabeen#et#al,#2010)#Susanne#Wendt#(1997)#study#found,############################################################################################The#inner#city#slums#are#mostly#small#in#size#and#the#inhabitants#are#mainly#squatters.#Slums#are#legally#as#well#as#illegally#subdivided#settlements.#With#regard#to#condition#of#houses#the#local#housing#classification#in#Dhaka#is#most#useful:##a. Juphri)houses#which#are#made#of#cloths#and/or#paper.#b. Xutcha)houses#are#made#of#straw,#bamboo,#and#the#structure#is#temporary.##c. Pucca)houses#are#made#of#brick#or#other#permanent#materials.##d. SemiVpucca)houses#are#a#combination#of#the#two#latter#housing#structures.##In#Korail,#most#shelter#structures#are#in#the#first#two#categories.#The#interviewees#in#Rashid#and#Hossain’s#study#identified#three#major#constraints:##)! 49!1. Lack#of#a#policy#providing#specifically#for#the#urban#poor;##2. Eviction#of#slum#residents;#and##3. The#role#of#mastaans.##The#government#is#generally#unwilling#to#take#account#of#households#that#are#residing#in#an#illegal#area.#However,#the#insecurity#of#land#tenure#in#slums#and#constant#possibility#of#eviction#also#creates#problems#for#NGOs#who#stand#to#lose#their#investment#if#they#set#up#permanent#structures,#such#as#schools.#Teachers#employed#locally#may#also#have#to#move#in#the#event#of#an#eviction.#Slums#are#controlled#by#a#hierarchy#of#leaders#known#as#mastaans,#who#vary#from#relatively#benevolent#figures#to#mafiaZlike#criminal#gang#leaders.#Mastaans,#who#usually#have#close#links#with#political#parties#and#local#police,#typically#control#the#provision#of#amenities#such#as#latrines,#tubeZwells,#water#and#electricity.#NGOs#wishing#to#set#up#services#in#the#slum#also#have#to#gain#the#permission#of#the#mastaans.#(CREATE,#2010)##2.4.2)Eviction))NonZempirical#information#suggests#that#between#30#per#cent#and#50#per#cent#of#urban#residents#in#the#developing#world#lack#security#of#tenure.#Mass#evictions#of#slum#and#squatter#settlements#in#various#cities#in#recent#years#suggest#that#security#of#tenure#is#becoming#increasingly#precarious.#Particularly#in#cities#of#subZSaharan#Africa#and#Asia,#where#evictions#are#often#carried#out#to#make#room#for#largeZscale#infrastructure#or#city#“beautification”#programs.#Security#of#tenure#is#one#of#the#major#concerns#for#the#area,#and#people#living#there#face#a#constant#threat#of#eviction.#(Jabeen#et#al,#2010)#This#creates#a#cycle#of#ownership#issues#and#impacts#the#social#structure#of#the#slum,#with#slum#dwellers#living#in#constant#fear#of#eviction.#Eviction#attempts#occurred#in#1991,#1998#and#2001.#In#1999#a#part#of#the#Korail#slum#was#evicted#and#has#remained#unpopulated.#(Mridha#M.#K.,#et#al,#2009)#(DSK,2012)#! 50!Slums#breed#many#social#problems#including#violence,#crime,#and#drug#abuse.#For#these#reasons,#as#well#as#others,#local#governments#often#eradicate#such#settlements.#However,#the#inhabitants#of#slums#are#people#of#the#lowest#social#and#economic#status,#and#cannot#afford#to#be#evicted.#Thus,#the#threat#of#eviction#is#often#a#significant#concern#of#slum#dwellers.#2.4.3)Livelihood)and)assets#Slums#in#Dhaka#and#Colombo#signal#the#growth#of#the#informal#sector#of#the#economy#and,#indeed,#the#majority#of#the#slumZdwellers#are#actively#engaged#in#the#urban#economy.#The#slum#population#in#Dhaka#faces#extreme#poverty#due#to#its#low#level#of#earnings#and#the#majority#are#living#below#the#poverty#line#in#terms#of#both#calorie#intake#and#cost#of#basic#needs.#What#is#more,#the#slum#dwellers#are#mostly#involved#in#low#paid#jobs#in#the#informal#sectors#of#the#urban#economy#(Hossain,#2006)#The#recent#growth#of#apparel#industries#located#in#Dhaka#and#Colombo#has#also#attracted#a#huge#number#of#rural#communities#who#have#found#employment,#thereby#adding#further#to#the#city#population.##There#is#a#diversity#of#occupations#found#in#Halgaha#Kubura#and#Korail!among#men,#women#and#even#children#to#generate#income.##The#urban#poor#of#Colombo#mainly#consists#of#those#engaged#in#informal#sector#activities#and#the#blue#collar#workers#of#the#city's#main#establishments#such#as#the#Port,#the#industries,#the#railway,#the#city#markets,#the#municipality#and#hundreds#of#other#formal#and#informal#establishments.#(Sevanatha,#2003).#By#contrast,##livelihoods#in#Korail#can#be#categorized#as#either#‘mobile’#or##‘static’.#For#example,#mobile#livelihoods#include#itinerant#clothes#sellers,#rickshaw#pullers#and#tea#sellers#who#move#around#the#city#of#Dhaka#to#generate#income.#Static#livelihoods#include#shop#keeping,#furniture#businesses#and#small#restaurants#that#generate#income#within#the#community.#(DSK,#2012)####! 51!Figure#2.2:#Primary#School#in#Korail#slums.#(Source:#photo#by#author,#2013)##Compared#to#Halgaha#Kumbura,#Korail#is#comprised#of#a#number#of#services#and#businesses#within#the#slum.!Part#of#the#house#or#the#total#shelter#has#been#converted#to#income#generation#shops,#which#include#pharmacies,#tailors,#salons,#grocery#shops,#electronics,#clothing,#etc.#Some#of#the#larger#shops#provide#a#social#gathering#place#where#the#community#members#can#enjoy#watching#television,#movies,#listening#to#music#or#engaging#in#discussions.##The#need#for#shelter#is#considered#to#be#a#basic#right#but#it#is#increasingly#recognised#as#a#social#asset.#One#without#which#it#is#difficult#to#participate#fully#in#society.#Moreover,#a#house#is#also#a#commodity#that#has#a#market#value#and#can#accommodate#incomeZgenerating#activities.#(Beallet#et#al,#1999)#While#some#homeowners#generate#revenues#! 52!through#home#based#businesses,#others#generate#income#through#the#leasing#of#rooms#to#perspective#tenants.#The#growth#in#the#global#labour#force#has#imposed#enormous#strains#on#urban#settings,#especially#on#employment#and#housing.#As#the#formal#sector#has#failed#to#provide#the#factories,#offices,#market#halls,#transport#facilities#and#housing#required#by#the#urban#work#force,#the#informal#sector#has#taken#up#the#slack.#The#location#of#work#places#is#often#in#slum#areas,#and#the#conditions#and#characteristics#of#workers’#accommodation#have#created#slum#areas.#(UNZHabitat,#2003)#As#the#rapid#growth#of#population#in#Dhaka#is#not#commensurate#with#its#industrial#development,#the#city#is#characterized#by#poverty#and#social#vulnerability,#shortage#of#housing,#infrastructure#and#social#services,#poor#quality#of#physical#and#social#environment#and#inefficient#urban#management#(S.#Hossain,#2006). As#a#result#most#slum#dwellers#are#tenants,#who#pay#rents#of#between#BTK.#1000#to#3000#per#month#(US$12#to#US$40)#for#accommodations#ranging#from#shacks#of#nonZpermanent#materials#to#single#rooms#with#cement#flooring#and#a#permanent#roof.##Women#headed#families#and#elders#have#been#known#to#derive#a#considerable#income#from#allocating#part#of#their#house#as#a#rental#property.#Landlords,#some#of#them#similar#to#their#tenants#in#terms#of#income,#are#providing#most#of#the#capital#for#housing#development#in#slums.#Their#contribution#is#continually#underZrated#and#blocked#by#rent#control#and#other#regulations,#although#they#are#doing#exactly#what#the#free#market#demands.#Renting#houses#are#probably#the#only#retirement#scheme#available#for#slum#households#(UNZHabitat).#This#is#one#of#the#common#aspects#in#Halgaha#Kubura#as#well,#rent#for#rooms#range#from#LKR.#1500#to#4500#(US$#10#to#45).#Houses#with#higher#rent#are#more#spacious,#situated#in#better#locations,#have#cement#floors,#better#drainage,#and#a#private#water#supply.#Houses#closer#to#the#water#bodies#had#relatively#lower#rent.##Women#have#borne#many#of#the#social#costs#of#changes#in#the#world#economy.#A#critical#issue#in#understanding#urban#livelihood#systems#is#to#recognize#diversification,#which#as#! 53!Carole#Rakodi#suggests,#is#a#way#of#life#for#lowZincome#urban#women#and#an#essential#means#of#coping#with#insecurity.#Cities#play#hosts#to#a#growing#number#of#people#who#make#a#living#from#the#smallZscale#production#and#trade#of#goods#and#services.#Women#everywhere#are#overZrepresented#in#the#nonZconventional#labour#force.#There#may#be#restricted#demand#for#women’s#labour,#they#might#have#inappropriate#skills#for#the#formal#wage#economy#or#indeed,#and#returns#may#be#lower#in#the#formal#sector#than#the#informal#sector.#Women#sometimes#find#it#easier#to#balance#incomeZearning#activities#with#their#other#responsibilities#in#the#more#flexible#environment#of#the#informal#economy.#These#activities#may#be#part#of#the#diversification#of#urban#livelihoods#(Beall#et#al,1999).#The#positive#attitude#towards#the#possibilities#of#improving#squatter#settlements#was#based#on#Turner's#"selfVhelp")concept.)Turner#(1982)#demonstrated#that#poor#families#are#able#to#consolidate#their#housing#by#making#a#classification#of#slum#and#squatter#settlements#based#on#tenure,#location#and#amenities.#Turner's#argument#was#that#households#will#assess#their#economic#and#social#status#and#will#move#to#a#community#according#to#their#particular#priorities.#Factors#influencing#the#consolidation#process#were:#security#in#tenure,#length#of#residence#and#the#household#income.#Based#on#a#critique#of#Turner's#"selfZhelp"#approach,#Marxist#inspired#theories)developed#that#maintained#that#a#consolidation#process#of#slum#and#squatter#settlements#is#not#possible#as#long#as#the#urban#lowZincome#groups#are#integrated#into#the#capitalist#market.#Furthermore,#it#was#stressed#that#the#rate#of#consolidation#depends#upon#the#extent#to#which#public#agencies#are#able#to#provide#infrastructure#and#service#facilities.#Generally,#the#role#of#women#has#been#underestimated#in#urban#housing#studies#and,#indeed,#this#thesis#considers#that#focusing#on#women#is#particularly#crucial#when#analysing#the#consolidation#process.#The#line#of#argument#is#that#women#have#a#strong#interest#in#living#in#"ideal"#housing,#as#housing#is#the#basic#environment#for#them#to#achieve#their#goals#in#life.#For#men,#housing#does#not#hold#that#fundamental#value.#Furthermore,#as#women#are#taking#care#of#their#production#of#the#family#they#feel#the#strongest#need#for#! 54!improved#service#and#housing#facilities.#Finally,#women#are#dependent#on#establishing#social#networks#within#the#settlements#(Wendt,#1997).#During#the#field#visit,#women#in#these#settlements#were#observed#to#have#a#strong#bonding#between#"selfZhelp"#approaches#and#there#own#saving#systems.#A#majority#of#urban#poor#rely#on#moneylenders#for#emergency#credit#due#to#their#lack#of#access#to#formal#banking#system.#Recognizing#the#above#limitations#community#savings#&#credit#societies#have#been#formed#by#a#section#of#the#poor.#Women#have#played#a#leading#role#in#this#process.##Although#most#of#the#households#have#very#basic#physical#possessions,#there#is#a#practice#of#accumulating#assets#in#various#forms,#ranging#from#building#materials#and#saleable#household#items,#to#investing#in#skills#development,#children’s#health#and#education.#People#perceive#the#accumulation#of#assets#as#a#means#of#increasing#their#resilience,#and#usually,#it#is#the#women#in#the#households#who#take#the#major#initiative#in#this#regard.#This#gradual#accumulation#of#assets#helps#in#the#incremental#improvement#of#the#physical#structures,#in#diversifying#livelihood#opportunities,#in#reducing#healthZrelated#expenditure#and#in#increasing#household#earnings.#(Jabeen,#2010)##Issues#of#Health#and#addictions#rapidly#slide#a#household#into#poverty,#as#well#as#keep#households#trapped#in#poverty#with#little#hope#of#moving#out.#It#influences#people’s#ability#to#gain#and#maintain#employment#as#well#as#causing#a#constant#drain#on#the#household’s#resources.#Addiction#to#drugs#and#alcohol#or#critical#illness#of#the#males#in#the#household#is#a#primary#reason#for#women#to#seek#employment#in#order#to#provide#for#their#household.#(Centre#for#Poverty#Analysis/Colombo#Municipal#Council,#2004)#Children#also#play#an#important#role#in#household#level#strategies,#contributing#to#overall#household#income,#domestic#work#and#childcare.#They#also#generate#income#as#domestic#workers,#scavengers,#and#office#or#restaurant#employees.#Begging#is#a#popular#! 55!livelihood#for#children#as#well.#For#many#urban#children#this#involves#long#hours#of#labour#and#a#life#lived#on#the#streets:##“The#lives#and#life#chances#of#children#in#the#city#are#shaped#by#the#environment#in#which#they#live.#For#70%#of#urban#children#in#the#developing#world#this#environment#means#conditions#of#continuous#poverty,#inadequate#housing#and#food,#lack#of#basic#services#and#an#institutional#and#legislative#framework#that#is#rarely#supportive#of#their#diverse#interests#and#needs#and#often#hostile#to#them.#Children#adopt#various#strategies#and#mechanisms#to#cope#with#these#conditions,#both#as#individuals#and#as#a#part#of#families#and#households.”#(Beall,#J.,#&#Kanji,#N.#2009).##)2.5)Social)networks)))Social#networks#are#formed#primarily#between#relatives,#friends,#and#ethnic/religious#groups.#The#very#high#propensity#for#residents#of#settlements#to#marry#from#within#the#settlements#strengthens#the#social#networks#between#relatives#and#friends#while#expanding#networks#across#settlements.#While#most#households#stated#that#they#had#stronger#links#with#family#and#personal#friends,#some#households#specifically#mentioned#the#lack#of#family#networks#and#therefore#the#reliance#on#neighbours.#The#fact#that#the#population#of#the#area#are#long#term,#at#least#third#generation,#residents#of#Colombo#rather#than#recent#migrants#may#be#the#reason#for#the#existence#of#strong#family#ties,#which#may#seem#somewhat#contradictory#to#the#conventional#ideas#of#an#urban#social#structure.#It#must#be#stressed#here#that#these#networks#are#individual#based#rather#than#community#based.#(Centre#for#Poverty#Analysis/Colombo#Municipal#Council,#2004)#Social#ties#run#deep#in#lowZ#income#settlements#such#as#Korail#and#Halgaha#Kumbura.#There#is#a#strong#sense#of#community#that#demonstrates#a#strong#grip#of#what#was#happening#to#each#of#its#members.#Since#the#majority#of#the#community#faces#the#same#situation#of#poverty,#even#if#individuals#cannot#lend#support#in#the#form#of#material#! 56!items#or#money,#they#are#often#enthusiastic#in#their#moral#support#of#the#families#who#need#help#during#traumas.#This#bonding#was#useful#for#the#Government#and#nonZgovernmental#organizations#that#were#working#in#lowZincome#settlements#before.#and#made#the#social#bonding#as#an#asset.##The#strategic#importance#of#locally#managed#savings#groups#as#a#vehicle#for#community#building#and#the#nurturing#of#solidarity,#particularly#among#women#engaged#in#incremental#house#building,#is#becoming#well#understood.#Not#only#can#regular#savings#of#very#small#amounts#of#money#generate#significant#capital#funds#for#borrowing,#but#the#process#of#collecting,#banking,#lending,#and#recovering#loans#is#a#powerful#means#of#community#building#and#the#development#of#grassroots#collective#management#capacities#(The#Cities#Alliance,#2011):#• Recognizing#the#above#limitations#community#savings#&#credit#societies#have#been#formed#by#a#section#of#the#poor.#Women#have#played#a#leading#role#in#this#process.#However,#the#community#savings#&#credit#programmes#have#covered#only#a#small#portion#of#the#urban#poor#as#yet.##• The#poor#have#demonstrated#their#entrepreneurial#skills#by#utilizing#every#available#opportunity#to#earn#a#living#within#the#existing#constraints##• Their#expenditure#pattern#and#high#living#expenses#seem#to#have#prevented#them#from#forming#savings#from#their#income.#(sevanatha,2001)#2.5.1)Community)Development)Council)(CDC))Most#slum#and#shanty#communities#in#developing#countries#including#Korail#and#Halgaha#Kubura#have#organised#in#the#form#of#Community#Development#Councils#(CDCs).#Although#national#and#international#agencies#have#put#greater#effort#to#provide#basic#infrastructure#services#to#lowZincome#settlements#during#last#few#years,#the#urban#poor#have#remained#beyond#the#reach#of#infrastructure#and#services.#Today,#many#developing#! 57!countries#are#taking#initiatives#to#introduce#alternative#systems#to#meet#this#challenge.#One#of#the#initiatives#being#employed#by#the#National#Housing#Development#Authority#(NHDA)#in#Sri#Lanka#is#the#Community#Contract#System.#Under#this#new#procurement#system,#the#NHDA#accepted#the#Community#Development#Councils#(D.#Premakumara,#2007))Through#the#mechanism#of#threeZtier#development#council#system#(community,#municipal#district#and#city#level)#these#communities#have#been#able#to#participate#in#the#planning#of#programme#activities#to#enable#the#municipal#authorities#to#deliver#the#basic#amenities#that#they#really#need.#(Sevanatha,#2003)##CDC#serves#as#a#channel#of#community#and#as#decisions#making#process#of#the#community.#In#lowZincome#communities#in#Sri#Lanka,#CDCs#are#meant#to#make#decisions#on#the#layout#of#the#sites,#the#plot#sizes#the#public#spaces#and#the#level#of#infrastructure.#When#it#comes#to#financing,#CDC#members#are#involved#in#deciding#the#level#of#loan#to#be#approved#for#cash#household#and#may#choose#to#take#responsibility#for#the#construction#of#infrastructure.#They#will#be#responsible#for#the#construction#and#maintaining#but#the#current#situation#in#this#settlement#has#been#changed,#CDC’s#become#a#very#strong#community#organization,#which#has#their#own#saving#systems.#Figure#2.3#an#infrastructure#development#in#Halgaha#Kubura#in#2005.######(Source:#photo#by#author,#2005)#! 58!#In#Halgaha#Kumbura,#the#CDC#supports#a#growing#number#of#communityZbased#savings#groups#and#provides#loans#and#grants#for#land#acquisition,#upgrading,#house#building,#income#generation,#and#food#production;#it#also#aims#to#develop#better#relations#with#the#government#and#other#banking#systems#in#Sri#Lanka.##By#2007#the#Sri#Lanka#Women’s#Bank,#which#began#as#a#small#housingZrelated#savings#scheme#in#Colombo#in#the#early#1990s,#had#over#60,000#active#lowZincome#members#and#total#assets#of#over#800#million#Sri#Lankan#rupees#(US$8#million),#managed#through#160#branches#in#22#of#the#country’s#25#administrative#districts.#(The#Cities#Alliance,#2011)#Currently#Korail#lowZincome#settlement#has#35#CDC’s#and#they#own#………#in#savings.##The#community#forms#four#types#of#saving#accounts:#1. Saving#and#Credit#account:#Each#CDC#member#saves#BTK#100#(USD#1.3)#every#month.#2. Operational#and#Maintain:#community#save#money#to#allocate#in#a#case#of#disaster#or#unexpected#event.#3. Social#and#Economic8:#funding#from#NonZgovernmental#organisations.#(UNDP)#4. Settlement#Improvement:#Funding#from#NonZ#governmental#organisations.#These#councils#have#been#established#in#order#to#increase#the#selfZreliance#of#residents#within#the#settlement.#Community#members#have#different#kind#of#skills#to#pursue#different#livelihood#strategies,#such#as#carpenters,#plumbers,#electricians,#drivers,#garments#makers#etc.#The#community#gained#leadership#skills#and#communityZbased#project#management#skills#through#involvement#in#community#improvement#projects.#!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!8There#are#38#NGOs#working#in#Korail,#Dhaka#and#only#one#NGO#works#in#HalgahaKubura,#Colombo.#There#are#around#14#NGOs#running#31#schools,#16#NGOs#providing#microZcredit#loans,#and#10#NGOs#delivering#primary#health#care#(PHC)#services.#Besides#these,#three#NGOs#are#working#to#improve#the#environmental#situation#of#the#slum.#(Ahmed#et#al;#licensee#BioMed#Central#Ltd.,#2010) !! 59!Large#numbers#of#people#have#smallZscale#business#enterprise#skills.#The#educational#level#of#the#younger#generation#is#higher#than#that#of#their#parents#and#most#of#them#have#completed#their#secondary#education.#Moreover,#the#Councils#have#to#act#as#intermediaries#between#the#population#of#lowZincome#settlements#and#the#external#agencies.#They#articulate#the#needs#and#the#problems#felt#by#residents#to#the#external#organisations,#taking#decisions,#formulating#plans,#executing#projects#and#monitoring#the#implementation#of#a#multitude#of#undertakings.#(United#Nations#Centre#for#Human#Settlements,1993)#An#increase#in#the#severity#of#climatic#stresses#places#extra#burdens#on#the#people#who#have#learnt#to#carry#out#their#livelihoods#in#the#already#existing#challenges#faced#due#to#climatic#hazards.#Coping#with#such#events#can#result#in#a#loss#of#assets;#negative#impacts#on#health#and#can#require#high#expenditure#in#order#to#recover.#This#capacity#to#cope#with#climate#variability#and#extreme#weather#events#is#highly#dependent#on#the#level#of#income.#In#general,#livelihood#sources#of#the#poor#are#usually#narrower#and#more#climateZsensitive#than#those#of#the#nonZpoor.#Extreme#weather#events,#which#would#cause#limited#damage#and#few#casualties#in#a#developed#country,#often#cause#extensive#damage#and#substantial#loss#of#life#in#a#developing#country,#like#Bangladesh.#Poor#people#are#particularly#vulnerable#to#deviations#from#average#climatic#conditions#such#as#prolonged#heat#and#to#natural#disasters#such#as#floods.#In#periods#of#stress#they#may#be#even#forced#to#stay#without#food,#shelter#and#employment#and,#thereby#undermining#the#sustainability#of#their#livelihoods.#In#impact#assessments#after#disasters,#assets#are#shown#to#be#both#a#significant#factor#in#selfZrecovery#and#to#be#influenced#by#the#response#and#reconstruction#process.####! 60!Chapter)3:)Hazards,)vulnerability,)&)resilience)Developed#countries#have#invested#heavily#into#withstanding#natural#disasters.#By#contrast,#in#developing#countries#such#investments#are#not#possible#due#to#widespread#poverty#and#the#resulting#lack#of#sufficient#capital.##! Disasters!turn!back!the!development!clock,!destroying!years!of!effort!and!perpetuating!poverty!for!those!already!poor.!On!a!city!and!national!level,!they!destroy!investments!and!infrastructure!and!drain!national!budgets!and!international!development!funds.!Yet!disasters!are!rarely,!if!ever,!included!within!urban!development!strategies.!Governments!of!developing!countries!may!have!entirely!different!ministries!responsible!for!emergency!management!and!urban!development,!one!with!little!knowledge!of!the!other’s!activities.#(Sanderson,#2001)##The#literature#discussed#in#this#Chapter#is#organized#into#two#central#themes:##1.#Disasters:##The#concepts#of#vulnerability,#risk,#hazards#and#the#origin#of#disasters.#A#discussion#of#the#theories#that#explain#disaster#and#everyday#risk#follows#with#an#overview#of#the#disaster#management#cycle.#Disaster#response#actors#are#then#examined,#with#a#focus#on#the#overlaps#of#their#roles#and#responsibilities.##2.# Disaster!Resilience!Plans!or!Mitigation:!Based#on#the#risk#assessment,#communities#develop#mitigation#goals#and#objectives,#as#part#of#a#strategy#for#mitigating#disaster#losses.#The#strategy##is#a#community#approach#for#implementing#mitigation#activities#that#are#costZ#effective,#technically#feasible,#and#environmentally#sound#as#well#as#allowing#strategic#investment#of#limited#resources.#Vulnerability#and#risk#assessment#encompass#various#approaches#and#techniques#ranging#from#indicatorZbased#global#or#national#assessments#to#qualitative#participatory#approaches#of#vulnerability#and#risk#assessment#at#the#local#level.#They#serve#different#! 61!functions#and#goals#(Wisner,#2006;#Cardona,#O.D#et#al,#2012).#The#risk#faced#by#people#must#be#seen#as#a#crosscutting#combination#of#vulnerability#and#hazard.#Disasters#are#a#result#of#the#interaction#of#both#vulnerability#and#hazard.#There#cannot#be#a#disaster#with#hazards#alone;#vulnerability#has#to#be#there#as#well.#Likewise,#in#the#absence#of#vulnerability,#a#hazard#alone#cannot#create#a#disaster.#These#three#elements:#risk#(R),#vulnerability#(V),#and#hazard#(H),#can#be#written#into#a#simple#formula:#Risk)=)Vulnerability)+)Hazard)Vulnerability#is#the#factor#that#can#be#reduced#in#the#disaster#resilient#plan#so#it#is#important#to#investigate#vulnerable#situations#in#the#context#of#Halgaha#Kubura#and#Korail.#Selected#definitions#of#Vulnerability#drawn#from#the#Vulnerability/#hazards#and#disaster#literature:#Table#3.1#Definitions#of#Vulnerability.##Definition#of#Vulnerability## #Source#“…#is#the#preZevent,#inherent#characteristics#or#qualities#of#systems#that#create#the#potential#for#harm#or#differential#ability#to#recover#following#an#event.#Vulnerability#is#a#function#of#the#exposure#(who#or#what#is#at#risk)#and#the#sensitivity#of#the#system#(the#degree#to#which#people#and#places#can#be#harmed)”###(Cutter,#Barnes,#Berry,#Evans,#Tate,#&#Webb,#2008)#,#Page#2#“#the#characteristics#of#a#person#or#group#and#their#situation#that#can#influence#their#capacity#to#anticipate,#cope#with,#resist#and#recover#from#the#impact#of#a#natural#hazard”##Wisner,#2004,#Page.11#“The#terms#‘resilience’#and#‘vulnerability’#are#opposite#sides#of#the#same#coin,#but#both#are#relative#terms.#One#has#to#ask#what#individuals,#communities#and#systems#are#vulnerable#or#resilient#to,#and#to#what#extent.”###(J.#Twigg,2007)##! 62!Physical#Vulnerability…#structural#Vulnerability#which#arise#when#building#are#constructed#using#design#and#materials#that#are#incapable#of#resisting#extreme#energy#level#(hydrodynamic#pressure#of#water)#or#that#allow#the#infiltration#of#hazardous#materials.##Thus,#structural#vulnerability#can#be#define#by#the#likelihood#that#an#event#of#given#magnitude#will#cause#various#damage#state,#ranging#from#slight#damage#through#immediate#total#failure,#to#buildings#and#infrastructure.##Social#Vulnerability:#The#probability#of#identifiable#persons#or#groups#lacking#the#“capacity#to#anticipate,#cope#with,#resist#and#recover#from#the#impacts#of#a#hazard”##National#Academy#of###Sciences,#2006#Page#72Z73##(UNISDR,#2012)#explains#the#disaster#risk#as#“disasters#are#not#natural”,#it#is#important#to#consider#the#elements#of#risk.#Risk#is#a#function#of#the#hazard#(a#cyclone,#an#earthquake,#a#flood,#or#a#fire,#for#example),#the#exposure#of#people#and#assets#to#the#hazard,#and#the#conditions#of#vulnerability#of#the#exposed#population#or#assets.#These#factors#are#not#static#and#can#be#improved,#depending#on#the#institutional#and#individual#capacity#to#cope#and/or#act#to#reduce#risk.#Societal#and#environmental#development#patterns#can#increase#exposure#and#vulnerability#and#therefore#increase#risk.”#3.1)The)vulnerability)of)the)urban)poor))To#achieve#a#disaster#resilience#plan,#it#is#appropriate#to#investigate#in#depth#the#vulnerable#conditions#in#Korail#and#Halgaha#Kubura.)Measuring#Vulnerability#of#Natural#Hazards#by#B.#Winers#et#al,#presents#a#broad#range#of#current#approaches#that#measure#vulnerability#and#contains#concrete#experiences#and#examples#from#Africa,#Asia,#the#Americas#and#Europe#to#support#the#theoretical#analyses.#Pressure#and#Release#(PAR)#Model#is#a#simple#tool#used#to#understand#risk#in#terms#of#vulnerability#in#specific#hazard#situations#and#to#show#how#disasters#occur#when#natural#hazard#affect#vulnerable#people.#(B.#Winser#et#al,#2004).#According#to#the#authors#of#At!Risk,!natural#hazards#are#on#one#side#of#the#Pressure#and#Release#(PAR)#! 63!Model.#Hazards#put#pressure#on#people#and#resources#that#are#vulnerable.#On#the#other#side#of#the#PAR#model#are#root#causes,#dynamic#pressures,#and#unsafe#conditions#also#applying#pressure#to#those#in#vulnerability.#The#authors#argue#that#root#causes,#such#as#limited#access#to#power#and#resources,#manifest#a#progression#in#vulnerability#through#inadequacies#in#training,#local#institutional#systems,#or#ethical#standards#in#government.#Blaikie#et#al.#further#contend#that#these#dynamic#pressures#produce#unsafe#conditions#in#the#physical#and#social#environments#of#those#persons#and#groups#most#susceptible#to#vulnerability#and#risk.#Physically#unsafe#conditions#include#dangerous#locations#and#unprotected#buildings.#Socially#unsafe#conditions#include#risks#to#local#economies#and#inadequacies#in#disaster#preparedness#measures#(Joseph#F.#St.#Cyr,2005)#See#Appendix#A#The#PAR#model#has#been#developed#based#on#the#data#collected#during#the#field#study#by#investigating#the#vulnerable#situations#common#to#Dhaka#and#Colombo.##This#chapter#will#explain#the#vulnerable#situations#inZdepth.#The#vulnerability#of#the#built#environment#is#related#to#the#location#and#proximity#to#the#source#of#the#hazard#or#threat.#Poorly#constructed#buildings#and#infrastructure,#inadequately#maintained#public#infrastructure,#commercial#and#industrial#development,#and#certain#types#of#housing#stock#(e.g.,#manufactured#homes)#all#enhance#the#vulnerability#of#the#built#environment#in#communities#(Cutter#et#al,#2008).#! 64!! ! !!THE$PROGRESSION$OF$VULNERABILITY ROOT$CAUSES DYNAMIC$PRESSURES UNSAFE$ CONDITIONS DISASTER RISK$= HAZARD$X VULNARABILITY $ R=$H$x$V HAZARD 1 3 2 Climatic(change: $ Increase"in"monsoon"Flooding Fragile(Physical Environment. 1. Unplanned$development:$Large$number$of$$Dwellings$alone$Banani$river.$ 1. Squatting$in$flood$prone$locations.$2. Encroachment.$3. Silted$and$garbage$filled$canals$unable$to$handle$the$floodwater.$4. Insufficient$infrastructure.$Vulnerable(Society. 1.$Lack$of$local$institutions.$2.$Different$region$and$Limited(Access: 1. Water$supply$and$sanitation$2. Disaster$resilient$construction$3. Adequate$Infrastructure:$Drainage$capacity$and$management.$4. Financial:$savings$and$credit$$5. Transportation$and$lack$of$basic$services.$6. Skilled$labor$and$livelihood.$7. Unequal$patterns$of$land$$ 1. Dwelling$and$infrastructure$lost.$2. Livelihood$disturbances$and$lost.$3. Water$logging.$4. Increase$health$issues.$$! Absence(of 1. Absence$of$land$ownership.$2. Absence$of$Government$support$and$rights.$3. Regulations$and$implementation.$4. Absence$of$social$insurance$and$savings/bank$accounts.$$Micro(Forces: 1. Rapid$urban$migration$and$urbanization,$Increase$of$Figure'3.1?!PAR$model$in$the$context$to$Korail,$Dhaka.(B.$Winser$et$al,$2004) ! 65!! ! !!THE$PROGRESSION$OF$VULNERABILITY ROOT$CAUSES DYNAMIC$PRESSURES UNSAFE$ CONDITIONS DISASTER RISK$= HAZARD$X VULNARABILITY $ R=$H$x$V HAZARD 1 3 2 Climatic(change: $ Monsoon$Flooding. Fragile(Physical Environment. 1.Unplanned$development:$Large$number$of$$dwellings$alone$canal.$ 2. Encroachment.$3. Weak$building$structures$and$lack$of$building$regulations.$4. Low$lying$land.$Fragile(Economy. 1. LowXincome$2. Risky$livelihoods.$Vulnerable(Society. 1. New$migrant$and$rental$occupancies$to$the$settlement$at$risk.$2. Addictions$to$drugs.$Public(Actions(and(Institutional. 1. Limited$preparedness$Limited(Access: 1. Limited$budget$$to$develop$Water$supply$and$sanitation$$2. Disaster$resilient$construction$$3. Adequate$Infrastructure:$maintenance.$4. Financial$support$from$local$government.$$5. Livelihood$development.$6. Unequal$patterns$of$land$ownership$and$income.$$$$ $ $ $ $ 1. Dwelling$and$infrastructure$lost.$2. Livelihood$disturbances$and$lost.$3. Water$logging.$4. Increase$health$issues.$$Absence(of 1. Absence$of$land$ownership$alone$Dematogoda$canal.$2. Absence$of$Government$support$and$rights.$3. Regulations$and$implementation$for$encroachment.$4. Absence$of$disaster$mitigation$plans$and$strategies.$$ Micro(Forces: $ 1. Rapid$urban$migration$and$Figure'3.2:'PAR'model'in'the'context'to'Halgaha'Kubura,'Colombo.'(B.$Winser$et$al,$2004) ! 66!3.1.1$Encroachment$Many%civilizations%in%the%world%have%flourished%along%the%rivers,%lakes,%on%estuaries,%near%deltas%and%at%the%sea%edges.%Formerly,%the%most%important%functions%of%water%in%a%human%settlement%were%to%provide%drinking%water,%infrastructure%for%water%transport,%basin%for%the%disposal%of%wastewater%and%fishing.%However,%with%the%increasing%population%growth%and%the%demand%of%rapid%urbanization,%the%historical%relation%between%settlement%and%water%has%been%largely%severed.%Urbanity%has%generally%evolved%around%reliable%sources%of%water%to%meet%the%immediate%needs%of%humans.%However,%rapid%urbanization%along%water%bodies%is%always%accompanied%with%immense%challenges%for%both%the%water%environments%and%the%communities%depending%on%this%important%resource.%Currently,%the%impacts%of%urbanization%on%urban%water%management%are%complex%and%occur%in%various%ways%and%a%wide%range%of%scales.%(Asad,%2012)%%Forty%years%ago%Dhaka%had%an%excellent%natural%drainage%system.%The%city%was%interlaced%with%numerous%natural%channels/canals%and%wetlands.%It%is%estimated%that%there%were%up%to%45%natural%drainage%canals%that%spanned%the%city.%In%the%course%of%rapid%expansion,%most%of%the%natural%drainage%canals%as%well%as%wetlands%have%been%intervened%and%destroyed.%(Provat%K.%Saha%et%al,%2012.)%The%canals%of%Dhaka%used%to%be%the%connecting%channels%of%the%rivers%surrounded%by%the%greater%Dhaka%district.%Even%today,%whatever%is%left%of%the%canals%is%used%as%the%primary%drainage%system%for%Dhaka.%But%most%of%these%canals%have%vanished%due%to%unplanned%urbanization,%encroachment,%lack%of%coRordination%between%the%government%agencies%and%lack%of%maintenance%to%the%system.%The%few%remaining%canals%are%on%the%verge%of%extinction%as%they%have%lost%their%flow%and%are%blocked%by%either%roads%or%unauthorized%structures.%(thedailystar.net%2009)These%developments%make%the%communities%vulnerable%to%regular%monsoon%flooding%as%well%as%during%high%rainfall,%which%create%disastrous%flooding.%! 67!Water%logging%in%Korail%creates%unavoidable%crisis%for%lowRincome%communities%for%their%livelihoods,%particularly%for%rickshaw%pullers%who%are%unable%to%move%or%work%when%their%settlements%are%waterlogged%during%the%monsoon%seasons.%Given%that%the%affordable%transportation%system%for%lowRincome%people%are%rickshaws,%when%rickshaw%pullers%unable%to%work%during%monsoon%season%many%people%lose%their%jobs%in%the%city%as%housemaids%and%industrial%helpers%during%this%time%due%to%lack%of%economical%transportation%system.%The%most%obvious%factor%contributing%to%community%vulnerability%is%location%or%proximity%to%hazardRprone%areas%such%as%coasts,%floodplains,%seismic%zones,%potential%contamination%sites,%and%so%forth.%The%physical%exposure,%described%by%the%characteristics%of%the%initiating%event%(magnitude,%duration,%frequency,%impact,%rapidity%of%onset),%defines%the%physical%vulnerability%of%places.%%B.%Winser%et%al,(2004)%has%noted:%Growing(population(pressure(has(increased(the(number(of(landless(families,(increase(the(rate(of(rural7urban(migration(and(forced(increased(number(of(people(to(seek(living(space(and(subsistence(on(disaster7prone(land(within(and(alongside(major(rivers(and(in(the(Meghana(estuary.((The%consequence%of%highly%unequal%access%to%land%is%that%more%and%more%hazardous%land%is%being%settled.%This%is%particularly%true%of%the%lowRlying%islands%that%emerge%as%a%result%of%slit%deposition%in%the%river%estuaries%of%the%delta%regions.%This%poses%severe%risks%to%the%occupants%from%both%cyclones%and%river%flooding.%(Winser,%2004)% % %%With%the%increase%of%demand%for%land%the%value%of%the%land%increases,%thus%making%it%impossible%for%lowRincome%people%to%acquire%land.%%This%forces%these%people%to%move%and%settle%in%Hazards%Zones,%since%shelter%is%a%basic%necessity.%%As%a%result,%the%riverbanks%and%canals%have%been%encroached%by%poor%people.%%Halgaha%Kubura%and%Korail%are%examples%of%such%lowRincome%communities%encroaching%the%riverbanks.%Apart%from%lowRincome%! 68!people,%highRincome%people%encroach%riverbanks%for%the%purpose%of%enlarging%their%properties%to%build%rental%accommodation%and%get%more%open%space.%%The%solution%to%encroachment%provided%by%the%government%organization%is%evicting%lowRincome%communities%from%these%hazard%locations.%A%taskforce%launched%by%the%government%successfully%evicted%many%slums%and%structures%as%well%as%stopped%encroachment%of%a%few%housing%companies%such%as%Eastern%Housing%Limited.%(thedailystar.net,%2009)%Alternative%solutions%to%encroachment%will%be%discussed%in%Chapter%6.%%3.1.2$Lack$of$infrastructure$and$maintenance$Disasters%occur%because%people%live%or%work%in%hazardous%areas.%Yet%when%there%have%been%organized%attempts%to%move%people%who%have%experienced%a%natural%hazard%away%from%their%homes,%it%usually%fails.%In%fact,%attachment%to%place%has%been%seen%as%strong%in%most%societies.%In%many%cultures,%sense%of%place%and%use%of%the%land%for%livelihood%activity%are%closely%entwined,%making%a%move%out%of%a%hazardous%zone%very%difficult.%People%do%not%typically%move%even%when%they%have%experienced%a%disaster%unless%they%have%explored%all%loss%reduction%options%available%to%themR%i.e.,%there%is%no%more%capacity%for%action%other%than%to%move,%change%resource%use,%or%a%combination%of%both%R%depending%upon%their%circumstances.%They%are%then%said%to%have%reached%an%%“in%tolerance%threshold”.%Thus%for%many,%the%price%of%living%in%a%hazardous%zone%may%include%costs%of%adjustments%or%adaptation%as%necessary,%and%even%the%loss%of%life%and%wealth.%%The%density%of%the%built%environment%is%contributing%factor%to%community%vulnerability,%as%there%is%more%exposure%and%thus%a%greater%potential%for%damage.%Public%infrastructure%and%lifelines%(sewers,%water,%bridges,%roads)%are%especially%critical%for%communities%as%the%loss%of%such%important%assets%may%place%an%insurmountable%financial%burden%on%smaller%communities%that%often%lack%the%resources%to%rebuild%(Cutter%et%al,%2008).%%! 69!Figure%3.3%People%dumping%garbage%to%the%canal%%(Source:%photo%by%author,%2013)%Lack%of%maintenance%and%people%using%the%canal%and%river%as%garbage%disposal%sites$causes%a%narrowing%of%the%canals.%Because%of%the%lack%of%dumping%facilities,%people%dump%solid%wastes%into%the%canals.%Dhaka%City%Corporation%(DCC)%has%failed%to%provide%adequate%facilities%for%the%dumping%of%thousands%of%tones%of%solid%wastes%generated%each%day.%(thedailystar.net,%2009)%Lack%of%coordination%of%the%utility%service%agencies%is%a%major%cause%for%the%pollution%of%the%canals.%Roads%of%the%city%have%been%built%across%many%canals,%which%make%the%canals%stagnant.%For%example,%JiraniKhal%that%stretches%from%Sayedabad%bridge%to%Trimohoni%has%become%a%breeding%ground%for%mosquitoes%and%a%major%source%of%water%logging%in%Madartek%and%Basabo%as%several%roads%built%right%through%it%are%obstructing%its%water%flow.%It%is%extremely%agonizing%for%the%residents%and%commuters%to%walk%through%these%roads.%According%to%(thedailystar.net,%2009)%the%sewage%from%the%sewers%drain%on%to%the%road,%which%makes%it%extremely%unpleasant%to%walk%through.%! 70!3.1.3$Health$and$economic$issues$Urbanization%is%a%major%factor%in%the%growth%of%vulnerability,%particular%of%lowRincome%families%living%within%squatter%settlements.%The%urbanization%process%results%in%land%pressure%as%mitigations%from%outside%move%into%already%overcrowded%cities,%so%that%the%new%arrival%have%little%alternative%other%than%to%occupy%unsafe%land,%construction%of%unsafe%habitations%or%work%in%unsafe%environment.%But%the%risks%from%natural%hazards%are%only%part%of%the%dangers%these%people%face%in%squatter%settlements.%There%are%often%far%greater%of%malnutrition%and%poor%health.%(B.%Winser,%2004)%The%environmental%degradation%of%the%canals%makes%sure%that%people%living%besides%the%canals%live%in%misery%with%the%onslaught%of%breeding%mosquitoes%and%odious%stench%since%residents%continuously%dumps%solid%wastes%into%these%canals.%(thedailystar.net,%2009)%%The%stagnant%water%in%the%canals%is%a%perfect%breeding%ground%for%mosquitoes%and%other%insects.%Diseases%carried%by%mosquitoes%are%common%during%the%monsoon.%Imamuddin%Chowdhury,%a%resident%of%Rupnagar%says,%"Almost%every%house%near%RupnagarKhal%in%Rupnagar%are%full%of%mosquitoes.%We%use%spray,%mosquito%coils%and%nets%but%cannot%save%ourselves.%I'm%worried%about%the%health%of%our%newborn%baby.%Besides,%thousands%of%insects%grooming%in%the%canal%have%made%our%life%miserable%in%the%coming%monsoon."%(thedailystar.net,%2009)%%At%the%same%time,%the%economic%health%of%the%community%is%equally%important%and%this%is%closely%tied%to%commercial%and%industrial%development.%Communities%that%solely%rely%on%a%single%economic%sector%for%their%livelihoods%(e.g.,%tourism)%are%more%vulnerable%than%those%that%have%a%more%diversified%economy.%These%vulnerable%communities%often%are%slower%to%recover%from%a%disaster%(Cutter%et%al,%2008).%%3.1.4$Social$vulnerability$The%social%vulnerability%of%communities%is%borne%from%inequalities,%which%affect%access%to%resources%and%information,%the%ability%to%absorb%the%impacts%of%hazards%and%disasters%without%governmental%interventions,%housing%choice%and%location,%and%the%political%! 71!marginalization%of%impoverished%residents.%Social%vulnerability%is%one%of%the%foremost%explanations%for%the%differential%preparedness,%impact,%and%response%to%Hurricane%Katrina%within%New%Orleans%and%along%the%Mississippi%Gulf%Coast%(Cutter%et%al,%2008).%There%are%demographic%and%social%characteristics%of%residents%that%make%some%communities%more%vulnerable%than%others.%The%most%widely%accepted%social%indicators%are%age,%gender,%race,%socioeconomic%status,%and%special%needs%populations%(Cutter%et%al,%2008).%The%issues%discussed%above%will%be%considered%in%chapter%6%to%develop%the%disaster%resilience%plan.%%3.2$Strategic$advice$taken$to$reduce$the$risk$“Cities(and(urban(areas(represent(dense(and(complex(systems(of(interconnected(services.(As( such,( they( face( a( growing( number( of( issues( that( drive( disaster( risk.( Strategies( and(policies(can(be(developed(to(address(each(of(these(issues,(as(part(of(an(overall(vision(to(make(cities(of(all(sizes(and(profiles(more(resilient(and(liveable”((United%Nations,%UNISDR,%2012)%(3.2.1$The$disaster$cycle%The%emergency%management%profession%and%Federal%Emergency%Management%Agency%(FEMA)%have%used%the%concept%of%the%disaster%cycle%shown%in%figure%3.4%to%describe%the%phases%of%a%disaster.%Although%they%are%described%as%separate%phases,%each%phase%is%linked%to%one%another.%It%is%helpful%to%think%of%the%disaster%cycle%as%a%simple%equation.%Every%risk%or%vulnerability%that%is%mitigated%today%reduces%the%overall%exposure%thereby%decreasing%the%pressure%on%the%response%side%of%the%disaster%cycle%and%lowering%the%associated%recovery%costs%from%future%events.%This%section%defines%the%four%phases%and%describes%plans%and%activities%associated%with%them,%which%will%further%unfold%in%disaster%resilience%planning.%The%four%phases:%Response,%Recovery,%Preparedness,%and%Mitigation%! 72!can%be%described%as%follows:%Figure%3R4:%The%Disaster%Cycle.%%(Source: Disaster Management Dept., Govt. of Bihar, 2007-08)%%Response:%%%Response%and%recovery%phase%always%occurs%after%a%disaster%happens,$As%soon%as%a%disaster%occurs,%Immediate%RELIEF%focuses%on%saving%lives%e.g.%search%and%rescue,%critical%medical%care,%food,%drinking%water.%Then%the%Ongoing%RESPONSE%focuses%on%reducing%vulnerability%and%meeting%basic%needs%e.g.%family%tracing,%food,%nutrition,%health%care,%sanitation,%water,%shelter.%Recovery%is%long%term%support%in%restoring%‘normal%life’.%Recovery%operations%provide%for%basic%needs%and%restore%the%community.%There%are%two%components%in%the%recovery%phase.%During%the%first%phase,%infrastructure%is%examined,%and%repairs%are%conducted%to%restore%water,%power,%communication%and%other%utilities.%The%second%phase%includes%returning%to%normal%functions%and%addressing%! 73!future%disasters.%%Recovery:$$Recovery$splits$into$reconstruction$and$rehabilitation.$%Reconstruction:$$seeks%to%reRestablish%and%improve%infrastructure,%housing%and%preRdisaster%services%and%social%conditions.$$Rehabilitation:$focuses%on%public%and%social%services,%livelihoods,%education%and%making%changes%needed%due%to%the%disaster%impact.%Preparedness:$Preparedness%refers%to%activities,%programs,%and%systems%developed%in%advance%of%a%disaster%designed%to%build%and%enhance%capabilities%at%an%individual,%business,%community,%state%and%federal%level%to%support%the%response%to%and%recovery%from%disasters.%Example%strategies%might%include%developing%awareness%and%outreach%campaigns%and%training%targeted%to%individuals%and%businesses%on%personal%and%professional%responsibility%to%be%self%sufficient%for%at%least%72%hours%postRdisaster.%This%Provisions%to%reduce%vulnerability%and%increase%government%and%civil%society%capacity%to%anticipate,%respond%to%and%recover%from%the%impact%of%disasters.%Early%warning%measures%are%important%for%natural%disasters.%Other%measures%are:%risk/vulnerability%assessments,%preparedness%or%contingency%planning,%public%information%/communication%systems,%stockpiling,%and%designated%shelters.$Mitigation$or$Risk$Reduction:%Mitigation%is%the%act%of%reducing%or%eliminating%future%loss%of%life%and/or%property,%and/or%injuries%resulting%from%hazards%through%short%and%longRterm%activities.%Mitigation%strategies%may%range%in%scope%and%size;%however,%no%matter%the%size,%effective%mitigation%activities%have%the%potential%to%reduce%the%vulnerability%and/or%exposure%to%risk%and%impact%of%disasters.%Example%of%mitigation%activities%for%flooding%include%acquiring,%elevating,%or%relocating%structures;%for%seismic%include%building%code,%retrofitting%buildings%or%infrastructure%and%nonRstructurally%retrofitting.%%Mitigation%is%not%only%limited%to%the%beginning%of%a%disaster%cycle,%it%comes%back%again%in%the%recovery%and%reconstruction%process.%%“%The%post%disaster%period%is%an%opportunity%to%upgrade%the%quality%of%construction%to%better%resist%subsequent%events%and%begin%to%think%through%way%to%mitigate%future%damage.%Recovery%process%can%also%used%as%opportunities%to%advance%programs%already%! 74!in%place,%such%as%urban%renewal,%traffic%bottle%necks,%architectural%incompatibilities,%and%nonconforming%uses.%“%(%National%Academy%of%Science,%1999)%$3.2.2$Disaster$resilience$Resilience%is%the%focus%of%a%large%and%growing%body%of%research.%This%work%has%sought%to%understand%what%the%properties%are%that%make%a%country,%community%or%household%resilient,%to%establish%the%principles%and%processes%which%strengthen%resilience%and%to%build%the%evidence%for%what%projects%and%programs%really%make%people%better%able%to%withstand%and%recover%from%disasters.%As%a%result%of%the%research%and%its%applications,%the%term%resilience%has%acquired%a%range%of%definitions.%Three%widely%cited%examples%are%set%out%below.%Appendix%B%shows%the%existing%disaster%resilience%plans.%The%provided%table%has%unfolded%the%existing%disaster%resilience%plans%according%to%disaster%cycle.%%Selected%definitions%of%Disaster%resilience%drawn%from%the%Vulnerability/%hazards%and%disaster%literature.%Table%3.2%Definitions%of%Disaster%Resilience%%Definition:%%%Disaster%Resilience% %%Source%Disaster%Resilience%is%the%ability%of%countries,%communities%and%households%to%manage%change,%by%maintaining%or%transforming%living%standards%in%the%face%of%shocks%or%stresses%R%such%as%earthquakes,%drought%or%violent%conflict%R%without%compromising%their%longRterm%prospects.%%%(DFID,%2011)%“…%System%or%community%resilience%can%be%understood%as:%! capacity%to%absorb%stress%or%destructive%forces%through%resistance%or%adaptation%! capacity%to%manage,%or%maintain%certain%basic%functions%and%structures,%during%disastrous%events%! capacity%to%recover%or%‘bounce%back’%after%an%event%‘Resilience’%is%generally%seen%as%a%broader%concept%than%%%(J.%Twigg,2007)%! 75!‘capacity’%because%it%goes%beyond%the%specific%behaviour,%strategies%and%measures%for%risk%reduction%and%management%that%are%normally%understood%as%capacities.%However,%it%is%difficult%to%separate%the%concepts%clearly.%In%everyday%usage,%‘capacity’%and%‘coping%capacity’%often%mean%the%same%as%‘resilience’.”%%The%most%important%point%to%note%is%that%the%PAR%model%and%the%objective%of%this%chapter%is%to%indicate%that%disasters%are%more%of%a%social%effort%than%natural%hazard.%The%chapter%has%further%analyzed%the%two%case%studies.%%It%must%be%taken%into%consideration%that%disasters%happens%as%a%result%of%natural%hazard%and%social%causes,%the%two%different%causes%being%different%to%each%other.%%The%settlements%of%Korail%and%Halgaha%Kubura%are%vulnerable%to%floods%due%to%poverty,%geographical%set%up,%unplanned%settlements,%lack%of%infrastructure,%and%poor%governmental%effects.%Achieving%resilient%human%settlements%or%disaster%resilience%communities%within%the%broader%context%of%sustainability%should%be%a%central%goal%of%local%community%efforts%in%disaster%resilience%plan.%Indeed,%sustainable%communities%minimize%exposure%to%hazards%and%enhance%resiliency%when%confronted%by%natural%hazard%forces.%To%be%more%resistance%to%regular%monsoon%floods,%the%community%should%be%able%to%achieve%mitigation%construction%in%housing%and%infrastructure,%communities%should%be%prepared%and%they%should%not%be%Vulnerable%to%natural%disaster.%The%communities%should%be%able%to%withstand%the%natural%disaster%and%they%should%have%developed%assets%to%rebuild%their%lives%after%the%natural%disaster.%The%Vulnerability%in%PAR%model%need%to%be%reduced%or%stop%to%protect%people’s%lives%and%should%achieve%strategic%planning%to%disaster%cycle%for%the%community%to%be%ready%to%face%the%disaster,%The%ultimate%goal%of%this%thesis%is%to%develop%a%disaster%resilience%design%guidelines%to%the%case%study%location%for%the%communities%to%withstand%the%natural%disaster%caused%by%climatic%change.%! 76!Chapter$4:$Assessment$of$existing$housing$in$Korail,$Dhaka$$%The%key%achievement%of%this%study%is%to%realize%propitious%lessons%from%examining%how%the%urban%poor%in%Korail%and%Halgaha%Kubura%are%coping%with%conditions%of%increased%vulnerability%of%changing%climatic%conditions%and%extreme%weather%events%such%as%floods%and%heavy%rains%and%also%understanding%how%they%respond%to%such%hazards.%This%includes%how%the%urban%poor%use%physical,%economical%and%social%means%to%reduce%risk%and%losses.%%The%research%focuses%on%local%coping%strategies%observed%in%the%built%environment,%such%as%how%the%houses,%living%spaces,%streets,%open%spaces,%and%infrastructures%are%adapted%to%cope%with%environmental%hazards.%The%transect%map%done%on%Halgaha%Kubura%was%conducted%on%30th%of%January%while%Korail’s%was%carried%out%on%the%6th%of%February%2013.%%In%order%to%experience%the%people’s%life%style%throughout%an%entire%day,%I%started%the%mapping,%in%both%locations,%early%in%the%morning%and%ended%late%in%the%evening.%%In%order%to%provide%a%transect%that%will%comprise%of%useful%information,%in%the%planning%process%I%selected%a%transect%route%that%will%pass%through%a%variety%of%zones%which%boast%different%levels%of%vulnerability.%%In%both%Korail%and%Halgaha%Kubura,%I%started%from%the%main%road,%travelling%through%the%slum%settlement,%and%ended%by%the%water%body.%%I%traveled%by%boat%in%order%to%better%capture%the%realities%of%the%section%of%the%slum%that%is%closest%to%the%water%body%in%Korail.%%While%this%area%of%Halgaha%Kubura,%the%section%closest%to%the%water%body%was%reached%by%travelling%on%foot%along%the%bank%of%the%canal.%Several%different%routes%were%taken%to%have%a%better%understanding%about%its%geographic,%household%clustering,%and%socioeconomic%aspects.%During%the%transect%walk,%I%spent%quite%a%bit%of%time%in%one%location%to%understand%the%life%style%of%the%people.%I%was%always%a%silent%observer%and%listener.%The%first%transect%map%was%done%in%Halgaha%Kubura%and%houses%that%I%had%seen%back%in%2003%have%developed%further%over%the%past%years.%%The%road%in%which%I%started%my%walk%was%paved%and%the%area%of%the%slum,%which%is%adjacent%to%this%road,%which%comprises%of%developed%infrastructure,%is%zoned%as%VR1.%%Initially%I%categorized%the%different%zones%according%to%the%breadth%of%the%roads,%sizes%of%the%drainage%systems,%and%! 77!other%infrastructures%in%them.%%The%VR1%zone%comprised%of%the%widest%roads%and%from%the%point%where%the%roads%got%narrower,%the%VR2%zone%was%categorized.%%Again,%at%the%point%where%the%roads%of%the%VR2%zone%started%to%get%even%narrower,%the%VR3%zone%was%classified.%I%arrived%in%Korail,%by%a%bike%rickshaw,%which%is%home%to%120,000%slum%dwellers%and%the%largest%slum%in%Dhaka.%%As%I%entered%Korail,%I%covered%my%head%with%a%shoal%in%order%to%respect%the%culture%and%religion%of%the%people%who%reside%there.%It%was%a%“Harthal”%day%in%Dhaka.%Harthal%is%the%act%of%closing%shops,%government%offices,%courts%or%suspending%work%due%to%political%unrest.%%Hence,%I%was%fortunate%enough%to%see%most%of%the%slum%dwellers%present%in%the%settlement.%When%I%first%arrived%at%the%settlement%the%people%wanted%to%know%the%reason%for%my%presence%there.%But%as%the%day%progressed%I%was%able%to%blend%in%and%be%less%noticeable.%Hence,%I%was%able%to%move%around%the%slum%and%take%photographs%without%any%interruptions.%Before%noon,%I%was%able%to%take%notes%and%the%measurements%of%a%house%in%the%VR1%zone%that%was%under%construction.%%I%walked%along%narrow%paths%full%of%people;%passing%vibrant%markets,%open%sewers,%and%classrooms.%I%passed%through%the%VR2%zone%to%arrive%at%the%VR3%zone,%where%the%settlement%meets%the%water.%As%I%traveled%to%the%VR4%zone%by%boat,%I%realized%that%the%river%encroachment%is%both%formal%and%informal.%The%formal%encroachments%are%the%city’s%skyscrapers,%which%are%on%the%other%side%of%the%Gulshan%River.%The%informal%is%the%VR4%zone%constructions%by%slum%dwellers.%%In%general,%most%of%the%people%who%live%here%are%Muslims%with%no%formal%education.%The%slum%communities%came%to%the%city%from%different%districts%of%the%country%and%they%migrated%due%to%diverse%socio%economic%and%environmental%reasons%such%as%scarcity%of%land,%river%erosions,%and%climatic%disasters.%!! 78!Level%of%Vulnerability% V11%Low% V12%Moderate% V13%High% V14%Very%High%Water%Level% Low$ Not$high$ High$ $$$$$$$$$$Very$High$Degree%of%Encroachment% $ None$ Partial$ Entire$area$Distance%from%the%main%road% 0.6km.$ 0.9km.$ 1.2km.$Dwellings$are$located$on$the$edges$of$the$GulshanCBannanni$Lake.$1.5km.$Houses$build$over$the$water.$Economical%Value:%Land%Value.% Very$High$ High$ Low$ Very$low,$no$Value$in$official$market.$Building%types%and%height% 2$story$building$with$permanent$construction.$(Concrete$floor$and$walls,$and$tin$roof)$8$rooms$including$sanitary$latrine,$tube$well.$Single$story$building$–$semi$permanent$building$materials.$Single$storyC$Partially$elevated$building$with$temporary$building$materials$for$walls$and$tin$sheets$for$roof.$Single$storyC$on$stills$prone$to$floods$built$with$temporary$or$discarded$materials$Square%area%and%number%of%people%living%in%one%dwelling.%900C1000$sq.ft.$housing$More$than$8$members$in$the$family.$Approximately$5$to$6$rooms$for$rent.$$600C500$sq.$ft$housing$5$members$family$and$4$to$5$rooms$for$rent.$150C200$sq.$ft.$dwellings,$families$with$an$average$of$five$members$Less$than$100$sq.ft$Single$or$newly$married$couple$with$one$or$two$kids.$Table$4.1$–$Clarification$of$VC$zones$in$Korail.$! 79!Figure:(4.1,(Bird(eye(view(of(Korail(slums(and(Gulshan(,Banani(River.(( (Source:((photographed(by(Dr.(Peter(Kim,(ICDDR)Slu m s o f Urb a n  Ba n g la d e sh  : M a p p in g  a n d  Ce n su s, 2 0 0 5K arail B astee (part), Mahakhali, D haka P hotograph by: D r . P eter K im S treatfield, IC D D R ,B9! 80!Figure'4.2'–'Vulnerability'Transect'Map'of'Korail,'Dhaka.' ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!! Source:'(Washim'Akhter,'2013)''Drawn'by'author'(2013)'! 81!4.1$V&1$Zone$$&$Korail,$Dhaka$!Figure!4.3!–!Perspective!view!of!V61!dwelling! !(Source:!Sketched!by!author,!2013)!!!! 82!Table!4.2!Vulnerability!transect!map!V61!zone!4.1.1$$Main$transportation$system$!1.$Location:$Situated!on!a!peninsula!north!of!Mohakhali6Gulshan!Road!in!the!city!of!Dhaka.!The!V61!zone!is!located!on!higher!grounds!in!Gulshan,!Banani!and!Mohakhali,!which!belong!to!the!upper!class!of!society.$The!land!use!patterns!of!Gulshan!and!Banani!are!residential!and!commercial.!Mohakhali!is!predominantly!commercial!with!few!residential!areas.!The!land!use!pattern!has!changed!drastically!due!to!the!high!demand!for!community!and!economic!activities.!Road!layouts!in!this!area!are!of!iron!grid!pattern!and!maintain!the!hierarchy!of!the!zone.$2.$Public$transit$access$points:$The!V61!zone!can!be!accessed!by!many!roads!and!by!water!over!the!Gulshan!Lake.!Most!of!the!V61!zone!is!accessible!by!the!Mohakhali6Gulshan!Road.!$Figure!4.4!–!Main!access!road!to!Korail!slums.!!!!(Source:!photo!by!author!2013)!Since!the!houses!are!located!close!to!the!main!road,!evacuation!is!easy!during!any!disaster!and!inhabitants!have!easy!access!to!the!main!public!services!such!as!hospitals,!donor!agencies.!4.1.2$Security$of$tenure$$1.$Land$ownership:$Homeowners!have!not!achieved!the!ownership!of!the!land,!but!they!have!being!living!in!these!dwelling!for!a!long!period!of!time,!resulting!in!a!very!low!percentage!of!eviction!in!the!zone.!$There!are!three!types!of!complex!tenure!ownerships:!!! 83!Owner6occupiers,!landlords,!and!tenants.!Currently,!many!of!the!inhabitants!in!Korail!are!becoming!owners!of!their!spaces!by!illegally!purchasing!(without!any!legal!documents)!from!their!current!landlords,!who!initially!seized!the!land!unlawfully!as!well.!Their!goal!is!to!build!and!improve!their!dwellings!while!establishing!themselves!as!landowners!in!the!zone.!!2.$Degree$of$Eviction:$Securing!land!tenure!is!the!key!for!building!and!investing!in!permanent!housing!for!the!residents.!!Their!main!goal!is!to!achieve!legal!rights!to!their!land.!!Different!NGO’s!working!in!Korail!are!helping!the!communities!reduce!evictions!by!negotiating!land6sharing!options!with!the!Government.$4.1.3$Source$of$skilled$labour$and$unskilled$labour$Skilled!labourers!are!mostly!utilized!for!construction!work.!The!house!owner!and!family!members!are!always!involved!with!the!construction!efforts!by!providing!general!unskilled!labour.!Figure!4.5!–!Skilled!mason.! !!!!!(Source:!photo!by!author,!2013)!!4.1.4$General$description$ Communities!are!in!higher!grounds!and!are!closer!to!the!main!roads,!and!they!are!the!people!who!moved!to!the!Korail!initially.!!Over!time!and!through!experiences,!they!formulate!a!number!of!measures!to!minimize!the!impact!from!floods,!such!as!avoiding!high!water!level!areas!and!moving!their!houses!to!more!secure!locations.!! 84!!4.1.5!Dwelling!layout2!floor!plans!Figure'4.6:'V-1'dwelling-'Ground'floor'plan''Source:'Measured'and'sketched'by'author,'2013''! 85!Figure'4.7:'V-1'dwelling-'First'floor'plan'''' Source:'(Measured'and'sketched'by'author,'2013)'! 86!!Section! 'Figure'4.8:'V-1'dwelling-'Section'A-A'' Source:'Measured'and'sketched'by'author,'2013'! 87!4.1.6%Building%materials% 1.%Upgraded%building%materials:%The$ground$floor$is$constructed$with$brick$and$concrete.$$Building$materials$used$in$T81$zone$are$brick$and$concrete$and$are$a$relatively$expensive$option$compared$to$other$zones,$but$the$construction$is$more$durable$and$flood$resistant.$The$sub8base$soil$and$layers$of$sand$filling$is$compacted$to$avoid$future$settling$into$the$ground.$%Figure$4.9:$Brick$columns$and$footing.$$$$(Source:$photo$by$author,$2013)$Figure$4.10:$Cement$concrete$flooring$detail.$(Source:$ADPC,$2005.$Chapter$2.$P$4.)$! 88!Figure$4.11$–$V81$dwelling$ $ $ $$$$$ $(Source:$photo$by$author,$2013)$Since$slight$load$is$imposed$by$the$first$floor,$brick$columns$and$footing$are$done$out$of$brick$to$support$the$first$floor.$Figure$4.12$–$First$floor:$wood$and$cement$flooring.$$$$$$$(Source:$photo$by$author,$2013)$$First$Floor;$Wood$and$cement$plaster.$Floors$are$made$of$wood$and$plastered$with$a$cement$water$mixture.$Walls$of$the$upper$floors$are$made$of$corrugated$iron$sheets$(CI$sheet);$CI$sheet$had$been$used$in$all$V$zones$with$timber$framing.$$! 89!4.1.7%Construction%and%design%Details$1.%House%layout:%%The$house$is$built$on$columns,$with$the$first$level$having$been$built$much$higher$than$the$expected$flood,$and$the$ground$level$comprising$of$household$goods$that$are$tolerant$to$floods.$$The$upper$floor$is$accessible$by$stairs.$$%2.%Constriction%of%protective%barriers;%Perimeter%Wall%Figure$4.13$Perimeter$wall$$ Source:$(photographed$by$author,$2013)!$Most$of$the$innovations$that$have$been$realized$to$minimize$the$impact$of$floods$come$from$past$experiences$of$dealing$with$floods.$$For$instance,$they$construct$barriers$at$the$door$front:$Locally$known$as$“dowa8posta”,$a$brick$perimeter$wall$around$the$typical$earthen$plinth$resists$erosion$from$the$sides.$Occupants$living$on$higher$grounds$away$from$the$water’s$edge$would$construct$minimum$five8inch$barriers$at$the$entryways$so$that$water$cannot$come$in.$$$!! 90!3.%Provision%of%Outlet%for%easy%flow%of%flood%water:%%To$minimize$the$water$clogging$inside$the$house,$dwellings$build$outlets$so$water$can$flow$out$easily.$Water$outlets$were$built$inside$the$house,$along$the$exterior$walls,$above$the$plinth$level$to$drain$off$floodwater.$The$most$common$drainage$was$12$cm$–$15$cm$in$diameter.$(Figure$4.14).$The$drain$slopes$down$towards$the$road,$which$prevents$backflow$and$increase$the$rate$of$outflow.$$$ Figure$4.14$Indoor$drainage.$$$$$$$$$$$Source:$(photographed$by$author,$2013$!The$drain$is$leading$to$the$main$access$road$of$the$house,$which$is$a$good$solution$for$the$houses$but$not$for$community$infrastructure.$$Since$all$the$floodwater$can$run$down$to$the$roads.$$$4.%Multiple%floor%levels:%Multiple$floor$levels$gives$more$square$footage$to$the$house$and$during$flooding,$people$could$move$to$upper$floors$with$their$valuable$assets.$People$who$live$in$single$story$houses$! 91!Increase$the$furniture$height$so$that$people$can$protect$valuables$during$the$floods.$%Many$households$increase$the$height$of$the$furniture$at$least$six$to$nine$inches$(two$or$three$bricks)$depending$on$the$location.$To$secure$valuable$belongings$inside$the$house$during$flooding,$the$residents$use$a$rope$over$the$rafter$of$the$roof$to$pull$up$belongings$to$the$ceiling,$well$above$the$water$level.$$The$kitchen$of$the$house$is$always$on$the$ground$floor$and$is$made$with$clay,$brick$and$cement.$$Figure$4.158$Multiple$floor$levels$and$raising$furniture$in$the$house.$$ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$(Source:$photo$by$author,$2013)$$$5.%Use%of%water%resistance%materials:$$Most$people$use$the$open$space$as$a$cooking$space.$House$owner’s$family$and$tenure$families$share$one$cooking$space.$During$flooding,$people$move$the$cooking$utilities$out$of$the$kitchen$but$the$cooking$fireplace$is$made$out$of$clay$and$cement,$which$is$always$resistant$to$! 92!flood$water.$$Figure$4.16:$$water$resistance$cooker$in$shared$Kitchen.$$ $$$$$$$$$(Source:$photo$by$author,$2013)$4.1.8%Social%capital% 1.%Community%Development%Council:%In$the$past,$community$based$development$was$heavily$dependent$on$foreign$aid$donors$and$NGO’s.$$Most$of$the$time$the$donor$projects$failed$due$to$governmental$influence$and$corruption.$%$In$time,$people$and$NGO’s$realized$that$they$were$not$getting$the$funds$to$low8income$community$developments,$but$rather$to$the$government$agents’$pockets.$$As$a$coping$method$they$became$stronger$by$getting$together$with$the$help$of$NGO’s$and$forming$CDC’s.$As$a$result,$like$most$slum$and$shanty$communities$in$developing$countries,$Community$Development$Councils$(CDCs)$were$formed$in$Korail.$At$the$moment$Korail$(V81,$V82,$V83$and$V84)$has$35$CDC’s.$CDCs$serve$as$a$central$authority$and$make$decisions$for$the$community.$$In$Korail,$CDCs$make$decisions$on$the$layout$of$the$sites,$the$lot$sizes,$the$public$spaces,$and$the$level$of$infrastructure.$When$it$! 93!comes$to$financing,$CDC$members$are$involved$in$decisions$regarding$the$amount$of$loans$to$be$approved$for$households$and$may$choose$to$take$responsibility$for$the$construction$of$infrastructure.$CDC’s$have$become$very$strong$community$organizations,$which$have$their$own$saving$systems.$$Saving$seems$to$be$one$of$the$most$important$coping$strategies$in$Korail.$The$community$forms$4$types$of$savings$accounts:$1.%Operational%and%Maintenance:$$money$is$allocated$for$use$during$a$disaster$or$an$unexpected$event:$%2.%Saving%and%Credit%account:$Each$CDC$member$saves$BTK$100$$(1.3$USD)$monthly.%3.%Social%and%Economic:$funding$from$Non8governmental$organizations$and$UNDP$to$improve$livelihood$$4.%Settlement%Improvement:$Funding$from$Non8$Governmental$Oganizations$for$shelter$and$infrastructure$improvement.$This$is$the$most$sustainable$financial$method$for$the$poor$in$achieving$their$economic$objectives.$The$use$of$this$type!of!saving!model!is!more!stable!and!secure!than!depending!on!traditional!methods,!such!as!moneylenders!and!traders.$The$loans$offered$are$at$low$interest$rates$since$the$people$are$unable$to$obtain$a$loan$through$a$bank$or$a$mainstream$financial$institution.$$The$service$is$honour$based$and$is$permanent.$4.1.9%Livelihood% 1.%Rental%income:%Inhabitants$in$the$V$81$zone$generate$the$highest$income$than$the$other$zones.$The$developed$houses$have$between$5$and$7$rooms$including$sanitary$facilities.$$Owners$generate$income$by$leasing$the$houses$to$people$from$other$parts$of$the$country$that$are$in$Dhaka$for$employment.$Rent$for$a$single$person’s$room$is$TK$3000$(US$$38.5)$and$a$room$for$a$family$is$TK$4500$(US$$$57)$a$month.$Landlords$! 94!invest$in$shared$and$individual$latrines.$$Tenants$have$a$248hour$access$to$a$clean$toilet,$and$rent$has$been$raised$modestly$to$cover$the$costs$of$this$service.$%$2.%Home%based%business:%Another$source$of$income$for$homeowners$is$putting$up$businesses$on$the$sides$of$high$traffic$roads.$Self8employment$exists$in$micro$settings$in$the$forms$of$grocery$shops,$tea$stalls,$workshops,$etc.$This$is$the$highest$visible$livelihood$category$in$the$V81$zone.$There$is$a$greater$variation$in$income$earning$between$house$owners$and$tenants.$House$owners$have$a$resilience$income$even$during$and$after$the$floods,$whereas$tenants$are$mostly$engaged$in$labour$such$as$rickshaw$pulling$which$cannot$be$carried$out$during$floods.$% 3. RecyclingQ%Green%Bricks:%%Figure$4.17:$Lady$breaking$bricks$for$livelihood.$$$$$$$(Source:$photo$by$author,$2013)$When$people$build$permanent$houses$another$sources$of$income$is$generated.$The$picture$shows$a$lady$breaking$bricks;$pieces$of$broken$bricks$sell$to$concrete$brick$makers.$These$concrete$bricks$are$stronger$than$mud$bricks$and$can$be$used$to$construct$load8bearing$walls,$which$is$inexpensive$compared$to$reinforced$concrete$columns.$! 95!4.1.10%Drainage% The$drainage$system,$which$is$the$most$important$aspect$in$reducing$flooding$and$water$clogging,$is$the$most$neglected$area$in$Korail$slums.$Depending$on$the$area$and$population$of$the$slum,$the$availability$of$the$drainage$systems$is$very$low.$There$are$few$drains$inside$the$slums$and$mostly$located$near$the$entrance$and$main$gathering$area$of$the$slum$which$is$so$called$the$“bajar”.$$$The$rest$lack$drainage.$$Moreover,$the$quality$of$the$drains$is$generally$poor.$Most$of$them$are$also$very$narrow$which$prevents$garbage$and$wastewater$from$passing$smoothly.$$When$it$rains,$the$wastewater$from$the$drains$flows$out$to$the$roads.$Frequent$occurrences$of$drainage$congestions$and$water$pooling$issues$lead$to$unhygienic$conditions.$Figure$4.18$–$Developed$drainage.$ $$$$$$$$$$$(Source:$photo$by$author,$2013)$When$inhabitants$face$the$impact$for$longer$periods$of$time,$they$have$a$tendency$to$invest$in$roads$and$pathway,$drainage$and$sanitation$systems,$and$improvements$of$open$spaces$all$of$which$can$reduce$the$! 96!impact$of$flooding.$House$owners$have$built$a$few$drains$in$the$V81$zone$with$their$own$money$and$every$week$they$have$these$drains$cleaned$with$self8raised$8$each$house$owner$paying$15820$Taka$per$week.$In$some$cases,$house$owners$clean$the$drains$by$themselves.$There$are$no$instances$where$tenants$give$money$for$the$construction$and$cleaning$of$the$drains.$$%4.1.11%Water%supply$$Five$sources$of$water$exist$in$the$Korail$slum:$1.$kuya$(a$ring$well/a$draw8well)$water,$2.$Water$supplied$by$private$individuals.$$3.tube8well$water$$4.$jhil(a$long$pool$of$water)$5.$Water$points$–$A$water$point$is$a$water$storage$facility$where$water$is$stored$More$than$30$families$will$share$one$water$connection.$Each$installation$consists$of$a$tap$in$a$clean$and$concreted$surrounding$and$a$small$tank$where$the$water$can$be$collected.$Only$2%$of$the$slum$dwellers$have$access$to$the$water$and$sewerage$connection$facilities$provided$by$Dhaka$Water$Supply$and$Sewerage$Authority$(DWASA).$9$$$$$$$!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!9!The!DWASA!Ordinance!of!1963!laid!down!the!foundation!for!DWASA.!With!the!last!amendments!of!1996,!it!is!now!functionally!responsible!for!building,!operating,!and!maintaining!the!necessary!infrastructures!for!the!proper!supply!of!water,!for!treatment!and!safe!disposal!of!sewerage!and!for!removing!water!logging!from!the!city.!(WEDC,!Loughborough!University,!2007)!P:!12 !! 97!Figure$4.19$–$a$shared$water$point.$$ $$$$$$$$$$(Source:$photo$by$author,$2013)$When$the$homeowners$obtain$the$legal$rights$to$their$land$they$try$to$invest$money$to$have$the$basic$services$attached$to$their$house.$The$picture$is$of$the$V81$zone$where$the$dwelling$built$an$underground$water$tank.$So$during$times$of$flooding$water$will$not$get$contaminated$as$much$as$the$other$water$systems$in$the$community.$$Figure$4.20$–$Underground$water$tank.$ $$$$$$ $$$$(Source:$Photo$by$author,$2013)$! 98!4.1.12%Sanitation$ The$sanitation$systems$in$Korail$are$made$up$of$waterborne$systems,$sanitary$latrines,$and$direct$disposal$of$waste$on$open$fields,$pit$latrines$and$safety$tanks.$Most$of$the$homeowners$in$the$V81$zone$have$invested$money$to$build$their$own$pit$latrines.$These$are$partially$hygienic$and$may$cause$ground$water$contamination$depending$on$the$soil$characteristics$and$distance$between$the$water$sources$and$latrines.$However,$no$proper$hygienic$latrines,$such$as$water$sealed$latrines,$exist$in$any$of$the$V8$zones$observed.$Figure$4.21:$A$simple$pit$latrine$$ (Source:$Harvey$et$al,$2002)$$$! 99!4.1.13%Garbage%collection$Figure$4.22:$Garbage$collection.$ $$$$$$$ $$$$$(Source:$photo$by$author,$2013)$The$figure$4.22$shows$another$common$situation$in$the$narrow$lanes$and$alleys$of$V81$zone.$Stinking,$overflowing,$open$garbage$bicycles$collect$all$types$of$garbage$8$fish$guts,$plastic,$vegetable$rinds,$or$broken$glasses$8$from$the$households.$This$service$is$provided$by$the$Dhaka$city$council$and$the$garbage$collector$only$goes$to$the$particular$areas$where$the$city$is$assigned$to$collect$garbage.$$!!!!!!!!!!!! 100!!!4.2%VQ2%Zone%–%Korail.%%%%%% Figure$4.23:$Perspective$of$V82$zone.$Source:$Sketched$by$author.$%! 101!4.2.1%%Main%transport%system$1.% Public% transit% access% points:% The$ bicycle$ is$ the$ only$ mode$ of$transportation$ that$ can$ operate$ in$ the$ narrow$ roads.$ The$ bicycle$ has$been$modified$drastically$to$use$for$transportation$of$various$different$cargo$and$people$$(i.e.$the$rickshaws).$$Figure$4.248$Transporting$goods.$(Cargo)$ $$$$$(Source:$photo$by$author,$2013)$Figure$4.258$Livelihood:$Sugar$cane$juice$is$obtained$by$crushing$peeled$sugar$cane$in$a$hand$mill$fixed$the$bicycle.$ $$(Source:$photo$by$author,$2013)$$$$%2.%Lane%condition:%Streets$are$not$just$for$pedestrian$or$vehicular$use,$! 102!but$also$preferred$for$social,$economic,$and$domestic$uses.$All$manners$of$ activities$ are$ conducted$ along$ the$ major$ streets.$ In$ these$ very$narrow$ alleyways$ there$ are$ hundreds$ of$ shops$ and$ businesses$operating.$$%Figure$4.268$ it’s$a$barber’s$ shop$or$a$ tailor’s,$a$general$merchant$or$a$medicine$store.$$ $$$$$$$$$$ $(Source:$photo$by$author,$2013).$Often,$there$is$more$than$one$business$being$operated$under$one$roof.$Some$of$the$larger$shops$provide$a$social$gathering$place$where$the$people$can$enjoy$watching$television,$movies,$listening$to$music$and$engage$in$socializing.$! 103!4.2.2%Security%of%tenure%$1.%Land%ownership:%Tenure$rights$are$not$as$safe$as$the$V81$zone;$communities$face$the$possibility$of$eviction.$$The$government$tries$to$relocate$people$through$the$application$of$law.$$%2.%Degree%of%Eviction:%Dwellers,$especially$the$renters,$in$the$V84$zone$have$a$tendency$to$move$to$V81$and$V82$zone$by$buying$possessions$from$the$older$inhabitants.$As$a$result$of$low$percentage$of$evictions,$communities$attempt$to$build$permanent$housing$but$most$of$the$households$only$take$few$preventive$measures$for$regular$floods.$%%Coping%strategies%%%4.2.3%Source%of%skilled%labour%and%unskilled%labour$$Local$carpenters$and$masons$contributed$labour$to$build$the$houses$and$house$owners$provided$unskilled$labour.$Most$skilled$labourers$have$years$of$working$experiences$building$houses,$they$have$never$been$to$school$but$have$learnt$by$doing.$%4.2.4%General%description$%%%%%%%$$The$illegal$ownership$makes$it$impossible$to$establish$any$infrastructure$and$permanent$housing$in$the$V82$zone.$There$is$an$illegal$electric$and$water$supply$system$in$the$site,$which$does$not$fulfill$the$needs$of$the$dwellers.$The$zone$does$not$comprise$of$any$kind$of$a$gas$supply$system.$Poor$sanitation$facilities$and$the$lack$of$a$clean$water$supply$system$cause$the$majority$of$the$residents$to$suffer$from$a$combination$of$diarrhea,$cholera$and$skin$diseases.$! 104!4.2.5%Dwelling%layout2%floor%plans%and%section!Figure!4.27!–!Ground!floor!plan!of!V62!dwelling.!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Source:!Redrawn!by!author!(2013);!Environment!and!Urbanization!(2010).!!!!! 105!Figure!4.286!Ground!floor!plan!of!V62!dwelling.!Section!A6A!Source:!Redrawn!by!author!(2013);!Environment!and!Urbanization!(2010).!!!!! 106!4.2.6%Building%materials! 1.%Upgraded%building%materials:%This!is!most!advantageous!when!the!base!of!the!house!becomes!weakened!due!to!damages!from!floodwater.!!The!longevity!of!the!bamboo!sections!is!enhanced!through!the!application!of!chemical!preservatives,!which!preserves!the!bamboo’s!strength.!!Galvanized!wires!are!used,!instead!of!coir!or!nylon!ropes,!to!tie!the!parts!of!the!frame.!!%Figure!4.!29!–!Use!of!glvanized!wires.! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!(Source:!photo!by!author,!2013)!2.%Application%of%techniques%from%rural%areas%to%urbun%areas:%Most!households!use!some!form!of!false!ceiling!materials!or!canopies!made!out!of!cloth.!This!is!a!popular!practice!in!rural!areas!that!have!been!applied!to!urban!shelters.!As!adaptive!methods!against!wind,!water!and!heat,!inhabitants!shade!their!roofs!with!creepers,!and!stock!up!assets!for!use!in!crisis!times.!!The!use!of!different!insulating!materials!reduces!the!heat!transfer!from!corrugated!iron!sheets!of!the!roof!and!partitions.!People!use!various!kinds!of!recycled!materials!like!paper,!Styrofoam,!packing!boxes,!cement!bags!bamboo!mats!and!old!clothes!for!insulation.!!! 107!Figure!4.!30!–!Use!of!canopies!made!out!of!cloths.! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!(Source:!photo!by!author,!2013)!4.2.7%Construction%and%design%Details!1.%House%layout:%%Most!of!the!houses!in!the!VP2!zone!are!arranged!in!a!courtyardP!type!pattern,!adjoining!rooms!facing!a!narrow!passagePlike!shaded!courtyard.!Typically!one!household!would!occupy!a!single!room!whereas!betterPoff!households!would!use!two!rooms.!To!reduce!the!heat!in!the!rooms!creepers!are!grown!in!the!courtyards!to!cover!the!roofs.!%2.%Constriction%of%protective%barriers%(Plinth):%% Figure!4.31!–!Raised!Plinth!%%%%(Source:!photo!by!author,!2013)!%! 108!Households!in!the!VP2!zone!are!constructed!on!raised!grounds!or!higher!plinths!where!the!water!cannot!reach!during!normal!floods.!The!raised!plinth!made!from!brick,!sand,!clay!and!cement!is!slightly!sloping!toward!the!adjoining!courtyard!to!drain!clogged!floodwater!in!the!house.!The!materials!are!strong!and!high!enough!to!last!through!repeated!floods.!!3.%Use%of%Open%spaces:%%Household!activities!are!often!held!outdoors!during!frequent!power!shortages.%Figure!4.32!–!Adaptive!methods! !!!!!!!!!!(Source:!photo!by!author,!2013)!4.%Building%techniques%ICross%Bracing:!!In!order!to!increase!the!strength!and!stability!of!the!structural!frame!of!houses!that!are!constructed!out!of!bamboo,!cross!bracing!is!utilized!with!split!bamboo!sections.!!When!the!house!weakens!at!its!base!due!to!flood!and!water!clogging,!steel!cross!bracing!supports!the!structure!to!be!stable.!!!!! 109!Figure!4.33!–!Cross!Bracing! !!!!!!!!!!!(Source:!photo!by!author,!2013)!!! 110!4.2.8%Social%capital! 1.%Community%Participation:%Finding!skilled!labor!within!the!community!is!another!adaptation!strategy!in!Korail.!Most!skilled!laborers!have!years!of!working!experiences,!These!workers!are!very!well!known!in!the!community!and!people!rely!on!them!when!they!are!needed,!and!are!fully!capable!of!the!entire!construction!process.!!Since!these!people!have!lived!in!the!settlement!for!decades!they!have!achieved!a!profound!knowledge!and!understanding!regarding!the!construction!of!flood!resistant!buildings.!!!%Due!to!spending!greater!amount!of!time!outside!and!sharing!common!amenities,!there!is!a!strong!bond!among!different!households.!!Households!which!rent!out!rooms!also!act!as!guardians!for!their!tenants.!People!tend!to!be!selfPsufficient,!while!sharing!with!neighbours.!The!older!generations!have!the!knowledge!of!predicting!floods!than!!the!younger!generations,!as!the!rainy!season!starts!they!have!a!habit!of!storing!food.!!4.2.9%Livelihood! 1.%Illegal%income%generation:%Acquiring!water!illegally!provides!a!good!source!of!income!for!the!"water!businessmen".!They!set!up!the!illegal!connections!and!charge!a!family!around!Bangladesh!Taka!120P150!!(USD!1.5!–!1.9)!per!month.!In!order!to!keep!on!running!the!illegal!connections,!the!"water!businessmen"!bribe!officials!working!for!the!Dhaka!Water!Supply!and!Sewerage!Authority!(Wasa).!!!!!!! 111!Figure!4.!34P!Purchasing!water!from!an!illegal!connection.!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Source:!(photographed!by!author,!2013)!!!2.%Road%based%business:%I!observed!women!and!children!selling!vegetables!and!dried!fish!in!very!small!portions!in!narrow!roads!of!the!slum.!!! 112!4.2.10%Drainage! Streets!turn!into!rivers!after!just!one!hour!of!rain!and!rainwater!gets!stagnated!inside!the!neighbourhood.!!Figure!4.35!–!Monsoon!floods.! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!(Source:!photo!by!author,!2013)!!Even!though!few!water!drainage!lines!exist!in!the!VP2!zone,!lack!of!maintenance!and!interest!of!the!people!leads!to!drains!collecting!garbage.!!Figure!4.36P!Drainage!covered!with!garbage.!!!!!!!!(Source:!photo!by!author,!2013)!!! 113!4.2.11%Water%supply% Lack!of!basic!services!such!as!water!forces!people!to!move!towards!illegal!methods.!!Figure!4.37!–!unconnected!Water!pipes.!!!!!!!!(Source:!photo!by!author,!2013)!The!water!runs!through!a!twoPcentimeter!thick!pipe!that!curls!through!the!labyrinthine!and!dirty!slum!paths.!At!certain!points!the!pipe!is!broken!and!people!tape!the!broken!pipes.!Some!of!the!pipelines!have!ended!at!street!corners!without!reaching!individual!houses.!In!some!cases!the!freshPwater!pipes!and!wastewater!pipes!ran!next!to!each!other!or!on!top!of!one!another,!and!were!clearly!leaking.!!Some!households!had!tried!to!repair!them!by!simply!wrapping!them!in!plastic!tape!or!tying!them!with!rope.!Bacteria!can!grow!easily!at!such!locations,!also!because!water!in!the!above!ground!plastic!pipe!gets!warm!quickly.!Diarrhea,!a!common!killer!of!newborns!and!infants,!is!a!very!common!disease!in!this!area,!mostly!because!of!the!unhygienic!sanitation!system.!! 114!4.2.12%Sanitation! The!common!toilet!facilities!are!available!for!people!but!the!illegal!ownership!of!them!makes!it!impossible!to!establish!any!infrastructure!for!resources.!People!are!also!afraid!to!invest!money!for!common!facilities.!Considering!the!water!facilities!are!at!or!near!the!latrines!and!the!overall!hygienic!condition!of!the!latrines,!the!situation!is!very!disappointing.!No!slum!has!separate!sanitation!locks!for!male!and!female!users.!So!the!sanitation!facilities!of!the!Korail!slum!are!not!sufficient.!Figure!4.38:!community!pit!latering.! !!!!!!!!(Source:!photo!by!author,!2013)!4.2.13%Garbage%collection!Specific!locations!for!garbage!dumping!is!not!present!in!the!VP2!zone!and!no!proper!services!are!available.!They!do!not!get!any!services!from!the!government!for!collecting!garbage.!!People!have!not!yet!grown!a!proper!awareness!about!keeping!the!common!facilities!clean.!Often!they!do!not!store!the!waste!till!they!find!a!proper!place!for!disposal.!As!the!land!ownership!and!investment!for!the!houses!increase,!people!try!to!keep!their!dwellings!and!courtyards!clean.!The!lack!of!awareness!and!lack!of!services!have!worsened!the!condition.!! 115!!!!!!4.3%VI3%ZONE%% Figure!4.39:!perspective!view!of!VP3!zone!dwellings.!%%(Source:!sketched!by!author,!2013.)!!!!!!! 116!!!4.3.1%Main%transportation%system%1.%Location:%The!poor!often!build!on!leftover!land!located!on!floodplains!alongside!the!river!in!the!VP3!zone.!%The!poor!usually!inhabit!informal!settlements!at!the!most!hazardous!locations!in!the!city,!and!thus!are!at!the!highest!risk!when!a!disaster!or!a!climatic!event!occurs.!!They!are!equipped!with!sand!bags,!raised!platforms!and!are!near!water’s!edge!built!on!stilts.!These!communities!are!living!close!to!garbage!dumps!and!encroached!areas,!which!are!vulnerable!to!landslides.!2.%Public%transit%access%points:!The!VP3!zone!can!be!accessed!through!the!main!road!as!well!as!from!Gulshan!P!Banani!Lake.!Street!patterns!are!very!chaotic!and!disorganized;!there!is!very!little!connection!with!the!surrounding!major!roads!and!people!prefer!to!use!Gulshan!P!Banani!Lake!for!transportation.!!Figure!4.40!–!VP3!zone,!encroached!riverbank.! !!!!!!!!!!(Source:!photo!by!author,!2013)!!! 117!3.%Lane%condition:!The!dwellings!are!laid!out!in!very!irregular!patterns!and!have!no!proper!orientation.!!The!narrow!lanes!to!the!slum!were!made!of!brick!and!mud,!which!become!slippery!during!the!rainy!season.!!The!lanes!in!the!VP3!zone!are!not!wider!than!1!to!2!meters,!and!they!certainly!do!not!cater!to!the!traffic!volume!in!the!zone.!!Adjacent!houses!utilize!small!open!areas!leftover!from!unplanned!developments.!!For!children,!the!gullies!double!up!as!play!areas,!where!they!practice!cricket!regularly.!Figure!4.41P!alleyway!!!!!!!!!!!(Source:!photo!by!author,!2013)!!Gaps!between!houses!vary!from!house!to!house!and!the!minimum!gap!is!a!single!CI!sheet!wall!and!maximum!is!about!2!meters.!There!is!hardly!any!open!space!in!the!site,!as!existing!housing!structures!are!very!compact!and!lack!vegetation.!4.3.2%Security%of%tenure:%!1.%Land%ownership:!Most!of!the!occupants!in!VP3!zone!are!renters.!The!high!demand!for!the!rental!properties!encourages!improvement!of!the!housing!units!instead!of!public!infrastructures.!These!areas!! 118!have!few!and!lowPquality!services,!and!rents!offered!are!at!high!prices!through!a!politically!strong!man,!muscleman!(mastaans).!Effectively!and!conveniently!positioned!between!huge!demand!and!supply!of!basic!services.!The!middlemen!or!the!owners!of!these!houses!are!always!willing!to!encroach!the!river!to!build!more!rental!properties,!to!earn!the!highest!possible!return!for!their!investment.!!!2.%Degree%of%Eviction:%Occupancy!and!Tenure!rights!are!highly!insecure!for!slum!dwellers!in!the!VP3!zone.!Through!a!long!history!of!illegal!captures!and!purchases,!the!land!is!now!unlawfully!owned!by!most!of!the!dwellers.!!As!a!result!of!this!illegitimate!cycle!of!transfer!of!ownership,!they!live!under!constant!fear!of!eviction.%Coping%Strategies.%4.3.3%Source%of%labour.% !Unskilled!Labour.!4.3.4%General%description.%%%%%%%%%%%!Most!of!the!dwellers!in!the!VP3!zone!are!migrants!from!other!parts!of!the!country,!who!are!either!living!alone!to!fulfill!the!economic!needs!of!their!family!members!or!young!families!who!moved!to!Dhaka!seeking!a!better!future!for!their!next!generation.!!People!in!the!VP3!zone!are!more!vulnerable!to!floods.!!The!life!of!these!slum!dwellers!is!extremely!hard,!but!many!have!no!choice!but!to!relocate!to!the!city!seeking!better!livelihoods.!Choosing!a!safe!location!to!avoid!danger!is!not!an!option!for!most!of!the!squatter’s!dwellers,!as!the!option!of!building!new!rooms!are!now!only!possible!through!encroachment!of!water!edges!that!are!susceptible!to!flooding.!Informal!settlements!are!thus!deprived!of!support!and!services!from!the!public!and!nonP!public!sectors.!Some!support!comes!from!NGOs,!but!these!agencies!not!willing!to!allocate!money!the!zone!faces!eviction!all!the!time.!! 119!4.3.5%Dwelling%layout2%floor%plans%and%section!Figure!4.42:!Floor!Plan!of!a!V33!dwelling.!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Source:!modified!and!sketched!by!author!(2013);!Environment!and!Urbanization!(2010).!!!! 120!Figure!4.43!–!Section!A3A!of!a!V33!dwelling.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Source:!modified!and!sketched!by!author!(2013);!Environment!and!Urbanization!(2010).!!! !! 121!4.3.6%Building%materials.!The!temporary!houses!with!CI!roofs!are!constructed!on!garbage!filled!land.!Initially!people!encroached!the!canal!by!dumping!garbage,!and!then!used!tree!logs!as!pillars!to!hold!sand!bags.!The!individual!homes!or!the!whole!neighbourhood!is!constructed!on!the!raised!ground!above!the!water!level.!!The!floor!consists!of!simple!compact!dirt!or!cement!over!a!brick!base.!Doors!and!windows!are!made!out!of!CI!sheets.!!Figure!4.44:!Dwelling!in!VB3!zone.!(Source:!photo!by!author,!2013)!The!durability!of!the!house!against!a!disaster!depends!on!the!income.!Locally!available!materials!command!the!nature!and!design!of!the!house.!This!statement!evidences!the!houses!in!VB3!zone.!The!houses!are!constructed!with!locally!available!recycle!materials.!!Understanding!and!using!local!knowledge!is!critical!for!a!successful!design!and!to!withstand!regular!monsoon!floods.!!!! 122!4.3.7%Construction%and%design%Details!1.%House%layout:!The!houses!in!the!VB3!zone!are!typically!one!story!and!on!average!contain!only!2!rooms!(a!living!room!and!a!bedroom)!with!the!kitchen!located!outside.!While!the!houses!are!built!on!ground!along!the!bank!of!the!GulshanBBanani!lake,!the!ground!floors!are!elevated!on!stilts!to!provide!some!protection!from!minor!flooding.!!2.%Constriction%of%protective%barriers:!The!use!of!sandbags!was!meant!to!prevent!erosion.!This!strategy!however!was!not!suitable!for!resisting!storm!water!from!heavy!rainfalls,!because!the!sandbags!and!tree!logs!were!always!washed!away.!In!the!VB3!zone,!protective!barriers!are!constructed!out!of!sand!bags.!These!sandbags!act!as!temporary!dykes!or!trenches!to!divert!water!away!from!the!house.!Figure!4.45B!Dykes!made!out!of!sand!bags.! !!!!!!!!!!(Source:!photo!by!author,!2013)!4.%Multiple%floor/furniture%levels:%During!the!initial!stages!of!flooding!the!furniture!provides!a!sleeping!space!for!small!children!until!they!are!eventually!moved!to!unaffected!locations.!Movable!cookers!are!used!for!food!preparation!on!higher!ground.!!Blocks!and!stones!increase!the!! 123!height!of!the!furniture!to!create!high!places!on!which!to!put!their!most!important!valuables!during!the!floods.!During!house!construction!spaces!are!made!between!rafters!and!roofing!material!for!storage.!%!Figure!4.46B!Storage!space!between!wood!rafters!and!CI!sheet.!!!!!!!!!!!(Source:!photo!by!author,!2013).!4. Relocation:%During!any!disaster,!moving!to!safer!areas!is!not!a!preferred!option!as!moving!means!losing!assets!(since!the!occupant!do!not!have!the!legal!right!to!the!land),!social!and!livelihood!networks,!and!also!possibly!losing!the!right!to!live!in!the!area.!!!4.3.8%Social%capital! 1.%Social%Network%among%the%friends%and%family:%%Strong!links!exists!between!family!and!friends.!With!limited!financial!and!physical!assets,!social!networks!and!relationships!play!a!crucial!role!in!reducing!vulnerabilities!in!the!VB3!zone.!!%The!typical!living!arrangement!in!this!slum!is!10B15!families!sharing!common!cooking,!water!supply,!and!sanitary!facilities.!!Most!of!the!households!move!close!to!their!extended!family!or!people!from!the!same!village!or!district.!! 124!2.%CommunityJmanaged%savings%groups:!Since!most!of!the!dwellers!are!renters!in!this!zone,!they!are!not!eligible!to!become!members!of!CDC’s.!As!a!result!they!formed!their!own!CommunityBmanaged!savings!groups.!%4.3.9%Livelihood!%%1.Providing%labour:%Children!and!women!also!play!an!important!role!in!contributing!to!the!household!income!by!engaging!in!general!labour!such!as!domestic!work.!!%These!households!provide!maids,!drivers,!caretakers,!garments!workers,!and!retail!store!helpers!to!the!community!of!Dhaka.!They!are!an!important!part!of!the!surrounding!area!and!city!as!a!whole.!1. Begging:!!Begging!is!a!popular!livelihood!for!children.!For!many!children!this!involves!long!hours!of!labour,!spending!hours!on!the!streets.!2. Waste!pickers:!Waste!picking!is!a!common!livelihood!in!the!VB3!zone.!Waste!pickers!in!Korail!collect!valuable!waste!from!piles!of!garbage!dumped!along!the!riverbank;!communal!street!dumps,!and!from!municipal!authority!skips!and!landfill!sites.!They!collect!paper,!plastics,!glass,!bones!and!metals.!!Some!collect!fuel!for!cooking,!while!some!even!collect!food!for!themselves.!Pickers!sell!their!valuable!waste!to!dealers!situated!inside!the!Korail!slums!or!to!second!hand!waste!collecting!agencies.!Most!people!start!working!early!in!the!morning!and!some!continue!throughout!the!day.!These!waste!pickers!play!a!critical!role!in!reducing!flooding;!they!collect!garbage!from!the!drainage!lines!and!alone!the!Gulshan!banana!river,!which!reduces!the!drainage!blocking.!!4.3.10%Drainage! Informal!settlements!often!lack!basic!infrastructure!of!paved!roads!or!adequate!drainage!and!thus!are!more!susceptible!to!flooding.!!As!a!result,!in!most!areas!the!streets!and!natural!drainage!systems!are!! 125!strewn!with!waste,!skips!for!transporting!waste!to!landfill!sites!are!overflowing!and!drains!(sewers)!are!blocked!by!discarded!plastic.!! Figure!4.!47!–!View!of!Gulshan!Banani!river!from!the!VB3!zone.!! !!!!Source:!(photographed!by!author,!2013)! !!4.3.11%Water%supply%For!water,!the!slum!dwellers!illegally!tap!into!the!public!water!lines!and!then!run!a!series!of!hoses!throughout!the!slum!to!deliver!water!to!various!parts.!!The!water!is!contaminated!and!toxic,!but!it!is!their!only!option!for!drinking!water.!Drinking!water!is!rarely!treated,!but!when!it!is,!boiling!is!the!preferred!method.!There!is!no!gas!stove!in!the!compound!B!families!must!use!charcoal!to!cook!and!boil!water.!To!bath!and!wash!clothes!people!use!the!Gulshan!B!Banani!Lake.!4.3.12%Sanitation! The!observed!compound’s!toilet!is!broken.!People!share!the!“hanging!latrine,”!which!is!a!wooden!platform!suspended!over!water!flowing!into!the!lake.!These!are!quite!common!in!Korail,!considering!the!community!is!surrounded!by!water.!In!the!absence!of!sanitary!latrines,!human!waste!! 126!and!household!waste!find!its!way!into!the!surface!water!bodies.!%4.3.13%Garbage%collection!!Garbage!can!be!seen!everywhere!in!the!VB3!zone,!on!the!roads,!around!the!houses,!and!by!the!rivers!and!lakes.!Unlike!the!VB1!zone!there!is!no!garbage!collection!in!the!VB3!zone.!Eventually,!the!garbage!and!sandbags!that!people!lay!in!the!ground!become!dykes,!which!reduce!the!floodwaters!from!inland.! !Figure!4.!48!–!Garbage!dumping.! !!!!!!!!!!!Source:!(photographed!by!author,!2013).!People!are!used!to!dumping!the!garbage!along!the!Gulshan!B!Banani!river!and!by!the!main!roads.!!This!results!in!encroachment!of!the!lake.!Eventually!the!garbage!dumping!becomes!a!solid!land!where!people!start!building!temporary!shelters.!The!lake!is!polluted!by!the!dumped!garbage!and!from!the!sewage!being!directed!to!it.!!%%! 127!%4.4%VJ4%ZONE%%%Figure!4.49:!perspective!view!of!VB4!zone!dwellings.!%% Source:!sketch!by!author,!2013!!!! 128!Table!4.5:!Vulnerability!Transect!Map!VB4!Korail!!4.4.1%Main%transportation%system%1.%Public%transit%access%points:%%The!most!common!mode!of!transportation!for!people!in!the!VB4!zone!is!the!Local!boat!transport!on!the!river.!The!inhabitants!have!set!up!full!formal!transportation!networks!of!boats!to!ferry!people!to!and!from!their!jobs.!4.4.2%Security%of%tenure%!1.%Land%ownership:%%Every!day!people!relocate!to!this!Hazard!zone!because!it!is!the!most!affordable!and!convenient!place!for!these!migrants.!Migrants!normally!end!up!in!illegal!settlements!on!precarious!land!with!major!environmental!problems.!2.%Degree%of%Eviction:%Dwellers!in!the!VB4!zone!are!willing!to!live!in!unsafe!and!unsanitary!conditions!due!to!the!continuous!threat!of!evictions,!incidences!of!fires,!unemployment,!malnutrition,!disease,!polluted!water!clogging,!lack!of!safe!water!supply,!sanitation!facilities,!and!harassment!from!the!local!musclemen.!4.4.3%Skilled/%unskilled%labour.!Bamboo!construction!is!a!typical!house!construction!method!used!in!the!rural!parts!of!Bangladesh.!So!migrants!possess!the!knowledge!of!construction!prior!to!moving!to!the!city.!4.4.4%General%description%%%%%%%%%!The!wet!season!in!Dhaka!lasts!from!May!to!August!and!is!characterized!by!extensive!flooding,!high!humidity,!and!high!temperatures.!!The!vulnerability!of!living!conditions!increases!during!this!season!in!the!VB4!zone!due!to!the!location!of!the!housing.!!The!monthly!income!level!of!the!inhabitants!living!in!this!area!is!very!low.!The!majority!of!the!poor’s!income!is!spent!on!food!and!accommodations.!As!a!result!they!are!not!able!to!develop!their!dwellings.!Since!most!of!the!occupants!are!from!outside!of!Dhaka!and!are!temporary!accommodators,!they!are!not!willing!to!improve!the!living!condition!of!the!houses.!The!most!houses!have!developed!to!protect!their!assets!from!floods!and!other!hazards.!! 129!4.2.5%DWELLING%LAYOUT2%FLOOR%PLANS%AND%SECTION!Figure!4.50:!Floor!plan!V34!dwelling.! !!!!!!!!!!Source:!modified!and!sketched!by!author,!2013.!Environment!and!Urbanization!(2010).!!!!! 130!% Figure!4.51!Section!A3A!V34!dwelling.!Source:!modified!and!sketched!by!author!(2013);!Environment!and!Urbanization!(2010).!!!!! 131!!4.4.6!Building!materials!!Houses!in!the!V,4!zone!are!usually!built!on!stilts.!Typically!such!houses!are!raised!on!bamboo!or!timber!stilts!and!have!a!floor!made!of!split!bamboo!sections!or!timber!planks,!which!are!known!as!“Jhupri”.!!Construction!method:!First!they!had!to!build!a!scaffold!from!which!to!put!the!pillars!into!the!mud.!Afterwards,!to!ensure!the!strength!of!the!structure,!the!pillars!were!linked!by!crossbars!and!a!bamboo!platform!was!set!on!top!of!it.!Finally!a!roof!with!both!bamboo!and!plastic!layers!was!made!and!a!small!fence!put!up.!Keeping!a!small!door!large!enough!for!a!person!to!pass!through,!bamboo!and!CI!sheet!walls!started!to!rest!on!four!columns.!!Since!the!walls!(panels)!and!structure!of!the!house!are!pre,fabricated,!the!traditional!technique!using!bamboo!enables!houses!to!be!completed!in!just!two!weeks.!Bamboo!houses!can!last!several!years!if!properly!maintained.!!Bamboo!possesses!a!high!moisture!content,!which!is!influenced!by!its!age,!season!of!felling!and!species.!Moisture!is!at!its!lowest!in!the!dry!season!and!at!its!maximum!during!the!monsoon!season.!A!higher!content!of!parenchyma!cells!increases!the!water!holding!capacity.!Unlike!wood,!bamboo!starts!shrinking!above!the!fibre!saturation!point.!The!shrinkage!is!in!girth!as!well!as!in!wall!thickness!and!is!higher!than!in!wood.!Because!of!the!differences!in!anatomical!structure!and!density,!there!is!a!large!variation!in!tangential!shrinkage!from!the!interior!to!the!outer,most!portion!of!the!wall.!This!leads!to!drying!defects,!such!as!collapsing!and!splitting,!and!affects!the!behaviour!of!bamboo!during!pressure!treatment.!(BAMBOO,!PEOPLE!AND!THE!ENVIRONMENT,!Proceedings!of!the!5th!International!Bamboo!Workshop!and!the!IV!! 132!International!Bamboo!Congress!Ubud,!Bali,!Indonesia,!l9,22!June!1995)!4.4.7!Construction!and!design!details!1.!House!layout:!The!still!houses!in!the!V,4!zone!have!evolved!to!cope!with!the!extreme!conditions!of!monsoon!flooding.!A!platform!over!bamboo!and!recycled!wooden!posts!provides!the!necessary!space!to!build!a!single!room!house.!The!house!provides!necessary!protection!from!rising!water!levels.!!The!techniques!used!in!the!joints!where!the!partitions!connect!to!the!roof!and!the!floor!enhances!ventilation!as!shown!in!detailed!drawings.!The!stilt!houses!also!have!the!options!of!incremental!expansion!and!repair!following!any!disaster.!2.!Provision!of!Outlet:!!Other!measures!include!making!outlets!to!get!the!floodwater!out!of!the!house.!The!gaps!between!bamboo!floorings!allows!the!floodwater!to!runback!to!the!river!when!the!flood!water!level!drops!down.!These!stilt!houses!have!better!ventilation!and!experience!reduced!heat!compared!to!the!houses!inland.!3.!Multiple!floor!levels:!People!consider!the!flood!level!before!putting!up!the!floor!of!the!house.!The!wooden!planks!in!the!floor!are!preferred!as!they!face!fewer!problems!from!water!logging!after!heavy!rainfall.!The!stilts!have!the!flexibility!to!increase!in!height!depending!on!the!water!level!every!time!they!are!rebuilt.!!Due!to!the!lack!of!building!spaces,!people!have!chosen!to!go!vertically.!!4.!!Boat:!The!livelihood!of!some!of!these!residents!is!transporting!people!across!the!lake!by!boats.!!Since!the!boats!are!readily!accessible!via!a!ladder!in!the!back!of!the!house,!during!floods!this!mode!of!transportation!becomes!highly!valuable!for!the!residents!to!evict!the!! 133!houses.!5.!!Floating!agriculture:!In!the!rural!areas!where!these!residents!come!from,!they!are!used!to!carrying!out!agricultural!activities!on!floating!structures.!!Hence!in!order!to!be!self,sufficient!and!have!food!available!during!flooding,!the!settlers!practice!their!agricultural!activities!on!floating!structures!in!Korail.!Some!temporary!measures!were!also!taken,!such!as!building!higher!barriers!at!the!doors,!developing!alternate!means!of!access,!building!higher!stilts!inside!the!rooms,!and!community!initiatives!to!clean!drainage!and!move!the!most!affected!families!to!safer!spaces!within!the!neighbourhood.!Informal!settlements!often!lack!the!basic!infrastructure!of!paved!roads!or!adequate!drainage!and!thus!are!more!susceptible!to!flooding.!Lack!of!open!spaces!and!little!green!areas!mean!that!informal!settlements!may!suffer!from!higher!temperatures.!!!4.4.8!Social!capital! 1.!Social!Network!among!the!friends!and!family:!Social!capital!is!vital!in!the!V,4!zone;!friends!and!families!play!a!vital!role!in!coping!with!disasters.!!The!V,4!zone!doesn’t!have!any!access!to!the!formal!infrastructure!and!services!of!the!country,!so!their!social!networks!provide!a!safety!net.!In!times!of!need!they!either!turn!to!their!families,!friends!or!wider!communities!for!help.!!Similarly,!because!these!people!do!not!feel!they!could!ever!turn!to!the!police,!in!situations!where!safety!or!personal!property!is!threatened!(or!perhaps!justice!is!required),!social!networks!are!the!main!recourse.!These!temporary!dwellers!are!not!involved!with!community!! 134!development!councils!or!any!other!organized!financial!authorities!to!have!saving!schemes!during!a!disaster!due!to!the!income!they!earn!and!lack!of!ownership!and!belongings.During!a!disaster!they!find!temporary!solutions!by!turning!to!their!friends,!family!and!employers.!4.4.9!Livelihood.! !1.Providing!labour:!People!of!the!study!area!serve!the!surrounding!neighbourhood!for!many!purposes.!!Most!of!the!dwellers!in!the!T,4!zone!are!day!labourers,!rickshaw!pullers,!garment!workers,!and!helpers.!An!average!family!earns!only!BDT!2,500,!4,500!(USD!32.2!–!57.9)!a!month!and!they!have!to!pay!local!musclemen!BST!800!–!1200!(USD!10.3!–!15.5)!for!the!rent!of!their!illegal!shanty!houses,!which!are!no!bigger!than!of!80,100!square!feet.!Owners!in!the!V,4!zone!dwellings!pay!enormous!amount!of!bribes!for!basic!services!and!to!avoid!eviction.!This!directly!affects!their!livelihoods!and!savings.!Since!the!water!and!sanitation!systems!are!not!hygienic,!it!also!adds!to!the!medical!expenses!of!the!households.!4.4.10!Water!supply! Very!few!people!used!lake!water!for!daily!activity!and!never!!for!drinking.!Water!sources!are!limited!and!they!have!to!stand!in!queues!to!collect!water!for!daily!necessities.!One!of!the!most!pressing!problems!in!the!V,!4!zone!is!access!to!water!and!sanitation!services.!Considering!the!higher!percentage!of!encroachment,!Dhaka’s!municipal!council!is!not!willing!to!provide!water!and!sanitation!infrastructure!on!untenured!land.!Thus,!the!residents!must!rely!on!a!system!of!illegal!plastic!flexible!pipes!to!get!their!drinking!water!from!inland.!These!flimsy!pipes!flow!through!the!polluted!river,!cross!and!weave!their!way!through!the!open!sewage!ditches!lining!Korail’s!dirt!roads.!Women!collect!water!from!broken!plastic!pipes.!They!fill!up!kolshis,!traditional!aluminum!water!pots!with!narrow!necks,!as!well!as!plastic!soda!bottles.!They!usually!! 135!collect!water!once!per!day,!usually!in!the!morning,!but!the!actual!time!varies!daily.!4.3.11!Sanitation! Daily!routine!begins!by!gingerly!walking!over!a!narrow!bamboo!bridge!to!a!‘toilet’!that!is!perched!precariously!on!stilts!over!a!highly!polluted!lake.!Women!cook!in!their!kitchens,!which!is!barely!five!meters!away!from!the!toilets,!and!their!kids!manage!to!find!some!space!to!play!in!their!free!time.!Depressing!sanitation!is!the!other!big!challenge!in!this!area,!one!that!especially!affects!the!women!and!children.!Pregnant!women!and!disabled!people!are!in!constant!fear!of!slipping!and!falling!off!the!narrow!bamboo!bridge!on!their!way!to!the!toilet,!built!after!spending!a!precious!BDT!1,000!(about!$!12.8!USD).!In!fact,!almost!everyone!in!the!V,4!zone!dwellings!face!similar!insecurities.!Like!their!homes,!the!toilets,on,stilts,!built!over!the!Gulshan!Lake,!are!steel!sheets!and!bamboo!structures.!Fitted!inside!a!small,!one,square,metre!space!is!a!squat!toilet!equipped!with!two!heavy!stones!with!a!hole!in!the!middle!into!which!a!four,inch!plastic!pipe!is!attached.!The!other!end!of!this!pipe!opens!into!the!lake.!!!! 136!! !Chapter!5:!Detailed!assessment!of!existing!infrastructure!in!Halgaha!Kubura,!Colombo.!!Halgaha!Kubura!low,income!settlement!measure!approximately!10!acres!of!land!in!the!heart!of!Colombo.!The!settlement!was!formed!by!illegal!occupations!of!an!area!formally!used!as!a!dumping!dumpsite,!next!to!the!Dematagoda!Canal.!The!current!understanding!is!that!most!slum!dwellers!are!not!able!to!access!formal!financial!and!social!services!and!have!no!property!rights,!nor!secure!of!tenure.!Instead!they!exist!outside!the!law,!living!and!working!in!expensive!and!inefficient!parallel!markets!(UN,Habitat,!2003;!Black,!1992,!A.!VÉLEZ,GUERRA,!2005).!!!This!statement!was!true!to!Halgaha!Kubura!in!2003!when!I!visited!the!site!for!the!first!time!but!now!the!people!have!achieved!their!legal!property!right,!which!leads!improvement!in!their!quality!of!life,!livelihoods!and!the!capacity!to!face!regular!disasters!such!as!monsoon!flooding!and!water!level!rise!in!the!city.!The!picture!they!always!dream!of!and!goal!they!had!in!their!minds!was!the!slum!dwellers!becomes!the!citizen,!the!shack!becomes!a!house!and!the!slum!become!town.!!!I!was!fortunate!to!experience!a!projects!going!on!in!this!settlement!in!2005!and!looking!at!the!people!how!they!improve!their!lives!and!dwelling,!Since!this!last!10!years!they!have!achieved!a!great!development!with!their!own!strength!and!coping!the!risk!of!monsoon!flooding!every!year,!the!achievement!have!made!them!to!resist!the!natural!hazard!reducing!vulnerability!by!developing!their!infrastructure.!The!series!of!photographs!was!presented!in!this!chapter,!which!were!taken!in!2005!while!the!community!upgrading!and!Edible!Landscaping!project!was!going!on.!!And!during!my!field!visit!in!February!2013.!!When!the!project!started!the!total!number!of!housing!in!the!settlement!were!2,742!in!556!dwellings,!whereas!the!current!number!of!dwellings!is!700,!144!dwellings!increased!in!8!years.!!!!!! 137!The!success!behind!Halgaha!Kubura!is!community!participation!–!men!and!women!engaged!from!the!onset.!The!tenure!condition!of!much!low,income!settlement!improved!(i.e.!granting!letter!of!authorizations,!freeholds,!leaseholds,!voting!rights!etc)!and!access!to!basic!services!increased!that!by!granting!tenure!rights!to!low,income!settlements,!the!poor!developed!a!sense!of!permanency,!which!in!turn!compelled!them!to!invest!in!shelter!improvement!(V,1!and!V,2!zones).!But!even!if!the!conditions!of!many!poor!settlements!improved!with!more!effective!and!well,designed!initiatives,!shanties!and!slums!will!continue!to!mushroom!in!and!around!the!settlement!because!of!rapid!urbanizations!and!migration.!(V,3!zone)!Since!the!causes!leading!to!their!development!remain!untouched!and!under,studied.!The!success!of!the!community,!challengers!they!faced!and!over!coming!and!divers!quality!of!lives!becomes!the!reason!to!select!Halgaha!Kubura!for!this!thesis!methodology.!The!transect!walk!is!a!tool!that!can!be!used!at!various!stages!of!an!initiative!and!represent!situations.!!!Lookers!and!listeners,!Transect!walker!usually!involve!listening!to!people’s!stories,!observing!people!,!behaviors!and!coping!to!a!situation,!adaptation!to!a!regular!hazards,!actions!they!achieved!by!different!land!use!planning,!vegetation!and!landscaping,!improvement!of!physical!assets,!strength!and!weakness,!handling!rapid!increase!of!migration!and!urbanization.!As!an!end!product!is!mapping!what!is!being!seen.!!!The!presented!transect!is!a!straight!cut!through!the!community!of!Halgaha!Kubura,!which!aims!to!cover!as!many!of!the!ecological,!production,!and!social!groups!of!the!community!as!possible.!Often,!several!transects!are!carried!out!to!get!a!complete!a!wide!picture!of!a!community.!The!map!is!achieved!by!walk!through!their!community!and!site!of!the!initiative!and!collect!information!on!issues!related!to!monsoon!flooding!that!they!face!every!year!and!the!initiative!through!direct!observation!and!informal!discussion!with!others!in!the!community.!!The!transect!walk!is!not!intended!as!a!quantitative!sampling!tool,!therefore!the!number!of!houses,!length!and!width!of!the!zoning!in!mapped!settlement!is!not!equal.!!!! 138!!!The!length!of!each!transect!walk!will!depend!on!the!variation!in!Vulnerability!to!annual!monsoon!flooding!that!the!community!facing.!Even!though!Halagaha!Kubura!is!a!smaller!settlement!compared!to!Korail,!Halgaha!Kubura!also!has!the!diverse!character.!!!In!diverse!areas,!two!or!three!short!transects!may!be!better!than!a!single!long!one!to!capture!the!variation!and!issues!of!interest,!Considering!the!water!level,!Degree!of!encroachment!in!Dematagoda!canal,!Distance!from!the!main!road,!Economical!value!and!land!value,!Condition!of!the!existing!infrastructure,!and!Building!types!and!heights!created!the!T,!zones!split.!!!!5.1!THE!OBJECTIVES!OF!THE!VULNERABILITY!TRANSECT!WALK.!!!1.!!!!!To!identify!the!main!transportation!system!to!each!zone.!!!2.!!!!To!identify!Security!of!tenure.!As!neighborhoods!begin!to!grow!in!population!density,!residents!start!providing!the!missing!infrastructure!for!themselves,!either!independently!or!in!collaboration!with!local!organizations.!These!individuals!or!community!organizations!and!eventually!the!municipality!are!the!key!actors!executing!improvements!in!Halgaha!Kubura!which!V,1!and!V,2!represents.!At!the!same!time,!as!a!result!of!urban!rural!migration!and!lack!of!adequate!land,!V,3!zone!has!been!formed,!!a!high!percentage!of!plots!in!edge!of!Dematagoda!Canal!has!been!illegally!occupied!which!conflicts!over!tenure!rights.!As!most!other!place!V,3!zone!where!titles!have!not!been!conferred,!there!has!been!an!urban!expansion!with!an!infrastructural!deficit.!!!3.!!!!!To!observe!existing!Coping!strategies!in!Infrastructure:!Coping!strategies!and!mechanisms!are!the!adapted/unusual!strategies!that!people!choose!as!a!way!of!living!through!difficult!times,!Coping!mechanisms!can!be!classified!as!Strategies!that!are!not!damaging!to!livelihoods!and!the!living!conditions.!The!strategies!and!mechanisms!such!!!! 139!as!drainage,!water!supply!and!sanitation,!Garbage!collection!Waste!and!environmental!awareness!are!mapped!which!have!direct!and!indirect!consequences!to!reduce!and!improve!flooding!and!water!clogging!in!the!mapped!settlements.!So!this!is!important!to!unpack!and!find!out!how!the!community!has!improved!these!infrastructure!systems!to!reduce!the!risk.!!!!4.!!!!!Social!network:!The!social!network!and!community!participation!has!higher!capability!in!disaster!responding.!Even!though!low,income!community!lack!in!economical!assets,!they!are!rich!in!social!capital.!And!the!other!hand!it!is!important!to!get!the!community!involvement!to!build!a!disaster!resilience!strategy!because!communities!are!the!ones!who!suffer!the!most!and!they!have!the!past!experiences!to!shear!with!people!who!make!the!policies!and!strategies,!Second,!community!in!the!settlement!and!community!based!organizations!such!as!CDC’s!act!faster!in!responding!to!disaster!before!the!arrival!of!external!help.!Third,!people!under!poverty!and!people!in!unsafe!conditions!they!have!the!motivation!to!get!out!of!the!situation!which!leads!to!securing!local!support!and!ownership.!In!order!to!provide!more!effective!relief!efforts,!it!is!vital!to!have!the!community’s!input!into!the!planning!of!disaster!management.!In!the!aftermath!of!a!disaster,!the!relief!efforts!such!as!relocation,!infrastructure!rehabilitation,!zoning!strategies,!and!restructuring!of!early!warning!systems!are!handled!at!many!different!levels.!!Since!these!processes!are!linear!in!nature,!communities!are!left!out!from!all!levels!of!the!disaster!management!planning!process.!However,!women's!abilities!to!mitigate!hazards,!to!prevent!disasters,!and!to!cope!with!and!recover!from!their!effects!have!not!sufficiently!been!taken!into!account!nor!developed!(United!Nations,!2001).!!!An!important!element!in!this!planning!is!linkage!of!the!community!with!the!government!department!and!officials.!Understanding!the!above!vulnerable!conditions.!!The!Vulnerability!transect!mapping!done!in!Halgaha!Kubura!is!trying!to!extract!the!advantages!of!community!participation,!community!organizations,!involvement!of!!!! 140!gender!for!infrastructure!development!and!coping!and!adaptation!strategies!as!a!community!to!build!up!a!disaster!resilience!plan!for!the!people!who!are!vulnerable!to!regular!monsoon!floods.!!!!!5.Condition!of!Dwellings;!Resistance!to!climatic!change!cannot!achieve!only!developing!infrastructure!in!the!settlement,!Many!climate!change!planning!and!actions!are!consistent!with!development!of!dwelling!conditions!and!individual!responsibilities!of!the!community,!including:!Minimizing!and/or!improving!housing!and!land!development!activities!that!household!has!adapted!in!flood!and!slope!hazard!areas;!Improving!infrastructure!for!storm!water!management,!solid!and!liquid!waste!management,!access!to!safe!drinking!water!with!in!their!premises.!Protecting!habitat!and!environmentally!sensitive!areas!by!reducing!pollution!within!their!boundaries.!!!!6.!!!!Livelihood!and!education.!There!is!an!intrinsic!relationship!between!poverty!and!vulnerability.!In!addition,!the!elderly,!the!disabled!and!children!are!particularly!vulnerable,!and!gender!is!especially!important!to!flood!risk!reduction.!The!poor!are!the!most!severely!affected!by!all!natural!disasters,!it!is!important!to!gather!information!about!these!two!aspects.!In!the!mapped!location!the!volume!of!poverty!is!always!superimpose!on!the!livelihood!they!do.!(Through!an!adequate!income!they!are!able!to!relinquish!poverty.)!!!Disaster!vulnerability!and!poverty!are!mutually!reinforcing.!Factors!such!as!low!income,!poor!housing!and!public!services,!lack!of!social!security!and!insurance!coverage!force!the!poor!to!behave!in!ways!that!expose!them!to!greater!risk.!Since!poverty!and!disaster!vulnerability!are!directly!proportionate!to!each!other,!as!people!suffering!from!poverty!are!most!prone!to!disasters,!it!is!important!to!realize!the!relationship!between!poverty!and!disaster!vulnerability.!The!failure!to!properly!address!livelihood!issues!hampers!advancement!on!mitigating!the!impacts!that!result!from!natural!disasters,!in!the!case!of!Halgaha!Kubura.!!!! 141!Figure!5.1,!Areal!view!of!Halgaha!Kubura.!!!(Source:!Sevanatha,!2005)!Table!5.1!Vulnerability!Transect:!Halgaha!Kubura.!Level!of!Vulnerability! V]1! V]2! V]3!Water!Level! Not!at!all! Low! High!Degree!of!encroachment! Low! Very!Low! High!Distance!from!the!main!road! 500m! 1!km! 2km!Economical!value!and!land!value! High! Average! Low!Building!types!and!heights! 1,2!story!Permanent!structures! One!story!permanent!and!temporary!structures!Single!level,!temporary!dwellings.!!!!! 142!Figure'5.2+'Vulnerability'Transect'map'in'Halgaha'Kubura.'(Source:'Drawn'by'author,'2013;'Sevanatha,'2005)'!!!!!T&1!Zone!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!T&2!Zone!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!T&3!Zone!!!! 143!5.2:%V'1%ZONE%%Table&5.2&Vulnerability&Transect&Map&V51&zone&Halgaha&Kubura.&&5.2.1%Main%transportation%system%V51"is"the"closest"zone"to"the"main"roads"and"premium"lands."The"land"value%is%high%compared%to%the%other%V5!zones.'V51"zone"has"the"easiest"access%to%the%public%transport%services.&&5.2.2%Security%of%tenure% Sense%of%‘ownership’%of%the%local%community%facilities%engenders%collective(responsibility(for(their(maintenance(and(management'by'the'community.*This*ideally*requires*the*participation*of*households*in*all*stages&of&the&project&planning&process.&Communities*in*the*V51"zone"have"been"living"in"the"same"location"for"more%than%30%years.%During%this%time,%people%have%achieved"the"legal"rights'to'their'lands'by'different'programs,'such'as'the'freehold'tenure,'introduced*by*the*Sri*Lankan*government*and*Colombo*Municipal*Council((CMC).((This(program(offers(complete(ownership(and(hold"enumeration*cards*as*part*of*!Colombo&Municipal$Council’s$initiative$to$offer%the%Under%Serviced%Settlements%residents%a%sense%of%tenure%security.*In*1987,*households*received*enumeration*cards*from*the*NHDA%and%CMC%during%a%slum%enumeration%survey.%People%use%this%card%for%many%purposes,%such%as%to!show%their%length%of%stay%in%the%area,%to%get%applications%to%have%utility%services%installed,%and%to%enroll%their&children&in&schools.&&As&well,&they&are&considered&as&tenure&entitlement'certificates.&Government)does)not)consider)them)as)illegal)as)they)have%been%living%there%for%many%years.%There%is%no%eviction%threat%of%what%so%ever.%Achieving)Security)of)tenure)has)encouraged)the)positive)development)of#the#neighborhood.#People#in#the#T51"zone"have"secured"tenure,"and"!!! 144!are$more$likely$to$invest$in$their!properties.))&Further'more'they'got'the'right'to'vote'as'a'Sri'Lankan'citizen,'people'without'right'legal'address'could'not'vote'for'any'election.&%5.2.3:%Social%network% 1."Community"Development"Council:%Halgaha&Kubura&settlement&has&a&long&history&of&community'organizations*working*with*NGOs*to*provide*and*improve*services,*and*these%alliances%have%gradually%involved%themselves%in%different%aspects%of#the#settlement#development.&The$CDC$fulfills$several$crucial$functions$related$to$the$community.$Most%of!the$residents$in$all$$V$zones$are$involved$with$the$CDC.$The$CDCs$are$established$to$reduce$over$dependency$on$external$agencies$and$to$develop$confidence$in$the$communities’$ability$to$solve$their$own$problems.&Community)Development)Council)of)Halgaha)Kubura%in%collaboration%with%a%local%NGO%and%the%CMC%started%a%project%called%Edible%Landscaping*in*2005,"which"was"funded"by"Canadian"International"Development*Agency*and*McGill*University.&&2."Gender"approach:%One$of$the$successful$coping$strategies$achieved#by#the#V51"zone"community)during)the)infrastructure)construction)process)is)the)gender&approach,&which&promotes&an&increase&in&the&involvement&of&both%men%and%women%in%the%development%process.%%An%integrated%gender&approach&in&community5based&developments#facilitates#the#equitable)participation)of)men)and)women)alike)and)adequately)addresses&the&sometimes&differing&strategic&needs&of&both&genders.&!!! 145!Traditionally+men+were+involved+with+the+construction+and+provided+labor&in&Sri&Lanka&but&for&the&infrastructure%development%in%Halgaha%Kubura,'women'involvement'become'greater'as'a'result'of'CDC’s.'In'some%cases%women%provide%labor%more%than%men.&Figure'5.3:'Community'participation'and'involvement'of'women.& &&&&&&&&&&(Source:&photo&by&author,&2005)&3.#Community"Participation:&The$level$of$Community$participation$was$high$in$V51"and"V52"zones"for"the$community$upgrading$projects.$$Even$though$the$financial$capital$was$low,$the$social$capital$was$always$high,$which$reduced$costs.$$The$communities*were*involved*in!terms&of&design&and&decision&making.&&There%contribution%of%physical%labor%was%outstanding.%%Men,%women%and$children$of$all$ages$pitched$in$by$moving$concrete$components,$hauling(gravel(and(mixing(concrete.(Masons(and(carpenters(provided(professional+help!in#insulating#drainage#and#for#the#construction#of#roads&and&pavements.&Since&people&allocated&maximum&time,&the&construction)was)completed)on)time)and)was)done)to)a)good)standard.&!!! 146!Coping%strategies:%infrastructure%%5.2.4#Strom%water&management;%Drainage%1.#Identify)the)issues)causing)floods:&When%the%project%started%people%identified%the%causes%of%flooding.%The%main%factors,%which%contribute%to%the%flooding%are%lack%of%a%comprehensive,storm,water,drainage,systems,,encroachment,of,Dematagoda)canal)by)haphazard&construction&and&housing&developments,,and,haphazard,dumping,of,solid,waste.&In#the#start#of#the#community#development#project,&V51"zone"didn’t"have"a"comprehensive"storm"water"drainage"system."Any$existing$ones$have$been$constructed$individually$and"in"an"uncoordinated+manner.+Whilst+this+area+receives+storm5water&from&areas%within%and%outside%Halgaha%Kubura%settlement,%the%existing%drainage(channels(lack(the(capacity(to(accommodate(water(from(upstream)catchments)areas.)Besides,)the)lack)of)a)storm5water&drainage(system(combined(with(the(settlement(having(a(high(water(table&exacerbates&flooding&during&the&rainy&season.&&2.#Settlement#upgrading:&While&the&edible&landscaping&project&is&underway&in&the&settlement,&a&settlement5upgrading)project)was)carried$out.$The$settlement$was$divided%in%to%four%quadrants,%(In%my%mapping:%V51"and"V52"zones"are"both%included%in%this%four%quadrants)%to%facilitate%participative%upgrade.%The$upgrading$was$done$lane5by5lane%and%proved%to%be%effective.%The%community)was)involved&with&the&lane&up&grade,&and&as&a&result&of&lane&up#grade,#the#access#lanes#were#open#and#made#it#easy#to#install#storm#water&and&wastewater&run&off.&Since&the&roads&are&paved&water&was&!!! 147!able%to%run%off%to%the%drainage%easily%than%clogging%inside%the%settlement.&3."Community"involvement"to"design:%Since&the&settlement’s&households&were&involved&in&the&design,&any&preconceived*abstract*widths*and*alignments*of*the*lanes*were*considered)a)critical)upgrading)process.)None)of)the)original)residents)were$required&to&move&or&relocate&their&house&during&the&process.&&Figure'5.4!–!Households)involving)in)design)process.&&(Source:)Photo!by#author,#2005)&4."Low"cost"design"methods:%The$construction$technique$used$was$a$low$cost$method.$$&The$drains$are$constructed"from"prefabricated"sections"of"cement"pipes,&typically&1&m&long&and&50&mm&in&diameter.&A&tongue&at&the&end&of#each#section#fits#into#the#grove#of#the#other,#ensuring#that#they#are#properly'aligned'(Figure'5.5).&!!! 148!& Figure'5.5!Use$of$Precast(materials.&&&&&(Source:)Photo!by#author,(2005.)&&Figure:(5.6(!Design'Detail'drawing.& &&&&Source:!WHO,%(1999)&&A"combined"sewer"system"is"used"for"the"construction."Closed"drains"are$used$to$convey$household$wastewater$as$well$as$rainwater$to$the$drainage(system.(A(different%kind%of%a%pipe%connection%is%normally%used%to#prevent#the#sewage#from#leaking#out#and#contaminating#the#groundwater.&&5."Road"act"as"a"drainage"during"monsoon"floods:%Some%of%the%locations%in%V51"zone,"such"as"the"streets"of"the"!!! 149!settlement'are'narrow'and$heavy$vehicles$cannot$be$moved,$space$is$at#a#premium,#the#road#itself#may#be#designed#to#function#as#a#drain.&Figure'5.7!Road%/%drainage& &&&&&&&&&&(Source:&photo&by&author,&2013)&&This%method%is%used%in%the%area%because%both%sides%of%the%road%has%permanent&concrete&structures&which&do&not&absorb&flood&water&and&as#shown#in#the#picture,#the#community#has#constructed#underground#drainage(channels(with(removable(covers(which(have(holes(or(notches(in#them#to#enable#water#to#enter#and#make#it#easier#to#remove$them$for$cleaning.$The$size$of$the$underground$drain$is$not$enough$to$carry$the$water$during$monsoon$rain$at$which$time$the$road$acts$as$a$drainage(path.((Water(clogging(is(really(low(in(the(settlement(since(the(holes&in&the&pre5fabricated*drains*carry!the$floodwater$to$the$Dematagoda)canal.))&&!!! 150!Figure'5.8!Slum%upgrading%Project.&&Source:(Photographed(by(author,(2005&6."Innovative"methods:%In#recent#years,#Colombo#has#seen#flooding#even#with#the#slightest#downpour.)Poor)quality)drains)and)storm5water&passages%clogged%by%polythene)bags)and)blame)generally)falls)on)the)garbage.))Construction)on#water#retention#areas#and#building(on(marshy(lands!around'the'city'have%also%been%the%cause%of%the%flooding.%Currently,%city%workers%and%contractors(are(continuing(to#remove#this#debris#from#the#city‘s#drainage(system(but(people(have(introduced(their(own(systems(to(clean&and&reduce&the&blocking&of&drainage.&&As&a&coping&method,&the&residents(of(Halgaha(Kumbura(have(placed(meshes(at(the(entrance(of(the$drainages$to$prevent%garbage%and%house%hold%waste%from%entering%the$drainage$system.$People$have$a$habit$of$cleaning$this$every$day$with%out%depending%on%CMC%workers.%During%the%monsoon%season,%water&directly&runs&to&the&drainage&and&from&high&ground&level&to&canal&without#clogging#inside#V51"zone.&&!!! 151!&Figure'5.9'Coping&Method&to&collect&garbage&! &&(Source:)photo!by#author,#2013).&&&5.2.5%Sanitation% 1."Long'standing(method:%Initially(Sanitation(comprised(of(a(few(shared(pit(latrines(and(two(communal(toilet(blocks(in(a(dilapidated'condition.''Traditionally,'households(in(the(settlement(and(the(community(toilettes(have(pit(latrines)for)sanitation.)The)combination)of)a)high)water)table)and)the)use$of$pit$latrines$result$in$frequent$filling$up$of$the$pits$when$it$rains$heavily.&2."Developed"methods:%As#the#dwellings#develop#over#time,#the#homeowners#improve#their#own$facilities$by$building$their$own$in5home%toilets.%Two%types%of%sanitation'systems'were'noticed'in'the'V51"zone:""direct"connection"to"!!! 152!septic'tank'(Common'soak'pit'with%cleaning%access%and%Individual%soak%pit$with$cleaning$access),$and$ventilated$improved$pit$latrine.&&A&septic&tank&comprises&a&sealed&tank&having&both&an&inlet&and&an&outlet.&Excreta&is&flushed,&through&the&inlet,&from&a&conventional&cistern&flush&toilet&using&between&10&to&20&liters&of&water&in&each&flush.&The&tank&is&connected&to&the&toilet&by&a&sewer&pipe,&and&partially&treated&effluent&flows&out&of&the&tank.&This&makes&an&important&difference&from&pit&latrines,&in&which&any&water&entering&the&pit&leaves&by&percolation&into&the&surrounding&ground.&Most&of&the&permanent&structure&dwellings&have&the&septic&tank&latrine&system.&In&some&houses&not&only&the&toilet&waste&but&wastewater&from&the&sink,&shower&and&bath&are&connected.&Each&house&with&septic&tank&latrine&has&its&own&water&connection&to&the&house.&The&volume&of&water&entering&a&septic&tank&is&larger&compared&with&the&volume&entering&a&pit&latrine.&The&septic&tank&acts&as&a&settlement&unit&in&which&solid&settle&out&by&gravity,&the&solid&undergo&a&process&of&anaerobic&decomposition&which&results&in&the&production&of&water,&gases,&sludge&and&layers&of&floating&scum.&&5.2.6%Water% 1."Initial"setback:%Availability)of)drinking)and)bathing)water)was)a)greater)problem)to)the)community,*when*I*visited*the*site%in%2005%people%were%having%a%difficult(time(getting(an(adequate(water(supply.&!!! 153!Figure'5.10!–!Community)waiting)in)Water)point)for)drinking)water.&&&&&&&&&&&(Source:)photo)by)author,)2005)&Initially(people(in(Halgaha(kumbura(have(acquired(their(water(by"queuing'for'many'hours'each'day'at'eight'stand5posts%where%they%wash%their%clothes%and%take%showers.%After%showering%and%washing%their&clothes,&they&would&carry&a&few&buckets&of&water&back&to&their&homes&for&cleaning&and&cooking.&2."Current"development:%People&in&the&community&has&identified&and&improved&water&systems&to#reduce#the#vulnerabilities#around#them.#So#as#a#result#the#community)focuses)on)different)aspects,)people)in)the)V51"zone"have"achieved(higher(levels(of(these(results.(With(the(help(of(International)NGO’s&and&local&government,&Community5partnership*brought*piped*water&and&house&connections&to&every&home&in&Halgaha&kumbura&(fully&in#V51"zone"and"Partially"to"V52"zone)."A"key"to"the"success"of"the"project(was(the(selection(of(a(community(that"demonstrated"its"greatest'need'as'having'access'to'piped'water.'The'willingness'to'pay'!!! 154!for$an$affordable$and$reliable$water$supply$and$their$agreement$to$purchase)water)from)a)local)private)sector)company.&Figure'5.11.':'Improved'kitchen'with'water'supply#& &&&&&&&&&&(Source:(Photo!by#author,#2013)&Figure'5.12.""Water"meter,& !&&&&&&&&&& &(Source:#Photo#by#author,#2013)&Apart&from&this&being&the&first&public5private(community(partnership(in(!!! 155!the$water$supply$sector$in$Sri$Lanka,$other$project$innovations$include&persuading+the+poor+to+pay+for+piped+water+supplies+that+were+previously+provided+free+by+stand5post.&The&community&now&pays&the&normal'national'tariff'for'water,'whereas'the'private'operator'has'offered&a&bid&price&for&the&purchase&of&bulk&water&from"National"Water"Supply&and&Drainage&Board;&house&connections&are&made&by&the&private(operator(on(free(credit(and(each(household(has(entered(into(a(contract'with'the'private'operator'to'purchase'water.''The'Minister'of'Urban&Development&and&Water&Supply&is!finalizing(a(new(regulation(to(delegate'the'authority'to'a'private'operator'to'deliver'water.'To'solve'the$seasonal$flooding,$community$installed$a$simple$collector$drain$to$alleviate'the'floodwater'in'the'streets'and'main'drainage'canal,'which'causes&water#to#back#up#and#overflow#into#some#houses.#On#average#each%house%has%three%taps,%one%for%the%kitchen,%one%for%toilet%and%one%for$bath.$Some$houses$have$constructed$bathrooms$with$the$improvements+for+convenience.&As#a#result,#during#the#monsoon#season#floodwater(doesn’t(contaminate)drinking)and)other)water)sources)of)the)house,)which)reduces'diseases.''Within'the'community'there'is'a'new'feeling'of'optimism'for'the'future,'and'some'residents'have'already'started'investing(some(of(their(scarce(resources(in!home%improvements%to%enhance&their&quality&of&life.&There&is&a&significant&difference&in&the&service&of&drainage&system&compared&to&the&water&supply&and&sanitation&because&CDC&has&decided&to&invest&the&funds&received&by&donor&agencies&to&improve&drainage&than&water&services&due&to&the&stress&and&vulnerability&they&were&facing&during&monsoon&flooding.&!!! 156!5.2.7%Garbage%collection%waste%and%environmental%awareness%1."Services"offered"from"CMC'%When%the%people%achieved%the%land%rights,%the%CMC%offered%their%services%to%the%settlement,%so%in%V51"zone"the"weekly"garbage"truck"collects'garbage.'This'allows'garbage'management'at'household'level;'Each%home%would%be%responsible%for%their%own%trash.%This%solves%the%garbage&problem&in&the&settlement&and&becomes&a&livelihood.$CMC$$employs(community(members(to(be(responsible(on(weekly(garbage(collection(and(to(dump(it(in(appropriate(locations.&Meanwhile)the)community)has)identified)the)cause)of)flooding)due)to)lack%of%garbage%handling.%%The%actions%have%been%taken%to%reduce!the$accumulation*of*refuse,*leaves*and*earth*in*the*drain;*no*structures*such%as%houses%or%bridge%piers%allowed%in%the%settlement%that%would%obstruct(the(flow.(Regular(cleaning(and(removal(of(excessive(vegetation)growth)in)drainage)channels)is)carried)out.""Silt"is"deposited"in#lower#sections#owing#to#misalignment#or#due#to#insufficient#slope.&&2.Community*participation:%The$most$important$maintenance$task$is$to$remove$refuse,$silt$and$other&solid&material&from&the&drains.&All&drains&are&cleaned&by&community#partnerships,#which#is#called#'sramadana'.#The#members#in#the$settlement$decide$on$a$public$holiday$and$carry$out$the$cleaning$process'at'least'twice'a'year,'usually'at'the'start'and'end'of'the'rainy'season.'Some'drains,'especially'the'secondary'drains'and$house$connections,)are)cleared)more)frequently.)Small)open)channels)in)flat)areas%are%likely%to%require%cleaning%on%a%weekly%basis.%Unlined%channels%need$to$be$regularly$cleared$of$vegetation.&It#is#important#to#establish#the#cleaning#of#drains#as#a#routine&activity&at&!!! 157!regular'intervals,'and'not'wait'until'the'system'fails'as'a'result'of'blockage.**Regular*preventive*maintenance*can*avoid*huge*costs*involved(in(fixing((the(system(when(it(is(failed(due(to(lack(of(scheduled(maintenance.&Community)development$council$and$program$leaders$coordinate$with$other&members&in&the&settlement&to&collect&and&dispose&solid&wastes,&so#that#solid#material#will#be#removed#from#the#drains#and#avoid#any#possibility)of)rain)washing)them)back)into)the)drains.&Cleaning(of(open"channels"is"usually"done"manually,"with"the"help"of"spades,'hoes,'shovels'and'scoops.'It'can'be'disagreeable'and'strenuous(work(if(it(is(done(with(the(wrong(tools,(especially(if(the(drains'are'deep.'It'is'worthwhile'having'some'special'tools'that'can'clean#the#drains#over#their#whole#length,#such#as#shovels#that#just#fit#into%the%drain.&One$tool$that$has$proved$to$be$useful$for$cleaning$deep$and$narrow$drains'is'an'agricultural'hoe'with'an'extra5long%handle%(Figure%5.13).%This%is%a%traditional%tool%used%in"the"rural"areas"to"cultivated"paddy"fields.(The(size(and(shape(of(the(shovel(and(hoe(are(determined(by(the(size%and%shape%of%the%drains.%It%may%help%to%pierce%several%small%holes%in#the#bottom#of#the#shovel#so#that#water#in#the#solids#from#the#drain#can$run$out$when$the$shovel$is$lifted.&&&&&&&!!! 158!Figure'5.13.''Traditional'methods'of'cleaning'drain&&(Source:&Photo&by&author,&2005)%%5.2.8%Condition%of%dwellings%T&The#housing#in#the#V51"zone"has"noticeably"developed"over"time."These%urban%poor%families%extend!their&own&dwellings&incrementally&in&response'to'their'needs'and'the'availability'of'resources.'Providing'appropriate(legal(and(technical(aid(increased(the(process.&Even%though%these%houses%were%built%in%a%former%landfill,%when%the%time%passes%by%the%communities'have'achieved'the'following'durable'aspects.&•"Their"permanency"of"structure"by"using"permanent"building"material"for$the$walls,$roof$and$floor,$dwelling$is$not$in$a$dilapidated$state.&•&Location&of&house&is&not&hazardous&anymore&and&not&located&on&or&near&toxic&waste,&flood&plain&or&on&a&steep&slope.&&&!!! 159!Figure&5.14:&condition&of&dwellings.& &&&&&Source:(Photographed+by+author,(2013.&& &5.2.9%Livelihood%and%education%The$main$sources$of$income$are$from$activities$such$as$three5wheel%driving,(working(in#construction#sites,#cleansing#work#and#small#trading#or#hawking#(fruit,#fish#and#vegetable#etc)#and#especially#the#women#work%as%maids%in%high%income%houses%in%Colombo%and%overseas.&Micro5credit'programs'have'proven'to'be'an'effective'tool'in'the'fight'against'poverty.'Through'Grameen'Bank'initiative'and'women’s'bank,'the$urban$poor$have$access$to$micro$loans$that$can$be$used$for$small$business'initiatives.'However,'credit'alone'cannot'liberate'the'urban'poor$from$the$slums$dwellers$in$Halgaha$Kubura.$An!opportunity)for)home5based&income&generation&can&empower&women&and&use&the&home%as%a%hub%for%the%family’s%economic%activities,%such%as%having%a%shop%or%creating%handloom%products%or%packing%food%ingredients.%By%the$improvement$of$road$system,$people$were$able%to%improve%their%livelihoods.*For*people*who*do*packing*of*food*ingredients*become*easy%by%having%vehicle%access%to%their%doorstep.%When%the%impact%of%flooding(reduces(they(were(not(reluctant(to(invest(to(buy(more(ingredients)or)materials)and)equipment.&!!! 160!The&educational&level&is&high&in&V51&zone,&even&the&parents&at&the&least&have&primary&education.&&They&are&always&willing&to&provide&higher&education&to&their&children.&&Since&the&re&are&no&threats&of&eviction&and&risk&of&hazards&such&as&flooding&is&low,&their&houses&and&parents&encourage&the&kids&in&the&community&to&have&higher&education.%%%5.3%V'2%ZONE.%%Table&5.3&Vulnerability&Transect&Map&V52&zone&Halgaha&Kubura.&&%5.3.1%Main%transportation%system%V52"zone"is"situated"in"the"middle"of"the"settlement!and$in$Halgaha$Kubura&only&a&single&mode&of&transportation&is&used&unlike&in&Korail.&&In&HK,$transportation$over$water$is$not$used.$$In$the$past$the$canals$were$interconnected)for)transportation)but)at)present)due)to)illegal)constriction,)landfills,"and"garbage&the&canals&are&longer&viable&for&transportation)purposes.&People&have&to&pass&through&V1&to&access&public&services.&The&roads&are&only&wide&enough&for&a&bicycle&or&a&three5wheeler.%5.3.2%Security%of%tenure.% Much&of&the&urban&disaster&risk&reduction&depends&on&the&availability&of&infrastructures.&The&willingness&of&individuals&to&invest&in&collective&actions&for&risk&reduction&in&their&settlement&also&depends&on&how&secure&they&feel&from&eviction&and&their&tenure&status.&&For&instance,&tenants&are&usually&are&unwilling&to&invest&in&improving&their&houses.&This&willingness&also&depends&on&the&nature&of&their&relationship&with&local&government.&But&the&contributions&of&community5level&organizations&for&disaster&risk&reduction&can&be&greatly&enhanced&with&the&support&of&the&local&governments.&&&As&a&result&of&the&community&participation,&the&degree&of&achieving&land&ownership&is&higher&in&!!! 161!Halgaha&Kubura&than&Korail.&Most&of&the&people&in&V52&zone&have&achieved&the&land5ownership&but&due&to&the&factors&such&as&lack&of&livelihoods&and&public&services&they&have&not&achieved&the&durability&of&housing.%5.3.3%Social%network% People&in&the&V52&zone&are&members&of&the&Community&Development&Council.%Coping%strategies:%infrastructure.%%5.3.4#Storm%water&management;%Drainage%1.""Identify"the"issues"causing"floods:%Road%leading%to%the%canal%(Jayantha%silva%lane)%is%damaged%due%to%poor%drainage(conditions.((Since(the(gravel(road(becomes(dusty,(it(creates(safety'and'health'concerns.''Damages'to'the'road'were'answered'by"constructing*a*thin*flexible*concrete*road*using*innovative*technology*at#a#cost#lower#than#constructing#a#pavement#in#a#park#for#equal#traffic#in#the#city#of#Colombo.&Figure'5.15!–!Road/&drainage.& &&&&&&&&&(Source:(Photo!by#author,#2013).&2.#Road#acts#as#a#drainage#during#monsoon#floods:%Since&the&lanes&are&narrow,&people&have&not&invested&to&have&a&!!! 162!drainage(line(on(either(side(of(the(road.(The(road(acts(as(a(drainage(during'the'monsoon'season.'Constructing'the'house'so'that'the'main'floor%is%much%higher"than"the"street"level"or"having"a"ledge"in"front"of"the$doorways$are$steps$taken$to$prevent$the$water$from$coming$inside$the$dwellings.&The$concrete$surface$is$made$up$of$a$1:2:4$mixture$of$cement.$$Concrete(roads(are(made(with(300(mm(thick(concrete,(sand"and"20!mm"aggregates,"respectively.""The"thickness"of"the"road"is"100mm.&The$concrete$mixture$was$layered$on$a$polythene$layer$placed$on$a$compacted)broken)rock)base)and)on)compacted)earth/gravel)that)exist)in#the#road.#The#width#of#the#road#is#2m,#this#is#2#or#3#times#expensive#when%comparing%with%roads%constructed%with%asphalt,%which%is%used%for$move$heavy$traffic$in$Sri$Lanka$but$Despite$the$high$initial$cost$of$the$concrete$road,$it$is$preferred$because$the$maintenance$costs$of$concrete'roads'are'very!low.%%In%addition%to%drainage%it%also%becomes%a%road%for%pedestrians%and%small%vehicles%and%have%a%greater%resistance%to#water.&Also,&construction&of&a&concrete&road&uses&local&skills.&Concrete&roads&are&a&reliable&way&to&ensure&durable&roads&on&a&hilly&terrain.%5.3.5%Sanitation% 1."Long'standing(method:%Earlier,(Halgaha(Kubura(was(a(landfill(with(has(a(high(water(table(and(comprised*of*marshy*conditions.**This*resulted*in*back5flow%in%toilets,%and$low$or$no$soakage$of$wastewater$resulted$in$the$failure$of!sanitation'systems.''Even'though'Halgaha'Kubura'is'located'at'the'heart&of&Colombo,&which&has&much&improved&sewage&systems&overall,&many%households%in%the%V51/V52!and$V53!zones&are&yet&to&be&provided&with%sewage%treatment%or%septic%systems.&!!! 163!Although(in(the"past"30!years&the&number&of&urban&population&which&require&access&to&drinking&water&and&sewage&system&services&has&increased,*very*few*people*are*still*affected*by*lack*of*basic*services*in*V52!zone&By#contrast,#in#the#slums#the#majority#of#the#residents!use$pit$latrines$that$are$over5used%and%inadequately%maintained.%None%of%the%houses%in#V52"zone"have"any"flush"toilets,"the"most"common"type"of"sanitation"is#Pit#latrines,#few#houses#in#V52"zone"have"their"own"toilet"inside"their"property.(The(rest(of(the!households(depend(on(the(communal(latrines(that$serve$a$large$number$of$people$from$the$surrounding$area$including(the(people(from(V53"zone."This"communal"lathering"fill"up"very%fast%due%to%the%number%of%people%using%them.%%Pit%laterines%are%cheaper'than'constructing*a*septic*tank*laterines.&!&Figure'5.16!–!Community)latrines)5!Inside.&& &(Source:)Photo!by#author,#2013).&&!!! 164!To#reduce#the#impact#of#monsoon#flooding#and#the#fluctuating#water#table,'communities'raised'the'pit'latrine'to'prevent'the'storm'water'from%filling%up%the%laterines.& &&Figure'5.17!–!Community)latrines)5!Outside.&&&&&&(Source:)Photo!by#author,(2013.)&&&&5.3.6:%WATER% 1."Initial"setback:%Ten$years$ago$the$condition$and$the$state$of$living$in$V52"was"different"to#the#present#day.##They#were!lacking(of(basic(services,(even(though(residences(in(V51"had"services"such"as"common"pipe5!borne&water&systems,'this'access'was'not'available'to'the'communities'in'V52"zone,"and$residents$used$get$water$from$the$common$taps$in$V51"zone.&&&&!!! 165!Figure:(5.18!!Lack$of$drinking$water.!&!& (Source:(Photo(by(author,(2005.)&2."Current"development:%With%no%permanent%road%conditions%or%lane%numbering,%utility%bills%could&not&be&delivered&to&the&houses&and&payments&could&not&be&collected.&As#the#tenure#security#improved!this%context%has%changed.%People%in%the$community$got$house$numbers$and$they$started$to$pay$annual$property'taxes'to'Colombo'Municipal'council.&&People&in&the&V52"zone"have"access"to"different"types"of"improved"water&systems&whereas&the&V51"people"got"access#to#individual#houses.&A"household"is"considered"to"have"access"to"improved"drinking"water"if"it#has#sufficient#amount#of#water#(20#liters/person/day)#for#family#use,#at#an#affordable#price#(less#than#10%#of#the#total#household#income),#available'to'household'members'without'being'subject'to'extreme'!!! 166!efforts'(less'than'one'hour'a'day'for'the'minimum'sufficient'quantity),'especially)to)women)and)children.&.& Piped&connection&to&house&or&lot&(one&tap&for&a&house)&.& Public&stand&pipe&serving&no&more&than&5&households.&%5.3.7%Garbage%collection%waste%and%environmental%awareness%The$picture$below$was$taken$in$2005;$the$garbage$collection$points$are$used%infrequently%because%they%are%often%located%too%close%to%residents‘)homes.&Figure:(5.19(Garbage!collection(either%side%of%the%road.&!&(Source:)Photo!by#author,#2005).&The$smell$produced$by$the$garbage$collecting$point$is$displeasing$to$them.&&Skips&for&garbage&disposal&are&located&sparsely&throughout&the&settlements'and'are'not'within'a'feasible'walking'distance!from%dwellings,*and*consequently,*residents*dispose*of*litter*in*the*nearest*trench'or'retention'pond'area.'Local'authorities'have'been'resorting'to'the$practice$of$dumping$garbage$at$certain$selected$locations$without$!!! 167!any$consideration$to$the$adverse$effects%of%such%dumping%but%the%context'has'been'changed'in'the'past'few'years.''Communities'have'understood)the)disadvantages)of)their)habits,)unaware)that)their)actions(are(impeding(flood(mitigation.((During(the(monsoon(rain(the(situation(becomes(worse,(the!smell%of%the%garbage%increases%and%some%of#the#garbage#drag#inside#their#dwellings#from#floodwater.&Disposal(of(increasing(quantities(of(urban(solid(waste(is(a(major(challenge(for(CMC,(as(they(are(unable(to(collect(almost(all(the(garbage(in#the#settlement.""In"the"zone"the"roads"are"narrow"so"the"CMC"garbage&truck&can&not&cover&the&entire&settlement.&&2.#People#in#the#settlement#have#understood#that#waste#has#an#economic'value'in'the'market.'They'separate'waste'from'the'highest'valuable'to'the'lowest.''Starting&from&paper,&bottles,&fresh&containers&to#old#cloths,#shoes#etc.#and#sell#them#to#itinerant#buyers.#These#itinerant'buyer'collect'items'including'broken'glass,'tin'cans,'cardboard,(waste(papers,(rags,(plastics,(metals(and(miscellaneous(commercial)waste"discarded"by"households."Another"group"of"waste"pickers(collects(recyclable(from(the(unloaded(municipal(trucks(at(the(final&disposal&sites.&The&material&collected&from&waste&bins,&sweeping&accumulation*and*disposal*sites*require*intermediate*processing*like$washing(drying(and(sorting.(The(refuse(dealers(separate(the(recyclables)in)proper)form)and)sell)them)to)consumers)as)well)as)to)appropriate(manufacturers.((Some(of(the(separated(wastes(are(sold(to(artisans'and'women'groups'who'convert'them'into'goods'such$as$hats,$bags,&necklaces,&baskets,&door&rugs,&mats&and&seedling&cups&that&are&sold%to%the%community%as%crafts%which%generate%home%based%!!! 168!livelihoods.&Well$adapted$to$the$local$conditions$such$small$scale$approaches$often$use$simple$equipment$and$labor5intensive'methods,'and'therefore'can'collect&waste&in&places&where&the&conventional&trucks&of&the&municipality+can’t+enter.&&Figure'5.20!Inventive'methods'for'garbage'collection.!& !&&&&&&&&&&(Source:)Photo!by#author,#2013)&3."Recycling"organic"waste:%The&organic&waste&is&used&to&make&compost.&&Few&houses&in&the&V52&zone&have&home&composting&bins,&depending&on&land&size&they&own.&With&better&management&of&waste,&few&of&the&T52&house&households&produce&rich&compost&that&is&used&on&gardens,&which&improve&the&soil,&thereby&increasing&productivity.&This&provides&these&families&with&a&variety&of&fresh&vegetables&to&eat,&as&well&as&a&small&income&from&the&surplus&vegetables.&&!!! 169!5.3.8%Condition%of%dwellings%1.#Improvement#of#dwelling#to#cope#with#monsoon#floods:!Figure#5.21%has%been%taken%in%2005%when%the%lane%and%drainage%improvement%was$going$one;$the$project$improved$the$drainage$facility$around$the$house&for&the&rainwater&to&run&down&during&the&monsoon&rainy&season.&Figure'5.22'was'taken'in'2013'during'my'field'visits$to$Halgaha$Kubura.&&&Figure&5.21&&(2005)&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&Figure&5.22&(2013)&(Source:&photo&by&author,&2013)&The&condition&of&the&dwelling&hasn’t&changed&at&all&during&the&past&12&years,&The&factors&I&found&looking&at&this&household&is&that&the&have&invested&time&to&get&the&maximum&use&of&the&natural&recourses&they&own&as&they&are&making&an&excellent&use&of&the&small&space&they&have.&Rain&water&harvesting,&Cultivating&quite&a&diverse&range&of&fruit,&vegetables&and&herbs&and&developing&a&lovely&shaded&environment&that&is&a&major&advantage&in&the&tropical&heat.&!!! 170!2.#Rainwater#Harvesting:%One$of$the$coping$strategies$that$can$be$noticed$in$the$T52"zone"to"reduce&the&damage&of&floods&to&there&dwelling&is&rainwater&harvesting&inside&their&premises.$$Rain$Water$Harvesting$prevents$wastage$of$the$rainwater(runoff(into(the(Canal(trough(the(neighbourhood!and$also$raises&the&ground&water&level,&apart&from&improving&the&quality.&Rain&Water&Harvesting&has&been&done&by&providing&percolation&pits,&percolation&wells&and&by&rooftop&harvesting&methods.&&Since&the&dwelling(structure(is(not(strong(enough(to(hold(a(rain(water(harvesting(tank%on%top%of%the%roof,%the%adaptive%methods%has%been%used.%%They%have%fixed%the%gutters%where%the%slop%of%the%roof%is%and%collect%water%to%a"tank"in"the"ground"by"a"down"pipe."Dwellings"use"this"water"to"cultivated*vegetables*and*use*the*water*to*clean*cooking*pots*and*for*sanitation.&&Figure'5.23:"Traditional"method"of"rainwater"harvesting.& &&&&&&&&&(Source:((Sketched(by(author,$2013/world&health&organization&1991)&&!!! 171!Figure'5.24:"Innovative"method"of"rain"water"harvesting:"suitable"solution(for(urban(setting.(&& (Source:(Sketched(by(author,(2013/world!health&organization&1991.)&3."Maintain"vegetation:%Maintaining'natural'vegetation%is%one%way%that%you%can%reduce%runoff%and$let$storm$water$soak$slowly$into$the$ground$in$home$landscape,$just%as%it%does%in%nature.%The%garden%has%shallow%depressions%and%is%in%a%low5lying&area&of&the&T52"zone.""In"the"beginning"of"the"T53"zone"it"is"designed'to'capture'and'absorb'storm'water'fairly'quickly'and'dry'out'between&rainfalls.&&When&planted,&they&can&also&provide&habitat&for&birds,'butterflies'and'other'fauna.The'wastewater'from'the'kitchen'that$contains$fertilizing$nutrients,$like$nitrogen$and$phosphorus,$which$most%farmers%cannot%afford,%is%directed%to%this%vegetation.%%The%application)of)wastewater)is)also)a)simple)way)to)prevent)some)surface)water&pollution.&Observing&the&state&of&different&plot&sizes&in&the&Settlement,&where&some&were&making&excellent&use&of&their&land&Spaces&that&are&neglected&or&the&forgotten&space.&They&captured&and&brought&back&to&!!! 172!the&productive&spaces&to&do&the&home&gardening&such&as&using&their&roofs,&making&growing&walls.&&Figure&5.25&–&Growing&Vegetables.& &&&&&&&&&Source:&Photographed&by&author,&2013.&%5.4%V'3%ZONE.%%Table&5.4&Vulnerability&Transect&Map&V53&zone&Halgaha&Kubura.&&!5.4.1%Main%transportation%system%The&canal&transportation&is&not&available&and&no&vehicular&transportation&is&available.&5.4.2%Security%of%tenure.%Families&who&live&in&shanty&and&slum&settlements&in&the&V53&zone&cannot&afford&to&buy&land.&&They&are&mostly&renters&who&have&moved&to&the&city&from&rural&areas,&and&most&of&them&own&property&back&in&their&villages.&&&The&houses&in&V3&look&attractive&to&the&tenants&because&of&low&rental&rates&and&the&owners&are&discouraged&from&investing&in&further&developing&the&houses&due&to&the&possibilities&of&eviction&and&demolition.&The&houses&in&the&canal&edge&are&illegally&constructed.&&!!! 173!Though&the&canals&is&designated&as&a&hazard&zone,&people&have&erected&houses&and&the&government&is&not&willing&to&offer&the&land&ownership.&&5.4.3%Social%network% 1."Community"Development"Council:%Most%of%the%dwellings%in%the%V53"zone"do"not"have"legal"rights"to"their"land"and"have"temporary"occupants"so"they"are"not"eligible"to"be"a"member%of%CDC.%%Some%householders%are%members%since%they%are%permanent(residents(of(the(neighborhood(and(when(Governmental(and$non5governmental+programs+started+up+they+were+fortunate+enough'to"enroll"in"the"CDC.""During"any"disaster"or"a"need"these"residents(raise(their(voice(on(behalf(of(all(the(canal(inhibitors(and(V53"zone%dwellings.&2.#Unsafe#locations:&Domestic)violence)is)rampant)in)the)zone)due)to)the)alcohol)abuse)of)certain(family(members.&&The&place&shown&in&the&image&is&where&people%in%the%community%have%a%smoke;!this%is%a%gathering%place%for%them.&5.26%Community!gathering)place& &&&&&& (Source:)Photo!by#author,(2013)&&!!! 174!3."Social"Network"among"the"friends"and"family:%Occupants)come)together%in%times%of%distress%such%as%flooding%with%the%neighbors*being*the*first*to*assist.*They*also*combine*their*skills*to*provide(help(to(the(flood(affected(people,(cleaners(get(together(and(clean&the&affected&dwellings,&laborers&provide&labor,&and$people!who$can$cook$prepare$meals.!The$community$is$able$to$obtain$assistance$from%the%various%politicians%for%minor%construction%work,%such%as%cementing(of(the(footpaths.(However,(as(a(group,(the(cohesiveness(appears&low&making&it&difficult&for&them&to&negotiate#effectively#with#the$officials$due$to$lack$of$education.&&Coping%strategies:%infrastructure%%5.4.4!Strom%water&management;%drainage&1.""Identify"the"issues"causing"floods:&V53"zone"ends"at"Dematagoda"Canal."The"aged"and"poorly"maintained"drainage(system#is#alarming#and#is#on#par#with#other#sites#around#Colombo.'There'are'two'main'“problem'areas”'in'Colombo'where'water&collects&and&the&drainage&system&fails.&The&current&drainage&system&is&old,&and&is&cracked&and&frequently&leaks&onto&drinking&water&pipelines.'In'addition'to'their'dilapidated'structure,'the'pipelines'are'far$underground$and$are$below$the$sea$level.$During$the$monsoon$season,'these'pipelines'flood'with'water,'mixes'with'street'sewage'and'causes&subsequent&street&closures&every&year.&&&&&!!! 175!Figure!5.27!Drainage(directed(to(canal.& &&&&&&&&&(Source:)Photo!by#author,#2013.)&The$underground$drainage$system$that$caters$to$Halgaha$Kubura!in#incomplete.++Due+to+the+increased+pressure+to+construct+housing+for+the$growing$population$and,$the$developments#in#surrounding#areas#are$dangerous$and$insufficient.$$While$there$are$open$sewers$and$marshy'lands'throughout'this'area,'they'are'usually'clogged'with'garbage&and&closed&due&to&road&expansions&and&construction.&This&surrounding)area)is)home)to)new)government%developments,%residential*and*commercial*developers,*and*slum*dwellers*residing*on*the$River’s$banks.$As$a$result,$people$who$moved$to$the$city$build$unsafe'housing'for'a'low'cost'and'occupy'the'edge'of'lake.&&Drainage(pipelines(and(systems(throughout"the"city"have"become"outdated.(The(encroachment(of(people(and(construction(on(infantile(systems&in&canal&banks&and&the&outdated&pipelines&in&the&city&center&create&a&scene&of&destruction&every&monsoon&season.&&!!! 176!Figure&5.28&Drainage&system&available&in&the&V53&zone.& &&&&&&&&&&(Source:&photo&by&author,&2013)&This&was&a&result&of&development&that&took&place&in&V51&and&V52&zones.&When&the&community&developed&the&drainage&system&in&those&zones&they&directed&the&storm&water&line&to&the&Dematagoda&Canal.&&The&lines&went&trough&the&V53&zone&and&is&an&advantage&to&the&community&in&V53&zone.&Unfortunately&the&dwellings&in&V53&zone&are&not&maintaining&the&drainage&as&the&V51&and&V52&zone&community.&This&affect&the&V1&and&V2&zones,&during&monsoon&rain&the&water&clogging&was&higher&than&anticipated.&&With&the&involvement&of&the&community&development&council,&the&drainage&is&being&cleaned&twice&a&year.&5.4.5%Sanitation%&There%are%many%sanitary%aspects%concerning%the%low5income'communities.++Although+standpipes+are+available,&they&are&usually&located(away(from(these(communities(and(canal(water(is(used(for(bathing,)laundry)etc.)The)canal)water)is)so)polluted)that)its)usage)leads)to#poor#sanitary#conditions.#Due#to#the#unsatisfactory#state#of#canals,#flooding(is(frequent(and"the"houses"are"inundated"with"polluted"water"!!! 177!during'flooding,'which'contribute'to'the'spread'of'water'borne'diseases.'The'victims'of'this'are'mostly'children.&Especially*in*the*low5lying&slum&settlements&where&the&overflowing&access%pits%discharge%into%the#canal.&Figure'5.29%community!latrine.&! &(Source:)Photo!by#author,#2013)&Since&the&toilets&are&located&close&to&the&ground&water&table,&water&seeping'out'of'the'pit'is'bacterial'and'chemically'contaminated'and'the'surrounding)ground)water)become)polluted.##These#low5income'communities*have*contributed*in*many*ways*for*the*pollution*of*canal*water,'which'has'not'only'affected'their'own'health'but'that'of'others'who$are$living$in$the$vicinity$of$canals.$As$a$result$the$shallow$wells$along&the&Dematagoda&Canal$get$polluted.&As#a#traditional#method#people#in#Sri#Lanka#use#water#for#cleaning,#if#20#people#in#the#v53"zone"use"20"liters"of"water"per"day"for"flushing"the"latrine(and(cleaning,(the(amount(of(polluted(water(discharged(to(the(canal%should%be%120%liters#per#day.&!!! 178!As#an#adaptive#method#people#have#raised#the#whole#latrine#above#the#existing(ground(level(to(prevent(water(flushing(back(to(them.&5.4.6%Water% 1."Current"development:%Although(standpipes(are(available,(they(are(usually(located(away(from(v53"zone,$rather$in$the$v51!and$v52!zones,'and'canal'water'is'used'for'bathing,)laundry)etc.&Figure'5.30!!water&point.& &&&&&&!&&&&(Source:)Photog)by)author,)2005)&With%the%involvement%of%CDC,%the%community%was%able%to%get%pipe5borne&water&in&v53"in"the"form"of"stand&posts,&one&connection&for&about&10&families.&&!Most%parts%of%these%stand%posts%are%buried%inside%the%structure%leaving%only%the%tap%and%the%outlet%visible.%This%arrangement%makes%it%difficult%to#remove#parts,#which#is#a#common#occurrence#in#low5income"settlements'in'Sri'Lanka.'However,'it'could'be'seen'that'even'this'arrangement(has(not(discouraged(people(from(damaging(stand(posts(in#some#places.#Stand#posts#are#always#provided#with#masonry#aprons#!!! 179!directing)water)to)drains.!One$of$the$problems$currently#being#experienced)in)some)locations)is)the)low)pressure)of)the)system.)This)has$resulted$in$limiting$water$supply$to$few$hours$a$day$in$some$places.$The$low$pressure$is$also$one$of$the$reasons$for$damaging$stand$posts$as#the#water#could#be#easily#collected$from$the$bottom$of$the$stand$post%once%damaged.%Another%approach%taken%in%areas%where%low%pressures&exist&is&to&construct&in&such&a&way&to&lower&the&elevation&of&stand&posts.&5.4.7%Garbage%collection%waste%and%environmental%awareness%Much%of%the%solid!waste&generated&in&urban&centers&remains&uncollected)and)is)either)deposited)in)surface)waters,)in)empty)lots,)or)burned'in'streets.'This'problem'has'worsened'over'the'past'30'years.'Collected(waste(is(mainly(disposed(of(in(open(dumps,(many(of(which(are$neither&properly&operated&nor&maintained.&Solid&waste&is&dumped&into&canals&due&to&a&number&of&reasons.&There&are&no&ways&to&dispose&of&solid&waste&in&most&areas.&Even&in&the&places&where&solid&waste&disposal&systems&exist,&they&require&transit&arrangements&such&as&mobile&steel&drums&and&roadside&cement&structures.&The&frequency&of&transit&is&so&low&that&solid&waste&is&deteriorated&and&emits&offensive&smells.&Dwellers&close&to&canals&find&it&difficult&to&carry&solid&waste&up&to&transit&points&due&to&heavy&congestion&of&housing&units.&5.4.8%Condition%of%dwellings%1.#Eviction:!Some%of%these%low5income'communities'have'constructed'dwellings)along)the)canal)banks,)sometimes)within)the)waterway)itself)obstructing+the+water+flow,+making+the+maintenance+work+of+canals$difficult(due(to(the(restrictive(access(to(the(canals.(This(also(poses(problems)for)the)rehabilitation)work)as)the)low5income'families'encroach(upon(the(space(required(for(widening(canals.!%!!! 180!Figure'5.32%Dematagoda!Canal%in%2005.!%(Source:)Photo!by#author,$2005.)&&Figure'5.32%Dematagoda!Canal%in%2013&&(Source:)Photo!by#author,#2013)&!!! 181!Sri$Lankan$government$and$CMC$have$identified$that$the$floods$in$Colombo&are&caused&by&heavy&rainfall&and&macro5drainage(system,(which%comprise%of%insufficient%storage%and%conveyance.)The)noticeable)factors(in(Colombo(which(cause(flooding(are(unauthorized(constructions)on)and)along)canals,)dumping)of)waste)in)the)canal)that)block&free&flow,&and&lack&of&regular&maintenance&and&cleaning&of&the&drainage.)))In)the)last)decade)the!storage(capacity(in(the(basin(has(reduced&due&to&uncontrolled&land&filled&and&flood&plain&encroachment&by#illegal#settlements#such#as#the#V53"zone."As"shown"in"the""picture,"government)has)cleaned)the)canal)and)removed)the)canal)cover)vegetation.**As*a*result%during%past%monsoon%rain%free%water%flow%increased)and)reduced)flooding)alone)the)canal.))After,)the)government)proposed)to)remove)the)unauthorized)developments)along&the&canal&bank&and&rehabilitate&the&canal&bank.&&Then&rebuild&a&transportation)system.&The&people&living&in&V53&zone&faces&constant&treat&of&eviction&from&the&government&of&Sri&Lanka&and&CMC.&Future&improvements&of&the&canal&and&the&introduction&of&the&canal&transportation&will&increase&V51&and&V52&zone&occupancies&quality&of&life&and&the&land&value&will&increase&at&the&same&time.&&5.4.9%Livelihood%and%education%There%is%a%great%deal%of%diversity%in%incomes%in%V53"zone"residence"compared)to)V51"zone."An"income"forms"the"main"source"of"financial"stability(as(well(as(the(stability(for(permanent$housing$and$living$with$proper%infrastructure%facilities.%The%stability%of%employment%of%the%V53"zone%population%is%low,%a%very%low%percentage%engage%in%either%permanent(employment(or(self5employment.**A*higher*percentage*of*!!! 182!people%are%engaged%in%irregular&work&that&they&find&during&the&day&and&is#a#reflection#of#the#low#level#of#education#exhibited#by#the#community.&The&people&living&in&this&area&are&involved&in&number&of&activities&or&Illegal&means&to&earn&income.&This&includes&collecting&of&petrol&from&pipelines&running&from&the&harbor&to&the&refinery,&betting,&selling&of&illicit&liqueur/&drugs,&begging&and&prostitution.&%%%%%%%%%%%%%!!! 183!Chapter(6:(Adaptation(and(disaster(resilient(design(guidelines(One$of$the$objectives$of$this$study$is$to$develop$an$Adaptation$and$Disaster$Resilient$Design$Guidelines(to$assist$at;risk$households$and$communities$and$to$help$people$cope$with$hazard$risks$in$the$future.$The$designed$guideline$plays$a$crucial$role$by$ensuring$that$land$use$planning$and$the$development$of$buildings$and$infrastructure$take$the$account$of$climate$change$risks$into$consideration.$This$poses$several$challenges,$as$it$requires$planning$and$regulatory$frameworks$that$not$only$prevent$further$development$in$high;risk$areas$and$support$mitigation$efforts,$but$also$reduce$the$vulnerability$of$the$urban$poor$and$of$collective$infrastructure$without$imposing$additional$costs$on$the$poor$or$obstructing$their$right$to$the$city.$Furthermore,$infrastructure$adaptation$in$the$context$of$the$developing$world$is$compounded$by$the$very$large$deficits$suffered$in$urban$areas$and$the$poor$quality$and$lack$of$maintenance$of$existing$infrastructure.$This$implies$that$local$adaptation$to$climate$change$cannot$be$divorced$from$a$wider$development$perspective$that$simultaneously$focuses$on$tackling$risk$through$lifeline$infrastructure$in$areas$where$such$risk$has$historically$accumulated$while$planning$to$reduce$disaster$risk$in$future$urban$development.$Population$increase$in$developing$countries$is$a$known$fact,$development$of$infrastructure$and$shelter$need$to$be$achieved$with$the$increase$of$the$population.$In$view$of$the$above$the$thesis$is$to$develop$an$Adaptation$and$Disaster$Resilient$Design$Guidelines$for$housing$and$infrastructure$to$withstand$the$future$disaster$risk$in$urban$poor$areas.$The$mapped$adaptation$and$coping$strategies$are$used$as$tools$to$develop$the$disaster$resilience$plan.$In$this$perspective,$I$believe$that$it’s$important$to$link$livelihood$with$development$of$infrastructure$and$housing$to$be$sustainable$in$low;;income$communities.$!!! 184!The$objectives$of$the$plan$are$to$improve:$! Access$to$land$and$basic$needs,$! Adequate$housing,$! Infrastructure,$! Access$to$finance$(Macro$and$Micro$level$financial$assistance)$and$$$! Livelihood$means$As$a$result$of$all$these$aspects$the$community$will$be$resilience$to$disasters$when$they$occur$due$to$climatic$change$such$as$such$extreme$weather$conditions.$$Adaptation$and$Disaster$Resilient$Design$Guidelines$needs$to$address$pre;disaster$and$post;disaster$vulnerabilities.$For$instance,$it$should$focus$on$reducing$the$hazard$where$it$is$possible$(e.g.$better$drainage$that$stops$a$heavy$rainstorm$creating$floods)$or$reducing$people’s$exposure$to$it$(e.g.$working$with$those$who$live$in$areas$at$risk$of$flooding$to$improve$their$housing$or$move$to$safer$locations).$It$should$also$focus$on$reducing$the$impact$of$the$hazard$–$for$instance$in$responding$rapidly$to$flooding,$both$to$get$the$flood$waters$away$from$the$settlements$flooded$and$to$respond$to$the$flood’s$impacts$on$people’s$health,$living$conditions,$assets$and$livelihoods.$And$finally,$in$the$post;disaster$response,$to$encourage$and$support$measures$that$reduce$risks$likely$to$be$future$hazards.$But$there$are$two$difficulties$in$adapting$to$future$risks.$$a.$The$first$is$that$the$scale$and$nature$of$the$hazards$it$brings$will$be$changing$(and$generally$increasing).$$b.$The$second$is$the$uncertainty$in$exactly$what$changes$will$happen$and$when.$$In$the$past$for$locations,$it$was$much$easier$to$establish$the$likely$range$and$frequency$of$extreme$weather$events$for$which$provisions$had$to$be$made$in$the$absence$of$climate$change$effects.$$!!! 185!During$the$study,$I$realized$that$the$residents$of$Korail$and$Halgaha$Kubura$were$not$passive$observers$of$the$risks$associated$with$the$nature$of$their$living$environment$and$the$effects$of$climate$change$and$flooding$in$particular.$The$residents$were$trying$their$best$to$cope$with$the$situation$at$household$and$community$levels.$$An$analysis$of$the$coping$strategies$at$the$household$level$shows$that$they$were$essentially$technical$in$nature.$$At$community$level,$the$strategies$were$not$predominantly$technical,$though$they$call$for$technical$solutions.$$As$a$solution$or$to$produce$a$comprehensive$disaster$resilience$plan,$several$situations$are$drawn$from$the$two$case$studies$and$from$other$projects$that$are$involved$with$climate$change$adaptation$efforts.$$It$has$described$an$array$of$adaptation$tools$and$resources$that$cities$in$developing$countries$can$utilize$in$understanding$and$developing$responses$to$climate$change$impacts,$while$reinforcing$the$need$to$build$on$existing$bodies$of$work$in$the$field$of$disaster$risk$reduction.$$It$has$also$provided$current$information$on$the$functions$and$features$of$adaptation$tools,$as$well$as$directions$to$additional$sources$of$information$for$those$wishing$to$explore$these$topics$in$greater$detail.$Developed(Adaptation(and(Disaster(Resilient(Design(Guidelines(6.1(Location(and(legal(tenure(rights(6.1.1(V=1(and(V=2(zones(in(Korail(and(V=1(and(V=2(zones(in(Halgaha(Kubura(V;1$and$V;2$zones$in$Korail$and$Halgaha$Kubura$were$categorized$as$safe$locations$to$build$houses.$$The$houses$in$V;3$and$V;4$zones$are$at$low;lying$locations$on$river$banks.$During$rainy$seasons$the$V;3$and$V;4$zones$often$experience$run;offs$inundating$illegally$occupied$areas$alongside$of$riverbanks;$flood$is$a$constant$threat$to$household$assets.$Every$disaster$resilience$plan$should$address$this$issue$of$locating$communities$to$safe$locations$and$realizing$solutions$to$reduce$vulnerability$and$risk$of$urban$poor$in$hazardous$riverbanks.$$The$provision$of$legal$ownership$to$the$lands$in$low;income$slum$settlements$is$a$daunting$challenge.$!!! 186!6.1.2(Lunawa(Environmental(Improvement(&(Community(Development(Project(in(Sri(Lanka($In$perspective$of$mitigation,$recovery$and$reconstruction,$projects$for$flooding$should$not$encourage$the$riverbank$encroachment$and$building$in$flood$plane$zones.$As$a$humanitarian$factor,$considering$the$poverty$of$these$communities,$professionals$should$find$a$way$to$overcome$this$situation.$$The$Lunawa$Environmental$Improvement$&$Community$Development$Project,$which$is$handled$by$communities$that$$struggle$every$year$with$the$ravages$of$flooding$in$many$underserved$areas$and$they$now$feel$more$secure.$The$population$living$in$the$catchments$area$is$estimated$at$85,000,$covering$about$18,000$households$consisting$of$low;income$slum$and$shanty$dwellers$as$well$as$lower$and$upper$middle$class$households.$(UN;HABITAT,$2009)$$Three$relocating$choices$were$given$to$people$as$choices$by$the$project$:$$. Resettlements$in$four;resettlement$housing$sites,$which$were$prepared$by$the$project:$This$is$the$traditional$option$in$development$projects$for$low;income$people.$$. Resettlement$in$the$land$purchased$by$the$project$for$affected$families$(self;relocation):$Another$option$of$resettlement$is$to$settle$in$lands$purchased$by$project;affected$persons$themselves,$called$self;relocation.$The$Lunawa$Project$took$the$initiative$to$implement$a$participatory$approach,$working$with$the$affected$persons,$offering$them$choices$in$the$sites$they$constructed$their$new$homes$and$in$building$technologies$that$were$used.$$People$were$told$that$if$they$choose$to$resettle$in$one$of$the$four$official$resettlement$sites,$which$had$all$the$facilities,$they$would$be$given$50$sq.$m.$of$land.$$On$the$other$hand,$if$they$opted$to$go$outside$the$city,$they$could$have$much$larger$sizes$of$land$(as$!!! 187!land$value$was$higher$within$the$city$where$the$resettlement$sites$were$located).$$Many$took$up$the$option$because$they$wanted$a$more$spacious$house,$a$cleaner,$and$a$less$congested$environment.$$. On;site$resettlement:$settled$in$the$original$site$after$regularizing$the$plots.$In$the$Lunawa$Environmental$Improvement$&$Community$Development$project,$the$communities$were$given$the$legalized$land$by$the$involvement$of$the$Sri$Lankan$government$and$Non;governmental$organizations.$$Since$all$low$income$communities$are$unable$to$receive$funds$and$technical$know;how$from$such$organizations,$it$is$important$to$realize$the$feasibility$of$utilizing$community’s$assets$towards$achieving$a$resilience$plan,$which$had$been$discussed$in$chapter$5,$settlement$development$in$Halgaha$Kubura$in$V;1$and$V$;2$zones.$$6.2(Housing(6.2.1(Flood(damage=resistant(building(materials(6.2.1.1.(Exploring(all(the(t=zones(It$ is$ important$ that$all$parts$of$a$building$ that$are$susceptible$ to$ flooding$be$made$of$materials$ that$ are$ resistant$ to$ flood$damage.$ $ “Flood;resistant$materials”$ include$ any$building$product$capable$of$withstanding$direct$and$prolonged$contact$with$floodwaters$without$sustaining$significant$damage.$ $“Prolonged$contact,”$means$at$ least$72$hours,$and$ “significant$ damage”$ is$ any$ damage$ requiring$ more$ than$ cleaning$ or$ low;cost$cosmetic$repair$(such$as$painting).$$The$need$to$replace$flood$damaged$drywall$or$other$material$ is$ considered$ “significant$ damage”$ and$ is$ thus$ not$ acceptable.$ $ Components$that$are$not$inundated$should$be$resistant$to$excessive$humidity.$(Southern)Tier)Central)Regional)Planning)and)Development)Board)$$Flood$damage;resistant$materials$which$has$been$identified$in$the$mapping$include:$! Glazed$brick,$concrete,$concrete$block$or$stone$(with$waterproof$mortar$or$!!! 188!grout);$! Bamboo:$naturally$and$chemically$treated$$! Clay,$concrete,$rubble,$and$concrete$Bricks$(recycled$bricks)$! Cement$board;$! Recycled$and$new$Corrugated$Iron$sheets.$! Metal$doors,$cabinets,$and$window$frames;$! Sprayed$polyurethane$foam$or$closed;cell$plastic$foam$insulation.$$6.2.1.2(Use(of(Bamboo(as(building(material(Bamboo$is$a$vernacular$material$in$Bangladesh$and$Sri$Lanka$for$building$construction;$bamboo$is$utilized$in$many$ways$in$the$south$Asian$country$since$ancient$times.$In$Sri$Lanka$and$Bangladesh$bamboo$as$a$resource$supports$the$household$economy,$as$they$are$the$raw$materials$used$for$cottage$based$handicraft$industry,$housing,$and$construction$purposes.$In$Dhaka$and$Colombo$it$is$most$commonly$used$as$a$scaffolding$material$and$temporary$structural$support$for$buildings$under$construction.$The$dense$network$of$swaying$bamboo$is$used$for$construction$sites.$$Once$the$building$is$complete,$all$bamboo$materials$are$transported$to$the$next$construction$site$or$disposed$of.$Bamboo$is$an$extremely$strong$fiber$with$great$compressive$and$tensile$strength$and$high$mass;to;weight$ratio.$Bamboo$can$be$bent,$woven,$curved,$shaped,$molded,$or$laminated,$making$it$an$extremely$flexible$material.$(International$Network$for$Bamboo$and$Rattan,$2000)$It$grows$in$groves$with$a$foundation$consisting$of$a$network$of$underground$rhizome$stems$and$roots$that$regenerate$themselves.$It$is$a$plant$that$can$sustain$itself$with$very$little$maintenance,$like$routine$cutting.$The$compost$of$this$environmentally$friendly$material$fertilizes$the$next$generation$by$nourishing$the$soil.$(Prosun,$2011)$!!! 189!The$biggest$obstacle$in$using$bamboo$is$the$common$perspective$that$it$is$a$poor$man’s$material$due$to$its$traditional$uses$in$rural$areas.$(Muller$&$Rebelo)$Contemporary$building$design$has$no$room$for$bamboo.$Longevity$of$the$material$is$another$obstacle$that$discourages$designers.$Bamboo$has$a$natural$starch$content$in$its$core$that$is$attractive$to$boring$insects.$Once$infected,$the$insects$quickly$bore$through$the$bamboo,$destroying$its$structural$integrity$and$slowly$breaking$it$apart.$The$reluctance$to$use$bamboo$as$a$structural$material$has$resulted$in$limited$advancements$in$the$commercial$use$of$insecticides$and$chemical$treatments$to$combat$boring$insects.$Lifespan$can$be$extended$up$to$15;20$years$even$if$in$contact$with$humid$atmosphere$and$soil.$(adpc,2005)$Apart$from$all$the$methods$introduced$in$the$literature,$considering$all$the$aspects$of$the$communities$in$Korail$and$Halgaha$Kubura,$the$best$is$Intermodal$Injection$Method.$$A(simple$method,$which$requiring$little$equipment.$$A$0.6$mm$hole$should$be$drilled$in$each$internode$of$a$whole$bamboo$culm$and$a$20;50$ml$creosote$(tar$oil/molten$bitumen)$combined$with$kerosene/$sump$oil/$Mobil/$diesel$should$be$injected$with$a$large$syringe.$(adpc,2005)$Paraffin$wax$(or$putty,$if$available)$should$be$used$to$plug$the$holes.$The$culms$should$be$rolled$2;3$times$a$day$for$7;10$days$to$distribute$the$preservative$and$complete$the$treatment.$Treatment$method$applicable$for$green$or$dry$culms$used$for$making$members$exposed$to$occasional$wetting,$such$as$bamboo$posts.$$$$$$$!!! 190!Figure$6.1;$Intermodal$Injection$Method.$$$Source$:(ADPC,2005)$$6.2.2(Building(construction(Details=(Plinth:(People$in$Korail$cope$with$regular$water$clogging$by$constructing$on$raised$land$so$water$cannot$reach$the$plinth$level.$$Building$the$plinth$out$of$bricks$and$concrete$is$another$innovative$coping$strategy$adapted$by$residents$in$Korail.$$It$is$appropriate$to$raise$the$plinth$by,$roughly$1.5$ft.,$but$need$to$have$steps$to$cater$disabled$people$that$have$not$been$addressed$in$the$construction$process.$(The$house$is$built$on$a$raised$plinth$made$from$sand,$clay,$and$cement$(meaning$it$is$less$likely$to$be$washed$away$by$floods),$and$made$using$concrete$pillars$and$treated$bamboo$poles.$Strong$and$high$enough$to$last$through$repeated$floods,$unlike$the$traditional$earthen$floors$that$simply$wash$away.$The$traditional$materials$used$to$construct$plinth$in$Sri$Lanka$and$Bangladesh$are$sand,$clay,$which$is$not$an$appropriate$method,$which$could$be$washed$away$in$floods.$(!!! 191!6.2.3(Building(constriction(details=(Columns(or(post(Korail=(V=1(Zone,(Reinforced$columns$are$safer$and$sustainable$also$they$are$strong$enough$to$withstand$the$impact$of$flooding$and$resistant$to$water.$$The$frame$of$the$building$needs$to$be$a$coherent$structure,$if$the$structure$of$the$building$is$strong$it$can$protect$the$whole$house.$$A$complete$structural$frame$around$the$building$is$tied$in$to$the$foundation,$the$walls,$and$the$first$floor$structure.$$An$integrated$structural$ring$beam$around$top$of$walls$is$connected$to$columns.$(6.2.4(Building(constriction(details=(walls(House$Number$2$in$Korail;$V;2$Zone,(Bamboo$walls$or$woven$bamboo$mat$partitions$or$dividers$are$incredibly$durable$materials.$$The$bamboo$mats$make$resilient$walls,$which$is$affordable$and$easy$to$replace$for$the$low;income$communities.$(The$structure,$with$woven$bamboo$walls,$can$be$dismantled$in$the$case$of$a$severe$flood$and$moved$for$re;$erection$at$a$new$site$or$for$restoration$after$floodwaters$subside.$(ADPC,2005)$Bracings$and$fastenings$bind$the$walls$firmly$to$the$house$‘skeleton’$through$a$network$of$holes$and$notches$–$locally$called$a$‘clam$system’$–$and$the$whole$building$can$stay$standing$through$the$strongest$of$winds$and$rains.$$Nuts$and$bolts,$screws,$ties$and$nails$are$required.$Bamboo$mats$are$treated$to$make$them$more$resilient$to$flooding$so$that$they$last$longer.$(Practical$Action,!2010)$$6.2.5(Building(constriction(details=(roof(House(in(v=1(zone.=(Halgaha(Kubura,(Extended$roof$eaves:$This$prevent$direct$wetting$of$walls$during$rain.$$During$heavy$and$prolonged$rains,$with$the$use$of$a$proper$rain$gutter$system,$a$down$pipe$system,$and$a$lateral$pipe$the$large$quantity$of$rain$water$that$runs$off$roofs$can$saturate$the$soil$around$a$home$and$the$plinth.$$In$some$cases,$even$structural$damage$may$occur.$However,$a$properly$installed$system$of$gutters,$!!! 192!downspouts$and$lateral$piping$will$direct$roof$water$away$from$the$foundation.$Figure$6.2:$Gutter$system$and$down$pipe$system$found$in$Halgaha$Kubura,$V;1$zone.$Source:$(photograph$by$author,$2013)$Gutters$and$downspouts$for$residential$applications$are$available$in$various$sizes,$larger$the$components,$the$more$water$the$system$can$carry.$$Dwellings$in$Korail$and$Halgaha$Kubura$are$subject$to$tropical$storms,$which$need$larger$capacity$systems.$When$houses$develop$the$square$footage$of$the$dwelling$increase,$the$area$and$pitch$of$the$house’s$roof$increase,$as$a$result$a$larger$capacity$is$need.$A$gutter$system’s$capacity$can$be$increased$by$using$larger$gutters$and$downspouts$or$by$increasing$the$number$of$downspouts$per$length$of$gutter.$If$downspouts$deposit$rainwater$next$to$the$house,$a$wet$foundation$and$water$clogging$around$the$house$can$result.$Although$“splash$blocks”$are$frequently$placed$under$the$outfall$of$a$down$pipe$to$help$prevent$the$stream$of$water$from$eroding$the$soil,$their$short$length$(typically$2$ft.)$deposits$the$water$close$to$the$foundation.$For$more$protection,$the$water$from$the$!!! 193!downspout$should$be$carried$much$farther$from$the$house$before$it$is$deposited$into$the$soil.$For$example,$solid$corrugated$drainpipe$(or$similar$pipe$or$open$gutter)$can$be$attached$to$the$bottom$of$the$downspout$and$sloped$away$from$the$house$for$at$least$5$ft.$If$pipe$is$used,$the$lateral$can$be$buried$and$directed$to$surface$or$sub;surface$disposal.$It$can$be$laid$directly$on$top$of$the$sloping$final$grade$and$covered$with$landscaping$much$to$hide$its$location,$with$just$the$end$protruding$beyond$the$landscape$bedding.$Connectors$are$available$that$fit$rectangular$downspout$pipe$to$4;in.$round$corrugated$pipe$(EPA,$2012).$Figure$6.3$Lateral$drainage$from$gutter.$$Source:$http://www.epa.gov/indoorairplus/technical/moisture/images/large/31b.jpg$(EPA,$2012)$!!! 194!Since$the$space$between$houses$are$highly$limited,$the$grade$has$to$be$very$steep$because$the$water$must$be$moved$away$faster.$$The$solution$to$reduce$the$water$clogging$onsite$is$to$pipe$to$an$underground$catchments$system$such$as$a$dry$well,$which$can$store$the$water$till$needed.$$(EPA,$2012)$Rain;harvesting$systems$also$can$capture$roof$runoff$from$downspouts;$however,$barrels$can$fill$quickly$in$a$heavy$rain$so$they$should$be$designed$so$that$once$filled,$the$water$will$not$overflow$around$the$house.$6.3(Infrastructure.((6.3.1(Water((Rainwater$harvesting:$Looking$at$both$sites$in$Korail$and$Halgaha$Kubura,$the$most$appropriate$method$for$water$supply$is$Rainwater$harvesting.$Moreover,$every$year$both$the$countries$are$fortunate$with$ample$rain.$The$capital$city$of$Dhaka$averages$nearly$1,700$to$2,200$mm$rainfall$per$year$while$the$nationwide$average$is$around$2,200$to$2800.$$Monsoons$usually$lasts$from$May$to$October$and$there$is$occasional$rainfalls$in$November.$(The$Daily$Star,$2008)!(Dhaka's$water$crisis:$No$quick$end$in$view,$2009)$Considering$the$amount$of$rainfall,$we$could$say$that$the$communities$in$these$settlements$get$rainwater$throughout$the$year$so$the$best$solution$is$to$use$the$rainwater$as$a$source$for$domestic$use.$$$$$!!! 195!Figure$6.4$Potential$for$rainwater$harvesting$$$$$$$$$$(Source:$Photo$by$author,$2013)$Literature$reviews$explains$that$a$rainwater$harvesting$system$in$urban$environments$can$be$done$at$different$locations$of$the$house$but$considering$the$ecological$and$environmental$states$of$slums$and$shanty$towns$like$Korail,$the$best$location$in$a$house$is$the$Rooftop$or$Roof.$$With$impervious$roofs$already$in$place,$the$catchments$area$is$effectively$available$free$of$charge$and$with$a$proper$gutter$and$down$pipe$system$they$provide$a$supply$at$the$point$of$consumption.$$Different$materials$like$aluminum$sheets,$plastic$sheets,$concrete,$shingles$etc.$can$be$used$for$the$rooftop.$$(Sultana,$2007)$Indicate$that$at$present$the$WASA$(Water$and$Sewerage$Authority)$charges$Taka$5.25$per$1000$liter$i.e.$19.89$Taka$per$1000$gal.$$For$a$building$the$that$is$50%$dependent$on$rainwater,$the$monthly$savings$in$water$will$be:$!!! 196!MC$(gal)$X$Cost$(Taka/gal)$X$Dependency$(%)$X$Tax$(%).60880$gal$X$19.89$Taka/1000$gal$X$50%$X$15%$=$90.85$Taka/$$month.$This$number$becomes$181.71$Taka/month$when$the$building$is$totally$dependent$on$rainwater.$$Needless$to$mention$that$rainwater$will$also$save$the$additional$taxes$and$fees$charged$by$the$city$authority$with$the$water$bill.$It$becomes$economical$to$install$the$system$during$the$construction$of$the$building$as$it$saves$material$and$labor$cost.$$As$the$dwellings$develop$in$V;1$and$V;2$zones$in$Korail$and$Halgaha$Kubura$people$are$able$to$add$the$Rainwater$harvesting$systems$to$their$houses.$$Another$solution$is$to$get$together$and$make$one$tank$for$harvesting$rainwater.$Figure$6.5$roofs$in$Korail$$(Source:$Photo$by$author.$2013)$!!! 197!The$collected$water$can$be$used$without$purifying$for$the$activities$such$as$cooking,$bathing$and$washing$clothes.$$And$further,$water$can$be$filtered$using$bio;sand$filters,$which$remove$the$substances$collected$from$roof$surfaces$and$chemicals$that$accumulat$from$the$polluted$air.$$Bio;sand$filters$are$an$effective$and$economical$process,$which$has$been$used$since$ancient$times$and$developed$over$time.$$The$bio;sand$filter$is$an$adaptation$of$the$traditional$slow$sand$filter,$which$has$been$used$for$community$water$treatment$for$almost$200$years$(CAWST,$2009).$Figure$6.6$Traditional$water$purification$methods$in$Sri$Lanka$and$Bangladesh.$$$$$$$$$$$(Source:$Photo$by$author,$2013)$$!!! 198!The$Bio;sand$filter$is$introduced$by$Centre$for$Affordable$Water$and$Sanitation$Technology$(CAWST).$$Dr.$David$Manz$developed$the$household$bio;sand$filter$in$the$1990's$at$the$University$of$Calgary,$Canada.$$The$bio;sand$filter$is$smaller$than$those$used$for$an$entire$community$and$has$been$adapted$for$intermittent$use.$This$makes$modern$bio;sand$filters$suitable$as$a$clean$water$filter$for$individual$households.$The$bio;sand$filter$container$can$be$made$out$of$concrete$or$plastic$and$is$filled$with$layers$of$specially$selected$and$prepared$sand$and$gravel.$Bio;sand$filters$can$achieve$up$to$99%$removal$of$disease;causing$pathogens$if$built$and$operated$properly.$This$type$of$filter$can$be$used$with$any$water$source$such$as$rainwater,$deep$groundwater,$shallow$groundwater,$rivers,$lakes$or$other$surface$water.$$Over$time,$the$bio;layer$becomes$adapted$to$a$water$source$that$contains$a$certain$amount$of$contamination.$$If$source$water$with$a$different$level$and$a$type$of$contamination$is$used,$the$bio;layer$may$not$be$able$to$consume$all$of$the$pathogens.$$It$may$take$the$bio;layer$several$days$to$adapt$to$the$new$source$water,$level$of$contamination,$and$nutrients.$The$appropriate$bi;sand$filler$for$the$context$of$Korail$and$Halgaha$Kubura$is$Concrete$bio;sand$filter.$$Since$the$bio;sand$filter$is$made$out$of$concrete$during$flooding$the$harvested$water$will$not$get$contaminated$because$the$penetration$is$zero$and$during$period$of$disaster$they$have$stored$safe$water$for$drinking$and$cooking.$$$$!!! 199!Figure$6.7$Water$level$during$monsoon$season.$$(Source:$photo$by$author,$2013)$The$filters$are$produced$using$a$steel$mold,$each$mold$can$be$used$to$produce$hundreds$of$bio;sand$filters,$which$reduce$the$cost,$and$this$is$a$path$to$increase$community$participation,$with$people$getting$together$to$build$the$filters.$$The$life$span$is$high$and$can$be$painted$to$suit$the$tastes$of$the$owners$and$become$a$kitchen$appliance$and$a$part$of$the$household$decor.$$The$construction$can$be$done$in$a$relatively$small$area$with$basic$tools$and$resources,$for$this$reason$this$can$be$developed$to$a$home;based$livelihood.$$The$sifting,$sorting,$and$selling$of$the$filter$media$(sand),$the$sand,$and$gravel$for$concrete$can$become$another$small$business.$$!!! 200!Figure$6.8;$the$component$of$the$bio;sand$filter$and$the$how$it$is$operated.$$Source:$Practical$Action$(n.d.$a)$As$a$hygienic$method$used$in$Sri$Lanka,$drinking$water$is$further$boiled.$(6.3.2(Sanitation(Recycling(–(Composite(toilet.(Excreta$are$commonly$thought$of$as$an$unwanted$part$of$our$body.$$However,$for$the$communities$like$Korail$and$Halagaha$Kubura$where$the$people$$are$under$poverty$and$has$limited$access$to$the$urban$sewerage$systems,$it$is$beneficial$to$think$of$human$waste$as$a$resource.$$The$best$solution$is$to$make$sewage$disposal$an$onsite$composting,$turning$urine$and$solid$waste$into$resources$the$residents$can$use,$as$they$!!! 201!do$with$house$hold$garbage$in$Halgaha$Kubura$V;2$zone.$$As$discussed$in$chapter$4$and$5,$in$waterlogged$and$high$water$table$areas,$pit$latrines$and$septic$tanks$can,$and$often$do$contaminate$well$water$with$human$feces.$$This$is$a$common$occurrence$in$coastal$areas$with$high$population$densities.$$In$such$places$where$open$defecation$on$the$sea$shore$and$derelict$land$is$the$normal$practice,$many$families$want$to$have$their$own,$or$at$least$a$community$latrine.$$In$a$crowded$village,$the$wells$and$latrines$would$be$forced$to$lie$close$to$each$other.$$If$septic$tanks$and$pit$latrines$are$used,$the$well$water$will$inevitably$become$contaminated.$Water$contaminated$with$human$feces$puts$people$at$a$high$risk$of$cholera,$dysentery,$diarrhea,$jaundice,$typhoid,$polio$and$intestinal$worms.$$A$dry$composting$toilet$protects$water$and$soil$and$therefore$helps$protect$the$people$in$the$community.$(Practical$Action)$This$technical$brief$by$Paul$Calvert$is$based$on$his$experience$of$designing$and$building$compost$toilets$and$hygiene$awareness$programs$in$India.$(Practical$Action,$n.d.$b)$Compost$toilets$are$often$built$with$two$chambers$for$simplicity$of$construction$and$operation.$The$two$chambers$are$used$alternately;$decomposition$continues$in$the$full$one$until$it$is$emptied$just$prior$to$the$other$one$becoming$full.$Each$chamber$has$its$own$opening$for$removal$of$mature,$non;odorous$compost.$Some$types$of$compost$toilets$batch$the$waste$in$movable$receptacles$on$trolleys$or$turntables$whilst$others$generate$the$compost$slowly$and$continuously$as$the$material$progresses$through$the$device.$$Some$require$electricity$for$small$heating$elements$(in$cold$climates)$or$fans$(to$ensure$a$positive$airflow$through$the$system).$$(Practical$Action/$P.$Morgan)$In$water$logged$areas$where$there$was$previously$no$satisfactory$sanitation$system$operating,$the$benefits$that$compost$toilets$provide$are$clear.$They$can$prevent$ground$and$surface$water$contamination$and$protect$people’s$health$in$areas$where$open$!!! 202!defecation$on$the$ground$or$directly$into$water$bodies$has$been$the$norm.$The$production$of$safe$compost$and$effective$use$of$the$urine$and$wash$water$are$also$a$significant$benefit.$$Again$the$compost$is$valuable$and$can$help$to$provide$a$better$chance$of$establishing$plant$cover$on$thin$and$fragile$soils.$(Practical$Action,$n.d.$b)$The$adaptive$method$done$in$Halgaha$Kubura$is$Septic$tank$and$pit$laterings,$which$is$not$an$appropriate$method$due$to$high$water$table$and$constant$flooding.$Paul$Calvert$further$explains$this$statement$in$graphical$manner$in$Ecological$Solutions$to$Flush$toilet$Failures.$Figure$6.9$Failures$in$Septic$tanks$and$pit$laterings.$$$(Source:$P.$Calvert,$2004)$Illustration$Courtesy:$Culvert,$P.$(2004)$Septic$tanks$and$pit$latrines$in$high$water$table.$Ecological)Solutions)to)flush)toilet)failures.$EcoSolutions,$India.$!!! 203!The$composite$toilet$is$a$good$solution$for$the$sewer$system$in$a$place$like$Korail$and$Halgaha$Kubura$because$it$is(no$need$to$dig$pits,$no$need$for$sewers$and$treatment$plants$and$no$need$for$external$infrastructure.$Safe$and$affordable$for$anywhere$but$especially$high$water$table$and$or$water$scarce$areas.$(P.$Calvert,$2004)$$Figure$6.10$Advantage$of$composite$toilet.$$(Source:$P.$Calvert,$2004)$Illustration$Courtesy:$Culvert,$P.$(2004)$Eco;toilets$in$high$water$table.$Ecological)Solutions)to)flush)toilet)failures.$EcoSolutions,$India.$$!!! 204!It$does$not$pollute$the$ground$or$surface$water$or$the$soil.$It$does$not$produce$flies$or$smell.$$The$compost$toilet$saves$water.$A$totally$self;contained$sewage$treatment$on$site.$There$are$no$sewage$pipes,$no$septic$tanks,$and$no$dangerous$emptying$of$hazardous$sludge.$$In$a$composite$toilet$there$is$no$place$for$mosquitoes$to$breed.$(P.$Calvert,$2004)$It$produces$safe,$useful,$non;odorous$compost.$$The$evaporative$plant$bed$can$support$growth$of$attractive$flowers,$fuel$wood,$and$vegetable,$and$as$a$result$it$can$be$an$income$generator.$$6.3.3(Drainage$$$The(Lunawa(Environmental(Improvement(&(Community(Development(Project(((2003=10),(((Encroachment$and$building$dwellings$have$been$addressed$by$$The$Lunawa$Environmental$Improvement$&$Community$Development$Project$comprehensively.$$(When$the$project$started,$about$367$factories$used$to$dump$their$untreated$wastewater$into$the$canals$leading$to$the$Lunawa$lake,$which$straddles$the$municipalities$of$Mt.$Lavinia$and$Moratuwa$in$south$Colombo.$$Flood$is$a$recurrent$feature$in$the$town$center$and$surrounding$areas$of$Lunawa$due$to$poor$drainage$networks,$lack$of$maintenance$of$canals$and$encroachment$of$drains$and$canal$by$construction$activities.$$Existing$drains$and$culverts$were$often$blocked$by$waste$and$debris.$Illegal$encroachments$and$slum;like$housing$conditions$were$common.$The$main$objective$of$the$Lunawa$Environment$Improvement$and$Community$Development$Project$has$been$to$improve$the$living$conditions$of$people$in$project$targeted$sites,$mitigate$flood$damage$through$an$integrated$program$of$improvement$of$urban$storm$water$drainage$system$including$social,$and$community$development$!!! 205!(Dasanayaka,$2011).$As$the$initial$step,$More$than$1,300$of$the$1,925$households$had$encroached$the$lake’s$catchments$area.$They$were$resettled$in$an$organized$manner,$leaving$space$for$canal$and$feeder$channels$to$flow$freely$(Sengupta,$2013).$The$lake$area$encroaching$and$garbage$disposing$are$solved$by$the$peripheral$road$construction,$which$clarifies$the$basin$boundaries$and$enhances$the$public$moral$for$cleanliness$of$the$lake$banks$and$lake.$The$lake$peripheral$road$provides$better$infrastructure$facilities$and$public$recreation.$(Jayawardena$H.$M.$K.$S.)$$Figure$6.11$Before$Lunawa$Environmental$Implementation.$$$Source:$Dasanayaka,$A.$(2011)$$15Silvester  Road  UpstreamSylvester Bridge Upstream- Ratmalana!!! 206!Figure$6.12$$Current$Development.!$(Source:$Photographed$by$Author,2013)$$Soon$after$Lunawa’s$revival,$land$price$went$up$by$200$times;$cost$of$medical$expense$went$down.$$Those$who$were$unemployed$now$have$jobs.$(Sengupta,$2013)$Apart$from$encroachment,$there$are$few$advantages$by$introducing$a$road$on$either$side$of$the$canal,$the$land$value$increases,$and$people$got$proper$transportation$so$it$improved$their$livelihoods.$$Further$projects$have$been$introduced,$supplying$&$fixing$gauge$posts$at$selected$locations$within$the$Lunawa$Project$area$to$establish$a$water$quality$&$quantity$measurement$program.$(Ministry$of$Water$Supply$and$Drainage)$When$the$project$was$initiated,$Lunawa$Lake$was$a$biological$dead$lake$and$habitual$flooding$occurred$4$to$6$times$annually.$Recent$tests$carried$out$indicated$improvement$!!! 207!of$water$quality$in$the$canal$and$lakes,$and$increase$of$an$emerging$fish$population$and$flocking$of$birds$in$the$lake.$$(Jayawardena)$$In$November$2010$highest$rainfall$was$recorded$(382mm)$in$the$catchments$area$but$no$flooding$occurred$in$Lunawa.$(Dasanayaka,$2011)$$6.4(Livelihood$A$common$understanding$of$livelihoods$is$given$by$Chambers$and$Conway:$$‘A)livelihood)comprises)the)capabilities,)assets)(both)natural)and)social))and)activities)required)for)a)means)of)living;)a)livelihood)is)sustainable)which)can)cope)with)and)recover)from)stresses)and)shocks,)maintain)or)enhance)its)capabilities)and)assets,)both)now)and)in)the)future,)while)not)undermining)the)natural)resource)base’I$(United$Nations$Human$Settlements$Program$2012;$DFID,$2001;$DFID,1999).$$From$the$perspective$of$the$vulnerable$household,$coping$with$the$threat$of$disaster$is$part$of$their$daily$life$style.$For$this$reason$the$resilience$plan$need$to$enlighten$the$people$about$sustainable$livelihood$methodologies.$$In$my$point$of$view,$there$are$two$aspects$in$livelihoods,$which$we$need$to$improve$when$developing$a$disaster$resilience$plan:$one$aspect$is$that$the$communities$should$involve$in$a$process$that$makes$their$livelihood$helps$in$reducing$vulnerability.$The$other$perspective$is$that$when$the$disaster$happens$they$should$be$able$to$build$back$their$livelihoods$to$the$level$they$had$before,$which$need$adaptive$mechanisms.$$For$the$first$aspect$a$good$example$we$could$take$from$Halgaha$Kubura$and$Korail,$are$the$waste$pickers.$In$some$places$in$the$city$water$logging$doesn’t$occur$due$to$adequate$drainage$but$still$the$water$logging$happens$due$to$garbage$disposal$and$!!! 208!garbage$running$to$the$drainage$due$to$high$wind$and$rain,$and$as$a$result$in$those$areas$the$carrying$capacity$of$the$drains$has$been$reduced.$$Usually$the$waste$from$the$households$is$thrown$on$the$streets,$and$door;to;door$collection$is$limited$mainly$to$slum$and$shanty$settlements.$Municipal$staff$responsible$for$cleaning$the$street$collects$the$waste$and$dumps$it$at$the$nearest$waste$depots.$There$are$few$depots,$and$travel$time$is$fairly$long$leading$to$the$dumping$of$garbage$in$any$available$open$space,$that$over$time$becomes$an$unauthorized$depot.$$Most$of$these$depots$are$along$the$canals$and$riverbanks.$$By$the$involvement$of$the$waste$pickers,$as$they$collect$the$garbage$from$these$settlements$and$water$ways$eventually$become$clean$and$less$waste$gets$to$the$canal,$$and$in$turn$the$flooding$decreases.$$In$the$common$society,$waste$pickers$are$not$integrated$into$the$formal$financial$system,$have$little$access$to$the$legal$rights,$health$and$education$systems$and$many$do$not$enjoy$municipal$services$such$as$electricity,$clean$water$and$sanitation.$Most$of$the$waste$pickers$build$their$houses$in$T;3$and$T;4$zones$in$Korail$and$Halgaha$Kubura,$so$most$are$seen$and$treated$by$many$as$criminals$and$lower;class$citizens$and$appear$to$hold$a$low$status$in$society.$But$many$waste$pickers$were$found$to$be$extremely$resourceful$individuals.$They$have$a$good$knowledge$of$where$to$find$particular$types$of$waste$and$recycling$materials.$Many$planned$their$activities$according$to$value$and$quantity$of$waste;$they$have$improved$the$method$of$transporting$waste$safe$and$secure.$$Some$pickers$planned$the$financial$side$of$their$livelihoods$strategically$and$saved$money$for$a$contingency$fund$or$specific$future$enterprises$which$help$them$to$move$from$disaster$proven$areas$to$safer$areas,$which$improve$the$life$style$of$future$generations.$(Rouse,$J.$R.$&$Ali$S.$M.,$2001)$The$other$aspect$that$needs$to$be$improved$is$recovering$from$the$disaster$and$the$protection$their$assets.$When$these$people$develop$their$houses$such$as$House$number$!!! 209!1$in$Korail,$V;1$zone.$They$have$started$home;based$businesses$and$at$the$same$time$they$have$rental$income.$$Due$to$the$availability$of$the$upper$floor$when$the$water$level$rises,$people$bring$their$assets$and$belongings$to$the$upper$floors.$For$people$operating$shops,$they$have$a$permanent$storage$place$in$the$upper$floor.$$These$are$the$physical$coping$strategies$that$need$to$be$intergraded$to$disaster$resilience$plan$and$the$plan$should$encourage$people$to$develop$their$assets$as$well$as$protect$them$during$a$disaster.$Though$wasting$picking$is$seen$as$a$low$class$occupation,$there$is$a$certain$degree$of$knowledge$that$the$waste$pickers$need$to$acquire$in$order$to$successfully$engage$in$their$work.$$They$know$the$value$of$different$types$of$waste,$where$to$find$it,$where$to$sell$it$and$who$to$sell$it$to.$$They$know$to$sell$in$bulk$to$get$higher$prices.$$Waste$pickers$$also$understand$the$values$of$different$types$of$waste;$metals$may$be$harder$to$find$but$more$valuable,$while$discarded$paper$is$ubiquitous$and$easy$to$find$but$sells$for$much$less.$These$skills$will$not$be$vanished$as$a$result$of$natural$hazards,$the$resilience$programs$should$be$able$to$develop$people$skills$which$help$them$to$pick$up$their$lives$in$a$case$of$disaster.$(Rouse,$J.$R.$&$Ali$S.$M.,$2001)$6.5(Social(network(6.5.1(Community(participation:(Korail(and(Halgaha(Kubura(settlements(The$communities$in$Korail$and$Halgaha$Kubura,$have$higher$satisfaction$in$their$lives$and$they$feel$they$are$adequately$integrated$into$community$structures$and$social$networks$as$a$result$of$Community$Development$Councils$and$saving$groups.$This$is$more$important$for$these$poorer,$disadvantaged$and$marginalized$groups$who$cannot$always$afford$paid$services,$but$who$are$willing$to$share$with$the$communities$their$time,$skills,$experiences$and$material$resources$in$order$to$withstand$various$challenges$of$flooding$and$pressures$they$face$in$their$everyday$life.$!!! 210!Slum$residents$in$particular$may$be$cash;$poor,$but$they$have$remarkable$resilience$and$resourcefulness$embedded$in$the$social$settings$of$their$local$communities$–$including$family$“safety$nets”,$solidarity,$possibilities$to$learn$skills$from$each$other$and$share$knowledge,$and,$importantly,$informal$employment.$Furthermore,$the$very$combination$of$social$and$physical$structures$of$slums$offers$additional$support$mechanisms$–$for$example,$proximity$to$jobs$and$markets,$flexibility$to$extend$shelters$using$their$own$labor,$possibilities$to$carry$out$ground;level$home;$based$work$activities$(such$as$trade,$services,$or$small$agricultural$activities).$(The$Cities$Alliance$2011a)$The$attention$should$be$given$to$the$above$while$developing$any$disaster$resilience$plan.$They$are$the$people$who$face$the$disaster$and$they$are$the$people$who$have$the$experiences$and$they$have$the$need$to$withstand$the$hazard$and$reduce$their$vulnerability.$6.5.2(Savings(groups:(Korail:(V=1,(V=2(and(V=3(zones.(Savings$is$seen$as$a$main$coping$strategy$for$most$of$the$households$in$Korail$and$Halgaha$Kubura.$Both$of$the$communities$save$regularly$with$Community$Development$Council$savings$groups$or$with$NGOs,$with$the$intention$to$withdraw$from$their$savings$during$and$after$any$disaster$or$to$develop$their$houses$to$withstand$regular$disasters$like$flooding$and$generate$income.$Usually$savings$groups$are$formed$within$extended$families,$neighborhoods$and$wider$groups$who$have$a$shared$geographical$identity.$$The$good$example$was$in$Korail$has$4$ways$of$community$saving$systems:$$. Group(savings:(women$are$the$members$of$savings$groups$and$CDCs.$In$order$to$improve$the$savings$habits$among$the$community$members$it$has$made$mandatory$savings$that$each$member$needs$to$save(at$least$TK$10$per$week.($. Emergency(savings:$communities$save$money$to$allocate$in$a$case$of$disaster$or$unexpected$event.$$$!!! 211!. Savings(for(livelihood:(most$of$group$savings$are$utilized$to$give$loans$for$their$member$to$invest$in$livelihood$improvement$activities.$These$are$mostly$short$term$loans$start$a$new$activity$or$to$improve$an$existing$activity.$(. Savings(for(Settlement(improvement:(basic$infrastructure$in$Korail$has$been$provided$with$the$financial$support$of$aid$donors.$CDC$has$allocated$about$10%$of$their$savings$for$a$separate$account$called$O&M$Fund$(Operational$and$Maintenance$Fund),$which$would$be$used$to$maintain$community$infrastructure.$(In$my$perspective,$low;income$communities$like$Korail$and$Halgaha$Kubura$need$to$be$sustainable$and$need$to$acquire$their$own$strengths$of$ownership,$which$further$prepare$them$to$face$a$disaster.$$A$good$solution$is$to$develop$a$system$of$revolving(fund,$which$maintains$the$sustainability$of$Community$Development$Council$(CDC)$and$the$settlement.$A$revolving$fund$could$be$described$in$simple$terms$as$a$fund$where$money$circulates$among$the$members$repeatedly.$A$revolving$fund$is$opened$with$an$initial$deposit.$The$loan$instalments$are$credited$to$the$fund$thereby$replenishing$the$fund.$It$grows$further$by$interest$on$loans$and$donations.$This$fund$should$basically$be$a$revolving;$a$portion$of$the$profits$earned$from$activities$carried$out$using$resources$from$this$fund$should$invariably$be$credited$to$it.$It$should$progressively$appreciate$in$value,$and$a$part$of$it$could$be$used$to$implement$various$programs$for$the$benefit$of$the$community.$(UN;HABITAT,2008)$The$office$bearer$who$has$been$selected$with$in$the$settlement$of$the$CDC$has$the$capacity$to$administer$their$communities$independently$and$to$implement$various$programs$for$the$benefit$of$the$community.$In$the$case$of$Korail$and$Halgaha$Kubura,$the$revolving$funds$should$be$used$for$people$to$build$their$house$resistance$to$flooding$and$at$the$same$time$to$develop$livelihoods$or$self;employment.$$And$further,$this$may$be$used$for$granting$instant$loans$and$distress$loans$etc.$!!! 212!A$revolving$fund$should$never$be$static.$It$should$not$be$used$for$activities$that$do$not$generate$funds.$Funds$are$received$and$loans$too$are$granted.$Hence$the$funds$circulate$and$get$replenished.$If$a$fund$is$used$for$infrastructure$development$such$as$rehabilitation$of$internal$roads,$the$fund$gets$depreciated$without$replenishment.$Therefore$the$CDCs$should$be$educated$as$to$how$the$fund$should$be$maintained$prudently.$(UN_HABITAT,2008)$$This$further$helps$the$community$to$get$access$to$land,$security$of$tenure$and$access$to$finance.$Without$security$of$tenure,$the$poor$are$at$constant$risk$of$eviction$and,$in$the$longer$term,$are$reluctant$to$invest$in$long;term$shelter$improvements.$Without$access$to$affordable$finance,$poor$people$are$caught$in$a$vicious$cycle$in$which$affordable$housing$is$inadequate,$but$adequate$housing$is$unaffordable.$$$Halgaha(Kubura;(V=1(and(V=2(zones(Lack$of$attention$to$this$“social$network”$is$a$reason$why$many$resilience$plans$failed$and$what$I$understood$from$conversing$with$the$people$is$that$why$the$projects$the$government$and$non;governmental$organization$initiate$fail$and$why$residents$are$often$discontent$about$them.$The$Edible$landscaping$project$done$in$Halgaha$Kubura$by$McGill$university,$that$lead$to$the$formation$of$Community$Development$Council,$which$helped$towards$the$progression$of$the$project.$$This$organized$the$community$and$generated$interest$and$participation$for$the$project’s$implementation$and$its$associated$programs.$However,$many$of$the$issues$prioritized$by$the$CDCs$had$already$been$identified$in$numerous$analyses$made$by$the$state$authorities$and$organizations,$such$as$Colombo’s$2002$Poverty$Profile.$Measures$to$address$these$priorities,$such$as$income$and$housing,$often$appear$to$be$determined$by$what$corresponds$to$the$goals$and$motives$of$the$project$actors$and$stakeholders.$As$a$result,$the$CDCs$in$Halgaha$Kubura$served$no$real$political$purpose$or$force,$and$this$provided$the$community$with$a$social$and$political$identity.$!!! 213!$6.5.3(Ideas(from(other(projects(As$a$lesson$learning$process$to$develop$a$disaster$resilience$plan,$it$is$important$to$explore$and$study$good$practices$on$preparing$disaster$resilience$plans$in$other$countries.$The$Owner$driven$recovery$and$reconstruction$project$was$a$good$example$I$came$across$to$make$low$income$communities$to$move$to$better$shelter$and$proper$infrastructure$facilities.(The$concept$of$owner;driven$housing$reconstruction$has$its$roots$in$the$pioneering$work$of$John$F.C.$Turner.$The$owner;driven$model$of$housing$reconstruction$in$its$current$form$has$become$prevalent$after$the$2001$Gujarat$earthquake.$The$owner;driven$model$has$been$promoted$as$it$involves$people$in$decision$that$are$directly$related$to$them.$By$employing$such$involvement$offers$intangible$benefits$such$as$instilling$a$sense$of$ownership$and$empowers$people.$(Tafti;$The!Cities!Alliance!2011a)$The$observation$made$while$I$was$working$with$people$who$were$affected$from$the$tsunami$and$the$man$made$disaster$of$30$years$of$civil$war$in$Sri$Lanka,$was$the$sense$of$ownership$they$had$for$their$one$bed$room$dwelling$than$a$all$equipped$house$built$by$donor$agencies.$$Sustainability$can$be$increased$if$the$residents$are$able$to$plan$their$own$house$layouts$according$individual$family’s$needs.$$$$$$!!! 214!Figure$6.13$Different$modes$of$community$Participation$(Source:((Sketched(by(author,(2013/world&health&organization&1991)$$Targeting$the$slum$communities$a$project$was$carried$out$in$Colombo$Sri$Lanka,$at$a$high;rise$multifamily$estates$called$as$“sahaspura”,$which$is$built$to$resettle$slum$dwellers$next$to$Halgaha$Kubura$settlement$in$order$to$clear$the$land$for$future$development.$$It$is$culturally,$socially$and$economically$challenging$for$the$poor$to$adapt$to$–$especially$if$higher$rents$and$utility$bills$are$to$be$paid$for$they$are$not$use$to$live$in$high;rise$apartments.$$Many$just$sell$their$homes$at$very$low$prices$or$rent$them$!!! 215!out$to$wealthier$people$and$move$back$to$slums.$Although$this$may$help$them$financially,$this$situation$is$not$sustainable.$Therefore,$social$and$cultural$aspects$need$to$be$seriously$negotiated$with$them$and$the$decision$has$to$come$out$of$them$when$attempting$to$improve$living$conditions$and$executing$resilience$plans$for$flooding$and$other$disasters.$$Figure$6.14$Sahaspura$Housing$Project,$Colombo.$$$$$$$$(Source:$Photo$by$Author,$2013.)$$The$potential$advantages$of$owner;driven$recommendation$in$terms$of$cost;and$time$effective$and$in$empowering$citizens$to$rebuild$their$houses$according$to$their$individual$needs$and$preference$(G.$Lizarralde$et$al,$2010;$Jennifer,$2012;$(Ratnayake$&$Rameezdeen,$2010).$The$sense$of$ownership$is$very$important$when$developing$a$disaster$resilience$plan,$specially$in$situations$like$Korail$and$Halgaha$Kubura.$This$approach$is$faster$and$more$!!! 216!economical$as$owners$supplement$the$assistance$with$their$own$assets.(Right$from$the$beginning$of$the$study$we$argued$that$context;$specific$knowledge$on$the$causes$of$flooding,$the$associated$risks$and$existing$coping$strategies$is$needed$in$order$to$guide$future$action.$$The$proposed$Adaptation$and$Disaster$Resilient$Design$Guidelines(has$attempted$to$communicate$this$information$in$a$way$that$is$useful$and$practical$to$city$officials$in$developing$countries,$in$light$of$particular$needs$and$capacity$constraints.$Given$the$concerns$facing$these$cities,$the$resilience$plan$has$emphasized$the$unique$impacts$of$climate$change$on$informal$settlements,$the$urban$poor,$and$other$vulnerable$groups.$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$!!! 217!Chapter(7:(Conclusions($Global$warming$and$climate$change$are$common$phenomenon$in$today’s$world.$$Consequences$of$this$phenomenon$are$already$starting$to$affect$people$around$the$globe,$specifically$the$low$income$in$developing$nations.$$Urban$poor$are$the$most$vulnerable$population$among$many$who$are$affected$due$to$global$warming$and$climate$change.$Governments$in$these$countries$have$been$unable$to$face$this$issue$due$to$their$poor$economies$and$weak$governance$structures.$$However,$the$poor$have$been$able$to$survive$economically$as$well$have$managed$to$live$in$challenging$environmental$conditions.$$They$have$been$resilient$to$the$harsh$conditions$created$by$natural$disasters$and$forced$evictions$due$to$the$insecurity$of$tenure.$$This$study$has$been$carried$out$in$two$different$cities,$Colombo,$Sri$Lanka$and$Dhaka,$Bangladesh$in$South$Asia.$$It$examines$how$the$poor$have$been$able$to$improve$their$resiliency$towards$effects$of$volatile$climatic$conditions.$$Colombo$and$Dhaka$are$the$largest$and$commercially$most$prominent$cities$of$the$respective$nations.$$Colombo$is$a$coastal$city$situated$on$a$low;lying$flood$plain$surrounded$by$canals.$$Dhaka$is$also$located$on$low;lying$floodplains,$and$is$surrounded$by$large$rivers$and$canals.$$Colombo$is$a$slow$growing$city$with$a$population$of$2.3$million$(Department$of$Census$and$Statistics,$2013),$unlike$Dhaka,$which$is$fast$growing$mega;city$that$boasts$a$population$of$12.4$million$inhabitants$(Roy,$2009).$$Though$the$two$are$different,$one$factor$is$common$to$both$cities,$the$devastation$faced$due$to$the$effects$of$climate$change.$$Cities,$being$the$engines$of$economic$growth,$attract$rural$poor$who$have$been$living$mostly$in$informal$settlements$that$are$located$on$high$risk$locations$such$as$low;lying$flood$plains,$garbage$dump$sites,$river$or$canal$embankments,$and$on$steep$hilly$slopes$prone$to$landslides.$$The$study$has$selected$a$low;income$community$from$each$city$as$!!! 218!case$studies$for$in;depth$analysis$of$resiliency$of$these$poor$communities.$$$The$objective$of$the$research$encompass$mapping$of$historical$changes$in$community$in$term$of$land$use,$housing$and$livelihood,$study$the$coping$strategies$that$people$adapted$before,$during$and$after$disasters$and$to$highlight$resilient$components$of$community$adaptation$and$disaster$resilience$for$future$planning.$$$Halgaha$Kubura$in$Colombo$is$the$community$chosen$from$Sri$Lankan$while$Korail$in$Dhaka$is$the$community$from$Bangladesh.$$They$are$the$largest$and$perhaps$the$oldest$poor$settlements$of$the$two$cities.$$Halgaha$Kubura$is$located$on$a$10acre$land$in$ward$number$32$of$Colombo$Municipal$Council.$$It$is$situated$bordering$one$of$the$largest$canals$called$Dematagoda$Canal$in$Colombo.$$Halgaha$Kubura$was$an$abandoned$private$land$used$by$municipality$as$a$dumpsite.$$Poor$families$have$encroached$this$land$over$the$last$forty$years$and$have$built$make$shift$temporary$shacks$for$their$homes.$$Currently$it$is$a$community$of$700$families$comprising$a$population$of$2,742.$(Jezeph,$2004)$$Korail$is$the$biggest$slum$in$Dhaka,$which$has$grown$over$a$period$35$years$on$a$90acre$land$that$belongs$to$three$government$departments.$$This$informal$settlement$is$home$to$over$100,000$poor$people.$$Both$settlements$share$certain$similar$characteristics,$such$as$high$population$density$and$close$proximity$to$a$water$body.$$Almost$every$year$both$communities$experience$climatic$hazards$from$excessive$rainfalls,$increased$heat,$and$flooding.$$$Apart$from$the$published$data$respecting$the$effects$of$climate$changes$on$poor$communities,$the$key$methodology$used$for$primary$data$collection$was$the$'Transect$Walk'.$$It$was$accomplished$through$observing$how$people$have$adapted$to$the$climatic$!!! 219!hazards$over$a$long$period$of$time$and$observing$people$regarding$their$experience$and$level$of$resiliency.$$In$addition$to$the$Transect$Walk,$primary$data$was$collected$through$photographs$and$sketches$of$the$community$life$and$man;made$structures.$$My$prior$experiences$with$low;income$settlements$immensely$helped$me$in$collect$data$more$effectively$and$efficiently.$$Transect$Mapping$was$used$as$the$key$tool$for$primary$data$interpretation$and$analysis.$$Data$collected$on$the$field$through$transact$walks$were$depicted$on$the$maps$of$the$two$settlements.$$Map$of$the$transact$walk$is$demarcated$into$zones$using$codes$for$systematizing$the$data$analysis.$$Through$a$thorough$analysis$of$Transact$Maps$of$the$two$settlements,$this$study$described$contextual$situations,$vulnerability$of$and$hazards$faced$by$people,$and$adaptation$and$resilience$mechanisms$developed$by$people$in$terms$of$basic$infrastructure,$housing,$Social$networks$and$livelihoods.$$Finally,$it$has$made$attempts$to$identify$key$components$for$preparation$of$a$plan$for$adaptation$and$resilience$for$reducing$vulnerabilities$of$the$urban$poor$against$climate$change.$$$Bangladesh$is$a$disaster$prone$country.$It$is$predicted$that$a$large$part$of$coastal$areas$of$Bangladesh$will$be$affected$by$sea$level$rising,$making$those$areas$uninhabitable.$These$areas$are$severely$affected$annually$by$cyclones$and$heavy$monsoon$rains.$$Therefore,$urbanization$in$Bangladesh$is$not$only$due$to$migration$of$people$from$rural$to$urban$but$also$by$heavy$displacement$of$people$due$to$the$intensification$of$natural$disasters.$Most$people$settled$in$Korail$slums$are$migrants$due$to$these$factors.$$$Korail$is$a$large$urban$slum$which$is$affected$by$floods$and$also$and$the$inhabitants$live$under$threats$of$eviction.$However,$the$residents$prefer$to$stay$in$the$slum$due$to$the$ease$of$been$able$to$secure$employment.$$Most$of$the$livelihoods$range$from$informal$work$to$manual$labor$jobs$that$are$in$high$demand$in$various$sectors$throughout$the$city.$$The$land$on$which$the$entire$slum$is$built$on$comes$under$purview$of$three$!!! 220!government$departments.$$The$tenures$of$the$residents$in$Korail$are$uncertain$due$to$the$projected$plans$that$these$departments$have$in$regards$to$the$land.$$The$residents$are$further$burdened$by$the$reluctance$of$respective$authorities$to$provide$essential$services.$$Collectively,$these$factors$have$discouraged$even$the$oldest$residents$from$investing$to$improve$their$own$houses.$$Most$of$the$houses$in$Korail$fall$under$the$categories$of$Juphri$houses,$which$are$made$out$of$cloths$and/or$paper$and$Xutcha$houses,$which$are$temporary$structures$made$out$of$straw,$bamboo,$and$waste$materials$(Wendt,1997).$$Comparatively$Colombo$is$a$smaller$city,$which$has$rarely$experienced$mass$migration$from$rural$areas$or$environmental$migrants$in$the$past$forty$years.$$However,$due$to$the$intra;migration$and$the$natural$growth$of$population$it$has$not$been$able$to$address$the$housing$problem$of$slums$and$squatters$located$in$vulnerable$and$disaster$prone$areas$such$as$low;lying$flood$plains,$canal$embankments,$and$flood$retention$areas.$Halgaha$Kubura$is$one$of$the$largest$squatter$communities$located$on$a$canal$bank$in$the$city$of$Colombo.$$$The$strong$community$relationship$between$the$local$urban$communities$has$been$a$sustainable$coping$strategy$for$reducing$the$vulnerabilities$and$facing$effects$of$disasters.$$Saving$systems$based$on$a$combination$of$traditional,$such$as$micro$finance$and$saving$groups,$and$modern,$such$as$the$Community$Development$Council$saving$groups,$financial$principles$are$more$sustainable$and$practical.$$These$structures$have$an$effective$mechanism$to$respond$to$disasters$and$forced$evictions.$$Walking$through$the$two$settlements$from$V;1$to$V;4,$significant$differences$could$be$observed$in$how$people$have$adapted$to$cope$with$monsoon$flooding.$$People$have$used$strategies$such$as$innovative$improvements$to$houses$as$well$as$non;tangible$precautions$such$as$formation$of$community$savings$groups,$income$diversification,$and$!!! 221!accumulation$of$livelihood$assets.$$Housing$is$a$key$asset$that$people$have$acquired,$built,$adapted$and$improved.$Housing$and$infrastructures$built$by$the$individual$over$time$have$been$able$to$negotiate$with$the$relevant$authorities$to$improve$the$security$of$tenures.$$Though$it$is$not$formal,$security$of$tenure$can$be$enhanced$through$the$practice$of$a$home$based$livelihood.$$Further,$incremental$efforts$towards$establishing$a$livelihood$can$discourage$relevant$authorities$from$evicting$residents.$$Established$livelihoods$have$been$able$to$discourage$eviction.$The$residents$of$V1$and$V2$zones$boasts$profound$knowledge$in$constructing$flood$resilient$houses.$$This$wealth$of$knowledge$is$due$to$the$fact$that$these$two$zones$comprises$of$people$who$have$settled$there$since$the$early$days$of$Korail$and$people$who$have$moved$to$the$two$zones$from$V3$and$V4$with$extensive$experiences$of$facing$floods.$$$Some$of$the$adaptive$mechanisms$are:$. Use$of$upgraded$building$materials,$which$are$resistance$to$floods.$$. Application$of$technologies$from$rural$areas$to$urban$areas.$. Adapted$housing$layouts:$construction$of$protective$barriers,$outlets$for$easy$flow$of$water,$and$multiple$floor$levels.$erecting$higher$barriers$across$doors,$creating$outlets$from$houses$for$the$easy$flow$of$water,$developing$alternative$means$of$access$to$the$buildings,$and$building$temporary$higher$stilt$structures$even$inside$the$rooms$. Moving$valuables$to$safer$places$and$using$movable$household$items.$$. Typically$people$in$V;1$zone$build$on$higher$grounds$and$they$improve$their$drainage$facilities$to$reduce$water$clogging$during$monsoon$season.$$. The$adapted$infrastructure,$such$as$underground$water$tanks$and$pit$latrines$reduce$the$risk$of$health$hazards.$$$. Households$share$services$(e.g.$toilets)$with$unaffected$neighbors.$$$!!! 222!. The$non;physical$adaptation$and$coping$methods$achieved$by$the$people$are$developed$social$capital,$community$saving$systems,$and$the$Community$Development$Council.$$$$Most$of$the$occupants$in$V;3$and$V;4$are$temporary$dwellers$or$renters$so$they$are$not$willing$to$improve$their$dwellings.$$A$key$factor$is$the$knowledge$they$had$gained$in$rural$areas,$which$helps$them$to$survive$natural$disasters.$$Though$the$residents$in$V1$are$able$to$hire$skilled$labor$most$people$in$V3$are$not$able$to$do$so,$hence$they$have$acquired$coping$strategies$by$inherited$knowledge$and$through$experience.$$During$the$flood$season$people$move$to$upper$floor$levels$in$V;1$zone$while$the$people$in$V;2,V;3,$and$V;4$zones$move$their$valuables$out$of$the$settlement$into$their$relatives$or$friends$places.$$Savings$is$seen$as$a$main$coping$strategy$for$most$of$the$households.$$Households,$especially$in$the$V;1$zone$saved$regularly$with$savings$groups$and$the$Community$Development$Council,$with$the$intention$of$being$able$to$take$a$loan$from$their$savings$during$and$after$a$disaster.$$$The$settlers$tend$to$associate$mostly$with$people$from$the$same$origins.$$As$the$savings$groups$are$formed$within$such$circles$and$extended$families,$the$social$and$livelihood$networks$that$are$formed$as$a$result$become$the$first$respondents$in$times$of$disasters.$The$strong$bonds$that$exist$among$inhabitants$are$due$to$the$layout$of$the$communities.$$The$courtyard;style$living$and$sharing$of$spaces$and$public$services$promotes$strong$bonds,$which$in$turn$encourages$sharing$among$the$people.$$These$bonds$could$be$further$seen$as$the$landlords$act$as$guardians$to$their$tenants.$$$The$involvement$of$the$communities$in$formulating$disaster$management$planning$is$of$highest$importance.$$Since$the$many$levels$of$disaster$management,$such$as$relocation$!!! 223!efforts,$infrastructure$rehabilitation,$and$restructuring$of$early$warning$systems$are$carried$out$in$a$linear$fashion,$the$communities$get$left$out$of$the$disaster$management$planning$process.$$Women’s$abilities$in$mitigating$hazards$and$coping$with$disaster$have$not$sufficiently$been$taken$into$account$nor$fostered.$$As$well,$the$relationship$the$communities$have$with$the$respective$governmental$authorities$is$important$for$planning.$$The$vulnerability$transect$mapping$carried$out$in$Halgaha$Kubura$tries$to$extract$the$advantages$of$community$participation,$community$organizations,$involvement$of$gender$for$infrastructure$development,$and$coping$and$adaptation$strategies$in$order$to$build$a$disaster$resilience$plan$that$will$be$most$effective.)$With$the$involvement$of$social$groups$and$CDC$members,$the$residents$of$Halgaha$Kubura$were$able$to$achieve$fairly$secure$tenure$(not$freehold$titles).$$As$a$result$people$wanted$to$improve$not$only$their$houses$but$also$public$infrastructure$as$well.$$Involvement$of$the$community$to$develop$adaptive$mechanisms$was$a$successful$method,$which$reduced$the$cost$of$labour.$$Accumulation$of$garbage$and$bad$sanitation$in$slums$are$the$major$causes$of$water$bone$diseases.$$In$order$to$prevent$the$spread$of$diseases,$people$have$built$their$own$in;home$toilets$with$the$use$of$developed$methods$such$as$septic$tanks$(common$and$indiviaula$soak$pits$with$cleaning$access),$ventilated$pit$latrines,$and$raised;pit$latrines.$$This$research$has$attempted$to$collect$resilient$solutions,$which$can$be$further$adapted$to$a$context$such$as$Korail$and$Halgaha$Kubura.$$It$highlights$reduced$impact$and$vulnerability$through$various$mechanisms$of$technological$use,$social$organization,$economic$relationships,$and$cultural$arrangements.$$Architects,$planners,$environmentalists,$and$social$development$activist$when$!!! 224!considering$development$of$housing$and$infrastructure$for$low;income$people$who$are$faced$with$the$risks$of$floods$can$utilize$the$following$two$aspects.$$. Use$the$sources$that$low;income$people$already$have:$skilled$labor,$knowledge,$low$cost$methods,$and$recyclable$materials.$. Developed$livelihood$means:$these$people$are$under$poverty$and$due$to$various$factors$explained,$they$hardly$get$services$from$governmental$and$non;governmental$organizations.$$The$goal$is$to$find$solutions$for$poor$communities$to$over$come$difficulties$and$be$resilient$to$the$natural$disasters$and$improve$their$lives.$While$the$development$plans$improve$their$livelihoods$the$people$are$able$invest$in$housing$which$could$withstand$regular$disasters$like$monsoon$flooding.$$This$study$began$by$arguing$that$pro;poor$adaptation$to$climate$variability$in$cities$demands$a$better$understanding$of$the$poor’s$adaptive$capacity$and$they’re$autonomous$coping$strategies.$$This$is$because$the$urban$poor$are$affected$by$the$“double$vulnerability”$;$climate$change$and$poverty,$which$means$that$they$are$disproportionately$affected$both$in$terms$of$their$exposure$to$climate;related$risks$and$in$terms$of$the$limited$resources$at$their$disposal$to$respond$to$such$risks.$(Environment$&$Urbanization,2010)$$7.1(Future(implementation(Thus,$support$to$local$adaptation$must$pay$attention$to$the$differentiated$impacts$of$and$responses$to$climate$change$among$different$groups$in$society.$There$is$a$series$of$issues$to$take$into$account$in$order$to$mainstream$this$consideration$into$future$disaster$resilience$and$adaptation$plans$in$an$effective$and$equitable$way:$!!! 225!1. Use$of$local$knowledge$brought$from$rural$areas$to$urban$setting$to$develop$disaster$resilience$plans$to$reduces$Vulnerability$of$the$urban$poor$community.$2. The$experience$and$knowledge$that$the$locals$have$gained$over$time$should$be$infused$into$the$formulation$of$adaptation$strategies$that$external$agencies$develop$to$produce$disaster$resilient$plans.$3. Disaster$resilience$can$be$increased$through$the$application$various$different$financial$relief$strategies$that$were$discussed.$4. Both$governmental$and$non;governmental$organizations$should$work$towards$strengthening$the$people$of$the$low;income$communities$against$disasters$by$ways$such$as$securing$their$tenures$and$constructing$disaster$resilient$housing,$rather$than$simply$relocating$the$inhabitants.$5. The$relevant$organizations$that$will$be$undertaking$the$construction$efforts$in$the$communities$can$exploit$the$physically$and$mentally$capable$labor$force$that$is$readily$available$in$the$respective$communities.$6. The$resilient$planning$should$support$the$livelihoods$of$the$inhabitants$while$providing$continued$support$towards$securing$tenure.$7. 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237!Sanderson$D.,$(2001).$Urban$livelihoods$and$natural$disasters,$CARE$International$UK.$Retrieved$on$20th$May$2012$from$www.radixonline.org/resources/sanderson.doc!$$$Satterthwaite$D.,$(2007).$Climate$Change$And$Urbanization:$Effects$And$Implications$For$Urban$Governance,$United$Nations$Expert$Group$Meeting$On$Population$Distribution,$Urbanization,$Internal$Migration$And$Development$;$$Population$Division$Department$of$Economic$and$Social$Affairs,$United$Nations$Secretariat$New$York.$$Satterthwaite$D.,$Huq$S.,$Pelling$M.,$Reid$H.$&$Lankao$P.$R.,$(2007).$Adapting$to$Climate$Change$in$Urban$Areas$:$The$possibilities$and$constraints$in$low;$and$middle;income$nations.$$Human$Settlements$Discussion$Paper$Series$;Theme:$Climate$Change$and$Cities$–$1,$Human$Settlements$Group$and$the$Climate$Change$Group$at$the$International$Institute$for$Environment$and$Development$(IIED).$Retrieved$on$May$2,$2013,$from$http://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/10549IIED.pdf$$SDMC.$(2012).$SAARC$Workshop$on$Flood$Risk$Management$in$South$Asia.$In$O.$Mishra$(Ed.).$(p.$172).$New$Delhi:$SAARC$Disaster$Management$Centre.$Sengupta,$S.$(2013,$August$15).$Revived)to)be)killed).$Retrieved$August$19,$2013,$from$Down$to$Earth:$http://www.downtoearth.org.in/content/revived;be;killer.$$Sevanatha$(2002),$Partnership$to$Improve$Access$and$Quality$of$Public$Transport$–$Case$Study$of$Colombo,$Sri$Lanka.$$Sevanatha,$CMC.$(2013).$Halgahakumbura$Urban$Agriculture$Project$.$Colombo.$Sevanatha.$(2003).$Urban$Slums$Reports:$The$case$of$Colombo,$Sri$Lanka.$London:$DPU,$UCL.$Retrieved$July$06,$2012,$from$http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu;projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Columbo.pdf$Sevenatha.$(2005).$Urban$Agriculture$as$a$Mechanism$for$Urban$Upgrading.$UA;Magazine$,$21;22.$$Sinthia,$S.$A.$(2013).$Sustainable$Urban$Development$of$Slum$Prone$Area$of$Dhaka$City$.$World)Academy)of)Science,)Engineering)and)Technology$,$393;400.$!!! 238!$Sirivardana$S.,$(1999)$The$Practice$of$A$Participatory$Paradigm$in$Housing$&$Land$Development$by$The$Urban$Poor$in$Sri$Lanka$(1984$–$1994),$Sri$Lanka.$$Social$Philosophy$&$Policy$Foundation.$(2009).$Do)Global)Warming)And)Climate)Change)Represent)A)Serious)Threat)To)Our)Welfare)And)Environment?$Pennsylvania$State$University,$Meteorology$and$Geosciences.$$Societies,$International$Federation$of$Red$Cross$and$Red$Crescent.$(2010).$World$Disasters$Report$2010:$Focus$on$urban$risk.$Geneva:$International$Federation$of$Red$Cross$and$Red$Crescent$Societies.$Southern$Tier$Central$Regional$Planning$and$Development$Board.$(n.d.).$Flood)Resistant)Design.$Retrieved$May$29,$2013,$from$http://www.stcplanning.org/usr/Program_Areas/Flood_Mitigation/Floodplain%20Management/NFIP_09_Flood_Resistant_Design.pdf$$Sultana,$F.$(2007).$))Sustainable)Water)Supply:)Rainwater)Harvesting)For)Multistoried)Residential)Apartments)In)Dhaka,)Bangladesh)).$Master$Of$Science$$Thesis,$A$&$M$University,$Graduate$Studies,$Texas.$$Talen,$E.$(2002).$Help$for$Urban$Planning:$The$Transect$Strategy.$Journal)of)Urban)Design$,)7$(3),$293–312.$$Tawhid$K.$G.$(2004),Causes$and$Effects$of$Water$Logging$in$Dhaka$City,$Bangladesh,$Department$of$Land$and$Water$Resource$Engineering,$KTH,$Stockholm.$$The$Cities$Alliance$(2011a),$CITIES$WITHOUT$SLUMS:$The$Case$for$Incremental$Housing$by$P.$Wakely,$E.$Riley$Cities$Alliance$Policy$Research$and$Working$Papers$Series$No.$1,$Washington,$D.C.$$The$Cities$Alliance.$(2011b).$Cities)Without)Slums:)The)case)for)Incremental)Housing.$Washington,$DC,$USA:$The$Cities$Alliance.$!!! 239!The$Daily$Star.$(2008,$October$20).$The)Daily)Star.$Retrieved$June$4,$2013,$from$Eying$rainwater$harvesting$as$water$crisis$deepens:$http://archive.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news;details.php?nid=59428$$The$International$Bank$for$Reconstruction$and$Development/The$World$Bank.$(2011).$Climate$Change,$Disaster$Risk,$and$the$Urban$Poor$Cities$Building$Resilience$for$a$Changing$World$.$Washington,$DC$:$The$World$Bank.$$The$world$Bank$Group$(2011)$Climatic$risk$and$adaptation$Country$Profile$Vulnerability,$Risk$Reduction,$and$Adaptation$to$Climate$Change.$Global$Facility$for$Disaster$Reduction$and$Recovery/$the$Climate$Change$Team$of$the$Environment$Department$of$the$World$Bank.$Washington,$DC$$The$World$Bank$Group.$(2011,$April).$Climate$Risk$and$Adaptation$Country$Profile:$Sri$Lanka.$Retrieved$February$14,$2013,$from$http://countryadaptationprofiles.gfdrr.org:$http://sdwebx.worldbank.org/climateportalb/doc/GFDRRCountryProfiles/wb_gfdrr_climate_change_country_profile_for_LKA.pdf$$The$World$Bank.$(2012,$February$13).$Project$Appraisal$Document$on$a$Proposed$Loan$in$the$amount$of$USD$213$Million$to$the$Democractic$Socialist$Republic$of$Sri$Lanka$for$the$Metro$Colombo$Urban$Development$Project.$The$World$Bank.$Retrieved$from$http://www;wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2012/02/27/000333038_20120227233002/Rendered/PDF/662580PAD0Box30official0use0only090.pdf$$The$World$Bank/The$International$Bank$for$Reconstruction$and$Development.$(2011).$Guide$to$climatic$change$adaptation$in$cities,$The$International$Bank$for$Reconstruction$and$Development.$Washington,$DC$thedailystarnet.$(2009,$May$04).$The)Death)of)Canals.$(E.$Kamol,$Editor)$Retrieved$April$14,$2013,$from$Star$Weekend$Magazine:$http://archive.thedailystar.net/magazine/2009/05/04/cover.htm$$!!! 240!Thurairajah,$N.,$Palliyaguru,$R.,$&$Williams,$A.$(n.d.).$Incorporate)disaster)management)perspective)into)built)environment)undergraduate)curriculum.$Retrieved$June$21,$2012,$from$http://iiirr.ucalgary.ca/files/iiirr/218.pdf$$Titumir$R.$A.$and$Hossain,$J.$$(2004).$BARRIERS$TO$ACCESS$TO$PUBLIC$SERVICES$FOR$THE$URBAN$POOR:$AN$ENQUIRY$INTO$DHAKA$SLUMS.$XXVII.$$Turner$J.$F.$C.,$(1976).$Housing$by$People.$London:$Marion$Boyars.$$$Twigg$J.$(2007)$Characteristics$of$a$Disaster;resilient$Community,$A$guide$note.$Retrieved$on$20th$November$2012$from$Benfield$UCL$Hazard$Research$Centre$website:$$http://www.benfieldhrc.org/disaster_studies/projects/$communitydrrindicators/community_drr_indicators_index.htm$$UN;HABITAT$(2006)$THE$STATE$OF$THE$WORLD’S$CITIES$REPORT$2006/2007,$30$Years$of$Shaping$the$Habitat$Agenda,$Earthscan$Publications$in$the$UK$and$USA.$$UN;HABITAT$(2003).$The$Challenge$of$Slums,$Global$Report$on$Human$Settlements$2003.$London:$Earthscan.$$UN;HABITAT$(2009)$Sri$Lanka:$Innovative$Approaches$For$Involuntary$Resettlement:$Lunawa$Environmental$Improvement$&$Community$Development$Project,$United$Nations$Human$Settlements$Programme$(UN;HABITAT)$Nairobi$Kenya.$$$UN;Habitat,$Assessing$Slums$In$The$Development$Context,$Retrieved$on$November$2,$2012,$from$http://www.unhabitat.org/downloads/docs/GRHS.2003.2.pdf.$$$UN;HABITAT.$(2003).$Slums)of)the)World:)The)face)of)urban)poverty)in)the)new)millennium?).$Nairobi:$UN;HABITAT.$$UN;Habitat.$(2008.),$Harmonious$Cities:$State$of$the$World’s$Cities$2008/9.$Earthscan$Publications$Ltd,$London$and$Sterling,$VA.$$$UN;HABITAT.$(2009).$SRI$LANKA;$Innovative$Approaches$for$Involuntary$Resettlement.$(J.$M.$Patralekha$Chatterjee,$Ed.)$Nairobi,$Kenya:$UN;HABITAT$Regional$Office$!!! 241!for$Asia$&$the$Pacific.$UNCHS$(Habitat).$(1985).$Shelter$for$Low−Income$Communities:$Sri$Lanka$Demonstration$Project$Case$Study$−$Part$I.$Retrieved$November$27,$2012$from$http://www.chs.ubc.ca/archives/files/Shelter%20for%20Low%20Income%20Communities.pdf$$UNESCAP.$(n.d.).$Country$Reports$on$Local$Government$Systems:$Sri$Lanka.$Retrieved$from$http://www.unescap.org/huset/lgstudy/new;countrypaper/SriLanka/SriLanka.pdf$UNHABITAT.$(2008).$GUIDELINES)FOR)THE)ESTABLISHMENT)OF)A)REVOLVING)FUND)BY)A)COMMUNITY)DEVELOPMENT)COUNCIL.$Community$Capacity$Building$Guidelines,$Consolidation$for$Settlement$Capacity$Building$and$Livelihoods$Development$Project$in$Sri$Lanka.$$Uni;Consultancy$Services.$(2011).$Metro$Colombo$Urban$Development$Project:$Environmental$Screening$Report$for$Construction$of$bank$protection$walls.$Colombo:$University$of$Moratuwa.$$United$Nations$(2008)$Disaster$Preparedness$for$Effective$Response;$Guidance$and$Indicator$Package$for$Implementing$Priority$Five$of$the$Hyogo$Framework,$Hyogo$Framework$for$Action$2005;2015:$Building$the$resilience$of$nations$and$communities$to$disasters.$New$York$and$Geneva.$$United$Nations$Environment$Programme$(UNEP)$(2005),$Dhaka$City$State$of$Environment$Report:$2005,$United$Nations$Environment$Programme$(UNEP),$Dhaka.$$United$Nations,$UNISDR.$(2012).$How$To$Make$Cities$More$Resilient:$A$Handbook$For$Local$Government$Leaders–$My$City$is$Getting$Ready!$In$A.$R.$Helena$Molin$Valdés$(Ed.),$A$contribution$to$the$global$campaign$2010;2015$:Making$Cities$Resilient.$Geneva:$UNISDR.$!!! 242!United$Nations.$(2012).$World$Urbanization$Prospects$The$2011$Revision$.$United$Nations$Department$of$Economic$and$Social$Affairs/Population$Division.$New$York:$United$Nations$.$$University$of$Moratuwa.$(2011).$Environmental)Management)Framework:)Metro)Colombo)Urban)Development)Project).$Ministry$of$Defence$and$Urban$Development.$Ministry$of$Defence$and$Urban$Development.$$Unnayan$Onneshan;The$Innovators.$(2009).$Climate$Change$and$Flow$of$Environmental$Displacement$in$Bangladesh.$(T.$Akter,$Ed.)$Dhaka,$Bangladesh:$Unnayan$Onneshan.$V.K.,$M.,$Sivakumar,$&$Stefanski,$R.$(2011).$Climate$Change$in$South$Asia.$In$R.$Lal,$s.$Faiz,$Sivakumar,$&$Mustafizur,$Climatic)Change)and)Food)Security)in)South)Asia$(pp.$13;30).$Springer.$$Wakely$P.$&$Riley$E.,(2003).$Communication$for$Sustainable$Urban$Livelihoods$(CSUL),Development$Planning$Unit,$University$College$London.$$Wakely,$P.$(2007,$December).$Land)Tenure)In)UnderYServed)Settlements)In)Colombo)Sri)Lanka.$Retrieved$November$27,$2012,$from$http://www.dpu;associates.net/system/files/Colombo+Land+Report.pdf$Wamsler,$C.$(2007).$Managing)Urban)Disaster)Risk)Analysis)and)Adaptation)Frameworks)for)Integrated)Settlement)Development)Programming)for)the)Urban)Poor).$Lund$University,$Housing$Development$&$Management$(HDM)$Architecture$and$Built$Environment$.$Sweden:$Media;Tryck,$Lund.$p$321$$WaterAid$(2001)$Land$Tenure.$Water$Aid.$London$$WaterAid.$(2007).$Bangladesh)Civil)society)organisation)involvement)in)urban)water)sector)reform).$London:$WaterAid.$$Wendt,$S.$(1997).$Slum)and)Squtter)Settlements)in)Dhaka:)A)study)of)the)consolidation)processes)in)Dhaka's)lowYincome)settlement)areas.$Ph.D$Thesis,$Roskilde$University.$!!! 243!$World$Health$Organization.$(1991).$Surface)Water)Drainage)for)LowYIncome)Communities.$ENGLAND.$!Wijayasinghe,$D.$(2010).$Factors)contributing)to)the)failure)of)development)induced)resettlement)projects:)a)case)study)of)the)“Sahaspura”)slum)relocation)project,)Colombo,)Sri)Lanka).$Master's$Thesis,$IHS,$Rotterdam,.$$Wisner$B.,$Blaikie$P.,$Cannon$T.,$&$Davis$I.,$(2004),$At)Risk:)Natural)Hazards,)People’s)Vulnerability,)and)Disasters,$2nd$Edition.$Routledge.$New$York,$NY.$376$pages.$$World$Bank$(2007)$Sri$Lanka$Poverty$Assessment.$Engendering$$Growth$with$Equity:$Opportunities$and$Challenges,$Poverty$Reduction$and$Economic$Management$Sector$Unit$South$Asia$Region,$Report$No.$36568;LK,$World$Bank.$$$World$Bank$(2009)$Impact$of$Global$Financial$crisis$on$South$Asia.$South$Asian$Region,$The$World$Bank$Group$2009.$$$Retrieved$on$25th$Oct$2012,From$http://siteresources.worldbank.org/SOUTHASIAEXT/Resources/2235461171488994713/$3455847;;;1232124140958/gfcsouthasiafeb172009.pdf.$$World$bank,$UNCHS,$Cities$Alliance$for$Cities$Without$Slums:$Action$Plan$for$Moving$Slum$Upgrading$to$Scale.$Southern$Tier$Central$Regional$Planning$and$Development$Board.$(n.d.).$Flood)Resistant)Design.$Retrieved$from$http://www.stcplanning.org/usr/Program_Areas/Flood_Mitigation/Floodplain%20Management/NFIP_09_Flood_Resistant_Design.pdf$$$$ $$$$$$$$$!!! 244!$$$$$$Appendix(A( (Pressure$and$Release$(PAR)$model:$the$progression$of$Vulnerability.$(B.$Winser$et$al,$2004)$  Limited access to • Power • Structures • Resources  Ideologies • Political systems • Economic systems    Lack of • Local institutions • Training • Appropriate skills • Local investments • Local markets • Press freedom • Ethical standards in public life  Macro-forces • Rapid population        change Rapid  Physical  environment • Dangerous             locations • Unprotected            buildings and        infrastructure  Local economy • Livelihoods at risk • Low income levels  Social relations • Special groups at risk • Lack of local institutions  Public actions and institutions • Lack of disaster preparedness     Earthquake  High winds (cyclone / hurricane / typhoon)  Flooding  Volcanic eruption  Landslide  Drought  Virus and pests RISK = Hazard x Vulnerability  ROOT CAUSES DYNAMIC PRESSURE UNSAFE CONDITIO DISASTER HAZARDS 1 2 3 THE PROGRESSION OF VULNERABILITY       !!! 245!$ Appendix(B(Evaluation(of(Existing(Disaster(resilience(Plans(and(Guidelines.(($Disaster$resilience$is$‘the$capacity$to$prevent,$mitigate,$prepare$for,$respond$to,$and$recover$from$the$impacts$of$disasters’$(Queensland$Reconstruction$Authority,$n.d.).$Main$responsibilities/$skills/$activities$included$in$Existing$Disaster$resilience$plans.$ Hyogo$Frame$work$for$Action$2005–2015.$United$Nations$(2008)$(UN/ISRD,$2007)$$(Lloyd;$Jones$et$al$,2009)$Queensland$Government$(Queensland$Reconstruction$Authority,$n.d.)$$$MoEF,$(2008).$$(JICA,$2006)$The$world$Bank$Group$(2011)$Disaster$resilience$plan:$Infrastructure$and$housing$Disaster$Mitigation$Organization(and(Coordination.(( $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $1. Ensure$that$disaster$risk$reduction$(DRR)10$is$a$national$and$a$local$priority$with$a$strong$institutional$basis$for$implementation$($United$Nations,2008).$ $X$$ $ $ $X$ $X$ $X$ $ X$2. Promote$DRR$institutional$mechanisms,$activities$need$to$be$implemented$at$the$provincial,$municipal$and$local$levels($United$Nations,2008)$ X$ $ $ X$ X$ $ $ $3. Public;private$partnerships$use$as$a$tool$for$disaster$risk$reduction.11$.($United$Nations,2008)$ X$ $ $ $ X$ $ $ $4. Capacity12$development:$community$participation,$review$local$capacity,$capturing$community$knowledge.($United$Nations,2008)$ X$ X$ X$ X$ X$ X$ X$ X$5. Contacts$with$local$business$and$industry$(networking)$(UN/ISRD,$2007)$ $ X$ $ $ $ $ $ $6. Project$performance$evaluation$and$Monitoring.$(UN/ISRD,$2007;$Lloyd;$Jones$et$al$,2009)$$ $ X$ X$ $ $ $ $ $7. Formation$of$community$organizations$to$improve$disaster$risk$reduction.$(UN/ISRD,$2007;$Lloyd;$Jones$et$al$,2009)$ $ X$ X$ $ $ X$ X$ X$8. Children$and$Youth$at$the$Centre$of$Disaster$Risk$Reduction.$$ $ X$ $ $ $ X$ X$ $9. Gender$Participation$in$disaster$risk$reduction$(United$Nations,2008).$ X$ $ $ $ $ $ X$ X$10. Increase$livelihood$security.$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ X$((Assign(a(Budget.( $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $11. Legislation$to$support$Disaster$Risk$Reduction;$revolving$Emergency$Fund$for$Emergency$Response$as$part$of$the$national$budget$(United$Nations,2008).$ $X$ $ $ $X$ $X$ $ $ $12. Valuation$cost$planning$and$spending$priorities,$development$finance$advice,$financial$planning$and$management$ X$ X$ $ $ X$ $ $ $!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!10$The$conceptual$framework$of$elements$considered$with$the$possibilities$to$minimize$vulnerabilities$and$disaster$risks$throughout$a$society,$to$avoid$(prevention)$or$to$limit$(mitigation$and$preparedness)$adverse$impact$of$hazards,$within$the$broad$context$of$sustainable$development$(ISDR$2007)$11!Public;private$partnerships$are$voluntary$joint$associations$formed$to$address$shared$objectives$through$collaborative$actions.$They$may$involve$public$organisations$such$as$government$agencies,$professional$and/or$academic$institutions$and$NGOs,$together$with$business$organisations$such$as$companies,$industry$associations$and$private$foundations.!12!A$combination$of$all$the$strengths$and$resources$available$within$a$community,$society,$or$organization$that$can$reduce$the$level$of$risk,$or$the$effects$of$a$disaster.$Capacity$may$include$physical,$institutional,$social,$or$economic$means$as$well$as$skilled$personnel$or$attributes$such$as$leadership$and$management.$(ISDR$2007)$!!!! 246!(Thurairajah,$Palliyaguru,$&$Williams).$13. Assistance$and$assessment$of$compensation$claims.$ $ $ X$ $ $ $ $ $14. Insurance:$Disaster$Micro;Insurance$Scheme$for$Low;Income$nations/$communities.$ $ X$ $ $ $ $ $ $Risk(Assessments:(Hazard(+(Vulnerability( $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $15. Identify,$survey$and$procure$safe$location$for$new$construction.$ X$ X$ $ $ $ $ $ X$16. Responses$to$previous$disasters$are$analyzed$and$lessons$learnt$incorporated$into$future$capacity$building$strategies$and$programmes.$$ $X$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $17. Hazard,$vulnerability$and$disaster$risk$assessments.$ X$ X$ X$ X$ X$ X$ X$ X$18. Increase$the$research$capacity.13$(Thurairajah,$Palliyaguru,$&$Williams)$ $ X$ $ $ $ $ $ $Critical(Infrastructure(for(disaster(resilience.(( $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $19. Infrastructural$development.$$12.1$Repair$and$rehabilitate$existing$infrastructure$(e.g.,$coastal$embankments,$river$embankments$and$drainage$systems,$urban$drainage$systems)$and$ensure$effective$operation$and$maintenance$systems$12.2$Plan,$design$and$construct$urgently$needed$new$infrastructure$(e.g.,$cyclone$shelters,$coastal$and$river$embankments$and$water$management$systems;$urban$drainage$systems,$river$erosion$control$works,$flood$shelters)$to$meet$the$changing$conditions$expected$with$climate$change$20. 12.3$Undertake$strategic$planning$of$future$infrastructure$needs,$taking$into$account$the$likely$(a)$future$patterns$of$urbanization$and$socio;economic$development;$and$(b)$the$changing$hydrology$of$the$country,$because$of$climate$change.$$ $ $ $$$$$X$$$$$$X$$ $$$$$X$$$$$$X$$$$$$Facilities( $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $21. Review,$implement$and$advice$on$appropriate$and$accurate$new$and$revised$building$statues$in$land$use$planning.$(Thurairajah,$Palliyaguru,$&$Williams)$ $ $ X$ X$ X$ $ $ X$Building(regulations(and(land(use(planning.( $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $22. Advice$on$land$boundary$issues/survey$for$cadastral$proposes.$ $ $ X$ X$ $ $ $ $23. Design$and$carry$out$appropriate$forms$of$disaster;resistant$construction$and$engineering.$$ X$ X$ X$ $ $ $ X$ X$24. Procurement$management$including$source$and$procure$essential$construction$materials/equipment/skilled$labor$Project$and$contract$management.$ $ $X$ $X$ $ $X$ $X$ $ $X$25. Assist$in$establishing$property/land$rights$and$claims$and$moderate$conflicts.$$ $ $ X$ $ $ $ $ X$26. Review$and$implement$local$regulatory$frameworks$to$promote$disaster;resistant$building$technologies$among$$communities$in$high;risk$areas.$$ $ $X$ $ $ $X$ $ $ $$!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!13$Research$the$linkages$between$(a)$climate$change,$poverty$and$vulnerability$and$(b)$climate$change,$poverty$and$health$(disease$incidence,$nutrition,$water,$sanitation)$in$order$to$identify$possible$interventions$to$increase$the$resilience$of$poor$and$vulnerable$households$to$climate$change.$(Thurairajah,$Palliyaguru,$&$Williams) !!! 247!27. Conduct$training$on$safe/sustainable$construction$methods$and$knowledge$transfer.$$ $ X$ $ $ $ $ $ $28. Building$quality$audits$pre;$and$post;disaster,$particularly$resistance$to$disaster$risks.$ $ X$ $ X$ $ $ $ $Education(programming(and(training.( $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $29. The$multi;stakeholder$approach$leading$to$awareness$raising$and$consultation$with$communities,$and$the$involvement$of$local$government$structures.$$ $ $X$ $ $X$ $X$ $ $ $30. Training$materials$for$different$target$audiences$(decision$makers,$managers,$technical$staff,$community$organizations)$have$been$developed$and$made$available$including$web;based$training$when$feasible.$$$X$ $ $ X$ $ $ $ $31. Raising$Awareness$of$Risk$through$communication$media$such$as$Radio,$video$and$Drama.$$$ $ X$ $ X$ $ $ $ $32. Community;Based$Information$Campaigns$for$Disaster$Preparedness.$ $ X$ $ $ X$ X$ $ $33. Inclusion$of$disaster$risk$reduction$into$educational$curricula,$formal$and$informal$education.$ X$ $ $ X$ $ $ $ $Protect(Environment(and(nature(as(a(buffer.(( $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $34. Environmental$resource$management,$eg:$use$of$trees$and$grasses$on$riverbanks$to$prevent$soil$and$river$erosion.$$ $ X$ $ $ $ $ $ X$35.$Lower$and$reducing$the$green$house$gas$emission:$$35.1$Develop$a$strategic$energy$plan$to$ensure$national$energy$security$and$lower$greenhouse$gas$emissions.$35.2$Expand$the$social$forestry$programme$on$government$and$community$lands$throughout$the$country.$$35.3$Expand$the$'greenbelt'$coastal$afforestation$programme$with$mangrove$planting$along$the$shoreline.$35.4$Seek$the$transfer$of$state;of$the$art$technologies$from$developed$countries$to$ensure$that$we$follow$a$low;carbon$growth$path$(e.g.,$'clean$coal'$and$other$technologies)$35.5$Review$energy$and$technology$policies$and$incentives$and$revise$these,$where$necessary,$to$promote$efficient$production,$consumption,$distribution$and$use$of$energy.$$ $ $$$$$$X$$ $$$$$$X$$ $$$$$$X$$$$$$$X$Preparedness$Organization(and(Coordination.$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $1. An$approved$national$legislative$framework$that$details$disaster$preparedness,$response,$recovery$roles,$responsibilities$and$funding$mechanisms$is$developed$or$updated,$widely$disseminated$and$consistently$implemented.$$$X$ $ $ $X$ $X$ $ $ $2. A$well;functioning$disaster$coordination$mechanism$is$in$place$with$clear$policies$and$procedures$and$in$which$all$entities$are$clear$about$their$roles$and$responsibilities.$$ $X$ $ $ $X$ $ $ $ $3. Institutional$partnerships$(international$and$local)$have$been$developed$as$needed$with$accompanying$signed$agreements$outlining$roles,$responsibilities$and$accountability.$$ $X$ $$ $ $ $ $ $ $4. Technical$response$teams$(logistics,$water$and$sanitation,$health)$have$been$formed$and$trained$along$with$associated$procedures$and$activation$protocols.$$ $X$ $$ $ $ $ $ $ $Assign(a(Budget.$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $5. Financial$reserves$and$emergency$funding$mechanisms$are$in$place$to$support$effective$preparedness,$response$and$early$recovery$as$required.$$ $X$ $ $X$ $X$ $X$ $ $ $Risk(Assessments:(Hazard(+(Vulnerability$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $!!! 248!6. A$contingency$plan$that$includes$an$in;depth$analysis$of$hazard$risk,$vulnerability$and$capacities$is$developed$and$regularly$updated.$$ $X$ $ $X$ $X$ $ $ $X$ $X$7. Disaster$risk$strategies$to$integrated$with$future$climatic$change$adaptation.$$ X$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $Critical(Infrastructure(for(disaster(resilience.( $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $8. The$transition$to$early$recovery$activities$is$considered$and$planned$for$in$contingency$and$other$preparedness$planning$processes;$Emergency$water$supply$systems.$ $X$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $X$9. Shelter(and(infrastructure:$Identify$who$has$primary$responsible$for$shelter$management,$Identify$potential$shelter$in$all$high$risk$areas,$taking$into$consideration$land$ownership,$issues$of$weather$and$terrain.$$$ $ $X$ $ $X$ $X$ $ $X$10. Assess$whether$existing$infrastructure$such$as$schools,$community$centres$be$used$for$shelter$in$the$different$high$risk$regions$as$well$as$if$those$affected$can$seek$shelter$with$families$and$friends.$$$ $ X$ $ $ $ $ $11. In$each$high$risk$area$assess$what$additional$community$structures$may$be$needed$such$as$schools$and$identify$who$will$assume$the$responsibility$for$constructing$these.$$ $ X$ X$ $ $ $ $ $Facilities$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $12. Human$health$interventions;$Disaster$risk$reduction$integrated$into$health$sector$and$safe$hospitals.$ $ $X$ $ $ $ $X$ $ $13. Supplementary$feeding$of$vulnerable$groups.$ $ X$ $ X$ $ $ $ $14. Food$security$for$resilience;$$ X$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $15. Animal$health$interventions.$$ $ X$ $ $ $ $ $ $Building(regulations(and(land(use(planning.( $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $16. Crosscutting$themes$such$as$gender,$environment,$culture$and$working$with$communities,$to$reduce$the$labor$cost.$ $ $$ X$ $ $ $ X$ X$17. Secure$adequate$supply$of$tents,$construction$materials,$and$plastic$sheets$as$well$as$identify$suppliers$in$case$of$shortfall.$$ $ X$ $ $ $ $ $ $Education(programming(and(training.$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $18. Experienced$trainers$have$been$identified$and$oriented$to$training$requirements.$ X$ X$ $ $ $ $ $ $19. Training$modules$in$all$technical$areas$have$been$developed$focusing$on$adapting$technical$skills$to$disaster$situations.$All$relevant$personnel$from$all$participating$agencies$and$communities$have$been$trained$accordingly.$$$X$ $X$ $ $ $ $ $X$ $20. Training$in$project$design$and$implementation$for$all$disaster$management$phases$is$on$going.$$ $ $X$ $ $ $ $ $ $21. A$communication$strategy$and$system$for$the$timely$sharing$and$distribution$of$information$during$times$of$disaster$is$in$place$and$appropriate$personnel$trained$in$its$use.$ X$ $$ $ $X$ $X$ $ $ $22. Personnel$have$been$trained$in$damage$and$needs$assessment.$$ $ $ X$ $ $ $ $ $Protect(Environment(and(nature(as(a(buffer.( $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $23. Sustainable$ecosystems$and$environmental$management.$ X$ $ X$ $ $ $ $ $24. $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $Early(warning(systems(and(emergency(management(capacity.( $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $25. Development$of$early$warning$systems14.$$ X$ X$ $ $ X$ $ $ $!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!14!The$provision$of$timely$and$effective$information,$through$identified$institutions,$that$allows$individuals$exposed$to$hazards$to$take$action$to$avoid$or$reduce$their$risk$and$prepare$for$effective$response.$Early$warning$system$entail$a$chain$of$concerns,$namely:$!!! 249!26. Combining$Science$and$Indigenous$Knowledge$to$Build$a$27. Community$Early$Warning$System.$ $ X$ $ $ $X$ $ $ $28. Establish,$"Emergency$$Response$Coordination$Centre"$(ERCC)$to$coordinate$$mobilization$for$efficient$and$effective$disaster$response.$ $X$ $X$ $ $ $X$ $ $ $Immediate$relief$and$recovery$Organization$and$Coordination.$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $1. Deploying$military$assets$during$the$disaster.$$ X$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $2. Emergency$Services$and$Stand;by$Arrangements;$Multi;stakeholder$response$mechanisms,$supported$by$legislation$and$accompanied$by$the$necessary$resources,$developed$and$tested$based$on$the$contingency$plan$which$enable$efficient$action$during$times$an$emergency.$$ $ $ $X$ $X$ $X$ $X$ $Assign(a(Budget.$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $3. $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $4. $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $Risk(Assessments:(Hazard(+(Vulnerability$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $5. Early$and$accurate$damage$identification$and$assessment$information.15$ $ $ $ X$ $ $ $ $$$$$$$$X$6. $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $Critical(Infrastructure(for(disaster(resilience.$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $7. Assess$what$type$of$sanitation$may$be$needed$(e.g.$latrines),$where$these$located$if$camps$are$set$up$taking$into$consideration$health$and$gender$issues.$$ $X$ $ $X$ $ $X$ $ $X$ $X$8. Determine$how$will$garbage$disposal$be$dealt$with.$ X$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $9. Roads$and$transport$line$recovery.$ $ $ $ X$ $ $ $ $10. Emergency$water$supply.16$ $ $ X$ X$ $ $ $ X$Facilities$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $11. $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $Building(regulations(and(land(use(planning.$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!understanding$and$mapping$the$hazard,$monitoring$and$forecasting$impending$events,$processing$and$disseminating$understandable$warnings$to$policy$authorities$and$the$population$and$undertaking$appropriate$and$timely$action$in$response$to$the$warnings.$(ISDR$2007) !15$A$key$success$factor$in$recovery$and$rebuilding$from$natural$disasters$is$gathering$comprehensive$information$on$the$extent$of$damage$as$soon$as$safely$possible$after$the$event.$This$enables$quick$activation$of$response$agencies;$provides$the$basis$for$better$co;ordination$and$targeting$of$efforts;$assists$in$starting$reconstruction$as$early$as$possible$after$the$event;$and$assists$in$monitoring$progress$of$reconstruction.$$$16$The$aftermath$of$a$natural$disaster$can$severely$disrupt$and$contaminate$water$supplies,$further$increasing$the$risk$of$death$and$illness.$Along$with$medical$aid,$existing$provision$of$clean$drinking$water$is$therefore$vital$in$the$period$immediately$after$a$major$disaster.$!!!! 250!12. Procure$&$supply$emergency$(relief)$shelters;$repair$lightly$damaged$property;$plan$&$(re)construct$transitional$shelter$&$damaged$homes.17$ $ $ $X$ $X$ $ $ $ $X$Education(programming(and(training.$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $13. $ $ $ X$ $ $ $ $ $Protect(Environment(and(nature(as(a(buffer.$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $14. $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $Early(warning(systems(and(emergency(management(capacity.$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $15. Effective$broadcasting$of$appropriate$warnings$of$the$disaster;$flood,$cyclones$(through$collaboration$with$the$Meteorological$Department,$Water$Development$Board,$Cyclone$Preparedness$Programme,$Radio,$TV,$and$other$authorities).$$$X$ $ $ $X$ $X$ $ $ $16. Providing$information$to,$and$bridging$with,$the$Economic$Relations$Division$concerning$the$requirement$of$international$and$local$organizations$for$assistance$and$aids.$ X$ $$ $ $ $X$ $ $ $17. Dialogue,$coordination$and$information$exchange$between$disaster$managers$and$recovery/development$sectors.$$ X$ $$ $ X$ X$ X$ $ $Rehabilitation$and$reconstruction$phase.$Organization$and$Coordination.$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $1. Provide$guidelines$for$operation$and$maintenance$to$maintain$hazard$resilience$ X$ $ $ X$ $ $ $ X$2. Community$Participation.18$ $ X$ X$ X$ X$ X$ X$ X$3. Priority$Skills$Development$–training$to$address$priority$skills$development$and$pre;employment$training$aligned$to$local$job$opportunities,$including$support$for$Indigenous$participation.$$$ $X$ $ $ $ $ $ $X$4. Assists$in$monitoring$progress$of$reconstruction.$–$Introducing$a$monitoring$system$to$communities$to$monitor$construction$work.$$(building$compilation$vs.$time)$ $ $ X$ $ X$ $ X$ X$Assign(a(Budget.$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $5. Plan$recovery$efforts$and$logistical$planning.$ $ X$ $ $ X$ $ $ $Risk(Assessments:(Hazard(+(Vulnerability$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $6. Detailed$assessment$of$damage$to$housing;$Land$surveying,$GIS$and$rapid$mapping$of$disaster$impacts$and$risks$ $ $ X$ X$ $ X$ X$ X$7. Land$surveying,$GIS$and$rapid$mapping$of$disaster$impacts$and$risks$$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ X$8. Identify$and$evaluate$the$flood$and$cyclone$mitigation$potential$of$regional$landscape$and$ecosystem.$ $ $ $ X$ X$ $ X$ X$Critical(Infrastructure(for(disaster(resilience.$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $9. Re;establish$damaged$major$infrastructures.$$ X$ X$ X$ X$ X$ X$ X$ X$10. Requires$the$location$of$essential$services$(electricity$supply,$ $ $ $ X$ $ $ X$ $!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!17$Emergency/Relief$shelters$may$be$needed$to$protect$people$from$the$elements$after$a$disaster.$They$have$to$be$strong,$micro;$climatically$appropriate$and$easy$to$install.$They$should$also$be$sensitively$designed$for$habitation$to$people$who$are$likely$to$have$been$traumatised.$They$may$be$in$active$use$for$several$years$after$reconstruction$has$been$underway,$so$a$degree$of$durability$is$also$helpful.$Designs$should$be$lightweight$and$removable$to$permit$re;use$elsewhere.$(Lloyd;$Jones$et$al$,2009) 18$Communities$and$community$members$that$support$each$other$to$deal$with$the$impact$of$disasters$and$their$aftermath.$Communities$that$have$the$information,$skills$and$expertise$to$take$appropriate$action$before,$during$and$after$disaster$events.$Where$there$is$strong$leadership$and$networks$to$support$co;operative$partnerships$across$communities,$the$not;for;profit$sector,$industry,$the$private$sector$and$tiers$of$government.$!!! 251!telecommunications,$fire$services)$to$be$either$higher$than$the$IRFL$or$sufficiently$waterproofed.$$ $11. Reducing$local$drainage$problems$or$cause$amenity$issues.$$ $ $ $ $$$$$$$$X$ $ $ X$ X$12. $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $Facilities$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $13. $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $Building(regulations(and(land(use(planning.$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $14. Repair$lightly$damaged$property;$plan$&$(re)construct$transitional$shelter$&$damaged$homes.$ $ $ X$ $ X$ $ $ X$15. Assessment$of$human$resources$and$capacities.$ $ $ X$ X$ $ $ X$ X$16. Build$the$capacity$of$affected$communities$to$support$local$industry$and$coordinate$employment$and$skills$assistance$$ $ $ $ X$ $ $ $ $17. Green)Jobs)–to$provide$employment$and$work$experience$opportunities$on$projects$targeted$at$rebuilding$community$and$public$infrastructure$and$environmental$restoration.$$ $ $X$ $ $X$ $X$ $ $ $X$18. Provide$guidelines$for$operation$and$maintenance$to$maintain$the$design$level$of$hazard$resilience.$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $19. Building(regulations(for(flood,(more(resilient(floodplains:$Introduces$an$Interim$Residential$Flood$Level$(IRFL),$which$will$require$building$levels$to$be$increased.$$ $ $ $ $X$ $X$ $ $X$ $X$20. Allows$building$heights$to$increase$in$response$to$the$IRFL.$$ $ $ $ X$ $ $ $ X$21. Adaptation:$using$the$knowledge$of$the$community$to$rebuild.$ $ $ X$ X$ X$ $ X$ X$22. Using$resilience;building$material$in$construction$and$development.$$ $ X$ X$ $ X$ $ X$ $23. Housing$needs$assessments$and$establish$baseline$and$eligibility.$ $ $ X$ $ X$ $ $ X$24. Monitoring$and$evaluation.$19$ X$ X$ X$ X$ X$ $ $ X$Education(programming(and(training.$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $25. Develop$the$mental$health$and$making$the$community$stronger$to$withstand$to$another$disaster.$20$ $ X$ $ $ $ $ $ $Protect(Environment(and(nature(as(a(buffer.$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $26. Ensure$environmental$and$social$impacts$of$the$proposed$solution$are$acceptable.$ $ $ $ X$ X$ $ X$ X$27. Ensure$environmental$and$social$impacts$of$the$proposed$solution$are$acceptable.$ $ $ $ $ X$ $ X$ X$28. Building$a$resilient$environment,$in$which$our$terrestrial,$aquatic$and$marine$ecosystems$and$natural$resources$have$the$capacity$to$withstand$and$naturally$recover$from$the$impacts$of$disaster,$and$continue$to$provide$long;term$benefits$for$the$community.$$ $ $ $X$ $ $ $ $X$Source:$(Thurairajah,$Palliyaguru,$&$Williams;$United$Nations,$2008;$UN/ISRD,$2007;$Lloyd;$Jones$et$al$,2009;$Queensland$Reconstruction$Authority,$n.d.;$MoEF,$2008);$The$world$Bank$Group;$2011;$JICA,$2006).$$$!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!19!Reconstruction$sites$should$be$monitored$and$visited$over$regular$intervals$to$understand$the$medium$and$long;term$impact$on$local$socio;economic$conditions.$This$involves$not$just$looking$at$the$state$of$the$physical$infrastructure,$dwellings$and$the$skill$levels$of$the$local$population,$but$also$any$changes$that$may$affect$future$public$safety$from$recurring$hazard$strikes$not$becoming$disasters. 20$A$system$to$support$and$intervention$services$to$disaster$affected$individuals$and$families$to$reduce$the$occurrence$of$more$severe$mental$illness,$and$assist$individuals$to$develop$coping$mechanisms$to$deal$with$the$aftermath$of$the$recent$disasters$and$with$future$events.$

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