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Pictures of social networks : transforming visual representations of the Orchid Pavilion gathering in.. Kameda-Madar, Kazuko 2011

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    Pictures of Social Networks: Transforming Visual Representations of the Orchid Pavilion Gathering in the Tokugawa Period (1615-1868)  by  Kazuko Kameda-Madar   B.A., The University of Hawai„i at Mānoa, 1997 M.A., The University of Hawai„i at Mānoa, 2002     A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF   DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY   in   The Faculty of Graduate Studies   (Art History)     THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver)   May 2011   © Kazuko Kameda-Madar, 2011  ii Abstract  This thesis examines the cultural networks that connected people holding common ideological values in the Tokugawa period by surveying a range of visual representations of the Orchid Pavilion Gathering.  It explores the Tokugawa social phenomena that gave rise to the sudden boom in the Orchid Pavilion motif and how painters of different classes, belonging to different schools, such as Kano Sansetsu, Ike Taiga, Tsukioka Settei and Kubo Shunman, came to develop variations of this theme in order to establish cultural identity and to negotiate stronger positions in the relationships of social power.  Probing the social environment of artists and their patrons, I demonstrate how distinct types of Orchid Pavilion imagery were invented and reinvented to advance different political agendas.  The legendary gathering at the Orchid Pavilion in China took place in 353 CE, when Wang Xizhi invited forty-one scholars to participate in an annual Spring Purification Festival.  At this event, Wang Xizhi improvised a short text that has come to be known as the Preface to the Orchid Pavilion Gathering.  In Japan, while the practice of the ritual gathering and the text describing it were introduced in the Nara period, its pictorial representation in the format of a stone rubbing was not imported until the early seventeenth century.  The Orchid Pavilion theme belongs to the genre of “elegant gatherings” depicting idealized communities of Chinese scholars, including the “Elegant Gathering in the Western Garden” and the “Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove,” which had been frequently painted since the preceding Muromachi and Momoyama periods.  During the Tokugawa period, however, the “Orchid Pavilion” became one of the most important and popular painting themes of this genre.  Tokugawa society is commonly thought to have been rigidly stratified, and the Tokugawa period a time of peace. The Pax Tokugawa, however, was a peace inspired by military force, and although the lives of people under the Tokugawa regime were at times heavily and unfairly oppressed, people of all classes retained enough power to voice resentment.  From the different perspectives voiced through cultural activities like the representation of the Orchid Pavilion Gathering, I demonstrate the class permeability and dynamism of Tokugawa society.    iii Table of Contents  Abstract ........................................................................................................................  ii  Table of Contents ........................................................................................................ iii  List of Tables .............................................................................................................  vii  List of Figures ............................................................................................................ viii  Acknowledgements ................................................................................................. xxiii  Introduction: Issues and Questions ............................................................................. 1  State of the Field ................................................................................................. 5  Methodological Structure and Background Theory ............................................ 6  Outline of the Thesis ........................................................................................... 8  Chapter One: The Authorship of the Orchid Pavilion Pictorial Tradition: Canon Formation and the Authentication of Power ................................... 17  From Wang Xizhi to the Ming-Dynasty Ink Rubbings .................................... 19  The Ming-Dynasty Ink Rubbing Handscrolls ................................................... 20  The Orchid Pavilion as Text ............................................................................. 22  The Orchid Pavilion Pedigree ........................................................................... 23  Wang Xizhi and His Political Background in the Eastern Jin Dynasty ............ 25  Tang Taizong and the Orchid Pavilion as Calligraphy ..................................... 27  The Orchid Pavilion Illustrations in Texts during the Song Dynasty ............... 31  Description of an Orchid Pavilion Image Recorded in the Texts ..................... 34  Engraving the Orchid Pavilion in the Ming Dynasty........................................ 45  Chapter Two: The Orchid Pavilion Painting as Aesthetic Resistance: The Kyō-Kano School and Their Network System ...................................... 70  The Orchid Pavilion Paintings by Kano Sansetsu ............................................ 74   iv The Mainstream Aesthetic: The Orchid Pavilion Paintings by the Edo-Kano 76  Kano Sansetsu: Eccentricity Reconsidered ....................................................... 86  Political Discontent Embodied in the Kyō-Kano Text ..................................... 99  The Possible Patronage of the Orchid Pavilion Painting ................................ 104 Sansetsu‟s Production Attitude Recorded in the Texts ................................... 116 Re-attributing Authorship of an Orchid Pavilion Painting ............................. 118 Comparing the Orchid Pavilion Screen by Kano Einō ................................... 122  Scrutinizing the Orchid Pavilion by Sansetsu ................................................. 124  The Landscape of the Orchid Pavilion............................................................ 125        Eccentric Rocks and a Mysterious Cave .................................................. 125                    Waterfalls and the Meandering Stream.................................................... 131                    Woods, Bamboo Groves and Orchids ...................................................... 133                     Architectural Elements in the Orchid Pavilion ............................................... 134                    Sansetsu‟s Sources of Inspiration ............................................................ 134        The Fence to Enclose the Garden Party ................................................... 138              The Representation of the Human Figures ..................................................... 142                    Narrative Elements in the Orchid Pavilion .............................................. 145                    Japanese Tea Ceremony ........................................................................... 148                    The Orchid Pavilion and the Kan‟ei Aesthetics .............................................. 150 Chapter Three: The Orchid Pavilion as an Alternative “Classical” Theme: Performing Literati for Identity Construction........................................... 185  The Orchid Pavilion Theme as an Alternative “Classicism” .......................... 186 Chinese Wenren/ Japanese Bunjin .................................................................. 189   Diverse Sources for the Bunjin Orchid Pavilion Images ................................ 195   Conceptualizing a New Taste for the Orchid Pavilion ................................... 200  Constructing a New Canon for His Community: Ike Taiga ........................... 207        Taiga‟s Votive Panel and Its Draft ........................................................... 211        The Alternative Canon of the Orchid Pavilion ........................................ 214        Iconography of the Orchid Pavilion Gathering ........................................ 219  v        Evolution of the Orchid Pavilion Byôbu by Taiga ................................... 226        Possible Trajectories of Iconographical Combinations ........................... 229        Taiga‟s Pointillism in the Orchid Pavilion............................................... 233   Theory and Funpon of the Orchid Pavilion: Nakayama Kōyō ....................... 235        Kōyō‟s Theory: Constructing the Bunjinga Tradition ............................. 237        Kōyō‟s Anti-Kano Sentiment .................................................................. 239        Kōyō‟s Funpon Copying Practice ............................................................ 240        Copying after Wen Zhengming ............................................................... 243        Bunjin Funponism .................................................................................... 244  Re-articulation of the Orchid Pavilion: Fukuhara Gogaku ............................. 245        The Status of Fukuhara Gogaku, Yesterday and Today .......................... 246                    Impression and Innovation ....................................................................... 249                    Performing Chinese Literati ..................................................................... 252 Literati Irony: Nakabayashi Chikutô‟s Ideology ............................................ 258        Chikutō‟s Painting Style and his Contemporary Reception .................... 259                    Chikutō‟s Painting Theory ....................................................................... 260                    Chikutō‟s Orchid Pavilion Gathering ...................................................... 262                    New Approaches Following Chikutō‟s Model ........................................ 264                    Bakumatsu Ideology and the Shift in Chikutō‟s Aesthetic ...................... 265                    The Kokugaku Aesthetic in Chikutō‟s Orchid Pavilion ........................... 267 Chapter Four: the Nativization of Orchid Pavilion Imagery:  Genre Painting Adaptation and the Kokugaku Movement ....................... 307         Genre Painting Adaptation of Kyokusuien Imagery ....................................... 309          Kyokusuien as a Painting Theme .................................................................... 310                Popularization of the Orchid Pavilion Images ................................................ 311                    Reinventing a New Yamato-e Tradition  ........................................................ 313              From Court Ritual to the Visual Expression of Tsukioka Settei .................... 315        Nativization of the Orchid Pavilion through Waka Poetry ...................... 317        Visualization of the Nativized Kyokusuien .............................................. 324        Visualized Kyokusuien and the Restorationism  ...................................... 328        The Fusion between Kyokusuien and Misogi Imagery  ........................... 333         The Cult of Kyokusuien in the Tokugawa Period ........................................... 337        Yatsushi, Mitate and Kubo Shunman‟s Kyokusuien  ............................... 339         Kubo Shunman and His Intellectual Environment .................................. 342        The Contemporaneity of Classical Themes ............................................. 346         vi             Kyokusuien and the Kokugaku Movement ...................................................... 349 Chapter Five: Images of the Purification Ritual Reinvented:   The Orchid Pavilion Gathering and the Doll Festival .............................. 372 Meanings of Purification Rituals in the Third Month ..................................... 374  The Significance of Peach Blossoms .............................................................. 376  Kyokusuien in the Annual Events and the Five Seasonal Festivals ................ 379 Purification Rituals with Dolls........................................................................ 382  From Purification Ritual to Hina-matsuri....................................................... 384 Purification Ritual as a Commodity ................................................................ 384 Women‟s Participation in Kyokusuien ............................................................ 386 Events to Represent the Third Day of the Third month in Haikai .................. 387  The Reinvention of Spring Purification Rituals as Tourist Attractions .......... 389  Conclusion ................................................................................................................. 398  Figures ........................................................................................................................ 408  Bibliography .............................................................................................................. 491  Appendices  ................................................................................................................ 516  Appendix A: Chinese Texts  ........................................................................... 516  Appendix B: Selected List of Orchid Pavilion Images (China) ...................... 521  Appendix C: Selected List of Orchid Pavilion Images (Japan) ...................... 528  Appendix D: Textual Materials Related to the Kyō-Kano Family ................. 538  Appendix E: Bunjin Texts ............................................................................... 550  Appendix F: Kyokusuien-related Texts ........................................................... 560      vii List of Tables  5. 1 Events of the Third Day of the Third Month in Haikai ............................................... 388                                      viii List of Figures  1. 1 Prince Yi. Lanting (Gathering at the Orchid Pavilion), Xianyuan version,  1592. Handscroll, ink rubbing compilation on paper, 32.7 x 100.9cm.  Former Robert van Gulik Collection .......................................................................... 408   1. 2  Kano Sansetsu. Rantei kyokusuien (Gathering at the Orchid Pavilion),  early seventeenth century.  Two pairs of eight-panel folding screens, ink,  color, and gold leaf on paper. 107.4 x 355.8 cm. Zuishin-in, Kyoto ......................... .409  1. 3 Attributed to Wang Xizhi. Lantingxu (Preface to the Orchid Pavilion  Gathering). Dingwu version. Ming-period copy. Album leaves, ink rubbing  on paper. Kyoto National Museum. ........................................................................... 410  1. 4 Prince Yi. Lanting  Huangnan version, 1592. Handscroll. Ink rubbing  compilation on paper. Colophon: 32.5 x 107cm; Calligraphy model:  32.1 x 1675cm; Illustration: 31.9 x 628.5cm. Palace Museum, Beijing ..................... 410  1. 5 Prince Yi. Lanting, Xianyuan version. 1592. Ink rubbing compilation  on paper. Colophon: 32.5 x 107cm: 32.1 x 1675cm; Illustration: 31.9 x 628.5cm.  Palace Museum, Beijing. ............................................................................................ 411  1. 6 Prince Yi.  Lanting, Huangnan version. Handscroll. Ink rubbing  compilation on paper. 32.3x62.3cm.  Henanxinxiang Municipal Museum .............. 411  1. 7 Lanting xiuxu. Handscroll. Ink rubbing compilation on paper.  Height 34cm. Exhibition catalogue, Shôwa kichū Rantei-ten, 28-37 ......................... 412  1. 8 Lanting. Huangnan version. Handscroll. Ink rubbing compilation  on paper. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. ................................................................... 413  1. 9 Lanting. Huangnan version. Handscroll. Ink rubbing compilation on paper.   22.2 x 574cm. Gotō Museum, Uno Sesson Collection. .............................................. 414  1. 10 Lanting. 16th -17th Century. Handscroll. Ink rubbing compilation on paper.  22.6 x 326.4cm. Inscription by Tomioka Tessai.  Harn Museum, Florida. ............................................................................................... 414  1. 11 Lanting. 1616. Handscroll. Ink rubbing compilation on paper.  31.0 x 1482.5cm. Private Collection  .......................................................................... 415  1. 12 Lanting. Qing dynasty. Handscroll. Ink rubbing compilation on paper.  22.1 x 489.0cm; illustration section: 17.9–18.1 x 329.1 cm.  National Library of China ........................................................................................... 415  1. 13 Lanting. 1780. Handscroll. Ink rubbing compilation on paper.   ix Formerly Qianlong Collection.  Palace Museum, Beijing. ......................................... 415   1. 14 Prince Yi. Colophon of Lanting. 1592. He Yanzhi. Lanting ji.  Mid-Tang dynasty. Xianyuan version  Handscroll. Ink rubbing compilation  on paper.  Former Robert van Gulik Collection. ........................................................ 416  1. 15 Attributed to Yan Liben.  Zhuan Lanting (Seizing the Preface to  the Orchid Pavilion) Handscroll. Ink and color on silk.  Taipei National Palace Museum. ................................................................................ 416  1. 16 Attributed to Juran. Zhuan Lanting (Seizing the Preface  to the Orchid Pavilion). Hanging sroll.  Taipei National Palace Museum  ................................................................................ 417   1. 17 Li Gonglin. Dwelling in the Longmian (Sleeping Dragon) Mountains.  c.1049 - 1106. Handscroll mounted as an album leaf. Ink and color on silk.  Cleveland Museum of Art .......................................................................................... 418  1. 18 A section of Wang Xizhi seated in the Orchid Pavilion, detail, Lanting,  Xianyuan version. Former Robert van Gulik Collection ........................................... .419  1.