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Education, beliefs, and experiences : examining the role of parents in children's extracurricular activity… Ashbourne, Dianne 2013

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EDUCATION, BELIEFS, AND EXPERIENCES: EXAMINING THE ROLE OF PARENTS IN CHILDREN?S EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITY PARTICIPATION   by Dianne Ashbourne  B.A., The University of Toronto, 2010 B.Ed., Queen?s University, 2011  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE AND POSTDOCTORAL STUDIES (Society, Culture and Politics in Education)  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver) August 2013   ? Dianne Ashbourne, 2013 ii  Abstract Several studies have suggested that extracurricular activity participation provides children with numerous benefits including higher academic achievement. Unfortunately, participation differences among Canadian children mean that not all children have equal access to these benefits. Understanding the role parents play in their children?s extracurricular activity participation will broaden understandings of participation differences among Canadian children and thus, will have important implications for mitigating inequality in the Canadian public school system. This study asks the following: what role do the beliefs, experiences, and education of parents play in determining whether their children participate in specialized athletics, music, language and leadership programs? Data used in this study were from the Paths on Life?s Way project at UBC; a longitudinal study of the graduating class of 1988 in British Columbia, Canada. Data were collected using postal surveys and face-to-face interviews. A mixed method approach utilizing sequential analysis procedures was employed. Interview data was used to guide the analysis of the survey data. Results suggest that both parental experience and parental beliefs play a role in school-age children?s participation in specialized athletics, music, language, and leadership programs to varying extents. Parents? activity-specific beliefs are a particularly important determinant of children?s participation in ECAs. Parental experience with ECAs during high school are more significantly correlated with children?s ECA participation than current experiences, this highlights both the important role played by habitus and the complexity of the transfer of cultural capital between parents and their children. These relationships are stronger for parents with lower levels of educational attainment in nearly all cases except that of children?s participation in specialized language programs.  iii  Preface This thesis is based upon data collected for the Paths on Life?s Way project at UBC. The data were collected by Dr. Lesley Andres. None of the text of this thesis is taken directly from previously published articles. The data analyses in Chapters 4 and 5 are my original work. All analyses were approved by the University of British Columbia?s Behavioural Research Ethics Board (BREB) [certificate number H12-00478]. iv  Table of Contents Abstract .......................................................................................................................................... ii	 ?Preface ........................................................................................................................................... iii	 ?Table of Contents ......................................................................................................................... iv	 ?List of Figures ................................................................................................................................ x	 ?List of Abbreviations ................................................................................................................... xi	 ?Acknowledgements ..................................................................................................................... xii	 ?Dedication ................................................................................................................................... xiii	 ?Chapter  1: Introduction .............................................................................................................. 1	 ?1.1	 ? Rationale for the Study ...................................................................................................... 1	 ?1.2	 ? Purpose of the Study .......................................................................................................... 4	 ?1.3	 ? Research Questions ............................................................................................................ 5	 ?1.4	 ? Dataset ................................................................................................................................ 5	 ?1.5	 ? Theoretical Frame .............................................................................................................. 6	 ?1.6	 ? Definition of Terms .......................................................................................................... 10	 ?1.6.1	 ? ECAs ......................................................................................................................... 10	 ?1.6.2	 ? Parent ........................................................................................................................ 10	 ?1.7	 ? Personal Background ....................................................................................................... 10	 ?1.8	 ? Overview and Structure of the Thesis .............................................................................. 12	 ?Chapter  2: Literature Review ................................................................................................... 13	 ?2.1	 ? Measuring ECAs .............................................................................................................. 13	 ?2.2	 ? The Pros and Cons of ECA Participation ........................................................................ 15	 ?2.3	 ? Correlates of Children?s ECA Participation .................................................................... 18	 ?2.3.1	 ? The Role of Parents ................................................................................................... 19	 ?v  2.3.2	 ? The Role of Social Class ........................................................................................... 23	 ?2.3.3	 ? The Role of Race and Ethnicity ................................................................................ 25	 ?2.3.4	 ? Child and Family Correlates ..................................................................................... 27	 ?2.4	 ? Gaps in the Literature ....................................................................................................... 28	 ?Chapter  3: Research Design ...................................................................................................... 30	 ?3.1	 ? Paths on Life?s Way Project ............................................................................................. 30	 ?3.1.1	 ? Sampling and Attrition .............................................................................................. 31	 ?3.1.2	 ? The 2010 Interviews ................................................................................................. 31	 ?3.1.3	 ? The 2010 and 1989 Surveys ...................................................................................... 32	 ?3.2	 ? Participants ....................................................................................................................... 33	 ?3.2.1	 ? The Interview Participants ........................................................................................ 33	 ?3.2.2	 ? The Survey Participants ............................................................................................ 35	 ?3.3	 ? Ethical Considerations ..................................................................................................... 42	 ?3.4	 ? Data Analysis ................................................................................................................... 43	 ?3.4.1	 ? Qualitative Data Analysis ......................................................................................... 44	 ?3.4.2	 ? Quantitative Data Analysis ....................................................................................... 44	 ?Chapter  4: Results of the Qualitative Analyses ....................................................................... 47	 ?4.1	 ? Descriptive Statistics ........................................................................................................ 47	 ?4.2	 ? Key Themes Emerging from the Interviews .................................................................... 48	 ?4.2.1	 ? Motivating Factors .................................................................................................... 50	 ?4.2.2	 ? Parental Experience .................................................................................................. 52	 ?4.2.3	 ? Concerns ................................................................................................................... 55	 ?4.2.4	 ? Enforcers, Encouragers and Facilitators ................................................................... 57	 ?Chapter  5: Results of the Quantitative Analyses .................................................................... 62	 ?vi  5.1	 ? Descriptive statistics ........................................................................................................ 62	 ?5.2	 ? Data Reduction ................................................................................................................. 70	 ?5.2.1	 ? Factor Analysis ......................................................................................................... 70	 ?5.2.2	 ? Variable Selection ..................................................................................................... 72	 ?5.2.3	 ? Results ....................................................................................................................... 73	 ?5.3	 ? Inclusion of Variables ...................................................................................................... 76	 ?5.4	 ? Logistic Regression Analysis ........................................................................................... 80	 ?5.4.1	 ? Regression Analysis A: Parental Determinants of Children?s Participation in Specialized Athletics Programs ............................................................................................ 81	 ?5.4.2	 ? Regression Analysis B: Parental Determinants of Children?s Participation Specialized Music Programs ................................................................................................. 89	 ?5.4.3	 ? Logistic Regression Analysis C: Parental Determinants of Children?s Participation in Specialized Language Programs ....................................................................................... 96	 ?5.4.4	 ? Logistic Regression Analysis D: Parental Determinants of Children?s Participation in Leadership Programs ...................................................................................................... 102	 ?5.4.5	 ? Summary ................................................................................................................. 109	 ?Chapter  6: Conclusion ............................................................................................................. 110	 ?6.1	 ? Summary of Research Findings ..................................................................................... 110	 ?6.1.1	 ? Research Finding 1: The Role Parents Play ............................................................ 111	 ?6.1.2	 ? Research Finding 2: The Importance of Parental Experience ................................ 113	 ?6.1.3	 ? Research Finding 3: The Importance of Parental Beliefs ....................................... 115	 ?6.1.4	 ? Research Finding 4: The Importance of Parent Education ..................................... 117	 ?6.2	 ? Policy Implications ........................................................................................................ 119	 ?6.3	 ? Research Limitations ..................................................................................................... 120	 ?6.4	 ? Possible Directions for Future Research ........................................................................ 121	 ?References .................................................................................................................................. 123	 ?vii  Appendices ................................................................................................................................. 138	 ?Appendix A Qualitative Codes ............................................................................................... 138	 ?Appendix B Reorganized Qualitative Codes .......................................................................... 139	 ?Appendix C Collinearity Tables ............................................................................................. 140	 ?viii  List of Tables  Table 1 Demographic characteristics of interviewees .................................................................. 34	 ?Table 2 Demographic characteristics of survey participants ........................................................ 38	 ?Table 3 Occupation status of survey participants ......................................................................... 39	 ?Table 4 Highest level of education of survey participants and their partners ............................... 40	 ?Table 5 Gender, age, and activities of the interviewee?s children ................................................ 48	 ?Table 6 Children?s participation in activities ................................................................................ 63	 ?Table 7 Parent participation in different activities during high school ......................................... 64	 ?Table 8 Parent participation in informal learning activities between 2003 and 2010 .................. 66	 ?Table 9 Parental beliefs about the importance of different elements of children?s schooling ...... 68	 ?Table 10 Parental beliefs about the importance of different skills for children?s wellbeing ........ 70	 ?Table 11 Varimax rotated component matrix of factors related to parental beliefs about their children?s schooling and wellbeing .............................................................................................. 74	 ?Table 12 Logistic model variable specifications .......................................................................... 78	 ?Table 13 Determinants children?s participation in specialized athletics programs (n=514) ........ 83	 ?Table 14 Predicted probability of children?s participation in specialized athletics programs from parental beliefs regarding the importance of competition and networking .................................. 84	 ?Table 15 Predicted probability of children?s participation in specialized athletics programs from parental beliefs regarding the importance of community and culture .......................................... 85	 ?Table 16 Predicted Probability of children?s participation in specialized athletics programs from parental participation in student council during high school ........................................................ 85	 ?Table 17 Determinants of children?s participation in athletics programs ? analysis split by parents? highest educational attainment ........................................................................................ 88	 ?Table 18 Determinants of children?s participation in specialized music programs (n=514) ........ 90	 ?Table 19 Predicted probability of children?s participation in specialized music programs from parental belief in the importance of participation in fine arts activities ....................................... 91	 ?ix  Table 20 Predicted probability of children?s participation in specialized music programs from parental beliefs regarding the importance of community and culture .......................................... 92	 ?Table 21 Determinants of children?s participation in music programs ? analysis split by parents? highest educational attainment ...................................................................................................... 95	 ?Table 22 Determinants of children?s participation in specialized language programs (n=513) ... 97	 ?Table 23 Predicted probability of children?s participation in specialized language programs from parental belief in the importance of a command of French and other languages ......................... 98	 ?Table 24 Predicted probability of children?s participation in specialized language programs from parental participation in student council in high school ............................................................... 99	 ?Table 25 Determinants of children?s participation in language programs ? analysis split by parents? highest educational attainment ...................................................................................... 101	 ?Table 26 Determinants of children?s participation in leadership programs  (n=512) ................. 104	 ?Table 27 Predicted probability of children?s participation in leadership programs from parental belief in the importance of leadership opportunities ................................................................... 105	 ?Table 28 Predicted probability of children?s participation in leadership programs from parental belief in the importance of competition and networking ............................................................ 105	 ?Table 29 Predicted probability of children?s participation in leadership programs from parental participation in yearbook or school newspaper in high school ................................................... 106	 ?Table 30 Determinants of children?s participation in leadership programs ? analysis split by parents? highest educational attainment ...................................................................................... 108	 ?Table 31 VIF for Regression Model A ....................................................................................... 141	 ?Table 32 VIF for Regression Model B ....................................................................................... 142	 ?Table 33 VIF for Regression Model C ....................................................................................... 143	 ?Table 34  VIF for Regression Model D ...................................................................................... 144	 ? x  List of Figures  Figure 1 Schema of children?s participation in ECAs .................................................................. 18	 ?Figure 2 Study design ................................................................................................................... 44	 ?Figure 3 Parents? role in their children?s ECA participation as a spectrum ................................. 59	 ?Figure 4 Hypothetical example of the place of different ECAs on the parental intervention spectrum ........................................................................................................................................ 60	 ?  xi  List of Abbreviations ECAs: Extracurricular activities BIC: Bayesian information criterion   LR: Likelihood ratio SE: Standard Error VIF: Variance inflation factor xii  Acknowledgements There is no doubt in my mind that this study would not have come into being without the support, inspiration, guidance, insights, and critiques of those listed below. I would like to acknowledge their contributions to my work and express my gratitude. First, I thank my supervisor, Dr. Lesley Andres, for her dedication to guiding my research, learning, and professional growth. Her confidence in my abilities and demand of excellence pushed me to learn more than I ever expected. I thank my committee members, Dr. Taylor Webb and Dr. Mona Gleason, for their thought-provoking critiques, concise feedback, and meticulous edits. I feel fortunate to have had their guidance and support.  Special thanks are owed to Dr. Elizabeth Hirsh. She is truly a wonderful teacher and has greatly expanded my knowledge of statistics.   I thank my friends, especially Jen, Jess, and Liz, for their faith in my abilities and for providing the motivation to finish quickly. My siblings, particularly my sister, Katie, who often commiserated with me about the struggles of graduate school, also deserve my sincere thanks.  I have been extremely fortunate to have the support of my grandparents, Ernie and Cathy Stieb. In my life, I aspire to emulate their selfless generosity.  My parents, Sue and Steve, have provided me with infinite encouragement in my academic pursuits. They are my greatest supporters and most trusted advisors. To them I offer my deepest appreciation.  Finally, I owe more gratitude than I can possibly express to Chris for his patience, support, and encouragement. Love always.xiii     To my students, past, present, and future  ?We are the music makers, and  we are the dreamers of dreams.? -Roald Dahl  1  Chapter  1: Introduction If you type the words ?extracurricular activities? and ?parents? into a Google search you will come back with almost four million results. The majority of these results are pop culture parenting articles with titles like ?Issues to consider when choosing extracurricular activities for your children,? ?How to find the perfect extracurricular activities for your kids,? ?Extracurricular activities: should kids be forced into them?? and ?How many extracurricular activities are too many.? Clearly, in popular culture ECAs are considered to be a key responsibility and concern of parents. ECAs are understood by researchers, parents, and educators alike to be a key intervention strategy that parents can use to support their children?s education, career and personal pursuits. Despite this, there are still many unanswered questions regarding the role played by parents in determining their children?s ECA participation. I will attempt to address some of these questions in order to bring further clarity to this topic.   1.1 Rationale for the Study Family background plays an important role in children?s educational outcomes. Parental characteristics and beliefs, in particular, have been shown to have significant explanatory power for understanding disparities in educational participation and attainment (Andres, 2009; Dumais, 2006; Lareau, 2000a), but as Andres and Wyn (2010) explain, there is little evidence on the nature of family influences on children?s educational achievement. More research needs to be done on the mechanisms by which parental background facilitates academic achievement. A deeper understanding of the role that parents? experiences, beliefs, and education play in the intergenerational transmission of advantage will have important implications for mitigating inequality in the Canadian public school system. One way parents transmit advantage on to their 2  children is by encouraging participation in ECAs (Andres, 2009; Dumais, 2006a; Dumais, 2006b; Lareau, 2000a). I will focus on this specific aspect of the intergenerational transmission of advantage. Many of the studies have examined the transmission of advantage between parents and their children from the perspective of ECA participation have made use of Bourdieu?s theoretical constructs of cultural capital and habitus (Andres, 1992; Andres, 2009; Dumais, 2006a; Lareau, 2000a). My work is intended to be an extension of the work done by Andres (2009), which examined the way that parents transmitted cultural and social capital to their children. Andres (2009) found that all parents, regardless of family background, academic history or occupational status, wanted their children to be academically literate, educationally enriched, cultured, and in possession of cooperative skills. Andres (2009) suggested that although no differences were found in parental values by social class, examining parental values in conjunction with the way these values were put into action (i.e. the programs and activities in which children actively participated) might provide a clearer picture of the intergenerational transmission of advantage.  It is the benefits that researchers have associated with participation in ECAs that have positioned ECAs as a mechanism that parents may use to transmit advantage. These benefits include the following: higher academic achievement (Fredricks & Eccles, 2006; Mahoney, Cairns, & Farmer, 2003; Marsh & Kleitman, 2002; Scott-Little, 2002), improved non-cognitive skills (Broh, 2002; Dumais, 2006), greater life satisfaction and wellbeing (Eccles and Barber,1999; Kim & Kim, 2008), and better career prospects (Barber, Eccles, & Stone, 2001; Rivera, 2011). Participation in ECAs has also been found to play a protective role. Researchers have argued that decreased criminal activity, reduced arrest rates, more positive attitudes toward school, and lower instances of school dropout are correlated with participation in ECAs 3  (Holloway, 2002; Kronholz, 2012; Mahoney, 2000; Mahoney and Cairns, 1997). ECA participation also has a role to play in the attainment of academic capital. As broad-based, more holistic university admission models that look at both students? grades and their ECA participation become more common in Canadian higher education, participation in ECAs hold even greater importance for students. Unfortunately, Gu?vremont, Kohen and Findlay (2010) note disparities in Canadian children?s participation ECAs. More specifically, Canadian children from lower income families tended to have lower rates of participation in both sport and non-sport activities than children from higher income families (Gu?vremont, Kohen & Findlay, 2010). The numerous benefits correlated with participation in ECAs necessitate more research to understand these differences in participation. Policies like the Children?s Arts Tax Credit1 and the Children?s Fitness Tax Credit2 have attempted to reduce the financial burden associated with children?s participation in ECAs. Even with such economic incentives, it is very doubtful that all parents provide their children with the same amount of encouragement and support regarding participation in ECAs. Reducing differences in children?s ECA participation to an issue of economic resources oversimplifies the issue. Better understanding the role parents play in their children?s ECA participation will help create more comprehensive policies that can address more complex barriers to participation.   A study of this nature is well timed given the negative impact teacher strikes and budget reductions have had on in-school ECAs. Seen by many as truly ?extra? curricular, ECAs are typically one of the first things to be affected by budget reductions. Teacher strikes in British                                                 1 The Children?s Arts Tax Credit, introduced in 2012, offers parents a 500 dollar tax credit per child that has been registered in supervised artistic, cultural, recreational and developmental activities. 2 The Children?s Fitness Tax Credit, introduced in 2006, allows parents to claim up to 500 dollars for fees paid related to registration in organized programs of physical activity.  4  Columbia in 2012 resulted in decreased access to in-school ECAs. This is particularly troubling given that in-school ECAs are tend to be the most accessible because they are typically lower cost and require less parent involvement. Decreased access to in-school ECAs means that the onus for facilitating and funding extracurricular activity participation falls even more on parents. This is yet another reason why understanding role of parents in their children?s ECA participation is especially important.   1.2 Purpose of the Study The purpose of my work was to investigate the relationships among parental beliefs, parental experiences with ECAs, and the types of ECAs in which children participate for members of the high school graduate class of 1988 in British Columbia, with children between the ages of 4 and 17. Athletics, music, language and leadership activities were the focus of this study. I utilized a concurrent, nested mixed methods strategy to analyze both quantitative and qualitative data collected for the Paths on Life?s Way project, in the form of survey responses collected through a postal survey and face-to-face interviews. The existing survey instrument and interviewee responses directed the creation of four measurement models, one for each type of activity I focused upon (athletics, music, languages, and leadership). Next, guided by these measurement models, regression analysis was used to examine the relationships among parental beliefs, parental experience, and the types of ECAs in which children participate. Parental education was also examined as a moderator in these relationships. I controlled for potentially influential variables including household income, child birth order, child age, number of children in the family, parental sex, parental education, parental occupation status, and community of residence. The basic hypothesis of this study is that children?s extracurricular activity 5  participation would vary depending on their parents? beliefs, experiences with ECAs, and educational attainment. This exploratory study contributes to the current literature by using a mixed methods approach to examine the relationships among parental determinants and children?s extracurricular activity participation.  1.3 Research Questions The central research question I explored is as follows: ?What role do parents of school-aged children play in determining their children?s participation in specialized athletics, music, language, and leadership programs?? Within this central question the following specific questions were addressed:  i. How do interview participants perceive their role in their children?s extracurricular participation? ii. How do parents? own experiences with ECAs shape their children?s participation in specialized athletics programs, specialized language programs, specialized music programs, and leadership programs? Does the nature of these relationships differ by parental education? iii. How do parents? beliefs shape their children?s participation in in specialized athletics programs, specialized language programs, specialized music programs, and leadership programs? Does the nature of these relationships differ by parental education?  1.4 Dataset This study used secondary data. The data were collected for a 22-year longitudinal study, called the Paths on Life?s Way project, at five points in time (1989, 1993, 1998, 2003, 2010). The 6  Paths on Life?s Way project collects data on the post-secondary education, work experiences, personal background and household, and happiness and wellbeing for a provincially representative sample of the Class of 1988 BC high school graduates and a smaller interview sample of 1990 high school students. The Paths on Life?s Way project is discussed in greater depth in Chapter three.   1.5 Theoretical Frame The idea of habitus as conceptualized by Pierre Bourdieu provided an excellent framework for understanding participation in extracurriculars without falling victim to a structure versus agency dichotomy. Bourdieu (1997/2000) posited that the habitus is a system of dispositions, primarily acquired within the family, inscribed within bodies by past experiences, which constructs and gives meaning to social agents? worlds. Bourdieu (1987/1990) put forward the idea of the habitus as a way to explain why ?types of behavior can be directed toward certain ends without being consciously directed to these ends, or determined by them? (p. 11). Bourdieu (1989) noted that actions guided by the habitus can often be mistaken for rational action because, he explained, ?when habitus encounters a social world of which it is the product, it finds itself ?as fish in water," it does not feel the weight of the water? (p. 43). Habitus is created as a result of the dialectical relationship between free will and social structures. One of the best metaphors used by Bourdieu (1997/2000) to explain the way habitus functions compared the habitus to an action plan ?inscribed like a watermark? in the situations social agents encounter (p. 143). Bourdieu (1997/2000) also proposed that individuals are subject to a class habitus formed without conscious intention, which acts as ?the basis of an implicit collusion among all the 7  agents who are products of similar conditions and conditionings? (p. 145). In this way the social world is incorporated within individuals.  The idea that through the habitus ?expectations tend universally to be roughly adapted to the objective chances? was central to this study (Bourdieu, 1997/2000, p. 216). In other words, the way families invest in education for their children, and the way that that children invest in their own education is dependent on the chance, or as Bourdieu would phrase it the ?probabilities,? they perceive for success, and the role they understand educational experiences to have played in their attainment of capital and social position (Bourdieu, 1977/1990). Bourdieu (1997/ 2000) further explained that habitus ?is this ?can-be? which tends to produce practices objectively adjusted to the possibilities? helping to children?s understanding of their ?capacity to act, [their] value, and social being? (p. 217-18). These probabilities likely impact both the activities in which parents encourage their children to participate and the activities in which children want to participate. The greatest strength of Bourdieu?s theory of habitus is that it leaves space for individuals? capacity for change. The habitus is understood as something fluid and dynamic. Bourdieu (1997/2000) explains that ?habitus change[s] constantly in response to new experiences? and ?dispositions are subject to a kind of permanent revision, but one which is never radical, because it works on the basis of the premises established by the previous state? (p. 161). This means that siblings raised by the same parents will not necessarily participate in the same extracurriculars, nor will all working class or middle class children participate in the same activities. While habitus provided a theoretical framework for understanding differences in ECA participation, Bourdieu?s ideas regarding capital provided a framework for understanding why 8  these differences are important. Bourdieu proposed that there are different types of capital: social, cultural, educational, and economic. Social capital is an individual?s network of social relations. Cultural capital is understood as specific linguistic and cultural competencies attained in various ways such as socialization in the family and participation in ECAs. Bourdieu (1986) theorized that cultural capital consists of three elements: embodied capital, objectified capital, and institutionalized capital. Embodied capital refers to attitudes, beliefs, and dispositions. It is initially acquired from the family, but as children age is can be acquired from different sources, such as participation in ECAs. Objectified capital referred to cultural objects like a painting or a rookie card of a famous athlete. The item itself is not necessarily of importance, understanding the significance of the item is the key. Institutional capital referred to credentials and qualifications. As Bourdieu (1977/1990) explains, institutional capital acts as a ?certificate of cultural competence which confers on its holder a conventional, consistent legally guaranteed value with respect to power (p. 248). Those who possess ?dominant? cultural capital are given opportunities because of the way dominant cultural capital permeates the education system.  Individuals can convert embodied capital into institutional capital (educational credentials) and ultimately into economic capital (material wealth). It is this process of conversion upon which Bourdieu focused his attention as it formed the basis for his understanding of inequality. Thus, rather than the proximal set of skills children learn through participating in an activity, it is the less tangible cultural routines children may learn though participation in ECAs that are most important. Those cultural routines may then become social or cultural capital that the child can wield in his or her life. Bourdieu?s concept of cultural capital is key to understanding how social and cultural capital is converted into educational and economic capital. According to Bourdieu (1997/2000), 9  ?symbolic capital is not a particular kind of capital but what every kind of capital becomes when it is misrecognized as capital?capital exists and acts as symbolic capital in its relationship with a habitus predisposed to perceive it as a sign, and as a sign of importance? (p. 242). In other words, people, as a result of their upbringing and personal tastes, have certain cultural preferences and these preferences have varying degrees of symbolic capital depending on the social class with which they are associated.  For example, an appreciation for classical music, which could be developed through participating in piano lessons or by growing up with parents who frequently listen to classical music, would have more symbolic capital among highly educated people than an appreciation for gangster rap.  As Derek Robbins (2000) explains, Bourdieu sees culture as ?a currency people use as opposed to an intrinsic quality?people are not intrinsically altered by their cultural preferences but the value of their preferences within the cultural system have economic and social consequences? (p. 32).   Bourdieu understood power to be created culturally and symbolically. He asserts that middle class cultural preferences are recognized and rewarded by education professionals who tend to have a middle class habitus, resulting in educational advantage (Bourdieu, 1986). In this way, the dominant social group adopts mechanisms of cultural and social reproduction not accounted for by schools, typically understood as institutions of formal equality. On the surface, schools seem to be institutions of equality, imposing the same demands on all students, but critical analysis uncovers that the means to satisfy these demands are not equally distributed to all students. Without careful analysis, it is easy for the functioning of symbolic power to stay hidden, continuing to legitimate inequality in the school system.  10  1.6 Definition of Terms 1.6.1 ECAs Prior studies (Dumais, 2006b; Lareau 2000a) have understood ECAs to mean activities that occur outside of regular classroom hours (i.e. at recess, lunch time or afterschool). Fletcher, Nickerson, and Wright (2003) argued that differentiating between structured and unstructured activities is essential in defining ECAs. Mahoney, Cairns, and Farmer (2003) provided the following three criteria that must be met in order for an activity to be considered an extracurricular activity: participation in the activity is optional, the activity is structured and organized by adults, and the activity requires effort and may be challenging. For the purposes of this study, ECAs were defined as optional, structured activities occurring outside regular classroom hours occurring in school or outside of school.    1.6.2 Parent The definition of a parent was broadly conceived to include any person who self-identifies as a parent in their answering of the 2010 Paths on Life?s Way survey. This definition is meant to respect the diverse family structures represented in the Paths on Life?s Way project.   1.7 Personal Background Before continuing with my analysis I believe it is important to say a brief word about my subjective position as it has certainly shaped my understanding of the role of parents play in their children?s extracurricular activity participation. As Wayne Au (2012) explains, ?our understanding of the world is simultaneously both clouded and illuminated by our identities as well as the social locations that produced those same identities? (p.33). I currently understand 11  myself to be an able-bodied, White, heterosexual, female. I have worked as an elementary school teacher in both the public school system in Southern Ontario and in the private school system in Vancouver, British Columbia. I consider myself to be a critical educator whose goal is to contribute to the struggle to construct a just society.  As an adult, I have participated in facilitating a variety of in-school and out-of-school ECAs. I have coached basketball, taught swimming, tutored, taught piano lessons, and led afterschool art programs. I also had the opportunity to participate in wide variety of in-school and out-of-school ECAs as a child. I took swimming lessons, was on a soccer team, played tennis, took piano lessons, participated in both drama and art classes, sang in the choir, and was the editor of my high school yearbook. Each of these experiences has contributed to my development in different ways and has shaped my view of the importance of ECAs for my students. My own parents played a key role in shaping my experiences with ECAs.  My interest in the topic of ECAs was ignited by my experiences both as a teacher and as a learner. I believe ECAs can be extremely beneficial for students and have the capacity to teach children important life skills, sometimes more effectively than formal schooling. That said, I also believe that over-burdening children with too many activities can negate these benefits. Participation in ECAs has become an important part of my own educational philosophy. In observing my own students, I have noticed significant differences in their participation in ECAs. Some parents strongly encourage participation in any type of ECAs in which their child displays interest. Some parents strongly discourage participation in certain types of activities for various reasons, most commonly the fear that the activity will distract children from their schoolwork. Better understanding the impact that parents have on their children?s ECA participation is of great interest to me for these reasons.  12  1.8 Overview and Structure of the Thesis Thus far I have described my personal motivation for studying this topic, my subjective positions, set out my theoretical framework and provided a brief introduction to the analysis procedures and data used. In the next chapter, a review of the literature was conducted to help lay the foundation for this study. This has been followed by a more detailed description of the data used, the Paths on Life?s Way project, the study participants, and research design in Chapter three. Chapter four outlines the results of the qualitative analyses conducted. The ideas of interview participants about their role in the activities in which their children have participated are described in detail. Chapter five begins with some descriptive statistics summarizing survey participants? beliefs, experiences, and their children?s ECA participation. Next, the process of data reduction using factor analysis is described and the results shared. Using the results of the factor analysis and the themes that emerged from the interviews, four regression models were created to explore parental determinants of children?s participation in specialized athletics, music, language, and leadership programs. Finally, the models were examined using analyses run separately for children of parents with less than undergraduate degrees, undergraduate degrees and advanced degrees in order to explore the impact of parental education. I conclude with a summary of the key findings, as well as the implications for future research. The limitations of this study are also discussed in the concluding chapter.  13  Chapter  2: Literature Review ECAs have increasingly become a topic of interest for scholars, particularly those in the fields of psychology, economics, sociology, and, of course, education. Researchers have studied this topic in a diverse ways, ranging from examining the benefits attained through participation to investigating children?s patterns of participation. I was most interested in further understanding differences in participation patterns among children, more specifically differences in the types of ECAs in which children participate. In the section that follows I will review the existing literature on this topic in order to provide contextual footing and to guide the analyses pursued in this study. My review of the literature begins with a brief discussion of the way prior studies have measured ECA participation, followed by an overview of the different assertions scholars have made about the pros and cons of ECA participation. This is followed by an overview of the key correlates of children?s ECA participation found by prior studies, with emphasis upon parental determinants. I conclude with a discussion of the gaps in the existing literature that I have attempted to address.   2.1  Measuring ECAs  Past studies have grouped ECAs in several different ways to reflect the similarities and differences of activities in order to make their analyses more meaningful. Eccles and Barber (1999) divided activities into the following five categories: pro-social activities (including volunteering and church groups), athletics, preforming arts (including music, and drama), school involvement activities (such as student council), and academic clubs (such as science club). Cassel, Chow, DeMoulin, and Reiger (2002) analyzed ECAs according to three groups: leadership, music, and sports. Datar and Mason (2008) categorized ECAs into the following six 14  groups: music lessons, art lessons, dance lessons, organized preforming arts, organized clubs, and athletic events.  Shulruf, et al. (2008) clustered ECAs as follows: team sports, individual sports, academic support (mentoring and tutoring), performance arts, community activity, business skills, music, hobby clubs, community service, and mentoring behavior. Using Statistics Canada data, Guevremont, Kohen, and Findlay (2008, 2010) grouped ECAs into three groups: sports, non-sport activities, and clubs or community groups. Prior work using the Paths on Life?s Way data grouped music, athletics and fine arts activities into one category: educational enrichment (Andres, 2009). This process of assigning ECAs to groups is all the more important given that there are different benefits believed to be associated with different types of ECAs. The benefits associated with participation in ECAs have been found to vary substantially by activity as a result of the different opportunities for physical, intellectual, social, and emotional development available in different activities (Fredricks & Eccles, 2006). According to numerous studies the benefits associated with participation in athletics differed substantially from those associated with participation in other types of activities (Broh, 2002; Cassel, et al., 2002; Eccles & Barber, 1999; O?Bryan & Dawkins, 2006). According to Cassel, et al. (2002), high school students who participated in athletic ECAs displayed lower levels of maturity but higher levels of social integration, when compared to peers who did not participate in these activities. Fredricks and Eccles (2006) asserted that students who participated in sports developed greater social and emotional competencies than non-participants. Students who participated in leadership and/or music ECAs displayed increased maturity and had higher GPAs than peers who did not participate in these activities (Cassel, et al., 2002). Case (2007) noted that male children who 15  participated in fine arts activities typically attained more academic capital throughout their lives than female participants or those who did not participate in fine arts activities.  I examined the following four groupings of ECAs: athletics, music, languages, and leadership. These groupings allowed me to examine the greatest amount of detail available from the Paths on Life?s Way survey data.  2.2 The Pros and Cons of ECA Participation In Chapter one I introduced the key benefits that researchers have found to be significantly correlated with participation ECAs. These include higher academic achievement (Fredricks & Eccles, 2006; Mahoney, Cairns, & Farmer, 2003; Marsh & Kleitman, 2002; Scott-Little, 2002), greater life satisfaction and wellbeing (Eccles and Barber,1999; Kim & Kim, 2008), and superior career prospects (Barber, Eccles, & Stone, 2001; Rivera, 2011). The correlation between higher academic achievement and participation in ECAs has been of particular interest to researchers. Researchers in all different academic fields have studied this correlation at length.  Some researchers, specifically those in the field of psychology, have asserted that participation in ECAs builds children?s cognitive and non-cognitive skills making them more capable of handling the social and academic demands of formal education. Such skills include persistence, independence, confidence, time management, maturity, self-esteem, initiative, interpersonal skills, and adaptive decision making skills (Barber, Eccles & Stone, 2001; Covay & Carbonaro, 2010; DeMeulenaere, 2010; Cassel, et al., 2002; Holloway, 2002; Mahoney, Cairns, & Farmer, 2003). Other reserchers, specifically those in the field of sociology, have taken a 16  different approach employing Bourdieu?s idea of capital to argue that participation in ECAs increases children?s cultural capital, which they can later use to procure institutional capital.   Bourdieu?s work on cultural capital is useful for understanding the benefits that children theoretically derive from participation in ECAs. Scholars who argue that cultural capital can explain disparities in academic achievement between children who participate more extensively in ECAs believe that participation in ECAs leaves markers of high social status on children causing them to receive societal benefits. Broh (2002) found that participation in ECAs did increase students? grades, but not their test scores. This comparison between grades and standardized test scores is a common way of comparing children?s natural abilities (test scores) and teacher?s opinions of students (grades). These findings have been interpreted by subsequent studies as support for cultural capital theory because teacher?s opinions are subjective and, according to Bourdieu, are influenced by displays of cultural capital. Lemich (2007) asserts that participation in ECAs affects student outcomes through the transmission of cultural capital and the broadening of their habitus to encapsulate talents and dispositions that mark higher social status. Research by Dumais (2006) supports this assertion.  Bourdieu?s ideas have also commonly framed the work of sociologists who examined the way that the benefits of ECAs are distributed to students, and in particular the role of social class in this process (De Graaf, De Graaf, & Kraaykaamp, 2000; DiMaggio, 1982; Kalmijn & Kraaykaamp, 1996; Kastillis & Rubinson, 1990). There has been a great deal of debate among cultural capital scholars concerning the way cultural capital functions in relation to social class. There are two main theories used to explain the functioning of cultural capital: cultural mobility and cultural reproduction. On one hand, scholars of cultural reproduction theory have asserted that students from lower income families are at a disadvantage in the education system as a result 17  of the differences between their class culture and the middle class culture legitimated by the school system (Bourdieu, 1996; Bourdieu & Passeron, 1977). On the other hand, scholars of cultural mobility have argued that students from lower income families benefit more cultural capital relative to students from higher income families. In many of these studies, ECAs were conceptualized as an indication of cultural capital. The relationship between ECA participation and students? academic achievement is compared for working class and middle class students. These studies conceptualized ECAs as a mechanism by which cultural capital can be transmitted to children. Many recent studies have found that extracurricular activity participation functions according to the cultural mobility model. Proponents of the cultural mobility model have asserted that participation in ECAs has more substantial positive outcomes for students from lower income families, thus participating in ECAs helps reduce inequality (Broh, 2002; Dumais, 2006a; Dumais, 2006b; Marsh & Kleitman, 2002). Dumais (2006a) found that the participation of children from lower income families in ECAs had a much greater impact on teachers? opinions of them compared to participation in ECAs by students from high-income families. According to Dumais (2006a), teachers? opinions were important in determining students? grades. Assertions that ECA participation is beneficial for children are not without critique. One of the most prominent critiques comes from a movement called ?slow parenting.?3 ?Slow parenting? is a fairly new term that has gained currency through popular culture parenting books (Hodgkinson, 2009; Honor?, 2008; Levine, 2006; Skenazy, 2009). Members of the ?slow                                                 3 Slow parenting is also commonly referred to as ?simplicity parenting? and ?free range parenting?.  18  parenting? movement have asserted that it is detrimental to children?s development to overburden them with adult organized activities. According to ?slow parenting? advocates, extensive participation in adult organized activities deprives children of the opportunity to grow into independent, self-aware, and happy adults. They have argued that allowing children to explore the world through unstructured, child-directed, free play is far more beneficial for children than participation ECAs.   2.3 Correlates of Children?s ECA Participation Prior studies have noted many possible correlates of children?s patterns of participation in ECAs. Below I have described many of these studies and have noted the key correlates, with an emphasis upon parental correlates. I have created a schema (see Figure 1) to help summarize the main findings of prior studies that have examined children?s patterns of participation in ECAs.  Figure 1 Schema of children?s participation in ECAs  Parent'Characteris-cs'?? sex'?? educa-on'?? income'?? occupa-on'?? marital'status'?? ethnicity/race'Family'Characteris-cs'?? number'of'children'?? family'structure'Parent'Beliefs'?? general'personal'values'?? child'rearing'beliefs'?? percep-on'of'child?s'abili-es''?? percep-on'of'child?s'interests'?? expecta-ons'held'for'child?s'future'?? percep-on'of'the'value'of'various'skills''Child'Characteris-cs'?? sex'?? birth'order'?? age'?? a?tude'?? ap-tude'?? interests'Parent'Experience'?? current'par-cipa-on'in'ac-vi-es'(par-cularly'athle-cs)'Parent'Behaviour'?? provides'children'with'encouragement'to'par-cipate'in'ECAs'?? Invests'more'resources'(-me'and'money)'into'children?s'par-cipa-on'in'ECAs'Child'Par-cipa-on'in'ECAs'?? types'of'ac-vi-es'par-cipated'in''?? extent'of'par-cipa-on'habitus'Determinants'of'Children?s'P r-cipa-on'in'Extracurricular'Ac-vi-es'(suggested'by'prior'studies)'19  2.3.1 The Role of Parents Parents typically play an important role in the organization of their children?s leisure time (Andersen & Hansen, 2011). Parental support for ECAs has been shown to have an important impact on extracurricular activity participation. The majority of ECAs require significant investments of parents? time and financial resources.  Most children are not able to become involved in ECAs without some level of parental support. Many studies have linked parental support and encouragement to children?s sustained involvement in ECAs (Anderson, Funk, Elliott & Smith, 2003; Case, 2007; Gentry, 2008; Richter, 2002). A better understanding the factors affecting parent?s support for different ECAs should add to understandings of participation differences noted among Canadian children.  Scholars have put forward a number of parenting factors they have found to be correlated with children?s extracurricular activity participation. These include parental role modeling behavior, parental beliefs regarding the importance of ECA and the benefits they may provide, parental education, marital status, and gender. I was unable to find any research looking at the influence of same-sex partnership on children?s participation in ECAs; however I speculate that this is also an important factor.  It has been suggested that parents? own activity participation may have an impact on their children?s participation in ECAs. There has been a great deal of focus in the current research on the physical activity levels of parents, which have been found to be strongly correlated with children?s participation in sports activities (Bhalla & Weiss, 2010; Fredricks & Eccles, 2005; Zecevic, Tremblay, Lovsin, & Michel, 2010).  The literature suggests that parental beliefs regarding the benefits of ECAs are correlated with children?s participation. A study by Grove (2010) found that in middle childhood, children 20  were much more likely to participate in ECAs if their mothers4 believed that ECAs are important and valuable. These findings suggested that understanding the impact of parental views on children?s ECA participation may be central to understanding how to optimize children?s extracurricular activity participation. A small number of studies investigated parents? opinions of the importance of ECAs by asking parents to explain why they encouraged their children to become involved in ECAs. Across the board, parents believed ECAs were beneficial because they enhanced their children?s educational experiences (Mapp, 2003). Gutierrez, et al. (2005) argued that parents view ECAs as a way of promoting development of traits to help ensure their children?s wellbeing and educational success. A study of parents in Hong Kong found that parents believed ECAs were valuable because they taught social skills more effectively than the formal curriculum, help students engage with teachers more frequently, and provided a safe way for children to spend their leisure time (Chi-chung & Ngai-ying, 1997). An exploratory study of the views of middle class parents regarding extracurricular activity participation by Dunn, Kinney, and Hofferth (2003) found that parents were most likely to support activities they perceived to be fun and physically active, as well as activities they perceived to help develop self-esteem, confidence, respect, responsibility, commitment, discipline, and social skills. In his analysis of the economics behind parental investment in children, Foster (2002) divided parents? explanations for supporting extracurricular activity participation into short-term benefits, such as skill development or development of social capital, and long term benefits, such as improved school performance. Grove (2010) found that parents believed ECAs would teach their children                                                 4 Much of the traditional literature on this topic made heteronormative assumptions about parents. The result of these assumptions is that the experiences of same-sex parents are largely absent from the literature. I subscribe to a more nuanced understanding of parents (see section 1.6.2 for my definition of parents).  21  substantive values such as teamwork, self-motivation, time management, and self-discipline, while also helping them to become well-rounded, build commonalities with their peers, and benefit their future educational and career endeavors. Overall, parents viewed ECAs as helpful tools that could help their children become healthy, happy, financially comfortable, and educated adults.  Prior research has suggested that many parents do not believe that all extracurriculars are equally beneficial for their children. Parents who believed that music and athletics activities provide children with the most important benefits often differentiated these activities. Kremer-Sadlik & Kim (2007) found that parents believed participation in athletics activities was particularly important for fostering the development of qualities children need to become successful adults. Dai and Schader (2002) found that many parents encouraged participation in music ECAs because they believed participation would help their children to develop good habits such as determination and work ethic, rather than for the development of musical talent (Dai & Schader, 2002). There is little understanding as to how parents? beliefs about the importance of specific activities have an impact on their children?s participation in those activities.  A number of studies found evidence suggesting that parental education level could be related to children?s extracurricular activity participation (Bandura, Brabaranelli, Caprara, & Pastorelli, 2001; Broh, 2002; Brown, 2006; Coneus, Laucht, & Reub, 2012; Covay & Carbonaro, 2010; Kirchsteiger & Sebald, 2010; Raty, 2003). According to Brown (2006), more educated parents tend to make greater investments in their children?s human capital. More educated parents have also been found to attribute more importance to their children?s educational success (Kirchsteiger & Sebald, 2010; Raty, 2003). Parents? own school experiences have been found to 22  influence their level of involvement in their children?s educational development. Parents who felt that they did not make the most of their education or who wished their own parents had been more involved in their education were more likely to assign greater importance to involvement in their children?s education (Mapp, 2003). Parents? educational experiences also had a impact on their views toward education. Studies have shown that parental views toward education were related to parental involvement and children?s extracurricular activity participation (Kirchsteiger & Sebald, 2010; Smrekar & Cohen-Vogel, 2001).  A few studies have indicated that marital status had an impact on parents? participation in their children?s educational development. A correlation was found between belonging to a single parent family and lower educational attainment (Akashi-Ronquest, 2008). A Canadian study found that children living with two parents were much more likely to participate in sports than children living with one parent (Gu?vremont, 2010). These differences are typically attributed to single parent families having fewer financial resources, but less parental time is also likely a factor.  Studies also suggested that parental sex could be another factor that has an impact on children?s participation in ECAs. Female parents may have different preferences for their daughters? education than male parents do (Alderman & King, 1998). Female parents also typically take on the majority of the work associated with their children?s extracurricular activity participation, compared to male parents (Weininger, 2008). Generally, mothers were more involved and knew more about their children?s extracurricular activity participation than fathers did; however, fathers were found to be very active and interested in their children?s athletic activities (Lareau, 2000b). In a study examining children?s perceptions of how their parents influenced their ECA participation, children perceived fathers to provide more input and have 23  stronger opinions about participation in specific activities (Shannon, 2006). Mothers were perceived by their children to be much more interested in their children?s general health and happiness than in encouraging participation in specific activities (Shannon, 2006).   2.3.2 The Role of Social Class  Much of the literature on parental determinants was born out of a desire to better understand the role of social class in children?s ECA participation patterns. Prior studies have treated social class both as a potential correlate in itself and as a moderator of the relationships between other correlates and children?s participation in ECAs. The majority of studies that examined the impact of social class on children?s ECA participation noted lower participation rates for working class children. Many studies also found that the types of activities in which children participated were correlated with social class. Children from middle class families were more likely to participate in arts activities (Dumais, 2006a). Significantly more middle class children participated in athletics compared to children from working class families. In Canada, 88% of six to nine year olds from middle class families participated in sports, compared to only 49% of six to nine year olds from working class families (Gu?vremont et al., 2008). Canadian middle class children were also significantly more likely to participate in non-sport activities (Gu?vremont et al., 2008). The reasons these class differences exist are widely disputed.  Some researchers have pointed to class based differences in parent?s values. One of the most influential studies that argued that class-based differences in parental values were highly correlated with class-based differences in participation was the work of Annette Lareau. In her study, Home Advantage, Lareau (2000a) observed two distinct styles of parenting, concerted cultivation and natural growth. Lareau (2000a) argued that parents from different social classes 24  exhibited distinctive parenting styles. Purposeful attempts made by parents to develop their children's skills and knowledge by encouraging their participation in ECAs was found to be distinctive of a middle class parent style which Lareau (2000a) called ?concerted cultivation.? According to Lareau (2000a), the following were the main indicators of the ?concerted cultivation? parenting style: collaborative communication (e.g. encouraging children?s opinions or making rules with children), a strong belief that parental involvement will increase children?s chances of success, and a strong role played by parents in organizing their child?s life, particularly by involving them in structured activities. Also characteristic of concerted cultivation was an emphasis upon competition in order to prepare their children for adult life and a concerted effort to help them get ahead. In contrast, Lareau (2000a) described the parenting style she believed was distinctive of working class parents, which she called ?natural growth,? as one in which parents are less involved in structuring their children?s time or purposefully cultivating their children?s interests and talents. Lareau (2000a) attributed these differences to working class parents typically having less time to spend with their children and less capital to pass down to them. It should be noted that Lareau (2000a) made a purposeful attempt to stress that neither parenting style is superior and that children whose parents employed a ?natural growth? approach were often more creative and independent.  Lareau?s work has been brought into question by other ideas such as those of the ?slow parenting? movement. The actions of parents who subscribe to the slow parenting philosophy would look similar, to an outside observer, to the actions of those parents who Lareau would categorize as following a ?natural growth? style of parenting. This is problematic because ?slow parenting? parenting values are most common among upper middle class parents, whereas ?natural growth? parenting values are characteristic of working class parents (Honor?, 2008; 25  Lareau, 2000a). Although these two conceptualizations of parenting values are theoretically very different, they both result in less ECA participation.  Others scholars have rejected the idea that lower participation among working class children were the result of some fundamental, class-based difference in parent?s values. Andres (2009) found that the values parents hold for their children do not differ by social class. More specifically, all parents wanted their children to be academically literate, educationally enriched, cultured, and in possession of cooperative skills (Andres, 2009). In his work on school choice, Davies (2011) made a similar finding. He asserted that parent?s valuing of specialized learning activities did not depend on social class but their actions action did (Davies, 2011). An alternative argument to that of class-based differences in parental values is that participation differences correlated with social class are the result of the significant expense associated with participation in ECAs (Chin & Phillips, 2004; Lagac?-S?guin & Case, 2010; White & Gager, 2007).   2.3.3 The Role of Race and Ethnicity My review of the literature brought to light that patterns of participation in ECAs vary significantly by race. Generally, children belonging to minority racial groups have been found to have lower rates of participation in ECAs. Gu?vremont, et al. (2008) established that Canadian Aboriginal children demonstrated participation rates that were lower than Canadian averages across all gender, age, and activity type categories. Lareau (2002) found minor differences in participation among Black and White children, with Black children exhibiting slightly lower participation rates. White and Gager (2007) found a break in this pattern and claimed that Asian girls displayed higher participation rates than White children or Asian boys. Covay and 26  Carbonaro (2010) found that students in schools with high ethnic and racial diversity were less likely to participate in all types of ECAs.  In some instances, studies have accounted for race as a determinant of participation differences by focusing on different cultural understandings of parents? roles. Smrekar and Cohen-Vogel (2001) stressed that many parents from minority cultural groups were less likely to participate in their children?s development in areas they considered to be the school?s responsibility. According to Li (2001), Chinese Canadian parents tended to hold higher than average educational expectations for their children and believed that most Canadian parents were too relaxed about their children?s academic achievement. Chinese Canadian parents strongly encouraged participation in math and science activities over arts because they believed a career in math and science would provide their children with an advantage (Li, 2001).  Tied to this, there is an emerging body of literature that has put forward arguments about racialized parenting styles. For instance, a memoir written by Anna Chua (2011) resulted in the coining of the term ?tiger mom.? ?Tiger mom? refers to a specific style of strict parenting understood to be characteristic of Chinese parents. As a ?tiger mom,? Chua (2011) described forcing her children to play the piano and the violin, even if they did not want to, and punishing them severely if they disobeyed. Chua (2011) contrasted the ?tiger mom? approach with a more easy-going ?Western? style of parenting. Consequently, there has been a great deal of debate surrounding whether a ?Western? parenting or ?Chinese? parenting is more beneficial for children.     27  2.3.4 Child and Family Correlates  Other correlates mentioned in the research include children?s sex, children?s age, number of children in a family, and birth order. Sex has been found to have an impact on children?s ECA participation in many ways. Girls tended to generally be more active in a number of different ECAs, but less active in athletics than boys (Gu?vremont, et al., 2008; Gu?vremont, et al., 2010; Gentry, 2008). Moreover, gender may have an impact on the benefits gained from ECA participation. Boys tended to benefit more from activities that contributed to cognitive skill development; whereas girls tend to benefit more from activities that contributed to non-cognitive skill development (Coneus et al., 2012). Participation in arts activities was found to be more beneficial for male children than for female children (Kaufman & Gabler, 2004).  Children?s ages have also been found to be a determinant of ECA participation. Older children tended to demonstrate higher rates of participation than younger children (Gu?vremont et al., 2008). According to Canadian research, children aged 10 to 13 were significantly more active in ECAs than children ages 14 to 17 and children ages 6 to 9 (Gu?vremont et al., 2008). Scott-Little (2002) asserted that the most substantial positive academic outcomes from extracurricular participation occurred during elementary school. Investments in young children have been found to be significantly more efficient than investments in older children (Coneus, Laucht, & Reu?, 2012; Dumais, 2006a). Parents may recognize this and it may affect the importance they assign to ECA participation for their children at different ages.  Finally, the number of children in a family and the birth order of the children may have an impact on ECA participation. Children from larger families tended to have lower academic performance because parents had fewer resources to allocate to each child (Caceres-Delpiano, 2006). Additionally, children?s educational aspirations were found to be negatively affected by 28  the number of children in their family (Reed, 2012). A study by Rees, Lopez, Averett and Argys (2008) found that being a younger sibling is associated with less ECA participation, whereas being the first born is associated with higher extracurricular activity participation.   2.4 Gaps in the Literature I have summarized some of the key studies belonging to the extensive body of work looking at children?s participation in ECAs. Despite the numerous studies that have been conducted on this topic there are still many questions that remain unanswered. These unanswered questions provided both the motivation and opportunity necessary to conduct this study. In devising this study I identified four key gaps in the current body of literature to address in my work. First, there were very few studies that compared predictors of participation in different types of ECAs. The majority of prior studies either focused on one type of ECA (athletics was by far the most common) or lumped all ECAs together. Especially when approaching this topic from the theoretical perspective of cultural capital, this is problematic because participation in certain activities such as music lessons, compared to athletics, may be more valued by those who possess dominant cultural capital. As a result there was a very limited understanding of how different determinants function similarly or differently for participation in different types of activities. There were many studies that looked at parental determinants of participation in athletics, fewer which look at music, and I was unable to find any studies that looked at leadership or languages.  Second, to my knowledge no study has examined parental participation in ECAs during high school as a determinant of children?s participation in ECAs. This is a large gap in the 29  knowledge regarding the role of parental experience. There is significant theoretical importance in examining parents? formative experiences with ECAs from the perspective of habitus and the intergenerational transmission of capital.  Third, no study has examined the relationships among parental beliefs, experiences, education, and children?s ECA participation patterns using a mixed methods approach. This is unfortunate given that mixed methods offer many advantages when looking at complex topics like this one. Mixed methods are generally more comprehensive as they allow research questions to be examined from multiple viewpoints and combine the strengths of both quantitative and qualitative research approaches (Creswell, 2003).  Finally, although extracurricular activity participation has increasingly become a topic of scholarly investigation, the Canadian research conducted on this topic is very limited. To my knowledge, Canadian research looking at parents? roles in the types of activities in which their children participate is non-existent.  30  Chapter  3: Research Design Both the quantitative and qualitative data used in this study were secondary data from the Paths on Life?s Way project at the University of British Columbia. Although there are five survey waves of data available, I chose to limit my analysis to the 2010 survey data and one question from the 1989 survey. I selected the 2010 survey data because this was the only survey wave that asked parents to report their children?s participation in ECAs. I chose the 1989 survey data because it provided the ability to examine parent?s past experiences with ECAs. Additionally, only the qualitative data from sixth round of interviews conducted in 2011 and 2012 were analyzed in this study. Given the overwhelming amount of data that was available, limiting my data analysis in this way was absolutely necessary in order to ensure the study was manageable for a Masters thesis.  This study used secondary data; however, it should be noted I have contributed to the Paths on Life?s Way project in my capacity as a Graduate Research Assistant since April 2012. I have assisted in the collection of qualitative data both by scheduling interviews with participants and by transcribing the resulting qualitative data. I have also participated in entering the quantitative survey data into SPSS and recoding data to make it easier to analyze.   3.1 Paths on Life?s Way Project The Paths on Life?s Way study is the only longitudinal study of youth in British Columba (Andres, 2002). Beginning in 1989 and spanning 22 years, the data provides a unique perspective on the lives, education, work, experiences, and beliefs of a provincially representative sample of the Class of 1988 BC high school graduates and a smaller interview sample. This 22 year longitudinal study includes five waves of interview and survey data (1989, 1993, 1998, 2003, 31  2010). I only used data collected from participants who self-identified as parents of children between the ages of 4 and 17 in 2010 and who reported being married or in marriage-like relationships.  3.1.1 Sampling and Attrition  In 1989, a stratified random sample of 10,000 high school graduates was selected from the overall group of approximately 43,500 graduates in 1988 in British Columbia to participate in the Paths on Life?s Way project (Andres & Wyn, 2010). Comparing to the 1989 survey participants, the participants of the four subsequent follow-up surveys (conducted in 1993, 1998, 2003 and 2010) have remained impressively consistent in terms of demographics (Andres, 2009). This suggests that attrition has occurred randomly and that attrition bias is not of concern.  3.1.2 The 2010 Interviews Fifty-one participants were selected from one metropolitan British Columbia high school, one urban-rural British Columbia high school, and one remote British Columbia high school (Andres & Wyn, 2010). The interview sample was selected using a purposive sampling strategy, based on the recommendations of the school guidance counselors (Andres, 1992). Using these recommendations, the most diverse group of students possible was chosen, taking into account race, gender, and academic performance (Andres, 1992). The willingness of students to participate in the study, as well as their eligibility and likelihood of gradating from grade 12 in 1990, were also taken into account (Andres, 1992). Between 1990 and 2012 participants were interviewed six times. The principal investigator, Dr. Lesley Andres, conducted all of the face-to-face, semi-structured interviews (N=24).  32  3.1.3 The 2010 and 1989 Surveys As previously mentioned, data from the first and fifth surveys from the Paths on Life?s Way study were analyzed. The Paths on Life?s Way surveys asked participants in-depth questions regarding post-secondary education, work, personal background, family, and health and wellbeing. The surveys provided a detailed look at the lives of the participants. The 2010 survey was made up of 36 pages, 100 main questions and many more subquestions (see Appendix A1). Most of the variables examined in this study were constructed using data collected on the 2010 survey. The survey consisted of five sections. The first two sections focused on the participants? post-secondary education.  The next section asked about work, training, income, and future career and education goals. The questions in section D requested information about participants? background, family, and household. This section included many of the demographic questions that were used as control variables in this study, as well as questions asking participants about their involvement in childrearing activities. Section E contained many of the key questions that were used in the analysis below as it covered most of the questions about participants? children. It asked participants to report their beliefs regarding the importance of certain skills and activities for their children?s schooling and wellbeing. It also requested that parents provide information on each of their children?s participation in ECAs.   One question from the 1989 survey was also used to construct a variable used to measure the participation of parents in ECAs during high school. The 1989 survey included 7 pages, 24 main questions and many more subquestions (see Appendix A2). The 1989 survey mainly asked participants about their decisions to pursue or not to pursue post secondary education. It was made up of three sections. Section A attempted to get at factors that influenced the reason why some 1988 grads did not pursue post-secondary education. Section B asked those who did purse 33  post-secondary education to report on the factors that may have influenced their decision to continue with post-secondary education. The final section included more questions about participants? post-secondary attendance, as well as questions about their experiences in high school and some demographic questions. This final section contained the only question from the 1989 survey that was analyzed in current study. This question asked participants to report their participation in ECAs during high school.   3.2 Participants 3.2.1 The Interview Participants All interviews used in the current study were conducted by Dr. Lesley Andres in either 2011 or 2012 and then recoded and transcribed. I only used data from interviewees who identified themselves as parents. Fourteen interviewees were included in this study. This group makes up 58% of the 24 total interviewees that have been interviewed thus far. Interview participants belonged to the high school class of 1990. All of the interview participants included in my study were either married or in marriage-like relationships. They were all in heterosexual relationships. The majority of the interviewees had two children, although two participants had one child and three participants had three children. The educational attainment of the interviewees and their partners, and the interviewee?s occupations were fairly diverse (see Table 1).   34  Table 1 Demographic characteristics of interviewees   Pseudonym Education Occupation Marital Status Partner?s Occupation Number of children Amy Univ degree Paraprofessional Lives with partner Paraprofessional 3 Christine Prof degree Practicing Professional Lives with partner Entertainment technology 2 Nathan Grad degree Educator Married Para-educator 2 Katherine Grad degree Government Employee  Married Practicing professional 2 Ruth Diploma Entrepreneur Married Entrepreneur 2 Jane Grad degree Practicing Professional Married Practicing professional 1 Linda No p.s. credential Entrepreneur Married Entrepreneur 2 Julie  Diploma Paraprofessional Married Paraprofessional 3 Kim Univ degree Educator Married Tradesperson 2 Henry No p.s. credential Salesperson Married Clerical 2 Matt Diploma Government employee  Married Manager 2 Noelle Grad degree Practicing Professional Lives with partner  1 Sandra Univ degree Educator Married Practicing professional 2 Eve Diploma Entrepreneur Married Practicing professional 3  35  3.2.2 The Survey Participants This study focuses on parents and their children. Not all of the Paths on Life?s Way participants had children in 2010; however, the majority of them did. Almost three quarters of the 2010 survey sample were parents. For analysis purposes, only the responses of participants who were parents of school age children (between the ages of 4 and 17) with their children living in their household were included in this study. The sample was also restricted to two-parent families, in other words parents who reported either being married or living with their partner. Only 4% of participants reported being single parents. Single parent families were excluded because prior studies found that children from single parent families were less likely to participate in ECAs than children from two-parent families. This correlation necessitated that family structure controlled for in my models, however because the sample included so few single parents families there was not enough variation for the variable to be useful in the analysis.  The final sample used in this study included 342 participants from the original sample of 574. This group makes up 60% of the original sample. I analyzed the survey data using the participants? children as the unit of analysis. In doing so, I assumed that parents were able to accurately report the activities in which their children have participated. Ultimately, 674 child observations made up the sample used for the analysis that follows. Despite excluding those survey participants who did not have children, the demographics of parent sample remained very similar to the sample in its entirety. A description of the sample is provided below, as is a concise table detailing key demographic variables of the sample, most of which were used as control variables in the analysis (See Table 2).  Over one third of the children were between the ages of 4 and 7. A slightly larger number of children (41%) were between the ages of 8 and 11. Twenty-two percent of children were 36  between the ages of 12 and 17. Most children had at least one sibling, just 6% had no siblings. Over half of the children (53%) had only one sibling. Twenty-seven percent had two siblings. Eleven percent were part of families with four children. Only 2.8% were part of families with five children.  All of the parents who responded to the 2010 survey graduated from high school in 1988 in British Columbia. Most celebrated their 40th birthdays in 2010. Fathers made up 40% of survey respondents and mothers made up the remaining 60%. The vast majority of parents described themselves as heterosexual with only 0.2% identifying as lesbian, 0.9% identifying as bisexual and 0.6% identifying with a sexual orientation not included as an option on the survey. The reported average household income (before taxes) was relatively high. Only 3% of parents reported an average household income of less than $40,000 CAN. Eight percent of parents stated an average household income of between $40,000 CAN and $59,000 CAN. Fourteen percent of parents indicated an average household income of between $60,000 CAN and $79,000 CAN. Fourteen percent of parents reported an average household income of between $80,000 CAN and $99,000 CAN. About 15% of parents reported average household incomes that fell into each of the following ranges: between $100,000 CAN and $119,000 CAN (17%), between $120,000 CAN and $149,000 CAN (16%), and between $150,000 CAN and $199,000 CAN (15%). A final group of parents (13% of the sample) reported an average household income (before taxes) of more than $200,000 CAN.  All of the survey respondents graduated from British Columbia high schools, but 22 years later many have moved outside of British Columbia. The majority (80%) still resided in British Columbia. Almost a quarter of participants lived in the greater Vancouver area. Ten percent lived in Alberta. Four percent lived elsewhere in Canada, specifically the Yukon, Ontario, Manitoba, 37  and Newfoundland and Labrador. Two percent lived in the United States. Three families (and seven of the children included in the study) also lived outside of North America. One was living in Rwanda. One family lived in Sweden. The last family was living in Japan. A third of the families lived in rural communities, while the remaining two thirds lived in urban areas.38  Table 2 Demographic characteristics of survey participants Variable %   Age of Children   4-7 36 8-11 41 12-17 23   Number of Children in Family  1 6 2 53 3 27 4 11 5 3   Sex  Male 40 Female 60   Parent Sexual Orientation  Heterosexual 98.3 Lesbian 0.2 Bisexual 0.9 Other 0.6   Household Income  $19,000 or lower 1 $20,000 to $39,000 2 $40,000 to $59,000 8 $60,000 to $79,000 14 $80,000 to $99,000 14 $100,000 to $119,000 17 $120,000 to $149,000 16 $150,000 to $199,000 15 $200,000 or higher 13   Where they live  Urban 67 Rural 33               (Paths on Life?s Way, 2010) 39  Over 95% of parents reported being employed, and the majority held full-time positions. Most parents were satisfied with their occupation and would choose the same line of work if given the opportunity. Almost 20% of parents indicated they were self-employed either with employees or without employees. Twenty-one percent of parents described themselves as ?an employee with limited supervisory or management responsibility? of five persons or less. A slightly larger number of parents (24%) classified themselves as ?an employee with more extensive supervisory or management responsibility? of more than five persons. About a third of the respondents indicated that they did not have any supervisory responsibilities in their current line of work. Three percent of parents described their occupation status as ?unpaid homemakers.?  Table 3 Occupation status of survey participants  Parent Occupation Status % An employee without supervisory responsibility 34 An employee with limited supervisory or management responsibility (5 persons or less) 21 An employee with more extensive supervisory or management responsibility (more than 5 persons) 24 Self-employed without employees 8 Self-employed with employees 9 Homemaker (unpaid) 3         (Paths on Life?s Way, 2010) Given that only high school graduates were included in the Paths on Life?s Way study, parents have high levels of educational achievement relative to the provincial average (Andres, 2013). A third of parents possessed an advanced degree (meaning a professional degree, a masters degree or a doctoral degree). Thirty-six percent of parents? highest level of education attainment was a undergraduate degree.  A significant proportion of parents? highest level of 40  educational attainment was a college diploma or certificate or completed apprenticeship, vocational, or trade school.  The Paths on Life?s Way participants also provided information on the educational attainment of their partners. Interestingly, partners tended to have lower levels of education attainment compared to the survey respondents. A little over a quarter (27%) of parents? spouses or partners highest level of educational attainment was a bachelors degree. Only 18% attained advanced degrees (professional degree, masters degree or doctorate) compared to over thirty percent of their spouses. A relatively large percentage of parents? highest level of educational attainment was a college diploma or certificate (18%) or completed apprenticeship, vocational, or trade school (10%). A high school diploma was the highest level of educational attainment for 9% of spouses/partners. Four percent did not complete high school.  Table 4 Highest level of education of survey participants and their partners Highest level of Education Parents (%) Parents? Partners (%) Less than a high school diploma 0 4 Secondary school diploma 3 9 Apprenticeship, vocational or trade school 5 10 Some college 3 8 College diploma/certificate 12 18 Some university  4 5 Completed bachelor?s degree 36 27 Completed professional degree 10 9 Completed masters degree 19 9 Completed doctoral degree 3 0.5 Other 5 0.5            (Paths on Life?s Way, 2010)  41  Most respondents reported that they, their partner, or both they and their partner were their children?s primary givers. Only 3% of parents reported that someone other than themselves or their spouse stays home with their children when they are sick. All of the participants stated that either they or their partner arrange for childcare or finds a babysitter, when necessary. Ninety-nine percent of participants indicated that either they or their partner ?chauffeurs? their children to their various activities. Only 0.5% of parents reported that someone other than themself or their partner takes their children to their appointments. About 44% of parents also reported acting as coaches, Girl Guide or Scouts leaders, or volunteering in some capacity associated with their children?s activities. This suggests that many survey participants were directly involved in their children?s extracurricular pursuits. As one could predict, most parents reported high stress levels and wished they had more time for themselves. Over half of parents reported that their lives were stressful. Eleven percent described their lives as being a nine or ten on a ten-point scale with ten being ?very stressful.? Forty-three percent rated their lives as a seven or eight on the same scale. Only 3% described their live as a one or two, with 1 being ?not stressful at all.?  On one hand, most parents indicated that they were fairly satisfied with the amount of time they were able to spend with their family, their spouse, their children, and participating in activities each week. On the other hand, they were less satisfied with the amount of personal time and time with friends they had each week. A little over a quarter of parents reported feeling dissatisfied with the amount time they were able to spend with their spouse/partner each week. Twenty-two percent reported feeling dissatisfied with the amount of time they spent with their children each week. Only 3% reported feeling dissatisfied with amount of time they spent with their family each week. Forty percent of parents reported feeling satisfied with the amount of 42  time they spent with friends each week, with only 9% feeling very satisfied with the amount of time spent with friends compared to 43% who were very satisfied with the amount of time they spent with their children, 73% who were very satisfied with the amount of family time they spent each week, and 24% who were very satisfied with the amount of time spent with their spouse. Only 10% of parents reported feeling very satisfied with the amount of personal time they had each week.  The majority of participants felt that more leisure time would enhance their wellbeing. Although most respondents reported feeling ?very satisfied? with the amount of family time they had each week, most agreed that more family time would enhance their overall wellbeing. Parents were more split in their opinions regarding whether more help with childcare would enhance their overall wellbeing. Forty percent of parents agreed, 40% disagreed, and 20% expressed neutrality on the issue.   3.3 Ethical Considerations I only used secondary data collected for the Paths on Life?s Way project. Consent was obtained from all participants prior to each interview conducted and survey completed. The consent forms that were distributed to participants stated that only Dr. Andres and ?her research assistants? would have access to the data for ?coding and analytical purposes.? All data has been anonymized and participants were assured that they will never be identified in any reports or publications resulting from the study. All interview participants have been given pseudonyms, which were used to identify them throughout the study. These pseudonyms do indicate their gender but do not bear any resemblance to their actual names. Furthermore, any personal information that may put participants anonymity at risk has been omitted.  43  3.4 Data Analysis As described above, the data for this study had already been collected as part of a larger study called the Paths on Life?s Way project. Both qualitative and quantitative data collected during the most recent wave of the study were used in this study. I also used quantitative data from the following question on the 1989 survey: ?Did you participate in any of the following activities during your years in secondary school? Athletic teams, band/drama/dance, school newspaper/yearbook, student council, other clubs (e.g. photography, crafts, chess, science, debating, etc.), Community or church youth organizations (e.g. YMCA, Scouts, Guides, etc.).? Mixed method analyses were conducted. In the simplest terms, a mixed methods approach analyzes both quantitative and qualitative data in the same study. Historically, researchers were drawn to mixed methods approaches because they believed that the biases inherent in qualitative approaches could be cancelled out by quantitative approaches and vice versa (Creswell, 2003). I selected a mixed method approach because I felt that it would provide a more complex picture of the role of parents in determining their children?s ECA participation than using exclusively a qualitative approach or a quantitative approach.  According to Creswell (2003), two of the key criteria researchers must consider in order to select an appropriate mixed methods strategy are priority and integration. In my study, the quantitative data were the priority. Integration of the quantitative and qualitative data occurred during both the analysis and interpretation phases of the study. Sequential procedures were used to analyze the data. Qualitative analyses were conducted first. Several themes emerged from these analyses (see Appendix B). These themes guided the creation of four regression models (this process will be discussed in more detail below). Finally, the quantitative data and 44  qualitative data were interpreted concurrently (see Chapter 6). For a visual representation of the study design see Figure 2 below.  Figure 2 Study design5   3.4.1 Qualitative Data Analysis Primarily, I focused my analysis on the qualitative data that emerged from the questions that follow: ?what do you values do you hold for your children?? and ?in what activities do your children participate?? I also analyzed any subsequent comments made by participants about their parenting philosophies or their perception of the role they play in their children?s educational and personal development. First, I read through all of the participants? interview transcripts, searching for any themes that emerged. I then colour coded the interview transcripts according to these themes (see Appendix B for a comprehensive list of the qualitative codes I used). Finally, using Atlas.ti I digitally coded and organized the data to ensure nothing was missed.   3.4.2 Quantitative Data Analysis The purpose of the quantitative analysis was to explore the relationships between parental experiences, parental beliefs, and the types of activities in which children participate. First, as described earlier in Chapter 3, using SPSS I reorganized the existing dataset so that the participants? children were the unit of analysis. I did this for three key reasons. First, it was really                                                 5 This study used secondary data therefore data collection was not part of the research design.  qual data analysis QUAN data analysis interpretation of QUAN+qual 45  the children of the survey participants who were at the center of my analysis. My goal was to uncover whether parents? beliefs and experiences are correlated with their children?s participation in ECAs. Second, the way the dataset was originally set up did not make sense for the types of analyses I wanted to do. I needed the ability to control for birth order, number of children and ages of the children. Early on, I considered including only first-born children in my analysis but the benefit of doing so did not outweigh the negative impact this would have had on the sample size. Finally, my major concern with altering the dataset in this way was that the demographic makeup of the sample would become significantly different from the target population. Analysis of the demographic make up of both the original and the child-centered databases demonstrated that was not a concern. To mitigate potential sources of error arising from the creation of this new database, birth order and the number of children in the family were included as control variables in each of my regression models. Using Stata, I preformed an exploratory factor analysis of parental beliefs in an attempt to consolidate parental belief indicators into thematic variables. This resulted in the creation of the following four parental belief indexes: community and cultural, competition and networking, academic opportunities, and languages. The name of each index reflects the types of parental beliefs that grouped together as revealed by the factor analysis.  As mentioned above, the themes that emerged from the qualitative analyses were used to guide the creation of my regression models. There were two key ways the qualitative analyses had an impact on the creation of my regression models. First, participants? beliefs and the extent to which they encouraged their children to participate in ECAs depended on the type of ECA. For example, a few of the parents reported believing that music activities were very important for their children because they perceived music activities to enhance their children?s cognitive 46  abilities. This observation reaffirmed my interest in studying differences among activities and led me to create four regression models, one for each activity I wanted to study. Second, interviewees? prior experiences with ECAs seemed to play an important role in the way they encouraged their children to participate in certain activities. This observation led me to decide to include parent?s prior experience with ECAs as one of the key independent variables in my regression models.   A total of four regression models were created using Stata. One for each of the four types of activities I was interested in studying (athletics, music, leadership and languages). Children?s participation in each of these activities served as my dependent variables. Various parental experience and parental belief variables served as the independent variables for my models. Potentially influential variables including household income, child birth order, child age, parental educational attainment, parental occupation, parental gender, and community of residence (rural/urban) were incorporated as control variables in the models. I used logistic regression analysis to examine relationships between the variables included in the models. The final phase of analysis incorporated parent education as a moderating variable for each of the four models. Separate analyses were run for children of parents with less than an undergraduate degree, an undergraduate degree and an advanced degree. My review of the literature prompted my speculation that parent education would have a significant impact on the relationships among the variables. The reliability of the model estimates were examined by conducting robustness checks for influential and discrepant cases and collinearity (see Appendix D).   47  Chapter  4: Results of the Qualitative Analyses  4.1  Descriptive Statistics  Most interviewees reported that their children were involved in several different types of activities. Almost all of the interviewees who described the specific activities in which their children were involved reported that their children participated in at least one athletic activity. Music activities were less common than expected. Only two interviewees reported their children?s involvement in a music activity.   The children of the interviewees were almost equally divided between boys and girls. Fifty-two percent of the interviewees? children were girls and the other 48% were boys. Thirty-five percent of the interviewee?s children were between the ages of 4 and 7. Twenty-eight percent of the interviewees had children between the ages of 8 and 11. Ten percent had children between the ages of 12 and 17. Twenty-one percent had children under 4 and 7 percent of the children were over 17.   48  Table 5 Gender, age, and activities of the interviewee?s children  Interviewee Gender of Children Age of Children  Activities children are/have been/will be Involved in  Amy Boy Under 4 Too young Girl  Over 17 Soccer Girl  Over 17 Soccer Christine Girl Under 4 Too young Boy 12-17 Business course, French, karate (attempted), rugby Nathan Girl 4-7 Undisclosed Girl 8-11 Undisclosed Katherine Boy Under 4 Too young Girl 4-7 Spanish Peter Boy 4-7 Baseball, hockey, drums, French (contemplated) Boy 8-11 Baseball, hockey, guitar, French (contemplated) Jane Girl Under 4 French (contemplated) Linda Boy 8-11 Hockey, lacrosse Boy 12-17 Hockey, track and field Julie Boy Under 4 Too young Boy 4-7 Swimming lessons Girl 8-11 Soccer, triathlons  Kim Boy 4-7 Hockey, lacrosse  Girl 4-7 Soccer, French, running, dance Henry Boy 8-11 Undisclosed Boy 12-17 Undisclosed Matt Boy 4-7 Undisclosed Girl 8-11 Undisclosed Noelle Girl 4-7 Swimming lessons, soccer, French (contemplated) Sandra Girl 4-7 Soccer, basketball, swimming, cultural activities, guitar (intended) Boy 8-11 Soccer, basketball, swimming, cultural activities, guitar (intended)  Eve Boy Under 4 Too young Girl 4-7 Lifesaving/water awareness, swimming lessons, dance Girl 8-11 Swim team, community organized recreational activity, lifesaving/water awareness, dance  4.2 Key Themes Emerging from the Interviews During the interviews conducted by Dr. Andres, interview participants with children were asked two questions specifically about their children. First, participants were asked the following question: ?What values do you hold for your children?? One father summed up the key sentiment 49  behind all of interviewees? responses to this question in a very succinct way: ?What do I want for my boys? Well the same thing any parents wants, healthy, happy, successful.? (Henry) These three adjectives summarized the goals the participants have for their children.  In their explanations of what motivates their parenting decisions, all of the interview participants emphasized at least one of these three goals.  The second question interview participants were asked was, ?How do you put these values into action? What do you do for your children?? When asked what they did for their children, almost all parents directly commented on ECA participation without being prompted. All interview participants understood ECAs as important for their children. Many specifically noted their willingness to make sacrifices so that their children could participate in ECAs.  This demonstrated how that they think that ensuring their children are participating in ECAs is an important part of their role as parents.  There was a lot of use of the word ?we? when parents discussed the activities in which their children had participated.  For example, one mother explained, ?He doesn?t like organized activities all that much. We tried karate. We tried swimming. We tried, rugby.? (Christine) This use of the word ?we? really demonstrates the level of investment this mother had in her son?s ECA participation and the way she views it as a joint responsibility and effort between her son and herself. A comment by another mother further highlights this aspect of parental investment in children?s ECA participation: ?You know so much of my time and my energy and my thoughts are invested into what are my kids doing?just making sure they are balanced little people.? (Kim)  The answers to these two questions shed light on the interviewees? understandings of their roles determining the activities in which their children participate. They also help to uncover reasons why participants may encourage their children to participate in certain activities 50  over others. Their responses covered the following three aspects that they considered when thinking about their children?s participation in ECAs: motivating factors, concerns, and their own prior experiences.   4.2.1 Motivating Factors There were many motivating factors that parents raised when they discussed their children?s participation in ECAs.  One such motivator was ensuring their children do not get too much screen time. A reason many of parent interviewees noted for encouraging their children to participate in activities was to make sure their children were staying active. One parent expressed his opinion of why ECA involvement is important for his children: ?I think it?s really good. It keeps them active?[Our oldest one] would be a video game kid if we let him.? (Peter) One of the mothers explained the reason that she feels okay with her son?s relatively low amount of participation in ECAs because he participates in enough non-structured activities to keep her satisfied with his level of physical activity,  He doesn?t like organized activities all that much?.He stuck it out with the swimming long enough to be a proficient swimmer. He stuck it out in Rugby until it got to the point where I actually felt nervous for him?. But he snowboards and he skateboards. He?s very physically active so that?s alright. (Christine)  In two cases, interviewees explained that their beliefs regarding the importance of culture and language acted as motivators. These parents prioritized activities that were important to them on a personal level. For example, Noelle explained,  ?I'm Ukrainian, so I might look at putting her into Ukrainian dance in the fall.? Katherine explained that because her husband is not Canadian ?languages and understanding other cultures? are very important to her and ?why it?s 51  important [my daughter] is going to French immersion and she speaks Spanish and that sort of thing.? Many parents also described future-oriented motivators for encouraging their children to participate in certain types of ECAs. Several of these parents made it clear that they purposefully encouraged or enforced their children?s participation in ECAs in an attempt to cultivate their children?s embodied capital. They were motivated by the belief that ECAs would help their children gain academic and economic capital. One mother made this intention very clear when she said, ?You always have [scholarships and the future] in the back of your mind ? Both of them are very athletic. They're very smart. So I'll work on the music?We're going to get them a guitar.? (Sandra) This mother purposely tried to provide her children with a range of experiences, which she believed would give them the capital they need to get ahead in the world. Parents purposefully structured and guided their child toward opportunities for growth and achievement through involvement in ECAs. They believed that this involvement would result in a ?well-rounded? child.  This idea of trying to cultivate children that are ?balanced? or ?well-rounded? seemed to be a common motivator that led parents to encourage their children to participate in different types of ECAS. One father clarified that although his sons are more interested in sports, he and his wife make sure that their children have other competencies. He said, ?it?s mainly sport and then we?ve tried to off-set it with some music and then drama.? (Peter) Another mother wanted it to be clear to Dr. Andres that she tried her best to ensure her children were well-rounded. When asked by Dr. Andres whether her children had participated in any non-athletic ECAs (Andres mentioned art specifically), she mother replied, ?No, I tried to get them to?Oh! My older son plays the trombone.? (Linda) In other cases, the desire of parents to demonstrate that they are 52  trying to ensure their children are involved in a range of different activities was not prompted by the interviewer. One mother enthusiastically explained that she was planning to get her children involved in music. She said, ?mostly sports for activities, but we are getting them a guitar this year for Christmas, so we're going to get them involved in music!?  (Sandra) Another parent expressed her dismay that her son was not more interested in non-athletics activities: ?I tried to convince him a couple times to take dance lessons or to go into theatre or something like that but no, he never went for that.? (Christine) Finally, a few of the parents described genetics as a motivator for encouraging their children to participate in certain activities, especially music. One mother noted the idea of genetics as a motivating factor for encouraging participation in ECAs. She said, ?[my husband] and I aren?t very musical?my mom is a beautiful piano player, like [my grandfather]? They're very musical on her side of the family. So I asked her ?Oh, why didn't you pass that on???so we're going to get [my children] into the music.? (Sandra) One of the fathers noted that his son?s interest in music confused him because he had not seen it a possibility for his son because of his own family?s lack of participation in musical activities. He explained, ?Neither one of us, my wife nor I, are musically inclined. My mother says, ?where does he get it from?? He just picks up the guitar and loves to play.? (Peter)  4.2.2 Parental Experience Personal experiences were discussed by almost all of the participants in their descriptions of the values they hold for their children and the actions they have taken as parents. These experiences also seemed to motivate parents to encourage or enforce their children?s participation in certain types of ECA.  53  Many parents explained actions they have taken related to their children?s extracurricular participation in reference to their own childhood experiences. One mother noted the amount of pressure she felt her own mother had put on her. She expressed the desire to not follow in her mother?s example in this regard with her own daughter: ?I hope I?m not as hard on her as my mom was on me.? (Christine) Another parent explained why he takes a more hands-on approach with his children than his parents did with him. He describes feeling motivated to spend a lot of his free time helping to facilitate his children?s participation in activities, even if it means he has to ?stay up until nine o'clock at night outside mowing the grass,? because he wishes his parents had made him a priority in that way. He stated, ?my parents were never like that with us. If you wanted to play sports when we were kids, you?d peddle your bikes down to the school ?We didn't play organized sports until we got into high school. My parents never ran us out to soccer games.? (Peter) Another participant explained that the emphasis he has put on exposing his children to other cultures was motivated by his upbringing in a small middle class town. This same participant also observed that his siblings have also made parenting decisions prompted by their own childhood experiences. He said, ?It?s interesting too as I look at my siblings and maybe see the parts of their upbringing that they feel like they didn?t get enough of.? (Nathan) Finally, one mother explained that she has strongly encouraged her daughter to participate in athletic ECAs because she believed participating in athletics would help her daughter build a social network, something that she thinks would have helped her avoid some of the adolescent experiences she now regrets. She said, ?I just, I really try to put [my daughter] in a lot of sports and really encourage her to have lots of friends to, to try and stay away from the pitfalls that I had.? (Julie) 54  Many parents also noted the way they believe their current experiences participating in ECAs (athletic activities in particular) have had an impact on their children?s ECA participation. One mother made this idea very clear when she explained,  I belong to the Running Room, so [my daughter] comes running with me. [My older son] does his biking with me, and to strengthen my legs I put the carrier on the back, and so [my older son] and [my younger son] come with me, or they come watch me in the pool doing laps...One of the kids is usually with me when I?m training?[My daughter] did her first triathlon, three weeks ago. That made me happy because I knew I was being a good role model for her...She had watched me do mine, and she was like ?that?s what I want to do, I want to be like my mom? so that was like, ?wow, I?m a good influence on my kids.? (Julie)   Another mother explained that because she has purposefully participated regularly in athletic activities to ensure, her children ?see it as just part of everyday? and hopefully follow her lead (Kim). One of the fathers expressed his worry that by not participating in religious activities he was sending his children message that religious activities are not important. He said, ?I haven't been involved with church since we last spoke actually?I'm kind of thinking, well, maybe I have to get my kids involved for that experience, right? But I think by living your life by example is a very important.? (Matt) Personal experiences with ECAs also seemed to influence parents? expectations of the activities their children will like and be good at it. Many parents held the expectations that their children would participate in similar activities to the ones in which they, their partner, or other members of their family have participated. One mother explained why she assumed her young daughter would eventually be academically inclined: ?We?ll encourage her to follow her heart and to do what she would like to do but I?m sure she?ll be academically inclined because both her parents are. She already is a book worm.? (Jane) Another mother explained that she intends to encourage her daughter to participate in dance because she enjoyed it so much herself. She 55  said, ?I?m afraid she?ll have to try dance lessons. I was a dancer when I was a kid so I?d like her to try.? (Christine)   4.2.3 Concerns  Feeling conflicted about their children?s ECA participation was a common among interviewees. Many interviewees discussed, either directly or indirectly, a tension between wanting to give their children every advantage to ensure they did not fall behind their peers and trying to ensure their children were not over-scheduled and exposed to the pressure of adult life too soon. In particular, interviewees worried that some activities were too competitive and required too large of a time commitment from their children. Several participants also discussed how they have tried to ensure their children are not overscheduled and still have time to be children.  The competitiveness of ECAs and the idea that too much societal pressure has been placed on children to participate in too many things were key frustrations expressed by many of the parents. One mother expressed this frustration very clearly: ?I wanted to put [my daughter] in gymnastics but it was booked in 22 seconds of going online. There's just there's not enough resources for the kids. It?s so competitive.? (Noelle) Another mother directly compared herself and her husband to other parents: ?Sometimes it is sort of secret. Some people don't tell you about things because they want their kids to have the advantage? [my husband] and I are both really laid-back.? (Kim) The pressure that results from overly competitive ECAs seemed to worry many of the parents. One mother explained that ECAs are just too much for children to deal with. She said,  56  It's too much and that's kind of how all societies have gone. Even with the kids and sports. It's too much, you know? How many times have we come to [city] for hockey or for lacrosse games? It?s during school, and they come for like a seven o'clock game and then play till 8:30 and then drive home with our kids. Our kids don't get to bed until 10:30 or 11. It's too much. (Linda) The worry that ECAs were placing too much pressure on their children caused some parents to make a conscious effort not to allow their children to become involved in too many activities. One woman emphasized this point; she said, ?I don't want to have her doing things five days a week. I want her to be a kid?she still has to colour and do crafts.? (Noelle) The idea that children need time to be children was echoed by many of the other interviewees. There was a tension perceived by the interviewees between placing too much pressure on children by involving them in too many activities and children falling behind their peers as a result of too little participation in ECAs presented a challenge for parents. Trying to find the right balance seemed to cause parents to actively reflect on their children?s involvement in ECAs. As one mother explained, ?I?m very mindful that it could come back to bite us in the bum if we [participate in ECAs] to the extreme ? so we try to find that happy medium.? (Katherine) Other parents were cognizant of the fact that their children might be doing too much but had decided to let their children tell them when they have had enough. One father stated, ?We have our kids in too many activities probably ? but our kids both really enjoy it. They never say no to anything.? (Peter) One mother explained the negative impact she had noticed as a result of her children doing too much and her subsequent decision to limit the number of structured activities in which her children participate,  My kids don't know how to play by themselves, so we have to make an effort ? like Monday and Wednesdays, they do nothing. They just have friends over, and I just leave them. They don't do anything. They just play by themselves. I think with the firstborn, I really tried to micromanage? everything my parents didn't do right with me, I was going 57  to do right with them?My parents did fine by me. They left me alone for a lot of it. You swam in the summer and you played soccer in the winter, and that was it. (Eve)   This comment is telling regarding what may motivate some parents to hold their children back a bit in terms of extracurricular participation.   4.2.4 Enforcers, Encouragers and Facilitators In order to understand the way that parents may influence their children?s participation in ECAs it is necessary to recognize that the way parents understand their role as parents in their children?s lives are key. Although most parents see their children?s ECA participation as a joint effort (shown by the use of the word ?we? referring to themselves and their children when discussing their children?s ECA participation) parents put forward different ideas regarding their own role in their children?s participation. After reading the interview transcripts several times and reorganizing my original coding scheme (see Appendix B for my original coding scheme and Appendix C for my reorganized coding scheme), I devised the following three categories to describe the ways parents acted regarding their children?s ECA participation: enforcer, encourager, and facilitator.  The first category was as an enforcer. Parents who acted as enforcers felt very strongly that there were certain activities in which their children must participate and thus required their children to participate whether or not they expressed interest in the activity. Enforcer parents also tended to hold similar beliefs. Many of these beliefs were future oriented. They believed ECA participation (especially well-rounded ECA participation) would help their children get ahead of the curve. A comment by one mother exemplified the motivation behind enforcing ECA 58  participation; she said, ?That tiger mom6, I can see the value in that, and if you don't push your kids a little bit, of course the majority of them won't want to do anything but watch the telly.? (Eve) The second category was as a facilitator. Parents who acted as facilitators let their children?s interests guide their participation and did not try to steer their children toward participation in any activity in particular. For instance, one mother explained that her daughter will have  ?a lot of ideas of her own in the coming years about how she?ll want to explore and how we can facilitate.? (Jane) One father explained that he does not believe in forcing his children to do things they are not interested in. He said,  I have expectations for them as being their Dad, of course. Homework, do your chores and that type of thing but I support what they want to do. I don't try to direct them to do things that I want them to do as far as, you have to play soccer, you have to do this, you have to do that. If it's something they don't want to do, then I'm not going to force them to do it. (Henry)   Another parent explained that she plays a facilitator role in order to let her children discover their own strengths: ?We?re just letting our kids try whatever they want right now and go find their thing.? (Kim)  Facilitator parents, in contrast to enforcer parents, tended to be more focused on the present. They were concerned with ensuring their children had enough time for free play and to discover their own interests.  They also tended to express more concerns about ECAs and seemed more torn as to how extensively their children should participate in ECAs. The third category was encourager. Parents who acted as encouragers had ideas about what activities would be beneficial for their children and tried to encourage participation but they did not force their children to participate in any activity in which they were not interested. For                                                 6 This interviewee is refereeing to the Anna Chua?s (2011) concept of ?tiger mom?. See Chapter 2 for a more detailed description of the meaning of this term.  59  example, one mother explained that she could only encourage her son to participate in ECAs to a certain extent: ?I?ll ensure that he does what he has to do to pass and to get by but I can?t give him the desire to compete and to care.? (Christine) Encourager parents tended to hold a mix of future-oriented motivators and present-focused concerns (see Figure 3). As described above, parents? perceptions of motivators and concerns regarding their children?s ECA participation were determined by their beliefs and prior experiences.  Figure 3 Parents? role in their children?s ECA participation as a spectrum  Most of the parents did not fall into only one of these three categories. The reality is that many parents enforced participation in certain activities, encouraged other activities, and facilitated others (see Figure 4 for a visual representation of parent intervention). The following comment made by one mother really highlights this: ?Every once in a while she'll get upset and say, ?I don't want to do it anymore.? And I say, ?Well, that's fine. You have to finish up the term. But you can never give up tutoring, and you never give up swimming?.? (Eve) This woman enforced that her children participate in tutoring and swimming lessons while encouraging participation in other activities. This observation was absolutely key to my study. Many other studies have examined the relationships among possible parental determinants of ECAs and children?s participation in ECAs as an aggregated group. By doing so, these researchers made the assumption that parental determinants functioned the same way across different types of ECAs. This highlights the strength of using a mixed methods approach. If I had not conducted Encourager Enforcer Facilitator motivators concerns Encourager Enforcer Facilitator motivators concerns child?s participation in athletic ECAs child?s participation in music ECAs child?s participation in language ECAs 60  qualitative analyses I might not have chosen to examine parental determinants in relation to children?s participation in ECAs specific types of ECAs and opted instead to look at children?s ECAs as an aggregated group.  Figure 4 Hypothetical example of the place of different ECAs on the parental intervention spectrum  Recall Bourdieu?s (1987/1990) explanation of habitus as a way to understand why ?types of behavior can be directed toward certain ends without being consciously directed to these ends, or determined by them? (p.11). The interviewees did not necessarily consciously act as enforcers, encouragers or facilitators. Rather, their life experiences, dispositions, and beliefs came together to influence their actions and the way they interacted with their children regarding ECAs.  In their responses to questions about what they have done for their children, it was very clear the amount of thoughtful consideration that the interviewees put into the decisions they made as parents. It was very clear that all parents, no matter what decisions they made and what activities in which they did or did not encourage their children to participate, believed they were doing what was best for their children. The responses of the interviewees highlight the role of parental beliefs and parental experience in children?s extracurricular activity participation. Their Encourager Enforcer Facilitator motivators concerns Encourager Enforcer Facilitator motivators concerns child?s participation in athletic ECAs child?s participation in music ECAs child?s participation in language ECAs 61  responses motivated the inclusion of parental beliefs and parental experiences as the key independent variables in the regression models below.  62  Chapter  5: Results of the Quantitative Analyses  5.1 Descriptive statistics Prior to beginning more advanced statistics procedures, a descriptive analysis was conducted in order to gain a better understanding of the sample. The Paths on Life?s Way survey asks many questions about the values parents have for their children, their involvement as parents and the activities in which their children participate. There are 30 questions about the participants? beliefs regarding what skills and activities are most important for their children?s schooling and future wellbeing. There are 10 questions (per child) asking parents about the activities in which their children participate. There is also one question that asks parents to list any ?informal learning activities? in which they have participated between 2003 and 2010.   The ECAs participation patterns of the survey participants? children are very similar to the participation patterns of Canadian children as reported by Guevremont (2010). Over 80% of the children participated in at least one of the four ECAs of interest to this study. About a quarter of the children participated in only one type of ECA. Of those children who only participated in only one type of ECA, athletics was the most commonly participated in followed by language programs, then music programs. Leadership ECAs were the ECA least commonly participated in by children who only participated in one ECA. The majority of the children who participated in leadership activities participated in three or four of the ECAs of interest. Less than 10% of the children participated in all four types of ECAs. Consistent with national ECA participation averages, athletics and music programs were by far the most commonly participated in activities among children in the sample. Two thirds of the children participated in specialized athletics programs. About half of the children participated in specialized music programs. A third of the 63  children participated in leadership programs. About a quarter of the children participated in specialized language programs such as private language classes.  Differences by parents? highest level of educational attainment were not noted for children?s participation in athletics activities or leadership activities; however, differences were observed for both music activities and language activities. Children whose parents had lower levels of education were less likely to participate in both types of activities. In terms of participation in specialized music programs, children whose parents had undergraduate degrees or less had similar participation rates. Just over 40% percent of children whose parents? highest level of educational attainment was an undergraduate degree or less participated in specialized music activities, compared to over 60% percent of children whose parents had advanced degrees. Only about 20% of children whose parents had less than an undergraduate degree participated in language ECAs compared to 25% of children whose parents had an undergraduate degree and almost 40% percent for children of parents with advanced degrees. Table 6 Children?s participation in activities Have your child attended or participated in the following? * Yes (%) No (%) Leadership programs 36 64 Specialized music programs 49 51 Specialized athletic programs 66 34 Specialized language programs (e.g., French immersion, private language classes) 26 74 *An extent of participation scale of zero to one    (Paths on Life?s Way, 2010)   Most of the children?s parents reported fairly high levels of participation in ECAs during high school. Participation on athletics teams was the most common activity participated in during high school by children?s parents. Almost three quarters of the parents reported that they played 64  on athletic teams either ?sometimes? or ?often? during high school. Band, drama and/or dance were a close second. Sixty-two percent of the parents participated in band, drama, or dance either ?sometimes? or ?often? during high school. Over half of the parents participated in other clubs such as debating, photography or chess during high school. More than half of the parents participated community and/or church youth organizations such as Scouts, Guides or YMCA. Student council and school newspaper and/or yearbook were participated in less frequently participated by parents. Only about a third of parents participated in each of these activities.   Table 7 Parent participation in different activities during high school  Did you participate in any of the following types of activities during your years in secondary school? * Never (%) Sometimes (%) Often (%) Athletic teams 27 40 33 Band, drama or dance 39 29 33 School newspaper, yearbook, annual 60 24 16 Student council 62 20 18 Other clubs (e.g. photography, crafts, chess, science, debating, etc.) 48 33 18 Community or church youth organizations (e.g., YMCA/YWCA, Scouts, Guides, etc.) 45 17 38 *An extent of participation scale of zero to two.    (Paths on Life?s Way, 1989)  Overall, children?s parents reported exercising fairly regularly. Less than 10% of parents indicated that they never exercised. The most frequently reported amount of weekly exercise was two to three times per week. Over 20% of parents exercised four to five times per week. A relatively small proportion of parents even reported exercising more than five times per week.  In terms of the informal learning activities in which parents reported participating, by far the most common was assisting with their children?s ECAs either by coaching, serving as a Girl Guide or Boy Scouts leader or volunteering in a less formal position. Almost 20% of parents 65  reported participating in athletic activities, including team sports, individual sports such as running, and extreme sports like white water rafting. Over 10% of parents reported participating in various creative activities including painting, flower arranging, dancing and playing an instrument. A small number of parents reported participating in language classes to learn French, Spanish, Arabic, Mandarin, various European languages, and/or sign language.  66  Table 8 Parent participation in informal learning activities between 2003 and 2010  Parent Regular Exercise  % Never  9 Once a week  21 Two to three times a week  41 Four to five times a week 21 More than five times a week 8   Parent current participation in athletic activities % Yes 17 No 83   Parent current participation in creative activities % Yes 13 No 87   Parent current participation in language classes % Yes 3 No 97   Parent current participation in coaching and community activities  % Yes 44 No 56   Parent current participation in religious activities  % Yes 4 No 96        (Paths on Life?s Way, 2010) Children?s parents were asked to report on the importance of various aspects of their children?s schooling. The vast majority of parents felt that opportunities for education enrichment, leadership opportunities, specialized learning opportunities (e.g. music, athletics) and a strong public education system were either somewhat or very important. Parents were more divided in their beliefs about the importance of a strong private education system. Only about a third of parents believed it was important. Almost three quarters of the parents expressed the belief that a multicultural student body was important. Only about 20% of parents believed 67  that religious instruction was important for their children?s schooling. Very interestingly for the purposes of this study, parents had relatively varied views regarding the importance of their children attending university (as opposed to community college or another non-university institution). Two-thirds of parents felt that university attendance was important. These beliefs were also examined by parents? highest level of educational attainment, yielding some striking results. Fewer parents with advanced degrees believed that leadership opportunities and specialized learning opportunities were very important, compared to parents whose highest level of educational attainment was an undergraduate degree or less. Similar patterns were observed for parents? beliefs concerning the importance assigned to attending university (as opposed to a community college or other non-university institution) and the importance ascribed to a multicultural student body. Parents with advanced degrees and parents with less than undergraduate degrees were less likely to answer ?very important? than parents whose highest level of educational attainment was an undergraduate degree. 68  Table 9 Parental beliefs about the importance of different elements of children?s schooling   When it comes to schooling these days, how important are the following for your children? * Not at all important (%) Not very important (%)  Neutral (%) Somewhat important (%) Very important (%) Opportunities for educational enrichment (e.g. gifted programs) 1 4 11 47 36 Leadership opportunities 0 1 6 50 43 Specialized learning opportunities (e.g., music, athletics) 0 0 3 40 56 A strong public education system 2 0 4 16 77 A strong private education system 19 21 27 20 13 A multicultural student body 2 9 18 54 18 Strict discipline policies in the school 2 6 17 48 27 Religious instruction 37 20 21 12 10 Attending university (rather than a community college or other non-university institution) 1 14 24 37 23 *An importance scale of one to five.      (Paths on Life?s Way, 2010)   Almost all of the parents believed computer literacy, mathematical literacy, reading skills, writing skills and scientific literacy were ?very important? for their children?s wellbeing. Due to the fact that there was very little variation in parents? beliefs regarding the importance of these different types of literacies these questions were excluded from further analysis.  When asked about the importance of different skills for their children?s future wellbeing, responses indicated that most parents agreed that the possession of most skills they were asked about were important to their children?s future wellbeing, with the exception of French or other language proficiency. There were no parents who believed that participation in athletics, cooperative skills, competitive skills, and a close circle of friends were not at all important for their children?s future wellbeing. Although the majority of parents felt competitive skills were important for their children?s future wellbeing, overall they felt less strongly about the importance of competitive skills when compared to cooperative skills. Only about a quarter of 69  parents believed that competitive skills were ?very important? for their children?s future wellbeing, compared to over three quarters for cooperative skills. A significantly larger proportion of parents believed that a close circle of friends was ?very important? compared to those who believed that a large network of friends was ?very important? for their children?s future wellbeing. Most parents felt that exposure to other cultures and knowledge of society were important for their children?s future wellbeing. Parents were the most divided in their beliefs when it came to the importance of proficiency in French and other languages. Only 8% of parents believed that command of French was very important for their children?s future wellbeing compared to 16% those who felt it was ?not at all important.? Over a quarter of parents had neutral feelings regarding the importance of proficiency in French. Compared to their beliefs regarding the importance of French language proficiency, a larger number of parents felt that command of another language was important for their children?s wellbeing. Almost ninety percent of parents believed that career preparation skills were very important for their children?s future wellbeing.  Fewer parents with advanced degrees believed that participation in athletics/sports, competitive skills, a large network of friends and career preparation skills were important, compared to parents whose highest level of educational attainment was an undergraduate degree or less. An examination of beliefs the regarding the importance of knowledge and experiences that could be categorized as cultural, including exposure to other cultures, knowledge of ones own culture reveals that parents with advanced degrees were more likely to believe cultural knowledge and experiences were important than parents with lower levels of educational attainment. Particularly relevant to this study are the patterns observed for beliefs regarding the importance of participation in fine arts activities and language proficiency. Parents with 70  advanced degrees were more likely to assign importance to their children?s participation in fine arts activities, command of French, and command of other languages than parents with an undergraduate degree or less. Similar differences by parental educational attainment can be observed for children?s participation in specialized music programs and specialized language programs. This suggests that parental beliefs may be important in determining children?s participation in fine arts activities and language activities.  Table 10 Parental beliefs about the importance of different skills for children?s wellbeing   When it comes to schooling these days, how important are the following for your children? * Not at all important (%) Not very important (%)  Neutral (%) Somewhat important (%) Very Important (%) Participation in fine arts (e.g., music, visual art, drama) 1 3 8 53 35 Participation in athletics/sports 0 2 7 36 54 Cooperative skills 0 0 1 20 79 Competitive skills 0 4 15 53 28 A close circle of friends 0 2 4 39 55 A large network of friends 1 14 24 46 16 Knowledge of society 0 1 5 48 45 Exposure to people/children from other cultures 1 4 8 50 38 Knowledge of one?s own culture 1 4 9 52 33 Command of French 16 23 26 27 8 Command of another language 6 15 30 36 14 Career preparation skills (e.g., resume, job searching) 1 3 7 43 47 *An importance scale of one to five.      (Paths on Life?s Way, 2010)  5.2 Data Reduction  5.2.1 Factor Analysis  As described above, the Paths on Life?s way survey asked parents many questions about their beliefs regarding the importance of several different things for their children?s schooling 71  and wellbeing. Factor analysis was used a method of data reduction. Factor analysis can be used to ?transform a collection of highly correlated explanatory variables that are indicators of the same type to one of two factors having nearly as much explanatory power? (Agresti & Finlay, 2009). Each independent variable added to a regression analysis uses up degrees of freedom, thus reducing the precision of the model by increasing the standard error. For this reason data reduction is essential. Factors that result from a factor analysis are ?artificial, unobserved variables? (Agresti & Finlay, 2009). In other words, they help to conveniently summarize observed variables. Exploratory factor analysis was used. Exploratory factor analysis is used when a researcher does not have a ?pre-defined idea of the structure or how many dimensions are in a set of variables? (Torres-Reyna, n.d.).  Factors are kept or discarded based on their eigenvalues and factor loadings. Variables are either kept in the analysis or discarded based on their factor loadings. The eigenvalue for a factor summarizes ?the percentage of variability of the variables explained by that factor? (Agresti & Finlay, 2009). In accordance with the Kaiser criterion, only those factors with eigenvalues equal or higher than one are kept in the analysis (Torres-Reyna, n.d.). Factor loadings are the ?weights and correlations between each variable and the factor? (Torres-Reyna, n.d.). The higher the factor loading, the more relevant the variable is to the factor (Torres-Reyna, n.d.). There are different ideas about what is an appropriate cut-off point for deciding whether to discard variables based on their factor loadings. For the purposes of this analysis, a cut-off point of 0.30 has been selected. Also important when deciding which factors to keep in the analysis is the cumulative. Simply, the cumulative is the total variance accounted for by each factor, in addition to that accounted for by the previous factors, if applicable (?Stata Annotated Output,? n.d.). 72  5.2.2 Variable Selection Parents indicated their beliefs regarding the extent of importance of various factors for their children?s wellbeing and schooling on a five-point likert scale. The scale measured extent of importance from ?not at all important? to ?very important,? with six as ?not applicable.? For all questions, those responding ?no applicable? were coded as missing for the purposes of this analysis. No other recodes were conducted on the original scale. The factor analysis used 23 of the 28 possible variables that could be created using questions on the survey that indicated parental beliefs regarding the importance of certain aspects for their children?s schooling and wellbeing. Five variables regarding parents? beliefs about the importance of mathematical literacy, scientific literacy, computer literacy, writing skills and reading skills were excluded from the initial factor analysis because there was very little variation in parents? responses to these questions. The vast majority of parents answered these questions with ?very important.?  After the initial analysis, parents? beliefs about the importance of strict discipline, religious activities, career preparation skills and university (as opposed to college) attendance were dropped from the analysis because they did not show a 0.30 factor loading onto any one of the factors. Next, a varimax rotation, which produces orthogonal factors, was conducted with the remaining variables. Varimax rotations are preformed in order to ensure that factors are not correlated with each other, which is necessary if the intention of conducting the factor analysis is to identify variables to create indexes or new variables without inter-correlated components (Torres-Reyna, n.d.).  73  5.2.3 Results Four factors with eigenvalues over 1.0 were found. Factor one had an eigenvaluve of 2.58 and explained 39% of the variance. Factor two explained 21% of the variance with an eigenvalue of 1.41. Factor three had an eigenvalue of 1.31 and explained 20% of the variance. Factor four explained 19% of the variance with an eigenvalue of 1.26. These four factors are illustrated below in Table 11.  74  Table 11 Varimax rotated component matrix of factors related to parental beliefs about their children?s schooling and wellbeing   Components Factor 1: Community and culture  Factor 2: Academic opportunities  Factor 3: Competition and networking  Factor 4: Languages Belief that opportunities for educational enrichment are important   0.5891   Belief that specialized learning opportunities are important   0.5245  0.3260 Belief that leadership opportunities are important   0.7615   Belief that a multicultural student body is important  0.5202    Belief that public education is important  0.5342    Belief that private education is important     0.3201 Belief that participation in fine arts activities is important     0.3751 Belief that participation in athletics is important    0.4830  Belief that cooperate skills are important  0.4799    Belief that competitive skills are important    0.6757  Belief that a close circle of friends is important  0.5137    Belief that a large network of friends is important    0.4633  Belief that knowledge of society is important  0.5619    Belief that exposure to other cultures is important  0.7853    Belief that knowledge of own culture is important  0.5686   0.3669 Belief that command of French language is important     0.5527 Belief that command of other languages is important     0.5434  The first factor included beliefs regarding the importance of knowledge of ones own culture, exposure to other cultures, knowledge of society, a close circle of friends, cooperative 75  skills, public education, and a multicultural student body as aspects of children?s wellbeing or schooling. This factor seems to summarize beliefs that would be in line with a belief in the importance of community and cultural knowledge and experiences.  The second factor is defined by beliefs regarding the importance of educational enrichment opportunities, specialized learning opportunities and leadership opportunities. This factor seems to be summarizing beliefs regarding educational opportunities above and beyond those that might typically be offered to children in public school. That said, it is interesting that the belief that private education is important did not have a higher factor loading for this factor. The third factor included beliefs regarding the importance of participation in athletics, competitive skill development and developing a large network of friends. This factor seems to capture beliefs that prioritize the importance of competitive and networking skills. Finally, the fourth factor is defined by beliefs regarding the importance of a command of the French language and other languages. Beliefs regarding the importance of participation in fine arts activities, private education, knowledge of one?s own culture and specialized learning opportunities also demonstrate noteworthy factor loadings. Once factors are identified two different actions can be taken. Either the factors could be used to create a new variable, or indexes could be created out of each cluster of variables. The latter is appropriate only if there is some theoretical grounding to justify the creation of an index. For all four factors I felt there was enough theoretical grounding to create indexes. Indexes should allow greater ease of interpretation in the next phase of analysis. An index called ?community and culture? was created using variables that had high factor loadings on factor one. An index called ?academics? was created using variables with high factor loadings on factor two. An index called ?competition and networking? was created using the variables belief in the importance of competitive skills, belief in the importance of participation in athletics and belief 76  in the importance of a large network of friends. The final index, ?languages? was created using the belief that competence in French is important and the belief that competence in other languages is important. I created each index by summing up the appropriate variables (described above) and dividing by the number of variables included in the index.   5.3 Inclusion of Variables Decisions regarding the inclusion of variables in the models were motivated by the findings of other researchers, as well as by the responses of the interviewees. Coding decisions for each variable included have been described below and are summarized in Table 12.   Models were created using four different dependent variables: children?s participation in specialized athletics activities, children?s participation in specialized music activities, children?s participation in language activities, and children?s participation in leadership activities. The data used to create these four variables were collected using the question ?Have your children attended or participated in the following? Leadership programs/Specialized music programs/Specialized athletics programs/Specialized language programs.? This question was recoded in order to create a yes/no dummy variable. Responses of ?infrequently?, ?frequently? and ?always? were coded ?yes.? This action takes amount of participation out of the analysis but given that this is only a Masters thesis project, delimiting the data is this way was necessary.  Multiple variables were included to measure different parental experiences at the time of survey completion (2010) and in high school. The first parental experience variable was operationalized as participation in creative activities from 2003 to 2010, from the question, ?Please list any other education and training ? including courses, private lessons, correspondence courses, workshops, recreation courses, arts, crafts ? you have taken since September 2003 but have not yet told us about.? Using this question, binary variables were created to measure 77  participation in athletic activities, creative activities and community leadership. The final six parental experience variables measured the extent of parents? participation in athletics, arts activities, yearbook or school newspaper, student council, church or community activities and other miscellaneous clubs in high school from the question ?Did you participate in any of the following types of activities during your years in secondary school.? This question asked participants to answer ?never?, ?sometimes?, or ?always? to each of the six activities listed (athletic teams; band, drama or dance; yearbook, school newspaper, annual; student council; other clubs; and community or church youth organizations). These six variables that measured parental experience in high school were included in all four of the models examined in the current study. The coding of these variables is described in Table 12.  Six variables that measured parental beliefs were included in the models. First, parental belief that leadership opportunities were important was measured using the question ?When it comes to schooling these days, how important are the following for your children? Leadership opportunities.? It included five responses categories, from ?Not at all important? to ?Very important.?   Second, parental belief in the importance of participation in fine arts activities was measured using the question ?How important are the following in ensuring your children?s future wellbeing? Participation in fine arts?. It included five responses categories, from ?Not at all important? to ?Very important.? Third, parental belief that university as opposed to college was measured using the question ?When it comes to schooling these days, how important are the following for your children? Attending university (rather than a community college or other non-university institution).? It included five responses categories, from ?Not at all important? to ?Very important.? This parental belief variable was included in all four models. Three parental belief indexes (community and culture, competition and networking, and languages) were also included in the current models. The creation of these indexes was described in section 5.4. 78  Table 12 Logistic model variable specifications Variables Coding Dependent variables: Child participation variables Athletics programs No, child has not participated=0, Yes, child has participated=1 Music programs No, child has not participated=0, Yes, child has participated=1 Language programs No, child has not participated=0, Yes, child has participated=1 Leadership programs No, child has not participated=0, Yes, child has participated=1 Independent variables: Parent experience variables Current participation in creative activities No=0, Yes=1 Current participation in community leadership No=0, Yes=1 Current participation in athletics activities No=0, Yes=1 Parent regular exercise 5 category variable representing the frequency of parents? weekly exercise: Not at all=1, Once a week=2, Two to three times a week=3, Four to five times a week=4, More than five times a week=5 Church or community      organizations in HS 3 category variable representing the frequency of participating during high school: Never = 0, Sometimes = 1, Often = 2 Band, drama and/or dance in HS 3 category variable representing the frequency of participating during high school: Never = 0, Sometimes = 1, Often = 2 Athletics in HS 3 category variable representing the frequency of participating during high school: Never = 0, Sometimes = 1, Often = 2 Misc. clubs in HS 3 category variable representing the frequency of participating during high school: Never = 0, Sometimes = 1, Often = 2 Yearbook in HS 3 category variable representing the frequency of participating during high school: Never = 0, Sometimes = 1, Often = 2 Student Council in HS 3 category variable representing the frequency of participating during high school: Never = 0, Sometimes = 1, Often = 2 Independent variables: Parental belief variables Importance of attending university  5 category variable representing the extent of importance parents assign to their children attending university: Not at all important = 1, Not very important = 2, Neutral = 3, Somewhat important = 4, Very Important = 5    79  Importance of participation in fine arts activities 5 category variable representing the extent of importance parents assign to their children participating in fine arts activities: Not at all important = 1, Not very important = 2, Neutral = 3, Somewhat important = 4, Very Important = 5 Importance of leadership opportunities  5 category variable representing the extent of importance parents assign to their children having access to leadership opportunities: Not at all important = 1, Not very important = 2, Neutral = 3, Somewhat important = 4, Very Important = 5 Value index: Languages Variable representing the extent of importance parents assign to their children having a command of French and other languages Value index:  Competition and networking Variable representing the extent of importance parents assign to their children participating in athletics, having competitive skills, and having a large network of friends Value index: Community and citizenship  Variable representing the extent of importance parents assign to a multicultural student body, public education, their children having knowledge of society, their children having knowledge of their own culture, their children having knowledge of other cultures, their children having a close circle of friends, and their children having cooperative skills Control variables  Household Income  Variable representing families? household income in thousands of dollars (CAD) Parent Sex Male = 0, Female = 1 Birth Order First born=1, Second born=2, Third born=3, Fourth born=4, Fifth born=5 Number of Children in Family Variable representing the number of children in the family Child Age Variable representing children?s ages Parent education  3 category variable representing parents? and spouse/partners? combined highest level of educational attainment: Less than an undergraduate degree = 1, At least one parent with an undergraduate degree = 2, At least one parent with an advanced degree = 3 Job status  5 category variable representing the amount of responsibility parents? jobs entail: No supervisory or managerial responsibility = 0, Limited supervisory or managerial responsibility (5 persons or less) = 1, Self employed without employees = 2, Extensive supervisory or managerial responsibility (More than 5 persons) = 3, Self employed with employees = 4 Community type 2 category variable representing the type of community in which each family resides: Rural = 0, Urban = 1 80  5.4 Logistic Regression Analysis  I used regression analysis to examine the relationships between parental beliefs, parental experience and the types of ECAs in which children participate. Due to the binary nature of the dependent variable (participation versus no participation), logistic regression was used for this analysis. The use of logistic regression is beneficial because it allows for the odds, percentage change in odds, and predicted probabilities of children?s participation in ECAs to be computed from the independent variables.  For each of the four models specified below I have examined parental education both as a control variable and as a moderating variable. Prior studies note that social class is an important factor in determining children?s participation in ECAs but little agreement as to why. When parental education was included as a control variable in the models it was not statistically significant. These findings prompted further investigation regarding the role played by parental education. All four models were split by parents? highest level of educational attainment. With the exception of the parental education variable, the same independent variables were included in these split models.   It must be acknowledged that the relationships examined using regression analysis are vastly more complex than can be accounted for by the technique of regression analysis. That said, I believe it is still useful to model relationships in the social sciences because, although these models are often overly simplistic, they do nonetheless contribute to our understanding of the social world, especially when analyzed in conjunction with complex qualitative data which allows the messiness of the world to remain.  81  5.4.1 Regression Analysis A: Parental Determinants of Children?s Participation in Specialized Athletics Programs The first regression analysis uses logistic regression to examine possible parental determinants of children?s participation in specialized athletics programs. Parental experience (both current and during high school) and parental beliefs are examined as potential determinants. The regression equation for this model takes the following form: Logit(Ychild participation in athletics) = ?0 + ?1xparental experiences  + ?2xparental beliefs + ?4 xhousehold income + ?5xparent sex + ?6xchild birth order + ?7xnumber of children in family + ?8 xchild age + ?9xparental education + ?10xparent job status + ?11xcommunity type + e The results are summarized in the table below (see Table 13). The overall model is significant with a log likelihood of -307.75 and a likelihood ratio of 55.90. This indicates that the model including the predictors is significantly different from the model with the constant only, thus the inclusion of the explanatory variables improves the model fit. In this model, parental experience with student council in high school, parental belief in the importance of competition and networking, and parental belief in the importance of community and culture were statistically significant (p<.05). The odds of a child participating in specialized athletic programs increased by a factor of 1.45 when the child?s parent believed that competition and networking skills were important for their wellbeing. The odds of a child participating in athletic ECAs decreased by a factor of 0.62 when the child?s parent believed that community and cultural experiences were important for their wellbeing. These results illustrate the importance of both parental beliefs and experiences in children?s likelihood of participating in athletic ECAs.  Given that prior studies found that parent role modeling participation in athletics was correlated with children?s participation in athletic ECAs it is surprising that regular parental exercise was not statistically significant. The difference between the findings of this study and 82  other studies may be accounted for by the fact that this study looked at any amount of participation. Perhaps regular parent exercise acts as a determinant of frequency of participation in athletics as opposed to a determinant of any participation at all.   83   Table 13 Determinants children?s participation in specialized athletics programs7 (n=514)   Logit ? S.E. Odds Ratio8 Constant -1.95 1.31  Parent experience variables    Current participation in athletics activities -0.06 0.27  Parent regular exercise 0.14 0.10  Church or community organizations in HS 0.09 0.12  Band, drama and/or dance in HS 0.07 0.13  Athletics in HS 0.12 0.14  Misc. clubs in HS 0.10 0.15  Yearbook in HS -0.23 0.15  Student Council in HS 0.44*** 0.15 1.55 Parental belief variables    Importance of attending university -0.09 0.10  Value index: Competition and networking 0.37* 0.20 1.45 Value index: Community and citizenship -0.47* 0.23 0.62 Control variables    Household Income  0.00 0.00  Parent Sex -0.04 0.21  Birth Order 0.10 0.16  Number of Children in Family 0.10 0.15  Child Age 0.74*** 0.15 2.10 Parent education  0.07 0.17  Job status  -0.02 0.06  Community type -0.07 0.10      Model evaluation     Log Likelihood -307.75   Likelihood ratio chi square test 55.90***   Pseudo R square 0.09   BIC 62.74       * p < .05; ** p < .01; *** p < .001          (Paths on Life?s Way, 2010 & 1989)                                                 7 The reliability of the model estimates were examined by conducting robustness checks for influential and discrepant cases and collinearity. Results are summarized in Appendix B. 8 Odds ratios only reported for statistically significant coefficients  84  Further examination of the parental belief variables indicates that parental belief in the importance of competitive and networking skills and of parental belief in the importance of community and cultural experiences both changed children?s probabilities of participating in specialized athletic programs (see Tables 14 & 15). The predicted probability of a child participating in specialized athletics programs if their parents believe that competitive and networking skills are very important to their wellbeing is 0.73 and only 0.47 if the child?s parents hold the opinion that these skills are not at all important to their child?s wellbeing. The predicted probability of a child participating in specialized athletics programs if their parents believe that community and cultural experiences are very important to their wellbeing is 0.58. The predicted probability increases substantially to 0.82 if the child?s parents hold the opinion that community and cultural experiences are not at all important to their child?s wellbeing. These results reinforce the importance of parental beliefs in children?s likelihood of participating in specialized athletic programs. They suggest that parents who believe that cultural and community experiences are important may prioritize other types of ECAs and not encourage their children to participate in specialized athletics programs as strongly as parents who believe in the importance of competition and networking. Table 14 Predicted probability of children?s participation in specialized athletics programs from parental beliefs regarding the importance of competition and networking     Extent of Importance Predicted Probability of Children?s Participation in Specialized Athletics Programs Not at all important 0.47 Neutral 0.65 Very important 0.73          (Paths on Life?s Way, 2010 & 1989)  85  Table 15 Predicted probability of children?s participation in specialized athletics programs from parental beliefs regarding the importance of community and culture     Extent of Importance Predicted Probability of Children?s Participation in Specialized Athletics Programs Not at all important 0.82 Neutral 0.63 Very Important 0.58           (Paths on Life?s Way, 2010 & 1989) Parental experience with student council in high school also changes their children?s probabilities of participating in specialized athletics programs. An analysis of the predicted probabilities reveals that children whose parents did not participate in student council in high school have a lower predicted probability of participation (0.60) than children whose parents participated in student council often during high school (0.78, see Table 16). These results illustrate the importance of parents experiencing participation in extracurricular athletics in determining children?s likelihoods of participating in specialized athletic programs. Leadership skill development is commonly associated with both participation in student council and athletics. Perhaps parents who developed leadership skills through participation in student council value their own leadership skills and believe leadership skills can also be developed through participation in athletics. Table 16 Predicted Probability of children?s participation in specialized athletics programs from parental participation in student council during high school   Extent of Participation  Predicted Probability of Children?s Participation in Specialized Athletics Programs Never 0.60 Sometimes 0.70 Often 0.78           (Paths on Life?s Way, 2010 & 1989) When the model was separated by highest level of parent?s educational attainment, different findings emerge for children of parents with less than an undergraduate degree, an 86  undergraduate degree, and an advanced degree (see Table 17). Parental participation in student council during high school was significantly related to children?s participation in specialized athletics programs for children of parents with less than an undergraduate degree (p<.05). Parental participation in athletics during high school was also significant at a lower level for (p<.10) for children in this group. The odds of a child participating in specialized athletic programs were 2.98 times greater when the child?s parent participated in student council during high school and 2.00 times greater when the child?s parent participated in athletics activities in high school. None of the parental belief variables were significant.  For children of parents with undergraduate degrees, parental belief in the importance of competitive and networking skills, and parental participation in both yearbook and in church and community activities during high school were significant (p<.05). The odds of a child whose parent has an undergraduate degree participating in specialized athletics programs were 1.54 times greater when their parents participated in church and community organizations during high school and 0.45 times greater when their parents participated in yearbook during high school. The odds of a child whose parent holds an undergraduate degree participating in specialized athletics programs increased by 1.78 when their parents reported believing in the importance of competition and networking skills.  There were no significant predictors (at the p<.05 level) of participation in specialized athletics programs for children whose parents held advanced degrees, however parental belief in the importance of university attendance was significant at a less stringent level, (p<.10). For children of parents with advanced degrees, the odds of participating in specialized athletics programs increased by 0.63 when their parents indicated that they believed that university attendance is important.  87   Comparing the model fit statistics suggested that parental beliefs and experiences are better predictors of children?s participation in specialized athletics activities for children of parents with less than an undergraduate degree than for parents with undergraduate or advanced degrees. Additionally, it is important to note that the model examining the relationships among parental beliefs, parental experience and children?s participation in specialized athletics activities for children of parents with advanced degrees is not significant. Noting this is important because it means that my null hypothesis that parental beliefs and parental experiences are not related to children?s participation specialized athletics activities for children of parents with advanced degrees cannot be rejected. In other words, the independent variables included in this model do not predict children?s participation in specialized athletics activities. 88  Table 17 Determinants of children?s participation in athletics programs ? analysis split by parents? highest educational attainment  Less than an undergraduate degree (n=127)  Undergraduate degree (n= 234)  Advanced degree  (n=136)  Logit ? S.E. Odds Ratio  Logit ? S.E. Odds Ratio  Logit ? S.E. Odds Ratio Constant -0.92 3.38   -5.74** 2.16   2.08 2.37  Parent experience variables            Current participation in athletics -1.98** 0.79 0.14  -0.06 0.44   0.32 0.51  Parent regular exercise 0.28 0.20   0.03 0.16   0.01 0.26  Church or community organizations in HS -0.06 0.35   0.43* 0.21 1.54  0.07 0.26  Band, drama and/or dance in HS -0.49 0.36   0.15 0.19   -0.01 0.31  Athletics in HS 0.69 0.41   0.17 0.24   0.05 0.28  Misc. clubs in HS 0.43 0.45   -0.08 0.24   0.06 0.32  Yearbook in HS 0.10 0.33   -0.81*** 0.24 0.45  -0.01 0.40  Student Council in HS 1.09* 0.49 2.98  0.35 0.22   0.44 0.34  Parental belief variables            Importance of attending university  0.04 0.26   0.18 0.16   -0.47 0.27  Value index: Competition and networking -0.06 0.59   0.58* 0.29 1.78  0.62 0.46  Value index: Community and culture  -0.70 0.68   0.15 0.37   -0.72 0.48  Control variables            Household Income  0.00 0.00   0.00 0.00   0.00 0.00  Parent Sex -0.47 0.56   0.22 0.34   0.18 0.46  Birth Order 0.16 0.38   -0.27 0.24   0.12 0.34  Number of Children in Family -0.14 0.43   0.41* 0.24 1.50  -0.11 0.31  Child Age 1.06*** 0.34 2.88  0.58** 0.23 1.79  0.37 0.38  Job status  0.50* 0.21 1.65  -0.04 0.10   -0.09 0.13  Community type -0.02 0.19   -0.14 0.15   -0.90 0.47  Model evaluation             Log likelihood -55.65    -136.37    -80.33   Likelihood ratio chi square test 48.47***    36.10**    20.27   Pseudo R square 0.30    0.12    0.11   BIC 38.72    62.09    68.16   * p < .05; ** p < .01; *** p < .001     (Paths on Life?s Way, 2010 & 1989)89  5.4.2 Regression Analysis B: Parental Determinants of Children?s Participation Specialized Music Programs The second regression analysis uses logistic regression to examine possible parental determinants of children?s participation in specialized music programs. Parental experience (current and during high school) and parental beliefs are examined as potential determinants.  The regression equation for this model takes the following form: Logit(Ychild participation in music) = ?0 + ?1xparental experiences  + ?2xparental beliefs + ?4 xhousehold income + ?5xparent sex + ?6xchild birth order + ?7xnumber of children in family + ?8 xchild age + ?9xparental education + ?10xparent job status + ?11xcommunity type + e The results are summarized in the table below (see Table 18). The overall model is significant with a log likelihood of -321.01 and likelihood ratio of 70.05. Parental belief in the importance of fine arts activities and parental belief in the importance of community and culture were both statistically significant in the model (p<.05). Parents? participation in church and community organizations during high school was statistically significant at a lower level (p<.10). The odds of a child participating in specialized music programs decreased by a factor of 0.77 when the child?s parent believes that community and cultural experiences are important for their wellbeing. The odds of a child participating in specialized music programs increased by a factor of 1.47 when the child?s parent reported the belief that participation in fine arts activities was important for their children. The odds of a child participating in specialized music programs increased by a factor of 1.47 when the child?s parent participated in church and community organizations during high school. 90  Table 18 Determinants of children?s participation in specialized music programs9 (n=514)  Logit ? S.E. Odds Ratio10 Constant -1.95 1.33  Parent experience variables    Current participation in creative activities 0.11 0.34  Church or community organizations in HS 0.21 0.12  Band, drama and/or dance in HS -0.08 0.13  Athletics in HS 0.00 0.14  Misc. clubs in HS 0.23 0.14  Yearbook in HS 0.00 0.15  Student Council in HS 0.20 0.14  Parental belief variables    Importance of participation in fine arts 0.38** 0.15 1.47 Importance of attending university  0.03 0.10  Value index: Community and culture -0.77*** 0.23 0.46 Value index: Competition and networking -0.06 0.19  Control variables    Household Income  0.00* 0.00 1.00 Parent Sex -0.08 0.22  Birth Order -0.15 0.16  Number of Children in Family 0.23 0.15  Child Age 0.61*** 0.15 1.83 Parent education  0.66*** 0.17 1.93 Job status  0.03 0.06  Community type -0.02 0.10      Model evaluation     Log Likelihood -321.01   Likelihood ratio chi square test 70.05***   Pseudo R square 0.11   BIC 48.56       * p < .05; ** p < .01; *** p < .001 (Paths on Life?s Way, 2010 & 1989)                                                 9 The reliability of the model estimates were examined by conducting robustness checks for influential and discrepant cases and collinearity. Results are summarized in Appendix B. 10 Odds ratios only reported for statistically significant coefficients 91  More in depth examination of the parental belief variables determines that both parental belief in the importance of their children participating in fine arts activities and parental belief in the importance of community and cultural experiences both change children?s probabilities of participating in specialized athletic programs (see Tables 19 & 20).  The predicted probability of a child participating in specialized music programs if their parents believe that community and cultural experiences are very important to their wellbeing is 0.35. The predicted probability increases substantially to 0.79 if the child?s parents hold the opinion that community and cultural experiences are not at all important to their child?s wellbeing. The predicted probability of a child participating in specialized music programs if their parents believe it is very important for their children to participate in fine arts activities is 0.56 and only 0.22 if the child?s parents hold the opinion that they are not at all important for their children. These results illustrate the importance of parents? beliefs in determining children?s likelihood of participating in specialized music programs. The finding that a child who has parents who believe strongly in the importance of community and cultural experiences has a lower predicted probability of participating in specialized music programs seemed counterintuitive to me at first. Upon further reflection, perhaps parents who value community and cultural experiences prefer these experiences to be less structured and more casual. Music lessons in particular require a substantial time commitment; a lot of time is involved due to how much practice is necessary.  Table 19 Predicted probability of children?s participation in specialized music programs from parental belief in the importance of participation in fine arts activities   Extent of Importance  Predicted Probability of Children?s Participation in Specialized Music Programs Not at all important 0.22 Neutral 0.37 Very important 0.56     (Paths on Life?s Way, 2010 & 1989) 92  Table 20 Predicted probability of children?s participation in specialized music programs from parental beliefs regarding the importance of community and culture     Extent of Importance Predicted Probability of Children?s Participation in Specialized Music Programs Not at all important 0.79 Neutral 0.44 Very Important 0.35           (Paths on Life?s Way, 2010 & 1989) Interestingly, none of the parental experience variables were strong predictors of children?s participation in specialized music programs, whereas the parental belief variables were strong predictors, particularly parental belief that fine arts activities are important for their children. Perhaps, for parents, music extracurriculars were activities that parents did not have much of an opportunity to participate in and now they feel they that would have benefited participation. This lack of experience may have been a motivating factor in encouraging their children to participate. Thinking back to the responses of interviewees, many parents noted that they encouraged their children to participate in music activities despite the fact that they themselves did not have experience participating in music ECAs and thus perceived themselves to be lacking musical talent. These parents further explained that they encouraged their children to participate because they believed that participation in music activities would benefit them, by making them ?balanced,? providing scholarship opportunities, or even by improving their academic achievement.  When this model was split by parental education, different findings emerged for children of parents with less than an undergraduate degree, an undergraduate degree, and an advanced degree (see Table 21). Parental belief in the importance of participation in fine arts activities was significantly related to children?s participation in specialized music activities for children of parents an undergraduate degree or less. This relationship was not significant for children of 93  parents with advanced degrees. The odds of a child participating in a specialized music program were 3.40 times greater for those with parents with less than an undergraduate degree whose parents expressed the belief that participation in fine arts activities are important. Comparatively, the odds for the children of parents with undergraduate degrees are only 1.60 times greater when their parents believe that participation in fine arts activities are important. In other words, parental belief that participation in fine arts activities is important is a very strong predictor for children of parents with less than an undergraduate degree, less strong of a predictor for children of parents with undergraduate degrees, and not a predictor for children with advanced degrees.   Parental participation in athletics, yearbook and other clubs during high school were all significantly related to children?s participation in specialized music programs for children of parents who have not attained undergraduate degrees. Interestingly, parental participation in fine arts activities during high school was not significant. The odds of a child participating in a specialized music program are 2.47, 2.83, and 2.14 times greater for children whose parents with less than an undergraduate degree who participated in athletics, other clubs, and yearbook in high school, respectively. For children of parents with undergraduate degrees only one parental experience variable was significant. The odds of a child participating in specialized music programs was 1.6 times greater when their parents participated in miscellaneous clubs during high school. For children of parents with advanced degrees, only parental experience participating in student council during high school was statistically significant. The odds of a child participating in specialized music programs was 2.48 times greater when their advanced-degree-holding parents participated in student council during high school. The differences in the way that parental high school ECA experiences are correlated with children?s participation in specialized music programs signal potential differences in the way that parental educational 94  attainment impacts the way that parental experience motivates parents to encourage participation in specailzied music activities.   Like the model for children?s participation in specialized athletics programs, parental beliefs and experiences are better predictors of children?s participation in specialized music activities for children of parents with less than an undergraduate degree than for parents with undergraduate or advanced degrees. In this case however, all models were significant. This means that parental experience and parental beliefs are predictors of children?s participation in specialized music programs for all levels of parent education. 95  Table 21 Determinants of children?s participation in music programs ? analysis split by parents? highest educational attainment  Less than an undergraduate degree (n=127)  Undergraduate degree  (n= 233)  Advanced degree  (n=136)  Logit ? S.E. Odds Ratio  Logit ? S.E. Odds Ratio  Logit ? S.E. Odds Ratio Constant 3.18 3.85   -2.12 2.17   -0.91 2.33  Parent experience variables            Current participation in creative activities -2.23* 1.11 0.11  -0.72 0.60   0.77 0.96  Church or community organizations in HS 0.06 0.38   0.14 0.20   0.33 0.29  Band, drama and/or dance in HS -0.11 0.37   0.04 0.19   -0.56 0.33  Athletics in HS 0.91* 0.41 2.47  -0.42 0.24   -0.20 0.30  Misc. clubs in HS 1.04* 0.45 2.83  0.47* 0.24 1.60  0.21 0.33  Yearbook in HS 0.76* 0.34 2.14  -0.28 0.23   -0.74 0.43  Student Council in HS -0.02 0.39   0.23 0.22   0.91* 0.39 2.48 Parental belief variables            Importance of participation in fine arts  1.22** 0.50 3.40  0.47* 0.23 1.60  -0.15 0.33  Importance of attending university  0.13 0.28   0.03 0.16   0.31 0.29  Value index: Community and culture -2.27** 0.88 0.10  -0.32 0.36   -0.04 0.50  Value index: Competition and networking -0.85 0.65   -0.04 0.27   -0.21 0.49  Control variables            Household Income  0.00 0.00   0.00** 0.00 1.00  0.00 0.00  Parent Sex -0.74 0.54   0.03 0.36   0.38 0.47  Birth Order -0.13 0.37   -0.22 0.24   -0.58 0.38  Number of Children in Family -0.09 0.43   -0.02 0.23   0.75* 0.38 2.12 Child Age 0.72* 0.36 2.06  0.55** 0.22 1.74  0.63 0.42  Job status  0.41* 0.19 1.50  0.06 0.10   -0.07 0.14  Community type 0.46 0.28   -0.10 0.16   -0.91 0.51  Model evaluation             Log likelihood -57.14    -139.86    -73.07   Likelihood ratio chi square test 59.49***    38.59***    34.74**   Pseudo R square 0.34    0.12    0.19   BIC 27.71    59.53    53.82   * p < .05; ** p < .01; *** p < .001     (Paths on Life?s Way, 2010 & 1989)96  5.4.3 Logistic Regression Analysis C: Parental Determinants of Children?s Participation in Specialized Language Programs The third regression analysis uses logistic regression to examine possible parental determinants of children?s participation in specialized language programs. Parental experience during high school and parental beliefs are examined as potential determinants.  No current (2003 to 2010) parent experience variables were included in this model because the data was not available. The regression equation for this model takes the following form: Logit(Ychild participation in languages) = ?0 + ?1xparental experiences  + ?2xparental beliefs + ?4 xhousehold income + ?5xparent sex + ?6xchild birth order + ?7xnumber of children in family + ?8 xchild age + ?9xparental education + ?10xparent job status + ?11xcommunity type + e The results are summarized in the table below (see Table 22). The overall model is significant with a log likelihood of -240.26 and a likelihood ratio of 84.61. In this model, parental belief that a command of French and/or other languages is important for their children and parental experience participating in student council during high school were statistically significant (p<.05). Parents? participation in miscellaneous clubs during high school was statistically significant at a lower level (p<.10). The odds of a child participating in specialized language programs are 2.51 higher for children whose parents assign greater importance to a command of French and/or another language. The odds of a child participating in specialized language programs are 0.62 higher for children whose parents participated in student council in high school. Like the models for children?s participation in specialized music programs and for specialized athletics programs, both parental beliefs and parental experiences emerge as significant predictors of children?s participation in specialized language programs.  97  Table 22 Determinants of children?s participation in specialized language programs11 (n=513)   Logit ? S.E. Odds Ratio12 Constant -1.64 1.55  Parent experience variables    Church or community organizations in HS 0.05 0.14  Band, drama and/or dance in HS -0.07 0.15  Athletics in HS -0.19 0.16  Misc. clubs in HS 0.30 0.17  Yearbook in HS 0.14 0.17  Student Council in HS -0.48** 0.19 0.62 Parental belief variables    Value index: Languages 0.92*** 0.16 2.51 Importance of attending university 0.10 0.12  Value index: Competition and networking -0.35 0.22  Value index: Community and culture -0.35 0.27  Control variables    Household Income  0.00 0.00  Parent Sex 0.14 0.25  Birth Order -0.45* 0.19 0.64 Number of Children in Family 0.11 0.17  Child Age 0.12 0.17  Parent education  0.21 0.20  Job status  -0.07 0.07  Community type -0.10 0.14      Model evaluation     Log Likelihood -240.26   Likelihood ratio chi square test 84.61***   Pseudo R square 0.15   BIC 27.71       * p < .05; ** p < .01; *** p < .001    (Paths on Life?s Way, 2010 & 1989)                                                  11 The reliability of the model estimates were examined by conducting robustness checks for influential and discrepant cases and collinearity. Results are summarized in Appendix B. 12 Odds ratios only reported for statistically significant coefficients 98  A supplementary analysis of parental belief in the importance of a command of French or another language reveals that this variable changes children?s probabilities of participating in specialized language programs (see Table 23). The predicted probability of a child participating in specialized language programs if their parents believed that a command of French and other languages are very important to their wellbeing is 0.58 compared to 0.03 if the child?s parents hold the opinion that competence in other languages are not at all important to their child?s wellbeing. This is a very substantial chance in the predicted probabilities. Table 23 Predicted probability of children?s participation in specialized language programs from parental belief in the importance of a command of French and other languages  Extent of Importance  Predicted Probability of Children?s Participation in Specialized Language Programs Not at all Important 0.03 Neutral 0.18 Very Important 0.58           (Paths on Life?s Way, 2010 & 1989)  Parental participation in student council during high school also changed children?s probabilities of participating in specialized athletic programs (see Table 24). The predicted probability of a child participating in specialized language programs is 0.24 for children whose parents did not participate in student council during high school high school, compared to 0.11 for children whose parents participated in student council often. These results that parental experience participating in student council in high school somewhat decreases children?s likelihood of participating in specialized language programs. That said, it is clear that parental beliefs about the importance of French and other languages are a much more important predictor of children?s participation in specialized language programs.   99  Table 24 Predicted probability of children?s participation in specialized language programs from parental participation in student council in high school    Extent of Participation  Predicted Probability of Children?s Participation in Language Programs Never 0.24 Sometimes 0.16 Often 0.11           (Paths on Life?s Way, 2010 & 1989)  When the model was separated by highest level of parent?s educational attainment, different findings emerged for children of parents with less than an undergraduate degree, an undergraduate degree, and an advanced degree (see Table 25). Parental participation in yearbook or school newspaper and parental participation in church or community organizations during high school, and parental belief in the importance of competence in French and/or other languages were all significantly related to children?s participation in specialized language programs for children of parents with less than an undergraduate degree (p<.05). The odds of a child participating in specialized language programs were 2.07 times greater when the child?s parent participated in yearbook or school newspaper during high school and 2.41 times greater when the child?s parent believed in the importance of a command of French and/or other languages.  For children of parents with undergraduate degrees, Parental participation in athletics and miscellaneous clubs during high school, and parental belief in the importance of competence in French and/or other languages were all significantly related to children?s participation in specialized language programs (p<.05). The odds of a child whose parent has an undergraduate degree participating in specialized athletics programs were 2.22 times greater when their parents participated in miscellaneous clubs during high school and their odds of participation were 0.56 times lower when their parents participated in athletics during high school. The odds of a child 100  whose parent held an undergraduate degree participating in specialized athletics programs increased by 3.01 when their parents reported believing in the importance of competence in French and/or other languages. There were two key significant predictors (at the p<.05 level) of participation in specialized language programs for children whose parents held advanced degrees. These predictors were parental participation in church and community organizations during high school and parental belief in importance of competence in French and/or other languages. For children of parents with advanced degrees, the odds of participating in specialized language programs were 1.89 times greater when their parents participated in community and church organizations during high school. Their odds of participating were 5.69 times greater if their parents reported valuing importance of competence in French and/or other languages. These odds are considerably higher than they were for children of parents with less than an undergraduate degree who also believed in the importance of competence in French and/or other languages.  Examination of the model fit statistics indicated that parental beliefs and experiences are better predictors of children?s participation in specialized language programs for children of parents with advanced degrees than for children of parents with undergraduate or less. Note that parental education functioned differently for children?s participation in specialized music and athletic programs. All three models were significant. This means that parental experience and parental beliefs are predictors of children?s participation in specialized language programs for all levels of parent education.101  Table 25 Determinants of children?s participation in language programs ? analysis split by parents? highest educational attainment  Less than an undergraduate degree (n=127)  Undergraduate degree  (n= 233)  Advanced degree  (n=136)  Logit ? S.E. Odds Ratio  Logit ? S.E. Odds Ratio  Logit ? S.E. Odds Ratio Constant 5.28 4.72   -0.48 2.68   -7.64* 3.42  Parent experience variables            Church or community organizations in HS -1.53** 0.54 0.22  0.10 0.24   0.63 0.34 1.89 Band, drama and/or dance in HS -0.53 0.44   0.12 0.24   -0.27 0.43  Athletics in HS 0.03 0.47   -0.57* 0.30 0.56  -0.06 0.38  Misc. clubs in HS 0.10 0.48   0.80** 0.28 2.22  0.12 0.46  Yearbook in HS 0.73 0.40   0.18 0.28   -0.19 0.56  Student Council in HS 0.70 0.50   -0.32 0.30   -1.55** 0.50 0.21 Parental belief variables            Value index: Languages  0.88* 0.44 2.41  1.10*** 0.28 3.01  1.74*** 0.43 5.69 Importance of attending university -0.45 0.31   0.16 0.20   0.20 0.36  Value index: Competition and networking -2.29** 0.75 0.10  0.10 0.33   -0.86 0.70  Value index: Community and culture  0.42 0.92   -1.04* 0.48 0.35  0.84 0.59  Control variables            Household Income  0.00 0.00   0.00 0.00   0.00 0.00  Parent Sex 0.36 0.68   -0.52 0.44   0.12 0.58  Birth Order -0.64 0.48   -0.50 0.31   -0.57 0.41  Number of Children in Family 0.25 0.51   -0.10 0.27   0.45 0.40  Child Age 0.14 0.42   0.05 0.27   0.20 0.47  Job status  -0.32 0.24   -0.04 0.12   -0.02 0.17  Community type 0.00 0.26   0.16 0.22   -0.23 0.58  Model evaluation             Log likelihood -43.84    -98.88    -54.39   Likelihood ratio chi square test 41.06***    47.11***    57.72***   Pseudo R square 0.32    0.19    0.35   BIC 41.29    45.56    25.79   * p < .05; ** p < .01; *** p < .001     (Paths on Life?s Way, 2010 & 1989)102  5.4.4 Logistic Regression Analysis D: Parental Determinants of Children?s Participation in Leadership Programs The fourth regression analysis uses logistic regression to examine possible parental determinants of children?s participation in leadership programs. Parental experience (current and during high school) and parental beliefs are examined as potential determinants.  The regression equation for this model takes the following form: logit(Ychild participation in leadership) = ?0 + ?1xparental experiences  + ?2xparental beliefs + ?4 xhousehold income + ?5xparent sex + ?6xchild birth order + ?7xnumber of children in family + ?8 xchild age + ?9xparental education + ?10xparent job status + ?11xcommunity type + e The results are summarized below (see Table 26). The overall model is significant with a log likelihood of -264.71 and a likelihood ratio of 139.30. In this model, the relationships between parental belief in the importance of leadership opportunities, parental belief in the importance of competitive and networking skills, and parental participation in yearbook and/or school newspaper during high school, and children?s participation in leadership activities were statistical significant (p<.05). Parental experience participating in athletics during high school and parental belief in the importance of university attendance were statistically significant at a lower level (p<.10). The odds of a child participating in leadership programs increased by a factor of 2.17 when the child?s parent expressed belief in the importance of leadership opportunities and decrease by a factor of 0.59 when the child?s parent reported valuing competitive and networking skills. The odds of a child participating in leadership programs increased by a factor of 1.52 when the child?s parent participated in yearbook or school newspaper during high school.  103  The finding that parental belief in competitive and networking skills decreased the odds of a child participating in leadership programs was unexpected. I had guessed that parents who value competition and networking would encourage their children to participate in leadership programs in order to help them get ahead. Additionally, many leadership activities (for example student council) require students to compete with their peers in order to obtain the coveted positions of leadership. My assumption seems to be incorrect in this case and unfortunately the interviewees? responses do not shed more light on this issue. Perhaps in next round of interviews Dr. Andres could ask participants about possible motivators for encouraging their children to participate in leadership activities in order to provide greater clarity to this.  104  Table 26 Determinants of children?s participation in leadership programs13  (n=512)   Logit ? S.E. Odds Ratio14 Constant -6.23*** 1.59  Parent experience variables    Current participation in community leadership -0.03 0.23  Church or community organizations in HS 0.06 0.14  Band, drama and/or dance in HS -0.01 0.14  Athletics in HS 0.30 0.16  Misc. clubs in HS 0.10 0.16  Yearbook in HS 0.42** 0.16 1.52 Student Council in HS 0.00 0.16  Parental belief variables    Importance of leadership opportunities 0.77*** 0.20 2.17 Importance of attending university  0.20 0.12  Value index: Community and culture  -0.31 0.24  Value index: Competition and networking -0.53* 0.22 0.59 Control variables    Household Income  0.00 0.00  Parent Sex 0.23 0.24  Birth Order -0.02 0.18  Number of Children in Family -0.09 0.16  Child Age 1.39*** 0.18 4.01 Parent education  0.09 0.20  Job status  0.05 0.07  Community type 0.14 0.11      Model evaluation     Log Likelihood -264.71   Likelihood ratio chi square test 139.30***   Pseudo R square 0.21   BIC 27.01        * p < .05; ** p < .01; *** p < .001     (Paths on Life?s Way, 2010 & 1989)                                                  13 The reliability of the model estimates were examined by conducting robustness checks for influential and discrepant cases and collinearity. Results are summarized in Appendix B. 14 Odds ratios only reported for statistically significant coefficients  105  Further examining the parental belief variables indicates that parental belief in the importance of competitive and networking skills and of parental belief in the importance of leadership opportunities both change children?s probabilities of participating in leadership programs (see Table 27 & 28). The predicted probability of a child participating in leadership programs if their parents believe that competitive and networking skills are very important to their wellbeing is 0.22 and only 0.58 if the child?s parents hold the opinion that these skills are not at all important to their child?s wellbeing. The predicted probability of a child participating in leadership programs if their parents believe that leadership opportunities are not important to their wellbeing is 0.03. The predicted probability increases to 0.44 if the child?s parents hold the belief that leadership opportunities are very important to their child?s wellbeing. These results reinforce the importance of parental beliefs in children?s likelihood of participating in leadership programs.  Table 27 Predicted probability of children?s participation in leadership programs from parental belief in the importance of leadership opportunities   Extent of Importance  Predicted Probability of Children?s Participation in Leadership Programs Not at all Important 0.03 Neutral 0.14 Very Important 0.44        (Paths on Life?s Way, 2010 & 1989)  Table 28 Predicted probability of children?s participation in leadership programs from parental belief in the importance of competition and networking  Extent of Importance Predicted Probability of Children?s Participation in Leadership Programs Not at all important 0.58 Neutral 0.32 Very important 0.22        (Paths on Life?s Way, 2010 & 1989) 106  Additional analysis of the predicted probabilities reveals that the probability of a child whose parent did not participate in yearbook and/or school newspaper in high school participating in leadership programs is 0.27, compared to 0.46 for those whose parents participated in yearbook and/or school newspaper often (see Table 29). Participation in school yearbook or school newspaper requires a lot of responsibility, organization and leadership skill. Conceivably parents who developed these skills through participation in yearbook and school newspaper value their own leadership skills and want to nurture the development of the same skills in their children.  Table 29 Predicted probability of children?s participation in leadership programs from parental participation in yearbook or school newspaper in high school   Extent of Participation Predicted Probability of Children?s Participation in Leadership Programs Never 0.27 Sometimes 0.36 Often 0.46        (Paths on Life?s Way, 2010 & 1989)  When the model was split by parental educational attainment, different findings emerged for children of parents with less than an undergraduate degree, an undergraduate degree, and an advanced degree (see Table 30). Parental participation in athletics and in yearbook/school newspaper during high school, and parental belief in the importance of leadership opportunities and of community and cultural activities were all significantly related to children?s participation in leadership programs for children of parents with less than an undergraduate degree (p<.05). The odds of a child participating in a leadership program was 2.46 times greater when the child?s parent participated in athletics during high school and 2.74 times greater when the child?s parent participated in yearbook or school newspaper during high school. The odds of a child 107  participating in a leadership program was 4.08 times greater when the child?s parent believed in the importance of leadership opportunities for their children?s wellbeing.  For children of parents with undergraduate degrees, parental belief in the importance of leadership opportunities, was the only variable significantly related to children?s participation in leadership programs (p<.05). The odds of a child whose parent has an undergraduate degree participating in leadership programs were 3.17 times greater when their parents believed in the importance of leadership opportunities for their children?s wellbeing. These odds are slightly lower than those for children of parents with less than an undergraduate degree.  Many of parental experience variables were significantly related to children?s participation in leadership programs for children of parents with advanced degrees. Parental participation during high school in band, drama, and/or dance, miscellaneous clubs, and yearbook were all significantly related (p<.05). Parental belief in the importance of leadership opportunities was also significantly related for children of parents with advanced degrees. The odds of a child participating in leadership programs were 3.24 times greater when their parent participated in miscellaneous clubs during high school and 2.61 times greater when their parents participated in yearbook and/or school newspaper during high school. The odds of a child participating in leadership programs were 3.09 times greater when their parents believed that leadership opportunities were important for their wellbeing.108  Table 30 Determinants of children?s participation in leadership programs ? analysis split by parents? highest educational attainment  Less than an undergraduate degree (n=127)  Undergraduate degree  (n= 233)  Advanced degree  (n=136)  Logit ? S.E. Odds Ratio  Logit ? S.E. Odds Ratio  Logit ? S.E. Odds Ratio Constant -4.80 3.77   -9.32*** 2.71   -5.30 3.40  Parent experience variables            Current community leadership -0.98 0.60   0.43 0.36   -1.47* 0.69 0.23 Church or community organizations in HS -0.23 0.41   0.15 0.23   0.59 0.34  Band, drama and/or dance in HS -0.30 0.41   0.28 0.22   -1.54** 0.49 0.21 Athletics in HS 0.90* 0.42 2.46  0.40 0.29   -0.33 0.35  Misc. clubs in HS 0.10 0.41   0.03 0.28   1.17** 0.48 3.24 Yearbook in HS 1.01** 0.35 2.74  -0.05 0.28   0.96* 0.49 2.61 Student Council in HS -0.13 0.38   -0.01 0.25   -0.11 0.39  Parental belief variables            Importance of leadership opportunities  1.41** 0.51 4.08  1.15** 0.37 3.17  1.13* 0.51 3.09 Importance of attending university 0.36 0.31   0.17 0.17   0.25 0.32  Value index: Community and culture -1.82* 0.77 0.16  0.21 0.40   -0.31 0.60  Value index: Competition and networking -0.76 0.64   -0.64 0.34   -1.15 0.63  Control variables            Household Income  0.00 0.00   0.00 0.00   0.00 0.00  Parent Sex 0.16 0.56   0.01 0.41   1.21 0.63  Birth Order 0.39 0.40   0.00 0.29   -0.52 0.43  Number of Children in Family -0.06 0.46   -0.53* 0.27 0.59  0.37 0.38  Child Age 1.75*** 0.49 5.75  1.64*** 0.29 5.18  1.57** 0.52 4.81 Job status  0.32 0.19   0.02 0.11   0.12 0.17  Community type 0.32 0.26   0.16 0.16   -0.54 0.58  Model evaluation             Log likelihood -57.25    -109.95    -58.59   Likelihood ratio chi square test 54.77***    82.68***    52.54***   Pseudo R2 0.34    0.28    0.34   BIC 27.45    9.92    30.98   * p < .05; ** p < .01; *** p < .001     (Paths on Life?s Way, 2010 & 1989)  109 5.4.5 Summary  These analyses examined the factors that are important for predicting children?s participation in specialized athletics activities, specialized music activities, specialized language activities, and leadership programs within the Paths on Life?s Way sample. Both parental experience and parental beliefs emerged as significant predictors of children?s participation in all four types of ECAs. Parental experiences with ECAs during high school were more significantly correlated with children?s participation in all four types of activities than current parental experience in musical, athletic, leadership, and language activities. Parental activity-specific beliefs (e.g. belief in the importance of leadership opportunities) were especially strong predictors of children?s participation in corresponding ECAs (i.e. children?s participation in leadership activities).  The four models were separated by parental educational attainment with notable results. In the models examining children?s participation in athletic activities, music activities, and leadership activities, much stronger findings emerged for the group with less than an undergraduate degree. Only the model examining children?s participation in specialized language activities showed stronger findings for the group with advanced degrees.  The theoretical and practical implications of these key findings will be interpreted concurrently with the qualitative finding in the concluding chapter.     110 Chapter  6: Conclusion Family background plays an important role in children?s educational outcomes; however, there is still little agreement among researchers as to how. Whether by providing children with social and cultural capital, helping to develop cognitive and non-cognitive skills, or increasing their attachment to their school communities, numerous studies have connected extracurricular participation and higher academic achievement. Understanding how parents impact their children?s ECA participation will help researchers as they continue to try to understand the intergenerational transmission of advantage.    6.1 Summary of Research Findings This study has attempted to contribute to advancing understandings of role played by the parents of school-aged children in determining the types of ECAs in which they participate by attempting to answer the following three questions: i. How do interview participants perceive their role in their children?s extracurricular participation? ii. How do parents? own experiences with ECAs shape their children?s participation in specialized athletics programs, specialized language programs, specialized music programs, and leadership programs? Does the nature of these relationships differ by parental education? iii. How do parents? beliefs shape their children?s participation in in specialized athletics programs, specialized language programs, specialized music programs, and leadership programs? Does the nature of these relationships differ by parental education?   111  Data from the Paths on Life?s Way project, in the form of interviews transcripts and survey data, were used to answer these questions. A mixed method approach utilizing sequential analysis procedures was employed to examine the relationships among parental beliefs, parental experiences with ECAs, and children?s participation in specialized athletics, music, language and leadership programs. The moderating effects of parental educational attainment in these relationships were also examined. Bourdieu?s work on cultural capital and habitus was used to frame understandings of the ways in which parents may impact their children?s experiences as well as the way that beliefs and experiences can be translated into action, both consciously and unconsciously. I hope that this study will contribute to the growing awareness in British Columbia and Canada regarding the importance of ECAs for Canadian children, making greater equality of access to ECAs a priority for policy makers.   6.1.1 Research Finding 1: The Role Parents Play  Interviewees? perceptions of their role in their children?s ECA participation generally fit into three key categories: those who enforced participation, those who encouraged participation, and those who facilitated participation. Enforcers required their children to participate in ECAs whether they expressed interest in the activity. Participation was enforced because parents believed that certain ECAs would benefit their children by providing them with cultural capital (particularly embodied capital) and social capital, which they could later exchange for institutional capital. Facilitators allowed their children?s ECA participation to be directed solely by their children?s interest in activities. They were more likely to express concern that ECAs were putting too much pressure on their children and having a negative impact on their development. Encouragers expressed their views about ECAs to their children and often tried to   112 steer them toward participating in certain activities but ultimately left decisions about ECA participation up to their children. Their actions tended to be guided by both motivators of participation and concerns about participation. They were most likely to feel torn regarding how to ensure their children enjoyed a balance of ECA participation and free time.    A central finding was that parents often did not play the same role in their children?s participation in different types of activities. Many parents played all three roles. For example, it was common for parents to encourage participation in one type of activity, enforce participation in another type, and facilitate participation in a third type. This suggests that future research should look at different types of ECAs separately, rather than as an aggregated group.   These findings have important implications for future studies examining parenting style and ECA participation. Although I did originally try to make use of dominant theories regarding parenting style and ECAs (specifically concerted cultivation and slow parenting), I found these theories were limited. They did not allow me to understand parents? roles in their full complexity. Although some of the comments made by the interviewees did reflect ideas characteristic of concerted cultivation or slow parenting, I could not possibly have categorized any of the parents as strictly ?concerted cultivation? parents or ?slow parenting? parents. The reality is that parents? roles change depending on their beliefs and past experiences regarding specific types of activities. Extending the categories of enforcer, encourager, and facilitator to my analysis of the quantitative data proved to be difficult given that there were no quantitative data measuring parents? concerns regarding their children?s participation in ECAs, nor were there data measuring how activities were initiated (e.g. by parents or by children). In future research, I   113 would be interested in collecting this missing data in order to examine the functioning of the roles of enforcer, encourager, and facilitator in the aggregate model.   6.1.2 Research Finding 2: The Importance of Parental Experience  Interviewees made comments about the different ways they have perceived their own experiences to have influenced their children?s participation in ECAs. A few interviewees commented specifically on the way they believed they have acted as role models for their children, regarding ECA participation. Both consciously and unconsciously, interviewees own childhood experiences also seemed to play an important role in the types of activities in which they encouraged their children to participate. This finding prompted the inclusion of variables that measured parental experience with ECAs during high school to my regression models.  To further examine the role of parental experience, several parental experience variables were included in the regression models. I found that parental experiences were an important determinant of children?s participation in specialized athletics, music, language and leadership programs. Unexpectedly, there were no direct correlations between the activities in which parents participated during high school and the activities in which their children have participated (for example, parental participation in athletics in high school was not correlated with children?s participation in specialized athletics programs). Parental experience participating in student council during high school was a significant predictor of children?s participation in both specailzied athletics and language programs. Parental participation in miscellaneous clubs during high school was also an important predictor of children?s participation in specailzied language programs. Parental experiences participating in athletics and yearbook and/or school newspaper during high school were significant predictors of children?s participation in leadership   114 programs. The variable parental participation in community and church organizations during high school was a significant predictor of children?s participation in specialized music programs. None of the current parental experience variables were significantly related to their children?s participation in any of the four ECAs examined.  Although interviewees noted that they believed that they acted as role models for their children regarding participation in ECAs, this was not evident in the aggregate model. Survey participants? past experiences in high school had a much greater impact on their children?s current ECA participation. This finding highlights the importance of habitus when thinking about the impact of family background on children?s outcomes and extends our understanding of theoretical constructs. This observation underlines idea that through the habitus ?types of behavior can be directed toward certain ends without being consciously directed to these ends, or determined by them? (Bourdieu, 1987/1990, 11). Although the quantitative analyses indicate that participants? experiences during high school were significantly correlated with their children?s participation in ECAs, the interviewees focused on the role of their present experience and rarely mentioned the impact their prior experience may have had on their children?s ECA participation. The findings of my study indicate that parents? embodied capital, gained 22 years earlier while they were in high school, was, in many cases, unconsciously exchanged by participants far down the road on behalf of their children. This highlights another reason why studying inequality is so complex. Inequality cannot be fully understood in one place in time. Rather inequality is a result of the complex, dialectical interactions between personal history, family history, present situation, institutions, and society. My findings also emphasize the potential for inequality of access to ECAs to be cyclical. Parental experience in high school acted as a stronger determinant of children?s extracurricular   115 participation than parents? current participation in activities. If a parent did not have the opportunity to participate in certain types of ECAs during their childhood and/or adolescence, my findings suggest that this may decrease the odds of their children participating in certain types of ECAs. This should bring greater urgency to the issue of ECA participation as an equity issue in Canadian schools.    6.1.3 Research Finding 3: The Importance of Parental Beliefs Interviewees expressed beliefs regarding a variety of motivators and concerns regarding participation in ECAs. The key concerns raised by parents were that ECAs were too competitive and that they took up too much of their children?s time. Parents noted many potential benefits of their children?s ECA participation. These benefits motivated the actions parents took regarding their children?s ECAs. These motivators were future-oriented, such as increased likelihood of being offered scholarships, and present-focused, such as ensuring their children were physically active. Both motivating factors and concerns played an important role in the way parents encouraged their children?s ECA participation.  The findings of the regression analyses also support the idea that there is a strong relationship between parental beliefs about what is important for their children and children?s participation in ECAs. In the cases of children?s participation in specialized music, language, and leadership programs, parental beliefs regarding the importance of participating in the corresponding activities were very strong predictors of children?s participation in these activities. For children?s participation in specialized athletic, language and leadership programs, parental belief in the importance of community and cultural experiences for their children?s schooling and wellbeing decreased children?s odds of participation. It should be noted, however, that parental   116 belief in the importance of community and cultural experiences was not nearly as strong of a predictor as were activity-specific beliefs. The responses of the interviewees can shed light on why this pattern may have emerged. Interviewees who emphasized beliefs that would be categorized as ?community and culture? seemed to privilege the importance of unstructured cultural and community building experiences. They discussed the importance of not overscheduling their children to ensure they still had time to spontaneously attend cultural and community events as they arose. These interviewees seemed to think that these unstructured activities would provide their children with better opportunities to attain dispositions like cultural awareness and an appreciation for diversity. Parental belief in the importance of competitive and networking skills was a predictor of children?s participation in specialized athletics programs but was not significantly related to children?s participation in music, language, or leadership activities.  Despite Canada's well-established dual language policy, a relatively small number of participants believed that French language proficiency was importance for their children's well-being. In fact, a sizeable proportion of parents felt strongly that learning other languages was more important for their children?s wellbeing than learning French. This finding suggests that many parents hold similar beliefs to those which motivated the B.C. Ministry of Education?s 2011 plans to place French on a level playing field with Mandarin, Punjabi, Japanese, and German in terms of second language learning for students in grade five and above (Globe and Mail, 2011). Although the B.C. Ministry of Education ultimately abandoned this plan out of respect for the status of French as an official language in Canada and in recognition of the value of French as a ?gateway? to learning other languages, parents clearly value opportunities for their children to learning other languages (Steffenhagen, 2011). More research should be   117 conducted to examine parents? beliefs regarding the value of learning second, and third, languages. Perhaps parents value French immersion because they too believe that French has the potential to act as a "gateway" language, allowing their children acquire proficiency in other languages more easily. In any case, this finding provides a launching point for policy makers to reconsider the merit of providing students with greater access to learning languages other than French as part of the formal curriculum.  6.1.4 Research Finding 4: The Importance of Parent Education Results suggest that parental experience and parental beliefs have different effects on children?s ECA participation depending on parental education. Although the relationships between parents? high school activities and the activities in which their children have participated seemed to differ by parental education, no clear patterns emerged. A better understanding of the impact of parental education as a moderator in the relationship between parental experience and children?s ECA participation necessitates a better understanding parents perceptions of these experiences.  When the models were separated by parental education, very interesting results did emerge for the relationship between parental beliefs and children?s ECA participation. On one hand, parents? activity specific beliefs (i.e. belief in the importance of leadership opportunities and belief in the importance of fine arts participation) acted as stronger predictors of children?s participation in leadership programs and in specialized music programs for children of parents with less than an undergraduate degree. On the other hand, parents? activity specific beliefs acted as much stronger predictors of children?s participation in specialized language programs for children of parents with advanced degrees. For children?s participation in athletics programs,   118 parental belief in the importance of competitive and networking skills is were significant predictors only for children of parents with undergraduate degrees. These are extremely important findings because they demonstrate that the role of parental beliefs and parental education in determining children?s ECA participation differs based on the types of ECA being examined. My findings also suggest that parental education may impact parents? roles as facilitators, encouragers, and enforcers. More research on these relationships would likely yield interesting results. Another interesting difference that emerged when the models were separated by parental education was that there were more significant relationships between parental beliefs and experiences and children?s participation in ECAs for the group of parents with less than an undergraduate degree than for parents with higher educational attainment. Perhaps less educated parents rely more on formalized methods of attaining dispositions (like ECAs) while more educated parents feel less pressure to ensure their children participated in formal activities because they are confident that their children will learn these dispositions at home and in social networks. More educated parents may trust that their children will learn the dispositions that will help them get ahead through osmosis during informal activities like participating in conversation at the dinner table. If this is true, this deviates from Lareau?s (2000a) ideas about concerted cultivation because it seems to be working class parents who are engaging in concerted cultivation and middle class parents who are taking a ?natural growth? approach.  These findings have important theoretical implications. They indicate that looking at institutional capital is an important way to understand research in this area. Cultural capital can be exchanged not only by the possessor of the capital but also by their children later on in life. Furthermore, the forms of capital a person possess can be exchanged throughout their life. This   119 means that the exchange of cultural capital for instructional capital is not necessarily an instantaneous exchange, nor is it necessarily an individual one.  When considering ECAs, on the surface there seems to be a significant conflict between the characterization of the habitus as something that is not consciously inscribed and ECAs, which are formally arranged. Although ECAs are indeed formally arranged, Bourdieu would argue that the habitus can direct behavior toward certain ends without conscious intention. For example, if a parent does not believe that they or their family are particularly musically gifted they would be less likely to see music as a possibility for their children and might unconsciously place less emphasis on music participation. Simultaneously, their own lack of confidence in their musical abilities might be picked up on by their children, impacting the possibilities children see for themselves and thus decreasing the likelihood that their children would participate in music.    As noted earlier, this study attempted to build on analyses conducted by Andres (2009), which also used the Path?s on Life?s Way data. When looking at parenting values alone, as opposed to parenting values in conjunction with action taken, as was the approach in this study, Andres (2009) noted that there was a strong relationship between cultural capital transmitted from respondents? parents and the capital earned by respondents themselves. After extending Andres?s (2009) work by adding action taken into account in the analyses, my findings support and fortify Andres?s (2009) assertions regarding the important role of parental habitus and capital in the intergenerational transmission of capital.   6.2 Policy Implications It is my hope that this study helps ensure ECAs are taken seriously as an equity issue in schools, particularly in the face of disruptions in the availability of in-school extracurricular   120 activities, which tend to be the most accessible for lower income families. My findings stress the importance of thinking about the impact of ECA equity issues not only for children currently in the school system but also for their children and their children?s children. The capital gained by children through participation in ECAs can be exchanged for institutional capital both individually by the children themselves and intergenerationally by the children on behalf of their own children. As policy makers attempt to address issues such as increasing post-secondary attendance, I hope they will take this into consideration. Furthermore, my findings emphasize that examining equity in access to ECAs as an aggregated group is not ideal. When addressing ECA equity issues, policy makers are encouraged to examine different types of ECAs both separately and in relation to each other. There has been some movement in this direction in terms of distinguishing sport and non-sport ECAs. I hope the discussion continues to move toward thinking about ECAs in a less aggregated way.    6.3 Research Limitations The key limitations of this study were the result of the secondary nature of the data that were used and the time and space constraints placed on my study to make it manageable for a Masters level research. One specific limitation of my study was that some variables were left out of the analyses. Data regarding the sex of the participants? children was not available. Neither was information as to whether ECAs were in school-activities or out-of-school activities. Both race and sexual orientation were intentionally not included as control variables in the analysis because I did not feel the data provided enough variation to be able to make any meaningful claims. Another limitation was that I was more limited in the way I could examine participation in specific ECAs because I used secondary data. The categories of ECAs that I used were, for the   121 most part imposed by the data. Finally, although I had access to 22 years worth of data, time and space constraints meant that I could not harness the longitudinal nature of the data to its full potential. Longitudinal data allows for more complex analyses, which is especially important given my findings regarding the time lags that exist in the exchange of capital. I hope to have the opportunity to use the longitudinal nature of the data more extensively in the future. These limitations provide many possibilities for future research. I encourage other researchers to take up where I left off.   6.4 Possible Directions for Future Research One of the main intentions of this exploratory study has been to draw attention to the many aspects of children?s participation in ECAs that still need attention. It is my sincere hope that the limitations of this study spark the interest of other researchers who see possibilities to build on this study in their own research. Below I will list some aspects of this thesis that left me with questions and a desire to know more.  A study examining both parents in two-parent families in order to investigate how values and experiences from both parents are translated to children?s ECA participation would likely yield interesting results. This would be an especially interesting way to look at the impact of parental gender.  Future studies are encouraged to extend this analysis by controlling for and/or investigating the impact of the children?s sex, race and ethnicity of parents and children, single parent families, and parent sexual orientation. These variables are expected to play an important role in children?s ECA participation, but the literature that currently addresses them is limited. These variables warrant further investigation.     122  As mention above, examining the extent of children?s participation in certain activities would likely produce exciting results. I have predicted that the relationship between parental beliefs and experiences are correlated with the extent that children participate in certain activities. Understanding how parental determinants impact the frequency of children?s participation in certain activities would add complexity to the discussion around ECAs as an equity issue. 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PPE-MA-BC ?? learn about culture [LC] ................................................................. PPE-MA-LC ?? reflection on childhood [RC]  ........................................................ PPE-MA-RC ?? child enjoyment and interest [CEI] ................................................ PPE-MA-CEI ?? exploring talents [ET]  ................................................................... PPE-MA-ET ?? getting ahead of the curve [GAC]  ................................................. PPE-MA-GAC   Concerning Aspects of ECA Participation [CA]  ............................ PPE-CA ?? overscheduling [OS]  ..................................................................... PPE-CA-OS ?? importance of free time [IFT]  ....................................................... PPE-CA-IFT ?? too competitive [TC] ...................................................................... PPE-CA-TC   PARENT?S PERCIEVED INVOLVEMENT [PPI] ?? role model [RM]  ........................................................................... PPI-RM ?? parent and child combined responsibility [CR]  ............................ PPI-CR ?? Emphasis on parent responsibility [EPR]  ..................................... PPI-EPR ?? pressure [P]  ................................................................................... PPI-P ?? offering choice [OC]  ..................................................................... PPI-OC ?? child directed [CD]  ....................................................................... PPI-CD   ACTIVITY SPECIFIC COMMENT [ASC] ?? athletics [A]  ................................................................................... ASC-A ?? music [M]  ...................................................................................... ASC-M ?? fine arts [FA]  ................................................................................. ASC-FA ?? culture [C]  ..................................................................................... ASC-C ?? languages [L]  ................................................................................ ASC-L ?? other [O]  ........................................................................................ ASC-O  139 Appendix B   Reorganized Qualitative Codes Facilitator [F] Parents? perception of their role in children?s ECAs [PPR] ........... PPR ?? child directed [CD]  ....................................................................... PPR-CD  Reasons for allowing child to direct [CD]  ....................................... F-CD ?? concern about overscheduling [OS]  .............................................. F-CD-OS ?? importance of free time [IFT]  ....................................................... F-CD-IFT ?? concern ECAs too competitive [TC] .............................................. F-CD-TC ?? exploring talents [ET]  ................................................................... F-CD-ET ?? child enjoyment and interest [CEI] ................................................ F-CD-CEI  Encourager [EN] Parents? perception of their role in children?s ECAs [PPR] ........... PPR ?? parent and child combined responsibility [CR]  ............................ PPR-CR  Reasons for offering choice [OC]  ..................................................... EN-OC ?? reflection on childhood [RC]  ........................................................ EN-OC-RC ?? learn about culture [LC] ................................................................. EN-OC-LC ?? balanced children [BC]  ................................................................. EN-OC-BC ?? scholarship opportunities [SO]  ..................................................... EN-OC -SO ?? physical activity [PA]  ................................................................... EN-OC -PA ?? concern about overscheduling [OS]  .............................................. EN-OC-OS ?? importance of free time [IFT]  ....................................................... EN-OC-IFT ?? concern ECAs too competitive [TC] .............................................. EN-OC-TC ?? exploring talents [ET]  ................................................................... EN-OC-ET ?? child enjoyment and interest [CEI] ................................................ EN-OC-CEI   Enforcer [EF] Parents? perception of their role in children?s ECAs [PPR] ........... PPR ?? Emphasis on parent responsibility [EPR]  ..................................... PPR-EPR  Reasons for pressure [P]  ................................................................... EF-P ?? getting ahead of the curve [GAC]  ................................................. EF-P-GAC ?? reflection on childhood [RC]  ........................................................ EF-P-RC ?? learn about culture [LC] ................................................................. EF-P-LC ?? balanced children [BC]  ................................................................. EF-P-BC ?? scholarship opportunities [SO]  ..................................................... EF-P-SO ?? physical activity [PA]  ................................................................... EF-P-PA   140 Appendix C   Collinearity Tables All four models were checked for any influential and discrepant cases that could throw off the results. No cases were found to have high leverage, or be outlying in the x-direction. After examining the DFBETAs and Cook?s d it was determined that there were no influential cases of concern. The reliability of the model estimates were also tested for collinearity. Too much association between independent variables indicates that there is not enough variation for the relationships within the model to be properly examined. An analysis of the variance inflation factors (VIF) indicates that collinearity is not a problem for any of the four models. The VIF for each coefficient in the model is less than or equal to 2. This suggests low collinearity. VIF greater than 4 signifies moderate collinearity.   141 Table 31 VIF for Regression Model A  VIF Squared VIF Tolerance R-Squared Child participation in specialized athletics programs 1.13 1.06 0.88 0.12 Parent experience variables     Current participation in athletics activities 1.11 1.05 0.90 0.10 Parent regular exercise 1.13 1.06 0.89 0.11 Church or community organizations in HS 1.22 1.11 0.82 0.18 Band, drama and/or dance in HS 1.19 1.09 0.84 0.16 Athletics in HS 1.17 1.08 0.85 0.15 Misc. clubs in HS 1.25 1.12 0.80 0.20 Yearbook in HS 1.29 1.13 0.78 0.22 Student Council in HS 1.31 1.15 0.76 0.24 Parental belief variables     Importance of attending university 1.10 1.05 0.91 0.09 Value index: Competition and networking 1.43 1.20 0.70 0.30 Value index: Community and citizenship 1.38 1.18 0.72 0.28 Control variables     Household Income  1.39 1.18 0.72 0.28 Parent Sex 1.10 1.05 0.91 0.09 Birth Order 1.55 1.25 0.64 0.36 Number of Children in Family 1.66 1.29 0.60 0.40 Child Age 1.34 1.16 0.74 0.26 Parent education  1.44 1.20 0.69 0.31 Job status  1.17 1.08 0.85 0.15 Community type 1.09 1.04 0.92 0.08      Mean VIF 1.27          (Paths on Life?s Way, 2010 & 1989)     142 Table 32 VIF for Regression Model B  VIF Squared VIF Tolerance R-Squared Child participation in specialized music programs 1.17 1.08 0.86 0.14 Parent experience variables     Current participation in creative activities 1.33 1.15 0.75 0.25 Church or community organizations in HS 1.25 1.12 0.80 0.20 Band, drama and/or dance in HS 1.21 1.10 0.83 0.17 Athletics in HS 1.19 1.09 0.84 0.16 Misc. clubs in HS 1.24 1.11 0.81 0.19 Yearbook in HS 1.28 1.13 0.78 0.22 Student Council in HS 1.24 1.11 0.81 0.19 Parental belief variables     Importance of participation in fine arts 1.21 1.10 0.83 0.17 Importance of attending university  1.14 1.07 0.88 0.12 Value index: Community and culture 1.47 1.21 0.68 0.32 Value index: Competition and networking 1.35 1.16 0.74 0.26 Control variables     Household Income  1.15 1.07 0.87 0.13 Parent Sex 1.20 1.09 0.84 0.17 Birth Order 1.56 1.25 0.64 0.36 Number of Children in Family 1.69 1.30 0.59 0.41 Child Age 1.33 1.15 0.75 0.25 Parent education  1.34 1.16 0.75 0.25 Job status  1.12 1.06 0.89 0.11 Community type 1.06 1.03 0.94 0.06      Mean VIF 1.28    (Paths on Life?s Way, 2010 & 1989)    143 Table 33 VIF for Regression Model C  VIF Squared VIF Tolerance R-Squared Child participation in specialized language programs 1.17 1.08 0.86 0.14 Parent experience variables     Church or community organizations in HS 1.26 1.12 0.79 0.21 Band, drama and/or dance in HS 1.18 1.08 0.85 0.15 Athletics in HS 1.17 1.08 0.85 0.15 Misc. clubs in HS 1.24 1.11 0.81 0.19 Yearbook in HS 1.28 1.13 0.78 0.22 Student Council in HS 1.25 1.12 0.80 0.20 Parental belief variables     Value index: Languages 1.37 1.17 0.73 0.27 Importance of attending university 1.08 1.04 0.92 0.08 Value index: Competition and networking 1.52 1.23 0.66 0.34 Value index: Community and culture 1.34 1.16 0.74 0.26 Control variables     Household Income  1.14 1.07 0.87 0.13 Parent Sex 1.10 1.05 0.91 0.09 Birth Order 1.56 1.25 0.64 0.36 Number of Children in Family 1.67 1.29 0.60 0.40 Child Age 1.27 1.13 0.79 0.21 Parent education  1.30 1.14 0.77 0.23 Job status  1.11 1.05 0.90 0.10 Community type 1.06 1.03 0.95 0.05      Mean VIF 1.27    (Paths on Life?s Way, 2010 & 1989)    144 Table 34  VIF for Regression Model D  VIF Squared VIF Tolerance R-Squared Child participation in leadership programs 1.33 1.15 0.75 0.25 Parent experience variables     Current participation in community leadership 1.14 1.07 0.88 0.12 Church or community organizations in HS 1.27 1.13 0.79 0.21 Band, drama and/or dance in HS 1.20 1.10 0.83 0.17 Athletics in HS 1.18 1.09 0.85 0.15 Misc. clubs in HS 1.23 1.11 0.81 0.19 Yearbook in HS 1.30 1.14 0.77 0.23 Student Council in HS 1.30 1.14 0.77 0.23 Parental belief variables     Importance of leadership opportunities  1.27 1.13 0.79 0.21 Importance of attending university  1.14 1.07 0.88 0.12 Value index: Community and culture  1.45 1.20 0.69 0.31 Value index: Competition and networking 1.44 1.20 0.70 0.30 Control variables     Household Income  1.37 1.17 0.73 0.27 Parent Sex 1.10 1.05 0.91 0.09 Birth Order 1.56 1.25 0.64 0.36 Number of Children in Family 1.66 1.29 0.60 0.40 Child Age 1.50 1.23 0.67 0.33 Parent education  1.48 1.22 0.67 0.33 Job status  1.16 1.08 0.86 0.14 Community type 1.10 1.05 0.91 0.09      Mean VIF 1.31    (Paths on Life?s Way, 2010 & 1989)   

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