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Surficial and geochemical evolution of periglacial soils : applications to mineral exploration in Yukon Cox, David 2013

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Surficial and Geochemical Evolution of Periglacial Soils: Applications to Mineral Exploration in Yukon by  David Cox B.Sc., University College Dublin, 2008  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE  in  The Faculty of Graduate Studies (Geological Sciences)  The University of British Columbia (Vancouver) July 2013 ©David Cox 2013  Abstract Exploration geochemistry is a powerful tool when exploring for gold deposits in periglacial environments, such as west-central Yukon. However, this study identified two main challenges to using soils as indicators of bedrock mineralization: 1) the variability of sample material over the scale of hundreds of meters and 2) The dilution of metal concentration in soil caused by the addition of loess. Herein, a study into the distribution of surficial materials is presented, the outcome of which is the mapping of surficial units whereby the terrain is divided into domains based on topography, surficial material and surficial processes. Furthermore, a study into the distribution of metals, specifically gold, within a selection of domains concludes that there is considerable geochemical variation between domains and that no single optimum sample material occurs throughout west-central Yukon. Hence, a tailored sampling protocol, based on surficial mapping is recommended. Results of scoping studies to the development of two methods to aid in exploration for gold deposits in west-central Yukon are presented: 1) a method for approximating the proportions of loess in a soil sample; proportion of loess in the Bdm horizon and Bm horizon from a selection of exposures from the Golden Saddle deposit were calculated. 2) A method for detecting bedrock alteration by the analysis of the mineralogy of surficial material; Well-crystalized illite, which forms specifically under hydrothermal conditions is identified in surficial material overlying the Golden Saddle deposit. This demonstrates that bedrock alteration minerals remain stable under surficial conditions. The two methods outlined above are demonstrated to be plausible and applicable to exploration in this area.  ii  Preface This dissertation is original, unpublished, independent work by the author, D Cox.  iii  Table Of Contents Abstract ......................................................................................................................................................... ii Preface ......................................................................................................................................................... iii Table Of Contents ........................................................................................................................................ iv List Of Tables ................................................................................................................................................ ix List Of Figures................................................................................................................................................ x Acknowledgements.....................................................................................................................................xiv 1. Introduction .............................................................................................................................................. 1 1.1. Rationale For Study ............................................................................................................................ 1 1.2. Overview Of Exploration In West-Central Yukon ............................................................................... 2 1.3. Exploration Practices.......................................................................................................................... 2 1.4. Thesis Objective ................................................................................................................................. 3 1.5. Thesis Structure ................................................................................................................................. 4 2. Geography And Surficial Geology Of West-Central Yukon ....................................................................... 6 2.1. Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 6 2.2. Overview Of West-Central Yukon ...................................................................................................... 6 2.2.1. Physiography ............................................................................................................................... 6 2.2.2. Regional Geology ........................................................................................................................ 7 2.2.3. Climate ........................................................................................................................................ 7 2.2.4. Vegetation ................................................................................................................................. 10 2.2.5. Glacial History ........................................................................................................................... 10 2.3. Overview Of Surficial Materials ....................................................................................................... 11 2.4. Overview Of Surficial Processes ....................................................................................................... 13 2.4.1. Slope Processes ......................................................................................................................... 13 2.4.2. Freeze-Thaw Processes ............................................................................................................. 15 2.5. Mapping And Classification Of Surficial Materials ........................................................................... 16 2.5.1. Domain Type A .......................................................................................................................... 19 2.5.2. Domain Type B .......................................................................................................................... 21 2.5.3. Domain Type C .......................................................................................................................... 21 2.5.4. Domain Type D .......................................................................................................................... 24 iv  2.5.4. Domain Type E .......................................................................................................................... 24 2.5.5. Domain Type F .......................................................................................................................... 25 2.5.6. Domain Type G .......................................................................................................................... 28 2.5.7. Domain Type H .......................................................................................................................... 28 2.6. Discussion......................................................................................................................................... 31 3. Case Studies ............................................................................................................................................ 32 3.1. Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 32 3.2. Methods ........................................................................................................................................... 34 3.2.1. Sample Collection...................................................................................................................... 34 3.2.2. Analytical Preparation and Methods ........................................................................................ 34 3.2.3. Statistics .................................................................................................................................... 35 3.2.3.1. The Nugget Effect............................................................................................................... 35 3.2.3.2. Regression Calculations ..................................................................................................... 35 3.3. The Boulevard Area .......................................................................................................................... 36 3.3.1. Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 36 3.3.2. Bedrock Geology ....................................................................................................................... 36 3.3.3. Surficial Material ....................................................................................................................... 36 3.3.4. Sampling .................................................................................................................................... 39 3.3.5. Company Data ........................................................................................................................... 40 3.3.6. Results ....................................................................................................................................... 42 3.3.6.1. Vertical Distribution Of Au Within The Soil Profile ............................................................ 42 3.3.6.2. Vertical Geochemical Variation Within The Soil Profile..................................................... 46 3.3.6.3. Downslope Geochemical Dispersion ................................................................................. 47 3.3.6.4. Comparison Of Au And Various Metals At Different Depths Within Soil Profile ............... 47 3.3.6.5. Pathfinder Elements .......................................................................................................... 51 3.3.6.6. pH Testing .......................................................................................................................... 55 3.3.6.7. Anomaly Threshold Selection ............................................................................................ 55 3.3.7. Discussion.................................................................................................................................. 56 3.3.7.1 Vertical Distribution of Au Within the Soil Profile .............................................................. 56 3.3.7.2. Vertical geochemical variation within the soil profile ....................................................... 56 3.3.7.3. Downslope geochemical dispersion .................................................................................. 56 3.3.7.4. Comparison of Au and relevant metals at different depths within soil profile ................. 57 3.3.7.5. Pathfinder Elements .......................................................................................................... 58 3.4. The Golden Saddle Deposit .............................................................................................................. 58 3.4.1. Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 58 v  3.4.2. Bedrock Geology ....................................................................................................................... 58 3.4.3. Surficial Material ....................................................................................................................... 59 3.4.4. Sampling.................................................................................................................................... 65 3.4.5. Company Data ........................................................................................................................... 65 3.4.6. Results ....................................................................................................................................... 67 3.4.6.1. Vertical Distribution Of Au Within The Soil Profile ............................................................ 67 3.4.6.2. Vertical Geochemical Variation Within The Soil Profile..................................................... 67 3.4.6.3. Pathfinder Elements .......................................................................................................... 74 3.4.6.4. Anomaly Threshold Selection ............................................................................................ 74 3.4.7. Discussion.................................................................................................................................. 74 3.4.7.1. Vertical Distribution Of Au Within The Soil Profile ............................................................ 74 3.4.7.2. Vertical Distribution Of Au Within Colluvium .................................................................... 77 3.4.7.3. Vertical Distribution Of Au Within The B Horizon.............................................................. 77 3.4.7.4. Pathfinder Elements .......................................................................................................... 77 3.5. The Eureka Area ............................................................................................................................... 77 3.5.1. Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 77 3.5.2. Bedrock Geology ....................................................................................................................... 78 3.5.3. Surficial Material ....................................................................................................................... 78 3.5.4. Sampling .................................................................................................................................... 82 3.5.5. Company Data ........................................................................................................................... 82 3.5.6. Results ....................................................................................................................................... 84 3.5.7. Discussion.................................................................................................................................. 85 3.5.7.1. Vertical Distribution of Au Within the Soil Profile ............................................................. 85 3.5.7.2. Vertical Geochemical Variation Within the Soil Profile ..................................................... 85 3.5.8. Size Fraction And Digestion Comparison ...................................................................................... 86 3.5.9. Conclusions ................................................................................................................................... 93 3.5.9.1 Vertical Distribution Of Au Within The Soil Profile ................................................................. 93 3.5.9.2. Loess Dilution ......................................................................................................................... 93 3.5.9.3. Geochemical Dispersion......................................................................................................... 94 4. Detection Of Loess And Hydrothermal Clay Minerals In Soil .................................................................. 95 4.1. Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 95 4.2. Site Descriptions And Methods ........................................................................................................ 96 4.2.1. Site Descriptions ....................................................................................................................... 96 4.2.1.1. The Boulevard Area............................................................................................................ 96 4.2.1.2. The Golden Saddle Area..................................................................................................... 97 vi  4.2.1.3. The Eureka Area ................................................................................................................. 97 4.2.1.4. Loess................................................................................................................................... 97 4.2.2. Methods .................................................................................................................................... 99 4.2.2.1. SWIR Mineral Analysis ....................................................................................................... 99 4.2.2.2. X-ray Diffraction ................................................................................................................. 99 4.2.2.3. Geochemistry ................................................................................................................... 100 4.3. Detection Of Loess Within A Soil Profile ........................................................................................ 101 4.4.5.2. Detection Of Hydrothermal Alteration Minerals By XRD................................................. 101 4.3.1. Loess Composition: Mineral Content And Geochemistry ....................................................... 103 4.3.2. XRD Results ............................................................................................................................. 105 4.3.2.1. Loess................................................................................................................................. 105 4.3.2.2. The Boulevard Area.......................................................................................................... 105 4.3.2.3. The Golden Saddle Deposit .............................................................................................. 112 4.3.2.4. The Eureka Area ............................................................................................................... 114 4.3.3. Geochemistry Results ............................................................................................................. 114 4.3.3.1. The Golden Saddle Area................................................................................................... 114 4.3.3.2. The Eureka Area ............................................................................................................... 114 4.3.4. Discussion................................................................................................................................ 116 4.3.4.1. Detection Of Loess By XRD............................................................................................... 116 4.3.4.2. Proxy For Loess Dilution By Geochemistry ...................................................................... 117 4.4. Detection Of Hydrothermal Minerals In The Soil Profile ............................................................... 121 4.4.1. Clay Minerals........................................................................................................................... 121 4.4.2. Weathering ............................................................................................................................. 123 4.4.3. Results ..................................................................................................................................... 124 4.4.3.1. SWIR Mineral Analysis ..................................................................................................... 124 4.4.3.2. XRD Results ...................................................................................................................... 124 4.4.5. Discussion................................................................................................................................ 124 4.4.5.1. Detection Of Hydrothermal Minerals Using SWIR ........................................................... 124 4.5. Conclusions .................................................................................................................................... 126 5. Exploration Considerations And Conclusions ....................................................................................... 127 5.1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 127 5.1.1. Considerations When Planning Soil Geochemical Surveys ..................................................... 127 5.1.2. Sampling .................................................................................................................................. 127 5.1.3. Interpretation Of Soil Geochemical Data ................................................................................ 129 5.1.4. Future Work ............................................................................................................................ 130 6. Conclusions ........................................................................................................................................... 131 vii  6.1. Surficial Variability ..................................................................................................................... 131 6.2. Dilution Of Metal Concentration By The Addition Of Loess ...................................................... 132 6.3. Detection Of Bedrock Hydrothermal Alteration In Soils ............................................................ 132 6.4. Applicability Of This Work .......................................................................................................... 133 References ................................................................................................................................................ 134 Appendix I – Quality Assurance, Quality Control Of Geochemical Data................................................... 142 Appendix II – Detailed Exposure Descriptions .......................................................................................... 157 Appendix III – Geochemical Data Laboratory Certificates ........................................................................ 166 Appendix IV – SWIR Analysis Spectra........................................................................................................ 258 Appendix V – X-ray Diffraction Patterns ................................................................................................... 269 Appendix VI – Sample Descriptions .......................................................................................................... 313  viii  List Of Tables Table 2.1. Table of surficial domains .......................................................................................................... 17 Table 4.1. List of locations of loess samples ............................................................................................... 99 Table 4.2. Results of XRD analysis of loess samples ................................................................................. 107 Table 4.3. Results of XRD analysis of soil samples .................................................................................... 108 Table 4.4. Full width half maxima at 7 Å of soil samples .......................................................................... 109 Table 4.5. Results of SWIR analysis ........................................................................................................... 125  ix  List Of Figures Figure 2.1. Glacial limits map of Yukon Territory.......................................................................................... 8 Figure 2.2. Permafrost distribution map of Yukon Territory ........................................................................ 9 Figure 2.3. Schematic cross section of various surficial domains in west-central Yukon ........................... 18 Figure 2.4. Close up photograph of cryoturbated colluvium ...................................................................... 20 Figure 2.5. Aerial photograph of terrace of cryoturbated colluvium. Domain type A ............................... 20 Figure 2.6.a. Cryoturbated saprolite. Material found in Domain type B .................................................... 22 Figure 2.6.b. Ridge-top setting. Domain type B ......................................................................................... 22 Figure 2.7.a. Saprolite and Bdm horizon at the Eureka area. Material found in Domain type C ............... 23 Figure 2.7.b. Well-developed ridge-top at the Eureka area. Domain type C.............................................. 23 Figure 2.8.a. Colluvium on a north-facing slope at the Boulevard area. Material found at Domain Type E .................................................................................................................................................................... 26 Figure 2.8.b. North-facing slope, dominated by colluvium with negligible development of B horizon at the Boulevard area. Domain type E ............................................................................................................ 26 Figure 2.9.a. Colluvium on a south-facing slope at the Golden Saddle deposit. Material found at domain type F .......................................................................................................................................................... 27 Figure 2.9.b. South-facing slope, dominated by colluvium with a well-developed Bm horizon at the Boulevard area. Domain type F .................................................................................................................. 27 Figure 2.10. Talus slope at the Boulevard area. Domain type G................................................................. 29 Figure 2.11. Surficial map of the Boulevard Area ....................................................................................... 30 Figure 3.1. Geological map of west-central Yukon ..................................................................................... 33 Figure 3.2. Location of the field site at the Boulevard area........................................................................ 37 Figure 3.3. Location of samples used in study comparing geochemistry of the base of the colluvium with the sub surface of the colluvium ................................................................................................................ 38 Figure 3.4. Sketch map of the wall of trench TRVB08-01 ........................................................................... 41 Figure 3.5. Exposure E001. .......................................................................................................................... 43 Figure 3.6. Exposure E002. .......................................................................................................................... 43 Figure 3.7. Detailed map of the location of the cross section depicted in Figure 3.8 ................................ 44 Figure 3.8. Cross section of surficial material at the Boulevard area ......................................................... 45 Figure 3.9. Au against depth at exposure E001 .......................................................................................... 48  x  Figure 3.10. Au against depth at exposure E002 ........................................................................................ 48 Figure 3.11.a. As, Sb, W and Te against depth at E001............................................................................... 49 Figure 3.11.b. Cu, Pb, Bi and Zn against depth at E001 .............................................................................. 49 Figure 3.12.a. As, Sb, W and Te against depth at E002............................................................................... 50 Figure 3.12. b. Cu, Pb, Bi and Zn against depth at E002 ............................................................................. 50 Figure 3.13. Comparison of samples taken from 15 cm depth and 85 cm depth within colluvium ........... 51 Figure 3.14. Probability plots of various elements at 15 cm and 85 cm depth within colluvium .............. 52 Figure 3.15. Au against various elements of drill core results from the Boulevard area ........................... 53 Figure 3.16. Au against various elements of soil sample results from the Boulevard area........................ 54 Figure 3.17. Location of the field site at the Golden Saddle deposit.......................................................... 61 Figure 3.18. Detailed geological map with exposure locations at the Golden Saddle deposit. ................. 62 Figure 3.19. Well-developed soil profile on south-east facing slope at the Golden Saddle deposit .......... 63 Figure 3.20. Well-developed soil profile on north-west facing slope at the Golden Saddle deposit ......... 63 Figure 3.21. South-east facing slope at the Golden Saddle deposit ........................................................... 64 Figure 3.22. North-west facing slope at the Golden Saddle deposit .......................................................... 64 Figure 3.23. Au-in-soil anomalies associated with the Golden Saddle deposit .......................................... 66 Figure 3.24. Au concentrations for various materials at the Golden Saddle deposit, line 1 ...................... 68 Figure 3.25. Au concentrations for various materials at the Golden Saddle deposit, line 2 ...................... 69 Figure 3.26. Au concentration between the Bm horizon and Bdm horizon at the Golden Saddle deposit70 Figure 3.27. Au against depth within colluvium at the Golden Saddle deposit.......................................... 71 Figure 3.28a. Various metals against depth, Golden Saddle deposit ......................................................... 72 Figure 3.28b. Various metals against depth, Golden Saddle deposit ......................................................... 73 Figure 3.29. Au against various metals, drill core results from the Golden Saddle deposit ....................... 75 Figure 3.30. Au against various metals, soil sample results from the Golden Saddle deposit ................... 76 Figure 3.31. Geological map showing location of the field site at the Eureka area ................................... 79 Figure 3.32. Detailed geological map showing exposure location at the Eureka area ............................... 80 Figure 3.33. Exposure E020, viewed looking north .................................................................................... 81 Figure 3.34. Photo of Bdm horizon at exposure E020 ................................................................................ 81 Figure 3.35. Sketch profile of exposure E020 with Au concentrations ....................................................... 83 Figure 3.36. Plot of soil geochemistry results showing Au concentrations for various materials at exposure E020............................................................................................................................................. 84  xi  Figure  3.37.  Plots  of  soil  geochemical  data  showing  Au  and  various  metals  against  depth  at  exposure  E020 ............................................................................................................................................................ 87  Figure 3.38. Comparison of element concentration for samples taken the Bdm horizon and saprolite at  E020 ............................................................................................................................................................ 88  Figure 3.39. Comparison of ‐63 µm and ‐177 µm size fractions, samples from Exposures E001 and E002  .................................................................................................................................................................... 89  Figure 3.40. Comparison of ‐63 µm and ‐177 µm size fractions, samples from exposure E020 ................ 89  Figure 3.41. Comparison of ‐63 µm and ‐177 µm size fractions, samples from above the Golden Saddle  deposit ........................................................................................................................................................ 90  Figure 3.42. Comparison of aqua regia and fire assay digestions, samples from the exposures E001 and  E002 ............................................................................................................................................................ 90  Figure 3.43. Comparison of aqua regia and fire assay digestions, samples from exposure E020 .............. 91  Figure 3.44. Comparison of aqua regia and fire assay digestions, samples from above the Golden Saddle  deposit ........................................................................................................................................................ 91  Figure 3.45. Comparison of paired duplicate results .................................................................................. 92  Figure 4.1. Map of loess sample locations .................................................................................................. 98  Figure 4.2. Na2O/Al2O3 plotted against K2O/Al2O3 for a selection of loess values from around the world  .................................................................................................................................................................. 110  Figure 4.3. Chondrite‐normalized REE values for a selection of loess samples from around the world .. 110  Figure 4.4. XRD pattern displaying peaks for muscovite, poorly crystalized illite and well crystalized illite  .................................................................................................................................................................. 111  Figure 4.5. XRD pattern displaying the effect of heating a sample containing kaolinite to 550°C for one  hour ........................................................................................................................................................... 111  Figure 4.6. XRD pattern showing the effect of glycol saturation on a sample containing smectite. ........ 113  Figure  4.7.  Na2O/Al2O3  plotted  against  K2O/Al2O3  for  a  selection  soil  samples  from  the  Golden  Saddle  deposit ...................................................................................................................................................... 115  Figure  4.8.  Th/Sc  plotted  against  Th/Ta  for  loess,  Bdm  horizon  material,  Bm  horizon  material  and  colluvium from soil overlying the Golden Saddle deposit ........................................................................ 115  Figure 4.9. Na2O/Al2O3 plotted against K2O/Al2O3 for a selection soil samples from the Eureka area .... 118  Figure  4.10.  Th/Sc  plotted  against  Th/Ta  for  loess,  Bdm  horizon  material  and  saprolite  from  soil  the  Eureka area ............................................................................................................................................... 118   xii     Figure 4.11. Plots of loess concentration and Au concentration in Bdm horizon and Bm horizon from above the Golden Saddle deposit ............................................................................................................. 120  xiii  Acknowledgements This MSc. thesis is part of the Yukon Gold Project coordinated by Dr. Craig Hart, Dr Jim Mortensen and Dr. Murray Allan, University of British Columbia, Mineral Deposit Research Unit. My sincere thanks to those companies and organizations that provided financial support for this project: Aldrin Resources, Barrick Gold Corporation, Full Metal Minerals, Gold Fields, Kinross Gold Corporation, Northern Freegold Resources, Radius Gold Inc., Silver Quest Inc., Taku Gold Corporation, Teck Limited and Underworld Resources. A special thanks to Kendra Johnston, Dave Clarke, Roger Holstein, Debbie James, Jean-Pierre Londero and Darcy Baker for providing technical support in the field, but also for the advice, knowledge and support they supplied over the course of two field seasons. My sincere thanks go to Dr. Craig hart for his continuing support and mentorship. As busy as he may have been, he always made the time to meet and provide constructive criticism. I thank and recognize the support and mentorship of Dr. Murray Allan whose commitment to “getting us all through this” was truly inspiring. Thank you to Mati Raudsepp and Jenny Lai, whose patience and advice were very much appreciated. I am indebted to Travis Furbey and Jim Cotes for introducing me to surficial geology and for all the input and support. Thank you to Steve Cook and Bill MacFarlane for technical advice, discussion and encouragement. Thank you to Chelsea and Timmy for all of your hard work, but more importantly for your good company in the field. Thank you to all my fellow students in the MDRU and in EOS; you know who you are and you made my office a place I didn’t want to leave in the evenings. A special thanks to Leif, Betsy and Brendan; you encouraged and advised and listened to more whining than I would have thought possible. To Leanne, Moira, Jack and Trent; thank you for the walk to the sub, the talk of skiing and allowing my constant interruptions. Andrew and Jake: My oldest friends in Vancouver, without you I wouldn’t have come back. Thank you to my family, Mum and Dad: for instilling the need to explore and for understanding when I needed to go and explore. Thank you for your encouragement, understanding and support over the last three years. Anne-Marie, Brian, Bran and Philippa: thank you for being something to keep coming home for.  xiv  1. Introduction 1.1. Rationale For Study Exploration geochemistry is a powerful tool when exploring for lode gold deposits in the periglacial environment. In west-central Yukon, soil geochemistry has led to the discovery of two lode gold systems: the White Gold deposit and Coffee deposit (MacFarlane, 2012). Soil geochemistry is a heavily relied upon exploration technique (Bond, 2011b), due to minimal outcrop exposure, deep soil profiles of regolith and down slope geochemical dispersion, which are characteristic of the periglacial environment. However, there are challenges to using soils as indicators of bedrock mineralization in the periglacial environment. One such challenge is variability of surficial materials; at this high latitude slope aspect plays a significant role in the temperature and thus evolution of surficial materials (Smith et al., 2009). Multiple deposits of loess and tephra add further components to the surficial materials present (Brideau, 2010; Ward et al., 2008). Challenges are particularly evident when evaluating gold-in-soil values, gold can occur in its native form, chemically bound in sulphide minerals, or adhering to clay or hydroxide particles, depending on soil type, age, chemistry and pH. These features result in low or erratic geochemical responses and inhibit recognition of anomalies, trends, thresholds and effective identification of source. A study was undertaken to classify the varying surficial materials and to evaluate metal distributions within them. This was done to better evaluate the controls on metal enrichments and depletions in periglacial soils and to improve the utility of soil geochemistry as an exploration tool. Industry standard geochemical analyses will be used to evaluate the geochemical responses for Au in various soil horizons and size fractions. Samples locations were chosen in areas of known Au mineralization with and lacking permafrost, comparing colluviated vs residual soils and north vs south facing slopes. This project builds on initial work carried out in the study area by Jeff Bond of the Yukon Geological Survey and Paul Sanborn of the University of Northern British Columbia (Bond and Lipovsky, 2011; Bond and Sanborn, 2006). This project provides tools and innovative approaches to improve the acquisition and interpretation of soil exploration geochemical data. Understanding the control that periglacial and slope processes exert over the distribution of metals within a soil profile will allow better selection of sample material. The 1  application of surficial mapping will create a basis for applying this information to the design of soil geochemical surveys and for the interpretation of soil geochemical data. As part of The Yukon Gold project the overall objective is to generate information to increase exploration success and to provide knowledge to enhance regional targeting and property acquisitions, encompassing tectonic and structural setting, regional metallogeny, geochemistry, placer gold data and fluid geochemistry.  1.2. Overview Of Exploration In West-Central Yukon West-central Yukon is recognized as a highly prospective area for gold production. The lode gold potential of the district is indicated by the presence of the Eagle Zone at Dublin Gulch which contains 2.3 million ounces of gold and the Brewery Creek deposit which contained 825,000 ounces prior to production (MacFarlane, 2012). A modern-day gold rush occurred in west-central Yukon, with the discovery of the Golden Saddle deposit on the White Gold Property. This property lies five km east of the confluence of the Yukon River and the White River. Underworld Resources drilled an 18.1m intersection, grading 4.35 g/t Au and a 50.7m intersection grading 3.1 g/t Au, revealing a new mineralized gold system (see Underworld news release dated October 15th, 2008). This sparked a staking rush and the development of the “White Gold District”. Exploration spending in 2011 is estimated to have exceeded $300 million, well above estimated exploration expenditures of $160 million for 2010. Gold exploration accounted for 69% of these expenditures (MacFarlane, 2012). This saw the further discovery of Kaminak’s Coffee deposit, along with a several other mineral occurrences (MacFarlane, 2012). Golden Saddle was discovered by conventional soil geochemistry and, in the absence of extensive outcrop, or even a firm grasp of the controls on Au mineralization, soil geochemistry was the most relied upon method of exploration in this new gold rush. The soil sampling rush ensued, with hundreds of thousands of soil samples being taken in the Yukon (MacFarlane, 2012)  1.3. Exploration Practices However, there are challenges to exploration geochemistry in an area covered by periglacial terrain. One such challenge is highly variable surficial material. The irregular distribution of soil, permafrost and parent material is caused by the following factors. This area is situated within the zone of discontinuous permafrost and at the northernmost limit of soil development (Bond and Lipovsky, 2011; Smith and Riseborough, 2002). Parent material itself can comprise colluvium, weathered bedrock or fluvial 2  deposits. Deposits of tephra and loess, as discreet lenses or mixed with other material, are present. The evolution of surficial material is controlled by a myriad of factors including elevation, aspect, and distribution of vegetation, drainage, forest fire activity and human activity. Discrete soil horizons are not well formed in these periglacial environments, despite the fact that unglaciated substrates having been exposed at the surface for millions of years. This is due to the lack of many soil forming processes and agents, and by the physical modification and transport from cryoturbation (Bond and Lipovsky, 2011). At lower, warmer elevations where vegetation growth is more robust and cryoturbation less intense, “B horizon” soils are widespread, but not continuous. In the study area, B horizon soils preferentially develop at lower elevations and on well-drained slopes with warm (mostly south-facing) aspects. The local variation and complexity of sample material is not reflected in the approach to sampling adopted by many companies working in the region. Soil geochemistry grids are not laid with consideration of the topography or varying sample material. Two methods of sample collection are frequently employed: auger sampling and mattock sampling. Auger sampling involves the use of a hand auger to sample as deep in the soil profile as possible (Ryan, 2009). Mattock sampling involves using the back of a mattock to remove vegetation to expose the underlying material. Sample material is taken from the surface of the soil profile.  1.4. Thesis Objective The goal of this thesis is threefold: 1) to characterize and classify the varying types of surficial environment and material available in west-central Yukon. Surficial geology is mapped using a system of mapping codes as outlined by the BC Terrain Classification Scheme (Howes D. E., 1997). Based on field work conducted on the course of this thesis, these mapping codes are used to define “domains” of like surficial material. 2) To establish the optimum sample material available and the effect of periglacial processes at each surficial environment. By studying down profile geochemical variation at a selection of surficial domains, the behavior of Au under various processes will be determined. Based on this, the best practices for soil geochemical sampling in the periglacial terrain of west-central Yukon are ascertained. 3) to establish a method for calculating the diluting effect of loess on a given sample. This methodology is based on comparisons of mineral content and geochemistry of pure loess of soil samples obtained from west-central Yukon. 3  1.5. Thesis Structure This thesis is organized into five chapters. The first chapter contains the rationale behind this thesis, an introduction to the district, and the structure of this thesis. Chapter 2 contains an overview of the physiography of the west-central Yukon, the current understanding of surficial processes to effect the periglacial environment and a summary of statistical formula used in this thesis. This chapter also contains a classification and description of units of surficial material observed during extensive surficial mapping and observations made at trench and pit exposures. Chapter 3 contains three case studies which detail the down profile geochemical variations measured in a selection of surficial environments. Case studies were performed at three sites, each with a different style of surficial environment. Vertical soil profiles were sampled and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to identify major and trace element composition. The aim was to classify the down profile geochemical variation at each style of surficial environment, with the hope of identifying an optimum sample medium for lode gold exploration geochemistry. Chapter 4 has two sections. The first section investigates the variations in mineral content of a variety of surficial environments. The second compares trace element ratios of loess, weathered bedrock and B horizon soils. The objective of the first section is to identify the mineral content signature of a soil which 1) contains loess and 2) contains hydrothermally generated alteration minerals. The first objective is achieved by performing qualitative x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis on taken at various heights in the soil profile. Comparison of weathered bedrock and colluvium with the top portion of the soil profile reveals the occurrence of allochthonous minerals. The second aim is achieved by performing qualitative XRD analysis on soil samples taken along a transect of the surface expression of an Au mineralized structure. The goal is to identify a hydrothermally formed mineral in the soil which can be used to indicate underlying bedrock alteration and therefore be used to increase opportunities to discover mineralization.  4  Chapter 5 contains a synthesis of interpretations from throughout this thesis and recommendations for exploration geochemistry in the periglacial environment.  5  2. Geography And Surficial Geology Of West-Central Yukon 2.1. Introduction The first part of this chapter contains an overview of the geography, surficial material and processes that exist in west-central Yukon. Standard terms are used, drawn primarily from the BC terrain classification scheme, the Canadian Soil Classification Scheme and from literature that deals with the periglacial environment. The exploration geochemist draws terminology from soil science, surficial geology and geology to classify material; in this section the terminology is defined to avoid overlap or ambiguity. Using standard terms, surficial “domains” are classified and characterized, based on slope setting, surficial processes active and surficial materials present in discrete zone. The second part of this chapter contains descriptions of the characteristics and spatial distribution of these domains. Data presented here is the culmination of surficial mapping over two summers (20102011). Surficial mapping was performed on traverse, by studying pit and trench exposures, and by interpretation of geographic information software (GIS) data and aerial photography. These will be used as mapping units will be the basis for the geochemical study of various locations in west-central Yukon.  2.2. Overview Of West-Central Yukon 2.2.1. Physiography West-central Yukon is characterized by rolling mountains and deep, V-shaped, incised river valleys, consistent with an area that has not been glaciated since the start of Quaternary time. Valley walls are typically steep (15° to 33°) and hilltops and ridge tops are generally flat to gently sloping (Coates, 2008). The area has been deeply incised by several large rivers. The Yukon River flows south to north through the area, with major tributaries including the Pelly River, White River, and Stewart River. The Nisling River drains the southern part of the Dawson Range as it flows westward, before joining the Donjek and White rivers. Glacial advances during the early Pleistocene caused blocking of the Yukon and reversed its flow direction, which caused a change in base level, leading to the formation of raised terraces (Bond and Lipovsky, 2011). Small dendritic streams flow from V-shaped valleys directly into the large, incised water courses listed above. Stream flow rapidly increases in volume in May due to snowmelt, peaking in June, after which summer rainfall maintains high flow until November through April, were flow drops due to freezing conditions (Smith, 2004). Although unaffected by volcanic eruptions in Quaternary time, 6  this district was overlain by tephra from volcanic centers within the St Elias Mountains of southwestern Yukon and the Aleutian Arc of Alaska (Froese et al., 2002; Ward et al., 2008).  2.2.2. Regional Geology Part of west-central Yukon is underlain by the Yukon-Tanana terrane (YTT), a parautochthonous to allochthonous composite arc terrane accreted to the western Laurentian margin in Late Permian to Early Triassic time (Nelson et al., 2006). The oldest assemblage of the YTT is the pre-Late Devonian Snowcap assemblage, which consists mainly of amphibolite-facies quartzite, psammite, metapelite, calcsilicate schist, marble, and local amphibolite and ultramafic rocks. The Snowcap assemblage is overlain by intermediate to mafic metavolcanic and metavolcaniclastic rocks of the Late Devonian to Early Mississippian Finlayson assemblage, which formed in the arc- and back-arc environments. Time equivalent to the Finlayson assemblage is the Nasina assemblage, a package of variably calcareous and graphitic schists and quartzite (Colpron et al., 2006). The overlying Klinkit assemblage is Middle Mississippian to Early Permian in age and comprises mafic to intermediate volcaniclastic and volcanic rocks and marble. The Klondike Schist assemblage is Middle to Late Permian in age and consists mainly of greenschist facies metavolcanic rocks and associated intrusions and siliciclastic rocks.  2.2.3. Climate In the present day, west-central Yukon has a subarctic continental climate. It is dry with seasonal variations in temperature. Annual precipitation within the Yukon ranges from 300 to 500 mm, which is dry compared to coastal Alaska, where rain fall varies between 2,000 to 3,500 mm (Smith, 2004). Winter daily temperatures range from -55.8°C to 6.5°C, with an average of -23.1°C. Summer daily temperatures range from -8.2°C to 34.7°C with an average of 20.0°C (measurements from 1971-2000, Dawson Airport weather station, Environment Canada). Local variations in climatic conditions exist, which are controlled by slope aspect. Microclimates associated with north-facing slopes are typically colder than those associated with adjacent south-facing slopes. This phenomenon is due to the oblique angle that the rays of the sun strike the north-facing slope. This fact is reflected in the distribution flora in the area.  7  McConnell glacial deposits (ca. 22ka) Hungry Creek or Buckland glacial deposits Reid glacial deposits (ca. 200ka) Pre-Reid glacial deposits (from 3 Ma) Unglaciated Icefield glaciers Roads Rivers Dawson City  .  Eureka  White R Donjek R.  Settlement  Yukon R . Ni  slin  gR  .  Golden Saddle Boulevard  Whitehorse Watson Lake 0  100  200  300  400 km  Figure 2.1. (after Duk-Rodkin 1999) Glacial limits map of Yukon territory. West-central Yukon remained unaffected by the Pre-Reid, Reid and McConnell glacial events. Map inset represents the extent of Figure 3.1.  8  Continuous permafrost Widespread discontinuous permafrost Sporadic discontinuous permafrost No permafrost observed Roads Rivers Settlement  Dawson City  Donjek R.  . White R  Fig.3.1.  Eureka Yukon R . Ni slin gR  .  Golden Saddle Boulevard  Whitehorse Watson Lake 0  100  200  300  400 km  Figure 2.2. (after Heginbottom et. al (1995) Permafrost distribution map of Yukon territory. West central Yukon lies within the sporadic discontinuous permafrost zone. Map inset represents the extent of Figure 3.1.  9  2.2.4. Vegetation The vegetation in this area varies between alpine tundra flora on ridge tops and north aspect slopes and northern boreal flora on south aspect slopes and valley bottoms. Trees present on north aspect slopes and ridge tops include stunted black spruce (Picea mariana). Trees present on the south aspect slopes and valley bottoms include white spruce (Picea glauca) and Aspen (Populus tremuloides). Black spruce trees also occur on shaded, colder portions of valley bottoms. Aspen also exist on cold aspect slopes where they recolonize sites of historic landslides. Dwarf birch (Betula glandulosa and Alnus crispa) is the dominant shrub and is under-grown by caribou moss (Cladonia spp.), thick, green Sphagnum moss and small shrubs, including Labrador Tea (Rhododendron tomentosum). Dwarf birch grows in every type of soil, with the exception of very mechanically active cryosolic soils (see definition below), and survives in permafrost affected zones. Dwarf birch is typically accompanied by thick, green Sphagnum moss. Sphagnum moss is associated with permafrost and black, fibric, organic material. Sphagnum moss insulates soil from high air temperature and direct sunlight. The lower 20 cm of the moss mat is rich in partially decomposed fibric organic material (Bond and Sanborn, 2006; Coates, 2008; Smith, 2004). Vegetation and Sphagnum moss are periodically removed by forest fires, which have a typical recurrence interval of 50 to 200 years (Coates, 2008). These fires are the cause of pronounced local permafrost degradation (Burn, 1998).  2.2.5. Glacial History The Cordilleran Ice Sheet consisted of a convalescence of multiple ice fields and valley and cirque glaciers, originating from the Selwyn, Cassiar, Coast Mountain and St. Elias mountain ranges of south and southeast Alaska and British Columbia (Stroeven et al., 2010). It extended from these mountains into the Pacific northwestern USA and advanced northwards over southern Yukon. Six glacial periods can be distinguished from the last 2.5 million years. The four most significant glaciations of central and southern Yukon were recognized by Bostock (1966) and include the Nansen (oldest), Klaza, Reid (~15080 ka), and McConnell (~30-12 ka) (Fig. 2.1). It is impossible to discriminate between the Nansen and Klaza glaciations and so they are often referred to collectively as the Pre-Reid (~2.6-0.2 Ma) glacial event. During the early Pleistocene epoch an arid climate existed in west-central Yukon. This arid climate was due to a rain shadow effect created by the Coast Mountains and the St Elias Range. Further, the Arctic 10  Ocean was ice-capped during the glacial periods, contributing no moisture to the area (Bond and Lipovsky, 2011; Froese et al., 2009). Most of west-central Yukon had temperatures low enough to support ice sheets but it was sufficiently arid to remain ice free during these glacial periods. As a result, a periglacial environment prevails in this area and geomorphological features associated with glacial processes are absent (Bond and Sanborn, 2006).  2.3. Overview Of Surficial Materials This section is a review of the types of surficial material present in west-central Yukon. A definition, description and explanation of the formation of each material are presented. Soil is defined by the Canadian System of Soil Classification as “the naturally occurring, unconsolidated mineral or organic material at least 10 cm thick that occurs at the earth's surface and is capable of supporting plant growth” (Canadá Soil Survey Committee, 1978). Soil develops into discrete horizons by the action of pedogenic processes on parent material. These pedogenic processes include the addition of organic matter, removal of soluble salts and carbonates, transfers of humus and sesquioxides, and weathering of primary minerals to secondary minerals (Simonson, 1959). In this thesis, a “soil sample” refers to a sample of any unconsolidated surficial material for geochemical analysis. Factors affecting the development of soils into horizons include vegetation, soil moisture content, microbiota and climate (Azcon-Aguilar and Barea, 1985; Jenny, 1941). The addition of organic material is fundamental to the development of soil. Vegetation not only binds slopes together, preventing the removal of soil, but its decay also provides organic acids which aid chemical weathering and contribute to the mechanical break-up of parent material (Jones et al., 1994). Soil moisture is required for the illuviation and eluviation of sesquioxides, clays, carbonates and salts (Jenny, 1941). Microorganisms are active in the early bedrock weathering stage (Etienne, 2002) and also later in the development of a soil for processing soil organic matter and for fixing atmospheric nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus. Macroorganisms (e.g., earthworms) are instrumental for soil aeration and in the incorporation of soil organic matter (SOM) into the B horizon and the development of a soil profile (Scheu and Schulz, 1996). Microorganism development is also dependent on soil moisture (Schnürer et al., 1986). Ground ice presents a physical barrier to macroorganisms and the low temperatures inherent in zones of permafrost present a metabolic barrier to micro and macroorganisms. Rivkina and co-workers (2000) suggest that certain bacteria can survive in soil at temperatures as low as -10°C but below -12°C bacterial growth is unsustainable (Rivkina et al., 2000). 11  The term weathered bedrock refers to in situ, decomposed or disintegrated bedrock material (Bond and Sanborn, 2006). This material can be formed by mechanical and or chemical weathering of weathered bedrock (Canadá Soil Survey Committee, 1978). Weathered bedrock encompasses saprock and saprolite. Saprock describes altered and fractured bedrock that is slightly friable but maintains its structure. Saprolite describes unconsolidated weathered bedrock that remains in situ. Typically saprock grades into saprolite. Felsenmeer is a variation of weathered bedrock and is in situ, physically weathered bedrock. It takes the form of broken, angular rock fields that are often underlain by finer material and remain segregated from this finer material by frost-heave action. Felsenmeer forms at the tops of hills and on gentle (<25°) slopes (Dahl, 1966; Howes D. E., 1997). The term colluvium describes material that has reached its current location by gravity-induced movement, involving no agent of transport such as ice or water (Howes D. E., 1997). Talus is a variety of colluvium and consists of transported rock fragments which have accumulated at the base of a steep slope or cliff. The fragments have usually been generated by the frost shattering of bedrock (Howes D. E., 1997). Colluvium may be assisted by freeze-thaw action in the form of frost jacking, which is explained below in the overview of processes. Loess is material deposited by aeolian processes. In the west-central Yukon loess is generated from fluvio-glacial flood plains, primarily the Donjek and White rivers. Loess accumulations are greatest on south west-facing slopes and range from tendrils of a few centimeters to 20 m thick deposits (Bond and Sanborn, 2006). Along with geochemical dilution, loess also affects the physical properties of the soil, increasing its water retention capacity, thus encouraging the formation of permafrost (Bond and Lipovsky, 2011). Herein, the suffix “d” is applied to a soil horizon to indicate the presence of loess. Time constraints on the evolution of the periglacial environment of west-central Yukon are provided by carbon isotope dating of organic matter and by dating tephra lenses preserved within the soil profile (Froese et al., 2002; Smith et al., 2009). Tephra beds identified within the west-central Yukon include the Dawson tephra, Old Crow tephra and the White River ash (Froese et al., 2002; Richter et al., 1995). Using 14  C analysis of the organic content of rodent burrows, Froese estimated the Dawson tephra was  deposited roughly 24,000 years ago. Based on whole rock and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Froese suggests Emmons Lake in the Aleutian Arc as a possible volcanic source for the tephra. Ward proposed a 140 ±10 ka age for the Old Crow tephra, based on fission track dating (Ward et al., 2008). The source of the Old Crow tephra is likely within the Aleutian Arc (Froese et al., 2002). The White River ash is sourced 12  from Mount Churchill, a Holocene volcano within the St. Elias Range (Richter et al., 1995). In areas of high cryoturbic activity, tephra becomes incorporated into the local surficial material. This influx of barren, externally-derived material has the effect of diluting the concentrations of ore and pathfinder elements in soil samples (Bond and Lipovsky, 2011). Deposits of organic-rich fibric material mixed with detrital vegetation and loess occur throughout westcentral Yukon. Deposits of this material can reach thicknesses of tens of meters in valley bottoms but are generally less than one meter thick on slopes. These deposits have a high water-content, are generally frozen, and host large ice wedges. This material is also noted for its insulating properties, shielding permafrost from solar heat and high air temperatures (Bond and Sanborn, 2006; Burn, 1998; Fraser and Burn, 1997).  2.4. Overview Of Surficial Processes The following is an overview of slope and freeze-thaw processes, which are the dominant processes acting in surficial material in west-central Yukon.  2.4.1. Slope Processes Slope stability in periglacial environments is controlled by a balance between surficial material composition, permafrost distribution, and vegetation distribution (Coates, 2008). North-facing slopes are generally colder and more likely to be frozen year-round, and are thus more mechanically stable than warmer, south-facing slopes. Forested slopes are also more stable than barren slopes, as the root systems of plants act to bind together surficial material. This allows frozen and or covered slopes to maintain very steep slope angles. The presence of excessive interstitial water or removal of vegetation (e.g., by forest fire) may lead to slope instability. Once a slope thaws or the vegetation is removed, downslope movement will be accelerated. Downslope movement can occur by gradual mass wasting or by discrete slide events. Two styles of downslope movement are descried below, the former catastrophic and the latter gradual. An active layer detachment is “a slope failure in which the thawed or thawing portion of the active layer detaches from the underlying frozen material” (van Everdingen, 1998 (revised January, 2005)). This involves initial downslope sliding of surficial material followed by the thawing and flow of exposed debris (Lipovsky, 2006). The zone of annual freezing and thawing is referred to as the active layer (van  13  Everdingen, 1998 (revised January, 2005)). Active layer detachment slides are induced by the deterioration of permafrost, which has many causes, including the removal of vegetation cover due to forest fires, human activity or climatic change (Harris and Lewkowicz, 2000). Where the permafrost has thawed, the active layer is up to 20 cm (+31%) deeper than on unburned slopes, and the surface root structures are also weaker. This change has two effects: ice no longer binds surficial materials together and the released water elevates soil pore water pressures (Coates, 2008). This results in a change in the soil shear strength, which contributes to catastrophic slope failure (Harris and Lewkowicz, 2000). The usual slide surface is not the base of the active layer, but can occur at depths ranging from 10 to 50 cm (Lewkowicz and Harris, 2005). The decrease in albedo, loss of insulating organic layer and peat causes further deepening of the active layer, thus creating a positive feedback effect (Burn, 1998). An increase in solifluction is observed following a slide (Lipovsky, 2006). The slope will re- stabilize as vegetation recolonizes the slope and the soil drains (Burn, 1998). Aspen and willow are the first flora species to recolonize slide zones (Coates, 2008). Solifluction describes collectively slow mass wasting associated with frost creep and gelifluction (Norikazu, 2001). Gelifluction, a variation of solifluction specific to frozen climates, refers to “the slow downslope flow of unfrozen earth materials on a frozen substrate” (van Everdingen, 1998 (revised January, 2005)). Frost creep is the mechanical “jacking” of frozen surficial material by freeze-thaw action (French, 2007). Gelifluction and frost creep are major controls on the physiography of many mountain environments (Norikazu, 2001). By acting in various combinations, they produce distinctive lobate and terrace-like landforms, which are easy to recognize where fresh and active, but difficult to distinguish from mudflow lobes, earth slides, and similar deposits after they have been modified by other processes. Solifluction is not confined to permafrost areas, and can occur in areas of deep seasonal thawing (Benedict, 1976), a condition common on south-facing slopes in west-central Yukon (Bond and Sanborn, 2006). Rates of transport vary, depending on slope angle, freeze-thaw frequency and the depth and thickness of ice wedges. In environments typical of west-central Yukon, material at depths of up to 60 cm may be dislocated, on a scale of centimeters per year (Norikazu, 2001). Over a 20-year period, Price observed transport rates in the Ruby Range, Yukon that range from 0.53 2.05 cm per year on gradients of 14 – 18° (Price, 1973) . Over a three year period, French observed an average rate of downslope movement of 2.0 cm per year on slopes of 2 - 4° (French, 1974). These 14  measurements include gelifluction and frost creep. Gelifluction occurs in the newly thawed active layer and is most prevalent when the active later is at its thickest. Thawing of permafrost saturates the active layer, the underlying inactive later acts as an aquiclude, trapping water at the base of the active layer. This causes an increase in pore pressure, reducing the sheer strength of the soil, inducing downslope flow of material in lobes (French, 2007). Frost creep is driven by expansion and contraction of water during freeze-thaw cycles. During a freeze cycle a soil profile expands, due to the approximate 9% increase in volume water undergoes during the phase change from liquid to solid. Expansion is directed orthogonally to the ground surface. During a thaw cycle the profile loses this extra volume and subsides. The degree of expansion is controlled by the amount of water present to freeze and so favors saturated conditions and slow, deep freezing. Frost creep can be broken down into two components: (1) potential frost creep, the downslope displacement caused by frost heaving during the fall and winter freeze, and (2) retrograde movement, the apparent upslope displacement caused by non-vertical settling during the spring and summer thaw. Potential frost creep can be calculated from slope angles and heave measurements (Benedict, 1970; French, 2007).  2.4.2. Freeze-Thaw Processes West-central Yukon currently lies in the discontinuous permafrost zone (Bond and Sanborn, 2006). Permafrost covers roughly 50% of Canada and almost all of Yukon (Fig. 2.2). The southern part of the territory lies in the sporadic discontinuous zone (Smith and Riseborough, 2002). Discontinuous permafrost forms in areas where freezing temperatures required to sustain permafrost occur with patchy distribution, such as on north-facing slopes, in the shade of a hill or under thick, insulating vegetation (Turetsky et al., 2007). Soil with a temperature of 0°C or less for more than two consecutive years is termed permafrost (van Everdingen, 1998 (revised January, 2005)). Although mean annual air temperature is a contributing factor towards permafrost distribution, a complex interplay between snow cover, aspect, and vegetation and soil conditions can produce a range of several degrees in mean ground temperatures (Burn, 1998; Smith and Riseborough, 2002). Zones of permafrost are associated with thick drifts of organic material, informally referred to as “muck” in the Klondike. This organic material insulates the underlying permafrost from the atmosphere and solar radiation (Burn, 1998).  15  Active layers in west-central Yukon are approximately 1 m thick, but can range from 50 cm to 100 cm in thickness (Bond and Sanborn, 2006; Lipovsky, 2006). The majority of freeze-thaw action and hydrological processes occur within the active layer and it is affected by freeze-thaw phenomena, detailed below. When winter freezing does not reach the base of an active layer the remaining unfrozen soil acts as a confined aquifer, referred to as a talik (French, 2007). Where soil permeability permits, interstitial water percolates down as deep as the base of the active layer, creating a zone of positive pore pressure (Coates, 2008). Sorting of surficial material through freeze-thaw action produces many ubiquitous landforms observed in the periglacial regions of Yukon. Frost heave is the root mechanism for segregation of materials. It is described as “the upward or outward movement of the ground surface (or objects on, or in, the ground) caused by the formation of ice in the soil” (van Everdingen, 1998 (revised January, 2005)). Many features are associated with the fundamental process of frost heave; these include frost boils, mud boils, ice wedges, stone polygons and stone circles (French, 2007). These landforms are differentiated by geometry or texture of material involved, but the fundamental process remain the same (Cameron, 1977). The term cryoturbation describes the movement of surficial materials by heaving and/or churning due to frost action (Howes D. E., 1997) and is a process, not a feature. The freezing of a body of soil creates lenses of ice, and associated volume change forces material upwards and outwards. Pebbles are pushed upwards and upon thawing, smaller particles settle beneath the elevated pebble, preventing its retreat. This dynamic process affects various sized particles differentially, sorting larger particles into a rock-rich domain and smaller particles towards a soil-rich domain. Cryoturbation rates increase with decreasing grain size and the sorting caused by cryoturbation causes the formation of zones of fine grained material, thus creating a positive feedback loop, further enhancing and defining the segregation. On slopes, cryoturbation and gravitational action conspire to create stone and soil stripes. The size of the domain depends on the rock-to-soil ratio and the depth of the active layer (Kessler and Werner, 2003).  2.5. Mapping And Classification Of Surficial Materials Extensive field observations, combined with the interpretation of aerial photo and GIS data, were used to describe and classify varying surficial material and processes in west-central Yukon. Mapping was conducted using standard surficial mapping codes and techniques drawn from the BC Terrain Classification Scheme. Based on these observations the terrain was subdivided into domains of similar 16        slope  setting,  dominant  surficial  material  and  dominant  surficial  process.  The  domains  are  ultimately  intended to provide the basis for the planning and interpretation of soil geochemical sampling.   Materials  and  processes  were  studied  at  the  Boulevard  area,  the  Golden  Saddle  deposit,  and  at  the  Eureka area.  These three areas represent much of the variability in surficial conditions in west‐central  Yukon.  The  Boulevard  property  consists  of  high  elevations  and  cold  climate  soils  and  is  dominated  by  cryoturbation  processes.  Golden  Saddle  consists  of  lower  elevations  and  warmer  climate  soils  and  is  dominated by soil development and colluviation. The field site at the Eureka area is situated at relatively  lower elevation has a relatively warm climate soils and is dominated by soil development.  The terrain of west‐central Yukon is subdivided into eight surficial domains (A‐H) based on physiographic  setting,  local  climate,  dominant  surficial  process,  surficial  materials,  and  nature  of  the  shallow  (Bm)  horizon (Table 2.1). Each domain is described and characterized individually below. Figure 2.3 depicts a  schematic cross section of a selection of domains from west‐central Yukon.       Setting   Climate   Process   Material   Bm horizon   Domain Type A   Ridge Top   Cold   Freeze‐thaw   Colluvium   Absent   Domain Type B   Ridge Top   Cold   Freeze‐thaw   Saprolite    Absent   Domain Type C   Ridge Top   Warm   Pedogenesis   Colluvium   Present   Domain Type D   Ridge Top   Warm   Pedogenesis   Saprolite   Present   Domain Type E   Slope   Warm   Pedogenesis   Colluvium   Present   Domain Type F   Slope   Cold   Colluviation   Colluvium   Absent   Domain Type G   Slope   Cold   Colluviation   Colluvium   Absent     Table 2.1. Table of surficial domains       17     Domain Type G Slope side developed colluvium Warm climate  Domain Type B Ridge top cryoturbated saprolite  Sphagnum moss and organic rich material Talus, boulders Residuum with air matrix Bedrock  b.  Colluvium, boulders with soil matrix  d.  Domain Type E Slope side cryoturbated colluvium Cold climate e.  B horizon Colluvium Saprolite Bedrock  Sphagnum moss Thick orgnaic rich material Colluvium Saprolite  Domain Type A Ridge top cryoturbated colluvium  Bedrock  c.  a. Sphagnum moss Thick orgnaic rich material Mottled red and grey colluvium Saprolite Bedrock  Figure 2.3. Schematic cross-section of various surficial domains in west-central Yukon.  B horizon material Saprolite Bedrock  Domain Type D Ridge top developed soil above saprolite 18  2.5.1. Domain Type A At elevations exceeding 1000 m, broad, gently sloping ridge tops and plateaus are typically mantled with a blanket of cryoturbated colluvium. This colluvium is generally fine grained and comprised mainly of primary minerals. There is no development of soil horizons. Thickness ranges from 10 cm to roughly 100 cm. Convoluted contacts and textures observed within this unit have been interpreted to indicate plastic, downhill flow, in the form of solifluction lobes. Colluvium displays a vertically homogenous texture and colour, a dapple of plastic, grey silt mixed with more friable, ferruginous silt (figure 2.4). The variations in colour and texture take place over a scale of tens of centimeters. The ferruginous silt is slightly more friable than the clay. Both materials hold interstitial moisture even when exposed to sunlight. When water saturated, this material has been observed to gradually flow, infilling recently dug holes. Lenses of humic organic material have been drawn down to depths of up to 40 cm by cryoturbation. These lenses are typically not incorporated into the colluvium and have sharp boundaries. Underlying the colluvium is a shallow zone of saprolite. This material ranges in thickness from 20 to 50 cm, depending on the composition and competency of the bedrock. It is typically coarse grained and maintains the characteristics of the bedrock; rock textures (e.g., metamorphic foliation) are wellpreserved. Freeze-thaw action is the dominant process affecting this domain. This results in the occurrence of patterned ground (figure 2.5). Downslope transport of this material on gradients as gentle as 5° is facilitated by frost jacking. On a large scale this can manifest as areas of talus or felsenmeer, tens of meters across, usually concentrated at slope breaks. Freeze-thaw action works clasts towards rock rich zones, creating zones with little to no clast content. Vegetation associated with this domain includes Sphagnum moss, dwarf hazel (Betula glandulosa and Alnus crispa), caribou moss (Cladonia spp.) and lichens. Patterned ground typically manifests as rings of Sphagnum moss and dwarf hazel surrounding meter scale areas of caribou moss and lichens. Mats of Sphagnum moss are typically 10 to 30 cm thick and overly thick (up to 25cm) horizons of fibric organic material. Sphagnum moss associated with relatively shallow active layers. Zones of caribou moss are thinner ranging from 3 to 7 cm, often directly overlying colluvium or covering very thin (<10 cm) organic layers. Caribou moss is associated with deep active layers, potentially reaching bedrock.  19  Figure 2.4. Close up photograph of cryoturbated colluvium. Note the color variation and absence of a B horizon. Material found in Domain type A.  Figure 2.5. Aerial photograph of terrace of cryoturbated colluvium. Note the pattern exhibited by the vegetation. The two elongate features are reclaimed trenches. Domain type A. 20  2.5.2. Domain Type B Silty, well sorted yellowish brown clastic material develops on rocky ridge tops above 1000 m elevation (Fig. 2.6.a). These rocky ridge tops are zones that shed material and are prone to intense freeze-thaw action. Material here has a consistent, silty sand texture, dark yellowish brown colour and low clast content. This material is derived from the underlying bedrock. What few clasts do exist are typically angular, platy and horizontally orientated. Soil does not develop into discrete horizons. Accumulations of organic material above this material do not occur. Freeze-thaw action is the main process affecting material in this domain. There is little to know no vegetation covering (Fig. 2.6.b). This material is not transported and is representative of the underlying geology.  2.5.3. Domain Type C At elevations below 1000 m elevation, colluvium accumulates at saddles on ridgelines. Soil forms in discrete horizons at the top surface of the colluvium. Typically the colluvium is coarse grained and fining upwards. It is generally slightly acidic and oxidised. Colluvium deposits range in thickness from 1 to 3 m. Angular clasts frequently occur in lenses. Colluviation is the dominant process affecting material in this domain. Distance of transport decreases with depth; degrees of disruption of primary rock textures decrease with depth within the colluvium until the gradational contact with in situ weathered bedrock is reached. At this point there in no downslope transport. This domain is associated with temperate flora. White spruce and aspen trees are abundant, accompanied by a moss, grass and lichen understory. The moss and lichen understory is generally 2 to 6 cm thick. Ah horizons may develop and if present, are generally less than 10 cm thick.  21  Figure 2.6.a. Cryoturbated saprolite. Material found in Domain type B.  Figure 2.6.b. Ridge-top setting. Domain type B.  22  Figure 2.7.a. Saprolite, overlain by a well-developed Bdm horizon at the Eureka Area, E020. Material found in Domain type C.  Figure 2.7.b. Well-developed ridge-top setting of E020 at the Eureka area. Domain type C.  23  2.5.4. Domain Type D On hilltops and peaks below 1000 m elevation, mantles of saprolite occur; underlying developed soil horizons (Fig. 2.7.a). In the absence of intense freeze-thaw action and colluviation, deep weathering profiles form, with soil developing discrete horizons. The saprolite is coarse grained and composed predominantly of parent rock minerals. It can occur with thicknesses of roughly 1 m. It has a high clast content and bedrock textures and foliation are preserved. B horizon material overlies the in situ weathered bedrock. B horizon soils can vary in thickness from 20 to 50 cm. Overlying A horizons occur and thick drifts of organic material were not observed. This domain is associated with temperate flora. Vegetation often comprises moderately dense, 8 to 10 m tall white spruce (Picea glauca) with a heather and moss understory (Fig. 2.7.b).  2.5.4. Domain Type E North-facing slopes in west-central Yukon are characterized by the presence of colluvium and an absence of B horizon development (Figure 2.8.a). The microclimate of a north-facing slope is typically far colder than adjacent south-facing slopes. Colluvium is the dominant material present and colluvium thickness increases downslope. This material is generally sandy in texture and fines upwards. Primary minerals like mica and feldspars are frequently identifiable in the colluvium and quantities of these minerals increase downwards as the colluvium grades into weathered bedrock. Rates of downslope transport decrease with depth. Vegetation and soil formation are limited by the cold climate. The formation of soil in discrete horizons is limited or not observed. Deposits of thick, black, organic material are observed and increase in thickness downslope. They are associated with the presence of Sphagnum moss, permafrost and high moisture content. Trees consist of stunted black spruce and aspen. Sphagnum moss and dwarf hazel are prevalent. Freeze-thaw processes dominate in this domain. Slope range in angle from 22° to 30° and the dominate processes include downslope transport of material and freeze-thaw processes. Frost heave lineaments or linear frost heave cells are abundant. Boulders are sorted by freeze-thaw action and pushed into meter-wide lineaments which are orientated parallel to the slope direction. Permafrost is generally  24  observed and active layers are shallow (15 cm – 45 cm), shallowest under thick mats of Sphagnum moss. Loess deposits occur and are mixed into the soil by cryoturbation (Fig. 2.8.b).  2.5.5. Domain Type F South-facing slopes in west-central Yukon are characterized by the presence of colluvium and the formation of developed soils (Fig. 2.9.a). The microclimate of a south-facing slope is typically far warmer than adjacent north-facing slopes. This is due to the near-orthogonal angle that the rays of the sun strike the south-facing slope. Colluvium is the dominant material available for geochemical sampling and colluvium thickness increases downslope. This material is generally sandy in texture and fines upwards. Primary minerals like mica and feldspars are frequently identifiable in this soil and quantities of these minerals increase downwards as the colluvium grades into weathered bedrock. Rates of downslope transport decrease with depth. Vegetation and soil formation on south-facing slopes are characteristic of a temperate climate. The generation of a B horizon is common and B horizon soils range in thickness from 20 cm to 45 cm. B horizon soils are generally oxidized, have a silty sand texture and moderate organic content. Where present, Ah horizons are thin (<10 cm). Thick layers of fibric organic material are not observed. White spruce and aspen trees are abundant accompanied by a moss, grass and lichen understory. Soil forming processes dominate in this domain. Slopes angles range from 15° to 30° (Fig. 2.9.b). Permafrost is either absent or confined to poorly drained areas and gullies. Loess deposits occur in the upper portion of the B horizon and are more prevalent on slopes than at hilltops. Leaching and gleying are uncommon as the slopes are very well drained. Gleying occurs in reducing conditions caused by water saturation in soil (Canadá Soil Survey Committee, 1978).  25  Figure 2.8.a. Colluvium on a north-facing slope at the Boulevard area. Note the buried organic material and absence of a B horizon. Furthermore, this material is poorly sorted; while cryoturbation occurs, it is not the dominant process. Material found in Domain type E.  Buried organic horizon  Figure 2.8.b. North facing slope, dominated by colluvium with negligible development of B horizon (Boulevard area). Domain type E. 26  Figure 2.9.a. Colluvium on a south-facing slope at the Golden Saddle deposit. Note the well-developed Bm horizon. Material found in Domain type F.  Bm horizon  Colluvium  Figure 2.9.b. South-facing slope, dominated by colluvium with a well-developed Bm horizon (Golden Saddle deposit). Domain type F.  27  2.5.6. Domain Type G Talus slopes are the least pedogenically developed slopes, consisting of fields of angular blocks of rock, measuring anywhere between 10 cm to 70 cm, transported downslope by gravity (figure 2.10). Technically talus may be considered a variation of cryoturbated colluvium, as the materials and processes are broadly similar. However, the particle size contrasts starkly, thus talus is treated as a separate entity. Interstitial space is filled in with clastic weathered bedrock, loess, tephra, organic material or void space. This material is associated with slope angles between 25° to 30°. Vegetation associated with this material includes only the hardiest of flora. Sphagnum moss may over grow the talus and interstitial material. Downslope transport is the dominant process acting on this material.  2.5.7. Domain Type H Valley bottom soils are dominated by alluvium, colluvium and loess. Soils here can be up to tens of meters thick (Fraser and Burn, 1997) and consist of fluvial gravel deposits, colluvial aprons and thick horizons of wind born silt and organic material. Valley bottoms are typically flat and very poorly drained. Permafrost is continuous where valley bottoms remain in shade. Vegetation consists primarily of Sphagnum moss and dwarf hazel. The thick horizons of silt and organic material are formed by the decomposition of vegetation and the deposition of loess. The lack of microbiota in the perennially frozen soil prevents the incorporation if decomposed organic matter into the soil profile and there is no development of a B horizon soil.  28  Figure 2.10 Talus slope at the Boulevard area. Domain type G.  29  570,000  572,000  574,000  576,000  578,000  Legend Domain Type Domain Type A Domain Type B Domain Type E  6,972,000  Domain Type F Domain Type G Domain Type H  6,970,000  Outcrop  6,968,000 6,966,000  Surficial Map of the Boulevard area 0  1  1:100,000  560,000  2  3  562,000  4  6,964,000  6,964,000  6,966,000  6,968,000  Claims Outline  6,976,000  568,000  6,974,000  566,000  6,972,000  564,000  6,970,000  6,976,000  562,000  6,974,000  ¹  560,000  km 564,000  566,000  568,000  570,000  572,000  574,000  576,000  578,000  30  2.6. Discussion This chapter highlights the wide variety of surficial materials that exist in west-central Yukon. Over distances of hundreds of meters the evolution of surficial materials differs completely, complicating the selection of material for soil geochemical sampling. This study divides terrain by material, process and setting; using existing surficial mapping procedures to present surficial information in a map format that is useful to the exploration geochemist. Figure 2.11. is a surficial map of the Boulevard Property. This map was compiled using a combination of GIS topographic data, aerial photography and field mapping data. Such a map was not possible to produce at the Golden Saddle property or at the Eureka area due to an absence of reliable aerial photography and time constraints on field mapping in these areas. Chapter 3 explores the effect that varying surficial material and processes have on the distribution of Au and pathfinder elements within a selection of surficial domains. This study includes investigating the vertical distribution of Au in the various sample material available in each of the surficial domains. Also, the effect of the varying processes has on the dispersion of salient elements will be investigated. This information allows the geochemist to plan a geochemical survey with greater confidence, selecting the optimum materials and sample depth.  31  3. Case Studies 3.1. Introduction In this chapter the control that surficial geology exerts on the distribution of gold and gold pathfinder elements above zones of bedrock mineralization is established. As detailed in the previous chapter, the surficial environment in west-central Yukon is complex and highly variable. Materials for geochemical analysis were collected at three areas, each representing a different surficial domain. The practical application of this study is to establish the optimum sampling strategy for each domain. Three areas were chosen for study: the Boulevard area (Independence Gold Corp.), terrain surrounding the Golden Saddle deposit (Kinross Gold Corp.) and the Eureka area (Fig. 3.1). The surficial environment studied at the Boulevard area is classified as domain type A (see section 2.5.1). Type A domains contain cryoturbated colluvium set on a horizontal to gently sloping plateaus. The study area at the Golden Saddle deposit contains two zones: Domain Type F and domain type C. Type F domains contain developed soil horizons overlying colluvium, typically set on a south facing slope. Type C domains contain developed soil horizons overlying colluvium, set on low saddles on gently sloping ridge-tops. The Eureka area is classified as domain Type D. Type D domains contain developed soil horizons overlying saprolite, set on horizontal hilltops and ridges. These domains are representative of the majority of terrain in west-central Yukon. Surficial mapping and sampling was carried out at each area, and where possible, existing soil geochemical data provided by sponsor companies was incorporated. Vertical exposures of surficial material were studied and samples from various depths in the profile were collected. Down-profile geochemical trends were considered relative to down-profile variations in surficial material. Soil geochemical data collected by sponsor companies was studied to provide additional context to samples collected in the course of this thesis. Field sites were chosen in each study area based on the presence of well constrained zones of gold mineralization in bedrock and, in the cases of Boulevard and Golden Saddle, extensive coverage by soil geochemical surveys. Drill core data, soil geochemical data and aerial photography were provided by Silver Quest Inc. (now Independence Gold Corp.) and by Kinross Gold Corp. for the Boulevard area and Golden Saddle deposit, respectively. At the Boulevard area these data were combined with extensive  32  560000  580000  600000  ¹  Legend  7060000  #  Study area  Geology Fault, mapped (normal, strike-slip,) Fault, inferred (normal, strike-slip,) Thrust Fault, mapped  Eureka Area  Thrust Fault, inferred  7060000  540000  Fig. 3.30  # *  Uncosolidated Neogene sediments Nisling Range plutonic suite  Whitehorse plutonic suite  7040000  7040000  Prospector Mountain plutonic suite  Aishihik plutonic suite Skukum volcanics Carmacks group Sulphur Creek plutonic suite  Devonian to Mississippian amphibolite schist and gneiss  7020000  7020000  Klondike schist  Paleozoic ultramafics Simpson Range plutonic suite Nasina assemblage  Fig 3.16  Nisling-Snowcap assemblage Indian River formation  Golden Saddle Deposit  # *  7000000  7000000  Long Lake plutonic suite  6980000  6980000  Figure 3.1. west central yukon map.ai  Fig. 3.2  # *  6960000  6960000  Boulevard Area  0 540000  560000  10 580000  20  30  40 km  600000  Figure 3.1. Geologic map of west-central Yukon, after Yukon Digital Geology (2003). Fault linea33 ments interpreted by Murray Allan . NAD 1983 UTM zone 7N.  surficial mapping to produce a surficial map of the Boulevard area. No private data at the Eureka area was available. Here, rock and soil geochemical data was collected from assessment reports dating from 2000 and 2001 compiled by Archer Cathro and Associates 1981.  3.2. Methods 3.2.1. Sample Collection Descriptions of the topography, vegetation, aspect, elevation and drainage of each field site, along with details of soil moisture, texture and organic content of each horizon were taken. Observations of colour were aided by use of the Munsell colour chart scheme. Sample material from each horizon was collected. Horizons were identified using the Canadian System for Soil Classification (Canadá Soil Survey Committee, 1978). Care was taken to sample within each horizon and to avoid cross-contamination between horizons. Where a horizon was thicker than 15 cm, multiple samples were taken. Samples were taken from the walls of reopened trenches and hand dug pits. Prior to sampling, exposure walls were scraped clean using a pre-contaminated plastic trowel. Precontamination involved scrubbing the trowel in material from the target horizon. This material was then discarded. Where sufficient material was available, approximately 4 kg of material was placed in plastic polyethylene bags and sealed with a cable tie. A field duplicate was collected every 20 samples.  3.2.2. Analytical Preparation and Methods Soil samples were air-dried in plastic trays and sieved with a 2 mm stainless steel sieve in sample preparation facilities at the University of British Columbia (UBC). A 600 g representative aliquot of the -2 mm fraction was acquired using a riffle splitter and sent to Acme Laboratories (Vancouver, BC), where each sample was oven-dried at 60°C and then sieved and split into three size fractions, using stainless steel sieves. One fraction was coarser than 177 µm, one was finer than 177 µm but coarser than 63 µm, and the final fraction was finer than 63 µm. The +177 µm size fraction of each sample was returned to UBC. The two finer size fractions were kept for analysis. For inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), a 15 g aliquot of both size fractions of every sample was measured out using a spatula. The sample was considered to be homogenous directly after sieving and so a riffle splitter was not considered to be necessary to acquire a representative subsample. This 15 g portion was then leached in aqua regia (HCl + HNO3) at 95°C. The solution was then 34  analyzed for 53 elements using ICP-MS. The Acme Laboratories group 1F-03 ICP- MS package was used, details of which are included in Appendix III. An additional 30 g aliquot of both size fractions was assayed for Au, Pd and Pt using fire assay with an ICP-MS finish. The Acme Laboratories group 3B-MS package was used which has a detection limit of 1 ppb Au. The 30 g sample was mixed with a Pb flux and placed in a furnace. A lead and dore bead was separated from the slag and placed in the furnace in a porous ceramic crucible. After extraction of the Pb flux by the crucible, the dore bead was then digested using aqua regia and analyzed by ICP-MS. A description of the quality assurance quality control (QAQC) procedure is included in Appendix I.  3.2.3. Statistics 3.2.3.1. The Nugget Effect The nugget effect describes random sub sampling error, which occurs when sampling material that contains large, low frequency ore grains, due to the random inclusion or exclusion of ore grains in a subsample (Ingamells, 1981). For example: a 100 gram sample containing a single grain of gold, weighing 1 g, has a grade of 1% w/w. A 10 g subsample which contains the gold grain will report a grade of 10% and a 10 g subsample which does not contain the grain will report a grade of 0%. Both of these grades are incorrect and a matter of probability. The probability of taking a subsample containing ore grains is established using the Poisson probability function: Pn = e-zzn/n! Where Pn is the probability that n grains will appear in a sample and z is the average number of grains present per gram of sample. This function presumes that the material of interest resides in low frequency, equant grains (Ingamells, 1981). 3.2.3.2. Regression Calculations The Spearman regression calculation is used in this thesis. This calculation provides a numeric value for the degree to which independent variables correlate. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient is a nonparametric measure of statistical dependence between two variables. It assesses how well the relationship between two variables can be described using a monotonic function. If there are no  35  repeated data values, a perfect Spearman correlation of +1 or −1 occurs when each of the variables is a perfect monotonic function of the other (Kendall, 1970).  3.3. The Boulevard Area 3.3.1. Introduction The Boulevard area is situated 40 km due south of the confluence of the White and Yukon Rivers in west-central Yukon. Within this area a field site was selected, situated on a ridge-top orientated approximately east-west (Fig. 3.2). The field site contains a zone of Au mineralization in bedrock that is well constrained by drilling, trenching and extensive soil sampling. Colluvium is the dominant surficial material; there is intense cryoturbation and no development of soil horizons. Nineteen drill holes, three trenches and extensive surficial sampling have led to the identification of a series of northwest-trending, southwest-dipping gold-mineralized structures (Independance Cold Corp., 2008; MacKenzie et al., 2013).  3.3.2. Bedrock Geology The Boulevard area is located within the Yukon-Tanana Terrane in west-central Yukon (Colpron et al., 2006). It is underlain by a heterogeneous package of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks that lie between the mid-Cretaceous granodiorite of the Dawson Range batholith to the south and the coeval Coffee Creek granite to the north (MacKenzie et al., 2013). The Boulevard area contains a 400 m by 6000 m NW-SE trending zone of anomalous gold concentrations in colluvium and associated gold mineralization in underlying bedrock. This anomaly overlies intercalated biotite-chlorite schist and quartz muscovite schist. The Au anomaly in colluvium is associated with a series of minor NW-SE trending brittle structures. These structures were drilled by Silver Quest Inc. in 2008 and were shown to carry Au mineralization associated with high As, Sb and Cu concentrations (Independance Cold Corp., 2008).  3.3.3. Surficial Material Terrain at the field site is classified as a type A domain (Fig. 3.3); it is set on a ridge-top, colluvium is the dominant material and cryoturbation is the dominant process. The ridge-top is horizontal to gently sloping (0 - 5°), and the slopes of the saddle are considerably steeper (15 to 22°). The colluvium is typically 100 cm thick and displays a dappled color, with grey, plastic silt mixed with more friable  36  575000  580000  585000  590000  595000  ¹  6970000  6970000  6975000  570000  6975000  565000  Fig. 3.3 Study area Geology Fault, mapped (normal, strike-slip,)  # * 6965000  6965000  Legend  #  Fault, inferred (normal, strike-slip,) Whitehorse plutonic suite Aishihik plutonic suite Long Lake pplutonic suite  0  Nisling-Snowcap assemblage  565000  570000  575000  580000  585000  590000  1  2  3  4  km  6960000  6960000  Skukum volcanics  595000  Figure 3.2. Geological map showing location of the field site at the Boulevard area. Map inset represents the extent of Figure 3.3. NAD 1983 UTM 37 zone 7N. Modified after Yukon Digital Geology (2003).  575000  576000  577000  ¹  Legend E001 and E002 locaton  6968000  6968000  574000  TRBV08-01 Distribution of Au concentrations within the 93rd percentile 2011 deep soil sample locations Surficial Geology ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ! ( ( ! ! ( ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ! ( ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ! ( ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ! ( ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ! ( ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ! ( ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ! ( ( ! ( ! ! ( ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( Fig.! ! ( (3.4! ( ! ( ! ! ( ( ! ( ! ( ! ! ( ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ! ( ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ! ( ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ! ( ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! (  Domain Type A  ! (  Domain Type B Domain Type E Domain Type G  6966000  6966000  Outcrop  6967000  6967000  ( !  0  574000  575000  576000  250  500  750  1,000 m  577000  Figure 3.3. Location of samples used in study comparing geochemistry of the base of the colluvium with the sub surface of the colluvium. NAD 38 1983 UTM zone 7N.  orange, ferruginous silt. Above the colluvium, 5 to 30 cm thick discontinuous drifts of humic and fibric organic material occur, the distribution of which is indicated by the type of moss cover. Cryoturbation has formed patterned ground, defined by rings of thick (10 - 30 cm), dark green Sphagnum moss mats, with associated dwarf birch (Betula glandulosa and Alnus crispa), surrounding zones of thin (1 - 5 cm) caribou moss mats (Cladonia spp.) and lichens. The rings of thick moss and dwarf hazel are typically associated with the presence of permafrost and a very shallow active layer (15 - 35 cm below surface) while the thin moss and lichen zones are typically free of permafrost or have a very deep active layer (exact depth unknown). The vegetation surrounding this field site is typical of mountainous tundra terrain. Trees include widely spaced, stunted black spruce (Picea mariana) on cold aspect slopes and ridge tops. Tightly spaced white spruce (Picea glauca) can be found on warm aspect slopes. Aspen (Populus tremuloides) occurs on warm aspect slopes and recolonizes historic landslides on cold aspect slopes. Dwarf birch (Betula glandulosa and Alnus crispa) is the dominant shrub and is under-grown by caribou moss (Cladonia spp.), thick, green Sphagnum moss and small shrubs, including Labrador Tea (Rhododendron tomentosum). The dwarf birch varies in height from 40 cm on crests to roughly 3 m on lower slopes. Dwarf birch grows in most soil types, including those underlain by permafrost. It does not, however, grow on active cryoturbated soils. Dwarf birch is often accompanied by thick, green Sphagnum moss mats that vary from 10 cm to 40 cm thick. Moss insulates soil from warm air temperatures and direct sunlight and so is often associated with permafrost. The lower 20 cm of the moss mat is rich in partially decomposed fibrous organic material. Caribou moss (Cladonia spp.) is a whitish-yellow moss typically 2 to 3 cm thick. It generally grows in the soil-rich domains of terrain affected by frost-heave.  3.3.4. Sampling Sample material was collected from a trench which intersected the surface expression of the Au mineralized structure. The trench, TRVB-08-01, was approximately 1.5 m deep and was exhumed with the use of a helicopter-transported Kubota mini excavator. The trench lies on a northeast aspect slope (5° gradient) just off the central axis of a topographic saddle. It was excavated to bedrock and two separate vertical soil profiles (exposures E001 and E002,) were sampled approximately 10 m apart. Though the gradient is very low, E001 is located uphill of E002. Samples of bedrock (n=2), weathered bedrock (n=9), cryogenically weathered colluvium (n=10), tephra (n=1) and organic-rich lenses (n=3) were collected at these exposures. 39  Samples of saprolite, colluvium and organic material were collected at exposure E001 (Fig. 3.4, Fig. 3.5.) The saprolite consists of 40 cm of heavily oxidized weathered quartz-muscovite schist. The foliation of the schist and a hydrothermally altered vein are preserved in the saprolite. This hydrothermally altered vein is associated with Au mineralization. Overlying this with a very sharp contact is the cryogenically weathered colluvium, which varies in thickness from 65 to 85 cm. Contained within the colluvium at varying depths is a 5 to 15 cm thick buried organic-rich lens. Contacts between the buried organic-rich lens and the colluvium are very sharp. Contained within the buried organic-rich lens are 10 to 15 cm long lenses of tephra. Mosses and lichens grow directly in the colluvium; there is negligible Ah horizon development. The profile sampled at E002 contains a 10 to 35 cm thick layer of saprolite (Fig. 3.4, Fig. 3.6.). Within this layer there is unaltered chlorite biotite schist and a hydrothermally altered vein. This is overlain by a 55 to 60 cm thick layer of cryogenically weathered colluvium. Contained within the colluvium is a contorted, 2 to 20 cm thick buried organic-rich lens. The contact between the colluvium and organic rich lens is poorly defined. The contorted geometry of this lens suggests that is medium is plastically flowing downhill. This process could be assisted by frost creep. Also contained within the colluvium are plastically deformed fragments of weathered bedrock which share color and texture with saprolite from E001 (circled in red figure 3.6.). A series of pH measurements were taken above E001 and E002 at 25 m intervals in a traverse oriented orthogonal to the mineralized zone (Fig. 3.7).  3.3.5. Company Data Drilling and soil sampling data gathered by Silver Quest Inc. was examined as part of this thesis. Data include geochemical analysis of drill core from 19 holes drilled in the summer of 2010, and geochemical analyses of surficial material collected in 2010 and 2011. Drill data was analyzed to aid in constraining the surface expression of the mineralized structure and to establish suitable pathfinder elements for this style of mineralization. Samples of drill core were digested in aqua regia and analyzed for trace elements using the ME-MS41 analytical package from ALS Laboratories in Vancouver, BC. Geochemical data from trenching and a selection of drill holes and soil samples were compiled into cross section A-A’ (Fig. 3.8). The location of A-A’ is indicated in Figure 3.7.  40  SSW  NNE  Down slope direction - 3° 10 m  E002  E001 0 cm  50 cm  100 cm  Fig. 3.6  Fig. 3.7  Sample location Organic material Colluvium Saprolite-Au mineralized vein material Saprolite-unoxidized wallrock Saprolite-oxidized wallrock Figure 3.4. Sketch map of the wall of trench TRVB08-01, looking NNW.  41  In 2010 a colluvium sampling survey was carried out in the study area, targeting the upper 15 cm of the colluvium. Samples were collected 50 m apart, with 100 m line spacing and analyzed at ALS Laboratories (Vancouver, BC) by hot aqua regia digest and ICP-MS finish. Further analysis for Au was performed by fire assay fusion with atomic absorption spectroscopy. The sample locations are indicated in Figure 3.3. A second, overlapping survey was carried out in 2011, which targeted the base of the colluvium with a mechanical auger capable of boring through permafrost. Sample sites were spaced 50 m apart with 50 m line spacing. The survey was designed so that half of the 2011 sample sites coincided spatially with the 2010 sample sites. Samples were taken directly over the disturbed vegetation of the 2010 survey where possible. The samples of the 2011 survey were analyzed using the same laboratory methods as the previous year’s survey. After re-assessing the quality control of the laboratory results, coincident samples from the two surveys were compared in order to determine geochemical variations between the top and base of the cryogenically weathered colluvium. The dataset comprises 144 sample pairs for shallow (15 cm) and deep (85 cm) colluvium.  3.3.6. Results 3.3.6.1. Vertical Distribution Of Au Within The Soil Profile The following are results of geochemical analysis of soil collected from exposures E001 and E002 during the course of this study. Unless stated otherwise, results are for aqua regia digests of samples. Figures 3.9 and 3.10 display Au concentration against depth, representing colluvium, organic material and saprolite, at exposures E001 and E002. At exposure E001 Au concentrations in saprolite are greater than in cryoturbated colluvium by a factor of 100, but there is little variation in Au concentration within the colluvium (Fig. 3.9). Au concentrations within the -177 μm size fraction of saprolite range from 1196 to 45295 ppb. Au concentrations in the 177 μm size fraction of colluvium from exposure E001 range from 5.2 to 38.8 ppb, with a median of 7.5 ppb and a mean of 13.5 ppb. Au concentrations within the -63 μm size fraction of saprolite range from 2198 to 82919 ppb. Au concentrations in the -63 μm size fraction of colluvium from exposure E001 range from 6 to 38831 ppb, with a median of 15.5 ppb and a mean of 18.3 ppb. In this data set the -63 μm size fraction yields consistently elevated results at low values than the -177 μm size fraction.  42  0 cm Buried organic material Tephra Colluvium  50 cm  Saprolite  100 cm  Figure 3.5. Exposure E001. Yellow filled circles indicate location of samples.  0 cm Colluvium Buried organic material  50 cm  Colluvium  Saprolite  100 cm  Figure 3.6. Exposure E002. Red circles indicate the location of “clasts” of saprolite interpreted to have originated from the altered vein at exposure E001. Yellow filled circles indicate location of samples. 43  575900  575950  Legend pH sample locations  # *  pH15  E001 and E002  ¹  6966650  TRBV08-01 Drill collars  pH14  Cross section  6966700  575850  6966650  6966700  575800  pH13  2011 deep soil sample locations  6966600  6966600  pH12  pH11  pH10  A’  ion dir  ect  pH07  slo  pe  # * # * BV08-3  pH05  6966500  6966500  pH06  BV08-2  wn  E002 E001  6966550  pH08  do  6966550  pH09  BV10-15  pH04 pH03  6966450  A  0  575800  575850  25  575900  50  75  575950  100 m  6966400  6966450  pH01  6966400  BV08-1  pH02  Figure 3.7. Detailed map of the location of the cross section depicted in Figure 3.8. Included is the location of the trench, drill hole collars and soil samples used to construct the cross section. NAD 1983 zone 7N. 44  Down hill 3 ˚ 10,000  Au ppb  1,000 100 10 1  A  A’  50 m  02  8-  0 BV  03  8-  0 BV  15  0-  1 BV  01  8-  0 BV  Au in bedrock - 2008 Trench TRBV08-01  50 m  interlayered quartz-muscovite schist and biotite-chlorite schist  E001 E002  Interpreted Au in bedrock Au in soils - 2011 deep soil Figure 5.4. >100 ppb - 2008/10 drilling sampling Figure 3.8. Cross section incorporating geochemical analysis of colluvium samples collected at 85 cm depth, drill core data and trenching data collected for Silver Quest Inc. This cross section indicates the location and size of the Au anomaly in soil relative to the location and size of the surface expression of bedrock Au mineralization. 45  At exposure E001, Au concentrations are elevated in buried organic material compared to surrounding colluvium. The -177 μm size fraction of the sole sample of buried organic material collected at E001 has an Au concentration of 41.6 ppb. The -63 μm size fraction of the same sample has an Au concentration of 31.9 ppb. Similar variations in Au concentrations between colluvium and saprolite occur at exposure E002. Au concentrations within the -177 μm size fraction of saprolite range from 53.9 to 9330 ppb. Au concentrations in the -177 μm size fraction of colluvium from exposure E002 range from 444.6 to 573.7 ppb, with a median of 488.3 ppb and a mean of 498.7 ppb. Au concentrations within the -63 μm size fraction of saprolite range from 47.3 to 6992 ppb. Au concentrations in the -63 μm size fraction of colluvium from exposure E002 range from 345.2 to 531.5 ppb, with a median of 482.5 ppb and a mean of 460.4 ppb. At exposure E002, Au concentrations are lower in buried organic material compared to surrounding colluvium (Fig. 3.10). The -177 μm size fraction of the sole sample of buried organic material collected at E002 has an Au concentration of 205.9 ppb. The -63 μm size fraction of the same sample has an Au concentration of 180.4 ppb. Although little variation in Au concentrations in the colluvium is seen at both exposures E001 and E002, there is a marked difference between the two exposures. As detailed above, Au concentrations from colluvium samples from exposure E002 are at least an order of magnitude higher than from E001. 3.3.6.2. Vertical Geochemical Variation Within The Soil Profile The following are results of geochemical analysis of soil collected from exposures E001 and E002 during the course of this study. Unless stated otherwise, results are of analysis performed on the -63 μm size fraction. Figures 3.11 and 3.12 display concentrations of As, Sb, W, Te, Mo, Cu, Pb, Bi and Zn against depth at exposures E001 and E002. At exposure E001, many elements have a similar distribution to Au within the soil profile. As with Au, the distribution of W, Te, Mo, Cu, Pb, Bi and Zn does not show variation within the colluvium. For example, Cu concentrations in colluvium range from 28.1 to 38.5 ppm and Zn concentrations range from 63.6 to 71.3 ppm. Further, these elements are all enriched in saprolite compared to colluvium. In the case of W and Te this enrichment is by a factor of ten. As and Sb have consistent concentrations in four of the five  46  colluvium samples. Concentrations of both these elements are enriched by factor of ten in the deepest colluvium sample compared to the overlying colluvium samples. The enrichment of Au in buried organic material observed at exposure E001 is not observed in all elements studied. Although As and Sb both are enriched in the buried organic material compared to the surrounding colluvium, W, Te, Pb, Bi and Zn are depleted in the buried organic material compared to the surrounding colluvium. There is no variation in the concentration of Cu between colluvium and buried organic material. At exposure E002 the distribution of elements in the soil profile is varied and complex. Both As and Sb have distributions within the soil profile similar to that of Au. The distribution of As, Sb, Te and Pb are consistent in the colluvium and the deeper two of the three saprolite samples and enriched by an order of magnitude in the top-most saprolite sample. W and Bi have a consistent distribution throughout the entire soil profile. Cu and Zn are enriched in the saprolite compared to the colluvium. The relatively lower concentration of Au in buried organic material observed at exposure E002 is not observed in all elements studied. Although As and Sb have relatively lower concentrations in the buried organic material compared to the surrounding colluvium. There is no significant variation in the concentration of W, Te, Cu, Pb, Bi and Zn between colluvium and buried organic material. 3.3.6.3. Downslope Geochemical Dispersion Company drill data, soil data and trench data was compiled in a cross section (Fig. 3.8) which displays the distribution of Au in bedrock and in the overlying colluvium. Data collected at exposures E001 and E002 during the course of field work were omitted from this cross section. The zone of Au mineralization in bedrock is constrained. The surrounding bedrock both uphill and downhill of the Au mineralized zone was determined to contain Au concentrations below 10 ppb. Au concentration of 529 ppb was measured in soil directly overlying the mineralized structure. Downslope of the mineralized structure Au in soil concentrations of 64, 27, 22, 10 and 23 ppb were observed. Upslope of the mineralized structure Au in soil concentrations of 5, 8 and 2.5 ppb were observed. 3.3.6.4. Comparison Of Au And Various Metals At Different Depths Within Soil Profile Results of the geochemical soil surveys (section 3.3.5) were examined; median concentrations of various elements of the 2010 survey were plotted against median concentrations of the 2011 survey (Fig. 3.13). 47  E001 Au (ppb) 1.0  10.0  100.0  1000.0  10000.0  100000.0  0 Au (ppb) Aqua Regia -63 μm Au (ppb) Aqua Regia -177 μm  20  Au (ppb) Fire Assay -63 μm Au (ppb) Fire Assay -177 μm Anomalous Threshold Colluvium Organic material Saprolite  Depth cm  40  60  Detection Limits Fire assay ICP-MS 1.0 ppb Aqua regia ICP-MS 0.2 ppb  80  100  120  Figure 3.9. Au against depth at exposure E001.  E002  Au (ppb) 1  10  100  1000  10000  0 Au (ppb) Aqua Regia -63 μm 20  Depth cm  40  60  Au (ppb) Aqua Regia -177 μm Au (ppb) Fire Assay -63 μm Au (ppb) Fire Assay -177 μm Anomalous Threshold Colluvium Organic material Saprolite Detection Limits Fire assay ICP-MS 1.0 ppb Aqua regia ICP-MS 0.2 ppb  80  100  120  Figure 3.10. Au against depth at exposure E002. 48  E001  a  ppm in soils 0.01  0.10  1.00  10.00  100.00  1000.00  10000.00  0  Depth cm  20  40  As (ppm) Sb (ppm) W (ppm) Te (ppm)  60  Colluvium Organic material Saprolite Detection limits: As 0.1 ppm Sb 0.02 ppm W 0.1 ppm Te 0.02 ppm  80  100  120  ppm in soils  b  0.01  0.10  1.00  10.00  100.00  1000.00  10000.00  0  20  Depth cm  40  60  80  Mo (ppm) Cu (ppm) Pb (ppm) Bi (ppm) Zn (ppm) Colluvium Organic material Saprolite Detection limits: Bi 0.02 ppm Cu 0.01 ppm Zn 0.1 ppm Pb 0.01 ppm  100  120  Figure 3.11. a. As, Sb, W and Te against depth at E001. b. Cu, Pb, Bi and Zn against depth at E001.  49  E002  a  ppm in soils 0.01  0.10  1.00  10.00  100.00  1000.00  10000.00  0  Depth cm  20  40  As (ppm) Sb (ppm) W (ppm) Te (ppm)  60  Colluvium Organic material Saprolite Detection limits: As 0.1 ppm Sb 0.02 ppm W 0.1 ppm Te 0.02 ppm  80  100  b  120 0.01 0  20  Depth cm  40  60  80  ppm in soils 0.10  1.00  10.00  100.00  1000.00  10000.00  Mo (ppm) Cu (ppm) Pb (ppm) Bi (ppm) Zn (ppm) Colluvium Organic material Saprolite Detection limits: Bi 0.02 ppm Cu 0.01 ppm Zn 0.1 ppm Pb 0.01 ppm  100  120  Figure 3.12. a. As, Sb, W and Te against depth at E002. b. Cu, Pb, Bi and Zn against depth at E002.  50       Figure  3.13.  Comparison  of  median,  25th percentile and 75th percentile of  results for samples taken from 15 cm  depth  and  85  cm  depth  within  colluvium  at  the  Boulevard  area.  144  paired  analytical  results  are  incorporated in this plot.        Au concentrations in samples collected from a depth of 85 cm in the colluvium have a median of 8 ppb  and  Au  concentrations  in  samples  collected  from  a  depth  15  cm  have  a  median  of  9  ppb.  Median  concentrations of As, Sb, Bi, Pb, Zn and Al are very similar for the shallow and deep samples. However,  higher average concentrations of Na, W, and Cu are observed in deep colluvium samples, relative to the  near‐surface samples. Conversely, Fe is depleted at depth relative to shallow samples.   Probability plots displaying concentrations of elements in samples from two depths in the colluvium (Fig.  3.14) indicate a similar distribution of values in both datasets for Au, As, Sb, Pb and Bi. Concentrations of  W and Cu are depleted by a factor of ten in shallow samples compared to deep samples. Concentrations  of Fe are enriched by a factor of ten in shallow samples compared to deep samples.  3.3.6.5. Pathfinder Elements  The  term  pathfinder  element  describes  an  element  that  is  associated  with  the  mineralization  of  Au  in  bedrock. Such elements typically have similar chemical properties (such as mobility) in the hydrothermal  environment,  but  are  more  mobile  under  surficial  conditions.  Thus  pathfinder  elements  indicate  the  presence of Au mineralization and may produce larger and more consistent geochemical soil anomalies.        51     Au_ppb  As_ppm 1000  100  As_ppb  Au_ppb  1000  10  10  15 cm 85 cm  1 -2.5  -1.5  -0.5 0.0 0.5  normal distribution  1.5  100  15 cm 85 cm -2.5  2.5  -1.5  -0.5 0.0 0.5  1.5  2.5  normal distribution  Sb_ppm  W_ppm  10  W_ppb  Sb_ppb  100 10 1  15 cm 85 cm -2.5  -1.5  -0.5 0.0 0.5  normal distribution  1.5  1  15 cm 85 cm  0.1  2.5  -2.5  -1.5  -0.5 0.0 0.5  normal distribution  Fe_ppm  1.5  2.5  Cu_ppm  Cu_ppm  Fe_ppm  10  15 cm 85 cm -2.5  -1.5  -0.5 0.0 0.5  1.5  10  15 cm 85 cm  1  2.5  -2.5  normal distribution  -1.5  Bi_ppb  Pb_ppm  10 15 cm 85 cm -1.5  -0.5 0.0 0.5  normal distribution  1.5  2.5  Bi_ppm  Pb_ppm  -2.5  -0.5 0.0 0.5  normal distribution  1.5  2.5  1  0.1  15 cm 85 cm -2.5  -1.5  -0.5 0.0 0.5  1.5  2.5  normal distribution  Figure 3.14. Probability plots of various elements at 15 cm and 85 cm depth within the colluvium. X axis shows standard deviations of data points from median. Plots of Au and As display similar distribution of concentrations at both depths. Cu and W are depleted at 15 cm depth relative to 85 cm depth and Fe is enriched at 15 cm depth relative to 85 cm depth. 52  Au vs As  100000  Au vs Te  10  10  10  1  1  0.1  0.00  0.10 Au ppm  0.10  10.00  Au vs Cu  1000  0.001 0.00  0.10 Au ppm  0.00  10.00  Au vs Bi  100  1000  100  0.1  1 0.1 0.00  0.10 Au ppm  10.00  1  Ag ppm  Bi ppm  Cu ppm 10  0.00  0.10 Au ppm  10.00  10 1  0.01  1  10.00  Au vs Ag  10  10  0.10 Au ppm  1000  100  100  0.1 0.01  0.01  Au ppm  Au vs Pb  10000  0.00  10.00  1 0.1  0.01  0.1  Te ppm  Mo ppm  Sb ppm  100  1  10  100  1000  Pb ppm  Au vs Mo  100  1000  10000  As ppm  Au vs Sb  10000  0.00  0.10 Au ppm  10.00  0.1  0.1  10  1000 Au ppb  100000  Figure 3.15. Plots of drill core geochemical data of Au against various elements. Samples with high concentrations of Au typically contained high concentrations of As, Sb and Te.  53  Au vs As  10000 1000  10 1  0.1  1  Te ppm  Mo ppm  Sb ppm  0.1  0.1  0.01  0.1 1  10  100 Au ppm  1000  10000  Au vs Pb  1000  0.01 1  10  1000  100  100 Au ppm  1000  1  Au vs Cu  Cu ppm  1  10  100 Au ppm  1000  10000  1000  1  10000  10  Au vs Bi  100 Au ppm  1000  10000  Au vs Ag 1  1 0.1  0.1  0.01  0.1 10  100 Au ppm  10  1  0.1  10  100  100  10  0.001  0.01  10000  Ag ppm  0.01  Bi ppm  As ppm  1  Au vs Te  10  1  100  10  1  Au vs Mo  10  1000  100  Pb ppm  Au vs Sb  10000  0.001 1  10  100 Au ppm  1000  10000  1  10  100 Au ppm  1000  10000  0.01 0.1  1  10 Au ppb  100  1000  Figure 3.16. Plots of soil geochemical data of Au against various elements. Samples with high concentrations of Au typically contained high concentrations of As, Sb and Te.  54  Au concentrations within drill core samples were plotted against concentrations of As, Sb, W, Te, Cu, Pb, Bi and Zn (Fig. 3.15). The dataset consists of 952 drill core assays from 19 drill holes. High Au concentrations are typically accompanied by high As, Sb and Te concentrations. High concentrations of W, Cu, Bi, Pb and Zn are not associated with high Au concentrations in drill core. Au concentrations within soil samples from the 2011 season were plotted against concentrations of As, Sb, W, Te, Cu, Pb, Bi and Zn (Fig. 3.16). The dataset consists of 1567 samples which were collected by mechanical auger from a depth of 85 cm in the colluvium. High Au concentrations are typically accompanied by high As and Sb concentrations. High concentrations of W, Te, Cu, Bi, Pb and Zn are not associated with high Au concentrations in soil. 3.3.6.6. pH Testing Results pH testing of the top 15 cm of the colluvium, crossing from unmineralized ground into the mineralized zone, yielded a maximum pH of 5.6, a minimum pH of 4.3 and a mean pH of 4.8. 3.3.6.7. Anomaly Threshold Selection Anomalous thresholds are calculated by applying statistical calculations to a dataset. When considering the size of the dataset collected over the course of this study (n=18) applying such calculations is not statistically significant. Another, larger dataset that encompasses distal, background values is required to calculate a statistically significant anomaly threshold. The soil geochemical dataset collected by Silver Quest Inc. in 2011 is such a dataset (n=1569). This soil geochemical survey overlies the study area and includes sample material from 85 cm depth in the colluvium. In this instance, a threshold close to background is required as mildly anomalous results exert the most control over the size and shape of a soil anomaly. The 78th percentile contains values up to 12 ppb and was selected as such a close to background value. Furthermore it is a value that is significant to this dataset and can emphasise certain points this study hopes to make. It is noteworthy that the method of analysis used in the Silver Quest Inc. dataset is the same method as used to the analysis used in the dataset collected over the course of this study, however analysis was conducted at ALS Minerals laboratories, and not at Acme Laboratories.  55  3.3.7. Discussion 3.3.7.1 Vertical Distribution of Au Within the Soil Profile At the Boulevard property, results suggest no systematic vertical variations of Au concentrations within the cryogenically weathered colluvium. While variations do exist with in this material, there is no indication that samples obtained deeper in the colluvium blanket will yield systematically elevated Au concentrations compared to samples taken in shallower depths within the profile. In contrast, Au concentrations in the saprolite have been shown to be significantly higher than in the overlying colluvium. However, as discussed further below and illustrated in Figure 3.8, the surface expression of the Au anomaly in the colluvium is at least three times larger than the surface expression of the Au anomaly in saprolite and bedrock. 3.3.7.2. Vertical geochemical variation within the soil profile The vertical distribution of Te, Cu, Pb, Bi and Zn in colluvium is also homogeneous at both exposures E001 and E002. With the exception of Te, none of these elements are found in greater quantities in the saprolite than the colluvium. Sb and As are evenly distributed throughout the upper portion of the colluvium but found at comparatively elevated concentrations in the base of the colluvium. This is pronounced in exposure E001 where As concentration increases from roughly 10 ppm in the upper and mid portions of the colluvium to roughly 100 ppm in the base of the colluvium. This elevation is due to the proximity of the sample to the saprolite which contains Sb in concentrations of roughly 1,000 ppm and As in concentrations of greater than 10,000 ppm. As and Sb may have been leached from the saprolite by hydromorphic transport by the mechanical mixing of the two materials. This vertical geochemical inconsistency is potentially a local phenomenon, controlled by proximity to the Au mineralized structure. 3.3.7.3. Downslope geochemical dispersion The cross section compiled using diamond drill data, trench data and soil geochemical data (Fig. 3.8) indicates the potential for downhill geochemical dispersion on this gentle gradient. Bedrock and soil geochemical data collected by Silver Quest Inc. suggest that no additional zones of Au mineralization in bedrock occur upslope of exposure E001. Geochemical results of soil samples collected at exposure E001 contain sub-anomalous Au concentrations in colluvium directly overlying highly anomalous Au  56  concentrations in saprolite. The cross-section also indicate anomalous Au values in colluvium overlying sub-anomalous Au values in bedrock downslope of the mineralized bedrock zone. The downslope transport of material by gravity, assisted by frost creep, is interpreted to be the main agent of dispersion. The geometry of contacts between surficial units is interpreted to indicate plastic flow within the colluvium. Red circles in Figure 3.6 highlight the position of clasts of saprolite suspended in colluvium, indicating the incorporation of saprolite into colluvium downhill of the bedrock mineralization. As described in chapter 2, freeze-thaw cycles drive vertical mixing of the soil profile and induce colluviation on gentle (2° to 4°) slopes. Colluviation rates, driven by frost creep, of up to 32.0 cm per year have been observed on slopes ranging from 2° to 4° (French, 1974). 3.3.7.4. Comparison of Au and relevant metals at different depths within soil profile Comparison of the two spatially overlapping datasets, one comprising samples taken at 85 cm and the other comprising samples taken at 15 cm, reveals that the vertical homogeneity in Au observed at exposures E001 and E002 is consistent over an area roughly measuring 1300 m by 700 m. Furthermore, concentrations of As, Sb, Pb and Bi are also consistent at each sampling depth. However, Cu and W are systematically depleted in shallow samples compared to samples collected at greater depth. The depletion of Cu may be explained by the high solubility of Cu2+ species in acidic, oxidized fluids (Rose et al., 1979). The acidity of the soil is established by pH testing and the oxidized state is indicated by the red soil colour. The upper section of the colluvium thaws seasonally and becomes an aquifer, saturated with pore waters which discharge down gradient. Given the solubility of Cu2+ in this environment, the upper, thawed portion of the colluvium could be leached of such mobile ions. In contrast, Fe enrichment in the upper layer relative to the lower layer of colluvium was observed. This observation could be explained by the illuviation of Fe during soil forming processes. However, this effect would be expected to generate colour or textural differences between the two depths, neither of which were observed. The variation with depth of Fe and Cu may also be due to lab error or contamination during sampling. Lab error could include variation in the strength of leach used in the extraction process. However, no other elements showed similar variation. Field contamination may have occurred due to the sample collection methods. The deep colluvium samples from 2011 were collected using a mechanical auger 57  instead of a trowel. However, one would not expect a trowel to impart up an order of magnitude more Fe than a mechanical auger to a soil sample. 3.3.7.5. Pathfinder Elements Concentrations of Au correlate with of Sb and As in drill core (Fig. 3.15). The correlation of Au with As and Sb in colluvium (Fig. 3.16) indicates that Au is being dispersed in the same manner as As and Sb, which are both far more soluble than Au in the surficial environment (Rose et al., 1979). This indicates that mechanical transport is the primary form of dispersion, therefore As and Sb do not have a larger geochemical footprint than Au. These elements are useful as pathfinder elements if Au is undetectable by the method of analysis used, as in the case of handheld x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Furthermore, As and Sb are less susceptible than Au to the nugget effect, and may provide a more constant geochemical anomaly than Au.  3.4. The Golden Saddle Deposit 3.4.1. Introduction The Golden Saddle deposit is located 5 km east of the confluence of the White and Yukon rivers in westcentral Yukon (Fig. 3.17). The field site is situated above the deposit, on a west-north-west trending ridge-top that is underlain by colluvium and well-developed soil horizons. Colluvium is the dominant surficial material; there is negligible cryoturbation and soil horizons are well developed. The deposit is well constrained by extensive drilling (185 diamond drill holes) and surficial sampling (450 surficial samples) by Underworld Resources (2008-2009) and Kinross Gold Corp. (2010-2012). Au mineralization occurs in a series of north-east trending structures which comprise the Golden Saddle deposit.  3.4.2. Bedrock Geology The field site is underlain by felsic gneiss, pyroxenite and amphibolites (Fig. 3.18). Au mineralization is hosted in a stacked brittle fault structure cutting the felsic gneiss. Au mineralization is associated with molybdenite and illite-carbonate-pyrite alteration (Bailey, 2013). The felsic gneiss is bound to the north and south by amphibole gneiss. A sliver of pyroxenite exists in the amphibole gneiss to the north of the mineralized structure. To the south lie undifferentiated metasedimentary rocks consisting of quartzite, micaceous schist and carbonaceous quartzite (MacKenzie et al., 2010).  58  3.4.3. Surficial Material Colluvium is the dominant surficial material and pedogenesis is the dominant processes in the field site, thus the ridge top is classified as a type C domain and the slopes are classified as a type F domain. A mantle of colluvium drapes over the bedrock at the Golden Saddle deposit. It is shallowest on the ridge-top and thickens downslope. Using the depth of casing of diamond drill holes, corrected for the dip of the hole as a proxy for the thickness of unconsolidated colluvium, the thickness of colluvium is estimated to range between 1 m and 10 m. The study area lies at a col on the ridgeline and thus colluvium accumulates even on the ridge-top. Colluvium is typically strong brown or dark reddish brown and has a sandy texture. Grains of mica (<4 mm) are easily recognizable in this material. Clasts are very angular and are generally oriented horizontally. The saddle trends north-west, the crest is flat to gently sloping, 5°, and the slopes of the saddle are considerably steeper at 15 to 22°. The dip of the north-west facing slope varies from 5° near the crest to a maximum of 22° on the flank. The southeast facing slope generally dips by 5° near the crest and 22° on the flank. Discrete soil horizons have developed at the field site, due to its relatively warm climate. Bm and Bdm horizons are identifiable (Figs. 3.19 and 3.20). The Bm horizon is roughly 30 cm thick and is dark yellowish brown. It is finer grained than the underlying colluvium. The Bdm horizon overlies the Bm horizon (the “d” suffix indicates the presence of a loess component). The Bdm horizon is generally 5 to 10 cm thick and darker and finer grained than the Bm horizon. Lenses of tephra may be found in the upper portions of the Bm horizon. These lenses are usually 3 to 5 cm thick and no more than 10 cm wide. The Bm and Bdm horizons at the Golden Saddle area are henceforth referred to collectively as B horizon. The Bm horizon is more developed on the south-west facing slope than the north-east facing slope. The contact between the B horizon and the colluvium is also sharper on the south-east facing slope. The B horizon on the south-east facing slope is slightly darker, finer grained and contains less mica than the Bm horizon on the north-east facing slope.  59  The Ah horizon is typically thin and thickens substantially downslope, transitioning into discontinuous deposits of humic and fibric organic material, varying in thickness from 5 to 30 cm. Narrow lenses of tephra are identifiable in the Ah horizon. The vegetation on the south-east facing slope is typical of temperate climates (Fig. 3.21). Trees include 8 to 10 m tall white spruce and aspen. The forest floor has shallow (2-3 cm), green and brown mosses and small shrubs. Open spaces are in filled with 2 to 3 m tall dwarf birch and aspen. Grass up to 50 cm high grows in manmade clearings. In the center of the slope there is a section of old aspen growth (Fig. 3.2.1.). The vegetation on the north-east slope has recolonized a recent forest fire. Trees include charred white spruce with moderately dense dwarf birch and aspen regrowth. The charred trees are coniferous and vary in height from 3 to 8 m. The majority of the charred trees are still standing, but most of their branches have fallen off. The regrowth is composed mostly of 2 to 3 m dwarf birch on the north end of the slope. The dwarf birch is mostly sparsely spaced and 2 m tall. Towards the south end of the slope the vegetation transitions to 6 m tall aspen trees dominating, with a dwarf birch understory (Fig. 3.22).  60  575000  580000  585000  ¹  7010000  570000  7010000  565000  7005000  7005000  Fig. 3.18  # * Legend  #  Study area  Geology Fault, mapped (normal, strike-slip,) Uncosolidated Neogene sediments Whitehorse plutonic suite Aishihik plutonic suite  7000000  7000000  Sulphur Creek plutonic suite Devonian to Mississippian amphibolite schist and gneiss Paleozoic ultramafics Simpson Range plutonic suite  0  Nisling-Snowcap assemblage  565000  570000  575000  580000  1  2  3  4  km  585000  Figure 3.17. Geologic map showing location of the field site at the Golden Saddle deposit. Map inset represents the extent of Figure 3.18. NAD 1983 UTM zone 7N.Modifiied after Gordey et al. (2005). 61  576000  576500  ¹  1  7005500  7005500  ne Li  # E047 *  e2  n Li  # E046 *  # E041 *  # E042 *  # E040 * E039  #* * E078 #* E079 # E076 #* * # E038  # E045 * # E043 *  7005000  7005000  # E037 * # E044 * Legend  # *  Camp road Surface Trace of Mineralized zone Exposure location Felsic gneiss Amphibolite Quartz-feldspar gneiss Pyroxenite Undifferentiated metasedimentary rocks  576000  0  100  200  300  400 m  576500  Figure 3.18. Detailed geologic map (after Bailey, 2013) showing location of exposures at the Golden Saddle deposit. NAD 1983 UTM zone 7N. 62  LFH Ah ‘nuggets’  0 cm  loess enriched Bm  10 cm  Bm horizon  20 cm 30 cm 40 cm  Colluvium 50 cm  Figure 3.19. Well-developed soil profile on southeast-facing slope at the Golden Saddle deposit. The Bm horizon is roughly 20 cm thick with well a defined lower boundary.  LFH Ah horizon  0 cm  Bm horizon 50 cm  Colluvium  100 cm  Figure 3.20. Well-developed soil profile on northwest-facing slope at the Golden Saddle deposit. The Bm horizon is roughly 40 cm thick and grades into the underlying parent material. 63  Figure 3.21. Southeast-facing slope at the Golden Saddle deposit. Photo taken looking northwest. Vegetation consists of well-established white spruce trees and stands of aspen.  Figure 3.22. Northwest-facing slope at the Golden Saddle deposit. Photo taken looking southwest. Vegetation consists of aspen and dwarf hazel regrowth in an historic burn zone. 64  3.4.4. Sampling Sample sites and sampling strategy at Golden Saddle differed from other sites visited, due to the absence of a bull dozer trench. Here samples were taken from soil profile exposures in the walls of a series hand dug pits, positioned in two orthogonally intersecting lines (Fig. 3.18), line 1 orientated northwest and line 2 orientated northeast. Line 1 comprises of exposures E037, E038, E039, E040, E041 and E047 and was orientated to intersect the bedrock surface expression of the Au mineralization at Golden Saddle. An additional three pits labeled E076, E077 and E079 were sampled to compare the geochemistry of Bm and Bdm horizon samples and increase sample density over the surface trace of mineralization. Line 2 comprises of exposures E042, E043, E044, E045 and E046 and was orientated to intersect changes in lithology. Of these exposures, eight terminated in colluvium and three terminated in weathered bedrock. Exposures were spaced at roughly 100 m intervals. Samples of colluvium (n= 27), weathered bedrock (n=3), B horizon soils (n=16) and organic-rich soils (n=5) were collected.  3.4.5. Company Data Geochemical analyses of drill core and soil samples collected by Kinross Gold Corporation were used to provide context to the geochemical data collected in the course of this research. Roughly 450 soil samples define the surface extent of the soil geochemical anomaly associated with the Golden Saddle deposit (Fig. 3.23). Samples were collected by Ryanwood Exploration Inc. Samples were taken from roughly 70 cm depth within the colluvium. An aqua regia digest and ICP-MS analysis was used. Interpretation of geological and geochemical data from 185 diamond drill holes was carried out by Bailey (2013) as part of an M.Sc. thesis. These interpretations were incorporated into this study to provide spatial and geochemical constraints on the bedrock source of the geochemical anomaly in soils. Further, 18275 drill core samples were studied to establish suitable pathfinder elements for Au.  65  576250  576500  576750  577000  7004000  7005750 7005500 7005250 7005000 7004750 7004500  Legend Au (ppm) in soils -0.50 - 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 - 0.04 0.05 - 0.10 0.11 - 43.70 Mineralized zone  575500  575750  7004250  7004250  7004500  7004750  7005000  7005250  7005500  7005750  7006000 400 m  7006000  ¹  7006250  576000  7004000  575750  7006250  575500  0  576000  576250  576500  100  200  576750  300  577000  Figure 3.23. Map displaying Au-in-soil anomalies associated with the Golden Saddle deposit. NAD 1983 UTM zone 7N.  66  3.4.6. Results 3.4.6.1. Vertical Distribution Of Au Within The Soil Profile The following are results of geochemical analysis of soil collected from exposures during the course of this study. Unless stated otherwise, results quoted are for the -63 μm size fraction, digested by aqua regia and analysed by ICP-MS. Down-profile variations in Au concentration along sample profiles are shown in Figures 3.24 and 3.25. Exposures E039 and E046 best illustrate the change in Au concentrations between surficial material types. At exposure E039, B horizon material contains Au concentrations of 5 and 6 ppb and the two underlying colluvium samples contain Au concentrations of 138 ppb and 258 ppb. At exposure E046 B horizon material contains Au concentrations of 17 and 19 ppb and the underlying colluvium contains Au concentrations of 99 ppb. Further variation in Au concentration between the Bm horizon and the Bdm horizon is displayed in Figure 3.26. When regarding Au results by fire assay, Au concentrations are typically higher in the Bm horizon than in the Bdm horizon. Of the 9 exposures plotted, E038 is the only example of an exposure with greater Au concentration in the Bdm horizon than the Bm horizon. When regarding Au results by aqua regia, Au concentrations are typically higher in the Bm horizon than in the Bdm horizon. Of the 9 exposures plotted E038, E039 and E046 are the only examples of exposures with greater Au concentrations in the Bdm horizon than the Bm horizon. Figure 3.27 shows concentrations of Au plotted against sample depth within the colluvial layer. No consistent trend within this surficial material is established. Three exposures show a general decrease in Au concentrations downwards while three exposures show a general increase in Au concentrations downward. 3.4.6.2. Vertical Geochemical Variation Within The Soil Profile Figure 3.28 displays down profile variations of Mo, Cu Zn, Pb, As, Sb, Te and Sb from a selection of six soil profiles. A general down profile increase in Cu is observed among exposures E047, E041, E040, E039 and E038. A general down profile increase in Pb and Zn is observed among exposures E041, E040, E039 and E038. No consistent down profile trend is observed in the remaining elements. All samples taken from exposure E038 contain elevated As and Mo concentrations, compared to other exposures. 67  Northwest  Southeast  10000.0  E047  E041  E040  E039  E079 E078  E038  E037  E076  Au ppb  1000.0  100.0  10.0  1.0 0  NW  100  200  300  400  500  Distance from E047 (m)  600  700  SE  Au (ppb) in Bm horizon material Au (ppb) in Bdm horizon material Median of Au (ppb) results from colluvium samples Error bars ± 1 standard deviation  Location of Au mineralization in bedrock Location of ridge top, arrows indicate downslope direction Anomalous threshold, defined in section 3.4.6.4.  Figure 3.24. Plot of soil geochemistry results showing Au concentrations for various materials at the Golden Saddle deposit. Medians calculated using between 1 and 4 data points.  68  Siouthwest  Northeast  1000.0 E044  E043  E045  E039  E042  E046  Au ppb  100.0  10.0  1.0 0 SW  100  200  300  Distance from E044 (m)  400  500  600 NE  Au (ppb) in Bm horizon material Au (ppb) in Bdm horizon material Median of Au (ppb) results from colluvium samples Error bars ± 1 standard deviation  Location of Au mineralization in bedrock Anomalous threshold, defined in section 3.4.6.4.  Figure 3.25. Plot of soil geochemistry results showing Au concentrations for various materials at the Golden Saddle deposit. Median calculated using 2 data points.  69  10000  a  Au ppb in soil  1000  100 Au in Bm horizon by fire assay Au in Bdm horizon by fire assay  10  Anomalous Threshold  1  0 E038  E039  E040  E043  E044  E046  E076  E078  E079  Exposure  10000.0  b  Au ppb in soil  1000.0  100.0 Au in Bm horizon by aqua regia Au in Bdm horizon by aqua regia  10.0  Anomalous Threshold  1.0  0.1 E038  E039  E040  E043  E044  E046  E076  E078  E079  Exposure  Figure 3.26. Histogram comparing Au concentration between the Bm horizon and Bdm horizon for a selection of exposures at the Golden Saddle deposit. Graph a. displays results by fire assay and graph b. displays results by aqua regia.  70  1.0  10.0  Au ppb in colluvium 100.0  1000.0  10000.0  0  depth of sample from surface cm  20 40  E047  60  E041  80  E040 E039  100 120  E038 E037  140 160 180  Figure 3.27. Plot of soil geochemistry results showing Au against depth within colluvium at the Golden Saddle deposit.  71  0.10  100.00  1000.00  Depth cm  20  0  Mo_PPM Cu_PPM Zn_PPM Pb_PPM  40 60 80  0.01  60 80  100 120  140  140  1000.00  0  0.10  Exposure E040 ppm 1.00 10.00  100.00  1000.00  20  0 Mo_PPM Cu_PPM Zn_PPM Pb_PPM  40 60 80  0.01  20  Depth cm  Depth cm  0.01 0 20 Mo_PPM 40 Cu_PPM 60 Zn_PPM 80 Pb_PPM 100 120 140 160  Exposure E041 ppm 0.1 1.0  10.0  100.0 As_PPM Bi_PPM Te_PPM Sb_PPM  Depth cm  Depth cm  100.00  100.0 As_PPM Bi_PPM Te_PPM Sb_PPM  120  0.10 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160  10.0  40  100  Exposure E041 ppm 10.00 1.00  Exposure E047 ppm 0.1 1.0  20 Depth cm  0  Exposure E047 ppm 10.00 1.00  40 60 80  100  100  120  120  140  Exposure E040 ppm 0.1 1.0  10.0  100.0 As_PPM Bi_PPM Te_PPM Sb_PPM  140 Organic material B horizon Colluvium Saprolite  Detection limits: Mo 0.01 ppm Cu 0.01 ppm Zn 0.1 ppm Pb 0.01 ppm  As 0.1 ppm Bi 0.02 ppm Te 0.02 ppm Sb 0.02 ppm  Figure 3.28a. Plots of soil geochemistry results showing various metals against depth at the Golden Saddle deposit. See Fig. 3.18 for exposure locations.  72  10.00  100.00 Mo_PPM Cu_PPM Zn_PPM Pb_PPM  Depth cm  0.10 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160  Exposure E038 ppm 1.00  0  0.10  Exposure E037 ppm 1.00  10.00  Depth cm  0.01 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160  100.00  20  0  Mo_PPM Cu_PPM Zn_PPM Pb_PPM  40 60 80  40 60 80  100  120  120  140  140 Detection limits: Mo 0.01 ppm Cu 0.01 ppm Zn 0.1 ppm Pb 0.01 ppm  0.01  20  100  Organic material B horizon Colluvium Saprolite  10.0  100.0 As_PPM Bi_PPM Te_PPM Sb_PPM  Depth cm  Mo_PPM Cu_PPM Zn_PPM Pb_PPM  0.01 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180  Exposure E039 ppm 0.1 1.0  Exposure E038 ppm 0.1 1.0  10.0  100.0 As_PPM Bi_PPM Te_PPM Sb_PPM  Depth cm  100.00  Depth cm  10.00  Depth cm  0.10 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180  Exposure E039 ppm 1.00  Exposure E037 ppm 0.1 1.0  10.0  100.0 As_PPM Bi_PPM Te_PPM Sb_PPM  As 0.1 ppm Bi 0.02 ppm Te 0.02 ppm Sb 0.02 ppm  Figure 3.28b. Plots of soil geochemistry results showing various metals against depth at the Golden Saddle deposit. See Fig. 3.18 for exposure locations.  73  Samples taken from exposure E038 contain elevated Bi concentrations compared to other exposures and to Bm horizon material from exposure E038. 3.4.6.3. Pathfinder Elements Geochemical data from diamond drill holes were interpreted to identify suitable pathfinder elements. Ag and Mo correlate with Au in drill core (Fig. 3.29). Ag and Mo also correlate in soil (Fig.3.30). Mo is a suitable pathfinder element to use when exploring for this style of Au deposit. Of 18275 drill core samples, 178 samples contained both high As and Au concentrations. In the remaining 18097 samples high Au values were did not coincide with high As values; As is not associated with Au mineralization. 3.4.6.4. Anomaly Threshold Selection The soil geochemical dataset of Kinross Gold Corp. was used to calculate a statistically significant anomaly threshold. In this instance, a value of 12 ppb Au was chosen as a realistic threshold value because it lies within the 78th percentile and is meaningful in this context.  3.4.7. Discussion 3.4.7.1. Vertical Distribution Of Au Within The Soil Profile When considering this dataset as a whole, a consistent trend in Au concentration between materials is not identified. The occurrence of nuggety Au is interpreted to complicate geochemical profiles. However, by focusing on near anomalous results it becomes apparent that colluvium samples yield elevated Au concentrations compared to B horizon samples. Exposures E039 and E046 best illustrate this effect. B horizon samples at exposure E039 are below the anomalous threshold and colluvium samples are highly anomalous ( 100 ppb). B horizon samples at exposure E045 are slightly anomalous (ppb Au) and colluvium samples are highly anomalous ( 100 ppb). There is no instance of B horizon material that contains highly anomalous Au concentrations overlying non-anomalous colluvium. Based on field observations of surficial material, it is apparent that a developed B horizon is not consistently developed throughout the Golden Saddle area. In instances where vegetation grows directly on colluvium, B horizon material is not available for collection, producing an inconsistent survey. These observations support the argument that sampling colluvium instead of B horizon material tends to produce larger, more consistent Au anomalies. 74  100  1000  100  10 1 10 1000 Au ppb  100000  Au vs Cu  1  0.1  1  0.1  0.1  10 Bi ppm  Cu ppm  1000  1 0.1 0.1  10 1000 Au ppb  100000  10  10  100  10  100  1  10000  100  W ppm  1000  Sb ppm  10000  10  10  Au ppb  1000  0.1  100000  Au vs Bi  10 1000 Au ppb  10  0.01  1 0.1  10 1000 Au ppb  100000  100000  1000  100  0.1  10 1000 Au ppb  10000  1000  1  0.1  100000  Au vs Pb  10000  Au vs W  10000  Pb ppm  As ppm  100  Au vs Sb  100000  1000 Mo ppm  1000  0.1  Au vs Mo  10000  Zn ppm  Au vs As  10000  100 10  0.1  10 1000 Au ppb  100000  1 0.1  10  1000 Au ppb  100000  Figure 3.29. Plots of drill core geochemical data of Au against various elements, courtesy of Kinross Gold Corp. Samples with high concentrations of Au typically contain high concentrations of Mo. The occurrence of Molybdenite is associated with Au mineralization (Bailey 2013)  75  100 10  10  0.1  0.1  0.01 0.1  1  1000  10 100 Au ppb  0.1  1  1  Au vs Cu  10 100 Au ppb  0.01 0.1  1000  1  1000  Au vs Bi  1  0.1  0.01 0.1  1000  Au vs Sb  10  1  1  1  100  Au vs W  W ppm  Mo ppm  100 As ppm  10  Au vs Mo  Sb ppm  Au vs As  1000  10 100 Au ppb  0.1  1000  1  1000  Au vs Pb  10 100 Au ppb  1000  Au vs Zn  100 0.1  100  10  Zn ppm  10  Pb ppm  Cu ppm  As ppm  100  1  10  0.1 1 0.1  1  10 100 Au ppb  1000  0.01 0.1  1  10 100 Au ppb  1000  0.01 0.1  1  10 100 Au ppb  1000  1 0.1  1  10 100 Au ppb  1000  Figure 3.30. Plots of soil geochemical data of Au against various elements, courtesy of Kinross Gold Corp. Samples with high concentrations of Au typically contain high concentrations of Mo and Sb.  76  3.4.7.2. Vertical Distribution Of Au Within Colluvium No consistent trends in down profile Au variation within colluvium were observed due to the inferred nuggety nature of the Au. However, only the top 100 cm of the colluvium was studied. In places the colluvium reaches depths of 10 m. It is therefore possible that the current study failed to recognise vertical variations in Au concentration over the entire vertical depth range. This study is limited by the practicalities in acquiring deep soil samples. 3.4.7.3. Vertical Distribution Of Au Within The B Horizon Of the eight exposures studied, seven exposures studied displayed lower Au concentrations in the Bdm horizon than the underlying Bm horizon. This observation is attributed to dilution of Au concentration in the soil by the addition of loess. The dilution potential of loess displayed in Figure 3.26 is subtle; in cases only reducing Au concentration by 2 to 3 ppm (E043 and E046, respectively). Furthermore, the extent of dilution of Au by loess is variable between exposures. Subtle variations in concentration close to the anomalous threshold are expected to have a significant effect on the size and geometry of a geochemical anomaly in soil. Thus, sampling below the loess enriched horizon will produce a larger, more consistent geochemical footprint of a gold deposit in this environment. 3.4.7.4. Pathfinder Elements Based on geochemical analysis of drill core, Mo and Ag were identified as useful geochemical indicator elements for Au mineralization. Both elements also correlated well with Au in surficial material sampled, meaning that soil samples containing high Au were also generally high in Mo and Ag. Practically this is not useful as the Mo and Ag halo is no larger than the Au Halo. However, the identification of a Mo or Ag anomaly is of value is if the method of analysis is unreliable in the detection of Au. Such is the case with hand held X-ray diffraction spectrometry. Furthermore, As and Sb are less susceptible than Au to the nugget effect, and may provide a more constant geochemical anomaly than Au.  3.5. The Eureka Area 3.5.1. Introduction The Eureka area is situated 37 km northeast of the confluence of the Stewart and Yukon rivers, at the headwaters of Eureka creek in west-central Yukon (Fig. 3.31). Within this area, a field site was selected,  77  situated on the peak of a northward trending ridge (Fig. 3.32). The field site contains a zone of Au mineralization in bedrock that is well constrained by historic drilling and trenching (TR-00-01) by Archer, Cathro and Associates (Diment, 2002). Saprolite is the dominant surficial material, there is no indication of cryoturbation and soil has well developed horizons. Roughly three drill holes and a trench have identified a north trending, Au mineralized structure (Diment, 2002; Wengzynowski, 2000).  3.5.2. Bedrock Geology The Eureka area is located south-west of the Tintina Fault within the Yukon Tanana Terrane, where it is underlain by a thick north-north-west striking interlayered sequence of quartzite, quartz-muscovite schist and phyllite/muscovite schist of the Nasina assemblage. The Wealth mineral showing is situated within the field site and consists of a north-trending, Au mineralized fault, containing crackle brecciation and intense limonite alteration and fault gouge (Diment, 2002). The mineralized zone extends for 6 meters on surface. The fault lies on the contact between quartz muscovite schist and interlayered quartzite and muscovite schist. Outboard of the mineralization, the schist and quartzite are unoxidized. RC drilling (EKO2-04) to test the consistency of grade at depth intercepted an 8 m zone of breccia averaging 0.66 gpt (Diment, 2002).  3.5.3. Surficial Material The terrain at this field site is classified as a type D domain; it is situated on a hilltop, saprolite is the dominant material, and pedogenesis is the dominant process. The topography consists of gently rolling hills with flat tops. Hilltops have an average slope of 0 to 5° and slopes have an average angle of 22°. Surficial weathering has created a roughly 100 cm deep mantle of saprolite which is depicted in Figure 3.33. This material is generally coarse grained with a high clast-content. Clasts are tabular and angular and are comprised of the underlying geology. The saprolite shows lateral changes in texture and color consistent with changes in bedrock lithology. At roughly 100 cm depth the saprolite grades into saprock. The upper 20 cm of the soil profile consists of a well-developed Bdm horizon. Field observations identified the presence of loess (the suffix “d” in the horizon qualifier denotes the presence of loess in this horizon, c.f. chapter 2). Soil in the Bdm horizon is fine grained and dark yellowish brown (Fig. 3.34). It has a higher silt content than the saprolite and a moderate clast content. The Ah horizon is thin, laterally discontinuous and contains lenses of tephra (Fig. 3.34). This is a stable environment with no evidence for cryoturbation or downslope movement observed at the study area.  78  610000  ¹ 7050000  605000  7050000  600000  Fig. 3.32  # * Legend  #  Field Site  Historical Road  7045000  7045000  Road  Geology  Fault, inferred (normal, strike-slip,) Thrust Fault, inferred Carmacks Group Sulphur Creek plutonic suite Simpson Range plutonic suite Nisling-Snowcap assemblage  0  Indian River formation  600000  605000  1  2  3  4  km  610000  Figure 3.31. Geologic map showing location of the field site at the Eureka area. NAD 1983 UTM Zone 7N. Yukon Digital Geology (2003). 79  604500  605000  605500  ¹  Legend 7048500  * #  Exposure E020 location Trench TR-00-01 location  Geology  Quartzite  7048500  604000  Diorite Feldspar porphyry  7047500  7047500  7048000  7048000  Phyllite and quartzmuscovite-biotite schist  0  604000  604500  250  500  605000  750  1,000 m  605500  7046500  7046500  7047000  7047000  # *  Figure 3.32. Detailed geologic map (after Wengzynowski, 2000) showing location of the exposure trench at the Eureka area. NAD 1983 UTM zone 7N. 80  Figure 3.33. Exposure E020, viewed looking north.  Figure 3.34. Photo of Bdm horizon at exposure E020. This soil contains components of loess and tephra. 81  The vegetation in the area consists of sparse dwarf hazel (Betula glandulosa and Alnus crispa), grass, and caribou moss (Cladonia spp.). Vegetation is recolonizing a 2007 forest fire burn zone (Diment, 2002). The area is populated with charred spruce trees 2 to 3 m tall, possibly black spruce (Picea mariana). Downslope of the mineralized structure the charred spruce trees are more densely distributed and the average height is roughly 6 m tall, and may be dominated by white spruce (Picea glauca). Figure 2.7b depicts the landscape at the field site.  3.5.4. Sampling At the Eureka area, an existing bull-dozer trench, TR-00-01 was studied. The trench was dug in 2000 and overlies the Wealth showing. The trench is 1.6 m deep and extends to bedrock. A 12 m long section of the trench wall was cleaned with a pick and shovel (Fig. 3.33). This section was studied in detail and materials present were identified. This section was labeled E020. Based on field observations of the geology, the Au mineralized breccia zone was identified in the saprolite and sampled. Samples of saprolite, bedrock and Bdm horizon material were also collected as wing samples on either side of the mineralized structure. Wing samples are intended to provide geochemical data for background, nonanomalous material. Figure 3.35 indicates the positions and Au concentration of the samples taken along this trench wall. A datum was selected from which all sample distances were measured. Each vertical sequence of samples was labeled according to its horizontal distance from the datum.  3.5.5. Company Data A suite of 277 soil samples was analyzed to establish anomalous thresholds and provide context for Au concentrations in samples collected over the course of this project. The soil samples were collected by Archer, Cathro and associates (1981) Ltd. in 2000 on behalf of Eureka Joint Ventures (Wengzynowski, 2000). Analysis was performed by ALS Chemex of North Vancouver where they were dried, sieved to 177 μm and analyzed for gold using fire assay and atomic absorption finish. Further analysis was performed using ICP-MS for 32 elements and an aqua regia digest. The detection limit for Au was 5 ppb (Wengzynowski, 2000).  82  West 11  East 13  15  17  19  18  20  21  22  23  25  27  29  H3 Bmh  H9 BC H5 C  H7 IIIC  Oxidised Schist  H6 IIC Mineralized Breccia/vein  1m  Grey unaltered schist  1m  Au in soils Bdm horizon Saprolite Bedrock Breccia/ Mineralized structure  Au in bedrock  1 to 10 ppb  1 to 10 ppb  11 to 100 ppb  11 to 50 ppb  101 to 1000 ppb  51 to 100 ppb  1001 to 2085 ppb  101 to 553 ppb  Figure 3.35. Sketch profile of trench wall at TR-00-01 (exposure E020) with Au concentrations. Looking North.  83        3.5.6. Results  The  distribution  of  Au  between  bedrock,  saprolite  and  Bdm  horizon  material  is  shown  in  Figure  3.36.  Weathered  bedrock  consistently  contains  higher  Au  concentrations.  Au  concentrations  in  the  Bdm  horizon  range  from  5.9  ppb  to  263.8  ppb.  Au  concentrations  in  the  saprolite  range  from  29.4  ppb  to  1954.5 ppb. Every sample taken from the Bdm horizon is underlain by a saprolite sample containing a  greater concentration of Au.        Figure 3.36. Plot of soil geochemistry results showing Au concentrations for various materials at  exposure E020.           84     The distribution of various metals between saprolite and Bdm horizon material is shown in Figure 3.37. Generally the Bdm horizon contains lower concentrations of Mo, As, Cu, W, Te and Bi relative to the saprolite. The Bdm contains higher concentrations of Zn relative to the saprolite. For a selection of elements, average concentrations in the Bdm horizon were plotted against average concentrations in the weathered bedrock, as illustrated by Figure 3.38. Relative to the weathered bedrock, the Bdm horizon contains higher concentrations of Fe, Al, Ag, Mg, Mn and Zn and lower concentrations of Au, W, Bi, Mo and As. Concentrations of Sb, Pb and Cu are consistent between both materials. The soil geochemical dataset collected by Archer, Cathro and Associates (1981) Ltd. was used to calculate a statistically significant anomaly threshold. This dataset contains Au concentrations up to 10 ppb. A value of 10 ppb Au was chosen as it sits within the 78th percentile and is a meaningful threshold value within this area.  3.5.7. Discussion 3.5.7.1. Vertical Distribution of Au Within the Soil Profile At the Eureka area a consistent down profile increase in Au concentration is observed. Au concentrations in saprolite are consistently higher than concentrations in the overlying Bdm horizon. The contrast in Au concentration between the two materials is attributed to the addition of loess to the Bdm horizon. This observation concurs with findings of a study of down profile geochemical variation in surficial material overlying the Casino deposit, west-central Yukon, concluding that the highest Au concentrations can be found in the deeper portions of the saprolite and that the Bm horizon is generally depleted in Au (Hart and Jober, 1996). 3.5.7.2. Vertical Geochemical Variation Within the Soil Profile Variations in major and trace element geochemistry in the Bdm horizon relative to the underlying weathered bedrock are interpreted to arise principally from the introduction of unmineralized loess. Depletions of W, Bi, Mo and As in the Bm horizon relative to the weathered bed rock are observed. These elements are associated with the Au in the bedrock and are consequently diluted in the Bdm horizon by the introduction of loess. Enrichment of Fe, Al, Ag, Mg and Mn in the Bdm horizon is attributed to aeolian deposition of minerals that are more mafic than the underlying quartz and 85  muscovite-rich bedrock. Analyses of the mineral content of the Bdm horizon are presented in chapter 4 to confirm the presence of mafic minerals.  3.5.8. Size Fraction And Digestion Comparison In samples taken from E001 and E002 at the Boulevard area, the -63 µm and -177 µm size fractions produce similar results, but at concentrations lower than 100 ppb the -63 µm fraction generally produces elevated Au concentrations (Fig. 4.39.). In samples taken from both the Eureka area and Golden Saddle deposit, the -63 µm size-fraction produce consistently elevated results (Fig. 4.40. and 4.41. respectively). In samples taken from the Boulevard trend both methods of digestion produce similar results (Fig. 4.42.). Typically results below 100 ppb display more scatter than those above 100 ppb. In samples taken from both the Eureka area and Golden Saddle, -63 µm samples above 20 ppb Au digested with aqua regia concur closely with samples digested using fire assay (Fig. 4.43. and 4.44. respectively). Samples below 20 ppb generally yield higher results when digested in aqua regia. In the 177 µm size fraction this trend is not observed. In this size fraction, results obtained from samples digested with fire assay do not correlate as well as samples digested in aqua regia, but no trend is observed.  86  10  Meter 17 ppm 100 1000  10000  40 60  1  Meter 19 ppm 10 100  1  Meter 20 ppm 10 100  1000  10000  Depth cm  1  10000  Depth cm  1000  1000  10000  Depth cm  0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70  0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80  1  10  Meter 21 ppm 100 1000  10000  Au_PPB As_PPM  Mo_PPM Cu_PPM  10  40 50  1  1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70  1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80  0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Pb_PPM Zn_PPM  Meter 18 ppm 10  60 100  Depth cm  60  Meter 17 ppm 1  30  1  Meter 19 ppm 10  0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80  100  Depth cm  50  Meter 18 ppm 10 100  Depth cm  30  50  0.10  20  Meter 20 ppm 10  100  Depth cm  40  0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80  0.01 0 10  20  Meter 21 ppm 10  Depth cm  Depth cm Depth cm  Depth cm  30  0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80  100  10  20  Depth cm  Depth cm  Depth cm  10  0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80  Meter 17 ppm 10  1 0  100  0.01  0.01 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0.01 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80  0.01 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 B horizon Saprolite  Meter 18 ppm 0.10  1  10  Meter 19 ppm 0.10 1  10  Meter 20 ppm 0.10 1  10  Meter 21 ppm 0.10 1  10  Depth cm  0  1  Sb_PPM Bi_PPM  Te_PPM W_PPM  Figure 3.37. Plots of soil geochemical data showing Au and various metals against depth at exposure E020.  87  Fe  10000  Al pl De  1000  ed et  As  in  100  Bm  Bi  1.0  Sb  Na  Bm on riz ho  0.01 0.01  Mn  Zn  in  W  Au  0.1  Mo  Mg  d he ric En  Saprolite ppm  on riz ho  10  Cu Pb  Ag  0.001  0.01  0.1  1.0  10  100  Bm horizon ppm  1000  10000  Figure 3.38. Comparison of element concentration for samples taken the Bdm horizon and saprolite at E020. Data points are median values, error bars indicate 25th and 75th percentile. Results from 15 Bdm horizon samples and 28 saprolite samples are displayed in this plot.  88  100000.0  Au ppb -63 um  10000.0  1000.0  Au (ppb) fire assay digest Au (ppb) aqua regia digest m=1  100.0  10.0  1.0 1.0  10.0  100.0  1000.0  10000.0  100000.0  Au ppb -177 um  Figure 3.39. Comparison of -63 µm and -177 µm size fractions, samples from Exposures E001 and E002 (Boulevard area). 10000  Au ppb -63 µm  1000  Au (ppb) fire assay digest 100  Au (ppb) aqua regia digest m=1  10  1 1  10  100  1000  10000  Au ppb -177 µm  Figure 3.40. Comparison of -63 µm and -177 µm size fractions, samples from exposure E020 (Eureka area). 89  10000.0  Au ppb -63 µm  1000.0  Au (ppb) fire assay digest  100.0  Au (ppb) aqua regia digest m=1 10.0  1.0  0.1  0.1  1  10 100 Au ppb -177 µm  1000  10000  Figure 3.41. Comparison of -63 µm and -177 µm size fractions, samples from above the Golden Saddle deposit. 100000.0  Au ppb Aqua regia  10000.0  1000.0 Au (ppb) -177 µm size fraction Au (ppb) -63 µm size fraction  100.0  m=1  10.0  1.0  1  10  100 1000 Au ppb Fire assay  10000  100000  Figure 3.42. Comparison of aqua regia and fire assay digestions, samples from the exposures E001 and E002 (Boulevard area).  90  10000  Au ppb aqua regia  1000  Au (ppb) -177 µm size fraction  100  Au (ppb) -63 µm size fraction m=1 10  1  1  10  100 Au ppb fire assay  1000  10000  Figure 3.43. Comparison of aqua regia and fire assay digestions, samples from exposure E020 (Eureka area). 10000  Au ppb Aqua regiia  1000  100 Au (ppb) -177 µm size fraction 10  Au (ppb) -63 µm size fraction m=1  1  0.1  0.1  1  10 100 Au ppb Fire assay  1000  10000  Figure 3.44. Comparison of aqua regia and fire assay digestions, samples from above the Golden Saddle deposit.  91  Preperation duplicates  100000  10000 Fire assay -63 μm Fire assay -177 μm Aqua regia -63 μm Aqua regia -177 μm  Au ppb  1000  Fire Assay 10x detection limit  100  Aqua regia 10x detection limit 30% error  10  1 1  10  100  1000  10000  100000  Au ppb  Figure 3.45. Graphs depicting original results and preparation duplicate results for aqua regia and fire assay digestions of the -63 μm and -177 μm size fractions. Samples acquired from above the Boulevard area, the Golden Saddle deposit adb the Eureka area.  92  3.5.9. Conclusions 3.5.9.1 Vertical Distribution Of Au Within The Soil Profile Synthesis of interpretations from the three areas studied indicates variation in the distribution of Au with changing surficial material. Due to the mixing affect of cryoturbation, cryoturbated colluvium has a vertically homogenous distribution of Au. Therefore there is no benefit to sampling deep within this material. However, collecting samples from parent material in regions where soil has developed into a Bm horizon is more likely to result in elevated Au concentrations. In instances where Bm horizon concentrations are close to, but below anomalous this can have an effect on the size and consistency of an Au anomaly in soil.  3.5.9.2. Loess Dilution The presence of loess in a soil presents an additional challenge to sampling strategy. At Golden Saddle and the Eureka area, loess was interpreted to dilute the concentration of Au in the upper parts of the B horizon. Furthermore, loess is not distributed uniformly across the surface of the soil profile, thus, the dilution of metals is variable between soil samples. This factor must be considered when planning a geochemical survey and samples are best collected from below the zone of loess accumulation. The major element variation between the Bdm horizon and saprolite at the Eureka area indicates the presence of allochthonous mafic minerals. Enrichment of Fe and Mg in the Bdm horizon relative to the saprolite is possibly caused by the addition of mafic minerals to that horizon by aeolian deposition. Field observations indicate that the underlying bedrock is predominantly quartz muscovite-bearing. Chapter 4 presents a comparison of the mineral composition of the two materials to confirm the presence of allochthonous mafic minerals. Further, the geochemical variation between the Bdm horizon and saprolite suggests that a geochemical signature of pure loess may be distinguishable from the geochemical signature of autochthonous surficial material. Bdm horizon material is hypothesized to display a mixing of these two geochemical signatures. Chapter 4 explores the mineral content and trace element geochemistry of pure loess, autochthonous surficial material and Bdm horizon material in an attempt to identify and quantify the loess component in soil in the three areas studied.  93  3.5.9.3. Geochemical Dispersion Mechanical dispersion, driven by colluviation, is inferred to be the principle form of geochemical dispersion active in west-central Yukon. Rates of colluviation are shown to vary between surficial domains. Comparatively gentle slopes can display downslope transport simply as a function of freezethaw action, as indicated at the Boulevard area. In this instance, this form of dispersion created a substantial geochemical footprint and dislocation of anomaly from source was negligible. Gentle slopes affected by cryoturbation are easily identified and mapped using topographic data and aerial photography. Mapping the distribution of this domain will facilitate the planning and interpretation of soil geochemical surveys.  94  4. Detection Of Loess And Hydrothermal Clay Minerals In Soil 4.1. Introduction Exploration geochemistry in periglacial environments is hampered by a myriad of factors. These include the dilution of Au abundance in soil samples by loess and the diffusion of soil anomalies by extensive downslope transport of anomalous material. Deposition of loess varies spatially: loess accumulates on lee slopes and in sheltered areas and is stripped from wind exposed ridgelines and hilltops. Therefore, there is significant variability in the proportion of loess present between samples within a soil survey. If the proportion of loess was consistent between samples, lowering the anomaly threshold would dispense with the dilution of metals; in this instance a more involved solution is required. In west-central Yukon, downslope transport, combined with the particulate nature of Au, creates diffuse, inconsistent Au anomalies in soils. Not all samples collected within a zone of anomalous soils contain above anomalous Au concentrations. Thus, optimizing material selection and analytical methods maximizing the probability of recognizing an anomaly in soil is crucial. Herein, two new approaches to the detection of Au mineralized zones in the periglacial environment are explored. The first approach explores the possibility of detecting and quantifying the concentration of Au in a soil sample. X-ray diffraction is used to test for the presence of loess in soil samples: minerals present in the upper portion of the soil profile that are absent from the underlying saprolite are interpreted to be loess that was added to the soil profile by aeolian deposition. This work will be carried out in an environment where loess was observed to be present in the upper soil horizon. Building upon the detection of loess in a sample, trace element geochemistry is used to create a proxy for the concentration of loess in the sample. By understanding the trace element signature of pure loess and parent material, estimations of the composition of loess in a soil sample may be made by studying its trace element composition: the geochemistry of soil sample should represent a mixing ratio of the trace element signatures of pure loess and parent material. This ratio forms the basis of a proxy for the proportion of loess, and hence the degree of dilution of Au, in a given soil sample. Determining the extent of dilution of Au in a sample will increase the probability that a soil is recognized using conventional geochemical analysis.  95  The second approach to detecting Au mineralized zones explores the possibility of detecting bedrock alteration minerals associated with Au mineralization in surficial material. Certain clay minerals are specific to the hydrothermal environment and will form in neither surficial material nor unaltered bedrock. It is assumed that the halo of these minerals in soils surrounding a Au deposit is larger and more consistent than that of the Au-in-soils anomaly. The distribution of soil samples containing such minerals will provide an additional layer of data to assist in evaluating terrain.  4.2. Site Descriptions And Methods The rest of this chapter is divided into two separate sections. The first section details the mineralogy and geochemistry of loess, in order to quantify its concentration in a sample, and the second section explores the detection of bedrock alteration minerals in soil. In order to add value to analysis the same site descriptions and XRD results will be utilized in both sections. Site descriptions and methods for both sections are presented in one section. Results and discussion are presented in each of the two sections.  4.2.1. Site Descriptions 4.2.1.1. The Boulevard Area Bedrock geology underlying the field site at the Boulevard area is observed to consist of interbedded quartz-muscovite schist and biotite-chlorite schist. Material collected at profile E001 consists of saprolite and cryoturbated colluvium. Saprolite consists of weathered quartz-muscovite schist. A Au mineralized structure is preserved within the saprolite, surrounded by a vein of intensely clay-altered quartz-muscovite schist with 2,189 ppb Au. The wall rock consists of highly-oxidized quartz muscovite schist which has Au concentrations ranging from 14,284 ppb to 45,294 ppb. At exposure E002 samples of cryogenically weathered colluvium and saprolite were collected. Saprolite consists of weathered chlorite-biotite schist. A Au mineralized structure, surrounded by a vein of intense clay alteration is preserved in the saprolite. Material collected from this structure has Au concentration of 9206 ppb. The wall rock of this vein is relatively unaltered chlorite-biotite schist. See chapter 3 for detailed site description. 96        4.2.1.2. The Golden Saddle Area  There  are  three  main  rock  types  contributing  parent  material  to  the  soil  in  the  study  area  at  Golden  Saddle: felsic gneiss, amphibolite and pyroxenite. The felsic gneiss consists of a foliated matrix of quartz,  K‐feldspar,  plagioclase,  biotite,  and  muscovite,  with  coarse  augen  comprising  K‐feldspar‐plagioclase  ±  quartz. Amphibolite rocks are part of a mafic metamorphic assemblage and consist of biotite‐amphibole  schist,  containing  biotite,  hornblende,  chlorite,  quartz  and  feldspar.  The  pyroxenite  comprises  almost  entirely  by  hornblende  and  pyroxene  (Bailey,  2013).    The  majority  of  Au  mineralization  is  hosted  in  brittle fracture systems within the felsic gneiss. Au mineralization is associated with intense alteration of  feldspars and micas to illite (Bailey, 2013).  Material  was  collected  from  five  exposures  which  were  configured  in  a  line  across  the  mineralized  structure.    Figure  3.18  shows  the  underlying  geology  and  the  distribution  of  the  exposures  relative  to  the  surface  expression  of  the  Au  mineralized  structure.    Samples  of  colluvium  were  collected  from  exposures  E038,  E039,  E076  and  E079.  Bm  horizon  samples  were  collected  from  exposure  E039,  E076  and E077.   4.2.1.3. The Eureka Area  Bedrock geology underlying the field site at the Eureka area consists of quartz‐muscovite schist.  Material  collected for analysis at the  Eureka Area  consists of weathered  bedrock and Bm horizon soil.   An  altered  and  oxidized  vein  containing  Au  mineralization  is  preserved  in  the  weathered  bedrock.   Samples were taken from this  mineralized  material  and from  the Bm horizon  material overlying it. Au  concentrations  in  the  four  saprolite  samples  used  in  this  study  ranged  from  170  ppb  to  1587  ppb.  Au  concentration in the single Bm horizon sample used in this study was 26 ppb.  4.2.1.4. Loess  Nine  loess  samples  were  collected  from  along  the  North  Klondike  highway  between  Dawson  City  and  Carmacks  (Fig.  4.1).    These  samples  are  considered  to  be  broadly  representative  of  loess  deposits  throughout west‐central Yukon. Samples of pure loess were taken from below the zone of pedogenesis.  Sample locations are included in Table 4.1.        97     Dawson  700000  ¹  L133  7100000  7100000  600000  L139  L140  # *  L141  Eureka Area  rt wa  Wh i Riv te er  # *  Golden Saddle Deposit  7000000  7000000  Ste  er  Riv  L143  # *  Boulevard Area  iver  R Yukon  Pelly Crossing  Fort Selkirk  L144 L145  6900000  6900000  L146  Carmacks  Legend  # *  Area locations Loess sample locations  600000  0  25  50  75  100 km  700000  Figure 4.1. Map of loess sample locations. NAD 1983 UTM zone 7N.  98        4.2.2. Methods  4.2.2.1. SWIR Mineral Analysis  The  clay  minerals  in  soil  samples  were  identified  using  short  wave  infrared  (SWIR)  spectrometry  acquired with the ASD Terraspec™.  The Terraspec™ is a non‐destructive, spectral analyzer; it uses the  energy in the near infrared (0.7‐1.3 µm) and short wave infrared (1.3‐2.5 µm) wavelength regions of the  electromagnetic  spectrum  to  identify  minerals.    This  is  a  qualitative  technique  and  is  particularly  effective  for  detecting  clay  minerals.    Whole  soil  samples  were  dried  and  analyzed  using  the  “contact  probe”  extension  of  the  Terraspec™.    Spectra  were  interpreted  manually  and  using  The  Spectral  Geologist© software.  Sample ID  Northing  Easting  L133A  64.04657  ‐139.403  L133B  64.04657  ‐139.403  L139  63.94289  ‐138.472  L140  63.67786  ‐137.661  L141  63.51221  ‐137.039  L143  62.83251  ‐136.568  L144  62.613  ‐136.847  L145  62.47761  ‐136.681  L146  62.2858  ‐136.291    Table 4.1. List of locations of loess samples     Elevation (m)  417  417  665  546  524  530  550  504  570   Grid  WGS‐1984  WGS‐1984  WGS‐1984  WGS‐1984  WGS‐1984  WGS‐1984  WGS‐1984  WGS‐1984  WGS‐1984   4.2.2.2. X‐ray Diffraction  The mineral content of soils were identified using x‐ray diffraction in both the <2 mm and <2 µm size  fraction.  Air‐dried smear mounts were prepared of the <2 mm size fraction of each sample.  1‐2 g of <2  mm material were ground in ethanol to a paste by mortar and pestle.  The paste was smeared onto glass  slides and then mounted in the XRD for analysis.  The <2 µm size fraction was separated by centrifuge  according  to  the  methods  outlined  by  Moore  and  Reynolds  (1997).    An  aliquot  of  each  sample  was  sieved,  separating  <65  µm  material  using  a  200  mesh  standard  stainless  steel  sieve.    50  g  of  <60  µm  material was placed in a beaker with 50 ml of distilled water and 1‐2 g of sodium hexametaphosphate.   The water and soil was stirred with a glass rod and then probed with a 500 watt ultrasonic probe for 2  minutes.    The  suspension  (mix  of  water  and  suspended  material)  was  then  decanted  into  50  ml  test  tubes.    Where  there  was  more  than  50  ml  of  suspension  it  was  separated  into  two  test  tubes  evenly.   The test tubes were placed in a centrifuge at 2000 rpm for 2 minutes.  The test tubes were removed and  99     the suspension decanted, probed by the ultrasonic device and distributed into new test tubes. The residual material remaining at the bottom of the test tube was categorized as the coarse fraction (>25 µm). The second round of centrifugation lasted for 5 minutes. The residual material remaining from this run was termed the moderate fraction (2-25 µm). Following separation of the moderate fraction, the suspension was decanted, probed, and centrifuged for 1-2 hours or until the water remaining ran clear. The residual material was termed the fine fraction (<2 µm). 1-2 g of <2 µm material were ground in ethanol to a paste by mortar and pestle. The paste was smeared onto glass slides and mounted in the XRD for analysis. The slides were loaded into a magazine to be analyzed by a Bruker D8 Focus diffractometer for angles between 0 and 90° 2 Th for <2 mm samples and between 0 and 35° 2 Th for <2 µm samples. Following initial XRD analyses, samples were saturated with glycol to determine the presence of smectite. A selection of samples were placed in a petri dish with a small amount of glycol and set in an oven set at 60°C for 3hrs. These samples were re-run for the same angles as before. Following this a selection of samples were heated to 550°C for 1 hour to differentiate between kaolinite and chlorite.  These  samples were re-run for the same angles as before. The resulting diffraction patterns were then analyzed using the interpretation software EVA©.  Minerals were identified by the presence of  characteristic peaks and compared to patterns from the Bruker library of diffraction patterns. 4.2.2.3. Geochemistry Collection, preparation and analysis of soil samples from the Boulevard area, the Golden Saddle deposit and the Eureka area are described in section 3.2.1. Nine samples of pure loess were collected from below the layer of pedogenesis and analyzed for whole rock geochemistry. Sample collection involved placing roughly 0.5 kg of material in brown paper sample bags, which were allowed to air dry. Air dried samples were split in half in the sample preparation facility at UBC using a riffle splitter; one portion was shipped to Acme Laboratories Vancouver BC and the other stored at UBC. Samples were analyzed using whole rock digestion and ICP-MS analysis. Total abundances of the major oxides and several minor elements are reported on a 0.2 g sample analyzed by ICP-optical emission spectrometry following a lithium metaborate/tetraborate fusion and dilute nitric acid digestion. Rare earth and refractory elements were determined by ICP mass spectrometry following a lithium metaborate/tetraborate fusion and nitric acid digestion of a 0.2 g sample. In addition a  100  separate 0.5 g split is digested in aqua regia and analyzed by ICP-MS to indicate the concentration of precious and base metals. The geochemical composition of loess samples and soil samples were not directly compared as the digestions and analytical techniques used were different. Instead, ratios of elements from the two groups were compared using ioGAS software.  4.3. Detection Of Loess Within A Soil Profile The dilution effect of loess was identified as a challenge faced by the exploration geochemist working in periglacial soils. A two-fold approach to dealing with loess dilution of Au in soils is adopted: 1) Comparison of x-ray diffraction patterns of pure loess, parent material and loess-enriched Bdm horizon material are made. The detection of minerals in the Bdm horizon that are absent from parent material is used as the basis for establishing the presence of loess in a soil. 2) The trace element geochemistry signature of loess-entrained Bdm horizon is compared with the signature of pure loess and parent material. The trace element signatures of loess and parent material are expected to represent end members which the trace element signature of the Bdm material are expected to lie between. The mineralogy and trace element geochemistry of nine samples of pure loess collected from westcentral Yukon were analyzed using x-ray diffraction and whole rock geochemical analysis, respectively. For comparison, x-ray diffraction of soil samples from the Boulevard area, the Golden Saddle deposit and the Eureka area was used to establish the mineral content of parent material from each area. Geochemical analysis of soil samples detailed in Chapter 3 is utilized to establish the trace element signature of the upper portion of the soil profile and saprolite. 4.4.5.2. Detection Of Hydrothermal Alteration Minerals By XRD High temperature clay minerals can be detected in soils that form above large hydrothermal alteration systems. At Boulevard, WCI formation is associated with Au mineralization in bedrock; however, WCI was not detected in the overlying cryogenically-weathered colluvium. An explanation for absence of WCI is that it is not present in sufficient proportions in the colluvium to be detected by XRD. At Golden Saddle, WCI was detected in the colluvium. Work by Bailey (2013) indicates that illite is the principal 101  alteration mineral associated with Au mineralization. The alteration halo associated with Au mineralization at the Golden Saddle deposit is considerably larger than at the alteration halo at the Boulevard area and so colluvium at the Golden Saddle deposit contains a greater proportion of illite to the overlying soil than at Boulevard. At both Golden Saddle and the Eureka area WCI was detected in the parent material but not in the overlying Bm horizon. High temperature minerals such as WCI and biotite are not stable under the relatively acidic and oxidizing conditions present in the B horizon. Weathering reactions, occurring in bedrock to make parent material, take place over the time scale of hundreds of thousands of years, while interactions in the upper B horizon and A horizon take place over hundreds to thousands of years (Velde and Meunier, 2008). The ability to detect an alteration mineral that is associated with Au mineralization in soil would be of great value to an exploration program. The volume of altered bedrock in the mineralized structure is orders of magnitude greater than the volume of Au precipitated, thus the footprint of alteration minerals in soil is larger than the Au footprint. The detection of bedrock alteration in surficial material is most valuable in an environment where nuggety Au and the potential for anomalies that are buried under colluvium exist.  102  4.3.1. Loess Composition: Mineral Content And Geochemistry Loess is silt that accumulates by aeolian transport and deposition during glacial events and is a component of many soils in west-central Yukon (Bond and Sanborn, 2006). Loess is typically in the 20 50 μm size fraction (Taylor et al., 1983) and contains quartz, plagioclase, mica, and chlorite. K-feldspar is present in some cases (Muhs and Budahn, 2006). Globally, loess originates from deserts or is derived from fine grained sediments on glacial outwash plains (Taylor et al., 1983). Loess in Yukon and Alaska has a glacial origin (Muhs and Budahn, 2006). During glacial periods, glaciers pulverize the underlying bedrock into a fine-grained rock flour, which is then carried out by glacial streams. These sediments are subsequently deposited on outwash planes where they are remobilized by strong winds. These sediments are mixed and homogenized at each stage in this process. Loess remains suspended in the air column by strong winds and can be transported for hundreds of kilometers. Loess deposits are deepest proximal to the fluvial source and thin distally. Loess is deposited when the wind strength decreases or when the load encounters a sheltered area such as a lee slope or stand of vegetation. Windward slopes and ridge tops become scoured of loess while loess accumulates in valleys and lee slopes. Furthermore, loess may become remobilized by changes in prevailing wind direction and by uncharacteristically large storms. Thus, the distribution of loess is spatially variable. Loess typically has undergone little in the way of chemical weathering and is composed principally of primary minerals such as feldspar. Loess deposits from around the world have a consistent geochemistry and mineral content. The homogeneity of loess is grounds for its consideration as a proxy for the average composition of the upper crust (Gallet et al., 1998; Taylor, 2007). Abundances of Na2O and K2O with respect to Al2O3 are used to characterize the extent of chemical weathering that loess has been subject to. Na2O and K2O are depleted with weathering while Al2O3 is conserved. K2O is removed from minerals during hydrolysis and Na2O is water soluble under surficial conditions and is readily removed by surface waters. Hydrolysis is a weathering process acting on silicate minerals. H2O is added and cations released from the mineral. The H2O molecule splits and cations (typically K) are replaced by H+ (Velde and Meunier, 2008). Figure 4.2 depicts Na2O/ Al2O3 plotted against K2O/ Al2O3 for a variety of loess and rocks. With the exception of New Zealand loess, loess samples from  103  around the world have similar abundances of Na2O/ Al2O3 and K2O/ Al2O3 to each other and to igneous rocks and shale (Muhs and Budahn, 2006). Despite the relative uniform composition of loess, minor variations in certain trace elements and isotopes are used to distinguish provenance of loess, and also to reconstruct paleoclimates. Pb isotopes (Aleinikoff et al., 1999) and K/Rb and Ti/Nb (Muhs, D. R., and Bettis, E. A., 2000) ratios have been used to identify the provenance of the Peoria Loess in Colorado. U and Th ratios from the Luochuan Section in China have been used to reconstruct paleoclimate changes (Gallet et al., 1996). In oxidizing conditions U3+ is soluble and Th is insoluble, thus vertical changes in the abundance of U3+ relative to Th through the Luochuan section can be used to reconstruct changes in redox conditions through time. Gallet (1996) also used variations in the abundance of Rb and Sr relative to Ba through the Luochuan Section as a proxy for pedogenic intensity. Rb and Sr become mobile during pedogenesis and so are lost to paleosurface waters. Ba remains constant through pedogenesis. Thus relatively high Rb/Ba and Sr/Ba ratios indicate intense pedogenic activity and accordingly warm paleoclimate. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns for loess samples from around the world have a very consistent profile: they are light REE-enriched, with a negative europium anomaly and relatively flat heavy REEs (Fig. 4.3) (Gallet et al., 1998). In this study Ta, Th and Sc are used to establish the geochemical signature of loess and parent material. These elements are immobile in the surficial environment (Gallet et al., 1996; Rose et al., 1979) and resistant to depletion during weathering and diagenesis (Gallet et al., 1996; Muhs et al., 2008) and are found in varying concentrations in many rock types (Muhs and Budahn, 2006; Taylor et al., 1983). These elements are selected because they are resistant to removal in the surficial environment, as the materials being studied have been subject to different surficial conditions. Differences in abundance of each of these elements reflect the varying origin of the material rather than varying surficial conditions. Ratios of these elements are compared to allow for the different forms of analysis used for loess and parent material.  104  4.3.2. XRD Results 4.3.2.1. Loess Results of XRD analysis of loess samples are detailed in table 4.2. XRD analysis identified feldspar, quartz, muscovite and kaolinite in all samples. Amphibole and montmorillonite were detected in five of the nine loess samples. Mixed layer illite-smectite was not identified in any loess sample. 4.3.2.2. The Boulevard Area Results of XRD analysis of soil samples from all three areas are detailed in tables 4.3 and 4.4. At exposure E001, XRD analysis of saprolite derived from the clay-altered vein material detected muscovite, well-crystalized illite (WCI) and poorly-crystalized illite (PCI). A detailed explanation of WCI and PCI is contained in section 4.1.1. Muscovite was indicated by the presence of a tall, sharp 10 Å peak with a broader, asymmetrical hump at the base in the <2 mm fraction. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) value of the 10 Å peak was 0.177 2θ. WCI was indicated by a wide, rounded hump, which had a FWHM value of 0.362 2θ in the <2 µm fraction. The presence of PCI which is interlayered with smectite was indicated by wide hump stretching from 8 Å to 9 Å (Fig 4.4). There was no evidence of the occurrence of chlorite, which would have been indicated by the presence of a sharp peak at 7 Å after heating to 550°C (Fig 4.5). Quartz and trace feldspar were also indicated. In the saprolite which formed from oxidized wall-rock, XRD analysis revealed the presence of muscovite, well-crystalized illite, quartz feldspar and amphibole. Trace amounts of smectite were also identified by glycol saturation (Fig 4.6). At exposure E001, five samples were taken at various depths within the cryoturbated colluvium. XRD analysis indicated the presence of muscovite, amphibole, chlorite, interlayered illite smectite and kaolinite in all five samples. At exposure E002, XRD analysis of the altered, Au mineralized vein material indicated the presence of muscovite, chlorite, quartz, well-crystalized illite, smectite and kaolinite. A sample of unaltered wall rock has Au concentration of 49 ppb Au. XRD analysis indicated the presence of muscovite, quartz, smectite and kaolinite.  105  Two samples were taken at different depths in the cryogenically weathered colluvium which overlies this structure. Both of these samples contain muscovite, amphibole, chlorite, quartz, plagioclase, magnetite, smectite and kaolinite. At E051 four samples of cryogenically weathered colluvium were collected. XRD analysis indicated the presence of quartz, muscovite, amphibole, chlorite and plagioclase. Interlayered illite, smectite and kaolinite were also identified. There is no variation in mineralogy in the cryoturbated colluvium with depth.  106  Table 4.2 Sample Material I/S Musc	 Amph	 Chl Qtz K-spar	 Plag	 Illite	 Mont	 Kaol  L133a Loess no yes yes no yes yes yes no Yes yes  L133b Loess no yes yes no yes yes yes no Yes yes  L139 Loess no yes yes no yes yes yes no Yes yes  L140 Loess no yes no no yes yes yes no yes yes  L141 Loess no yes no no yes yes yes no no yes  L143 Loess no yes no yes yes yes yes yes no yes  L144 Loess no yes yes no yes yes yes no no yes  L145 Loess no yes yes no yes yes yes no yes yes  L146 Loess no trace	 yes no yes yes yes no no yes I/S = Interlayered illite and smectite; Musc = Muscovite; Amph = Amphibole; Chl = Chlorite; Qtz = Quartz; Kspar = K feldspar; Plag = Plagioclase; Mont = Montmorillonite; Kaol = Kaolinite.  107  Table 4.3  Exposure  Sample ID  Material  I/S  Musc  Amph	 Chl  Qtz  K-spar	 Plag  Illite  Mont  Kaol  Boulevard E051 area E051  E051 		E051  E001  E001  E001  E001  E001  E001 		E001  E002  E002  E002  E002  00003 00004 00005 00006 25208 25209 25210 25214 25215 25199 25201 25222 25223 25230 25233  Colluvium Colluvium Colluvium Colluvium Colluvium Colluvium Colluvium Colluvium Colluvium Altered WB Oxidized WB Colluvium Colluvium Altered WB Saprolite  yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes no no no yes yes  yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes  yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes no yes yes yes no no  Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No  yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes  no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no  yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes no no yes yes trace trace  no no no no yes no no no no yes yes no no yes yes  yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes no yes yes yes yes yes  no yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes no no yes yes yes yes  Golden E038 Saddle E039  E039 		E039  E076  E076 		E076  E077 		E077  E079  25093 25103 25101 25102 00203 00204 00205 00201 00202 00217  Colluvium Colluvium Bm horizon Bm horizon Bm horizon Bm horizon Colluvium Bm horizon Bm horizon Colluvium  Yes Yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes  No No yes yes yes No yes yes yes yes  yes no yes yes yes no yes yes yes yes  No No No No No No No No No No  yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes  yes yes yes no yes yes yes yes yes yes  yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes  yes yes no no no no yes no no yes  yes yes yes trace trace yes yes trace trace yes  yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes  Eureka E020 25393 Bm horizon no yes trace	 trace	 yes yes yes no no area E020 25402 BC horizon yes yes no trace	 yes no no yes no  E020 25428 Saprolite yes yes no trace	 yes no no yes no  E020 25430 Saprolite yes yes no No yes no no yes no  E020 25433 Saprolite yes yes no No yes no no yes no  I/S = Interlayered illite and smectite; Musc = Muscovite; Amph = Amphibole; Chl = Chlorite; Qtz = Quartz; Kspar = K feldspar; Plag = Plagioclase; Mont = Montmorillonite; Kaol = Kaolinite.    yes yes yes yes yes  108  Table 4.4. Exposure Sample ID  Boulevard E051 00003 area E051 00004  E051 00005 		E051 00006  E001 25208  E001 25209  E001 25210  E001 25214  E001 25215  E001 25199 		E001 25201  E002 25222  E002 25223  E002 25230  E002 25233  Material <2 mm °Δ2θ Colluvium Colluvium Colluvium Colluvium Colluvium Colluvium Colluvium Colluvium Colluvium Altered WB Oxidized WB Colluvium Colluvium Altered WB Saprolite  FWHM FWHM Muscovite <2 μm °Δ2θ 0.191 no peak yes 0.133 bulge yes 0.119 no peak yes 0.123 no peak yes 0.125 no peak yes 0.175 no peak yes 0.141 no peak yes 0.115 no peak yes 0.169 no peak yes 0.177 0.362 yes 0.158 0.312 yes 0.165 no peak yes 0.117 0.178 yes 0.156 0.369 yes 0.182 0.225 yes  Illite  I/S  No no no no no no no no no yes yes no no yes yes  yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes no no no yes yes  Golden Saddle	 E038  E039  E039 		E039  E076  E076 		E076  E077 		E077  E079  25093 25101 25102 25103 00203 00204 00205 00201 00202 00217  Colluvium Bm horizon Bm horizon Colluvium Bm horizon Bm horizon Colluvium Bm horizon Bm horizon Colluvium  no peak 0.113 0.119 no peak 0.122 no peak 0.131 0.116 0.121 0.165  0.561 no peak no peak 0.541 no peak bulge 0.358 no peak no peak shoulder  no yes yes no yes no yes yes yes yes  yes no no yes no no yes no no yes  yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes  Eureka area      25393 25402 25428 25430 25433  Bm horizon BC horizon Saprolite Saprolite Saprolite  0.124 0.126 0.136 0.141 0.138  no peak 0.456 0.468 0.562 0.536  yes yes yes yes yes  no yes yes yes yes  no yes yes yes yes  E020 E020 020 E020 E020  I/S = Interlayered illite and smectite ; FWHM = Full Width Half Maximum  109  0.40  Na₂O/Al₂O₃  0.30  Siberian loess Upper Mississippi River Valley loess Eastern Nebraska loess Chinese loess Fairbanks area loess New Zealand loess  Granite  0.20 Basalt  0.10 Shale Trend  0.00 0.00  0.10  0.20  0.30  0.40  0.50  Figure 4.2. Na2O/Al2O3 plotted against K2O/Al2O3 for a selection of loess values from around the K₂O/Al₂O₃ world (after Muhs 2006).  China (Ech. L1) Iowa (USA) New Zealand (Ech. BP-1)  100  Germany (Kaiserstuhl 1) Upper Crust  10  La  Ce  Nd  Sm  Eu  Gd  Tb  Dy  Ho  Er  Yb  Lu  Figure 4.3. Chondrite-normalized REE values for a selection of loess samples from around the world (after Gallet 1998). this is an example of the relative uniform geochemical composition of loess. 110  Sample 25199; >2 mm size fraction Sample 25199; <2 µm size fraction  Interlayered PCI and smectitie  Muscovite FWHM = 0.177° 2Ө  PCI FWHM = 0.362° 2Ө  Figure 4.4. XRD pattern displaying peaks for muscovite, poorly-crystalized illite and interlayered illite-smectite. Sample 25103; <2 μm size-fraction; Air dried Sample 25103; <2 μm size-fraction; Heated to 550° for 1 hour  dÅ  Figure 4.5. XRD pattern displaying the effect of heating a sample containing kaolinite to 550°C for one hour.The intensity of the 7.2 Å peak is preserved in the presence of chlotite. 111  No consistent vertical trends in mineral content were observed in the cryoturbated colluvium. Also, there was no variation in the mineral content of colluvium between the three sites. Every sample contained contains muscovite, amphibole, chlorite, quartz, plagioclase, smectite and kaolinite, with one exception: kaolinite is absent from one sample from exposure E051. This is interpreted as further evidence for the vertical homogeneity of cryoturbated colluvium. Muscovite, chlorite, amphibole, plagioclase and quartz were introduced into the colluvium by the weathering of the underlying schist. Biotite was not observed in XRD patterns because the intensity of the 10 Å peak masks the biotite peak, however biotite was recognized in bedrock hand samples from the area is assumed to be present in the colluvium. The presence of interlayered illite, smectite and kaolinite in the cryoturbated colluvium is due to the weathering of feldspars and mica in the acidic soil column. 4.3.2.3. The Golden Saddle Deposit Table 4.3 details the mineral composition of the four colluvium samples taken at Golden Saddle. Well crystalized illite was found in three of the exposures and interlayered illite was found at all four exposures. Interlayered illite is a product of weathering of primary minerals in the soil column. The full width half maximum (FWHM) of the WCI indicates that it formed at temperatures associated with hydrothermal systems (Kübler, 1967; Velde and Meunier, 2008). The distribution of samples bearing well-crystalized illite was not such that the location of the hydrothermal system could be established using these data alone. Muscovite, quartz, K-feldspar and plagioclase were introduced into the soil by the weathering of the felsic gneiss underlying the hillside. Amphibole could have been sourced from the nearby amphibolite. Montmorillonite and kaolinite possibly formed in the soil from the weathering of K-feldspar and mica.  112  Sample 25103; <2 μm size-fraction; Air dried Sample 25103; <2 μm size-fraction; Glycol treated  dÅ Figure 4.6. XRD pattern showing the effect of glycol saturation on a sample containing smectite.  113  4.3.2.4. The Eureka Area Allochthonous minerals were identified in the Bm horizon at the Eureka area. Bm horizon material included K-feldspar, plagioclase and amphibole. Plagioclase and amphibole are unlikely to have been sourced from any of the surrounding bedrock and were potentially introduced by aeolian deposition. Although K-feldspar was not identified in the weathered bedrock sampled it is conceivable that it is present in nearby bedrock. Well-structured illite from the saprolite was not detected in the overlying Bm horizon.  4.3.3. Geochemistry Results 4.3.3.1. The Golden Saddle Area Plots of Na2O/Al2O3 against K2O/Al2O3 (Fig 4.7) show that pure loess has greater Na2O/Al2O3 ratios than all material collected at Golden Saddle. K2O/Al2O3 ratios for weathered bedrock are lower than loess. B horizon material has the lowest K2O/Al2O3 ratios. Plots of Th/Ta against Th/Sc (Fig 4.8) using loess and soil samples from the Golden Saddle deposit produce two discrete populations. Loess samples have relatively high Sc and Ta and low Th and soil samples from the Golden Saddle deposit have relatively low Sc and Ta and high Th. Three overlapping populations can be observed within the soil sample population. 4.3.3.2. The Eureka Area Plots of Na2O/Al2O3 against K2O/Al2O3 (Fig 4.9) show that pure loess has greater Na2O/Al2O3 ratios than all material collected at the Eureka area. K2O/Al2O3 ratios for loess are similar to bed rock samples collected at the Eureka area. K2O/Al2O3 ratios for saprolite are lower than loess. Bdm horizon material has the lowest K2O/Al2O3 ratios. Depletion in K is proportional to the formation of clay minerals by weathering. Plotting Th/Ta against Th/Sc using loess and soil samples from the Eureka area produces three discrete populations (Fig. 4.10). Loess samples have relatively high Sc and Ta and low Th and saprolite samples from the Eureka area have relatively low Sc and Ta and high Th. Bdm horizon samples plot in a third discrete population situated between the loess and saprolite.  114  0.4 Igneous Rocks 0.3  Na₂O/Al₂O₃  Granite 0.2 Basalt 0.1  Shale Trend  0.0 0.0  B horizon Colluvium Loess  0.1  0.2  0.3 K₂O/Al₂O₃  0.5 0.4 After Muhs 2006  Th/Sc  Figure 4.7. Na2O/Al2O3 plotted against K2O/Al2O3 for a selection soil samples from the Golden Saddle deposit (contains data for rock after Muhs 2006).  Bdm Horizon Bm Horizon Colluvium Loess  Th/Ta Figure 4.8. Th/Sc plotted against Th/Ta for loess, Bdm horizon material, Bm horizon material and colluvium from soil overlying the Golden Saddle deposit. 115  4.3.4. Discussion 4.3.4.1. Detection Of Loess By XRD At Boulevard, no minerals in the colluvium were identified as allochthonous. Cryoturbated colluvium represents the homogenized mineral content of the terrain uphill of the survey site. Analysis of weathered bedrock only identifies the mineral content on bedrock at that point. Comparison of the two sets of results does not identify allochthonous minerals. However, based on geochemical interpretation and field observations, a vertical mineral homogeneity at a given single point was assumed for the cryoturbated colluvium. Any mineral found at the top of the colluvium profile that was not identified at the base of the profile could be presumed to represent loess. Results indicate that there is no variation in mineral content in this material with depth. This vertical homogeneity could be explained by three possibilities: 1) No loess was added to this material. Based on existing knowledge of the surficial geology it is known that loess distribution in westcentral Yukon is inconstant (Froese et al., 2000). Thickness of deposits vary spatially: valleys typically having thick loess deposits and deposits on hilltops are generally thin to non-existent (Brideau, 2010); 2) Loess was added to this material, but the rate of deposition was not rapid enough to outpace cryoturbation and was homogenized into the autochthonous material. Previous work indicates the potential that major loess deposition occurs as discrete events, controlled by glaciations (Muhs, D. R., and Bettis, E. A., 2000). Were this possibility the case, then given the timing of the most recent glacial period, McConnell ~30-12 ka (Jackson Jr et al., 1991), this would allow a maximum constraint on cryoturbation driven homogenization for this area. This is additional evidence for the homogeneity of cryoturbated colluvium. This suggests that there is no benefit to acquiring sample material from deeper in this medium; 3) Loess added to this material and is enriched at the surface, but has a mineral content similar to the autochthonous material. Thus, loess enrichment at the surface would not be detected by XRD. XRD analysis of loess in this thesis and in the existing literature (Muhs and Budahn, 2006) has indicated that all of the mineral components expected to be found at Boulevard are also to be expected in loess. Thus the two should be indistinguishable by XRD analysis. Further major and trace element geochemistry analysis of loess and surficial material is necessary to establish whether the second of the three possibilities is correct. Allochthonous minerals were identified in the upper portion of the Bm horizon at the Eureka area. Amphibole and plagioclase were both identified in Bm horizon material. Results of XRD indicate that 116  both of these minerals can be components of loess. The exposure sits on a hill top and the surrounding bedrock geology consists of felsic quarts-muscovite schists. Based on the current understanding of the Nasina Assemblage and field observations, it is very unlikely that amphibole and plagioclase were sourced from the surrounding bedrock. It is quite probable that these minerals were introduced to the soil as loess. 4.3.4.2. Proxy For Loess Dilution By Geochemistry Major element geochemistry was used to establish the extent of chemical weathering of loess from west-central Yukon. Na/Al and K/Al concentrations are plotted against each other and compared to similar values for weathered bedrock from this study and for bedrock values from past studies (Fig. 4.8; Fig. 4.10). Na and K concentrations in the loess samples are similar to concentrations found in bedrock, reflecting the diverse source rocks and the lack of weathering of loess. Bedrock ratios of K2O/Al2O3 from the Eureka area are similar to K2O/Al2O3 ratios seen in loess samples; however, Na2O/Al2O3 concentrations are depleted in the bedrock at the Eureka area. This depletion is interpreted to be a reflection of bedrock geochemistry and not a surficial process. Trace element geochemistry was used to separate loess and soil into geochemical populations. Th/Ta was plotted against Th/Sc at the Eureka area (Fig. 4.10). Saprolite and loess plot in two discrete populations; saprolite has relatively high Th/Ta and Th/Sc ratios and a larger spread of values than loess. Bdm horizon material plots between loess and saprolite. The location of Bdm horizon samples on this plot is interpreted to be a reflection of mixing of saprolite and loess. Variations in Ta and Sc observed in the Eureka area soil samples are a reflection of surficial weathering and the initial geochemistry of its parent material. Although Ta is stable in oxidized surficial conditions (Rose et al., 1979), Ta is depleted in saprolite relative to bedrock samples. This is due to the removal of Ta in the surficial environment. The spread of Sc concentrations seen in loess is reflected in Bdm horizon material.  117  0.4 Igneous Rocks 0.3  Na₂O/Al₂O₃  Granite 0.2 Basalt 0.1  Shale Trend  0.0 0.0  B horizon Saprolite  0.1 Bedrock Loess  0.2  0.3  0.4  0.5  K₂O/Al₂O₃  Th/Sc  Figure 4.9. Na2O/Al2O3 plotted against K2O/Al2O3 for a selection soil samples from the Eureka area (contains data for rock after Muhs 2006).  Bdm Horizon Saprolite Bedrock Loess  Th/Ta Figure 4.10. Th/Sc plotted against Th/Ta for loess, Bdm horizon material and saprolite from soil the Eureka area. 118  The spread of Th/Ta concentrations at Golden Saddle is not as pronounced as at the Eureka area. When plotting Th/Sc against Th/Ta for samples from Golden Saddle, Bdm horizon, Bm horizon and colluvium samples overlap, but overall colluvium has the highest Th/Ta ratio and Bdm horizon material has the lowest. Figure 4.10 is interpreted to indicate that the decrease in Th/Ta and Th/Sc ratios are caused by the introduction of loess into soil at Golden Saddle. The degree of separation between the three materials is controlled by the concentration of loess in the soil. Thus it is suggested that the ratio of Th/Ta can be used to form a proxy measure of the proportion of loess in a soil sample and thus the extent of geochemical dilution. Proportions of loess in the Bdm horizon and Bm horizon from a selection of exposures from the Golden Saddle deposit were calculated using the following formula: (A – B) / C = proportion of loess in sample Where A = Average Th/Ta value of parent material B = Average Th/Ta value of pure loess C = Th/Ta value of soil sample In five of the six exposures, loess concentrations calculated for the Bdm horizon were greater than for the Bm horizon (Fig 4.11). Further, elevated loess concentrations correlated inversely with elevated Au concentrations. Also, where there was a large variation in Loess concentration between horizons there was also a large variation in Au concentration.  119  A  E079 E078  Exposure  E076 E046 E044  Bdm horizon  E043  Bm horizon  E040 E039 E038 0.0  5.0  10.0  15.0  20.0  Loess Concentration  B  E079 E078  Exposure  E076 E046 E044  Bdm horizon  E043  Bm horizon  E040 E039 E038 1.0  10.0  100.0  1000.0  10000.0  Au Concentration ppb  Figure 4.11. Plots of loess concentration and Au concentration in Bdm horizon and Bm horizon from above the Golden Saddle deposit. In general, Au concentration is lower, where loess concentration is higher in the Bdm horizon relitive to the Bm horizon.  120  4.4. Detection Of Hydrothermal Minerals In The Soil Profile In order to detect a concealed hydrothermal alteration system, soil samples were analyzed using SWIR spectrometry and x-ray diffraction to identify clay minerals that are specific to the hydrothermal environment. Samples of colluvium and saprolite from the Boulevard area and the Golden Saddle deposit were analyzed. Combining mineralogical data from XRD analysis with knowledge of alteration assemblages associated with Au mineralization (MacKenzie et al., 2010) will provide an additional layer of information to be used in the early assessment of the exploration potential of a property.  4.4.1. Clay Minerals The term clay can be used to describe either a size fraction (e.g., <2 µm) (Howes D. E., 1997) or a group of phyllosilicate minerals (Velde and Meunier, 2008). In this work the term clay is only used to describe a phyllosilicate mineral; size fractions are indicated in microns. Illite is identified as the principle alteration mineral associated with Au mineralization at the Golden Saddle deposit (Bailey, 2013). Thus, the primary focus of the following section is to detect the presence of illite in surficial material that irrefutably originated in the bedrock alteration surrounding the Golden Saddle deposit. A review of the mineralogical characteristics of a selection of clay minerals is contained below. Illite is a non-expanding phyllosilicate, found in the finer than 2 µm fraction of soil and rock. The range of physical conditions of illite formation is from 20°C in the surficial environment to below 300°C under hydrothermal conditions. Illite has a layer charge of 0.9 to 0.8 (Meunier and Velde, 2004). Two end members of illite crystallinity exist (Meunier and Velde, 2004): well-crystalized illite (WCI) and poorly-crystalized illite(PCI). WCI forms specifically in hydrothermal conditions and PCI forms in surficial conditions. Temperature of formation is the principle factor controlling illite crystallinity (Ji and Browne, 2000). Thus, determining the crystallinity of illite enables illite of a hydrothermal origin to be distinguished from illite that is a surficial weathering product (PCI). Illite crystallinity is determined using XRD patterns by measuring the half-peak-width of the 10 A° illite peak on preparations of the <2 µm size fractions (Kübler, 1967), and is expressed in °Δ2θ. Well-crystalized illite (WCI) has higher layer charge than poorly-crystalized illite (PCI) and thus has a more ordered crystal structure. WCI contains no expandable phases such as H2O. PCI has a layer charge of roughly 8/10 that of mica. This implies that 2 121  in every 10 hexagonal cavities in the arrangement of oxygen in the basal layer of silica tetrahedra could potentially host H20 or H3O (Meunier and Velde, 2004), however PCI is a non-expanding mineral (Kübler and Jaboyedoff, 2000). Also WCI contains more K and less Ca and Mg than PCI (Meunier and Velde, 2004). Variations in illite morphology exist. PCI has a lath-like morphology and WSI occurs in 2 morphologies; either fibrous laths or hexagonal plates. Meunier and Velde (2004) maintain that morphology of diagenetic illite is a function of “ripening time”. They state that initial illite growth consists of unstable interstratified illite and smectite particles which gradually form metastable PCI laths. Finally these forms form stable WCI plates. Zöller and Brockamp (1997) suggest that, in a hydrothermal environment, illite morphology is a function of polytype and chemical occupancy in their tetrahedral, octahedral, and interlayer sites. Illite formed in the surficial environment is poorly crystalized and lath shaped (Lonker et al., 1990; Meunier and Velde, 2004; Zoeller and Brockamp, 1997). Further, no Na or Ca mica or mica-like mineral (illite) is known to form below 250°. All surficially-formed illite is potassic (Velde and Meunier, 2008). Vermiculite and smectite are expanding clay minerals. Vermiculite is a semi-expanding phyllosilicate, in that it is more hydrated than illite and contains less K (Deer et al., 1992). The interlayer is occupied by hydrated cations and water molecules. Vermiculite has a layer charge of 0.8 to 0.6. It is identifiable using  D by 14 Å peak which shifts to 10 Å after glycol saturation. Smectite is a fully-expanding  phyllosilicate. The interlayer is occupied by hydrated cations and water molecules. Smectite has a layer charge of 0.6 to 0.25. The weak layer charge allows smectite to absorb H20 molecules between layers. Strictly speaking, smectite does not have a crystallinity, as the mineral does not hold its structure as it swells. Post-swelling smectite has a honeycomb texture, and flaky tactoïd (quasi-crystal) morphology. The most common type of smectite is montmorillonite, which is abundant in moderately-weathered, poorly-drained soils (Velde and Meunier, 2008).  Montmorillonite contains interlayer Mg and Al.  Interstratifications of the two minerals typically occur (Velde and Meunier, 2008). Kaolinite is a non-expanding phyllosilicate, thus it does not have an interlayer space. Kaolinite is abundant in acidic soils that overlie feldspar-rich bedrock. Kaolinite, dickite and halloysite are all polytypes of the kaolin family. Kaolinite and halloysite can be formed in hydrothermal and surficial settings; dickite is formed only under hydrothermal conditions. Kaolinite has a consistent hexagonal, platy morphology (Velde and Meunier, 2008). 122  4.4.2. Weathering In order to differentiate clays formed by hydrothermal alteration related to mineralization from those formed by weathering, clay formation during weathering is addressed. The weathering of primary minerals in bedrock to clay is driven by the inherent instability of primary minerals under surficial conditions. Abundant H+, O2 and H2O at surface and complex interactions between crystal faces of rockforming silicate minerals, cause primary minerals to dissolve, and re-precipitate as clay minerals (Velde and Meunier, 2008). In the case of K-feldspar weathering, this process is driven by the chemical potential of K between the mineral and the pore water. Due to this K potential potassium is diffused out of the mineral and into the pore water. As K is removed it is replaced with H+. Water with abundant H+ ions (acidic water) accelerates this process. If this pore water is not refreshed it progressively enters equilibrium with the mineral and weathering slows down.  Feldspar is not stable at surface  temperatures and pressures, thus it is replaced by a relatively high K, clay mineral, such as illite, which is metastable. Illite crystallizes through a heterogeneous nucleation process on mice surfaces that are in contact with K-feldspar grains. As weathering progresses, permeability increases and the pore water gradually becomes refreshed or in contact with pore water that has lower K concentration. This drives continued weathering of K-feldspar which now has a greater K potential than the pore water, causing a low K mineral to form, such as smectite or smectite + kaolinite. If surface waters hold abundant K then illite remains stable. In this same process plagioclase alters to beidellite, a Na rich type of smectite (Velde and Meunier, 2008). Weathering of biotite either produces a kaolinite +Fe, Ti oxide assemblage or produce vermiculite. The secondary clay mineral forms along the biotite cleavages. Gradually the cleavages are opened as K ions are replaced by Ca or Mg ions.  The newly formed expandable layers are typically formed of  trioctahedral vermiculite or regular interstratified vermiculite-biotite. Voids created by the distortion of the layers are filled with a kaolinite + Fe and Ti oxyhydroxides (Velde and Meunier, 2008). Meunier and Velde hold that in the initial stages of rock weathering, muscovite does alter to illite, but rather alters to kaolinite ± vermiculite or Al-bearing smectite (Meunier and Velde, 2004; Velde and Meunier, 2008). During the dissolution of the mica layers, Si is lost from the mineral. The Si/Al ratio decreases from 3 towards 1, meaning that there is not enough Si relative to Al to form illite, thus kaolinite and or Al-rich vermiculite is formed instead (Meunier and Velde, 2004; Velde and Meunier, 2008). However, muscovite alteration to illite occurs in the soil profile (Banfield and Eggleton, 1990). 123  Mixed layer minerals of interstratified clay minerals are a component of most soil profiles. The most abundant is illite-smectite, which may form either as a transitionary phase as a mineral alters from illite and to smectite or it may form directly from the weathering of a primary mineral due to an abundance of appropriate cations (Velde and Meunier, 2008).  4.4.3. Results 4.4.3.1. SWIR Mineral Analysis Results of SWIR mineral analysis of soil samples from all three locations are displayed in Table 4.5. Interstratified illite and smectite were detected in all colluvium and B horizon material samples. Interstratified illite and smectite were not detected in saprolite samples from the Eureka area or from a sample of saprolite from exposure E001. Using this data, PCI cannot be distinguished from WCI. 4.4.3.2. XRD Results See section 4.3.2.  4.4.5. Discussion 4.4.5.1. Detection Of Hydrothermal Minerals Using SWIR SWIR analysis has limited usefulness for detecting the presence of hydrothermal alteration minerals. Although the minerals identified by SWIR were generally confirmed by XRD, it is not practical to use SWIR analysis to establish the crystallinity of illite in soil samples. Furthermore, no additional mineral was successfully identified as having a hydrothermal origin using SWIR analysis. Illite crystallinity in a sample of pure illite may be determined using spectral data acquired from SWIR analysis. Dividing the depth of the 2200 nm trough by the area of the 1900 nm water feature produces a measure of crystallinity for an illite sample (AusSpec International Ltd., 2008,). Comparison of this result with standard reference material allows WCI to be distinguished from PCI. However, this method does not work if the sample contains a hydrous mineral such as smectite, the presence of which produces a relatively large water feature obscuring the feature made by illite.  124  Table 4.5  Exposure  Sample ID  Material  Biotite	 Muscovite  I/S  Kaolinite  Jarosite  Boulevard E051  E051 		E051  E001  E001  E001  E001  E001  E001 		E001  E002  E002  E002  E002  00003 00005 00006 25199 25201 25208 25209 25210 25214 25215 25222 25223 25230 25233  Colluvium Colluvium Colluvium Altered sap Oxidized sap Colluvium Colluvium Colluvium Colluvium Colluvium Colluvium Colluvium Saprolite Saprolite  yes yes Yes - - Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes - Yes - Yes  - - - yes - - - - - - - - - -  yes yes yes - yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes  - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  - yes - -  Golden E038 Saddle E039  E039 		E039  E076  E076 		E076  E077 		E077  E079  25093 25103 25101 25102 00203 00204 00205 00201 00202 00217  Colluvium Colluvium Bm horizon Bm horizon Bm horizon Bm horizon Colluvium Bm horizon Bm horizon Colluvium  - - - - - - - - - -  - - - - - - - - - -  yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes  - - - - - - - - - -  - - - - - -  I/S = Interlayered illite and smectite  Sap = saprolite  125  4.5. Conclusions Loess in soil can be identified by comparing trace element ratios from soil samples with samples of pure loess and parent material from the study area. Comparison of the ratio Th/Ta in loess and parent material to soil samples yielded realistic loess proportions that were repeatable. The trace elements used in the calculations may not be applicable in every location; however the concept has been demonstrated to be effective. Cryoturbated colluvium has a vertically homogenous mineral composition. There is no indication that increasing sample depth will lessen the proportion of loess or increase the concentration of Au or pathfinder elements in a soil sample. Thus the most efficient sampling approach in this domain is to collect material from the upper 15 cm of the soil profile. It is possible to detect hydrothermal alteration minerals in the soil profile. The detection of wellcrystalized illite in surficial material suggests that hydrothermal alteration minerals may be preserved in the periglacial surficial environment. Identification of clay alteration minerals in surficial material provides an additional layer of information to the exploration geologist. With advances in field portable XRD hardware, it is cost and time effective to analyze the mineral composition of soil samples. It is also possible to detect allochthonous minerals by comparing the mineral content of B horizon material to that of its underlying parent material. However, this is only possible if the underlying bedrock has a distinctive mineral composition. Further, observations of texture and color recorded in the field will provide a more reliable and cost effective method of recognizing the occurrence of loess in a sample. SWIR analysis did not provide the resolution of data required to identify high temperature hydrothermal minerals. Although minerals identified by SWIR analysis were confirmed by XRD and visual study of parent material, SWIR analysis did not provide adequate data to discriminate minerals that were specific to a hydrothermal origin.  126  5. Exploration Considerations And Conclusions 5.1. Introduction Herein, learnings accumulated from the completion of this thesis are integrated to provide considerations for the exploration geochemist working in the periglacial environment. This is presented in three sections: 1) the first section provides information on the efficient planning of a survey; 2) the second section provides information on best sampling practices; 3) and the third section provides information on the interpretation of soil geochemical data.  5.1.1. Considerations When Planning Soil Geochemical Surveys Surficial mapping in west-central Yukon revealed the presence of significant and irregularly-distributed areas of terrain which are unsuitable to conventional soil sampling methods. These areas include watersaturated soils, zones of felsenmeer and talus and thick drifts of undecomposed, frozen organic material. These zones are typically capped by ubiquitous sphagnum moss, masking their presence from casual observation. Soil surveys conducted in these areas do not report the geochemistry of underlying material and sampling of them is a waste of time and money. Detailed surficial mapping reports the distribution of such materials and allows the savvy geochemist to either avoid them or sample creatively. The occurrence of permafrost hinders sample collection. The physical collection a sample of frozen soil is laborious and time consuming. Furthermore, penetrating the upper layer of frozen organic material to collect underlying parent material generally is impractical. In this instance a detailed surficial map will facilitate a season long sampling strategy, highlighting areas which will thaw early and areas best reserved until late in the season when the active layer is at its deepest. This process saves time and money and prevents the collection of poor quality sample material.  5.1.2. Sampling Current sampling practices involve the selection a single sample collection method which is applied consistently across a wide range of surficial materials; however this works supports the viewpoint that sample collection protocols are best established by site specific orientation surveys. Case studies presented in this provide a start for establishing sample protocol. These case studies established that 127  variations in the distribution of metals occur across surficial domains. For example, in areas dominated by cryoturbation, samples collected in the upper 15 cm yield similar results to samples collected at 85 cm depth. Furthermore, such areas are typified by the absence of a Bm horizon. In these areas samples can be efficiently collected from the near surface with manual tools. Contrastingly, areas where a welldeveloped Bm horizon occurs, collecting samples from below the Bm horizon yields geochemical results that are more representative of the underlying geology than Bm horizon samples. Additionally, variations of surficial geology occur at many scales. Surficial material and processes vary on the scale of hundreds of meters, as controlled by aspect, elevation and vegetation. Materials and processes also vary at the property scale and over the district scale. Permafrost increases in intensity northwards and loess distribution increases with proximity to glacial centers. Tephra distribution varies across west-central Yukon; deposits range from up to 1 m thick to non-existent. Thus, no single sample protocol for westcentral Yukon can be established; sample strategy is best planned based on orientation studies conducted in each style of surficial material identified on a property by detailed surficial mapping. Comparison of aqua regia and fire assay digestions along with comparison of the -177 μm and -63 μm size fraction was conducted to establish the optimum analysis and preparation for samples collected in west-central Yukon. Analysis of the -63 μm and -177 μm size fractions from the same samples yielded similar Au concentrations for each sample; however, the -63 μm size fraction yielded consistently higher results than the -177 μm. Variations in the size fraction of material analyzed do not cause the concentration of Au to over-report. Thus, the size fraction that consistently yields lower Au concentrations is considered to be less precise. In this instance the -63 μm size fraction is considered to be the more precise of the two. Aqua regia and fire assay yielded equally precise results; furthermore, both forms of digestion yielded similar values for each sample. The aqua regia method used in this thesis has a detection limit of 0.2 ppb and the fire assay package has a detection limit of 1 ppb. Results less than ten times the detection limit are less accurate and precise (see appendix I), thus, fire assay results below 10 ppb are less accurate and precise than similar aqua regia results of the same samples. It is at these low concentrations that accuracy and precision are most important as these results exert the most control over the size and geometry of the anomaly. Therefore the -63 μm size-fraction digested in aqua regia is the optimum size fraction and digestion for use in west-central Yukon.  128  A method for detecting bedrock alteration by analyzing the mineralogy of surficial material was explored. Parent material is composed of minerals contributed by underlying bedrock, thus hydrothermal alteration minerals from underlying bedrock should comprise a portion of a sample of parent material. In this instance, illite that was determined to have had a hydrothermal origin was detected in surficial material above the Golden Saddle deposit. This supports the concept that minerals that form in hydrothermal conditions can remain intact in surficial material in sufficient quantities to be detected by XRD methods. Owing to surficial dispersion processes, the footprint of alteration minerals in surficial material surrounding a deposit is larger and more consistent than the footprint of Au above a deposit. This method is most useful in the early phases of an exploration project, where large tracts of terrain are speedily evaluated with the widest sample spacing possible. This method provides and additional layer of data to consider. With developments in field portable XRD hardware results of analysis are available instantly in the field.  5.1.3. Interpretation Of Soil Geochemical Data Surficial mapping provides additional benefit when interpreting soil geochemical data. Applying information of the distribution of surficial material and processes to existing geochemical data allows workers to establish confidence in geochemical interpretations. Furthermore, applying information on the distribution of transported surficial material will aid in generating a drill target from soil geochemical data. For example, In the Boulevard area, zones of cryoturbated saprolite are observed to occur sporadically throughout areas of cryoturbated colluvium. Knowledge of the distribution of these zones of in situ material will assist in understanding the geometry of a soil geochemical anomaly. The variable dilution of metal concentrations in soils due to the addition of loess is a challenge to exploration geochemistry in west-central Yukon. Adapting sample collection to mitigate this factor is the simplest solution to this issue. Soil containing loess can be recognized by abundant silt and by the smooth, shiny look to a fresh cut surface. Instructing employees in the recognition of this material and to preferentially collect material from beneath it will mitigate the issue. When dealing with historic datasets, a method to retrospectively establish loess dilution is explored. It was established that a proxy for the proportion of loess in each soil sample can be established using the formula detailed in section 4.3.2.2. The results of this method are repeatable; the method is applied at the Golden Saddle deposit and is repeated at the Eureka area. In order for this method to be effective, results are best separated into populations by the underlying lithologies that are contributing to the 129  parent material of the sample, using major element geochemistry. Then the trace element geochemical signature of the parent material of each population of soil samples is established. This can be done by analyzing multiple samples of parent material derived from each type of geology.  5.1.4. Future Work Proposed future work in this field includes a study of the distribution of hydrothermal minerals in surficial material above a well constrained Au deposit. The exploration method detailed in this thesis is based on the presumption that the footprint of alteration minerals in surficial material surrounding a deposit is larger and more consistent than the footprint of Au above a deposit. This theory may be tested by XRD analysis the pulps and rejects of a soil geochemical survey from above a Au deposit that is spatially well-constrained. Furthermore, the optimum size fraction may be established by analyzing multiple size fractions of samples. It is theorized that the <2 μm fraction of pulverized 2 mm size fraction will best yield positive results for alteration minerals, as it has been least subject to chemical weathering. It is proposed that further work include a study into reproducing the method for approximating the proportion of loess in a soil sample. This method can be verified by collecting multiple samples of parent material and material from the top and bottom of the Bm horizon at multiple sites within west-central Yukon. The presence of loess can be estimated with field observations of color, texture and grain-size. Loess-rich soil is darker then underlying soil and has a greater proportion of silt sized particles. Laboratory analysis of the grain-size distribution is expected to verify the upward increase in silt sized particles. Whole rock geochemical analysis of these samples is recommended. The formula for approximating the proportion of loess in a soil sample is detailed in section 4.3.4.1. Further work in this area will add considerable value to work completed in this thesis and will determine if this method is a viable exploration tool. It is proposed that a study into the vertical distribution of Au in colluvium on a south-facing slope where bedrock Au mineralization is spatially well constrained. Advances in drilling technology allow for cores of soil to be collected efficiently. It is recommended that samples be collected from a fence of soil core holes from surface to saprock, situated above the zone of bedrock mineralization, which is orientated orthogonal to contour lines. From this a cross section of the distribution of Au in colluvium may be constructed. Interpretation of this data will assist greatly in determining the optimum depth for sample collection and will facilitate the interpretation of soil geochemical data. 130  6. Conclusions Two principle challenges to the use of geochemistry when exploring for lode gold in periglacial environments are identified: 1) the variability of surficial materials; at this high latitude minor variations in slope aspect, gradient or vegetation cover impose major variations in the evolution of surficial materials (Smith et al., 2009). 2); deposits of loess and tephra to the soil profile dilute the concentration of metal in soil samples. These features result in low or erratic geochemical responses and inhibit recognition of anomalies, trends, thresholds and effective identification of source. This thesis presents the results of a detailed study of the surficial geology and geochemistry of three mineralized areas. Initially, the surficial geology of each area is examined to classify and record surficial variability. Once various styles of surficial material are defined, the effect that surficial variability and loess dilution exert on the distribution of Au and pathfinder elements within the soil profile is established. Finally, two methods of circumventing these challenges are explored: 1) a method of establishing the concentration of loess in a given soil sample and 2) a method for detecting the presence of bedrock hydrothermal alteration systems by analyzing surficial material.  6.1. Surficial Variability Based on field observation, it is concluded that variations in surficial geology occur on the scale of hundreds of meters. Surficial mapping units were defined to characterize and map the distribution of these changes. Terrain is divided into surficial domains, which incorporate observations of topography, surficial material and inferred surficial processes. Maps which utilize these surficial domains present data that is relevant to the planning of soil geochemical surveys and the interpretation of the resulting data. Three styles of surficial domain were studied: 1) cryoturbated colluvium; 2) colluvium overlain directly by well-developed soil; and 3) saprolite overlain directly by well-developed soil. Based on the evaluation of geochemical profiles, it is concluded that there is considerable geochemical variability between these different styles of surficial material. Cryoturbated colluvium is vertically homogenous, in terms of both texture and geochemistry. Thus it is reasoned that the rate of physical mixing by freeze-thaw action is greater than the rate of hydromorphic mobility of most elements. Depth of sample has no systematic bearing on Au concentration within this material. In areas where colluvium and B horizon material dominate, samples of colluvium yield a stronger geochemical signal and greater contrast between 131  anomalous and non-anomalous responses than Bm horizon material. Within colluvium itself, no optimum sample depth is identified. In areas where the dominant material is saprolite underlying Bm horizon material, samples of saprolite yield a stronger geochemical signal and greater contrast between anomalous and non-anomalous responses than Bm horizon material. Within saprolite itself, sampling deeper has been shown to yields greater Au values.  6.2. Dilution Of Metal Concentration By The Addition Of Loess The addition of loess to the upper portion of the soil profile is been demonstrated to dilute the concentration of Au in soil samples. The distribution of loess is controlled by proximity to glacial centers, topography, and vegetation, and as a result, there may be a high degree of variability in the amount of loess between samples within a soil geochemical survey. A method of establishing the proportion of loess in a sample, and thus the dilution effect, is tested. By comparing ratios of Th/Ta in loess and parent material to Th/Ta in soil samples, the proportion of loess in a sample can be approximated. Proportions of loess in the Bdm horizon and Bm horizon from a selection of exposures from the above Golden Saddle deposit are calculated using the following formula: (A – B) / C = proportion of loess in sample Where A = Average Th/Ta value of parent material B = Average Th/Ta value of pure loess C = Th/Ta value of soil sample  6.3. Detection Of Bedrock Hydrothermal Alteration In Soils This study demonstrates that it is possible to detect large hydrothermal systems by analyzing the mineral contained in samples of surficial material from the periglacial environment. Well-crystalized illite forms specifically in the hydrothermal environment and remains stable in weathered surficial materials. The detection of hydrothermal systems is based on the identification of such minerals through x-ray diffraction. In this instance, well-crystalized illite was recognized in surficial material overlying the Golden Saddle deposit. Work by Bailey (2013) identifies illite as the principle alteration 132  mineral associated with Au mineralization at the Golden Saddle deposit. Well-crystalized illite can be distinguished from surficial illite its crystallinity, which is established by measuring the full width-half maximum (FWHM) of the 7Å peak of XRD patterns. The recognition of bedrock hydrothermal alteration by the analysis of surficial material may be particularly useful when exploring for deposits with a minimal footprint or with a paucity of bedrock exposure.  6.4. Applicability Of This Work Learnings from this work are applicable across a range of districts and for a variety of styles of exploration geochemistry. Periglacial conditions are wide spread in areas at higher latitudes, e.g., in Canada, Greenland and Russia. Furthermore, periglacial conditions occur at alpine elevations across the globe. Many styles of soil geochemistry are applied to exploration; whether particulate metals are targeted by aggressive digestions of parent material or hydromorphically remobilised ions are targeted by weak digests of organic-rich soil, conclusions of this thesis are expected to add value to exploration efforts. Furthermore these learnings may be applied to non-periglacial terrain. Work in any area where topography exerts substantial control over the evolution of surficial materials is greatly benefited by an improved understanding of the surficial geology. Establishing the distribution of Au in the range of surficial materials present and the distribution of these materials in the work area greatly aids the planning and interpretation of soil geochemical surveys. Knowledge of the distribution of processes effecting surficial material in sampled terrain assists in the interpretation of soil geochemical data. For example, when using weak leaches to extract hydromorphically transported ions in areas of deep cover, establishing the distribution of water saturated ground is beneficial when interpreting data. Water saturation will affect the geochemical processes involved in the sorption of ions to clays, thus affecting the outcome of a soil geochemical survey.  133  References Aleinikoff, J. N., Muhs, D. R., Sauer, R. 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Moore, D. M., and Reynolds, R. C., 1997, X-ray diffraction and the identification and analysis of clay minerals. Oxford University Press (OUP), 332 p. Muhs, D. R., Bettis, E. A., Aleinikoff, J. N., McGeehin, J. P., Beann, J., Skipp, G., Marshall, B. D., Roberts, H. M., Johnson, W. C., and  Benton, R., 2008, Origin and paleoclimatic significance of late  Quaternary loess in Nebraska: Evidence from stratigraphy, chronology, sedimentology, and geochemistry: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 120, p. 1378-1407. Muhs, D. R., and Bettis, E. A., 2000, Geochemical variations in Peoria Loess of western Iowa indicate paleowinds of midcontinental North America during last glaciation: Quaternary Research, v. 53, p. 49-61.  138  Muhs, D. R., and Budahn, J. R., 2006, Geochemical evidence for the origin of late Quaternary loess in central Alaska: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 43, p. 323-337. Nelson, J., Colpron, M., Piercey, S. J., Dusel-Bacon, C., Murphy, D. C., and Roots, C. F., 2006, Paleozoic tectonic and metallogenetic evolution of pericratonic terranes in Yukon, northern British Columbia and eastern Alaska: Paleozoic evolution and metallogeny of pericratonic terranes at the ancient Pacific margin of North America Canadian and Alaskan Cordillera: Geological Association of Canada Special Paper, v. 45, p. 323-360. Norikazu, M., 2001, Solifluction rates, processes and landforms: a global review: Earth-Science Reviews, v. 55, p. 107-134. Price, L. W., 1973, Rates of mass wasting in the Ruby Range, Yukon Territory, Permafrost: North American contribution, Second International Permafrost Conference: Yakutsk, USSR, National Academy of Science, p. 2115, 235-245. Richter, D. H., Preece, S. J., McGimsey, R. G., and Westgate, J. A., 1995, Mount Churchill, Alaska: source of the late Holocene White River Ash: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 32, p. 741-748. Rivkina, E. M., Friedmann, E. I., McKay, C. P., and Gilichinsky, D. A., 2000, metabolic activity of permafrost bacteria below the freezing point: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, v. 66, p. 3230-3233. Rose, A. W., Hawkes, H. E., and Webb, J. S., 1979, Geochemistry in mineral exploration, academic press London. 657 p. Scheu, S., and Schulz, E., 1996, Secondary succession, soil formation and development of a diverse community of oribatids and saprophagous soil macro-invertebrates: Biodiversity and Conservation, v. 5, p. 235-250. Schnürer, J., Clarholm, M., Boström, S., and  Rosswall, T., 1986, Effects of moisture on soil  microorganisms and nematodes: a field experiment: Microbial ecology, v. 12, p. 217230.Simonson, R. W., 1959, Outline of a generalized theory of soil genesis, p. 156.  139  Smith, C. A. S., Sanborn, P. T., Bond, J. D., and Frank, G., 2009, Genesis of turbic cryosols on north-facing slopes in a dissected, unglaciated landscape, west-central Yukon Territory: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, v. 89, p. 611-622. Smith, M., and Riseborough, D., 2002, Climate and the limits of permafrost: a zonal analysis: Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, v. 13, p. 1-15. Smith, C., 2004, Ecoregions of the Yukon Territory: Biophysical properties of Yukon landscapes, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Stroeven, A. P., Fabel, D., Codilean, A. T., Kleman, J., Clague, J. J., Miguens-Rodriguez, M., and Xu, S., 2010, Investigating the glacial history of the northern sector of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet with cosmogenic 10Be concentrations in quartz: Quaternary Science Reviews, v. 29, p. 3630-3643. Taylor, B. E., 2007, Epithermal gold deposits: Mineral Deposits of Canada: A Synthesis of Major DepositTypes, District Metallogeny, the Evolution of Geological Provinces, and Exploration Methods: Geological Association of Canada, Mineral Deposits Division, Special Publication, p. 113-139. Taylor, S. R., McLennan, S. M., and McCulloch, M. T., 1983, Geochemistry of loess, continental crustal composition and crustal model ages: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 47, p. 1897-1905. Turetsky, M. R., Wieder, R. K., Vitt, D. H., Evans, R. J., and Scott, K. D., 2007, The disappearance of relict permafrost in boreal north America: Effects on peatland carbon storage and fluxes: Global Change Biology, v. 13, p. 1922-1934. van Everdingen, R., 1998 (revised January, 2005), Multilanguage glossary of permafrost and related ground-ice terms, International Permafrost Association Terminology Working Group, Boulder, CO: National Snow and Ice Data Centre/World Data Centre for Glaciology, p. 90. Velde, B. B., and Meunier, A., 2008, The origin of clay minerals in soils and weathered rocks, Springer. Ward, B. C., Bond, J. D., Froese, D., and Jensen, B., 2008, Old Crow tephra (140 ± 10ka) constrains penultimate Reid glaciation in central Yukon Territory: Quaternary Science Reviews, v. 27, p. 1909-1915.  140  Wengzynowski, W. A., 2000, Assessment Report Describing Geological Mapping and Geochemical Surveys on the Eureka Property: Assessment report prepared by Archer, Cathro & Associates (1981) Limited. 22 p. Zoeller, M., and Brockamp, O., 1997, 1M-and 2M 1-illites; different minerals and not polytypes; results from single crystal investigations at the transmission electron microscope (TEM): European Journal of Mineralogy, v. 9, p. 821-827.  141  Appendix I QAQC A QAQC protocol was followed during the analysis of samples collected in the 2010 field season. Duplicate analysis was performed on a random selection of pulps and field duplicate samples were collected. Standard reference material pulps were inserted with samples in order to test the precision and accuracy of analysis. The results are positive and the data returned falls within acceptable degrees of error.  Preparation duplicate data One pulp in 20 was selected for duplicate analysis. Preparation duplicate results are plotted in Figures 3.45. and I.1. Tables I.1. and I.2. contain the percent difference between each paired set of results. The majority of paired results plotted within ±30% of each other; however some results for Au, Te and W have greater than 30% error. Of the 14 paired results of samples within the -63 μm size fraction, five samples have Au results with greater than 30% error. Of these results three are of samples extracted using fire assay and two are of samples extracted using aqua regia. Both the aqua regia samples are at or close to ten times the detection limit of Au. Of the 14 paired results of samples within the -177 μm size fraction, four samples have Au results with greater than 30% error. Of these results one is of a sample extracted using fire assay and three are of samples extracted using aqua regia. Both the aqua regia samples are at or close to ten times the detection limit of Au. The samples with greater than 30% error are attributed to the presence of nuggetty gold. Of the 14 paired Te results, nine have greater than 30% error however, six of these nine results are below ten times the detection limit and the remaining three are close to ten times the detection limit. Of the 14 paired W results, four have greater than 30% error however, all four results are below ten times the detection limit.  142  Sample Number 25213 25394 25128 25209 25012 25095 25417 25478 E442015 25051 25023 25086 25415 E442005 25226 25412 25116 25199 E442013  Size fraction 177 μm 177 μm 177 μm 177 μm 177 μm 177 μm 177 μm 177 μm 177 μm 177 μm 63 m 63 μm 63 μm 63 μm 63 μm 63 μm 63 μm 63 μm 63 μm  Certificate No    VAN11001645A VAN11001645A VAN11001645A VAN11001645A VAN11001645A VAN11001645A VAN11001645A VAN11001645A VAN11001645A VAN11001645A VAN11001645 VAN11001645 VAN11001645 VAN11001645 VAN11001645 VAN11001645 VAN11001645 VAN11001645 VAN11001645  Mo  4.8 4.7 0.0 0.0 6.1 2.5 3.0 12.4 6.7 6.5 4.0 0.0 15.2 5.6 10.8 1.9 7.5 1.0 6.7  Cu  3.5 6.5 0.2 1.8 5.7 2.0 2.1 5.1 7.6 4.8 0.6 2.1 -13.4 3.4 15.1 0.5 6.4 1.7 5.5  Pb  4.1 2.4 2.3 0.5 2.6 0.9 4.0 8.2 3.6 9.5 4.3 2.3 13.3 5.2 3.0 8.3 0.9 1.2 5.0  Zn  10.0 13.4 0.1 6.5 4.8 1.3 12.6 0.4 2.6 5.5 1.0 3.9 9.8 5.7 2.5 6.4 8.4 1.5 2.2  As  3.6 6.3 2.7 2.9 4.8 1.5 3.1 5.8 6.3 1.5 1.1 0.8 14.4 5.1 1.7 1.0 1.2 1.2 4.8  Au  2.2 6.1 7.1 17.2 12.5 5.2 55.2 53.6 63.3 17.1 3.6 7.4 4.7 49.2 4.4 58.9 84.0 2.7 6.1  Sb  0.0 9.9 0.4 1.9 0.0 4.8 9.5 10.3 0.0 1.8 1.4 1.3 10.8 7.1 4.6 6.0 6.9 2.5 5.3  Bi  7.1 2.4 5.3 4.3 28.6 3.7 1.7 9.6 4.8 25.0 0.0 0.0 11.7 0.0 11.8 2.0 12.0 0.0 46.7  W  0.0 0.0 0.0 50.0 0.0 5.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 66.7 0.0 3.1 20.0 100 0.0 0.0 16.7 0.0 50.0  Te 75.0 37.5 16.7 28.6 200.0 60.0 125.0 75.0 50.0 0.0 0.0 121.4 50.0 71.4 10.3 100.0 211.1 1.9 2600  Table I.1. Percent variation between each set of paired preparation duplicate results for a selection of metals  143  Sample ID E442013 25391 25101 25415 25019 E442011 25095 25214 25475 25204  Size fraction 177 μm 177 μm 177 μm 177 μm 177 μm 63 μm 63 μm 63 μm 63 μm 63 μm  Certificate no. VAN11001645A VAN11001645A VAN11001645A VAN11001645A VAN11001645A VAN11001645 VAN11001645 VAN11001645 VAN11001645 VAN11001645  Au 10 33 25 49 20 14 17 68 67 1  Table I.2. Percent variation between each set of paired preparation duplicate results for Au by fire assay  144  Preparation duplicates Mo ppm  Preparation duplicates Cu ppm  10.00  1000.00 100.00  1.00  Cu ppb  Mo ppb  10.00  0.10  1.00 0.10  0.01 0.01  0.10  Mo ppb  1.00  10.00  Preparation duplicates Sb ppm  100.0  1000.00 100.00  W ppb  Sb ppb  0.10  1.00 10.00 Cu ppb  100.00 1000.00  Preparation duplicates W ppm  10.0  10.00 1.00  1.0  0.1  0.10 0.01 0.01  10.00  0.01 0.01  0.10  1.00 10.00 Sb ppb  100.00 1000.00  0.0  0.1  1.0 W ppb  10.0  100.0  Preparation duplicates Te ppm  Preparation duplicates Bi ppm  10.00  1.00  Bi ppb  Te ppb  1.00  0.10  0.10  0.01 0.01  0.0  0.10 Bi ppb  1.00  10.00  0.01 0.01  0.10 Te ppb 1.00  10.00  145  Preparation duplicates As ppm 10000.0  100.0  100.0  Zn ppb  As ppb  1000.0  10.0  10.0  1.0  1.0 0.1  Preparation duplicates Zn ppm  1000.0  0.1  1.0  10.0 100.0 As ppb  1000.0 10000.0  0.1  0.1  1.0  10.0 Zn ppb  100.0  1000.0  Preparation duplicates Pb ppm 1000.00 100.00  Aqua regia 63 μm size fraction Aqua regia 177 μm size fraction 10 x detection limit  Pb ppb  10.00 1.00  ±30% error bars  0.10 0.01 0.01  0.10  1.00 10.00 Pb ppb  100.00 1000.00  Figure. I.1. Graphs depicting original results and preparation duplicate results for a selection of metals. All paired results have less than 30% divergence above ten times the detection limit.  146  Field Duplicates Eleven field duplicates were collected to test how representative the original samples are of the surrounding material. They were collected from the same horizon as, and in close proximity to, the original samples. The field duplicates were prepared and analyzed using the same procedure as the original samples. Field duplicate results are plotted in Figures I.2. and I.3. Tables I.3. and I.4. contain the percent difference between each paired set of results. The majority of paired results plotted within ±30% of each other; however some results for Au, As, Sb, Te and W have greater than 30% error. Of the 22 paired results of samples within the -63 μm size fraction, eight samples have Au results with greater than 30% error. Of these results three are of samples extracted using fire assay and five are of samples extracted using aqua regia. Two of the three samples extracted using aqua regia have Au concentrations below ten times the detection limit of Au. Of the 14 paired results of samples within the -177 μm size fraction, nine samples have Au results with greater than 30% error. Of these results four are of samples extracted using fire assay and five are of samples extracted using aqua regia. Three of the four aqua regia samples have Au concentrations below to ten times the detection limit of Au. The paired results with greater than 30% error are attributed to the presence of nuggetty gold. Original results for sample number 25210 have elevated As and Sb concentration relative to the duplicate result in both size fractions. This is a reflection of local variability in the sample material. The remaining paired results had less than 30% error. Paired Te and W results do not correlate well, 18 of the 22 Te results are below ten times the detection limit and two are close to ten times the detection limit. All 22 paired W results, are below ten times the detection limit.  147  Sample ID 25050 25150 25110 25210 25230 25390 25410 25450 25470 E442010 E442030 25051 25151 25111 25211 25231 25391 25411 25451 25471 E442011 E442031  Certificate No VAN11001645 VAN11001645 VAN11001645 VAN11001645 VAN11001645 VAN11001645 VAN11001645 VAN11001645 VAN11001645 VAN11001645 VAN11001645 VAN11001645a VAN11001645a VAN11001645a VAN11001645a VAN11001645a VAN11001645a VAN11001645a VAN11001645a VAN11001645a VAN11001645a VAN11001645a  Size fraction 63 μm 63 μm 63 μm 63 μm 63 μm 63 μm 63 μm 63 μm 63 μm 63 μm 63 μm 177 μm 177 μm 177 μm 177 μm 177 μm 177 μm 177 μm 177 μm 177 μm 177 μm 177 μm  Mo 2.3 4.2 9.1 22.9 2.6 7.3 10.6 17.0 3.3 6.8 8.6 22.0 2.4 6.7 36.8 1.0 1.2 6.3 5.6 2.7 39.2 4.4  Cu 1.7 1.7 12.0 18.0 5.1 6.2 9.0 25.6 11.7 14.0 5.3 17.6 6.8 4.2 7.1 5.4 9.0 11.3 13.8 2.6 9.5 3.0  Pb 1.6 2.7 6.2 3.7 6.4 0.8 18.2 25.4 1.7 11.8 6.0 34.0 6.1 4.4 15.6 13.0 9.5 14.5 5.7 4.8 14.9 2.9  Zn 8.3 3.8 7.5 1.6 14.8 2.9 6.6 6.0 0.6 8.0 2.1 29.3 0.7 0.6 13.3 18.9 9.6 11.3 2.3 2.4 15.8 3.9  As 0.0 9.5 5.7 80.7 18.9 0.5 6.9 19.7 5.0 1.1 7.9 39.8 7.1 6.2 84.8 33.6 1.9 9.3 7.0 0.4 9.7 6.2  Au 10.1 20.3 4.9 70.5 26.8 79.7 79.6 6.0 5.1 63.9 61.5 31.7 2.6 22.2 71.4 32.0 131.3 80.2 19.5 17.9 69.6 2011  Sb 0.0 0.8 9.1 77.1 66.0 14.1 3.4 6.7 14.8 12.3 18.2 17.8 9.0 0.0 85.1 60.9 23.5 2.2 13.3 4.8 60.2 15.9  Bi 5.3 5.3 3.8 17.2 6.7 3.3 17.0 25.9 3.6 9.1 19.2 21.1 0.0 5.9 4.0 11.1 14.7 17.2 10.4 5.0 25.0 6.7  W 0.0 0.0 0.0 50.0 0.0 50.0 25.0 16.7 0.0 0.0 25.0 66.7 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 50.0 62.5 0.0 0.0 50.0 33.3  Te 53.3 33.3 25.0 0.0 95.6 25.0 44.0 12.5 14.3 33.3 33.3 66.7 60.0 0.0 15.4 93.2 0.0 88.9 42.9 16.7 45.5 18.2  Table I.3. Percent variation between each set of paired field duplicate results for a selection of metals  148  Sample ID 25050 25150 25110 25210 25230 25390 25410 25450 25470 E442010 E442030 25051 25151 25111 25211 25231 25391 25411 25451 25471 E442011 E442031  Certificate  VAN11001645 VAN11001645 VAN11001645 VAN11001645 VAN11001645 VAN11001645 VAN11001645 VAN11001645 VAN11001645 VAN11001645 VAN11001645 VAN11001645a VAN11001645a VAN11001645a VAN11001645a VAN11001645a VAN11001645a VAN11001645a VAN11001645a VAN11001645a VAN11001645a VAN11001645a  Size fraction 63 μm 63 μm 63 μm 63 μm 63 μm 63 μm 63 μm 63 μm 63 μm 63 μm 63 μm 177 μm 177 μm 177 μm 177 μm 177 μm 177 μm 177 μm 177 μm 177 μm 177 μm 177 μm  Au 18.2 6.3 18.2 74.1 8.6 75.0 1.0 6.2 75.0 27.1 61.3 37.5 3.1 21.4 81.5 22.6 55.6 5.5 0.9 0.0 110.5 5.6  Table I.4. Percent variation between each set of paired field duplicate results for Au by fire assay  149  Field duplicates  100000  10000 Fire assay -63 μm Fire assay -177μm Aqua regia -63 μm Aqua regia -177 μm  Au ppb  1000  Fire Assay 10x detection limit  100  Aqua regia 10x detection limit 30% error 10  1 1  10  100  1000  10000  100000  Au ppb  Figure I.2. Graphs depicting original results and field duplicate results for aqua regia and fire assay digestions of the -63 μm and -177 μm size fractions. Samples acquired from above the Boulevard area, the Golden Saddle deposit and the Eureka area.  150  100  Field duplicates Mo ppm  10000 1000  Sb ppm  Mo ppm  10  1  100 10  0.1  1  0.01 0.01  1000  Field duplicates Sb ppm  0.1  1 Mo ppm  10  0.1  100  Field duplicates Cu ppm  100  0.1  1  10 100 Sb ppm  1000  10000  Field duplicates Bi ppm  10  10  Bi ppm  Cu ppm  100  1  1  0.1 0.01 0.01  1000  1  Cu ppm  0.1  100  Field duplicates Pb ppm  100  100  1  Bi ppm  10  100  Field duplicates W ppm  10 W ppm  Pb ppm  0.1  10  1  1 0.1  0.1 0.01 0.01  0.1  1 10 Pb ppm  100  1000  0.01 0.01  0.1  1 W ppm  10  100  151  10000  Field duplicates Te ppm  Field duplicates As ppm  100  100  1  Te ppm  10  As ppm  1000  10  0.1  1  0.01  0.1  0.1  1000  1  10  100 As ppm  1000  10000  0.01  0.1 1 Te ppm  10  100  Field duplicates Zn ppm  100 Zn ppm  0.001 0.001  Aqua regia 63 μm size fraction Aqua regia 177 μm size fraction 10 x detection limit  10  ±30% error bars  1  0.1  0.1  1  10 Zn ppm  100  1000  Figure. I.3. Graphs depicting original results and field duplicate results for a selection of metals.  152  Standard reference material A standard reference material pulp was inserted every 20 samples. These were acquired from Ore Research & Exploration Pty Ltd. Two ferruginous soil standards (OREAS_45b & OREAS_45c) were used to reference low values and a polymetallic ore standard (OREAS_153a) was used to reference high values. Standards were submitted in sealed foil sachets, each containing 60 g of pulp. Sachets of OREAS_153a, OREAS_45b and OREAS_45c were labeled A, B and C respectively. Results were returned with the analytical data with A, B or C as the sample number, in order of the sequence of analysis.  Source Materials Multi-element soil standards OREAS 45b and OREAS 45c are a pigeon pair prepared from a 40:60 blend and a 50:50 blend respectively of soil characterized by anomalous levels of precious and base metals and barren soil. The anomalous sample was obtained from soil developed over a Ni-Cu-PGE mineralized contact between gabbro and pyroxenite from the Southern Murchison region of Western Australia while the barren sample was taken from an in situ layer of mature soil developed over early Tertiary olivine basalt in outer eastern Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. OREAS 153a is one of three porphyry Au-Cu-Mo-S certified reference materials prepared from copper ore from the Waisoi district, Viti Levu, Fiji. The two deposits in the area are the Waisoi East deposit (quartz porphyry) and the Waisoi West deposit (diorite porphyry). Copper mineralization in the region is accompanied by stock work quartz veinlets and is characterized by bornite-chalcopyrite-pyrite assemblages formed under a high sulphidation environment. Seven commercial laboratories participated in the analytical program to characterize OREAS_45b & OREAS_45c. Twenty-one laboratories participated in the analytical program to characterize gold (21 labs), copper and molybdenum (19 labs) and sulfur (17 labs) contained in OREAS_153a. The certified value for each standard is the mean of means of accepted replicate values of participating laboratories. The standard deviations of the means were calculated by the supplier. Certificate values and standard deviations for the ferruginous soil reference materials were calculated by the supplier for Sb, As, Bi, Cd, CR, Co, Au, Pb, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ag and Zn by ICP-MS with aqua regia digest and for Au, Pd and Pt by fire Assay with an ICP-MS finish. For Au analysis Oreas_153a was digested using fire assay and Cu, Mo and S were digested using a 4 acid digest and multiple analysis. Au was analyzed 153  by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) on ~1.3 g. Cu, Mo and S were analyzed by AAS – flame atomic absorption spectrometry; ICPOES - inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry; ICP- MS -inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; IRC - infra red combustion furnace. The certificate value is the mean of the means of the results of the participating labs. The relative standard deviation is the absolute value of the coefficient of variation of these means. Lab results for reference material submitted with samples were plotted relative to ±1, ±2 and ±3 standard deviations. Table I.5. shows the results for each element for OREAS_45b. Table I.5. shows results for OREAS_45b. Fire Assay for Au plotted mostly within 2 standard deviations (SD) but had a low bias. All results were below the certificate value. Au by ICP-MS plotted within 1 SD and showed no bias. As plotted within 1 SD but showed a slight high bias, however, this may be due to the small sample set. Sb plotted mostly within 2 SD with a single outlier plotting within 3 SD and showed no bias. Ag and Pb both showed a high bias and had a point plot outside 3 SD. Table I.5. Element Au_fa* Pt_fa* Pd_fa* Cu Pb Zn Ag Ni Co As Au Cd Sb Bi Cr Pd Pt  OREAS_45b Certificate value 1 SD ppm 0.036 0.003 0.052 0.005 0.038 0.001 449 35 21 1 173 8 0.20 0.01 197 11 73.8 2.3 3.00 0.9 0.031 3 0.10 0.01 0.31 0.05 0.18 0.01 667 53 0.035 7 0.048 8  # results Mean result within ±1 ppm SD 0.0338 4 0.0516 5 0.0362 0 413.77 3 22.83 1 165.10 3 217.60 2 206.50 1 73.70 3 3.14 5 0.0312 5 0.11 2 0.29 2 0.20 1 603.62 3 0.0474 2 0.0492 5  # results within ±2 SD 1 0 1 1 2 1 1 3 0 0 0 1 2 3 2 2 0  # results within ±3 SD 0 0 3 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 1 0  # results outside ±3 SD 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  Table I.5. Results for OREAS_45b. 154  *Fire Assay Table I.6. shows results for OREAS_45. All elements, with the exception of Pd (by both analysis) and Co fall within 2 SD. Cu, Zn and Au all show a slight low bias while Ni and As show a slight bias. Pb shows a trend of increasing linearly in value over time. One standard deviation from the certificate value for Sb is zero, so it cannot plot with respect of its analysis.  Table I.6.  Au_fa* Pt_fa* Pd_fa*  OREAS_45c Certificate value ppm 0.045 0.065 0.047  Cu  552  49  516.00  4  0  1  0  Pb Zn Ag Ni Co As Au Cd Sb Bi Cr Pd Pt  20 67 0.26 250 91 3.8 0.041 0.09 0.38 0.18 791 0.049 0.061  2 6 0.03 22 1 0.3 0.004 0.01 0 0.02 71 0.007 0.0078  20.27 56.56 0.27 255.98 89.96 4.16 0.038 0.09 0.35 0.19 724.78 0.050 0.061  4 4 4 5 1 3 4 2  1 1 1 0 0 1 1 2  0 0 0 0 2 1 0 1  0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0  4 3 2 5  1 2 1 0  0 0 1 0  0 0 1 0  Element  1SD  Mean ppm  0.010 0.004 0.001  0.044 0.064 0.044  # results within ±1 SD 5 4 1  result  # results # results # results within ±2 within ±3 outside SD SD ±3 SD 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 2  Table I.6. Results for OREAS_45. *Fire Assay Table I.7. shows results for OREAS_153a. Results for this reference material did not confirm as closely as OREAS_45b & OREAS_45c, however, for Au INAA was used to determine the certificate value, but for our analysis ICP-MS was used. A 4 acid digest was used to determine the certificate values for Mo, Cu 155  and S, while our digest was aqua regia. Mo plotted within 2 SD but showed a low bias. Cu and S both had varying results and low Bias. Au has no bias but has scattered results. The Low bias for Cu, Mo and S can be attributed to the weaker digest.  Table I.7.  OREAS_153a  Element  Certificate value ppm  1SD  Mean result ppm  177 0.311 7120 1.27 wt. %  9 0.012 250 0.07 wt. %  169.71 0.315 6794.51 1.14 wt. %  Mo Au Cu S  # results within ±1 SD 5 1 4 0  # results within ±2 SD 3 3 1 4  # results within ±3 SD 0 2 1 3  # results outside ±3 SD 0 1 1 0  Table I.7. Results for OREAS_153a.  156  Appendix II Detailed Descriptions of Exposures  E001									Boulevard Area Site Description 575880E 6966522N UTM 07 V Elevation: 1336 m Aspect: 024°			Slope: 03°		Slope position: Top Vegetation: Tundra: dwarf Birch and moss with no trees. Drainage: Dry to moist, with puddles forming in floor of trench. Exposure type: Trench, dug with machinery. Soil Classification: Turbic Cryosol.  Material	Depth (cm) Description Organics 0 - 32		Sphagnum moss. Organic-rich	 32 - 36 Black (10YR 2/1), moist humic and fibric material; Contains soil  clay-sized mineral component. Colluvium	 36 - 77 Strong brown (7.5Y 4/6) and grey (7.5Y 4/6), moist clay-  rich silt; contains rootlets ≤60 cm; 30 % very angular 				cobbles. Buried Organic 77 - 81 Buried black (10YR 2/1), moist humic and fibric material:  contains clay-sized mineral component; contains 10 cm to 				15 cm tephra lenses. Colluvium	 81 - 105 Strong brown (7.5Y 4/6) and grey (7.5Y 4/6), moist clay-  rich silt; 30 % very angular cobbles. Saprolite 105 - 170 Dark reddish brown (5YR 3/4), moist silty sand; 70 %  pebble and cobble-sized very angular clasts; contains a zone 				of hydrothermally altered material.  157  E002									Boulevard Area Site Description 575882E 6966530N UTM 07 V Elevation: 1336 m Aspect: 024° Slope: 03° Slope position: Top Vegetation: Tundra: Dwarf birch and moss with no trees. Drainage: Dry to moist, with puddles forming in floor of trench. Exposure type: Trench, dug with machinery. Soil Classification: Turbic Cryosol.  Material	Depth (cm) Description Organics 0 - 3 Sphagnum moss, shrubs and rootlets. Colluvium	 3 - 70 Dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4), moist clay-rich silt; con  tains rootlets ≤60 cm; 30 % subangular pebble and cobble .  sized clasts; contains ≤40 cm clasts of weathered bedrock. Buried Organic 70 - 75 Buried black (10YR 2/1), moist humic and fibric material:  contains clay-sized mineral component; contains 50%  pebble and cobble sized, angular clasts; this unit displays  contorted geometry and gradational contacts with Collvium Colluvium	 75 - 100 Very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2), moist clay-rich silt  colluvium; 30 % subangular pebble and cobble sized clasts. saprolite 100 - 110 Reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/8), moist silty sand saprolite; 70 %  granule and pebble-sized, angular clasts; contains a zone of 				hydrothermally altered material.  158  E037							Golden Saddle Line 1 Site Description 576402E 7005018N UTM 07 V Elevation: 910 m Aspect:	 South east Slope: 31° Slope position:	 Upper slope Vegetation: Densely spaced white spruce and aspen, small shrubs, moss and grass. Drainage: Very well drained. Exposure type: Hand dug pit. Soil Classification: Dystric Brunisol.  Material	Depth (cm) Description Organics 0 - 16 Moss, shrubs, grass and rootlets with decaying organic mat 				ter. Ah horizon	 16 - 36 Black (10YR 2/2), peaty clay with rootlets and fibric mate 				rial. Bm horizon	 36 - 55 Dark brown (10YR 3/3) dry to moist silty sand; contains  60% humic organic material; contains 20% pebble-sized, 				subangular clasts of felsic gneiss. C horizon 55 - 100 Dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4), dry to moist gravelly  sand colluvium; contains pebble and cobble-sized,  subangular clasts of felsic gneiss, rootlets are present; grains 				are identifiable as muscovite. CII horizon	 100 - >150 Yellowish brown (10Yr 5/6), dry to moist gravelly sand  saprolite; contains 60% very angular, cobble-sized clasts.   159  E038								Golden Saddle Deposit Line 1 Site Description 576402E 7005018N UTM 07 V Elevation: 930 m Aspect:	 South east Slope: 27° Slope position:	 Upper slope Vegetation: Densely spaced white spruce and aspen, small shrubs, moss and grass Drainage: Very well drained. Exposure type: Hand dug pit. Soil Classification: Dystric Brunisol.  Material	Depth (cm) Description Organics 0 - 5 Moss, shrubs, grass and rootlets with decaying organic mat 				ter. Bm horizon	 5 - 53 Dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4), dry to moist silty sand;  30% pebble and cobble-sized, angular clasts of felsic 				gneiss. C horizon 53 - >170 Yellowish brown (10YR 5/6), dry to moist silty sand collu  vium; 40% pebble and cobble-sized, very angular clasts of 				felsic gneiss. E039								Golden Saddle Deposit Line 1 Site Description 576280E 7005224N UTM 07 V Elevation: 953 m Aspect:	 East Slope: 02° Slope position:	 Top Vegetation: Thinly spaced white spruce and Dwarf hazel, small shrubs, moss and grass. Drainage: Very well drained. Exposure type: Hand dug pit. Soil Classification: Dystric Brunisol.  Material	Depth (cm) Description Vegetation 0 - 5 Moss, shrubs, grass and rootlets with decaying organic mat 				ter. Tephra 5 - 6 Discontinuous layers of grey tephra. Bm horizon	 6 - 44 Very dark greyish brown (10YR 3/2), dry to moist sandy  silt; contains 10% subangular pebble sized clasts. C horizon 44 - >160 Dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/6), dry silty sand colluvium;  contains 60% clasts of very angular gneiss.   160  E040								Golden Saddle Deposit Line 1 Site Description 576189E 7005321N UTM 07 V Elevation: 944 m Aspect	North west Slope: 15° Slope position: Upper slope Vegetation: Densely spaced charred spruce and fresh aspen, small shrubs, moss and grass. Drainage: Very well drained. Exposure type: Hand dug pit. Soil Classification: Static Cryosol.  Material	Depth (cm) Description Organics 0 - 8 Moss, shrubs, grass and rootlets with decaying organic mat 				ter. Bm horizon	 8 - 42 Dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4), dry to moist, sandy silt;  contains rootlets; contains 20% pebbe-sized, rounded clasts 				of gneiss. C horizon 42 - >140 Brown (10YR 4/3), dry to moist, gravelly sand colluvium;  contains 70% pebbel to cobble-sized very angular clasts of 				felsic gneiss. E041								Golden Saddle Deposit Line 1 Site Description 576108E 7005409N UTM 07 V Elevation: 914 m Aspect: North west Slope: 20° Slope position: upper slope Vegetation: Densely spaced charred spruce and fresh aspen, small shrubs, moss and grass. Drainage: Very well drained. Exposure type: Hand dug pit. Soil Classification: Static Cryosol.  Material	Depth (cm) Description Vegetation 0 - 15 Moss, shrubs, grass and rootlets with decaying organic mat 				ter. Ah horizon	 15 - 25 Very dark grey (10YR 3/2), moist, clay-rich silt; high organ 				ic matter content. Bm horizon	 25 - 55 Brown (10YR 4/4), moist, silty sand; contians 20% granule  and pebble-sized, very angular clasts of felsic gneiss; con 				tains rootlets. C horizon 55 - >150 Dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/6), moist, silty sand collu  vium; contains 40% pebble-sized, angular clasts of 				felsic gneiss.  161  E042								Golden Saddle Deposit Line 2 Site Description: 576412E 7005346N UTM 07 V Elevation: 966 m Aspect: South east Slope: 24° Slope position: Upper slope Vegetation: Densely spaced charred spruce and fresh aspen, small shrubs, moss and grass. Drainage: Very well drained. Exposure type: Hand dug pit. Soil Classification: Dystric Brunisol.  Material	Depth (cm) Description Organics 0 - 12 Moss, shrubs, grass and rootlets with decaying organic mat 				ter. Bm horizon	 12 - 39 Dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4), moist silty clay, 20%  clasts of very angular amphibolite. C horizon 39 - >110 Very dark greyish green, moist silty sand saprolite. 90% 				clasts of green amphibole. E043							Golden Saddle Deposit Line 2 Site Description 576092E 7005072N UTM 07 V Elevation: 953 m Aspect: North west Slope: 06° Slope position: Top Vegetation: Densely spaced charred spruce and fresh aspen, small shrubs, moss and grass. Drainage: Very well drained. Exposure type: Hand dug pit. Soil Classification: Dystric Brunisol.  Material	Depth (cm) Description Vegetation 0 - 7 Rootlets and moss, decayed organic matter. Ah horizon	 7 - 13 Black (10YR 2/1), moist peaty clay. Contians loess. Bm horizon	 13 - 75 Very dark greyish brown (10YR 3/2), moist clay-rich silt. 				40% clasts of subangular felsic gneiss. C horizon 75 - 110 Dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/6), moist silty sand collu  vium. 70% clasts of very angular oxidized gneiss. CII horizon	 110 - >150 Dark brown (10YR 3/2), moist gravelly sand saprolite. 80% 				clasts of very angular felsic gneiss.    162  E044								Golden Saddle Deposit Line 2 Site Description 576005E 7004977N UTM 07 V Elevation: 949 m Aspect: North west Slope: 06° Slope position: Upper slope Vegetation: Densely spaced charred spruce and fresh aspen, small shrubs, moss and grass. Drainage: Very well drained. Exposure type: Hand dug pit. Soil Classification: Static Cryosol.  Material	Depth (cm) Description Organics 0 - 6 Rootlets and moss, decayed organic matter. Ah horizon	 6 - 8 Very dark brown (10YR 2/2), moist, silty clay. Bm horizon	 8 - 60 Dark brown (10YR 3/3), moist, clay-rich silt. 40% clasts of 				angular felsic gneiss. C horizon 60 - >120 Very dark greyish brown (10YR 3/2) colluvium, moist,  gravelly sand. 50% clasts of very angular grey felsic gneiss.  E045								Golden Saddle Deposit Line 2 Site Description 576124E 7005120N UTM 07 V Elevation: 948 m Aspect: North west Slope: 05° Slope position: Top Vegetation: Densely spaced charred spruce and fresh aspen, small shrubs, moss and grass. Drainage: Very well drained. Exposure type: Hand dug pit. Soil Classification: Dystric Brunisol.  Material	Depth (cm) Description Vegetation 0 - 9 Rootlets and moss, decayed organic matter. Bm horizon	 9 - 25 Dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/6), moist, clay-rich silt. 40%  clasts of angler quartz and grey gneiss. 25 - >120 Dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/6), moist, sandy silt collu C horizon  vium. 80% clasts of angler grey gneiss.  163  E046								Golden Saddle Deposit Line 2 Site Description 576463E 7005416N UTM 07 V Elevation: 970 m Aspect: South east Slope: 10° Slope position: Upper slope Vegetation: Densely spaced charred spruce and fresh aspen, small shrubs, moss and grass. Drainage: Very well drained. Exposure type: Hand dug pit. Soil Classification: Dystric Brunisol.  Material	Depth (cm) Description Organics 0 - 6 Rootlets and moss, decayed organic matter. Bm horizon	 6 - 45 Dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/3), moist/dry, clay-rich silt. 				5% angular clasts. C horizon 45 - >70 Very dark brown (10YR 2/2), dry, gravelly sand colluvium.  50% clasts of very angular muscovite biotite schist.  E047								Golden Saddle Deposit Line 1 Site Description 576019E 7005507N UTM 07 V Elevation: 871 m Aspect: North west Slope: 22° Slope position: Upper slope Vegetation: Densely spaced charred spruce and fresh aspen, small shrubs, moss and grass. Drainage: Very well drained. Exposure type: Hand dug pit. Soil Classification: Static Cryosol.  Material	Depth (cm) Description Organics 1 - 13		Grass and roots Ah horizon	 13 - 14 Peaty clay with rootlets. Bm horizon	 14 - 40 Dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4), moist, clay-rich silt. 30%  clasts of quartz, Amphibolite and felsic gneiss. Root 				lets present. C horizon 40 - >140 Very dark greyish brown (10YR 3/2), moist, silty sand coll  uvium. 50% very angular clasts of felsic gneiss.  164  E076								Golden Saddle Deposit Site Description 576330 7005158 UTM 07 V Elevation: 950 m Aspect:	 South east Slope: 27° Slope position:	 Upper slope Vegetation: Located in clearing on boundary between old growth and burn; 1-2m dwarf birch present. Drainage: Very well drained. Exposure type:	 Hand dug pit. Soil Classification: Dystric Brunisol.  Material	Depth (cm) Description Organics 0-2 Rootlets, grass and decaying vegetation. Bdm horizon	 2-8 Very dark grey(1.5YR 3/1) organic rich mineral soil. Moist 				with 10% rootlets. Bm horizon	 8-40 Dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) clay-rich silt. Moist with 				5% rootlets. C horizon 40->70 Yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) iron rich silty sand colluvium. 				Moist with 2.5% rootlets.  E077								Golden Saddle Deposit Site Description 576322 7005181 UTM 07 V Elevation: 952	 m Aspect:	South east Slope: 27° Slope position:	 Upper Slope Vegetation: Located in clearing on boundary between old growth and burn; 1-2m dwarf birch present. Drainage: very well drained. Exposure type:	 hand dug pit. Soil Classification: Dystric Brunisol.  Material	Depth (cm) Description Organics 0-2 Rootlets, grass and decaying vegetation. Bdm horizon	 2-10 Very dark greyish brown (10YR 3/2) organic richclay-rich 				silt. Moist 30% with rootlets. Bm horizon	 10-40 Dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) sandy silt. Moist with 				15% rootlets. C horizon 40->80 Strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) silty sand colluvium. Moist with 				no rootlets.  165  Appendix III Certificates of Geochemical Analysis Results from analysis of the -177 μm size fraction of soil samples  166  Client:  MDRU of UBC  6339 Stores Road Vancouver BC V6T 1Z4 Canada  Acme Analytical Laboratories (Vancouver) Ltd. 1020 Cordova St. East Vancouver BC V6A 4A3 Canada www.acmelab.com  Submitted By:  David Cox  Receiving Lab:  Canada-Vancouver  Received:  May 06, 2011  Report Date:  May 18, 2011  Page:  1 of 7  CERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS CLIENT JOB INFORMATION Yukon Gold  Project: Shipment ID: P.O. Number  157  Number of Samples:  SAMPLE DISPOSAL RTRN-PLP  Return  RTRN-RJT  Return  VAN11001645A.1 SAMPLE PREPARATION AND ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES Method  Number of  Code  Samples  Code Description  Test  Report  Wgt (g)  Status  Lab  No Prep  154  Sorting of samples on arrival and labeling  1F05  154  1:1:1 Aqua Regia digestion Ultratrace ICP-MS analysis  15  Completed  VAN VAN  3B03  154  Fire assay fusion Au Pt Pd by ICP-MS  30  Completed  VAN  ADDITIONAL COMMENTS  Acme does not accept responsibility for samples left at the laboratory after 90 days without prior written instructions for sample storage or return.  Invoice To:  MDRU of UBC 6339 Stores Road Vancouver BC V6T 1Z4 Canada  CC:  This report supersedes all previous preliminary and final reports with this file number dated prior to the date on this certificate. Signature indicates final approval; preliminary reports are unsigned and should be used for reference only. All results are considered the confidential property of the client. Acme assumes the liabilities for actual cost of analysis only. “*” asterisk indicates that an analytical result could not be provided due to unusually high levels of interference from other elements.  167  Client:  MDRU of UBC  6339 Stores Road Vancouver BC V6T 1Z4 Canada  Acme Analytical Laboratories (Vancouver) Ltd. 1020 Cordova St. East Vancouver BC V6A 4A3 Canada Phone (604) 253-3158 Fax (604) 253-1716 www.acmelab.com  Project:  Yukon Gold  Report Date:  May 18, 2011  Page:  2 of 7  Part  CERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS  VAN11001645A.1  CERTIFICATE OF ANALY  Method  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  Analyte  Mo  Cu  Pb  Zn  Ag  Ni  Co  Mn  Fe  As  U  Au  Th  Sr  Cd  Sb  Bi  V  Ca  P  Unit  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppb  ppm  ppm  ppm  %  ppm  ppm  ppb  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  %  %  MDL  25004 -80 MESH  1  1F15  0.01  0.01  0.01  0.1  2  0.1  0.1  1  0.01  0.1  0.1  0.2  0.1  0.5  0.01  0.02  0.02  2  0.01  0.001  Soil Pulp  0.31  4.81  7.50  13.9  200  2.2  1.5  43  0.85  4.5  0.2  13.6  0.3  5.7  0.08  0.19  0.13  23  0.03  0.012  25006 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  1.45  39.03  37.38  74.6  857  37.0  11.3  282  3.69  92.0  0.8  14.5  7.8  12.5  0.15  1.35  0.29  62  0.07  0.016  25007 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.68  20.12  80.40  147.9  161  13.0  2.5  151  1.25  87.4  0.8  9.2  22.3  9.2  0.17  1.13  0.32  7  0.06  0.009  25010 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  3.98  46.10  34.55  115.6  1744  41.7  11.2  382  4.53  104.9  0.9  12.1  5.5  14.1  0.50  2.24  0.38  72  0.06  0.044  25011 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  3.55  45.02  30.75  114.8  1556  43.5  11.6  361  4.52  95.8  0.9  8.7  5.3  13.8  0.56  2.13  0.35  70  0.06  0.038  25012 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.31  4.65  3.38  15.2  454  2.4  1.6  42  0.78  2.2  0.2  0.9  0.1  7.3  0.08  0.15  0.09  24  0.04  0.014  25014 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  9.95  113.5  72.46  312.5  644  107.1  22.6  931  5.19  297.3  2.0  70.9  10.3  25.7  1.51  5.99  0.58  20  0.01  0.054  25015 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  2.13  33.85  21.49  85.8  622  30.2  10.2  315  3.80  341.1  0.8  27.2  7.8  13.2  0.22  1.49  0.34  64  0.07  0.021  Soil Pulp  2.19  35.21  22.02  86.2  633  30.9  10.0  331  3.91  351.1  0.8  52.6  8.0  14.2  0.20  1.42  0.34  66  0.08  0.021  25016 DUP 25015 -80 MESH 25018 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.11  1.70  2.00  9.4  311  1.0  1.3  30  0.56  3.4  0.1  0.8  <0.1  9.2  0.04  0.04  0.04  17  0.04  0.012  25019 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  2.30  62.98  50.07  157.0  531  47.4  17.5  895  3.67  1127  1.8  448.3  14.6  16.2  0.54  2.85  0.46  16  0.03  0.024  25022 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  2.04  59.24  21.66  91.8  426  37.2  13.4  462  3.89  249.9  1.4  33.8  7.1  27.8  0.28  1.22  0.26  55  0.14  0.035  25023 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  4.57  107.3  39.10  180.2  1192  80.6  24.4  1241  4.59  685.1  2.4  39.6  8.8  67.0  0.56  3.07  0.38  28  0.10  0.045  25044 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  2.99  57.36  17.27  105.6  694  79.8  13.9  762  3.91  65.7  0.8  3.4  4.1  13.9  0.16  2.72  0.29  75  0.07  0.029  25046 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  5.14  112.6  19.39  206.6  613  186.6  30.9  3419  3.75  114.3  1.3  10.2  4.0  28.3  0.25  5.97  0.26  42  0.07  0.028  25047 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  1.78  65.65  17.75  84.0  1386  84.9  17.9  475  4.05  65.9  0.8  4.2  5.3  18.3  0.18  1.83  0.25  71  0.15  0.028  25049 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  2.35  157.9  21.91  150.6  512  134.4  34.2  3132  4.16  93.8  1.3  6.8  7.3  20.2  0.22  2.99  0.23  42  0.08  0.021  25050 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  1.27  37.34  17.26  81.9  746  40.2  10.8  830  2.41  87.5  1.0  12.0  1.6  49.4  0.36  1.35  0.19  35  1.28  0.077  25051 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.99  30.77  11.39  57.9  544  30.2  7.1  636  1.78  52.7  0.9  8.2  0.8  77.2  0.43  1.11  0.15  25  2.23  0.082  25053 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.077  A  Pulp  25074 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  3.02  69.41  35.28  148.7  1166  78.7  16.9  766  3.55  218.2  1.4  19.8  5.1  48.1  0.60  2.65  0.27  41  0.68  170.4  7021  6.21  49.6  1193  13.7  10.4  284  3.03  39.5  <0.1  341.6  0.2  20.7  0.11  1.15  0.32  174  0.95  0.048  1.18  28.71  11.44  60.0  1245  29.3  14.4  1068  3.28  7.4  1.9  44.4  7.3  38.3  0.18  0.85  0.21  55  0.77  0.052  25075 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  25076 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  25077 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  1.42  26.15  10.75  82.5  682  44.2  13.2  460  3.79  9.1  1.8  126.2  12.7  23.7  0.12  1.32  0.23  49  0.46  0.071  25078 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  1.15  27.24  10.02  75.1  773  41.1  12.7  395  3.59  6.7  1.9  418.7  17.0  22.8  0.12  2.87  0.20  47  0.40  0.051  25079 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  1.13  28.07  11.20  65.7  754  38.3  11.2  319  3.49  6.2  1.8  394.9  20.3  27.8  0.14  3.07  0.21  48  0.37  0.056  25082 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  1.63  10.18  6.16  69.7  882  35.8  7.5  534  2.69  5.4  2.2  243.9  20.3  41.9  0.09  1.54  0.10  25  0.21  0.024  25086 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  5.49  22.67  15.14  44.2  1018  32.8  8.1  206  2.81  16.3  3.1  2037  26.4  23.9  0.06  2.26  0.24  46  0.16  0.021  25088 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  5.03  22.52  16.12  47.1  1198  34.0  8.6  254  3.05  16.2  2.3  1687  19.2  22.2  0.10  2.07  0.24  57  0.16  0.021  This report supersedes all previous preliminary and final reports with this file number dated prior to the date on this certificate. Signature indicates final approval; preliminary reports are unsigned and should be used for reference only.  This report supersedes all previous preliminary and final reports with this file n  168  Client:  MDRU of UBC  6339 Stores Road Vancouver BC V6T 1Z4 Canada  Acme Analytical Laboratories (Vancouver) Ltd. 1020 Cordova St. East Vancouver BC V6A 4A3 Canada Phone (604) 253-3158 Fax (604) 253-1716 www.acmelab.com  Project:  Yukon Gold  Report Date:  May 18, 2011  Page:  2 of 7  Part  CERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS  VAN11001645A.1  CERTIFICATE OF ANALY  Method  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  Analyte  La  Cr  Mg  Ba  Ti  B  Al  Na  K  W  Sc  Tl  S  Hg  Se  Te  Ga  Cs  Ge  Hf  Unit  ppm  ppm  %  ppm  %  ppm  %  %  %  ppm  ppm  ppm  %  ppb  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  MDL  25004 -80 MESH  2  1F15  0.5  0.5  0.01  0.5  0.001  1  0.01  0.001  0.01  0.1  0.1  0.02  0.02  5  0.1  0.02  0.1  0.02  0.1  0.02  Soil Pulp  3.3  4.3  0.04  45.2  0.034  <1  0.47  0.015  0.02  <0.1  0.4  0.05  <0.02  39  0.3  <0.02  3.1  0.37  <0.1  <0.02  25006 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  14.9  27.7  0.32  240.7  0.025  2  2.16  0.005  0.06  0.2  4.4  0.15  <0.02  44  0.6  0.05  5.4  1.72  <0.1  0.12  25007 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  50.1  5.3  0.06  179.4  0.001  <1  0.43  0.001  0.06  0.2  2.7  0.08  <0.02  19  0.2  <0.02  0.9  2.27  <0.1  0.02  25010 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  11.2  34.2  0.35  144.4  0.039  <1  2.16  0.005  0.05  0.2  3.3  0.13  0.02  68  1.2  0.11  7.0  1.28  <0.1  0.13  25011 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  10.9  33.8  0.40  157.0  0.039  1  2.30  0.004  0.06  0.2  3.3  0.14  0.02  79  1.2  0.10  6.2  1.33  <0.1  0.14  25012 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  2.1  4.0  0.02  40.9  0.036  <1  0.28  0.018  0.02  <0.1  0.3  0.02  <0.02  24  0.2  0.03  2.2  0.19  <0.1  <0.02  25014 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  12.6  13.5  0.05  146.0  0.004  <1  0.52  0.001  0.05  0.2  2.5  0.28  0.03  29  4.0  0.15  1.0  1.53  <0.1  0.05  25015 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  17.0  27.4  0.32  220.5  0.027  <1  1.94  0.005  0.05  0.1  3.1  0.13  <0.02  32  0.6  0.06  6.2  1.43  <0.1  0.12  Soil Pulp  17.2  28.4  0.32  228.3  0.027  <1  1.99  0.006  0.05  0.2  3.2  0.13  <0.02  36  0.6  0.10  6.3  1.46  <0.1  0.11  25016 DUP 25015 -80 MESH 25018 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  1.0  2.2  0.02  25.8  0.030  <1  0.19  0.021  0.02  <0.1  0.2  <0.02  <0.02  26  <0.1  <0.02  1.4  0.14  <0.1  <0.02  25019 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  33.3  11.8  0.08  206.6  0.003  <1  0.66  0.002  0.07  0.1  3.1  0.16  <0.02  25  1.3  0.18  1.4  1.56  <0.1  <0.02  25022 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  20.3  22.8  0.24  629.2  0.008  <1  1.28  0.004  0.07  0.2  4.2  0.15  <0.02  17  0.7  0.07  3.9  2.77  <0.1  <0.02  25023 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  16.5  18.0  0.11  1072  0.003  <1  0.67  0.002  0.07  0.2  4.5  0.42  0.03  31  2.1  0.19  1.8  2.74  <0.1  <0.02  25044 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  13.1  34.7  0.26  275.7  0.021  <1  2.08  0.004  0.05  0.2  5.1  0.15  <0.02  79  0.7  0.07  6.6  1.54  <0.1  0.05  25046 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  21.5  25.0  0.06  609.3  0.002  <1  0.48  0.001  0.07  0.3  9.7  0.19  <0.02  104  1.4  0.11  1.4  1.50  <0.1  <0.02 0.11  25047 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  13.9  45.9  0.41  283.9  0.029  1  2.73  0.007  0.07  0.3  4.8  0.17  <0.02  58  0.7  0.09  6.2  2.37  <0.1  25049 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  22.2  23.6  0.08  632.0  0.001  <1  0.51  0.002  0.10  0.4  11.1  0.20  <0.02  48  0.8  0.10  1.5  2.53  <0.1  0.05  25050 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  12.5  22.1  0.30  319.5  0.015  1  1.10  0.011  0.05  0.3  3.5  0.09  0.06  79  0.7  0.03  2.9  1.10  <0.1  0.05  25051 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  8.3  19.3  0.31  311.0  0.013  2  1.00  0.014  0.03  0.1  2.2  0.07  0.10  81  1.0  <0.02  2.4  0.78  <0.1  0.07  25053 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  19.7  37.7  0.28  289.8  0.017  1  0.90  0.009  0.08  0.4  6.5  0.10  0.04  94  0.9  0.06  2.4  2.03  <0.1  0.05  A  Pulp  3.3  24.0  1.57  21.5  0.044  <1  2.24  0.120  0.55  1.3  10.6  0.06  1.18  66  14.0  0.19  7.2  0.35  <0.1  <0.02  25074 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  56.4  36.5  0.63  1143  0.043  <1  1.75  0.012  0.10  0.1  6.2  0.12  0.03  154  0.6  0.09  6.5  2.10  0.1  <0.02  25075 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  25076 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  25077 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  42.3  37.3  0.59  651.9  0.046  1  1.39  0.006  0.13  0.1  6.2  0.11  <0.02  144  0.7  0.29  4.6  2.45  <0.1  <0.02  25078 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  49.5  34.9  0.44  816.4  0.030  <1  1.19  0.008  0.10  0.2  6.2  0.06  <0.02  227  0.9  0.35  3.8  2.07  <0.1  0.02  25079 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  44.6  30.6  0.41  873.3  0.040  <1  1.12  0.010  0.11  0.2  5.5  0.06  <0.02  223  0.5  0.36  3.3  2.40  <0.1  0.05  25082 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  20.8  11.7  0.13  654.7  0.002  1  0.54  0.005  0.11  0.2  4.1  0.03  <0.02  379  0.4  0.57  1.3  2.20  <0.1  0.07  25086 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  25.5  37.5  0.45  365.2  0.052  1  1.63  0.007  0.06  8.5  3.1  0.11  <0.02  201  0.5  0.43  4.4  1.22  <0.1  0.17  25088 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  17.7  42.2  0.50  416.2  0.052  1  1.90  0.007  0.06  8.5  2.8  0.11  <0.02  211  0.4  0.28  5.4  1.01  <0.1  0.13  This report supersedes all previous preliminary and final reports with this file number dated prior to the date on this certificate. Signature indicates final approval; preliminary reports are unsigned and should be used for reference only.  This report supersedes all previous preliminary and final reports with this file n  169  Client:  MDRU of UBC  6339 Stores Road Vancouver BC V6T 1Z4 Canada  Acme Analytical Laboratories (Vancouver) Ltd. 1020 Cordova St. East Vancouver BC V6A 4A3 Canada Phone (604) 253-3158 Fax (604) 253-1716 www.acmelab.com  Project:  Yukon Gold  Report Date:  May 18, 2011  Page:  2 of 7  Part  CERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS  3  VAN11001645A.1  Method  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  3BMS  3BMS  Analyte  Nb  Rb  Sn  Ta  Zr  Y  Ce  In  Re  Be  Li  Pd  Pt  Au  Pt  Pd  Unit  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppb  ppm  ppm  ppb  ppb  ppb  ppb  ppb  MDL  3BMS  0.02  0.1  0.1  0.05  0.1  0.01  0.1  0.02  1  0.1  0.1  10  2  1  0.1  0.5  25004 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.34  2.8  0.3  <0.05  0.5  0.73  6.2  0.03  <1  <0.1  1.3  <10  <2  <1  <0.1  <0.5  25006 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.56  12.5  0.6  <0.05  5.9  4.22  30.1  0.05  <1  0.5  12.5  <10  2  11  0.6  <0.5  25007 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.05  8.2  0.2  <0.05  1.4  8.65  94.3  0.03  <1  0.2  1.9  <10  <2  21  0.2  <0.5  25010 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  1.07  9.9  0.7  <0.05  6.4  3.45  22.2  0.03  <1  0.4  16.9  10  <2  4  0.7  0.9  25011 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.97  10.1  0.6  <0.05  6.0  3.32  22.2  0.04  <1  0.4  19.0  <10  <2  68  1.5  0.6 <0.5  25012 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.12  1.5  0.2  <0.05  0.1  0.59  4.0  <0.02  <1  <0.1  0.5  <10  <2  <1  <0.1  25014 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.13  5.4  0.3  <0.05  4.3  6.49  25.7  0.03  <1  0.3  2.5  <10  2  123  1.7  1.8  25015 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.51  10.8  0.5  <0.05  5.9  3.02  33.2  0.03  <1  0.4  13.2  <10  <2  32  0.5  <0.5  Soil Pulp  0.50  10.8  0.6  <0.05  6.0  3.13  34.2  0.03  <1  0.3  14.7  <10  <2  10  0.4  <0.5  Soil Pulp  0.07  0.9  0.1  <0.05  0.1  0.38  1.8  <0.02  <1  <0.1  0.2  <10  <2  <1  <0.1  <0.5  25016 DUP 25015 -80 MESH 25018 -80 MESH 25019 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.20  9.4  0.2  <0.05  0.8  5.89  65.5  0.03  <1  0.4  2.6  <10  <2  357  1.0  0.8  25022 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.25  12.2  0.4  <0.05  0.9  5.24  41.3  0.02  <1  0.4  9.9  <10  <2  9  1.2  0.6  25023 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.05  9.5  0.2  <0.05  1.1  6.47  33.5  0.04  2  0.4  3.3  <10  3  42  2.0  1.9  25044 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.60  10.1  0.6  <0.05  3.3  5.04  27.4  0.04  <1  0.5  12.1  <10  <2  5  0.8  1.0  25046 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.03  7.3  0.2  <0.05  0.5  13.74  33.1  0.03  <1  0.6  1.2  <10  2  9  1.9  4.8  25047 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.96  15.3  0.6  <0.05  6.2  4.34  29.0  0.06  <1  0.6  13.6  <10  <2  2  0.6  0.5  25049 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.07  9.2  0.2  <0.05  5.1  9.16  46.5  0.05  <1  0.7  1.4  <10  <2  4  1.5  2.1  25050 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.58  8.0  0.3  <0.05  2.7  10.63  22.8  0.02  <1  0.8  4.8  <10  <2  8  0.5  1.5  25051 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.60  5.1  0.2  <0.05  3.1  8.31  14.8  <0.02  <1  0.5  3.6  <10  <2  5  0.3  1.0  25053 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.36  9.1  0.8  <0.05  2.6  12.29  36.0  0.03  2  0.4  4.3  <10  <2  23  0.9  2.0 42.3  A  Pulp  <0.02  11.5  0.5  <0.05  0.4  10.78  8.1  <0.02  456  <0.1  3.2  47  9  309  9.5  25074 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  1.38  17.0  0.4  <0.05  1.3  19.59  58.5  0.03  <1  0.6  10.5  <10  <2  46  0.5  1.5  25075 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  25076 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  25077 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.61  16.4  0.4  <0.05  1.6  14.93  58.5  0.03  <1  0.5  11.6  <10  <2  133  0.6  1.0  25078 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.54  11.8  0.3  <0.05  2.1  21.93  69.0  0.03  <1  0.8  9.9  <10  <2  413  0.8  1.2  25079 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.51  12.2  0.4  <0.05  3.8  21.12  68.7  0.03  <1  0.9  9.5  <10  <2  379  0.9  1.2  25082 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.14  4.9  0.3  <0.05  4.9  16.11  26.7  0.04  <1  2.8  1.5  <10  <2  210  0.3  <0.5  25086 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.77  10.7  0.7  <0.05  7.8  10.85  42.1  0.02  <1  1.0  9.5  <10  3  1786  0.7  4.6  25088 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.94  10.8  0.7  <0.05  6.4  7.35  33.4  0.03  <1  0.8  11.7  <10  <2  1689  0.7  1.2  This report supersedes all previous preliminary and final reports with this file number dated prior to the date on this certificate. Signature indicates final approval; preliminary reports are unsigned and should be used for reference only.  170  Client:  MDRU of UBC  6339 Stores Road Vancouver BC V6T 1Z4 Canada  Acme Analytical Laboratories (Vancouver) Ltd. 1020 Cordova St. East Vancouver BC V6A 4A3 Canada Phone (604) 253-3158 Fax (604) 253-1716 www.acmelab.com  Project:  Yukon Gold  Report Date:  May 18, 2011  Page:  3 of 7  Part  CERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Method  1F15  VAN11001645A.1 1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  CERTIFICATE OF ANALYS 1F15  Analyte  Mo  Cu  Pb  Zn  Ag  Ni  Co  Mn  Fe  As  U  Au  Th  Sr  Cd  Sb  Bi  V  Ca  P  Unit  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppb  ppm  ppm  ppm  %  ppm  ppm  ppb  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  %  %  MDL  25090 -80 MESH  1F15  1  Soil Pulp  0.01  0.01  0.01  0.1  2  0.1  0.1  1  0.01  0.1  0.1  0.2  0.1  0.5  0.01  0.02  0.02  2  0.01  0.001  6.37  23.96  15.77  54.9  497  13.3  3.5  189  2.66  12.6  5.6  735.8  49.6  25.0  0.06  2.35  0.71  17  0.17  0.023  25091 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  9.95  38.61  17.71  60.1  515  12.1  3.0  240  2.77  11.9  6.2  552.4  61.3  22.0  0.12  2.44  0.99  21  0.17  0.028  25093 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  5.25  29.57  20.26  56.5  411  11.5  3.8  623  2.71  9.1  6.9  339.3  49.2  41.1  0.14  2.02  0.60  15  0.29  0.048  25095 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  5.47  31.60  23.36  54.3  787  14.3  3.4  553  2.87  13.3  11.0  605.0  50.3  39.2  0.16  2.95  0.78  15  0.38  0.053  Soil Pulp  5.59  31.90  23.29  55.8  819  15.7  3.3  543  2.91  13.4  11.1  583.7  50.9  40.1  0.13  3.03  0.79  16  0.38  0.055  Soil Pulp  1.37  33.89  14.77  76.5  997  35.9  16.0  856  3.72  9.8  1.9  40.0  9.6  32.1  0.26  0.87  0.25  59  0.70  0.075  Soil Pulp  1.33  35.19  13.60  78.8  1029  37.0  16.5  940  3.83  10.0  1.9  39.1  10.0  31.0  0.20  0.85  0.25  61  0.73  0.071  Soil Pulp  0.61  14.84  7.13  17.7  143  6.9  2.3  74  1.42  2.9  0.7  4.8  0.8  16.4  0.08  0.19  0.16  27  0.21  0.072  Soil Pulp  0.89  10.86  7.95  33.6  85  10.8  5.8  151  2.68  8.0  1.2  6.6  8.2  14.9  <0.01  0.43  0.16  54  0.14  0.030  25096 DUP 25095 -80 MESH 25095 -80 MESH 25096 DUP 25095 -80 MESH 25099 -80 MESH 25101 -80 MESH 25102 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  1.32  23.37  10.12  44.7  193  18.1  11.3  321  3.42  10.6  1.9  8.0  8.2  17.8  0.02  0.56  0.22  71  0.19  0.048  25103 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.43  9.36  5.91  45.4  49  4.9  4.6  271  2.21  1.2  3.1  55.3  22.8  26.3  <0.01  0.25  0.14  35  0.22  0.038  B  Pulp  1.35  404.2  23.16  169.0  244  206.5  74.3  858  14.83  3.3  1.2  33.3  7.5  16.0  0.07  0.40  0.20  206  0.30  0.042  25106 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.73  16.09  9.43  42.3  125  5.0  4.2  459  2.50  1.1  5.4  140.8  37.0  35.9  <0.01  0.33  0.31  37  0.27  0.043  25109 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  1.40  13.18  7.58  42.5  77  10.1  5.5  245  2.71  6.4  1.7  7.7  12.3  14.2  <0.01  0.60  0.22  41  0.13  0.025  25110 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.60  37.32  9.82  92.4  22  126.9  20.3  626  4.58  3.2  3.5  18.9  19.4  36.4  <0.01  0.34  0.17  81  0.54  0.080  25111 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.64  35.77  10.25  93.0  31  127.6  20.7  695  4.75  3.4  3.7  23.1  19.6  36.3  0.03  0.34  0.18  85  0.55  0.080  25115 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  1.20  24.25  7.50  53.6  43  24.8  11.8  366  3.28  6.6  3.2  17.8  17.9  21.7  <0.01  0.71  0.22  58  0.25  0.026  Soil Pulp  1.19  25.22  7.65  58.6  47  27.2  12.1  369  3.35  6.7  3.2  16.9  18.1  21.6  <0.01  0.72  0.21  59  0.24  0.027  Soil Pulp  0.58  69.71  13.07  107.3  33  78.2  17.8  683  4.50  3.9  4.0  14.9  21.6  26.8  0.03  0.22  0.21  71  0.51  0.139  Soil Pulp  0.71  20.64  7.80  42.3  153  49.5  6.0  134  1.99  3.8  2.0  7.1  4.7  18.1  0.07  0.29  0.15  49  0.18  0.021  25116 DUP 25115 -80 MESH 25118 -80 MESH 25122 -80 MESH 25123 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.60  22.57  7.50  86.9  25  137.8  16.0  377  3.69  6.3  1.0  8.1  7.8  20.8  0.06  0.58  0.12  81  0.33  0.070  25126 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.61  26.69  7.70  87.6  31  138.7  18.1  426  3.72  7.9  1.2  58.9  8.9  24.2  0.06  2.59  0.16  73  0.40  0.105  25128 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.79  35.30  13.06  92.4  22  77.4  15.7  426  4.08  17.8  2.1  13.5  12.7  24.9  0.05  5.10  0.40  52  0.43  0.133  25130 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.42  38.84  5.91  104.8  16  61.3  21.7  435  4.48  5.0  1.4  3.1  7.9  20.0  0.05  0.59  0.10  79  0.42  0.120  25131 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.49  33.80  6.09  102.2  22  62.2  18.0  419  4.27  5.3  1.5  3.0  9.4  19.9  0.05  0.94  0.16  72  0.41  0.115  25134 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  1.02  15.27  7.82  35.8  113  12.2  5.5  219  1.94  5.4  0.3  1.1  <0.1  17.7  0.23  0.32  0.18  55  0.18  0.057  25135 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.62  38.94  5.05  38.3  32  39.0  12.8  261  2.37  7.0  0.3  1.2  1.8  16.1  <0.01  0.38  0.09  57  0.19  0.026  Soil Pulp  0.63  38.49  4.85  38.4  31  39.0  13.1  261  2.41  6.8  0.3  0.6  1.9  15.4  <0.01  0.37  0.09  58  0.19  0.025  Soil Pulp  0.07  82.88  0.58  24.9  12  91.1  21.0  224  2.05  0.5  <0.1  0.4  0.3  18.3  <0.01  0.04  <0.02  60  0.38  0.047  Soil Pulp  0.69  25.88  4.38  26.8  472  9.9  4.3  84  1.20  2.3  0.4  1.4  <0.1  21.7  0.34  0.22  0.12  35  0.27  0.055  25136 DUP 25135 -80 MESH 25137 -80 MESH 25139 -80 MESH  This report supersedes all previous preliminary and final reports with this file number dated prior to the date on this certificate. Signature indicates final approval; preliminary reports are unsigned and should be used for reference only.  This report supersedes all previous preliminary and final reports with this file numbe  171  Client:  MDRU of UBC  6339 Stores Road Vancouver BC V6T 1Z4 Canada  Acme Analytical Laboratories (Vancouver) Ltd. 1020 Cordova St. East Vancouver BC V6A 4A3 Canada Phone (604) 253-3158 Fax (604) 253-1716 www.acmelab.com  Project:  Yukon Gold  Report Date:  May 18, 2011  Page:  3 of 7  Part  CERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS  2  VAN11001645A.1  CERTIFICATE OF ANALY  Method  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  Analyte  La  Cr  Mg  Ba  Ti  B  Al  Na  K  W  Sc  Tl  S  Hg  Se  Te  Ga  Cs  Ge  Hf  Unit  ppm  ppm  %  ppm  %  ppm  %  %  %  ppm  ppm  ppm  %  ppb  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  MDL  1F15  0.5  0.5  0.01  0.5  0.001  1  0.01  0.001  0.01  0.1  0.1  0.02  0.02  5  0.1  0.02  0.1  0.02  0.1  0.02  25090 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  78.9  12.7  0.50  422.9  0.022  1  1.38  0.004  0.23  4.6  2.1  0.56  <0.02  248  0.7  0.22  5.1  6.82  0.2  0.17  25091 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  89.5  11.3  0.46  432.0  0.022  1  1.30  0.004  0.22  3.4  2.4  0.55  <0.02  253  0.6  0.24  5.1  5.97  0.1  0.16  25093 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  87.5  8.8  0.53  760.4  0.009  2  1.40  0.005  0.18  2.0  2.5  0.39  <0.02  237  0.7  0.11  4.9  4.80  0.1  0.09  25095 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  74.3  8.4  0.43  791.8  0.003  <1  1.37  0.004  0.12  2.1  2.5  0.27  <0.02  505  0.6  0.32  4.5  3.85  <0.1  0.08  25096 DUP 25095 -80 MESH 25095 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  76.8  8.5  0.45  802.9  0.003  <1  1.40  0.004  0.12  2.1  2.5  0.27  <0.02  514  0.6  0.35  4.4  4.06  0.1  0.14  Soil Pulp  51.2  40.4  0.77  949.9  0.073  2  1.97  0.010  0.16  0.1  5.8  0.15  0.02  122  0.6  0.15  7.1  2.65  <0.1  <0.02  25096 DUP 25095 -80 MESH 25099 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  53.8  41.9  0.80  976.6  0.071  1  1.99  0.009  0.16  <0.1  5.9  0.13  0.02  106  0.6  0.09  7.1  2.55  <0.1  0.03  Soil Pulp  9.4  12.7  0.16  167.3  0.029  <1  0.83  0.009  0.06  0.2  1.2  0.07  0.02  46  0.6  0.02  4.2  0.70  <0.1  <0.02  25101 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  13.3  23.0  0.44  190.7  0.050  <1  1.68  0.006  0.05  0.5  2.5  0.13  <0.02  35  0.5  0.03  6.4  1.48  <0.1  0.05  25102 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  20.4  37.2  0.52  321.2  0.065  <1  1.94  0.012  0.04  0.3  5.1  0.13  <0.02  45  0.3  <0.02  6.4  1.26  <0.1  0.18  25103 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  38.5  7.7  0.52  390.1  0.068  <1  1.25  0.004  0.35  1.4  1.5  0.41  <0.02  54  0.2  0.07  5.2  3.26  <0.1  0.08  B  Pulp  17.5  614.9  0.12  148.2  0.147  4  3.84  0.012  0.06  <0.1  35.3  0.07  0.03  34  0.5  0.04  21.4  1.33  0.1  0.62  25106 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  72.5  7.3  0.55  522.5  0.054  <1  1.34  0.005  0.38  3.0  1.9  0.51  <0.02  91  0.3  0.23  6.0  3.89  0.2  0.09  25109 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  20.5  16.6  0.39  192.2  0.073  <1  1.63  0.005  0.16  1.3  1.5  0.31  <0.02  30  0.3  0.07  6.8  2.98  <0.1  0.05  25110 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  63.7  211.3  2.64  869.1  0.183  <1  3.22  0.008  1.06  0.2  8.8  0.77  <0.02  78  0.4  <0.02  12.1  10.66  0.3  0.13  25111 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  60.9  207.6  2.72  916.6  0.182  <1  3.29  0.009  1.10  0.2  8.9  0.81  <0.02  120  0.6  <0.02  12.2  10.60  0.1  0.16  25115 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  46.5  75.3  0.95  340.8  0.110  <1  2.34  0.008  0.28  0.7  4.2  0.40  <0.02  87  0.4  <0.02  7.1  3.81  <0.1  0.23  Soil Pulp  48.0  78.8  0.98  353.3  0.111  <1  2.40  0.009  0.29  0.7  4.1  0.41  <0.02  92  0.4  0.04  7.3  3.94  <0.1  0.24  25116 DUP 25115 -80 MESH 25118 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  76.3  104.5  1.95  769.4  0.187  <1  2.81  0.009  1.50  0.1  6.8  0.73  <0.02  29  0.5  0.03  13.1  7.34  0.2  0.05  25122 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  15.0  88.3  0.63  251.3  0.096  <1  1.40  0.015  0.06  0.1  2.8  0.16  <0.02  60  0.4  0.03  7.5  1.24  <0.1  0.03  25123 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  18.0  211.2  1.87  330.3  0.164  <1  2.80  0.008  0.28  0.2  4.2  0.33  <0.02  38  0.4  0.03  9.9  3.07  <0.1  0.09  25126 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  28.1  201.6  1.76  421.6  0.142  <1  2.51  0.008  0.40  0.2  4.3  0.40  <0.02  32  0.4  <0.02  8.9  4.14  <0.1  0.11  25128 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  38.3  105.0  1.35  459.6  0.129  <1  2.05  0.007  0.86  0.1  4.7  0.45  <0.02  35  0.3  0.05  7.5  5.25  0.2  0.07  25130 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  29.5  86.9  1.73  604.8  0.240  <1  2.80  0.012  1.52  <0.1  6.2  0.49  <0.02  8  0.3  0.04  11.7  3.52  0.2  0.05  25131 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  32.7  91.5  1.73  551.1  0.222  <1  2.66  0.012  1.40  <0.1  6.6  0.47  <0.02  10  0.3  0.07  11.6  3.77  0.2  0.05  25134 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  5.6  30.3  0.24  169.1  0.028  1  0.98  0.010  0.06  <0.1  0.7  0.08  0.02  29  0.4  0.03  5.5  0.57  <0.1  <0.02  25135 -80 MESH 25136 DUP 25135 -80 MESH 25137 -80 MESH 25139 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  5.9  143.7  0.87  147.1  0.091  1  1.76  0.007  0.04  0.1  2.7  0.07  <0.02  18  0.4  <0.02  4.9  0.67  <0.1  0.04  Soil Pulp  5.9  147.5  0.89  142.3  0.092  <1  1.78  0.007  0.04  0.1  2.5  0.08  <0.02  <5  0.3  <0.02  5.0  0.68  <0.1  0.03  Soil Pulp  8.5  313.4  2.08  232.8  0.147  <1  1.77  0.005  0.57  <0.1  2.2  0.31  <0.02  <5  <0.1  <0.02  4.7  3.13  0.1  <0.02  Soil Pulp  5.9  16.6  0.20  163.7  0.027  <1  0.74  0.013  0.05  <0.1  1.2  0.05  0.04  58  0.4  <0.02  3.8  1.11  <0.1  <0.02  This report supersedes all previous preliminary and final reports with this file number dated prior to the date on this certificate. Signature indicates final approval; preliminary reports are unsigned and should be used for reference only.  This report supersedes all previous preliminary and final reports with this file n  172  Client:  MDRU of UBC  6339 Stores Road Vancouver BC V6T 1Z4 Canada  Acme Analytical Laboratories (Vancouver) Ltd. 1020 Cordova St. East Vancouver BC V6A 4A3 Canada Phone (604) 253-3158 Fax (604) 253-1716 www.acmelab.com  Project:  Yukon Gold  Report Date:  May 18, 2011  Page:  3 of 7  Part  CERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS  VAN11001645A.1  Method  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  3BMS  3BMS  Analyte  Nb  Rb  Sn  Ta  Zr  Y  Ce  In  Re  Be  Li  Pd  Pt  Au  Pt  Pd  Unit  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppb  ppm  ppm  ppb  ppb  ppb  ppb  ppb  MDL  25090 -80 MESH  3  Soil Pulp  3BMS  0.02  0.1  0.1  0.05  0.1  0.01  0.1  0.02  1  0.1  0.1  10  2  1  0.1  0.5  0.90  62.2  2.1  <0.05  7.9  36.98  128.0  0.03  <1  2.0  8.7  <10  <2  697  0.2  <0.5  25091 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  1.29  70.7  2.5  <0.05  9.2  43.87  156.2  0.04  <1  2.3  7.2  <10  <2  681  0.2  <0.5  25093 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.39  52.9  1.4  <0.05  6.0  49.14  197.4  0.03  <1  2.3  6.9  <10  <2  313  0.3  <0.5  25095 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.24  26.9  1.1  <0.05  6.4  45.25  154.7  0.03  <1  2.2  4.1  <10  <2  543  0.2  <0.5  Soil Pulp  0.28  28.5  1.3  <0.05  6.6  45.89  158.9  0.03  <1  2.5  4.2  <10  <2  513  0.2  <0.5  Soil Pulp  1.40  25.4  0.6  <0.05  1.4  20.19  65.6  0.03  <1  0.7  14.2  <10  <2  34  0.5  0.8  Soil Pulp  1.45  24.7  0.6  <0.05  1.7  20.50  66.5  0.03  <1  0.9  15.8  <10  <2  41  0.4  0.8  Soil Pulp  0.69  10.5  0.6  <0.05  0.4  2.70  14.7  <0.02  <1  0.4  3.2  <10  <2  <1  0.2  <0.5  25096 DUP 25095 -80 MESH 25095 -80 MESH 25096 DUP 25095 -80 MESH 25099 -80 MESH 25101 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.72  12.2  1.0  <0.05  3.7  3.64  23.4  0.02  <1  0.6  11.1  <10  <2  3  0.4  0.6  25102 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.61  10.3  0.8  <0.05  8.8  9.01  40.4  0.04  <1  0.6  12.6  <10  <2  6  0.5  0.7  25103 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.84  63.4  1.8  <0.05  3.9  11.74  70.8  <0.02  <1  1.5  8.3  <10  <2  51  0.1  <0.5  B  Pulp  0.67  8.7  2.2  <0.05  27.0  7.51  36.6  0.09  <1  0.4  7.3  39  54  33  52.7  35.6  25106 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.97  79.2  2.0  <0.05  4.9  18.78  134.4  0.02  <1  1.4  9.5  <10  <2  193  0.2  0.6  25109 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  1.56  43.1  1.7  <0.05  2.3  6.84  26.9  <0.02  <1  0.9  13.0  <10  <2  6  0.2  <0.5  25110 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.28  133.5  2.4  <0.05  6.5  34.55  132.3  0.04  <1  1.7  32.4  <10  <2  14  1.1  <0.5  25111 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.25  137.2  2.4  <0.05  7.2  34.72  129.7  0.03  1  1.7  32.3  <10  2  17  1.0  <0.5  25115 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.43  51.4  1.3  <0.05  10.9  17.67  78.6  0.03  <1  0.9  16.1  <10  <2  14  0.5  <0.5  25116 DUP 25115 -80 MESH 25118 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.43  52.0  1.4  <0.05  11.0  18.32  81.2  <0.02  <1  1.0  16.4  <10  <2  15  0.4  2.8  Soil Pulp  0.41  142.3  2.4  <0.05  2.8  34.32  170.5  0.04  <1  1.6  29.0  <10  <2  12  1.0  0.7  25122 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  1.92  13.5  1.1  <0.05  1.7  5.46  25.1  <0.02  <1  0.5  8.3  <10  <2  6  0.5  0.7  25123 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.81  40.9  1.7  <0.05  4.0  6.47  29.5  0.03  <1  0.7  29.7  <10  <2  83  1.1  0.6 <0.5  25126 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.54  58.7  1.4  <0.05  4.2  7.15  43.9  0.03  <1  0.8  27.0  <10  <2  9  0.9  25128 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.47  79.2  0.8  <0.05  3.6  12.09  69.2  0.02  <1  1.0  16.1  <10  <2  82  0.8  0.6  25130 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.36  96.6  1.2  <0.05  2.7  9.48  51.2  0.02  <1  0.5  21.4  <10  <2  3  0.7  <0.5  25131 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.31  95.9  1.3  <0.05  2.9  9.92  55.7  0.02  1  0.6  20.9  <10  <2  3  0.7  <0.5  25134 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.51  8.6  0.5  <0.05  0.3  1.47  11.0  <0.02  <1  0.2  5.0  <10  <2  <1  1.4  <0.5  25135 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.40  7.6  0.4  <0.05  2.0  2.08  11.6  <0.02  <1  0.3  15.2  <10  2  <1  6.7  1.9  Soil Pulp  0.40  7.4  0.4  <0.05  1.9  2.05  11.7  0.02  1  0.2  14.9  <10  <2  <1  6.6  2.6  Soil Pulp  0.03  43.9  0.2  <0.05  0.6  1.40  16.2  <0.02  <1  0.2  24.2  <10  5  <1  15.5  2.8  Soil Pulp  0.43  7.7  0.4  <0.05  0.4  2.57  11.4  <0.02  <1  0.2  3.4  <10  <2  1  0.5  0.8  25136 DUP 25135 -80 MESH 25137 -80 MESH 25139 -80 MESH  This report supersedes all previous preliminary and final reports with this file number dated prior to the date on this certificate. Signature indicates final approval; preliminary reports are unsigned and should be used for reference only.  173  Client:  MDRU of UBC  6339 Stores Road Vancouver BC V6T 1Z4 Canada  Acme Analytical Laboratories (Vancouver) Ltd. 1020 Cordova St. East Vancouver BC V6A 4A3 Canada Phone (604) 253-3158 Fax (604) 253-1716 www.acmelab.com  Project:  Yukon Gold  Report Date:  May 18, 2011  Page:  4 of 7  Part  CERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS  1  VAN11001645A.1  CERTIFICATE OF AN  Method  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  Analyte  Mo  Cu  Pb  Zn  Ag  Ni  Co  Mn  Fe  As  U  Au  Th  Sr  Cd  Sb  Bi  V  Ca  P  Unit  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppb  ppm  ppm  ppm  %  ppm  ppm  ppb  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  %  %  MDL  1F15  0.01  0.01  0.01  0.1  2  0.1  0.1  1  0.01  0.1  0.1  0.2  0.1  0.5  0.01  0.02  0.02  2  0.01  0.001  25142 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.71  89.43  2.70  59.6  56  16.8  15.0  517  3.73  4.4  0.4  8.3  1.7  20.3  <0.01  0.45  0.06  89  0.52  0.149  25144 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.79  147.9  1.80  79.0  68  18.0  19.3  837  4.65  2.9  0.5  16.5  2.0  26.8  0.02  0.69  0.04  101  0.71  0.214  C  Pulp  1.25  530.4  20.53  62.9  277  262.5  91.5  970  15.89  3.9  1.2  38.9  7.0  16.0  0.06  0.35  0.18  213  0.41  0.037  25147 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  1.28  185.3  2.67  115.2  292  11.3  23.3  1279  7.73  6.9  0.9  49.1  3.1  34.7  0.11  3.76  0.04  145  0.86  0.274  25149 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  1.36  307.5  0.13  132.5  250  6.6  31.0  1606  8.62  0.9  0.3  12.6  0.9  32.6  0.07  1.28  0.02  220  0.95  0.226  25150 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  1.27  45.71  8.54  74.1  683  37.6  18.4  873  3.91  9.8  1.5  61.6  8.3  26.4  0.02  2.11  0.25  73  0.49  0.073  25199 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.65  35.44  45.39  77.7  5333  19.4  8.2  82  5.41  2666  0.6  1196  12.3  70.8  0.17  303.7  0.21  3  0.15  0.032  25201 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  1.97  108.4  32.85  198.4  6300  169.1  78.5  6856  9.73 >10000  2.0  45295  2.9  121.4  1.57  1007  0.85  24  2.46  0.339  25203 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  1.11  118.0  33.08  170.4  4115  88.4  56.6  3206  6.41 >10000  1.8  7985  18.2  51.7  1.21  1238  0.35  16  0.80  0.120  25204 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  7.59  164.4  52.47  286.9  3598  151.4  87.3  6692  9.13 >10000  2.6  1690  18.2  51.1  1.60  771.4  1.14  10  0.48  0.067  25206 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  25208 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.83  29.36  6.76  68.4  144  32.0  17.3  680  3.78  14.5  0.5  5.5  2.2  23.7  0.15  0.92  0.23  98  0.67  0.086  25209 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.87  28.13  5.97  66.3  121  29.5  16.5  615  3.65  10.5  0.5  7.5  1.9  23.0  0.12  0.55  0.24  96  0.64  0.081  25210 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.95  30.98  8.50  71.3  252  35.0  17.2  1024  3.65  98.5  0.5  38.8  2.2  25.0  0.29  7.52  0.25  93  0.69  0.088  25211 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.60  28.79  7.17  61.8  242  34.2  17.0  885  3.50  15.0  0.5  11.1  2.5  21.9  0.19  1.12  0.26  91  0.59  0.080  25213 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.60  31.70  4.11  15.3  418  14.6  4.9  467  1.41  80.2  0.6  41.6  0.2  42.8  0.24  4.88  0.15  22  1.74  0.110  25214 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.41  38.45  9.70  64.2  130  36.1  16.9  674  3.46  19.0  0.5  10.7  2.9  22.4  0.36  2.88  0.27  92  0.61  0.081  25215 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.61  31.21  6.65  62.6  260  32.9  16.7  918  3.32  12.8  0.5  5.2  2.4  20.6  0.17  1.07  0.25  86  0.62  0.084  Soil Pulp  0.61  32.89  7.25  66.7  278  35.0  17.7  919  3.48  14.0  0.5  11.1  2.5  21.4  0.21  1.17  0.26  89  0.64  0.084  Soil Pulp  1.18  34.53  3.02  18.7  315  17.0  7.7  1979  1.12  11.0  0.5  9.3  0.2  74.0  1.11  2.24  0.12  25  2.16  0.129  25221 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  1.22  96.08  38.40  444.6  5339  206.6  100.7  5708  11.06 >10000  2.9  19290  1.2  70.1  3.11  >2000  0.45  14  0.87  0.160  25222 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.73  33.01  9.78  61.5  676  32.2  13.9  642  3.28  746.4  0.7  573.7  2.7  21.1  0.23  131.7  0.22  70  0.38  0.083  25223 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.75  37.42  9.41  65.7  799  41.0  17.1  814  3.45  686.9  0.8  470.3  3.0  20.5  0.22  46.96  0.23  75  0.39  0.088  A  Pulp  161.2  6444  5.59  44.8  1144  9.6  10.2  279  2.90  40.9  <0.1  336.9  0.2  18.8  0.09  1.13  0.30  182  0.88  0.047  25226 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.93  49.46  11.58  73.2  749  44.8  17.7  804  3.76  512.0  0.9  444.6  3.1  25.2  0.20  48.42  0.26  85  0.42  0.096  25227 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  1.64  39.50  10.19  48.2  1194  24.7  13.6  1030  2.72  380.5  1.1  205.9  0.6  27.1  0.37  22.76  0.24  62  0.61  0.098  25228 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.79  28.73  10.17  63.0  656  30.4  12.6  581  3.30  769.7  0.6  506.3  2.5  20.6  0.25  121.5  0.23  69  0.51  0.090  25230 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.99  93.56  32.28  143.4  5221  100.1  44.7  2955  6.17  6290  1.6  6992  7.6  57.0  1.95  660.8  0.18  33  0.39  0.089  25231 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  1.00  98.62  28.09  170.5  6033  96.6  46.7  3057  6.18  8405  1.7  9226  7.1  63.5  1.97  1063  0.16  32  0.43  0.098  25232 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.42  36.52  4.48  102.0  164  56.7  36.5  1909  6.10  564.2  0.8  47.3  1.1  21.0  0.15  52.23  0.08  158  0.68  0.094  25216 DUP 25215 -80 MESH 25218 -80 MESH  This report supersedes all previous preliminary and final reports with this file number dated prior to the date on this certificate. Signature indicates final approval; preliminary reports are unsigned and should be used for reference only.  This report supersedes all previous preliminary and final reports wi  174  Client:  MDRU of UBC  6339 Stores Road Vancouver BC V6T 1Z4 Canada  Acme Analytical Laboratories (Vancouver) Ltd. 1020 Cordova St. East Vancouver BC V6A 4A3 Canada Phone (604) 253-3158 Fax (604) 253-1716 www.acmelab.com  Project:  Yukon Gold  Report Date:  May 18, 2011  Page:  4 of 7  Part  CERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS  2  VAN11001645A.1  CERTIFICATE OF ANALY  Method  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  Analyte  La  Cr  Mg  Ba  Ti  B  Al  Na  K  W  Sc  Tl  S  Hg  Se  Te  Ga  Cs  Ge  Hf  Unit  ppm  ppm  %  ppm  %  ppm  %  %  %  ppm  ppm  ppm  %  ppb  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  MDL  1F15  0.5  0.5  0.01  0.5  0.001  1  0.01  0.001  0.01  0.1  0.1  0.02  0.02  5  0.1  0.02  0.1  0.02  0.1  0.02  25142 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  7.4  26.1  0.70  241.6  0.082  1  1.66  0.018  0.09  0.2  7.1  0.05  <0.02  49  0.5  <0.02  7.4  4.36  <0.1  0.04  25144 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  11.9  28.3  0.86  381.8  0.088  <1  1.85  0.016  0.16  0.2  11.5  0.08  <0.02  35  0.5  0.03  9.1  6.76  <0.1  0.04  C  Pulp  16.4  724.8  0.15  159.6  0.163  4  3.93  0.013  0.07  <0.1  40.6  0.07  0.02  33  0.8  0.06  20.2  1.36  0.1  0.60  25147 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  21.0  12.2  0.68  575.4  0.077  2  1.85  0.006  0.38  0.3  22.6  0.11  <0.02  373  0.7  <0.02  8.4  15.31  0.1  0.05  25149 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  12.1  4.5  1.48  880.9  0.236  1  2.70  0.016  0.85  <0.1  18.8  0.13  <0.02  83  0.7  <0.02  13.4  13.93  0.2  0.03  25150 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  54.4  53.8  0.70  722.2  0.037  <1  2.20  0.011  0.07  <0.1  9.7  0.10  <0.02  188  0.6  0.05  6.8  2.19  <0.1  0.04  25199 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  13.6  2.6  0.02  129.6 <0.001  4  0.14  0.011  0.50  <0.1  1.1  0.76  0.99  197  0.6  1.64  0.5  0.70  <0.1  0.06  25201 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  21.9  17.4  0.44  864.8  0.004  2  0.33  0.002  0.14  0.7  12.1  1.05  <0.02  596  0.9  4.04  1.4  1.67  0.1  0.05  25203 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  51.1  16.6  0.30  144.9  0.006  <1  0.90  0.005  0.20  0.2  5.3  0.92  0.08  372  1.0  1.29  2.7  2.00  0.2  0.06  25204 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  47.0  9.3  0.08  103.5  0.002  <1  0.40  0.002  0.13  0.4  5.4  1.34  0.08  552  1.2  2.40  1.2  1.52  0.1  0.04  25206 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  25208 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  7.9  64.8  1.48  512.5  0.118  2  2.83  0.025  0.15  0.2  5.9  0.14  <0.02  14  0.6  0.09  8.0  1.49  0.1  0.03  25209 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  7.3  60.8  1.46  513.0  0.115  1  2.73  0.022  0.15  <0.1  5.4  0.13  <0.02  16  0.6  0.09  7.5  1.44  <0.1  0.04  25210 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  8.1  61.9  1.39  524.2  0.097  3  2.66  0.024  0.17  0.1  5.0  0.20  0.02  41  0.6  0.13  7.6  1.44  <0.1  0.04  25211 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  8.1  63.4  1.46  420.1  0.085  3  2.55  0.032  0.10  0.1  5.8  0.14  <0.02  24  0.3  0.11  6.7  1.22  <0.1  0.04  25213 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  12.2  14.7  0.22  452.9  0.021  3  1.12  0.019  0.03  <0.1  1.7  0.12  0.13  104  0.9  <0.02  2.6  0.47  <0.1  0.02  25214 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  11.3  68.4  1.50  444.5  0.089  1  2.51  0.045  0.15  0.1  7.5  0.17  <0.02  20  0.5  0.07  6.6  1.37  <0.1  0.10  25215 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  8.0  65.2  1.42  416.5  0.079  1  2.43  0.031  0.09  0.1  5.8  0.13  <0.02  21  0.6  0.06  6.8  1.17  <0.1  0.02  Soil Pulp  9.4  65.3  1.50  460.1  0.087  1  2.55  0.032  0.10  0.2  6.5  0.14  <0.02  34  0.6  0.12  7.3  1.23  <0.1  0.04  25216 DUP 25215 -80 MESH 25218 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  8.1  16.2  0.25  780.9  0.020  4  1.04  0.013  0.04  <0.1  1.5  0.19  0.22  100  0.8  0.04  1.9  0.36  <0.1  0.04  25221 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  11.3  20.8  0.04  26.8  0.001  2  0.14  0.001  0.08  0.3  14.5  0.72  <0.02  508  1.1  9.80  0.5  0.64  0.3  <0.02  25222 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  10.1  44.8  1.00  336.8  0.059  <1  2.11  0.019  0.07  0.1  4.7  0.15  0.02  49  0.4  0.22  5.7  0.93  <0.1  0.03  25223 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  10.5  53.3  1.09  338.5  0.060  1  2.33  0.017  0.07  0.2  5.5  0.14  0.02  66  0.4  0.18  6.4  1.08  <0.1  0.03  A  Pulp  3.3  17.0  1.55  22.6  0.043  2  2.26  0.125  0.56  1.0  10.4  0.06  1.11  41  12.6  0.14  6.9  0.34  <0.1  <0.02  25226 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  12.1  60.7  1.21  404.5  0.075  <1  2.62  0.025  0.07  0.1  6.9  0.17  0.02  69  0.4  0.24  7.1  1.21  <0.1  0.03  25227 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  11.8  38.7  0.59  359.8  0.039  3  1.71  0.014  0.05  0.1  3.2  0.20  0.06  84  0.9  0.14  6.2  1.08  <0.1  <0.02  25228 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  9.1  44.3  0.99  267.0  0.060  2  2.05  0.016  0.07  0.1  4.5  0.15  0.02  43  0.6  0.16  6.2  1.00  <0.1  0.02  25230 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  9.4  30.0  0.55  401.2  0.011  2  1.00  0.020  0.17  0.2  6.8  0.50  0.22  292  0.8  2.81  2.7  0.97  <0.1  0.04  25231 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  9.7  28.5  0.50  528.6  0.009  1  0.96  0.015  0.19  0.2  6.8  0.52  0.24  336  0.7  5.43  2.2  1.02  0.1  0.04  25232 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  4.8  126.1  3.15  1037  0.099  1  4.17  0.005  0.90  <0.1  21.5  0.51  <0.02  27  0.4  0.05  11.3  5.23  <0.1  <0.02  This report supersedes all previous preliminary and final reports with this file number dated prior to the date on this certificate. Signature indicates final approval; preliminary reports are unsigned and should be used for reference only.  This report supersedes all previous preliminary and final reports with this file n  175  Client:  MDRU of UBC  6339 Stores Road Vancouver BC V6T 1Z4 Canada  Acme Analytical Laboratories (Vancouver) Ltd. 1020 Cordova St. East Vancouver BC V6A 4A3 Canada Phone (604) 253-3158 Fax (604) 253-1716 www.acmelab.com  Project:  Yukon Gold  Report Date:  May 18, 2011  Page:  4 of 7  Part  CERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS  VAN11001645A.1  Method  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  3BMS  3BMS  Analyte  Nb  Rb  Sn  Ta  Zr  Y  Ce  In  Re  Be  Li  Pd  Pt  Au  Pt  Pd  Unit  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppb  ppm  ppm  ppb  ppb  ppb  ppb  ppb  MDL  25142 -80 MESH  3  Soil Pulp  3BMS  0.02  0.1  0.1  0.05  0.1  0.01  0.1  0.02  1  0.1  0.1  10  2  1  0.1  0.5  0.23  11.5  0.4  <0.05  2.0  5.50  18.7  0.03  <1  0.7  15.0  <10  <2  7  2.4  2.2  25144 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.13  17.7  0.4  <0.05  2.6  9.46  29.5  0.05  <1  0.7  15.0  <10  <2  11  2.3  3.0  C  Pulp  0.36  10.1  2.0  <0.05  25.6  7.92  35.2  0.08  <1  0.6  8.2  54  61  45  68.7  44.2  25147 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.10  41.9  0.5  <0.05  3.0  20.80  45.1  0.08  <1  1.0  11.1  <10  <2  44  1.6  5.1  25149 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.07  50.3  0.5  <0.05  1.3  18.80  16.8  0.06  <1  1.0  19.0  <10  2  10  1.9  1.9  25150 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.54  13.7  0.6  <0.05  2.8  23.41  62.8  0.05  2  0.7  14.8  <10  <2  65  0.9  1.7  25199 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.04  23.1  0.3  <0.05  3.5  3.81  27.7  0.02  <1  <0.1  1.6  <10  <2  1063  0.3  <0.5  25201 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.10  18.3  0.2  <0.05  3.7  30.13  51.9  0.13  2  0.4  0.6  <10  <2 >10000  0.9  2.1  25203 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.17  36.3  0.3  <0.05  3.6  26.55  128.1  0.05  <1  0.6  3.7  <10  <2  0.6  0.9  7757  25204 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.09  17.5  <0.1  <0.05  3.4  32.79  135.9  0.05  <1  0.5  2.2  <10  <2  1588  0.7  1.2  25206 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  L.N.R.  25208 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.51  18.3  0.5  <0.05  1.7  5.77  18.0  0.02  <1  0.4  12.5  <10  <2  7  0.5  <0.5  25209 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.55  18.4  0.5  <0.05  1.6  5.21  15.8  0.02  <1  0.4  12.2  <10  <2  5  0.5  <0.5  25210 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.54  19.0  0.5  <0.05  2.2  6.18  17.4  0.02  <1  0.3  11.3  <10  <2  27  0.7  0.7  25211 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.44  14.9  0.5  <0.05  2.4  7.36  18.0  0.04  1  0.6  11.9  <10  <2  5  0.6  0.8  25213 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.51  6.3  0.2  <0.05  1.1  12.97  21.0  <0.02  <1  0.4  1.8  <10  <2  30  0.3  1.8  25214 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.23  25.2  0.5  <0.05  5.4  11.21  22.9  0.02  <1  0.6  11.0  <10  <2  7  0.8  1.0  25215 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.34  14.4  0.4  <0.05  2.3  7.98  17.8  <0.02  <1  0.3  10.4  <10  <2  4  0.6  0.7  Soil Pulp  0.37  15.9  0.5  <0.05  2.2  8.10  20.4  <0.02  <1  0.7  11.7  <10  <2  4  0.6  0.8  Soil Pulp  0.37  3.8  0.2  <0.05  1.4  10.06  14.7  <0.02  <1  0.3  1.9  <10  <2  6  0.2  <0.5  25216 DUP 25215 -80 MESH 25218 -80 MESH 25221 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.04  11.7  <0.1  <0.05  0.7  18.38  35.4  0.07  <1  0.4  <0.1  17  <2 >10000  0.7  0.9  25222 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.43  9.7  0.4  <0.05  1.6  7.72  20.9  <0.02  <1  0.4  9.4  <10  <2  0.7  0.7  25223 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  A  Pulp  416  0.41  10.0  0.4  <0.05  1.8  8.80  22.5  0.03  <1  0.5  9.2  <10  <2  484  0.7  1.0  <0.02  12.1  0.5  <0.05  0.4  9.54  7.5  <0.02  407  <0.1  3.5  30  5  313  9.6  43.3  25226 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.45  10.6  0.5  <0.05  2.2  11.83  23.6  0.04  <1  0.5  11.0  <10  <2  362  0.6  1.3  25227 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.58  10.7  0.4  <0.05  0.5  8.23  22.9  0.02  2  0.5  6.4  <10  <2  214  0.7  0.9  25228 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.41  9.6  0.4  <0.05  1.3  6.37  18.5  0.02  <1  0.3  10.3  <10  <2  525  0.6  0.8  25230 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.07  9.7  0.1  <0.05  2.8  14.48  23.4  0.05  1  0.5  3.2  <10  <2  6137  0.6  0.6  25231 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.07  10.7  0.2  <0.05  2.7  15.06  23.3  0.04  <1  0.2  2.8  <10  <2  7524  0.6  1.8  25232 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.15  54.3  0.7  <0.05  0.4  15.76  9.3  0.05  2  0.6  35.6  <10  <2  24  <0.1  <0.5  This report supersedes all previous preliminary and final reports with this file number dated prior to the date on this certificate. Signature indicates final approval; preliminary reports are unsigned and should be used for reference only.  176  Client:  MDRU of UBC  6339 Stores Road Vancouver BC V6T 1Z4 Canada  Acme Analytical Laboratories (Vancouver) Ltd. 1020 Cordova St. East Vancouver BC V6A 4A3 Canada Phone (604) 253-3158 Fax (604) 253-1716 www.acmelab.com  Project:  Yukon Gold  Report Date:  May 18, 2011  Page:  5 of 7  Part  CERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS  VAN11001645A.1  CERTIFICATE OF ANALY  Method  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  Analyte  Mo  Cu  Pb  Zn  Ag  Ni  Co  Mn  Fe  As  U  Au  Th  Sr  Cd  Sb  Bi  V  Ca  P  Unit  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppb  ppm  ppm  ppm  %  ppm  ppm  ppb  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  %  %  MDL  25233 -80 MESH  1  Soil Pulp  1F15  0.01  0.01  0.01  0.1  2  0.1  0.1  1  0.01  0.1  0.1  0.2  0.1  0.5  0.01  0.02  0.02  2  0.01  0.001  0.59  71.36  5.60  118.1  353  84.1  41.7  1276  5.87  564.2  0.9  66.3  3.3  20.0  0.10  64.59  0.17  155  0.80  0.174  25389 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  1.64  22.71  15.24  55.4  298  15.8  7.2  243  3.54  23.8  1.1  5.3  4.4  14.7  0.14  0.91  0.31  84  0.10  0.040  25390 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  1.70  17.46  11.44  52.9  339  13.6  8.0  314  3.26  26.2  0.7  3.2  4.4  13.2  0.18  0.85  0.34  83  0.08  0.033  25391 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  1.68  19.03  12.53  58.0  383  16.2  8.1  297  3.43  26.7  0.8  7.4  4.5  13.1  0.17  1.05  0.29  79  0.08  0.035  25392 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  1.59  17.67  8.64  45.0  545  13.7  5.8  241  2.76  38.9  0.5  309.1  3.5  12.9  0.21  1.06  0.37  59  0.08  0.052  25393 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  1.95  25.03  10.62  57.4  407  17.8  6.6  402  3.17  47.3  0.7  28.7  3.7  18.7  0.25  0.74  0.55  65  0.10  0.082  25394 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  2.00  25.60  12.06  76.4  438  25.8  8.6  411  3.78  47.1  0.7  36.3  3.4  19.2  0.29  0.78  0.40  78  0.12  0.081  25395 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  2.47  33.41  13.85  74.6  1111  28.6  9.5  283  3.73  57.8  1.1  216.6  4.4  18.8  0.29  0.79  0.81  68  0.10  0.062  Soil Pulp  2.37  31.74  13.72  67.7  1108  26.7  9.8  258  3.66  54.3  0.9  170.6  3.9  18.7  0.33  0.76  0.74  69  0.09  0.065  Soil Pulp  1.14  20.66  6.57  8.1  43  2.9  0.7  18  0.78  96.2  0.8  80.8  8.0  10.5  0.09  0.59  0.27  15  0.01  0.017  25396 DUP 25395 -80 MESH 25397 -80 MESH 25399 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.94  9.91  2.89  7.8  41  2.6  1.1  50  0.43  38.2  0.5  31.4  4.8  11.1  0.07  0.20  0.18  10  <0.01  0.015  25402 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  2.46  17.89  4.38  6.1  43  2.5  0.5  9  0.66  58.6  0.6  38.3  4.5  20.9  0.05  0.23  0.27  11  <0.01  0.018  25404 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  2.30  31.52  10.36  22.5  213  10.9  1.7  44  1.70  73.7  1.2  327.5  5.1  33.6  0.19  0.40  0.98  20  0.03  0.045  25407 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  1.65  23.96  11.94  48.9  149  18.4  8.3  350  2.84  26.5  1.3  8.5  5.7  17.9  0.06  0.76  0.32  58  0.10  0.026  B  Pulp  1.18  415.9  22.09  159.4  207  211.8  74.0  770  14.78  3.3  1.3  31.5  7.4  17.5  0.10  0.27  0.20  203  0.25  0.044  25410 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  2.53  20.56  13.17  5.3  119  2.8  0.5  10  0.39  53.6  1.1  94.3  8.2  58.0  0.12  0.46  0.64  11  0.02  0.021  25411 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  2.37  22.88  11.26  5.9  139  2.1  0.3  6  0.35  48.6  1.0  169.9  6.8  56.8  0.10  0.45  0.53  10  0.01  0.018  25412 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  1.18  20.14  4.86  3.0  59  1.2  0.2  3  0.29  54.1  0.7  10.6  11.1  16.8  0.05  0.30  0.25  10  <0.01  0.012  25415 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  2.37  15.89  13.57  5.2  126  1.7  0.1  4  0.33  46.7  0.7  104.0  5.4  33.0  0.10  0.54  0.33  8  0.01  0.016  Soil Pulp  2.45  16.00  13.08  4.9  258  1.6  0.2  6  0.33  43.9  0.8  482.0  5.7  29.8  0.09  0.59  0.35  7  0.01  0.015  Soil Pulp  7.31  27.31  24.99  7.6  217  2.3  <0.1  4  0.49  56.9  1.8  333.6  7.5  154.6  0.10  0.76  0.59  13  0.02  0.050  25419 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  3.30  27.36  14.89  11.6  150  3.9  1.2  35  0.88  78.4  1.2  110.0  7.4  78.1  0.16  0.86  0.82  19  0.03  0.031  25422 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  4.70  24.72  6.93  8.5  110  4.6  0.4  9  1.04  84.7  1.0  108.2  4.3  38.6  0.12  0.47  0.55  12  0.01  0.033  25416 DUP 25415 -80 MESH 25417 -80 MESH  25424 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  4.66  37.65  19.83  26.4  276  13.5  1.2  25  2.18  133.4  1.6  904.8  5.2  145.0  0.29  0.76  1.87  17  0.02  0.104  25428 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  2.77  25.51  5.94  8.9  72  4.4  0.9  16  0.97  79.3  0.9  77.9  8.6  25.6  0.08  0.40  0.52  18  0.02  0.023  25432 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  4.03  44.67  10.78  25.7  197  13.6  1.5  22  2.55  127.3  1.5  294.4  5.1  52.8  0.35  0.55  1.73  17  0.02  0.078  25433 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  5.29  55.41  20.79  36.6  294  15.7  1.5  30  2.90  157.3  2.2  646.3  7.6  51.8  0.41  0.81  3.19  22  0.02  0.096  25437 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  5.76  63.95  25.84  38.2  314  17.4  1.6  32  3.18  179.4  2.4  586.2  6.9  51.5  0.41  0.69  3.50  23  0.02  0.107  25438 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  3.31  40.30  15.58  28.0  288  13.1  1.6  32  2.00  100.7  1.5  491.9  5.8  38.8  0.25  0.55  1.74  20  0.02  0.072  25441 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  4.89  67.39  23.94  38.6  551  18.7  3.1  81  3.27  149.9  2.7  967.2  7.0  32.2  0.38  0.62  4.16  31  0.02  0.107  This report supersedes all previous preliminary and final reports with this file number dated prior to the date on this certificate. Signature indicates final approval; preliminary reports are unsigned and should be used for reference only.  This report supersedes all previous preliminary and final reports with this file n  177  Client:  MDRU of UBC  6339 Stores Road Vancouver BC V6T 1Z4 Canada  Acme Analytical Laboratories (Vancouver) Ltd. 1020 Cordova St. East Vancouver BC V6A 4A3 Canada Phone (604) 253-3158 Fax (604) 253-1716 www.acmelab.com  Project:  Yukon Gold  Report Date:  May 18, 2011  Page:  5 of 7  Part  CERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS  VAN11001645A.1  CERTIFICATE OF ANALY  Method  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  Analyte  La  Cr  Mg  Ba  Ti  B  Al  Na  K  W  Sc  Tl  S  Hg  Se  Te  Ga  Cs  Ge  Hf  Unit  ppm  ppm  %  ppm  %  ppm  %  %  %  ppm  ppm  ppm  %  ppb  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  MDL  25233 -80 MESH  2  1F15  0.5  0.5  0.01  0.5  0.001  1  0.01  0.001  0.01  0.1  0.1  0.02  0.02  5  0.1  0.02  0.1  0.02  0.1  0.02  Soil Pulp  13.6  149.0  2.93  942.1  0.100  2  3.70  0.005  1.06  0.1  21.3  0.45  <0.02  33  0.7  0.17  11.6  5.40  <0.1  <0.02  25389 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  16.3  43.1  0.44  248.1  0.062  1  2.47  0.008  0.04  0.2  6.0  0.22  <0.02  74  0.7  <0.02  8.5  1.42  <0.1  0.06  25390 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  15.2  38.3  0.41  204.6  0.050  <1  2.28  0.006  0.04  0.2  4.6  0.10  <0.02  109  0.5  <0.02  8.0  1.23  <0.1  0.10  25391 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  13.9  40.0  0.49  213.9  0.052  1  2.51  0.006  0.04  0.1  4.8  0.19  <0.02  92  0.7  <0.02  7.3  1.28  <0.1  0.09  25392 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  12.4  26.3  0.35  176.4  0.032  <1  1.81  0.004  0.05  0.2  2.6  0.15  <0.02  99  0.6  0.04  5.5  1.23  <0.1  <0.02  25393 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  16.6  26.3  0.33  317.1  0.029  1  1.75  0.005  0.06  0.3  2.8  0.19  <0.02  100  0.3  <0.02  6.4  1.41  <0.1  <0.02  25394 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  12.4  34.3  0.47  321.9  0.042  2  2.25  0.006  0.07  0.2  3.4  0.22  <0.02  105  0.6  0.05  7.6  1.43  <0.1  <0.02  25395 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  12.6  31.4  0.47  262.6  0.040  1  2.29  0.006  0.06  0.4  3.4  0.19  <0.02  137  0.6  0.08  6.7  1.16  <0.1  0.04  Soil Pulp  11.3  31.7  0.47  255.2  0.040  1  2.27  0.005  0.06  0.3  3.2  0.18  <0.02  125  0.6  0.03  5.9  1.17  <0.1  0.04  25396 DUP 25395 -80 MESH 25397 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  22.9  4.9  0.04  71.0  0.005  <1  0.25  0.001  0.04  0.2  1.2  0.09  <0.02  274  0.4  <0.02  0.7  0.65  <0.1  0.02  25399 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  16.4  4.8  0.04  66.3  0.006  <1  0.32 <0.001  0.03  0.2  0.8  0.05  <0.02  95  0.4  <0.02  0.7  0.56  <0.1  <0.02  25402 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  14.2  3.7  0.02  87.4  0.003  <1  0.23 <0.001  0.03  0.4  0.7  0.08  <0.02  219  0.5  <0.02  0.6  0.64  <0.1  <0.02  25404 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  16.1  6.2  0.06  216.3  0.009  <1  0.38  0.001  0.05  0.5  1.8  0.10  <0.02  587  0.7  0.06  1.2  0.74  <0.1  0.02  25407 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  18.1  32.3  0.48  201.6  0.054  1  1.93  0.008  0.06  0.2  5.2  0.16  <0.02  103  0.6  <0.02  5.2  1.18  <0.1  0.05  B  Pulp  17.6  583.2  0.14  139.7  0.155  6  4.15  0.014  0.07  <0.1  35.1  0.08  0.03  15  0.6  <0.02  20.1  1.45  <0.1  0.59  25410 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  23.4  5.6  0.02  144.3 <0.001  <1  0.17 <0.001  0.05  0.8  1.2  0.07  <0.02  433  0.6  0.09  0.7  1.74  <0.1  0.06  25411 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  19.5  3.3  0.02  130.6  0.001  1  0.18 <0.001  0.05  0.3  0.9  0.05  <0.02  377  0.5  <0.02  0.9  1.42  <0.1  0.06  25412 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  30.0  4.3  0.02  83.1  0.001  1  0.25 <0.001  0.04  0.2  1.0  0.08  <0.02  364  0.7  <0.02  0.8  0.97  <0.1  0.06  25415 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  15.3  3.0  0.04  120.7  0.003  3  0.17 <0.001  0.03  0.2  1.0  0.06  <0.02  297  0.4  0.11  0.6  0.68  <0.1  0.02  Soil Pulp  14.9  3.1  0.05  123.7  0.003  1  0.16 <0.001  0.03  0.2  0.9  0.05  <0.02  290  0.4  <0.02  0.6  0.68  <0.1  <0.02  Soil Pulp  26.3  4.1  0.05  540.8  0.003  3  0.27 <0.001  0.05  0.3  2.0  0.08  <0.02  1192  0.6  0.09  1.2  1.74  <0.1  0.04  Soil Pulp  23.2  6.9  0.09  195.8  0.008  3  0.34  0.001  0.06  0.3  1.6  0.18  <0.02  476  0.5  0.05  1.4  1.45  <0.1  <0.02  25422 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  12.6  3.7  0.03  139.0  0.002  1  0.20 <0.001  0.03  0.4  1.0  <0.02  <0.02  410  0.8  <0.02  0.6  0.74  <0.1  <0.02  25424 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  14.9  4.5  0.05  609.4  0.005  1  0.39 <0.001  0.04  0.5  1.7  0.11  <0.02  724  0.8  0.08  1.1  0.86  <0.1  <0.02  25428 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  28.3  5.9  0.06  134.6  0.005  2  0.34  0.001  0.05  0.4  1.0  0.11  <0.02  329  0.7  0.08  1.1  0.97  <0.1  <0.02  25432 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  13.8  4.8  0.03  204.4  0.002  2  0.27 <0.001  0.04  0.5  1.5  0.06  <0.02  653  1.1  0.15  0.9  0.73  <0.1  0.02  25433 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  22.6  6.0  0.05  290.1  0.004  <1  0.36 <0.001  0.04  0.9  2.0  0.16  <0.02  696  1.2  0.23  1.4  0.91  <0.1  <0.02  25437 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  17.6  5.7  0.05  290.8  0.004  2  0.37 <0.001  0.04  0.5  2.2  0.16  <0.02  674  1.1  0.17  1.4  0.87  <0.1  <0.02  25438 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  17.4  5.5  0.06  246.4  0.007  2  0.36 <0.001  0.04  0.6  1.8  0.13  <0.02  635  0.8  0.16  1.3  0.75  <0.1  <0.02  25441 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  18.9  6.9  0.06  278.7  0.005  2  0.39 <0.001  0.05  0.4  2.3  0.45  <0.02  729  1.1  0.21  1.3  0.84  <0.1  <0.02  25416 DUP 25415 -80 MESH 25417 -80 MESH 25419 -80 MESH  This report supersedes all previous preliminary and final reports with this file number dated prior to the date on this certificate. Signature indicates final approval; preliminary reports are unsigned and should be used for reference only.  This report supersedes all previous preliminary and final reports with this file n  178  Client:  MDRU of UBC  6339 Stores Road Vancouver BC V6T 1Z4 Canada  Acme Analytical Laboratories (Vancouver) Ltd. 1020 Cordova St. East Vancouver BC V6A 4A3 Canada Phone (604) 253-3158 Fax (604) 253-1716 www.acmelab.com  Project:  Yukon Gold  Report Date:  May 18, 2011  Page:  5 of 7  Part  CERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS  VAN11001645A.1  Method  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  3BMS  3BMS  Analyte  Nb  Rb  Sn  Ta  Zr  Y  Ce  In  Re  Be  Li  Pd  Pt  Au  Pt  Pd  Unit  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppb  ppm  ppm  ppb  ppb  ppb  ppb  ppb  MDL  25233 -80 MESH  3  Soil Pulp  3BMS  0.02  0.1  0.1  0.05  0.1  0.01  0.1  0.02  1  0.1  0.1  10  2  1  0.1  0.5  0.06  60.2  1.0  <0.05  1.2  19.60  39.1  0.06  <1  0.9  34.7  <10  <2  57  0.4  1.2  25389 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  1.17  10.4  0.9  <0.05  4.7  6.93  34.3  0.03  <1  0.6  12.8  <10  <2  8  0.5  0.5  25390 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.90  9.6  0.8  <0.05  4.7  5.01  31.5  <0.02  <1  0.5  12.3  <10  <2  9  0.5  <0.5  25391 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  1.04  9.9  0.7  <0.05  5.2  4.82  28.8  0.03  <1  0.5  16.3  <10  <2  4  0.3  <0.5  25392 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.95  8.2  0.5  <0.05  1.3  2.69  25.1  <0.02  <1  0.7  14.8  <10  <2  8  0.5  <0.5  25393 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.70  10.2  0.5  <0.05  0.6  3.12  31.5  0.03  <1  0.8  14.7  <10  <2  33  0.8  <0.5  25394 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.93  11.8  0.6  <0.05  1.2  3.42  26.1  0.03  <1  0.7  18.9  <10  <2  34  0.4  <0.5  25395 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.74  10.3  0.5  <0.05  2.6  3.73  24.6  0.02  <1  0.4  17.0  <10  <2  157  0.5  <0.5  Soil Pulp  0.76  10.5  0.6  <0.05  2.6  3.58  24.3  0.03  <1  0.5  16.1  <10  <2  159  0.4  <0.5  Soil Pulp  0.08  5.3  0.1  <0.05  1.4  5.86  46.2  <0.02  <1  0.3  1.3  <10  <2  512  0.6  0.6  25399 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.10  4.4  <0.1  <0.05  0.5  2.84  32.8  <0.02  <1  0.2  1.5  <10  <2  9  0.2  <0.5  25402 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.06  4.5  <0.1  <0.05  0.7  2.60  30.2  <0.02  <1  0.2  0.7  <10  <2  106  0.4  <0.5  25404 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.09  4.1  0.2  <0.05  2.2  6.76  31.2  <0.02  <1  0.4  1.5  <10  <2  391  0.4  0.8  25407 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.52  9.1  0.6  <0.05  4.2  8.49  38.4  0.03  <1  0.3  11.7  <10  <2  12  0.8  0.9 32.2  25396 DUP 25395 -80 MESH 25397 -80 MESH  B  Pulp  0.48  9.4  1.9  <0.05  26.9  7.74  37.5  0.08  <1  0.4  7.6  22  42  35  49.8  25410 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.02  4.7  0.2  <0.05  3.1  6.75  47.5  <0.02  <1  0.2  0.4  <10  <2  55  0.4  1.1  25411 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.03  4.2  0.2  <0.05  2.9  5.68  40.5  <0.02  <1  0.1  0.4  <10  <2  52  0.4  0.7  25412 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.03  4.8  0.1  <0.05  2.6  5.28  60.3  <0.02  <1  0.2  0.7  <10  <2  15  0.6  1.6  25415 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.02  3.3  0.1  <0.05  1.8  4.70  33.1  <0.02  <1  0.2  <0.1  <10  <2  355  0.4  0.7  Soil Pulp  0.02  3.0  <0.1  <0.05  1.9  4.37  29.7  <0.02  <1  0.2  0.1  <10  2  408  0.3  0.7  Soil Pulp  <0.02  5.0  0.2  <0.05  3.3  10.13  50.7  <0.02  <1  0.3  0.2  <10  <2  543  0.4  1.3  25419 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.10  6.0  0.2  <0.05  1.7  8.22  47.2  <0.02  <1  0.3  1.1  <10  <2  207  0.5  1.1  25422 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.02  2.7  0.1  <0.05  0.7  3.97  24.8  <0.02  <1  0.5  0.1  <10  <2  628  0.4  0.5  25424 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.05  4.7  0.1  <0.05  0.8  10.89  29.7  <0.02  1  0.7  0.4  <10  <2  518  0.3  0.9  25416 DUP 25415 -80 MESH 25417 -80 MESH  25428 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.08  6.5  0.2  <0.05  1.2  4.65  56.9  <0.02  <1  0.4  1.3  <10  <2  65  0.5  0.5  25432 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  <0.02  3.2  0.1  <0.05  1.7  6.64  26.8  <0.02  <1  0.6  0.2  <10  <2  336  0.4  0.9  25433 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.07  4.5  0.1  <0.05  1.8  8.90  44.0  <0.02  <1  0.7  0.8  <10  <2  808  0.4  1.0  25437 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.06  4.4  0.2  <0.05  1.5  9.30  34.3  <0.02  <1  1.0  0.3  <10  <2  819  0.4  1.0  25438 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.05  4.4  0.1  <0.05  1.9  7.49  35.1  <0.02  <1  0.8  1.0  <10  <2  510  0.4  0.9  25441 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.06  4.9  0.1  <0.05  1.5  9.13  38.0  <0.02  <1  0.4  0.9  17  <2  911  0.6  1.3  This report supersedes all previous preliminary and final reports with this file number dated prior to the date on this certificate. Signature indicates final approval; preliminary reports are unsigned and should be used for reference only.  179  Client:  MDRU of UBC  6339 Stores Road Vancouver BC V6T 1Z4 Canada  Acme Analytical Laboratories (Vancouver) Ltd. 1020 Cordova St. East Vancouver BC V6A 4A3 Canada Phone (604) 253-3158 Fax (604) 253-1716 www.acmelab.com  Project:  Yukon Gold  Report Date:  May 18, 2011  Page:  6 of 7  Part  CERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS  1  VAN11001645A.1  CERTIFICATE OF ANALY  Method  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  Analyte  Mo  Cu  Pb  Zn  Ag  Ni  Co  Mn  Fe  As  U  Au  Th  Sr  Cd  Sb  Bi  V  Ca  P  Unit  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppb  ppm  ppm  ppm  %  ppm  ppm  ppb  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  %  %  MDL  1F15  0.01  0.01  0.01  0.1  2  0.1  0.1  1  0.01  0.1  0.1  0.2  0.1  0.5  0.01  0.02  0.02  2  0.01  0.001  25443 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  3.82  54.22  16.01  40.8  283  21.2  2.7  55  3.23  124.6  2.2  624.8  5.8  22.8  0.39  0.62  3.01  30  0.02  0.093  25446 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  3.95  55.34  24.92  41.2  443  21.5  2.8  56  3.28  140.4  2.3  878.3  6.1  27.2  0.34  0.64  6.01  31  0.02  0.108  25450 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  4.44  63.67  25.28  48.2  534  26.5  3.5  107  3.89  152.0  2.6  982.0  7.3  23.2  0.46  0.75  5.08  38  0.03  0.124  25451 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  4.69  72.44  26.71  47.1  463  26.6  3.2  70  4.08  162.7  2.9  1174  6.8  20.9  0.40  0.65  5.61  39  0.02  0.121  25453 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  1.46  24.07  12.05  88.1  558  23.5  11.4  454  3.57  30.7  0.6  16.9  3.4  14.7  0.28  0.87  0.35  82  0.13  0.053  C  Pulp  1.25  540.4  21.13  63.1  279  264.1  87.9  975  16.37  4.3  1.4  35.2  7.4  17.1  0.10  0.42  0.19  222  0.39  0.040  25457 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  3.86  53.25  14.66  49.8  466  25.3  8.2  186  3.67  119.0  2.9  358.5  6.5  13.7  0.38  0.79  1.37  51  0.05  0.088  25458 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  3.32  43.93  13.07  53.6  1036  20.8  7.9  182  3.85  89.1  1.9  143.7  6.3  14.2  0.31  0.77  0.95  68  0.06  0.120  25461 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  3.60  45.61  12.02  34.5  817  14.5  5.2  182  2.97  107.8  2.2  321.4  6.8  17.2  0.31  0.75  0.96  45  0.04  0.099  25463 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  3.11  49.28  14.69  68.1  2052  36.9  10.8  296  3.87  89.1  1.7  73.7  4.8  17.0  0.47  1.01  0.98  71  0.09  0.120  25466 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  5.13  55.11  12.03  41.5  1599  20.3  12.1  603  3.50  137.0  2.6  275.0  7.6  17.9  0.40  0.91  0.86  46  0.05  0.117  25468 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  1.86  27.09  9.04  15.7  76  5.5  1.4  54  1.19  121.6  1.6  20.4  10.6  14.2  0.17  0.65  1.05  26  0.03  0.026  25470 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  1.46  19.83  13.87  53.6  196  17.4  8.5  272  3.93  24.0  1.0  12.3  4.5  17.9  0.13  0.84  0.40  85  0.13  0.041  25471 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  1.42  20.35  14.53  52.3  199  17.6  7.5  245  3.81  23.9  1.2  10.1  5.3  16.2  0.16  0.80  0.38  85  0.12  0.040  25473 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  1.40  25.56  4.87  9.7  59  2.9  0.6  18  0.83  87.7  1.5  17.4  12.3  6.7  0.19  0.48  0.61  18  0.01  0.022  25475 -80 MESH 25476 DUP 25475 -80 MESH 25478 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  1.64  16.26  14.74  90.3  358  16.8  14.5  793  3.69  21.3  0.5  7.5  2.3  12.5  0.51  0.71  0.42  87  0.09  0.073  Soil Pulp  1.65  15.11  13.17  87.4  374  15.1  14.4  706  3.59  21.0  0.5  3.6  2.3  12.6  0.47  0.68  0.39  85  0.10  0.067 0.030  Soil Pulp  1.09  22.78  5.27  23.2  85  6.3  3.1  187  1.21  62.1  0.9  16.6  5.9  6.7  0.31  0.43  0.57  27  0.03  25481 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  2.62  28.01  8.39  13.3  420  3.8  11.7  134  0.98  126.4  1.6  20.5  15.3  13.2  0.28  0.74  0.75  18  0.02  0.029  E442001 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  1.24  42.61  8.02  74.6  738  32.3  15.6  805  3.81  9.1  1.5  60.0  8.1  26.0  0.06  2.30  0.25  73  0.46  0.064  E442005 -80 MESH E442006 DUP E442005 -80 MESH E442007 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.44  77.31  4.17  88.4  232  59.6  22.3  834  4.45  4.0  0.5  148.8  3.4  22.6  0.08  1.18  0.08  109  0.62  0.072  Soil Pulp  0.43  75.37  4.20  81.6  230  55.4  22.0  826  4.52  4.2  0.5  57.8  3.5  23.7  0.10  1.21  0.08  111  0.63  0.070  Soil Pulp  0.29  131.0  2.75  94.0  127  32.2  25.6  864  4.76  2.3  0.2  23.9  1.0  16.1  0.10  0.42  0.04  147  0.66  0.082  E442010 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  3.34  30.23  8.87  77.4  131  33.8  15.1  351  4.09  12.4  1.3  181.8  6.7  14.2  0.07  2.06  0.12  64  0.16  0.046  E442011 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  4.65  27.35  10.19  65.2  165  36.5  15.1  302  4.03  13.6  1.1  308.3  4.9  15.0  0.10  3.30  0.15  69  0.15  0.041  E442013 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  4.50  25.74  9.34  87.3  214  40.9  15.2  637  3.78  12.0  1.5  155.0  7.4  15.5  0.08  2.03  0.13  60  0.20  0.067  A  Pulp  172.7  6879  6.06  48.4  1135  10.1  10.9  246  3.02  39.8  <0.1  323.7  0.2  17.7  0.22  0.96  0.33  181  0.93  0.047  E442015 -80 MESH  Soil Pulp  0.95  26.37  11.25  65.9  397  24.5  15.6  518  3.53  8.4  0.5  4.9  3.2  16.3  0.14  0.50  0.22  80  0.14  0.036  Soil Pulp  0.84  23.45  10.27  61.7  381  23.9  16.0  509  3.50  8.0  0.4  3.8  2.8  15.1  0.11  0.46  0.21  79  0.12  0.034  Soil Pulp  0.77  77.27  7.50  79.5  182  33.0  16.9  448  3.99  9.0  0.6  4.4  3.4  27.5  0.07  0.50  0.16  91  0.21  0.032  E442016 DUP E442015 -80 MESH E442018 -80 MESH  This report supersedes all previous preliminary and final reports with this file number dated prior to the date on this certificate. Signature indicates final approval; preliminary reports are unsigned and should be used for reference only.  This report supersedes all previous preliminary and final reports with this file n  180  Client:  MDRU of UBC  6339 Stores Road Vancouver BC V6T 1Z4 Canada  Acme Analytical Laboratories (Vancouver) Ltd. 1020 Cordova St. East Vancouver BC V6A 4A3 Canada Phone (604) 253-3158 Fax (604) 253-1716 www.acmelab.com  Project:  Yukon Gold  Report Date:  May 18, 2011  Page:  6 of 7  Part  CERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS  2  VAN11001645A.1  CERTIFICATE OF ANALY  Method  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  1F15  Analyte  La  Cr