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The Curtin site : the historical archaeology of a rural farmstead in Ops Township, Ontario Torrie, Alison Pauline 2013

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THE CURTIN SITE: THE HISTORICAL ARCHAEOLOGY OF A RURAL FARMSTEAD IN OPS TOWNSHIP, ONTARIO  by Alison Pauline Torrie  B.A., The University of Toronto, 2008  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Anthropology)  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver)  April 2013  © Alison Pauline Torrie, 2013  Abstract This thesis is an analysis of the economic context of the occupation of the Curtin site (BbGq-22), a rural farmstead in Ops Township, in the former Victoria County, Ontario. In addition to subsistence farming, the occupants of this rural site were engaging in nonagricultural cottage industries and exploiting the resources of the natural environment they inhabited. The Curtin site is an example of a rural farmstead that was increasingly oriented towards a regional economy throughout the nineteenth and twentieth century. Current literature on the subject of farmstead archaeology emphasizes the importance of constructing regional models of agricultural production and material culture. This thesis aims to contribute to the development of such models in order to facilitate the interpretation of historical archaeological sites in southern Ontario, and specifically in the former Victoria County. To accurately assess the significance of a historical farmstead site in rural Ontario, it must be considered within the context of the socioeconomic systems and physical environments that have influenced its occupational history. As such, this thesis includes a comprehensive review of archival, historical, and geographical information that provides context for the interpretation of the sample artifact assemblage yielded by the archaeological excavation of the Curtin site. I infer that, in addition to being a self-contained unit of production and consumption, the occupants of the Curtin site participated in non-agricultural industrial activities including blacksmithing, pottery and brick-making, which engaged them with a regional economy.  ii  Table of Contents Abstract ............................................................................................................................... ii Table of Contents ............................................................................................................... iii List of Tables .......................................................................................................................v List of Figures .................................................................................................................... vi Acknowledgements ........................................................................................................... vii Dedication .......................................................................................................................... ix 1.0 INTRODUCTION .........................................................................................................1 2.0 PHYSICAL SETTING ..................................................................................................9 3.0 HISTORICAL CONTEXT ..........................................................................................13 3.1 THE EURO-CANADIAN SETTLEMENT OF VICTORIA COUNTY ................13 3.2 AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION IN NINETEENTH CENTURY VICTORIA COUNTY ............................................................................................14 3.3 THE ESTABLISHMENT AND EXPANSION OF TRANSPORTATION ROUTES .................................................................................................................16 4.0 ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESULTS ..............................................................................22 4.1 SUMMARY OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS ..............................22 4.2 THE STAGE III ARTIFACT ASSEMBLAGE ......................................................23 4.2.1 CERAMICS .....................................................................................................24 4.2.2 GLASS ............................................................................................................26 4.2.3 METAL ...........................................................................................................27 4.2.4 OTHER ............................................................................................................28 4.3 PRELIMINARY SITE INTERPRETATIONS .......................................................29 5.0 ARCHIVAL AND HISTORICAL RESEARCH.........................................................30 5.1 LAND REGISTRY ARCHIVES ............................................................................31 5.2 TAX ASSESSMENT ROLLS ................................................................................31 5.3 CENSUS DATA .....................................................................................................32 5.4 LOCAL AND REGIONAL HISTORIES ...............................................................33 5.5 OCCUPATIONAL HISTORY OF THE CURTIN SITE .......................................34 5.5.1 TERENCE BRADY AND JAMES SWAIN ...................................................34 5.5.2 PATRICK MCHUGH .....................................................................................37  iii  5.5.3 PATRICK CURTIN ........................................................................................37 5.5.4 AN EARTHENWARE POTTERY AND BRICK-MAKING OPERATION ..................................................................................................38 5.5.5 HORSES USED FOR SMALL-SCALE INDUSTRY ....................................39 6.0 DISCUSSION ..............................................................................................................42 6.1 NON-AGRICULTURAL SMALL-SCALE INDUSTRY AND THE INCREASING COMMERCIAL ORIENTATION OF THE RURAL FARMSTEAD ..........................................................................................................42 6.2 A RAILWAY CONNECTION ...............................................................................44 6.3 DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE .............................................................................45 6.4 THE ECONOMIC CONTEXT OF THE OCCUPATION OF THE CURTIN SITE ..........................................................................................................46 7.0 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................49 8.0 Works Cited .................................................................................................................51  iv  List of Tables Table 1  The Stage III Artifact Assemblage ...............................................................24  Table 2  The Stage III Artifact Assemblage – Ceramics ............................................25  Table 3  The Stage III Artifact Assemblage – Glass ..................................................26  Table 4  The Stage III Artifact Assemblage – Metal ..................................................27  Table 5  The Stage III Artifact Assemblage – Other ..................................................28  v  List of Figures Fig. 1a  Map indicating the location of the Curtin site BbGq-22 ................................3  Fig. 1b  Map indicating the location of the former Victoria County ...........................3  Fig. 2  Map of Victoria County (Belden 1881) ..........................................................4  Fig. 3  Map of towns and cities near the Curtin site ..................................................9  Fig. 4  The Trent-Severn Waterway ........................................................................10  Fig. 5  Occupational history of the northeast corner of Lot 15, Concession 5 ........36  Fig. 6  Map of Ops Township ca. 1881....................................................................40  Fig. 7  Map of Ops Township in 1916 .....................................................................41  vi  Acknowledgements I owe a huge debt of gratitude to my supervisor, Dr. Susan Rowley, and my committee member Dr. Michael Blake, for their patience, support, and for their careful readings of this thesis and the valuable feedback they provided. I would also like to extend thanks to the anonymous MARC reader whose comments were very helpful in arriving at the final version of this thesis. I am grateful to the professors and my fellow students of the Department of Anthropology at the University of British Columbia for their friendship and for encouraging my academic development. The opportunities for research and writing that I have been afforded as a graduate student have taught me that one is never finished learning how to write. Thank you to Dr. Michael Blake, Dr. Patrick Moore, Dr. Bruce Miller, and Dr. Charles Menzies for their insight and critical feedback on the papers that I wrote as a student in their respective courses, and for giving me the encouragement and opportunity to mature as a writer. I am especially thankful for the support and encouragement of my friend Shazeen Suleman who joined me in Vancouver and shared many adventures. Her friendship enriched my life and made living in Vancouver a truly tremendous experience. As an undergraduate, my colleagues at Archaeological Services Inc. instilled in me a love of historical archaeology. I wish to thank Andrew Clish and Denise McGuire, and the many other ASI archaeologists with whom I had the privilege of working. My husband Geoff Lapaire provided valuable assistance in the creation of the figures contained in this thesis. Thank you, Geoff, for your love, understanding, support, and for encouraging me when I needed it the most.  vii  My brother Jake Torrie made it possible for me to visit the archives at Trent University in Peterborough, Ontario. Our engaging discussions while driving together were incredibly valuable to me as I sought to articulate the research I was conducting. My mother and father, Judy Smith and Ralph Torrie, taught me to think creatively and encouraged me to see my Master's thesis through to completion. They willingly proofread drafts of this thesis and I am especially grateful for their advice, encouragement, and faith in me.  viii  Dedication This thesis is dedicated with love and gratitude to my mother Judy.  ix  1.0 INTRODUCTION What does the old farm mean to me? Acres of meadow and pasture land, The vale where the brook sings merrily, And the knoll where the buildings stand, What its commercial worth may be? Is this all the old farm means to me? Dream and toil of the pioneers, Characters moulded and lives spent well A heritage handed a-down the years, Courage no shocks could ever quell, Treasures of love and memory, Dearer than gold it means to me. Landscapes mantled in changing dress Old as the hills yet ever new, Pageants of beauty that move and bless The march of the season through. All that the poet delights to see In nature, the old farm means to me. A way of life and a stewardship high, The sense of a partnership with God, Faith in the things that never die Through fruits of the broken sod. Home and hopes for the years to be, How much the old farm means to me! -Anonymous  Farmsteads are among the most common site types encountered by historical archaeologists in Ontario. ‘What the old farm means’ is precisely what they study. This anonymous poem included in Ops: Land of Plenty, a local history book (Carr 1968:70-71), touches upon important questions addressed by historical archaeologists. What was the commercial value of the farm? What was the local landscape like, and how did it create a sense of place for those who lived there? In what ways did the hard work and stewardship of the land exhibited by pioneers contribute to the heritage of a place? 1  This thesis examines the historical archaeology of a single 'old farm': the Curtin site (BbGq-22), a farmstead in Ops Township in the former Victoria County, Ontario. The practice of historical archaeology is characterized by the availability of forms of historical evidence that complement the archaeological record of a culture. The ‘historic period’ of a given culture is commonly defined by the presence of a documentary record (Binford 1977:13; Groover 2008:4; Hicks and Beaudry 2006; Moreland 2001; Orser 1996). In Canada, ‘historical archaeology’ refers to the study of European colonization and settlement, urbanization and industrialization. In addition to drawing upon written historical records, historical archaeology is well-suited to the task of integrating oral and local histories, diverse documentary records and archaeological evidence to produce a narrative of the recent past (Stewart-Abernathy 1986; Stine 1990). In my consideration of 'what the old farm means,' I draw upon historical, archival and archaeological sources to focus on answering a single research question related to the cultural heritage value of the site: what is the economic context of the occupation of the Curtin site? Specifically, to what degree were the occupants of a rural Ontario farmstead in the nineteenth century engaged in other small-scale non-farm related industry? I begin with a description of the physical setting of the site. Figures 1a and 1b illustrate the location of the Curtin site in the former Victoria County, relative to nearby cities and the Great Lakes, and Figure 2 shows its location within the southern township of Ops in Victoria County.  2  Figure 1a (top): Map indicating the location of the Curtin site BbGq-22. Figure 1b (bottom): Map indicating the location of the former Victoria County (highlighted in purple).  3  Figure 2: Map of Victoria County (Belden 1881) 4  As my principal research question centres on the ability of the first Euro-Canadian settlers to clear and farm the land, and to exploit their environment for subsistence and commercial gain, Chapter 2 describes the local waterways and geological features, including the Peterborough drumlin field and the Schomberg clay plain. The soil is characterized and the implications for agriculture are discussed. A rural site is more than just a house, yard and outbuildings. It includes all the land owned or leased by that household. A rural farm site can be several hundred acres in size (Adams 1990:92-93). The study of the landscape of a rural site focuses on examining the use of the land, the domestic architecture, the arrangement of outbuildings and fences, feature types and general site structure and occupation/use history as related to the physical environment in which the site is located (Groover 2008:15-16). In order to examine the commercial success of the farmstead and any other small-scale non-agricultural activities taking place on the property, it is important to understand what natural resources were accessible to the early settlers. After examining the physical setting of the Curtin site, I turn to historical sources to study the history of Victoria County. Groover (2008:128) proposes that historical archaeologists working on rural farmstead sites should use historical sources to construct regional models of agricultural production and material culture within a prescribed physiographic zone. In other words, in order to properly assess the significance of a site, it must be considered alongside the socioeconomic systems and physical environments that provide the context for its occupational history. The interpretation of a site must take into account both the cultural background of the residents or occupants as well as the history of the place they occupy (David and Thomas 2008). As my focus is on determining the  5  economic context of the occupation of the Curtin site, I chose three themes for elaboration in Chapter 3. First I describe the history of the Euro-Canadian settlement of Victoria County. The Curtin site was occupied in the nineteenth century by Irish immigrants and this section of my thesis provides the historical description of their immigration. Secondly, I turn to an examination of nineteenth century agricultural production in Victoria County. This section references the suitability of the physical environment for agriculture that was described in the previous chapter, and explores the history of agricultural activities in Victoria County. The final section of this chapter provides a history of transportation in the area. As the Curtin site is a rural farmstead, its connection to central urban markets is crucial to understanding the economic context of its settlement. It was the expansion of transportation infrastructure that led to the discovery of the Curtin site. Proposed improvements to Ontario Highway 7 precipitated the undertaking of an archaeological assessment to determine the potential archaeological impact of the construction activities. Subsequent archaeological investigations yielded an artifact assemblage that suggests the Curtin site was occupied from the mid-nineteenth century until the mid-twentieth century. C.R. Murphy Archaeological Consultants were responsible for the initial excavation of the site which began in 2001 and is ongoing. The results of previous archaeological studies at the Curtin site are presented in Chapter 4. The Stage III artifact assemblage1 is described in this chapter and some previous preliminary interpretations are  1  There are four stages of archaeological investigation practiced by Cultural Resource Management consultants in Ontario. Stage I archaeological assessments consist of background research and a visit to the area subject to study. A Stage II archaeological assessment includes a survey of the property to identify all archaeological resources that may be present. This is often done by systematic fieldwalking and/or the excavation of test pits at regular intervals. A Stage III archaeological assessment is done to determine the extent of 6  discussed. The Stage III report produced by C.R. Murphy Archaeological Consultants is the most recent published account of the archaeology of the Curtin site. In the Stage III report, it is suggested that the Curtin site included a domestic structure that was associated with the railway, such as a bunkhouse. This proposed use of the Curtin site suggests that it was not strictly a rural farmstead, but also played a supporting role in the expansion of local industry and transportation routes. The relationship of the Curtin site to the nearby railway is a significant indication of the economic context of the site—one of the key aspects of my research focus. There is no reference in the Stage III report to historical or archival research that would support this interpretation of the economic role of the Curtin site. As little archival analysis of the Curtin site has taken place to date, I decided to undertake this research to explore the value of this preliminary interpretation of the Curtin site as a domestic support for the railway. In doing so, I consulted the land registry archives for the City of Kawartha Lakes, and undertook extensive research at the archives at Trent University in Peterborough, Ontario, where I was able to examine the tax assessment rolls and census data from 1855 to 1915. Chapter 5 presents the results of this research and describes the occupational history of the Curtin site. Chapter 6 integrates the archaeological, archival, and historical data to challenge the initial interpretation of the Curtin site as a domestic structure associated with the railway. I argue that evidence for a brick-making operation and earthenware pottery located on the  the site and to collect a representative sample of artifacts. The characteristics of the site are described, their heritage significance is evaluated, and the need for further mitigation in advance of construction activities is determined. A Stage IV archaeological study has the goal of mitigating the impact of development activities. In situations where site preservation is not achievable, the site is fully excavated and all cultural heritage features are documented.  7  property suggests that the occupants of the Curtin site, in addition to farming, were integrated within a larger non-agricultural economy. Rather than being solely a domestic site supporting the nearby railway, I conclude that the Curtin site is an example of a rural farmstead whose occupants were exploiting the natural resources and taking advantage of expanding local infrastructure by engaging in non-agricultural activities to supplement their farmstead.  8  2.0 PHYSICAL SETTING The Curtin site is situated in Ops Township, located in the southern portion of the former Victoria County, Ontario (Figure 2). The towns and cities located near the Curtin site are depicted in Figure 3. The largest town in the former county is Lindsay. The municipalities that comprised Victoria County were amalgamated by provincial legislation to form the City of Kawartha Lakes in 2001. Figure 3: Map of towns and cities near the Curtin site  Legend: A - Lindsay B - Peterborough C - Cobourg D - Port Hope E - Whitby F - Bowmanville  G - Fenelon Falls H - Bobcaygeon I - Omemee J - Reaboro K - Orono L - Newcastle  M - Port Perry N - Beaverton O - Ceasarea P - Oakwood Q - Kinmount R - Haliburton  9  The Kawartha Lakes, for which the city is named, constitute the headwaters of the Trent River system (Buttle 1985:77). The Trent-Severn Waterway, depicted in Figure 4, comprises many of the major lakes in the Kawartha Lakes system. A network of rivers and lakes from Georgian Bay to the Bay of Quinte, the Trent-Severn Waterway is 386 kilometres long and is navigable by a system of canals and locks. Survey and construction work began on the first canal in 1833 at Bobcaygeon, approximately 35 kilometres northeast of the Curtin site. Completed in 1920, the Trent-Severn waterway is a historic and important transportation route between Lake Ontario and Lake Huron (Kirkconnell 1967:176-178). Figure 4: The Trent-Severn Waterway (Pope n.d.)  Included among the Kawartha Lakes are Lake Scugog and Sturgeon Lake, connected by the Scugog River. Originally a marsh, Lake Scugog is an artificially flooded lake 10  resulting from the damming of the Scugog River at Lindsay. The first dam was built by William Purdy and his sons Jesse and Hazard who, in 1827, received a government contract to build a dam, a sawmill and a gristmill in exchange for 400 acres of land and $600 (Buttle 1985:77-80; Carr 1968:18-19; Chapman and Putnam 1966:284). As a result of the damming of the river, the Lake Scugog water level was raised by several feet. The Scugog River flows north from Lake Scugog and drains into Sturgeon Lake, whose shores are home to communities including Fenelon Falls, Bobcaygeon and Lindsay. Both Lake Scugog and Sturgeon Lake are located in the southern portion of the Kawartha Lakes region, which is situated within the Peterborough drumlin field. Characterized by eskers and gravel ridges, the Peterborough drumlin field is underlain by fossiliferous Trenton limestone (Chapman and Putnam 1966:281-282; Gillespie and Richards 1957:12). The drumlins are formed of calcareous glacial till and are oriented in a northeast to southwest direction (Brunger 1972:45; Chapman and Putnam 1966:286). There are typically two or three drumlins per square kilometre, each averaging less than 1.5 kilometres long, 400 metres wide and twenty-five metres high (Gillespie and Acton 1981:9). Within the boundaries of the former Victoria County, the drumlins are poorly developed and farther apart (Chapman and Putnam 1966:282-283). Deposits of clay occupy the space between the drumlins. One such clay deposit is the Schomberg clay plain, which underlies the area in which the Curtin site is located. The Schomberg clay plain consists of several metres of clay and silt overlying glacial till. Described as the result of glacial ponding, the clay deposit is approximately five metres deep in the vicinity of the Curtin site (Chapman and Putnam 1966:283, 296; Murphy 2006:4).  11  The high limestone content of the glacial till was noted in the soil survey of Victoria County conducted in 1950-51. Specifically, the Curtin site is situated in an area of Smithfield clay loam, which is described as a slightly alkaline calcareous lacustrine clay (Gillespie and Richards 1957). Belonging to the grey-brown podzolic group of soils found throughout the southern part of the former Victoria County, Smithfield clay loam is characterized by imperfect drainage and a relative lack of stones. The soil survey concluded that the 11,400 acres of Victoria County underlain by Smithfield clay loam is good agricultural land (Gillespie and Richards 1957). According to the 1951 census, which is contemporary with the soil survey of Victoria County, only 27 percent of the total land area in Victoria County was cleared and improved, or under crops (Kirkconnell 1967:58). A further 28 percent of the land in Victoria County was occupied but unimproved, being predominantly characterized by natural pasture and wooded areas (Gillespie and Richards 1957; Kirkconnell 1967:58).  12  3.0 HISTORICAL CONTEXT Groover’s study of farmstead archaeology (2008) emphasizes the importance of constructing regional models of agricultural production and material culture. A goal of this thesis is to contribute to the development of such models to facilitate the interpretation of historical archaeological sites in southern Ontario, specifically in the former Victoria County. As such, three themes have been chosen for elaboration in this chapter: early Euro-Canadian settlement of the region, specifically Ops Township in the former Victoria County; the development and significance of agricultural production; and the establishment and expansion of transportation routes, namely waterways, railways and highways.2 3.1 THE EURO-CANADIAN SETTLEMENT OF VICTORIA COUNTY The British Constitutional Act of 1791 established the Province of Upper Canada. The province was subsequently divided into districts for administrative purposes, Newcastle being the district to the north of Lake Ontario. Land holdings in the Victoria County region were first offered for sale in 1821 by the Government of Upper Canada (Kirkconnell 1967:1). Ops Township was surveyed in 1824-25 and the first land grant was to John and Patrick Connell in 1825 (Brunger 1972:40; Brunger 1985:99; Carr 1968:3; Kirkconell 1967:27). The first settlers to arrive in Victoria County were mostly Protestant from the Irish county of Fermanagh (Kirkconnell 1967:3). The northern concessions of Emily Township and parts of Ops Township, however, were largely settled by Irish Catholics from County Cork brought  2  Several first-hand accounts of the settlement and development of the Peterborough region are available. While not directly relevant to my research question, these letters and diaries provide entertaining, informative and personal accounts of the daily lives of the first EuroCanadians to settle in the region. Specifically, I recommend the letters of John Langton, compiled and published in 1926, as they are especially colourful. Susanna Moodie's Roughing it in the Bush (1852) and Catharine Parr Traill's The Backwoods of Canada (1836) are also widely available. 13  to the area under the auspices of a British emigration program managed by the Hon. Peter Robinson in the 1820s (Kirkconnell 1967:17). Known as the “Robinson Immigration,” the arrival of over 2000 Irish Catholics from County Cork, Ireland in 1825 was a significant event in the pioneer settlement of Victoria County (Kirkconnell 1967:17-18). These Irish emigrants were seeking to escape the extreme poverty of mid-nineteenth century Ireland. In May 1825 they embarked on a month-long journey by boat from Cork, Ireland to Quebec. Upon arrival, they transferred to steamboats that took them to Montreal. From Montreal, they travelled to Kingston and eventually to Cobourg, Port Hope, Whitby or Bowmanville by way of steamboat, bateau, Durham boat, or stagecoach (Carr 1968: 4; Kirkconnell 1967:4, 17). Between 1815 and 1855, almost a million immigrants arrived in what was then called British North America, and many settled on the north shores of Lake Ontario (Brunger 1972:40-41; Brunger 1985:99; Cowan 1978:16). As settlers were rapidly occupying the small towns and new settlements along the north shore of the lake, immigrants began to look farther north for a suitable place to settle. They came inland to Ops Township by way of the Trent River, Kawartha Lakes, and portage trails (Brunger 1972:40-41; Brunger 1985:99; Kirkconnell 1967:29). Upon arriving in Ops Township, and obtaining lands, the settlers began clearing and farming the land. 3.2 AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION IN NINETEENTH CENTURY VICTORIA COUNTY Agriculture has always played an important role in the history of settlement in Victoria County. The first settlers to arrive chose to farm the soils that were most favourable to cultivation—engaging initially in mixed farming. Not all the land is equally suitable for productive farming. Of all the land in Victoria County, 52.7 percent is classified as nonagricultural and a further 9.9 percent is listed as poor cropland (Kirkconnell 1967:58). Only 14  37.4 percent of the land in the County is described as being suitable for agriculture, mostly in the southern townships (Kirkconnell 1967:58). In 1951, 55 percent of the land in Victoria County was occupied, and only 27 percent was cleared and farmed (Gillespie and Richards 1957; Kirkconnell 1967:58). Upon their arrival in Victoria County in the early nineteenth century, each immigrant family cleared enough land in this heavily forested area to build a small log barn and home. Initially, they farmed for subsistence and their farms were largely self-sufficient. The first crops grown included grains, clover, spring wheat, oats, turnips, corn, and potatoes, and occasionally they made maple syrup and sugar. Many of the first farmers kept a flock of sheep, and spun their wool into yarn (Carr 1968:9, 50, 55). Farmers relied on local grist mills to process their grain and the presence of a mill often led to an increased density of farming. As mills became central places for new settlement, the first villages were established nearby. Omemee, Lindsay, Bobcaygeon and Fenelon Falls are all examples of villages that grew up around grist mills that drew farmers to settle nearby (Carr 1968:18-20; Kirkconnell 1967:10). Between 1818 and 1850, agricultural settlement in the inland counties north of Lake Ontario, including Victoria County, transformed nearby Peterborough into a market centre (Brunger 1972:41; Brunger 1985:99). While the Town of Lindsay never became the market centre that Peterborough did, it provided a small market for milk produced in Ops Township and was a significant service centre for the township (Carr 1968:9). Many local women took the produce from their family farms to the market in Lindsay. Alternatively, some would take their produce, mostly eggs and butter, to the stores in town where it could be traded for imported foods such as sugar and tea (Carr 1968:55).  15  Throughout the 1850s, agricultural production in Ops Township increased in complexity as farmers diversified and prosperity increased (McInnes 1984:396). In addition to sheep and beef cattle, farmers raised dairy cattle, hogs, and poultry (Carr 1968:9). Farming in Ops Township was now supporting secondary industries and was increasingly focused on supplying beef cattle and milk to Toronto (Kirkconnell 1967:13). McInnes’ (1984) study of nineteenth-century farms in Ontario stated that “the value of net output of the average farm in Ontario in 1861 was $384. The average marketable surplus was $210, a figure that amounted to 55% of net output” (McInnes 1984:406-407). Therefore, it is clear that mid-nineteenth century Ontario farms were increasingly market oriented. While the first settlers to arrive in Victoria County in the early nineteenth century farmed mostly for subsistence, by the latter half of the century they were becoming increasingly integrated within a regional economic system as farms produced significant marketable surpluses. Factors that influenced the size of marketable surplus include farm size, the length of time since the settlement of the Township, and access to transportation (McInnes 1984: 408-412). 3.3 THE ESTABLISHMENT AND EXPANSION OF TRANSPORTATION ROUTES In an effort to facilitate transportation and thus encourage growth and development, a parliamentary act was passed in 1793 in Upper Canada requiring settlers to clear the part of the concession line upon which their lot fronted (Carr 1968:11). Despite this labour required of settlers, large tracts of land remained uncleared and undeveloped since they were clergy or crown reserves. Furthermore, much of the choice land in Upper Canada was granted to politicians who often resided outside the Township (Kirkconnell 1967:7, 179). As settlement increased in the early nineteenth century, the need for concession roads became urgent. In 1842 the Government of Canada allocated funds for the construction of roads in the 16  township. The earliest roads in Ops Township were corduroy roads constructed from tree trunks laid alongside one another and covered with dirt. The Baldwin Municipal Act passed in 1849 afforded more administrative powers to emerging local governments throughout the province. Once responsibility for roads was passed on to local administrators, plank roads began to replace the rudimentary corduroy ones (Carr 1968:11; Kirkconnell 1967:7). There were a small number of crude, makeshift roads that connected Lindsay to nearby towns and urban centres in the late nineteenth century. The first ran southeast to Reaboro and Omemee, eventually connecting to other roads that led to Port Hope, Cobourg, or Peterborough. A second road extended more or less to the south, circumventing Lake Scugog and arriving in Orono and Newcastle. A road running to the west from Lindsay arrived in Oakwood and another road heading northwest terminated in Fenelon Falls (Kirkconnell 1967:180). The Kawartha Lakes and the Trent River system have historically played a significant role in connecting settlements throughout Victoria County. The extensive network of waterways provided an important means of transportation throughout the region for people and goods alike. The Trent River system was first surveyed in 1833, and work on the canals began in 1837 (Brunger 1972:42; Kirkconnell 1967:167-168). William Purdy, who had previously built a dam on the Scugog River in 1827, and subsequently built the mill that founded the town of Lindsay, built a lock in 1844 that facilitated river transportation to and from the town (Carr 1968: 18-20; Kirkconnell 1967:32). Between 1835 and 1845, Reuben Crandell and his son George operated a single boat that monopolized passenger and freight transportation between Lindsay and Port Perry on the southwestern shores of Lake Scugog (Carr 1968:23; Kirkconnell 1967:175). Around 1845,  17  two other men began operating a boat between Lindsay and Caesarea on the southeastern shores of Lake Scugog in a bid to encourage trade between Lindsay and Bowmanville. George Crandell’s reaction to this new competition was to build the first steamboat in the region, launched in 1851 (Kirkconnell 1967:175). The remainder of the century saw steamboats dominate the transportation of people, freight, and industrial products in and out of the region. Early transportation by river and by lake focused on moving people and goods, facilitating the settlement of Victoria County. By the 1840s, the rivers and lakes of the Kawartha and Trent systems were already being repurposed for use in the extraction of natural resources. By 1840, pine logs were being exported from the Kawartha Lakes region and the economy of Peterborough was increasingly tied to lumber (Brunger 1985:106). In 1841, the union of Upper and Lower Canada resulted in the establishment of a Board of Works to supervise canal work. Given the high cost, and the fact that the canals along the Trent River were deemed too shallow and circuitous, the Board recommended that canal construction be abandoned and that timber slides take precedence (Kirkconnell 1967:170). The inland waters of the Kawartha Lakes system became critical to the extraction of lumber in Victoria County, and in the 1840s and 1850s, the Otonabee and other streams in the Kawartha Lakes-Trent system were dammed to create logging chutes. (Brunger 1972:43) The lock at Lindsay was in use until 1857, when the Port Hope railway was extended to Lindsay and the lock became redundant. In 1859, a timber slide was built in its place (Kirkconnell 1967:144). With an eye towards the extraction of lumber and other natural resources, railways made their first foray into the Kawartha Lakes Region in the mid-nineteenth century  18  (Kirkconnell 1967:39). The first railroads in Ops Township sought to use the town of Lindsay as a stepping stone to the resources of the northern regions of the province (Carr 1968:37-38, 47-48). The first train to run between Port Hope and Lindsay was in 1858. In 1869 the line was renamed the Midland Railway of Canada and shortly thereafter, in 1871, it was extended northwest from Lindsay to Beaverton (Carr 1968:37-40; Kirkconnell 1967:181). In the spring of 1872, the Whitby and Port Perry Railway Company succeeded in connecting Lake Ontario to Lake Scugog by way of a rail line between the two towns. An extension was built in 1877, linking Port Perry to Lindsay (Kirkconnell 1967:182). The Victoria Railway Company, founded in 1874, took two years to construct a railway between Lindsay and Kinmount, to the north. Two years later in 1878, the railway reached Haliburton. The push to build railways north of Lindsay was spurred by the mineral wealth of the region (Capon 1974:33; Carr 1968:40; Kirkconnell 1967:182-184). In 1881 the Midland Railway of Canada gained controlling interest of the Victoria Railway Company (Capon 1974:36; Carr 1968:40-41; Kirkconnell 1967:185-186). The Midland Railway was subsequently leased by the Grand Trunk Railway in 1884, and the two were officially consolidated in 1893 (Carr 1968:41-43; Kirkconnell 1967:186). Near the end of the nineteenth century only Bobcaygeon, on the northeast shores of Sturgeon Lake, was not serviced by the Midland Railway. With significant lumber, lime, and stone resources, it represented an attractive destination to railway prospectors. A charter was granted in 1890 to the Bobcaygeon, Lindsay and Pontypool Railway Company, although the necessary means to construct the rail line were not available until 1903, when an agreement was reached with the Canadian Pacific Railway. In exchange for financing the railway, the Canadian Pacific  19  Railway was given a 99-year lease. The arrival of the Canadian Pacific Railway represented a significant challenge to the dominance of the Grand Trunk Railway in the region, and as might be expected, the Grand Trunk Railway company actively opposed the construction of Canadian Pacific Railway lines in Victoria County. Despite the Grand Trunk Railway’s best efforts at thwarting the Canadian Pacific Railway, the railway between Lindsay and Bobcaygeon was opened in 1904 (Carr 1968:37,45-47; Kirkconnell 1967:188-189). While railways were beneficial in many ways to the municipalities they served, there was a significant financial burden that accompanied their construction. Many municipalities, in their haste to secure a connection by rail, gave beyond their means to the railway companies (Kirkconnell 1967:184). Local taxes were raised in an effort to offset the investment, and it was often many years before the towns served by the newly constructed railways began to see an increase in prosperity from the improved transportation network (Kirkconnell 1967:184-185). The expansion of railways throughout the province rekindled an interest in the Trent River canals. By 1881, the canals were under the control of the federal Department of Railways and Canals. By 1896, the Trent Canal project began to see revitalization as it became clear that the integration of railways with canals would bolster economic activity across the province and connect Ontario to its neighbours (Kirkconnell 1967:172-173). Canal construction throughout the Trent River system was finally completed between 1910 and 1920. The early twentieth century saw the railways gradually retreat from Victoria County, and the Trent River and Kawartha Lakes become lucrative tourist attractions, drawing cottagers and recreational boaters. After World War I, as automobiles, both cars and trucks,  20  became more common, the Ontario Government set up a plan to build, improve, and maintain provincial highways throughout Ontario.  21  4.0 ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESULTS 4.1 SUMMARY OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS In 2001, C.R. Murphy Archaeological Consultants conducted a Stage I archaeological study of the area that would be impacted by improvements to Ontario Highway 7. While the precise location and scope of the archaeological site or sites is not always immediately clear, a Stage I assessment allows for the observation of the landscape, natural environment, and any modifications that may have disturbed the archaeological potential of the area. C.R. Murphy Archaeological Consultants (2006:iv) noted that the project area is a zone of very high archaeological potential as there are several significant pre-contact and historical sites that have been recorded and investigated in the area. Thus, Stage II archaeological assessment was recommended in advance of construction. It was during the Stage II archaeological assessment conducted in 2004 that the Curtin site was discovered. Located in the southwest quadrant of the intersections of Ontario Highway 7 and Ontario Highway 35, this nineteenth-century Euro-Canadian site lies within the limits of the proposed road widening and highway improvement activities (Murphy 2006:1). Approximately 700 m from the Scugog River, the Curtin site is situated in the northeast corner of Lot 15, Concession 5 in the Township of Ops, Victoria County. Stage III investigation of the Curtin site was conducted in 2005. Stage III assessment of the Curtin site involved the excavation of 24 one metre square test units in August and September 2005 (Murphy 2006:3). A sample of 3191 historical artifacts dating from the mid- to late-nineteenth century was recovered from these test units. A building foundation was also uncovered. The remains of the foundation consisted of two to three courses of fieldstone running approximately eight metres from north to south. The east-west axis of the  22  foundation extended outside the project area and has been partially destroyed by the earlier construction of Ontario Highway 35 (Murphy 2006:16). C.R. Murphy Archaeological Consultants determined that Stage IV mitigation should proceed prior to the improvement and reconstruction activities proposed for the intersection of Ontario Highway 7 and Ontario Highway 35. Stage IV archaeological excavation of the Curtin site was undertaken by the Central Archaeology Group Inc. in 2011 and 2012. As an Associate Archaeologist with the Central Archaeology Group from June 2010 to April 2011, I was involved in the preliminary analysis and cataloguing of the artifacts recovered by Stage IV excavations in 2011. As no data from the Stage IV excavations have been published as of the date of this thesis, they are not available for inclusion in this thesis. 4.2 THE STAGE III ARTIFACT ASSEMBLAGE The Stage III report published by C.R. Murphy Archaeological Consultants places the artifacts recovered from the Stage III excavations into one of four categories based on material of manufacture: ceramic, glass, metal and other. The "other" category includes bone, jet, copper, coke and slag artifacts. As this report is the only accessible source of information that describes the artifact assemblage, the present study does not attempt to propose a more detailed or descriptive categorization. C.R. Murphy Archaeological Consultants analyzed this sample assemblage and provided preliminary interpretations of the site (Murphy 2006:16-28; 46-49). In the remainder of this chapter, I summarize the data collected in the course of the Stage III archaeological work. Table 1 illustrates the total number of artifacts of each of the four categories that were recovered during Stage III excavations.  23  Table 1: The Stage III Artifact Assemblage ARTIFACT TYPE CERAMICS GLASS METAL OTHER TOTAL  TOTAL COUNT 1518 468 709 496 3191  PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL ASSEMBLAGE 47.6 14.7 22.2 15.5 100.0  4.2.1 CERAMICS A total of 1518 ceramic artifacts was recovered from Stage III excavations. The ceramic assemblage is composed mainly of brick (30.6%) and stoneware (24.4%), with earthenware also representing a significant portion of the sample (22.5%). The majority of decorated ceramics feature printed designs in grey, blue, brown, and green. Additionally, items of a personal nature were recovered, including a ceramic bird whistle, a figurine, and various buttons. Sixty ball clay pipe stem and bowl fragments are also included in the ceramic assemblage. Two of the pipe bowl fragments are decorated with an image of a locomotive and the words “Grand Trunk.” Included in the assemblage are 4-band fluted pipes and pipe stems stamped with the “Henderson” brand (Murphy 2006:17). Table 2 illustrates the types of ceramics represented in the Stage III artifact assemblage. It should be noted that based on raw material, brick and mortar have been classified as ceramics. Additionally, the ceramic artifacts are categorized by either type of material or decoration and consequently there is unfortunately no indication of which types of ceramics feature which decoration. Each ceramic artifact is counted once, but is there is unfortunately no consistency as to how these artifacts were categorized. Of the 1518 ceramic artifacts, 1420 (93.5%) are described according to the type of material. The 98 artifacts that make up the balance of the ceramic assemblage were classified only according to their decoration and there is no indication as to the type of ceramic material from which they are made.  24  Table 2: Stage III Artifact Assemblage - Ceramics CERAMIC ARTIFACT TYPE  464 371 341  PERCENTAGE OF CERAMIC ASSEMBLAGE 30.5 24.4 22.5  97 60 60 18 4 3 2  6.4 4.0 4.0 1.2 0.3 0.2 0.1  1420  93.5  TOTAL COUNT  Brick Stoneware Earthenware White Earthenware Red Earthenware Earthenware  205 113 23  Mortar Ironstone Ball Clay (Pipe Fragments) Porcelain Semi-Porcelain Rockingham Unidentifiable TOTAL CERAMIC ARTIFACTS CLASSIFIED BY TYPE  CERAMIC ARTIFACT DECORATION  18  1.2  6  0.4  4 3 3  0.3 0.2 0.2  98 1518  6.5 100.0  TOTAL COUNT  Transfer Print Grey Blue Brown Green  28 20 10 6  Blue Polychrome  13 5  Black Blue  5 1  Painted  Sponged  Blue Edgeware Maker’s Mark Miscellaneous Bird Whistle Ceramic Button Figurine TOTAL CERAMIC ARTIFACTS CLASSIFIED BY DECORATION TOTAL CERAMIC ARTIFACTS  64  PERCENTAGE OF CERAMIC ASSEMBLAGE 4.2  1 1 1  The ceramics collected during Stage III excavation comprise an assemblage that is characteristic of the mid- to late nineteenth century (Kenyon 1985:19). The presence of brick suggests that perhaps there was a brick superstructure present where the fieldstone foundation was uncovered. Stoneware and earthenware are typical of rural farmstead site of 25  this time period, and the 6.5% of the ceramic assemblage for which decoration has been noted suggests a domestic component to the site. 4.2.2 GLASS Most of the glass recovered from the Curtin site during Stage III investigation is clear. Three hundred and seventy-six pieces of clear glass were counted, although no distinction was made between window glass and vessel glass. Fifty-eight fragments of green glass and 27 fragments of frosted glass were also recovered. The glass assemblage is rounded out by a single piece of blue glass, and two pieces each of brown and pink glass. A further two pieces of glass were unidentifiable. Among the glass bottles and bottle fragments that were recovered, spirit, medicine, and perfume bottles were identified (Murphy 2006:17). No further details describing the glass artifacts are contained in the Stage III analysis. It may, however, be inferred that some of the clear glass fragments represent window glass, which is consistent with the discovery of a fieldstone foundation on the site. While the number of vessels identified as spirit, medicine, or perfume bottles was unfortunately not recorded, their presence indicates that this site served a domestic function. Table 3 summarizes the types of glass artifacts that comprise the Stage III assemblage. Table 3: Stage III Artifact Assemblage - Glass GLASS ARTIFACT TYPE Clear Green Frosted Brown Pink Unidentifiable Blue TOTAL GLASS ARTIFACTS  TOTAL COUNT 376 58 27 2 2 2 1 468  PERCENTAGE OF GLASS ASSEMBLAGE 80.3 12.4 5.8 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.2 100.0  26  4.2.3 METAL The metal assemblage is characterized by 526 nails, of which 456 (86.7%) are cut nails and 70 (13.3%) are wire nails. The abundance of nails may be an indication of a structure that was one present on the site. Also noted are 71 pieces of flat iron scrap, 35 spring fragments, as well as screws, spikes, hooks, wires, an axe head, and bucket handles which one would expect to find on a rural farmstead site. Personal items include buckles, a thimble, and a fragment of a cast iron pot which support the hypothesis that the Curtin site included a domestic function. Table 4 summarizes the types of metal artifacts that were recovered during Stage III excavation. Table 4: Stage III Artifact Assemblage - Metal METAL ARTIFACT TYPE Cut Nail Flat Iron Scrap Wire Nail Spring Fragment Unidentified Wire Screw Bottle Cap Buckle Bucket Handle Strapping Hook Nut and Bolt Spike Axe Head Cast Iron Pot Fragment Horseshoe Rivet Button S-Hook Thimble U-Nail Winding Key TOTAL METAL ARTIFACTS  TOTAL COUNT 456 71 70 35 24 12 8 6 5 4 4 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 709  PERCENTAGE OF METAL ASSEMBLAGE 64.3 10.0 9.9 4.9 3.4 1.7 1.1 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 100.0  27  4.2.4 OTHER The artifact catalogue includes a category of artifacts called "Other" which includes 496 artifacts, or 15.5% of the total Stage III artifact assemblage. Table 5 summarizes this category of artifacts recovered during the Stage III excavations. Among these are 323 bone artifacts, however no faunal analysis was undertaken. Two bone buttons and a fragment of a bone handle are also described in the artifact catalogue (Murphy 2006). Four jet items are also described, including an item of jewelry, a button, and a brush fragment. A hairpin and a coin were also recovered, though no details regarding their respective materials or the denomination of the coin were recorded. A copper seal was found, and 126 pieces of coke and 27 pieces of slag were excavated from across the site. This category includes items of a personal nature. Notably, the hairpin and item of jewellery suggest that there were women occupying the Curtin site. Table 5: Stage III Artifact Assemblage - "Other" OTHER ARTIFACT TYPE Bone Coke Slag Button Bone Button Shell Unidentified Bone Handle Fragment Coin Copper Seal Hairpin Jet Brush Fragment Jet Button Jet Fragment Jet Jewellery Shell Button Thimble TOTAL "OTHER" ARTIFACTS  TOTAL COUNT 323 126 27 4 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 496  PERCENTAGE OF "OTHER" ASSEMBLAGE 65.1 25.4 5.4 0.8 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 100.0  28  4.3 PRELIMINARY SITE INTERPRETATIONS BASED ON THE STAGE III ARTIFACT ASSEMBLAGE Initial analysis of the 3191 artifacts recovered led C.R. Murphy Archaeological Consultants to some preliminary interpretations of the site. While a fieldstone foundation was identified in Stage III archaeological work, no excavation of structures or other features was undertaken at that time. C.R. Murphy Archaeological Consultants (2006:16-17) proposed that the two to three courses of fieldstone uncovered during excavations represent the remains of a foundation for a bunkhouse or other specialized structure associated with the railway. The ceramic assemblage and the personal items recovered from excavations suggest the building served a domestic function. Additionally, the presence of coke and slag was offered as evidence that either the structure was heated by coal, or that this material was refuse from steam locomotives operating nearby. As no intact courses of brick were discovered, but fragments of brick and mortar were found across the site, it was posited that perhaps the chimney or other elements of the superstructure of the building were constructed of brick. The Stage III report produced by C.R. Murphy Archaeological Consultants suggests that the Curtin site served a domestic function associated with the railway.  29  5.0 ARCHIVAL AND HISTORICAL RESEARCH The Archaeological Assessment Technical Guidelines published by the Ontario Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Recreation (1993:7), states that “… Stage III documentation of a historic site should include a review of information relating to the history of the property (e.g. title search, assessment rolls, census, etc.).” The preliminary conclusions in C.R. Murphy Archaeological Consultants’ report (2006) are based primarily upon a basic analysis of the artifact assemblage recovered during Stage III excavations at the Curtin site. No detailed archival research was included in their documentation of Stage III work. In 2009, the Ontario Ministry of Culture published the Draft Standards and Guidelines for Consultant Archaeologists that provided much more comprehensive information to guide the fieldwork of licensed archaeologists in Ontario. These updated guidelines were adopted and formally published by the Ontario Ministry of Tourism and Culture in 2011. They explicitly require Stage III projects to include “detailed documentary research of the land use and occupation history specific to the archaeological site” (Ontario Ministry of Tourism and Culture 2011:46). While background research is the primary focus of Stage I projects, the updated guidelines emphasize the importance of the historical contextualization of archaeological sites through reference to sources including land titles and land registry documents, tax assessment records, census documents, and local and regional histories. As little historical and archival analysis of the Curtin site has taken place, I conducted this research to explore the value of constructing regional models of agricultural and settlement history. Additionally, by reviewing the archival and historical sources pertaining to the Curtin site, I can describe the economic context of the site's occupation and evaluate the preliminary interpretation of the Curtin site as a domestic structure affiliated  30  with the nearby railway. My review of the land registry records, tax assessment rolls, census data, and local and regional histories are summarized below. Generally, the annual tax assessment rolls are valuable for their annual appraisal of the occupants of Ops Township, while the census is valuable for its much more detailed record of residents and their families. By cross-referencing tax assessment rolls with censuses and land registry archives, I was able to construct a nuanced history of the occupation of the specific tract of land upon which the Curtin site is situated. 5.1 LAND REGISTRY ARCHIVES Records pertaining to the history of property ownership in Ops Township are located in the City of Kawartha Lakes Land Registry Archives in Lindsay, Ontario. All grants, purchases, transfers in land ownership, and lot severances, are filed with the land registry office and are available for consultation. The records have been committed to microfilm and are, unfortunately, largely illegible. Nonetheless, some valuable information can be gleaned regarding the ownership history of Lot 15, Concession 5, where the Curtin site is located. Further review of these records allowed me to reconstruct the ownership of Lot 15, Concession 5. The land registry records provide the names of the owners of the property that can be cross-referenced with the tax assessment rolls and the census records, described below. It is thus possible to construct a comprehensive history of the domestic and commercial activities that contributed to the archaeological record of the Curtin site. 5.2 TAX ASSESSMENT ROLLS The tax assessment rolls from Ops Township, Victoria County are held in the archives at Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario. They provide data pertaining to land ownership and occupation from 1855-1915, with the exception of 1864 and 1865, years for which the  31  records have been lost. The information documented in the earliest tax assessments is limited to the most basic data including the name and age of the occupant of each lot of a given concession, each individual’s occupation, and the value of the land occupied. The number of days of statute labour was also recorded. Statute labour is defined as the work done by early settlers, often farmers with teams of horses and limited financial means, in lieu of paying road tax (Carr 1968:11). Over time, the Ops Township tax assessment rolls grew to include more specific information about individuals and families, including religion, number of school-aged children, whether the land owned or occupied included acres of swamp or woodland, the value of the buildings erected upon the lot, and details regarding the livestock kept by each resident. 5.3 CENSUS DATA A comprehensive census of Ops Township was conducted every 10 years. The census records from 1861-1901 have been transferred to microfilm and are held at the Bata Library at Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario. The census, while only conducted once a decade, provides a detailed record of the families residing in Ops Township. The census includes personal information such as the name, age and occupation of residents, which is also, generally, found in the tax assessment rolls. The census, however, goes a step further and records marital status, place of birth, level of literacy, mental status, nationality, and recent births and deaths. The census also notes specific information about the number of dwellings occupied, their material of construction, and their associated outbuildings. Any cars, wagons, sleds and carriages are also listed, as are the types of agricultural equipment owned by each resident. Agricultural and livestock information is recorded in detail, including the  32  type of crops in cultivation and the number of acres devoted to each, and the number of various domesticated animals which have been raised and sold or slaughtered in a given year. Where a resident is engaged in industrial activities, certain details have been recorded including the type of industrial establishment, the fixed and floating capital invested, the number of months spent employed in a year, the number of males and females over and/or under the age of sixteen employed, and their average annual wages. Also noted are the raw materials used, and the monetary value of the products produced. 5.4 LOCAL AND REGIONAL HISTORIES Of particular relevance to understanding the history of the Curtin site are two books that chronicle the histories of Victoria County and Ops Township, respectively. County of Victoria: Centennial History was written by Watson Kirkconnell and published in 1967. Kirkconnell’s first history of Victoria County was printed in 1921, and narrated the first century of Euro-Canadian settlement history of the County. In 1964, in anticipation of the upcoming Centennial of Confederation, Victoria County Council asked Kirkconnell to revisit the project and publish an updated history. Kirkconnell spent several years conducting interviews with local individuals, pouring over local press coverage and consulting federal and provincial archives. The result is a comprehensive history of the now former Victoria County, accented by colourful anecdotes of locals’ experience and lore. A similar project was undertaken in Ops Township. The Ops Township Council published Ops: Land of Plenty, edited by Mrs. Violet M. Carr, in 1968. The Ops Township History Committee made up of a group of 12 citizens and local government officials assumed the task of compiling historical information. The Committee sent a questionnaire to all taxpayers in the Township in an attempt to record the history of farming and development in  33  the Township. The information gathered from the survey respondents is presented in the chapters titled “Biographies” and “Up and Down the Concession Lines.” This book is unique in its inclusion of exceptionally detailed land use information. The histories of specific farmsteads and local families are presented alongside local historical and geographical information, and descriptions of local industries including potash, soap and candle-making, and cheese and dairy factories. 5.5 OCCUPATIONAL HISTORY OF THE CURTIN SITE By cross-referencing the information found in the land registry archives with the censuses and tax rolls, and by consulting with local history books, I was able to reconstruct the occupational history of the Curtin site property (Figure 5). The history of Lot 15, Concession 5, includes several families who resided in the vicinity of the Curtin site starting in 1855. 5.5.1 TERENCE BRADY AND JAMES SWAIN From 1855 until 1868, Terence Brady and James Swain are listed in the tax assessment rolls as occupying two acres each on the northeast part of Lot 15, Concession 5. Before 1862, the Government of Canada is listed as the owner of the land, indicating that Brady and Swain were squatting and had not in fact been granted the deed of ownership. While in the earliest tax assessment rolls Terence Brady is listed as a yeoman, by 1857 he was a practicing blacksmith living with his wife and five children in a one and a half story log house. The 1861 census indicates that Terence Brady had one cow and five pigs, together valued at $25. He also owned a carriage valued at $45. Brady’s blacksmith practice is described as employing one male at a cost of $15 per month. It is likely, however, that this individual was Terence Brady himself and that no other employees were engaged in his  34  blacksmithing operation. The products manufactured by Brady were valued at $250 per year. Notably, the Stage III archaeological excavation of the Curtin site yielded 456 cut nails and 70 wire nails. Cut nails were commonly in use between 1830 and 1900, and wire nails were most common after 1900. While the abundance of nails in the archaeological record is likely a reflection of the structures that once stood on the site, it is also possible that they were the product of Brady’s blacksmithing. In 1861, James Swain was a pump maker living with his wife in a one and a half story log house. They kept two horses, two pigs, and a cow, valued at $120. His pump-making operation employed one man at a cost of $14 per month. Likely the employee mentioned is James Swain himself. His operation was capable of producing fifty pumps a year at a value of $500.  35  Figure 5: Occupational history of the northeast corner of Lot 15, Concession 5. Note that small scale industrial activities were taking place alongside farming throughout the history of the property’s occupation.  36  5.5.2 PATRICK McHUGH The patent for the east half of Lot 15, Concession 5 was first granted to Patrick McHugh by the Government of Canada in December 1862, although the tax assessment rolls indicate that he was residing on Lot 15 Concession 5 as early as 1855. By 1866, Patrick McHugh no longer appears in the tax assessment rolls, and in the 1871 census his wife Anne is listed as a widow. Beginning in 1866, the land previously owned and occupied by Patrick McHugh is divided among some of his sons. Additionally, tenant farmers appear to take up residence for several years at a time on some of the property owned by the McHugh family. 5.5.3 PATRICK CURTIN Patrick Curtin occupied 16 acres of farmland where he resided with his family. The 1871 census indicates they were producing 200 bushels of oats, 50 bushels of peas, and 100 bushels of potatoes, as well as four pounds of butter and 30 pounds of wool. Given that the census also records nine children ranging in age from three to 18 years of age, the marketable agricultural surplus would have been nominal. Significantly, Patrick Curtin owned a wagon and a cultivator in 1871. The fact that the cultivator is recorded in the census indicates it was an item of value and importance available only to those with financial means of affording one. The census and tax assessment rolls indicate that several log homes were established on Lot 15 Concession 5 in the early to mid-nineteenth century. The first indication of a wooden frame home is found in the 1891 census that describes a one and a half story house with six rooms. The Curtin family appears to have been relatively well established by 1881 at which point they were living in a one-story brick house with five rooms. By 1891, they had built  37  and moved in to a larger one and a half story brick house with nine rooms. 5.5.4 AN EARTHENWARE POTTERY AND A BRICK-MAKING OPERATION Kirkconnell (1967:116) describes a brick-making operation established south of Lindsay in the mid-nineteenth century by the Curtin family, for whom the archaeological site is named. The census indicates that John Steele and James and John Craig undertook efforts at brick-making in the vicinity of the Curtin site on Lot 15 Concession 5, around 1862. Patrick Curtin, who had been making bricks on another lot nearby since around 1855, relocated his brick-making operation to Lot 15 Concession 5 sometime around 1871. Brick represents 30.5% of the ceramic artifact assemblage. This is consistent with the archival evidence that brick-making was taking place on the property. Additionally, a pottery3 was operated by William Taylor and William Davis in this location between 1870 and 1872. The 1871 census lists Thomas Rawling as the owner of the pottery operation, which was engaged in the year-round production of earthenware. An average of 30,000 pieces of earthenware pottery were produced each year, and the operation was valued at $3000. Earthenware represents 22.5% of the ceramic artifact assemblage. This relatively high number of earthenware sherds recovered during Stage III excavations is consistent with the archival and historical evidence of the manufacture of earthenware on the Curtin property. While the earthenware pottery was a relatively short-lived operation, the brick-making enterprise flourished. In 1880, when Patrick’s son Francis assumed the brick-making business, they were employing an average of 10 people a year. John Curtin took control of the operation from his father Francis in 1909, and the brick-making business continued until  3  The term pottery is used to refer to the facility where such ceramic goods are manufactured.  38  the 1930s, by which point the clay vein on the property was depleted (Carr 1968:176; Kirkconnell 1967: 116). 5.5.5 HORSES USED FOR SMALL-SCALE INDUSTRY The earliest census records I examined, which dated from 1861, indicate that while many of the earliest farmers in Ops Township kept cattle, sheep, and pigs, few had horses. Those that did keep horses were typically also engaged in small-scale industry. James Swain, a pump maker, is recorded as having two horses in 1861. Not until 1867 did the tax rolls specifically record the number of cattle, sheep, hogs, and horses for each individual assessed. The 1867 tax roll mentions James Swain’s pump-making operation located on Lot 15, Concession 5 where two horses were engaged in use. The census from 1871 records two horses in association with Thomas Rawling’s pottery manufacturing operation, and three horses in association with Patrick Curtin’s brick kiln. While horses first appear in association with home-based industry, they were also acquired by more established families who owned wagons and carriages as means of transportation. Early nineteenth century roads were crude and makeshift. In fact, when the Town of Lindsay was devastated by a large fire in 1861, the township of Ops donated $1000 towards its restoration. Their donation was returned along with a request that the funds be used to improve the condition of the roads leading from Ops to Lindsay (Carr 1968:15). While sheep, pigs, and cattle were common acquisitions among early settlers in Ops Township, horses were rare until the 1870s. Generally, farmers in Ops Township found oxen more useful given the rugged terrain with which they were faced. Kirkconnell (1967:6) explains that in the most secluded parts of Victoria County “the arrival of the first horse was a great event and all the children were called out hurriedly to see the strange animal.”  39  Figure 6: Map of Ops Township ca. 1881. Note in the location of the Curtin site, there is a note on the map that reads “BRICK Y,” denoting the presence of a brick yard (see inset). 40  Figure 7: Map of Ops Township in 1916 (Carr 1968) BbGq-22 (Curtin Site) is the property highlighted in yellow. Note that Francis Curtin is described as the owner of the property (see inset). Also note the Canadian Pacific Rail line crossing the southeast corner of the property.  41  6.0 DISCUSSION Through an examination of the ways that the archival, historical and archaeological data sets complement one another, a detailed picture emerges of the Curtin site as a rural farmstead that was increasingly integrated within a regional economy. In this chapter, I discuss the economic context of the occupation of the Curtin site. I suggest that it was not a domestic site (bunkhouse) affiliated with the nearby railway, but was a successful rural farmstead whose occupants were engaged in non-agricultural small-scale industry. 6.1 NON-AGRICULTURAL SMALL-SCALE INDUSTRY AND THE INCREASING COMMERCIAL ORIENTATION OF THE RURAL FARMSTEAD Charles Orser (1996:186-188) proposes an approach to farmstead archaeology in North America that emphasizes multiple scales of analysis. In relation to a larger economic system, farmsteads are representative of a production-consumption economy wherein they produce most of what they consume. Historically, the family was the primary unit of labour and there is often a diachronic cultural continuity not usually encountered at non-farming domestic sites (Groover 2008:8, 127). Compared to non-farming domestic sites throughout North America, farmsteads are characterized by this self-contained, household level of production and consumption where food is raised and consumed on the farm but also marketed for profit outside the family unit (Groover 2008:127). Paynter’s (1982) study of the Connecticut River Valley concluded that farmsteads are not independent from a wider political economy. His conclusion is reinforced by McInnes’s (1984) study of the production of surplus by midnineteenth century farms in Ontario. These two studies demonstrate that farmsteads in North America have increasingly oriented themselves towards local and regional commercial markets. The evolution of agricultural production in North America has traditionally focused  42  on the shift from self-sufficient farmsteads to centres of commercial agricultural production. Paynter (1982) and McInnes (1984) reframe the study of farmsteads by emphasizing their place within a larger economic system. They refute the idea that North American farmsteads were ever completely self-sufficient, and argue instead for an increase in the degree of commercialization over time. As is indicated by the archival and historical information available for the Curtin site, a farmstead’s integration within a capitalist economy is not simply reflected by the production of agricultural surplus. From the earliest settlement of Lot 15 Concession 5, farmers were engaging in cottage industries, such as blacksmithing and pump-making, tying them to the regional economy. While the Curtin family’s engagement with pottery and brick-making illustrate that their farmstead was clearly increasingly commercially oriented, the archival data supports the conclusion that the Curtin family was in many ways a self-sufficient unit of production and consumption. Since coal is used as fuel in the operation of brick and pottery kilns (Newlands 1979:26), the presence of a brick-making industry on the property may also explain the coke and slag included in the Stage III artifact assemblage. Additionally, early settlers in Ops Township were known to have lime kilns on their properties (Carr 1968:50). Since the Peterborough drumlin field is underlain by Trenton limestone, it was readily available in many parts of Ops Township and was a component of mortar used to build local structures (Chapman and Putnam 1966:281-282; Gillespie and Richards 1957:12). While no hearths were located during Stage III excavations at the Curtin site, brick and/or lime kilns are likely to have been located in the vicinity of the Curtin site. The coke and slag may also be explained by Terence Brady’s blacksmithing operation on Lot 15, Concession 5, in the 1850s  43  and 1860s. The presence of brick, mortar, coke and slag in the archaeological record is consistent with the information provided by archival and historical sources that describe blacksmithing, a pottery, and a brick-making operation on the property, and the presence of lime kilns on similar local farms. 6.2 A RAILWAY CONNECTION C. R. Murphy Archaeological Consultants suggested that the coke and slag found during Stage III excavations may have been refuse from locomotives passing nearby. Furthermore, the presence of two pipe bowl fragments decorated with an image of a locomotive and the words “Grand Trunk” led to the hypothesis that the Curtin site represented a bunkhouse or other structure associated with the nearby railway. Given the fact that a brick-making operation is recorded as having operated on the property, the nearby railway would have been integral to the participation of the Curtin family in the regional economy. Locally manufactured brick and tile was frequently shipped by rail between Lindsay and Toronto until the early nineteenth century (Carr 1968:176). The Grand Trunk and Canadian Pacific Railways expanded by consolidating smaller railways throughout southern Ontario during the nineteenth century and as such, they were often in competition with one another. In Victoria County, the Grand Trunk Railway was challenged by the arrival of the Canadian Pacific Railway in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The Stage III ceramic assemblage dates to the mid- to late nineteenth century, and thus the pipes marked “Grand Trunk” appear to indicate an association with that railway which was established in Victoria County in the 1880s. The goal of railway expansion in this part of the province was to facilitate resource extraction in rural and northern regions, and connect these peripheral outposts of production with larger urban centres. The railways required the  44  support of local landowners whose taxes would be raised to support the initial railway construction. There is no archival or historical evidence that the Curtin site was ever, as C.R. Murphy Archaeological Consultants (2006) initially suggested, a bunkhouse or specialized structure directly integrated with the railway infrastructure. Rather than supporting the local railway infrastructure, the Curtin farmstead and brickyard were directly engaged with the railway, which allowed for a connection to a regional economy. 6.3 DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE The architecture of residences and accessory structures also reflects the socio-economic status of a farm (McFadyen 2008). The archaeological excavation of historic sites often uncovers building foundations and other construction materials such as brick, mortar, and nails. Stage III archaeological excavations of the Curtin site exposed the fieldstone foundation of a structure that likely served a domestic function (Murphy 2006). Kirkconnell’s history of Victoria County explains that the first settlers to arrive in the area built small log cabins and barns (Kirkconnell 1967:5-6). Wooden frame houses replaced these initial log cabins on many farmsteads, and eventually brick homes were built (Kenyon 1980). Archaeological excavations of the Curtin site yielded a sample of 464 brick fragments. C. R. Murphy Archaeological Consultants initially hypothesized the brick was evidence of a brick superstructure and/or chimney of the building whose fieldstone foundation was uncovered. Indeed, the 1891 census noted that the Curtin family had recently built a one and a half story brick house on the property. It seems probable, however, that the brick fragments recovered during Stage III archaeological excavations were also associated with the mid-nineteenth century brick-making activities conducted on the property.  45  McFadyen (2008) suggests that the architecture of structures found on historic sites allows for the examination of the agency and practical choices of those individuals who built the structure. The presence of a brick house on the Curtin property is expected when one considers the brick-making operation associated with their farmstead. The fact that the census indicates the Curtins moved to the property from a nearby lot in 1871, were living in a brick home and building an even larger one ten years later, suggests that they were successfully exploiting the resources of the landscape and becoming increasingly integrated with the capitalist resource economy of the region. 6.4 THE ECONOMIC CONTEXT OF THE OCCUPATION OF THE CURTIN SITE The Curtin site is an example of a mid- to late nineteenth and early twentieth century rural farmstead in Ops Township, in the former Victoria County, Ontario that was not independent from a wider economic system. The capitalist economy of the nineteenth century relied on the production of a marketable surplus by farmsteads such as the Curtin site. While the Curtin family was cultivating crops and raising livestock, they were also extracting clay from a vein on their property and were making bricks. They were actively engaged in the extraction of natural resources and the modification of the landscape. The presence of various cottage industries alongside mixed farming operations indicates that the commercialization of a farmstead over time is not limited to the production of agricultural surplus. More than half of the land in the former Victoria County is considered poor agricultural land. By establishing a farmstead in the southern Township of Ops, the Curtin family took advantage of soils favourable to cultivation and settlement. Furthermore, Patrick Curtin and his descendants established a very successful brick-making business to supplement their 46  income. They continued to farm the land on which they had settled, producing crops and livestock to support themselves, while making bricks and increasingly orienting themselves within a capitalist economy. The nearby railway provided a link to nearby towns and larger urban centres including Toronto. The archaeological evidence from Stage III excavations suggests a relationship between the Grand Trunk Railway and the Curtin family, despite the fact that by the early nineteenth century the Canadian Pacific Railway had established a line that crossed part of Lot 14 Concession 5, very close to the Curtin site. According to local historical accounts, early twentieth century highways into Ops Township were not capable of accommodating large trucks. Therefore, bricks were hauled on the Scugog River to Port Perry, and were frequently shipped by rail between Lindsay and Toronto. The Canadian Pacific Railway encroached upon a region previously dominated by the Grand Trunk Railway, and merchants such as the Curtins would have been directly impacted by the competing railways and their efforts to gain the support of local businesses and landowners whose taxes were integral to the establishment of railways in the region. The expansion of railways, roads and waterways reflects the increasing integration of Ops Township within a regional system. The Curtin site, a rural farmstead, is a microcosm of changing urban-rural relations in nineteenth and early twentieth century Ontario. To understand the cultural heritage value of the Curtin site, it must be interpreted in the context of the settlement history of Victoria County and the development of agricultural production in Ops Township. The first Irish immigrants arrived in Victoria County in the 1820s, and shortly thereafter during the 1850s, there was a shift towards increased agricultural diversity. By 1861, 55 percent of the net output of the average farm in Ontario was marketable surplus  47  (McInnes 1984). In addition to an agricultural surplus, the brick-making operation would have substantially supplemented the Curtin family’s income. The increasingly capitalist orientation of the Curtin farmstead was not limited to the production of an agricultural surplus, but included the exploitation of the landscape and engagement with non-agricultural cottage industry.  48  7.0 CONCLUSION This thesis is an analysis of the economic context of the occupation of a rural Ontario farmstead. I have demonstrated that significant non-agricultural industrial activities were undertaken by the farmers who occupied the Curtin site in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The evidence presented in this thesis supports the hypothesis that the Curtin site was a rural farmstead that was increasingly oriented towards a capitalist regional economy. Rather than a bunkhouse or other domestic site associated with the nearby railway, I have inferred that, in addition to being a self-contained unit of production and consumption, the Curtin site occupants participated in non-agricultural industrial activities that engaged them with a regional economy. Non-agricultural cottage industries provided a means of regional economic engagement in addition to the production of a marketable agricultural surplus. The development of roadways, waterways and railways in the region facilitated the pottery and brick-making activities. These small-scale industries are examples of the non-agricultural exploitation of the rural landscape. The Curtin site illustrates that the commercial orientation of a farmstead in rural Ontario is not strictly defined by agricultural production. In addition to farming for subsistence and yielding a small surplus, the occupants of the Curtin site were engaged in blacksmithing, pump-making, pottery and brick-making industries throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It is my hope that the information presented herein will provide a context for the analysis of the Stage IV artifacts currently being undertaken by consultant archaeologists. This thesis represents the culmination of extensive and thorough historical and archival research into the occupational history of the Curtin site what had not previously been undertaken. By evaluating the Stage III artifact assemblage in concert with historical and  49  archival sources, this thesis places the Curtin site in the context of regional settlement and economic development. Most historical archaeology in Ontario is practiced by consultant archaeologists employed by cultural resource management (CRM) firms. Kathleen Deagan (1982) observed that there is often little exchange of ideas among historical archaeologists practising in the same region. While the updated Standards and Guidelines for Consultant Archaeologists (Ontario Ministry of Tourism and Culture 2011) require Stage III projects to include archival research of the occupational history of a site, many archaeological studies done prior to these new guidelines do not include deep historical and archival research. It is important, therefore, to cooperatively and collaboratively construct local contexts to provide points of reference in determining the cultural heritage value of a site in a given physiographic setting. By drawing upon local histories and archival sources, historical archaeologists can collectively build a historical framework that contextualizes local archaeological sites. The historical archaeology of the Curtin site presented herein is a modest but important contribution to such a framework. This thesis contributes to the construction of regional models of settlement history, agricultural development, and expansion of regional transportation networks in Ops Township in the former Victoria County. It has been demonstrated how the synthesis of archaeological, archival, and historical data allows for the placement of an individual site within the context of a larger, regional economic system. An interdisciplinary approach to the contextualization of the archaeology of a historical farmstead requires engagement with historical, archival, and physical geographical sources. Historical archaeologists are uniquely positioned to integrate various types of knowledge and thus address the elusive question of “what the old farm means."  50  8.0 WORKS CITED Adams, William H. 1990 Landscape Archaeology, Landscape History, and the American Farmstead. Historical Archaeology 24(4):92-101. Belden, H. 1881 The Illustrated Historical Atlas of the County of Victoria, Ontario. H. Belden & Co., Toronto. Binford, Lewis R. 1977 Historical Archaeology – Is it Historical or Archaeological? In Historical Archaeology and the Importance of Material Things: Papers of the Thematic Symposium, Eighth Annual Meeting of the Society for Historical Archaeology, Charleston, South Carolina, January 7-11, 1975. Leland Ferguson, ed. Pp. 13-22. Brunger, A.G. 1972 The Settlement of Peterborough County. In The Geography of the Peterborough Area. Geography Department, ed. Pp. 42-51. Peterborough: Trent University Department of Geography, Occasional Paper 1. 1985 The Cultural Landscape. In Peterborough and the Kawarthas. P. Adams and C. Taylor, eds. Pp. 95-116. Peterborough: Heritage Publications. Buttle, Jim 1985 Ch. 6: The Kawartha Lakes. In Peterborough and the Kawarthas. Peter Adams and Colin Taylor, eds. pp. 77-94. Peterborough: Heritage Publications. C.R. Murphy Archaeological Consultants 2006 Stage III Archaeological Assessment of Highway 7 and Highway 35, from 0.9 km West of Kawartha Lakes Road 18, to 2.0 km East of Kawartha Lakes Road 36, City of Kawartha Lakes, Ontario. Report on File, The Central Archaeology Group, L’Amable, Ontario. Capon, Alan 1974 Historic Lindsay. Belleville: Mika Publishing. Carr, Violet M. 1968 Ops: Land of Plenty. Lindsay: The Ops Township Council Chapman, L.J. and D.F. Putnam 1966 The Physiography of Southern Ontario. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. City of Kawartha Lakes Land Registry N.d. Land Registry Archives. Lot 15, Concession 5, Ops Township, Victoria County, Ontario. Service Ontario Centre, Lindsay, Ontario. 51  Cowan, Helen I. 1978 British Immigration Before Confederation. Booklet No. 22. Ottawa: The Canadian Historical Association. David, Bruno and Julian Thomas, eds. 2008 Handbook of Landscape Archaeology. California: Left Coast Press. Deagan, Kathleen 1982 Avenues of Inquiry in Historical Archaeology. In Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory, vol. 5, pp.151-177. New York: Academic Press. Gillespie, John and C.J. Acton 1981 Soils of Peterborough County. Report No. 45 of the Ontario Soil Survey. Guelph, Ontario. Gillespie, J.E., and N.R. Richards 1957 The Soil Survey of Victoria County. Report No. 25 of the Ontario Soil Survey. Guelph, Ontario. Groover, Mark D. 2008 The Archaeology of North American Farmsteads. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. Hicks, Dan and Mary C. Beaudry 2006 The Cambridge Companion to Historical Archaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kenyon, Ian T. 1985 A History of Ceramic Tableware in Ontario, 1780-1840. Arch Notes 85(3):41-58. 1980 Some General Notes on 19th Century Ceramics. Kewa: Nineteenth Century Notes 8. Ontario Archaeological Society: London Chapter. Kirkconnell, Watson 1967 County of Victoria: Centennial History. Lindsay: The Victoria County Council. Langton, John 1926 Early Days in Upper Canada: Letters of John Langton from the Backwoods of Upper Canada and the Audit Office of the Province of Canada. W.A. Langton, ed. Toronto: The Macmillan Company of Canada Ltd. McFadyen, Lesley 2008 Building and Architecture as Landscape Practice. In Handbook of Landscape Archaeology. Bruno David and Julian Thomas, eds. Pp. 307-314. California: Left Coast Press. 52  McInnes, Marvin 1984 Marketable Surpluses in Ontario Farming, 1860. Social Science History 8(4):395-424. Moodie, Susanna 1852 Roughing it in the Bush:or, Forest Life in Canada. London: Richard Bentley Moreland, John 2001 Archaeology and Text. London: Duckworth. Newlands, David L. 1979 Early Ontario Potters: Their Craft and Trade. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. Ontario Ministry of Culture 2009 Draft Standards and Guidelines for Consultant Archaeologists. Toronto: Queen's Printer for Ontario. Ontario Ministry of Culture, Tourism & Recreation 1993 Archaeological Assessment Technical Guidelines. Toronto: Queen's Printer for Ontario. Ontario Ministry of Tourism and Culture 2011 Standards and Guidelines for Consultant Archaeologists. Toronto: Queen's Printer for Ontario. Ops Township Censuses 1861 – 1901 Archival Microfilm Collection. Bata Library, Trent University, Peterborough. Ops Township Annual Tax Assessment Rolls 1855 – 1915 Trent University Archives, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario. Orser, Charles 1996 A Historical Archaeology of the Modern World. New York: Springer. Paynter, Robert 1982 Models of Spatial Inequality: Settlement Patterns in Historical Archaeology. New York: Academic Press. Pope, Harry W. N.d. The Trent-Severn Waterway: Ontario's Summer Playground. http://sailingbreezes.com/sailing_breezes_current/articles/bs02/trent.htm, accessed April 7, 2013. Stewart-Abernathy, Leslie C. 1986 The Moser Farmstead, Independent But Not Isolated: The Archaeology of a Late 53  Nineteenth-Century Ozark Farmstead. Arkansas Archaeological Survey Research Series No. 26. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press. Stine, Linda France 1990 Social Inequality and Turn-of-the-Century Farmsteads: Issues of Class, Status, Ethnicity, and Race. Historical Archaeology 24(4):37-49. Traill, Catharine Parr 1836 The Backwoods of Canada: being letters from the wife of an emigrant officer, illustrative of the domestic economy of British America. London: C. Knight.  54  

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