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A study of the consumer market for duck and quail egg products : the case of Chinese Canadians in Vancouver,… Arthur, Jennifer Anne 2013

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A study of the consumer market for duck and quail egg products: the case of Chinese Canadians in Vancouver, British Columbia  by  Jennifer Anne Arthur  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in The Faculty of Graduate Studies (Animal Science)  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver)  February 2013  © Jennifer Anne Arthur, 2013  Abstract With the growing ethnic diversity in metropolitan areas of North America, ethnic food niche markets, traditionally served by imports, may represent opportunities for local producers and processors. This study profiles the Chinese Canadian consumer market in Metro Vancouver, British Columbia (BC) for salted and preserved duck eggs and fresh quail eggs. After initial focus group research, a random sample survey of ethnic Chinese households yielded a net of 410 respondents (28.9%). Logistic regression analysis, including a measurement of acculturation, and cluster analysis based on beliefs, were used to describe buyer behaviour, predict purchase, and identify key buyer groups and opportunities. Results indicated that 73% of respondents purchased at least one of the duck or quail egg products in the past year, but only 15% purchased fresh quail eggs. Most purchased infrequently, however, the duck egg products’ market shares were divided approximately 40% - 40% between low and high frequency buyers, respectively. The sample’s mean acculturation score was medium-low on the created scale, suggesting a tendency to hold on to their Chinese cultural heritage. Results also indicated a significant, negative association between acculturation and product purchase. Logistic regression analysis yielded a model that correctly predicted 77% of purchases: Acculturation, and household size (positive association), were significant predictor variables. Cluster analyses suggested 4 buyer segments for each duck egg product. Significant differences were found between the segments. Results indicated an opportunity may exist to maintain and grow the market by addressing health concerns, particularly for salted duck egg buyers. Respondents indicated a willingness to pay at least 10% more for BC produced duck egg products versus imports, all other characteristics equal. The low number of fresh quail egg buyers prevented a meaningful market segmentation. However, an opportunity to provide a smaller package size may exist: Median preferred size was 12 eggs. Opportunities exist for local producers and processors; however, results suggest that due to acculturation, new immigrants will be required to sustain the market. Few Chinese Canadians appear to buy fresh quail eggs for at home consumption: Industry is recommended to concentrate efforts in the hotel/restaurant segment or investigate other consumer segments.  ii  Preface The work in this thesis is wholly mine. I conducted the research, transcribed and interpreted the focus group sessions, created the survey questionnaire, ran and analyzed the statistical analyses, and wrote the thesis. Dr. Gwen Chapman provided feedback on the focus group topic guide and Ms. Angela To provided administrative assistance during the focus group sessions. Ms. Kelleen Wiseman provided feedback on my development of the survey questions and their format, and acted as a sounding board for my choice of statistical analysis methods. My supervisor, Dr. Kim Cheng, also provided valuable guidance. I remain, however, fully responsible for this research project’s design, execution, analysis, and interpretation. Research was conducted under the ethical guidelines and approval of The University of British Columbia Behavioural Research Ethics Board, ethics certificate numbers H09-01873 (focus groups) and H10-00571 (survey).  iii  Table of Contents Abstract ........................................................................................................................................ ii Preface ......................................................................................................................................... iii Table of Contents ......................................................................................................................... iv List of Tables ............................................................................................................................. viii List of Figures ............................................................................................................................. xii Glossary...................................................................................................................................... xv Acknowledgements ................................................................................................................... xvii Dedication ............................................................................................................................... xviii 1  INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................ 1 1.1  Duck and Quail Eggs: Traditional Alternatives to Hen Eggs .......................................... 1  1.2  Problem Statement ........................................................................................................ 7  1.3  Objectives ..................................................................................................................... 7  1.3.1 Objective 1 ................................................................................................................ 8 1.3.2 Objective 2 ................................................................................................................ 8 1.3.3 Objective 3 ................................................................................................................ 8 1.3.4 Objective 4 ................................................................................................................ 8 1.3.5 Objective 5 ................................................................................................................ 8 1.4  Organization of the Thesis ............................................................................................. 9  1.5  Literature Review .......................................................................................................... 9  1.5.1 An Overview of the Relevant Literature ..................................................................... 9 1.5.2 The Duck and Quail Egg Industry in BC .................................................................. 19 1.5.3 Demographics of Chinese Canadians in Metro Vancouver, BC ................................ 34 1.5.4 Summary ................................................................................................................. 42 2  METHODOLOGY ............................................................................................................. 43 2.1  Methodology Review .................................................................................................. 43  2.1.1 Mixed Methods Research......................................................................................... 43 2.1.2 Qualitative Research Design .................................................................................... 47 2.1.3 Quantitative Research Design .................................................................................. 49 2.2  Justification for Research Question and Design ........................................................... 58 iv  3  QUALITATIVE RESEARCH: FOCUS GROUPS ............................................................. 59 3.1  Introduction................................................................................................................. 59  3.2  Recruitment and Screening .......................................................................................... 59  3.3  Topic Guide Development ........................................................................................... 60  3.4  Setting, Moderator, and Duration ................................................................................ 61  3.5  Focus Group Analysis ................................................................................................. 61  3.6  Summary of Focus Group Findings ............................................................................. 62  3.6.1 Group Demographics ............................................................................................... 62 3.6.2 General Familiarity with the Egg Types ................................................................... 62 3.6.3 Buying Considerations ............................................................................................. 63 3.6.4 Ranking Exercise ..................................................................................................... 64 3.6.5 Consumption Habits ................................................................................................ 65 3.6.6 Meal Time at Home ................................................................................................. 66 3.6.7 Cooking Skills and Recipes ..................................................................................... 66 3.6.8 Eating Out ............................................................................................................... 67 3.6.9 Attitudes .................................................................................................................. 68 3.6.10 Summary and Conclusions ..................................................................................... 74 4  LOGISTIC REGRESSION MODEL: PREDICTING DUCK AND QUAIL EGG PRODUCT PURCHASES BY CHINESE CANADIANS ...................................................................... 75 4.1  Introduction................................................................................................................. 75  4.2  Materials and Methods ................................................................................................ 76  4.2.1 Questionnaire Design............................................................................................... 76 4.2.2 Survey Protocol ....................................................................................................... 76 4.2.3 Statistical Analysis .................................................................................................. 78 4.2.4 Logistic Regression Model ...................................................................................... 78 4.3  Results ........................................................................................................................ 83  4.3.1 Survey Sample Size ................................................................................................. 83 4.3.2 Survey Data ............................................................................................................. 83 4.3.3 Egg Purchases.......................................................................................................... 91 4.3.4 Logistic Regression Results ................................................................................... 100 4.4  Discussion ................................................................................................................. 111 v  4.4.1 Survey Sample Size and Characteristics ................................................................. 111 4.4.2 Egg Purchases........................................................................................................ 112 4.4.3 Acculturation Score ............................................................................................... 114 4.4.4 Logistic Regression Model .................................................................................... 115 4.4.5 Study Limitations and Future Directions ................................................................ 119 4.5 5  Conclusion ................................................................................................................ 121  CLUSTER ANALYSIS: SEGMENTATION OF THE CHINESE CANADIAN MARKET FOR DUCK AND QUAIL EGG PRODUCTS ................................................................. 123 5.1  Introduction............................................................................................................... 123  5.2  Methodology ............................................................................................................. 124  5.2.1 Research and Questionnaire Design ....................................................................... 124 5.2.2 Survey Description ................................................................................................ 125 5.2.3 Development of Cluster Analysis Method .............................................................. 125 5.3  Results ...................................................................................................................... 127  5.3.1 Descriptive Statistics.............................................................................................. 127 5.3.2 Two-step Cluster Analysis ..................................................................................... 134 5.3.3 Market Opportunities ............................................................................................. 156 5.4  Discussion and Conclusions ...................................................................................... 177  5.4.1 Discussion ............................................................................................................. 177 5.4.2 Limitations of this Study and Future Research Considerations ............................... 181 5.4.3 Conclusion............................................................................................................. 183 6  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ................................................................................ 185 6.1  Rationale for Utilization of Mixed Methods .............................................................. 185  6.2  Quantitative Methods of Analysis and Objectives revisited........................................ 188  6.3  Suggestions for Future Research................................................................................ 191  6.4  Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations ........................................................... 192  REFERENCES ......................................................................................................................... 196 APPENDICES .......................................................................................................................... 210 Appendix A Focus Group Documents.................................................................................. 210 Appendix A.1 Recruitment Poster.................................................................................... 211 vi  Appendix A.2 Focus Group Screening Form.................................................................... 212 Appendix A.3 Focus Group Consent Forms ..................................................................... 214 Appendix A.4 Focus Group Topic Guide ......................................................................... 224 Appendix A.5 Results of Focus Group Ranking Exercises ............................................... 227 Appendix B Survey Documents ........................................................................................... 233 Appendix B.1 Invitation Prenotice – English and Chinese ............................................... 233 Appendix B.2 Survey Cover Letter – English and Chinese .............................................. 235 Appendix B.3 Survey Questionnaire – English and Chinese ............................................ 239 Appendix B.4 Survey Reminder Notice – English and Chinese ........................................ 276 Appendix C Principal Component Analysis (PCA) Data ...................................................... 278 Appendix C.1 PCA of the Importance of Product Characteristics ..................................... 278 Appendix C.2 PCA of Buyers’ Attitudes and Beliefs ....................................................... 289 Appendix D Cluster Analysis Data ...................................................................................... 311 Appendix D.1 Salted Duck Egg Cluster Analysis............................................................. 311 Appendix D.2 Preserved Duck Egg Cluster Analysis ....................................................... 316 Appendix D.3 Fresh Quail Egg Cluster Analysis ............................................................. 321 Appendix E Entrenched Non-buyers .................................................................................... 326  vii  List of Tables Table 1.1 Comparison of whole, fresh, raw duck, quail, and chicken egg nutrients ................................. 4 Table 1.2 Nutrient contents of fresh duck eggs, preserved, and salted eggs (per 100g) ............................ 5 Table 1.3 Value of imports and market concentration, eggs, bird, in shell, n.e.s, preserved/cooked, 20102011 for Canada ................................................................................................................................... 33 Table 1.4 Percentage distribution of ethnic Chinese by total annual household income, Metro Vancouver, 2005 .................................................................................................................................. 41 Table 4.1 Comparison of percentage distribution of household characteristics, sample versus population, Chinese Canadians, Metro Vancouver .................................................................................................. 84 Table 4.2 Comparison of percentage distribution of main grocery shopper's demographic characteristics, sample versus population, Chinese Canadians, Metro Vancouver ......................................................... 86 Table 4.3 Comparison of percentage distribution of demographic acculturation indicators, sample versus population, Chinese Canadians in Metro Vancouver ............................................................................ 88 Table 4.4 Comparison of percentage distribution of years lived in Canada, sample versus population, Chinese Canadian immigrants, Metro Vancouver ................................................................................. 89 Table 4.5 Frequency distribution of selected acculturation indicator variables, Chinese Canadians, Metro Vancouver ........................................................................................................................................... 90 Table 4.6 Percentage of respondents who purchased duck and/or quail egg products for at home consumption within the past 12 mths .................................................................................................... 91 Table 4.7 Descriptive statistics for total annual purchases of types of duck and quail eggs ................... 95 Table 4.8 Estimated annual market size of Chinese Canadian household consumption of salted and preserved duck eggs, and fresh quail eggs, Metro Vancouver ............................................................... 95 Table 4.9 Correlations between potential acculturation score variables ............................................... 101 Table 4.10 Acculturation score descriptive statistics ........................................................................... 102 Table 4.11 Cross tabulations of grocery shopper characteristics by purchase behaviour for any individual egg type ............................................................................................................................................. 103 Table 4.12 Cross tabulations of household characteristics by purchase behaviour for any individual egg type .................................................................................................................................................... 104 Table 4.13 Correlation analysis between quantitative variables and purchase behaviour for any duck or quail egg type..................................................................................................................................... 105 Table 4.14 Summary statistics of variables included in the logistic regression model ......................... 106 Table 4.15 Parameter coding of categorical variables for logistic regression analysis ......................... 106 viii  Table 4.16 Initial logistic regression estimates (constant only) for the purchase model of any duck or quail egg types ................................................................................................................................... 107 Table 4.17 Logistic regression estimates (full model, block enter method) for the purchase model of any duck or quail egg types ...................................................................................................................... 107 Table 4.18 Classification table for the full model ............................................................................... 108 Table 5.1 Geographic distribution of sample vs. population, by location and density of Metro Vancouver Chinese Canadians ............................................................................................................................. 127 Table 5.2 Comparison of selected demographic characteristics of survey respondents to the Chinese Canadian population, Metro Vancouver ............................................................................................. 128 Table 5.3 Mean level of importance of product characteristics when purchasing an egg type .............. 130 Table 5.4 Overall mean levels of agreement with attitude/belief statements by buyers of salted duck eggs, preserved duck eggs, and fresh quail eggs for at home consumption. ......................................... 133 Table 5.5 Mean levels of agreement with selected attitude and belief statements within each egg type, by buyers of salted duck eggs, preserved duck eggs, and fresh quail eggs ............................................... 134 Table 5.6 Number of cases per cluster, Ward's hierarchical method .................................................... 138 Table 5.7 Cluster means per variable, salted duck egg buyers ............................................................. 141 Table 5.8 Mean values of variables per preserved duck egg buyer clusters ......................................... 144 Table 5.9 Cluster means per variable, fresh quail egg buyers) ............................................................ 146 Table 5.10 Kruskal-Wallis tests of selected variable means, salted duck egg buyer segments ............. 148 Table 5.11 Chi-square analysis of categorical variables, by salted duck egg buyer segments .............. 149 Table 5.12 Kruskal-Wallis tests of selected variable means, by preserved duck egg buyer segments .. 151 Table 5.13 Chi-square analysis of categorical variables, by preserved duck egg buyer segments ........ 152 Table 5.14 Mann-Whitney tests of differences between selected variable means, by fresh quail egg buyer segments ............................................................................................................................................ 154 Table 5.15 Chi-square analysis of categorical variables, by fresh quail egg buyer segments ............... 155 Table 5.16 Mean likelihood suggested features will increase satisfaction with or willingness to try an egg type ............................................................................................................................................. 157 Table 5.17 Overall results for best package size and willingness to pay more for BC produced eggs, by egg type ............................................................................................................................................. 159 Table 5.18 Mann-Whitney tests for differences in mean likelihood of suggested features to increase product satisfaction with or willingness to try salted duck eggs, grouped by buyers versus non-buyers for at-home consumption ......................................................................................................................... 161 ix  Table 5.19 Mann-Whitney tests for differences in mean likelihood of suggested features to increase product satisfaction with or willingness to try preserved duck eggs, grouped by buyers versus nonbuyers for at-home consumption ........................................................................................................ 163 Table 5.20 Mann-Whitney tests for differences in mean likelihood of suggested features to increase product satisfaction with or willingness to try fresh quail eggs, grouped by buyers versus non-buyers for at-home consumption ......................................................................................................................... 165 Table 5.21 Correlation analysis of buyer ratings of likelihood of BC produced eggs to increase their satisfaction to their ratings of product characteristics and attitudes, salted duck egg and preserved duck egg buyers.......................................................................................................................................... 167 Table 5.22 Mann-Whitney tests for differences in mean best package size, grouped by egg type and buyers versus non-buyers for at home consumption ........................................................................... 169 Table 5.23 Mann-Whitney tests for differences in mean willingness to pay more for BC produced salted or preserved duck eggs, grouped by egg type and buyers versus non-buyers for at home consumption .......................................................................................................................................................... 170 Table 5.24 Kruskal-Wallis tests for differences between mean likelihood scores for increased satisfaction from suggested features, grouped by salted duck egg buyer segment ............................... 172 Table 5.25 Kruskal-Wallis tests for differences between mean likelihood scores for increased satisfaction from suggested features, grouped by preserved duck egg buyer segment ......................... 173 Table 5.26 Mann-Whitney tests for differences between mean likelihood scores for increased satisfaction from suggested features, grouped by fresh quail egg buyer segment ................................ 174 Table 5.27 Mean best package size by egg type and buyer segment .................................................... 175 Table 5.28 Kruskal-Wallis test for mean willingness to pay more for BC produced salted or preserved duck eggs, grouped by egg type and buyer segment membership ....................................................... 176 Table C.1 PCA results for importance of salted duck egg product characteristics ............................... 282 Table C.2 PCA results for importance of preserved duck egg product characteristics ......................... 284 Table C.3 PCA results for the importance of fresh quail egg product characteristics ........................... 286 Table C.4 PCA results for buyers’ attitudes and beliefs towards salted duck eggs............................... 290 Table C.5 PCA results for buyers’ beliefs and attitudes towards preserved duck eggs......................... 297 Table C.6 PCA results for buyers' beliefs and attitudes towards fresh quail eggs ................................ 304 Table D.1 Agglomeration schedule, salted duck egg buyers, Ward's method ...................................... 311 Table D.2 K-means cluster analysis results, salted duck egg buyers ................................................... 313 Table D.3 Number of cases per final cluster, K-means procedure, salted duck egg buyers .................. 315 Table D.4 Agglomeration schedule, preserved duck egg buyers, Ward's method ................................ 316 x  Table D.5 K-means cluster analysis results, preserved duck egg buyers.............................................. 318 Table D.6 Number of cases per final cluster of preserved duck egg buyers, K-means method ............ 320 Table D.7 Agglomeration schedule, fresh quail egg buyers, Ward's method ....................................... 321 Table D.8 Number of cases per cluster, fresh quail egg buyers, Ward's method .................................. 323 Table D.9 K-means cluster analysis results, fresh quail egg buyers..................................................... 323 Table D.10 Number of cases per final cluster, fresh quail egg buyers, K-means method ..................... 325 Table E.1 Mean responses to opportunity questions, entrenched non-buyers, all egg types ................. 326  xi  List of Figures Figure 1.1 Geographic distribution of total world production in numbers of bird eggs other than chicken hen eggs, in shell, 2010 .......................................................................................................................... 2 Figure 1.2 Structure of available marketing channels for duck and quail egg products in BC ................ 23 Figure 1.3 Percentage share of number of ducks on farms in Canada by province, 2006 ....................... 25 Figure 1.4 Annual imports from Asia of bird eggs, in shell, n.e.s, preserved or cooked, in number of dozens for Canada and BC, with BC percentage of total Canada import volume market share .............. 28 Figure 1.5 Percentage share of $CAD value of imports of bird eggs, in shell, n.e.s, preserved or cooked, by province of import and year............................................................................................................. 29 Figure 1.6 Comparison of the ethnic Chinese population to the number of dozens of imports of bird eggs, in shell, n.e.s, preserved or cooked, for Canada and BC, 1996 to 2009 ........................................ 30 Figure 1.7 Percentage share of import volume (dozens of eggs) into Canada and BC by country of origin, for eggs, bird, in shell, n.e.s, preserved or cooked, 1995 and 2009 ............................................. 31 Figure 1.8 Percentage share of import values ($CAD) by country of origin for eggs, bird, in shell, n.e.s, preserved or cooked, 1995 and 2009 for Canada and BC ...................................................................... 32 Figure 1.9 Ethnic Chinese population counts, single ethnicity, Census years 1971 – 2006 .................... 35 Figure 1.10 Number of ethnic Chinese immigrants by period of immigration, Metro Vancouver .......... 37 Figure 1.11 Place of birth of ethnic Chinese immigrants in Metro Vancouver (%), 2006 ...................... 37 Figure 1.12 Ethnic Chinese population mother tongues, single language responses only, Metro Vancouver, 2006 .................................................................................................................................. 38 Figure 1.13 Percentage age group distributions in Metro Vancouver 2006, ethnic Chinese vs. total population ............................................................................................................................................ 39 Figure 1.14 Highest level of education achieved, Metro Vancouver 2006, ethnic Chinese vs. total population ............................................................................................................................................ 40 Figure 2.1 Diagram of this study's mixed methods research design....................................................... 46 Figure 2.2 Questionnaire design with branching ................................................................................... 53 Figure 4.1 Three-stage sequential mail-Internet survey protocol ........................................................... 77 Figure 4.2 Types of duck eggs usually purchased, percentage of buyers ............................................... 92 Figure 4.3 Percentage distribution of purchase frequency, by egg type for at home consumption ......... 92 Figure 4.4 Percentage distribution of purchasing trends for duck and quail egg products for consumption at home in the past 12 months, compared to the year previous .............................................................. 93 Figure 4.5 Percentage of market share volume by frequency of purchase ............................................. 96 xii  Figure 4.6 Percentages of buyers reporting egg purchases at different stores in Metro Vancouver, BC . 97 Figure 4.7 Percentage ranks of purchase occasion, salted duck eggs ..................................................... 98 Figure 4.8 Main reasons for non-purchase and non-consumption of any duck or quail egg products ..... 99 Figure 5.1 Scree plot of number of clusters against squared Euclidean distance between clusters, salted and preserved duck egg buyers ........................................................................................................... 137 Figure 5.2 Scree plot of number of clusters against squared Euclidean distance between clusters, fresh quail egg buyers ................................................................................................................................. 138 Figure 5.3 Percentage distribution of salted duck egg buyer segments ................................................ 139 Figure 5.4 Percentage distribution of preserved duck egg buyer segments .......................................... 142 Figure 5.5 Percentage distribution of fresh quail egg buyer segments ................................................. 145 Figure A.1 Rankings of the top three most important product characteristics considered when buying preserved duck eggs, immigrant group ............................................................................................... 227 Figure A.2 Rankings of the top three most important product characteristics considered when buying preserved duck eggs, born in Canada group........................................................................................ 227 Figure A.3 Rankings of the three least important product characteristics when buying preserved duck eggs, immigrant group ....................................................................................................................... 228 Figure A.4 Rankings of the three least important product characteristics when buying preserved duck eggs, born in Canada group ................................................................................................................ 228 Figure A.5 Rankings of the top three most important product characteristics when buying salted duck eggs, immigrant group ....................................................................................................................... 229 Figure A.6 Rankings of the top three most important product characteristics when bying salted duck eggs, born in Canada group ................................................................................................................ 229 Figure A.7 Rankings of the three least important product characteristics when buying salted duck eggs, immigrant group ................................................................................................................................ 230 Figure A.8 Rankings of the three least important product characteristics when buying salted duck eggs, born in Canada group ......................................................................................................................... 230 Figure A.9 Rankings of the top three most important product characteristics considered when buying fresh quail eggs, immigrant group ...................................................................................................... 231 Figure A.10 Rankings of the top three most important product characteristics considered when buying fresh quail eggs, born in Canada group............................................................................................... 231 Figure A.11 Rankings of the three least important product characteristics considered when buying fresh quail eggs, immigrant group ............................................................................................................... 232 xiii  Figure A.12 Rankings of the three least important product characteristics considered when purchasing fresh quail eggs, born in Canada group............................................................................................... 232 Figure C.1 Scree plot, initial eigenvalues of salted duck egg product characteristic components ......... 279 Figure C.2 Scree plot, initial eigenvalues of preserved duck egg product characteristic components ... 280 Figure C.3 Scree plot, initial eigenvalues of fresh quail egg product characteristic components .......... 280 Figure C.4 Scree plot, initial eigenvalues of salted duck egg buyers' attitude and belief components .. 296 Figure C.5 Scree plot, initial eigenvalues of preserved duck egg buyers' attitude and belief components .......................................................................................................................................................... 303 Figure C.6 Scree plot, initial eigenvalues of fresh quail egg buyers' attitude and belief components ... 310 Figure D.1 Dendrogram of clustering of salted duck egg buyers, Ward's method ................................ 312 Figure D.2 Dendrogram of clustering of preserved duck egg buyers, Ward's method.......................... 317 Figure D.3 Dendrogram of clustering of fresh quail egg buyers, Ward's method ................................. 322  xiv  Glossary Acculturation is a process of change, both psychological and cultural, that occurs following meeting between cultures (Sam, 2010); studies tend to focus on how minorities from another culture adapt to a dominant, majority culture. Balut is a fertilized duck egg incubated for approximately 17 to 19 days, then refrigerated and sold; must be cooked before consumption. Considered a delicacy by Filipinos, Vietnamese; less so by Chinese Census Metropolitan Area (CMA) is a city with 100,000 or more inhabitants; boundaries defined by Statistics Canada Century egg is a preserved duck egg Country of origin (COO) refers to the country of manufacture of any of the egg products Ethnic foods for the purposes of this thesis refers to non-European, non-United Kingdom foods and cuisine (that is, non-mainstream foods according to the dominant culture) Foodways are the cultural, social and economic practices relating to the production and consumption of food Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) is a regional service, planning and political body with representatives from the Vancouver CMA municipalities, Greater Vancouver A, and the First Nation of Tsawwassen Quail egg is a very small speckled brown and white egg from the quail bird; fresh quail eggs are sold raw in the shell, processed quail eggs are canned, smoked, or pickled and are sold ready to use Metropolitan (Metro) Vancouver (previously the Greater Vancouver Regional District) for the purposes of this thesis, is the same as the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area (CMA) n.e.s. is a trade data term that means “not elsewhere specified” PCA refers to principal component analysis Pidan are preserved duck eggs Preserved duck egg is duck egg that has been covered in a special paste that “cooks” the egg through an alkaline fermentation process, turning the white into a gelatinous and translucent brown tea colour and the yolk into a green-gray colour; sold in the shell, ready to use. See also pidan, century egg, thousand year old egg. Principal component analysis (PCA) is a statistical technique for reducing data Salted duck egg is a duck egg that has been cured in brine or a salted paste so that the whole egg absorbs the salt; sold in the shell (raw or cooked) or in packages of yolks only Thousand-year-old egg is a preserved duck egg xv  Vancouver CMA includes the following municipalities: Vancouver, Richmond, Burnaby, New Westminster, Coquitlam, Port Coquitlam, Port Moody, Belcarra, Anmore, North Vancouver (City and District of),West Vancouver, Bowen Island, Lions Bay, Delta, White Rock, Surrey, Langley (City and District of), Pitt Meadows, and Maple Ridge; regional district electoral area Greater Vancouver A; and Indian reserves Semiamoo, Tsawwassen, and Musqueam 2 Visible Minority is a person who is non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour, and specifically excludes aboriginals Xiandan are salted duck eggs  xvi  Acknowledgements I would like to thank my committee members for their guidance and advice: Dr. Gwen Chapman, Dr. James Vercammen, Dr. Brent Skura, Ms. Kelleen Wiseman, M.B.A., and my supervisor, Dr. Kim Cheng. Dr. Chapman was particularly helpful for the qualitative research phase of my research and Ms. Wiseman proved an excellent sounding board and provided valuable advice throughout my whole thesis research, and particularly during the development of the questionnaire. I would especially like to thank Dr. Cheng for his unwavering support, patience, and guidance. I would not have been able to get through my long journey without his encouragement. I owe a debt of gratitude to the BC Ministry of Agriculture and Lands and the British Columbia Specialty Birds Research Committee for funding my study, and the B.C. Egg Marketing Board for twice awarding me financial support. My focus group research was greatly helped by the presence of Ms. Angela To, who acted as my assistant at the focus group sessions. The success of my research would not have been possible without the contribution of Ms. Anissa Ip, a professional translator, for her translation of my survey documents into Chinese and to Mr. Ken Ng for checking that translation and for interpreting at a focus group session. I thank them both very much, for the care they took and their attention to detail. I would also like to thank the Chinese Canadian staff at the Faculty of Land and Food Systems and the students of LFS 490, who took the time to pilot test my survey and offer their valuable comments and feedback. I’d also like to thank my fellow students, Cait, Deepa, Fariba, Jianan, Masoumeh, and Xinrui, as well as Dr. Darin Bennett and Dr. June Kim, all at the Avian Research Centre, for their support, good humour, and encouragement.  xvii  Dedication  To Pierre, for all your love and support, I thank you  xviii  1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Duck and Quail Eggs: Traditional Alternatives to Hen Eggs To the majority of North Americans,‘eggs’ may conjure an image of chicken eggs sizzling in a fry pan for breakfast. To many people from around the world ‘eggs’ may not just mean chicken eggs, but duck eggs, quail eggs, or guinea fowl eggs, amongst others, and not necessarily as part of their breakfast either. Worldwide, there is no question that egg production is dominated by hens of the G. gallus domesticus species (domestic chickens). The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimated that worldwide in 2010, chicken hens produced approximately 1.2 trillion eggs, in shell (henceforth known as table eggs) compared to 82.6 billion other bird eggs, in shell (FAO Statistics Division, 2012a). These numbers are likely underestimated, particularly for other bird eggs, as production data are missing for some countries perhaps due to a backyard flock nature of production or lack of reporting to the FAO. A good example is Vietnam, which is known to have duck egg production, yet is missing from FAO production statistics. These alternative bird eggs may represent a smaller proportion of total worldwide egg production, yet they continue to have importance in many countries with worldwide production increasing 29.9% from 2000 to 2010, which is more than the 24.7% growth in table egg production over the same time period (FAO Statistics Division, 2012b). However as shown in Figure 1.1, production of alternative eggs is not evenly distributed throughout the world, with East Asia (primarily China) and Southeast Asia accounting for 92% of total world production (FAO Statistics Division, 2012c). Currently, production of other bird eggs in North and Central America is so small, or goes unreported, that the FAO does not report or estimate production data for the two regions.  1  2%  1%  3% 14% 2% Africa South America East Asia South Asia Southeast Asia Europe 78%  Figure 1.1 Geographic distribution of total world production in numbers of bird eggs other than chicken hen eggs, in shell, 2010  Source: Calculated from FAO Statistics Division (2012c)  Worldwide, the majority of alternative egg production is composed of duck and quail eggs, with duck eggs dominating. The other species’ eggs play regional or peripheral roles. Duck eggs, whether fresh or processed, are particularly popular in China and Southeast Asia, accounting for 10- 30% of total egg consumption in those regions (Pingle, 2009). China and Southeast Asian countries may dominate commercial duck egg production, but commercial production, as well as small farm/backyard production, can be found throughout the world, for example in France and India. In East and Southeast Asia, duck eggs are often processed into salted or preserved forms, techniques for which were developed in China centuries ago to prolong their shelf life in the absence of refrigeration (Hou, 1981). These types of processed duck eggs are considered traditional foods in many Asian cuisines. Known as ‘xiandan’ (鹹疍) in Chinese, salted duck eggs are made by coating fresh, raw duck eggs with a paste high in sodium chloride (table salt). An alternate method is to immerse the eggs in a solution of brine for approximately 30 days. Salt is absorbed through osmosis into the albumin and yolk and helps to preserve the eggs, which should then be cooked before consuming. Duck egg yolks are higher in fat content compared to chicken eggs and the salted duck egg yolks are particularly prized for the rich flavouring they lend to various dishes, including pastries such as Autumn Moon cakes. A well prepared salted duck egg should have an oily and gritty-textured yolk with a deep orange/red colour. 2  Preserved duck eggs, also known as ‘thousand year old eggs’ or ‘century eggs’, and called ‘pidan’ (皮疍) in Chinese, are prepared via an alkaline fermentation process: Traditionally a paste including ash and lime is packed around each egg, which is then covered in rice husks. The eggs are packed tightly in dark, cool, dry containers and allowed to cure for approximately 30 to 45 days. Through osmosis the lime is absorbed into the egg turning the albumin into a tea-coloured gelatinous texture with a greygreen yolk that can be either soft or hard depending on the length of time spent curing. The eggs are then ready to eat and depending on use do not have to be cooked. One typical use is to add chopped preserved duck eggs to congee. Another is to serve them as an appetizer with pickled ginger. A description of this type of egg preservation, by Wang Zizhen, dates back 500 years ago to the Ming Dynasty era (Hou, 1981). Quail are small game birds and one of the more popular breeds for meat and eggs is the Coturnix japonica, or Japanese quail. Domestic Japanese quail hens start egg-laying at about five weeks of age, eggs are about ten grams each, and a hen can produce 280 to 300 speckled brown eggs in a year (Minvielle, 1998). The feed conversion (feed/egg) ratio of 3.3 makes the Japanese quail the champion species in converting feed into eggs (Shanaway, 1994). Fresh quail eggs are typically used in gourmet meal preparations and are also often used in soups, sushi, and dim sum. Pickled quail eggs (boiled and then pickled in vinegar with or without spices) are a popular form of consumption, particularly in Europe: “Considerable quantities are consumed on the continent. In the UK it is a gourmet market and is very limited” (Scottish Agricultural College, 2008). Canned quail eggs (hard cooked and peeled), providing convenience and a much longer shelf life, are widely available in Asian food stores. Duck and quail eggs are inexpensive forms of animal protein, contain all amino acids needed for human health, provide many vital vitamins and minerals, and compare favourably to table eggs in some nutrient values (Table 1.1). Hou (1981) investigated the effects of processing on the nutrient content of duck eggs (Table 1.2)1 and found that processing resulted in higher protein and lower carbohydrate content compared to fresh duck eggs, that some minerals were enhanced, some decreased, but that vitamin content was reduced for preserved duck eggs (changes to vitamins in salted eggs were not provided nor discussed).  1  Readers will note the differences in nutrient values for fresh, raw, duck eggs between the United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) figures in Table 1.1 and Hou’s in Table 1.2. Differences could be due to the breed of duck, duck feed, and differences in measurement methodologies or instruments. The USDA’s release documentation did not provide details about how the duck egg nutrient information was collected and analyzed, although with chicken eggs a random sample of eggs from various geographic areas of the United States was taken. Hou’s data is from ducks in China, breed unknown.  3  Table 1.1 Comparison of whole, fresh, raw duck, quail, and chicken egg nutrients Duck egg  Quail egg  Chicken egg  Nutrient  Unit  value per 100g  value per 100g  value per 100g  Energy  Kcal  185  158  143  Protein  g  12.81  13.05  12.56  Total lipid (fat)  g  13.77  11.09  9.51  Carbohydrate, by difference  g  1.45  0.41  0.72  Sugars, total  g  0.93  0.40  0.37  Calcium  mg  64  64  56  Iron  mg  3.85  3.65  1.75  Magnesium  mg  17  13  12  Phosphorus  mg  220  226  198  Potassium  mg  222  132  138  Sodium  mg  146  141  142  Zinc  mg  1.41  1.47  1.29  Thiamin  mg  0.156  0.130  0.04  Riboflavin  mg  0.404  0.790  0.457  Niacin  mg  0.200  0.150  0.075  Vitamin B-6  mg  0.250  0.150  0.170  Folate, DFE  mcg_DFE  80  66  47  µg  5.40  1.58  0.89  mcg_RAE  194  156  160  Vitamin A  IU  674  543  540  Vitamin E  mg  1.34  1.08  1.05  Vitamin D  IU  69  55  82  Vitamin K  µg  0.4  0.3  0.3  Vitamin B-12 Vitamin A, RAE  Source: USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, release 24, accessed March 31, 2012, ndb.nal.usda.gov  4  Table 1.2 Nutrient contents of fresh duck eggs, preserved, and salted eggs (per 100g) Duck egg  Protein  Fat  CHO  Ash  Ca  P  g  g  g  g  mg  mg  mg  IU  mg  mg  acid  8.7  9.8  10.3  1.2  71  210  3.2  1,380  0.15  0.37  0.1  Preserved  13.1 10.7  2.2  2.3  58  200  0.9  940  0.02  0.21  0.1  Salted  14.0 16.6  4.1  7.5  102  214  0.4  type Fresh  Fe Vit. A  Vit. B1 Vit. B2 Nicotinic  Source: Hou (1981)  Eggs from duck and quail are traditional foods not only with nutritional importance, but also with economic and socio-cultural importance. Production systems range from medium to large scale commercial operations, to small farm and backyard operations that feed families as well as provide an additional source of household income. From an anthropology perspective, traditional foods also have symbolic meaning, acting as indicators of identity and are thus inextricably linked with culture (Fischler, 1988). With mass migration, globalization, and industrialization transforming societies around the world, traditional foodways are also transforming (Wu & Chee-Beng, 2001) creating opportunities as well as risks for the agri-food industry (Henry, 2002; WCM Consulting Inc., 2008; Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 2012). Opportunities abound to provide culturally appropriate and healthful traditional foods to migrants in their new homelands, and new and diverse foods to society at large, and risks exist that with acculturation, and with the globalization and industrialization of the world food system, demand for some traditional foods will wane along with the agricultural biodiversity that supports them. In North America, duck and quail eggs and egg products are not traditional nor common foods and typically they are found only in metropolitan areas boasting ethnic and immigrant populations from areas of the world that have traditionally used these eggs in their cuisines. Metropolitan (Metro) Vancouver, British Columbia (BC), Canada, is such a city with an ethnically diverse population. In the 2006 Census over 200 ethnicities were recorded in Metro Vancouver (Statistics Canada, 2010a), with approximately 40% of the total population foreign born (2006 Census bulletin 06, 2008). The largest ethnic group is Chinese, representing 19.6% of the total Metro Vancouver population in 2006, including those reporting multiple ethnic ancestries (Statistics Canada, 2010a). Approximately 85% of the ethnic Chinese population in Vancouver are first generation Canadian (immigrants) and only 2% are third generation (Statistics Canada 2010b), representing a possibly strong market opportunity for BC based producers and processors of duck and quail eggs and egg products. 5  Farms in BC tend to be small in both size and sales and 98% of BC farms are family farms rather than farm corporations (BC Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, 2007). The 2006 Census of Agriculture indicated that the average farm size was 143 ha and approximately 48% of farms reported annual gross receipts of under $10,000 Canadian dollars (CAD) and a further 16% reported annual gross receipts between $10,000 to $24,999 CAD (BC Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, 2007). However, the agricultural industry in BC is the most diverse in Canada and this diversity lends itself to innovation and the pursuit of higher valued products and new niche markets, which are considered strengths of the BC agricultural sector (BC Ministry of Agriculture, 2011). In the BC government’s 2008 Agricultural Plan one of the major strategic themes was to support and encourage production of local food in the context of a changing world, as well as to support the continued economic and ecological viability of BC family farms (The British Columbia agriculture plan, 2008). The 2012 BC Jobs Plan Agrifoods Strategy, a five year strategic plan (http://www.gov.bc.ca/agri/down/bc_agrifoods_strategy.pdf), continues to emphasize the need for the production of high quality, high value foods in BC. Building on the strengths of the BC agricultural industry, ethnic niche markets could represent opportunities to fulfill these strategic public policy goals. Currently, there is some commercial production of fresh quail eggs and specialty balut 2 duck eggs in BC. Although there are no sizeable commercial fresh duck egg or salted and preserved duck egg operations in BC, my research indicates the presence of some small flock production of fresh duck eggs and perhaps very small scale salted duck egg production. On a commercial basis, however, the market for salted and preserved duck eggs as well as processed quail eggs (typically pickled, canned, or smoked) is served by and dominated by imported products.  2  Baluts are produced by incubating a fertilized duck egg for approximately 17 to 19 days, at which point it is refrigerated and ready for sale. Baluts must be cooked before consumption and are usually boiled for approximately 30 minutes and then consumed hot. Baluts are considered a delicacy by Filipinos, Vietnamese, less so by Chinese.  6  1.2 Problem Statement With a growing number of immigrants from non-European countries, the population of Canada and BC is becoming increasingly heterogeneous. Subsequently, the market for food is becoming more diverse. In Metro Vancouver a large proportion of the population is from ethnic ancestries that traditionally consume specialty duck and quail egg products, however very little is known about the market for these products. Scant scholarly or agricultural extension research has been conducted on the consumer market for salted and preserved duck eggs and fresh or processed quail eggs in North America. Currently, the markets in BC for salted and preserved duck eggs and processed quail eggs are served by products imported primarily from Asia. Fresh quail eggs and duck baluts are produced locally, but without the support of a body of consumer or market research to guide producers, processors or retailers. Opportunities for BC producers and processors to enter and expand the market for duck and quail eggs and egg products may exist. However, information is needed on the size of the markets, the characteristics of buyers and consumers, their behaviours, attitudes, and beliefs, and potential market opportunities. This study aims to fill some of those information gaps. Due to language, budget, and scope constraints, it was decided to limit this research study to people in Metro Vancouver of Chinese ethnic ancestry. Vancouver hosts the second largest population of ethnic Chinese in Canada and the largest population of ethnic Chinese in BC. This is the largest ethnic group in Vancouver that traditionally consumes duck and quail egg products. Research was initially limited to salted and preserved duck eggs, fresh and processed quail eggs. However, too little data was obtained on processed quail eggs, so they have been dropped from this study’s statistical analyses. In addition, although sometimes consumed by ethnic Chinese, duck balut eggs are most popular with Filipino and Vietnamese ethnic groups and thus due to scope considerations, were also not studied.  1.3 Objectives The purpose of my research was to profile the Metro Vancouver ethnic Chinese consumer market for specialty duck and quail egg products: Salted and preserved duck eggs and fresh quail eggs. This was accomplished through addressing the following research questions and objectives.  7  1.3.1 Objective 1 To use descriptive statistics to provide a general profile of the markets for duck and quail egg products in Metro Vancouver, including egg types bought, frequency of purchase, where bought, and why consumed, for example.  1.3.2 Objective 2 To develop a method to measure acculturation in each respondent so that it can be used as an input variable in further analyses. It is hypothesized that with acculturation purchases of the egg products are less likely.  1.3.3 Objective 3 To develop a logistic regression model to predict product purchase. What are the characteristics of purchasers and non-purchasers of the eggs, and which characteristics are most predictive of product purchase? To date, no literature addresses these fundamental questions for duck and quail egg products. A logistic regression model will provide a method of identifying key differences between characteristics of buyers versus non-buyers, including the impact of acculturation on consumption.  1.3.4 Objective 4 To segment the market based on: 1) buyers’ attitudes and beliefs about the products, and 2) the importance of product characteristics when buying. Once segmented, the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of each segment and their buying behaviours will be described. This will be accomplished using principal component analysis, cluster analysis, correlation analyses, and descriptive statistical analyses.  1.3.5 Objective 5 To explore potential market opportunities for locally produced duck and quail egg products. Is there a preference for BC produced duck eggs? If necessary, would potential buyers be willing to pay a premium for a BC produced duck egg? Will certain suggested features increase buyer satisfaction or non-buyers’ willingness to try fresh quail eggs? Opportunities will be uncovered through the results of the previous objectives and through the analysis of specific survey questions. To meet these objectives, a two-phase research design was planned and carried out, consisting of initial exploratory focus groups, followed by the main body of research, a random sample survey. 8  1.4 Organization of the Thesis The remainder of this chapter consists of a literature review, which includes an overview of relevant literature, a profile of the duck and quail egg industry in BC, and a demographic portrait of the Chinese Canadian population in Metro Vancouver. In Chapter Two I review and discuss the methodology used in my study and provide justification for my research design. In Chapter Three I summarize the results of the exploratory focus groups I conducted prior to the main quantitative survey phase of my study. In Chapter Four I present a paper that focuses on the development of a logistic regression model to predict product purchase or non-purchase. Chapter Five contains a paper on the segmentation of the consumer market and market opportunities. Finally, in Chapter Six I provide a general discussion and summary of my research results, including overall conclusions and recommendations for future research.  1.5 Literature Review 1.5.1 An Overview of the Relevant Literature 1.5.1.1  Duck and Quail Egg Studies  Compared to chicken eggs, there is a limited body of scholarly literature in English or in Western societies on salted or preserved duck eggs or quail eggs. Most literature to do with ducks and quails and their eggs has focused on production, processing and the chemical changes that occur during processing, as well as food safety and quality control issues, not consumer market studies. The following referenced studies are not meant to be exhaustive in nature, but to give examples of some of the research that has been conducted on duck and quail eggs to date and that have some relevance to the consumer market. Yannakopoulos and Tserveni-Gousi (1986) found that the age of the quail hen had a considerable influence on the characteristics of the eggs, with implications for egg quality. All egg component weights increased between 49 and 154 days of age, but egg shape, specific gravity and shell thickness decreased, which could increase breakage. Panda and Singh (1990) provided a comprehensive review of developments in processing quail meat and eggs and concluded that research data is still fragmentary and more studies were needed to improve yield and quality and to develop more quail egg and meat convenience foods. Kaewmanee, Benjakul, and Visessanguan (2009) examined the chemical changes that occur during processing of salted duck eggs, with particular attention paid to the yolk, the most prized part of the salted egg, while Chi and Tseng (1998) compared the physiochemical properties of 9  salted yolks from duck and chicken eggs and found that the salting of duck eggs produced more desirable characteristics in the yolk (such as orange colour, oiliness, and gritty texture) compared to chicken eggs. Wang and Fung (1996) reviewed the fermentation of duck eggs in their paper on alkaline fermented foods, finding that unlike other alkali fermentation processes, microorganisms were not part of the process. In light of perceived food safety concerns, Yang and Chen (2001) found that salt or alkaline preservation of duck eggs produced cholesterol oxidation products (as do chicken eggs), which may be correlated to some toxicological factors, though further studies were needed; and, Wang, Wu, Lin, and Chang-Chien (2009), in a study on human dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in Taiwan, concluded little risk to the population of ingesting intolerable levels of the chemicals by consuming contaminated duck eggs. (Concerns about the contamination of duck eggs have often been expressed by Asian consumers. Concerns include lead contamination, due to lead in the paste or water used to produce the duck egg products, and chemical contamination, either inadvertent or through the use of banned additives during processing, such as the use of certain dyes to artificially enhance the colour of salted duck egg yolks.) Some studies have been done on the consumer acceptability of the eggs. Angalet, Wilson, and Fry (1976) used a consumer panel in Florida and a seven point hedonic scale to test the acceptability of five different pickled quail egg recipes and found that three of the preparations met a 70% threshold approval level and thus could be considered marketable. Trongpanich and Dawson (1974) studied consumer acceptability of duck eggs, using a sensory panel composed of members of American and Thai ethnic origin to rate the flavour, texture, and colour of salted duck eggs versus fresh duck eggs and found that in all three attributes, the Thais preferred the salted duck eggs and the Americans the fresh duck eggs. Americans disliked or rejected the salted duck eggs, which implied that finding a market for the salted duck eggs outside of their traditional Asian base would be difficult. There are previous studies on the market for duck and quail in BC and Canada, though they have been sporadic or incomplete, and do not focus on consumers. A 1989 report by Paulson, Nichols and Cheng (as cited in Kermode, 1997) found untapped potential in the BC game bird industry (which includes quail), but weaknesses in marketing and industry structure were limiting factors in its growth. Agriculture and Agri Food Canada produced a profile of the Canadian Game Bird Industry in 1991 (http://www.agr.gc.ca/poultry-volaille/prindgb_eng.htm), but did not include any information on table eggs from the birds, referring to game bird meat only. Further, updated, research on the BC game bird industry was conducted by Kermode (1997) as part of her Master of Science thesis (unpublished). Results from her survey of game bird producers indicated that quail eggs were specialty, gourmet items, 10  produced by two commercial farms in BC and mainly sold through specialty distributors to the Chinese retail and restaurant/hotel market. Growth was concentrated in the restaurant/hotel market. Again, consumers were not surveyed. A further study, produced by View West Marketing and Zbeetnoff Agro Environmental Consulting in 2002 for the Avian Research Centre at The University of British Columbia, looked at the markets for ratite, waterfowl, and game birds in BC and found that some fresh duck eggs were being marketed through the Chinese communities and that duck baluts were showing considerable growth, however the production of, or market for, salted and preserved duck eggs was not covered in the report (View West Marketing Inc. & Zbeetnoff Agro-Environmental Consulting, 2002). The report estimated BC quail egg production at three million eggs per year and that the development of value added products from the eggs was needed to support sector growth. Consumer research was not part of the scope of the report, but the report did recognize the need for market research. Finally, Agriculture and Agri Food Canada produced a profile of the Canadian duck industry in 2007, see http://www.agr.gc.ca/poultryvolaille/prindd_eng.htm (Gaumond), but the report focused only on duck meat production and markets: No data was provided on duck eggs or their products. Given the lack of consumer-focused studies on duck and quail egg products in the literature, a review of other ethnic food market studies, studies on dietary acculturation, and other consumer market studies can provide some further context for my research.  1.5.1.2  Ethnic Food Market Studies  Packaged Facts, an American market research firm, estimated in a 2003 report that the value of the market for shelf-stable, refrigerated, and frozen Asian foods was $400 million a year in the United States and that the overall market for Asian foods in the United States totalled $837 million a year (Arnott, 2003). Although the demand for various ethnic foods3 is growing in North America, scholarly consumer studies about specific ethnic food products are not yet commonplace. However, this is starting to change as governments, farmers, and processors open up to the possibilities of producing and manufacturing ethnic foods in Canada and the United States, and grocers look to increase their offerings of ethnic foods produced locally (Trichur, 2012). Govindasamy and colleagues have produced studies on the market for ethnic produce in the Northeastern United States (Govindasamy et al., 2006; Govindasamy et al., 2007b; Govindasamy &  3  For the purposes of this thesis, ethnic foods are defined as non-European and non-United Kingdom in origin (see Glossary).  11  Puduri, 2009; Govindasamy, Puduri, & Simon, 2010). In a regional survey that included Asian Americans, they found that 72% of Chinese Americans were willing to pay a premium for ethnic produce grown locally in the northeastern United States (Govindasamy & Puduri, 2009) and that 87% of Chinese bought their fruit and vegetables from ethnic Chinese stores (Govindasamy, Pappas, & Puduri, 2007a). Furthermore, a multinomial logit analysis indicated that income, age, and period of stay in the U.S. were significant factors influencing willingness to pay, and Chinese Americans were more likely to pay more than 10% more for locally produced ethnic produce compared to Puerto Ricans (Ariyawardana, Govindasamy, & Puduri, 2010). More recently, in a paper by Adekunle, Filson, Sethuratnam, and Cidro (2011), the consumption of ‘ethnocultural’ vegetables by ethnic Afro-Caribbean people in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) of Ontario Canada was studied and a separate market research report on the demand for ethnic vegetables by ethnic Chinese, Indian, and Afro-Caribbean in the GTA was produced (Adekunle, Filson, & Sethuratnam, 2011). It was found that income was positively related to consumption of ethnic vegetables by Chinese Canadians, years spent in Canada was negatively related to consumption, and that most would be willing to pay more if the vegetables are fresh and of better quality. Similar to Govindasamy et al.’s findings, 81.5% of Chinese purchased vegetables at Chinese grocery stores. However, the study also noted that only 15.1% of Chinese respondents replied that “tradition/culture” was a reason for consumption of a significant amount of vegetables in their diet. Jamal (1998) used ethnographic observation and in-depth interviews and found generational and gender differences amongst British Pakistanis’ food preferences: First generation British Pakistanis overall preferred to consume traditional Pakistani food, whereas the younger, second generation group consumed both Pakistani (inside the home) and British food (primarily outside the home) and had positive perceptions of British food. First generation British Pakistani men were reluctant to try British food compared to the women, who were inclined to consume British food as a means of connecting or conforming with their children. Although providing good insight into perceptions of Pakistani and British foods, the results cannot be generalized to the British Pakistani consumer food market as a whole because the sample size was too small, not randomly selected, and participant responses could have been influenced by the presence of the interviewer/observer. Kuperis, Vincent, Unterschultz, and Veeman (2000) investigated the ethnic Asian market in Washington, Oregon, and Vancouver, BC for Canadian fresh pork, however the study surveyed Asian retailers and distributors, not consumers. Their findings indicated that retailers and distributors perceived western Canadian pork as expensive. 12  Using data from the 2003 United States Consumer Expenditure Survey, Garcia-Jiménez and Mishra (2011) investigated the determinants of meat purchasing behaviour by ethnic groups, using socio-economic and ethnic factors in probit regressions. The study focused on Hispanic Americans compared to white Americans, African-Americans, and other ethnic minorities. Asian Americans were grouped within the ‘other’ category. Household weekly income and household size were all significant determinants and results varied by ethnic group. For the other ethnic group, weekly income was a significant determinant in the purchase of ground beef (a negative relationship), beef steak and other beef (positive relationships) and household size had a significant, positive relationship with the purchase of ground beef, roast beef, bacon, other pork, and seafood. It is notable that price was not a determinant of meat purchase across all ethnic groups. Related to the ethnic foods market, faith based food production, such as halal and kosher foods, has been receiving more attention recently due to large markets. In North America, the halal food market is estimated at $12 billion (CAD) and the kosher food market at $200 billion (CAD) (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 2012). Several studies have examined the market for halal meat in various ethnic sub-populations or immigrant groups. Ibrahim, Liu, and Nelson (2008) surveyed Muslims in Atlanta, GA on their consumption of halal goat meat. Participants were randomly selected after Friday prayers at mosques and the survey was also distributed online via the cooperation of imams informing their congregations of the study and providing an online link to the survey. The majority of respondents were immigrants. Results indicated that consumption increased during the two Eid festivals and during special occasions such as marriage celebrations. Ibrahim (2011) subsequently reported on their willingness to pay a premium for halal goat meat. Using a multiple bounded probit model, results indicated that income and household composition were significant variables (positive and negative relationships, respectively) in the willingness to pay a premium for halal goat meat (p < 0.01), and the amount consumed per month and marital status were both positive, significant variables at the p < 0.10 level. Years in the United States, education, gender, and preference for the freshness of the meat were not significant variables. Bonne, Vermeir, Bergeaud-Blackler, and Verbeke (2007) used the theory of planned behaviour, self-identity as a Muslim, and dietary acculturation (see section 1.5.1.3) to investigate the determinants of halal meat consumption in France by immigrant Muslims, primarily from North Africa. Dietary acculturation was measured by one five-point scale question measuring preference for French versus ‘Country of Origin’ food. Overall, Muslim immigrants were found to retain their ethnic cuisine habits, even after many years in France. Low-acculturated Muslims were found to rely on their positive attitude 13  to halal meat as their main driver of consumption whereas high acculturated Muslims relied on attitude and perceived control over selection and consumption of halal meat. Goodwin, Holcomb, and Rister (1996) used a product placement study of five rice varieties in Asian American households in Houston Texas to identify household characteristics that influence rice demand and to estimate a quality adjusted price model for rice demand. A product placement survey and focus group interviews were used for data collection. Their results indicated that income and Southeast Asian ethnicity significantly and positively affected the price paid per pound of rice; years in the U.S. significantly and negatively affected price paid; and, household size and the presence of children had no significant influence. Finally, Batres-Marquez , Jensen, and Brester (2003) surveyed Salvadoran Americans in Los Angeles and Houston about household demographic characteristics, use of 30 different Salvadoran food items and their attitudes towards those food items. Using convenience and snowball sampling techniques, questionnaires were completed via personal interviews and cluster analysis was used to classify the market for Salvadoran food according to patterns of consumption of Salvadoran foods. Clusters were then further described using household demographic characteristics. Descriptive statistics were provided for each cluster’s consumption pattern, but statistical tests for significant differences between clusters were not presented. Overall, staple foods (for example beans, corn, and tortillas) were consumed widely by all four clusters; however more specialty Salvadoran foods were less widely consumed due to limited availability (particularly in Houston), expense, or poor quality. Over 88% of all respondents indicated that it was very important for Salvadoran products to be made in El Salvador, suggesting that any locally produced products would not be regarded as suitable substitutes.  1.5.1.3  Dietary Acculturation Studies  Consumption of traditional Chinese foods by migrant populations and their descendants can be strongly impacted by the process of acculturation. I will provide a broader discussion of acculturation and its measurement in Chapter Two (methodology); however for the purposes of this section it is helpful to use a traditional characterization of acculturation: The process by which immigrants lose their original cultural traits and values and adopt those of their new host society (Deng & Walker, 2007). Given that food is a very important part of culture, consumption of traditional food products such as from duck and quail eggs may be affected over time by the process of acculturation. Some of the studies I reviewed in the ethnic food market section either explicitly or implicitly took acculturation into account, using such measures as length of stay in the host society, generation status, 14  and food preference, for example. In the health and social sciences many studies have been conducted on diet and acculturation. In healthcare studies, the aim has been to understand dietary changes in various immigrant groups because of the role dietary patterns are thought to play in several chronic diseases more common to Western populations (diabetes and heart disease, for example). Specifically, there have been a number of studies done on the adoption of a more westernized diet by Chinese immigrants to Canada and the United States. Yang and Fox (1979) found that length of residence in the United States was significantly and positively associated with changes in the diets of Chinese immigrants in Lincoln, Nebraska. Newman and Linke (1982) looked at the changes in Chinese immigrants’ food habits in New York City, specifically comparing ethnic Chinese mothers in a predominantly Chinese neighbourhood (Chinatown) and in a mixed ethnicity neighbourhood (Queens). All mothers were from southern China. Using a random sample and a questionnaire and interviews, they examined traditional food habits prior to immigration and over three different time frames of less than two years, two to five years, and over five years residency in the U.S. They found significant changes in food habits compared to preimmigration, especially in the number of food items consumed and in their frequency, such as an increase in dairy and meat upon immigration. They noted that the frequency of consumption of quail eggs was reported as ‘never’ or ‘only once or twice a year’ both pre and post immigration. Chinese mothers living in Chinatown changed their habits less compared to mothers in the mixed ethnic neighbourhood. Newcomers (less than two years) showed the most change in food habits, but there was no clear trend after migration because the mothers in the United States for greater than five years showed a reversal in some food habits to more traditional Chinese ones. Hrboticky and Krondl (1984) investigated the acculturation to Canadian foods by Chinese immigrant adolescent males and found that higher hedonic flavour ratings and higher prestige ratings of Canadian foods were positively correlated with acculturation and that although acculturation was positively correlated with higher nutrition knowledge of the foods, that knowledge was not necessarily put into practice. These findings held whether acculturation was measured through generation status (first or second generation Chinese Canadian boys) or through preferred language use. Chau, Downes, Lee, and Tseng (1990) studied the food habits of elderly Chinese women in the San Francisco area, using a questionnaire that was administered through in-person interviews. Results indicated that a significant positive relationship existed between frequency of consumption of American foods and participants’ language reading ability and education level. No significant relationship was found between the participants’ age or years of residence in the U.S. and consumption of American 15  foods. Furthermore, a significant, positive relationship was found between age and years of residence in the U.S. with the traditional Chinese practice of balancing “hot” and “cold” foods (or “Yin and Yang” foods). A significant negative association was found between reading ability and education level and the practice of balancing hot and cold foods. Spindler and Schultz (1996) investigated dietary variety and ethnic food consumption among foreign born Chinese (FBC), Chinese-American (CA) (second and third generation Americans), and white American (WA) women using four day food journals for data collection and analysis. Participants ranged from 18 to 35 years of age and resided in the San Diego area of southern California. Results indicated that of the three groups, the CA women ate a significantly higher variety of foods and FBC ate a significantly lower variety. FBC women consumed a significantly lower variety of breads/cereals, dairy products, fats, and vegetables compared to the CA and WA women. CA women also demonstrated dietary acculturation through the reported consumption of not just ethnic Chinese foods, but significantly more other ethnic foods such as Mexican and Italian compared to FBC women. Lv and Cason (2004) found that Chinese immigrants in Pennsylvania increased their consumption frequency of Western foods and decreased their consumption frequency of typical Chinese foods (for example, bean sprouts, tofu, and duck meat), while Satia et al. (2001) found in their survey of Chinese American and Chinese Canadian women in Seattle, WA and Vancouver, BC that a majority had eaten tofu (96%) and a Chinese-style breakfast (66%) in the past month, but only 46% had eaten traditionally preserved foods (salted and preserved duck eggs would fall into this category). In addition, they found that two indicators of acculturation, media preference and age at immigration, were significantly associated with diet: Preference for Chinese media and an older age at immigration were associated with the maintenance of a traditional Chinese diet. Lv and Brown (2010) examined the impact of Western influences on family food systems of first generation Chinese Americans with at least one school age child. Results indicated that many families had adopted convenient American foods for breakfast but had retained Chinese foods for lunch and dinner. However, parents faced demands from their children for more Western foods, which they had learned to like in school. The father’s belief in the importance of Chinese dietary patterns had the most impact on its retention.  1.5.1.4  Other Consumer Studies of Ethnic Chinese in North America  There have been other consumer studies of ethnic Chinese in North America that can be considered complementary to the investigation of their food consumption habits. Yang (2010), using 16  snowball sampling and in-depth interviews, investigated the impact of acculturation on the dining out behaviour of Chinese immigrants in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), comparing recent immigrants to established immigrants. Measuring acculturation by age at immigration, length of residence in the GTA, and ethnic identification, Yang found that the more recent ethnic Chinese immigrants (less acculturated) dined out more frequently than established ethnic Chinese immigrants, self-identified more strongly as Chinese, and reported the highest level of ethnic Chinese food purchases. Immigrants who arrived in Canada at a young age had the highest level of acculturation. Ownbey and Horridge (1997), studied acculturation levels and shopping orientations of Asian American consumers (including Chinese Americans) via a random sample mail survey. Their results indicated significantly different responses by high and low acculturation groups to two of the shopping orientation subscales: Shopping sex roles and shopping opinion leadership. The low acculturation group was significantly more oriented to traditional sex roles in shopping (shopping is a woman’s responsibility). The high acculturation group was significantly less oriented to giving shopping advice and suggestions to others. Wang (2004) investigated Chinese immigrant consumer behaviour in Toronto, ON as well as Chinese immigrant grocery shopping behaviour (Wang & Lo, 2007). As part of the 2004 study, Wang used a random sample survey to measure strength of ethnic identity and other measures of acculturation, and their relationship to preference for shopping at ethnic Chinese supermarkets versus mainstream supermarkets and to preference for using ethnic Chinese travel agencies versus mainstream travel agencies. In reference to the supermarkets, overall 69% of respondents indicated an equal preference for Chinese and mainstream supermarkets, but 95% reported visiting at least one Chinese supermarket during their normal shopping trips. A significant positive relationship was found between ethnic identity and supermarket preference: High Chinese identity was associated with a stronger preference for Chinese supermarkets. Although Chinese immigrants who had a longer length of stay in a Western society showed weaker preferences for Chinese supermarkets, the association was not statistically significant. Out of a number of variables tested, Chinese ethnic identity was the strongest predictor of preference for Chinese supermarkets. In the 2007 article, Wang and Lo further expanded on immigrant Chinese grocery shopping behaviour in the GTA. Using results from preliminary focus groups and data from the 2004 survey, they found that Chinese immigrants in the GTA were willing to travel outside of their local areas in order to gain access to ethnic Chinese supermarkets. Furthermore, Chinese supermarkets were found to act as social and cultural spaces for Chinese immigrants, not just as functional sources for groceries. However, 17  using multinomial logistic regression analysis, only ethnic identity and age were significant predictors (p < 0.05) of preference for Chinese supermarkets over mainstream supermarkets: Strong ethnic Chinese identity and older age were associated with a preference for Chinese supermarkets. Relative accessibility only became a significant preference predictor at the p < 0.10 level (a strong preference for Chinese supermarkets was positively associated with better relative accessibility to Chinese stores).  1.5.1.5  Summary  This literature review has highlighted the lack of consumer research on duck and quail egg products in the Western literature. The review of ethnic food market studies has focused on studies of minority ethnic immigrant consumer markets for their traditional foods in a dominant host culture/society. The review has indicated that these studies used demographic and socio-economic data, as well as at least one indicator of acculturation, gathered by either quantitative (survey sampling; logistic and probit regression analysis, for example) or qualitative methods (depth interviews) and analysis to describe and/or model a particular ethnic consumer market for a food product(s). Many of these studies aimed to discover factors influencing consumption, or willingness to pay a premium, for an ethnic food product, for example years of stay, ethnic identity, age, household size, and income. The review of dietary acculturation studies has indicated that these studies aim to measure and/or describe changes in Chinese Canadian and Chinese American immigrants’ diets as they and their descendants adjust to living as a minority in their new dominant society/culture (in the context of the role diet plays in health). A variety of qualitative and quantitative methods and analyses were utilized. In particular, many of these studies have used correlational analysis to identify factors that are associated with changes in diet, such as length of stay in Canada or the United States, generation status, and language preference (all can be considered indicators of acculturation), and other social or demographic information such as age, education or income. The studies did not use a full scale acculturation index (see Sections 2.1.3.5) to measure acculturation. Satia et al. (2001) developed their own scale to measure dietary acculturation specifically. A measurement of acculturation has also been used in other consumer studies of ethnic Chinese in North America. In particular, Wang (2004) and Wang and Lo (2007) investigated Chinese immigrant consumer behaviour in Toronto, Canada, including grocery shopping behaviour. Chinese ethnic identity was the strongest predictor of preference for Chinese supermarkets. Again a variety of methods were used in other consumer studies of ethnic Chinese in North America, including in-depth interviews and a random sample mail survey. 18  1.5.2 The Duck and Quail Egg Industry in BC Although this study’s focus is on the consumer market for duck and quail eggs, a review of duck and quail egg industry information is helpful in order to provide potential (and current) duck and quail egg producers and processors the background context in which the current duck and quail egg consumer market exists and in which possible consumer market opportunities exist. Regulations, industry structure, and import/exports can all exert influence, directly or not, on the consumer market.  1.5.2.1  Regulatory environment  Jurisdiction over agriculture is shared between the federal and provincial governments in Canada. Whereas production of agriculture products is exclusively provincial jurisdiction, inter-provincial and international trade of agriculture products is under federal jurisdiction. Intra-provincial ‘trade’ is under provincial jurisdiction. Given this, the marketing of agricultural products falls under both provincial and federal jurisdiction (Milne, 2007). The regulatory framework for the production, distribution, and marketing of duck and quail eggs and egg products can sometimes be confusing, especially when most regulations refer to and define eggs as being from chickens.  1.5.2.1.1  Supply Management  Unlike the mainstream poultry species of chicken and turkey, waterfowl (duck) and game bird (quail) production for meat or eggs is not subject to supply management system regulations as set out under the Agricultural Products Marketing Act, Farm Products Agencies Act, and in BC, the Natural Products Marketing (BC) Act (Gaumond, 2007; Stevens, 2011). The purpose of the Natural Products Marketing (BC) Act (NPMA) according to Section 2 (1) of the online version (1996, c. 330) is to: “…provide for the promotion, control and regulation of the production, transportation, packing, storage and marketing of natural products in BC, including prohibition of all or part of that production, transportation, packing, storage and marketing.” Currently, there are eight marketing boards or schemes in BC regulating chickens, table eggs (from chickens), broiler hatching eggs, turkeys, hogs, cranberries, vegetables, and milk. These supply management systems regulate domestic production and limit imports. Production is limited through a quota licensing system, in which production is matched to demand. The aim of the system is to stabilize the markets, provide consumers with a steady supply of quality product at a reasonable price, and provide producers with stable, fair returns. The advantages to producers are considerable, however they 19  arguably come at a cost to the consumer (a less competitive market) and especially to potential new entrants who are either unable to access quota or cannot afford the quota purchase price. The waterfowl and game bird industries are not part of a supply management system and thus operate in free markets. This removes a major regulatory barrier to entry for producers interested in these markets and allows producers to set their own production levels and respond quickly to market needs and changes. However, it also exposes producers to market volatility, competition from imports, and, especially, a lack of marketing power and support. Producers are responsible for marketing their products themselves. Attempts have been made by alternative poultry producers in BC to work together to further their interests, for example via the BC Specialty Bird Producer Association, but membership in the Association is voluntary and it holds no regulatory power.  1.5.2.1.2  Production and Processing Regulations  Duck and quail eggs and egg products are not defined as eggs within the federal Egg Regulations and Processed Egg Regulations and thus are technically not subject to those regulations. The BC Agriculture Produce Grading Act covers egg products, shell egg grading, and live, dressed, and eviscerated poultry regulations, among others. Duck and quail eggs and egg products are also not subject to these regulations. This means that fresh quail egg producers (or any fresh duck egg producers) do not have to get their eggs graded and therefore do not have to send their eggs to a registered egg grading or processing station. They may sell their eggs through various marketing channels (see Section 1.5.2.2). Duck and quail egg producers and processors may be subject, as applicable, to federal Food and Drugs Act and Regulations (including nutrition content claims and labelling and health claims), Canada Agricultural Products Act, Consumer Packaging and Labelling Act (for example packaging material and label languages and content), and Health of Animals Act and Regulations (disease and toxic substances control), and Organic Products Regulations (and Standards). Relevant provincial regulations include the Agricultural Land Commission Act (regulates on farm processing and retailing within BC); Farm Practices Protection (Right to Farm) Act (normal farm practices and dispute resolution re local bylaws or complaints), Food Products Standards Act, Meat Inspection Act (if spent birds are sold for meat); Food Safety Act; and Public Health Act Food Premises Regulations. On-farm processing of products is allowed in BC as long as at least 50% of the product being processed comes from the farm doing the processing (Strengthening farming, right to farm: Farm practices, 2004). Within provincial Agricultural Land Reserve areas, the Agricultural Land Commission 20  regulates the types of retail activities that may be carried out on a farm, places restrictions on the retail sales of products grown off the farm site as well as on the size of the area that can be used to sell any off-farm products (Strengthening farming, right to farm: Direct farm marketing, 2004; Strengthening farming, right to farm: Farm practices, 2004).  1.5.2.1.3  Import/export Regulations  Although the international export of duck and quail eggs is not specifically subject to the Egg Regulations for table eggs, they may still be subject to any requirements set forth by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) or by destination countries (such as export inspection certificates). Imports are regulated by the CFIA, and the Canadian Border Services Agency (CBSA) is responsible for ensuring imports meet regulations. According to the CFIA’s Automated Import Reference System (AIRS), http://airssari.inspection.gc.ca/Airs_External/Decisions.aspx?lang=1, import regulations for salted and preserved duck eggs and frozen duck egg yolks are country specific and may stipulate certain manufacturing processes. In addition, imports must meet the Food and Drug Act and Regulations and applicable Consumer Packaging and Labelling Act and Regulations. There are no tariffs on imports of salted and preserved duck eggs. In general, imports from Asia of salted and preserved duck eggs and salted, frozen duck egg yolks are subject to these specific import regulations as given for China, which are paraphrased from (AIRS) 4: 1. Egg products must be accompanied by a Zoosanitary Export Certificate of Processing, signed by a government official from the country of origin that (among others)   Describes quantity and type of eggs    Verifies that eggs are from flocks free from specified diseases and plagues    Verifies that eggs have been inspected and free from dirt prior to processing    Verifies that eggs have been candled, are free of blood clots/spots, and are non-embryonated or come from farms without roosters present    Verifies that eggs have either been soaked in a water, tea leaf, salt, quick lime and alkali solution for at least 45 days or encased in a soil-free coating of rice-straw, ash, water, and salt for at least 30 days  4  Using HS code 040790 with OGD extension 0286 or 0287, origins Asia and China, and end use human consumption.  21    Verifies that frozen salted duck egg yolks have been prepared in accordance to the requirements for whole salted duck eggs  2. Egg products must comply with the requirements of all applicable Canadian legislation (Consumer Packaging and Labelling Act and Regulations, for example) 3. Importers should follow specified standards and guidelines related to food safety and labelling in Canada Currently, fresh quail eggs are approved for importation from countries that are considered free of serious avian diseases by the CFIA. They must be accompanied by a Zoosanitary Export Certificate of Origin and must comply with the requirements of all applicable Canadian legislation. Fresh quail eggs may be imported into Canada without tariff. (Cooked, canned commercially sterile quail eggs are generally considered safe and free from avian diseases and although imports from producing countries may be subject to inspection, they are generally quickly cleared into Canada.) In the United States, imports of salted and preserved (and balut) duck egg products are not subject to inspection or grading by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Safety and Inspection Service, but imports may be subject to other USDA and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations (http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Regulations_&_Policies/Importing_Egg_Products_&_Shell_Eggs/index.asp). Note that in the United States, unlike Canada, egg means the shell egg of the domesticated chicken, turkey, duck, goose, or guinea (quail is not part of this definition) (http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/cfr_2002/janqtr/9cfr590.5.htm). With regard to inter-provincial trade, BC has also signed the BC-Alberta Trade, Investment and Labour Mobility Agreement (www.tilma.ca) and the subsequent New West Partnership Agreement (www.newwestpartnershiptrade.ca) with Alberta and Saskatchewan. These agreements encompass agricultural products and provide that goods from signatory provinces must be treated in a nondiscriminatory way.  22  1.5.2.2  Industry Structure  In the absence of supply management systems, the structure of the duck and quail egg industry can thus be described as comparatively ‘loose’ with respect to marketing the products. Individual producers and processors must find their own markets and producers have the option to sell their eggs through multiple channels which are indicated in Figure 1.2.  Farmers  Importers  Processors  Farm gate Farmers’ market Wholesalers/ Distributors  Restaurants / Retailers  Consumers  Figure 1.2 Structure of available marketing channels for duck and quail egg products in BC. Green indicates primary channels; red indicates import channels  In reality, due to the smaller nature of the market for duck and quail eggs and egg products in comparison to table eggs, producers face limited options for marketing their eggs (i.e. few distributors), unless they are willing to vertically integrate or take on some aspects of marketing their eggs themselves. These limited options mean that producers and processors do not have market power and essentially must take the price offered by distributors. If the direct to retailer approach is taken, the producer or processor also does not hold market power, since the retailer controls access to shelf space,  23  the market is relatively small, and it is common practice in the grocery trade for suppliers to have to pay for access to shelf space at large supermarkets. Competitive forces in the industry can be considered as strong. There are no regulatory barriers to entry such as in supply managed sectors, and imports of processed duck and quail egg products are not currently restricted nor subject to tariffs. The Canadian and BC markets for processed duck and quail egg products are dominated by imports from Asia that hold economy of scale production advantages and a low cost labour advantage. Furthermore, inter-provincial competition is a threat (see Section 1.5.2.4). Input costs are considered high in BC (Kermode, 1997; View West Marketing Inc. & Zbeetnoff Agro-Environmental Consulting, 2002). Feeds are all imported (though they may be mixed in BC) and subject to increasing transportation costs. Despite the relatively weak position of the duck and quail egg industry in BC, previous reports have all noted its potential due to the growing ethnic population (Paulson, Nichols, & Cheng, 1989; Kermode, 1997; View West Marketing Inc. & Zbeetnoff Agro-Environmental Consulting, 2002). This potential may now be aided by a growing overall demand for local food products. Furthermore, the price of oil has increased in the past decade and is projected to increase further: Higher transportation costs may reduce or eliminate the competitive advantage imports enjoy due to economies of scale production and lower labour costs.  1.5.2.3  The Duck Egg Industry  The duck egg industry in Canada and BC suffers from a lack of publicly available industry information or statistics. The 2006 Census of Agriculture data indicates that there were 5,483 farms in Canada reporting 5,140,628 ‘other’ poultry birds on their farms on census day (Statistics Canada, 2006). ‘Other’ poultry birds may include ducks, geese, quails, squabs (pigeons), tinamous, emus, ostriches, and pheasants. A 2007 Agriculture and Agri Food Canada profile of the duck industry in Canada (Gaumond) reported the total number of ducks in Canada at the 2006 census date was 1,087,945, for a 21% share of the other poultry bird census numbers. The percent distribution of numbers of ducks on farms in Canada by province is shown in Figure 1.3.  24  10.8  5.4 48.1  12.5  Ontario Quebec BC  23.2  Alberta Other  Figure 1.3 Percentage share of number of ducks on farms in Canada by province, 2006.* *This may include geese, if farmers did not separate ducks from geese when reporting  Source: Census of Agriculture, 2006 (as cited in Gaumond, 2007) Gaumond’s report also noted that the total number of ducks decreased in Quebec and Ontario in 2006 compared to previous years, but the numbers of ducks in Western Canada continued to increase. The number of ducks on BC farms in 2006 was 135,929 on 463 farms (Gaumond, 2007). Unfortunately, there is no data available on the number of duck layers and on duck egg production in Canada. The two major layer breeds are the Khaki Campbell, which can lay an average of 300 eggs per year, and the Indian Runner, which can produce approximately 250 eggs per year (Scottish Agriculture College, 2008). Peking and Muscovy are the two main duck breeds raised for their meat. In BC there is a large duck meat producer who also produces duck eggs for hatching and, as a side venture, balut duck eggs for local and export markets, the export markets primarily being Washington State and California. The baluts are sold to an independent distributor, who supplies retailers in Metro Vancouver and the Fraser Valley area of BC (personal communication with producer’s sales manager, 2009; names withheld to maintain confidentiality). In general, the duck egg industry in BC is not highly developed and there are no commercial salted and preserved duck egg processors in the province. Fresh duck egg production in BC appears to be by small flock operators and hobby farmers, who then sell the eggs directly to consumers or restaurants/hotels as specialty items. In my visits to Chinese retailers in Vancouver’s Chinatown, I initially did not find any retailers selling fresh duck eggs. However, eventually one retailer told me that another store sold fresh duck eggs and upon visiting that store, fresh duck eggs appeared to be for sale; 25  however the staff insisted that the eggs were jumbo-sized chicken eggs. I found fresh, uncooked salted duck eggs for sale at Vancouver area Filipino grocery stores (i.e. not imported from overseas), but staff would not reveal their origin. Although salted or preserved duck eggs are not commercially produced in BC, there is a producer in Alberta making duck baluts and salted duck eggs, marketing them as Treat™ brand products, and shipping them to BC. This producer/processor contracts with smaller producers for a steady supply of eggs. Treat™ brand baluts and salted duck eggs can be found in BC in T&T Supermarkets as well as in independent Chinese, Filipino, and Vietnamese grocery retailers, where they are sold individually. The volume and value of sales of Treat™ brand duck egg products is proprietary and unknown, as are sales data from T&T Supermarkets, Real Canadian Superstores, and independent Asian grocers. AC Nielsen does not track or provide aggregate data for duck and quail egg product sales. The majority of the salted and preserved duck egg market in BC, however, is still served by imports primarily from Asia.  1.5.2.4  The Quail Egg Industry  Quail are classified as game birds and are raised for their meat and eggs, which are traditional foods in Asian and some European cuisines. With the growth of Asian and ethnic populations in Metro Vancouver, there should be a ready market for quail eggs. However, a previous study by Paulson, Nichols, and Cheng (1989) indicated potential growth but weaknesses in marketing and industry structure. Producers, government, and universities started to work together to develop the industry in BC. Unfortunately, official statistics for the quail egg industry in BC or in Canada are not available due to the small size of the industry and confidentiality issues. Most industry and market information is proprietary. However, in her unpublished MSc thesis, Kermode’s (1997) provincial survey of game bird producers indicated that quail meat and eggs were primarily raised and marketed for/to Chinese retail and restaurant establishments. There are no indications today that this has changed in BC, although fresh quail eggs can be found in some specialty European stores, such as Greek grocery stores. The majority of the market is found in the ethnic Chinese sector. Kermode found that in BC, farm size ranged from five to ten acres and that in 1994 there were two producers of quail eggs, producing approximately 451,250 eggs annually, and one producer for meat. She also noted that Ontario and Quebec produced large numbers of quail, with Quebec producing the greatest numbers, primarily for the meat market. Today in BC, there are three commercial quail egg producers in the Lower Mainland of BC (one large and two small); total annual production is unknown, 26  but was estimated at over 3,000,000 eggs in a 2002 market report (View West Marketing Inc., & Zbeetnoff Agro-Environmental Consulting). This represents an 85% increase in production over seven years. The 2002 report also noted that pickled quail eggs were a potential product for growth. According to Kermode, in 1994 producers were paid $0.07 per quail egg by wholesalers; the value of product was estimated at $49,638 in 1994, $31,588 wholesale and $46,930 retail; annual compound growth rates of 5% were expected from 1994 to 1997. Trade statistics for quail eggs are not available. The market for the fresh quail eggs is local and they are sold in packages of 24 through a few distributors (two, primarily, located in the Lower Mainland in close proximity to the large Metro Vancouver market) to retailers, restaurants, hotels, and in small volumes to consumers directly at their premises. As noted previously, producers may sell them directly to consumers, restaurants, grocery stores, or specialty poultry stores. Fresh and pickled are the most popular ways to eat these eggs. However, according to the 2002 market report, there is no evidence of a pickling processor in BC (View West Marketing Inc., & Zbeetnoff Agro-Environmental Consulting), nor in Canada (personal observation/research). The pickled and other processed quail egg market appears to be served by imports, imported directly by the large supermarket chains, Asian grocery wholesalers or distributors.  27  1.5.2.5  Trade Data  1.5.2.5.1  Imports of Salted and Preserved Duck Eggs  The exact value and volume of imported salted and preserved duck eggs is unknown because import data is aggregated for these egg products, under the “eggs, bird, in shell, n.e.s, preserved or cooked” category (‘n.e.s’ means not elsewhere specified and is a catch-all for eggs and egg products from species other than chickens or turkeys, and excludes any hatching eggs). Theoretically, data in this category could refer to eggs from ducks, geese, quail, or partridge, for example. Nevertheless, given the great popularity of the duck egg products, in the following Figure 1.4, it can be assumed that the  1,600,000  80.0  1,400,000  70.0  1,200,000  60.0  1,000,000  50.0  800,000  40.0  600,000  30.0  400,000  20.0  200,000  10.0 2009  2008  2007  2006  2005  2004  2003  2002  2001  2000  1999  1998  1997  1996  0.0 1995  0  Percentage  Dozens  majority of these egg imports are either salted or preserved duck eggs.  Year of import BC  Canada  BC % market share  Figure 1.4 Annual imports from Asia of bird eggs, in shell, n.e.s, preserved or cooked, in number of dozens for Canada and BC, with BC percentage of total Canada import volume market share  Source: Derived from Statistics Canada International Trade Division (2010)  The volume of imports into Canada and BC has fluctuated over the 15 year period from 1995 to 2009, but the general trend indicates a slight rise in total volume into Canada. In contrast, BC’s share of import volume has declined from approximately 71% to 54% over the same time period. The 15 year average for total imports into Canada was 1,304,091 dozen eggs per year and BC’s average imports per year was 745,034 dozen eggs or 57% of total imports. Imports into a province do not necessarily stay in 28  that province and may be transported to other parts of Canada, but given the large numbers of Chinese Canadians in BC, it may be safe to assume that the majority of imports to BC remain in BC. In terms of the dollar value of imports into Canada, BC’s share dropped from 71% in 1995 to 56% in 2009, as shown in Figure 1.5. In 2009 the value of imports into BC was $1,526,228 CAD and the total value into Canada was $2,743,523 CAD. The average annual value (in nominal terms) of imports into Canada from 1995 to 2009 was $2,458,014 CAD.  2009  1995 2% 27%  44% 56% 71%  BC  Ontario  Other  BC  Ontario  Figure 1.5 Percentage share of $CAD value of imports of bird eggs, in shell, n.e.s, preserved or cooked, by province of import and year  Source: Calculated from Statistics Canada International Trade Division (2010)  29  Figure 1.6 indicates that, overall, the numbers of ethnic Chinese were growing at a faster rate from 1996 to 2006 in Canada as a whole compared to in BC, and the growth of imports in Canada was growing at a slower rate compared to the ethnic Chinese population.  1600000 1400000  Number  1200000 1000000 800000 600000  400000 200000 0 1996  2001  2006  2009  Year No. of ethnic Chinese in Canada  No. of ethnic Chinese in BC  No. of dozens imported into BC  No. of dozens imported into Canada  Figure 1.6 Comparison of the ethnic Chinese population to the number of dozens of imports of bird eggs, in shell, n.e.s, preserved or cooked, for Canada and BC, 1996 to 2009  Source: Calculated from Statistics Canada International Trade Division (2010)  30  Figure 1.7 compares the percentage share of imports (by volume of eggs) into Canada and BC by country of origin in 1995 and 2009. In 1995 ‘Others’ consisted of imports from Thailand and Vietnam. By 2009 China, Taiwan, and Thailand had all gained market share at the expense of Hong Kong and Vietnam.  Canada 1995 2.65  Canada 2009 0.54  0.39  5.92  8.23  91.04  China  Hong Kong  Taiwan  91.23  Others  BC 1995 1.99  China  3.53  0.45  Taiwan  Thailand  BC 2009  4.54  93.02  China  Hong Kong  Taiwan  96.47  Others  China  Taiwan  Figure 1.7 Percentage share of import volume (dozens of eggs) into Canada and BC by country of origin, for eggs, bird, in shell, n.e.s, preserved or cooked, 1995 and 2009  Source: Calculated from Statistics Canada International Trade Division (2010)  31  Comparing the percentage share of the value of imports by country of origin, Figure 1.8 shows that China and Taiwan have gained share over other East Asian or Southeast Asian countries between 1995 and 2009.  Canada 1995 6.5  5.6  BC 1995  0.5  4.36  3.88  0.52  87.4 China  Hong Kong  Taiwan  91.24 Others  Canada 2009 13.58  China  Hong Kong  Taiwan  BC 2009  0.33  7.41  86.09  China  Taiwan  Thailand  Thailand  92.59 China  Taiwan  Figure 1.8 Percentage share of import values ($CAD) by country of origin for eggs, bird, in shell, n.e.s, preserved or cooked, 1995 and 2009 for Canada and BC  Source: Calculated from Statistics Canada International Trade Division (2010) Comparing the volume to value data (Figure 1.7 to Figure 1.8), China’s exports to Canada (and BC) have a higher percentage of the market share by volume than by value. This may indicate either a lower cost of production or other countries may be able to charge a premium for their eggs (or both). For Canada in 2010, the total value of imported bird eggs, in shell, n.e.s, preserved or cooked was $2,708,657CAD; $3,216,368CAD in 2011 (Table 1.3, below). Statistics indicate that the top importers increased their market concentration from 2010 to 2011. In 2010 and 2011, three of the top importers were located in Metro Vancouver and the remaining in Ontario, in or close to the GTA. Two of the top Canadian importers were supermarket chains, Loblaw Inc. and T&T Supermarket Inc. (now owned by 32  Loblaw). The remaining importers were trading companies or food wholesalers. At the time of writing, further detailed information for 2010 or 2011 at the ten-digit HS Code level was not available. Table 1.3 Value of imports and market concentration, eggs, bird, in shell, n.e.s, preserved/cooked, 2010-2011 for Canada Number of Import Value Cumulative % of importers 2010 ($CAD) total imports 2010 3 1,252,235 46 6 1,760,891 65 8 10 2,144,751 79 All 2,708,657 100 Source: Industry Canada, Canadian Importers Database http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/cid-dic.nsf/eng/home  Import Value 2011 ($CAD) 1,662,520 2,499,707 3,216,368  Cumulative % of total imports 2011 52 78 100.00  Examples of imported brands include the following brands from China, imported by Canda Six Fortune Enterprise Co.: Six Fortune, Ever Growth, AS, and Len Xiang; Canda also imports NN preserved duck eggs from Taiwan (http://www.canda.ca/productsummary.aspx). Preserved and salted duck eggs are generally imported in cases of 24 packages, with 6 eggs per package, although jars of salted duck eggs are available at 9 eggs per jar and 12 jars per case. Hard and soft yolk preserved duck eggs, salted duck eggs and cooked salted duck eggs are available. Imported frozen salted duck egg yolks are also available in BC (data not shown).  1.5.2.5.2  Imports of Quail Eggs  At the time of writing, fresh quail eggs are not imported into BC or Canada. Import data for Canada, specific to only fresh quail eggs is not available, but data for the general category “eggs, bird, in shell, n.e.s, fresh” would include quail eggs, and the last record of import for that category was in 2006 when 1200 dozen worth $1,612 CAD were imported into Quebec from China. (For processed quail eggs, it appears that canned quail eggs may be imported under HS code 040899 bird eggs not in shell – except dried. According to the Canadian Importers Database, in 2010 the total value of imports into Canada was $269,326 CAD and Thailand was the country of origin.)  33  1.5.3 Demographics of Chinese Canadians in Metro Vancouver, BC 1.5.3.1  Definitions  For the purposes of my study, there are two relevant definitions that Statistics Canada uses when gathering population statistics: Ethnic origin and visible minority status. Ethnic origin refers to the ethnic or cultural origin(s) of a person’s ancestors, usually more distant than a grandparent (Statistics Canada, 2007a). This differs from visible minority status, which is defined as a person who is nonCaucasian in race or non-white in colour, but specifically excludes Aboriginals (Statistics Canada, 2007b). Just like the Canadian Census, I allowed survey respondents to self-select that they were of Chinese ethnic ancestry. I did not provide a specific definition for Chinese ethnic ancestry. When I refer to Chinese Canadians, I am referring to people who reside in Canada and whose ethnic origins are self-defined as Chinese (whether from China or elsewhere). The ethnic origin definition was used because it is broader in scope (doesn’t rely on race alone) and by definition incorporates the idea of Chinese cultural customs and norms. This is important because dietary preferences, food habits, and rituals are strongly identified with culture. As noted by Chang (1997) in his introduction to Food in Chinese Culture, eating food is not just a chemical process, but a cultural one too, and “people of different backgrounds eat very differently” (p.3). Cultures are dynamic, however, and so too are food preferences, habits, and rituals.  1.5.3.2  A Brief History of Chinese Immigration to BC  Chinese immigration to BC (and Canada) has a long history dating back to the gold rush days in BC in the late 1850s and the building of the Canadian Pacific Railway from 1881 to 1884. The discriminatory, restrictive Chinese head tax introduced in 1885 and the Exclusion Act of 1923 choked off Chinese immigration to Canada until the repeal of the Exclusion Act in 1947. As Figure 1.9 indicates, however, it wasn’t until the late 1960s when Canadian immigration rules became universal in application, and based on a points system, that large numbers of ethnic Chinese began migrating to Canada and BC (“Across the generations,” n.d.; Tan & Roy, 1985; Li, 2005).  34  1200000  Number  1000000 800000 Canada  600000  BC  400000  Metro Vancouver 200000  0 1971 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006 Census year  Figure 1.9 Ethnic Chinese population counts, single ethnicity, Census years 1971 – 2006  Produced from Statistics Canada Census data 1971 – 2006 (Basavarajappa & Ram, 1983)  Initially, small numbers of Chinese immigrants to Canada arrived under family reunification rules and policies, and many Chinese migrated to urban Chinatowns in larger Canadian cities such as Toronto and Vancouver. Most were working class. However, with the adoption of the points-based system in the late 1960s, which encouraged independent and/or economic migrants, larger numbers of Chinese began to arrive. Between 1968 and 1994 over 500,000 ethnic Chinese immigrated to Canada, of which 68% were from the (now) Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China (hereinafter Hong Kong) and 22% from the People’s Republic of China (hereinafter mainland China or China), and the remainder from Taiwan (a disputed territory officially known as the Republic of China by Taiwanese or as the Province of Taiwan by the People’s Republic of China) and other Asian countries or areas (Li, 2005). Immigration patterns have changed over the years: Family reunification migrants have given way to independent and economic migrants (including entrepreneurs under the Canadian Business Immigration Program), attracting middle class, educated, urban Chinese, the majority of whom now arrive from China, not Hong Kong (Li, 2005). Most Chinese immigrants now settle in suburban areas, such as Markham, northwest of Toronto, and Richmond, in Greater Vancouver, or in other more affluent areas of cities, avoiding Chinatowns. Ethnic Chinese Canadians, therefore, come from different political, economic, and social/cultural backgrounds (Wang & Lo, 2005). Today, Chinese is the largest non-British Isles or non-European ethnic origin group in Canada, BC, and Metro Vancouver (excluding the “Canadian” category) (Statistics Canada, 2010a). In Canada, the majority of ethnic Chinese are located in two provinces, Ontario (47.9%) and BC (32.1%), and 35  within two cities, Toronto (39.9%) and Vancouver (29.8%). Metro Vancouver accounts for 93% of the ethnic Chinese population in BC and 19% of Metro Vancouver’s population is from an ethnic Chinese background. All figures above include both single and multiple ethnic origin responses (for example Chinese-Irish or Chinese-Canadian) and are derived from 2006 Census data (Statistics Canada, 2010a; Statistics Canada 2010d). After English and French, Chinese languages are the third largest mother tongue group in Canada (http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2006/rt-td/lngeng.cfm#note1).  1.5.3.3  Generation Status, Period of Immigration, and Citizenship Status  According to 2006 census data (Statistics Canada, 2010b), in Metro Vancouver most ethnic Chinese are immigrants and have become Canadian citizens. Of ethnic Chinese 15 years and older, 84.8% in Metro Vancouver are first generation Canadians (immigrants), compared to 47.2% in the general (Metro Vancouver, 15 years +) population; 13.2% are second generation (born in Canada) compared to 21.3% in the general population; and 2.0% are third generation or more (born in Canada and at least one parent born in Canada), compared to 31.5% in the general population. In total, taking into account all age groups, there were 294,600 ethnic Chinese immigrants in Metro Vancouver in 2006. As seen in Figure 1.10, the peak years of immigration were in the 1990s when over 130,000 or 44.7% of total ethnic Chinese immigrants arrived. Between 2001 and 2006, arrivals decreased by 16.4% compared to the previous census period. The majority, 83.1%, are Canadian citizens, 14.9% are landed immigrants and 1.9% are non-permanent residents.  36  120,000  Number  100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 0 Before 1991  1991 to 1995  1996 to 2000  2001 to 2006  Years of arrival  Figure 1.10 Number of ethnic Chinese immigrants by period of immigration, Metro Vancouver  Source: Statistics Canada (2010b)  1.5.3.4  Place of Birth and Mother Tongue  The majority of ethnic Chinese immigrants in Metro Vancouver are from East Asia, primarily mainland China and Hong Kong:  3.1 12.4  P.R. of China 46.3  12.9  Hong Kong SAR Other East Asia Southeast Asia  25.3  Other  Figure 1.11 Place of birth of ethnic Chinese immigrants in Metro Vancouver (%), 2006  Source: Statistics Canada (2010b)  37  Percentage distribution of mother tongues is shown in Figure 1.12. In 2006, over 393,600 ethnic Chinese in Metro Vancouver reported a single mother tongue. Cantonese was the dominant mother tongue, accounting for 125,940 people, followed by Chinese (not specified) at 120,205, Mandarin at 69,265 and English at 62,970 (BC Stats, n.d.; Statistics Canada, 2010b).  3.9  16.0  32.0  Cantonese Chinese, not specified Mandarin  17.6  English Other 30.5  Figure 1.12 Ethnic Chinese population mother tongues, single language responses only, Metro Vancouver, 2006  Derived from: BC Stats (n.d.) and Statistics Canada (2010b)  38  1.5.3.5  Age Groups  Figure 1.13 indicates that the ethnic Chinese population in Metro Vancouver follows a similar distribution pattern to the total population for the region, but there are greater numbers of ethnic Chinese in the 40 – 49 year age group and less in the 19 years and younger group.  25  Percentage %  20  15 Total population 10  Ethnic Chinese  5  0 ≤ 19  20-29  30-39  40-49  50-59  60-69  70+  Age group in years  Figure 1.13 Percentage age group distributions in Metro Vancouver 2006, ethnic Chinese vs. total population  Source: Statistics Canada (2010c)  39  1.5.3.6  Highest Level of Education Achieved  Figure 1.14 compares the education levels of the total population to the ethnic Chinese population in Metro Vancouver. Of the Metro Vancouver ethnic Chinese population 15 years and older, 20.1% did not have a high school diploma, 25.7% had a high school diploma or equivalent, 24.3% had an apprenticeship, college, or university below bachelor level diploma or certificate, and 29.9% had achieved a bachelor degree or higher. Overall, greater percentages of ethnic Chinese had achieved a university diploma or university undergraduate degree or higher, compared to the total population.  35.0 30.0  Percentage  25.0  20.0 15.0 10.0 Total Population  5.0  Ethnic Chinese  0.0  Highest level of education achieved  Figure 1.14 Highest level of education achieved, Metro Vancouver 2006, ethnic Chinese vs. total population  Source: Statistics Canada (2010b)  40  1.5.3.7  Household Income  Table 1.4 provides the percentage distribution of individuals of ethnic Chinese origin in Metro Vancouver by total annual household income. For the Metro Vancouver population as a whole, median family income in 2005 was $64,332 and median income for all private households was $55,231 (Statistics Canada, 2007c). Table 1.4 Percentage distribution of ethnic Chinese by total annual household income, Metro Vancouver, 2005 Percentage of ethnic Chinese Total annual household income  in Metro Vancouver  Below $20,000  15.5  $20,000 – $39,999  21.8  $40,000 - $59,999  18.4  $60,000 - $79,999  13.1  $80,000 - $99,999  9.7  $100,000 or more  21.5  Source: Statistics Canada (2007c)  1.5.3.8  Multiple Ethnicities  Immigrants to Canada are less likely to report multiple ethnic origins than individuals born in Canada (Statistics Canada, 2008). With a majority of Metro Vancouver ethnic Chinese born outside of Canada it is not surprising that only 11.2% (45,150) of ethnic Chinese in Metro Vancouver reported a multiple ethnic ancestry in the 2006 Census (Statistics Canada, 2010a). In the more restrictive terms of visible minority groups in Canada, the Chinese visible minority group is less likely to be of mixed origin than other visible minority groups, with the exception of the Korean visible minority group: Only 7% of Chinese visible minorities in Canada are of multiple ethnic origins (3.7% for Korean visible minorities) (Statistics Canada, 2008).  41  1.5.4 Summary Although there are no previous studies in the literature for the consumer market for duck and quail egg products, other ethnic food market studies, dietary acculturation studies, and other consumer studies of ethnic Chinese in North America, provide a context for my study and confirm that my study approach (see Chapter Two, methodology) is not without precedent. Previous research into the duck and quail industry in BC revealed that it is small and that some aspects of the industry are fragmented (for example, hobby farm/backyard flocks for duck eggs), or concentrated on the restaurant trade (quail eggs). Although the industry suffers from weak market power and faces competition from imports, there may be opportunities to exploit the consumer market in the large and growing Chinese Canadian population in Metro Vancouver. The overall purpose of my research is to utilize mixed method research design and advanced statistical analysis to develop a profile of the Chinese Canadian consumer market in Vancouver for duck and quail egg products, and to provide current or future producers and/or processors with relevant consumer market information, including an analysis of potential market opportunities.  42  2 METHODOLOGY 2.1 Methodology Review 2.1.1 Mixed Methods Research Mixed methods research utilizes both qualitative and quantitative data gathering methods to study a topic. According to Creswell and Plano Clark (2007), using both methods in one study is not new, but specifically creating a research design that puts and mixes both methods together into a comprehensive whole only began to emerge in the mid to late 1990s. Mixed methods research is a pragmatic approach to research, encouraging the use of the most appropriate mixture of qualitative and quantitative research tools to investigate, analyze, and answer a research question. The mixed method overcomes many of the individual weaknesses of using each method on its own, it produces more thorough and robust data for addressing a research problem, it can allow for the use of more than one worldview, and it allows for the use of both inductive and deductive reasoning (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007). Use of both methods can provide a more complete picture when it is thought that one method alone cannot give enough evidence to answer a problem, or when it is suspected that results from one method may be contradicted by data from another method. Another appropriate use of mixed methods is to fill in gaps to improve a study with a second source of data, to explain quantitative results, or to first explore qualitatively (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007). However, the thoroughness and information gained from a mixed methods design comes at the expense of the extra time and cost involved. Many mixed methods designs exist in the literature, with Tashakkori and Teddlie (2003) finding almost 40 distinct designs. For brevity and the purposes of this thesis, I will summarize four major mixed methods designs as identified by Creswell and Plano Clark (2007): Triangulation, embedded, explanatory, and exploratory.  43  There are variations, but in general triangulation employs the quantitative and qualitative methods during the same time period, with equal weight, and is used to directly compare and contrast the findings from each method or to validate or flesh out quantitative results with qualitative data. The embedded design uses one method (for example, quantitative) to provide a secondary set of data to support research based on the other method (for example, qualitative) and is used most often when a research question within the larger study is best studied using the secondary method. The secondary method is embedded in the research design of the primary method and can be executed using a one phase or two phase approach. In an explanatory design a sequential two phase process is utilized with a quantitative study deployed first, followed by a qualitative study directly linked to the results of the first study. The second phase is used to further explain the results of the initial phase. More weight is usually placed on the first quantitative stage. The exploratory mixed method is a two phase design, with an initial qualitative study that is then used to help shape and develop a following quantitative study. There are two variants of the exploratory design: The taxonomy development design and the instrument development design. In the taxonomy development design, the initial qualitative study is used to identify variables and create a classification system, or to explore and expand on a new theory. The second quantitative stage takes the results and formulates research questions or hypotheses that examine and expand on the results of the qualitative phase. In the instrument development design, a qualitative study is undertaken in order for the researcher to learn more about the study topic, the language and words used by participants, and the importance or not of possible questions and topics, in order to develop a relevant quantitative survey. The quantitative survey instrument is then used to probe the study problem further. More weight is placed on the quantitative phase.  44  2.1.1.1  Method Selected  Other studies that have used a mixed methods design include Satia et al.’s (2001) use of individual interviews and focus groups to develop a quantitative survey of Chinese American and Chinese Canadian women’s food consumption habits and dietary acculturation; and, Wang and Lo’s (2007) study of Chinese immigrant grocery shopping behaviour, which involved preliminary focus groups followed by a randomized consumer survey. Prior to commencing research, I knew very little about specialty duck and quail eggs. Also, my ethnic ancestry is Irish and Scottish, not Chinese. Given my status as an ‘outsider’ to Chinese Canadian culture I decided that for exploratory, background information purposes, to help me gain an understanding of how the ethnic Chinese in Vancouver view these egg products, and to assist in the design of the survey questionnaire, some qualitative research was needed. Qualitative research would provide me with ‘insider’ or emic 5 information. It would provide an opportunity for Chinese Canadians to express their thoughts, beliefs, and attitudes towards the products, in their own words. Such insider information complements quantitative data. A mixed methods approach, which utilizes both qualitative and quantitative research methods, was warranted. Therefore a two phase exploratory (instrument development) design was chosen: Qualitative, exploratory research, followed by a random quantitative survey. The weight of my research is placed on the second, quantitative phase. A diagram of the research design and stages is provided in Figure 2.1.  5  Emic: Of, relating to, or involving analysis of cultural phenomena from the perspective of one who participates in the culture being studied (http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/emic )  45  qual data collection  qual data analysis  qual results  Quan data collection  Quan data analysis  Procedure: focus groups  Procedure: descriptive content analysis  Procedure: interpretation and descripttion  Procedure: random mail survey  Procedure: SPSS data analysis  qual + Quan results  Final conclusions  Procedure: compare and contrast  Procedure: final interpretation  Quan results Procedure: Interpretation of data  qual = qualitative research (small q represents less research emphasis on this stage) Quan = quantitative research (capital Q represents more research emphasis is on this stage)  Figure 2.1 Diagram of this study's mixed methods research design  46  2.1.2 Qualitative Research Design 2.1.2.1  Qualitative Research Objectives  The objectives of the qualitative research stage were to: 1.  Familiarize myself with how the duck and quail egg products are used and perceived by Chinese Canadians  2.  Explore and compare product use and attitudes between ethnic Chinese immigrants and people born in Canada from an ethnic Chinese ancestry  3.  Gain specific information on shopping behaviour: Frequency of purchase, where purchased, and price considerations, for example  4.  2.1.2.2  Use the results of the research to help inform the design of the quantitative survey to follow  Method Review and Selection  I consulted Malhotra’s (2007a) text on marketing research to review qualitative research methods typically used in consumer product studies. There are three major qualitative research procedures used in exploratory marketing research: Projective techniques, depth interviews, and focus group interviews. The advantages and disadvantages of each procedure, according to Malhotra, are summarized below: Projective techniques hide the purpose of the research from participants and involve indirect, ambiguous questioning about the behaviour of others to help participants “project their underlying motivations, beliefs, attitudes, or feelings” about a subject (Malhotra, 2007a, p. 163). By interpreting and discussing others’ behaviours, participants project and reveal their own attitudes. There are four main types of projective techniques: association, completion, construction, and expressive. The major advantage of using a projective technique is that information may be gathered that a participant would otherwise be unable or unwilling to discuss or reveal if the purpose of the study was known or if the attitudes or beliefs being studied were thought to be held at a subconscious level. Disguising the purpose of research can also increase the validity of responses: When the purpose of research is known, there may be some participants who provide misleading responses, either intentionally or unintentionally. The major disadvantages of projective techniques are that both interviewers and data interpreters need to be highly skilled, analysis of the data is difficult, and there is a high risk of interpretation bias. A depth interview consists of a one on one interview, in which the purpose of research is known and an unstructured, direct line of questioning is used to explore feelings, attitudes, and beliefs about a 47  topic (Malhotra, 2007a). A general question guideline is prepared, but the interview is informal in nature and highly interactive in that the interviewer’s line of questioning often depends on the participant’s replies. Probing is used by the interviewer to gain greater understanding and uncover possible hidden issues. Commonly used techniques include laddering, hidden issue questioning, and symbolic analysis. The two major advantages of depth interviews are that a topic can be covered in great depth and the one on one format eliminates group influence and provides a more comfortable environment for discussion of any sensitive topics. One disadvantage of depth interviews is that a small number are usually conducted due to the time and cost involved, which results in a small pool of data to analyze. Another disadvantage is the loss of group synergy and involvement that may generate a broader range of information. A focus group interview consists of a moderator leading a small group of participants in a relatively unstructured, informal discussion about a known topic (Malhotra, 2007a). This is the most widely used qualitative market research technique. The aim is to gain insights through the flowing dynamic of group discussion. In a traditional focus group the groups are pre-selected to be homogenous in nature, small in size (8 to 12 people), and are usually conducted in an informal setting for one to two hours. A moderator’s discussion guide is prepared in advance and proceedings are audio, and often video, recorded. Non-traditional versions include conference call or online group interviews and the use of two moderators. The major advantage of focus group interviews is that group synergy and stimulation will lead to a wider range of information gathered compared to depth interviews or projective techniques. In addition, the nature of focus groups reduces the likelihood of moderator bias. Another major advantage is speed: Data from a greater number of people can be gathered in a short period of time. A disadvantage of focus groups is that they can be difficult to moderate and another disadvantage is that group discussions can result in data that may be difficult to analyze and interpret. Given that my research topic is neither sensitive nor likely to involve strong subconscious beliefs and attitudes, I rejected the use of projected techniques. I also rejected using depth interviews because the potential greater depth of detail would come at the loss of breadth of information from more participants. In addition, talking in-depth one on one about duck and quail egg products might quickly get boring for an individual, lowering their involvement and the quality of information gained. Given that my objectives were to explore attitudes towards, and the use of, duck and quail egg products by Chinese Canadians, and to help formulate a survey, the focus group procedure was selected as the most  48  appropriate to engage the participants and to generate a broad range of information from a greater number of people in a timely manner. Detailed focus group procedures, including group number, group design, and participant recruitment are presented in Chapter 3, along with the focus group findings.  2.1.3 Quantitative Research Design 2.1.3.1  Survey Methods  There are four major modes for administering a consumer survey: Telephone, mail, in-person, and electronic. Malhotra (2007b) was consulted for the strength and weaknesses of each method.  2.1.3.1.1  Telephone Surveys  Telephone surveys can be traditional (paper based) or computer assisted. Strengths include a high likelihood of obtaining sensitive information, high speed of data collection, moderate to high sample control and data collection flexibility (for example clarify questions for respondents), and moderate response rates and costs. Weaknesses include a typically low quantity of data (surveys can not be too long or too in-depth), a low diversity of questions, and a low ability to use physical stimuli. In the past, telephone surveys were the primary survey mode, especially for a randomized sample study where the objective is to generalize the results to a population. A high quality sample could be reached due to the widespread adoption of telephone land lines in most households in the developed world. Now, with the advent of cellular telephone service, the percentage of households with at least one landline telephone is declining: In 2008, 10.3% of BC households surveyed did not have a traditional landline and used cell phones only, and 46.7% of these cell-only households were comprised solely of 18 to 34 yr olds (http://www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/090615/t090615c1-eng.htm). In addition, call answer and call display features, and privacy legislation enforcing ‘do not call’ lists also contribute to declining coverage and rising non-response rates for telephone surveys. Cellular numbers are not published and because the subscriber pays for both incoming and outgoing calls, it is considered unethical, without prior permission, to conduct a randomized research survey using cellular numbers.  2.1.3.1.2  Electronic Surveys  An Internet survey is posted online and respondents can be recruited through a variety of methods that direct them to a website to complete the survey. Strengths include their low cost, high speed, 49  elimination of interviewer bias, and moderate to high flexibility of data collection and question diversity. Weaknesses include low response rates, low control of the data collection environment, and low to moderate sample control. Email surveys are sent to email addresses and the survey is in the body of the email; access to the Web is not needed. The greatest strengths of this method are its high speed, low cost, and elimination of interviewer bias. However, there are many weaknesses including low flexibility of data collection, low sample control, low response rates, and low control of the data collection environment. Email surveys are most compatible for very simple, short surveys.  2.1.3.1.3  In-person Interview Surveys  In-person interviews may be conducted via pre-arranged in-home interviews, door to door campaigns, or via an intercept method where participants are randomly selected from a carefully selected public area (for example in a mall, leaving a particular store, on the street). The strengths of in-person surveys lie in their high flexibility of data collection, high diversity of questions, high use of physical stimuli, moderate to high sample control and quantity of data collectible. Weaknesses include a high potential for interviewer bias, moderate to high costs, and low perceived anonymity of the respondent. Sensitive information is less likely to be obtained. If the sample size is small speed can be moderate for in-home interviews and potentially high for intercept interviews.  2.1.3.1.4  Mail Surveys  Mail surveys can be deployed using traditional postal delivery or via mail panels. Strengths of the postal method include its low cost, elimination of interviewer bias, high perceived anonymity, and moderate diversity of questions and quantity of data obtainable. Weaknesses include a low speed, generally low response rate, low sample control, and low flexibility of data collection. Comparatively, mail panels can allow for moderate to high sample control and moderate response rates, but usually with higher costs. The quality of mail panels can vary significantly depending upon the care with which it is constructed. Results from mail panels usually should not be generalized to a population.  2.1.3.1.5  Summary and Method Selection  For the purposes of this study, a randomized telephone survey was considered too costly for my budget, especially since multi-lingual interviewers would be needed (Mandarin, Cantonese, English). In addition, given the projected length of the survey, a high number of incompletes due to respondent fatigue was a strong possibility. 50  An Internet survey method had potential, however a large email database list of Chinese Canadians living in Metro Vancouver from which to sample randomly was not available. Additionally, email addresses are individual and my sampling unit is the household. Some market research firms are building groups of diverse people for Internet survey research, however many of the participants in these groups are not randomly selected, but self-selected, do not necessarily represent the population at large, or are still too small in number of some ethnic groups. For the above reasons, an online survey was rejected as a primary survey method. In-person interviews were rejected due to the amount of time involved to administer the questionnaire and to complete a large randomized sample survey. Recruitment of a range of representative respondents was considered too difficult for this method. Furthermore either an interpreter would be needed for some interviews, or multilingual interviewer(s) would need to be hired and trained to help administer the survey. Given my budget, the expected length of the questionnaire, language considerations, and the need for a large sample size at the household level, the traditional mail survey method, using a mailing list based upon major telephone companies’ landline subscribers, was chosen as most appropriate. As noted, mail surveys often have low response rates. However, several studies, including Dillman, Smyth, & Christian (2009), Converse, Wolfe, Huang, and Oswald (2008), and Messer (2009) indicate that using more than two survey methods can potentially boost response rates if a sequential design is implemented in the survey protocol. Therefore, to help boost response rates the mail survey was selected as the primary survey method and an Internet survey was selected as a secondary method. Further details are provided in Section 2.1.3.2.  2.1.3.2  Survey Protocol  With two exceptions, the survey protocol followed Dillman et al.’s (2009) suggested mail survey implementation. A five-contact system is advised by Dillman et al.: Pre-notice, questionnaire, thank you/reminder notice, replacement questionnaire, and a final contact by a non-mail method. Budget considerations restricted my survey protocol to a three contact system: Pre-notice, questionnaire, and reminder letter/thank you with Internet option. Follow up by telephone to non-respondents was prohibited under the mailing list license purchased. Dillman et al. also counsels including an incentive token of appreciation with the questionnaire, but The University of British Columbia ethical guidelines do not allow for such pre-paid financial inducements. Instead, survey recipients were invited to return a draw form to me for a chance to win one of five $100 gift cards. 51  A personalized pre-notice/invitation letter on University of British Columbia letterhead was initially mailed one week prior to the questionnaire. This notified respondents to expect a questionnaire, expressed appreciation for their participation and was written to stimulate interest in responding. Three weeks after the questionnaire was mailed a reminder/thank you letter, including a personalized link to an option to complete the survey online, was mailed to non-respondents.  2.1.3.3  Questionnaire Design  2.1.3.3.1  Languages  All documents were provided in both English and Chinese (See Appendix B). A professional translator was hired to translate all survey correspondence into Chinese. Practicality limited the translation to traditional Chinese, which was selected because the majority of immigrants of ethnic Chinese background are older and are from areas where traditional Chinese has dominated. The translation was reviewed by a second translator and by Dr. Kim Cheng, my supervisor.  2.1.3.3.2  Mail Questionnaire Format  The questionnaire was designed following Dillman et al.’s (2009) tailored design approach. A standard, 8.5” by 11” booklet design was chosen for the paper questionnaire, using a portrait format. Conventional formats, such as the booklet design, are familiar to many people and are easy to handle and read by respondents. This format also had the benefit of fitting into a 9” by 12” envelope so that it could be mailed flat. For ease of respondent’s use, two separate booklets, identical in design, were created in each language. The booklets were coded to flag any duplicate submissions. As shown in Figure 2.2, the questionnaire was designed in sections to reflect different buying or consumption habits (or not) in the past year. An introductory question on the first page set the stage for the rest of the survey, guiding each respondent to their appropriate starting section, and branching thereafter.  52  Which of the following products have been purchased for consumption at home within the past 12 months?  At least one of the individual duck or quail egg types  Only prepared foods containing at least one of the egg types  PART A Buyer behaviour and attitudes  Household consumption away from home in past 12 months?  PART B Consumption at home  Yes  Household consumption away from home in past 12 months? No  None: Did not buy at all for consumption at home  No  Yes PART C Away from home consumption PART D Why not bought/consumed anywhere?  PART E Opportunities  PART F Demographics and acculturation Figure 2.2 Questionnaire design with branching  53  Part A was for respondents who had purchased for at home consumption any of the individual egg types in the past year. Part B was for Part A respondents as well as for respondents who had bought, within the past year and for at home consumption, prepared foods that contained at least one of the egg types. Part C was designed to examine away from home consumption of the eggs. Part D was designed to examine why non-buyers and non-consumers, at home or away from home, did not purchase/consume any of the egg types in the past year. Buyers of at least one egg type for at home consumption and/or away from home consumers of at least one egg type, were eligible to answer Part E, the opportunities section. The objective of this section was to test how likely different product features would increase respondents’ satisfaction with the eggs or increase their willingness to try an egg type that they currently did not buy or consume. Among other features, respondents were asked specifically about BC produced products versus Asian or Chinese made products, using Likert-type scale questions. In an open ended question for each egg type respondents were invited to express in their own words anything that would increase their satisfaction with or willingness to try the eggs. Willingness to pay extra for BC produced products was also tested in this section. Finally, Part G asked the respondents primarily for social-demographic information and included some questions about their dietary habits. A series of questions included in Part G were designed to measure the respondent’s level of acculturation.  2.1.3.3.3  Online Questionnaire Format  The online survey was designed to be accessed by an individual pass code provided in each reminder/thank you letter sent to initial non-respondents. This pass code replicated the individual codes on the paper surveys so that duplicate submissions could be flagged. Respondents could choose between English or Chinese versions. To minimize measurement error due to differences in modes, the web-based questionnaire was designed to mirror as closely as possible the layout, overall format, and branching of the paper survey. Rather than see one question per web page, whenever possible each online survey web page contained the same number of questions in the same layout as the paper survey. Respondents were allowed to go backwards and forwards in the online questionnaire and to skip questions they did not want to answer, except for key branching questions.  54  However, one major difference involved branching: Based on their answers to previous questions, online survey respondents would not see non-applicable questions or sections. All sections of the survey were visible to paper-based respondents.  2.1.3.3.4  Development of Questions  The questions and their sequence were developed and worded based upon the objectives of the research, the demands of the required statistical analysis, and the results of the focus groups. Guidelines provided by Dillman et al.’s tailored design approach (2009); Bradburn, Sudman, and Wansink (2004); and, Gray and Guppy (2003) were followed to help create a survey that would be enjoyable for the respondent and would reduce non response and measurement errors.  2.1.3.3.5  Pilot Test  Before implementation, the survey was pilot tested by 10 Chinese Canadian UBC non-faculty staff (paper version) and by 45 undergraduate students of various ethnicities, including Chinese (online version). Both language versions were tested, with the Chinese version tested by 5 staff and students. Based on feedback received, the survey was revised accordingly.  2.1.3.4  Statistical Analysis  Paper survey responses were manually entered, and online responses were directly downloaded, into PASW Statistics software for analysis (PASW Statistics Grad Pack 17.0.2, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). A significance level of P < 0.05 was set for all assumptions. Different statistical methods were applied based upon the measurement scale for each question and the assumptions of the statistical methods (Field, 2009). Basic frequency and descriptive analyses were completed for all quantitative questions. Results of open ended questions were recorded and classified into common categories as appropriate. For nominal and ordinal variables, cross tabulations, chi-square, and correlation analyses using Pearson’s, Spearman’s rho, or Kendall’s tau b as appropriate and Cramer’s V, Lambda or Phi as measures of the strength of associations, were used to check for significant associations between demographic questions and whether a respondent had purchased any duck or quail egg types. Results from these analyses were used to choose and prepare variables for inclusion into a single block-enter logistic regression model analysis (some variable categories needed to be reduced in number, for example).  55  Attitudes and beliefs and the importance of product characteristics were measured by 5-point Likert-type scale questions. Descriptive statistics were run. Visual inspection of histograms and P-P plots, and values of skew and kurtosis, indicated that responses to the scale questions, as well as metric data such as household size, acculturation score, etc., were not normally distributed. This was confirmed by significant results from Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. Thus non-parametric statistical tests, such as the Kruskal-Wallis test (for differences in mean responses between/across each egg type), Friedman’s ANOVA (for differences in mean responses within each egg type) and post hoc Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon signed ranks tests were selected as most appropriate. To segment the market, principal component analysis (PCA), pioneered by Pearson (1901), with extraction via analysis of the covariance matrix with oblique rotation, was then used twice to reduce (1), the number of product characteristic variables and (2), the number of attitude/belief variables, for input into subsequent cluster analyses of buyers of each egg type. Oblique rotation was chosen due to the underlying dependence between some of the variables. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test (as cited in Field, 2009, p. 647) was used to confirm the adequacy of the sample for PCA purposes. The component scores resulting from the PCAs were then entered into a two-step cluster analysis process for buyers of each egg type, using Ward’s hierarchical method (as cited in Malhotra, 2007c, p. 642) to discover the number of clusters to extract, followed by Lloyd’s standardized k-means algorithm, an iterative and classification method to classify each case into a cluster membership (as cited in Mazzocchi, 2008, pp. 268-271). The finalized clusters (buyer segments) were then subjected to further descriptive statistical analysis and non-parametric means tests, including using demographic and buyer behaviour data. Market opportunities were likewise measured on 5-point Likert-type scales for each egg type and results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and non-parametric statistical tests as appropriate. Missing values were excluded from analysis on a pair-wise basis, unless otherwise noted, in which instance missing values were excluded on a case-wise basis.  2.1.3.5  Development of an Acculturation Index  Food, diet, and cuisine are important parts of cultures and subcultures around the world. Consumer behaviour is influenced by culture, so to better understand the Chinese Canadian consumer market for duck and quail egg products, it was important to include a measurement of acculturation for the purposes of this study. It was hypothesized that an acculturation measurement would help differentiate market segments and buyers from non-buyers. It would also provide an indication of the impact of immigration levels and cultural ties on future demand. 56  Acculturation has been considered as a unidimensional and one-directional process (immigrants assimilate into their new society by gradually losing their culture of origin), then as a bi-dimensional process (immigrants affect their host society and the host society affects immigrants and immigrants can adopt aspects of their new culture with or without loss of their culture of origin), and now as a multidimensional construct, in which all parties can accommodate and choose to adopt a variety of behaviours, attitudes, and values, and ethnic identity of either the dominant host culture or ethnic subculture (Berry, 2003; Chia & Costigan, 2006; Deng & Walker, 2007). Furthermore, the concept of acculturation can be divided into roughly two structural domains: An internal domain that is psychological in nature and includes identity and values, and an external domain based on behaviour (Chia & Costigan, 2006). Acculturation indices have been developed for specific ethnicities as well as different purposes. The Suinn Lew Asian Self Identity Acculturation Scale (Suinn, Rickard-Figueroa, Lew, & Vigil, 1987; Suinn, Ahuna, & Khoo, 1992; Suinn, Khoo & Ahuna, 1995) has been widely used as a comprehensive measurement of acculturation in Asians in the United States and has been adapted to other countries. The Suinn Lew and similar scales provide a general measure of acculturation, asking about demographic details (age at immigration, mother tongue, language preference, generation, etc.) social relations, media preferences, and ethnic identity and pride to measure over-all acculturation, including internal and external domains. Relevant to Canada, both Chia and Costigan (2006) and Deng and Walker (2007) have created scales to measure the multi-dimensionality of acculturation in Chinese Canadians. Other acculturation scales are more specific in aim, such as diet related scales for health care purposes. As previously noted in Section 1.5.1.3, a number of dietary acculturation measurements can be found in the literature (Yang & Read, 1996; Satia, et al., 2001; Lv & Cason, 2004; Servaes, 2007). Although the Suinn-Lew, Chia and Costigan, or Deng and Walker scales are thorough, they were impractical given their length and the fact that my primary subject was the market for specialty duck and quail egg products and not social policy, for example. Including such scales would create an unacceptable burden for the respondent, create respondent fatigue, and result in lower response rates. Other studies that have included an explicit measure of acculturation as a survey component, have also eschewed the use of full multi-dimensional acculturation scales (see Adekunle, Filson, Sethuratnam, & Cidro, 2011, for example). In addition, I did not want to limit the measurement of acculturation to diet only. I wanted to provide a relatively straightforward, basic indicator of acculturation using, for the most part, readily available demographic data, so that interested readers or producers could approximate the measurement in the future, as needed. 57  Therefore ten questions were selected to provide an indication of acculturation in Chinese Canadians living in Metro Vancouver: Mother tongue, reading language ability, birthplace, years in Canada, residential status, generation status, grandparents’ birthplace, household ethnic mix, balancing yin-yang foods, and household food preference. Historically, the Chinese have practiced a yin-yang principal for achieving and maintaining health and apply it when making dietary choices. This principal and the household food preference question were incorporated into the scale, based on earlier dietary acculturation studies (Satia et al., 2001; Lv & Cason, 2004). The eight other questions are typical traditional (linear) measures of acculturation in the external domain. Internal domain measurements, such as identity and value related questions were excluded from the scale.  2.2 Justification for Research Question and Design Markets exist in North America for specialty duck and quail egg products. The market for specialty duck products, such as salted or preserved duck eggs, is typically served by imported products from Asia. With the increasing numbers of immigrants and citizens of Asian ancestry, the potential exists for North American specialty bird producers to enter the market for these products. However, my research indicates that no studies on the consumer market in North America for salted or preserved duck eggs, or fresh quail eggs have been published. This study aims to start to fill this gap in the literature by using a random sample survey of the large ethnic Chinese population in Metro Vancouver, using preliminary focus groups to help inform the survey, and providing interested readers an opportunity to hear the voices of Chinese Canadians on the topic of these egg products.  58  3 QUALITATIVE RESEARCH: FOCUS GROUPS 3.1 Introduction The objectives of the qualitative research stage were to: 1.  Familiarize myself with how the duck and quail egg products are used and perceived by Chinese Canadians  2.  Explore and compare product use and attitudes between ethnic Chinese immigrants and people born in Canada from an ethnic Chinese ancestry  3.  Gain specific information on shopping behaviour: Frequency of purchase, where purchased, and price considerations, for example  4.  Use the results of the research to help inform the design of the quantitative survey to follow  To meet these objectives, focus groups were selected as the most appropriate qualitative research method (see Section 2.1.2.2) and the first phase of my mixed methods study commenced with two exploratory focus groups. Homogenous groups can help create the best atmosphere for generating good discussions and results (Malhotra, 2007a), with the moderator responsible for eliciting the diversity and variety of within group opinions (Puchta & Potter, 2004). To create homogenous groups and to meet the objective of exploring immigrant versus born in Canada differences, two focus groups of 8 to 12 participants each were planned: One to consist of ethnic Chinese immigrants (the IM group) and the other to consist of people born in Canada from an ethnic Chinese ancestry (the BIC group). Based on need, the use of an English – Mandarin – Cantonese interpreter was planned for the IM group session.  3.2 Recruitment and Screening Recruitment commenced in mid-September 2009 and consisted of the placement of posters at The University of British Columbia and at community centre bulletin boards in Vancouver, Richmond, and Burnaby, the municipalities in Metro Vancouver with the highest concentrations of ethnic Chinese Canadian residents. See Appendix A.1 for a copy of the poster. An advertisement was also placed in a weekly east Vancouver community newspaper (east Vancouver has a high concentration of residents of Chinese ancestry). The advertisement was in English only; the recruitment posters were in English and Chinese. This recruitment strategy was selected to try to recruit both men and women from a range of ages (19 years or older) and education, of Chinese ethnic background, resident in the Metro Vancouver 59  region, and who have some familiarity with the duck and quail egg products. As an incentive and as a token of appreciation for their time, potential participants were told that they would receive a $30 grocery store gift certificate at the end of their group session. A screening questionnaire (see Appendix A.2) was created to ensure prospective participants met all study requirements; to gather some demographic information for group placement and to compare the groups to the study population; and, to help co-ordinate a suitable meeting date and time for each group session. If the prospect did not meet the screening criteria, the form was destroyed. Respondents were assured that their participation and identity would remain confidential and unpublished. After an initial low response rate from ethnic Chinese immigrants, the snow ball technique6 (Goodman, 1961) was employed to bring participation in that group up to 10 people.  3.3 Topic Guide Development A copy of the topic guide is provided in Appendix A.4. The topic guide was developed in order to meet the qualitative research objectives and to ensure a productive yet comfortable focus group session for all participants. The strategy of initiating the sessions with introductions and then a general discussion about the various egg types was used to help make the participants feel at ease and to help me gain a general understanding of how the egg products are used and talked about by the participants. This was followed by a brainstorming session, which asked participants for all features that they might consider if they were to purchase each particular egg type. This technique was used to stimulate the group and to gain as much understanding as possible of how they shopped for the eggs, or, if they hadn’t bought a particular egg type, what they thought they might consider if they were to buy. The features were recorded on a chalk board and then a ranking exercise was conducted to gain further insight into the importance or not of the various features mentioned. Individual participants were asked to rank the most important, top 3 features when buying and the 3 least important features they would consider. To facilitate the ranking, each participant was given a form with blank spaces provided to write their personal top 3 and bottom 3 features for each egg product. Following the general discussion, brainstorming, and ranking exercise, questions and discussions became more specific and  6  The snowball technique is a non-probability sampling method in which a randomly selected study participant(s) is asked to itdentify another person who meets the recruitment criteria and refer them to the researcher as a potential study participant. That person can then refer another person, and repeat the process (or some variation) until a sufficient number of subjects is reached.  60  covered areas of interest (where purchased, for what occasion(s), who consumes, and recipes, for example). The topic guide was generally followed for both group sessions, with some variations in question content and sequences due to the interactive nature of focus groups and differences between the two groups.  3.4 Setting, Moderator, and Duration The focus group sessions were scheduled one week apart in November 2009 on a weekday evening. The same informal private room was rented for both sessions, at a centrally located Vancouver Public Library branch. The location was accessible by public transit and also provided ample free parking. Water, juice, and snacks were served. The groups were moderated by me. To prepare, I drew upon past work experience in focus group moderation and also referred to Puchta and Potter’s (2004) book on focus group practice. The groups were audio recorded in an mp3 format. In addition, a trained, undergraduate student of ethnic Chinese background was present to assist me and to act as an observer and take notes. A male interpreter was present for the IM group session only. My supervisor, Dr. Kim Cheng, observed the IM group discussion, but not the BIC focus group. A chalk board and packages of the duck and quail egg products were used as props to facilitate discussion. The duration of the IM group session was 1 hour 50 minutes and the BIC session was 1 hour 35 minutes long.  3.5 Focus Group Analysis Each focus group was immediately followed by a debriefing session with my assistant to compare perspectives and to receive her notes and the ranking exercise forms. Next, the recorded audio sessions were transcribed by me into MS Word, using AVS Audio Editor Software, which allowed me to boost harder to hear voices and to slow down rapid dialogue to improve the accuracy of the transcription. The sessions were then analyzed for specific information as well as general themes and trends using descriptive content analysis. Descriptive content analysis is a method that summarizes the informational content of the focus group transcript data with respect to the research objectives and questions. It is appropriate for exploratory research for questionnaire development, rather than for ‘thick’ analysis, inference and interpretation. A summary of findings follows.  61  3.6 Summary of Focus Group Findings 3.6.1 Group Demographics Ten people, excluding the interpreter, participated in the ethnic Chinese IM group: One male and nine females. Seven people participated in the BIC group: Three males and four females. On the evening of November 16, 2009 the IM focus group was conducted. All could speak Cantonese, with 8 originally from Hong Kong, one from Macau, and one from Singapore. Seven had immigrated more than 20 yrs ago, two had immigrated between 15 and 19 yrs ago, and one person had immigrated less than 5 yrs ago. One person was a child at time of immigration (9 yrs old), the rest were adults. Only four participants provided their level of education completed: One with a high school diploma, one with a university degree, and two with a graduate university degree or diploma. Seven participants were 55 yrs of age or older, two were aged 40 to 49 yrs, and one person was 30 to 39 yrs of age. The BIC focus group was held one week later on the evening of November 23, 2009. Eight participants were recruited, but one male had to drop out at the last minute. Six participants had completed post-secondary degrees or college/technical diplomas and one had completed a graduate degree. One participant was 25 to 29 yrs of age, four were 40 to 49 yrs of age, and two were 50 to 59 yrs of age. Five were second generation Canadians (one of whom had a grandparent who had arrived in Canada around the turn of the 20th Century, but returned to China) and two were third generation Canadians (one of whom had great grandparents born in Canada, but they returned to China).  3.6.2 General Familiarity with the Egg Types The IM group was familiar with preserved and salted duck eggs, and a little less familiar with fresh or canned quail eggs. Most bought and cooked with the duck egg products, either currently or in the past. Only one had purchased fresh quail eggs in the past year, although they were all familiar with them and had consumed them in the past, whether at home or at a restaurant. The BIC group, however, had less experience with the egg types. Four had purchased at least one of the products for at home consumption in the recent past, but three only had familiarity through childhood memories or via occasionally eating them in dishes while dining out. Most of the BIC group did not know that the preserved duck eggs came in hard yolk or soft yolk varieties. One BIC participant thought it had just been by chance that the yolks were different. This same person also mistook the snowflake-like pattern that often occurs on the whites of preserved duck eggs as mold or something bad. 62  No one in the BIC group seemed to know that the snowflake patterns are often an admired characteristic of preserved duck eggs.  3.6.3 Buying Considerations The IM group’s familiarity with salted and preserved duck eggs was reflected in the specifics discussed about the different egg types. For example, when initially asked about what they considered when buying salted duck eggs, the IM group responded with ‘quality’ but that here in Canada they are thwarted from properly inspecting and choosing salted duck eggs: “Quality is the critical point” - Female 1 “How do you tell the quality?”- Moderator “This is no choice”- Female 2 “Here in Canada, we cannot chose which one we like. In Hong Kong, we can…you know the light…through the lights and then if they are heavy or not. Now in Canada they are already wrapped.” – Female 3 “So, how would you decide which of the packages to buy?” – Moderator “As long as it is not broken! [Others laugh] That’s the only way. And, sometimes they are broken as well.” – Female 4 One of the younger females buys packages of frozen salted duck egg yolks only because she uses only the yolks in cooking, which is not uncommon. However, one of the older immigrant females stated that the packages of yolks-only are not satisfactory: “But these days I do not like the yolks only because they do not meet my criteria. What I like is the yolk [to be] sandy and some oil leaking out. That’s very tasty.” – IM Female 5 She goes on to state that the yolks are too dry, others agree with her, and: “For the whole egg itself, we cannot choose, so we do not know what is inside, we can only buy what we have.” The BIC group , on the other hand, had much less experience in purchasing the products and for the majority of them, asking them what they considered or would consider when buying any of the egg types was more theoretical than based on experience. They were quicker than the immigrants to reel off a number of things they would consider, but quality was not one of them and they did not mention any of the specifics of a sandy, oily yolk texture as a mark of quality in a salted duck egg. For the preserved 63  eggs, country of origin (COO) was one of the first considerations mentioned and agreed upon by many. Nutritional information such as cholesterol, sodium content, and calories would also be considered when buying. Lead-free was important too: “…a while ago, you read in the papers that there was some issue about some of these eggs having lead…for a while we were scared to even buy anything made in China.” – BIC Male 3 However, one of the BIC females with a bit more egg buying experience was in agreement with the immigrant group that packaging was an issue when purchasing: “How it’s packaged, because I can see that [referring to fresh quail eggs], but that other one is not clear, so you can’t see the product.” – BIC Female 4 “So you would prefer to be able to see the product?” – Moderator “Yes. When it is enclosed like that, you can’t really see what it’s like.” – BIC Female 4 The BIC group also spontaneously mentioned price and brand as considerations, whereas the immigrant group had to be prompted by me about price and brand. Another issue for the BIC group was their lack of reading ability in Chinese, which for some resulted in an either real or perceived issue with labels not having enough English on them. Finally, due to their lack of experience in buying the duck egg products, some of the women admitted to ‘going with the trend’: “If there’s multiple brand, I also take note to see which is moving faster. Because, I think of why people are purchasing one particular brand more than another and I’m trying to decide if I should go with the trend.” – BIC Female 2 “I do the same thing!” – BIC Female 3 Most buyers, whether they were immigrants or born in Canada, bought the duck or quail egg products at either T&T or Superstore. One immigrant mentioned she’d sometimes buy the duck egg products at a Vietnamese store. One of the BIC group voiced their frustration at the difficulty they had shopping in T&T because they could not read Chinese, and they’d have to ask a stranger for help.  3.6.4 Ranking Exercise After buying considerations were discussed, the participants individually filled out the provided form to rank the three most and three least important features they would consider when buying. Results suggest differences between the two groups. For preserved duck eggs, freshness and quality earned the 64  most first place votes in the IM group, whereas nutrition information earned the most first place votes in the BIC group, followed by price. Results were similar for salted duck eggs. For fresh quail eggs, first place votes were dispersed, but quality earned the most first place votes in the IM group and freshness, nutrition information, and price tied with the most first place votes in the BIC group. Differences are also apparent in the rankings for the least important characteristics. For both preserved and salted duck eggs, price earned the highest number of last place (least important) votes by IM participants. Whereas in the BIC group, for preserved duck eggs, recipes and nutrition information received the highest number of least important votes; for salted duck eggs, it was freshness and nutrition information. Price and package size earned the highest number of least important votes for fresh quail eggs in the IM and BIC groups respectively. Detailed results can be found in Appendix A.5  3.6.5 Consumption Habits The salted and preserved duck egg products were consumed infrequently by the majority of all participants. For the BIC participants, salted duck eggs were most often consumed in moon cakes at the Autumn Festival and preserved duck eggs were consumed in congee while dining out. Only one of the female and one of the male BIC participants consumed salted duck eggs regularly at home: The female ate the eggs only when prepared in dishes by her father. He would cook with them on a weekly basis and she would eat the dishes when she was in the mood for it, which was frequently, but not necessarily every week. The male’s consumption, which was described as fairly frequently, depended on his wife’s or mother-in-law’s cooking. Some participants of both groups had not eaten one or the other duck egg product in years or since childhood. The IM participants were infrequent consumers of the duck egg products, but would sometimes use them in specific dishes that they would cook at home. They ate salted duck eggs in purchased moon cakes and they would also consume preserved duck eggs in congee, either while dining out or by takehome. In general, both groups were very infrequent purchasers or consumers of quail eggs. Some had never bought quail eggs. Most hadn’t purchased or consumed the eggs in years. The same BIC male that ate salted duck eggs at home on a regular basis also ate the canned quail eggs fairly frequently in dishes prepared by his wife and ate the fresh quail eggs in dishes prepared by his mother in law. One immigrant female did buy the quail eggs to give to her children at parties and another BIC female bought them for her children at Easter.  65  3.6.6 Meal Time at Home A number of BIC and IM group members reported buying the eggs less frequently than they might like because other family members would not eat the eggs: “She seldom buys the salty egg and the century egg because of the younger generation. Because she cooks for the entire family, so although herself may like to have it, it seems the sons and daughters they don’t like it, so she seldom buys it.” – Interpreter for IM female 7 “I’m the only one in the household who will eat that. My son, you know that green thing in the congee, maybe. My daughter, definitely, won’t even touch it. And my husband, [she laughs] you know, won’t even go near it! So, if they are not eating it, then I don’t make it that often.” – BIC female 1  3.6.7 Cooking Skills and Recipes The IM group members knew how to cook with the eggs. They could name and discuss a number of recipes in which to use the eggs, but they felt like they were limited in use to the few dishes that the eggs are traditionally used in and that, unlike chicken eggs, they are not everyday foods. They would cook them in recipes occasionally, when they felt like making a particular dish. In general, the BIC group members did not know the recipes in which to use the various egg types. Three had good memories of dishes, but could not or would not cook them themselves. The majority had not been taught how to cook by their parents and had been sent out of the kitchen to do their homework when they were young. A few who had memories of dishes made with the egg types, described them as complicated and time consuming: “It’s a whole day thing.” – BIC female 1 “They’re associated with very complicated recipes that go back to our parent’s or grandparent’s generation.” – BIC female 2 “There wouldn’t be much use in my kitchen. If we were to make a Chinese dish, it wouldn’t be as traditional.” – BIC male 1 However, there were some memories of simple dishes: “When I was a kid I remember eating it and it was prepared quite simply. The duck eggs, the salty ones were boiled, and you’d dig in the end with your chopsticks to have with your rice. And, the century egg, I remember just washing it off and cracking it and having to mix it with soy sauce and sesame oil, and then just eating it with rice.” – BIC female 3  66  The IM group appeared doubtful that new recipes could tempt them to buy and serve any of the egg types more often, mostly because the eggs are not seen as an everyday type of food, but also because some appeared to have difficulty with the idea that the eggs could be used in new ways. The youngest immigrant expressed the most interest in new recipes. In contrast, although the BIC group reported less consumption and more aversion to the eggs (see Section 2.2.6.1), they appeared to be more open to trying an egg type they hadn’t had in a while, or ever, and more open to trying new recipes, provided that they were convenient and did not take too long to make. “I might buy the quail eggs, if I found a cool recipe I wanted to try.” – BIC female 3 And, later on: “If there were more recipes, maybe I would kind of expand my horizon a bit. You know, if somebody would take the time to invent or create or add these ingredients in maybe.” – BIC female 1 “Something fairly simple that is not going to take you hours?” – Moderator “Oh yeah, Kraft kitchen stuff, you know.” – BIC female 1 (she, others laugh) “We need Kraft kitchen to test!” – BIC female 2 “Yeah, maybe we need someone there, might take on the challenge and come up with some ethnic dishes that will incorporate these.” – BIC female 1  3.6.8 Eating Out Congee was overwhelmingly the most popular dish in which the preserved duck eggs were consumed by either group. Autumn Moon Cake was the most cited method for consuming salted duck eggs, although this just involves the yolk. Neither the IM nor the BIC group make Autumn Moon Cake or would make Autumn Moon Cake at home; it is always bought. Neither group specifically mentioned a restaurant dish that included quail eggs. One of the older BIC participants remarked how difficult it was to get any of the more elaborate traditional Chinese dishes that would use any of the duck or quail egg products, stating that restaurants just do not make that stuff anymore, possibly because of the time involved as well as the fact that people do not ask for the dishes, especially the younger generations.  67  3.6.9 Attitudes 3.6.9.1  Nostalgia and Aversion  Two opposing attitudes that presented during the focus groups, especially for the BIC group, were aversion and nostalgia. Three members of the BIC group, in particular, reminisced and expressed nostalgia for some of the traditional Chinese dishes that they used to eat that contained the duck or quail egg products. This involved memories from when they were growing up, their mother’s or grandmother’s cooking: “Once in a while I think about the home cooked meals and I drool about it…” – BIC male 3 Or: “I’m just thinking about eating all this when I was a kid. I just loved it.” – BIC female 2 Then, later: “So many memories!” – BIC female 1 “Yeah, I even visualize it all the time! Like there is a minced pork paddy and the century eggs are usually right there, in the middle.” – BIC male 3 “Right there…middle…yeahhhh” – BIC female 1 “And it’s usually really orange, not yellow, but orange colour.” – BIC male 3 “Yeah. You can never duplicate it.” – BIC female 1 The immigrant group members’ discussion was less nostalgic and more matter of fact in tone when discussing their consumption of the egg products: “In the sticky rice wrap we also put the yolk of salted duck egg.” – IM female 5 “It’s a very yummy egg; it’s used in congee, right. Or just sugar and wine…it’s quite tasty…and ginger.” – IM female 3, referring to preserved duck eggs However, some of the BIC group members and one of the IM group members expressed aversion to the egg products, especially the preserved duck egg: “Those century ones, I don’t eat them. I had a bad experience when I was young already…and the smell itself, I think is terrible.” – BIC female 4 68  “Earlier this year I had the preserved egg in congee in a restaurant, but I never eat the preserved egg, I always pass it off to someone else.” – BIC male 2 “Well, that green slimy thing…” – BIC female 1 (although she will eat it out of politeness) “I read on Internet there’s something, they soak in ammonia or something like that…” – IM female 8, referring to preserved duck eggs Aversion was also an issue with their children and sometimes their spouses (see Section 3.6.6).  3.6.9.2  Uncertainty about Health and Safety  Both groups expressed concern about how healthy and safe the duck and quail egg products were to consume. The most common health concerns were the cholesterol content in all of the eggs and the sodium content in the salted duck eggs. There were different perspectives about the cholesterol content of quail eggs. One IM group member said she did not eat quail eggs because they are high in cholesterol, but one BIC participant stated that the quail eggs were eaten in her household when she was growing up, specifically because they were lower in cholesterol. According to the United States Department of Agriculture National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (www.ndb.nal.usda.gov), per gram, chicken eggs have the lowest cholesterol, quail eggs have the next highest level, and duck eggs have the highest level of the three. The BIC participant’s elders may have consumed less total cholesterol because of the small size of the quail egg. In addition, the healthfulness of the duck eggs can be questioned, simply by being processed, as noted by BIC female 4: “My son and his friends say, ‘how can that be healthy ‘cause of the preservation and the expiry dates [lack of] and it’s sitting on the shelf, it’s not refrigerated?’…” The IM group recited concerns about the safety of consuming the duck egg products, especially if imported from China. Concerns included potential lead content in preserved duck eggs, the use of ammonia or other chemicals in preserved duck eggs, and the injection of Sudan red dye7 into salted duck egg yolk to make them a more desirable orange-red colour. The BIC group mentioned potential lead content in preserved duck eggs and in the tins of canned quail eggs; the use of chemicals to make the eggs instead of traditional means.  7  Sudan red dye has been linked to cancer in rats  69  “We think there are so many fake things from China, so we try to avoid.” – IM female 5 “These days, people are reluctant to buy egg yolk alone because in China they put artificial colouring to make it look red and it’s harmful to the health.” – IM female 7 “Like a while ago, you read in the papers that there was some issue about some of these eggs having lead.” – BIC male 3 There were mixed feelings about how much they should trust the food inspection system: “Would you avoid the ones that are made in Taiwan or made in China?” – Moderator “No. Not really. No. Now, they’ve tightened up the regulations…” – BIC male 3 “I think I’d avoid China. I’d buy Taiwan first. I’ve spoken with food inspectors and they do have agreements where it is inspected in China, not in Canada, so it’s kind of scary to me.” – BIC female 3 Or this exchange in the IM group: “How come we don’t trust our food safety department? People keep saying that food from China is no good, right? But I, I’m quite skeptical about it, right? Most of, not all of them are no good.” – IM female 3 “No, you are right.” – IM female 8 “Yeah” – IM female 3 “But, we have heard so many horror stories, so…” – IM female 8 “But we have got to trust our food safety department, right?” – IM female 3 “But the food inspection is in China, isn’t it?!” – IM female 1  70  3.6.9.3  The ‘Troublesome’ Quail Egg  Members of the IM and BIC groups expressed some frustration with cooking with quail eggs: “These two ladies were saying that the reason they don’t eat quail egg for years is that because it is troublesome and because it tastes similar to chicken eggs, just regular chicken, so is similar to chicken egg, so why bother, and they are more expensive…and troublesome to peel.” – Interpreter on behalf of IM females 4 and 7 “Quail eggs. This one is nicer fresher, but it is very difficult to peel. It takes so much effort…but that is very hard actually [referring, unfavourably, to the texture of the canned quail eggs]. But when I do my own cooking, I use that [points to canned quail eggs], simply because it is convenient.” – IM female 2 BIC male 3 explained that his wife would only cook with the canned quail eggs because they were convenient and that only his mother in law would buy the fresh quail eggs and only when she had time to peel them. However, BIC female 4 expressed that children at Easter loved to find and peel hard boiled quail eggs, so she would not have to peel them then.  3.6.9.4  Price  In neither group was price seen as a barrier to purchasing the preserved or salted duck eggs. They were not considered expensive items, as evidenced by these quotes: “It wouldn’t deter someone who needs to purchase it to make it in a recipe. It’s reasonably priced…” – BIC female 2 “Price is not much important.” – IM female 3 However, in the ranking exercise the BIC group did indicate that price was an important feature when considering purchase. This may suggest that although the price is not considered a barrier to purchase, they may be price sensitive. In addition, despite indicating that price was not important, the IM group still did comparison price shopping: One participant mentioned that the price was reasonable at Superstore and another that price-wise Chong Lee is cheaper than T&T Supermarket. When prompted about sales, they agreed that the products seldom were on sale and that: “Even on sale, you only save 20 cents at most” – IM female 6 “They are cheap enough already.” – IM female 8 This mixed message on price may also indicate a reluctance of participants to show that they may be ‘cheap’ or need to be frugal when buying groceries, especially given the relative low price of the egg 71  products compared to meat. Or, it may simply mean that they are price aware (and who doesn’t like saving money?). Some participants in the BIC group were able to provide price ranges they had seen for the duck egg products, from about $1.98 to anything under $3.00 as “good”. The BIC group had to guess at the fresh quail egg prices, estimating between $3.99 and $5.00. They did not voice any opinion that the quail eggs were expensive, though they did acknowledge that the duck egg products were more expensive than buying chicken eggs. When prompted to explain the variation in price for the duck egg products, the BIC group members speculated that it was due to the country of origin or that one brand might really be superior to another brand and therefore warrant the higher price. For a locally made salted or preserved duck egg product, the BIC group said they would pay a 10% to 20% premium. They were willing to pay more for access to a (perceived) safer and superior product, and to support local farmers. The IM group was generally willing to pay up to 20% more for locally made products, which were thought would be safer and ‘fresher’. However, one IM female noted that the quality would have to be better or she would not bother paying extra. However, the IM group was unaware that salted duck eggs made in Alberta were available, individually, at T&T Supermarket. When informed that they could buy these made in Alberta salty duck eggs at $1.09 each, they all agreed that was expensive and one woman, in particular, said it was too expensive and that at that price she would buy the ones from China instead.  3.6.9.5  Place of Purchase  Everyone had bought or was aware that they could buy all of the egg products at T&T Supermarket, a large, modern Asian food supermarket chain in Canada with multiple locations in Metro Vancouver. Both groups mentioned that Superstore sold salted and preserved duck eggs. One of the female immigrant participants mentioned that she had occasionally bought salted duck eggs from a smaller, independent Vietnamese grocery store. The immigrants also cited Chong Lee Market (a small, local Vancouver Asian grocery store chain) as a good place to buy the egg products, but the BIC group did not mention them. Access to the products was considered good, though a few mentioned it would be more convenient if their local mainstream chain grocery store would also carry them, eliminating a special trip to purchase. No one ventured to Chinatown to buy the eggs and one BIC participant voiced concerns about buying from smaller grocers: 72  “Like, we would never buy this stuff in the smaller groceries, cause you get this feeling like it’s been there for a long time and you haul it out, there’s dust on the…but if you go to T&T and you see the turnover of it, you’re more trusting to buy it.” – BIC Male 3 Both groups agreed that within stores it could be hard to find the duck egg products and the canned quail egg products and that if they weren’t looking for them, they would not know they were available. If they went to an unfamiliar store, they would need to ask for their location. A few people from both groups knew that Superstore kept the salted and preserved duck eggs in the fresh vegetable section, next to the Chinese vegetables. The participants who had never purchased fresh quail eggs knew that they could be found in the refrigerated area near the chicken eggs at T&T. Two of the BIC participants noted that they sometimes struggled when shopping in T&T because they could not read Chinese, not enough staff were around to help, and they would have to find another shopper to translate for them. The perception was that the labels did not have enough English on them.  3.6.9.6  Brands  Only the IM group was able to come up with four brand names for the salted and preserved duck eggs: Grand Maple, Six Fortune, Aunty Duck, and Watsun, however they did not differentiate, or appear to be able to differentiate, between the brands. One woman stated that she: “[Just trusts] the Real Canadian Superstore, so I go there to buy and I know its good.” – IM female 3 The BIC group could not come up with a single brand name for the duck egg products and could not differentiate between brands, except for the perception that more expensive was generally thought to be reflective of higher quality. When deciding which product to buy, two women said that when there were multiple brands offered, they relied upon noting which brand was moving faster off the shelves as an indicator that it was the better brand to buy. Neither the IM group nor the BIC group appeared to be aware of any brand names for the fresh or canned quail eggs. In addition, neither group was aware of the made in Alberta Treat™ brand of fresh salted duck eggs, available at T&T Supermarkets.  73  3.6.10  Summary and Conclusions  Overall, the BIC group expressed a more emotional connection to the topic than the IM group. They expressed more nostalgia as well as more aversion to some of the products. This may be the result of their lower overall familiarity with the products: The majority rarely eat some of the duck or quail egg products and they do not have the skill and knowledge to cook specialty dishes using the eggs. The IM group was more dispassionate in their discussion, only expressing greater emotion when discussing (1) their inability to properly examine and select salted or preserved duck eggs due to the modern packaging, and (2) where or if they could ever find fresh duck eggs in Metro Vancouver. These specialty duck and quail egg products are nothing new to them, they know the recipes they like to use the eggs in, and appear to be somewhat predictable and set in their ways in their use and consumption of the eggs. In both groups, some participants bought less of an egg type, or had given up buying, due to other family members’ dislike of the egg(s). Health concerns appeared to be more top of mind for BIC participants, who prioritized checking the nutrient/ingredient label when purchasing, compared to the IM group, who prioritized quality and freshness. On the surface, price is not a big concern for both groups, particularly the IM group. The products are not considered high priced nor would they take up a large percentage of a grocery budget. However, there appears to be a limit, with some BIC participants noting price as a 2nd or 3rd top consideration when buying and IM group participants saying that they would not buy the Alberta Treat™ brand salted duck eggs at $1.09 each. It is notable that all of the IM and most of the BIC group members were from a Cantonese cultural heritage. The voices and opinions of ethnic Chinese from Mandarin speaking areas, such as northern areas of China, are missing from my qualitative research. Immigration from the Mandarin speaking areas of China is now much higher than from Cantonese speaking areas (Citizenship and Immigration Canada, 2010) and it is unknown if their attitudes and opinions and buying/consumption habits of the egg types differ. Overall, the focus groups provided me with valuable information to help create the survey questionnaire, particularly the attitude questions and the opportunities questions. They reinforced that some measure of acculturation would be needed to further compare and understand immigrant and born in Canada consumption. They also helped me understand the importance of family meal time, and that the consumption or not by family members may be influential. Only quantitative data, however, can measure and test buyer behaviour and the strength and extent of attitudes, behaviours, and opinions in the greater Chinese Canadian population in Metro Vancouver. 74  4 LOGISTIC REGRESSION MODEL: PREDICTING DUCK AND QUAIL EGG PRODUCT PURCHASES BY CHINESE CANADIANS 4.1 Introduction With the increasing ethnic diversity in the metropolises of North America, niche markets for ethnic foods8 may provide promising opportunities for local producers and processors. The population of Metropolitan Vancouver (Metro Vancouver) in British Columbia (BC) is an example of such a highly diversified metropolitan area: Over 200 ethnic origins are represented and 41.4% of the population is from a visible minority group (BC Stats, n.d.). The largest visible minority group in Metro Vancouver, at 19% of the population (402,000), is from an ethnic Chinese background (Statistics Canada, 2010a). Like other visible minority groups in Canada, the vast majority of Chinese Canadians reside in urban areas and Metro Vancouver accounts for 93% of all ethnic Chinese in BC (Statistics Canada, 2011a). In Canada, Chinese Canadians are the second largest visibly minority group after South Asians (Statistics Canada, 2011b). With a relatively large and established population, niche markets for ethnic Chinese foods show promise. However, ethnic food market information is often scarce. This is especially true for duck and quail egg products: Published and specific production, import/export, and consumption data are not available. It is also unknown to what extent consumption is impacted by acculturation and/or demographic characteristics. These egg products have a long history in Chinese cuisine and are often used in distinctly different ways compared to the use of chicken eggs. Imports currently dominate the market for salted and preserved duck eggs, but the market may provide opportunities for local producers and processors. Fresh quail egg producers may also find unexplored marketing opportunities. The objectives of this study were (1) to profile Chinese Canadian purchase and non-purchase of salted and preserved duck eggs, and fresh quail eggs in the Metro Vancouver area; (2) to understand the demographic characteristics and acculturation indicators that may impact purchase; and, (3) to create a model to estimate a Chinese Canadian’s probability of purchase of any of the egg types, using logistic regression analysis and respondents’ demographic characteristics and acculturation scores as predictor variables.  8  For the purposes of this thesis, ethnic foods are defined as foods and cuisine non-European and non-United Kingdom in origin (see Glossary).  75  4.2 Materials and Methods A mixed methods research design was selected. Two initial exploratory focus groups, one group consisting of ethnic Chinese immigrants and the other group consisting of native-born Canadians from an ethnic Chinese ancestry, were conducted to gain background information, emic knowledge, and to help inform the design of the questionnaire (qualitative research stage; see Chapter Three). Upon conclusion of the qualitative research stage, the quantitative research stage commenced with questionnaire design.  4.2.1 Questionnaire Design The rationale and details of the questionnaire design has been described in Chapter Two and the questionnaire outline was provided in Figure 2.2. This paper focuses on data from Part F (demographic and acculturation indicator questions), from Part D (non-buyers/non-consumers), and the questions of Part A providing egg type purchase information. The questionnaire and survey protocol were approved by The University of British Columbia Behavioural Research Ethics Board, certificate H10-00571.  4.2.2 Survey Protocol Groceries are usually purchased at a household level; therefore the household was selected as the sampling unit. A sequential mixed mode mail-Internet survey method was selected based upon the ability to randomly sample Chinese Canadians at the household level in Metro Vancouver and upon the benefit of allowing respondents to fill out the questionnaire at a convenient time of their choosing. A geographically stratified random sample of names and addresses for Chinese Canadian households in Metro Vancouver was purchased from a commercial list company, under license from the local telephone landline providers. The list was cross-checked with a validated list of Chinese surnames from Quan et al. (2006) to minimize the inclusion of non-Chinese households. This sampling procedure was considered an acceptable trade off of sampling frame coverage against ensuring randomness at the household level. (Households without landlines, and households with an ethnic Chinese member, but whose landline subscriber does not have an exclusively Chinese surname, are excluded from the sampling frame.) A three stage survey protocol (Figure 4.1) was designed primarily upon Dillman et al.’s (2009) tailored design approach. Two recommended follow up stages, one with another copy of the questionnaire and one by different means than mail, were not included in the protocol due to the extra  76  associated cost and the prohibition of contact by telephone per the terms of the list license agreement. All survey documents were provided in both English and Chinese and can be found in Appendix B.  Invitation letter  Questionnaire  July 12, 2010  July 19, 2010  Reminder letter with Internet option August 9, 2010  Figure 4.1 Three-stage sequential mail-Internet survey protocol  The survey was conducted according to ethical guidelines required by The University of British Columbia’s Behavioural Research Ethics Board and respondents were assured of the confidentiality of their responses. An initial 1500 letters of invitation were mailed in July 2010. A net of 1479 questionnaires were mailed a week later and the person 19 years or older most responsible for grocery shopping for their household was asked to complete the survey. Respondents were requested to return the survey by August 20th and a pre-paid return envelope was provided. Sixteen recipients had telephoned upon receipt of the invitation, refusing to participate, and five recipients called to remove their household from the survey because they were not ethnic Chinese. These households were removed from the sample and did not receive questionnaires. After the questionnaire was mailed, a further 14 households called to refuse to participate. These 14 households did not receive reminder notices but remained in the sample as non-respondents. A follow up reminder notice was mailed on August 9, 2010 to all households that had not yet returned the questionnaire. The reminder included the option to complete the questionnaire online and provided a Canadian hosted survey site URL (www.fluidsurveys.com) and a unique invite access code for each household. The invite code matched a code on the paper survey, which allowed for the identification of any duplicate surveys received. Respondents were again encouraged to complete the survey by August 20, 2010. The paper and online surveys were closed immediately after Labour Day, on September 7, 2010.  77  4.2.3 Statistical Analysis Paper survey responses were manually entered, and online responses were directly downloaded, into PASW Statistics software for analysis (PASW Statistics Grad Pack 17.0.2, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). A significance level of p < 0.05 was set for all assumptions. Different statistical methods were applied based upon the measurement scale for each question and the assumptions of the statistical methods (Field, 2009). Basic frequency and descriptive analyses were completed for all variables of interest in Part A and Part F. For nominal and ordinal variables, cross tabulations, chi-square, and correlation analyses using Pearson’s, Spearman’s rho, or Kendall’s tau b as appropriate and Cramer’s V, Lambda or Phi as measures of the strength of associations, were used to initially check for significant associations between demographic questions and whether a respondent had purchased any duck or quail egg types. Results from these analyses were used to choose variables for inclusion into a single block-enter logistic regression model analysis. Missing values were excluded from analysis on a pair-wise basis, except for the logistic regression analysis (see Section 4.2.4.2), in which missing values were excluded on a case-wise basis.  4.2.4 Logistic Regression Model To gain an understanding of the demographic characteristics and level of acculturation of buyers and non-buyers of duck and quail egg products, the empirical analysis was divided into two parts. In part one, an ‘external domain’ acculturation measurement score was constructed. In part two a logistic regression model for probability of purchase was estimated.  4.2.4.1  Acculturation Score Development  For the purposes of the measurement of acculturation and to reduce the number of variables for input into a logistic regression model of purchase behaviour, responses to ten initial acculturation-related questions (variables) were re-coded from nominal or ordinal categories into a score grid between 0 (least acculturated) to 1 (most acculturated) so that higher scores would correlate positively with higher acculturation. The ten initial variables were: Mother tongue, language reading ability, place of birth, years lived in Canada, residential status, generation status, birthplace of grandparents, ethnic background of household members, balancing yin/yang foods, and food preferences.  78  Answers for the mother tongue question were collapsed into three categories: Chinese only (0), Chinese and English (0.5), and English only (1.0). Birthplace answers were collapsed into 6 categories: Mainland China (0), Taiwan (0.20), Hong Kong (0.40), Other Asia (0.60), Other (0.80), and Canada (1.0). Years in Canada answers were re-coded into 5 categories: ≤ 5 yrs (0), 6-10 yrs (0.25), 11-20 yrs (0.50), >20 yrs (0.75), and “born in Canada” (1.0). Residential status categories were re-coded into “non-landed” (0), “landed immigrant” (0.33), “naturalized Canadian citizen” (0.66), and “Canadian citizen by birth” (1.0). A large number of “Not sure” (Canadian born grandparents variable) and “Don’t know” (balancing yin/yang foods variable) responses were treated as missing values, rather than imputing the mean item score. Non-parametric correlations between the ten variables were tested using Kendall’s tau b, a more accurate estimation of the correlation in the population given a large number of tied ranks, compared to using Spearman’s rho (Field, 2009). Based on results, final acculturation variables were selected and summed and an acculturation score for each respondent was then calculated as the mean of the non-missing responses (Satia et al., 2001).  79  4.2.4.2  Logistic Regression Model Development  Whether a Chinese Canadian consumer chooses to purchase a duck or quail egg product, or not, may be based upon a variety of factors, including their personal characteristics and likes or dislikes, features of the egg product(s), and the context in which a purchase decision is being made. It is impossible to fully measure or observe all the variables that impact the buying decision, however, methods have been developed to model consumer choice bechaviour. The binary logistic regression model is one method that can be used to model and predict consumer choice behaviour, or group membership, when the outcome is discrete (for example, purchase or non-purchase) and the predictor variables are continuous and/or categorical. It is a flexible technique because it has no assumptions about the distributions of predictor variables, if they are linearly related, or exhibit equality of variances (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2007). It is based upon utility theory and is a random utility discrete choice model. As an economic or marketing concept, utility can be thought of as a representation of how useful a product or service is in meeting the wants or needs of a consumer. Utility theory assumes that consumers make rational choices to maximize their perceived utility and that utility is a random function (McFadden, 1980, p.S14). In a random utility discrete choice model, measureable information about a consumer, the product, and the context of the purchase can be used to help predict choice. However due to the fact that not all factors influencing a purchase can be measured, there is also an unmeasurable random error component. Given a large enough sample of individuals and measurement of their choices, predictions can be made about the probability of an individual choosing a particular product or not (or choosing between products). In this study, my objective is to model the Chinese Canadian consumer’s decision to purchase, or not, duck and quail egg products, based upon the consumer’s characteristics only. In a binary logistic regression model, the expected value of the dependent or outcome variable, Y (purchase or non-purchase of eggs), is the probability, p, of Y occurring (i.e. Y = 1), given known values of Xni. P(Y) is modeled by the logit transformation of p, In[p/(1-p)], such that In [p/(1-p)] = β0 + β1x1 + … + βnxni + εi  The linear regression equation is the natural log of the probability of purchase, p, divided by the the probability of non-purchase, 1- p, that is, the natural log of the odds.  80  Or, in the logistic function of  P(Y) = __________1_______________ 1 + ℮xp- (b0 + b1X1 + … + bnXni +  εi)  where b0 is the intercept (constant), Xn is the vector of independent variables that may affect Y, and bn is the vector of coefficients of Xn. The model uses the maximum likelihood method of estimating the values of the parameters. The log-likelihood statistic was used to assess if the full model was significantly better than the model with the constant-only. The percentage of cases correctly categorized into buyers or non-buyers were used to assess the overall fit of the model. Cox and Snell’s RCS2, Nagelkerke’s RN2, McFadden’s p2, were also used to assess fit, while their drawbacks are noted (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2007). The Wald statistic was used to test if the b coefficient for each predictor variable was significantly different from zero and therefore a significant predictor of the outcome (Field, 2009). Note that in logistic regression the estimated regression coefficient bn cannot be interpreted in the same manner as in a linear regression model because the slope is not constant. The effect of a unit increase in Xn varies depending on the starting point on the X scale (Kutner, Nachtsheim, Neter, Li, 2005). However, bn can be interpreted using the odds (p/1 – p) for given levels of Xn because the estimated odds can be multiplied by ℮xp(bn) for any unit increase in X (see Kutner et al., 2005, p 567). The odds ratio is the change in odds of being in one of the outcome categories (in this case, purchasing an egg type), when the value of a predictor variable is increased by one unit (Field, 2009). For example: If the estimated odds of purchase when X = Xj is denoted by (OddsA), and if the estimated odds of purchase when X is increased by one unit, X = Xj + 1, denoted by (OddsB), then: OddsB/OddsA = ℮xp(bn) = odds ratio If the odds ratio is greater than 1, as the predictor increases, the change in the odds of purchase occurring is positive, that is, in favour of purchase. For example, if we have fitted the logisitic function and the model estimates that p = 0.8 for X = Xj, then the odds of purchase are 0.8/0.2 = 4.0. The odds of purchase are 4:1 in favour of purchase. If X is increased by one unit to Xj + 1, and the logistic regression estimates the new probability of purchase as p = 0.9 for X = Xj + 1, the new odds of purchase are 0.9/0.1 = 9.0. The odds ratio is 9.0/4.0 = 2.25. The original odds of purchase has increased by 2.25 times, or 81  225% with a one unit increase in the predictor variable. If the odds ratio (or the odds) is less than 1, as the predictor increases, the change in the odds of purchase occurring is negative, that is, not in favour of purchasing, but towards not purchasing. For example, if the fitted logistic regression model estimates that p = 0.8 for X = Xj, then the odds of purchase are 0.8/0.2 = 4.0. The odds of purchase are 4:1 in favour of purchase. However, if X is increased by one unit to Xj + 1, and the logistic regression estimates the new probability of purchase as p = 0.6 for X = Xj + 1, the new odds of purchase are 0.6/0.4 = 1.5. The odds of purchase are now 1.5:1 in favour of purchase. The odds ratio is now 1.5/4.0 = 0.375. The original odds of purchase (4.0) have decreased by 0.375 times to 1.5, or by 62.5%. Clearly, the further the odds ratio is from 1:1, whether positive or negative, the greater the impact of the change in the predictor variable. Thus the odds ratio can be used as a means to interpret the effect size of a predictor variable (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2007). Kutner et al. (2005) also notes that if a unit increase in X is quite small, the estimated odds ratio may not adequately show the change in odds when the differences in X are large (or if a one unit increase in X is actually quite large and the differences in the X measurements are measured in fractions of one unit). To account for this, he recommends estimating the odds ratio when there is a difference of c units of X, such that: Odds ratio = ℮xp(cbn) For example, if all else is equal, and respondent A scores 0.2 out of 1.0 on the acculturation score and respondent B scores 0.3 out of 1.0, the estimated odds ratio can be calculated as ℮xp(0.1bn), where bn is the coefficient for the acculturation score. An estimated coefficient bn for a predictor variable, X, can vary and confidence intervals can be calculated. It follows that the odds ratio for changes in X can also vary and confidence intervals can be calculated for the odds ratio to provide an estimate of how the odds vary to changes in X for a given confidence level (95% in my analysis). If an odds ratio confidence interval crosses one, it indicates that the direction of change in the odds is not consistent for changes in X and therefore X should not be interpreted as a reliable predictor variable.  82  4.3 Results 4.3.1 Survey Sample Size A total of 1,479 questionnaires were mailed out to the randomly selected households. Sixty three were returned to sender undeliverable, for a net initial sample of 1,416 households. A net total of 410 usable surveys (28.9%) were processed for analysis. Comparing modes, 93.9% (385) of respondents replied by mail and 6.1% (25) by the follow up Internet option. Unless otherwise noted, survey answers are considered accurate at the 95% confidence level with a 5% margin of error (I am 95% certain that answers are accurate within a range of plus or minus 5%). This is based upon a required minimum sample size of 384 respondents9.  4.3.2 Survey Data 4.3.2.1  Survey Language and Mode  More respondents chose the Chinese language version (54.4%) than the English version (45.6%). No significant association between language choice and whether they replied by mail or Internet was found χ2 = 0.061(1), p-value = .804, at the 0.05 (2 tailed) level.  4.3.2.2  Characteristics of Responding Households  To see how representative the sample was to the Metro Vancouver Chinese Canadian population, a comparison of sampled household characteristics to the Metro Vancouver Chinese Canadian population is shown in Table 4.1. Responses were received from households in all eight of the geographically stratified sampling areas and followed the overall distribution pattern of the Chinese Canadian population in Metro Vancouver. Responses from two outer suburban zones, with lower concentrations of Chinese Canadians, were underweight compared to the population (1.0% versus 2.7% in the outer north eastern suburbs; 4.9% versus 6.0% in the outer eastern suburbs).  9  Calculated as: n = [t2 x p(1-p)] / m2, where n = required sample size, t = the desired 95% confidence level (standard value of 1.96), p = estimated percentage picking a particular answer (conservatively set at 0.5), and m = margin of error at 5% (standard value of 0.05).  83  Table 4.1 Comparison of percentage distribution of household characteristics, sample versus population, Chinese Canadians, Metro Vancouver Sample Variable  Freq.  Population  %  %  Geographic location (n=405) Maple Ridge, Pitt Meadows, Port Coquitlam, Port Moody, Anmore and Belcarra  4  1.0  2.7a  Delta, White Rock and Tsawwassen  6  1.5  1.7  North Vancouver (City and District), West Vancouver, Bowen Island, Lions Bay, and Electoral Area A*  11  2.7  3.8  Langley (City and Township), and Surrey  20  4.9  6.7  Coquitlam  22  5.4  5.3  Burnaby and New Westminster  81  20.0  16.6  Richmond  86  21.2  19.6  Vancouver  175  43.2  43.6  Below $20,000  45  12.2  15.5b  $20,000 - $39,999  90  24.3  21.8  $40,000 - $59,999  78  21.1  18.4  $60,000 - $79,999  55  14.9  13.1  $80,000 - $99,999  33  8.9  9.7  $100,000 or more  69  18.6  21.5  One person  47  12.4  5.1c  Two persons  81  21.4  15.9  Three persons  76  20.1  21.7  Four persons  111  29.4  28.5  Five persons  39  10.3  15.2  Six persons  13  3.4  7.9  Seven persons or more  11  3.0  5.7  152  37.5  37.1  Total annual household income (n=370)  Household size (number of persons) (n=378)  Children <19 yrs present in household (n=405)  Sources: from 2006 Census data, a Statistics Canada (2010f); b c Statistics Canada (2010c) *Electoral Area A corresponds to census subdivision Greater Vancouver A. Some respondents may not have known that they live in Area A and may have indicated a different location.  84  The total annual household income of respondents also follows the distribution pattern for the Metro Vancouver Chinese Canadian population. However, very low income (< $20,000) households and higher income households (> $100,000) are under-represented by approximately 3% and the income groups from $20,000 to $59,999 are over represented by approximately 3%. There was a high item non response rate of 9.8% (40) on the household income question. This is not unusual as many people prefer not to disclose income information even when assured of confidentiality. The median category for total annual household income was $40,000 to $59,999. Household size was calculated from Question 12, Part F. The results, although following the population distribution, skew to smaller households (overweight in one and two person households). Household size could not be calculated for a number of cases with missing values (non-responses, n=14) or non-interpretable/conflicting responses (n=18) and should be interpreted with caution. Mean sample household size was 3.3 persons per household; mean population household size was 3.8 persons per household. Median sample household size was 3 persons per household.  4.3.2.3  Demographic Characteristics of the Household’s Main Grocery Shopper  The main grocery shopper for each household (required to be at least 19 years of age) was eligible to fill out the questionnaire. Table 4.2 presents a comparison of the household’s main grocery shopper to the Chinese Canadian population in Metro Vancouver. Females represented 55.6% of respondents, males 44.4%; females are over represented compared to the population, but this is not unexpected as grocery shopping still tends to be dominated by women. Younger age groups of < 40 years are considerably under-represented in the responses received. Age groups from 40 to 69 years are over represented, and the 70+ age group is slightly under represented. The median age range in the sample was 50 to 59 years. Respondents were asked to select from a provided list, their highest level of education attained. Survey respondents generally had higher levels of education than the Metro Vancouver ethnic Chinese population. The median education level attained was a university certificate or diploma below the bachelor level.  85  Table 4.2 Comparison of percentage distribution of main grocery shopper's demographic characteristics, sample versus population, Chinese Canadians, Metro Vancouver Populationa  Sample Variable  Freq.  %  %  Sex (n=405) Male  180  44.4  47.2  Female  225  55.6  52.8  19 – 29 yrs  10  2.5  20.7  30 – 39 yrs  45  11.0  17.6  40 – 49 yrs  112  27.5  23.8  50 – 59 yrs  145  35.5  18.0  60 – 69 yrs  58  14.2  8.8  70 + yrs  38  9.3  11.0  Elementary school  12  3.0  20.1  High School certificate or equivalent  97  24.5  25.7  Apprenticeship, trades certificate or diploma  29  7.3  4.2  College, CEGEP diploma or certificate  57  14.4  12.0  University certificate or diploma below bachelor level  24  6.1  8.1  112  28.3  20.9  14  3.5  2.0  6  1.5  0.9  40  10.1  5.1  5  1.3  0.9  Age (n=408)  Education (n=396)  Bachelor degree University certificate or diploma above bachelor level Degree in medicine/dentistry/veterinary medicine/optometry Master degree Earned doctorate  Source: a percentage of Chinese population 15 yrs or older, from the 2006 Census data (Statistics Canada, 2010b)  86  4.3.2.4  Acculturation Variables  Table 4.3 and Table 4.4 present frequency distributions of selected demographic variables that may indicate the level of acculturation of the respondents and their household. In Table 4.5, frequency tables are provided for all other acculturation indicator variables. Eighty-nine percent of respondents were immigrants to Canada, and 11% were born in Canada. The most responses were received from Hong Kong emigrants (37.8%), followed by PR of China emigrants (30.5%) and Taiwanese emigrants (10.0%). Compared to 2006 Census data, ethnic Chinese Canadians born in Canada and immigrants from the PR of China are under-represented in the sample. A majority 53.4% reported Cantonese as their mother tongue, 19.5% reported Mandarin, 7.8% reported English, 6.1% Cantonese and English, and 2.9% Mandarin and English. The dominance of Cantonese reflects the historical pattern of Chinese immigration to Canada: Cantonese speaking Hong Kong emigrants were the main source of Chinese immigrants from post-World War II until the mid1990s, and initial (1973 – late 1980s) immigrants from the PR of China were predominantly from the nearby Cantonese speaking Guangdong Province (Li, 2005). More recently, ethnic Chinese immigrants are predominantly from Mandarin speaking areas of mainland China; however responses from recent immigrants are under-represented in the sample data.  87  Table 4.3 Comparison of percentage distribution of demographic acculturation indicators, sample versus population, Chinese Canadians in Metro Vancouver  Variable  Population1  Sample Freq.  %  %  Birthplace (n=410) Canada  45  11.0  24.8  Mainland China  125  30.5  33.9  Hong Kong  155  37.8  18.6  41  10.0  9.4  Other Southeast Asia  1  .2  9.1  Macau  7  1.7  10  2.4  Philippines  5  1.2  Singapore  2  .5  19  4.6  1.2  0  0.0  1.9  29  7.2  14.9  331  81.7  58.4  45  11.1  24.8  Other East Asia  Malaysia  Other  3.0  Residency status (n=405) Non-permanent resident Landed immigrant Canadian citizen (naturalized) Canadian citizen (by birth) Generation status (n=408) 1st generation Canadian  364  89.2  84.8  nd  37  9.1  13.2  rd  7  1.7  2.0  32  8.0  15.7  Cantonese  219  54.6  31.3*  Mandarin  80  19.5  17.2*  Other Chinese dialect or Chinese not specified  17  4.1  29.9*  Cantonese and English  25  6.1  Mandarin and English  12  2.9  5  1.2  11  2.7  357  89.5  2 generation Canadian 3 generation or more Canadian Mother tongue (n=401) English  Other Chinese dialect and English Other  5.9  Ethnic ancestry of household (n=399) Single: Chinese ancestry only  Mixed: Chinese and other ancestry(s) 42 10.5 Calculated from 2006 Census data, Statistics Canada (2010b) *Calculated from 2006 Census data, Statistics Canada (2010e) 1  88  As indicated in Table 4.4, the majority of immigrant respondents have lived in Canada for more than 10 years. No recent immigrants arriving within the past two years responded to the survey. Well established immigrants (> 20 years in Canada) are over represented in the sample compared to the population. Overall, respondents were older, more established immigrants with higher educational levels than the overall Chinese Canadian population in Metro Vancouver. Younger, second generation Chinese Canadians, and immigrants from mainland China were under represented in our respondents. Table 4.4 Comparison of percentage distribution of years lived in Canada, sample versus population, Chinese Canadian immigrants, Metro Vancouver Survey data  Census data (2006) Population1  Years in Canada  %  Period of immigration  %  2001 - 2006  18.5  < 2 years  0.0  2 – 5 years  4.9  6 – 10 years  10.2  11 – 20 years  43.1  1991 – 2000  44.7  > 20 years  41.8  Before 1991  36.8  1  Source: calculated from Statistics Canada (2010b)  With respect to the other acculturation variables (Table 4.5), responses were skewed to a greater ability to read in Chinese than in English, to a preference for Chinese/Asian food over Canadian/Western food, and to agreement that the household balances yin/yang foods. Given that 13.9% of respondents did not know if their household balanced yin/yang foods, results to the yin/yang foods question should be interpreted with caution (although it is likely that if they did not know about yin/yang balance, their household would not be balancing yin/yang foods). Finally, the sample was underweight in ethnic Chinese born in Canada, so it follows that few respondents reported that their grandparents were born in Canada.  89  Table 4.5 Frequency distribution of selected acculturation indicator variables, Chinese Canadians, Metro Vancouver Sample Variables  Freq.  %  Reading ability (n=406) Read only English  64  15.8  Read English better than Chinese  41  10.1  Read Chinese and English equally well  113  27.8  Read Chinese better than English  145  35.7  43  10.6  5  1.3  11  2.9  363  94.5  5  1.3  1 = Strongly disagree  27  6.7  2  28  7.0  3  123  30.6  4  82  20.4  5 = Strongly agree  86  21.4  Do not know  56  13.9  11  2.7  Mostly Chinese/Asian food, some Canadian/Western  227  55.9  About equal  147  36.2  19  4.7  2  0.5  Read Chinese only  Birthplace of grandparents (n=384) All born in Canada Some born in Canada, some outside Canada All born outside Canada Not sure  Balance yin/yang foods (n=402)  Household food preference at home (n=406) Exclusively Chinese/Asian food  Mostly Canadian/Western food Exclusively Canadian/Western food  90  4.3.3 Egg Purchases A large majority of respondents (76.8%) had purchased for consumption at home at least one type of duck or quail egg product and/or prepared foods containing an egg type, within the past 12 months (Table 4.6). Salted and preserved duck eggs had been purchased by the majority of respondents, with 7.7% more respondents reporting purchases of salted duck eggs compared to preserved duck eggs. Only a small minority of respondents (14.6%) had purchased fresh quail eggs. Small percentages of respondents reported purchases of only one type of egg product exclusively: 5.9% purchased only salted duck eggs; 3.7% purchased only preserved duck eggs; 0.7% purchased only fresh quail eggs; and, 3.9% purchased only prepared foods containing at least one of the duck or quail egg types. Table 4.6 Percentage of respondents who purchased duck and/or quail egg products for at home consumption within the past 12 mths (n = 410) Buyers Duck or quail egg product  No.  %  Any individual egg type and/or within prepared foods  315  76.8  Any individual egg type  299  72.9  Within prepared foods  146  35.6  16  3.9  Salted duck eggs  264  64.4  Preserved duck eggs  245  59.8  60  14.6  Only within prepared foods  Fresh quail eggs  Answers are considered accurate at the 95% confidence level, with a 5% margin of error  91  Whole, raw salted duck eggs and soft yolk preserved duck eggs were the egg-types buyers most usually purchased (Figure 4.2). Preserved duck eggs %  Salted duck eggs % 8  36  21  77  88  Whole, raw  Whole, cooked  Yolks only  Soft yolk  Hard yolk  Figure 4.2 Types of duck eggs usually purchased, percentage of buyers  4.3.3.1  Frequency of Purchase and Purchasing Trend  Purchases of duck and quail egg products for consumption at home were infrequent with only 3.8% of salted duck egg buyers, 2.9% of preserved duck egg buyers, and 0% of fresh quail egg buyers purchasing every 1 to 2 wks (Figure 4.3). The median purchase frequency for both duck egg products was every 3 to 4 months and for fresh quail eggs was once a year. 70  Percentage  60 50 40 30  Salted duck eggs(n=264)  20  Preserved duck eggs (n=245) Fresh quail eggs (n=60)  10 0 Once or Every 3 to Every 2 Once a Every 1 to twice a 4 months months month 2 weeks year Purchase frequency  Figure 4.3 Percentage distribution of purchase frequency, by egg type for at home consumption  92  Compared to one year ago, only small percentages of respondents reported purchases ‘increasing a little’: 6.8% for salted duck eggs; 4.9% for preserved duck eggs; and 15.0% for fresh quail eggs (Figure 4.4). No household reported increasing purchases a lot. For all products, the median and mode of the trend was for no change. Overall, responses were skewed to a no change – declining trend, compared to  Percentage  one year ago.  70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0  Salted duck egg (n=264) Preserved duck egg (n=245) Fresh quail egg (n=60)  Purchase trend  Figure 4.4 Percentage distribution of purchasing trends for duck and quail egg products for consumption at home in the past 12 months, compared to the year previous  For the duck egg products, correlation analysis indicated weak, but significant, positive correlations between frequency of purchase and purchase trend. As frequency of purchase declines, the purchase trend declines (i.e. someone who buys once or twice a year is significantly more likely to report purchases are decreasing rather than increasing, compared to last year). For salted duck eggs: Kendall’s tau b = .145, p-value = .008 (2 tailed); preserved duck eggs: Kendall’s tau b = .204, p-value = .000 (2 tailed); both significant at the p < 0.01 level. No significant correlation was found between frequency of purchase and purchase trend for fresh quail eggs: Kendall’s tau b = .013, p-value = .916 (2 tailed) at the p<0.05 level.  93  4.3.3.2  Package Size  Respondents were requested to write in a provided space the usual package size purchased. Prompts were not provided. For salted duck eggs, 93.8% of valid responses indicated 6 eggs per package were purchased most often, 3.3% usually purchased 4 eggs per package, 2.1% usually purchased individual salted eggs or multiples of individual eggs (for example 2 or 3), and 0.8% reported buying a dozen per package or 425g per package. For preserved duck eggs, 94.8% of valid responses reported most often purchasing 6 eggs per package, 1.7% usually purchased 4 eggs per package, 3.0% usually purchased individual eggs or multiples of individual eggs, and 0.4% reported buying a dozen eggs per package or 425g packages. A greater variety of fresh quail egg package sizes were reported purchased: 34.7% and 59.2% of valid responses reported most often purchasing 12 and 24 eggs per package respectively, and 6.1% reported various other numbers of eggs per package purchased. Median fresh quail egg package size purchased was 24 eggs.  4.3.3.3  Total Number of Eggs Purchased Annually  Statistics for total number of salted and preserved duck eggs and fresh quail eggs purchased annually are presented in Table 4.7. For all three egg types, a few respondents reported purchasing large numbers compared to the mean, resulting in large standard deviations. The total number of eggs purchased annually was positively correlated to frequency of purchase. For salted duck eggs: Kendall’s tau b = .694, p-value = .000 (2 tailed); for preserved duck eggs: Kendall’s tau b = .704, p-value = .000 (2 tailed); for fresh quail eggs: Kendall’s tau b = .650, p-value = .000 (2 tailed); all significant at p < 0.001 level. The more frequent the purchases, the higher the number of eggs purchased annually. Infrequent purchasers, therefore, did not buy large quantities at a time. In addition, the total number of salted or preserved duck eggs purchased annually was positively correlated to the year over year purchasing trend. For salted duck eggs, Kendall’s tau b = .198, p-value = .000; for preserved duck eggs, Kendall’s tau b = .192, p-value = .000; all significant at the p < .01 level. No significant correlation was found between the total annual number of fresh quail eggs purchased and the purchasing trend: Kendall’s tau b = -.125, p-value = .303 (2 tailed), at the p < .05 level.  94  Table 4.7 Descriptive statistics for total annual purchases of types of duck and quail eggs Salted duck  Preserved duck  Valid  249  229  53  Missing  15  16  7  26.3  22.8  52.4  1.6  1.6  6.8  18.0  12.0  42.0  6.0  6.0  12.0  25.9  24.0  49.4  179.0  155.0  276.0  Statistic N  Mean S.E. of Mean Median Mode Std. Deviation Range  4.3.3.4  Fresh quail  Estimated Market Size  A estimate of the annual consumer market size for purchases of each egg type for at home consumption can be made using census data and the mean number of eggs purchased annually. A total of 402,000 ethnic Chinese reside in Metro Vancouver. Based upon the Chinese Canadian population’s mean household size of 3.79 persons per household in Metro Vancouver (Statistics Canada, 2010c), there are approximately 106,069 Chinese Canadian households. Using the percentages of respondents (the household’s grocery shopper) who indicated that they purchased a particular egg type for consumption at home, and the mean number of eggs purchased annually, an estimate of the market size can be made. Results are shown in Table 4.8. The market is largest for salted duck eggs; the market for at-home consumption of fresh quail eggs is considerably smaller than for the duck egg products. Table 4.8 Estimated annual market size of Chinese Canadian household consumption of salted and preserved duck eggs, and fresh quail eggs, Metro Vancouver Salted Preserved Fresh duck eggs duck eggs quail eggs Total number of Chinese Canadian households 106,069 106,069 106,069 Percentage of respondents who purchased 64% 60% 15% Net number of households who purchased 67,884 63,641 15,910 Mean number of eggs purchased annually per household 26.3 22.8 52.4 Total number of eggs purchased annually 1,785,342 1,451,015 833,684 Total number of eggs purchased annually in dozens 148,779 120,918 69,474  95  4.3.3.5  Market Share by Frequency of Purchase  Figure 4.5 indicates that the percentage of market share volume for salted and preserved duck eggs is almost evenly split between frequent purchasers (once a month or more frequently) and infrequent purchasers (every three to four months or less frequently). Respondents who bought infrequently were responsible for 64% of the fresh quail egg market volume.  Salted duck eggs  13  27  Preserved duck eggs 10  20 31  22 18  20  24 15  Fresh quail eggs  25  33  11 31  1 or 2 times per yr  Every 3 to 4 mths  Once a mth  Every 1 to 2 wks  Every 2nd mth  Figure 4.5 Percentage of market share volume by frequency of purchase  4.3.3.6  Usual Purchase Location  Respondents were asked to check off as many locations as applicable to where they usually purchased each duck or quail egg type (Figure 4.6). For all egg types, T&T Supermarket was the most popular store for purchase: Over 80% of respondents bought salted or preserved duck eggs and over 60% of respondents bought fresh quail eggs at T&T. For all three egg types, independent Asian grocery stores were the second most popular location for purchase.  96  Other  Location  Farmer's market or farm gate Osaka Fresh quail eggs (n=56)  T & T Supermarket  Preserved duck eggs (n=236)  Real Canadian Superstore  Salted duck eggs (n=260)  Independent Asian H-Mart 0  20 40 60 80 % of valid cases  100  Figure 4.6 Percentages of buyers reporting egg purchases at different stores in Metro Vancouver (buyers could choose multiple responses)  4.3.3.7  Purchase Occasion  Respondents were asked to rank their top two occasions for purchasing duck or quail egg products. Online survey data was not reliable for this variable and was excluded from analysis 10. In the paper mode, in a large number of cases only one, first choice reason was provided. Some paper mode respondents checked off more than two responses. These multiple responses were re-coded to ‘777’ and were excluded from the ranking analysis, but were analyzed separately. For salted duck eggs (Figure 4.7), within the first choice rankings, 89% ranked ‘usual meal planning’ as their top reason for purchase, followed by 9.2% citing ‘Chinese festivals’. Within the rankings for second choice reason for purchase, 41.5% ranked ‘entertaining family and friends’ as their second choice, followed by ‘Chinese festivals’ (24.4%) and ‘usual meal planning’ (22.0%). Overall, when 1st and 2nd choice votes are combined, ‘usual meal planning’ received the most votes, followed by ‘Chinese festivals’. Twenty one respondents checked multiple, unranked responses (n= 53, coded 777), and ‘usual meal planning’ was most frequently selected (38.9%) followed by ‘Chinese festivals’ (33.3%), and ‘entertaining family and friends’ (11.1%).  10  A restriction limiting responses to two (1st choice and 2nd choice) per egg type failed and results showed ranking for all occasions rather than just the top two.  97  Other  Occasion  Entertaining family & friends Other holidays (e.g. Christmas) Multiple choice (n=53)  Chinese festivals (e.g. Autumn Moon)  2nd Choice (n=42)  Special celebrations (e.g. birthdays)  1st Choice (n=219)  Usual meal planning 0  20  40 60 Percentage  80  100  Figure 4.7 Percentage ranks of purchase occasion, salted duck eggs  For preserved duck eggs, results (not shown) were similar to the pattern for salted duck eggs. Within the first choice rankings (n=198), 91.9% ranked ‘usual meal planning’ as their top choice, followed by ‘Chinese festivals’ (4.0%). Within preserved duck egg 2nd choice rankings (n=29), 58.6% chose ‘entertaining family or friends’, 20.7% chose ‘Chinese festivals’, and 13.8% chose ‘usual meal planning’. Within respondents selecting multiple, unranked occasions for purchase (n=45), 42.2% selected ‘usual meal planning’, 20% selected ‘Chinese festivals’, and 24.4% selected ‘entertaining family and friends’. For fresh quail eggs (results not shown), ‘usual meal planning’ was again the top choice within first choice rankings (n=51) receiving 78.4% of the votes, followed by ‘special celebrations’ at 9.8%, and ‘entertaining family or friends’ at 5.9% of first choice votes. Only six respondents provided a 2 nd choice ranking: Three chose ‘entertaining family and friends’, two chose ‘special celebrations’, and one chose ‘Chinese festivals’. Within respondents who selected multiple, unranked occasions for purchase (n=10), ‘special celebrations’ was the most frequently selected (30%).  98  4.3.3.8  Non Purchasers/Non Consumers  The main reasons for non-purchase and non-consumption of any duck or quail egg products, either at home or away from home are provided in Figure 4.8. Health concerns (concerns about sodium content or cholesterol levels, for example) and preference for fresh, unprocessed eggs lead the nonpurchase/non-consumption reasons for the duck egg products. For fresh quail eggs, health concerns followed by unfamiliarity with the products were the most often cited reasons for non-purchase/nonconsumption. When asked if anything would make them buy or try these eggs, the most frequent response was if the eggs were to be proven to have health benefits.  40  35  Percentage  30 25 20 15  10 5  Salted duck eggs Preserved duck eggs Fresh quail eggs  0  Figure 4.8 Main reasons for non-purchase and non-consumption of any duck or quail egg products (n=95)  99  4.3.4 Logistic Regression Results 4.3.4.1  Acculturation Score (AS)  To test if the acculturation variables were significantly associated with each other, and therefore supporting the assumption that they are each providing a measurement of acculturation, a correlation analysis was conducted. The correlation matrix of the ten variables tested for inclusion in the AS is shown in Table 4.9. Missing values were excluded on a case-wise basis and to be conservative, correlations were tested using Kendall’s tau b due to 1) a large number of tied ranks, and 2) not normally distributed variable scores. Correlation coefficients are thus lower than they would be if Spearman’s rho was used. Results indicate that all variables, except in two instances, are significantly associated with each other. Based on these results, the “grandparents’ birthplace” variable was eliminated from inclusion in the overall AS. This variable had weak significant correlations and one non-significant correlation. There was a lack of variability in the answers to this question and there were a large number of “not sure” responses or missing values. Eliminating it from the AS and the logistic model would have minimal impact because the generation status question, with stronger significant correlation coefficients, could still act as a measure of depth of roots in Canada. Despite some weak or non-significant correlation coefficients, and a large number of “don’t know” responses, the “balance yin/yang foods” variable was included in the AS because this was one of only two variables that asked directly about cultural food habits or behaviours. A net total of nine variables was then included in the calculation of the overall AS measure: Mother tongue, reading language ability, birthplace, years in Canada, residential status, generation status, household ethnic mix, balancing yin/yang foods, and household food preference. Summary statistics for the AS results are shown inTable 4.10.  100  Table 4.9 Correlations between potential acculturation score variables Mother tongue Mother tongue  Reading ability  Birthplace  Years in Canada  Residential status  Generation Grandparents’ status birthplace  Correlation Coefficient Sig. (1-tailed) N Reading Correlation Coefficient ability Sig. (1-tailed) N Birthplace Correlation Coefficient Sig. (1-tailed) N Years in Canada Correlation Coefficient Sig. (1-tailed) N Residential Correlation Coefficient status Sig. (1-tailed) N  1.000 . 408 .318** .000 404 .280** .000 408 .325** .000 407 .398** .000 403  1.000 . 406 .491** .000 406 .458** .000 405 .403** .000 401  1.000 . 410 .475** .000 409 .510** .000 405  1.000 . 409 .595** .000 405  1.000 . 405  Generation status  .534** .000 406  .449** .000 404  .508** .000 408  .524** .000 407  .783** .000 403  1.000 . 408  .172** .000 377 .196** .000 397  .173** .000 375 .234** .000 395  .192** .000 379 .204** .000 399  .203** .000 378 .229** .000 398  .220** .000 374 .235** .000 395  .257** .000 377 .257** .000 397  Correlation Coefficient .132** .233** .174** .124** .122** Sig. (1-tailed) .003 .000 .000 .003 .006 N 344 344 346 345 341 Household food Correlation Coefficient .299** .321** .296** .297** .308** preference Sig. (1-tailed) .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 N 404 402 406 405 401 ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (1-tailed); * Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (1-tailed).  .169** .000 345 .341** .000 404  Grandparents’ birthplace Household ethnicity Balance yin/yang foods  Correlation Coefficient Sig. (1-tailed) N Correlation Coefficient Sig. (1-tailed) N Correlation Coefficient Sig. (1-tailed) N  Household ethnicity  Balance yin/yang foods  Household food preference  1.000 . 379 .138** .004 368  1.000 . 399  .073 .077 316  .068 .085 341 .225** .000 398  .088* .038 375  1.000 . 346 .092* .026 346  1.000 . 406  101  Table 4.10 Acculturation score descriptive statistics (n=410) Statistic  Value  Mean  .35  Std. Error of Mean  .01  Median  .31  Std. Deviation  .17  Skewness  1.50  Kurtosis  1.70  Range  .87  Minimum  .06  Maximum  .94  Percentiles  25  .24  50  .31  75  .39  No respondent’s score was zero. Scores are not normally distributed, with scores clustered to the lower end of the scale (less acculturated) and positive kurtosis, indicating a pointy and heavy tailed distribution.  4.3.4.2  Potential Predictor Variables for the Purchase Model  Grocery shopper demographic characteristics and household characteristics were all reviewed for inclusion in the logistic regression analysis. Initial cross tabulations and Chi-square tests of each variable category and the buy/not buy behaviour were conducted, with results shown in Tables 4.11 and 4.12. Empty cells or expected cell counts of less than five for age, education, and location variables were found. To remedy, categories in these variables were reduced and the analysis was run again (not shown), but there were no overall changes to the results: Education and total annual household income were the only two variables to indicate a significant association with purchase or non-purchase.  102  Table 4.11 Cross tabulations of grocery shopper characteristics by purchase behaviour for any individual egg type Doesn’t buy %  Buys %  28.9  71.1  25.6  74.4  10.0  90.0  40.0  60.0  30.4  69.6  26.2  73.8  24.1  75.9  15.8  84.2  0.0  100.0  17.5  82.5  31.0  69.0  24.6  75.4  33.3  66.7  25.9  74.1  57.1  42.9  16.7  83.3  45.0  55.0  40.0  60.0  ChiSquare (df)  p-value  .558(1)  .445  8.625a  .125  23.727b  .005*  Sex (n = 405) Male Female Age (n = 408) 19 – 29 years 30 – 39 years 40 – 49 years 50 – 59 years 60 – 69 years 70+ years Education (n = 396) Elementary school High school certificate Apprenticeship/trade certificate or diploma College or CEGEP certificate or diploma University certificate or diploma lower than bachelor level Bachelor degree University certificate or diploma above bachelor level Degree in medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry Master degree Earned doctorate a  1 cell (8.3%) has expected cell count less than 5 b 6 cells (30%) have expected count less than 5 * Association is significant at the p < .01 level (2-tailed test)  103  Table 4.12 Cross tabulations of household characteristics by purchase behaviour for any individual egg type Doesn’t buy %  Buys %  Burnaby or New Westminster  28.4  71.6  Coquitlam  18.2  81.8  Delta, White Rock, or Tsawwassen  33.3  66.7  Langley (City or Township), or Surrey  20.0  80.0  Maple Ridge, Pitt Meadows, Port Coquitlam, Port Moody, Anmore, or Belcarra  0.0  100.0  North Vancouver (City or District), West Vancouver, Bowen Island, Lions Bay, or Electoral Area A  36.4  63.6  Richmond  23.3  76.7  Vancouver  30.0  69.7  Below $20,000  17.8  82.2  $20,000 to $39,999  18.9  81.1  $40,000 to $59,999  24.4  75.6  $60,000 to $79,999  30.9  69.1  $80,000 to $99,999  24.2  75.8  $100,000 or more  42.0  58.0  No  26.9  73.1  Yes  27.6  72.4  Chisquare (df)  p-value  5.082 (7)a  .650  Geographic location (n = 405)  Total Annual Household Income (n = 370)  13.801 (5) .017*  Presence of children < 19 years of age (n = 405)  .027 (1)  .869  a  5 cells (31.3%) have expected count less than 5 * Association is significant at the p < .05 level (2 tailed test)  104  Next, a multi-way cross-tabulation of all the potential explanatory categorical variables with the purchase/non-purchase dependent variable was conducted to review if data were present for all combinations of the variables. Expected frequencies in each cell were reviewed to see if they were greater than 1 and if no more than 20% were less than 5, in order to meet statistical assumptions for goodness of fit tests for logistic regression (Field, 2009). Multiple cells had expected frequencies of less than 5 or had empty cells. The sample size was not large enough to include all potential predictor variables in the logistic regression analysis. Based on the previous cross tabulations, age, education, and income variables were collapsed into three, two, and two categories each respectively and were selected for input into the logistic regression analysis. Income and level of education are known to be correlated. The survey measured income at the household level and education at the level of the responding individual, preventing an exact direct comparison (except for respondents who lived alone, or were the sole income earner in the household – which was not measured). A weak but significant correlation was found between the respondent’s level of education and total annual household income: Rs = .287, p=.000 (one-tailed test). The effect of this correlation will be further tested when the logistic regression model is tested for multi collinearity (next section). Finally, correlations between predictor quantitative variables and purchase behaviour were tested. As indicated in Table 4.13, both the AS and household size variables were significantly associated with purchase behaviour. Acculturation is negatively correlated to purchasing behaviour: As the AS increases, the proportion of egg buyers decreases.  Table 4.13 Correlation analysis between quantitative variables and purchase behaviour for any duck or quail egg type Buy/not buy Rs  p-value  Acculturation score correlation coefficient  -.335  .000*  Household size correlation coefficient  .158  .000*  * Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)  In total, five variables were chosen for the logistic regression purchase model: Acculturation score, household size, age, education, and household income.  105  4.3.4.3  Logistic Regression Analysis  Summary statistics for variables included in the logistic regression analysis and parameter codings for the categorical variables used in the logistic regression analysis are provided in Tables 4.14 and 4.15 respectively. Cases with missing values were excluded from analysis. Table 4.14 Summary statistics of variables included in the logistic regression model (n = 346) Variable  SPSS coding  Min.  Max.  Mean  Median  Std. Deviation  Acculturation score  .064  .937  .347  .298  .169  Household size  1  12  3.315  3.000  1.601  49 or less 50 to 59 60 +  0 1 2  College or CEGEP or less University certificate or diploma or higher  1  Age in years  Education  Total annual household income  < $60,000 $60,000 +  1.00  0  1.00  1 0  0.00  Table 4.15 Parameter coding of categorical variables for logistic regression analysis (n = 346)  Frequency Age in years  Total annual household income  Highest education attained  Parameter coding (2) (1)  49 or less  142  0.000  .000  50 – 59  126  1.000  .000  60 +  78  .000  1.000  < $60,000  199  1.000  $60,000 +  147  .000  College or CEGEP or less University certificate or diploma or higher  168  1.000  178  .000  106  The null hypothesis is that there is no difference between the predictive abilities of the model with the constant only and the full model with all the predictor variables. The alternative hypothesis is that the full model will be significantly better at predicting the observed behaviour. The estimates for the initial logistic regression model with only the constant (intercept) in the model are presented in Table 4.16. The estimates for the full logistic regression model (block enter) are shown in Table 4.17 and the classification table for the full model is shown in Table 4.18.  Table 4.16 Initial logistic regression estimates (constant only) for the purchase model of any duck or quail egg types (n = 346) Wald  Odds  Variable  B  S.E.  statistics  df  p-value  ratio  Constant  1.001  .121  68.110  1  .000*  2.720  -2 Log likelihood 402.777; * significant at the p <.001 level Table 4.17 Logistic regression estimates (full model, block enter method) for the purchase model of any duck or quail egg types (n = 346) 95% C.I. for odds  Variable (parameter code) Acculturation score Household size  Wald  ratio  Odds  B  S.E.  statistics  df  p-value  ratio  Lower  Upper  -3.759  .779  23.277  1  .000*  .023  .005  .107  .296  .100  8.724  1  .003*  1.345  1.105  1.637  2.673  2  .263  Age (≤ 49 yrs) Age (1) (50-59 yrs)  .319  .302  1.116  1  .291  1.376  .761  2.488  Age (2) (60 + yrs)  .582  .372  2.447  1  .118  1.790  .863  3.714  Education(1) (≤ college)  .077  .282  .075  1  .784  1.080  .622  1.877  Income(1) (< $60,000)  .391  .289  1.832  1  .176  1.478  .839  2.601  Constant  .964  .542  3.162  1  .075  2.622  -2 Log likelihood 350.594 (initial with constant only, 402.777); χ2 = 52.183 (6); * significant at the p <.01 level; Cox and Snell R2 = .140; Nagelkerke's R2 = .204; McFadden’s p2= .130  107  Table 4.18 Classification table for the full model (n = 346)  Observed Buys any type of duck or quail egg  Predicteda Buys any type of duck or quail egg No Yes 28 65 No 15 238 Yes  Overall percentage  Percentage correct 30.1 94.1 76.9  a. The cut value is .500  The two models, initial and full, can be compared by using the likelihood ratio statistic (LR) to test the differences in their log-likelihoods (LL): LR = -2[LL (full model) – LL (initial model)]  The likelihood ratio has a Chi-square distribution, with degress of freedom equal to the number of parameters of the full model minus the number of parameters in the constant model. The resulting Chisquare, χ2 = 52.183 (6), is significant at the .05 level of significance. The null hypothesis is rejected and the result supports the alternative hypothesis that the full model is significantly better at predicting the purchase outcome compared to the constant only. The predictive ability of the model can also be used to assess the model. The full model correctly predicts 76.9% of the observed behaviour overall, compared to 73.9% for the initial model. The full model correctly predicts 94.1% of buyers (the model is highly sensitive), but correctly predicts only 30.1% of non-buyers (the model has low specificity). The initial model was not able to correctly predict any non-buyers. The contribution of an individual predictor variable to the full model is tested by the Wald test, in which the squared coefficient of a predictor is divided by its squared standard error, yielding another Chi-square statistic. The null hypothesis is that there is no difference in predictive ability between the constant and an individual predictor variable. In Section 4.3.4.2, acculturation score, household size, education level, and total annual household income were all significantly associated with the buy/notbuy outcome and it was expected that these predictor variables would be significant contributors to the full model. However, as shown in Table 4.17, the Wald test indicates that only the acculturation score and household size variables are significant predictors (at the p < .01 level). In addition, the age, education, and income variables’ 95% confidence intervals for their respective odds ratio cross 1  108  indicating that they are not reliable predictors of the outcome. Yet, when these variables are excluded, the model correctly predicts only 74.6% of the observed behaviour overall (results not shown). The effect on the model of the significant acculturation score and household size variables can be interpreted using their respective b coefficients and odds ratios. As noted in Section 4.2.4.2, when the odds ratio statistic is less than one, the change in odds in favour of purchasing an egg type is negative, or decreasing, given an increasing predictor variable. Therefore, the estimated acculturation score odds ratio of 0.023 indicates that the estimated original odds of purchase are decreased by 0.023 times for a one unit increase in the score, all else remaining equal. In this case, the one unit increase in the acculturation score is from 0 (least acculturated) to 1 (most acculturated) on the acculturation scale. This is a large change in the estimated odds, which is easier to understand by looking at the inverse, which gives the estimated odds ratio of non-purchase: 1.0/0.023 = 43.478. This means that the estimated original odds of non-purchase have increased approximately 43 times from a respondent with an acculturation score of zero to a respondent with an acculturation score of one, all else remaining equal. The 95% confidence interval for the odds ratio ranges from 0.005 to 0.107, given a change in the acculturation score from 0 to 1. This is a wide interval, however it does not cross one. It reliably indicates that the odds of purchase decrease between the least acculturated and the most acculturated respondents. An estimated odds ratio of 0.023 can be interpreted as a large effect size. It explains the estimated change in the odds of purchase between the two extremes of the scale. The changes in the estimated odds of purchase for the small incremental differences measured in respondents’ acculturation scores are better illustrated using Kutner et al.’s (2005) formula (see 4.2.4.2), such that, for example, the odds ratio for a 0.10 increase in the acculturation score is estimated as ℮xp[0.10(-3.759)] = 0.687, which is a much smaller effect size. For household size, the odds ratio indicates that the estimated original odds in favour of purchase of any duck or quail egg product are increased by 1.345 times, given a one person increase in household size, all else remaining equal. The 95% confidence interval for the odds ratio ranges from 1.105 to 1.637. It does not cross one; it reliably indicates that as the household size increases by one person, the odds of purchase are increasing (all else remaining equal). To measure the effect size of the model, there is no equivalent to R2 in logistic regression (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2007), and there are drawbacks to the ‘pseudo-R2 s’. The Cox and Snell R2 , for example, cannot achieve a maximum value of 1. In the full model results, Nagelkerke’s R2 = .205 is weak, although McFadden’s p2 = .130 is better, given McFadden’s measure differs from R2 in that values 109  in the .2 to .4 range are considered highly satisfactory (Hensher & Johnson, 2001, as cited in Tabachnick & Fidell, 2007, p.460). Further model assessment was undertaken to check the fit of the model to the observed data and to check if outliers or influential cases biased the model. An examination of the standardized residuals indicates that 4.6% lie outside +/- 1.96 and 0.0% lie outside +/- 2.58, suggesting that the fit of the model is good. Checking for influential cases, all values for Cook’s distance were less than one, suggesting no cases were unduly influencing the model (Field, 2009). A further check utilizing leverage values reveals no concerns: Expected leverage, (k + 1)/N, was calculated as .023, and no cases had leverage values of three times greater than the expected leverage value (Field, 2009). DFBeta statistics were all less than one for all predictor variables, which supports, along with the Cook’s distance values, that no cases are unduly influencing the model. The model was tested to see if all logistic regression assumptions were met. Test results for linearity of the logit showed that no interaction terms between each independent quantitative variable (household size and acculturation score) and the log of itself were significant. The assumption of linearity of the logit has not been violated. Test results for multi collinearity revealed tolerance values ranged from .829 to .940 for the independent variables, well above Menard’s suggested level of concern of 0.1 (as cited in Field, 2009, p. 297). In addition, VIF values were well below the threshold of concern of 10 as suggested by Meyers (as cited in Field, 2009, p. 297), ranging from 1.064 to 1.206. These results suggest that multi collinearity is not an issue and the independent variables do not correlate highly. Overall, results indicate that the full model is a good fit to the observed data. The equation below shows the general simplified model: yi = β0 + β1(Acculturation scorei) + β2(Household sizei) + β3(Agei) + β4(Educationi) + β5(Total annual household incomei) + εi Where yi is the probability that an individual, i, purchases a duck or quail egg product, β0 is the constant, and βn is the coefficient of the predictor variable(s), and εi is the error term.  110  4.4 Discussion 4.4.1 Survey Sample Size and Characteristics My survey sample netted 410 usable responses, exceeding the recommended minimum threshold of 384, given the size of the Chinese Canada population in Metro Vancouver and for a 95% confidence level with a 5% margin of error (Mazzocchi, 2008). The 28.9% net response rate was moderate. Response rates for mail survey’s range from less than 15% to close to 80% depending on context, inducements, and number of follow ups (Malhotra, 2007b). Previous random sample mail surveys of ethnic Asians or Chinese residing in Western countries indicate a tendency for low participation rates in research studies. Ownbey and Horridge, in their 1997 random sample mail survey of Chinese and Filipino Americans in San Francisco, achieved a net response rate of 21% (124 useable surveys). Wang (2004) attempted to improve response rates by calling Chinese Canadian households in her sample first, to gain participants’ consent and to screen for first generation immigrants. The response rate to the telephone calls was 16%. Despite pre-calling, the subsequent mail survey resulted in a response rate of only 52% or 317 usable surveys (just over 8% of the original sample). Govindasamy et al.’s mail survey in the U.S. of Asians and their demand for ethnic produce resulted in a net response rate of 25% from the ethnic Chinese strata of the sample (Govindasamy et al., 2006; Govindasamy et al. 2007a). Given these response rates, the 28.9% response rate for this survey is acceptable, although still lower than expected. Survey response may have been negatively impacted by controversy surrounding the Canadian federal Conservative government’s announcement to scrap the long-form census for the 2011 Census, citing concern for the privacy of Canadians (Ditchburn, 2010). The controversy was widely reported, made headline news, and played out in the mainstream and Chinese media for weeks in the summer of 2010, starting from just before my survey invitation letter was mailed and continuing through the survey time period. Influenced by privacy concerns stirred up by the Conservatives, and given some of the sensitive questions asked in Part F, survey recipients may have decided not to respond. The sample population was found to be older in age and higher in education levels compared to the population and some differences were also found between household income levels. However, proportionately fewer 19 to 29 year olds in the sample compared to the population are expected, because not all young adults are the main grocery shoppers for their households and many are still living with their parents well into their twenties due to the high cost of living in Vancouver, and the need to finish school, pay off student loans, and save some money before setting up their own household. The skew to higher education levels in the sample could be due to a greater familiarity with the idea and process of 111  academic or marketing survey research compared to Chinese Canadians with high school or lower education. The household income differences on some categories (approximately 3%) are moderate and thus not a major concern. Finally, lower than expected born in Canada ethnic Chinese responded to the survey. An explanation is difficult. There may have been widespread disinterest in the subject matter across this portion of the sample, but that remains as conjecture.  4.4.2 Egg Purchases This study revealed that the majority of respondents bought salted or preserved duck eggs at least yearly, though infrequently, at a median of every three to four months. In previous research that included less acculturated Chinese Canadian females in Vancouver, BC, Satia et al. (2001) found that 46% of respondents had consumed traditionally preserved foods (which would include salted and preserved duck eggs) in the past month. Although not a direct comparison, results of this study indicate a lower frequency of purchase, with only 16.3% and 14.3% of respondents reporting at least monthly purchases of salted and preserved duck eggs, respectively. Given the overall infrequency of purchase, this study suggests that salted and preserved duck eggs are peripheral foods (Passin & Bennett, 1943) in the diets of Chinese Canadians. Results also indicate that the dominant versions of each egg type in the market are whole, raw salted duck eggs and soft yolk preserved duck eggs. An important finding of this study suggests that market share (by volume), is not dominated by the frequent purchasers, with the majority of the market split 40% - 40% between high frequency and low frequency purchasers. This could have potential marketing implications, since not one but two major groups of consumers may have different needs and respond differently to marketing promotions. With a significant positive correlation found between purchase frequency and year over year purchase trend, results further suggest that frequent buyers form a more loyal market core and that the overall market may be vulnerable to decline from infrequent buyers. This finding indicates that the infrequent buyer should not be ignored. It could be assumed that infrequent buyers might be purchasing just for special occasions, but ‘usual meal planning’ was overwhelmingly the overall highest ranked reason for purchase, regardless of purchase frequency. This indicates that promotion may be necessary to keep the eggs ‘top of mind’, particularly for infrequent buyers. Comparing the estimated annual market sizes for salted and preserved duck eggs, approximately 149,000 dozen and 121,000 dozen respectively, to the 663,000 dozens of imports of other bird eggs, in 112  shell, n.e.s., preserved or cooked, into BC in 2009 (see Figure 1.4), my results suggest that Chinese Canadians in Metro Vancouver may account for approximately 40.7% of the imported market volume. The majority of the import volume may be going to the hotel or restaurant or processing segments, and a small amount of the volume may be going to other, smaller, consumer segments for at-home consumption, such as the Filipino segment. For fresh quail eggs, only a minority of 14.6% of respondents purchased the eggs within the past year and the majority of those purchased only once or twice a year, similar to much older previous findings by Newman and Linke (1982). Furthermore, infrequent purchasers accounted for 64% of the market share by volume. The Chinese Canadian retail market for these eggs appears to be small, as shown by the estimated annual market size of 834,000 eggs or 27.8% of an assumed annual production of 3,000,000 fresh quail eggs in BC (see Section 1.5.2.4). These results imply significant marketing may be required to expand the Chinese Canadian retail market in Metro Vancouver for fresh quail eggs and suggests that if funds are limited, marketing efforts should continue to focus on hotels and restaurants, which were previously identified by Kermode (1997) as growth sectors, or investigate other consumer segments. Although the majority of respondents reported purchasing the most typical package size (six for salted and preserved duck eggs, 24 for fresh quail eggs), 8.3% of salted duck egg purchasers, 6.9% of preserved duck egg purchasers, and 28.3% of fresh quail egg purchasers left the question blank, suggesting that they had trouble recalling the package size usually purchased. Others reported package sizes that are not, to the best of my knowledge, commercially available. Inability to recall the package size may be a result of low involvement in the purchase process, infrequent purchases, or an overall lack of knowledge about the egg products they’ve bought. This may or may not be an issue, but implies that there could be a need to raise product awareness about package sizes and options amongst consumers. Respondents indicated that T&T Supermarkets were clearly the most frequent purchase location for all of the egg types, followed by independent Asian grocery stores. This result supports previous research (Adekunle et al., 2011b; Govindasamy et al., 2007a;Wang, 2004; Wang & Lo, 2007) that indicates that ethnic Chinese or other non-European ethnic groups in North America either purchase or prefer to purchase their ethnic groceries or produce at Chinese (or other non-European ethnic) grocery stores. Wang’s 2004 study did indicate an overall equal preference for mainstream and Chinese supermarkets in 69% of respondents, but 95% of respondents visited at least one Chinese grocery store in their regular grocery shopping activities. In this study, The Real Canadian Superstore – a mainstream supermarket – placed third in usual purchase location. Results clearly indicate that accessing shelf space 113  at Chinese/Asian grocery stores, especially T&T Supermarkets, is very important for the success and growth of local duck and quail egg producers and processors. (Note that Real Canadian Superstore and T&T Supermarkets are now owned by the same company, Loblaw Inc.) Among non-purchasers and non-consumers of any of the duck or quail egg products, the most prevalent reason for non-purchase was health concerns, not unfamiliarity with the products. This suggests that most non-buyers have good product awareness and that their health concerns would need to be satisfied before they could possibly be converted to buyers.  4.4.3 Acculturation Score The overall (n = 410) mean acculturation score was low at .35 ± .17 s.d. (median score was .31). Given the sample is dominated by Chinese immigrants and a majority returned the Chinese language questionnaire version, a low mean score might be expected. In contradiction, the sample is overweight in immigrants who have resided in Canada for more than 20 years, suggesting that the acculturation score should be higher. Results indicated that reading ability in English, Western food preferences, no longer balancing yin/yang foods, and mixed ethnic households are positively correlated to term of residency, and should help raise the acculturation score. However, in Canada, multi-culturalism is celebrated, encouraged, and promoted by the government; this assists in the retention of culture and contrasts with a ‘melting pot’ stance that encourages assimilation. In Metro Vancouver the large Chinese Canadian population provides a critical mass of community, businesses, and services catering to ethnic Chinese, including print and electronic media. Chinese foods and groceries are widely available. With this support structure, acculturation could be slowed considerably. In particular, food habits change slowly and the process is dynamic and multifaceted (Hartwell, Edwards, & Brown, 2011). Wang (2004), for instance, found that length of residence in the Greater Toronto area was not significantly associated with a decrease in preference for Chinese supermarkets. The longer length of residency in Canada reported by immigrant respondents in this study was not enough to overcome the influence of their cultural heritage. As noted by Chia and Costigan (2006) cultural contact is positively related to external Chinese domains (behaviour). In my acculturation scale, cultural contact was represented by birthplace, years of residence in Canada, generation status, mother tongue, and language reading ability. To keep the survey a manageable length, direct cultural contact, such as use of English or Chinese language media or travel to China or other Asian countries with ethnic Chinese populations, was not measured. Although the inclusion of direct cultural contact questions may provide a fuller portrait of Chinese Canadian external domain acculturation, the language reading ability question was specifically included to act as an 114  approximate proxy for the use of English or Chinese language media. It is recognized however, that reading comprehension in Chinese is more difficult than speaking ability (therefore indicative of lower acculturation). The inclusion of one additional question about language spoken most often at home, or at the workplace, may remedy this as well as provide a good estimate of direct cultural contact, with the added benefit of easy comparison to the population (language used at home and at work are tracked via the Census of Canada).  4.4.4 Logistic Regression Model The logistic regression model provides a high power of accurate prediction, predicting correct outcomes 76.9% of the time and the model was found to be a good fit to the observed data. The most important findings are that acculturation and household size are significant predictors of duck or quail egg product purchase or non-purchase. Household size is a positive predictor for purchase of any of the duck or quail egg products. This could be due to the eggs being a less expensive form of protein to feed a larger household, compared to meats and fish, or the possibility that larger households may eat out at restaurants less and therefore consume more of the eggs at home compared to smaller households. Another explanation may be that with more food to buy for a larger household, more variety may be purchased. If there is extended family in a household, such as minor children, adult children, and/or grandparents, they may create more of a demand for dishes that utilize the eggs. As an example of the impact of the acculturation score predictor variable, the model indicates that the probability of purchase for a 55 year old Chinese Canadian with annual household income less than $60,000, an education level of less than a bachelor degree, three people in their household, and an acculturation score of 0.20 is 87%, versus 82% for a Chinese Canadian with all the same characteristics except for a 0.30 acculturation score, or versus 45% with a 0.75 acculturation score. In the second last example, with an 82% probability of purchase, if all other variables are kept unchanged but household size is reduced from 3 to 2 people, the probability of purchase drops to 77%. My finding that the probability of purchasing the duck or quail egg products decreases as acculturation to Canadian/Western society increases is similar to 1) previous studies that indicated that peripheral foods are more likely than core foods to be dropped from the diet as acculturation occurs (Hrboticky & Krondl, 1985; Jerome, 1980; Passin & Bennett, 1943); and, 2) other studies of ethnic food consumption or dietary acculturation that used at least one proxy measurement for acculturation, such as years in the new host society, for example (Adekunle et al., 2011a; Gilbert & Khokhar, 2008; Jamal, 115  1998; Lv & Cason, 2004; Satia et al., 2001; Yang & Fox, 1979). It should be noted, however, that not all studies have indicated a negative association between a measurement of acculturation and maintenance of a Chinese diet or use of a particular food. Newman and Linke (1982) and Chau et al. (1990), for example, found no significant correlation between length of residence in the United States and the maintenance of a Chinese diet. Overall, however, the low mean acculturation score for the sample and the indication that Chinese Canadians are slow to acculturate to Canadian/Western society is favourable for the demand by Chinese Canadians for duck and quail egg products in Metro Vancouver. Although age, income, and education were not significant predictors of purchase/non-purchase in the model, their inclusion nevertheless improved the accuracy of prediction. Income has had a mixed influence in the inclusion or exclusion of traditional foods in the diets of minority groups that are adjusting to a new culture. In this study, lower income was positively associated with purchase of the duck or quail egg products, but according to Adekunle et al. (2011a), for example, higher income is associated with a greater likelihood of Chinese Canadians purchasing ethno-cultural vegetables. These opposing results can be explained, however, by a tendency for higher income households to purchase more expensive types of protein (for example meats instead of eggs) (Garcia-Jimenez & Mishra, 2011) and more vegetables (which are often more expensive than many processed foods). These differing results across studies support the premise that the influence of income is contextual. The nonsignificance of the age and education variables was similar to findings in Adekunle et al.’s (2011a) study of Chinese Canadian expenditures on ethno cultural vegetables in which age and education were also non-significant predictors. In contrast, Ariyawardana et al.’s (2010) research on factors influencing Chinese Americans and Puerto Rican’s willingness to pay for ethnic specialty produce in the Eastern Coastal United States, did find that age was a significant, positive factor. It should be noted, however, that the above comparisons are indirect, given the different dependent variables and different measurements used for age, income, and education, but they nevertheless provide a useful context for this study’s results. The excluded variables of sex, presence of minors in the household and geographic location may have reduced the predictive power of the model, but because earlier Chi-square analysis indicated nonsignificant relationships with buying behaviour, the impact of their exclusion may be minimal. In Metro Vancouver, people of ethnic Chinese descent are found in areas of high concentration and low concentration; residents of low concentration do not enjoy the same access to businesses and services that cater to the ethnic Chinese community. This suggests that geographic location should be a good 116  predictor of purchase or non-purchase. In a much earlier study, Newman and Linke (1982) found that immigrant Chinese women in the Chinatown area of NYC changed their food habits less over time compared to those living in the mixed ethnic suburb of Queens, NY. However, more recent research by Wang and Lo (2007) of Chinese Canadian immigrants in the Greater Toronto Area indicated that they were willing to travel outside of their local areas to access Chinese supermarkets, and furthermore that accessibility was not the main determinant for preference for Chinese grocery stores. Ethnic identity exerted a stronger effect. Results from my study, which also included born in Canada ethnic Chinese, imply a similar conclusion to that of Wang and Lo. The exclusion of geographic location from the model may not be material. Perhaps more interesting is this study’s finding that minors in the household are not significantly associated with the purchase/non-purchase of any of the duck or quail egg types. Preliminary focus group participants, both immigrant and born in Canada, indicated that for some of those who purchased the eggs, they seldom bought because their children would not eat the egg products and it was thought that this might translate into a predictor for purchase/non-purchase. As noted by Hrboticky and Krondl (1984) “Westernization of food habits also proceeds more rapidly in families with children…who interact extensively with non-ethnic peers and introduce new foods into the family.” Other studies have also noted the influence of youth and children on family food choices and the adoption of Western foods (Jamal, 1998; Lv & Brown, 2010). In this study, respondents are buying or not buying the duck and quail egg products regardless of the presence of minor children in the household, yet this is somewhat contradicted by the finding that household size is a positive, significant predictor of purchase. Household size, however, may not be simply a function of minor children in the household, but adult children and/or grandparents too. The conflicting results between the focus groups and the survey do suggest that further analysis or research is needed to better understand the impact of minor children in the household on purchase behaviour (association with frequency of purchase, total number of eggs bought annually, year over year purchasing trend, for example) and the potential impact of the absence of this variable from the model. (Note that the proportion of minor children in the sample households is the same as in the population, reducing probability of non-response error as an explanation.) Although this study found that sex is not significantly associated with purchase or non-purchase and therefore its exclusion from the model may not be material, some previous studies have indicated that gender does play a role in family food habits. Lv and Brown’s (2010) depth interviews of Chinese American parents in Pennsylvania, found that in the face of their children’s requests for more Western style food, that it was the fathers’ desire to maintain a traditional Chinese dinner that had the most 117  impact on its retention. There are also suggestions that women may be more flexible to changing family food habits due to pressure from children to serve Western foods and a desire to please their children. Jamal’s 1998 study of British Pakistanis, for example, supports this theory. His qualitative study of British Pakistanis found that it was the father who played a key role in maintaining traditional diets. Finally, in terms of methodology, it should be noted that an alternative approach to model the purchase behaviour of Chinese Canadians when buying duck or quail eggs is the Tobit regression model (Tobin, 1958). In the logistic regression model, the outcome is modelled as a discreet choice between buying and not buying. However, this outcome can be considered ‘censored’ according to Tobin, because the amount that a consumer can buy is limited to 1 in the model, whereas in reality, a consumer may choose to purchase any number of duck or quail eggs. Tobin devised a model to overcome this drawback to discrete choice models, and in his Tobit regression model, a prediction can be made as to whether or not a purchase is made, as well as the amount purchased for those who do choose to purchase. A model of the amount purchased would provide valuable additional marketing intelligence. In summary, the major finding of my logistic regression analysis suggests to producers, processors, and retailers that acculturation, although negatively associated with purchase, is at a low level and is a slow process in Chinese Canadians in Metro Vancouver. However, longer term, this implies that a steady supply of new ethnic Chinese immigrants is needed to keep up the demand for salted and preserved duck eggs and fresh quail eggs, especially if, as peripheral foods, they are more likely to fall out of the diet as acculturation continues. This stance assumes that the acculturation process to the current, dominant United Kingdom/European-based diet remains linear and does not change. However, with increasing numbersof immigrants to Metro Vancouver, the current dominant culture is bound to be influenced and changed. With the mixing of cultures, the process of dietary acculturation could be altered and in this process there may be opportunity for some current peripheral foods to not only maintain their dietary position, but improve it if the Chinese Canadian and wider population adopt a more cosmopolitan diet. Either way, my results suggest that product promotions may be required to maintain product awareness and sales. Finally, it should be noted that most of the acculturation score component data and the household size data can be found from publicly available Statistics Canada data, making it possible for producers, processors, and marketers to update the model over time.  118  4.4.5 Study Limitations and Future Directions In reviewing the methodology, readers should bear in mind that cross-sectional data was used and therefore acculturation over time, or from one generation to the next, is assumed. However, given the time, expense, and complexity inherent in a longitudinal study, the majority of studies that contain a component of acculturation have, like this study, adopted an inferential approach based on crosssectional data. Other factors to consider are: First, data for this study was collected from Chinese Canadian households located in Metro Vancouver, a city with a large and very well served Chinese Canadian population. Other Chinese Canadian or Chinese American populations, especially from smaller communities, may differ in their demographics and level of acculturation. Furthermore, the sampling method and the resulting sample’s characteristics may have contributed to the results. The exclusion of households with cell-only service, for example, may have contributed to the under representation of Chinese Canadians less than 40 years of age as well as the absence of response from very recent immigrants (living in Canada for less than two years). Other sample characteristics that may have contributed to the results include: Under representation by born in Canada ethnic Chinese, over representation from well-established immigrants, and a skew to higher education levels than found in the population. Using mail as the primary survey mode may have allowed for a higher likelihood of a self-selection participation bias: Households that purchase duck or quail egg products may have been more interested and motivated to complete and return the questionnaire compared to non-purchasing households. Second, the modest sample size and response rate limited the frequency of responses in some categories of responses, requiring the variables’ categories to be collapsed into fewer, less heterogeneous categories for cross tabulation, Chi square, and logistic regression analysis. The age, education, and household income categories were all reduced, resulting in a lack of within-category variability and a potential loss of finer detail. Third, it is acknowledged that the acculturation score created for use in this survey does not represent a full portrait of acculturation of Chinese Canadians to the greater Canadian society and should not be interpreted as such. Finally, recollections by participants of their past behaviour can sometimes be found faulty in comparison to data from grocery store scanners that reveal actual behaviours and preferences. Grocery store scanner data for duck and quail egg products is proprietary and not publicly available. Some  119  results, such as total annual number of eggs bought or year over year purchasing trend, for example, may not be 100% accurate, but nevertheless provide a best estimate of buyers’ purchasing behaviours. For these reasons, generalisation of results beyond the sample characteristics is cautioned and findings should be considered exploratory, not conclusive. Nevertheless, this study provides a useful profile of the market for salted and preserved duck eggs and fresh quail eggs in Metro Vancouver, BC., particularly with respect to frequency of purchase, year over year trend, purchase location, purchase occasion, and the significance of acculturation and household size to Chinese Canadians’ purchase behaviour, which all showed clear trends. The roles that age, education, household income, and the presence of minors in the household play in the market for duck and quail egg products could benefit from further examination. In addition, the logistic regression model deliberately focused on the level of acculturation (measured on external domains) and other demographic information from buyers, but other factors, such as attitudes and beliefs towards the eggs, may influence the purchase decision. Measurement of internal domains of acculturation, such as self – identity, could also be significant predictors of purchase behaviour. Future research and analysis that includes such factors might increase the accuracy of the logistic regression model and provide additional understanding of purchase or nonpurchase behaviours that could have marketing implications. To gain further depth of understanding of the nature of the consumer market, research specifically targeting Mandarin speaking immigrants, very recent immigrants, younger Chinese Canadians (< 40 years), or born in Canada ethnic Chinese would also be beneficial. Further analysis using the Tobit regression to model the buy/not-buy choice including the predicted amount purchased is recommended. My market research has focused on the purchase of the individual egg products for consumption at home. A comparison of the estimated annual market size in dozens for salted and preserve duck eggs, to the annual volume of imports in dozens, suggests that 59% of the imports are not purchased by Chinese Canadians for at home consumption. This implies that the majority of the market volume is going to the hotel/restaurant or processing segments, and it suggests that some may also be going to other, smaller, consumer segments. In terms of processing, the egg products may also be consumed in prepared foods. For example, salted duck egg yolks are often consumed in Autumn Moon cakes, purchased from grocers and bakeries. My survey results indicated that 35.6% of respondents had purchased prepared foods in the past year, for at home consumption, that contained at least one of the egg types. The individual egg types may also be consumed in dishes consumed in restaurants, or at banquets, or other places away from home. Summary information from the survey indicated that 8.8% of total respondents reported consumption of the egg types only outside of the home. Furthermore, 57.6% of respondents who did 120  purchase at least one of the egg types for at home consumption also reported that they or other household members knowingly consumed at least one of the egg types outside of their home in the past year. Restaurants or bakeries were the most popular venue for outside of home consumption: 36.1% of all respondents reported consumption of salted duck eggs, 37.1% of all respondents reported consumption of preserved duck eggs, and 8.8% of all respondents reported consumption of fresh quail eggs at restaurants or bakeries. Future research is needed to further illuminate the consumer market in the take-away and away-from-home consumption segments. This study focused on only one particular segment of the consumer market for duck and quail egg products: the Chinese Canadian consumer. However, there are other established ethnic markets for the products, such as Korean Canadians, Vietnamese Canadians, and Filipino Canadians, for example, and there may be significant differences in these market segments compared to the Chinese Canadian market. Finally, this study was limited to the Chinese Canadian population in Metro Vancouver, future research in other geographic areas would also contribute to a greater understanding of the overall ethnic Chinese market for these specialty duck and quail egg products in North America.  4.5 Conclusion Overall, study results indicate that the majority of Chinese Canadians purchase duck or quail egg products infrequently, and that the year over year trend is to no change or a declining trend in purchases. The core market for duck and quail egg products currently rests in the stable, frequent purchaser who purchases primarily for regular meal planning reasons. Infrequent buyers also play a large role in the market, but are at risk of a decreasing frequency of purchase or of eliminating the products from their diet over time. Based on 2009 import volumes into BC and estimated total annual purchases per household, Metro Vancouver Chinese Canadians who purchase salted or preserved duck egg products for at home consumption account for approximately 41% of the import volume, indicating that they play a significant role in the market, but that the majority of the market may be in the restaurant/hotel and processing segments. The majority of the fresh quail egg market in BC also appears to reside in other segments, given that my results suggest that only 28% of the total annual number of fresh quail egg produced in BC are purchased at the retail level by Chinese Canadians. Overall, however, these results indicate that there is a consumer niche market in Metro Vancouver for duck and quail egg products; however, it may be a market with limited growth prospects unless action is taken to promote demand. Opportunities for growth may reside in promoting more frequent 121  purchase for usual meal planning. A secondary market exists for infrequent, special occasion use, especially for salted and preserved duck eggs during Chinese festivals. Chinese festival purchases may be more closely linked to internal domains of acculturation (i.e. orientation to Chinese identity rather than Canadian identity) than external, behavioural domains. This suggests that opportunities may exist to maintain and expand this secondary market if a promotional approach is used that appeals to and supports Chinese Canadians’ pride in their Chinese identity and ancestry. In the realm of non-buyers, study participants cited health concerns as the main reason for nonconsumption of any of the egg types. This suggests that some form of reassurance is needed to either bring these non-consumers back as buyers or to prevent future losses of current buyers. Health concerns may be more perceived than real and the nature of health concerns could be further explored, to distinguish between real and perceived concerns and, subsequently, the best method to address their concerns. Lead contamination, for example, has been a concern with the salted or preserved duck eggs. Some packages now declare “lead-free” on their label. This may or may not be enough for some consumers and backing this up with, for example, web-based information about the quality assurance or testing process followed may be necessary. The logistic regression model provides a good fit and estimation of probability of purchase and indicates that the market for these products may be found in larger or multi-generation households and with less acculturated grocery shoppers. Clearly, although acculturation was low in the sample, this implies that the market for duck and quail egg products will depend upon the continued presence of new ethnic Chinese immigrants to the Metro Vancouver area. Regardless, because this study indicates that these egg products are mostly peripheral foods in the diets of Chinese Canadians, in the long term these products may also require a healthy level of promotion to sustain sales from current buyers. As the first consumer study of the market for specialty duck and quail egg products in North America, this research makes a significant contribution towards understanding this niche market and presents a baseline for future research. It also provides evidence for potential market opportunities for producers, processors, and retailers in the large ethnic Chinese population of North America.  122  5 CLUSTER ANALYSIS: SEGMENTATION OF THE CHINESE CANADIAN MARKET FOR DUCK AND QUAIL EGG PRODUCTS 5.1 Introduction With the increasing ethnic diversity in the Metropolises of North America, interest in niche markets for ethnic foods has grown among food producers and processors (Trichur, 2012). In addition, consumer interest and support for local food production and processing has grown in recent years as witnessed by a 151% increase in farmers markets in the United States from 2002 to 2012 (USDA Agricultural Marketing Services, 2012). Offering a local or regional source for ethnic foods may provide promising opportunities for producers and processors. However, with the exception of some ethnic foods11 that have crossed over to the mainstream, such as Mexican cuisine in the United States, there is a very limited body of published literature or statistics regarding consumer preferences and demand for ethnic foods in North America. This makes identification of marketing opportunities difficult. Such is the case for duck and quail egg products, which are used in Chinese cuisine. My research examined the market for duck and quail egg products in the Chinese Canadian population in Metropolitan Vancouver, British Columbia (BC). Metro Vancouver, with a population of over 402,000 Chinese Canadians, or 19% of the population and growing (Statistics Canada, 2010a), may represent opportunities for local producers and processors to service this market. The objectives of this study were to profile consumer attitude and beliefs about duck and quail egg products; to segment the consumer market based upon these attitudes and beliefs; and to explore marketing opportunities. Products studied included salted duck eggs, preserved duck eggs (‘century’ or ‘thousand year old’ eggs), and fresh quail eggs. Results of this study will help producers, processors, and retailers better understand consumer preferences, attitudes and beliefs, and to adjust their production and marketing accordingly.  11  For the purposes of this thesis, ethnic foods are defined as non-European and non-United Kingdom foods and cuisine in origin (see Glossary).  123  5.2 Methodology 5.2.1 Research and Questionnaire Design Mixed methods research was conducted in two stages. Initial exploratory qualitative research was carried out, followed by the main emphasis of my study, a quantitative consumer survey. Two initial exploratory focus group discussions with Chinese Canadians were conducted in November of 2009 for background information purposes and to assist in the questionnaire development (see Chapter Three). The quantitative study was then designed and conducted, following Dillman et al.’s tailored design approach (2009). It consisted of a random sample survey of Metro Vancouver Chinese Canadian households using a six part questionnaire (see Section 2.1.3.3.2). This paper focuses on data gathered from the attitude and belief questions in Part A of the survey, the opportunity questions in Part E, and the demographic and acculturation information from Part F. The rationale for the study’s design, and more information on the questionnaire design, can be found in Chapter 2 Methodology. Paper and electronic versions of the survey were created – a mixed mode design. The electronic version was designed to match the paper survey as closely as possible in order to minimize any error or differences due to mode choice (Dillman et al., 2009). All survey documents were provided in both English and Chinese. The English documents were translated into Chinese by a professional translator and checked for accuracy by a second translator and by my thesis supervisor, Dr. Kim Cheng. The questionnaire was pilot tested by ten Chinese Canadian UBC non-faculty staff (paper version) and by 45 undergraduate university students of various ethnicities, including Chinese (electronic version). Both language versions were pilot tested, with the Chinese version tested by staff and students whose mother tongue was Chinese. The questionnaire was revised accordingly. See Appendix B.3 for the complete English and Chinese language questionnaires. The study’s design and execution was carried out with the approval of, and in strict adherence to, UBC’s Human Behavioural Research Board’s ethical guidelines, certificate H10-00571. Respondents’ confidentiality was assured. In addition, in both the paper and electronic versions, respondents did not have to answer questions they did not wish to answer, with the exception of a few branching questions in the electronic survey.  124  5.2.2 Survey Description A mail survey of 1500 randomly selected Chinese Canadian households located in Metropolitan Vancouver was conducted in the summer of 2010. Using a purchased license agreement, the geographically stratified sample was randomly drawn using Quan et al.’s (2006) validated Chinese surname list, from a database of area telephone service subscribers. A three stage survey protocol was followed (see Section 4.2.2): Invitation, questionnaire, and a final reminder notice which included an option for respondents to complete the survey online. This option was included to provide an incentive for people who may prefer a differen