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Frontiers of philosophy and flesh : mapping conceptual metaphor in women's frontier revival literature,… Johnstone, Tiffany T.E. 2012

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FRONTIERS OF PHILOSOPHY AND FLESH: MAPPING CONCEPTUAL METAPHOR IN WOMEN’S FRONTIER REVIVAL LITERATURE, 1880-1930 by Tiffany T.E. Johnstone M.A., Memorial University of Newfoundland, 2005 Hon. B.A., University of Toronto, 2004  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in The Faculty of Graduate Studies (English) THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver) October 2012 © Tiffany T.E. Johnstone, 2012  	
    Abstract In this dissertation, I identify a genre of travel writing that I refer to as frontier revival literature, which I show to be particularly important in negotiating North American ideas of imperialism, nationality, citizenship, gender, and race from 1880-1930. Meaning about cultural identity emerges through motifs of physical movement in frontier revival literature. I focus on how female frontier revival authors appropriate familiar motifs of frontier revival literature to promote women’s rights. Frontier revival literature consists of tourist accounts of travel in western Canada by Canadian and American authors who published in northeastern American cities and who wrote for a largely eastern, urban audience. I show how male frontier revival literature authors use American manifest destiny rhetoric in a western Canadian setting to promote ideas of an intercontinental west that, despite seeming to broadly represent North American progress, are highly gendered and racialized. I combine and adapt elements of feminist and conceptual metaphor theory as a way of reading how women writers of the frontier revival debate such ideas through representations of physical movement. I build on a diverse range of feminist theory to examine how images of the travelling female body negotiate and often contest dominant ideological messages about cultural identity in travel literature by men. I develop conceptual metaphor theory in order to identify a network of metaphors that I see as emerging in frontier revival literature. Focussing on three different chronological stages of frontier revival literature, I apply my methodology in comparative close readings of the following texts by Canadian and American authors: Sara Jeannette Duncan’s A Social Departure: How Orthodocia and I Went Around the  	
   World By Ourselves (1890) and Elizabeth Taylor’s “A Woman in the Mackenzie Delta” (189495); Grace Gallatin’s A Woman Tenderfoot (1900) and Agnes Deans Cameron’s The New North (1909); and Mary Schäffer’s Old Indian Trails (1911), and Agnes Laut’s Enchanted Trails of Glacier Park (1926). I explore how these six female frontier revival authors challenge the dominant imperialist and masculinist perspectives of their male peers through representations of the female travelling body.  iii	
    Table of Contents  Abstract............................................................................................................................................ ii Table of Contents ........................................................................................................................... iv List of Figures............................................................................................................................... viii List of Abbreviations .......................................................................................................................x	
   Acknowledgements......................................................................................................................... xi Dedication ..................................................................................................................................... xiii 1  Introduction. Women’s Movements: Charting the Female Body Across Borders and Disciplines ...............................................................................................................................1 1.1  Starting Out: Preliminary Thoughts..............................................................................1  1.2  “It was then that I wanted my wild free life back again:” Schäffer and Kipling..........3  1.3  Crossing Paths: Border Crossing and the Frontier Revival .........................................6  1.4  1.3.1  Interdisciplinarity .............................................................................................7  1.3.2  Cross-Border ....................................................................................................9  1.3.3  Frontier Revival Literature ............................................................................10  1.3.4  Manifest Destiny ............................................................................................12  Crossroads: Reading the Travelling Female Body ....................................................13 1.4.1  Conceptual Metaphor and Feminist Literary Analysis ..................................14  1.4.2  Feminist Perspectives ....................................................................................15  1.4.3  Conceptual Metaphor Theory ........................................................................16  1.4.4  The Body .......................................................................................................17  1.4.5  Framing ..........................................................................................................18  1.4.6  The Travelling Body ......................................................................................19  	
   1.4.7  2  Bodies and Selves ..........................................................................................20  1.5  Step By Step: Chapter Outlines .................................................................................22  1.6  Conclusion: Where is here? .......................................................................................26  1.7  Notes to Chapter 1 ......................................................................................................28  Frontiers of Philosophy and Flesh: Staking Out A Feminist and Conceptual Metaphor Approach to Travel Literature............................................................................................29 2.1  Introduction: “horizon[s], and the limit of all endurance” .........................................29  2.2  Living Metaphors: Combining Feminist and Cognitive Approaches to Embodiment................................................................................................................35  3  2.3  Travelling Bodies: The Need for an Interdisciplinary Approach to Travel ...............44  2.4  Reading the Body in Motion: Metaphors of Frontier Revival ...................................49  2.5  “The Long Way Round:” The Frontier Revival Frame .............................................56  2.6  “Oh for a precedent!:” Re-Living the Frontier Frame ...............................................60  2.7  “So we planned a trip:” Close Reading .....................................................................63  2.8  Conclusion: Unearthing the Frontier Revival ............................................................67  2.9  Notes to Chapter 2 ......................................................................................................69  Making New Bodies Matter: Women Writers and the Frontier Revival .......................82 3.1  Introduction: “Getting as far as you can go” ..............................................................82  3.2  “Our East and Our West:” Locating Cross-Border Frontier Literature .....................86  3.3  The Frontier Revival and The Cross-Border West ....................................................90  3.4  Setting the Stages of Frontier Literature ....................................................................93 3.4.1  Exploration and Settlement ............................................................................93  3.4.2  Parkman, Turner, and Roosevelt ...................................................................96  3.4.3  Frederick Jackson Turner ..............................................................................97  3.4.4  Theodore Roosevelt .......................................................................................99  	
   3.4.5  Male American Frontier Revival Authors in Western Canada ....................100  3.5  “Oh for a Precedent:” Women’s Cross-Border Texts ..............................................101  3.6  Examples of the Frontier Revival Frame in Texts by Male Authors .......................107  3.7  The Frontier Revival Frame and Women’s Cross-Border Adventure Texts ........................................................................................................................111  4  3.8  Conclusion ...............................................................................................................116  3.9  Notes to Chapter 3 ....................................................................................................116  Social Departures: Retracing the Female Frontier Revival in Duncan’s A Social Departure (1890) and Taylor’s “A Woman in the Mackenzie Delta” (1894-95) ...........126  5  4.1  Introduction ..............................................................................................................126  4.2  Duncan .....................................................................................................................130  4.3  A Social Departure ..................................................................................................135  4.4  Taylor .......................................................................................................................147  4.5  “A Woman in the Mackenzie Delta” .......................................................................151  4.6  Conclusion ...............................................................................................................162  4.7  Notes to Chapter 4 ....................................................................................................165  New Sensations: Grace Gallatin’s A Woman Tenderfoot (1900) and Agnes Deans Cameron’s The New North (1909) ....................................................................................173  6  5.1  Introduction ..............................................................................................................173  5.2  Grace Gallatin’s A Woman Tenderfoot ....................................................................175  5.3  Cameron’s The New North ......................................................................................191  5.4  Conclusion ...............................................................................................................212  5.5  Notes to Chapter 5 ....................................................................................................215  Hunters of Peace: Mary Schäffer’s Old Indian Trails of The Canadian Rockies (1911) and Agnes Laut’s Enchanted Trails of Glacier Park (1926) ............................................219 6.1  Introduction ..............................................................................................................219  	
    7  vii	
    6.2  Schäffer ....................................................................................................................221  6.3  The Horizons of Gender in Old Indian Trails .........................................................225  6.4  Wilderness Conservation in Old Indian Trails ........................................................238  6.5  Laut ..........................................................................................................................243  6.6  Intercontinental Movement/Change in Enchanted Trails of Glacier Park ..............246  6.7  Wilderness Conservation in Enchanted Trails of Glacier Park ..............................258  6.8  Conclusion ...............................................................................................................265  6.9  Notes to Chapter 6 ....................................................................................................267  Conclusion. Coming Full Circle: Reflecting on the Women of the Frontier Revival ................................................................................................................................274 7.1  The Problem of Restoring Order .............................................................................274  7.2  Corporeal Cartography: Mapping my Research on the Travelling Body.................276 7.2.1  Movement/Change: Theorizing the Travelling Body...................................276  7.2.2  Movement: Comparative Close Readings ....................................................280  7.2.3  Change: Reading the Travelling Body Over Time ......................................282  7.3  New Directions: Possibilities for Future Research .................................................284  7.4  As Far as You Can Go: Final Thoughts ..................................................................286  7.5  Notes to Chapter 7 ....................................................................................................287  Bibliography ................................................................................................................................298  	
    List of Figures Figure 1.1  Frame Diagram	
    Figure 3.1  Anon, “You Feel with Wonder that you are not doing Anything very Extraordinary  at all,” In Sara Jeannette Duncan, A Social Departure: How Orthodocia and I Went Round the World By Ourselves, (London, Edinburgh, Dublin, and New York: Thomas Nelson & Sons 1890), 96....................................................................................................................................................289	
   Figure 5.1  E.M. Ashe, “I Could not Keep Away from his Hoofs,” Grace Gallatin, A Woman  Tenderfoot, (New York: Doubleday, Page and Co, 1900), 309.....................................................290 Figure 5.2  Agnes Deans Cameron, “A Magnificent Trophy.” Agnes Deans Cameron, The New  North: Being Some Account of a Woman’s Journey through Canada to the Arctic by Agnes Deans Cameron, 1909, (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1910), ii, Frontispiece ........................291 Figure 5.3  Agnes Deans Cameron. “Cannibal Louise, Her Little Girl, and Miss Cameron,”  Agnes Deans Cameron, The New North: Being Some Account of a Woman’s Journey through Canada to the Arctic, 1909, (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1910), 363........................292 Figure 6.1  Mary Schäffer, “Nibs and His Mistress,” Mary Schäffer, Old Indian Trails: Incidents  of Camp and Trail Life, Covering Two Years’ Exploration through the Rocky Mountains of Canada, (Toronto: William Briggs; New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1911). n.pag., Frontispiece ........................................................................................................................................................293 Figure 6.2  Mary Schäffer, “When I Saw the Last of those Four Men I Knew What was Going to  Happen,” Mary Schäffer, Old Indian Trails: Incidents of Camp and Trail Life, Covering Two Years’ Exploration through the Rocky Mountains of Canada, Mary Schäffer, (Toronto: William Briggs; New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1911), 279.....................................................................294 Figure 6.3  Mary Schäffer, “Sampson Beaver, His Squaw, and Little Frances Louise,” Mary  Schäffer. Old Indian Trails: Incidents of Camp and Trail Life, Covering Two Years’ Exploration through the Rocky Mountains of Canada, (Toronto: William Briggs; New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1911), 181.............................................................................................................................295  	
    Figure 6.4  Agnes Laut, “The Last of Their Kind,” Agnes Laut, Enchanted Trails of Glacier  Park, (New York: Robert M. McBride & Company, 1926), (LaVergne, TN: Kessinger Publishing, 2009), 21 ........................................................................................................................................296 Figure 6.5 Child  Agnes Laut, “James Willard Schultz, Tail-Feathers Coming over the Hill and Eagle  in Conference,” Agnes Laut, Enchanted Trails of Glacier Park, (New York: Robert M.  McBride & Company, 1926), (LaVergne, TN: Kessinger Publishing, 2009), 149 .......................297  	
   List of Abbreviations LES - LOCATIONAL EVENT STRUCTURE metaphor LS - LOCATIONAL SELF metaphor OS - OBJECTIVE STANDPOINT metaphor SC - SELF AS CONTAINER metaphor  x	
    Acknowledgements It is a great pleasure to thank my supervisor, Sherrill Grace, a trailblazer, for her extraordinary mentorship over the last five years. I am grateful to Sherrill for her inspiring work on remapping Canadian literature, her practical advice in weekly meetings, her scrupulous feedback, as well as for giving me the opportunity to work with her on various projects. Sherrill has taught me the value of finding and believing in my own voice, of having opinions and letting them change, of keeping an eye on the smallest of details, and of always looking “onwards.” I would like to offer heartfelt thanks to my committee member Barbara Dancygier for introducing me to the field of cognitive linguistics and for always encouraging me to broaden my horizons. Her truly groundbreaking, hands on, and passionate commitment to guiding me and other young scholars on how to adapt our own interdisciplinary approaches to the field helped me to believe in my project and to enter into a dialogue with other scholars. I am deeply grateful to Jean Barman for joining my committee in the candidacy stage and for lending a fresh, original, and invaluable perspective on the history of western Canada and Canadian women’s literature. Jean provided me with significant momentum during the dissertation stage. Through motivational, astute, and in-depth advice, she encouraged me to focus my writing, while reminding me to always keep an eye on the big picture. This dissertation was partly funded by a grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Council, which gave me the opportunity to pursue my research. I also appreciate the support that I have received from the University of British Columbia throughout my degree. I would like to thank the following professors, colleagues, and support staff whose help and feedback has had a direct impact on my doctoral work: Patsy Badir, Mary Chapman, Cognitive  	
    Linguistics Reading Group members, Sian Echard, Suzanna Egan, Carole Gerson, Green College members and staff, Heidi Hansson, Mark Johnson, Eva-Marie Kröller, Valerie Legge, Carol Lynn Moder, Laura Moss, Ronald Rompkey, Anka Ryall, Louise Soga, Peter Stockwell, Eve Sweetser, Linda Vecchi, Mark Vessey, Henning Howlid Wærp, and Dominique Yupangco. I would like to thank my coeditors of Bearing Witness: Perspectives on War and Peace from the Arts and Humanities (2012), Sherrill Grace and Patrick Imbert, as well as the contributors to the volume, and Mc-Gill-Queen’s University Press, for an incredible opportunity that I continued to learn from throughout the process of writing my dissertation. For professional assistance over the years, I would like to thank Leonora Angeles, Faith Balisch, Sarah Banting, Mike Borkent, Daniel Chartier, the Journal of Northern Studies, Jan Lermitte, Larry Mathews, Nash Mayfield, Andrea Most, Newfoundland and Labrador Studies, Nordlit, Katharine Patterson, Jaclyn Rea, Magdalene Redekop, Becki Ross, Annette Staveley, Janice Stewart, Tyson Stolte, and my students in WMST224A. I am indebted to dear friends, confidantes, and loved ones whose daily motivation has sustained and moved me during the dissertation process. Very special thanks go out to Laura Broadway, Petra Klupkova, Kostadin Kushlev, Emily Polak, Anne Stewart, and Scott Wannop. I am especially grateful to my family for being there from the beginning with kindness, generosity, patience, and inspiration. In particular, I thank my parents, Bonnie Johnstone and Frederick Johnstone, for their unshakeable guidance and support in life and work. I am also grateful to my sisters Zoe Johnstone-Guha and Oona Johnstone, my brothers-in-law Arnie Guha and Dirk Landgraf, my nephews Arun Johnstone-Guha and Anil Johnstone-Guha, as well as my grandparents and extended family for sharing in this journey.  	
    Dedication I dedicate this thesis to my family for teaching me the value of journeys and of homes, and for their unwavering counsel from afar. I would like to honour the memory of my grandfather Job Taylor Bradbury (1915-2008) whose strength helped me to navigate the trip west and the different stages of my degree.  	
   1  1	
    Introduction. Women’s Movements: Charting the Female Body Across Borders and Disciplines Then I suddenly realized that our own recently brushed up garments were frayed and worn and our buckskin coats had a savage cast, that my three companions looked like Indians, and that [Rudyard Kipling’s wife] gazing at us belonged to another world. It was then that I wanted my wild free life back again, yet step by step I was leaving it behind. -Mary Schäffer, Old Indian Trails, 78.1  1.1  Starting Out: Preliminary Thoughts  In 1907, Mary Schäffer, a budding American wilderness artist and travel writer, writes of her prescient encounter with one of the most iconic turn of the century figures of travel writing and empire in North America and the British Commonwealth—Rudyard Kipling. In the above quote, she describes briefly passing a carriage in which she glimpses Kipling and his wife as she makes her way back to Banff after four months in the wilderness. Kipling himself documents this encounter in a letter to his sons, noting Schäffer’s uncanny ability to transform from a rugged wilderness traveller to an affluent cosmopolitan woman, clad in an evening gown, when he comes across her again later in the hotel (Qtd. in E.J. Hart 2). This crossing of paths between Schäffer and Kipling is a fitting example with which to introduce my discussion of how women travel writers at the turn of the twentieth century used images of the travelling body to evoke and often critique North American discourses of imperialism and frontier expansion. Their meeting, which clearly had an impact on both parties, points to important intersecting cultural, historical, and literary avenues that I address and explore in the following chapters. In my dissertation, I argue several key points about travel writing. Travel writing conveys meaning that can be read on the level of the body itself. This is particularly true of texts that emphasize the cultural significance of physical movement. Such meaning often occurs across boundaries of  	
    geography, discipline, and genre and requires a new, interdisciplinary way of analyzing texts. Studying representations of the travelling body in turn of the twentieth-century frontier adventure texts by North Americans on both sides of the border allows me to identify a corpus of texts, which I refer to as the genre of frontier revival literature. Written by Canadians and Americans, this genre is aimed at an eastern, urban, cross-border audience. Frontier revival authors represent the westward travelling body as reliving American frontier values in western Canada, a site that they mythologize as the last North American frontier. Frontier revival texts by women are particularly rich in meaning as female authors tend to express ambivalence toward the imperialist connotations of the very physical motifs that they adopt. Because most types of physical mobility in travel literature are associated with the male body and with aspects of male experience, women travel writers negotiate with dominant cultural ideas by taking on such masculine modes of physical mobility. In this dissertation, I interpret six texts by Canadian and American female frontier revival authors that epitomize the way that women writers join and contest popular cross-border debates about empire, gender, and race through motifs of the travelling body. Tracking three chronological stages of frontier revival literature, I compare Sara Jeannette Duncan’s A Social Departure (1890) with Elizabeth Taylor’s “A Woman in the Mackenzie Delta” ” (1894-95), Grace Gallatin’s A Woman Tenderfoot (1900) with Agnes Deans Cameron’s A New North (1909),2 and Mary Schäffer’s Old Indian Trails (1911) with Agnes Laut’s Enchanted Trails of Glacier Park (1926). Identifying a new genre of texts requires a new way of reading and I propose and apply a new methodology for studying these texts. I combine feminist theory with cognitive linguistic scholarship on conceptual metaphor and frame theory to study the travelling body in frontier revival literature. Work on conceptual metaphor shows how language and thought consist of metaphorical mappings between our daily, lived experience in our bodies and abstract concepts.3 I build on this scholarship by  	
    borrowing a set of conceptual metaphors and showing how they occur in literary texts and how their usage is affected by experiential and discursive factors relating to gender, ethnicity, ideology, and national affiliation. Feminist work on travel literature (Grace; Mills, Discourses of Difference; Pratt; Roy; Sidonie Smith, Moving), and body and autobiography theory (Butler; Lutes; Sidonie Smith and Watson) explores how women inevitably reiterate and negotiate with dominant, gendered cultural norms when representing their lives. I develop such work by showing how this negotiation with dominant cultural ideas can be read and analyzed through a structured set of metaphors that emerge on the level of the body. Combining feminist literary theory with conceptual metaphor theory provides a more structured literary close reading than a feminist literary analysis on its own would allow and extends the possibilities of applying conceptual metaphor theory to literary close readings. In this introduction, I establish and apply some of the main ideas that are central to the genre, texts, scholarship, and methodology of my dissertation. I start off with a brief analysis of the above passage by Schäffer in order to show how I apply some of the bigger concepts that I am addressing through literary close reading. I then explain my interdisciplinary approach and situate my work in preliminary, broad strokes within overlapping fields of scholarship. I also clarify some of the key terms that I will be using in the dissertation such as frontier revival literature, manifest destiny, cross-border, metaphor, frame, the body, and I provide a brief outline of the main chapters.  1.2  “It was then that I wanted my wild free life back again:” Schäffer and Kipling  And then we struck the highway and on it a carriage with [Kipling and his wife] in it! Oh! The tragedy of the comparison! The woman’s gown was blue. I think her hat contained a white wing. I only saw it all in one awful flash from the corner of my right eye, and I remember distinctly that she had gloves on. Then I suddenly realized that our own recently brushed up garments were frayed and worn and our buckskin coats had a savage cast, that  	
    my three companions looked like Indians, and that the lady gazing at us belonged to another world. It was then that I wanted my wild free life back again, yet step by step I was leaving it behind. -Mary Schäffer, Old Indian Trails, 78.  This meeting of American and British travel writers in the Canadian Rockies exemplifies the international interest in western Canada as a mythic last frontier setting at the turn of the twentieth century. Their meeting just as Schäffer “struck the highway” (78) associates the popular travel routes in western Canada with imperialist ideas about progress and westward expansion in Canadian, British, and American travel writing. Their brief mutual awareness as they pass along the road implies a shared participation (despite diverging national backgrounds) in mythologizing western Canada as a site of imperialist expansion. Kipling’s presence in this passage evokes British imperialist rhetoric about such expansion. As an American, Schäffer represents the imperialist boom in the United States in the early twentieth century and American interests in travelling northwestward at that time. However, Schäffer describes this “flash” encounter as brief, random, and dislocating so as to emphasize the slipperiness of the very ideas of empire that they each partake in. As scholars such as Mary Louise Pratt and Edward Said have pointed out, travel writing is intimately tied to ideas of empire building. However, it is important to inquire into how travel writing conveys ideas of empire when national borders themselves are in flux. While this may seem like a question more suited to contemporary questions about travel in an era of globalization, it also strongly applies to the fluidity of national borders and identities in North America in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Schäffer’s sense of conflict in this passage epitomizes the increased ambivalence and self-reflexivity of women frontier revival authors toward the very imperialist symbolism that they evoke in the wilderness.  	
    This passage indicates how bodies perform the tightrope walk of imperialist discourse in frontier revival literature by connecting travel to imperialist expansion, while having to negotiate slippery concepts of gender, race, citizenship, borders, and nationhood. Schäffer describes this moment as a brief mutual glimpse between herself and the Kiplings. She refers to the “the tragedy of the comparison” between her appearance and that of Kipling’s wife. The latter is portrayed in a static and confined setting in a carriage and in conventionally feminine attire, while Schäffer is described as riding horseback and appearing rugged, masculine, and Aboriginal. Schäffer’s embarrassment at not living up to conventional standards of femininity suggests at least a partial investment in a shared cultural perspective with which she either cannot or will not comply. She associates these dominant cultural standards with the appearance of urban, affluent, eastern, Anglo-Saxon heritage and of fixed gender roles, all of which she abandons on the trail. By referring to this encounter with Kipling in this corporeal manner, Schäffer emphasizes the extent to which their shared identification with ideas of empire occurs more so on the level of the body (through identifiers of race, class, and gender) than according to specific national or geographical affiliations. While Kipling himself is an elusive, background figure in this passage, Schäffer focusses on his wife as a perplexing physical counterpart to herself. Her description of their shared mutual glance, while occupying different “world[s],” suggests that Schäffer’s conflicts about her own gender identity force her to be more self-conscious about the fluidities and ambiguities of the travelling body. Her perspective as a woman, along with the unruliness of her female body in this passage, means that she cannot take this imperialist perspective for granted, but rather must question it. Not being able to physically pass for a white, Anglo-Saxon traveller, or to fit within recognizable gender roles, means that she cannot merely assume and impose the same kind of cultural authority as her male peers. Schäffer’s sudden desire to maintain her alternative appearance and return to the trail in her statement that “[i]t was  	
    then that I wanted my wild free life back again, yet step by step I was leaving it behind” (78) represents her conflict with the fixed, unquestioning identification with imperialist assumptions about gender and race in the texts of male travel writers. Ironically, Schäffer describes the return to Banff and to the more conventional boundaries of gender and race of which she is reminded by the Kiplings as a step backwards, and thus as a kind of cultural regression, as opposed to the restoration of her cultural authority, which readers would expect at the end of her text. Schäffer still evokes ideas of progress through images of linear movement, change, and allusions to “freedom.” However, for Schäffer, as for the other women discussed in this dissertation, progress is ironically portrayed as a process of escaping the restrictions of their own cultural backgrounds on the trail, as opposed to asserting any sort of national affiliation and returning home. Like her female contemporaries, she suggests a more fluid relationship to geographical and national boundaries and an awareness of the performativity of the imperialist role that she assumes as a travel writer.  1.3  Crossing Paths: Border Crossing and the Frontier Revival  Because of the interdisciplinary nature of my work, it is necessary to explain how I situate myself in relation to overlapping fields of research, and to clarify my use of certain terms that are central to the dissertation. Before I introduce the interdisciplinarity of my methodology, in which I bridge feminist and conceptual metaphor theory, I briefly address how my work is also interdisciplinary in relation to several overlapping fields such as history, literary scholarship, Canadian and American literary studies, fiction and non-fiction, and visual studies.  	
   1.3.1  7	
   Interdisciplinarity  I draw on various different fields of scholarship relating to literature, history, and cultural studies in my study of women’s frontier revival literature. I develop historical and literary scholarship by focussing on a particular historical context of authors from both sides of the border who were writing about western Canada and publishing in eastern American cities. My historical focus allows me to think outside of the divisions between American and Canadian literature by examining how writers on both sides of the border participated in similar types of writing—more specifically how American discourses of westward expansion were adopted by Canadian and American authors to appeal to broader ideas of continental expansion that would have been familiar to readers on both sides of the border. I look at texts by Canadian writers who published in the American publishing industry and who drew heavily on American rhetoric about westward expansion. I also explore American authors who travelled and sometimes even lived across the border in Western Canada. I situate my work within Canadian literary studies because I am interested primarily in how American discourses were imposed upon Canadian settings and how Canadian writers were influenced by their engagement with the American publishing industry and their involvement in a cross-border genre. I draw on scholarship relating to both Canadian and American travel literature, but I aim to contribute in particular to existing scholarship on Canadian women travellers (Buchanan et al.; Buss; Goldman; Grace; Roy) and Canadian literature from a more cross-border perspective (Barman, Constance; Doyle; Higham and Thacker; Mount). Thinking outside the more conventional boundaries of Canadian and American literature allows me to study how discourses about eastern and western regions in North America often play an equally, if not more, important role in shaping travel writing, than national affiliation. I build on scholarship that focusses on literature in western Canada from a cross-border perspective (Barman, Constance; Doyle; GeorgiFindlay; Higham and Thacker; Jameson and McManus; Morrison; Pagh). I also combine literary  	
    analysis with the study of visual images in my discussion of several photographs and illustrations in the primary texts. Because of my focus on the body, it is important to take into account how representations of physical movement occur through both text and visual images. In particular, I incorporate scholarship on photography into my close readings (Barthes; Lippard; MacFarlane; Sontag). Another interdisciplinary feature of my work is my study of a range of primary texts including journalism (Taylor), autobiographical travel guides (Cameron; Gallatin; Laut; Schäffer), and a semi-fictionalized, first person travel memoir that resembles a novel (Duncan). While these texts are not often viewed in connection to one another, I see them as united in their skillful engagement with the cultural background, metaphors, and ideas of frontier revival literature. There are several contemporary cultural examples both in academic and non-academic spheres of an increased Canadian interest in interdisciplinary perspectives on representations of westward travel in North America at the turn of the last century. From October 2009 to January 2010, the Vancouver Art Gallery featured a major exhibit called Expanding Horizons: Painting and Photography of American and Canadian Landscape 1860-1918. This incorporation of art from both sides of the border indicates an increased tendency to examine Canadian literature, history, and art as intertwined with that of the United States. Representations of the landscape, westward expansion, and travel are crucial to the arts on both sides of the border and this exhibit exemplifies a growing public recognition of the ways that Canadian and American representations of the west are intimately connected. In October 2010, Vancouver Opera staged Lillian Alling by John Murrell and John Estacio based on the real story of a female Russian immigrant who is said to have trekked from British Columbia back to Russia in the 1920s. Similarly, in 2005, the Mina Hubbard Centennial Celebrations in Labrador hosted a combination of academic- and communitybased events commemorating Mina Hubbard’s well known travel book, A Woman’s Way through  	
    Unknown Labrador. Both Lillian Alling and Mina Hubbard can be seen as international female travellers (Alling travelled from New York to British Columbia and supposedly back to Siberia and Hubbard was Canadian, but moved to New York state where she trained as a nurse and later married and lived with American travel writer Leonidas Hubbard). However, their journeys have also recently been recovered and adopted as vital parts of Canadian history. Also, new editions of texts by women travellers who wrote about their journeys in Western Canada, including Agnes Deans Cameron, Grace Gallatin, and Mary Schäffer, along with academic studies of women travel writers in Canada (Buchanan et al; Grace; E.J. Hart; Skidmore), indicate renewed cultural interest in women’s travel in Canada at the time. This recent interest opens up many new opportunities to discuss the way women travel writers at the time engage in complex, cross-border debates about ideas of gender, ethnicity, empire, and national identity that were part of Canadian literature and culture at the time.  1.3.2  Cross-Border  It is important to define my use of the term cross-border to situate my work within recent scholarship that approaches Canadian literature and history from a transnational or comparative literature perspective. I use the term cross-border to indicate literal border crossing by Canadian and American writers who crossed the border either for temporary travel, for work and publishing opportunities, or to live. All of the women I study are cross-border in that the Canadian writers travelled, published or lived in the United States and the American writers travelled, and in the case of Schäffer, lived in Canada. I use this term as well throughout my dissertation to refer to the cross-cultural and literary influences that these writers had on readers and writers on both sides of  	
    the Canadian and American border. The term border is of course a slippery one, especially at the end of the nineteenth century when the Canadian/American border had only been fully decided upon a half century earlier and there was considerable movement both north and south across this territorial divide. It is beyond the scope of this dissertation to explore more fully the legal ramifications of border crossing at the time as well as cultural attitudes toward the border.4 However, I use the term cross-border to acknowledge, as do the authors I am studying, the physical and cultural crossing of borders that occurs in their work. While all of these authors blur the boundaries between Canadian and American identity in their texts, they remain aware that they engage in acts of literal and symbolic border-crossing and it is with an awareness of ambiguities inherent to their border-crossing that I use the term. Recent comparative studies (Higham and Thacker; Morrison) show how Canadian and American literary histories are intimately connected and must be studied in relation to one another. As Thacker notes, this is particularly important to the study of Canadian literature because the collective experience of being adjacent—of being similar and proximal, and yet different and separate from the United States—is a fundamental aspect of Canadian culture (Thacker 11). I build on recent more comparative approaches to Canadian literature by showing how a comparative approach to women’s travel literature offers particular insight into cross-border literature at the time.  1.3.3  Frontier Revival Literature  Frontier revival literature is another important term that I use frequently in my dissertation because it helps to situate my work within scholarship on turn of the twentieth-century cross-border print culture. I use this term to refer to a specific, and previously unexplored, genre of texts to which the writers that I  	
    study belong. This genre is characterized by first person tourist adventure accounts that were published in the northeastern American fin-de-siècle publishing industry. They were written by and for urban easterners on both sides of the Canadian/American border and in the style of east coast journalism. These texts are set in western Canada and often employ distinctly American discourses of cultural progress. They describe western Canada as a site in which to relive and revive what I see as a somewhat diluted, popularized version of American manifest destiny rhetoric that refers more to the broader North American continental expansion of white, Anglo-Saxon culture than to previous culturally and historically specific versions of manifest destiny rhetoric.5 Most importantly, frontier revival texts contain recurring motifs of physical movement. My work on frontier revival literature builds on earlier work by Canadian literature and print culture scholars on Canadian expatriate writers who published in the States (Barman, Constance; Doyle; Mount) and American writers who wrote about Canada (Doyle; Johnstone; Schmidt). I build on this previous scholarship by showing that turn of the century travel texts by Canadians and Americans about western Canada epitomize a nexus of Canadian writers publishing in the United States and Americans writing about Canada. Because of the cross-border nature of this genre, it offers new insights into the ways that Americans represented Canada at the time and how Canadians participated in such representations. Important recent work has also been done on turn of the twentieth-century women’s journalism and print culture in Canada (Barman, Constance; Doyle; Fiamengo; Gerson; Lang) and the United States (Lutes), as well as on Canadian women’s involvement in the American publishing industry (Barman, Constance; Doyle; Gerson), and on women’s cross-border writing about western regions of North America (Georgi-Findlay; Jameson and McManus; Pagh). Such recent scholarship has shed light on how women on both sides of the border at the time took advantage of new opportunities for women in the North American publishing industry. I expand this work by identifying an actual genre in which women on both sides of the border  	
    participated, in order to allow for the literature of such women to be explored through literary close reading. By identifying a genre that was developed by male authors but in which women participated, I can also explore how women on both sides of the border engaged in dominant cultural discourses in relation to their cross-border male peers and how they refashioned a masculinist discourse to suit their feminist goals.  1.3.4  Manifest Destiny  It is also important to clarify my use of the term manifest destiny, which I often employ as a kind of short hand for the admittedly complex ideological underpinnings of frontier revival literature. Manifest destiny is a loaded term and as with the study of borders, is a whole topic in and of itself that is discussed at great length and with great variation by scholars of literature, history, and social sciences. The term has also entered popular parlance in a way that is somewhat removed from particular historical origins and usages, similar to other pervasive catch phrases such as the American dream. As historians point out, American manifest destiny rhetoric developed in the early nineteenth century as a way of justifying and promoting American territorial expansion as a divinely ordained cultural mission (Greenberg; Kaplan; Nugent). There was a stage of heightened American imperialism at the turn of the twentieth century that saw a resurgence of earlier, nineteenth-century manifest destiny rhetoric about the shared cultural mission of westward expansion (Nugent xv). This rhetoric was applied to frontier regions of Canada through journalism, travel literature, and popular fiction (Bloom; Doyle; Johnstone “Language”), and was particularly useful in literary portraits of western Canada (Doyle). Recent feminist scholarship on American imperialism also demonstrates that nineteenth-century manifest destiny rhetoric was highly racialized and gendered (Greenberg; Romero; Wexler). It is important to  	
    note that my discussion of manifest destiny focusses not on the complex cultural specificity and evolution of this term throughout the nineteenth century, but rather on its popularized reemergence at the turn of the twentieth century in adventure literature about western Canada. Specifically, I argue that the movement of the travelling body in frontier revival literature is a kind of corporeal short hand for the underpinning ideological assumptions of manifest destiny—namely that American westward expansion is a shared cultural mission imbued with ideas of spiritual duty and redemption. The travelling body in frontier revival literature by men (Garland; Murray; Ralph) represents ideas of cultural progress and expansion in western Canada through the white male body; however, this gender bias is not acknowledged or addressed in an in-depth way by male authors. The authors claim to speak on behalf of North Americans in general so that manifest destiny refers to North American, rather than just American, progress. However, the journey is so implicitly yet pervasively gendered and racialized in these texts that it becomes clear that such cross-border ideas of progress refer to the expansion of a masculinist, white, Anglo-Saxon status quo on both sides of the border. Female frontier revival authors reveal the biases in frontier revival literature by describing their conflicted female subject positions through images of the female travelling body. I use the term manifest destiny to describe gendered and racialized ideas of divinely ordained American westward expansion that reemerged in popular literature about western Canada at the turn of the twentieth century through images of the travelling body.  1.4  Crossroads: Reading the Travelling Female Body  It is also necessary to briefly introduce the interdisciplinary methodology that I develop for close readings based on aspects of feminist and conceptual metaphor theory. I also clarify some of the key terms that I use in the dissertation relating to embodiment.  	
   1.4.1  14	
   Conceptual Metaphor and Feminist Literary Analysis  The main aspect of my methodological interdisciplinarity occurs in the bridging of cognitive linguistics work in conceptual metaphor with feminist theory and women’s literature. This methodology emerges not out of the desire to indulge in theoretical acrobatics, but rather out of the need to find a way of reading that can adequately interpret the rich layers of meaning in these primary texts. As I explain in the following chapters, feminist theory on the body and autobiography that informs my study of women travel writers provides a broader theoretical vocabulary with which to explore how women’s identities reiterate, perform, and talk back to dominant cultural norms (Butler; Lutes; Sidonie Smith and Watson). Work on women’s travel literature—particularly in the field of Canadian literature—skillfully identifies the way that women travel writers express ambivalence in their identification with discourses of imperialism due to their conflicting female subject positions (Buchanan et al.; Buss; Goldman; Grace; Roy). In my dissertation, I attempt to ground these broader theoretical debates in a more structured approach to literary close readings of women’s travel texts. Conceptual metaphor theory is an interdisciplinary field that lends itself to developing new forms of literary close reading. Work on conceptual metaphor theory (Lakoff and Johnson; Lakoff and Turner; Semino; Stockwell; Sweetser) identifies networks of metaphors that stem from bodily experience, which I argue are especially helpful in understanding literary texts about the body. It is important to note that just as my interdisciplinary interest in historical scholarship and in American literature ultimately serves my primary interest in Canadian literature, so too does my interdisciplinary interest in conceptual metaphor support my feminist literary perspective. It is beyond the scope of my dissertation to dig further into the kinds of data analysis that characterizes linguistics work. What I do address in my dissertation are the ways that aspects of conceptual metaphor theory can be incorporated within a feminist literary analysis of travel literature. By borrowing aspects of conceptual metaphor theory, I can conduct a more structured close  	
    reading than a feminist literary analysis offers on its own. I hope to contribute to conceptual metaphor work by shedding light on how such metaphors occur in literary texts and in relation to discourses of gender, ethnicity, ideology, and national affiliation.  1.4.2  Feminist Perspectives  I build on several key ideas in the work of feminist body and autobiography theorists. In Bodies that Matter, Judith Butler argues that bodies perform cultural meaning so as to achieve “cultural intelligibility” (2). The travelling body in frontier revival literature offers a kind of physical template by which to symbolically perform ideas fundamental to manifest destiny. Because there is no way of referring to the body that is not mediated by culturally specific discourses (Butler 10), I argue that it is important to question the ideological biases in genres of literature in which the body is prominently featured. Butler also cautions that the nature of performativity is to conceal itself (12) and this is also an important reminder for scholars of travel literature. I show how female frontier revival authors are more aware of the performativity and underlying cultural biases of travel literature than their male peers. Autobiography theorists Sidonie Smith and Julia Watson raise important questions about female selfrepresentation, asking “if male representations of woman project her as the self-contented, arrested, and arresting Other, what might it mean for the woman artist to take herself . . . as subject?” (Sidonie Smith and Watson, “Mapping” 13). I show that women frontier revival authors are writing in response to a genre that prioritizes masculinist perspectives on ideas of cultural progress. Feminist scholarship on travel literature explores the conflicting ways that women travel writers identify with dominant imperialist discourses (Grace; Mills, Discourses of Difference; Pratt; Roy; Sidonie Smith, Moving). The burgeoning and increasingly prominent field of women’s travel within Canada explores these questions  	
    and sees them as central to Canadian women’s literature (Buchanan; Buss; Goldman; Grace; Roy). I seek to contribute to this field by focussing on how the conflicting subject positions of female travellers emerge through the female body. By highlighting their female perspectives on the travelling body, they raise questions about how ideas of progress, while seeming to be broadly representative, actually prioritize the white male body and white, masculinist cultural perspectives. The main contribution that I hope to make to feminist literary theory lies in the structured and detailed way that I read meaning in representations of the travelling body.  1.4.3  Conceptual Metaphor Theory  For this more structured reading of the female travelling body, I borrow certain key methods from cognitive linguistics work on conceptual metaphor theory. Conceptual metaphor theory explores how we understand abstract concepts through metaphor and how such metaphors emerge from our daily lived experiences in the body (Semino 30). Conceptual metaphor theorists offer specific metaphors that they show to be prevalent in thought, language, and literature (Freeman; Lakoff and Johnson; Lakoff and Turner; Semino; Stockwell; Sweetser). In particular, I draw on key metaphors introduced in the work of George Lakoff and Mark Johnson including the influential texts, Metaphors we Live by and Philosophy in the Flesh. For instance, in the LOCATIONAL EVENT STRUCTURE metaphor, key mappings include States are Bounded Locations, Causes are Movements, Difficulties are Impediments to Motion, and Purposes are Destinations (Lakoff and Johnson, Philosophy 274). I show how metaphors about location are important in travel literature because authors convey ideas of cultural progress according to physical descriptions of their movement. Metaphors of containment such as the SELF AS A CONTAINER and OBJECTIVE STANDPOINT metaphors are also very important because travellers  	
    often describe States of progress according to movement in between, through, or at the edge of Bounded Locations. My use of these metaphors offers a specific and detailed method of close reading. Aside from providing a more grounded and detailed feminist analysis, my approach also contributes to conceptual metaphor theory by exploring how conceptual metaphors occur in literary texts and in the context of specific cultural discourses relating to gender, ethnicity, ideology, and national affiliation.  1.4.4  The Body  Because I am incorporating these somewhat different theoretical approaches in my work, it is important to clarify my thoughts on the body and on embodiment—words that carry different connotations in feminist and conceptual metaphor circles. As Elizabeth Hart notes, “[e]mbodiment, in Butler’s scenario, is thus something that happens to the body, is an imposition upon the body by culture” (Elizabeth Hart 30), while according to cognitive linguists, “language and discourse are themselves . . . cognitively embodied” (Elizabeth Hart 31). Feminist and cognitive linguistic approaches to the body are part of two quite distinct and in some ways opposing disciplines that could be compared or contrasted in many different ways. My particular study of female frontier revival authors falls primarily into the fields of feminist literary analysis and the study of women’s travel literature in Canada. My overall interest is in how women negotiate specific discourses of cultural progress through the female body in a way that I show to be more complex and self-reflexive than their male peers. However, as Elizabeth Hart notes, feminist theorists focus on how abstract ideas affect the body in a way that ignores how bodily experience affects the way meaning is made. Like conceptual metaphor theorists, I am interested in the way that experiential knowledge about our bodily experience contributes to shared patterns of language and I adapt conceptual metaphor theory  	
    as the specific methodology with which to apply my literary analysis. I argue that the female travelling body is rich in meaning that can only be fully grasped through the ideological framework of feminist literary analysis and the more specific methodology of conceptual metaphor theory. I explore how the meaning of the travelling body tends to be more rich and self-reflexive in texts by women and I support my reading by locating and analyzing it through the structured network of intersecting conceptual metaphors in descriptions of physical movement in these texts.  1.4.5  Framing  I also borrow the concept of framing from cognitive linguists as a way of helping to reconcile feminist and conceptual metaphor perspectives. I build on Charles Fillmore’s approach to frames as “any system of concepts related in such a way that to understand any one of them you have to understand the whole structure in which it fits” (“Frame Semantics” 111). Developing Fillmore’s approach to frames, Sweetser and Fauconnier provide an example of the common frame of “a commercial event,” including the roles of “buyer,” “seller,” and “goods” (5). In my own work, I envision literary frames as a meeting point between the two intersecting realms of conceptual metaphor and cultural discourse. I interpret frames as general knowledge structures based on motifs of physical movement that on their own do not convey specific conceptual metaphors or specific cultural discourses. When certain conceptual metaphors recur together in specific cultural settings they create knowledge structures that I see as the basis of literary genres. I identify what I refer to as a frontier revival frame in the texts that I study and see this frame as consisting of several physical motifs including: 1) a metonymic eastern travelling body; 2) a cyclical northwestern journey; 3) a struggle in the wilderness (loss and renewal of control); and 4) a return home (with a final renewal of control) (See Fig 1.1). In other words, frontier revival  	
    authors use a network of specific conceptual metaphors in a specific historical, cultural, and literary setting so as to create a general frame in the minds of readers. When frontier revival authors draw on basic physical components such as a cyclical journey, they instantly trigger readers’ shared experiential knowledge that underlies conceptual metaphor, as well as a whole set of specific cultural discourses.  1.4.6  The Travelling Body  When I refer to the travelling body in frontier revival literature I am talking about what I see as the frame concept of the travelling body in the frontier revival frame. When individual travellers describe their physical movements in frontier revival literature, they do so in a way that triggers a set of conceptual metaphors as well as a set of cultural beliefs and ideas about travel. One of the interesting aspects of exploring conceptual metaphors in literature is the way that metaphors occur with variation in literature according to the specific body type of the author and the types of cultural discourses the author draws upon when describing physical movements. In this way, a varied group of authors can trigger, for instance, the travelling body of the frontier revival frame, while using it in different ways with a great diversity of individual perspectives and cultural inflection. Female frontier revival authors use the travelling body of the frame in ways that both evoke and also contest aspects of the work of their male peers. I interpret individual bodies as always negotiating frames that include, on the one hand, experientially based conceptual metaphor, and on the other hand, complex cultural discourses. In my work, when I refer to the body, I am usually referring to an archetypal, metonymic representation of bodies that individual travellers represent in their texts—one that exists on the level of frames. The body of the frontier revival frame that I discuss in my work is not the body of cognitive linguistics that usually refers to a more purely experiential realm underlying specific linguistic examples. This is  	
    because I am exploring a frame concept of the body that consists of both a network of conceptual metaphors, as well as a very specific historical and literary context. My discussion of the body is also not the body of feminist theorists that is usually discussed as enacting cultural ideas without any structured or shared meaning emerging on the level of the body itself. My discussion of the body differs from this latter approach because I recognize a structured language emerging from the body that exists in the much larger and undeniable cultural context that is still my main concern as a feminist literary scholar. I interpret the body according to a specific set of conceptual metaphors, while also paying close attention to the performativity of such metaphors in specific cultural settings. I refer to the travelling body as a specific frame concept. The travelling body in the frontier revival frame represents a whole specific set of conceptual metaphors and cultural discourses that connect movement to self-definition.  1.4.7  Bodies and Selves  I pay attention to the self-reflexivity that emerges when women use experiential metaphors differently than their male peers. I show how they call attention to the metaphoricity and cultural performativity of such metaphors. This tension between the body (as a universal source of abstract knowledge) and the body (as a cultural signifier that limits what they can do) becomes a central point of tension and also agency in these texts. It allows them to access the body as a kind of common language that gives them entry into public, masculine fields of activity. It also allows them to expand cultural attitudes toward the body to show that ideas relating to gender and ethnicity are more fluid and open to interpretation than previously thought. More specifically, when analyzing examples from texts such as the previously quoted passage from Mary Schäffer’s Old Indian Trails, I show how the author renegotiates dominant discourse through  	
    conceptual metaphor. For instance, Schäffer’s comment that “[i]t was then that I wanted my wild free life back again, yet step by step I was leaving it behind” (78) connects her physical movement in the wilderness to a transformative psychological experience. By describing her “wild free life” as a physical object or location that she wants “back again,” she calls on the LOCATIONAL EVENT STRUCTURE metaphor to map the Location of being in the wilderness onto a State of freedom. She also describes Movement away from the Location of the wilderness as a Change in her State of self through a reduction of freedom. In particular, the image of her forward Movement away from this Location/State implies ambivalence toward the traditional Destination/Goal6 of the Change that comes with returning to civilization and restoring the frontier revival traveller’s cultural control. Schäffer’s idealization of the freedom of the wilderness evokes the Impediments/Difficulties of the struggle in the wilderness in frontier revival literature. However, unlike her male peers, Schäffer idealizes the struggle and loss of control in the wilderness as a site of rare personal freedom that she sees as more interesting and valuable than reasserting any sort of cultural control. As well, by depicting her forward Movement away from the wilderness as a negative form of Change, she both evokes and questions the recognizable cyclical motif of frontier revival literature in which the final Destination of returning home asserts the Goal of restoring cultural progress. Schäffer’s idealization of the wilderness as a Location/State that she is forced to leave behind in the formulaic return to civilization questions the very ideas of progress that she ostensibly supports by completing the physical cycle and narrative arc of her journey. Schäffer’s disconcerting glimpse of herself through the eyes of the Kiplings illustrates the fluidity of the subject positions of female travellers who exist uncomfortably between different Locations/States on their travels. Just as Schäffer is unable to live and represent the travelling body with the unquestioning authority of male figures such as Kipling, she is neither able nor willing to embody conventional, “static” (Sidonie Smith and Watson, “Mapping” 13) ideals of femininity as represented by Kipling’s  	
    wife. Completing the journey and undergoing the struggle in the wilderness, Schäffer takes on a familiar heroic role in the mind of the reader; however, this heroism becomes inflected with her own gendered ambivalence toward the very ideas of progress that she performs in the wilderness.  1.5  Step By Step: Chapter Outlines  In chapter 2, “Frontiers of Philosophy and Flesh: Staking Out A Feminist and Conceptual Metaphor Approach to Travel Literature,” I offer a detailed explanation of how I use and adapt feminist and conceptual metaphor approaches in my work. I situate my work in relation to feminist and conceptual metaphor scholarship and show how I build upon both of these approaches so as to do a detailed analysis that feminist or cognitive linguistics close readings would not provide on their own. I explain my approach to specific ideas such as embodiment, conceptual metaphor and frame and offer a detailed explanation of the conceptual metaphors that I see as connected in the works that I study. I also draw on specific examples of work by male and female frontier revival authors to show how I apply this approach to literary close readings of frontier revival authors. In chapter 3, “Making New Bodies Matter: Women Writers and the Frontier Revival,” I look at the bigger cultural, historical, and literary picture in order to contextualize the texts that I study. I explain that these six writers were part of a much bigger literary movement on both sides of the border that consisted of authors who published in the northeastern United States and who wrote journalistic adventure literature about western Canada with a strong focus on the body for a crossborder audience. I develop my use of the terms frontier revival and cross-border and explore in further detail the ideological concepts of cultural progress that such texts touched upon. I also  	
    explain and justify my particular selection of authors and the way that I have grouped them. I choose six authors—three Canadians and three Americans—whose work is representative of the main aspects of frontier revival literature and who epitomize popular female responses to dominant discourses of the day. Devoting each of the three principal chapters to a comparison between an American and Canadian author of a similar time period, I explore how women on both sides of the border engaged with similar textual strategies and show how these strategies changed over time with innovations such as photography and with increased social opportunities for women. I also use examples of male and female frontier revival authors to explain the way that these texts fit into a particular genre and how the texts by women authors depart from those of their male peers. In chapter 4, “Social Departures: Retracing the Female Frontier Revival in Duncan’s A Social Departure (1890) and Taylor’s “A Woman in the Mackenzie Delta” (1894-95), I compare Canadian Sara Jeanette Duncan’s travel text with that of American Elizabeth Taylor. Writing in the 1890s, these earlier authors epitomize the forefront of female frontier revival literature. They document their innovative journeys into areas of northwestern Canada that were just beginning to become accessible to types of tourist travel that were more convenient for women travellers. I discuss Duncan in particular as a Canadian literary icon and reflect on how she explores the transnational aspects of Canadian identity of her time through the disruptive medium of the female body. Taylor is an example of a writer who, despite being relatively unheard of in current academic circles, is connected to important literary figures of the day and can shed light on the literary networks behind frontier revival literature. At the vanguard of popular east coast women’s journalism and discourses about the new woman, these texts also emphasize the marriage between the more dominant imperialist motifs of frontier adventure writing and the increased prominence  	
    and visibility of women writers and debates about women’s rights. I discuss how the female travelling body disrupts conventional motifs of the frontier revival frame in these texts. For instance, the authors express a heightened state of novelty and excitement at their personal freedom as opposed to national affiliation on the trail. They also express ambivalence toward conventional Destinations/Goals in frontier revival literature. Chapter 5 is entitled “New Sensations: Grace Gallatin’s A Woman Tenderfoot (1900) and Agnes Deans Cameron’s The New North (1909). I discuss these texts as written at the height of frontier revival literature and drawing on increasingly recognizable motifs of female frontier revival literature. Both women are much more outspoken in their feminist beliefs and present more unapologetically gendered and defiant personae in their texts. They both present sensationalized images of the female body in ways that explicitly disrupt and challenge gendered and racialized ideas of progress in frontier revival literature. Gallatin’s text is notable in the viscerally direct way that she describes herself as guiding the reader through the text and showing women how to gain social mobility through increased physical mobility on the trail. Her marriage to Canadian Ernest Seton-Thompson and literary collaborations with him, as well as her extensive connections in transnational literary and suffragist circles, make Gallatin a compelling literary and historical figure who effectively demonstrates the feminist counter-perspective on male dominated discourse about a cross-border west. Cameron is also much more explicit and bold than Duncan and Taylor in combining a mixture of cross-border imperialist discourse with a promotion of the rights of women and Aboriginal people. Her use of photography and her foregrounding of the female body in poses that blur categories of gender and ethnicity force the reader to question the ideas of progress that she espouses and to realize that such progress is open to interpretation.  	
    In chapter 6, “Hunters of Peace: Mary Schäffer’s Old Indian Trails (1911) and Agnes Laut’s Enchanted Trails of Glacier Park (1926), I address two later texts by American Mary Schäffer and Canadian Agnes Laut. I show how these texts develop recognizable motifs in female frontier revival literature such as prioritizing individual physical freedoms, rejecting conventional Destinations/Goals, and existing between different Locations/States. Their use of such motifs takes Cameron’s concerns about protecting the rights of Aboriginal people and the environment to a more explicit level. Schäffer, another iconic literary figure, is an example of an American who wrote, travelled in, and ultimately moved to western Canada. Schäffer foregrounds her female body in certain key passages and describes the struggle to be taken seriously as a female traveller. She also describes various struggles to domesticate the wilderness and to find a sense of female belonging that she cannot seem to find in urban, eastern society. However, while she frames her text according to the female body, she repeatedly connects her struggle for “[p]eace” with what can be seen as a feminist eco-criticism perspective by arguing for the protection of Aboriginal people, the natural landscape, and the animals of the surrounding wilderness. Similarly, Agnes Laut makes key references to the female body as a defining factor in how one perceives the wilderness, while focussing more on questions of how to preserve national parks and the cultures of Aboriginal populations. While Laut’s text is set in Montana’s Glacier National Park, she makes frequent reference to western Canada and evokes ideas of a cross-border west that pervade her large body of work. Both Schäffer and Laut make use of photography. Laut, who published her text in 1926, even goes so far as to make several allusions to cinema. I explore how anxieties about authenticity and objectivity emerge with the rise of new media and contribute to underlying questions in these texts about who gets to represent or to See/Know the west.  	
   1.6  26	
    Conclusion: Where is here?  Northrop Frye’s question of “where is here” (222) indicates the extent to which interdisciplinarity—the reaching across borders of geography and discipline—is necessary to the study of Canadian literature and history. This question reminds us of the importance of articulating “imagined communities” (B. Anderson 13) in order to make sense of the geographical or national territories in which we find ourselves and of the paradoxically real importance that those abstract definitions carry. This question also reminds us of the nebulous connection between empirical locations (here) and the abstract definitions that allow us to make sense of where we are. Part of the circular ambiguity of this question is that Frye, in the context of his writing on Canadian literature and identity, seems to be pointing to the many different ways that we can imagine or redefine the physical location of Canada. Because the words where and here are both usually used to refer in more empirical ways to locations in space, Frye is hinting, particularly through the form of a question, that there is no way to define a physical location that is not discursive and open to ongoing interpretation. To be anywhere, and particularly to be in Canada, Frye suggests, is to be involved in an act of constant re-definition, one that is connected to real places and people, but which is also abstract and changeable. The sense of indeterminacy or adjacency connected to Canadian identity indicates the importance of examining Canadian literature in relation to American cultural influences (Thacker 11). By identifying and exploring the cross-border genre of frontier revival literature, I hope to show how at the turn of the twentieth century, ideas of western Canada were simultaneously prominent in the imaginations of adventure writers on both sides of the borders, and also very much up for debate. Frontier revival literature about going west at that time reflects this fixation on Canadian identity, as well as on the ambiguity about that very identity, which at that historical  	
    moment was especially affected by transnational literary discourses. The influence of the American publishing industry and of American imperialist discourses about Canada as a last North American frontier permeated this genre. For this reason, frontier revival literature sheds light on continuing and longstanding discussions about Canadian literature and Canadian identity. These questions about how we imagine our physical and geographical locations are also relevant to the overlapping methodologies of conceptual metaphor and feminist theory that I have chosen to apply to my primary texts. Conceptual metaphor theory shows how experiential knowledge of the body informs the way that we think about abstract ideas, including those ideas relating to personal and collective identities. My use of this theoretical approach helps me to show how images of travelling bodies in western Canada at the turn of the twentieth century call on a structured network of metaphors to convey complex cultural meaning about ideas of identity and progress. As a feminist scholar, thinking about the body in terms of conceptual metaphor also compels me to note how the use of such metaphors reflects dominant cultural norms about the body and can be significantly different according to the gender of travel writers. The question of where is here? also pertains to questions within feminist scholarship about how women authors relate differently to ideas of place that often exclude them on the basis of their gender. Virginia Woolf’s famous statement from Three Guineas (1938) that “as a woman, I have no country” (109) takes on interesting implications in the context of travel literature, especially in the context of a cross-border genre such as frontier revival literature. This is because images of travelling female bodies in such texts evoke dominant discourses about place, while showing how such discourses exclude women.  	
    The function of interdisciplinarity within this dissertation is to decipher meaning in texts that exist between different categories and which have, because of this difficulty of categorization, largely fallen through the literary cracks. Finding ways to interpret and analyze these texts requires finding a new vocabulary with which to read them—one that does justice to their complexity. It is this very complexity, I argue, that makes these texts intriguing aspects of Canadian literary history because they provide insight into persistent cross-border debates about ideas of identity and progress that informed Canadian literature of the time.  1.7  1  Notes to Chapter 1  	
   All of the quotes from this work are from the later edition edited by E.J. Hart that I cite as A  Hunter of Peace in the bibliography. I still generally refer to the text according to the original title: Old Indian Trails. The photographs that I discuss are from the original edition. 2  All of the quotes from Cameron’s The New North are from the recent edition edited by David  Richeson. However, the photographs that I discuss are from the 1910 edition. 3  For a good summary of work on conceptual metaphor theory, see Elena Semino’s Metaphor in  Discourse. 4  For relevant recent work on border studies see Findlay’s and Coates’ Parallel Destinies and  Lape’s West of the Border. 5  For scholarship on manifest destiny, see Kaplan, Murphy, Nugent, Wexler, and Romero.	
    6  I refer to the “Purposes Are Destinations” (Lakoff and Johnson, Philosophy in the Flesh 179)  mapping in the LES metaphor as Destinations/Goals.  	
   2  29	
    Frontiers of Philosophy and Flesh: Staking Out A Feminist and Conceptual Metaphor Approach to Travel Literature  2.1  Introduction: “horizon[s], and the limit of all endurance”  In Old Indian Trails (1911), American Mary Schäffer (1861-1939) describes her and her friend’s envy toward male explorers who travelled into the Rockies. She says that for women travellers, “the horizon seemed restricted, and we seemed to have reached that horizon, and the limit of all endurance” (17). She describes this frustration as being forced “to sit with folded hands and listen calmly to the stories of the hills we so longed to see, the hills which had lured and beckoned us for years before this long list of men had ever set foot in the country” (17). Schäffer’s casual use of this horizon metaphor in 1911 to evoke competing ideas of manifest destiny and women’s rights helps me to retrace a whole legacy of cross-border adventure writing at the turn of the twentieth century.7 On a broader level, this passage illustrates how complex historical meanings about gender, race, and imperialism emerge through representations of the travelling body and often become more self-reflexive, layered in meaning, and politically subversive in the hands of women writers. What does this passage mean and where does the meaning come from? As cognitive philosopher Mark Johnson argues, the very concept of a horizon is experientially based because it connotes a limitation of knowledge based on the physical limitations of one’s sight line (“Image Schemas” 20). For instance, Johnson suggests that the universal bodily human experience of horizons underlies basic shared understandings of centre and periphery in conceptual metaphors.8 Interested in how conceptual metaphors are lived through the female body, I read passages such as  	
    this observation by Schäffer as drawing on shared experiential knowledge to engage with complex cultural debates. Schäffer’s idea of expanding the horizon uses this experiential knowledge to trigger a whole set of connotations about North American cultural progress relating to frontier expansion, and she extends these connotations of progress to the promotion of women’s rights. This passage hints at how representations of the female body in such adventure texts by women used American motifs of progress to promote increased opportunities for women on both sides of the border. In Schäffer’s text, the horizon refers to the physical expansion of the frontier by explorers, settlers and travellers, the symbolic testing of the boundaries of cultural progress in manifest destiny rhetoric, and the challenge to limitations on women’s experiences.9 The experiential reference to a horizon provides Schäffer the agency with which to access broader concepts of social progress and extend them to women’s rights. How does this meaning shed light on the other texts in my dissertation? In the body of the dissertation, I conduct close comparative readings of six texts: Sara Jeannette Duncan’s A Social Departure: How Orthodocia and I Went Around the World By Ourselves (1890), Elizabeth Taylor’s “A Woman in the Mackenzie Delta” (1894-95), Grace Gallatin’s A Woman Tenderfoot (1900), Agnes Deans Cameron’s The New North (1909), Mary Schäffer’s Old Indian Trails (1911), and Agnes Laut’s Enchanted Trails of Glacier Park (1926). I argue that in travel literature, the body is rich in meaning and that such meaning is more rich and self-reflexive in texts by women travellers. All of the women whose work I study make complex and persuasive social statements through their physical movements. From Duncan’s 1891 image of sitting at the front of a speeding train to Gallatin’s 1900 description of fighting to steady herself as she falls off her horse in the mountains, or Schäffer’s 1911 desire to broaden women’s horizons, these authors evoke North American ideas of cultural progress and apply such ideas to women’s rights on both  	
    sides of the border. They speak through their bodies in a way that was popular and accessible at the time. In these texts, westward expansion simultaneously symbolizes a whole range of ideas about cultural progress, as well as increased social mobility for women. How does the process of finding and analyzing this meaning contribute to a new way of reading texts? In this chapter, I explain my approach to embodiment and show how I draw on feminist and conceptual metaphor theory to analyze meaning on the level of what I refer to as the travelling body. This meaning occurs through conceptual metaphors that are at once highly experiential and yet shaped by cultural context. Feminist scholars of women’s travel literature have shown how women travel writers have appropriated the symbolism of the “individualizing journey” that is usually dominated by men (Smith, Moving xi). I analyze travel literature through the lens of feminist literary analysis by focussing on the big questions of how biological and cultural elements of gender are renegotiated in art, literature, and our daily lives. However, I also draw on cognitive linguistics work on how meaning is made from and through the body itself on the level of conceptual metaphors and frames. As Semino points out in Metaphors in Discourse, one of the most innovative aspects of conceptual metaphor theory is its “focus on patterns of conventional metaphorical expressions, its emphasis on the embodied nature of many conventional metaphors, and its account of how metaphors can systematically shape our worldviews” (10). I look to conceptual metaphor theory for a more concrete understanding of how meaning emerges on the level of the body itself and for a more systematic vocabulary of metaphors with which to direct my feminist analysis. I explain my approach to embodiment and show how my methodology provides insights that neither feminist theory nor cognitive linguistics can offer on its own. I propose a way of reading meaning on the level of the body that sheds light on modes of thought at a particular time in history, and that allows me to study how  	
    representations of the body evoke specific metaphors across boundaries of geography, high/low art, fiction/non-fiction, canonical/non-canonical texts, and literary/political discourse. I build on feminist theory by providing a rigorous and nuanced methodology with which to analyze how authors live metaphors through representations of the body. I also develop conceptual metaphor theory by showing how metaphors and frames appear through the body in seemingly literal representations of physical movement. Bringing a rigorous methodology to a feminist perspective and an ideological lens to conceptual metaphor theory, I provide a way of reading meaning through the body. I use this approach to locate and closely analyze forms of agency in women’s literature that could otherwise go unnoticed. Why study frontier adventure literature? My approach is particularly applicable to American frontier discourse about western Canada at the end of the nineteenth century. While I go into much more detail about literary and historical context in chapter 3, I establish my use of terms such as frontier revival literature and cross-border here in order to outline the cultural context and primary field of texts in my dissertation, and to explain why this field calls for such a dramatically new approach to reading. My concept of frontier revival literature refers to a specific set of adventure texts written between 1880 and 1930 by eastern authors travelling on the western frontier. These texts are peculiarly cross-border in terms of: site of publication; cultural background; setting; and subject matter. Frontier revival travellers seek to revive and relive eastern American ideas of manifest destiny in western Canadian settings as a response to an increasingly waning American frontier. I explore how this idea of reliving the American frontier in Canada appears through recurring physical motifs that consist of conceptual metaphors and a frontier revival frame. The genre of frontier revival literature demonstrates the usefulness of combining feminist and conceptual metaphor theory to analyze texts. The emphasis on travel as a  	
    nation building exercise that is coded through the body in these texts results in a rich layering of conceptual metaphors and cultural meanings that can be best understood through this approach. My time frame—1880 to 1930—allows me to focus on what I see as the beginning, peak, and later developments of frontier revival literature. As I explain further in Chapter 3, this genre developed in the 1880s with the waning of the American frontier and the almost simultaneous opening up of western Canada to immigration, travel, and development. I show how the boom in the northeastern American publishing industry coincided with an increase in adventure literature about western Canada for a cross-border audience and by cross-border authors. Increased opportunities for Canadian and American women in literature and journalism at the time also allowed women to imitate and even contest the masculinist discourses of male frontier revival authors. While the peak of frontier revival literature occurred in the first decade of the twentieth century, it had later echoes, which I explore in Laut’s 1926 text. During the last half of the nineteenth century, literary, historical, and political rhetoric in the northeastern United States was so steeped in language about the body that physical motifs of westward expansion became synonymous with cultural progress. Because the eastern travelling body signifies ideas of imperial westward expansion in the late nineteenth century, it is all the more important to develop a way of critically analyzing this symbolism rather than unthinkingly endorsing its underlying assumptions about gender, race, and class. The persistence of this symbolism on both sides of the border in the primary field that I identify as frontier revival literature10 demonstrates how conceptual metaphors and ideas about the intercontinental expansion of Anglo-Saxon culture, cross conventional disciplinary and geographical lines. My methodology allows me to reach across these lines and explore gendered and racialized ideas about progress in these ostensibly separate national and literary cultures. Most importantly, it lets  	
    me show moments of agency and resistance that without this border-crossing methodology would stay lost in the cracks through which they have fallen. I draw on several examples to demonstrate how I use this methodology to analyze texts. For help in identifying metaphors throughout frontier revival literature, I build on scholarship about conceptual metaphor. As I explain in more detail later in this chapter, conceptual metaphor is the “cognitive mechanism” by which we understand and perceive abstract concepts according to the sensorimotor experience of living in our bodies (Lakoff and Johnson Philosophy 45). Primary conceptual metaphors such as More Is Up11 conceive of subjective abstract ideas (in this case, relating to judgment about quantity) according to experiential knowledge (for More is Up, this knowledge would relate to verticality) (Philosophy 54-55). Complex conceptual metaphors consist of more basic primary metaphors as well as “forms of cultural knowledge” (Philosophy 60-61). For instance, the LOCATIONAL EVENT STRUCTURE12 metaphor, which links knowledge of movement through space with knowledge of actions, causes, changes, states, and purposes (Lakoff and Johnson, Philosophy 181), consists of primary metaphors such as: (1) States are Locations (interiors of bounded regions in space); (2) Changes are Movements13 (into or out of bounded regions) (Lakoff, “Metaphor” 222-223). In my own close readings, I build on conceptual metaphor theory by identifying what I see as a network of complex conceptual metaphors, which I show to be connected in a unique and sustained way throughout frontier revival literature. I focus primarily on the SELF-CONTROL IS BODILY CONTROL, LOCATIONAL EVENT STRUCTURE (LES)14, and LOCATIONAL SELF (LS) metaphors, as well as the SELF AS CONTAINER (SC), OBJECTIVE STANDPOINT (OS), and GENERIC IS SPECIFIC metaphors, which in combination produce shifting collective States of self as an individual traveller struggles for control by moving in between, through, and at the edge of  	
    Bounded Locations. In order to understand how these metaphors connect to each other and fit into a wider social context, I identify them within a frame, or general knowledge structure (Fillmore, 111), and I specifically identify this frame as a frontier revival frame. By identifying the frame in which these metaphors occur, I can read how metaphors live on the level of the body in representations of physical movement that appear to be literal. I turn to work in cultural studies and feminist theory to develop my literary analysis of the cultural relevance of this network of metaphors in frontier revival literature and go into more detail about the literary, cultural, and historical focus of my methodology in Chapter 3. In contrast with cognitive and feminist approaches to literary analysis, my approach to conceptual metaphor provides a more detailed experiential understanding of the metaphors that occur in travel literature, while also indicating a more precise understanding of cultural concepts of self in which these metaphors occur. Offering a more thorough understanding of how meaning emerges both through the body and within a cultural context, I seek to understand how representations of the female travelling body disrupt and engage in wider cross-border dialogues about ideas relating to cultural identity and progress at the turn of the twentieth century.15  2.2  Living Metaphors: Combining Feminist and Cognitive Approaches to Embodiment  In order to explain my approach to embodiment, it is first necessary to explore contrasting interpretations of embodiment in cognitive linguistics and feminist theory. In their influential work on metaphors including Metaphors We Live By (1980) and Philosophy in the Flesh (1999), George Lakoff and Mark Johnson show how we use metaphors in our thoughts, daily language, and literature to understand abstract concepts according to our experiences in our bodies.16 This idea that the body thus shapes our abstract reasoning conflicts significantly with work on the body  	
    in feminist theory. For instance, in Judith Butler’s influential Bodies that Matter (1993), she argues that socially constructed concepts, especially relating to sex and gender, are imposed upon and performed by the body (10). As cognitive linguist Elizabeth Hart argues, “[e]mbodiment, in Butler’s scenario, is thus something that happens to the body, is an imposition upon the body by culture” (Elizabeth Hart 30), while according to cognitive linguists, “language and discourse are themselves . . . cognitively embodied” (Elizabeth Hart 31). In my own work, I treat these two seemingly opposite philosophies as relevant to each other in that they both see the body as central to an ongoing interaction between biological and cultural forces. Lakoff does admit that conceptual metaphors always take place within specific cultural contexts (“Metaphor” 244) and Elizabeth Hart goes so far as to locate a sense of agency in what she sees as both “primary cognitive” and “secondary discursive” forms of embodiment (Elizabeth Hart 40). While cognitive linguistics and feminist camps tend to locate themselves on opposite ends of the cognitive/cultural spectrum, they both see the body as at the centre of how meaning is negotiated on a daily basis, and can thus offer valuable lessons to one another. Working within an overall context of feminist literary analysis, I subscribe to Butler’s reminder that representations of the body can never be removed from specific cultural discourses, specifically those relating to sex and gender (10), but can, in the process of re-iterating cultural norms, be used to revise abstract concepts (15). Schäffer’s attempt to expand the “horizon” (17) of possibilities for women is an example of how the female body reenacts ideological concepts of gender. However, neither Butler nor other prominent body theorists, offer a specific close-reading methodology for showing how meaning is revised.17 Conceptual metaphor theorists, on the other hand, would recognize that Schäffer’s horizon is image schematic18 and maps19 the Bounded Location of a sightline onto the State of restriction in the States are Locations metaphor. However, conceptual metaphor theory focusses  	
    more on patterns of metaphors in language and would steer away from analyzing the complexities of cultural and literary meaning relating to gender and imperialism in the passage, and of the way that Schäffer conveys such mappings in seemingly straightforward descriptions of physical movement throughout the text. I combine these two approaches by using conceptual metaphor theory to help provide a richer and more detailed feminist analysis of how meaning emerges through representation of the body and, more specifically, how the female body lives and rewrites ideas relating to gender, citizenship, and nationhood. In contrast to conceptual metaphor theorists, I direct my feminist literary analysis toward the way that biological and ideological gender differences affect conceptual metaphors. Considering the fact that biological differences between men and women are fundamental to the experience of living in a human body and yet difficult to separate from the cultural construction of sex and gender, it is worth mentioning that these differences, while understandably overlooked in conceptual metaphor theory, may be of interest to scholars in the field. Some promising cognitive linguistics scholarship has begun to emerge that explores connections between gender and conceptual metaphor or image schema (Ahrens; Freeman; Spolsky).20 Biological gender differences are important to be aware of because they are likely to lead to the presence of specific metaphors and image schemas.21 This is compelling not merely from a feminist or gender studies point of view, but also on behalf of a fundamental interest in how meaning is made and revised through representations of bodies. Because most literary genres have been dominated by men, commonly recurring conceptual metaphors in literature need to be recognized as often stemming from the male body, or reflecting patriarchal concepts of gender identity.22 The task of exploring how metaphors relating to travel tend to reflect masculine experiences of physical and social mobility lies outside the parameters of Lakoff’s and Johnson’s discussion of the Purposeful Life is  	
    a journey metaphor (Philosophy 60).23 I argue that self-controlled physical mobility, as implied in the word journey, is more historically rooted in the male body so that this connection between identity and travel (and between social and physical mobility) mostly stems from and applies to male bodies. The common use of this metaphorical connection reflects the tendency in industrialized, western cultures to prioritize male domains of activity as more indicative of social mobility, as well as economic and political agency. While this metaphor stems from the biological and ideological history of the male body, it often appears, even in Lakoff and Johnson’s analysis, as gender neutral. Analyzing how this metaphor has become culturally gendered as male, while being rooted in universal experiential knowledge, is not the job of linguists and ultimately must occur in the field of literary analysis. I explore how women writers use motifs of travel to access more masculine concepts of social mobility and to create a more self-reflexive understanding of seemingly neutral cultural ideas relating to identity and progress. I am influenced by recent cognitive linguistics analyses of Shakespeare’s plays by Eve Sweetser and Ellen Spolsky, which explore how conceptual metaphors reflect biological gender difference, while also occurring within complex cultural discourses about gender, race and class. Sweetser discusses this tension between cognition and culture as the relationship between “general human cognitive constraints and culture-specific cognitive patterns” (24). In other words, a cognitive linguistics reading of literary texts can demonstrate how basic universal, experiential knowledge emerges in culturally specific ways. For example, Sweetser bases one of her literary analyses on what she identifies as “a vertical hierarchical model of Self and Society and a ‘container’ model of Self and Society” that relate to ideas of social status and gender (25). Sweetser’s approach offers clues as to how specific cognitive patterns can enrich a feminist literary close reading.24 Like Sweetser, I identify specific models of self that I show to stem from  	
    conceptual metaphors. The importance of travel to cultural questions of national identity and literary questions of individual and collective identity make travel frames such as the frontier revival frame rich in conceptual metaphor. In Spolsky’s reading of Shakespeare’s The Rape of Lucrece and Cymbeline, she argues that literary themes address specific cognitive problems (such as the historical inability to identify paternity or assure female chastity and monogamy), which are continually represented in changing social contexts (as in the motif of Lucrece’s rape) (69).25 Similarly, I see the formulaic use of physical motifs in frontier revival literature as a way of addressing and negotiating cultural anxieties about particular discourses of national identity and progress.26 I also propose a concept of lived metaphor in my own approach to literary analysis. So far, the majority of cognitive linguistics literary analysis is about drama, poetry, and fiction. However, because conceptual metaphors pervade our thoughts and daily speech, it follows that they affect how we live and interact in our bodies on a daily basis and can thus permeate various forms of non-fiction. While the study of body language and gesture in daily life falls more in the domain of linguistics than in literary analysis, representations of the body in literary non-fiction provide an unexplored mine of conceptual metaphor. Lakoff offers a concept of what does and does not constitute conceptual metaphor that I find somewhat rigid for my own purposes. For instance, he argues that the phrase “a balloon went up” (205) is not metaphorical because instead of “abstractions or emotions” (“Metaphor” 205), it describes “concrete physical experience” (“Metaphor” 205). However, in my approach to conceptual metaphor, I explore how within the context of framing, seemingly straightforward descriptions of physical motion can be invested with meaning. This is especially true of descriptions of the body that occur in formulaic frames as in the case of travel writing.  	
    In fact, I would like to encourage the study of how frames relating to physical movement shift and operate across geographical, discursive, and disciplinary boundaries—an endeavor that I cannot fully pursue in my dissertation. Spolsky moves somewhat in this direction by suggesting that specific cognitive problems are worked out through different genres (52), which could in themselves be seen as frames. For instance, one could see formulaic genres that focus on the body such as gothic novels, or types of spiritual allegories (like Dante’s Inferno, or Bunyan’s Pilgrims Progress) as using specific frames to address themes stemming from experiential knowledge. In other words, questions about the body—how bodies should act and what kinds of bodies do what kinds of activities—not only underlie, but rather help to constitute and define abstract concepts in our daily lives and in works of literature. As Spolsky notes, experiential cognitive knowledge always occurs within specific cultural contexts (52). I borrow from conceptual metaphor and frame theory to show how representations of bodily movement in literature communicate conceptual metaphors in complex culturally specific settings. We live abstract concepts on a daily basis and non-fiction travel writers often convey this lived meaning through conceptual metaphors and frames. By disrupting the culturally gendered roles of frames, women authors trigger a more self-reflexive understanding of familiar frames and can be seen as helping to shift frames (and the usage of conceptual metaphor) over time—another phenomenon that deserves further detailed study but that is outside the scope of this dissertation. When female bodies act out popular conceptual metaphors that are commonly gendered as male, the reader is likely to stop and reconsider what abstract ideas s/he chooses or is forced to live out on a daily basis. We are prompted to ask ourselves: which bodies get to represent what ideas and why? It is also important to explain how my methodology develops feminist approaches to embodiment. Judith Butler’s work on the body is influential on my approach because of her  	
    concept of the body as central to how we attain “cultural intelligibility” on a daily basis through an ongoing process of performing and renegotiating abstract concepts (2). She argues that the necessity of making ourselves socially intelligible to one another requires our bodies to enact familiar discourses on a daily basis (2). In my discussion of women’s use of conceptual metaphors I offer a richer and more complex feminist analysis of these travel texts than is possible with other modes of feminist close reading or discourse analysis.27 So far, aside from the work of a few scholars (Ahrens; Freeman; Spolsky; Sweetser), little work has been done in cognitive linguistics on the ways that conceptual metaphors occur through the body in order to negotiate concepts of gender, race, and class. My study of frames, and of the cultural and literary background of my texts provides a more contextual and intertextual literary understanding of conceptual metaphor than occurs in such work. I focus on how culturally unexpected representation of the female body in relation to conceptual metaphors is of crucial importance to the ongoing negotiation not only of ideas of gender, but also of wider abstract ideas about the self. Feminist autobiography theorists Sidonie Smith and Julia Watson explore how women artists write back in response to women’s roles as “objects of the male gaze—that of the artist and that of the patron” (“Mapping” 15). Similar to Smith and Watson, I see female subjects as having a complex relationship to embodiment because being physically objectified more often in daily language, literature and art leads women to have a heightened reliance on the body as a mode of language, which points to the necessity for cultural literacy about representations of the female body. This awareness of how the representation of women’s bodies is often culturally shaped by men is crucial to a more in depth approach to studying conceptual metaphor in literature.28 First of all, we should be aware that women authors are historically more likely to speak through the body, and to do so with a variation of intentionality and explicitness. I also agree with Smith and  	
    Watson’s argument that because women artists are always speaking back to historical representations of women by men (Sidonie Smith and Watson, “Mapping” 15), there is an interesting meta-textual element to much of women’s art and literature, especially in relation to the body (Sidonie Smith and Watson, “Mapping” 7).29 Examining the culturally disruptive use of conceptual metaphor by female frontier revival authors helps to explain how women re-negotiate meaning on the level of the female body. I also build on feminist research on travel and the body in nineteenth-century Canadian and American literature. Building on formative work by women’s travel scholars such as Sara Mills and Mary Louise Pratt, as well as recent influential studies of women’s travel in the United States (Imbarrato; Schriber; Steadman) and Canada (Buchanan et al.; Grace; LaFramboise; Roy), I explore how the female travelling subject represents multiple and often competing discourses of gender and imperialism. Most of these studies approach texts through the lens of feminist and/or post-colonial theory and conduct close readings using methods such as discourse analysis. I explore similar questions about gender and imperialism in these texts, while focussing on how meaning emerges through the body itself. Butler reminds us that one of the main conditions of performativity is that it conceals itself so that the discourses that we perform through the body on a daily basis are taken for granted as natural or innate (12). In a similar vein, recent studies in nineteenth-century American history and literature explore how ideas of the body politic create an illusion of a neutral and universal body politic that masks inequalities of gender, race, and class (Sanchez-Eppler; Sorisio; Piepmeier; Lutes). As well, studies of female journalists on both sides of the border at the turn of the twentieth century show that sensationalist representations of the female body on behalf of eastern female journalists subvert gender norms and destabilize notions of journalistic objectivity (Lutes 5; Fiamengo 14; Lang 5). This sensationalist focus on the female  	
    body is even more present in women’s travel writing published in the northeastern United States at the turn of the twentieth century. My cross-border study allows me to explore how Canadian and American women used conceptual metaphor and the frontier revival frame to subvert masculinist manifest destiny rhetoric and adapt it to women. My use of aspects of cognitive linguistics thus provides a new level of awareness about how representations of the female body define and re-negotiate cultural ideas of the self. This approach offers a richer understanding of the layers of embodiment that scholars such as Judith Butler, Sidonie Smith, and Julia Watson point to. It also offers a deeper understanding of the meta-textual strategies by which women writers speak back to gendered ideas of national progress. It helps me to articulate—and to provide a methodological language for—the agency of re-iteration that Butler sees as occurring through the body (15). This is a distinctive kind of writing back through the body on which women—and women writers—often rely. It is a body language that feminist theorists have identified as the body mediated through discourse, but which cognitive linguists allow us to read on the level of the body itself. Like Spolsky, I analyze literature based on an “embodied theory of social structure” (69). Experientially, the frontier revival frame consists of a metonymic traveller who undergoes a cyclical journey involving a repeated loss and renewal of control. Culturally, it appears in adventure literature, historical and political writing and involves a (symbolically) eastern30 American traveller who journeys westward to test and represent ideas relating to manifest destiny in western Canada. While the formulaic physical motifs in this frame suggest that manifest destiny ideals defined Americans or North Americans as a whole, they were often culturally limited to the white eastern male body—so much so that they tend to signal a racialized and regionalized idea of cultural progress as the expansion of Anglo-Saxon culture on both sides of the border.31 When Canadian and American women writers adopt the role of eastern  	
    adventure traveller, they disrupt the cultural expectations around the frontier revival frame and reveal the cultural performativity that mediates experiential metaphors. They show how conceptual metaphors, while helping to make ideas of manifest destiny seem universal, are actually framed according to the eastern white male body. At the same time, they do so thanks to their access to the universality of conceptual metaphor. By showing that female bodies can perform the movements by which male travellers normally represent manifest destiny, these authors at once critique the way such underlying metaphors become gendered and racialized across the border and use such metaphors to extend manifest destiny ideals of progress to women.  2.3  Travelling Bodies: The Need for an Interdisciplinary Approach to Travel  The large amount of recent international work on travel across disciplines demonstrates the need for a more interdisciplinary methodology for analyzing travel literature. Studies of travel literature are increasingly international with journals, conferences,32 and publications on travel emerging across Europe and North America over the last decade in particular.33 The study of metaphor is a useful tool for understanding modes of thought that cross political, aesthetic, and geographical boundaries. My approach is well suited to the interdisciplinary nature of travel literature. Scholarship on travel literature is being done in a wide variety of fields including history, geography, literature, and women’s studies. Interestingly, most work on travel literature within the last two decades approaches travel as a lens through which to explore ideas of nationalism, citizenship, and underlying identity politics relating to gender, race, and class. Such scholarship asks questions about how ideas of community are created and contested by individual travellers. Ironically, the body, despite its central importance to travel writing, becomes the elephant in the room in travel scholarship. Also, despite the importance of the body in travel  	
    literature, I have found few approaches to travel writing in the field of cognitive linguistics.34 Cognitive linguistic techniques can help to improve the methodology of travel literature scholarship. Drawing on conceptual metaphor theory can increase dialogue between interdisciplinary approaches to travel writing, while also making this dialogue more in-depth and detailed by accessing meaning on the level of the body. The strong interest in travel writing in academia and the public at large35 is a testament to the value of my combined use of feminist and conceptual metaphor theory, which takes into account how bodies make meaning not only in canonical texts, but also in popular literature and daily life. I aim to use my approach to introduce a cross-border frontier frame and to contribute to increasingly cross-cultural scholarship on the Canadian-American border.36 Northrop Frye’s famous question “where is here?” (222) should not be seen as incentive to define Canadian literature as a discrete and isolated phenomenon. In fact, part of what defines Canadian literature is our complex history of negotiating and crossing borders. As Thacker reminds us, “[t]o have a Canadian point of view, especially an English-Canadian point of view, is to be ‘on the frontier,’ to be above America but part of America, to have to cross frontiers” (11). Scholarship on Canadian literature and history increasingly acknowledges that an understanding of cross-border influences between Canada and the United States enriches rather than threatens our sense of “here” (Frye 222).37 Interestingly, such scholarship tends to bring to light literary figures who, because they cannot be easily categorized as Canadian or American writers, have gone relatively unnoticed in both Canadian and American literary studies.38 Such figures, including the women I am studying in my dissertation, geographically and politically situate themselves in complicated ways in relation to the border and shed light on overlooked aspects of Canadian literature. The challenge of how to analyze and contextualize their work requires me to be innovative in finding a  	
    methodology that allows me to cross borders of gender and geography. My approach uncovers what I refer to as cross-border conceptual metaphors that occur in a particularly cross-border setting. It is necessary to clarify what I mean by the term cross-border. My use of this term refers to four different aspects of the texts that I study—namely, the site of publication (which in this case refers to the northeastern United States from 1880 to 1930);39 the cultural background and/or residency of the authors (half of my authors are originally Canadian and the other half were born in the United States, and all of them crossed the border to travel and/or to live);40 setting (despite being published in the United States, all of the texts are either set in western Canada, in both western Canada and the United States, or as in the case of Laut, in a western American setting that she frequently compares to Canada); and subject matter (all of the texts make comparisons between western Canada and the United States, conflating the two regions within a loosely American discourse of manifest destiny). I study how conceptual metaphors occur in this crossborder context of frontier revival literature. In fact, the presence of conceptual metaphors in these texts helps me to identify this field, which has evaded categorization, despite increasing scholarly recognition of cross-cultural influences in Canadian and American literature at the turn of the twentieth century. Conceptual metaphors provide evidence of a lively, border-crossing literary culture in the one place that seems too obvious to look—the travelling body itself. My study of a cross-border genre helps to show how the frontier revival frame and its conceptual metaphors became culturally limited to the white, eastern, male body so as to promote the continental expansion of eastern Anglo-Saxon culture. Without an awareness of how conceptual metaphors appear in complex cross-border contexts, we run the risk of uncritically accepting motifs of westward expansion without an understanding of their ideological context. My analysis of cross-  	
    border women writers allows me to show how such writers subtly appropriate this cross-border imperialism to promote women’s rights by living conceptual metaphor and the frontier revival frame from a distinctly female perspective. Before delving into the conceptual metaphors and the frontier revival frame that I identify in these texts, I must also clarify my use of the terms frontier revival literature and the frontier revival frame. As I explain in more detail in chapter 3, frontier revival literature consists of a particular type of North American adventure text written between 1880 and 1930 that is crossborder in several different ways. Frontier revival authors try to relive American values of cultural progress in the last frontier of western Canada. They are cross-border in regards to site of publication; cultural background; setting; and subject matter. I argue that frontier revival literature contains a frontier revival frame that emerges in the late 1880s and early 1890s in works by American authors such as W.H.H. Murray and Julian Ralph. I see the frontier revival frame as containing the general pattern of physical motifs in frontier revival literature. George Fillmore defines frames as “any system of concepts related in such a way that to understand any one of them you have to understand the whole structure in which it fits” (111). Sweetser and Fauconnier claim that frames can emerge from experiential knowledge and contain specific roles that trigger the frame as a whole (5).41 They further argue that “[r]oles include, but are not limited to, human roles such as Sara’s mother or president of the United States, each of which could be filled by some individual (perhaps the same individual, Janet Smith)” (6). They explain that “[r]oles are created by general social or physical framings of experience; for example, parent or president or student exists against our understanding of family structure, political or corporate hierarchy, or educational institutions” (6). I conceive of the frontier revival frame as made up primarily of the metonymic role of an eastern traveller, as well as other roles that include the physical activities of  	
    the traveller such as a cyclical westward journey; a series of struggles in the wilderness involving repeated losses and renewals of control on the part of the traveller; and a final return home at the end of the text that corresponds with a restoration of the traveller’s self-control (See Fig 1.1). The definition of frames in cognitive linguistics theory resembles aspects of discourse theory. For instance, in Discourse, Sara Mills argues that in the context of cultural and literary theory, discourse is usually defined “as the general domain of the production and circulation of rule-governed statements” or as “groupings of statements produced within power relations” (7-8). For the purposes of my methodology, I choose to borrow from and combine aspects of frame and discourse theory. Just as conceptual metaphors have different levels of embodiment or complexity of embodiment, so too do our broader structures of understanding. In my work, I approach the frontier revival frame as a generic scenario involving a role of traveller and the activities of the traveller. The frame is a kind of skeleton, the bones of which are a complex network of conceptual metaphors. I see the frame as a set of physical roles (including the traveller and his/her activities). While conceptual metaphors are all interconnected and are constantly interacting, I define a frame as a particular pattern of conceptual metaphors that interact in a specific way so that a seemingly literal description of a physical movement or scenario instantly triggers a whole set of metaphors in the mind of the reader. The cultural and literary context of the frame fleshes out the skeleton, influencing its shape, function, and interactions with its surroundings, or in other words, which metaphors appear and how they interact with each other in the frame. I view the frontier revival frame as performative in Butler’s sense of the word in that these roles become recognizable and recurring symbols of cultural progress that offer models of “cultural intelligibility” (2) to readers. True to Butler’s concept of performativity as concealing itself (12), the fact that frames are based partly on universal, physical experience, helps to conceal  	
    their own cultural performativity in that they often seem on the surface to be oddly divorced from culturally and historically specific contexts. Authors use the roles of the frontier revival frame to negotiate ideas of cultural progress in terms of gender, class, and race that are often highly removed from the western regions in which these motifs occur. It is hard to locate a sense of agency in women’s travel texts around the turn of the century because of the inability or unwillingness of such authors to explicitly criticize imperialist goals of travel or to identify too explicitly with women’s rights. Underneath the seemingly literal and neutral adventure tales of these authors there is a language of metaphors with a whole set of complex cultural connotations, a language that crosses the border. Understanding the frontier revival frame—its social context and its underlying metaphors—allows me to show how women authors on both sides of the border problematize and appropriate the imperialist discourse of their male peers through the body itself.  2.4  Reading the Body in Motion: Metaphors of Frontier Revival  Thus the advance of the frontier has meant a steady movement away from the influence of Europe, a steady growth of independence on American lines. -Frederick Jackson Turner, The Significance of the Frontier in American History, 167.  The world likes [the American traveller] and he likes the world, and hence he finds welcome everywhere, and the welcome he gets he thoroughly enjoys. Like a snail, he carries his home around with him on his back, and easily adjusts himself to any condition of shine or shade. -W.H.H. Murray, Daylight Land, 214.  Lakoff’s and Johnson’s work on the PURPOSEFUL LIFE IS A JOURNEY (Journey) and LOCATIONAL EVENT STRUCTURE (LES) conceptual metaphors offers a useful starting point  	
    to explain my approach.42 They define conceptual metaphor as the mapping from experiential knowledge of our bodies onto abstract concepts, which occurs in our daily thought and speech (Lakoff and Johnson, Philosophy 45). Primary metaphors are the most basic mappings between the experiential and abstract domains (Philosophy 59). They identify the Purposeful Life is a Journey as a complex conceptual metaphor, which means that it is “built out of primary metaphors and forms of commonplace knowledge: cultural models, folk theories, or simply knowledge or beliefs that are widely accepted” (Philosophy 60). They see the journey metaphor as combining primary metaphors such as “Purposes Are Destinations” and “Actions are Motions” to create the more complex mappings of “A Purposeful Life Is A Journey,” “A Person Living A Life Is A Traveller,” “Life Goals Are Destinations,” and “A Life Plan Is An Itinerary” (Lakoff and Johnson, Philosophy 61). Not only is this a very common metaphor throughout western literature from Augustine’s Confessions, to Dante’s Inferno, and Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress, but it is at the forefront of travel writing, in which the traveller defines his/her identity through the act of travel. This is especially prevalent in North American travel literature because of the importance of frontier expansion to American and Canadian history. Travel writers portray westward movement as identity-shaping for the individual traveller, as well as for the nation as a whole. In Turner’s famous speech about the closing of the American frontier, he maps the Motion of frontier expansion onto the Action of forging American identity, and he refers to this process as “a steady movement away from the influence of Europe, a steady growth of independence on American lines” (167). Throughout his essay, he describes collective American traits of “independence” (167) as synonymous with a continental movement from east to west. Turner addresses the problem of how to define American identity when the frontier closes by emphasizing the metaphorical nature of this model of identity. He makes the frontier symbolic—a site of  	
    “perennial rebirth” (166)—and associates it with a set of experiential patterns of movement that seem to remove it from the actual historical context of American history. Cross-border adventure writers of the time, such as W.H.H. Murray and Julian Ralph, write about American identity according to similar patterns of movement that can easily be enacted in a Canadian frontier setting. For example, on Murray’s journey throughout western Canada in Daylight Land (1888), he describes the prototypical American traveller’s “perennial rebirth” (Turner 166) on the Canadian frontier: “Like a snail, he carries his home around with him on his back, and easily adjusts himself to any condition of shine or shade” (214). In both of these passages from Turner and Murray, the journey connects travel with self-definition. I develop Lakoff’s and Johnson’s use of the metaphor in order to find a more detailed way of examining both the experiential and the cultural sides of such examples. For the purpose of my literary analysis of women’s travel writing, there are some problems with the journey metaphor that I attempt to address in my work. This metaphor does not address the wide range of experiential knowledge that lies under the umbrella term of journey. This raises questions about how to use such a metaphor to analyze texts. For instance, why does Turner describe the nation-building frontier movement as “steady” (167)? Why does he describe the same westward movement as two different movements (away from Europe and towards America)? What is the beginning point and the destination? Who or what exactly is creating and propelling this movement? And why is the movement away from Europe described as linear, whereas the movement toward America is described more ambiguously as “growth” (167)? For the purpose of literary analysis, reading texts with this metaphor is not helpful unless we take into account a broad range of specific mappings between types of movement and abstract ideas relating to journeys.43 The journey metaphor also makes use of the vague term of life, which  	
    could refer either to the identity of an individual or a collective. Not only are there many different ways of referring to identity on a collective and individual level, but feminist scholars also remind us that we live on “multiple stages simultaneously” (Sidonie Smith, “Performativity” 110). I build on the journey metaphor to find a more nuanced way of approaching the experiential and cultural contexts in which self-definition occurs in travel literature. The journey metaphor consists of the LOCATIONAL EVENT STRUCTURE metaphor, which is more helpful in analyzing literary passages. The LOCATIONAL EVENT STRUCTURE metaphor maps aspects of movement through space onto abstract knowledge of events pertaining to actions, causes, changes, states, and purposes (Lakoff and Johnson, Philosophy 181). Because it combines primary metaphors, it is also a complex conceptual metaphor (Philosophy 49). Because it contains more purely experiential mappings, and unlike the journey metaphor, does not rely on a cultural context or cultural inferences such as “[p]eople are supposed to have purposes in life” (Lakoff and Johnson, Philosophy 61), I see this metaphor as more experiential and thus more useful for literary analysis.44 Lakoff and Johnson describe the metaphor as follows: States45 Are Locations (interiors of bounded regions in space) Changes Are Movements (into or out of bounded regions) Causes Are forces Causation Is Forced Movement (from one location to another) Actions Are Self-Propelled Movements Purposes Are Destinations Means Are Paths (to destinations) Difficulties Are Impediments To Motion Freedom Of Action Is The Lack Of Impediments To Motion External Events Are Large, Moving Objects (that exert force) [. . .]. (Philosophy in the Flesh 179) 46  This metaphor helps because it encompasses more specific mappings with which to analyze passages. For instance, in the Turner passage, the Bounded Location of the expanding American  	
    territory on the frontier “line” (167) maps onto an abstract State of American independence. Also, he associates the Movement away from Europe and onto the frontier line with the Change of the American character. This more specific parsing of cognitive mappings allows for a rich literary analysis. For instance, using this metaphor, I can show how Turner maps the Movement and Force of the frontier itself (rather than of specific individuals) onto the Cause of Change. He thus locates the agency of westward expansion outside of the individual settler, as though expansion were a collective or predetermined event in keeping with the rhetoric of manifest destiny. The frontier becomes a Large Moving Object that maps onto the External Event of collective social change. This ironic removal of individual agency in his description of the Force/Cause of American individualism reflects Turner’s somewhat a-historical approach to American history, by which he virtually ignores the displacement of Aboriginal people and the role of women in frontier expansion. While the LES metaphor facilitates a more detailed analysis, it cannot (and was not meant to) capture the range and depth of literary meaning that I find in travel writing.47 Turner’s vagueness about agency in this passage is echoed by Lakoff’s and Johnson’s uncertainty about the concept of identity in the journey metaphor. The question of what type of identity Turner conceives of can only be answered by closely examining the underlying mappings and broader frames in his writing. I analyze travel literature according to several interconnecting metaphors. I identify the SELF-CONTROL IS BODILY CONTROL metaphor as another way of looking at the GENERAL SUBJECT SELF metaphor, in which “a person is divided into a Subject and one or more Selves” and “each Self is conceptualized metaphorically as either a person, an object, or a location” (Lakoff and Johnson, Philosophy in the Flesh 269). I see the SELF-CONTROL IS  	
    BODILY CONTROL metaphor as including the LOCATIONAL SELF, SELF AS CONTAINER, and the OBJECTIVE STANDPOINT metaphors, all of which conceive of the Self as a Location, and all of which are of central importance to the frontier revival frame. It is important to identify the SELF-CONTROL IS BODILY CONTROL metaphor because it helps to explain how seemingly literal descriptions of physical movement provide meaning about identity in travel literature. I interpret the SELF-CONTROL IS BODILY CONTROL metaphor in the frontier revival frame as consisting mainly of a combination of the LOCATIONAL EVENT STRUCTURE metaphor and the LOCATIONAL SELF metaphor. According to Lakoff and Johnson, the Locational Self metaphor maps Locations onto States of being, whereby Normal Locations convey Self-Control, and Abnormal Locations suggest a Lack of Self-Control (Johnson and Lakoff, Philosophy 274). A good example of this is Murray’s image of the American traveller who “carries his home around with him on his back” (214). He conceives of the Self as a Location (home) and envisions a way of testing and maintaining Self-Control by remaining in a Normal Location even when in an Abnormal Location. This ability to symbolically remain home when away conveys a test of Self-Control through a test of Bodily Control. As Lakoff and Johnson argue, the LES metaphor connects knowledge about movement through space to a domain of abstract events that pertains to actions, causes, changes, states, purposes (Lakoff and Johnson, Philosophy 181). The SELF-CONTROL IS BODILY CONTROL metaphor draws on the LES and the LS metaphor to link types of movement in and between locations to the abstract domain of events. The SELF AS CONTAINER and OBJECTIVE STANDPOINT metaphors also underlie the SELF-CONTROL IS BODILY CONTROL metaphor in the frontier revival frame. Lakoff and Johnson describe the SELF AS CONTAINER metaphor as Containment mapped onto Self-Control (Lakoff and Johnson, Philosophy 275). As well, they define the OBJECTIVE  	
    STANDPOINT metaphor as mapping a Lack of Containment onto Self-Control, or more specifically, Self-Control through Perspective whereby “[v]ision from the outside is knowledge from the outside—objective knowledge” (Philosophy in the Flesh 277).48 I consider both metaphors to be part of the LS metaphor because they map Normal Locations onto types of SelfControl. However, they offer opposite concepts of Self-Control/Normal Location as either Containment or Lack of Containment. These two metaphors help to convey the tensions of moving in between, through, and at the edges of Bounded Locations/States in frontier revival literature. These interacting metaphors also touch on several other primary metaphors that map experiential knowledge onto abstract domains relating to the self. Common primary metaphors include Knowing is Seeing, and Control is Up (Lakoff and Johnson, Philosophy 53). Furthermore, it is important to recognize that the physical movements of the traveller in the frontier revival frame represent collective, albeit often overlapping or ambiguously defined, identities. I was initially compelled to refer to this as the SHARED STATES ARE INDIVIDUAL BODIES metaphor.49 For instance, when Schäffer discusses expanding the horizons, we instantly connect her own individual experience to collective goals of expanding the frontier, or of expanding social opportunities for women. In the case of Murray, his typical American traveller represents a shared state of adaptable American individualism similar to Turner’s prototypical American frontier traveller. However, another way of understanding this connection between individual and collective Locations/States can be found in the GENERIC IS SPECIFIC metaphor. In More than Cool Reason, George Lakoff and Mark Turner discuss proverbs such as “blind/blames the ditch” as examples of how specific information triggers more general knowledge through the GENERIC IS SPECIFIC metaphor (162).50 They explain that in the GENERIC IS SPECIFIC metaphor, “the source and target have the same generic-level structure.  	
    In other words, GENERIC IS SPECIFIC maps specific-level schemas onto the generic-level schemas they contain” (Lakoff and Turner 163). In the case of frontier revival literature, I see specific descriptions of the individual traveller’s movements as similar to the proverb presented to us by Lakoff and Turner, particularly when they convey the recurring physical motifs of the frontier revival frame. For that matter, it seems to me that examples such as Schäffer’s desire to expand the horizon trigger the GENERIC IS SPECIFIC metaphor for the very reason that they resemble the “general-level information” (Lakoff and Turner 163) of the frontier revival frame about the collective significance of individual physical movements. My approach to analyzing this set of metaphors, which I continue to explore in more depth throughout this chapter, offers an unprecedentedly in-depth understanding of primary mappings, complex metaphors, and abstract ideas of self at work in literature.  2.5  “The Long Way Round:” The Frontier Revival Frame The frontier is the line of most rapid and effective Americanization. The wilderness masters the colonist. It finds him a European in dress, industries, tools, modes of travel, and thought. It takes him from the railroad car and puts him in the birch canoe. It strips off the garments of civilization and arrays him in the hunting shirt and the moccasin. It puts him in the log cabin of the Cherokee and Iroquois and runs an Indian palisade around him. In short, at the frontier the environment is at first too strong for the man. He must accept the conditions which it furnishes, or perish, and so he fits himself into the Indian clearings and follows the Indian trails. Little by little he transforms the wilderness, but here is a new product that is American. -Frederick Jackson Turner, “The Significance of the Frontier in American History,” 167.  I was not a goldseeker, but a nature hunter, and I was eager to enter this, the wildest region yet remaining in Northern America. I willingly and with joy took the long way round, the hard way through. -Hamlin Garland, The Trail of the Goldseekers, 8.  	
    [We] sit with folded hands and listen calmly to the stories of the hills we so longed to see, the hills which had lured and beckoned us for years before this long list of men had ever set foot in the country. Our cups splashed over. Then we looked into each other’s eyes and said: “Why not? We can starve as well as they; the muskeg will be no softer for us than for them; the ground will be no harder to sleep upon; the waters no deeper to swim or the bath colder if we fall in,”—so—we planned a trip. -Mary Schäffer, Old Indian Trails, 16.  The challenge of trying to reach a better understanding of self-definition in travel literature requires me to find a way of locating my use of conceptual metaphors in a broader frame. Frames, or “system [s] of concepts” that are related to and trigger one another (Fillmore 111), are important not only in understanding the cultural significance of conceptual metaphors, but also in detecting and analyzing the metaphorical mappings at work. The above quotations from classic texts by Turner and Murray, along with Schäffer’s discussion of expanding women’s “horizon[s]” (17), provide some of the more obvious instances of conceptual metaphor in these texts because they occur in explicitly figurative language. However, in frontier revival literature and most of daily speech, we speak and live mappings between experiential and abstract domains that may not seem metaphorical in either traditional literary or cognitive linguistic senses of the term. While conceptual metaphor scholars (Freeman; Johnson; Lakoff; Sweetser; Turner) focus mostly on how metaphors emerge on an explicitly grammatical level, I am more interested in how authors imply conceptual metaphors in literature through framing.51 Frontier revival authors evoke conceptual metaphors through the roles of the revival frame: a metonymic eastern traveller; a cyclical westward journey; a struggle in the wilderness involving a loss and renewal of control; and a restoration of order with a return home (See Fig 1.1).  	
    The passage from Turner’s speech, while still obviously metaphorical, offers a succinct example of the kinds of mappings that frequently occur in the frontier revival frame. The SELFCONTROL IS BODILY CONTROL and GENERIC IS SPECIFIC metaphors emerge in his description of the individual body of a typical American male traveller as gaining Bodily/SelfControl over a new Location/State of American progress through a struggle in the wilderness. Turner establishes the metonymic status of the traveller by mapping his individual Movements onto the shared cultural Change toward “Americanization” (167). The combined LOCATIONAL SELF and LOCATIONAL EVENT STRUCTURE metaphors depict this “Americanization” (167) as a shared State of idealized Change or progress that occurs as the westward Movement of the frontier at the edge of a Bounded Location. The SELF AS CONTAINER and LOCATIONAL SELF metaphors emerge in images of the traveller as undergoing a series of physical relocations as he is taken “out” of European “modes of thought” and put “in” “the hunting shirt and moccasin” and Indian palisade (167). According to the SELF AS CONTAINER and LOCATIONAL SELF metaphors, the traveller’s relocation signifies an initial loss of Bodily/SelfControl. However, as with Murray’s discussion of carrying one’s home on one’s back, the traveller learns how to restore self-control amidst these very shifts in location. The traveller’s act of fitting “himself into the Indian clearings” (167) attributes Force/Cause and Action/Motion to the traveller himself, which suggests renewed control. As well, the SELF AS CONTAINER metaphor implies that he becomes at home in the very frontier location whose foreignness originally takes him “out” (167) of his familiar sense of self. This shifting between contained spaces reflects the tension between the SELF AS CONTAINER metaphor and the OBJECTIVE STANDPOINT metaphor—a tension that recurs in frontier revival literature. Images of expanding frontier spaces and entering temporarily foreign and threatening locations appear  	
    frequently in frontier revival literature and often reflect this tension between Self-Control as Containment and as Lack of Containment. This tension shows an ideal of cultural progress based on continual Movement/Change through the testing of physical and abstract boundaries of Bodily/Self-Control. Finally, the traveller’s “transformation of the wilderness” into a “new product that is American” (167) envisions an ironically cyclical Destination/Goal in the LES metaphor. The very process of testing Bodily/Self-Control allows for a restoration of control that ultimately reasserts the authority of the eastern traveller over the new surroundings. Recognizing how some of these basic underlying metaphors work in the frontier frame, along with the cultural context of the frame, which is discussed in chapter 3, allows for a richer analysis of seemingly literal passages in frontier revival literature. For instance, one of the most common recurring motifs in the frontier revival texts is that of overcoming trials as a necessary rite of passage. In the LES metaphor, Physical Impediments map onto Difficulties (Lakoff, “Metaphor” 213). In the context of the frontier revival frame, this mapping also relates to the LOCATIONAL SELF, SELF-CONTROL IS BODILY CONTROL, and GENERIC IS SPECIFIC metaphors so as to indicate a willing and temporary loss of self-control that ultimately serves a redemptive collective cultural purpose. Other primary mappings such as the SELF AS CONTAINER and OBJECTIVE STANDPOINT metaphors often occur in these trial motifs. For instance, Garland’s statement that he “willingly and with joy took the long way round, the hard way through” (8) could easily be misconstrued as a literal description of his physical journey. There is no explicit reference to a sense of self or any other abstract concept onto which he is mapping these images of arduous physical activity. However, in the context of his introduction, he makes several allusions to being part of a nationalist extension of the American frontier including his statement that the gold rush will be “the last great march of the kind which could  	
    ever come in America, so rapidly were the wild places being settled up” (8). In particular, the allocation of agency to himself through the words “willfully” (8) and “with joy” (8) to describe his hardship attributes Force/Cause to the traveller amidst his Obstacles/Difficulties. This concept of controlled loss of control is common in the frontier frame and would have been instantly recognizable to his readers as signaling a redemptive struggle of the individual body in a wilderness Location that represents a shared State of cultural progress. His reference to “the long way round, the hard way through” (8) indicates the arduous cyclical journey of the frontier frame including a struggle in the wilderness. In particular, the words “round” and “through” (8) both refer to being on the edge or pushing through a state of containment, which evokes a testing of Bodily/Self-Control. A familiarity with the cultural context and the metaphors of the frontier revival frame contributes to a richer understanding of both the basic experiential and wider cultural meaning of physical descriptions in travel writing.  2.6  “Oh for a precedent!:” Re-Living the Frontier Frame To know you are right and then go ahead is a pretty plan, but how to know? [. . . ] What was I to do? Oh, for a precedent!52 -Grace Gallatin, A Woman Tenderfoot, 110.  It is important to outline the ways that female frontier revival authors appropriate and subvert the frontier revival frame.53 To recap some major points: the concept of the journey has specific and diverse sets of cultural connotations in western literature, including the ancient epic (Homer), or various forms of spiritual quests (Dante; Bunyan), which are predominantly associated with masculine heroic traditions. Because of this, it is crucial to be aware of how we extend this  	
    metaphor from the male body and apply it to masculine realms of life experience. Not recognizing the cultural aspect of the journey runs the risk of assuming that metaphors of travel are more universal or neutral than they actually are. Subversive political commentary is often either intentionally or unintentionally present in the work of women writers. For one thing, because women have historically been more physically objectified and have had less cultural control over their own bodies and over representations of their own bodies (Sidonie Smith and Watson, “Mapping” 15), subversive ideas in women’s literature are more likely to emerge through the female body and also to be coded or veiled. Women travel writers often conceal (to varying degrees) political or nationalist affiliations in their texts, a trend that can be seen as stemming from pressures to adhere to gender norms and also from the tendency for women to identify with (and to have more symbolic and actual power within) more regional—or gender—based collectives. As I will discuss in chapter 3, women writers often embody the roles of the frontier frame in different ways than their male peers. They emphasize the novelty of their personal, physical movements and are more self-reflexive about their experiences; they often imagine their appearance in self-deprecating terms through the eyes of Aboriginal people or other travellers. They also often express ambivalence toward more traditional goals of exploration, and foreground the goal of personal freedom. Third, they embrace the very loss of Bodily/Self-Control on the trail (that their male peers see as threatening) to focus more on their alienation from their own cultural norms and to renegotiate, rather than reassert, ideas of cultural progress. These broader effects emerge on the level of metaphor in a variety of ways in frontier revival texts by women. In A Woman Tenderfoot, for example, Gallatin repeatedly emphasizes the novelty of her physical freedom in the wilderness. At one point, amidst a cattle round up, she states: “To know you are right and then go ahead is a pretty plan, but how to know?” and  	
    exclaims: “What was I to do? Oh, for a precedent!” (110). In this passage, Gallatin maps the desire for Self-Controlled Movement onto that of Self-Controlled Change. Her gendered alienation from the cattle round up contributes to a lack of agency in this situation, which occurs in the lack of Force/Cause in this passage. However, her exclamation of “oh for a precedent!” (110) indicates that her lack of Bodily/Self-Control in the situation is due to the way such physical activities are culturally gendered. The novelty of her freedom reminds us that these activities, and the cultural rites of passage that they represent, are not neutral but gendered as masculine. A similar ambivalence toward frontier revival motifs appears in Elizabeth Taylor’s A Woman in the Mackenzie Delta, in which she repeatedly uses words such as “perched” (“Northward” 50) and “trundled” (“Northward” 50) to describe her movements as lacking in individual agency. At one point, she exclaims sardonically that despite wanting to stay to observe plant life and sketch, she must hurry because “that boat waited for no woman” (“Eskimos” 235). As with Gallatin, the lack of Force/Cause in these scenarios implies both a restricted access and critical distance from the Movement/Change that they participate in on their journey. As well, all of these women writers describe a sense of exhilaration and freedom at the standard loss of control in frontier revival literature. One of the most poignant examples of this occurs at the end of Schäffer’s Old Indian Trails. As I mention in my introduction, on her way back from the mountains, Schäffer encounters Rudyard Kipling and his wife, who in comparison to Schäffer’s rugged masculine appearance, is dressed in more conventional women’s attire. This meeting prompts Schäffer to confess that, “It was then that I wanted my wild free life back again, yet step by step I was leaving it behind” (78).54 This return home echoes the cyclical journey in the frontier revival frame. However, Schäffer’s regret at the thought of having to return home ironically envisions her Movement/Change as a form of cultural progress that she ultimately laments. The rejection of this  	
    return to order uses the experiential aspects of the frontier frame against how it has been culturally gendered.  2.7  “So we planned a trip:” Close Reading [We] sit with folded hands and listen calmly to the stories of the hills we so longed to see, the hills which had lured and beckoned us for years before this long list of men had ever set foot in the country. Our cups splashed over. Then we looked into each other’s eyes and said: “Why not? We can starve as well as they; the muskeg will be no softer for us than for them; the ground will be no harder to sleep upon; the waters no deeper to swim or the bath colder if we fall in,”—so—we planned a trip. -Mary Schäffer, Old Indian Trails, 17.  A close explication of this passage in Schäffer’s introduction can help to further demonstrate how I apply my methodology to women’s frontier revival literature. In the first half of this passage, Schäffer makes cultural allusions and a contrast between two different modes of self-definition that establish her relationship to the frontier revival frame. First of all, her reference to “the hills which had lured and beckoned us for years” (17) is, I suggest, an allusion to Kipling’s “The Explorer,”55 a poem about being called by a mythical voice to enter a mountain range, which is also quoted in Dillon Wallace’s well known chronicle of his and fellow American Leonidas Hubbard’s fatal journey in Lure of the Labrador Wild (1905). This layered cultural allusion, along with Schäffer’s reference to cross-border male explorers who ventured into the western Canadian Rockies, help to situate her work in the context of the frontier revival frame. She begins the passage with the SELF AS CONTAINER metaphor in the image of her and her female companion being forced to listen with their hands folded to stories of male adventurers, which links her female identity with a repressive isolation to the private sphere. The Knowing is Seeing  	
    metaphor occurs in their longing “to see” (17) the hills. This metaphor connects Vision with Knowledge and an example in everyday speech would be a phrase such as “I see what you mean” (Lakoff and Johnson, Philosophy in the Flesh 53-54). As Lakoff and Johnson explain, this metaphor corresponds with conflicting ideas of Bodily/Self-Control because in the SELF AS CONTAINER metaphor, “vision from the inside is knowledge from the inside—subjective knowledge” and in the OBJECTIVE STANDPOINT metaphor, [v]ision from the outside is knowledge from the outside—objective knowledge” (Lakoff and Johnson, Philosophy in the Flesh 277). In this passage, Schäffer associates restricted Vision from the outside with restricted Knowledge that is not objective enough. This restriction on Vision/Knowledge connotes their exclusion from the masculine paradigm of outdoor adventure and accompanying ideas of pushing the bounds of cultural progress. It is important to note that this contrast between containment and linear motion evokes the tension between the SELF AS CONTAINER and the OBJECTIVE STANDPOINT metaphors. Schäffer particularly emphasizes this contrast between confinement and linear motion in the image of a “long list of men” who “set foot in the country” (17). This “long list” (17) parallels the male authors’ linear Movement/Change with the extent of their public acknowledgment and participation in public ideas of progress. The contrast between the SELF AS CONTAINER metaphor and the linear Movement/Change of the LES and the OBJECTIVE STANDPOINT metaphors indicates different ways of achieving Bodily/Self-Control. In one, the Location of the Individual Self maps onto a shared State of identity through Containment. In the other, it does so through Movement/Change and Lack of Containment. For Schäffer, linear forward motion evokes the Movement/Change of cultural progress, whereas containment evokes a static gendered confinement within such cultural discourse.  	
    However, as is typical in frontier revival literature, Schäffer portrays an ideal sense of Body/Self as pushing its own boundaries and existing somewhere between containment and Movement/Change. In the second half of the passage, Schäffer uses conceptual metaphor to describe a turning point in her own decision to trek into the mountains. First of all, she makes yet another inter-textual allusion, this time to the bible, in her declaration that “our cups splashed over” (17). In the context of the frontier frame, this biblical allusion to the image of an overflowing cup in Psalm 23:5 further maps the Location of her Bodily/Self-Control onto a shared State of having a pre-ordained cultural mission. By calling on this higher power, she ironically legitimizes the disruption of gender norms as a way of participating in cultural progress. It is not coincidental that she describes this appropriation of a higher power as breaking out of a container. This image of release indicates a testing of the boundaries of the Self, not only by attaining the linear Movement/Change that she associates with male exploration, but also by crossing the threshold from Containment to a Lack of Containment (though a shift between the SELF AS CONTAINER and the OBJECTIVE STANDPOINT metaphors). The Knowing is Seeing metaphor further compliments this shift into the OBJECTIVE STANDPOINT metaphor in the image of looking “into each other’s eyes” (17) and saying “Why not?” (17). Schäffer describes the decision to leave as one that is agreed upon in their state of containment. She thereby links these seemingly opposing metaphors of the SELF AS CONTAINER and the OBJECTIVE STANDPOINT and prioritizes the Movement/Change between two different Locations/States of self as, on its own, an ideal Location/State that echoes Turner’s “perennial rebirth” (166). By portraying this turning point as a shared experience between two women, she also emphasizes that her individual testing of Bodily/Self-Control represents a shared pursuit of cultural progress—one that she deliberately extends to women.  	
    Schäffer also insists on her own experiential access to the frame despite cultural gender norms. Her statement that the way will be “no harder” (17) and “no deeper” (17) for her and her friend “if we fall” (17) indicates the same willing embrace of the loss and renewal of Bodily/SelfControl in the wilderness that writers such as Garland see as propelling their culturally redemptive journeys. Schäffer’s list of potential hardships that will be equal to that of her male counterparts lays claim to these experiential physical trials as a kind of leveling ground of knowledge. As in the case of Gallatin’s example, women need precedents of new kinds of Bodily Control (through a testing of physical limits) in order to gain access to new kinds of Self-Control (so as to test the limits of female social mobility). As with Gallatin, the ability to physically “go ahead” (110) through Bodily-Control represents more abstract improvements in women’s Self-Control. However, part of accessing this abstract realm through the body means changing our cultural attitudes toward the body itself and finding new female models of physical mobility. Gallatin and Schäffer remind us that we need to change our cultural understanding of what the body is capable of in order to allow the body to change our cultural understandings. The physical motion of the eastern female travelling body in the frontier revival represents entry into ideas of cultural progress, but also requires precedent setting women who are willing to test their physical and social boundaries. It requires a “pretty plan” (Gallatin 284) to adjust cultural attitudes toward the body. Schäffer’s question of “why not?” (17) calls attention to the leveling language of the body to in turn make and revise meaning. She breaks out of the confines of gender norms through the very experiential metaphors of the frontier revival frame that have previously been gendered as masculine. Her determination and capacity to push herself “harder” (17) and “deeper” (17) dismantles the language of the cultural frontier frame from the inside out.  	
   2.8  67	
    Conclusion: Unearthing the Frontier Revival  The subject of women’s travel literature is an increasingly popular field both in academia and in the eyes of the public as a lens through which to examine ideas relating to citizenship and identity. On a local level, one need only look to the Vancouver opera about Lillian Alling to find that women travellers are quickly gaining iconic status in Canadian culture as complex stewards of Canadian identity—individuals who forged new paths, while questioning the terms of cultural progress. In the current academic age of inter-disciplinary border-crossing, it is all the more important to restore and study the work of women frontier revival authors whose physical travels helped to pioneer such intellectual border-crossing. Furthermore, it is crucial to find a methodology that does justice to these women writers by actually demonstrating their engagement in world issues of the day. Despite growing interest in women travel writers in Canada, it is all too often the case that references to them are tucked away in archives or relegated to side notes in academic survey texts and ostensibly comprehensive historical studies (Doyle; Mount). It is also common for such authors to be treated as subjects of minor personal or historical curiosity in texts aimed at popular readers (Forster; Harding). Aside from certain fine exceptions (Buchanan et al.; Grace; Roy), work on women travellers in Canada sometimes ignores their broader contributions to meaning making and maintains their place off the literary map. For me, reading these texts is like coming across the remnants of what was once a bustling frontier town. They are the unlikely but uncontestable hosts to major literary and cultural ideas of their time. Though often literally dilapidated, out of print, and virtually lost to a contemporary audience, everywhere within their pages is evidence of women having  	
   captured and given voice to a historical period of change, movement, and an exchange of people and ideas across the continent and across the border. Witty, cosmopolitan, candid, and sometimes scathing, these authors record rapid changes in industry, urban development, westward expansion and migration. They document specific discourses of imperialism and cultural progress behind these historical events, while catering to the expectations of their readers, proving points about what women at the turn of the twentieth century were capable of, and seeking their own iconoclastic goals of freedom and fulfillment on the trail. Such complexities, while perhaps contributing to the lack of sustained recognition of these authors, make their work all the more valuable to unearth because they add complex and long lost historical landmarks to contemporary Canadian culture—to the question of “where is here” (Frye 222). Rediscovering where and who we are calls for new ways to read. Putting these adventure texts back on the literary map raises the question of how to properly analyze texts that contain such a remarkable mixture of border crossing, varying cultural discourses of gender and imperialism, restrictions of audience and publisher, and explicit and unspoken authorial intent. How does one analyze texts that are at once so telling of the cultural currents of their time, and yet which remain so seemingly off the grid? Trying to locate the underlying ideas that connect these texts to each other and to their broader cultural contexts means looking for the fundamental iconography with which they speak. It requires a language that is at once leveling and diverse—that of bustling city streets and gold rush trails. It is the language that communicates on billboards, magazines, and newsreels, and which evolves across different forms of discourse and experiences of gender, race, and class—that of the body itself.  68	
    My study of cross-border frontier revival literature and the frontier revival frame identifies a specific cultural context and set of conceptual metaphors with which to analyze meaning on the level of the body. I locate a network of conceptual metaphors and connect them within what I identify as the SELF-CONTROL IS BODILY CONTROL and the GENERIC IS SPECIFIC metaphors. The task of thoroughly addressing and outlining the large body of work on frames and conceptual metaphor lies outside the scope of this dissertation. It is however my goal to extend work on conceptual metaphor theory to feminist theory and to travel literature to show what kind of “cultural work” (Tompkins xi) conceptual metaphors do in our daily lives through the familiar language of the body. In particular, I view this set of conceptual metaphors and frame roles as allowing women writers to revive opportunities for women at the turn of the twentieth century. I offer a way of uncovering this language, and thereby enriching our overall understanding of the way women authors live and revise discourses of cultural progress through the female body.  2.9 7  Notes to Chapter 2  	
   For a more detailed discussion of discourses relating to manifest destiny, please refer to chapter  3. 8  In Johnson’s “Philosophical Significance of Image Schemas,” he notes, “the very concept of  HORIZON is image schematic. Our perceptual fields have focal areas that fade off into a vague horizon of possible experiences that are not currently at the centre of our conscious awareness. Hence it comes as no surprise that we have a CENTER-PERIPHERY image schema” (20). Image schemas are usually defined as the experiential patterns upon which primary and conceptual metaphors are based (Body xix). It is important to note here that Johnson does not address the  	
   female body in his discussion of the horizon and that most work on image schemas does not take gender into account because image schemas refer to universal, shared experiential knowledge. For the purpose of my work, I focus less on image schemas, and more on the specific cultural and literary context of primary and complex metaphors. I explore how these metaphors take on different meanings when lived through the female body. My reading of this passage by Schäffer is meant as a brief example of how I adapt conceptual metaphor theory to support a feminist literary analysis. 9  As I discuss in greater detail throughout this chapter, the pushing of Bounded Locations  throughout frontier adventure literature signifies testing the boundaries of States of self. This occurs through a set of interconnected conceptual metaphors that I identify in frontier revival literature. 10  For a fuller discussion of the genre of frontier revival literature, please refer to chapter 3.  11  Throughout my dissertation, I italicize the most basic, primary metaphors such as Good is Up.  12  I identify complex metaphors in caps because this is how they are generally represented in  scholarship about conceptual metaphor. 13  Conceptual metaphor theorists usually place the abstract (target) domain of metaphors before  the experiential (source domain). I try as much as possible to refer to metaphors the way that they are normally written by conceptual metaphors scholars. However, when referring in short hand to the source and target domains of metaphors, I place the experiential domain before the target domain and write both in italics. For instance, I refer to the domains of the Knowing is Seeing metaphor as Seeing/Knowing. I place the experiential source domain first in this short hand form so as to emphasize to literary scholars who may be unfamiliar with conceptual metaphor theory that conceptual metaphors are based on a mapping from the body onto abstract ideas.  	
    14  71	
   I indicate here the abbreviations that I use for some of these metaphors. I only abbreviate the  metaphors that I refer to most often. 15  These terms are of course loaded and deserve a more in-depth discussion than is possible within  the scope of this chapter. While I focus primarily on how I borrow and adapt terms from cognitive linguistics in Chapter 2, I devote Chapter 3 to exploring the particular cultural movements and discourses in which my authors engage, including cross-cultural literary migrations and influences, changes in women’s social roles, as well as ideas relating to manifest destiny, intercontinental expansion, and changing attitudes to gender. My overall focus though remains on how eastern authors from both sides of the border adopted American rhetoric of manifest destiny in frontier revival literature, which became more about the intercontinental expansion of Anglo-Saxon culture, than it was about American national identity. I explore how motifs of physical movement on the frontier became synonymous with racialized ideas of AngloSaxon cultural expansion. I also see these physical motifs as gendered in that images of frontier expansion in frontier revival literature were primarily associated with men. Male authors represented cultural progress in these texts as a masculine domain of pushing the physical and abstract limits of cultural identity. By performing stereotypically masculine physical activities in their texts, female frontier revival authors promoted increased social opportunities for women at the time and also questioned the violence, social inequality, and general biases beneath seemingly neutral images of frontier expansion that pervaded popular culture in North America. 16  For the purpose of my work, I draw primarily on the conceptual metaphors introduced by  Lakoff and Johnson and consequently rely mostly on their approach to embodiment here. Despite having familiarized myself with the field of cognitive linguistics and, in particular, conceptual metaphor theory, I choose to primarily draw on and develop Lakoff’s and Johnson’s terminology  	
   in my dissertation for several reasons. Their work on conceptual metaphor was pioneering in articulating a new approach to embodiment and providing a vocabulary of metaphors, which not only had far reaching influence to cognitive linguists and conceptual metaphors scholars, but which also had significant influence on scholars of other disciplines. It is the influence and intelligibility of that vocabulary both in and outside of cognitive linguistics that makes their work so useful for me to draw on. However, for further reading on cognitive linguistics approaches to embodiment and literature, please refer to the following authors: Gibbs; Parrill, Tobin and Turner; Richardson and Spolsky; Slingerland; Sweetser. 17  This is also a notable limitation in feminist work on women’s travel literature.  18  See Johnson’s discussion of the horizon (“Image Schemas” 20).  19  I use the term mapping in keeping with its use in the field of cognitive linguistics. It may seem  like an odd choice of words to literary scholars and I try to use it sparingly throughout the next few chapters. However, it is a key term in work on conceptual metaphor and I use it for the sake of interdisciplinary clarity and consistency. In “Contemporary Theory of Metaphor,” Lakoff’s discussion of the LOVE-AS-JOURNEY metaphor clearly explains how the term “mapping” is commonly defined and used: “The metaphor involves understanding one domain of experience, love, in terms of a very different domain of experience, journeys. More technically, the metaphor can be understood as a mapping (in the mathematical sense) from a source domain (in this case, journeys) to a target domain (in this case, love). The mapping is tightly structured. There are ontological correspondences, according to which entities in the target domain of love (e.g., the lovers, their common goals, their difficulties, the love relationship, etc.) correspond systematically to entities in the source domain of a journey (the travelers, the vehicle, destinations, etc.)” (206-  	
   207). I use the word to indicate the process by which we project knowledge of a source domain onto a target domain. 20  In Politics, Gender, and Conceptual Metaphors, contributors explore how female politicians use  conceptual metaphor in comparison with their male peers. Also, from a more literary perspective, Ellen Spolsky’s article “Women’s Work Is Chastity: Lucretia, Cymbeline, and Cognitive Impenetrability,” was very helpful to me in approaching the way that metaphor use in literature reflects cultural anxieties and debates about women’s bodies. 21  Image schemas are generally defined as a lower level of purely embodied experience beneath  primary and conceptual metaphors. Mark Johnson defines image schemas as shared patterns of experience (Body xix) that help to structure more abstract forms of cognition (Body xx). Certain common schematic patterns that he mentions are source-path-goal (“Image Schemas” 20) and containment (“Image Schemas” 21). In Margaret Freeman’s “Momentary Stays, Exploding Forces,” she studies how these two contrasting schemas emerge in work by Emily Dickenson and Robert Frost. However, while Freeman’s comparative study hints at connections between the gender of the authors and their choice of schema, she does not pursue this connection. 22  This may be a debatable point in scholarship on conceptual metaphor and it is one that deserves  and requires more attention and research in that field. 23  Cognitive linguists such as Lakoff and Johnson understandably do not focus on the cultural  usage of metaphor but rather provide valuable insight into patterns of how metaphors occur in language. 24  She also indicates that one of Shakespeare’s skills as a writer is the complexity of his treatment  of universal, cognitive human problems. Rather than offering a specific model of self and society,  	
   he explores the tensions in such models. Sweetser shows that his thematic conflict emerges out of basic cognitive tensions such as conflicting views of the self as vertical and as a container. 25  For instance, in Renaissance England, the lineages upon which social structures were based  were reliant on women’s fertility and monogamy, despite the impossibility of ever fully identifying paternity or assuring female chastity and monogamy (Spolsky 51). The physical “invisibility” of women’s sexuality thus underlies broader literary themes about sexual loyalty, betrayal, and violation. 26  For instance, one of the most insistent themes in frontier revival literature is the paradox of  needing to define the self through both the settlement and the expansion of frontiers, processes, which are at once antithetical and linked. I show how this paradox stems from ideas of selfdefinition through motion and through containment. Anxieties about needing to define American identity through constant expansion of territorial boundaries occur frequently in American literature, particularly travel writing. American authors associate continual movement with an ideal of ongoing progress that defines American manifest destiny. However, on a basic physical level, constant motion is not humanly possible, and this applies as well to the ultimate limits of American territorial expansion. On a more cultural level, American authors suggest that the need for constant cultural upheaval and change is not sustainable and does not allow for the creation of sustainable cultural values. This tension between settling and expanding the frontier is also highly gendered in that women are usually portrayed as figureheads of domesticity and civilization, while male figures usually must break new cultural ground by pushing and thus defining the physical and cultural progress of the culture. I argue that by placing the female body in traditionally masculine modes of physical mobility as opposed to domesticity, female travel writers disrupt the cultural expectations surrounding the mission of American manifest destiny.  	
    27  75	
   Feminist work on travel literature has been very influential on my work (Mills, Discourses of  Difference; Sidonie Smith, Moving), but tends to lack a detailed methodology for analyzing passages of text. 28  I have already explained that Lakoff and Johnson do not carefully take into account how  complex metaphors are based on experiential metaphors, while actually being heavily shaped by gendered cultural contexts. It is important to be aware of two things: 1) how metaphors often stem from the male body and are mapped onto male experience and 2) how they often reflect masculine concepts of male and female bodies. To cognitive linguists, these cultural distinctions may be unnecessary. However, understanding the way that cultural gender distinctions affect which cognitive metaphors become prevalent and how they are used is crucial to a literary understanding of the layers of meaning in prevalent conceptual metaphors and how our underlying metaphorical structures operate in society. 29  Smith and Watson discuss “artists’ engagement with the history of seeing women’s bodies”  (Sidonie Smith and Watson, “Mapping” 7). 30  When I refer to the eastern travelling body, I am really referring to what I identify here as the  symbolic eastern travelling body. In other words, while frontier revival authors did not all come from or reside in eastern locations, they published on the east coast and wrote primarily for an eastern audience. The travelling body in their texts comes to represent an eastern perspective on ideas relating to western expansion. 31  Coded in common male uses of the frontier frame is the idea that eastern travelling men are first  class citizens on the frontier followed by eastern female travellers who function as domestic helpmates.  	
    32  76	
   Tim Youngs’ journal Studies in Travel Literature is testament to the growing international  scholarly attention to travel. As well, recent international conferences have featured a great deal of work on travel, including two conferences on the Arctic that I attended in Norway and Sweden in 2008. 33  Recent publications include book length studies (M. Anderson; Bauer; Berton; Birkeland;  Brickhouse; Buchanan et al.; Cox; Hotz; Imbarrato; Kazanjian; McBride; Siegal; Simpson; Roy); anthologies of primary sources (Bohls and Duncan; Fisher; Landsdown; Mancall); and collections of secondary criticism (Dowler et al.; Helmers and Mazzeo; Youngs and Hulme). 34  A notable example of a cognitive linguistic reading of travel literature is Barbara Dancygier’s  “Blending and Narrative Viewpoint: Jonathan Raban’s Travels Through Mental Spaces,” Language and Literature (2005). 35  Evidence of the persistent popularity of travel literature on a local scale lies in a recent exhibit at  the Vancouver Art Gallery called Expanding Horizons: Painting and Photography of American and Canadian Landscape 1860-1918 and the corresponding book (Goldfarb et al.), as well as the recent Vancouver opera, Lillian Alling. 36  I draw particularly on the comparative work of James Doyle and Nick Mount. Doyle’s North of  America (1983), Yankees in Canada (1980), and The Fin de Siècle Spirit (1995) provide insight into late nineteenth-century American literature set in Canada, along with the involvement of Canadian writers at that time in north eastern American literary circles. Nick Mount’s When Canadian Literature Moved to New York (2005) also offers an in depth study of why and how late nineteenth-century Canadian writers left Canada to publish in the United States. These and other comparative approaches to Canadian and American cultural history, particularly of the west (Evans; Findlay and Coates; Higham and Thacker, One West Two Myths I & One West Two Myths  	
   II) indicate a growing field of comparative work on border crossing in Canadian and American literary history. I also draw particularly on work relating to cross-border women writers in the west (Barman; Pagh; Jameson and McManus; Skidmore). Most notably, Jean Barman’s Constance Lindsay Skinner (2007) offers a kind of feminist counterpart to Mount’s book in her study of a famous turn-of-the-century Canadian female western author who infiltrated the northeastern American writing community and wrote about Canadian settings. 37  See all of the previous examples. Higham and Thacker are a prime recent example of  scholarship that approaches the study of such border crossing in this way. 38  See Barman’s biography of Constance Lindsay Skinner for a good example of this.  39  The main time period that I focus on ends loosely around the First World War. However, I am  interested in how recurring frontier revival motifs developed and lingered on, particularly in literature that is more focussed on American landscapes or American discourses. The imperialist underpinnings of frontier revival literature were more accessible to American authors and readers whose dreams of expansion had not been eclipsed by the devastation of war as in Canada. With attention to how frontier revival literature lingered on in a more American—although still symbolically cross-border—setting, I end my final chapter by looking at Laut’s 1926 text, Enchanted Trail of Glacier Park, which is set in Montana. 40  Please see chapter 3 for a full explanation of why Canadian authors were motivated out of  necessity to participate in the more active publishing industry south of the border. 41  I see the complex literary and cultural meanings that are triggered by roles of the frame as more  of the realm of discourse theory and turn more so to work of feminist and literary scholars when interpreting the cultural context and relevance of the frame. One interesting overlap between frame and discourse theory is the tensions around the idea of embodying roles. Sweetser and  	
   Fauconnier note that, “[a]s with the idea of representation, the idea of roles carries along with it the idea of multiple possible mappings between a role and its filler” (6). Similarly, feminist theorists describe gender roles as socially constructed and open to ongoing interpretation. In particular, feminist scholarship on women’s travel literature often draws attention to the way that women writers in particular perform various and often conflicting cultural roles (Pratt, Mills, Discourses of Difference). In “Performativity, Autobiographical Practice, Resistance,” Sidonie Smith refers to the female autobiographical subject as existing on “multiple stages simultaneously” (110). I thus use the term frame throughout my methodology because I see the roles of frames as useful concepts in mediating between experientially based conceptual metaphor and more complex cultural discourses relating to ideas such as national identity and gender. 42  As I explain in note 15, I draw significantly on Lakoff’s and Johnson’s work primarily because  of the interdisciplinary vocabulary that they offer with which to discuss embodiment and conceptual metaphor. In particular, Philosophy in the Flesh provides a a clear and thorough list of many different conceptual metaphors along with explanations of the metaphors and how they relate to each other. While I add some of my own metaphors and create my own network of how different metaphors interact with each other, I rely on several of the metaphors that they introduce so as to provide a specific vocabulary with which to analyze my texts—a vocabulary that should be recognized by conceptual metaphor theorists and also understood by those outside the discipline. For other important work on conceptual metaphor please see work by the following authors: Handl and Schmid; Lakoff and Turner; Ortony; Semino; Stockwell; Sweetser; Sullivan and Sweetser). 43  It is important to note that this journey metaphor was not initially intended by Lakoff and  Johnson to be applied to literary texts.  	
    44  79	
   Lakoff and Johnson do not discuss how some complex metaphors are more experiential than  others. 45  It is important to note that States refers to abstract states of being.  46  For a fuller discussion of the LES metaphor please see chapter 11 of Philosophy in the Flesh  and also Lakoff’s “Contemporary Theory of Metaphor” (222-223). 47  Once again, it is important to mention that Lakoff and Johnson did not explicitly intend their  work on conceptual metaphor to be applied to literature. My critique of their work here is meant not to suggest major shortcomings in their theoretical approach, but rather to show the advantages of building on conceptual metaphor theory by developing it in specific ways for the purpose of literary analysis. 48  An example in everyday language would be “step outside yourself” (Philosophy in the Flesh  277). 49  I still sometimes refer to the individual body of the traveller as representing shared States. What  I mean by this is that the GENERIC IS SPECIFIC metaphor combines with other metaphors that I discuss throughout this chapter. The Bounded Locations/States associated with the Bounded Location of the traveller’s body itself (or the body’s movement in between, through, or at the edge of Bounded Locations) map onto his/her individual States (for instance, relating to ideas of bravery or redemption), and also to States that are supposed to represent collective groups such as Americans, or North-American women. 50  For instance, they show that the specific scenario of this simple proverb offers “generic-level  information, which is as follows: —There is a person with an incapacity.  	
   —He encounters a situation in which his incapacity in that situation results in a negative consequence. —He blames the situation rather than his own incapacity. —He should have held himself responsible, not the situation” (163). For another helpful discussion of the GENERIC IS SPECIFIC metaphor, please see Sullivan and Sweetser’s article, “Is Generic is Specific a Metaphor?” in Meaning, Form, and Body. 51  For Lakoff’s discussion of the difference between literal and metaphorical language, see his  discussion of the phrase “a balloon went up” in “Contemporary Theory of Metaphor” (205). 52  My in-text citations for Gallatin refer to the 2005 reprint of the text. However, all illustrations  that I refer to are from the original 1900 version. 53  It is important to clarify here whether or not I see the frontier revival frames as changing over  time because I am essentially claiming that female authors interpret the frame differently than their male peers. As I explain in this chapter, I see this frame as a generic knowledge structure tof conceptual metaphors that recur in a specific cultural context. The lowest level experiential basis of the frame does not change. However, the cultural understanding of the frame changes. For instance, the idea of who can fill the role of traveller—and by extension embody specific ideas of cultural progress changes. A major change that occurs through female interpretations of the frame, is the level of cultural awareness of the frame itself. Once readers become aware of their own performative investment in patterns of thinking about westward expansion and physical activities on the frontier, the cultural meaning of the frame changes. Its meaning now incorporates ideas of ongoing re-interpretation, and it can no longer function as smoothly as a kind of seamless iteration of cultural identity.  	
    54  81	
   This longing to return to the trail is a common motif in frontier revival literature. However it is  more prominent in the works of women writers whose unprecedented freedoms in the wilderness contrasted with their daily lives at home much moreso than in the case of the male authors. 55  Kipling’s explorer imagines a voice calling him and saying:  "Something hidden. Go and find it. Go and look behind the Ranges— Something lost behind the Ranges. Lost and waiting for you. Go!" (19). This passage was cited at the beginning of Lure of the Labrador Wild. 	
   3  Making New Bodies Matter: Women Writers and the Frontier Revival  3.1  Introduction: “Getting as far as you can go”  82	
    In A Social Departure (1891), Sara Jeannette Duncan begins the account of her world travels with an image of herself perched at the front of the cowcatcher of a C.P.R. train that races at top speed through western Canada (See Fig 3.1). “There is a satisfaction,” she reminds readers upon arrival in Vancouver, “that is difficult to parallel in getting as far as you can go” (66). As the accompanying illustration shows, Duncan sits perilously at the front of the speeding train, clutching onto her wide-brimmed hat, and looking directly at the reader with mischievous delight. Echoing Agnes MacDonald’s famous inaugural cowcatcher ride in 1886, this image is iconic in Canadian literature for several reasons. Her statement indicates some of the major themes in the genre that I identify as frontier revival literature. First of all, from a new historicist and Canadianist perspective, I see Duncan as representing Canadian nationalist expansion into the west. As well, drawing on a comparative literature approach, I also suggest that as a white middle class easterner she calls attention to current ideas about manifest destiny individualism, progress, and the imperialist expansion of Anglo-Saxon culture into a cross-border west. And when viewed through the lens of feminist theory, Duncan can be seen as a female adventure tourist because she represents turn-of-thecentury concepts of the new woman by pushing the boundaries of gender norms and extending notions of progress and individual freedom to women. Most importantly, these ideas emerge through the representation of the body. Her comment, like her photograph, demonstrates the way that frontier revival writers such as Duncan use images of the travelling body to promote the  	
    cross-border imperialist expansion of white, Anglo-Saxon culture. Cross-border56 female adventure writers represent the female body in familiar heroic roles so as to promote women’s rights on both sides of the border. A traditional close reading of literary devices cannot adequately explain why Duncan is at once so iconic and complex—and why she communicates these levels of meaning with such ease. Drawing on conceptual metaphor theory, I argue that this image is iconic because of its beautifully (and deceptively) simple basis in embodied cognition, which allows it to resonate on so many levels with readers both then and now. It is precisely because we hear about and see Duncan’s position at the front of the speeding train that we perceive wider connotations of nationalism, westward expansion, and the new woman in her adventure. It is because Duncan literally places herself at the forefront of westward expansion, because she physically goes as far as she can go, that we find cultural connotations relating to imperialism and women’s rights in her story. The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the field of frontier revival literature to which Duncan and my other five authors belong. In order to contextualize and justify my comparative study of texts by Americans Grace Gallatin (1872-1959), Mary Schäffer (1861-1939), and Elizabeth Taylor (1856-1932), and Canadians Agnes Deans Cameron (1863-1912), Sara Jeannette Duncan (1861-1922), and Agnes Laut (1871-1936), a literary and historical context for the genre is useful.57 I begin with the image of Duncan hurtling through space to emphasize how writers in this field used iconic and viscerally charged descriptions of physical movement to promote late nineteenth-century concepts of an intercontinental west. As I explain in this chapter, images of westward expansion and adventure at the time are steeped in ideological rhetoric about American identity—rhetoric that is applied to Canada and adopted by Canadian writers. Nugent explains that the first major imperialist phase of American expansion, which ended in the 1840s, relied  	
    heavily on manifest destiny ideology: “White Americans were certain that they had the right and duty to take land” (234).58 I show that imperialist ideas in frontier revival literature occur in conceptual metaphors that underlie a frontier revival frame. Going west is ideological short hand for North American ideas about cultural progress at the turn of the twentieth century. I divide my discussion into five parts. First of all, I examine the ideas of east and west that underlie expansionist rhetoric in frontier revival literature, and I show how eastern American authors represent the eastern travelling body in western settings as a form of Anglo-Saxon imperialism that transcends the border itself.59 Second, I describe in detail exactly what kind of frontier I am referring to and what concepts authors are seeking to revive through representations of the eastern travelling body at the end of the nineteenth century. I demonstrate the cross-border context of frontier revival literature and explain how both American and Canadian authors used the physical motifs of American frontier mythology in Canadian or cross-border settings. Third, I outline different stages of frontier literature, from exploration and pioneer narratives to better known writing about the west by historians Frances Parkman, Frederick Jackson Turner, and Theodor Roosevelt, and in adventure texts set in cross-border western settings. By cross-border western settings, I mean journeys that conflate western regions of Canada and the United States. Most of the texts that I include in the field of frontier revival literature are actually set in western Canada. However, their authors extend American manifest destiny rhetoric to western Canada in the form of a broader, more popularized concept of American progress as the continental westward expansion of Anglo-Saxon culture. This discussion of stages of frontier literature is important in order to demonstrate how representations of the travelling body develop into a frontier revival frame in the mid-to-late nineteenth century, and how physical motifs represent the intercontinental expansion of Anglo-Saxon culture in the face of an increasingly diminishing  	
    American frontier. In this chapter, I also explain the historical context of women’s cross-border frontier revival literature and discuss how women authors use representations of the eastern female travelling body to respond to the work of their male peers in subversive ways. Examples from cross-border texts by men help me to show the specific roles of the frontier revival frame, which include a white traveller whose body metonymically represents manifest destiny ideals; a cyclical westward journey; a test and renewal of physical and cultural self-control; and a return home. Contrasting these examples with ones from women’s frontier revival literature, I explore how women writers adapt this frame to a distinctly female perspective. By focussing on the female travelling body in the frontier revival frame, I argue that these authors promote women’s rights while performing dominant ideas about westward expansion. Duncan’s concept of “getting as far as you can go” (66) emerges out of a long literary history of eastern North American writing about western expansion. By situating herself physically and metaphorically on the vanguard of a new modern era (of continental expansion, North American imperial aspirations on the world stage, increased immigration, industrialization, and suffrage), Duncan helps to usher in complex cross-border debates about empire, nationalism, gender, race, and citizenship in North America. As Thacker points out in his comparative study of Canadian and American frontier mythology, “[t]o have a Canadian point of view, especially an English-Canadian point of view, is to be ‘on the frontier,’ to be above America but part of America, to have to cross frontiers” (Thacker 11). Canadians were inevitably influenced by dominant American myths of westward expansion. Stepping outside the boundaries of Canadian and American literature allows us to see how earlier American frontier myths incorporate and influence elements of Canadian culture. A fuller discussion of British and Canadian imperialist discourses in contrast with American  	
    imperialist discourse at the time lies outside the scope of this dissertation. However, by identifying and contextualizing frontier revival literature, I show how American manifest destiny rhetoric emerges on the level of the body in these texts to represent cross-border ideas of westward expansion. Frontier revival literature emerges out of frontier literature on both sides of the border, but reflects the longer and more dominant American ideology of manifest destiny of the 1840s and the late nineteenth century. The frontier revival frame solidifies the symbolism of the metonymic travelling body. Written at a time of increased imperialism in both the United States and Canada, frontier revival literature codes ideas of progress through the white travelling body to appeal to readers on both sides of the border. The revival in frontier revival literature signifies two different activities—a revival of the lost American frontier, and also of Canadian expansion in the newly opened west. Frontier revival authors self-consciously use their physical journeys to signify familiar rituals of cultural progress. The booming periodical culture at the turn of the twentieth century opened up the increasingly blatant, and over-exposed symbolism of frontier revival literature to reinterpretation, providing opportunities for women writers to appropriate and revise the normative imperialist discourses of adventure literature.  3.2  “Our East and Our West:” Locating Cross-Border Frontier Literature  In Duncan’s description of the Canadian Pacific Railway, she describes westward expansion in Canada as both defining the nation and as representing broader processes of North American westward expansion. Explaining the C.P.R. to Orthodocia, she says,  	
    It was made for the good of Canada, it was made for the greed of contractors. It has insured our financial future, it has bankrupted us forever. It is our boon and our bane. It is an iron bond of union between our East and our West—if you will look on the map you will discover that we are chiefly east and west—and it is an important strand connecting a lot of disaffected provinces (19).  While officially referring to Canada in this passage, Duncan implies a continental east/west division that takes precedence over the American-Canadian border. Her transition from “our East and our West” to “we are . . . east and west” (19) emphasizes that her westward journey represents a form of cultural progress through westward expansion. However, one has to wonder, given this cross-border east/west distinction, who exactly Duncan refers to with the pronouns “our” and “we.” As an affluent white, English speaking, metropolitan traveller, she calls upon imperialist rhetoric on both sides of the border about the continental spread of white, Anglo-Saxon culture. The most recognizable imperialist discourse of this nature lies in northeastern American manifest destiny rhetoric. However, it is paralleled in eastern Canadian advocates of westward expansion in works such as George Grant’s Ocean to Ocean. Duncan’s ambiguity in regards to her audience suggests a broader eastern imperialism that underlies the rhetoric of westward expansion. Duncan’s “our” and “we” signifies not simply eastern, western, American or Canadian identities, but rather an eastern vision of westward expansion that underlies American and Canadian ideas of cultural progress. This eastern imperialism foregrounds the interests of affluent eastern white north Americans in exploiting and assimilating the racial diversity of the west. This passage helps to show how authors use the travelling body in late nineteenth century frontier adventure texts to symbolize ideas of collective social progress through familiar physical motifs. Furthermore, what is so compelling about the representation of the body in frontier revival texts is that while authors evoke ideas of collective progress through the frontier frame, they  	
    indicate that such progress only applies to particular types of bodies (eastern, white, affluent, metropolitan, and mostly male). In other words, these travelling bodies define collective goals, while subtly limiting the achievement of those goals to a cross-border, eastern elite. Writers on both sides of the border use the white eastern travelling body to evoke the corporeal limitations of a broader Anglo-Saxon imperialism. Duncan’s inclusion of her female body in this stereotypically masculine field of writing disturbs the conventionally gendered terms of expansionist discourse. As Amy S. Greenberg shows in Manifest Manhood, nineteenth-century manifest destiny rhetoric was distinctly gendered and “debates over Manifest Destiny also were debates over the meaning of American manhood and womanhood” (14). She shows how expansionist rhetoric expressed concepts of “martial” and “primitive ” masculinity based on ideals of physical strength, courage, and adventure (12-13), and on concepts of femininity as the “benevolent domestic presence” that helps to civilize the frontier (2). Duncan, who generally adopts an alternative new woman persona that flouts gender conventions (Fiamengo 23), challenges readers to think about gendered ideas of social progress as open to interpretation. She forces readers to wonder about the tension between the eastern travelling body’s exclusionary representation of collective goals and the actual heterogeneous bodies it claims to represent. She invites us to question whose cultural progress it is anyway—to ask who gets to represent and define collective values and why? Duncan’s perspective as an eastern adventure-author writing about a western setting would have been instantly recognizable to North American readers of the day. In The Eastern Establishment and the Western Experience (1989), Edward White observes that in the late nineteenth century, well-known eastern literary figures including Owen Wister, Frederick Remington, and Theodore Roosevelt romanticize the west as an alternative to the modern industrialized society of the eastern United States (7). White explores the work of these men as  	
    part of what he sees as the affluent “eastern establishment” including “the boarding school, the Ivy-League University, the college club, the metropolitan men’s club, and the Social Register” (6). Martin Green shows that eastern American writers actively project myths of Anglo-Saxon hemispheric expansion and domination onto western settings (16). Thus, while the work of eastern authors presents an idealized western alternative to eastern industrial America, it ultimately reflects the interests of white, Anglo-Saxon northeastern American men. Famous eastern historians, Frances Parkman, Frederick Jackson Turner, and Theodore Roosevelt, all mythologize the travelling body in the west according to distinctly eastern ideas of national progress. These figures are already well known as part of an “eastern establishment” (White 6) of writers about the west. However, I argue that the work of writers such as Parkman, Turner, and Roosevelt resonates, not merely because of their shared cultural background in the nineteenthcentury American eastern establishment, but also because of the central role that the male body plays in their metaphors of westward expansion. They convey the need to renew manifest destiny values on a diminishing frontier by emphasizing the formulaic nature of the eastern traveller’s physical movements that metonymically reenact wider ideas of cultural progress. Importantly, these writers present a very specifically racialized and gendered travelling body. The legacy of Parkman, Turner, and Roosevelt persists in their use of a frontier revival frame, in which a metonymic travelling body undergoes a cyclical westward journey, a loss and renewal of control, and a final reassertion of eastern ideals of cultural progress. These motifs lay the groundwork for frontier revival literature by eastern Canadian and American authors.  	
   3.3  90	
    The Frontier Revival and The Cross-Border West  Because the hub of the North American publishing industry at the end of the nineteenth century was in the northeastern United States, eastern frontier revival literature emerged in a distinctly cross-border literary climate. In The Fin De Siècle Spirit (1995), James Doyle observes that during the last decade of the nineteenth century, the Canadian publishing industry suffered from a limited readership, along with high tariff and postage rates that encouraged imported rather than domestic literature (9). Prominent young Canadian writers such as Walter Blackburn Harte were lured to the United States during this time due to the size of the American reading public and the many lucrative magazines and new publishing opportunities for young writers, including women (Doyle, Fin 9). As Mount explains, the “literary exodus” of the 1880s and 90s was the biggest out-migration in Canadian history (6), a migration that for writers such as Sara Jeannette Duncan, was “about moving from the margins to the centres of a continental literary culture” (13). Most of these writers moved to northeastern American cities (Mount 21) and New York was the epicenter of the publishing industry (Barman, Constance 61)—especially the booming periodical industry (Mount 40). In particular, a number of Canadian writers including Ernest Seton-Thompson and Charles G.D. Roberts were successful in writing outdoors literature with anti-modern themes (Mount 99) and often cross-border settings. Considering the popularity of nature and adventure writing in the eastern American publishing industry of the time, and the migration of so many Canadian writers to the northeastern United States, it is no coincidence that these writers participated in the frontier revival frame and its physical motifs of an eastern travelling body. Imperialist cultural distinctions between the east and west in this frame were easily accessible to both Canadian and American writers in the booming publishing centres of the American east.60  	
   In fact, because of historical differences in Canadian and American westward expansion,  American rhetoric about continental expansion preceded and anticipated similar Canadian imperialist discourse. Popular “linked discourses of hemispheric unity and U.S. imperial destiny” (Murphy 14) were prevalent in American politics and letters from the beginning of the nineteenth century (Murphy 14-15), and nineteenth-century manifest destiny rhetoric envisioned the continental expansion of “white Americans” as a form of inevitable and divinely ordained cultural progress (Nugent 234). This racialized discourse was particularly popular during the swell in territorial expansion during the 1840s (Roth 5), when American interests in Canadian territory also surged (Nugent 92). Because manifest destiny rhetoric promoted the expansion of white english speaking North Americans, it fostered the continental east/west divide to which Canadian writers like Duncan refer in their work. Imperialist discourse about expansion in both countries has tended to share similar rhetoric about creating a white Anglo-Saxon and Christian civilization (Katerberg 67). Morrison argues that myths of frontier expansion did not develop as much in Canada because of geographically isolated, and tight knit, eastern settlements (103); an awareness of the preexisting inhabitants in western Canada (104); geographical barriers to slow a moving frontier (105); and an emphasis on social order through the R.C.M.P. and the settlement of “small homogenous communities” (106). As I will show, Canadian female frontier revival authors tended to adopt and respond to already established, more dominant American discourses on frontier expansion.61 Harold Innis’s alternative Canadian frontier myth not only came 50 years after Turner’s frontier thesis, but it also envisaged the frontier as a peripheral economic support for the cultural metropolises in Europe, eastern Canada, and the eastern United States (Francis 20).62 As I propose in my discussion of Duncan’s iconic image of riding the cowcatcher, the focus on the white eastern travelling body in cross-border adventure literature of the time allowed white eastern  	
    writers on both sides of the border to easily identify with dominant American imperialist rhetoric. Motifs of transformative and aggressive physical movement into the west were already long established in the minds of the North American reading public and lent themselves to the reproducible images and formulaic physical motifs of the northeastern American publishing industry. The body in the frontier revival frame did not simply trigger manifest destiny rhetoric, but rather was the very language of manifest destiny rhetoric. Because manifest destiny rhetoric centred around the white eastern male body, it was essentially a language of Anglo-Saxon imperialism that, while originating earlier and more visibly in American culture, was available to Canadian writers and applicable to a cross-border west. The political uncertainty and geographical permeability of the western border between Canada and the United States in the nineteenth century was conducive to a mythical cross-border west in the works of Canadian and American writers. In the first half of the nineteenth century, there were ongoing negotiations about the American and Canadian border; in fact, the western border was not finalized until the Oregon treaty in 1846 (Nugent 88-9). In the later half of the century, American manifest destiny rhetoric about the continental “domination of Anglo-Saxon American republicanism” in a cross-border west was often aimed at Canada, and corresponded with the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway in the 1880s, the opening of the western Canadian frontier, and the swell of American immigration into the Canadian west (Doyle, North 7).63 As Robert Thacker notes, the late nineteenth century saw many cross-border influences in American and Canadian depictions of the west, notably in the work of American and Canadian frontier artists such as Frederick Remington and Paul Kane (6-7). American and Canadian adventure writers, mostly located in the east, also conflated the western regions of Canada and the United States (Doyle, North 132; Mount 100). It is interesting to note that the considerable influx  	
    of Canadian writers to the northeastern United States corresponds with a spike in American immigration and interest in western Canada. I see these two phenomena (the presence of Canadian writers in the northeastern United States and American interest in western Canada) as intersecting in the physical motifs of frontier revival literature. The metaphors of westward journeys that described American immigration to western Canada were being promoted by the eastern American publishing industry, in which Canadian writers participated. Canadian and American writers portrayed Canada as the next logical step in the continental expansion of AngloSaxon culture, and enacted this progress through the white, eastern, male body.  3.4  Setting the Stages of Frontier Literature 3.4.1  Exploration and Settlement  The earliest stage of eastern North American literature about western frontier settings that would have precipitated the frontier revival by a hundred years includes exploration literature at the turn of the nineteenth century. Beginning in the late eighteenth century, explorers such as Alexander Mackenzie and Alexander Henry wrote on behalf of the fur trading companies about their travels in the Canadian northwest. They travelled at a time when the boundaries between the United States and British North America were still being decided upon and in many ways their work reveals how the earliest English exploration texts about western parts of the continent were essentially cross-border in nature. Thacker points out that the publication of Mackenzie’s book in 1801 actually motivated U.S. President Thomas Jefferson to request and organize the crosscontinental expedition of Lewis and Clark in 1804 (1-2). Because the western CanadianAmerican border was not finalized until 1846, these texts establish the idea of the continental  	
    northwest as an amorphous western region that is available to be exploited by eastern metropolitan interests. As well, these texts establish the idea of the eastern white male body as a symbol of eastern Anglo-Saxon civilization that straddles Canadian, British, and American culture. Written in the style of business reports, they do not attach heavy symbolism to the westward journey in the style of later adventure writers. Greenfield points out that compared to earlier British explorers such as Mackenzie, American explorers beginning with Lewis and Clark actually expressed national affiliation and conveyed the western frontier journey as a symbolically patriotic enterprise (78-79) and American travellers as “models and embodiments” of the nation (81). These early exploration texts established the idea of the white eastern travelling body in a cross-border west as symbolic of the progress of Anglo-Saxon civilization, an idea that became more specifically nationalistic in the early texts of Lewis and Clark. However, these early exploration texts, written before the waves of westward immigration and manifest destiny rhetoric, focus much less on the body as a recognizable symbol of imperialist expansion than do texts by later authors who wrote about the frontier once westward migration was in full swing. Nineteenth-century pioneer texts, particularly those by women, can also be seen as partly influencing frontier revival literature. By using the term pioneer literature, I refer specifically to largely autobiographical, first person accounts on behalf of settlers participating in westward migration and settlement in North America during the nineteenth century.64 After exploration literature, pioneer literature represents a second major phase in literary representations of westward expansion. Pioneer literature contributed to aspects of frontier revival literature in several ways. Pioneer accounts are travel narratives in which individual travellers’ westward journeys explicitly represent more wide scale migrations, cultural encounters, and expansionist discourse of the time. In this way, they establish the template of an eastern traveller, who, rather  	
    than an isolated explorer, is an average citizen whose journey represents the process of ostensibly expanding and establishing ideas of nation. They also employ autobiography to represent this link between individual westward travel and nation building. Because of the large number of first hand pioneer accounts and their historical significance for scholars across various disciplines, there has been a great deal of American and Canadian scholarship about pioneer literature.65 During the last two or three decades, revisionist feminist approaches to pioneer literature have sought to shed light on the roles of female frontier settlers.66 In fact, given widescale contemporary recognition of earlier female pioneer figures such as Laura Ingalls Wilder and Susanna Moodie, it is necessary to briefly address certain key differences between such earlier pioneer literature and the later frontier revival literature that I write about. For example, women’s pioneer texts tend to focus on the more traditionally feminine domestic roles of the authors, whereas women’s frontier revival authors assume more public and stereotypically masculine roles of adventure travellers. While pioneer texts focus more on daily, personal events, frontier revival literature is more concerned with both the physical Movement of the traveller and the broader ideas of Change that such movement represents. The more masculine role that frontier revival authors assume tends to involve greater levels of agency, not just in representing cultural discourses about heroism or progress, but also in negotiating and expanding such discourse. Frontier revival literature is also about eastern visitors who only temporarily visit the west and who witness westward expansion with a sense of critical distance: visitors do not settle. As the term suggests, frontier revival literature documents westward expansion in a retrospective light amidst an increasingly populated western frontier. While pioneer authors live and witness the expansion of the frontier, frontier revival authors relive an increasingly mythologized frontier. Frontier revival literature must also be seen within the context of the mass media boom in urban,  	
    eastern North American cities because it is written for a media savvy urban audience. Women frontier revival authors, while sharing some of the discursive conflicts, motifs, and interests of earlier pioneer writers, write in a way that consciously takes advantage of modern technology and social developments in opportunities for women to appropriate and critique urban, eastern frontier mythology from feminist perspectives.  3.4.2  Parkman, Turner, and Roosevelt  Frances Parkman’s The Oregon Trail (1849), which was reissued again and again in the late nineteenth century, emphasizes the role of the eastern adventurer as a symbol of the greater westward expansion of Anglo-Saxon culture. The expansion of U.S. territories to the Pacific coast in the 1840s ended the first main period of westward American expansion (Nugent xv), a period of geographical territorial expansion that relied heavily upon the ideology of early manifest destiny rhetoric about the divine right of Anglo-Saxon Americans to take over the continent. Writing at the peak of this westward expansion, and obviously self-conscious about this wider cultural symbolism, Parkman elects himself to the dual roles of traveller and myth-maker. While technically writing as a historian, his narrative is more personal than objective. His journey is also symbolic of the wider migration that was taking place and to which he constantly alludes. In comparison to earlier explorers and settlers, Parkman is also writing deliberately in the role of adventure-tourist as one who blatantly symbolizes and mythologizes, rather than simply anticipating or participating in, westward migration. Most importantly, the meta-narrative of Parkman’s text revolves around the journey and the daily physical movements of his body. I see The Oregon Trail as helping to establish the frontier revival frame because it consists of a  	
    metonymic traveller, a cyclical westward journey, and tests of endurance including a loss and renewal of self-control, and a return home. Written at the end of the first peak of westward migration, Parkman’s metonymic journey captures the ideological context of westward expansion in a formulaic physical journey and in a set of recurring physical motifs. The emphasis on his own white, eastern, male body shows that he represents a specifically Anglo-Saxon idea of progress, which he repeatedly tests through trials in the wilderness and a final return home at the end of the text.67 As he writes in the preface to his 1892 edition, his individual journey was part of a greater movement of “the sons of civilization, drawn by the fascinations of a fresher and bolder life, [who] thronged to the western wilds in multitudes” (ix). This frame became particularly important during the late nineteenth-century nostalgia for a lost frontier when the idea of capturing and reliving the lost glory days of continental expansion was particularly popular. Parkman’s symbolic journey sets the precedent for later travellers, who, seeking to evoke ideas of manifest destiny, can revive frontier ideology by reliving this frame in the wilderness.  3.4.3  Frederick Jackson Turner  Historian Frederick Jackson Turner is a central figure of the frontier revival frame at the end of the nineteenth century. As Nugent shows, the late 1900s saw another peak in American imperialism, this time aimed at offshore ventures (xv). However, part of this imperialism involved a renewal of interest in expanding territory northward (Bloom, 32; Doyle, North 147). As Doyle shows in North of America, Turner’s lament over a vanishing frontier captured a wider cultural nostalgia for a lost American experience, which corresponded with literary portrayals, particularly of western Canada, as a last American frontier to the north (Doyle 147-148). In 1893, Turner  	
    lamented the close of the American frontier at the Chicago World’s Fair and declared that “[T]he advance of American settlement westward, explain [s] American development” (31) and defines the “dominant individualism” (Turner 165) of the “American intellect” (189). The physical motifs that Turner uses to represent an ideal of national progress through westward expansion are so pervasive in his text that they are easy to miss—a sign that the frontier revival frame was embedded in the North American imagination. Similar to Parkman, he describes a prototypical eastern traveller who undergoes a cyclical loss and renewal of control on the frontier. Like Parkman, Turner describes this process through the metonymic body of the eastern traveller, whose westward journey “is the line of most rapid and effective Americanization” (167). However, compared to Parkman, Turner makes this metonymic connection explicit and in his brief essay straightforwardly lists the physical stages of a frontier journey that he sees as defining American progress and identity. This description of the physical stages of a frontier journey inadvertently serves as a nationalistic self-help manual on what types of individual bodies and physical movements represent the whole. These physical movements were to go beyond discourses of nationalism to become the blueprint for North American adventure literature of the time. First there is a loss of control in which “[t]he wilderness masters the colonist” (167). Then “he fits himself into the Indian clearings and follows the Indian trails. Little by little he transforms the wilderness, but the outcome is not the old Europe . . . here is a new product that is American” (167).68 Envisioning the frontier as a site of “perrenial rebirth” (32), Turner portrays the westward expansion of the white, eastern traveller as a nationalist ritual that can be continually reenacted. With the close of the American frontier, this “perennial rebirth” (32) in a new frontier could easily be adopted by Canadian writers because of the corporeal emphasis on the eastern white travelling body whose westward journey represents a racialized form of cross-border  	
    imperialist expansion. Turner’s frontier thesis condenses and popularizes the metaphorical connection between the eastern travelling body and cross-border manifest destiny ideals.69  3.4.4  Theodore Roosevelt  Theodore Roosevelt’s idea of the strenuous life at the turn of the twentieth century further emphasized the global imperialist symbolism of the frontier revival frame, as well as its strongly racialized and gendered parameters. At the end of the nineteenth century, Roosevelt’s philosophy of the strenuous life influenced American writers to depict the Canadian wilderness as a new alternative frontier for masculine adventure and the expression of American expansionist rhetoric (Doyle, North 114; Mount 99). Just as Roosevelt desired urban Americans to rediscover the masculine values of the wilderness, Canadian and American writers in the northeastern American publishing industry of the 1890s wrote “brawny tales of outdoor life” (Mount 99) for an urban audience (Mount 99). Like Parkman and Turner, Roosevelt mythologizes the western frontier through motifs of the metonymic eastern travelling body in the west. His series The Winning of the West, published between 1889 and 1896, is dedicated to Parkman and explores what he sees as the “spread of the English-speaking peoples over the world’s waste spaces” (15). Roosevelt takes the frontier revival frame further to make a direct connection between the individual American citizen and a global, or at the very least, continental imperialist duty. In Roosevelt’s “The Strenuous Life” speech, in which he promotes American imperialist involvements in the Pacific in 1899, he confirms that “as it is with the individual, so it is with the nation” (4) and Roosevelt’s ideal heroic individual, explicitly gendered as white and male,70 is one whose personal willingness to “wrest triumph from toil and risk” (3) parallels the responsibilities that confront [the U.S.] in Hawaii,  	
    Cuba, Porto Rico, and the Philippines” (6-7). His use of the physical motifs of the metonymic travelling body, the cyclical journey, and a loss and renewal of control from the frontier revival frame self-consciously places him in the same myth-making tradition as Parkman and Turner. Roosevelt uses the language of the frontier to link the body of the individual American not only to westward expansion, but to an imperialist mission that is now aimed at the world at large. As in Duncan’s concept of “getting as far as you can go” (66), the westward movement of the eastern travelling body represents cross-border ideas of progress as the manifest destiny of white AngloSaxon cultures.  3.4.5  Male American Frontier Revival Authors in Western Canada71  Late nineteenth-century male adventure writers in the northeastern American publishing industry, who were responding to Roosevelt’s call for the “strenuous life,” often wrote about Canadian and American western regions as though they were interchangeable (Mount 100). Some of these writers such as Julian Ralph, W.H.H. Murray, and Charles Dudley Warner were obviously influenced by manifest destiny rhetoric and explicitly promoted the expansion of “Anglo-Saxon American republicanism over the whole western hemisphere” (Doyle, North 7). However, what has been hitherto ignored by scholarly discussions of these cross-border writers is their representation of the eastern travelling body to symbolize ideas of continental expansion. Even more than Parkman, Turner, and Roosevelt, they draw attention to the body as self-consciously reliving frontier activities and renewing American cultural progress. Taking advantage of the formulaic popular adventure narrative, these writers focus on their individual physical experiences in the wilderness through detailed personal observations, anecdotes, and illustrations. At the same  	
    time, they mythologize this very personal experience through allusions to frontier mythology. Writing more in the style of adventure narratives rather than dry historical accounts, American journalists and adventure authors such as W.H.H. Murray and Hamlin Garland create heroic personae that are at once personal and larger than life—both individualized and metonymic of collective imperialist goals. By writing about themselves performing familiar physical activities in the wilderness, they exploit motifs that emphasize the metonymic value of their physical movements and overall journeys. As well, because of the blurring of actual Canadian and American western regions in these texts, manifest destiny rhetoric is less obviously associated with nation, and is especially coded through the white, eastern travelling body. It is important to remember that while these texts may appear to a modern reader to be uniformly imperialist, they actually reveal varying attitudes to westward expansion that are hidden in the formulaic conventions of popular literature. Upon paying close attention to the representation of the body in these texts, I find varying degrees of complexity and self-awareness in these authors’ attitudes to the imperialist goals that they represent. This is nowhere more evident than in cross-border texts by women authors whose female bodies inevitably disrupt the ideological basis of the frontier revival frame.  3.5  “Oh for a Precedent:” Women’s Cross-Border Texts  One has only to look at frontier revival texts by women authors of the time to find a range of richly diverse and complex perspectives on westward expansion. The six women I have chosen to study in my dissertation epitomize the use of the female travelling body to present a range of critical perspectives on cross-border expansionist rhetoric of the day. Of course, like their male  	
    counterparts, these women inevitably have diverging backgrounds, aims, and affiliations. Some, like Grace Gallatin were devoted suffragists. Others, like Mary Schäffer were wealthy adventurers who prioritized the pursuit of personal recreation or spiritual growth. Some, including Gallatin and Schäffer started off assisting their husbands with literary adventure writing. Schäffer and Elizabeth Taylor also use hobbies relating to ethnography or botany as a pretext for travel. Sara Jeannette Duncan, and Agnes Laut were first and foremost professional writers who wrote primarily to support themselves and frequently changed their writing style to suit their audience. Agnes Deans Cameron left her career as a teacher to be a professional writer, a path which was unfortunately cut short by her untimely death. As a group these authors present a striking counterperspective to male frontier adventure writers of the time in that they use the same style, subject matter, and physical motifs as male frontier revival authors, but with two important differences. They all focus on gender through an interest in the women that they meet or observe on their journeys and by drawing attention to the novelty of doing stereotypically masculine activities as women. And they share a subtle skepticism about imperialism, which they express through the lens of their gendered perspective. As scholars of women’s travel literature and of American imperialism would argue, this intersection of proto-feminism and anti-imperialism is hardly a coincidence in the writing of nineteenth-century middle-class white women whose subject positions were generally caught between privileged socio-economic status and the disenfranchisement of their gender.72 Feminist scholars have shown that there is no better place to examine intersections between gender identity and competing social discourses than the performative body (Butler 3; Sidonie Smith, “Performativity” 11; Sidonie Smith and Watson, “Mapping” 9).73 Cognitive linguists such as Margaret Freeman, Elizabeth Hart, Bruce McConachie, and Eve Sweetser also show how bodies  	
    perform ideological concepts through specific image schemas, conceptual metaphors, and frames. As Elizabeth Hart observes, cognitive linguists see