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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Using pilot projects to reclaim public space for pedestrians : lessons from New York City and San Francisco Peterson, Evan Franklin 2012

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49:?6:C ' 6:/$#D7%&/&#6BB./1/"$889:6#2/;1%#:7%/812/&77F/ ' 7UCU./*1&#%$/*$88$:&/%7"76@7?/1/VGPH.HHH/ $#D7%/49:?6:C/1@7:97&./&9"D/1&/1:/7B7"#7?/$456"61B3&/ 9;C%1?7/R#$/c68;%$@7?3S/@61/1/*$889:6#2/ ?6&"%7#6$:1%2/49:?&/$%/C$@7%:87:#1B/C%1:#& d7:756#/+6&#%6"#/C%1:# ' ;1%FB7#&/%7816:/6:/1/#78;$%1%2/4$%8 &$9%"7a/;7%&$:1B/"$889:6"1#6$:&/E6#D/!:?%]&/>$E7%/1:?/e16?6B1/f9:C2&./9:B7&&/:$#7?  42  F1G3&'()H'I&4'-5A.1%",52,'G&/<&&2'/J&'-1,&',/$84'.%5#%1A, 9&<':5%=';"/4  712'!%12-",-5  ;%$M7"#&/49:?7?/A2/"6#2  ;%$M7"#/49:?&/X"$AAB7?/#$C7#D7%Y  ?7&6C:/1:?/"$:&#%9"#6$:/?$:7/6:ID$9&7./A2/*6#2  ?7&6C:/1:?/"$:&#%9"#6$:/1/"$BB1A$%1#6@7/744$%#/E6#D/ "$889:6#2/;1%#:7%&  8$:6#$%6:C/"$:?9"#7?/A2/"6#2  8$:6#$%6:C/"$:?9"#7?/A2/L%?I&7"#$%/;1%#:7%/  ;%$M7"#&/;%681%6B2/1"#/1&/;B1"7D$B?7%&/4$%/"1;6#1B/;%$M7"#&  ;%$M7"#&/7@$B@7/#D%$9CD/#D%77/B7@7B&/$4/;7%81:7:"7  43  .<>C:G@D<> !  @(,8!0+8-&,3',1+!.#.2;8,8!&+1+.28!B+;!-%*3%#+#'8!%4!'(+!3,2%'!3&%:&.*8!'(.'!,#4%&*!  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'%!&+-+,1+!0%#.'+0!.#0!.'5-%8'!*.'+&,.28/!3&%!7%#%!8+&1,-+8/!1%26#'++&!2.7%6&/!.#0!3&%A+-'! 0%#.',%#8K!>(+&+.8/!$DEOb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pper East Side  W62  AY  W59  P.#(.''.#Y8!:&,00+0!8'&++'!#+'>%&B!H8++!  W66  BR  !  )$'*+L*!  AMSTERDAM  !  !"#$%&'E'3,6'+*'3,-2,//,-'2"#27"#2/"-#' )%+,.C,? HENRY HUDSON PARKWAY  *DK;@&"]G8B;&^$6._&  W57  COLUMBUS CIRCLE  3RD  PARK  1ST  LEXINGTON  2ND  3RD  5TH  8TH  E  6TH  MADISON SQ PARK  E23  W20  W14  D R IV  W23  AY  GRAMERCY PARK  E20 Stuyvesant Town  UNION SQ  E14 4T H  4&%*!'(+8+!,#'+&8+-',%#8!'%!8%21+!*62',32+!  Chelsea  ADW  3,2%'!3&%A+-'8/!>(,-(!&+*%1+!R&%.0>.;!  E34  W29  BRO  CHELSEA PARK  PENN HERALD STATION SQ  W26  '(+!4,&8'!%4!'(+!_&++#!\,:('!4%&!P,0'%>#!  MADISON  7TH  W36 W34  E42  BRYANT PARK  PARK  9TH  10 TH  GRAND CENTRAL  TIMES SQ  FDR  .#0!(,:(!.--,0+#'!&.'+89!@,*+8!FL6.&+!,8!  Hell’s Kitchen  9TH  *.A%&!'&.44,-!.#0!3+0+8'&,.#!-%#:+8',%#!  Midtown  W45  LINCOLN TUNNEL  10 TH  4.-,2,',+8!H$DEOb@/!UVWV?I9!@(+!&+862'!,8!  W47  PORT AUTHORITY  11TH  ,#'+&8+-',%#8!>,'(!,#.0+L6.'+!3+0+8'&,.#!  MADISON  W49 Clinton  LEXINGTON  5TH  6TH  7TH  W52  8TH  11TH  G,:6&+!]I/!-&+.',#:!.!8+&,+8!%4!-%*32+C!  12 TH  W55  g!@(+!E,';!%4!$+>!D%&B/!UVWV/!7;!3+&*,88,%#  45  !"#$%&'J')&*+%&',-.',*/&%'=2,-#&1'+-')%+,.C,?' ,/'>"0&1'45$,%&  8.4+';!.#0!*%7,2,';!,886+8!>(,2+! -&+.',#:!.!3672,-!&+.2*! .33&%3&,.'+!'%!R&%.0>.;8! ,#'+&#.',%#.2!&+36'.',%#!H$DEOb@/! UVWV.I9 !  ,#$7+%%  '  $DEOb@!3&%3%8+0!.!8,C5  *%#'(!3,2%'!3&%A+-'!'%!+1.26.'+!'(+! -(.#:+!.#0!.##%6#-+0!,'!,#! G+7&6.&;/!UVVZ/!>,'(! ,*32+*+#'.',%#!8'.&',#:!,#!P.;! .#0!-%*32+'+!,#!)6:68'9!<&,%&!'%! ,*32+*+#'.',%#/!$DEOb@!  BE F OR E g!@(+!E,';!%4!$+>!D%&B/!UVWV/!7;!3+&*,88,%#  -%#06-'+0!*++',#:8!>,'(! 8'.B+(%20+&8/!(+20!3&+88!+1+#'8/! .#0!#%',4,+0!'(+!3672,-!H$DEOb@/!  UVWV.I9!$DEOb@!-%22+-'+0!.!1.&,+';!%4!3&+5r3%8'5,*32+*+#'.',%#!0.'./!,#-260,#:!'&.1+2! ',*+8/!'&.44,-!1%26*+8/!3+0+8'&,.#!1%26*+8/!.#0!'&.44,-!.--,0+#'89 !  D+%&>'!  !  E(.#:+8!&.#:+0!4&%*!&%.0>.;!.2'+&.',%#8!'%!8,:#.2!3(.8+!-(.#:+8!'%!-&%88>.2B!  8(%&'+#,#:8!'%!3.&B,#:!&+:62.',%#!-(.#:+89!@(+!32.?.8!.&+!0+*.&-.'+0!>,'(!-%2%6&462! 86&4.-+!'&+.'*+#'8!H3.,#'/!+3%C,+0!:&.1+2/!.#0!'%&-(+0!32.8',-I!.#0!(.1+!'.72+8/!-(.,&8/! 7+#-(+8/!32.#'+&8/!.#0!#+>!7,-;-2+!&.-B89!"#,',.22;/!$DEOb@!3&%1,0+0!32.#'+&8/!86&4.-+!  46  intersections at each junction with a major north-south avenue. These intersections have historically resulted in higher crash rates than other nearby intersections. Simplifying these multi-legged intersections by removing one of the three streets from the intersection has had an immediate safety impact. Vehicles approach and leave the intersections in fewer directions making the traffic more predictable, more organized and therefore safer.  '&+.'*+#'8/!.#0!.!8'&++'!46&#,'6&+! GRAPHIC 21 Simplified Intersection at W. 33th Street / 6th Avenue and Broadway  8'.&'+&!B,'K!>(+&+.8/!2%-.2!R68,#+88!  !"#$%&'K'4"067"*"&.'"-/&%1&=/"+-',-.'-&C' 67,8,'16,=&'-&,%'>"0&1'45$,%&  "*3&%1+*+#'!O,8'&,-'8!3&%1,0+0! 32.#',#:8/!*.,#'+#.#-+/!86332+*+#'.2! 46&#,'6&+/!.#0!3&%:&.**,#:! H$DEOb@/!UVVe-I9!O6&,#:!'(+!'(&++5 *%#'(!-%#8'&6-',%#!3+&,%0/!'(+!E,';! %&:.#,?+0!+1+#'8!.#0!.-',1,',+8!'%! +#86&+!'(+!.&+.8!&+*.,#+0!.33+.2,#:!  g!@(+!E,';!%4!$+>!D%&B/!UVWV/!7;!3+&*,88,%# ɐȐÉFMPRCLCBPMQQU?JIQ Before the project was implemented, complex Broadway / avenue  0+8',#.',%#8!.#0!+-%#%*,-.22;!1,.72+!4%&!#+.&7;!768,#+88+8!H@,*+8!FL6.&+!O,8'&,-'! intersections created unusually long crosswalks where pedestrians had P.#.:+*+#'!)88%-,.',%#/!UVWWI9  to cross both Broadway and the adjacent avenue in a single signal cycle. Closing the sections of Broadway at avenue intersections shortened these crosswalks, which in turn significantly reduced pedestrian exposure to motor vehicle traffic and created a much safer walking environment in Times and Herald Squares.  !  9A*7$4+  !  )#.2;8,8!8(%>+0!8,:#,4,-.#'!8.4+';!.#0!*%7,2,';!7+#+4,'8S![]^!4+>+&!,#A6&,+8!'%! 27  Green Light for Midtown Evaluation, January 2010  *%'%&,8'8/!]o^!4+>+&!3+0+8'&,.#!,#A6&,+8/!.#0!&+06-+0!1+(,-62.&!'&.1+2!',*+8!,#!'(+!.&+.9! R+#+4,'8!.28%!,#-260+0!WW^!*%&+!3+0+8'&,.#8!,#!@,*+8!FL6.&+/!da^!%4!2%-.28!.:&++,#:!'(.'! @,*+8!FL6.&+!,*3&%1+0!0&.*.',-.22;!H$DE/!UVWV.I/!.!aV^!0&%3!,#!$b!.#0!$bU! -%#-+#'&.',%#8!,#!@,*+8!FL6.&+/!.#0!82,:('2;!,*3&%1+0!.,&!L6.2,';!,#!.0A.-+#'!.&+.8!H$DE! i+.2'(/!UVWWI9!P.;%&!R2%%*7+&:!0+-2.&+0!'(+!3&%A+-'!.!86--+88!.#0!0+-,0+0!'%!36&86+! 3+&*.#+#'!-(.#:+!'(&%6:(!-.3,'.2!46#0,#:9 !  @(+!$DEOb@!(.8!8,#-+!7+:6#!.!-.3,'.2!3&%A+-'!'%!&+76,20!'(+!83.-+!%6'!%4!3+&*.#+#'/!  (,:(!L6.2,';!*.'+&,.289!@,*+8!FL6.&+!>,22!7+!-%*32+'+2;!&+76,2'/!,#-260,#:!'(+!+#',&+! &%.0>.;!.#0!6',2,',+8!7+#+.'(/!,#'%!.!32.?.!83+-,4,-.22;!0+8,:#+0!4%&!3+0+8'&,.#8!HJ.?,8/! UVWWI9  47  !"#$%&$'()*+,#+)-./$"0)12$3$45)1"#60 !"#$%&$'()*+,#+)-./$"0)12$3$45)1"#60+$%0)$+% !>D<>&"]G8B;&^$6._ !  )$'*+L*  !  @(+!3,2%'!.'!n#,%#!FL6.&+!  4%22%>+0!%#!'(+!86--+88!%4!@,*+8!  1"#:078)-/66$"') 1"#:078)-/66$"') !"#$%&'L')&*+%&',-.',*/&%'=2,-#&1'+-'(M/2'4/%&&/'  !0<#"0) -&,%'N-"+-'45$,%&  !0<#"0)  !"#$%"  .#0!i+&.20!FL6.&+8!'%!.#!.&+.!  ͻ  =#+> 8&#C  ͻ  D+48$ H0%0 !"#$  ͻ  *HI" <$7,2,  ͻ  ?2,6, 6#> AG89  '(.'!8.>!Zo!3+0+8'&,.#!,#A6&,+8!,#! '(+!3&+1,%68!4,1+!;+.&8!H$DEOb@/! UVWV7I9!"#!.00,',%#!'%!,*3&%1+0! 8.4+';/!'(+!3&%A+-'!8%6:('!'%! ,#-%&3%&.'+!'(+!#++08!%4!2%-.2! 768,#+88+8!.#0!.!4.&*+&Y8!*.&B+'! .#0!7+''+&!,#'+:&.'+!'(+!3.&B!,#'%! '(+!-%**6#,';!H$DEOb@/!UVWWI9 !  ,#$7+%%  !  $DEOb@!368(+0!'(,8!3,2%'!  4%&>.&0!.8!3.&'!%4!'(+!_&++#!  ;<80")  g!@(+!E,';!%4!$+>!D%&B/!UVWW/!7;!3+&*,88,%#  NEW YORK CITY DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION  \,:('!4%&!P,0'%>#!,#,',.',1+/!>(,-(!,#-260+0!'(+!3&+1,%68!3,2%'8!.2%#:!R&%.0>.;!H+9:9/!@,*+8! .#0!i+&.20!FL6.&+8I9!@>%!*%#'(8!.4'+&!8+2+-',#:!'(+!8,'+/!$DEOb@!(.0!&+2+.8+0!.!0+8,:#!  ;<80")  NEW YORK CITY DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION  3&%3%8.2!.#0!#%',4,+0!'(+!3672,-/!.#0!'(+!3&%A+-'!>.8!,#!32.-+9 !  D+%&>'!  !  @(+!.&+.!.&%6#0!n#,%#!FL6.&+!&+-+,1+0!.I!2.#08-.3+0!3+0+8'&,.#!,82.#08/!7I!  .00,',%#.2!%#58'&++'!3.&B,#:!4%&!'(+!4.&*+&Y8!*.&B+'/!-I!'&.44,-!-(.#:+8!H+9:9/!2.#+! &+06-',%#8I!'%!&+06-+!#%#52%-.2!'&.44,-!,#!'(+!.&+./!0I!8,:#.2!',*,#:!-(.#:+8!'%!,*3&%1+!  48  ?'#-+@-1A!B$/#$!9C(-'*!;,-D-%5!;'#3*$-+*!-$+!?/)1),*!;-  ;'#E*)&!9(33-'1!  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