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Human dietary and mobility patterns of a prehistoric population from Sigatoka, Fiji : a reconstruction… Phaff, Brianne Nicole 2012

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HUMAN DIETARY AND MOBILITY PATTERNS OF A PREHISTORIC POPULATION FROM SIGATOKA, FIJI: A RECONSTRUCTION USING STABLE ISOTOPE ANALYSIS by Brianne Nicole Phaff B.A. Honours, University of British Columbia, 2010  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in The Faculty of Graduate Studies (Anthropology)  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver) August 2012  ©Brianne Nicole Phaff, 2012  Abstract This thesis will explore dietary change and human movement/migration patterns of prehistoric humans interred at the site of Sigatoka, Viti Levu, Fiji through the isotope analysis of human and faunal skeletal material. Our dataset includes human tooth enamel and bone collagen samples of 52 individuals interred at the western and eastern burial groups at Sigatoka, which span four discrete periods of occupation, as well as a series of faunal remains excavated from the site. The aim of this study was to investigate (1) the proportion of marine versus terrestrial protein fraction of the diet through an analysis of stable carbon (δ 13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) values of human bone collagen; (2) the fraction of local versus foreign individuals at the site through an analysis of strontium (87Sr/86Sr) values in human tooth enamel; and (3) differences in diet in relation to sex, age, or place of birth through a comparison of isotopic values with previous osteological and mortuary analyses of the burials at Sigatoka. The results of our analyses suggest a diet consisting of mixed marine/terrestrial resources, and while the majority of individuals appear to be local, twelve individuals produced non-local strontium signatures relative to local bioavailable strontium values. Although no clear patterns of diet or mobility in relation to age, sex, or occupation period were revealed, our results imply that both marine and terrestrial resources played an important part in the subsistence strategies of prehistoric Fijians, and that some inter or intra-island migration was occurring.  ii  Table of Contents Abstract ................................................................................................................................................. ii Table of Contents ................................................................................................................................. iii List of Tables ......................................................................................................................................... v List of Figures ....................................................................................................................................... vi Acknowledgements .............................................................................................................................. vii 1  Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 1  2  Fijian Diet and Mobility ................................................................................................................ 3  3  4  5  6  7  8  2.1  Ethnohistoric and ethnographic records of Fijian diet ............................................................... 3  2.2  Archaeological interpretations of Fijian subsistence .................................................................. 5  2.3  Prehistoric Fijian mobility ........................................................................................................ 7  Stable Isotope Analysis in Fiji and the Pacific .............................................................................. 9 3.1  Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis .............................................................................. 9  3.2  Strontium isotope analysis ...................................................................................................... 10  3.3  Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis in Fiji .................................................................. 11  3.4  Strontium isotope analysis in the South Pacific Islands ........................................................... 12  The Sigatoka Sand Dunes ............................................................................................................ 14 4.1  Geography ............................................................................................................................. 14  4.2  History of excavation ............................................................................................................. 15  4.3  Cultural material .................................................................................................................... 16  4.4  Sigatoka humans remains ....................................................................................................... 18  Methods ........................................................................................................................................ 20 5.1  Sampling................................................................................................................................ 20  5.2  Sample preparation and measurement ..................................................................................... 21  Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Analysis ............................................................................ 23 6.1  Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope results .............................................................................. 23  6.2  Discussion of faunal diet ........................................................................................................ 24  6.3  Discussion of human diet ....................................................................................................... 25  6.4  Social and temporal differences in diet ................................................................................... 27  Strontium Isotope Analysis.......................................................................................................... 30 7.1  Strontium isotope results ........................................................................................................ 30  7.2  Sigatoka non-locals ................................................................................................................ 31  7.3  Discussion.............................................................................................................................. 33  Conclusion.................................................................................................................................... 35 iii  Bibliography ........................................................................................................................................ 37 Appendix A .......................................................................................................................................... 41 Appendix B .......................................................................................................................................... 42 Appendix C .......................................................................................................................................... 44  iv  List of Tables Table 1. Descriptive statistics for human bone collagen (δ 13C and δ15N) values from Fiji. ........ 12 Table 2. Radiocarbon dates for archaeological phases in Sigatoka and Fiji................................ 16 Table 3. Descriptive statistics for faunal bone collagen (δ13C and δ15N) values from Fiji. ......... 24 Table 4. Demographic and burial information about non-locals at Sigatoka.. ............................ 31  v  List of Figures Figure 1. The parabolic sand dunes at Sigatoka. Photo taken by author. .................................... 15 Figure 2. Archaeological material eroding from an exposed paleosol. Photo taken by author. ... 15 Figure 3. Bivariate plot of human and faunal bone collagen isotopic (δ 13C and δ15N) values from Sigatoka. ................................................................................................................................... 23 Figure 4. Bivariate plot of bone collagen isotopic (δ 13C and δ15N) values of fauna from Fiji and humans from Sigatoka. .............................................................................................................. 26 Figure 5. Bivariate plot of human bone collagen isotopic (δ 13C and δ15N) values from Sigatoka, showing dietary differences between temporal periods. ............................................................. 28 Figure 6. Bivariate plot of human bone collagen isotopic (δ 13C and δ15N) values from Sigatoka, showing dietary differences between the relative status of individuals. ...................................... 29 Figure 7. Results of the 87Sr/86Sr analysis of human, plant, and marine samples, illustrating the 95% confidence interval of marine values and the 95% confidence interval of local values. ...... 30  vi  Acknowledgements Above all else, I owe my greatest thanks and appreciation to my supervisor, Dr. Michael Richards. For all the time, support, and advice; for presenting me with incredible fieldwork and lab experience opportunities; for taking an interest in my future; and for being my confidence when I was running low; I am eternally grateful. I cannot thank you enough. I also need to thank Dr. John Barker, Dr. Brian Chisholm, and Dr. Sue Rowley, who graciously took time to edit drafts and proposals, as well as Dr. Darlene Weston, who assisted me with tooth identifications. I owe much of my lab experience and knowledge to two of the kindest, most knowledgeable, and most patient lab technicians in the world, Elizabeth Jarvis and Annabell Reiner – thank you Liz especially, for enduring the brunt of my stress. My parents, as always, were a constant source of support and love during this process, and I am so grateful. For two people who got stuck with a daughter with impractical career aspirations, they have never stopped supporting and encouraging me, and I appreciate it immensely. Finally, I would like to thank Nick – he who kept me grounded and most importantly, sane.  vii  1  Introduction Knowledge of prehistoric human dietary change and mobility patterns in Fiji has relied  largely on indirect evidence such as zooarchaeological data (e.g. Clark and Szabó 2009; Jones 2009; Szabó 2009; Worthy and Clark 2009), palynological data (Horrocks and Nunn 2007), landscape modification (e.g. Anderson 2002; Anderson et al. 2006; Hope et al. 2009; Kumar et al. 2006; Nunn et al. 2007), settlement patterns (Field 2004), and artifact analysis (e.g. Best 1984; Burley 2005; Clark 2009; Clark and Kennett 2009; Cochrane 2004; Cochrane and Neff 2006; Reepmeyer and Clark 2010), providing a fragmented and generalized view of the past. These indirect forms of investigation provide no means for comparing diet and residency with social status, gender, or age, as they contribute information not at the individual level, but at the population level, which leaves us with an incomplete picture of human variability. Alternatively, stable isotope analysis provides a means to directly identify variations in diet (Lee-Thorp 2008) and mobility (Bentley 2006) through the analysis of human skeletal material. To-date stable isotope analysis has only been employed at a few archaeological sites in Fiji (Field et al. 2009; Jones and Quinn 2009; Jones and Quinn 2010; Valentin et al. 2006), and no strontium isotope studies have been carried out in Fiji, although various strontium studies have been carried out in other parts of the Pacific (Bentley et al. 2007; Jaric 2004; Shaw et al. 2009; Shaw et al. 2010; Shaw et al. 2011). In this thesis I investigated human dietary change and movement patterns of the inhabitants of the prehistoric site of Sigatoka, Viti Levu Fiji through the stable isotope analysis of human and faunal skeletal material. My dataset combined stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) values of human bone collagen and strontium (87Sr/86Sr) values in human tooth enamel of 52 individuals interred at the western and eastern burial grounds at Sigatoka, spanning the Fijian  1  Plainware (1650—1550 years BP), Navatu (1550—1450 years BP), and Vuda (500—200 BP) phases of occupation. Bone collagen and enamel isotopic compositions were used to identify 1) the proportion of marine versus terrestrial protein fraction of the diet; 2) the proportion of local versus foreign individuals at the site; and 3) differences in diet in relation to sex, age, or place of birth. By combining this new stable isotope data with the data provided by material and osteological analyses (Best 1989; Visser 1994), the interrelationships between diet, health, gender, and status identities were able to be explored, contributing to a greater understanding of the complexities of subsistence and mobility patterns in prehistoric Fijian communities.  2  2  Fijian Diet and Mobility The current study attempts to expand on previous research conducted on prehistoric  subsistence and human mobility in Fiji. In this chapter I review that research, outlining current knowledge about Fijian diet through ethnohistoric, ethnographic, and archaeological sources, and the present archaeological understanding of Fijian mobility.  2.1  Ethnohistoric and ethnographic records of Fijian diet Upon arrival in Fiji, nineteenth century European missionaries, colonists, and traders made  observations about the cultural practices of indigenous Fijians, including detailed reports on Fijian subsistence practices. From these reports, we are able to piece together the lives of indigenous Fijians at the time of European contact – the closest analogue available for prehistoric Fijians. From these reports, Fijian dietary staples were reported to include mostly vegetables, with yams and taro as the resources consumed in the greatest quantity, but also included sweet potato, arrowroot, and cordyline. Shellfish, seaweed, green leaves, and coconut were common complements to these vegetable dishes, which were often boiled in pots or cooked in earth ovens (Williams and Calvert 1859). Terrestrial meat such as birds, flying foxes, rats, frogs, lizards, snakes, dogs, and pigs was seldom consumed, and was reserved for feasts, which often included large spreads of fish, pigs, turtles, and starchy roots (Im Thurn et al. 1925; Wallis 1851; Williams and Calvert 1859). These roots served at feasts were often processed as breads or puddings, including starches such as taro, banana, or arrowroot, and a base of coconut cream and sugarcane, producing a mixture rich in carbohydrates and sugars (Im Thurn et al. 1925; Wallis 1851; Williams and Calvert 1859). Fishing techniques such as reef gleaning were common, where the majority of fish consisted of non-pelagic species (Waterhouse 1866; Williams and 3  Calvert 1859) – large pelagic fish and demersal species were not regularly consumed (Thaman 1990). Early historic sources also record the practice of cannibalism in historic Fijian communities (Im Thurn et al. 1925; Wallis 1851; Waterhouse 1866; Williams and Calvert 1859). Dietary restrictions according to sex or status were recorded – puddings, for instance, were normally reserved for chiefs (Pollock 1986), and turtle fishing and consumption was highly regulated by high-status individuals (Waterhouse 1866; Williams and Calvert 1859). However, Williams and Calvert (1859) suggest that these status differences appeared largely through the quality of food items and their preparation as opposed to their relative quantity. Gender differences were present both through diet and subsistence activities – reef fishing was generally recorded as a woman’s activity, whereas men were responsible for maintaining crops such as taro. Consequently, women tended to consume greater quantities of fish, and taro – a highly revered food item – was consumed in greater quantities by men (Im Thurn et al. 1925; Waterhouse 1866; Williams and Calvert 1859). This same sexual division of Fijian subsistence activities is also recorded by ethnographic sources (Jones and Quinn 2010; Sahlins 1962), as well as the importance of carbohydrates in the traditional Fijian food system (Nayacakalou 1978; Pollock 1986; Ravuvu 1983; Sahlins 1962). Root crops such as taro and yams are considered kakana dina, or true food, reflecting their high status (Pollock 1986: 103), and marine protein is typically eaten for taste and enjoyment (Nayacakalou 1978; Pollock 1986; Ravuvu 1983; Sahlins 1962). In her ethnoarchaeological analysis of Lauan subsistence, Jones (2009) observed that Lauans would collect and consume virtually every fish that was caught by nets or hand lines in the inshore area, and while shellfish and terrestrial meat was sometimes consumed, it formed a significantly smaller part of the diet.  4  2.2  Archaeological interpretations of Fijian subsistence The Lapita people were the first colonizers of Fiji, arriving approximately 3050 BP off the  western coast of Viti Levu (Nunn 2005; Nunn 2007), and for the first colonizers of Remote Oceania, the nature of Lapita subsistence is a topic that has been debated by many. A number of scholars have suggested that the colonization of Remote Oceania – including Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji, Tonga, Samoa, and the more remote Polynesian islands – was dependant on agriculture (Kirch and Green 2001; Spriggs 1997), and that the transportation of crops and animals essential for horticultural subsistence was an important component of Lapita colonization (Kirch 1997). However, others have argued that the importance of agriculture in Remote Oceania has not been adequately demonstrated (e.g. Anderson and Clark 1999; Clark and Anderson 2001; Burley et al. 2001). Although carbonized plant remains have been found in Lapita contexts (Horrocks and Nunn 2007), they are rare, and large scale deforestation as a result of intense agricultural activity is not apparent in Remote Oceania until about 2500 years B.P. (Anderson 2002; Hope et al. 2009). More likely, Lapita people were employing an assorted mix of horticultural activity and marine and terrestrial foraging (Kennett et al. 2006). In Fiji, charcoal frequencies and sediment deposition began to rise around 2300 years B.P., suggesting that at that time, local resources began to be severely depleted and land was beginning to be cleared for agriculture (Anderson 2002; Anderson et al. 2006; Hope et al. 2009). A second spike in land clearance occurred around 1300 A.D., which has led some archaeologists to suggest that agricultural intensification was taking place as a result of climate change – notably the period of rapid cooling and sea-level fall between the Medieval Warm Period (A.D. 700—1250) and the Little Ice Age (A.D. 1350—1800), known as the “A.D. 1300 Event” (Kumar et al. 2006; Nunn et al. 2007).  5  The post-Lapita faunal assemblage is characterized by a variety of reef fish, shellfish, terrestrial endemics such as fruit bat and reptiles, and the rare domestic pig, dog, or chicken, and subsistence strategies appeared to be, for the most part, generalized. In an analysis of molluscan remains from a variety of different Fijian sites and time periods, Szabό (2009) found that aside from the Lapita sample at Votua, prehistoric Fijians did not practice selective mollusc foraging techniques – both large and small species of molluscs were collected. This information is largely in agreement with analysis conducted on fish remains around Fiji, which were illustrative of a generalist gathering strategy, particularly in post-Lapita times. The diversity of fish species increases slightly over time, suggesting that traps, nets, and community fishing strategies were increasingly employed in the post-Lapita period (Clark and Szabó 2009). In Lau, Jones (2009) found that there has been relatively little change in vertebrate species utilized over time from prehistory to modern times. Vertebrate taxa were dominated by tangs, groupers, parrotfish, triggerfish, and emperorfish. Turtle and fruit bat bone occurs at both Lapita and post-Lapita sites, although extinct land birds are primarily associated with Lapita deposits – these birds appear to have gone extinct within the first few hundred years of occupation (Worthy and Clark 2009). Domestic chicken bone is rare in Fiji, in contrast with Tonga, Niue, and Rapa Nui. Worthy and Clark (2009) suggest that chicken may have been only semi-domesticated in Fiji, with a prevalence of feral populations. It should also be noted that evidence for cannibalism is present at Navatu 17A by 1400 BP (Degusta 1999), Vuda at 1000 BP (Degusta 2000), Qaranicagi (Y2-39) at 750 BP (Cochrane et al. 2004), and Waya Island at 500 BP – a practice which coincides with the establishment of inland defensive settlements (Worthy and Clark 2009). It is currently unknown at what  6  frequency cannibalism was practiced prehistorically, but according to ethnohistoric sources, cannibalism was ritual as opposed to dietary, and reserved for those of high status (Wallis 1851). For the purposes of this study, detecting cannibalism isotopically is very unlikely, unless prehistoric people were utilizing humans as their main source of dietary protein.  2.3  Prehistoric Fijian mobility Fijian mobility is difficult to infer from the indirect archaeological record, and is based  largely on settlement patterns, and the trade of ceramic and non-ceramic artifacts. The Lapita period is often characterised by relatively small, mobile communities, settling in coastal environments that were ideal for inter-archipelagic trade and movement. However, by 2500—2000 cal. BP, evidence for inter-archipelagic long distance mobility in Fiji begins to decrease, and is dominated by “backfilling” and migration to inland environments (Clark and Anderson 2009). This is supported by the wide range of evidence suggesting large scale vegetation clearance after 2500 cal. BP (Anderson et al. 2006; Hope et al. 2009). Long-distance importation of goods begins to decline, and ceramics and non-ceramic artifacts became largely locally produced (Clark 2009; Clark and Kennett 2009). In the first millennium A.D., defensive settlements began to appear, and by 1200 BP were present across Fiji, suggesting increasing inter-group conflict over territory or resources (Field 2004). The introduction of new pottery forms and manufacturing techniques in the Navatu period (1500—1000 BP) was once explained as possible evidence for contact with Vanuatu (Best 1984; Burley 2005; Spriggs 2003), but due to a reanalysis of the evidence, this is no longer supported (Reepmeyer and Clark 2010), and likely reflects a movement of people from other areas of Fiji (Clark 2009).  7  The period that Clark and Anderson (2009) describe as “late prehistoric social interaction”, encompassing the Vuda (1000—350 BP) and Ra phase (350 BP to European contact), is characterized by extensive social interaction, the movement of non-local prestige items, craft specialization, and the development of complex societies. Cochrane (2004) and Cochrane and Neff (2006), for example, have shown that although the extent of interaction in the western Fijian Islands (Mamanuca-Yasawa Islands) was high until 1500 BP, by 1000 BP interaction had contracted, as evidenced by the LA-ICP-MS analysis of ceramic sherd clays. Interaction then increased substantially in late prehistory. Similarly, in late prehistory the highly valued Rewa pottery was traded throughout Fiji and highly prized by chiefs (Best 1984). Kumar et al. (2006) and Nunn et al. (2007) also suggest that 1300 A.D., around the beginning of the Vuda phase, marks an important transition in Fijian prehistory, characterized by major movements inland, increasing warfare, and agricultural intensification as a result of climate change. Large concentrations of charcoal on inland hilltop settlements, the formation of the Sigatoka Sand Dunes at 600 BP, and the intensification of defensive fortresses are all given as evidence in support of this interpretation, pointing to a general increase in defensive activity and an intensification of agriculture.  8  3  Stable Isotope Analysis in Fiji and the Pacific The current study proposes to use stable isotope analysis as a means of characterizing the  diet and mobility of prehistoric humans in Fiji – consequently, this chapter will provide an overview of carbon, nitrogen, and strontium isotope analysis, and outline the archaeological isotope studies that have previously been conducted in Fiji and the South Pacific Islands.  3.1  Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis is being utilized for this study because it offers  a means of studying an individual’s diet directly, and in sites where fauna is limited, such as at Sigatoka, stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis presents an alternative to comparative analysis. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis is able to be used for archaeological dietary analysis as a result of two fundamental discoveries. DeNiro and Epstein (1978; 1981) discovered that the stable carbon and stable nitrogen isotope ratios of animal tissues reflect the isotopic compositions of an animal’s diet. Chisholm et al. (1982) and Ambrose and Norr (1993) expanded on this research by determining that the isotopic ratios obtained from bone collagen provide direct evidence of the relative proportions of various protein sources. These two principles allow archaeologists to distinguish between C3 and C4 plant-based diets1 (van Der Merwe and Vogel 1978), marine and terrestrial diets (Chisholm et al. 1982; Tauber 1981; Schoeninger and DeNiro 1984), and identify different protein trophic levels (Schoeninger and DeNiro 1984). In order to correctly characterize a human’s diet, stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of humans must be compared to dietary species (flora and fauna) of measured values. Human isotopic values may reflect similar δ13C and elevated δ15N compared to a particular species if 1  Plants will reflect different stable carbon isotopic ( 13C/12C) ratios depending on their photosynthetic pathway (C3, C4, CAM). For a thorough review, see Schoeninger and Moore (1992) or Lee-Thorp (2008).  9  those humans were obtaining most of their dietary protein from that species; alternatively, if humans were consuming a range of sources, δ13C and elevated δ15N2 will reflect an average of dietary protein sources. Archaeological faunal remains are generally preferred for establishing the carbon and nitrogen baselines at the site, since the isotopic values of modern plants may be altered as a result of fossil fuels or pollution (Keeling 1979). Although faunal baselines have already been established at other Fijian sites (Field et al. 2009; Jones and Quinn 2009; Valentin et al. 2006), carbon and nitrogen isotope values may vary between regions, so it is important to create a baseline using archaeological fauna from the site if available. The only C4 plant which is available to and consumed by humans in Fiji is sugarcane (Williams and Calvert 1859), and this was consumed very rarely and contains very little dietary protein. Therefore, this study focuses primarily on the proportion of marine versus C3 based terrestrial protein.  3.2  Strontium isotope analysis Strontium isotope analysis is able to characterize prehistoric human and animal mobility by  identifying non-local individuals. It is based on the fact that different geological areas and materials produce different strontium signatures based on the age of the rock and the formation processes involved. The strontium in local geologies get incorporated into the soil through weathering, and into streams or groundwater where it gets taken up, without measureable fractioning or trophic level effects, by plants and into the food chain (Bentley 2006). In coastal and marine island environments, sea spray and precipitation can also have an effect on local strontium values, where 87Sr/86Sr of sea water has a universal value of approximately 0.7091 2  Isotopic values are reported in delta (δ) notation in parts per mil (‰), representing the ratio of heavy to light isotopes and the comparison of said ratio to known standards.  10  (Bentley 2006). Due to the multiple factors that contribute to a local area’s 87Sr/86Sr value, it is important to characterize the local strontium values by sampling fauna and plants that will reflect the locally bioavailable strontium. This can easily be obtained from plants or animals with small mobility ranges (Bentley et al. 2007). Local strontium values get taken up by humans through their diet and drinking water. During the formation of the tooth enamel, strontium substitutes for calcium in the hydroxyapatite of the enamel, thereby providing a record for the geologic signature of the location of an individual when the enamel was forming – depending on the tooth, this occurs during childhood or early adolescence. By comparing the values from human tooth enamel with the locally bioavailable strontium, we can assume that 87Sr/86Sr values which fall outside of the prescribed local bioavailable strontium range are non-locals (Bentley 2006).  3.3  Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis in Fiji Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis has been used to answer archaeological  questions in most parts of the world, including the South Pacific Islands. Due to the limited breadth of this analysis, I will only be reviewing the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope research that has been conducted in Fiji. In Fiji, stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis has been employed at the late prehistoric/historic period (A.D. 1850) site of Korotuku on the island of Cikobia (Valentin et al. 2006), the sites of Olo (2758—2503 cal. BP) and Qaranicagi (760—250 cal. BP) on Waya Island in the Yasawas (Field et al. 2009), the sites of Nokonoko (1300—1174 cal. BP), Bukusia (202 cal. BP), and Batiri (200 cal. BP) in the Sigatoka Valley of Viti Levu (Field et al. 2009), and on various sites on Aiwa Lailai, Aiwa Levu, and Nayau in the Lau Islands (Jones and Quinn 2009). A statistical description of the results of these studies is shown in Table 1. 11  In general, humans from Waya Island, Cikobia, and the Lau Islands were all suggested to have a diet of mixed C3 plant and marine sources, and the only humans that exhibit truly terrestrial-based diets are those from the Sigatoka Valley. Based on the nitrogen levels of the Sigatoka Valley sample, Field et al. (2009) suggest that a mix of plant and meat sources was consumed. Based on the values obtained from the Lau Islands, Jones and Quinn (2009) suggest a diet consisting of C3 plants – likely taro or yams – and inshore reef fish, which were found in abundance in the zooarchaeological record and commonly consumed by modern Lauans. Using a similar approach, Valentin et al. (2006) suggest that the isotopic values of Cikobia individuals reflect a mixed diet of starchy plants and pelagic fish or sea turtle – a diet common ethnohistorically to those of the Cikobia elite. Overall, the result of these studies greatly coincide with additional data provided by oral pathologies, faunal analysis, and ethnographic sources. Table 1. Descriptive statistics for human bone collagen (δ13C and δ15N) values from Fiji.  Location Cikobia Sigatoka Valley Waya Island Lau Islands  N 9 3 14 9  δ13C (‰) Mean -17.2 -19.4 -15.4 -16.3  Min -17.9 -19.4 -16.9 -18.7  Max -16.4 -19.3 -13.5 -13.9  SD 0.4 0.1 0.9 1.4  δ15N (‰) Mean 9.5 9.0 9.8 9.4  References Min Max 8.9 10.2 7.3 11.0 8.8 11.1 8.0 10.6  SD 0.5 1.8 0.8 0.8  1 2 2 3  Data cited from (1) Valentin et al. (2006); (2) Field et al. (2009); (3) Jones and Quinn (2009)  Important conclusions were reached by Field et al. (2009), who – conducting stable isotope analysis on a wide range of samples from different regions and temporal periods of Fiji – were able to show that dietary differences were more pronounced spatially as opposed to temporally, suggesting regionally specific variations in diet.  3.4  Strontium isotope analysis in the South Pacific Islands To date, an archaeological study of human mobility using stable strontium isotope analysis  has not been conducted in Fiji. Archaeological strontium isotope studies from the Pacific have 12  been conducted in Tongatapu in Tonga and Sohano Island in the Solomon Islands (Jaric 2004), the site of Teouma in Vanuatu (Bentley et al. 2007), the Anir Islands in the Bismarck Archipelago (Shaw et al. 2009), Watom and Tanga Islands in the Bismarck Archipelago (Shaw et al. 2010), and the site of Nebira in Papua New Guinea (Shaw et al. 2011). Although the lack of variation between individuals that Jaric (2004) obtained initially suggested that strontium isotope analysis was not a suitable stand-alone means for determining provenance in the Pacific Islands, the studies of Bentley et al. (2007) and Shaw et al. (2009; 2010; 2011) largely refuted this. Out of 17 individuals analyzed, 4 individuals at Teouma were interpreted as non-local (Bentley et al. 2007); out of five humans and five pigs sampled at Kamgot and Balbalankin, two pigs were identified as non-local; out of 15 humans and 6 pigs sampled from SAC and Lifafaesing, one human and several pigs were identified as non-local (Shaw et al. 2010); and out of 27 humans – the largest sample for strontium isotope analysis in the Pacific to-date – five non-local individuals were identified from Nebira (Shaw et al. 2011). Although no patterns in terms of age, sex, or burial treatment were apparent from Nebira, Bentley et al. (2007) found that the diets and burial treatments of non-locals at Teouma were significantly different from the remainder of the population, which implies that in Vanuatu, migrants may have been socially differentiated. Possible reasons that both Bentley et al. (2007) and Shaw et al. (2011) give for this human mobility are marriage, economic or political factors, or in the case of Teouma, that these non-locals were the first settlers to Vanuatu. The non-local pigs at Kamgot, SAC, and Lifafaesing, Shaw et al. (2009; 2010) suggest, may reflect the trade of pigs as prestige items.  13  4  The Sigatoka Sand Dunes A comprehensive isotopic study of prehistoric human diet and mobility relies on an  archaeological site with a large assemblage of human remains – in the case of this study, the Sigatoka Sand Dunes site not only provides an extensive collection of human remains, but allows access to an assemblage that is demographically, archaeologically, and temporally very diverse, lending itself to a wide range of archaeological questions. This chapter will provide an overview of the geography, history of excavation, and cultural remains of the Sigatoka Sand Dunes site, and introduce the archaeological and demographic profile of the Sigatoka skeletal assemblage.  4.1  Geography The site of Sigatoka is located at the southwestern portion of the largest island in Fiji, Viti  Levu. It lies at the mouth of the Sigatoka River, and is situated within a series of parabolic sand dunes, which begin at the river’s edge and run down the adjacent coastline. These dunes have formed as a result of the erosion of iron sands from the Sigatoka River Valley (Dickinson 1968; Dickinson et al. 1998) and the presence of southeast winds which blow the sand into long, southeast-to-northwest dunes (Burley 2005, see Figure 1) Geological analysis of the dunes suggest that they began to form around AD 500 – 600, when the Sigatoka Valley experienced extensive agricultural activity (Dickinson et al. 1998) – a time frame which is supported by archaeological material (Burley 2005). Wind, wave action, and human agency has led to large scale sediment redistribution, which is continually exposing archaeological and human remains (Burley 2005, see Figure 2). Due to the river’s freshwater flow, the Sigatoka River mouth and its coastline are also without fringing reef.  14  Figure 1. The parabolic sand dunes at Sigatoka. Photo taken by author.  4.2  Figure 2. Archaeological material eroding from an exposed paleosol. Photo taken by author.  History of excavation Fieldwork at Sigatoka began in the 1960’s (Birks 1973), and since then, has been the focus  of a number of research projects, which are summarized in Marshall et al. (2000). Early excavations uncovered ceramic remains, as well as a large coral cairn burial cemetery excavated by Best in 1987 (Best 1989). Prior to the excavation led by David Burley in 2000 (Burley 2002), little to no architectural, habitation, faunal, and non-ceramic remains had been identified (Burley 2005). It is also important to note that although faunal remains were excavated from the 2000 excavation season, and others following, the Sigatoka faunal assemblage in its entirety is still very limited, which significantly restricts comparative analysis. Upon initial excavation of the site, Birks (1973) found three paleosols containing cultural remains, which he used to later define the Fijian cultural sequence. Birks (1973) and Dickinson (1968) were able to associate human occupations with periods of dune stability, apparent from the stratigraphically distinct paleosols. The Level 1 paleosol corresponds to the Lapita (or Sigatoka) phase, the Level 2 paleosol corresponds to the Navatu phase, and the Level 3 paleosol corresponds with the Vuda phase. This sequence was later revised by Anderson et al. (2006), 15  who argued that Level 2 represents two phases – the earlier Fijian Plainware phase, and the later Navatu phase. The most recent dates for these phases, based on radiocarbon dates outlined by Burley (2003), are shown in Table 2. Table 2. Radiocarbon dates for archaeological phases in Sigatoka and Fiji.  Phase Early Lapita Late Lapita Fijian Plainware Navatu Vuda  4.3  Date Range (BP) at Sigatoka 2700-2600 2500-2450 1750-1550 1500-1400 500-200  Date Range (BP) for Fiji 3050-2625 2375-2625 2375-1500 1500-1000 1000-350  Cultural material Although Early Lapita cultural material is present at Sigatoka, it is minimal and poorly  understood – it consists of a small assemblage of dentate stamped ceramic sherds and fire broken rock. Burley (2003) suggests it was likely a special use size, perhaps well-suited to turtle exploitation (Dickinson et al. 1998). The Late Lapita assemblage at Sigatoka is a bit more robust – Birks (1973) uncovered a wide variety of Lapita ceramics, and more were excavated from the 1999 and 2000 field seasons (Burley and Shortland 1999; Burley 2002). No non-ceramic or faunal material has been found for either Lapita component, and features are limited to two hearths (Birks 1973) and one possible earth oven (Burley 2002). Based on ceramic similarities, continuity is apparent between the Level 1 Lapita deposits and the lower Level 2 component, which Burley (2005) has called “Fijian Plainware”. During the 2000 excavation season, Burley’s team excavated ceramics, shellfish remains, bone, non-ceramic artifacts, fire broken rock, a hearth, two earth oven features, and postholes from the Fijian Plainware component. Faunal remains were not found in great quantity, but included pig, chicken, sea turtle, fruit bat, indigenous birds, shellfish and fish, leading Burley (2005) to 16  suggest that this was a horticultural settlement, where diet was supplemented by marine resources and terrestrial endemics. Due to the a combination of the large accumulation of ceramic remains, the habitation features, and the apparent presence of horticulture, Burley (2005) argued that the Fijian Plainware occupation was a relatively stable habitation site, and likely reflects continuity of the Lapita settlement. However, an abandonment episode directly following the Fijian Plainware phase has been suggested by Anderson et al. (2006) and Burley (2005) due to an intervening sand buildup of 10 – 11 cm, and a distinct shift in ceramic styles and manufacturing in the subsequent Navatu period. Although faunal material is sparse, subsistence diverts from the Fijian Plainware horticultural pattern to one of mixed-marine foraging, where small-bodied, low yield fish and shellfish suddenly dominate the assemblage, supplemented by the presence of boa, small iguana, and lizard. Based on this information, Burley (2005) suggests that the Navatu faunal assemblage is indicative of a population experiencing food stress. The Navatu phase has been characterized as likely “ephemeral” (Burley 2005: 333), and multiple studies have suggested that the Navatu population at Sigatoka may have been utilizing the site for special-use salt production, evidence by the presence of large, heavy ceramic trays in the Navatu component (Birks 1973; Marshall et al. 2000; Burley 2005; Burley et al. 2011). Due to the intervening layer of sand and the differences between the cultural assemblages, the Navatu population likely represents a new group of people moving into the area, a suggestion that has been made by a number of researchers (Anderson et al. 2006; Burley 2005; Dickinson et al. 1998). Other archaeologists, however, have argued that despite these differences, Navatu represents a continuity of the Fijian Plainware settlement (Marshall et al. 2000).  17  The Vuda occupation at Sigatoka is characterized by the presence of the distinct kuro cooking pots. Vuda material is largely concentrated at the eastern end of the site (Marshall et al. 2000), and includes firebroken rock, ceramics, non-ceramic artifacts, and a few lovo earth ovens. A number of human burials are also concentrated at the eastern end of the site, and others are scattered along the central and western dunes (Burley 2003). The Vuda period likely represents a series of periodic occupations (Burley 2003).  4.4  Sigatoka humans remains The coral cairn burial cemetery, or Burial Ground 1, from which the majority of my  samples were excavated, lies in Level 2 deposits. It was first excavated by Simon Best in 1987, and contained 55 individuals of varying sex and age, many of which were buried in multiple internments (Best 1989). Due to the presence of Fijian Plainware ceramics and the relative stability of the settlement, this cemetery has been associated with Fijian Plainware occupation (Burley 2005). Burial analysis of these individuals was conducted by Best (1989) and osteological analysis was conducted by Visser (1994) Most individuals were found in a standard burial position (semi-flexed with an east/west orientation), but the individuals differed in regards to presence and severity of pathologies (Visser 1994), presence/absence of grave goods, and burial elevation, suggesting a socially stratified population (Best 1989). Due the relatively low level of skeletal pathologies, Visser (1994) concluded that the Sigatoka humans were a relatively healthy people with a good diet – likely high in carbs and sugars based on the high frequency of dental caries. Enamel hypoplasia in some individuals suggested a disruption of growth in infancy, which could be due to nutritional stress. A few biological males also showed evidence of a degeneration of the temporomandibular joint cause by repetitive forceful assymetrical chewing, which Visser (1994) 18  interpreted as possible evidence for the processing of kava. Best (1989) also suggested that there may have been sexual divison of labor at this site, based on the apparent right-sided robusticity in males and a pattern of non-dietary anterior tooth wear in one group of males. Individuals recovered from the perimeter of the cemetery were found to be more variable in burial position and were more likely to show signs of stress related pathologies, such as enamel hypoplasia. Visser (1994) presented the possibility that these individuals may have been of lower status. However, Burley (2005) argued that these differences likely reflect individuals from the Navatu occupation. Additional burials have been found at other parts of the site, some of which were excavated from the outskirts of the burial cemetery during subsequent field seasons (Burley 1997; Marshall et al. 2000; Burley and Tachè 2008; Burley 2009). Due to the burial treatment and artifact associations, a number of these burials have been associated with Navatu and Vuda occupations. However, since only a few of these outlying burials were sampled for this analysis, I will outline these in a case-by-case basis in my discussion.  19  5  Methods Given that this is a temporally and socially diverse population, stable isotope analysis  presents the opportunity to compare individual factors such as social status, gender, age and occupation with the individual’s diet and migratory status. In this chapter, I discuss the laboratory procedures utilized for this analysis, and a breakdown of my sample composition.  5.1  Sampling Samples of human and animal bone from the site of Sigatoka were made available for this  project by Dr. David Burley at Simon Fraser University (SFU) and the Fiji Museum in Suva. The human samples consist of multiple bone and teeth fragments from approximately 55 individuals, the majority of which were excavated from Burial Ground 1 by Simon Best in 1987 (Best 1989). These samples were collected by Dr. Michael Richards in July 2010 with permission from the Fiji Museum. The remainder of the burials and faunal samples were excavated as part of the SFU Archaeological Field School under the supervision of Dr. David Burley in 2006, 2008, and 2010 (Burley 2002; Burley and Tachè 2008; Burley 2009), and were located on the perimeter or outside of Burial Ground 1. These were collected by Dr. Michael Richards and myself at SFU with permission from Dr. David Burley. Environmental samples for strontium analysis were collected by myself and Dr. Michael Richards during fieldwork in Fiji during July 2011. Most of these individuals were excavated from the coral cairn burial cemetery, and therefore associated with the Fijian Plainware phase of occupation, although a few were associated with Navatu, Vuda, and Historic occupations. The samples include equal numbers of males and females, humans of a wide range of ages, and diversity in regards to burial treatment and pathologies.  20  52 humans were sampled from Sigatoka for strontium isotope analysis, and three individuals had multiple teeth sampled. We sampled the tooth enamel as opposed to dentine because tooth enamel is generally less porous and contains larger crystals, which makes it more resistant to biochemical alteration (Bentley 2006). In addition, four modern plants growing out of the emerging paleosols were sampled to obtain the local bioavailable strontium values for the site, and 9 modern shell and crab remains were sampled to verify marine strontium values. 46 human bone samples were prepared for carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis, but due to an error in preparation, 22 of those samples were disregarded and needed to be repeated. Therefore, 68 human bone samples were prepared, but only 46 were used for analysis. In addition, 36 archaeological faunal samples from Sigatoka were prepared to establish background values for the site.  5.2  Sample preparation and measurement Samples for carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis were prepared using a modified Longin  method, with the addition of an ultrafiltration step (Brown et al. 1988), at the Archaeological Chemistry Laboratory at the University of British Columbia using an Elementar VarioMicro Cube Elemental Analyzer and an IsoPrime IRMS. The internal precision of this instrument was calculated to be 0.04‰ for δ13C and 0.2‰ for δ15N, using glutamic acid (USGS 40) as an international standard. Samples were first cleaned mechanically, and then demineralized in 0.5 M HCl for 4-6 days. Samples were rinsed and the solution was discarded. The sample was then gelantinised in a sealed test tube in pH3 solution for 48 hours at 75°C. The solution was filtered through a 5-8 µm filter, and then ultrafiltered through a 30 kDa filter. The >30 kDa ‘collagen’ fraction was kept and lyopholised (freeze dried), and 0.5 ± 0.050 mg of the freeze dried collagen was combusted in 21  the mass spectrometer, where carbon and nitrogen isotope values were measured. Carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratios were calculated to ensure high quality collagen – only C:N ratios between 2.9 to 3.6 were accepted, as per DeNiro (1985). Collagen yields and C:N ratios are reported in Appendix A and Appendix B. Strontium was extracted from enamel using a modification of the method from Deniel and Pin (2001), which is described in detail in Copeland et al. (2008), at the PIMMS clean laboratory facility, Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology (MPI-EVA), Leipzig, Germany. Samples were first cleaned in an ultrasonic bath, dried, and plants were ashed. 10-30 mg of sample was digested in 2 mL of 65% HNO3 for one hour at 120°C, and evaporated for another 8 hours at 120°C. Once all of the sample had evaporated, samples were resolved with 1 mL 3M HNO3, and heated for 1 hour at 120°C. Samples were added and refilled 3 times to resin filled columns which were first rinsed with ultrapure deionized water and then conditioned with 3M HNO3. Columns were washed with 400 µL 3M HNO3 and then strontium was eluted with 1.5 mL of ultrapure deionized water. Samples were then evaporated for 8 hours at 120°C and resolved in 1 mL 3% HNO3 for analysis in the Thermo Fisher NeptuneTM plasma ionization multicollector mass spectrometer (PIMMS).  22  6  Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Analysis This chapter will outline the results of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of  the Sigatoka human and faunal samples, and provide a discussion of the findings.  6.1  Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope results Of the 46 humans sampled for carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis, 2 were discounted on  account of preparation error (and lack of sufficient sample for repeat analysis), 17 did not produce enough collagen for sample measurement, 4 were discounted on account of C:N ratios outside the range of 2.9-3.6, and 23 produced viable collagen. Of the 36 faunal samples prepared for analysis, 17 did not produce enough collagen for sample measurement, 7 were discounted on account of C:N ratios out of the range of 2.9-3.6, and 12 produced good quality collagen. All C:N ratios and collagen yields of prepared samples are reported in Appendix A and Appendix B. δ13C and δ15N of human and faunal samples with good quality collagen are shown in Figure 3.  15.00 Chicken  Dog  δ15N (‰)  10.00  Fish Fruit bat  Rat 5.00  Sea turtle Humans  0.00 -25.00  -20.00  -15.00  -10.00  -5.00  0.00  δ13C (‰) Figure 3. Bivariate plot of human and faunal bone collagen isotopic (δ13C and δ15N) values from Sigatoka.  23  Stable carbon isotope ratios of the Sigatoka human samples range from -17.88‰ to 14.60‰ with a mean value of -16.27‰ and a standard deviation of 0.84‰. Stable nitrogen isotope ratios of the Sigatoka humans samples range from 7.93‰ to 10.56‰ with a mean value of 9.29‰ and a standard deviation of 0.62‰.  6.2  Discussion of faunal diet Stable carbon and nitrogen values for fruit bat, fish, and dog closely match those obtained  from other parts of Fiji (see Table 3, Figure 4). The fish analyzed all appear to have relatively low nitrogen values characteristic of coral reef environments, similar to those obtained from Jones and Quinn (2009) and Field et al. (2009). The Sigatoka fruit bat value (δ13C of -19.7‰; δ15N of 4.8‰) is similar to the one obtained from Jones and Quinn (2009), and is characteristic of a diet high in C3 fruits and flowers. The dog values are more variable, with the Sigatoka dog (δ13C of -12.9‰; δ15N of 9.5‰) showing more marine intake than those reported by Valentin et al. (2006) and Jones and Quinn (2009), but it still fits within the range established for Fijian dogs at two standard deviations. Table 3. Descriptive statistics for faunal bone collagen (δ13C and δ15N) values from Fiji.  N Chicken Dog Fish Fruit Bat Pig Rat  2 3 6 1 6 3  δ13C (‰) Mean -15.7 -20.2 -8.1 -19.0 -19.0 -17.7  SD 0.6 6.6 5.8 -2.2 2.3  δ15N (‰) Mean 9.8 8.1 7.3 6.9 8.4 9.0  References SD 1.2 2.2 1.3 -0.8 0.1  3 1, 3 2, 3 3 2, 3 3  Data cited from (1) Valentin et al. (2006); (2) Field et al. (2009); (3) Jones and Quinn (2009)  Chicken and rat values are extremely variable, and do not match those established by Jones and Quinn (2009). This may be due to the fact that these animals tend to be opportunistic  24  foragers, and could have been scavenging from food scraps left by humans or feeding directly from the reef, as seems to be apparent from the marine oriented chicken at -8.76‰ for δ13C and 5.30‰ for δ15N. As this study has produced the only reported archaeological sea turtle δ 13C and δ15N results for Fiji, I was unable to compare the two sea turtle values to other relevant data. Overall, however, the variability in the faunal values – both within Sigatoka and extending the scope to all Fijian faunal data – limits the construction of discrete dietary categories.  6.3  Discussion of human diet The expected increase in trophic level for collagen are suggested to range between 0.0-  1.0‰ for δ13C and 3-5‰ for δ15N (DeNiro and Epstein 1978; DeNiro and Epstein 1981). However, the Sigatoka humans do not reflect this predator-prey trophic level relationship for any of the analyzed Sigatoka fauna, suggesting that these faunal species did not contribute significantly to the diet of these humans. What the human data do suggest, however, is that human diet at Sigatoka was likely quite variable, and consisted of a combination of terrestrial and marine sources. By expanding my analysis to include archaeological faunal data from all parts of Fiji (Figure 4), it becomes apparent that the bulk diet protein of the Sigatoka humans was likely a result of multiple sources. Based on these values, it is possible that Sigatoka humans were eating rats, and maybe dogs, but this is not readily supported by archaeological or ethnographic analysis. More likely, Sigatoka humans were subsisting from a mixed diet high in C3 plant species, and with some contribution of marine fish. A heavily reliance on C3 plant species, such as taro and yams, is supported extensively by ethnographic data (Jones and Quinn 2010), and a diet high in carbs and sugars for the Sigatoka humans has also been suggested by Visser (1994) based on the dental analysis of humans from Burial Ground 1. However, the enriched δ13C values in some Sigatoka 25  individuals, marine resources likely also formed an important part of the diet, although the marine protein component of the diet appeared to have varied considerably between individuals. Due to the similarity of δ13C and δ15N values, Sigatoka humans and Fijian pigs (Field et al. 2009; Jones and Quinn 2009) likely had diets consisting of the same two main dietary protein sources, which suggests that pigs may have also been consuming a mix of C 3 plants and marine fish. A substantial amount of dietary protein for humans from terrestrial domestics (chicken, dog, pig) is not supported by this study. 18 16 Barracuda  14  Chicken  δ15N (‰)  12  Dog  10  Fish Fruit bat  8  Pig  6  Rat  4  Sea turtle  2  Tuna Humans  0 -24  -22  -20  -18  -16  -14  -12  -10  -8  -6  -4  -2  0  δ13C (‰) Figure 4. Bivariate plot of bone collagen isotopic (δ13C and δ15N) values of fauna from Fiji and humans from Sigatoka.  Comparing the carbon and nitrogen isotope data from Sigatoka with other archaeological studies conducted in Fiji, the diet of the Sigatoka Sand Dunes humans appears to be quite similar to other prehistoric humans from Cikobia (Valentin et al. 2006), Waya Island (Field et al. 2009), and the Lau Island Group (Jones and Quinn 2009). It is interesting to note here that the humans analyzed from the Sigatoka Valley by Field et al. (2009) were found to have a notably more 26  terrestrial diet that those found at the Sigatoka Sand Dunes, despite only being separated by approximately 10 kilometers and excavated from a similar temporal period (1300-1174 cal. BP at Nokonoko). What this seems to suggest – similar to the conclusion proposed by Field et al. (2009) – is that diets varied regionally, and did not necessary follow a temporal pattern of change. It is also interesting to note that despite the lack of a fringing reef at the Sigatoka Sand Dunes, the carbon and nitrogen values of the Sigatoka humans closely resemble the diets of humans living in the island, reef-lined environments of Cikobia, Waya Island, and the Lau Islands (which include here Aiwa Lailai and Nayau), implying that the Sigatoka humans may have been traveling long distances to forage at the reef, or were employing deep sea fishing techniques.  6.4  Social and temporal differences in diet Due to the possibility that Fijian Plainware and Navatu individuals may be present in  Burial Ground 1, diet differences between individuals associated with different occupation periods are shown in Figure 5. Association with the Fijian Plainware phase was based on the conformity to the standard burial position of semi-flexed in an east-west orientation. In contrast, all individuals identified as Navatu either deviate from the standard burial position and orientation (B20), deviate from the standard burial position and are located on the fringe of the cemetery (B23a, B23b), or are located on the fringe of the cemetery with moderate-severe hypoplasia (B25). Individual B96-1a has been associated with Vuda or Ra phase occupation due to burial treatment and association with a hearth dated to 230 ±40 BP (Burley 1997).  27  δ15N averages are relatively similar between Fijian Plainware and Navatu occupations, but a greater degree of variation is present in δ 13C values, where the average for Fijian Plainware is 16.12‰ ±0.86 and the average for Navatu is -16.96‰ ±0.55. This suggests that marine protein may have been a slightly greater component of the Fijian Plainware diet than the Navatu. However, given the small sample size for Navatu individuals, this conclusion is preliminary. It is also important to note that the Fijian Plainware and Navatu diets overlap considerably. 14.00 12.00 10.00  δ15N (‰)  Fijian Plainware  -20.00  8.00  Navatu Vuda/Ra  6.00  -18.00  -16.00  -14.00  -12.00  4.00 -10.00  δ13C (‰) Figure 5. Bivariate plot of human bone collagen isotopic (δ13C and δ15N) values from Sigatoka, showing dietary differences between temporal periods.  The one Vuda/Ra individual with good quality collagen produced a δ15N value that was lower than the rest of the Sigatoka population, suggesting that plant resources, such as taro and yams, may have been a more significant part of this individual’s diet in comparison to the Fijian Plainware and Navatu population. To minimize the potential confusion between archaeological phase and status, only individuals associated with the Fijian Plainware phase are shown in Figure 6. Status attribution was based on the observations and interpretations of Best (1989) and Visser (1994). Based on the presence of grave goods, the high elevation of the burials, age, and sex, individuals 10a, b and c 28  were associated with high status, as per the suggests of Best (1989). In contrast, the presence of moderate-severe enamel hypoplasia (B16a), the absence of a stone cap (B13/1, B3b), and location at the fringe of the cemetery (B5c) were identified as possible indicators of low status (Best 1989). B5c is the only male associated with low status. 14.00 12.00 10.00 High Status  δ15N (‰)  8.00  -20.00  6.00  -18.00  -16.00  -14.00  -12.00  Neutral Status Low Status  4.00 -10.00  δ13C (‰) Figure 6. Bivariate plot of human bone collagen isotopic (δ13C and δ15N) values from Sigatoka, showing dietary differences between the relative status of individuals.  From these results, it is apparent that high status individual had a diet that was more enriched in δ15N compared to those of neutral or low status. δ15N values for low status individuals are significantly depleted in δ15N, aside from one individual (B3b), who had a δ15N value comparable with the high status individuals. This may suggest that individuals buried on the periphery of the cemetery – and therefore associated with low status – may have had poorer diets than those individuals associated with high status. In particular, these low status individuals likely had diets that were higher in plant resources than the high status individuals, who may have been consuming more pelagic resources. The data do not exhibit significant patterns in relation to age or sex.  29  7  Strontium Isotope Analysis This chapter will outline the results of the strontium isotope analysis of the Sigatoka  human and environmental samples, and provide a discussion of the findings.  7.1  Strontium isotope results The 87Sr/86Sr values of the modern plants fell between 0.70744 – 0.70816 with a mean of  0.707777 and a standard deviation of 0.000309. At two standard deviations, the range of local 87  Sr/86Sr values at Sigatoka can be defined as 0.707150 – 0.708388. The 87Sr/86Sr values for shell and crab remains ranged from 0.70906 – 0.70911, consistent  with the standard marine strontium value of 0.7091. All 87Sr/86Sr values are shown in Figure 7. 0.7095 Marine values  0.7085 Local terrestrial values  87Sr/86Sr  0.7075  Plants Shells/Crab  0.7065  Humans  0.7055  0.7045 0  10  20  30  40  50  60  70  80  Sample Number  Figure 7. Results of the 87Sr/86Sr analysis of human, plant, and marine samples, illustrating the 95% confidence interval of marine values and the 95% confidence interval of local values.  30  The majority of human samples fell within the local range. However, 12 outliers were identified – one of which plotted above the marine strontium value at 0.70931, 4 of which plotted very close to local values, between 0.708409 – 0.708552, and the remaining 7 which fell significantly below the local range, between 0.70522 – 0.70694.  7.2  Sigatoka non-locals Non-local individuals, defined by a 87Sr/86Sr which lay outside of the 95% confidence  interval for local bioavailable strontium, included B2b, B3d, B15, B19, 03_10, B96-1b, 02A-10, 06-1a(1),  06-1a(2), 08-1(1), 08-1(2), and 08-2. However, burials B2b, B15, B19, and 03_10  had 87Sr/86Sr values which were quite close to local values. With further analysis of local bioavailable strontium at Sigatoka and other parts of Fiji, it is possible that these burials may be redefined as local in the future. Table 1 outlines the age, sex, associated phase, and additional burial information about the non-locals. Table 4. Demographic and burial information about non-locals at Sigatoka. Individuals buried together in multiple internments are shown here highlighted together in black or grey.  Burial  Sex  Age  Associated Phase  Additonal Information  B3d B15 B19 B2b  Female Unknown Male Female  Young Mid-Adult Early Childhood Young Mid-Adult Young Mid-Adult  Fijian Plainware Fijian Plainware Fijian Plainware Fijian Plainware  06-1(1)  Male  Young Adult  Fijian Plainware  06-1(2)  Male  Fijian Plainware  08-1(1) 08-1(2)  Unknown Unknown  Adult Young Adult/Adolescent Old Adult  Buried in multiple internment with B3a, B3b, B3c; no stone cap Multiple teeth sampled Burial contained shell grave goods Buried in multiple internment with B2c Multiple internment with 2 crania on top of one another Multiple internment with 2 crania on top of one another  Vuda Vuda  Multiple internment; buried as if embracing Multiple internment; buried as if embracing  08-2  Male  Young Adult  Fijian Plainware  B96-1b 03-10 02A-10  Male Female Female  Old Adult Young Adult Adult  Vuda Fijian Plainware Navatu?  Buried beneath B96-1a; evidence of spina bifida Dental caries and mild enamel hypoplasia Burial contained grave goods  31  Of the non-locals, B3d, B15, B19, and B2b were excavated from the coral cairn burial cemetery, and the remainder were excavated from other parts of the site, including the far western side of the dunes. B3d, B2b, 06-1, 08-1, and B96-1b were all part of multiple internments. B3d was buried with B3a (27 ± 3 year old female), B3b (female, unknown age), and B3c (3.8 ± 1.0 year old child, unknown gender); B2b was buried with B2c, a female aged 31 ±4 by Visser (1994); 061(1) and 06-1(2) were buried together, one on top of the other; 08-1(1) and 08-1(2) were buried together, and buried face-to-face, as if formally embracing; and B96-1b was buried with B96-1a, a young adult male buried on top of B96-1b and separated by 10 cm of sand. Although all individuals in 08-1 and 06-1 were identified as non-local, it is interesting to note that B3d was the only non-local identified out of B3a, B3b, and B3c, as was B2b. Unfortunately, no teeth were available for B96-1a. Grave goods were found with 02A-10 and B19, and therefore it is possible that these individuals may be associated with a higher status. B19 was found with shell grave goods, and was one of the only individuals associated with grave goods in Burial Ground 1. 02A-10 was found with a collection of red ochre, a rounded stone, and a degraded product attached to the lower legs and upper arms of the individual (David Burley, personal communication). Similarly, in burial B96-1b the tightness of the body extension, suggesting that the body had likely been bound prior to internment, and the undisturbed 10 cm of sand between B96-1b and B96-1a, suggesting a single buried event, would imply that B96-1b might also reflect a high status individual. Burley (1997:39) notes that it was commonplace for young servants to be strangled at the death of a chief and buried with him, both tightly bound in bark cloth. However, no grave  32  goods were found with these two individuals (Burley 1997). Conversely, B3d was found without a stone burial cap, a feature that Best (1989) has associated with low status. A number of pathologies were identified for B96-1b, including arthritis, enamel hypoplasia, dental caries, and a bony growth in the external auditory meatus characteristic of habitual diving. Also, both B96-1b and B96-1a had evidence of spina bifida, a disease which can be caused by genetic or nutritional factors (Burley 1997). Burial 03-10 showed signs of severe dental caries and mild enamel hypoplasia. Due to the fact that B15 was a child, migration to Sigatoka must have occurred quite recently. 3 teeth were sampled from this individual – the mandibular 2nd deciduous molar yielded a 87Sr/86Sr of 0.708484, the mandibular deciduous canine yielded a 87Sr/86Sr of 0.708437, and the mandibular 1st deciduous molar yielded a 87Sr/86Sr of 0.708451. Given the available data, it is uncertain whether the variation between these values is significant – additional bioavailable strontium values for other parts of Fiji would be needed to fully answer this question. However, based on the teeth, this individual likely moved to Sigatoka anytime between 11 months of age to 4.5 years of age.  7.3  Discussion Of the strontium outliers identified, no clear patterns in terms of age or sex are apparent.  Although individuals from the Navatu and Vuda phase occupations are not well represented in this sample set, one non-local is associated with the Navatu occupation and all Vuda individuals sampled were identified as non-local. The non-local Vuda individuals may coincide with a local Fijian tradition, which claims that people moved from the interior to the dunes in late prehistoric time – a tradition that is used as a basis for land claims (David Burley, personal communication) However, further samples would be needed to validate this conclusion. 33  Although 02A-10 and B96-1b may reflect high status individuals, no clear patterns between status and mobility are present. Within Burial Ground 1, the individual interpreted by Best (1989) as being the highest status, as well as the individuals interpreted as being low status, were all identified as local. The non-locals B3d and 03-10 may represent individuals on the lower end of this scale. The implications of these results suggest that no clear patterns between place of birth, sex, age, and status are present at Sigatoka. The second phase of our analysis will involve a full characterization of the locally bioavailable strontium around Viti Levu to identify potential places of origin for the non-locals in our study.  34  8  Conclusion Currently, this research represents the largest sample of human bone collagen stable carbon  and nitrogen isotope values in Fiji, the only strontium isotope values for human material in Fiji, and the largest sample of human strontium isotope values in Near and Remote Oceania. Given the large sample size, and the socially and temporally diverse population, I was able to directly test previous interpretations of Fijian diet and mobility. Overall, the results of this research support what we currently know about post-Lapita diet. This research supports interpretations for a prehistoric Fijian diet high in C3 plants and supplemented by marine resources. The dietary distinction between the Sigatoka Fijian Plainware and Navatu phase suggested by Burley (2005) is not apparent from these results, but more data are needed from the Navatu period and faunal sources to investigate this further. Dietary differences between sexes are not supported by this study, but there is some suggestion that higher status individuals at Sigatoka may have had more marine resources in their diet. Based on the strontium isotope results, it does appear that mobility may have been increasing in the late prehistoric period, which is in agreement with current literature. Although mobility at Sigatoka was occurring in the Fijian Plainware and Navatu period, it was taking place in higher frequency in the Vuda period. However, these results are highly influenced by sample size – more strontium results from the Vuda period would be needed to verify these conclusions. Overall, this analysis was limited due to the small sample of Navatu and Vuda individuals, the lack of faunal material with well-preserved collagen, and the lack of collagen preservation for individuals identified as non-local. While collagen preservation is a variable outside of our control, more analysis of faunal material in the Pacific will contribute to our understanding of  35  carbon and nitrogen isotope variability in this region. Also, more strontium isotope analysis of Vuda individuals will allow us to assess the relative degree of mobility in the late prehistoric period. However, this study makes new contributions to the field of Fijian archaeology. The establishment of regionally-based faunal baseline data is imperative to archaeological stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis, and consequently, this study provides important data for future dietary studies in this region. Furthermore, although strontium isotope analysis is just beginning in Fiji, the local bioavailable strontium values from Sigatoka will contribute to an overall understanding of bioavailable strontium variation in Fiji. Finally, our knowledge of regional and temporal variation in diet and mobility can only be built upon by site and population specific data such as these, and as a result, this study contributes to a greater understanding of culture change in Fiji.  36  Bibliography Ambrose, S.H., and L. Norr 1993 Experimental evidence for the relationship of the carbon isotope ratios of whole diet and dietary protein to those of bone collagen and carbonate. Prehistoric human bone: archaeology at the molecular level: 1–37. 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In The early prehistory of Fiji, 231–258. Terra Australis 31. ANU E Press, Australian National University.  40  Appendix A Faunal samples prepared for carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis. SUBC 144 145 146  Species Rat Rat Rat  Initial Mass (mg) 170 324 181  Final Mass (mg) 1.4 0.9 2.5  % Collagen 0.82 0.28 1.38  147 148 149 150 151 152  Pig Chicken Chicken Dog Sea turtle Sea turtle  499 159 213 56 473 415  0 5 0 2.8 0 0  0.00 3.14 0.00 5.00 0.00 0.00  153 154 155 156  Sea turtle Sea turtle Sea turtle Fish  363 575 454 545  0 0 0.7 0  0.00 0.00 0.15 0.00  157  Fish  185  0.3  0.16  158  139  0  0.00  159 160  Boa Parrot fish Chicken  226 127  0 1.3  161 344  Fish Chicken  379 306  345 346  Fruit bat Fish  347 348  δ13C -13.96 -15.74 -18.36  δ15N 17.06 5.92 7.87  C:N 3.18 3.32 3.66  %C 37.65 57.20 37.01  %N 13.82 20.11 11.79  -8.76  5.30  3.47  42.58  14.31  -12.85  9.45  3.33  42.88  15.04  -13.33  11.32  3.56  41.82  13.70  -10.34  6.54  6.06  45.43  8.74  0.00 1.02  -18.03  8.88  3.44  43.18  14.64  0 36.7  0.00 11.99  -18.71  7.27  3.98  38.57  11.31  379 287  4 0.9  1.06 0.31  -19.74 -12.22  4.84 8.35  3.32 4.68  43.84 37.31  15.40 9.31  Fish Rat  359 270  0 6.6  0.00 2.44  -17.17  7.44  3.49  42.82  14.31  349  Sea turtle  481  5.2  1.08  -14.34  11.21  3.59  28.37  9.22  350  Fish?  430  0  0.00  351 352  Fish Sea turtle  274 326  0 1.1  0.00 0.34  -17.90  11.24  4.90  32.62  7.77  353  Sea turtle  387  0  0.00  354 355  Chicken? Rat  483 153  3.6 3.4  0.75 2.22  -10.48 -18.71  9.68 7.09  3.39 3.64  39.52 43.49  13.60 13.96  356 357 358 359 360 361  Chicken Fish Boa Fish Fish Fish  102 244 218 286 434 437  0 0 1.2 3 1 4.2  0.00 0.00 0.55 1.05 0.23 0.96  -20.58 -6.94  8.04 7.80  4.75 3.59  39.10 42.60  9.61 13.84  -7.98  5.82  3.53  38.72  12.78  Samples highlighted in gray produced good quality collagen; samples highlight in black produced collagen with C:N ratios out 2.9—3.6; samples left blank did not produce enough collagen for measurement.  41  Appendix B Human remains prepared for carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis. δ13C  δ15N  -15.47  10.83  -15.57 -16.99 -15.01 -15.93 -15.2 -15.57  9.29 8.45 9.72 9.93 9.33 9.63  0.00 0.00 3.30 1.50 2.81 0.08 1.06 1.03 0.71 0.50  -16.70 -16.23 -17.93 -17.16 -17.27 -16.21 -15.21 -17.48  5 0.3  1.99 0.06  514 470  0 0  0.00 0.00  B1/1 3d 6a 8a 6b FC1  492 506 512 496 536 484  0 0 3.5 2.2 1.7 0  0.00 0.00 0.68 0.44 0.32 0.00  14 26 17b 13/1 17c 17a 11a 21/22a 13b 17/1  496 297 474 549 527 502 536 515 549 480  0.6 0.3 0 0.9 0 0 0 11 11 0  0.12 0.10 0.00 0.16 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.14 2.00 0.00  SUBC  Burial  Initial Mass (mg)  Final Mass (mg)  % Collagen  8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15  10a 1a 5c 13a 9b 1c 4a 2b  3445 0 3447 2765 2539 2971 2695 3314  25 0 38 27 15 32 17 17  0.73 0.00 1.10 0.98 0.59 1.08 0.63 0.51  17 18 38ǂ 39ǂ 40 41ǂ 42ǂ 43 44ǂ 45ǂ  21c 19 1b 10c 4b 4c 25 16a 9a 23a  0 243 333 267 285 361 320 389 295 341  0 0 11 4 8 0.3 3.4 4 2.1 1.7  46 71ǂ  23b 3b  251 475  72 73  2c 3a  74 75 76 77 78ǂ 79 80ǂ 81 82 83 84 85 86 87ǂ 88ǂ 89  %C  %N  C:N  9.64 10.08 9.55 8.99 8.98 9.00 9.23 8.91  43.42 43.70 43.16 39.32 45.85 42.62 43.20 41.07  14.96 14.23 13.19 9.35 13.97 14.30 14.91 13.85  3.39 3.58 3.82 4.90 3.83 3.48 3.38 3.46  -16.41 -15.90  9.59 9.46  43.75 37.91  15.02 8.93  3.40 4.95  -15.56 -15.72 -17.33  9.65 9.87 8.51  42.94 42.80 40.02  15.37 15.01 13.30  3.26 3.33 3.51  -16.20 -20.01  8.89 7.68  40.93 44.53  13.36 11.23  3.57 4.63  -17.56  8.43  41.05  14.01  3.42  -16.78 -21.65  9.34 9.10  43.84 41.03  15.24 10.29  3.36 4.65  42  SUBC  Burial  Initial Mass (mg)  90  20  91 92 93 94 95 96  96-1a 04_10 02A-10 03_10 92-B 05_10  97 98 99 100ǂ 101 102 103 104 105 106  δ13C  δ15N  %C  %N  C:N  1.04  -16.96  8.35  42.65  14.22  3.50  7.51 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.18 0.00  -16.22  7.93  42.95  15.37  3.26  -17.21  8.72  43.29  14.08  3.59  -17.01 -18.01  9.67 9.18  44.65 40.30  15.04 12.52  3.46 3.76  -17.88 -15.84 -14.60 -16.16 -16.78 -15.61  8.51 9.15 10.01 9.67 9.13 10.04  42.52 44.69 44.38 43.68 42.82 44.30  13.76 15.26 15.13 14.64 13.92 15.36  3.60 3.42 3.42 3.48 3.59 3.37  -15.87 -16.38 -15.34 -16.52 -15.67 -15.94  8.83 9.57 9.37 9.13 10.56 9.48  45.30 44.15 43.64 43.67 43.28 44.22  16.10 15.17 14.67 14.28 14.52 15.04  3.28 3.40 3.47 3.57 3.48 3.43  0.41 0.09  -18.54 -15.69  9.62 9.88  44.41 53.69  12.59 15.80  4.12 3.96  0.10 1.00 0.81  -16.23 -15.11 -17.71  8.94 9.31 9.08  36.53 43.50 44.43  9.59 15.07 14.39  4.45 3.37 3.60  Final Mass (mg)  % Collagen  479  5  453 469 509 524 514 527  34 0 0.1 0 0.9 0  92-A 21/22a 13b 11a 6b 14 3b 1b 25 10c  562 453 545 544 439 536 534 479 507 463  0 7 2.1 0 7 6 4 1 6 4  0.00 1.55 0.39 0.00 1.59 1.12 0.75 0.21 1.18 0.86  107 108 109 110 111 112  5c 1c 4a 1a 10a 2b  480 486 431 569 491 487  8 7 1.9 2 7 8  1.67 1.44 0.44 0.35 1.43 1.64  113 114ǂ  13a 19  504 535  0.1 0  0.02 0.00  115ǂ 116  4b 4c  509 436  2.1 0.4  117ǂ 118 119  16a 9a 23a  291 502 491  0.3 5 4  Samples highlighted in gray produced good quality collagen; samples highlighted in black produced collagen with C:N ratios outside 2.9—3.6; sample marked with ǂ were repeated samples not used for analysis; samples left blank did not produce enough collagen for measurement.  43  Appendix C Human and environmental samples prepared for strontium isotope analysis.  1st premolar 1st and 2nd molar 1st and 2nd molar  Tooth Set Permanent Permanent Permanent  Maxillary/ Mandibular Maxillary Mandibular Maxillary  Sr/86Sr 0.708201 0.708268 0.708264  1a B1/1 2b 2c 3b 3d  3rd molar 1st and 2nd molar canine 1st molar 1st molar 1st molar  Permanent Permanent Permanent Permanent Permanent Permanent  Maxillary Mandibular Mandibular Mandibular Mandibular Mandibular  0.708309 0.708022 0.708415 0.708264 0.708287 0.706792  22005 22006 22007 22008  3c 3a 10c 10a  1st molar Canine, 1st premolar 1st premolar 1st premolar  Developing Permanent Permanent Permanent  Mandibular Maxillary Maxillary Mandibular  0.707698 0.708065 0.707771 0.708246  22009 22010 22012 22013 22014 22015  9a 9b 5c 4c 6a 8a  1st premolar 1st molar 1st molar 1st molar 1st and 2nd molar 1st and 2nd molar  Permanent Deciduous Permanent Permanent Permanent Permanent  Mandibular Maxillary Mandibular Maxillary Maxillary Maxillary  0.708068 0.708259 0.708311 0.708108 0.708108 0.70812  22016 22017  6b 11a  1st molar 2nd molar  Permanent Permanent  Mandibular Maxillary  0.707865 0.70814  22018  B13/1  Permanent  Maxillary  0.708161  22019 22020 22021 22022 22022 22023  13a 13b 16a 25 25 B17/1  1st incisor 2nd incisor, canine, 1st and 2nd premolar, 1st molar 1st molar Canine 1st and 2nd premolar 1st incisor 1st molar  Permanent Permanent Permanent Permanent Permanent Permanent  Maxillary Mandibular Maxillary Maxillary Maxillary Maxillary  0.708307 0.708177 0.708313 0.708342 0.708143 0.708076  22024 22025 22026 22027 22028 22029 22030 22031  14 15 15 15 17a 23b 17c 18a  2nd and 3rd molar 2nd molar Canine Canine, 1st molar 3rd molar 2nd molar 2nd molar 2nd and 3rd molar  Permanent Deciduous Deciduous Deciduous Permanent Deciduous Permanent Permanent  Maxillary Mandibular Mandibular Mandibular Mandibular Mandibular Maxillary Maxillary  0.707915 0.708484 0.708437 0.708451 0.707538 0.707596 0.708122 0.708354 0.707651  22032  17b  Canine  Permanent  Mandibular  S-EVA 21996 21997 21998  Burial 4a 1c 1b  21999 22000 22001 22002 22003 22004  Tooth  87  44  S-EVA  Tooth Set  Maxillary/ Mandibular  87  Sr/86Sr  Burial  Tooth  22033 22034 22035 22036 22037 22038  96-1b 21c 20 19 26 B21/22a  2nd molar 1st molar Canine 3rd molar 1st and 2nd molar 2nd incisor, canine, 1st and 2nd premolar  Permanent Permanent Permanent Permanent Deciduous Permanent  Mandibular Mandibular Mandibular Maxillary Maxillary Mandibular  0.706569 0.708032 0.708096 0.708409 0.70785 0.708016  22039 22040  92-B 92-A  1st molar 3rd molar  Permanent Permanent  Mandibular Maxillary  0.707904 0.708172  22041 22042  02A-10 03_10  1st molar 2nd molar  Permanent Permanent  Maxillary Maxillary  0.705219 0.708552  22043 22044 15180 15181  04_10 05_10 06-1(1) 06-1(1)  3rd molar 1st molar Unidentified Unidentified  Permanent Permanent  Mandibular Mandibular  0.707866 0.707625 0.705971 0.706924  15182 15183  06-1(2) 06-1(2)  Unidentified Unidentified  0.70607 0.706258  15184 15185 15187 15188 15190 15191 15193 15194  06_4a 06_4a 08-1(1) 08-1(1) 08-1(2) 08-1(2) 08_2 08_2  Unidentified Unidentified Unidentified Unidentified Unidentified Unidentified Unidentified Unidentified  0.708626 0.707597 0.706457 0.705993 0.706637 0.706538 0.707885 0.709313  Individuals highlighted in gray are those that have been interpreted as non-local. S-EVA 22045 22046 22047 22048 22049 22050 22051 22052 22053  Material plant plant plant plant shell shell shell shell shell  Location Collected Level 3 Paleosol Level 3 Paleosol Level 2 Paleosol At site Beach Beach Beach Beach Beach  87  Sr/86Sr 0.707436 0.708157 0.707631 0.707853 0.709153 0.70914 0.709144 0.709159 0.709147  22054 22055  shell shell  Beach Beach  0.709062 0.709149  22056 22057 22058  shell shell crab  Beach Beach Level 3 Paleosol  0.707869 0.709167 0.709106  45  

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