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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Sustainability action planning of small communities in British Columbia 2012

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  226   SUSTAINABILITY ACTION PLANNING OF SMALL COMMUNITIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA  by ELLIZ ALLISHA LUTHER  B.SSc., The University of Ottawa, 2005  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in The College of Graduate Studies (Interdisciplinary Studies) [Geography]   THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Okanagan)  January 2012   © Elliz Allisha Luther, 2012      ii  ABSTRACT Environmental changes associated with climate change have caused planners to incorporate sustainability into community planning processes. As a result, long term community sustainability has become an important objective to help mitigate the changes to the external environment. Issues surrounding land use, water quality, air quality transportation and waste management have been identified by communities as target areas for sustainability planning. This thesis examines the role of sustainability in the planning processes of small communities in British Columbia using Peachland and Armstrong as case studies.  Small communities in particular have faced great challenges when developing objectives for long term community sustainability with varying levels of civic engagement and cultural capital. While federal and provincial governments have developed toolkits to help assist communities in planning sustainably, most of these toolkits have been developed for larger communities whose governance structures differ and where scale and intensity for community planning issues are very different when compared to small communities.  Therefore, this thesis also investigates the role of governance in the planning processes of small communities. The governance structures of municipal governments have undergone a transitioning order to understand how sustainability is achieved in small communities, systems for decision making, accountability and responsibility must also be examined.  Federal and provincial governments have been downloading more responsibility to municipal governments and dispersing more responsibility to the public sector.  This thesis further investigates how shifts in governance falls align with neo-liberal strategies that force the community and the individual to take responsibility for     iii  decision making and accountability surrounding community planning and the overall welfare of the community.                          iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................................................................... ii TABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................................................................................................................... iv LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................................................................................ vii LIST OF FIGURES ......................................................................................................................................................... viii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................................................................................................................................. ix DEDICATION .................................................................................................................................................................. x CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................... 1 1.0  Research Background ......................................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Literature and Justification .................................................................................................................................. 2 1.2 Scope and Audience ............................................................................................................................................ 3 1.3 Research Questions/Objectives and Purpose of Research .................................................................................. 3 1.4 Thesis Organization.............................................................................................................................................. 4 CHAPTER 2 STUDY AREAS ............................................................................................................................................. 6 2.0 Overview .............................................................................................................................................................. 6 2.1 The Geography of Peachland and Armstrong, B.C............................................................................................. 10 2.2 Regional Identities of Armstrong and Peachland, B.C. ...................................................................................... 15 2.3 Population.......................................................................................................................................................... 19 2.4 Demographics .................................................................................................................................................... 22 2.5 Industry and Economics ..................................................................................................................................... 24 CHAPTER 3 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................................................................................................ 27 3.0 Overview ............................................................................................................................................................ 27 3.1 Sustainability Action Planning ........................................................................................................................... 27 3.1.1 Planning as Theory ...................................................................................................................................... 29 3.1.2 Sustainability in the Planning Processes ..................................................................................................... 33 3.1.3 Planning Concepts and Sustainability ......................................................................................................... 37 3.1.4 From Sustainable to Sustainability Planning ............................................................................................... 39 3.1.5 Sustainability Planning in Small Towns ....................................................................................................... 42 3.2 The Role of Governance in Sustainability Action Planning in Small Towns ....................................................... 45 3.2.1 Defining Governance .................................................................................................................................. 46 3.2.2 Governance in Transition ............................................................................................................................ 49 3.2.3 Introducing a Neo-Liberal Governance Structure ....................................................................................... 52 3.2.4 Sustainability and Governance ................................................................................................................... 55     v  3.2.5 Trans-Boundary Governance ...................................................................................................................... 59 3.3 Summary ............................................................................................................................................................ 61 CHAPTER 4 RESEARCH METHODS ............................................................................................................................... 64 4.0 Overview ............................................................................................................................................................ 64 4.1 Methodological Approach ................................................................................................................................. 64 4.2 Research Design and Framework ...................................................................................................................... 66 4.3 Collection of Primary Data ................................................................................................................................. 68 4.4 Data Assessment ................................................................................................................................................ 73 4.5 Quality Checks ................................................................................................................................................... 74 4.6 Summary ............................................................................................................................................................ 77 CHAPTER 5 RESULTS .................................................................................................................................................... 78 5.0 Overview ............................................................................................................................................................ 78 5.1 Inventory Results ............................................................................................................................................... 79 5.2 Interview Results ............................................................................................................................................... 92 5.2.1 District of Peachland ................................................................................................................................... 92 5.2.2 City of Armstrong ........................................................................................................................................ 98 5.3 Focus Group Results ........................................................................................................................................ 106 5.3.1 Sustainability Indicators and Measures for Peachland and Armstrong .................................................... 106 5.4 Summary .......................................................................................................................................................... 109 CHAPTER 6 SYNTHESIS, FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS ........................................................................................... 110 6.0 Overview .......................................................................................................................................................... 110 6.1 Research Questions and Findings .................................................................................................................... 110 6.2 Major Findings: Inventory ................................................................................................................................ 111 6.2.1 Sustainability Inventory ............................................................................................................................ 111 6.2.2 Similarities and Common Policies ............................................................................................................. 112 6.2.3 Variances .................................................................................................................................................. 115 6.3 Major Findings – Interviews............................................................................................................................. 116 6.3.1 Sustainability Action Planning .................................................................................................................. 116 6.3.2 Governance ............................................................................................................................................... 120 6.4 Major Findings: Focus Groups ......................................................................................................................... 125 6.5 Challenges to Sustainability Planning .............................................................................................................. 128 6.6 Summary .......................................................................................................................................................... 130 6.7 Future Work ..................................................................................................................................................... 133     vi  BIBLIOGRAPHY .......................................................................................................................................................... 135 APPENDICES………………………......................................................................................................................................147 APPENDIX A: SUSTAINABILITY INVENTORY PEACHLAND……………………………………………………………………………………….147 APPENDIX B: SUSTAINABILITY INVENTORY ARMSTRONG……………………………………………………………………………..………225 APPENDIX C: WRITTEN INFORMED CONSENT……………………………………………………………………………………………………….272 APPENDIX D: INTERVIEW FACE SHEET………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………275                        vii  LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Case Study Comparison of Inventory Results for the District of Peachland and the City of Armstrong ......... 79                           viii  LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1  Map of Armstrong and Peachland, British Columbia ...................................................................................... 8 Figure 2  Map of Peachland, British Columbia ............................................................................................................. 12 Figure 3  Photo of Peachland’s Residential and Commercial Development on Okanagan Lake ................................. 13 Figure 4  Map of Armstrong, British Columbia ............................................................................................................ 14 Figure 5  Map of the Regional Districts in the Southern Interior of British Columbia ................................................. 17                     ix  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This journey would not have been possible without the continuous love and support that I received from my family and friends.  First and foremost, I would like to thank my amazing and wonderful parents who have given me unconditional love and encouragement during the good times, hard times and the stressful times that I have experienced in this process. Both of you never doubted my dreams and the goals that I set to attain them. Thank you to Terry Heidt who was my rock during the last 2 years. No matter how frustrated or overwhelmed I was, you were always patient and always managed to put a smile on my face and help me overcome my obstacles.  I would also like to give thanks to Donna Senese my supervisor, mentor and friend. Without your encouragement, words of wisdom and understanding I would not have been able to complete this project. Thank you to Bernard Momer, Carlos Teixeira and Susan Wells for all the helpful conversations and editorial remarks that were invaluable in helping me complete this thesis. And finally a heartfelt thank you to my friends, colleagues and peers for your willingness to be understanding, compassionate and patient as I completed my journey.             x  DEDICATION        To my loving and supportive parents: Byron and Nuri Luther              1  CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.0  Research Background Environmental concerns have redirected the ways in which planners view the built environment and address community planning issues.  As a response to the impacts of climate change and human impacts on the external environment, sustainability planning has taken the forefront of many planning agendas across municipal governments (Roseland, 2005). Impacts such as population growth, urban sprawl and pollution have created a demand for new policies and regulations that protect the environment. Sustainability planning as a theme has emerged as a strategy for planners that will facilitate a planning vision while taking in account the economic, environmental, social and cultural needs of the community (Infrastructure Canada, 2007). Accordingly, governments, geographers and planners in the field have developed toolkits, guidelines and frameworks to assist communities to develop sustainability planning initiatives in order to mitigate the effects of the changing environment. However, most of these toolkits for sustainability action planning were created to accommodate the planning agenda of large urban centers paying little attention to the unique planning needs of small cities and towns (Hodge, 2003 and Bell and Jayne, 2006).   Effective and efficient decision making has been a challenge for small town community planning.  These challenges in planning have been rooted in the governance structures which make up the organizational bodies of communities (Rist et al, 2007). In order to understand what makes sustainability planning in small communities      2  successful or unsuccessful, it is imperative to examine the governance structures responsible for policy direction, implementation and regulation. The concept of governance has slowly been transitioning from a state centered approach to one that places more responsibility and governing into the public realm and thus the second area of focus is on the role of governance in sustainability planning. This is an important change in the decision making process that affects governing bodies such as municipal governments and their processes of policy development and execution. 1.1 Literature and Justification This research contributes to the literature by filling an existing gap in research that examines how sustainability planning initiatives are implemented in small communities in British Columbia. It further explores the role of governance as a tool to regulate and influence sustainable planning policies and mechanisms that can balance the social, economic, cultural, and environmental tenets of a community. Finally, this research examines how the development of sustainability indicators can be used as a measure of successful community planning initiatives in small municipalities.  This research is important for future studies in planning for peri-urban areas because it identifies the uniqueness and place-based specifics of small towns in British Columbia. Other communities in British Columbia can use this research as a guide to identify the gaps and weaknesses in their current planning processes and policies and use the outcomes as a tool to guide future sustainability planning initiatives within small towns.      3  This research has examined governance structures and organizing bodies for community planning in each case study in order to understand how sustainability as a theme is being incorporated into the planning agenda and who is responsible to regulate its efficiency and effectiveness. I use the outcomes from interviews and focus groups to understand the role and responsibility of governance in community wide planning initiatives. This research is intended for community planners, developers, sustainability coordinators and members of municipal governments who have an interest in sustainability planning in small towns in British Columbia. 1.2 Scope and Audience Two municipalities in British Columbia, Peachland and Armstrong, are used as case studies to examine how sustainability planning is facilitated in two small communities. The two communities are representative of other small communities across British Columbia who hope to incorporate sustainability into their community planning processes.  An overview of each community’s progress and stance in sustainability planning is presented using an inventory of the regulatory documents for sustainability planning. This inventory identifies gaps, strengths and weaknesses for policies and bylaws. 1.3 Research Questions/Objectives and Purpose of Research In order to understand why and how sustainability initiatives are employed in small communities, the following research questions are asked. 1. How does sustainability action planning work in small peri-urban communities?      4  2. What is the role of governance in sustainability action planning for municipalities in British Columbia?  In order to comprehensively understand how sustainability planning works in the small municipalities of Peachland and Armstrong, it is imperative to examine the role of governance as a regulatory body in community planning. In addition, it is also important to understand how communities measure the success of their planning initiatives and if indicators are an appropriate mechanism to develop targets and goals for future improvement and monitoring of sustainability planning initiatives. 1.4 Thesis Organization In Chapter two, a comprehensive literature review focusing on two specific areas defines the conceptual framework of this research. The first area, focusing on sustainability planning in small towns, demonstrates how urban planning has developed over time both technically and theoretically. This section reviews the theoretical foundations, concepts and processes of planning. Included in this section is an analysis of sustainability as a theme and how it has emerged in planning as an application to planning agendas.   This section begins with a discussion of the many definitions of governance. The meaning of governance as a concept, theory and process has been contended by many scholars and these varying viewpoints of the multi-dimensional components of governance are discussed throughout this section.  The information from this section contributes to the analysis of governance structures for my case studies. In addition, best practices and frameworks are part of my research methods.      5  Chapter three explains and justifies the methodological approach used to answer the research questions of this study.  This chapter will justify the use of a qualitative mixed methods design using an interpretive/descriptive research approach.  This chapter also contains the multi- phased strategy used for data collection including collecting base-line data and conducting interviews and focus groups.  In addition, this chapter examines the data assessment methods and quality checks Chapter four provides a profile of the two small towns used for case study analysis and a justification of why these two communities are ideal for comparison for this study will also be presented in this chapter. The goal of this chapter is to provide a detailed account of the specific place based regional identity of the Okanagan and the factors that influence it.  In addition, this chapter contains a description of the physical geography of both Armstrong and Peachland, as well as an analysis of their population, demographics, industry and economics. Chapter five presents the results of my research. The data collected from Peachland and Armstrong’s sustainability inventory, interviews and focus groups are discussed.  The patterns, similarities and variances in the data between the two case studies will be examined. Chapter six, the final chapter of this thesis, provides a synthesis of interviews, inventories and focus groups. To close, this chapter provides a discussion about the gaps, strengths and challenges that these two communities face and an explanation of the course of action that these municipalities may choose to pursue in the future.       6  CHAPTER 2 STUDY AREAS 2.0 Overview This research highlights the challenges that small communities in British Columbia face when planning for sustainability. The communities chosen for comparison illustrate that sustainability planning cannot be standardized based on geographic location or population size. Over the last 30 years, sustainability planning has emerged as a theme in community planning as a response to poor post World War II planning practices. Since then, the adoption of a theoretical framework guiding planning practices has snowballed amongst theorists, academics and academics, theorists and planning practitioners around the world.  Frameworks and toolkits for sustainable action planning have been created to guide policy directions and development in municipalities.  However, many of these frameworks for sustainable planning have been oriented and focused toward large, urban metropolises and often lack applicability to small towns (Hodge, 2003 and Bell and Jayne, 2006). Noted experts from the disciplines of planning and geography such as Mark Roseland, Sara James and Kevin Hanna agree that sustainability planning needs for small towns are unique and place specific and cannot be planned for in the same manner as large, urban centers. Moreover, when sustainability planning initiatives are implemented in communities, a tool to measure the improvements of sustainability planning on a community is still required. Sustainability indicators have been introduced as one tool for municipal planning departments as a means for a community to achieve targets and identify long-term goals (Devuyst, 2000).      7  The application of this tool in a small/rural town context is still in its infancy and requires additional work to be complete in addition to further, in depth examination. One of the main themes to emerge in sustainability planning is the concept of power in the decision making process. This concept of power is rooted in the governance structure that is responsible for the decision making on sustainability initiatives within a community. However, over the last 30 years the concept of governance has transitioned from a state centered authoritative body to one that relies more on the public sector for regulation and service delivery (Ploger, 2004). In order to fully grasp the concept and process of sustainable planning in small communities, I believe it is imperative to examine the impact of governance structure on policy direction and implementation Small towns face unique challenges when trying to introduce and employ sustainability planning initiatives. Guidelines for sustainable action planning (SAP) such as Smart Growth BC and Green Bylaws Toolkits for sustainability are created in larger, urban areas for large urban areas. Small/rural communities have the same planning problems as urban areas, but the scale, intensity and pace of change is drastically different.  For instance, small shifts in the economy or changes in population distribution can make a lasting impact on the community that might be more easily absorbed in an urban centre (Hodge, 2003). Even amongst communities with similar populations, planning practices need to be developed to suit and address the specific demands and challenges of the community. Additionally, governance and governing in small communities often do not follow the same order and process as a larger municipality such as Vancouver or Kelowna. Historically, sustainability planning for small and rural towns has been      8  very challenging and has left residents and elected officials to make the best use of resources available at hand. Two communities in the Okanagan region of British Columbia have been chosen as case studies, Peachland and Armstrong. These communities are representative of small communities who are trying to incorporate sustainability into their planning processes. Furthermore, little research has been conducted on small communities such as Peachland and Armstrong that have a total population of 5000-6000 residents.  Figure 1  Map of Armstrong and Peachland, British Columbia (Retrieved from http://okanagan.com/maps/)      9  In order to conduct a comparative analysis, two communities of the same physical area and population were chosen.  They are also at the same level of the urban hierarchy, that is these two communities are at the same scale in terms of goods and services provided. Armstrong and Peachland are also comparable in terms of population size, composition and distance from a central urban hub such as Vernon and Kelowna. Proximity to an urban hub is an integral component to understand how sustainability practices are being implemented in these two communities. Proximity to Kelowna may explain the regional influence of sustainability planning of an urban area to non-urban areas.  Peachland and Armstrong are unique in terms of population distribution, demographic profiles, social organization structures and economic drivers, but they are also representative of  small communities in British Columbia that are beginning to incorporate sustainability into their planning practices and that face similar challenges and obstacles in the start-up process.  These communities were also chosen because of the contrast in their governance structure. Peachland’s governance structure is defined by the staff at the municipal office that is centrally located in the heart of Peachland. It is at this office where key decisions for community planning are made and where regulatory bodies to enforce these decisions are found. Armstrong’s planning is facilitated by a planner at the Regional District of the North Okanagan (RDNO) located in Coldstream, BC. Specific directions are given from the municipal office in Armstrong and a planner from the RDNO is contracted out to fulfill these initiatives based on a set amount of hours. Academic contributions by Jordan (2007) and Bulkeley and Bestille (2005)      10  claim that governance structures appear to be an influential determining factor in successful Sustainable Action Planning. The planning agenda for Armstrong is divided between the administrative staff at a municipal office and between Armstrong’s sole allocated planner at the Regional District of the North Okanagan. The purpose of the RDNO is to provide services such as sustainability planning to communities and rural areas that do not have funding from a municipality. The District of Peachland falls within the Regional District of the Central Okanagan (RDCO) boundaries. For Peachland, sustainability planning occurs in the form of policy and bylaw development at municipal, provincial and federal levels. These actions are coordinated by the Planning Department which is embedded within the municipal office rather than conducted by the regional district as in Armstrong. 2.1 The Geography of Peachland and Armstrong, B.C. The geographic location of both Peachland and Armstrong create a unique environment for sustainability planning.  Both of these communities have an abundance of natural resources such as land, forests and water that require protection from development and overuse. Historically, these resources have served as a form of subsistence for its residents. More recently these same resources have slowly transformed from resources for primary industries into amenities for recreational use and community development. Over time, the industries that were dependent on these natural resources such as forestry and mining have changed their course and these resource centered towns have transitioned to ones that focus on tourist      11  amenities (District of Peachland Sustainability Inventory Report, 2010). The term Beale-Non- Metropolitan areas describe both Peachland and Armstrong.  A Statistics Canada analysis of Rural and Small Towns indicate that Beale Non-Metropolitan Areas refers to “living outside metropolitan regions with urban centres of 50,000 or more population” (Statistics Canada website, 2001).  Both Peachland and Armstrong have populations of approximately 5000 and are located near Kelowna which has a population of over 100,000. The small town of Peachland, British Columbia is located directly on the shores of Okanagan Lake between Kelowna and Summerland, BC and is surrounded by Drought Mountain and Colham Mountain.      12   Figure 2 Map of Peachland, British Columbia (Retrieved from www.bchomesforsale.com) Approximately twenty five kilometers south of Kelowna, Peachland is nestled in the heart of the Okanagan Valley amidst vineyards, orchards and provincial crown land (Senese and Luther, 2010).  First founded as a District in 1909, Peachland is located in a semi-arid desert climate and in an ecologically complex bio-climatic zone. A diverse flora and fauna are found in protected and unprotected areas throughout the Okanagan Valley (Heinreichs et al, 1997). Policies enacted by the municipality are very much place-specific and unique to the area. Environmental legislation and policy by the local government aims to protect and preserve the surrounding  Peachland, British Columbia      13  environment directing many of their effort to protecting Okanagan Lake and the surrounding watersheds.  Figure 3 Photo of Peachland’s Residential and Commercial Development on Okanagan Lake (Retrieved from www.bcadventure.com) Residential developments that are oriented towards seasonal residents have slowly been developed surrounding the town centre and on the hillsides behind Peachland. The City of Armstrong is completely surrounded by the District of Spallumcheen and is located in the northern part of the Okanagan Valley (See Figure 5).      14   Figure 4 Map of Armstrong, British Columbia (Retrieved from http://www.rdno.ca/communities/armstrong/index.php) Locals refer to Armstrong as the ‘donut hole’ as it’s located in the middle of the District of Spallumcheen and contained by several electoral districts on either side (Interview: Melinda Stickney, 2010).  This small community is landlocked and surrounded by an abundance of fertile agricultural areas encompassing dairy farms and ranch lands (www.armstrongbc.com). Armstrong was founded in 1892 by E.C Heaton Armstrong and was officially incorporated as a city in 1913 (retrieved from http://www.vancouverisland.com/regions/towns/?townID=3383). The area was subsequently settled by Dutch immigrants after the Second World War.  Due to the strong Dutch presence and a physical environment that is well suited to this type of agricultural activity, cheese production and dairy farms started to develop within the surrounding areas. As a result, Armstrong’s regional identity has been associated primarily with      15  dairy production and agriculture. Conflict for environmental protection in Armstrong has been primarily on Agriculture Land Reserves (ALR). Over the years there has been much debate about removing lands from the ALR and subdividing them for residential and commercial development. Armstrong’s economic dependence on agriculture has slowly begun to diminish and residents and planners alike are beginning to assess if development in the form of affordable housing and amenities is viable for economic and community sustainability (City of Armstrong Official Community Plan Review retrieved from http://cityofarmstrong.bc.ca/files/%7BA823CCF3-A5D9-4DBD-951A-5554849AAD1D%7D10-09- 29%20-%20OCP%20Community%20Consultation%20Package.pdf, 2010, and Interview, Armstrong’s Chief Administrative Officer, 2010). 2.2 Regional Identities of Armstrong and Peachland, B.C. Settlement patterns in the valleys, plateaus and diverse geographic locations in British Columbia have created a patchwork of regional identities across the province.  The Okanagan Valley is located in the Southern Interior of British Columbia and has three regional districts embedded within it.  The Okanagan Valley is 250km long and its boundaries stretch south to the U.S/Canada border (Belliveau et al, 2006). The Okanagan Valley’s semi-arid, continental climate makes it the hottest and driest area in British Columbia (Belliveau et al, 2006). A mild climate and rural atmosphere in an attractive natural setting of mountains and lakes has made the Okanagan an important destination for tourists and amenity migrants. Chipeniuk defines amenity migrants as “people who are retired or independently wealthy, or able to live where they like while working elsewhere, or young and well educated, and who move to a place that      16  has some or all of the following amenities…,” (Chipeniuk, 2006, p.4).   Largely because of tourism and amenity migrants, the natural environment and rural culture are now two of the most important assets of the regional economy. Amenity migration is a phenomenon that has been identified to increase and diversify the population in mountain towns across North America. Beck’s (1995) analysis of amenity migration in British Columbia claims that the key forces that explain growth in urban areas is largely a result of an increase in population and recreation areas (cited in Vu Nam and Sato, 2010). This influx of change has had a dramatic impact on the cultural and socio-economic life of small towns. It has also spearheaded a movement for sustainability planning as a response to an increase and intensification of natural amenity use by migrants (Glorioso and Moss, 2007) Communities located in remote or isolated sub-regions of British Columbia are defined politically by the broader three categories within the Interior (BC Stats, 1996 retrieved from www.bcstats.gov.bc.ca/data/pop/maps/rdeamap.asp). (See Figure 5)       17   Figure 5 Map of the Regional Districts in the Southern Interior of British Columbia (Retrieved from www.srv129.services.gc.ca/rbin/eng/soutinbc.aspx?rates=1) The Okanagan Valley is one of these diverse sub-regions which have been further subdivided into the North, Central and Okanagan/Similkameen regional districts. Planning priorities and actions for each of these Regional Districts are organized differently based on regional goals and municipal priorities.  Sustainability planning has been at the forefront for most municipal planning departments within these districts (Regional District of the North Okanagan, 2011 retrieved from http://www.rdno.ca/, Regional District of the Central Okanagan, 2008 retrieved from http://www.regionaldistrict.com/, Regional District of the Okanagan Similkameen, 2010      18  retrieved from http://rdos.bc.ca/).  Industry, population, demographics and socio-economic characteristics of the Okanagan Regional Districts do vary.  Armstrong is a small community located in the North Okanagan Regional District which has a regional population of 77, 301 people.  The RDNO is made up of six electoral districts (Vernon, Coldstream, Spaullmucheen, Armstrong, Enderby, Lumby). Armstrong is located approximately 23 kilometers from Vernon, the main urban centre for the North Okanagan regional district and approximately 80 kilometers from Kelowna.   Historically, the main economic driver has been agriculture industry (www.BC Adventure.com and Regional District of the North Okanagan, 2009). In the past, industry in Armstrong has focused on agriculture based business such as farming and dairy products. Even today, Armstrong has a strong regional identity that is rooted in agriculture. Recently, Armstrong explored agri-tourism and wine tourism as a means to diversify agricultural productivity and economic viability (www. Armstrongbc.com). This community of  4,241 residents is host to the famous Interior Provincial Exhibition and Stampede which is the second largest agricultural fair in the province  and  is almost entirely facilitated by volunteers from Armstrong and surrounding areas. Visitors to Armstrong are encouraged to frequent some of the agricultural attractions such as the Rogers Flour Mill, Village Cheese Company, Integrity Llama Farm, Riverside Forest Products, and the Okanagan Great Divide. Armstrong is also one of the many tourists hubs of the Okanagan Valley and features many tourist amenities for all seasons.      19  Peachland is located within The Regional District of the Central Okanagan (RDCO) which is the third largest administrative region in the province with a total population of 160,000 residents (Regional District of the Central Okanagan Website, 2008.) This small community of 5,232 residents (Statistics Canada, 2008) was founded in 1909 and is located approximately 25 kilometers south of Kelowna, the urban centre of the regional district.  The RDCO is made up of seven distinct areas:  the city of Kelowna, District of West Kelowna, District of Lake Country, District of Peachland Central Okanagan J, Central Okanagan East Electoral Area and Westbank First Nation.   The central Okanagan is surrounded by an abundance of natural capital amenities which increases demands for sustainability initiatives to protect natural resources such as air and water (Senese and Luther, 2010).Historically, the primary industry of Peachland has been fruit production, forestry and gold (http://www.ponderosaliving.ca/peachland-history). However, over time this has changed and Peachland has become ‘non-resource’ community that focuses on tourism, health care, trade, finance, construction and real estate (BC Stats Quarterly, 2007). The foreshore of Okanagan Lake has been the primary areas for residential and commercial development in Peachland (Figure 2.1.2). As a result of residential and touristic lakeside development much of this foreshore community’s regional identity is now associated with the characteristics lifestyles of lake side living 2.3 Population Peachland’s population in 2009 was estimated by Statistics Canada to be at 5,244.  The annual growth rate between 2006 and 2009 has varied between 1.9% and 3.2%.  Peachland’s land area covers approximately 15.98 square kilometers, has a population density of 305.6 persons per      20  square kilometer and represents approximately 3% of the total population in the Regional District of the Central Okanagan (District of Peachland 2009 Demographic Profile, Central Okanagan Development Commission p.2). The allure of the beautiful and scenic nature surrounding Peachland has attracted elderly and recently retired visitors. Recent academic literature claims that this increase is a result of amenity migrants and retirees who have come to reside to Peachland because of its environmental allure and attractive lifestyle. It appears evident that the significant growth rate in the senior population of Peachland is largely attributed to an influx of amenity migrants to the area. Recent research in similar small communities (Chipenuik, 2006; Moss 2006 and Borsdorf, A., Hidalgo, 2009) have determined that amenity migration is a dominant factor in changing demographic patterns of rural British Columbia, Australia and the United States (Senese and Luther, 2010).  Armstrong’s population according to the 2006 Census data is estimated to be 4,241 and accounts for 5.5% of the Regional District of the North Okanagan’s total population. Armstrong’s land area is 5.2 square kilometers which makes up approximately 0.1% of the regions total land area. Of the six communities that make up the Regional District of the North Okanagan. Armstrong has the highest population density of 809.2 persons per square kilometer. Armstrong has a strong sense of community and its residents are very active in the agriculture and tourist industry. Both of these communities have specific amenities and lifestyles that attract visitors, amenity migrants and long-term or seasonal residents. Most available toolkits from the government or      21  experts in the field are oftentimes geared to large, urban centers and focus on the sustainability needs of communities with large population densities (Hodge, 2003). The sustainability needs of small communities such as Armstrong and Peachland are very specific and unique. Rural and small communities with small populations such as Peachland and Armstrong often struggle to meet the sustainability demands and targets set out by the province that focuses on urban areas.  When amenity migrants settle in a community they often bring with them viewpoints and opinions from living in large metropolis that are progressive in sustainability planning. As a result, participation and feedback in public consultation for planning and development in a community may be inspired by their previous experiences in a large urban metropolis.   In Peachland, sustainability planning is affected by amenity migration through a presence of new residents that are young, well educated people who have previously lived in large, urban agglomerations and influences by an urban area (Peachland Sustainability Inventory Report, 2010).   This is different from sustainability planning in Armstrong. Despite having a large aging population, Armstrong does not have the influx of amenity migrants that Peachland does. This may be because Peachland is a foreshore community with a lifestyle inspired by Okanagan Lake and Armstrong is largely an agriculture based community. An alternate reason to explain the struggle of sustainability planning in small communities is that sustainability action planning toolkits are geared towards larger communities. The scale, intensity and pace of change are drastically different in large communities than in smaller ones. Smaller communities may have the same sustainability challenges as larger-urban areas but the      22  ways in which they mitigate resolutions to these problems or the approach to develop targets and goals are very different and often place-specific. 2.4 Demographics One of the most unique characteristics of both Peachland and Armstrong is the presence of an active and vocal elderly population.  In order to understand what drives legislation and action towards sustainability planning and long term decision making in municipalities, it is valuable to identify the age group with the most political clout and whose values and concerns that Mayor and Council are attempting to represent through their policy and bylaw development.  The population for both Peachland and Armstrong is evenly distributed between females and males. Increases in age distribution for Peachland were noticed primarily in the ages between 45 to 69 and also accounts for 46% of the total population in the recent 2010 Regional Economic Profile for the Central Okanagan.  Studies conducted by Statistics Canada have shown that 18% of the population is over the age of 65 in Peachland and 22% of the population is over the age of 65 in Armstrong, which ranks Peachland and Armstrong as having of the highest rates of residents in British Columbia for being in the 65 years category (District of Peachland 2009 Demographic Profile, Central Okanagan Development Commission pp 2-3 and Statistics Canada, 2006 Community Profiles).  What makes Peachland and Armstrong particularly unique is that the fastest increasing age group [between 1996, 2001 and 2006 was 50 years and older whereas the population between the ages of 25 – 44 considerably decreased (2010 Central Okanagan Demographic Profile). In      23  2001, 29% of the total population was 55 years or older and 39% of the population was between the ages of 25-54. In 2006, the population total for individuals between 25-54 years of age dropped down to 35% whereas Armstrong residents over the age of 55 represented 44% of the total population.  As a result of the large elderly population in both Peachland and Armstrong, many of the social programs in the community are geared either towards an older age range or are tourism focused. Studies conducted on small, rural mountain towns have determined that amenity migration is a dominant factor in demographic analysis.  This may be the factor that maintains the current population and attracts others who are in a similar age group to live in Peachland and Armstrong (Borsdorf and Hidalgo, 2009). The English language is the dominant language in Armstrong and Peachland.  For the residents of Peachland, English is used by 97.7% of the population which is approximately 14% higher than the rest of British Columbia. English language dominance is largely due to the 60% of the population in Peachland originating from the British Isles with visible minorities representing less than 1% of the total population. Migration trends indicate that many immigrants and/or Canadian citizens of a visible minority flock to larger urban areas such as Penticton and Kelowna or to small communities where viable industry can support families and livelihoods (District of Peachland 2009 Demographic Profile, Central Okanagan Development Commission pp 3-15). Also, the residents that live in these two communities are very different in what they demand from their Mayor and Council in regards to sustainability. In Peachland, many of the amenity migrants are young retirees who are well educated and often from urban areas (Moss, 2006).      24  They have moved to the area for a lifestyle associated with a quality natural environment, therefore when it comes to sustainability planning, these residents demand planning initiatives that are environmentally innovative and cutting edge. In Armstrong, the Mayor and Council represent the values of long term and elderly residents and may be afraid to embracing the change required to implement sustainability policies into the planning processes of their community. 2.5 Industry and Economics A viable economy is one of the determining factors of a community’s socio-economic status as well as being one of the four pillars that define sustainability.  An economically sustainable community should provide the resources needed for its residents to prosper. Examples of these types of resources are employment opportunities and a tax base for support services.  Statistics on a community’s labour force help assess whether a community is economically sustainable of if gaps exist where sustainability planning would be of benefit. Understanding the logistics of the labour force for both Peachland and Armstrong can help understand what is enabling or hindering these communities from becoming sustainable and livable communities. For this research, the labour force and dominant industries of both these communities are very similar. The economy of both communities is heavily dependent on tourism and have both recently begun to explore possible opportunities with developers for housing and tourism amenities. Despite the Okanagan’s strong emphasis on wineries and orchards, Peachland and Armstrong are two communities that do not profit at all or very minimally from the wine and fruit industries.      25  Approximately half of Peachland’s population in 2006 was identified as being part of the labour force. British Columbia’s provincial labour force participation is an overall 65.6% making Peachland’s 52.5% participation rate significantly lower than the provincial average. This is largely due to the fact that many residents in the area are retired and thus are absent from the workforce. The service industry accounts for the largest segment of Peachland’s labour force at 22.1% followed by retail and construction industries. (District of Peachland 2009 Demographic Profile, Central Okanagan Development Commission pp. 18). Peachland has seen an increase in its residents that are 65 years and older. This can be attributed to amenity migrants who have come to the Okanagan as a tourist destination and outdoor adventure amenities and appeal (District of Peachland 2009 Demographic Profile, Central Okanagan Development Commission). This has also caused the labour force to specialize in an industry that caters to the demands of the seasonal tourist population.  As a result, local government policy and legislation has begun to accommodate its tourist industry as its primary regional economic driver.  Historically,   rural and small towns across North America have been reliant on the agricultural sector to stimulate their community’s economic development (OECD, 2006).  Going against the grain, Peachland is one of the few communities in the Okanagan that doesn’t fully capitalize on the economic benefits from the surrounding vineyards and orchards but focuses on a predominantly service and retail based industry. Amenity migrants are a major economic force in rural, mountain areas (Borsdorf and Hidalgo, 2009).  The phenomenon of amenity migrants in non-metropolitan communities has been explored in British Columbia by Chipeniuk (2004). Chiepniuk examined the municipal      26  government’s capacity to plan for and manage the rising amenity migrant population. These amenities range from scenic rural landscapes, accessible green space such as parks and wilderness and ample recreation facilities. Moss’s research on amenity migration in western Canada states that many of these migrants are economically stable and looking for an active lifestyle (Borsdorf and Hidalgo, 2009).  This can explain the limited presence in Peachland’s work force as many of its residents are retired and enjoying the active/outdoor lifestyle that Peachland living encourages. Influxes in amenity migrants in rural tourist towns reflect what is occurring in other communities within the province. These similarities may be useful as a planner’s forecast for planning sustainability initiatives in small, mountain communities in British Columbia such as Peachland and Armstrong.                27  CHAPTER 3 LITERATURE REVIEW 3.0 Overview Two specific areas were examined in the literature review of sustainability planning for this study. The review for sustainability planning is divided into two sections.  The first section focuses on the evolution of sustainability action planning in theory and application.  This review has provided insight on how sustainability as a theme was developed and how its implementation into the planning process has affected municipal level planning.  The second part of this literature review examines the role of governance in sustainability planning processes. Governance structures are strategic to the implementation of successful planning mechanisms. The definition of governance has significantly changed over time and this section of the literature review explores this transition and the changes in responsibility and accountability this has on sustainability planning in municipal governments. 3.1 Sustainability Action Planning Planning is an important component to understand the linkages between people and places. The role of planning in geography is to identify the relationship that society has with its physical environment.  The primary goal for urban planning is to develop a rational response to the problems that may occur within the complex dynamics of society. Urban and regional planning has been viewed as a reactionary process that requires foresight into possible urban problems (Knox and Marston, 1998). Planning in geography can be viewed as a technical activity employed to achieve a specific set of goals. Planning goals create a spatial representation based      28  upon a system of ideas used to develop the physical environment. (Johnston et al, 2000, p. 872) Urban planning is a tool used by planners to create a balance between urban development and the socio-economic processes that are found in a physical environment.  While much of planning has focused on development of a built environment within the physical environment, it has also involved processes that attempt to create community values, cohesiveness and a sense of place. As changes in human behavior impact space and place, sustainability continues to emerge as a theme that influences planning theory, practice and concepts. Sustainability is a concept and a movement that began globally and has infiltrated into almost every arena of society. Simply put, sustainability refers to any action or development that doesn’t harm the environment and acknowledges and creates a balance between the social, economic, environmental and cultural structures that exists (Newman and Kenworthy, 1999, p. 1). Over the last 30 years, the impacts of climate change due to the misuse of our natural resources have created a dire need to incorporate sustainability as a theme within community planning. The federal and provincial government’s response to sustainability planning for climate change has been to download responsibilities to municipal governments.  The responsibility to combat the effects of climate change has created a new mode of regulation that has been characterized by neo-liberal governance. As a result, municipal governments have placed sustainability at the forefront of their planning agendas surrounding regional growth and development. This conceptual framework reviews approaches to sustainability planning according to a number of themes: Planning as Theory, Sustainability in the Planning Process, Planning      29  Concepts and Sustainability and Best Practices in Sustainable Planning. Planning as theory focuses on the epistemological foundations and social theories that transform and attempt to understand planning through a critical/explanatory lens.  Environmental change and urban growth have impacted planning practice both technically and theoretically. These impacts to planning have occurred by a transformation of the ideological basis that influences the processes of community planning and the concepts used to plan sustainably.  Planning concepts are considered using a comprehensive approach to urban development and policy implementation steered by social, economic and environmental impacts.  Best Practices in sustainable planning explore sustainability from a variety of perspectives that challenge traditional planning theories, concepts and processes. 3.1.1 Planning as Theory Planning practice as theory has transitioned from a specific place-based approach  to one that is developed on a macro level with a tri-factor focus within  local, national and international contexts (Grant, 2008 and Hodge, 2003) and is broadly defined by its ‘collaborative and synthesizing activities’ (Thompson, 2000). The role of the planner is to combine the ideas of people, processes and actions to create a value-added coherent action plan with the right combination of steps to achieve a set of pre-determined goals. Planning as an academic discourse has drawn on theories and practices from a variety of disciplines (Campbell and Fainstein, 2003) and has been described as an ‘amalgam of concepts and ideas’ (Thompson, 2000).  From the literature dating back to the early 19th century to the works of Patrick Geddes,      30  defining space and place has been a central component for achieving a balance between the physical and human environments (Hodge, 2003). Planning as theory has evolved and been delineated into several theoretical schools of thought including neo-liberalism, positivism and post positivism.  Much of the development and criticism of planning theory has been taken from a post-positivist perspective that ‘emphasizes a more normative dimension’ and ‘embraces instead approaches that contextualize theories and disciplines in larger social and historical contexts’ (Almendinger, 2002 p.87). Foucault’s episteme, a system used to define conceptual possibilities and boundaries within a specific period in time (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2008) has helped planners understand why citizens make decisions and behave in the manner that they do (Almendinger, 2002). Foucault and other philosophers such as Baudrillard and Habermas (in Almendinger, 2002) rejected the ideology and logic of positivism and its epistemological basis on scientific knowledge. Baudrillard’s code refuted  Foucault’s perspective as being too simplistic in his dispersion of power and concluded that power is too widely applied and tracing its course and flow is much too complex to be mapped using a theoretical form (Lane, 2000).  In 1989, Yifatchel’s post-positivist typology attempted to frame planning theory by putting forward three questions: What is urban planning?, What is a good urban plan?, and What is a good urban planning process? Healey (2003) explains that planning theory focuses on Collaborative Planning. This is a term that was introduced in the 1990’s to help further define urban and regional planning and decision making.  Collaborative planning has been expressed as the way in which political communities organize themselves in order to improve the quality      31  of their physical environment (Healey, 2003). Planners cannot foresee all developments in the future and face imperfect foresight when trying to develop the most effective designs and visions (Hopkins, 2001). Viewing the physical environment as an interconnected web of relationships was a method in which planners could produce a planning vision and attempt to fill the gap between theory and practice (Thompson, 2000). Planning theory defines the boundaries of the central goal and identifies the key issues that planners face in the debates that surround planning theory.  Planning theory provides a theoretical foundation to inform planning practice for city planners (Campbell and Fainstein, 2003). Fainstein (2000) introduced three innovative schools of thought to understand planning theory in an urban form. These three schools of thought are: 1) Communicative model, 2) New Urbanism, and 3) The just city. The communicative model speaks to the planner’s relationship and ability to communicate with various stakeholders in planning. The second model creates a visual representation of the desired outcome for an urban development or city. The final model describes the sought after balance of the socio-economic relationships within a city (Fainstein, 2000). These models outline the theoretical stages of the planning process.  Fainstein’s (2003) ‘typologies of planning theory’ serve as a contemporary understanding of a planners’ role in planning theory and practice (p.452). The usefulness of planning theory as a tool for practitioners has been challenged by Sanyal (2002) who asserts that theory is ineffective for planners making decisions concerning moral judgments (as cited in Bengs, 2005). The planning practice is continuously challenged by which ideological framework and theoretical constructs to use when addressing problems and guiding      32  planning policies (Sanyal, 2002).  Contrary to Sanyal (2002), Friedmann (1998) believed that planning theory was an essential component for planners. Friedmann (1998) attempted to ‘codify and constrain’ components found in planning theory. Friedmann’s (1998) content analysis identified six categories of planning theories: applied rationality; social guidance; behavioral (positivist) approaches; communicative practices; social learning; and radical planning or emancipator practice (Friedmann, 1998). This attempt to categorize the tenets of planning theory simplified the information that was present at the time.  Friedmann’s actions were flawed when trying to limit planning theory into broad, undefined categories. The categories that Friedmann proposed lacked relevancy and applicability and were theoretically oriented rather than based on best practices in planning processes. Several theorists have argued that defining planning theory limits the boundaries of practice. Sanyal (2002) suggests that previous theoretical foundations have been based on the planning failures and downfalls. Best practices in planning are developed through consistency in small planning successes rather than large planning disasters. Planning practices vary based on the uniqueness of the plan. Theoretical explanations of planning practice cannot be generalized but are based on the specific needs and requirements of the planner’s vision and the physical, social and economic environment. Planning theory can identify the main issues that surround a planning process but cannot effectively identify generalized linkages and best practices that can be made applicable to all planning decisions.        33  3.1.2 Sustainability in the Planning Processes Hopkins (2001) defines the planning process as “an attempt to meet standards of rationality in complex ways that go beyond simply trying to approximate directly a prescribed rational procedure” (p. 181). Hopkins (2001) attempts to understand the planning process that focuses on: behaviors, tasks, processes, and standards.  He posits three primary questions to making plans: Where are we?; Where do we want to be?; and How can we get there?. These basic questions lay the ground work for developing plans and the steps and processes needed for a rational procedure for future development. Increased awareness of the human impact on natural environments has led to demands for alternatives to traditional planning.  Sustainable planning and development as a planning concept has become representative of community cultural values and norms and a ‘touchstone of contemporary planning’ (Selman and Parker, 1995). The term ‘sustainable development’ was first used by the Brundtland Commission’s ‘Our Common Future’ (WCED, 1987). The Brundtland report defined sustainable development as ‘development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own need’. In 1992, Agenda 21, an action plan for sustainable development and an outcome of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), challenged international, national and sub national governments to adopt the guiding principles and create National Sustainable Development Strategies that addressed green issues on multiple levels of government (Selman and Parker, 1995). This new order for development was employed during the 1980’s and resulted in a transformation that focused on the quality of life and resource conservation of a      34  community (Selman and Parker, 1995). These development strategies spearheaded several models for community wide sustainability planning.  Many models for sustainable community plans have been developed and used here in Canada such as recently in Whistler, British Columbia. These models and plans include the Green Bylaws Toolkits and Smart Growth. One of the first sustainable community plan models was The Natural Step. The Natural Step was developed in Sweden in 1989 by Karl Henrik Robert and was based on a systemic and scientific planning approach and has since been endorsed by the American Planning Association (APA) and adopted by 12 eco-municipalities in the United States. The Natural Step prioritizes environment over socio/economic concerns and attempts to bridge the gap between the current decision and policy making processes towards a long term sustainable vision (Bradbury and Clair, 1999). James’s (2004) studies on the Natural Step indicate that a rapid increase in the global population has forced cities to exercise alternative measures to sustain its new growth.  The guiding principles of the Natural Step have been used to help cities to reduce fossil fuels, eliminate dependence on synthetic substances, reduce community encroachment on nature and meet human needs fairly and efficiently (James, 2004). For instance, in Canada, Whistler, British Columbia was one of the first of many North American municipalities to adopt the principles of the Natural Step framework into their community plan (Bradbury and Clair, 1999). Whistler developed a community outreach program called ‘Whistler: It’s Our Nature” based on the Natural Step which has since evolved into being North America’s first comprehensive development plan. The framework of this plan outlines a long term community vision which is sustained through the encouragement of public      35  education programs to increase public participation as a means to sustain their community (www.whistler2020.ca). Frameworks such as these have since been implemented into the municipal plans and long term vision of several communities such as Ottawa, Halifax and Markham who aim to reduce their carbon footprint and human impact of the environment. Environmental concerns have redirected the ways in which planners view the built environment and thus address community planning issues. Roseland (2005), a notable Canadian sustainability expert and professor of sustainable community planning states that sustainable planning has become an innovative paradigm that facilitates  current planning visions with respect to the demands of the future’. Sustainable community planning is a multi-faceted planning process that incorporates environmental benefits while taking into account the economic, social and cultural needs of the community (Infrastructure Canada, 2007). Roseland’s (2005) approach to sustainable planning focuses on public participation from stakeholders and community members for making decisions in the planning processes. Examples of stakeholders are government officials, community groups, businesses and citizens. The ongoing support of community-wide sustainable planning initiatives has acted as a catalyst for communities to incorporate the pillars and principles of sustainable development into municipal planning agendas. As the role of community members in planning processes continue to evolve, the conflict surrounding power and hierarchical interests emerge. Oftentimes planners are guided by political interests (Hanna, 2009) and norms and have only recently begun to focus on the importance of public participation and active citizenship. Rational and insightful decision      36  making is by far one of the fundamental and instrumental aspects of the planning process (Hopkins, 2001). These choices may be viewed by planning professionals as controlling or impeding on their rights for decision-making. Successfully employing the principles of sustainable planning through policies and frameworks encourages community members to view their community through a holistic lens, thus encouraging them to make sound and sustainable choices for the overall benefit of their community.  A heightened sense of environmental and social health issues has created a movement to spearhead the development of planning frameworks for sustainable action planning. Community planners are inspired by guidelines and frameworks geared towards community involvement which are created by the government and accredited experts. Incorporating community into the planning process is a relatively new shift in municipal planning and development.  Infrastructure Canada (2007) has created a model framework for sustainable planning which serves as an evaluation tool to guide policy development in community planning.  Eleven municipal plans across Canada have been selected by Infrastructure Canada to be evaluated based on their planning processes and practices (Infrastructure Canada, 2007). The end result of this study reported that the all of the municipalities identified environmental, economic and social elements as strategic components to develop a sustainability vision. This study also identified that public education and engagement are an integral but lacking component to achieve community sustainability targets.  The conclusions of this study parallel the target areas for sustainability planning that have been addressed by noted experts earlier in this chapter.      37  3.1.3 Planning Concepts and Sustainability Sustainable development and community planning are planning concepts (Berke, Controy and Manta, 2000) that have evolved as a result of several conceptual concerns surrounding city appearance, living conditions and affordable housing, the environment and city efficiency (Hodge, 2003). Conceptualizing major goals or visions in the planning process is facilitated by planners through policies and frameworks for development (Trochim, 1989). Important social movements at the beginning of the century influenced how the physical environment was perceived by planning visionaries.  The ‘Radiant Garden City’ (Jacobs, 1961)   and  City Beautiful Movements created reforms in public health care which began to characterize the diversification of  planning concepts at the regional and national level (Krueckeberg, 1983).  Planning for communities traditionally used a comprehensive approach and began to focus on social and environmental planning approaches for public housing, developing greenbelt towns, watershed and ecosystem planning (Roseland, 2005). In the 1990’s, planning concepts began to develop according to the principles of sustainable development and Smart Growth (Hodge, 2003) and were enforced through the use of zoning and environmental regulations (Fainstein, 2000).  Li et al (2005) contend that urban greenspace, stemming from the City Beautification movements have emerged as a concept of sustainable community development and have been attributed to community cohesion, improving the urban environment and positive ecological, economic and social significance. Planning the physical environment uses a community and regional perspective (Hodge, 2003) that attempts to maintain built environments while satisfying the needs of the individual and      38  the community (Wates, 2000). Jurisdictional boundaries result in differences in planning issues and objectives and have produce differences in targets and strategies between regional and community planning processes and concepts.   Rather than planning for individual areas within the city, planning concepts have evolved to take on a more holistic approach.  Land use designation planning concepts, according to Hopkins (2001), rely on effective regulations and designations in the form of zoning, building and engineering standards. Aligning these designations and regulations with the principles of sustainability has spearheaded the development of national, provincial and regional sustainable planning concepts. Wheeler (2003) asserts that increases in growth in population and the sprawl of land-use development have created a demand for city planners to create planning concepts that will withstand a community’s carrying capacity and increases in growth. Rural and small towns in Canada are banding together and thus creating a need for sustainable, trans-boundary planning concepts to be developed that are geared towards resource based economies (Douglas, 2010).  According to Kevin Hanna (2005) who has done extensive research on small town sustainability planning, local governments need to manifest the concept of sustainability into their communities by integrating social, economic and environmental objectives into their decision making process. Chambers and Conway (1991) further assert that new planning concepts that focus on capability, equity and sustainability are needed to be developed based on the unique style of decision making found in rural and small town planning. Existing guidelines for planning communities focus on the urban areas. Livelihoods in rural areas are place specific and are often centered on agriculture, recreation and tourism and have      39  more recently included the development of agri-tourism as a strategic component in contemporary planning concepts (Chambers and Conway, 1991). This indicates a gap in understanding of concepts and frameworks available to plan non-urban areas. Sustainable planning and development discourse can be interpreted using a theoretical and practical formula that recognizes the complex web of interconnections amongst issues, fields and disciplines – thus creating immeasurable implications for planning concepts (Wheeler, 2003). Creating a city that is livable and thriving proves to be a challenge in the areas of accountability and evaluation of the measures and processes needed to be a sustainable. 3.1.4 From Sustainable to Sustainability Planning After many poorly developed planning visions for urban renewal and development, planners resorted to alterative measures to employ their sustainable planning vision for the physical environment (Fainstein, 2000). Brundtland first coined the term ‘sustainable development’ which has since been criticized as development in support of growth. Swart et al (2004) have grappled between the terms sustainable and sustainability development. He makes a distinction between the two terms based on the premise that sustainable development does not challenge development, whereas sustainability development pays specific attention to where development should occur based on human interaction with environmental constraints (Svart et al, 2004).  Roseland’s (2005) findings on sustainable communities indicate that understanding the building blocks of sustainability  such as focusing on community and economic development, atmospheric change and air quality, waste reduction and recycling to name a few, can help identify the target areas for planning processes.  However, these      40  concepts and definitions are still questioned for their transferability and applicability into a community wide planning vision. Despite the debate on an ideal definition or preferred framework, community-wide sustainable action planning has been heralded by Parenteau (1994), Shandas and Messer (2008) as an important tool for local governments. Sustainability planning can help achieve a consensus for a community plan that outlines the policies, programs and projects needed for sustainable development and growth. By widening the perspective of best practices on sustainable planning, Shandas and Messer (2008) and Pollack et al conclude that using a collaborative approach for sustainable planning through civic engagement and participatory democracy has proven to be an effective strategy to deal with the formidable challenges to sustainable action planning. Civic engagement or social capital (Roseland, 2005, Hanna 2009) has been linked to successful sustainable community planning.  Hanna (2009) describes social capital as multi-dimensional networks that provide citizens with a sense place (Roseland, 2005), creating habitual relationships which may be reflected through sustainable policies for social and economic opportunities.  One strategy that planners have used to insure the application of sustainability principles is introducing the idea of ‘place-making’. Place-making is a term that refers to local activism and can occur in a variety of dimensions within a community and has been heralded for creating cohesiveness and local identities in communities (Martin, 2003). Community members who value and identify with the area in which they live will place greater importance and efforts to preserve and participate in their communities.      41  Another important strategy for community planning has been to identify sustainability indicators as a means to achieve targets and long term goals. Sustainability indicators identify goals for community planning and provide a formula to measure for progress in community wide planning (Burgmann, 1997; Briassoulis, 2001). Sustainability indicators can help local governments and communities define their goals and can assist municipalities in setting targets that can aid in annual reporting.  The evaluation process of sustainable planning still remains a challenge for planners and local governments. Sustainability indicators are a tool for municipalities that will provide criteria to assist policy developers formulate decisions (Devuyst, 2000). Communities using indicators that are developed through public participation and stakeholder input require more complex scientific analysis. The most successful and result- oriented examples of sustainability indicators are ones that impose the notion of institutional accountability to regional and community plans (Burgmann, 1996). Measures for success are not based on a community’s progress in sustainability but must also incorporate an element of accountability within the organizing body responsible for decision making. As a response to the acceptance of indicators in the planning profession, Berke and Controy (2000) have developed an evaluation criterion using an index for assessing and identifying the extent of sustainable development in community plans. They have developed principles for sustainable development, similar to Roseland’s (2005) building blocks for community sustainability in which municipal policies and bylaws can be assessed based on how they fare according to these principles.       42  3.1.5 Sustainability Planning in Small Towns In Canada, there are more than 2,900 identifiable small towns that require sustainability planning for issues such as population growth, transit and water to name just a few (Hodge, 2003 and Roseland, 2005). Best practices in community planning are largely geared to metropolitan areas and differ greatly when applied to small towns. Hodge (2003) claims these differences are largely related to ‘scale, pace of change and intensity’ (p.279). Therefore the context for planning in non-urban areas identifies these regions as diverse and unique in their planning needs. The planning needs of small communities may be greatly influenced by the surrounding metropolises of the region. Proximity to an urban area has become an integral component in order to understand how sustainability planning is inspired and implemented in small communities. Urban planning initiatives to combat growth and climate change may be a result of the planning agenda’s from neighboring cities. These influences on community planning initiatives in non-urban areas can be explained by the central place theory. Central place theory states that an urban hierarchy exists that classify towns and cities based on their size and population. This theory was first developed by Walther Christaller who claimed that certain characteristics and central functions of a community were based on their location in the urban hierarchy (cited in Barry and Garrison, 1958). Sustainability planning in small communities may be an urban shadow of the theoretical constructs presented by central place theory. Ferguson (in MacFarlane, 2008) claims that urban shadows are a type of double or parallel to theoretical      43  standard. Central place theory may be the theoretical explanation of the influences to sustainability planning of small towns that are in proximity to a central urban hub. The theoretical understanding of sustainability in planning is still in the process of development. Once sustainability theory is adequately established, it will add to the body of knowledge that attempts to provide an academic and theoretical understanding of the effects of sustainability in planning procedures.  Over the last 30 years, sustainable planning has evolved as a solution to poor planning decisions in major metropolitan areas across the globe. In order to view sustainability planning as a process, theorists must view planning as an independent discourse with its own epistemological foundations. Planners need a new planning imperative to guide their policy for community development. Rather than ‘planning for sustainability’ municipal planners need to focus on ‘planning sustainably’’ (Boyle et al, 2004 in Hanna, 2009, pp. 230). Rather than using sustainable planning as a reactionary process or a response to past decisions, planning sustainably incorporates the principles of sustainable planning into planning visions as a pre-emptive course of actions against environmental, social, cultural and economic impacts. In order to understand the complex nature of planning, it is essential to recognize that planning as theory, process, and concept is a discourse that is constantly in flux. Due to its interdisciplinary nature, it is a challenge to contain knowledge development into a single snapshot. This also complicates the attempt to give a definitive comprehensive account of planning and the theoretical and practical impacts sustainability has had.  However many theorists, planners and practitioners have attempted to do so and this has resulted in a plethora of opposing epistemological and practice based explanations to understand the tenets      44  of planning.  A common theme that emerges throughout the planning discourse is the exercise of power and decision making. Planners view the notion of power as an enabling mechanism that facilitates citizen engagement and collective action.  Power is rooted in the organizational bodies or governance structures that facilitate decision making related to community wide sustainability. As transfer of power continues to transition, the theoretical understandings of planning practices becomes complex and difficult to pinpoint and explain. The role of governance in planning theory, concepts, processes and best practices requires further exploration and analysis as it is an important issue in planning and sustainability. In order to identify the chain of command used to assess efficiency and effectiveness, it is crucial to determine what contributes to successful sustainability planning in small towns.  Policy and theory must be put into practice however; identifying who puts these policies into practices and evaluate the effectiveness of this mechanism is a strategic component for further analysis in planning studies. Inclusion of governance structures is imperative to the process to develop sustainability policies for implementation. Governance includes the process of decision making as well as the process of policy execution.  In order to grasp the process of sustainability planning, it is essential to understand how efficient and effective governance structures are developed. This includes appropriate checks and balances to aid the development of healthy, thriving communities.  Furthermore, a second transition must be explored that seeks to understand how practice is leading theory in the development of governance structures.        45  3.2 The Role of Governance in Sustainability Action Planning in Small Towns After a review of planning and sustainability, it is clear that at the municipal level the issue of governance is instrumental to understanding community-wide sustainability planning. The study of governance has been debated by academics who have struggled to define its boundaries. Emerging from a variety of standpoints, the discourse surrounding governance presents a very blurred representation of what governance specifically entails.  Governance has become an undefined process of communication and power that spills over into several areas and jurisdictions. In the past, governance has focused on top-down authoritative governing framed by corporate or political decision making. The impacts of environmental change and the transitions towards sustainable development have challenged the effectiveness of governance structures. Municipal governments in particular have begun to realign their planning processes to the numerous sustainability strategies and toolkits.  The boundaries of sustainable governance have been redefined by placing the onus of sustainability and governance into the hands of the citizens and stakeholders. Civic engagement through public education has become an integral component to achieve sustainability targets and goals for municipalities. The role of governance in sustainability planning has been only discussed in Canadian academic literature.  A gap in academic literature exists that explains how governance affects and directs the agenda for sustainability development and planning particularly at municipal levels in small city environments.      46  Four thematic ideas dominate the academic literature on governance which includes the definition and transition of governance in an era of sustainability planning in trans-boundary settings. One of the great challenges in the study of governance is the creation of concise and valid definitions of governance that can be embraced from a variety of viewpoints. Governance has been identified as a transition from traditional forms and understandings of governance to more collaborative and holistic approaches. The roles and responsibilities of governance have transitioned over time and are still very much in a transition period.   This transition period has incorporated the concept of sustainability as tool in which to measure governance structures Sustainable governance is very much a new concept in both the political and planning circles and is emerging as an important link to understanding the complex dynamics of sustainability action planning. In most instances governance is a trans-boundary issue that finds its way into both the public and private spheres. Discussion of emergent strategies and best practices complete the review in an attempt to provide a trans-boundary conceptualization of the theoretical and practical reformulation of governance within the context of sustainable development and sustainable action planning. 3.2.1 Defining Governance There are many definitions of governance. According to Stoker and Jessop, two noted academics; theoretical governance is sometimes referred to as meta-governance (Jessop, 2003) and recognizes a redirection in the traditional definition of governance among the social science community (Stoker, 1998).  According to Finklestein, “We say ‘governance’ because we really don’t know what to call what is going on” (Finklestein, 1995, p.368). In the global context,      47  governance is viewed as a purposeful activity of power and meant to steer and thus influence the agenda’s of state and non-state actors (Finkelstein, 1995). Governance has also been defined as a “blurring of the lines (boundaries) between government, private sector and NGO’s” (Stoker, 1998, p. 18; Goodwin, 198, p. 18).  The distinctions between top down and bottom up organizational structures and policy directions are no longer clearly defined. In order to understand and define the concept of governance, we must divide it into two distinctive aspects that focus on either structure or process. Neither of which can be limited by geographical space or time (O’Toole, 2002 and Jordan, 2008). Academics such as Kooiman (1993) and Jordan (2008) discuss the concept of ‘governing’ and its linkages to social capital which can be used to steer and guide various sectors of a community. Governance is a process guided by the public sector and used as a means to achieve goals for a community. Governance within communities has been explored by Goodwin and Painter (1995) who suggest that local governance is defined not only by its proximity but also by the spatial scale of institutional arrangements operations. These structures have been defined as hierarchies of power and governance processes. These processes are often based on the interactions between civil society and institutions (Flinders, 2002).  Voss and Kemp (2006) claim that governance is power dominating and a characteristic process that is responsible for the ‘self- steering of society’. Within these attempts to explain the process of governance, theorists and academics commonly state that the process of governance is structural and incorporates a type of hierarchy that guides communities, policies or ideas in a specific direction.      48  Several attempts have been made to explain governance using a theoretical lens. Rhodes (1996) and Flinders (2002) describe governance theory as a developmental phase that is able to conceptually transform the ways in which social systems are coordinated as well as collaborated (Jordan, 2008). Governance theory focuses on the interactions between the public and private sectors of society including their linkages and scales of inter-organization. Criticism on theory has been presented by Flinder (2002) who claims that governance theory is a ‘proto- theory’ still in need of ontological and practical fine tuning. The constant state of flux is the common denominator that exists between the explanations of governance as a process and theory. Theoretical understandings surrounding governance are constantly in the process of development. Connections and scales of interaction are continuously in flux and adapting to the changing socio-economic dynamics. Pollack et al (2007) state that in order ‘for communities to help steer governance in any meaningful way, they need to take an active role in creating and maintaining landscape regimes’. In order to understand the decision making process in sustainable community planning, we must understand the governance structure that guides such decisions. The concept of governance is multi-dimensional. It can be viewed as a process but also as a theory. The preceding statements to understand governance have attempted to identify these various interpretations using both a theoretical and spatial lens. Theory helps us to conclude that a theoretical understanding of governance is not necessary. In order to understand governance, we must look at its structure and process. It is the inter-linkages and power dynamic between      49  various dimensions within society or within an organization that define the process and structure of governance. 3.2.2 Governance in Transition There has been a shift from what was once seen as government to what is now known as governance (Murdoch, 1998).  This shift is identified as the transition between top down policy direction and responsibility to one that is driven by less authoritative bottom-up civic initiatives. Governance has replaced state centered authority and now requires the help of partnerships and social programs to assist service delivery and accountability. Several organizing structures have realigned their strategies to work within the public sphere to share and help direct policy and responsibility for community development through local governance. A new direction for government action is taking place to replace older governance systems and a number of transitions have been identified in the examination of governance systems. New urban governance has emerged and as a result ongoing research needs to be conducted to examine the complex and changing role of governance in planning and politics (Ploger, 2004). Over the last 20 years, governance has taken on a large number of meanings (Rhodes, 1996, Ploger, 2004). This has resulted in a change in the definition of government, its processes and a redirection in the methods used to govern society (Stoker, 1998) by decentralizing government responsibility and increasing market competition (Rhodes, 1996). A constant theme in governance transition has been the reforms in governance structures. This has emerged over the last 20 years throughout the systemic, administrative and political arenas (Rhodes, 1996; Stoker 1998). The concept of ‘good governance’ expands past government responsibilities and      50  focuses on the distribution of power within and surrounding the public and private spheres (Rhodes, 1996). This power has transitioned into a new form of public management that is efficient, accountable and auditable by the public sector. As the transition of governance progresses some of the key characteristics to emerge are the self-organizing, inter- organizational (Rhodes, 1996) networks which resist the steering of the government by challenging the boundaries of past governments through the development of policies that shape and sustain their environment (Rhodes, 1996).  New dimensions for interaction between citizens and the physical environment are being created through this transition of power. For community planners, this transition has diversified the way in which planning for a community is conducted. An explanation for the transition in governance can been attributed to social, political and economic changes at a global level. This has resulted in a shift of priorities for government action and has challenged government institutions on the validity and legitimacy behind their decision making (Andrew and Goldsmith, 1998). Citizens are now more inclined and encouraged to participate in the political decision making powers (Nevitte, 2002). An increase in civic engagement and the downloading of responsibilities have created a new structure to guide the decision making process for planners. In Canada, rural governance structures are very unique in their operations, boundaries and responsibilities. Rural areas in particular have had difficulty transitioning into a new mode of governance. The inter-linkages between ‘shifts in the social mode of regulation’ have been the greatest challenge to communities (Little, 2001).  In rural studies, the concept of new      51  governance has emerged from countryside restructuring by the agricultural industry and the power relations associated with large parcel land ownership (Little, 2001).  New rural governance should focus on the common good of sustainable community development and that stakeholders in the development process must focus on strategies to attain goals rather than power domination (Murray and Greer, 2007). Additionally, Rist et al (2007) state that ‘rural development is thus no longer conceived as a process purely driven by governments, bureaucracies and markets alone; it is understood in terms of governance rather than government or structural adjustment aiming at the neo-liberalization of rural societies’ (Rist, 2007, p. 25). Priorities and goals are attained through collective action that is dispersed amongst individuals, communities and public agencies rather than being directed by a single governing body. Governance for rural areas is different from urban areas because it focuses on managing a set of relationships and arrangements that are oftentimes undefined and without set specific boundaries. In rural settings, there often lacks a single authoritative governing body that sets defined boundaries for development. Rural governance is comprised of collective decision making by the community and is monitored and regulated by the community or individuals’ vested interest rather than dictated by central governments such as the ones found in urban centers (Rist, 2007). Urban governance in particular has shifted towards increased levels of competition amongst cities, creation of distinctive urban cultures and well as independence in the urban economy from the national economies (Kearns and Paddison, 2000).  Complex relations between the      52  public and private sphere are created as resources are exchanged amongst various agencies with the primary goal of service delivery.  Organizations are thus dependent on these types of arrangements to exchange resources for effective and efficient service delivery (Stoker, 1998; Rhodes, 1996). Communities around the world have begun to realize that national governments are unable to provide the appropriate infrastructure for good governance. A social movement towards self-governing and self-organization has caused inter-urban competition to become fiercer and geared towards entrepreneurism. This has resulted into a spill over or a downloading of responsibility to provincial and municipal governments. Trying to separate from the Fordist welfare state in which social organization was determined by a central authoritative body; local governments have seen a reform in governance structures towards a less bureaucratic and more fragmented local government that is dependent on the public sector for service delivery and efficiency. National governments have reduced the financial support that is awarded to local governments, leaving municipalities with more autonomy in organizing the responsible use of their resources (Vranken, 2003). 3.2.3 Introducing a Neo-Liberal Governance Structure Over the last 30 years, government agenda and their regulatory and monitoring structures have been guided by a neo-liberalised directive.  Policy and economic development agenda’s have also undergone a shift from top-down regulation and authority to more open, unregulated approaches. This has allowed responsibility and regulation of policy and practice in the community to be shifted into the public sector. Active citizenship has been promoted as a neo- liberal tactic. Raco (2005) describes the current state of ‘rolled out’ neo-liberalism as a strategy      53  to create an active mode of citizenship to reduce dependence on the government. Neo- liberalism has challenged the traditional rhetoric of governance structures by encouraging modes of self-governing reflexivity. In essence, the onus of governing is handed over to the public. They are responsible for determining what is necessary, morally sound, just or unacceptable. For example, if an individual chooses to recycle, they have done so on their own accord and not by government regulation.  The individual is responsible for acting reflexively and towards the greater good. A collaborative account of governance has been heralded by Kooiman (2003) and Healey (1997, 2003) who assert that the characteristics of governance have transitioned into citizen based self-organization and self-governance. Both governance and Foucault’s notion of governmentality focus on power relations and the course of action by the government (McCarthy and Prudham, 2003).  Under the guise of neo-liberalism and its qualities of freedom, enterprise and autonomy, society has been conditioned to take the reins of their future and direct them to the best course of action to satisfy their personal objectives. This is very similar to the neo-liberal ideology that has placated our ‘laissez faire government’ (Swift, 1999). Contrary to a traditional understanding of governance responsibility where the state is responsible for the governing of society, neo-liberalism has encouraged the community to govern themselves and to provide the services that were once the duty of a central government entity (Swift, 1999). The rubric of neo-liberalism has been the catalyst for governance transitions towards organizing the conditions for self organization of the networks including the conditions under which networks have to operate (Jessop, 2003).      54  As central governments progressed away from the traditional welfare state, a neo-liberal paradigm has emerged. There are many ideas as to what constitutes a neo-liberal society. Francis’s (2007) representation of an ideal neo-liberal society would be one that was self- contained, economically stable and guided by strong policies.  In the academic realm, two stages in the neo-liberal paradigm have been identified. The first stage is referred to as ‘roll back’ neo-liberalism in which the responsibility of civil services has been reduced by the central government (Goodwin, 1998 and Francis, 2007). A progression towards self-sufficiency and self- governance has been encouraged. The second stage, ‘roll out’ neo-liberalism is greatly aligned with the economic interests from corporate relationships and globalization (Francis, 2007). Government-based responsibilities that were once monitored by a single authoritative government are now being downloaded and transferred into the public sphere. Roll back neo- liberalism can be useful to explain the transitions in regulation and accountability with in governance structures found in communities.  To help facilitate the transitions, central governments have made changes to the current governance structures by cutting taxes, reducing or eliminating welfare entitlement, and encourage and promoting competitiveness and productivity (Swift, 1999 and Francis, 2007). Governance structures have progressed into what is commonly known now as neo-liberal urban governance (Hackworth, 2007) and the ‘urban neo-liberal project’ (Wilson, 2004). Neo liberal urban governance has been further investigated by Hackworth (2007) who speaks to the spatial representations that neo-liberalism has had on urban landscapes and modes of governance. The contingent nature of urban neo-liberalism has been examined by Wilson (2004), Cochrane      55  et al, (1999) and Ward (2003) who conclude that the most integral component of a successful neo-liberal strategy is the acceptance of the paradigm into and by society. What Wilson (2004) contends as the neo-liberal governance paradigm is also the mobilizing force for public participation in governance structures through the public and private spheres of community development. 3.2.4 Sustainability and Governance Environmental changes and their looming impacts have influenced political decision making to incorporate the concept of sustainability into municipal policy and legislation.  According to Bulkeley and Betsill (2005), the role of planning in the battle against climate change and environmental degradation has blurred the boundaries between the local and global responsibilities of the nation-state. Sustainable development and governance are likely the two most contested terms in the language of social sciences because of their constantly changing nature and indefinable boundaries. Taken together, sustainability and governance leave room for wide avenues of interpretation and criticism.  However, an answer to the question ‘‘How governance can be made sustainable in practice?’ (Rist et al, 2007, pp.26) has become very elusive.  Sustainability and governance is connected by the impact that they have on each other. The impact of new governance structures on sustainability planning are evident in holistic forms of development that incorporate citizen engagement as a key element in the community planning and stewardship (Raco, 2005). Despite their definitions, the combination of ‘sustainability’, ‘development’ and ‘governance’ have been termed in academic literature as ‘sustainable governance’ (Agraval, 2001),  or ‘governance for sustainable development (Ayre      56  and Calloway, 2005, Newig et all, 2008) or also referred  to as ‘reflexive governance for sustainable development’  (Voss et al, 2006).  Reflexive governance questions the current policies that are in place and provides alternatives to recreate societal development foundations. Voss and Kemp (2005) discuss two forms of reflexive governance in the context of sustainability. The first form called ‘first order reflexivity’ (p.6) focuses on how individual members of society deal with the implications of society’s behavior. For example, as societies grow, they face a variety of different problems; the solutions to these problems will ultimately develop another set of problems. Voss and Kemp (2005) refer to this as self confrontation and further explain that ultimately we will have to face the solutions and problems that we create for ourselves.  The second form of reflexive governance is called ‘second order reflexivity’. This form incorporates the element of rational thinking and critical assessment into problem solving at a societal level. For instance, rational analysis is applied to the ‘self-induced’ problem as well as the problems conditions and effects (Voss and Kemp, 2005, p. 6). Sustainable development is too large and complex a task for any one government or sector to implement. The principles of sustainable development need to be translated into institutional practices whilst understanding the role of non-state actors, policy making and communication. Moreover, social interaction and social learning approaches are instrumental in the shifts of governance and sustainability (Rist et al, 2007). It is within the context of collaborative action that sustainable governance can be defined and attained. Social learning and collective action is not just about participation but also involves creating spaces for communicative action and societal transformation. In order for sustainability planning to be effective, new forms of social      57  learning may be the approach needed to attain the desired levels of community sustainability (Swart et al, 2004). Strategies for sustainable development have taken a multidimensional and collaborative approach to planning the built environment which has been inspired by social, economic and ecological factors of sustainability (Voss and Kemp, 2006). Voss and Kemp (2006) introduce the concept of reflexive governance as a societal response to current governing strategies and approaches. Reflexive governance implies that one has lost faith in the current governing systems and may question its effectiveness and efficiency (Voss and Kemp, 2006). The role between reflexivity and sustainability in governance is further elaborated by Stirling (2006) who concludes that reflexivity is based on self-awareness or self-reflection and can serve as a precautionary principle in governance discourses.  A transition to a multi-stakeholder approach rather than state centric approach to governance has been a recent phenomenon in the quest towards sustainability (Pollack, Reed, and Whitelaw, 2007).  The quality of governance is said to be determined through the multi-tiered linkages and decision making processes.  Recently, this has resulted in a shift towards re- evaluating the value of community capital and is explained further by Ellsworth and Jones Walters (2006) in Pollack et al (2007): “Communities are the heart of governance transition. As places, they experience issues as a web of interrelated problems. As people they live with direct effects, indirect effects and cumulative effects of policies. As relationships they are the product of rewarding interactions” (Ellsworth and Jones Walters, 2006, pp. 5-6).      58  Sustainability was introduced as a planning theme for communities who viewed long term planning as a response to growth and as an integral method to help communities respond to change (Roseland, 2005).  The concept of sustainable governance as a pre-emptive course of action to respond to changes in community planning has been explored by Hanna (2005). Sustainable community action planning influences the governance structures that are currently in place and creates a need for strategic changes in regulation and accountability (Hanna, 2005). Institutional partnerships and arrangements that are guided by sustainable planning processes can change the way in which communities are developed (Roseland, 2005 and Hanna, 2005). Local governments that promote civic engagement can help improve target areas for sustainability planning. Community wide sustainability planning can create a type of governing where responsibilities are shared between the civic sector and government. Sustainability as a theme in planning and governance continues to pose challenges for decision making in the public sphere. In order to plan communities that are healthy and thriving, policy makers need to adopt and incorporate the economic, environmental, cultural and social sustainability tenets into the decision making processes that occurs within the governance structures of communities. One of the biggest challenges to planning and governance has been the downloading of responsibility to the citizens.  Consequently, active citizenship has replaced the traditional governing structures overseeing community planning. As the governing systems continue to implement sustainability technique into their planning process, communities will become more balanced and ready to respond to change.       59  3.2.5 Trans-Boundary Governance Common resources can be defined as ones that are shared by a community. OECD (2008, p. 85) defines common resources as ”Common property resources (environmental) are natural resources owned and managed collectively by a community or society rather than by individuals”. Common resources such as air quality and clean water have been the premise for a multitude of trans- boundary negotiations at many scales that focus on the protection and conservation of our common resources.  Management of trans-boundary common resources is problematic in globalised economies where transnational corporations have been confined to the regulations mitigated by international environmental law and had to transition their operative practices to abide by legally binding environmental sanctions and agreements. This form of international environmental responsibility has spearheaded governance changes in both corporate and local government operations. Future planning processes for trans-boundary governance issues need to incorporate sustainability into long and short term planning.  As corporation and municipal governments continue to share their natural resources either by proximity or for operative use, trans-boundary governance can be found throughout the private and public sector as well as embedded within collective and individual action (Karkkainen, 2004). The need for trans-boundary sustainability is a result of the growing environmental impacts of urban growth and its effects have given rise to urban environmental problems such as water quality and air pollution (Hills and Roberts, 2001). The governing bodies responsible for trans- boundary protected areas such as parks and oceans have faced many obstacles when trying to create boundaries for political regulations (Wolmer, 2003).  Strong (1992) explains that ‘as the      60  views of our planet from space make clear, nature does not acknowledge or respect boundaries with which we have divided our planet. As important as these boundaries are for the management of our political affairs and relationships, they are transcended by the unitary nature of the natural system on which our lives and well-being depend’ (in Wolmer 2003, pp.77).  Trans-boundary areas in particular have very unique governance dilemmas and are made up of a variety of top-down and bottom up managerial processes. Governance in the context of protected areas, natural environments and urban built environments in communities can also be viewed as protected areas that are regulated by trans-boundary governance processes (Wolmer, 2003 and Strong, 1992). An understanding of sustainability in trans-boundary governance structures requires the identification of the various social, economic and political systems of governance and how they operate and engage with the processes of governance and shape the social capacity for sustainability using a multi-tiered approach (Bulkeley and Betsill, 2005).  Hooghe and Marks (2001) suggest two ways in which multi-level governance within the context of environmental politics can be identified. The first method views governance through a hierarchical lens and focuses on the competencies and authorities dispersed between levels of the government. The second method views governance as an organizational structure where overlapping and interconnectedness exists amongst various authorities and political spaces (Hooghe and Marks, 2001). Open communicative processes are vital to dealing with trans-boundary governance issues and further proclaim that ‘trans-boundary common pools provide many of the basic inputs on which most economies and communities are constructed’ (Heinmiller, 2004, p. 12).      61  Governance is prominent in a variety of institutions and within all entities of society, thus attempting to define governance territory has proved to be limiting on its process and effectiveness. One of the major challenges to governance has been defining its boundaries. Boundaries that have been created for jurisdictional reasons and are done so with administrative and proprietor motives rather than been motivated by environmental or ecological concerns (Francis, 1995). 3.3 Summary Governance and sustainability are two of the most contested and researched concepts in academia. Governance is a dynamic concept that continues to be a challenge to define as it has undergone shifts in administration and accountability in both the public and private sectors. We are currently in a time of change where the responsibility to provide civil services are require collaborative participation that begins at a grassroots level. In particular, the widespread, trans- boundary impacts of climate have increased the complexity of problems associated with effective and efficient protection and conservation of our common goods and resources. Communities across North American and the across the globe are trying to mitigate the problems associated with water scarcity, air quality, pollution and land use. With so many of these issues being trans-boundary across multiple jurisdictions, the need to work together and make long term goals and attainable objectives is integral.  The adoption of sustainability action planning by local governments has had a great impact on traditional forms of governance. In the efforts to combat the challenges associated with      62  environmental change, former normative forms of governance require a new directive and institutional arrangements between government and non government actors.  The influence of sustainability practices on governance structures is instrumental to understand and provide a comprehensive theoretical construct of governance studies. Governance is a concept and process, the definition of which is in constant flux and must adapt to global and environmental changes. It is a construct that is directed through political decision making but understood by the complex nature in which it operates. Governance has made a significant transition from a top down governing perspective to one that encourages civic engagement and participation. Public collective action appears to be the new directive to understand the present transition of governance.  Academics continue to struggle with a theoretical understanding of governance in its transition mode where power is not dispersed from a bottom up directive rather than a top down government based authority. However, what can be concluded is that the transition of governance has been facilitated under neo- liberal strategies where power and responsibility has been dispersed from a central governing body to the individual and public.  The neo-liberal paradigm has guided the shift in governance. Sustainable planning has also emerged as a way in which to justify an increase in public responsibility and self governing. In order to plan sustainably, new governance implies that everyone should take responsibility and ultimately be responsible for the welfare of both the individual and community.      63  The conclusions that I have made in this chapter that are related to sustainability, trans- boundary planning and governance in small (neo-liberalized) towns are the basis for what I build my research upon.                     64  CHAPTER 4 RESEARCH METHODS 4.0 Overview In order to understand sustainability action planning (SAP) in small communities, I have chosen to take a mixed methods approach to my research drawing from multiple disciplines from the social sciences such as geography, political science, sociology. This is a comparative case study using mixed qualitative methods. The data for this thesis were compiled from observations and interviews administered in two small communities in the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia. Peachland and Armstrong were chosen as case studies to understand sustainability action planning. There are two phases of data collection in the research strategy.  During the first phase I developed a sustainability inventory of all regulatory documents such as policies, guidelines, bylaws and actions to gain a better understanding of the sustainability practices that were implemented within each case study. During the second phase, I used purposeful sampling to conduct in-depth interviews of key members in sustainability planning in both communities. The interviews were followed by focus groups that focused on sustainability indicators and measures.  A detailed description of the study methodologies is provided in the subsequent sections. 4.1 Methodological Approach The goal of the research is to understand SAP and the influence that governance has on the implementation and success of SAP in small communities. I also wanted to examine how these two communities fared against best practices and frameworks on community based      65  sustainability planning from the Government of British Columbia and notable experts in both planning and sustainability.  Based on my reading of the literature and initial observations in the two case study communities, I felt that governance and governance structures play a significant role in the implementation and success of sustainability action planning in small communities.  The questions used to guide my research are as follows: 1. How does sustainability action planning work in small communities? 2. What is the role of governance in sustainability action planning for British Columbia?  Qualitative research methods are used to answer the research questions. When conducting research in human geography, qualitative research methods are used in many areas to understand how humans interact and act within social, economic, cultural, political or environmental structures (Hay, 2010, p. 5).  Researchers in human geography attempt to understand these structures by studying humans in a variety of environments. For Hay (2010), “qualitative research is concerned with elucidating human environments and human experiences within a variety of conceptual frameworks” (p. 5). Qualitative research focuses on human-kind’s perception and conception of social issues.  Fraenkel and Wallen (1990) and Merriam (1988) claim that “Qualitative research focuses on the process that is occurring as well as the product or outcome” (in Creswell, 2009, p. 195). My qualitative research approach uses humanistic lens that focuses on geographic phenomena to understand human behavior. This perspective will help to understand sustainability action planning in small communities (Hay, 2010) and will use a triangulation of data and theory to guide my research. According to Yuan      66  (1976), humanistic geography “achieves an understanding of the human world by studying people’s relations with nature, their geographical behavior as well as their feeling and ideas in regard to space and place (p. 266).”  And thus for the purpose of this research, a qualitative research methods strategy appeared to be the most suitable research method towards understanding and describing the process of sustainability action planning in local governments as well as the community wide sustainability practices that are underway in Peachland and Armstrong, British Columbia. 4.2 Research Design and Framework For this study, I have chosen a mixed methods research design using an interpretive/descriptive approach. According to Williams (1996) “The challenge for interpretive researchers is to conduct research studies in the knowledge that the reality that is perceived by participants in the research process is constantly changing because of the dynamic nature of our experiences of phenomena” (p.14).  Understanding that interpretation of research can only be captured in a specific time frame, as the researcher I am conscious of the fact interpreting or describing a specific phenomena, structure or behavior is specified to a snapshot of a moment in time and space and will not be used to generalize. Mark Roseland’s (2005) eight building blocks for community sustainability have been used as guiding principles for categorizing and identifying patterns throughout the data collection process and for conducting in depth interviews and focus groups.   Roseland is a well known expert in the field of sustainable community planning in British Columbia and his      67  recommendations and building blocks have been examined in the literature review of this study. For the research framework of this study, I have chosen to use a comparative case study design. Case studies “involve the study of a single instance or small number of instances of a phenomenon in order to explore in depth nuances of the phenomenon and the contextual influences on and explanations of that phenomenon” (Hay, 2010, p. 81). Comparative case studies allow incorporation of temporal and spatial considerations and so the research “allows a particular issue to be studied in depth and from a variety of perspectives” (Kitchin and Tate, 2000, p. 225). A humanistic approach has been taken to conduct this research. Humanistic geographers are especially interested in studying phenomena in various places and from a variety of perspectives.  According to Yuan (in Rana, 2008,  pp.294) humanistic geography “achieves an understanding of the human world by studying people’s relations with nature, their geographical behavior as well as their feeling and ideas in regard to space and place”. I have chosen to use a multiple case study design in order to examine sustainability planning initiatives in small communities in British Columbia. Yin claims that using a multiple case study approach can help the researcher understand how and why a particular outcome might have occurred and what the reason for or lack of case to case replication might be (Yin, 2009, p.59). Moreover, in this research a multiple case study design was instrumental to determining if variances in governance structures contributed to employing successful community wide sustainability initiatives. The case studies chosen for this research add to the scholarly      68  understanding of sustainability planning and the role of governance structures. In addition, this research will assist municipal planners understand and identify the similarities and differences that small communities face when planning for community sustainability. This research also sheds light on the fact that sustainability initiatives for small communities cannot be standardized or compared to urban areas or even other small communities. The sustainability sensitivities and vulnerabilities for each community are unique and must be planned for accordingly. Additionally, the case studies of two communities in the Okanagan provide an understanding of the role of governance structures in sustainability planning.  Using the outcomes from in depth interviews and focus groups from key members of the local government in Armstrong and Peachland, this study helps identify best practices and challenges for municipal sustainability planning. The research framework for this study uses a variety of perspectives and viewpoints ranging from planning professionals, administrators, politicians and notable academics in the field. 4.3 Collection of Primary Data For this study, I chose a multi-phased and triangulated data collection approach to effectively understand and describe the ways in which sustainability planning is perceived and thus employed in Peachland and Armstrong. The data collection methods for this study include:  a sustainability inventory of municipal regulatory documents, in depth interviews and focus groups.  In addition, this study also includes an extensive literature review that provides      69  theoretical context in order to identify the critical points of current knowledge by accredited academics and researchers. Phase One – Baseline Data – Sustainability Inventory Matrix The data collected during the first phase was used to create a sustainability inventory matrix of all regulatory documents to gain a better understanding of the sustainability practices that are implemented within each case study.  The Sustainability Inventory Matrix was developed by first listing and then classifying all relevant policies, actions and guidelines from Peachland and Armstrong’s regulatory documents based on guidelines and key target areas identified by Roseland. The regulatory documents for both communities were then categorized according to Roseland’s “Building Blocks for Community Sustainability” (Roseland, 2005) which include: Greening the City, Water and Sewage; Waste Reduction and Recycling; Energy Efficiency and Renewables; Atmospheric Change and Air Quality, Transportation Planning and Traffic Management, Land Use and Urban Form, Housing and Community Development and Economic Development (See Appendix A, Figures 1 and 2). This process is designed to provide a comprehensive baseline of information on the current regulatory documents related to small community sustainability. The inventory is used to perform a gap analysis of the policies and bylaws for each case study based and identify best practices in sustainability planning.  In the future, the inventory will serve as a tool for Peachland and Armstrong to understand which regulatory document policies are geared towards sustainability planning.       70  Phase Two – Interviews The second phase of my data collection includes in depth, semi-structured interviews with key members involved in municipal planning in Armstrong and Peachland.  Hay (2010) claims that interviews are an instrumental technique to gather information about experiences and opinions from people from a variety of age groups, ethnicities and classes in order to collect a diversity of understandings and meanings and by different people.  I decided to use semi-structured interviews so that specific issues related to sustainability planning and governance structures were addressed but also so the interview was still flexible and unrestricted. The interviews began on July 21st 2010 and were completed on September 17th, 2010. I chose a purposive/non- random sample of key members of each municipality that were  responsible for planning initiatives within each community so that I could speak with the key people in the municipality responsible for sustainability planning.  I interviewed 5 members from the City of Armstrong local government and 4 members from the District of Peachland’s local government. I used a face sheet of interview questions to guide the discussion (Appendix B, Figure 1). The face sheet enabled the discussion to touch on key issues that would be relevant to answering the research questions of this study but still provided a structure where other issues and topics could be discussed.  The face sheet had two sets of questions. The first set of questions focused on Sustainability Action Planning and the second set on Governance. Prior to the interview, each participant was sent a Letter of Initial contact (Appendix B, Figure 2). Participants were also required to sign a written consent form that outlined the research interests of my study and provided an option to preserve the anonymity of the interview      71  responses (Appendix B, Figure 3). All of the interviews were audio-recorded.  Semi-structured interviews were useful for understanding sustainability initiatives in each community from a variety of viewpoints and perspectives. Some limitations in this data collection method were that many of the participants are political figures, so I was unable to determine if the thoughts and views expressed were true opinions or responses that were politically corrected and thus deemed appropriate. Upon completion of the interviews, the data were transcribed and then sent back to the participant for verification. Once verification was received, the transcribed interview was then thematically coded in order to find patterns, similarities and variances.   The responses were then analyzed and categorized based on the patterns, similarities and variances to determine if comparisons could be made between sustainability planning amongst the two case studies. Responses were coded according to three broad themes which came up during analysis: Sustainability Action Planning, Governance and Neo-liberalism. Phase Three – Focus Groups The final phase of my data collection involved focus groups. Focus groups are an instrumental method to gain an understanding of variety of insights on a specific issue through dialogue (Flowerdew and Martin, 2005, p. 129). Focus groups are a way of collecting data from a variety of perspectives at the same time.  Focus groups are an efficient method to gather information about people’s knowledge and experience about a specific situation (Kitzinger, 1995). A focus group was facilitated for each case study in my research.  The focus group for Peachland was held on October 21st, 2010 and the focus group for Armstrong was conducted on October 18th, 2010.  Both focus groups were conducted by myself and were held at the local municipal office      72  in each community. Each focus group had four participants from the municipal office. The municipal staff responsible for planning was a very small group; therefore the participants for the focus groups were the same respondents from my interviews that were conducted earlier in the year. Prior to the focus group, each participant was sent a letter explaining the agenda of the focus group. In order to be able to conduct the focus groups effectively, the discussions were transcribed by Jason Drury, a colleague and Master’s student at the University of British Columbia Okanagan. The focus groups were organized in two sections that are each 30 minutes in length and focus on Indicators of Sustainability. There are two main goals for this section of the focus group. The first was to identify the areas of a community in which sustainability indicators would be useful and the second was to identify the most efficient and effective way to measure each area. Each participant was given 8 cards of different colors representing each of Roseland’s 8 building blocks for sustainable community building. Participants were then asked to identify specific areas in their community in which indicators to measure sustainability would be required and then asked to note them on the back of their cards. Each participant was to identify indicator areas for each building block. Additionally, each participant was to identify a method to measure such indicator.  The goal of this exercise is to identify similarities and differences of sustainability planning initiatives amongst the responses.  The responses from the focus groups were portrayed in table form. These results of this focus group are presented in Chapter Four of this thesis.       73  4.4 Data Assessment Transcription Each interview was transcribed on the date of completion in order to facilitate analysis of the conversation in text form.  I listened to the interviews several times to make sure the responses that were transcribed were as accurate as possible. I used Microsoft One Note to record the transcribed interviews. Notes pertaining to gestures and tones were taken in an interviewer notebook in order to ensure breadth and depth of coverage.  There was one interview where the tape was muffled in its recording.  This interview had to be partially conducted again at a later date. Content Analysis I performed a content analysis to conceptually organize and identify associations within the large amount of data from the interviews and focus groups. I used a latent content analysis approach to search the transcribed interviews and data from the focus groups for explanatory themes that would answer my research questions (Hay, 2010). Three broad explanatory themes were found and identified through the latent content analysis: neo-liberalism, sustainability planning and governance. These themes became the interpretive/analytical codes used to organize my data. The descriptive codes that I chose were simple category labels based on the five pillars of sustainability: environmental, social, economic, cultural and the added pillar of governance.  The text of the interview was coded by assigning a symbol to the relevant text associated with the explanatory codes and the descriptive codes. Within the three broad explanatory themes, several sub-categories were identified and assigned a letter and a number      74  which associated it to the sub category.  The subsequent figure represents the categories and sub-categories used for data analysis. 4.5 Quality Checks Validity Given the interpretive nature of qualitative research, it is essential that a good research study be valid, authentic and reliable. Kitchin and Tate (2000) state that “Validity concerns the soundness, legitimacy and relevance of a research theory and its investigation” (p. 34).  The quality check of this study focuses on validity relating to theory and practice.  In order to address issues regarding content validity, the theoretical constructs and frameworks used in this study have been borrowed from accredited academic publications surrounding sustainability planning and governance structures. This study is valid in practice and methodological integrity.  This study’s data collection methods acknowledge soundness, transparency and ethical procedures to address issues surrounding construct validity.  To ensure that the results of this study are reliable and credible, the analysis and data has been presented to the best of my ability without bias or error. Ensuring validity and rigor is critical to qualitative research because it ensures the authenticity and honesty of the writing, research methods and data derived from the study. Validity in qualitative research is ensuring that the conclusions that have been made are sound and have been reached with integrity.  Trochim (2006) claims, “the main concern of validity is based on the truth or falsity of an observation with respect to an external reality” (retrieved from www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/introval.php). In order to ensure validity in my research, I      75  conducted my research with the utmost transparency and honesty as possible. I triangulated my methods with my data to ensure that the steps taken to collect data were completed with transparency and trustworthiness. This research study provided thick description to explain context, reasons, understandings, interpretations and intentions of the outcomes gathered from this study. Representativeness Several methods were employed in order to ensure the representativeness of this study. Representativeness is important to qualitative research because it ensures diversity in a sample so that all aspects and perspectives are covered. The first method was to choose case studies that are representative of many small communities in British Columbia that are beginning to incorporate sustainability into their planning practices. These case studies provide insight on planning initiatives and governance structures from a variety of viewpoints. The participants that were selected occupied a variety of roles in sustainability planning in the local government ranging from technical planners, administrative positions and senior officials. These positions are also representative of the governance structures that are in place within each community. Governance structures provide insight about accountability, regulation and responsibility of sustainability planning initiatives in each case study. Making Contrasts/Comparisons The breadth of this study is based on contrasts and comparisons of interview and focus group responses. According to Miles and Huberman (1994) “Comparison is a time-honored, classic way to test a conclusion; we draw a contrast or make a comparison between two sets of things      76  – persons, roles, activities, cases as a whole – that are known to differ in some other important respect” (p. 254).  This research has made a multitude of comparisons surrounding sustainable community planning and governance structures.  First, this study compares the results of the baseline data derived from Peachland and Armstrong’s sustainability inventories against each other to address each community’s strengths, gaps and weaknesses. Second, the results of the interviews and focus groups as well as the results from the inventory have been compared against guidelines from Roseland’s (2005) building blocks for community sustainability. Third, the responses from the interviews were compared and contrasted between respondents within the same community and between responses from the second community in this study.  Finally, the responses from the focus groups were presented using a visualization based on the contrasts and similarities amongst the responses between participants and between communities. The variety of comparisons and contrasts in this study shed light on the ways in which sustainability was employed and interpreted amongst communities with varying governance structures.  Additionally, comparing these two communities’ regulatory documents against Roseland’s building blocks and the pillars for sustainability planning has provided insight on how these communities fare against accredited guidelines in sustainability planning and most notably against each other. In this study, issues surrounding reliability are not relevant. Miles and Huberman (1994) state that reliability is determined by: “whether the process of the study is consistent, reasonably stable over time and across researchers and methods” (p.278). This study does not track the      77  stability of the research process or sustainability planning initiatives across a period of time. Instead this study explores, describes and provides a snapshot of current sustainability planning initiatives and contrasting and similar themes between two communities. 4.6 Summary In order to effectively and efficiently answer my research questions, I have used a qualitative approach to my research using mixed methods in my research design. In order to understand how sustainability initiatives are employed in small communities in British Columbia, I used a variety of data collection methods ranging from content analysis, baseline data collection, semi- structured interviews and focus groups.  The data obtained from these methods were insightful in determining and understanding the contrasts and similarities of community wide sustainability planning in small towns. Interviews and focus groups that were conducted with professionals in planning and members of the local government were instrumental in identifying the varying governance structures in the communities chosen as my case studies. The results and conclusions of this research study are presented in the subsequent chapters.           78  CHAPTER 5 RESULTS 5.0 Overview This chapter is organized by data collection methods used during this study. This I present results from the sustainability inventories, interviews and focus groups. The inventory of policies and bylaws provides a baseline of information on sustainability efforts in each of the study sites. This inventory of regulatory documents is categorized based on Roseland’s building blocks for sustainability.  Interviews conducted with key members of the municipal government from each case study are presented in order to understand patterns in the sustainability inventory based on the key themes that emerged during analysis. Focus groups were conducted as a final phase of data collection. These key members are included in the focus groups to provide information and feedback which helped addressed many of the issues pertaining to sustainability planning for small towns in British Columbia.  The inventory provides a comprehensive baseline data of the regulatory documents and actions for sustainability in each case study. The objective of the interviews is to provide an in depth, rich discourse of the perceptions and experiences of sustainability planning from specific members of the municipality that are involved in the planning process. The focus groups provide an opportunity to collaborate with key members in municipal planning to discuss and describe similar experiences in sustainability planning. The information and experiences gathered from focus groups are based on the reaction and opinions of similar experiences of the processes and mechanisms involved in sustainability planning.       79  5.1 Inventory Results The sustainability inventory is an important first step to understand how the District of Peachland and the City of Armstrong were incorporating sustainability into their community through their policies bylaws and objectives. The inventory work plan involves the collection of bylaws, regulations, policies and reports related to sustainability. Results of the sustainability inventory are presented as a matrix (Appendix A) which categorizes all relevant bylaws, regulations, and policies relating to sustainability in the District of Peachland and the City of Armstrong based on Roseland’s (2005)  eight building blocks for community sustainability. The numbers in the table below represent the number of policies, actions and regulatory documents that are sustainable in practice for each municipality. The results of the inventory indicate how each community is planning for a sustainable future based on the policies and documents pertaining to sustainable development in practice in each community. Table 1 Case Study Comparison of Inventory Results for the District of Peachland and the City of Armstrong Sustainability Building Blocks District of Peachland City of Armstrong Greening the City 68 29 Water and Sewage 55 68 Waste Reduction and Recycling 4 3 Energy Efficiency and Renewables 14 0 Atmospheric Change and Air Quality 3 0 Transportation Planning and Traffic Management 38 24 Land Use and Urban Form 81 29 Housing and Community Development 57 51 Economic Development 28 18 Total 348 222       80  Greening the City The building block Greening the City involves ‘strategies and techniques that protect and restore ecology within urban communities’ (Roseland, 2005, pp. 40). These techniques and strategies focus on ways to restore green and open spaces in developed areas. In Peachland there are 68 regulatory documents involving ‘Greening the City’ and in Armstrong there are 29 regulatory documents.  Of the 69 entries in Peachland, 9 were derived from bylaws and policies that focus on zoning requirements and bylaws to protect ecologically sensitive areas and natural features, views and resources.  While large comprehensive plans include the Official Community Plan (OCP) (40 policies), the ‘Beach Avenue Plan’ (4 policies) and the ‘Shoreland Plan’ (11 policies). These policies focus on the preservation and maintenance of green space and provide development requirements for green spaces, walkable trails and parks as part of new development. OCP policies tend to relate to development permit areas (DPA’s), environmental objectives and sustainable development strategies. The Beach Avenue Plan policies focus on the environment and open space requirements throughout the community. The main objective of the policies in this category is to maintain a high quality environment for the residents and visitors. For the City of Armstrong, all of the 29 policies were taken from the Official Community Plan and ranged from target areas such as General Objectives, Natural Environmental Objectives, Residential Policies, Commercial Policies, Industrial Policies, Agriculture, Parks and Recreation, Greenways plans.  Natural Environmental policies (3 policies) highlighted issues surrounding environmentally sensitive areas, financial support towards the carrying capacity of Armstrong      81  and to manage growth in a manner that maintains the integrity and promotes stewardship of the natural environment.  The preservation of the Agricultural Land Reserve is a common theme and focus on target areas such as Boundary Adjustment and Amalgamation policy, Agricultural policies, Parks and Recreation policies, Greenway plan policies all identified the preservation of the ALR.  Other policies focused on the preservation of natural lands in regards to recreation/commercial uses and/or industrial development. Water and Sewage The second category ‘Water and Sewage’ focused on the infrastructure and operations for maintaining water and sewage efficiency within a community. Peachland has a total of 55 regulatory documents and policies. The City of Armstrong has a total of 68 policies. In Peachland, 9 were derived from bylaws. The OCP (15 policies) focused on health and safety concerns. These included policies relating to the planning sewage, upgrading of water systems, stormwater management as well as environmental management through the use of Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESA’s). Other focal points are water quality, sewage effluent policies, and aquatic weed control, stormwater management. The Water Master Plan (11 Policies) focuses on objectives, challenges and guiding principles to meet future water needs. Policies related to climate change (6 policies) focused on education and awareness initiatives. The City of Armstrong has 68 policies that are derived from 2 bylaws and 66 policies and objectives from the Official Community Plan.  The policies entered in this category ranged from Floodplain Lands; Development Permit policies and objectives; Municipal Water Supply and Distribution; Liquid Waste Management policies and Drainage Management policies. Over half      82  of the policies in this category were populated by Water and Supply policies (25 policies) and Liquid Waste Management (30 policies). Water related policies focused on watershed protection, public education in water conservation, water consumption and water distribution. Policies surrounding sewage focused on sewer collection, treatment and storage, long term maintenance, drainage demands and wastewater. Waste Reduction and Recycling The third building block focuses on the regulatory standards required to manage waste in a community. Policies in this category focus on ways in which a community can reuse and divert waste and mitigate the depletion of natural resources. For this category, Peachland had 4 policies in total. These policies focused on solid waste collection regulation for the District as well as labeling requirements for waste disposal containers. The initiatives outline Peachland’s partnership with the Regional District of the Central Okanagan (RDCO) to implement an automated waste collection program set up to make recycling and yard waste disposal easier for its residents. The City of Armstrong had three policies in this category. Natural Environment Policy (1 policy) recognized the contamination issues surrounding land, air water. Solid Waste Management Policies (2 policies) affirmed the City of Armstrong’s support to the District of the North Okanagan’s Solid Waste Plan.        83  Energy Efficiency and Renewables This building block focuses on the sustainable use of energy resources. Regulatory documents entered into this category support strategies to reduce consumption and dependence on energy resources. Peachland has a total of 14 entries within this category.  The Official Community Plan (1 policy) focused on promoting orderly and economic growth of utilities and services throughout the District. The Town Centre Concept Plan (1 policy) focused on the required upgrades for companies regarding shallow utilities. One BC Building Code regulation was employed in Peachland and relevant to this category. This regulation identified insulation standards for houses and multifamily residential buildings. The Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory was the next entry. It is a tool that assists local governments in BC track community wide energy consumption.  Over 60% of the entries in this category were made by the 2008 Energy Assessment, which stated the objectives of the audit to analyze historical consumption and costs to specific buildings. The City of Armstrong did not have any relevant policies or bylaws to be populated into this category. Atmospheric Change and Air Quality This building block focuses on techniques and strategies used to address climate change and manage local air quality resulting from atmospheric pollution created by human activity Peachland has 3 policies in this category.  The OCP (1 policy) focused on a commitment to partner with the RDCO to support the Air Quality Master Plan. This Air Quality Master Plan (1      84  policy) listed various strategies that the District could employ to efficiently improve the air care for the community. Examples for such strategies include a reduction of emissions into the Major Regional Source Strategy to enhance air quality information and public awareness within the community. Peachland plans to facilitate air quality research on existing air quality levels in order to achieve air quality goals and milestones that have been set out by Peachland and federal and provincial governments.  A recent initiative employed by Peachland is a policy focusing on Anti-Engine Idling (1 policy). This policy states that no operator of a District vehicle shall permit the engine of that vehicle to idle for more than three consecutive minutes, except as provided within the Exemptions section of the policy. The City of Armstrong did not have any relevant policies or bylaws to be entered into this category. Transportation Planning and Traffic Management This building block focuses on strategies and techniques to create systems that manage traffic and develop transportation infrastructure to meet the demands of a growing community in a sustainable and effective manner. Peachland has 38 policies in this category including 5 bylaws and Armstrong has a total of 24 policies including 4 bylaws. For Peachland, these bylaws range from traffic management analysis in the Subdivision and Development Services bylaws.  These bylaws propose the most effective and efficient methods to utilize local highways, in particular Highway 97. Policies range from how to maximize efficiency of local road use to the need for traffic impact analysis reports for new subdivisions.      85  The OCP (19 policies) focused on active transportation planning to increase mobility and safety. These policies also focused on the implementation of a Transportation Plan, a Trails Network Plan and a Cycling Network Plan. The Beach Avenue Plan (6 policies) addresses the accessibility of the area to traffic and the need for parking.  The Shoreland Plan (2 policies) maintain access and walkability to and along the foreshore. The Town Centre Concept Plan (1 policy) recommends that Town Lane be widened for pedestrian use. The Roadway Network Plan (5 policies) assesses and classifies District roads by use. The City of Armstrong has 24 policies two of which are bylaws relevant to this category. The bylaws focus on regulations surrounding the use of highways, traffic and parking regulations. The first two policies were Residential Policies from the OCP which focused on traffic calming buffers for Armstrong and identified target areas for pedestrian safety and mobility such as walkways and bicycle paths.  One commercial policy regulates traffic volumes and mobility for residential streets and minor arteries. These policies are exemplifying Armstrong’s commitment to provide alternative transportation networks throughout various areas of the city. Transportation Network policies (16 policies) focus on a variety of issues and objectives such as efficient and safe transportation, road allowances, alternative transportation options, infrastructure upgrades, pedestrian safety and mobility and reduced reliance on motor vehicles. Land Use and Urban Form This building block focuses on land use practices and planning that develop the natural and built environment in a sustainable manner that promotes integration, multi-use design that is      86  affordable and help invigorate the economic, social, environmental and cultural elements of the community. This category for Peachland has the highest number of policies and bylaws with a grand total of 81 entries of which 4 are bylaws. Armstrong has a total of 29 policies 3 of which are bylaws. For Peachland, the Subdivision and Development Services bylaws state that land cannot be excavated nor paved or graveled without the approval of Geotechnical Evaluation.  Two bylaws focus on zoning incorporating sustainable elements of mixed residential land use through building height requirements and comprehensive development zoning regulations. The Official Community Plan (58 policies) contained the majority of sustainability policies within this category. These policies focused on the direction, scope, scale and design of land use. OCP land use policies concentrated on land development on steep slope natural terrain.  Other policies focused on mixed residential and commercial land uses in the downtown core along with comprehensive development zoning, affordable housing development, ALR regulations and sustainable foreshore development.  The Beach Avenue Plan (6 policies) focused on the physical appeal of land use in the downtown area and Beach Avenue.  The Shoreland Plan focuses on the development of adjacent lands and the structure, design and appearance of development on the shoreland.  This plan also identifies the permitted use of the beach and waterfront area.  The Town Centre Concept Plan (2 policies) main objectives aim to permit maximum densities on parcels and promoting mixed land use on Town Lane.  The Water Master Plan (1 policy) identifies a detailed site selection for the water treatment plan and water reservoirs.      87  This City of Armstrong had 3 bylaws and 26 policies and objectives for this category.  The bylaws focused on issues such as development permit amendments, zoning regulations and regulations for the subdivision and development of land. The first policy entry of this category focused on Armstrong’s commitment to preserve and conserve the natural land.  Natural Environment policies (2 policies) commit to reducing the environmental impact for development through increased initiatives for environmental protection. The next two entries in this category are made by Boundary Adjustment, Amalgamation and Regional Context Objectives and Policies (2 policies) in place to facilitate regional growth management and planning for lands within the current city boundaries. The next four policies are Residential policies and objectives (4 policies) that encourage multi-family Residential development, innovative and creative design, architectural continuity and compliance to zoning regulations and mandates. Housing and Community Development This building block incorporates policies and opportunities that address and influence sustainable community development by utilizing social equity and socially sustainable development strategies. Peachland and Armstrong have a similar number of regulatory documents for this category. Peachland had 57 regulatory documents and Armstrong had 51 regulatory documents. For Peachland, 5 of these 57 regulatory documents were bylaws and 4 of the 47 regulatory documents in Armstrong were bylaws.      88  In Peachland, these bylaws identified a variety of issues concerning the need to adopt an Official Community Plan, redevelopment of historic homes, mixed residential and commercial development, as well as creating a Sustainable Development Strategy for affordable housing. Additional bylaws focus on the zoning requirements and regulations for secondary suites in single-family homes. The OCP policies (35 policies) focused on appropriate sustainable development issues such as residential densities, cluster housing, multiple family housing types and the protection of existing affordable housing stocks.  OCP policies targeted community development issues such as developing and maintaining adequate community service as a response to population growth and diversity.  Target areas aim to promote endeavors to enhance the arts community and celebrate the heritage of Peachland. The Beach Avenue Plan (11 policies) aim to create a neighborhood around the Beach Avenue area that will evolve into a well-integrated community both internally and externally.  One of the guiding principles for this plan is to create an inter linkage between communities in the Okanagan with respects to land and water aspects. The Shoreland Plan (3 policies) has objectives allowing for a range of recreational opportunities for the community and to upgrade and expand existing recreational facilities such as public parks and marinas.  The remaining 4 policies; Town Centre Concept Plan, Water Master Plan, CD Zone Intent and District of Peachland policy each accounted for 1 entry. The target areas for these policies focus on community outreach programs for water use, design guidelines for the character of Peachland and encourage the sustainable growth of the community.      89   Armstrong has a total of 47 policies including 4 bylaws making it the second highest category for policy entries.  The four bylaws focused on the Capital Expenditures bylaw, a commitment to the goals of the Official Community Plan, a bylaw to amend the Official Community Plan’s zoning regulations and a bylaw to regulate noise within the city. The subsequent 47 policies were made by various initiatives and objectives from the Official Community Plan. General Plan Objectives of the OCP (7 policies) concentrated on target areas that focus on a commitment to community development that will enhance Armstrong’s diversity, quality of life and attractiveness. These policies also focus on long term goals for planning the built environment, values, cultures, economies and ecosystems. Social Development objectives and policies ( 9 policies)  aim to improve the quality of life for the community and commitment by Council to build a health community by supporting community groups, recognizing the diversity of values and cultures, providing cultural, recreational and public open space for youth, community events and gatherings. Other forms of sustainable social development objectives are achieved through Affordable and Special Needs policies and objectives (8 policies) that highlight the need for clean, safe, affordable housing including secondary suites.  Council’s commitment to support special needs housing such as financial capabilities and requirements, adequate access to facilities and to protect against discrimination are identified in these policies.  Heritage Conservation Policies (4 policies) recognized the importance of heritage resources as a representation of Armstrong’s history and identity. These policies included goals and recommendations for a Heritage Management Plan and guidelines for a Heritage Conservation Area.      90  Residential policies (8 policies) focused on Armstrong’s commitment to provide a variety of housing types that align with the city’s sustainable development commitments. Residential objectives also highlight the importance of affordable housing, a commitment to create single and multi-family residences and to establish Comprehensive Development Zones that facilitate mixed use development. Commercial Objectives make up the next two entries for this category. These objectives focus on connecting commercial areas to residential areas and establishing compact commercial areas for local residents. An Institutional and Civic Objectives (1 policy) focuses on establishing public service uses in areas that best serve the community at large. The next two areas are made up by Development Permit Objectives and Policies (2 policies) which ensure that multi-family development occurs that follow the guidelines that regulate form and character.  The following two entries are Heritage Sites and Conservation Area objectives which aim to conserve and establish heritage sites throughout the city.  A review of the unit cost single or multifamily residences is examined by the Development Cost Recovery (2 policies) of the OCP.  Implementation and Review policies (3 policies) state that Council will support open and coordinated approach to the planning processes between the public and various levels of the government Economic Development This building block focuses on strategies and practices that a community has implemented to foster sustainable economic development through developing social and economic goals for self-reliance and collaboration.      91  For this category, Peachland has 28 entries and Armstrong has 18 entries.   For both communities, this category had significant gaps for bylaws that were relevant to community sustainability and economic development.  In Peachland, the Official Community Plan (19 policies) covered economic objectives such as developing an Economic Development Strategic Plan, strategies to recognize and support core business initiatives as well as enabling opportunities for agri-tourism for the District.   This initiative also identified target areas for economic development such as generating employment opportunities that are compatible with the environment.  Additional policies highlight the importance to support high quality commercial development. Initiatives for the Beach Avenue Plan (4 policies) established the policy direction surrounding neighborhood goals, which aim to establish a marketing program and business recruitment strategy.  The goal for the District is to present Peachland as a tourist destination that is promoting by its downtown image as well as its proximity to the waterfront. The Shoreland Plan (4 policies) outlines social and financial policies designed to create a 5 or 10-year development plan for the foreshore. The Economic Development Strategy (1 policy) outlines the terms of reference to develop and Economic Development Strategy that will encourage economic development and create opportunities for businesses. In Armstrong, this category had a total of 1 bylaw and 17 policies.  The single bylaw focused on an Inter Community Business License Agreement. Economic Development Policy and Objectives (11 policies) focused on a variety of targets and goals to stimulate economic growth, protect existing employment bases and to ensure that new development takes place in a manner that is      92  logical and does not place economic burdens on tax payers. Other goals for these policies are to promote an economically viable commercial district, improve local government services through financial capabilities and to continue to support the Chamber of Commerce. Commercial objectives (2 policies) aim to balance commercial types and uses for Armstrong’s residents and maintain the vibrancy and attractiveness of the downtown commercial area.  The last four entries in this category are populated by policies and objectives that focus on Development Cost Recovery and Industry policies (4 policies) to encourage the development of industries that are accessible and contribute to the economy.  The final two entries focus on ensuring that growth and development is equitable towards funding infrastructure development and park/school site acquisition. 5.2 Interview Results 5.2.1 District of Peachland Interviews with key members responsible for planning in Peachland began the week of July 21st 2010 and commenced August 25th, 2010. In total four members for the District of Peachland were interviewed including the Mayor, the Chief Administrative Officer, Director of Planning and Development Services and the City Planning Technician. The purpose of these interviews was to understand the perceptions of sustainable action planning in Peachland and the role of governance as an influence to these planning processes.  The interviews are semi-structured in style. The questions focus on two specific topics: sustainability action planning and governance.       93  Sustainable Action Planning For the first part of the interview, the respondents were asked 13 questions on sustainable action planning in Peachland. Appendix 2, Table 3 presents interview questions, responses and general themes that surfaced from the responses. The Mayor of Peachland appeared to be very well versed about the importance of incorporating sustainability in Peachland’s planning processes. He identified the importance of developing sustainable policies and practices for long term community planning.  He further noted the importance of public awareness for community sustainability as a vital element to encourage a change in behavior needed to shape a more sustainable future. For the Mayor, energy management is the inspiration behind current policies and future plans for policy development.  By encouraging people to modify their behavior in energy use through transit use and water consumption for example, the Mayor believes that community health can be achieved.  One the major challenges identified through the interview is a lack of resources and funds needed to spearhead many of the sustainability initiatives that Peachland wishes to employ. Sustainability for Peachland’s Chief Administrative Officer (CAO) is very much focused on planning for future generations. Comparably to the Mayor, the CAO states the importance of educating the public about the importance of incorporating sustainability into the actions of their daily lifestyle. Policies and regulations can be developed but without the support of the community very little progress will be made to conserve and preserve the natural environment. The CAO spoke about the importance of civic engagement in the policy development process.      94  Compliance to sustainability regulation may be more easily achieved by developing policies that are a reflection of public values and beliefs. Fortunately, Peachland has a young, retired aging population that is very active in the community and participates in public consultations for policy development. The CAO commented that many of the toolkits and initiatives that are recommended are developed for larger, urban areas and are difficult to implement in small communities. Small communities have limited resources and manpower needed to implement such initiatives. Another challenge is to make a business case and sell the concept of sustainability to the public and Council. Without Council’s support and a public buy-in, planning for community sustainability is difficult to achieve. The Director of Planning for Peachland highlighted the importance on place based sustainability planning. Peachland has sustainability needs and vulnerabilities that may be different from other small communities. Thus long term targets and goals cannot be standardized but must be developed specifically for Peachland. Energy management was once again identified as one of the most important challenges and goals. Through increased public consultation, awareness campaigns and effective policy development, the Director of Planning hopes to reduce energy consumption and meet the green house gas emissions targets that they have set. The Director of Planning also spoke of Peachland’s collaboration with university researchers and consultants to develop efficient and effective strategies needed for sustainable action planning. Leading by example as a municipality that is sustainable in its practices is one of the most effective ways to reach the public and change behaviors.      95  Sustainable action planning for Peachland’s Planning Technician is dependent upon a community that finds balance in the pillars of sustainability (economic, social, cultural, environment). He felt that this is best accomplished through civic engagement and support of sustainability policies that are strategically developed for the needs of a small community. Planning for sustainability is not a quick fix but requires a steady approach. Peachland needs to and has been grasping the opportunities that are available to them. For instance they have developed a sustainability inventory that provided a baseline data of the current regulatory documents that are sustainable in practice.  Peachland has also implemented policies to support anti-idling, water metering and solar panels. One of the challenges noted by the Planning Technician in relation to inter-departmental challenges such as lack of adequate resources, limited budgets and manpower. As one of the instrumental members in the planning process, the Planning Technician identified transportation as the main target area for sustainability planning initiatives and policy development. Motor vehicle dependence is the number one contributing factor for greenhouse gases and emissions outputs. According to the Planning Technician, governments are spending taxpayer dollars on infrastructure upgrades and road development when these resources should be directed to transit alternatives. When asked about the future course of action for sustainability planning, the Planning Technician stated that developing indicators to measure success in municipal sustainability initiatives is imperative. Policies and bylaws can be developed but without a process to identify progress, it is very difficult to measure the impact that sustainability initiatives have had on the community.       96  Governance In the second part of the interview, respondents were asked 7 questions relating to governance in Peachland. The objective of these questions was to gain insight and understand how governance influences the implementation of sustainability action planning initiatives in Peachland. Appendix 3, Table 4 presents interview questions, responses and general themes that surfaced from the responses. When asked about sustainable governance, the Mayor of Peachland stated that governance involved consciousness of the importance of directing policy towards building a healthy community that is sustainable in nature. In addition, governance is also about responsibility and providing leadership to the community at large about the importance of sustainability planning. According to the Mayor, sustainability planning is a trans-boundary governance issue where responsibility for sustainability issues such as air quality or water management spills into several governance jurisdictions. There are many actors responsible for developing the governance structures needed to support sustainability planning initiatives even in small communities such as Peachland.  For the Mayor, planning in small communities versus large communities both have their weaknesses and strength. Small communities may have greater support for sustainability from the community. Alternatively, larger communities may have the institutional manpower or research and development opportunities to communicate larger scale sustainability issues to the community. Sustainable governance for Peachland’s CAO also focused on the development of policies from community input that focus on sustainability action planning.  The CAO noted that governance      97  structures needed to support and facilitate sustainability planning is comprised of the entire staff at the municipality and Mayor and Council. Planning is not the responsibility of one person or one department, but instead it is a holistic and collaborative approach where responsibility is dispersed amongst many areas and individuals. Despite the many trans-boundary issues associated with sustainability, the CAO states that the community plays the largest role in successfully implementing sustainability action planning. Connecting decision making with high level sustainability goals is how Peachland’s Director of Planning describes sustainable governance. Decision making must have sustainability as a priority in order to have a governance structure that is sustainable itself.  Improvements to Public consultation and education were where important themes were noted by the Director of Planning. He believes the public has a lot of weight in the decision making process so without adequate knowledge and education progress towards a becoming a sustainable community may be hindered. When asked about how planning in small communities differ from larger communities, the Director of Planning noted that the scale of sustainability issues and the methods in which to manage these issues is the greatest difference. Peachland’s planning technician identified collaborative and integrated planning as an integral component to sustainable governance. By creating a governance structure where municipal, provincial and federal governments work collectively can reduce the many barriers and challenges to community planning. The planning technician states that the main role of municipal governance in regards to sustainability is to provide regulation and education to the community that support and convey importance of sustainable practices.  Peachland’s Mayor      98  and Council have developed several plans and long terms goals to help increase community sustainability and resilience to the impacts of global environmental change. Similar to the comments of the Director of Planning, the planning technician notes that improvements need to be made to better involve the community in the decision making process. 5.2.2 City of Armstrong The interviews with members from the City of Armstrong and Regional District of the North Okanagan (RDNO) were conducted from August 17th, 2010 to October 19th, 2010. In total 5 interviews were conducted with three members from the City of Armstrong and two members from the Regional District of the North Okanagan including the Mayor of Armstrong, the Chief Administrative Officer, the Planner (RDNO), the Sustainability Coordinator (RDNO) and the Corporate Administrative Assistant. The purposes of these interviews were to understand the perceptions and initiatives of sustainable action planning in Armstrong and the role of governance as an influence to these planning processes.  These interviews were semi- structured in style and comprised of questions and focused on two specific topics: sustainability action planning and governance. Sustainable Action Planning For the first part of the interview, the respondents were asked 13 questions on sustainable action planning in Armstrong. Appendix 2, Table 2 presents interview questions, responses and general themes that surfaced from the responses. A sustainable community for the Mayor of Armstrong is defined by the viability and services of a community including mobility, accessibility and appeal. In many of the Mayor’s responses, a      99  healthy, active community emerged as a common theme and Armstrong’s greatest asset in planning for community sustainability. In Armstrong, volunteerism is needed to spearhead many of the social programs and in essence serves as the core of the community. The IPE Fair, for example is annual agricultural exhibition that occurs annually in Armstrong and is entirely facilitated by community members and groups.  Sustainability as a theme in community planning has only recently emerged in Armstrong. One of the strategies noted by the Mayor to increase sustainability is through public consultation during the OCP review process.  Until this year, most of the direction for policy development was done by government planning toolkits or conferences. Community consultation is a way to gain perspectives from a variety stakeholders about what they deem as important changes to the OCP. Lack of available resources is one of the reasons why community participation and volunteerism is so important in Armstrong. The Mayor concluded the interview by acknowledging that sustainability needs are different when compared to urban areas and towns.  Sustainability indicators would be an effective way to measure achievements in sustainability in the areas of affordable housing, transportation and water management. The Chief Administrative Officer (CAO) of Armstrong defines a sustainable community as one that thinks about the long term impact of decision making.  She notes that despite not using the term ‘sustainability’ in their past, many of Armstrong’s policies and practices are sustainable in nature.  She further notes that one of the planning challenges that Armstrong faces is not having a planning department exclusively for the municipality. As a result, if sustainability planning is not initiated by the Regional District of the North Okanagan (RDNO) planner unless      100  previously instructed to do so. One of the main themes to emerge from this interview is growth management. The CAO mentioned several initiatives that Armstrong has implemented to sustainably support growth in the community such as improvement for infrastructure, water management and subdivision development.  An Official Community Plan (OCP) review is another initiative by Armstrong to help redirect planning within the community to incorporate sustainability into its practices and language. Some target areas of focus are in relation to civic engagement, density, mixed use development and Agricultural Land Reserve (ALR).  The CAO discussed that lack of resources to implement change was one of the biggest obstacles that Armstrong faces.  Drastic changes in policies are costly and do not foster public support. The CAO also notes the importance of community in sustainability planning. One of Armstrong’s goals is to educate the public about the importance of daily sustainable practices. This is important so that input and values presented by the community is effectively represented by Council through policies and bylaws. When asked if the CAO thought sustainability indicators would benefit Armstrong, she responded by saying that planning for sustainability is ineffective is way to measure progress is not in place. She concluded by stating that despite having the same sustainability issues in small or larger communities, the formula used to solve these issues are very much place specific. Planning for Armstrong is conducted by a planner from the RDNO. When asked to define a sustainable community, he stated that his definition is based on how the community defines it. He further discussed how sustainability planning in Armstrong was still in its infancy and they are “just getting on the radar” in terms of regulation and policy development. Currently in      101  Armstrong, the sustainability agenda is focused on reviewing the terms of reference for the OCP and setting targets for energy consumption and greenhouse gas reduction.  The planner stated that aside from the current OCP review, the community has had no input in planning for sustainability. When asked to discuss the Armstrong’s challenges in planning he stated “There is a lack of resources to support future action to sustainable planning. The demographics of Armstrong are heavy in the 50+ range and that is represented in the values that are expressed and represented by council.” He noted that sustainability indicators for Armstrong would be useful as a reminder of the sustainability targets that have been set. The sustainability coordinator for the RDNO was interviewed, however several question remain unanswered. This is largely because this position does not often work with Armstrong but instead helps coordinate sustainability initiatives with other much smaller and rural communities in the North Okanagan. When asked to define a sustainable community, the sustainability coordinator emphasized the importance of striking a balance between the pillars of sustainability that engages a community in the planning processes.  She further states that sustainability is deemed very important at the RDNO and that her position was created to help guide practices and policies to be more sustainable. One of the target areas that was mentioned is growth management where the RDNO is working with communities, such as Armstrong to effectively develop the appropriate strategies to accommodate the impacts of growth. When asked to comment about the importance of indicators for sustainability, the sustainability coordinator discussed the importance of being able to measure sustainability in      102  the areas of clean air, water, greenhouse gas emissions, sprawl, environmentally sensitive area, sense of place and community cohesion. The final interview in Armstrong was conducted with the Corporate Administrative Assistant (CAA). For the CAA, a sustainable community is defined as “A community that has methods of being self supportive and also is looking at accommodating whatever the growth that is going on whether it is high, stagnant, a seniors population”. She further notes the importance of communicating to the public about the current realities of global environmental change and then developing strategies to address the impacts accordingly.  The CAA discussed that during her time in Armstrong, sustainability has been done using an indirect approach that relies heavily on the plans of developers. One of the main target areas has been on developments that support affordable housing through secondary suites and multi-uses. One of the recent strides in community planning has been in the OCP review which included community members in the planning process. Other challenges come from lack of resources and manpower to help spearhead sustainability practices. Being a small, close knit community is one of the many strengths that Armstrong has in regards to sustainability planning. According to the CAA, word of mouth helps instigate change and help reverse the NIMBY (not in my backyard) mentality that is present amongst many of Armstrong’s residents.  Target areas for indicator development would be for demographics, housing, transportation, water and recycling. Governance In the second part of the interview, respondents were asked 7 questions relating to governance. The questions were designed to understand how governance influences the      103  implementation of sustainability action planning initiatives in Armstrong and Peachland. Armstrong’s governance structure for sustainability planning is very different than Peachland. In Armstrong, the responsibility for sustainability planning is divided between the Regional District of the North Okanagan (RDNO) and the City of Armstrong’s municipal office.  Appendix 4, Table 4 presents interview questions, responses and general themes that surfaced from the responses. Sustainable governance for the Mayor of Armstrong is defined by financial responsibility and accountability to the community. In sustainability planning, the role of governance is to incorporate values and input from the community into planning processes. The Mayor spoke to the trans-boundary nature of governance in Armstrong. The Mayor further elaborated by stating “The challenge is two mayors and 12 councilors because they have their own bureaucratic roles too. Spallumcheen has their own Mayor and Council. Armstrong is the donut hole. We’re almost to Enderby. Everything between the two of us is similar and trans-boundary in nature.”  With Armstrong and Spaullumcheen being in close proximity, there are many joint functions in regards to governance such as parks, recreation, fire departments and cemeteries. For Armstrong CAO, sustainable governance encourages members of the community to participate in the decisions making process and then incorporating their ideas into the policy development processes. One of Armstrong’s greatest strengths is its size and the interconnectedness of the community.  The CAO views governance as a holistic approach in the decision making process for sustainability action planning in the community. In Armstrong, it is the municipality that decides the direction of sustainability in the planning process and then      104  forwards the agenda onto the RDNO planner.  Despite not using the term ‘sustainability’ the CAO describes the process for policy development look at the long and short term impact along with the community’s ability to sustain itself in the future. One of the main governance challenges that the CAO discussed is working in collaboration and competing with the neighboring Township of Spallumcheen for projects, funding and resources. With neighboring, small communities everything political, environmental, social and financial affects the other to some degree. The RDNO planner perceives sustainable governance as a collaboration of resource use that is efficient and effective. The main actors in Armstrong’s governance structure is the Mayor and Council who’s main goal is to represent the values and desires of the public in regards to sustainability. Municipal staff is responsible for implementing these values and the planner serves as a liaison between the community and council. The RDNO planner describes how his role in planning for Armstrong is determined by a contract of services that established an approximate amount of hours of planning services that are required on a needs basis. From the planners perspective, planning in Armstrong is very much trans-boundary in nature where sustainability planning is the responsibility of the municipality, the RDNO, electoral districts and the provincial and federal governments. From the RDNO’s perspective, the sustainability coordinator describes sustainable governance as “providing services to communities in a manner that balances social, economic and environmental and institutional consideration. It does not threaten the viability of communities in which these services depend”. She further discusses the trans-boundary nature of      105  sustainable governance in regards to water quality and recreation. These issues do not have boundaries and cannot be mitigated by one jurisdiction or municipality. However planning for sustainability vulnerabilities must incorporate input from the public and stakeholders. Civic engagement and public feedback was of particular importance to the RDNO when deliberating urban containment boundaries for the North Okanagan. For Armstrong’s CAA, sustainable governance is defined as “decision making that is accountable and well thought out”. She emphasized the importance of taking into consideration the long term impact of decisions that recognize the interconnectedness and linkages between areas within the community.  The CAA also spoke to the recent changes to governance structures in relation to sustainability planning. She described how provincial and federal governments are now downloading responsibility for sustainability planning to municipal governments. Many municipal governments often face the challenge of a lack of resources so this makes action planning for sustainability quite challenging. As the CAA, she finds herself going beyond the scope of her position to take the initiative to educate herself about sustainability issues and strategies for implementation.  One of the main initiatives that Armstrong has taken on is engaging the public about sustainable practices through awareness and education campaigns. However, being a small community, with a considerably large aging population, it is a challenge to introduce new ideas and changes to behavior.        106  5.3 Focus Group Results The main objective for the focus groups is to gain insights about sustainable planning and perspectives of governance in District of Peachland and City of Armstrong. The results from the focus group differ from interviews because they provide multiple points of view on sustainability at the same time. Oftentimes the responses from the participants can snowball from the responses of the other participants in the group. This cannot occur during one-on-one interviews. Both focus groups were facilitated with the objective of gathering knowledge from key members from each community’s municipal government. The participants for the focus groups were the same respondents from the interviews except for the sustainability coordinator from the City of Armstrong who was unable to attend. The indicators, measures and themes from both focus groups are presented in the tables below. 5.3.1 Sustainability Indicators and Measures for Peachland and Armstrong Greening the City The responses for indicators and measures from both Peachland and Armstrong were very comparable for this building block. Both communities identified green space and transportation as indicators for measuring progress of sustainability targets and goals for Greening the City. Peachland also identified food security and land use as other important measures. Armstrong expanded on the measure of transportation and highlighted mobility, connectivity and number of trails as important elements to determining success for this building block      107  Water and Sewage Peachland identified water management and water quality as important indicators to measure success in this building block. Both Peachland and Armstrong identified water consumption as an important indicator. Armstrong noted that knowing the amount of potable water would contribute to the overall sustainability of their community. Waste Reduction and Recycling In Peachland, all participants of the focus group identified waste diversion as the main indicator for this building block. Armstrong also identified waste diversion as well as target setting and numbers as important elements to indicate recycling and waste reduction trends in their community. Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Despite a consensus in the importance of developing an indicator that tracks green house gas emissions, the responses between Peachland and Armstrong for this building block were varied. Peachland identified air particulate standards, community health and air quality index as important indicators to track the state of atmospheric change and air quality in their community. Armstrong identified open burning regulations as an important indicator Transportation Planning and Traffic Management For this building block Peachland identified transit alternatives and calming measures as indicators to help measure transportation initiatives. Transportation data would be a measure to help track progress in transportation planning. Alternatively, Armstrong’s participants focused on ways to measure mobility, safety and various modes of transportation to measure      108  how well the community is meeting their transportation needs and targets. Armstrong would develop policies and use transportation statistics to help regulate their planning initiate and mitigate any transportation planning problem areas. Land Use and Urban Form The measures and indicators identified for this building block were very different between Peachland and Armstrong. When developing indicators, participants from Peachland stated the importance of measuring success for the effects of sprawl, densification, greenspace, transportation and sanitary sewer systems that provide potable water. Armstrong respondents focused on zoning requirements and land use development for mixed use housing such as single family and multi-family housing units. Housing and Community Development Both communities identified affordable housing as an important community issues that requires a measure to track progress. Peachland also identified land use development and housing costs as other areas where indicator development would be beneficial. With much of Armstrong being comprised of stagnant agriculture land, infill development was an important indicator identified by the RDNO planner.  The number of building permits and  the ratio between long terms vs. migrants were also important areas to gauge within the community. Economic Development Both Peachland and Armstrong identified employment as important indicators. Both communities also identified the number of jobs and business licenses as a way to measure      109  employment.  Armstrong also noted that the number of home based business and commercial properties were other ways to track employment within the community. 5.4 Summary The results indicate how sustainability planning is approached and integrated by two small communities in British Columbia. These results also examine the role of governance in sustainability planning. Included in the interview and focus group results are thick descriptions of responses and themes and key ideas. The results of the inventory provide an understanding of how each community is planning for sustainability through the use of regulatory documents such as bylaws and policies. Both communities have regulatory documents that support planning for sustainability.  However, Peachland appears to have more policies and regulatory documents that support all 9 categories outlined in the building blocks for sustainability.  The interviews and focus groups were productive for both communities. The interviews and focus group outcomes helped to understand the role of governance in community wide sustainability planning initiatives.  In addition, interviews and focused groups create a sound and in depth understanding of systems of accountability and responsibility to spearhead sustainability planning for both municipalities.  Discussions with key members in municipal planning also helped to identify similarities, variances and challenges between Peachland and Armstrong when planning for sustainability. A more detailed synthesis and a discussion of the findings are presented in the next chapter.       110  CHAPTER 6 SYNTHESIS, FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS 6.0 Overview This study examines how sustainability planning initiatives are implemented in small communities in British Columbia using comparative case studies of Peachland and Armstrong in the interior of BC. The research explores how sustainability planning processes are employed in small communities and also examines the role of governance in municipal-level sustainability planning practices in small communities. A mixed methods qualitative research strategy provides an understanding of the research questions and what drives successful municipal planning processes in small towns in British Columbia. Planning experiences and perspectives from small municipalities provide knowledge about challenges, successes and important target areas in sustainability planning. Furthermore, this research has aimed to explore governance as mechanism for success and as a driving force for planning initiatives. The results, which contain feedback, experiences and perspective of key participants in municipal level planning to the knowledge, gap in academic literature that address sustainability planning in small towns in British Columbia. 6.1 Research Questions and Findings This study has two specific research questions: 1) How does sustainability action planning work in small peri-urban communities? 2) What is the role of governance in sustainability action planning in small peri urban communities of British Columbia?      111   In order to answer these questions three methods of data collection are used; an inventory of baseline data, personal interviews with key municipal actors and focus groups with key municipal actors. The results of the data collection now require a synthesis to identify key points that highlight the similarities and variances in data collected in the two case studies. 6.2 Major Findings: Inventory 6.2.1 Sustainability Inventory In order to answer the first research question that examines sustainability planning processes in small peri-urban communities, a baseline of data  containing regulatory documents such as policies, guidelines and initiatives in sustainability planning is compiled for both case studies and presented as a sustainability inventory (Appendix A). The inventory has 9 categories: Greening the City; Water and Sewage; Waste Reduction and Recycling; Energy Efficiency and Renewables; Atmospheric Change and Air Quality; Transportation Planning and Traffic Management; Land Use and Urban Form; Housing and Community Development; Economic Development. The categories are based on Roseland’s (2005) community building blocks. This inventory exhibits the number of policies, guidelines and regulatory documents each community has.  Each of these regulatory documents is classified as sustainability initiatives in Peachland and Armstrong. The results of the inventory indicate that both Peachland and Armstrong have a significant quantity of policies, guidelines and regulatory documents though they emphasize different areas of environment and planning. Peachland had a total of 348 entries (relevant bylaws, guidelines, regulatory documents) and Armstrong had a total of 207 entries in the inventory.      112  According to Roseland (2005) advancement in community sustainability is related to economic instruments in environmental policy that influences community behavior by providing financial incentives. Roseland elaborates on this by explaining that when economic instruments are introduced into a community “they are inevitably part of a structure and process of community management  which in turn reflect wider objectives – environmental, economic, social and ethical - in society” (Roseland, 2005, p. 27). This insight can be used to explain why these two communities are moving towards sustainability and that long term goal setting to achieve sustainability targets has encouraged one community to advance more than the other in developing regulatory documents, policies and guidelines in support of sustainability planning. Both Peachland and Armstrong have efforts towards increased Economic development along with environmental stability. Many of their policies focus on initiatives and mechanisms that will stimulate the economy that generate employment opportunities that do not compromise the environment. 6.2.2 Similarities and Common Policies  Armstrong and Peachland are very similar in the number of policies, guidelines and action items found in 4 of the sustainability building blocks that focus on Water and Sewage; Waste Reduction and Recycling; Housing and Community Development and Economic Development. The inventories also indicate that these communities have both identified preventative maintenance and infrastructure development as essential to the development and maintenance of thriving, sustainable communities and to ensure the health and safety of their residents. In particular both communities have committed to developing infrastructure to      113  support adequate and efficient storm water drainage systems and facilitated sustainable water management in their Official Community Plans. Both communities are working in concert with the Regional Districts in a collaborative approach to managing waste.  Peachland has recently begun to manage and promotes a yard composting facility in order to increase awareness and divert organic waste from the current waste disposal system. Collaborative planning has been used as a tool in urban and regional planning processes to assist communities to organize themselves in the decision making process to improve the quality of their surrounding environment (Healey, 2003). Peachland and Armstrong’s partnership with the regional districts is an example of community planning processes that involves collaboration as part of the strategy to successfully tackle prevalent sustainability challenges within the community. The inventory indicates that Housing and Community Development is also very similar in Peachland and Armstrong.  Both communities focus current and future policy development on accessibility to affordable housing. Peachland has committed to develop an affordable housing strategy that considers the diverse needs of its residents.  Armstrong already has several policies designed to support access to adequate housing for seniors, special needs and low income families. Both communities have also made a commitment to increase density in the form of secondary suites and mixed use development. Much of the discourse in planning theory states that historically many poor decisions have been made in land use planning and that a new directive to guide policy development is greatly needed that emphasizes the need to plan sustainably (Boyle et al, 2004 in Hanna, 2009, pp. 230). Peachland and Armstrong’s have both made great strides to adopt new and innovative land use strategies for land use to mitigate      114  against long and short term impacts to the environment. Both communities are exploring the implementation of affordable/attainable housing as well as non-conventional land uses such as mixed use development. Smaller communities face greater challenges when trying to adopt new sustainability strategies to their community.  Peachland and Armstrong’s commitment to reinvent the wheel through their support of sustainable land-use planning exhibits their desire to improve the overall health of their community and to protect their surrounding environment. Overall, according to the inventories of sustainability policy documents completed, both communities have made great strides in sustainability planning that cover the four sustainability building blocks most often cited by planning theory. These four building blocks are Land Use and Urban Form; Greening the City; Housing and Community Development and Water and Sewage.   It is apparent that planning staff and government officials in Peachland and Armstrong understand the need for long term planning and goal setting in order to achieve the desired results required for building a community that can withstand impacts of the changing environment. In collaboration with the regional district in their planning initiatives, Peachland and Armstrong have successfully employed the necessary policies and targets to achieve sustainability in the areas of Water and Sewage, Waste Reduction and Recycling, Housing and Community Development and Economic Development. Both communities have developed and adopted policies that align with the recommendation to build sustainable community such as densification in land use, affordable housing and infrastructure development      115  6.2.3 Variances Despite their many similarities, Peachland and Armstrong’s regulatory documents vary in more than half of the sustainability building blocks used for analysis.  The most significant variance is in the development of land use policies. Peachland has developed polices that focus on the direction, scope, scale and design of land use in its community. The land use policies encourage mixed use development in commercial areas and affordable housing development. Most significantly, Peachland has development plans such as The Beach Avenue Plan and the Shoreland Plan which identifies long and short term development objectives for specific areas and parcels of land in the district. Armstrong has also mentioned these target areas in some polices but lacks a definitive plan, timeline and specific set of development objectives to target problem areas within the community.  Lack of resources has been mentioned by key officials in both Peachland and Armstrong as a major challenge to sustainability planning. When asked about challenges to sustainable planning, Armstrong’s RDNO appointment planners stated “There is a lack of resources to support future action to sustainable planning” (RDNO Interview, 2010). Armstrong’s Mayor further elaborates on obstacles Armstrong faces in sustainability planning by stating “I think money. You need budgeting, everything always costs. You have to have budgeting and money to pay for it and maintain it” (Mayoral interview, Armstrong 2010). Therefore, it seems apparent that lack of funds combined with insufficient human resources to support and implement policies helps to explain why Armstrong remains in the early development stage for many of the policies and objectives needed to achieve community sustainability.      116  6.3 Major Findings – Interviews 6.3.1 Sustainability Action Planning Interview responses from both Peachland and Armstrong show a commitment to planning for the future through policy and bylaw development that integrates sustainability planning as a central theme. Peachland and Armstrong are both in the process of creating new policies, bylaws and regulatory documents that address the concerns of climate change and the changing environment. The Mayor of Peachland commented on Peachland`s sustainability initiatives during his interview, “We signed onto the Climate Action Charter and have completed a local energy audit of all of our building to measure the greenhouse gas emissions and to look for opportunities for energy conservation in those buildings and pioneered a way of doing that. We’ve also introduced water meters and water meter billing so people are now much more conscious about the value and cost of the water they use“ (Mayoral Interview, Peachland, 2010).  Similarly, Armstrong`s CAO discusses how changes to policy are being made to support sustainability planning. She states that “We are in the process of rewriting our OCP. Focus Engineering that is doing our OCP review for us is tasked with the sustainability language and makes our OCP and policies focus on sustainability” (CAO Interview, 2010). The common goal for long term planning in sustainability is to create a community that is considerate of the needs of future generations and refrains from the overconsumption of natural resources (Roseland, 2005).  According to the interviews the main difference in sustainability planning between Peachland and Armstrong is in the type of policies and bylaws that are currently in place. Aside from stating a commitment to long term planning, Peachland      117  has made significant strides through developing and employing initiatives that align with federal/provincial government recommendation and to benchmarks/best practices in sustainability planning such as energy management and green education/awareness campaigns. Armstrong’s planning processes are still very much in their infancy and are just beginning to incorporate the term ‘sustainability’ into their regulatory documents for community planning. In her interview, Armstrong`s CAO speaks about sustainability in the planning process; “We haven’t really had that sustainability conversation. In reality everyone is responsible. When anyone makes a recommendation we should be thinking about the long term impact“ (CAO Interview, 2010). Another significant finding addressed in interviews in both communities is the importance of community participation in the planning process. Peachland has incorporated public and stakeholder consultation in several policy development processes.  Armstrong has recently begun using public consultation as a means to guide policy development. Both Peachland and Armstrong have a very vocal and passionate community in regards to expressing opinions for municipal issues and providing leadership to council. The Chief Administrative Officer (CAO) of Peachland states in her interview that, “Something else that we do is that our council meetings are always open to the public. They can raise their hand and participate in the discussions. So we have had very robust discussions particularly in things like the Green Credits Policy and our Solar Energy Plan.” (Mayoral Interview Armstrong, 2010) When asked about the strong point of the community in Armstrong, the Mayor stated that Armstrong has “Very active [community] groups and over all community involvement”. To further expand on the discussion of      118  community involvement, Armstrong’s CAO states that “We have a lot of long time residents who know a lot about the community or remember what happened in the past. We have a lot of people who are really proud of the community. They want to see things go in a positive direction. So if you get the buy in then that helps” (CAO Interview Armstrong, 2010) The driving force for public participation and policy development in both communities appears to be connected to demographics and cultural capital built up in the communities. In Peachland, the active and vocal members of the community are strongly influenced by an influx of amenity migrants who are mostly young, well-educated retirees in the 50+ age range. Many of these retirees come from larger, urban areas where planning processes are more innovative and advanced. In her interview, Peachland`s CAO describes her community; “Peachland has a lot of well educated young retirees. They are very connected and aware of what is happening not just here but in large urban centers. There is interest in educational institutional to assist Council and its decisions regarding sustainability planning become a representation of the values and wants shared from within the community” (CAO Interview Peachland, 2010). In his interview, Armstrong’s planner from the RDNO states reiterates the role of community values and states: “The role of council is to represent the values of the community” (RDNO Planner, 2010).  Approximately 22% of Armstrong`s population is made up of an elderly, retired population who are 65 years of age and older (District of Peachland 2009 Demographic Profile, Central Okanagan Development Commission pp 2-3 and Statistic’s Canada Community Profiles, 2006). These retirees are not migrants from urban areas but long term residents that have spent their      119  adult lives in Armstrong and have chosen to retire there as well.  Armstrong’s CAO states, “We have a lot of long time residents who know a lot about the community or remember what happened in the past” (CAO Interview Armstrong, 2010). Interview findings indicate that many of these residents are satisfied with the current course of action and oftentimes are not aware of the need to develop regulatory documents and policies that support the changing needs of the environment. As a result of their differing cultural capitals, it appears that sustainability as a community planning theme is not embraced in the same manner in Armstrong as it is in Peachland. While much of Peachland’s retired population originate from urban areas where sustainability planning is more advanced, they expect these same initiatives to be implemented in Peachland. This is not to say that sustainability planning is not important to the residents of Armstrong, but that the change in behavior associated with sustainable planning practices such as water metering, for example, appears to face resistance from the community. In her interview, the CAO of Armstrong spoke of the challenges Council has faced when trying to implement water metering in the community: “We implanted some guinea pigs for water metering and we had a plan for implantation. We ran into a snag because we haven’t got the grant we were hoping for. Water meters aren’t sexy now. We have gone to an alternate approval process to borrow the half of money. The alternate approval process failed because there is one person in town that doesn’t want water meters and he got 350 signatures. Now we have to have a referendum” (CAO Interview Armstrong, 2010).        120  6.3.2 Governance One of the main themes evident in the interviews relates to my second research question on the role of governance and the interpretation of terms and responsibilities associated with sustainability action planning. In Peachland, interviews indicate that governance is responsible for policy development, decision making, accountability, leadership and responding to the needs of the community. When asked about the role of governance in sustainability action planning, Peachland’s planning technician describes this as “Decision making makes things happen. Planning side includes policies and programs and acknowledgement. If governance does not support sustainability as a priority things will not go the way you want from a sustainability perspective because it has to be put out there as  fundamental” (Planning Technician Interview, Peachland, 2010). In Armstrong, governance centers around fiscal responsibility, maximizing resources and dealing with the challenges of downloaded responsibilities from the federal and/or provincial governments. Armstrong`s Corporate Administrative Assistant describes governance in the community as downloading”.  “The higher levels of government are downloading some of the responsibilities and decision making to other levels of government. Because of the aging population, who are educated young retirees, people are more educated and they have a higher expectation of their local government and who governing.” Good governance is rooted in civic engagement that encourages public participation in community planning. To further elaborate, Armstrong`s Mayor explains that governance needs “to have the input from action and community planning because they are      121  the action groups. The social desires of a community somehow have to meet the financial obligations of the supplier” (Mayoral Interview, Armstrong, 2010). Responsibility and accountability appears to be a central tenet in understanding governance in each community. Interviewees from both Peachland and Armstrong identify trans-boundary governance as an important factor. Armstrong`s planner describes the process of trans- boundary governance as “many different levels of government that are responsible for the various areas of sustainability. Responsibilities are also split between the RDNO and the City of Armstrong as well as municipally, regionally, jurisdictionally, provincially, federally and at the electoral districts level” (RDNO Planner Interview, Armstrong, 2010). In Peachland, governance responsibilities and accountabilities are dispersed between the municipal government, the Regional District of the Central Okanagan (RDCO) and between neighboring communities within the Okanagan Valley. This was also the case in Armstrong. The city of Armstrong is surrounded on all sides by the Township of Spallumcheen. According to the Mayor, Armstrong is often referred to as the ‘donut hole’. These two communities have separate Mayor and Councils but still share many trans-boundary governance issues and challenges surrounding water, sewage and transit. Interview responses indicate that holistic and collaborative planning are strategies that both communities are using to combat the trans-boundary challenges of governance responsibility and accountability. When asked about sustainability as a challenge to municipal governance, Peachland`s Director of Planning states “Yes, it is part of an infrastructure that goes beyond. It is done through regional district such as the Regional growth strategy. The challenge is getting different jurisdictions to agree. We need cooperation and to view ourselves      122  as a team to move forward.” A regional governance structure that works together to support sustainability initiatives would greatly benefit small communities that struggle with efficient resources and manpower to execute many of these strategies. Armstrong faces similar challenges when trying to align community planning initiatives with the neighboring District of Spallumcheen.  In his interview, Armstrong`s Mayor speak to the challenges of trans-boundary governance and sustainability planning: “Spallumcheen has a few more people than Armstrong its 55/45 for funding. We do have joint services. The challenge is two mayors and 12 councilors. Because they have their own bureaucratic roles too. Spallumcheen has their own Mayor and Council. Armstrong is the donut hole. We’re almost to Enderby. Everything between the two of us is similar and trans-boundary in nature.” With regard to sustainability planning, the role that governance structures play varies significantly between Peachland and Armstrong.  In Peachland, decision making and policy development for sustainability is conducted by the Planning Department located at the District of Peachland’s municipal office. Within the Planning Department, there is a Director of Planning and Planning Technician that directs, regulates and employs planning initiatives for sustainability. After interviewing members of the Planning Department and key individuals responsible for sustainability planning, it was clearly evident that sustainability is at the forefront of the planning agenda for the District of Peachland. Peachland’s planning technician describes the current and future course of action for sustainability action planning in his interview; “I’d like to see things move faster but in reality we need to take a steady approach to sustainability planning. It may not be going as fast as we need to go we need to steadily seize      123  upon opportunities, low hanging fruit. Take the opportunities that are cost-effective to us. Especially being a smaller community”. Both the Director of Planning and Planning Technician are extremely passionate about sustainability and are constantly researching benchmarks and best practices in order to make innovative and informed decisions for community planning. Alternatively, Armstrong does not have a planning department dedicated solely to the planning of Armstrong. Planning for Armstrong is conducted on a contractual basis by a planner at the Regional District of the North Okanagan located in Coldstream, BC.  The number of hours required for planning is estimated on an annual basis based on specific direction and allocated tasks. Therefore, planning for sustainability is not the responsibility of the planner but instead the responsibility of the municipal office. The variances in sustainability planning between Armstrong and Peachland appears to be linked to having a planning department that is embedded within the community. The Planner assigned to Armstrong is also responsible for other communities in the RDNO. The RDNO has hired a Sustainability Coordinator; however the main purpose of this position is to coordinate sustainability initiatives in communities that do not have a Mayor and Council. When asked about sustainability planning for Armstrong and her role in it, the RDNO Sustainability Coordinator was unable to give specific answers because Armstrong was not part of the jurisdiction that she was responsible for. The RDNO Sustainability Coordinator assists communities in the RDNO that do not have a Mayor and Council. As a result, communities in the North Okanagan like Armstrong are solely responsible for the research and education required  to find innovative and sustainable solutions for their community.      124  Like other small communities in the Okanagan, Peachland and Armstrong have experienced a downturn in primary resource economies that has coincided with a rise in amenity based service industries that support amenity industries such as tourism, recreation, and retirement in the Okanagan (Senese, 2010).  The demand for infrastructure to support amenity industries has perpetuated a development growth ethic in the region that was surprisingly absent from interview discussions. Peachland and Armstrong are rich in resources such as agricultural land and forested rural space, that formerly supported primary industry. Consequently, both Peachland and Armstrong have experienced a growth in proposals for large recreation, residential and retirement projects from developers in recent years.  It is clear that the driving force behind Peachland’s economy is in fact resort style, seasonal condominium developments such as the Ponderosa Pine development.  The challenge apparent is that small municipalities that struggle with budgets and downloaded responsibilities from neo liberal politics may be more inclined to consider development proposals for large scale developments that may not be environmentally appropriate in order to facilitate a financial return for their community. However despite being asked to discuss challenges to sustainability planning, neither Peachland nor Armstrong identified pressures from development companies as a hindrance or barrier to being proactive in sustainability planning. The interview process is instrumental in understanding the results of the sustainability inventory. Responses from the interviewees explained why regulatory documents such as policies, bylaws and initiatives for sustainability planning were developed in one community but not in another. Through the examination of the governance structures in Peachland and      125  Armstrong, a better understanding of the responsibility and accountability for sustainability planning initiatives was achieved. Governance structures portray the chain of command that is required to implement policies and bylaws that support sustainability planning. By understanding who is responsible for policy development and follow through to successful implementation, it become easier to identify where the challenges to sustainability planning remain. 6.4 Major Findings: Focus Groups In order to understand how sustainability planning is achieved and measured in small communities, two focus groups were conducted to discuss how indicators could be used to measure success and strides in community sustainability. Focus groups are an effective way to gain insights and provide dynamic feedback from key members responsible for municipal-level sustainability planning. Focus groups differ from interviews because responses can snowball into other ideas based on statements or opinions from other focus group participants. Participants were asked to develop indicators and measures for problem areas or sustainability vulnerabilities for each of the 9 building blocks for community sustainability (Roseland, 2005).The results of the focus groups are compiled into common themes and major variances. During this process many similar themes were identified within the two communities. Similar themes and important planning issues include affordable housing, employment, mixed housing, mixed use development, transportation, water use and waste diversion.      126  The focus groups in both communities resulted in very similar indicators and measures for sustainability planning. A diversity of needs and vulnerabilities is developed for each community during the focus groups.  In Peachland, the focus group identified the following prevalent themes to develop sustainability indicators: green space, water management, waste diversion, community health, transit alternatives, affordable housing and employment.  In Armstrong, similar themes were identified such as green space, water usage and consumption, waste diversion, burning regulations, development, transit safety and supporting statistics, affordable housing and commercial development. Despite this diversity, the method used to identify areas for sustainability planning and measures for success are quite similar in Peachland and Armstrong. Despite similarities in the knowledge base of the key members that are responsible for measuring success in sustainability initiatives, the policies and initiatives employed for sustainability planning vary significantly in Peachland and Armstrong. Members of both focus groups provided feedback on best methods to measure success and progress towards building a sustainable community. For instance, when asked to identify and indicator and measure for the ‘Greening the City’ building block, respondents from Peachland and Armstrong identified greenspace and transportation as important elements for consideration. Other major issues identified in both focus groups include water and sewage. Both communities are located in the semi-arid Okanagan Valley and as a result they both face similar concerns surrounding overconsumption of water and scarcity of supply. It is important to note that despite the similar challenges associated with water, Peachland and Armstrong’s policies and strategies that are      127  currently enforced to manage water issues are very different. Both communities identified water consumption as an indicator and measure however only Peachland has adopted water metering as a mandatory policy. Not only was this focus group exercise valuable to this study it also provided feedback and  a greater understanding of how each community aims to meet their  sustainability needs and long term sustainability targets and goals. According to Hopkins (2001), developing indicators and measures for success, is a way in which municipalities like Peachland and Armstrong can make rational, insightful decisions by employing the principles of sustainability planning in policies and regulatory documents. It seems apparent that the actors interviewed who participated in the focus groups understood the importance of sustainability planning and the importance of indicator development for target areas as an instrumental gauge of success in sustainability. It must be noted that to date neither community has developed indicators to measure progress in sustainability planning. In Peachland, there is a lack of resources and labor power needed to execute the process to develop indicators. Peachland’s planning technician has spearheaded this initiative. However, at the time of this study, there were other planning items of higher priority. In Armstrong, they are only now beginning the process of implementing sustainability into their regulatory documents and policies. Sustainability indicators may be of use to them after they have identified their target problem areas and introduced their sustainability planning agenda to the community.        128  6.5 Challenges to Sustainability Planning During the interview and focus group phases of this study, several challenges for sustainability planning were identified in both case studies. The first challenge focuses on strategies for awareness and education about sustainability issues to the community. Both Mayors indicated that education and awareness was paramount. This falls in line with what Roseland (2005) and Hanna (2009) speak to in their work on building sustainable communities through civic engagement. Hanna (2009) states that “Community sustainability requires a planning process that fully engages with and involves all sections of the community and gives them actual influence in decision making and not just ‘‘consultation’’ or information sessions” (p. 235). Like many communities, large and small Peachland and Armstrong struggle to fully engage their communities in sustainability issues. According to Hanna (2009) and Roseland (2005), planning for sustainability cannot be solely achieved through policy and regulation but must have an element of compliance and support from the community at large. For Armstrong, many of the challenges occur with introducing change in behavior. Many residents are supportive of the idea of sustainability but are not willing to make changes to routine or lifestyle. In their interviews, Armstrong’s CAO and CAA both identified NIMBY syndrome (Not In My Backyard) as a determining factor in the sustainability process. In her interview, when asked about the future course of action in sustainability planning, Armstrong’s CAA stated “I think that one of the future projects is education and that change is important and getting rid of the NIMBY thing. They have a connotation of what sustainability will look like but they haven’t seen examples of what it actually looks like”. Campbell (2007) describes NIMBY syndrome as a common, non-      129  resolution tactic presented to planners by community members who are resistance to change particularly in regards to sustainability and urban planning. Another significant challenge, which has been identified by both communities, is the lack of resources both in terms of finance and human resources. In his interview, Peachland’s Mayor speaks to resources as a significant challenge to sustainability planning: “I think the tradeoff between what resources we have locally to take a leadership role to initiate change. We have a pretty small staff and a pretty small municipality. They are already stretched with their day to day workloads and as much as we want this to be engrained in day to day behavior, and it is to a large extent we still have to treat it like a special thing that we are always working at and that takes a lot of time and energy and that is difficult from a resource point of view”.   As federal and provincial governments continue to download more responsibilities to municipal governments without providing adequate resources and administrative support, it becomes even more difficult to support the costs associated with sustainability planning initiatives such as awareness campaigns, retrofitting, regulations and  infrastructure changes such as water meters, low flow toilets, solar panels etc. This coincides with Rist et al (2007) who discuss the neo-liberalization of rural societies where responsibility and governing authority is reallocated from a central governing body to individuals, communities and public agencies. The goal of this transition a central regulatory body to the self governing of public management is to create and active mode of citizenship which has been described by Raco (2005) as a strategy of ‘rolled out’ neo-liberalism. This strategy challenges conventional forms of government regulation and control and promoted active citizenship, enhances responsibilities and collective management      130  of resources.  The impact of small community planning, as evidenced in Peachland and Armstrong is a downloading of regulatory responsibility and accountability to municipal governments but without adequate human resources to spearhead and enforce sustainability initiatives.  Swift (1999) compares this downloading of responsibility to the ‘laissez-faire government’ created by the neoliberal ideology.  In community planning, neo-liberalism has acted as a catalyst for transition and the driving force to encourage community members towards self-governing and organization. However,  the experience of small town sustainability planning tells us that what is actually occurring is a devolvement of government where regulatory and governing powers are handed off to the market under the guise of empowering the individual and community members to take the reins of responsibility for the future of community planning. Neo-liberalism attempts to create a reformed system of self-governing that reduces dependence on the government and empowers corporations to develop a market driven economy that is in support of development. 6.6 Summary The primary goal of this thesis is to understand sustainability planning processes in small communities in British Columbia. In order to understand why and how sustainability initiatives are employed in small communities, the following research questions are posed. 1. How does sustainability action planning work in small peri-urban communities? 2. What is the role of governance in sustainability action planning for municipalities in British Columbia?      131  In order to answer the first research question, an inventory of regulatory documents determines gaps and weaknesses for policies and bylaws in each community. Interviews were conducted to gain an in depth perspectives of the governance structures and   the roles and responsibilities of key members in municipal planning. Focus groups were conducted to gather a variety of insights from several perspectives about municipal level sustainability planning and governance structures. The inventory, interviews and focus groups all indicate that sustainability as a theme is present and implemented in the planning agendas of both Peachland and Armstrong.  The interviews and focus groups also show that planning for sustainability is growing in importance in both communities and its governance is imperative to the development of healthy, thriving, sustainable communities that are resilient to the environmental demands of the present and the future. Smaller communities face the same challenges to sustainable planning as large urban areas but they vary dramatically in scale, decision making capacities and therefore strategies for policy implementation (Hodge, 2003).  Planning in larger communities is more similar so benchmarks and best practices from other communities can be borrowed and implemented from one urban area to another (Roseland, 2005 and Hanna, 2009). For example, larger communities often share many similar concerns and challenges regarding urban sprawl, air quality and transportation. Therefore, toolkits for sustainability planning are developed for larger communities that are similar in scale and intensity in their planning challenges for community sustainability (Bell and Jayne, 2006).      132  The results from the interviews and focus groups were used to answer my second research question. Interview and focus results show that planning for sustainability in small communities is still very much in its infancy and began as a grassroots initiative rather than governed by a top-down authoritative governing body. Governance structures in small communities are very different from those in than urban areas, most notably in smaller communities they are less well defined in the context of accountability and responsibility. Often this is a result of a lack in resources required to execute policies, regulations and systems of accountability required for sustainability planning. The shift in municipal governance from top down to bottom up governing systems is yet another factor that can be attributed to successful sustainability planning. The effect of climate change on the physical environment has spearheaded a need for a new type of regulation and alternatives to traditional planning processes. As a response to these looming, environmental changes, federal and provincial governments have begun to reallocate more responsibility for community planning to municipal governments. This has proven to be a great obstacle for small communities such as Peachland and Armstrong who are trying to achieve planning goals with limited resources and human resources. As governance structures take on a neo-liberalized agenda, small municipalities and community members are awarded more responsibility and accountability in planning for community sustainability. Varying levels and forms of cultural capital and civic engagement in the community planning processes also appears as a factor influencing relative advancement of smaller communities towards creating long term sustainability goals and objectives. This proves to be the case in both Peachland and Armstrong where communicative planning including community      133  participation is a strong, determining factor that drives policy development and planning processes.  Without incorporating governance as an important factor to successful sustainability planning, it will be unlikely that strides will be made to assist small communities to plan for the fundamental changes in behavior and policies that needed to manage natural resources and accommodate the needs of the changing environment. In order to protect common shared resources that are trans-boundary in nature, such as water, pollution and air, communities need to work collaboratively across multiple jurisdictions localize planning objectives and make them attainable, benefiting their community and as well as neighboring communities. Success in sustainability planning can be best achieved by using a collaborative approach to trans- boundary governance issues surrounding compliance, enforcement and regulation.  Natural resources such as water and air do not have defined boundaries, therefore protecting these resources through sustainability planning must be accomplished through collaborating with neighboring communities and regulatory bodies. 6.7 Future Work This study bridges the gap in knowledge that currently exists on sustainability planning in small towns and the role of governance structures as a determining factor to planning processes and mechanisms.  As an interpretive/descriptive study, this research has provided insight into how sustainability planning is perceived and employed in small communities in British Columbia. While this research has added to the gap of knowledge, it is still essential to understand the      134  specific sustainability challenges and vulnerabilities that small peri-urban communities face when planning for sustainability. It must also be noted that further research on the uniqueness of small town governance structures is required to understand how and why policies for sustainability are developed for certain areas of a community and not for others. Comparative studies between other small communities who are interested in being more sustainable may be an effective way to understand the variances and similarities in sustainability planning. 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Thousand Oaks: Sage   APPENDICES APPENDIX A: SUSTAINABILITY INVENTORY PEACHLAND 147 Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents OCP Policy 5.4 (1) Encourage the preservation, protection and enhancement of significant environmentally sensitive areas OCP Policy 14.3(4) Require the level of servicing provided to Rural areas are adequate to ensure the health and safety of the residents. Septic, disposal must be in total compliance with Ministry of health guidelines and District requirements  OCP Policy 14.3(1) Promote the orderly, economic growth and the logical extension of utilities and services  OCP Policy 6.4(7) Work with the Regional District as appropriate to support the Air Quality Master Plan OCP Policy: The Rural Landscape 6.2(5) Discourage the construction of new roadways  OCP Land Use Strategy 6.1(1) Beach Avenue Neighborhood Plan which defines the direction, scope, scale and design that development will take in Peachland OCP Policy 5.4(13) Implement training for fire department volunteers to meet the needs of interface wildfire management OCP Policy 9.4 a) Develop an Economic Development Strategic Plan that provides ways and means of achieving economic growth and sustainability  OCP Policy 5.4 (2) Protect and preserve those wetlands, including ponds, lakes, streams and natural drainage courses through conservation covenants and environment protection bylaws OCP Policy 14.3(7) Continue with the program of preventative maintenance and upgrading of the water systems and drainage infrastructure within the  The District of Peachland Energy Assessment for 2008 1.1 Objective: The objective of this audit was to analyze historical consumption and costs and allocate them to specific buildings and departments and also deduce the Anti-engine idling policy: No operator of a District of Peachland vehicle shall permit the engine of that vehicle to idle for more than three (3) consecutive minutes, except as provided in Exemptions of this Policy OCP Policy 6.4(5) Encourage the development of pedestrians and cycling networks  OCP Land Use Strategy 6.1(2) Physical Environment goal is to implement special planning and development policies for lands on steep slopes and to respect to the proximity of OCP Policy The Fan Area 6.2(3) Encourage three storey multiple family residential development with minor amounts of commercial in the two large undeveloped parcels of land located on Todd Road and OCP Policy 9.4 b) Encourage utilization of its newly implemented Sewer System as a means of promoting further economic opportunity by attracting new development and redevelopment     APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 148  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents existing serviced areas nature of the consumption such as creature comfort conditions (HVAC, lighting, hot H2O) and internal equipment (computers, appliances, motors, pumps). Consumption data was graphed and trends analyzed to show seasonal consumption (such as NG heating) and volume related consumption (such as those associated with the some water system facilities)  Okanagan Lake  Clements Crescent OCP Policy 5.4 (3) Recognize and protect those riparian and wildlife habitat through agency collaboration OCP Policy 14.3(9) Implement the Storm Water Drainage Plan  District of Peachland Energy Assessment 2008 2.1 Overview: Total consumption: 1,203,840 kilowatt hours at a cost of $133,169 producing 26.5 equivalent tones of CO2  Central Okanagan Air Quality Master Plan - Strategy 1 - reduces Emissions from Major Regional Sources Strategy 2. Enhance air quality information and public awareness, 3, Facilitate air quality research to achieve OCP Policy 8.4(3) Investigate through a Transportation Plan, means of achieving more internal connections (north- south) between neighborhoods on the benches  OCP Policy The Fan Area 6.2(4) Protect the foreshore and waterfront vistas along Okanagan Lake and Beach Avenue OCP Policy Hillsides 6.2(3) Buildings and subdivisions on steep slopes shall be planned to optimize residential densities with multiple family or cluster home OCP Policy 9.4 c) Recognize, support and promote its core as business and cu literal area      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 149  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents air quality goals  developments wherever physically possible OCP Policy 5.4 (6) Ensure developments along stream corridors observe the Land Development Guides for the Protection of Aquatic Habitat OCP Policy 15.3(4) Ensure that properties designated Low Density Residential areas served by a community water supply system, storm water drainage and sewer service  District of Peachland Energy Assessment 2008 2.2 District Buildings Overview: Energy consumption was derived for each building collecting the electric and natural gas bills for that building. Billing periods which overlap the start and finish of the calendar year 2008 were adjusted to take a weighted percentage of that bill's consumption to KWH before comparing the consumption per square meter for each building  OCP Policy 8.4(5) Plan bicycle and pedestrian trail system including laneways along collector roadways mainly to achieve access to parks, schools and the commercial area near the waterfront  OCP Policy Hillsides 6.2(1) Limit development on all lands with slopes steeper that 30% OCP Policy The Rural Landscape 6.2(1) Recognize and protect the rural character of Peachland by directing new development to established neighborhoods of the municipality OCP Policy 9.4 d) Actively promote its artistic community by supporting the Arts Council in its endeavors  OCP Land Use Strategy 6.1(3) Agricultural Land - maximize the retention of OCP Light Industrial Policy 15.12(5) Industrial development  District of Peachland energy Assessment 2008 2.5 Present Energy management: OCP Policy 8.4(6) Traffic Impact studies will be required for new development if a OCP Policy Hillsides 6.2(4) Subdividing on properties with slopes in excess OCP Policy 6.4(10) Implement other sustainable development initiatives as OCP Policy 9.4 e) Encourage and support agri- tourism through promotion     APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 150  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents Agricultural Lands and support appropriate agricultural uses in this designation is to be served by community water supply and sanitary sewer immediately upon phasing of this areas; costs to extend service into this area prematurely will be borne by the owner/develo per Public washrooms have motion activated lights. The concession area has the water system including the electric water heater winterized in the off season and the power turned off  concern or interest with regard to safety and impacts to the street network system is identified  of 20% must be planned comprehensively , taking into consideration use, access, densities servicing and design  considered appropriate  OCP Policy 6.2(1) Enhance the downtown commercial area to provide community focus OCP Steep Slope Development Permit Area Guideline 16.4(4) Prevention of Erosion and Protection of Watercourses - for development on slope in areas, the Development Permit may  District of Peachland Energy Assessment 2008 2.6 Transportation Fuel Overview: Present Energy Management - The DOP has implemented positive measures such as the anti- idling bylaw. Another example is the DOP acquisition of a new sander truck which has the OCP Policy 8.4(7) Prepare a Transportation Plan during the term of this Plan that will evaluate all modes of transportation, the hierarchy of roads, traffic volumes, truck routing into the industrial area of Upper Princeton and a road building and upgrading  OCP Policy Hillsides 6.2(8) Modification of the natural terrain is to be minimized  OCP Policy 7.4(2) Encourage the increase in residential densities in a) the commercial core area, 2) within the fan area, 3) Lower Princeton Area, 4) vicinity of Pincushion/Ponder osa Golf Course  OCP Policy 9.4 f) Actively promote foreshore and other physical amenities though brochures and the Chamber of Commerce     APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 151  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents require provision of a drainage system aimed at prevention of erosion, protection of natural watercourses and protection of properties below the property being developed ability to be converted to use bio fuel source  OCP Policy Hillsides 6.2(5) Protect tree cover on steep slopes through sensitive subdivision and design OCP ESA Development Permit Area - Stormwater Management 16.5(1) Natural Drainage system plans are preferable to storm sewer systems, which cause negative environmental impacts by dumping  District of Peachland Energy Assessment 2008 3.1.1 Community Care - Present Energy Management: The community centre uses motion sensors on the majority of their lights which when activated turn the lights on for a limited period and then are turned off. Most of the stage area lighting still OCP Policy 8.4(8) Encourage a street network that efficiently supports the various modes of transportation between neighborhoods and commercial areas including cycling, public transit, walking and private automobile  OCP Policy Hillsides 6.2(9) Use attractive means of slope retention where stabilization is required  OCP Policy 7.4(3) Encourage the developers to use cluster housing and innovative design schemes  OCP Policy 9.4 g) Encourage employment generating employment that is compatible with its environment      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 152  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents unfiltered storm water directly into watercourses or bodies. Thus the stream corridors and drainage swales may be considered for use as part of a natural drainage system strategy provided that water considered for use as part of a natural drainage system strategy provided that water volumes and contaminants do not overload the system and impact on fish and wildlife habitat. Run- has manual switches. Programmable thermostats are located in the foyer and Council Room with digital thermostats in the auditorium and an older manual style thermostat in the banquet and fitness room      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 153  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents off control should be provided by ground infiltration or detention and vegetation ponds to reduce peak run off rates and volume. Human made channels that replicate swales or intermittent streams may also be permitted as an alternative to storm sewers OCP Policy The Rural Landscape 6.2(2) Support the ALR designations with the exception if Victoria Block which will be subject to review for potential exclusion OCP ESA Development Permit Area - Stormwater Management 16.5(2) All stormwater discharge must be based on Best Management Practices as   OCP Policy 8.4(9) Access Management Plan will be developed in conjunction with the Ministry of Transportation and highways. The access management principle, objectives, strategies and OCP Policy: The Rural Landscape 6.2(4) Discourage subdivision of lands for urban development, country residential subdivisions should occur only within the context of a OCP Policy 7.4(5) Support compact housing for seniors and other groups, affordable housing and rental housing in those areas designated for Medium Density and Mixed Density Transition  OCP Policies 9.7 1) Encourage different types of commercial development in four main areas of Peachland      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 154  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents recommended in the publication titles, Urban Runoff Quality Control Guidelines for BC policies will be incorporated into the OCP  comprehensive sector plan  OCP Policy: The Rural Landscape 6.2(3) Protect natural areas, parks and access to crown lands so that wilderness is available for recreation and the community's aesthetic appeal OCP ESA Development Permit Area - Stormwater Management 16.5(3) Stormwater outflows to the stream or leave area shall have water quality and erosion control features included in accordance with Land Development Guidelines  District of Peachland Energy Assessment 2008 3.1.2 Municipal Office and Fire hall: Present Energy Management: Some areas in the fire hall have motion sensor lights switches. Manual thermostats are protected by lock boxes  OCP Policy 13.4(2) Prepare a Trails Network Plan and Cycling Network Plan as part of the Recreation master Plan or as an independent project, possibly in collaboration with a local service group  OCP Policy 7.4(4) Support a mixture of multiple family residential and commercial uses within the downtown commercial core, the Clement property and Campground sites  OCP Policy 7.4(6) Encourage multiple family housing types that are compatible with the Districts utility servicing capabilities.  OCP Policies 9.7 2) Encourage high quality commercial development by establishing Development Permit Areas and Guidelines, complete downtown revitalization or other programs that improve the physical environment of the commercial areas OCP Policy 6.4(1) Consider and assess the potential and value of green buildings design when it is time to OCP ESA Development Permit Area - Stormwater Management 16.5(4) storm  District of Peachland Energy Assessment 2008 3.1.3 4th St Place - Present energy Management: OCP Policy 14.3(5) Only support extensions of roads and utilities which form a natural progression of OCP Policy 7.5 The District of Peachland may use Comprehensive Development OCP Policy 7.5 The District of Peachland will implement an affordable housing strategy that OCP Policies 9.7 3) Support mixed use multiple family and commercial development in     APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 155  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents build new civic buildings drain inlets within the Development Permit Area shall be marked in accordance with the DFO storm drain marking system Programmable thermostats are used in the main activity room used by clubs and is frequently tampered with. Initial settings are 18C during the day and 16c overnight. Present program settings were unavailable during this observation  existing developments  Zoning to promote and encourage the provision of affordable housing  considers and recognizes residents diverse housing needs  the town Centre and at the Todd Road site OCP Policy 6.4(2) Encourage the Planning and Development Services department to advocate for green building design and implementation OCP ESA Development Permit Area - General Environmental Management 16.5(1) Septic tanks should not be constructed within 30meters of the natural boundary of any stream or water body (or any other distance specified by  District of Peachland Energy Assessment 2008 3.1.5 Museum and Public Washroom: Present Energy Management - There is present use of programmable thermostats in the museum as well as motion sensors for a majority of the lights  OCP Policy 14.3(6) Promote local improvement programs for providing sidewalks, curbs and gutters  OCP Policy 7.5 The District of Peachland may provide density bonuses to developers who provide affordable housing in new larger development OCP Policy 7.5 The District of Peachland may protect existing affordable housing stock where possible  OCP Policies 9.7 4) Encourage the possible inclusion of neighborhood commercial development in developed or developing residential neighborhoods as an element in promoting more sustainable community development      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 156  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents the Ministry of Health or MoE Lands and Parks OCP Policy 6.4(3) Through the Planning and Development Services department create a sustainability checklist that will be used to assess new developments OCP ESA Development Permit Area - General Environmental Management 16.5(2) Water extraction rates/licensing in the District should address existing and potential future storage impacts on the fisheries, particularly with respect to Peachland Creek and Trepanier Creek  District of Peachland Energy Assessment 2008 3.1.6 Community Policing Station: Present Energy Management ; Programmable thermostat used to control the entire building  OCP Policy 15.4(4) Transportation Impact Study may be required before considering a rezoning or Development permit for Multiple Family Residential zone  OCP Policy 7.5 The District of Peachland will consider the need to expand the zones in which secondary suites may be permitted OCP Policies 10.4 (2) Discourage subdivisions that fragment viable farm/vineyard/orc hard units and encourage consolidation of small parcels into larger farm units wherever appropriate OCP Policies 10.4(3) Support the farming community through irrigation works, drainage, weed control. Agri-tourism and encouraging other related industries  OCP Policy 6.4(4) Create guidelines for xeriscape landscaping OCP Policy 6.4(6) Continue to implement universal water metering  Town Centre Concept Plan - Shallow Utilities: Individual confirmation from each shallow utility companies OCP Policy Blue Water Residential 15.7(4) Crossings of beach Ave throughout these areas will be designed in OCP Policies 10.4 (1) Promote intensification of land uses and density to guide future development OCP Policies 10.4 (4) Consider fine tuning and a possible Block exclusion of the Victoria Block when demand for OCP Policy 14.3(2) Require developers to pay for their fair share capital costs attributable to servicing their     APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 157  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents regarding upgrades would be required  accordance with and incorporating traffic calming measures. Crossing locations should be considered at the 14th street intersection where the two walkways connect to Beach Ave  away from the Farmland designation  single family residential cannot be met by other areas development. More detailed costs will be made available subsequent to further study OCP Policy 10.4(6) Require the use of buffers to address the interface, and avoid conflicts between farm and non-farm land uses. OCP Policy 6.4(9) Implement the Drought Management Plan  District of Peachland BC Green Code 1. Energy efficiency s for Single Family Houses and Smaller Multi Family residential, commercial and industrial buildings. Insulation standards for houses and multifamily residential buildings under five stories have changed. There are new insulation standards for small commercial industrial buildings. OCP Highway Commercial Corridor Policies 15.9(1) Recognize the importance of Highway Commercial uses for tourism and generally for the economy of Peachland  OCP Policy 10.4(5) Consider applications to subdivide within the ALR subject to approval of the ALC for a home site severance under Section 20(1) f the Agricultural Land Commission Act  OCP Policy 12.4(1) Continue to develop community facilities in response to population growth and diversity in accordance with its financial abilities  OCP Core Commercial Policy 15.8(3) The establishment of a business Improvement Area or similar initiative for marketing, organizational and technical assistance will be supported     APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 158  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents For housing, builders can choose to achieve an Energize rating of 77 as an alternative to meeting the insulation requirements 2. Water Efficiency Requirements: Ultra low flow toilets (6L) and other water saving plumbing fixtures and fitting will become mandatory in new construction and renovations  OCP Policy 13.4(1) Prepare a Parks and Open Space (recreation) Master Plan within the term of this OCP OCP Policy 14.3(8) Foster and encourage water conservation  Community Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions inventory: 2007 - a toll to assist local governments in BC t track and report annual community wide energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions  OCP Resort Commercial Policy 15.11(3) The foreshore will not be permitted to be used as parking or for any other use that will obscure views for enjoyment of the waterfront. Design of marinas, moorage or other buildings must allow for a public OCP Policy 11.4(3) Direct new rural type residential developments to areas that are outside of the ALR and that are not identified for future urban development  OCP Policy 12.4(2) Consider the adequacy an location of existing and required community services when assessing proposals for a new development  OCP Highway Commercial Corridor Policies 15.9(2) Encourage highway commercial uses to locate in the following areas along Highway 97 within Clement Crescent      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 159  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents walkway and connections to the waterfront trail system. Older types of public amenities must be considered  OCP Policy 13.4(5) Provide park facilities based upon the recommended standard of 10 acres per 100 population Shoreland Plan Objectives 4.1.8 Government Co-ordination: To promote the development of fully integrated regulatory system, with improved co- ordination and communicatio n between all levels of government. The following is a list of legislating that applies over the shoreland area: Water act, Navigable   OCP Light Industrial Policy 15.12(4) Ensure adequate accesses to major traffic routes for all industrial developments  OCP Policy 13.4(7) Park lands for active uses shall be located on properties with less than 10% slopes over at least 75% of the site  OCP Policy 12.4(3) Actively pursue joint use arrangements for school facilities to maximize taxpayer investment  OCP Highway Commercial Corridor policies 15.9(3) Preserve properties in these two areas for tourist facilities and small shopping centers     APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 160  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents Water Protection Act, Fish and Wildlife Act, highways Act OCP Policy 13.4(6) 5% of the land in any residential subdivision shall be dedicated to the District for parkland purposes; cash in lieu may be accepted by the District where park space is not needed in the area, or where a subdivision is too small to provide a suitable park. Council reserves the right to determine the suitability of proposed site for park purposes Shoreland Plan Objectives 4.2.1 Water Quality: To protect and enhance the water quality in Okanagan Lake and the Deep Creek and Trepanier Creek systems   OCP Agricultural Policy 15.13(3) Support new road or utility corridors that minimize the impact on agricultural lands  OCP Policy 15.3(1) Establish a density in the Low Density Residential areas that are in the range of: 1.0 residential units per one hectare if sanitary sewer service is not available, 15 residential units over gross hectare if sanitary sewer is available, 25 residential units per gross hectare for duplexes or cluster housing if sanitary sewer is available OCP Policy 12.4(4) Consider the potential impact of further development on the adequacy and cost of policing services  OCP Tourist Commercial Policy 15.10(1) Recognize the importance of tourist commercial uses to the economy of Peachland OCP Policy 15.4(6) Ensure new development assist the District of Peachland in the acquisition of lands Shoreland Plan Objectives 4.2.2 Fish Spawning Habitat: To   OCP Steep Slope Development permit Area 16.4(5) Driveway Access - for subdivisions on sloping areas, a OCP Policy 15.3(2) Provide for low density residential development to the extent and I OCP Policy 12.4(5) Consider the potential impact of further development on the adequacy and OCP Tourist Commercial Policy 15.10(2) Preserve a portion of the Todd Road development area     APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 161  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents for recreational purposes by way of providing amenity space or contributing to park development protect and enhance fish spawning habitat within the Municipality. Development Permit may require that practical and safe driveway access can be provided to each parcel created  the locations shown in Schedule B the cost of fire fighting services for tourist commercial uses OCP Foreshore Development Permit Area Guideline 16.3(1) A riparian area measured from the high water mark should be maintained free from development or land alternation. The minimum requirements for riparian assessment area is 30m however this distance may be reduced at the direction of Council following the submission of a report from a qualified environmental professional, in accordance with Shoreland Plan Environmental Polices 5.2.1 Water Quality and Sewage Effluent: Sewage effluent, specifically dissolved nutrients, including nitrogen and phosphorous are known elements which reduce water quality and encourage dense growth of  aquatic weeds   OCP Urban Wildfire Interface Development Permit Area Guidelines 16.11.1(1 - b) Driveways and roads are built to a suitable width to allow for emergency vehicles and keep them free of obstructions  OCP Policy 15.3(3) Avoid creating new residential lots fronting on major roads  OCP Policy 12.4(6) Promote endeavors to enhance the arts community within Peachland by working with the Arts Council OCP Resort Commercial Policy 15.11(1) The following uses will be encouraged a) hotel/inn, b) Food and Beverage, c) Retail associated with resort accommodation only, d) time share condos, e) Medium density residential at densities of 75-90 units per hectares     APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 162  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents provincial Riparian Area regulation OCP Foreshore Development Permit Area Guideline 16.3(2) Development proponents must show how the proper activities protect fish and wildlife species and habitats and are compatible with the ecological functioning of the foreshore. Activities that involve foreshore modifications such as dredging, hauling in sand to create a sandy beach, breakwaters, retaining walls groins, bulkheads etc. that disturb existing vegetation, trees, banks and have a negative impact on the shoreline processes will be discouraged Shoreland Plan Environmental Polices 5.2.2 Environmental Conservation Zones: Environmental Conservation Zones are established for a distance of 75m either side of the mouth of Deep and Trepanier Creeks. Also, at the Emergency #1 Water Systems Intake. These zones prohibit any form of development on the foreshore   Shoreland Plan Objective 4.1.3 Public Access: To improve upon and guarantee continued public passage along the foreshore  OCP Policy 15.3(6) Ensure new residential areas are to be planned in a comprehensive manner recognizing overall concern for roadway safety, density, form and character of the neighborhood OCP Policy 12.4(7) Recognize and celebrate its heritage by identifying those sites and buildings with historical significance and implementing a heritage register  Shoreland Plan Objectives 4.1 Social and Economic Objectives: The purpose of identifying social objectives is to give consideration to the recognition of values of the appropriate social groups and lifestyles in the community      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 163  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents OCP Foreshore Development Permit Area Guideline 16.3(3) New development and activities within shore spawning habitats shall be referred to the Ministry of Environment for their comments Shoreland Plan Environmental Policies 5.2.3 Aquatic Weed Control: Council supports the policies of the Ministry of Environment which through the Okanagan Basin Water board manages the aquatic weed control program within the Shoreland Plan area   Shoreland Plan Policies 5.1.9 Public Access: Improvement of public passage along the foreshore is a plan policy. Improvements include signing access points and walkways. Specific recommendations are included in the policies for each Map Unit Section 5.3  OCP Policy 15.3(7) When reviewing applications, to allow duplexes and cluster housing within the LDR designation. The District will consider the impact on the character of the neighborhood by following guidelines (see OCP) OCP Policy 12.4(8) Consider economic incentives in keeping with provincial legislation regarding heritage conservation to assist in the protection and enhancement of those sites and buildings with historical significance Shoreland Plan Objectives 4.1.1 Development and Recreation Uses: To maximize the benefit of lands within the shoreland plan area for public and commercial recreational uses, according to specific policies for each unit of the shoreland plan. Of specific concern is developing Municipal lands for the best public benefit and private lands for the joint economic benefit of the landowner and the Municipality and in all cases considering the environment, social and economic implications      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 164  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents OCP ESA Development Permit Area - Ravine and Stream Corridors 16.(2) Leave strip areas for ravines shall include the area from the centre of the base of the ravine to the top of the slope and a minimum distance of 15m from the natural break of the slope Shoreland Plan Unit 4 Development Issues 2. The Municipality will consult with the Ministry of health requesting the evaluation of the quality of water discharging into Lake Okanagan from culverts under Highway 97 for high nutrient content. If warranted, appropriate remedial measure shall be enforced by the Ministry of Health and the Municipality   Beach Avenue Plan 3.5 Accessibility, Traffic and Parking: Although the vision for the downtown emphasizes "human scale" development with improved pedestrian and bicycle access, and increased transit service, it is still important to accommodate motor vehicle traffic. Because of the limited area and the configuration of the downtown, opportunities for vehicle circulation and parking are limited. This increases the importance and the challenge in enhancing traffic circulation an parking  OCP Policy 15.4(1) Designate medium density residential areas as Development Permit Areas  OCP Policy 13.4(3) Encourage the sharing of fields, playgrounds and recreational facilities with the School District Shoreland Plan Finance and Social Policies 1. A five year or ten year plan to implement development of Municipal Shoreland improvement projects on a prioritized basis  OCP ESA Development Shoreland Plan Unit 10   Beach Avenue Plan 4.2 Opportunities - OCP Policy 15.4(2) Establish OCP Policy 13.4(4) Work with service Shoreland Plan Unit 6 Permitted     APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 165  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents permit Area - Ravine and Stream Corridors 16.5(3) The dedication of a leave strip for stream corridors should follow the requirements set out in the Land Development Guidelines for the Protection of Aquatic Habitat appended to this OCP as an information schedule Permitted Uses 10.4 At the Water System #1 Emergency Intake a No use Zone is designated 15 m on either side of the intake. This overlaps into Unit #9 Mobility: 1. A trail/pathway linking downtown to Todd's Campground area, 2. Parking along side streets in downtown, 3. Laneways used for retail shops, 4. Parking up against the highway, 5. Easy access to public shore area, 6. Common parking area outside downtown, 7. Common parking area outside downtown, 8. Allow sidewalks/courtyar ds to accommodate outside restaurants/seating trail, 9. Pedestrian and cycle network of walkways, sidewalks, paths, crosswalks and lanes  maximum densities in the Medium Density Residential areas not to exceed 60 residential units per hectare (24 units per area) and a maximum height of three stories  clubs and other organizations to provide public facilities within parks  Uses 6.3 Limited seasonal commercial uses may be permitted  OCP ESA Development Shoreland Plan Unit 11   Beach Avenue Plan 5.1 Enhanced OCP Policy 15.4(3) OCP Policy 15.3 (5) Ensue that new Beach Avenue Plan 3.1:     APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 166  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents Permit Areas - Ravine and Stream Corridors16.5 (5) Development Permit Application should include a vegetation management plan indicating the extent of proposed leave areas and any proposed management of the vegetation in the leave areas. Disturbance of leave area of the site without prior approach from the MoE is prohibited. Re- vegetation/restorat ion strategies should be set out in the submitted environmental management plan. Development Issues 2. Where possible access to the foreshore will be developed i.e. Burdekin Lane Mobility and Pedestrian Movement: It is a goal of this Plan to create a comfortable pedestrian environment through the use of sidewalks, trails, pathways and public plazas, along with the traffic calming measures and sensitive streetscape design. It is also a goal to ensure traffic circulation does not impede the pedestrian orientation of the neighborhood, while avoiding any major compromises to author access. Parking and circulation the downtown core must reflect the need to build the commercial activity in a relatively tight configured area. Encourage multiple family residential housing forms such as townhouses, apartments and innovative housing forms such as cluster housing that are compatible with the natural attributes of the site  residential development occurs in a compact staged manner, related to demand, existing development and the expansion of utility services  Commercial and Economic Development - There is a clear realization that much of the economic development potential for Peachland lies within the Beach Avenue Neighborhood. The waterfront, the commercial core and the introduction sanitary sewer will complement the physical improvements to attract new investment and growth. This ability should also help stem leakage of consumer spending into surrounding communities. The Plan should therefore seek to optimize the commercial     APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 167  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents Furthermore, it is a goal of this Plan to integrate, pedestrian, cycling and vehicular traffic in a safe and efficient manner.  development potential of the downtown. One significant growth opportunity will be the tourist industry followed closely by the residential development. Nevertheless, many groups felt that to achieve our goals there was a need of effective planning and communication between Tourism/Economi c Development Committees, the District and property owners in the downtown  OCP ESA Development Permit Areas - Ravine and Stream Corridors 16.2(6) The stream channel and leave strip areas should be District of Peachland Water Master Plan: Approach - Challenges, Objectives and Guiding   Beach Avenue Plan 8.3 Pedestrian Mobility Waterfront Walkway 1. A formal walkway will be constructed along beach Avenue adjacent to OCP Policy 15.5(1) The following uses will be encourages a) Medium Density Residential, b) Low Density OCP Policy 15.4(8) Coordinate and cooperate with nonprofit organizations in the provision of affordable and special needs Beach Avenue Plan 5.2 Sustained Economic Health: It is a goal of this Plan to emphasize commercial development in strategic locations     APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 168  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents kept in or restored to their natural condition except for works or plantings to control erosion, protect banks, protect fisheries or otherwise preserve and enhance the natural water course. Restoration efforts should utilize indigenous species and plants that efficiently perform functions like contaminant assimilation, soil conservation and aquatic habitat provision. The rehabilitation of important and damaged aquatic and terrestrial habitats should occur in consultation with senior levels of government and community groups Principles: 1. Comply with the Drinking Water Protection Act and Regulations to ensure a supply of water that is consistently safe to drink, 2. Take long term big picture approach to planning in terms of ultimate service area an service population, 3. Strive to meet target fire flows throughout the service area, 4. Ensure sufficient capacity of supply an system components Okanagan Lake and extending from Doggy beach to Todd Road. This walkway will be implemented in a staged manner and may involve various character cross sections of pathway including boardwalk, trail and hard surface pathways, A waterfront pier at the end  of 13th street has been proposed to complement the walkway and create a strong link with the lake  Residential, c) Special Needs/Affordabl e Social housing, d) Mixed use development, e) offices/Studios, f) Professional offices,  g) Home occupation, h) Bed and Breakfast, I) Home conversions for business offices, j) Recreational facilities, k) churches  housing  of the Beach Avenue Area, including Downtown core, along 13th Street and north of Todd Road. Besides incorporating specific business uses compatible to those locations, this goal supports enhancing the tourism profile of the Beach Avenue area, especially at the core and north of Todd Road, in an effort to sustain the economic health of Peachland      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 169  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents to accommodate growth and economic development OCP ESA Development Permit Areas - ravine and stream Corridors 16.5(8) In submitting rezoning, subdivision and development proposals 2.0 hectares in area or greater, where there may be some potential deleterious impact on neighboring watercourses i.e. high density or industrial development, on site , off site or downstream, where construction activities, land use or storm water discharges may impact fish habitat, the proponent must tube required 1. District of Peachland Water Master Plan: Approach - Challenges, Objectives and Guiding Principles: 1. Gain an overall understanding of the nature, scope and scale of the Districts water infrastructure deficit. 2. Establish a long-term direction for major critical elements of the water system in the future, 3. Set forth a realistic and affordable   Beach Avenue Plan 8.3 Pedestrian Mobility Other 1. To further enhance pedestrian mobility, street improvements will include curb extensions at key intersections along Beach Avenue, and textured or raised crosswalks at appropriate locations. 2. Sidewalks, curb and gutters will form part of the revitalization on the downtown side streets  OCP Policy 15.5(2) Maximum height should not exceed 3 storey's with only 2 storey's permitted along Beach Avenue  OCP Policy 15.4(9) Identify the sites suitable for affordable and special needs housing  Beach Avenue Plan 6.0 Neighborhood Goals and Objectives: Objective 1. Expand the commercial base primarily in the downtown and at other key locations in the neighborhood, Objective 2. Create a tourist destination by enhancing the downtown image and promoting its attractive location near the lake, Objective 3. Effectively organize a marketing program and business recruitment strategy to     APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 170  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents to submit a summary document and site plan as described in the RAR program for phased implementati on, to be incorporated into the Districts capital planning process, 3. Set forth a realistic and affordable program for phased implementati on, to be incorporated into the Districts capital planning process, 4. Position the District to maximize revenues from infrastructure grant programs as they become available by the Provincial and Federal proactively implement Plan policies      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 171  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents Governments OCP ESA Development Permit Areas - Ravine and Stream corridors 16.5(9) In submitting rezoning, subdivision and development proposals less that 2.0  hectares in area, where there is fish habitat on site or with no on site fish habitat, but whose development activities and runoff may impact fish habitat, the proponent must be required to submit a summary document and sit plan as described by RAR District of Peachland Water Master Plan; Challenges, Objectives and Guiding Principles 6. Promote water conservation to encourage the wise use of these valuable resources, 9. Follow best practices and principles for managing the water system infrastructure as an asset, in order to maximize the use and life expectancy of system components   Beach Avenue Plan 8.4 Action: The Parking and Circulation Strategy suggests a series of initiatives for the District of Peachland. Man of these will trigger other works or will be required to be scheduled along with certain improvements, including private development. The immediate considerations are as follow: 1. Conduct Parking Management Plan, 2. Review and revise Cash in Lieu Bylaw, 3. Review and revise parking space requirements in Zoning Bylaw, 4. Introduce Parking management techniques as recommended through the parking Management Plan, OCP Policy The Gateway at 13th Street 15.6(1) The following uses will be encouraged: a) Multifamily residential, b) Mixed use, c) Landmark feature, d) Churches  OCP Policy Blue Water Residential 15.7(3) Design of new multiple family developments in this area must be sensitive to adjacent single family homes  Beach Avenue Plan 6.0 Neighborhood Goals and Objectives: Policy Direction: Establish a marketing program and business recruitment strategy, Organize a festival and events initiative to help create awareness and make Downtown Peachland a regional destination, Recruit and support businesses that will create an intensive mix of tourist services, shopping and entertainment experiences. Investigate the potential of some limited commercial     APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 172  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents 5 Make changes to downtown side streets to accommodate on street parking, 6. Beach Avenue urbanization, 7. Town Lane Upgrades, 8 Begin Waterfront Walkway construction  development opportunities along the lakeshore mainly south of Heritage Park without compromising access to Okanagan Lake  OCP ESA Development Permit Areas - Ravine and Stream Corridors 16.5(10) Access should be restricted to protect environmentally sensitive areas in accordance with the recommendation of registered biologist, ecologist or other environmental management professional District of Peachland Water Master Plan 3.3.2 Demand Management: The District of Peachland has recently taken a number of steps towards reducing water demands, including completion of the Water Conservation Drought Management Study in 2005,   Roadway Network Plan - 3.1 Trip Generation Retail - 96 trips/1000m2 of floor area, Office 18 trips/1000m2 of floor area, tourist Commercial (hotel/motel) - 0.64 trips/unit, Industrial - 0.25 trips/ha, Medium to High Density (apartments) Residential - 0.36 trips/dwelling unit, Medium to Low Density (townhouse, duplex) multi/single family - 1.0 OCP Policy The Gateway at 13th Street 15.6(2) Maximum height should not exceed 3 storey's along 13th st  OCP Core Commercial Policies 15.8)1) To implement the policies contained in the District of Peachland Beach Avenue Neighborhood Plan  Peachland Economic Development Strategy/Marketin g Plan Terms of Reference: Mission Statement: To develop an Economic Development Strategy that will encourage diversity in the economic base of Peachland, create opportunities for businesses and develop a sustainable future of residents     APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 173  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents and the implementati on of community education programs. In addition, by introducing its metering program starting in 2007, the District will continue to move towards community- based water conservation this. This will aid in reducing the pressures being placed on Peachalnd's water sources, and it will also help to optimize the required investment in the Districts water system as outlined below trips/dwelling unit, Low Density Single Family - 1.2 trips/dwelling unit       APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 174  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents OCP ESA Development Permit Areas - Ravine and Stream Corridors 16.5(11) Any outdoor recreational features such as hiking trails and picnic benches should be located along or beyond the stream buffer boundary wherever possible. Some passive recreational movement may be permitted within the buffer area provided that sensitive wildlife habitat, plants and ecological functions are not significantly impacted and public safety is ensured. Active recreational uses within a riparian buffer area, such motorcycling, sports fields, or snowmobiling should b prevented District of Peachland Water Master Plan 3.3.2 Demand Management 1) Metering Program - The District has awarded a contract to proceed with universal metering program, starting in 2007. Combined with continued education and regulation, it is expected that this program will have the most significant impact in helping Peachland to achieve its target of 25% reduction in average   Road Way Network Plan Final Report has done a capacity assessment to assess existing traffic volumes in the District and it has been determined that the Highway 97 intersections are of concern. The study recommends additional capacity on the highway, highway intersection and additional local road linkages to minimize reliance on the highway for trips between locations within the District.  OCP Policy The Gateway at 13th Street 15.6(3) Maximum permitted commercial space in residential buildings should not exceed 100% of the ground floor or 20% maximum of building  OCP Core Commercial Policies 15.8(2) The area designated Core Commercial is recognized as the commercial and cultural hug of Peachland       APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 175  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents by the use of signage, barriers or other means annual demand per capita. Similar Okanagan communities have achieved water demand reductions of 15-25% after the installation of meters. OCP ESA Development Permit Areas - General Environmental Management 16.5(3) Where the MoE, Lands and parks has requested it, vegetation or trees should be planted or retained in order to control erosion, protect banks or protect water quality and fisheries District of Peachland Water Master Plan 3.3.2 Demand Management 2) Education and Awareness: Public education is an important component of the overall strategy to work towards peak flow and overall consumption reductions. Voluntary compliance is   Roadway  Network Plan Final Report 7.2 Traffic Calming Measures:  Curb extensions, speed humps and other measures are noted to improve pedestrian safety and discourage speeding  OCP Policy The Gateway at 13th Street 15.6(6) 13th Street will be improved to full urban standards with curb and gutter. Parking on street will be permitted  OCP Core Commercial Policy 15.8(4) The commercial, office and residential buildings in the downtown core are to be developed in a compact form to enhance pedestrian circulation       APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 176  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents a cost effective and simple tool to achieve water conservation and public education is also a positive measure that builds awareness of the need for conservation. A detailed list of potential public education strategies was outlined in the 2005 Water Conservation Drought Management Study OCP ESA Development Permit Areas - general Environmental Management 16.5(4) Cut and fill construction should be minimized by following the District of Peachland Water Master Plan 3.3.3 Growth and Development Projections: In 2004/.2005 the District updated its   Roadway Network Plan Final report 8.0 - Major Network Plan: 1. Traffic Generation/Trip Distribution Analysis, 2. Capacity Assessment, 3. Determine Major Road Network OCP Policy The Gateway at 13th Street 15.6(7) A landmark feature or a focal point at the end of 13th street, extending off Beach Ave near or over the Lake OCP Core Commercial Policy 15.8(7) To support commercial and multiple family residential mixed use buildings where ground floor level space of retail uses and      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 177  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents natural topography in the sitting of roads and buildings development projections as part of a review and update of its Development Cost Charge bylaw Alignment, 4. Determine Road Classifications, 5. Update Roadway Standards/Cross Section  will be considered by the District  professional office and multiple family residential uses are redirected to upper floor levels.  OCP ESA Development Permit Areas - General Environmental Management 16.5(5) Where disturbance of the ESA is unavoidable in order to construct or repair road, water sewer, drainage, gas, underground wiring or other infrastructure, soil conservation measure such as silt fencing, matting and trapping should be used. The disturbed area should then be replanted with natural vegetations immediately after District of Peachland Water Master Plan 3.3.4 Service Area: Although the Water Master Plan will size infrastructure requirements according to projected development, the District of Peachland should strongly consider policies which direct development in a more compact, sustainable form in accordance   Town Centre Concept Plan - Traffic Circulation. 1. Town Lane will be widened to accommodate efficient traffic circulation. 2. Town Lane will be developed to a standard that prioritizes the pedestrian while still accommodating the vehicle 3. Proposed development will be accessible from side streets, 4. Frontage improvements will be required adjacent to development on 1st through 4th street north of Town Lane OCP Policy The Gateway at 13th Street 15.6(9) Courtyard buildings , setbacks and special designs are encouraged at all corners on 13th street to protect views of the Lake from the Highway and to embellish the streetscape along the 13th Street Gateway  OCP Core Commercial Policy 15.8(9) The following uses shall be encouraged within the area designated Core Commercial on the land Use Designations map, provided they are generally located as described in the District of Peachland Beach Avenue Neighborhood Plan a) retail commercial including small shops and boutiques, b) Personal service, c) Tourist accommodation      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 178  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents the construction or repair is complete with Smart Growth principles and on Beach Avenue from 3rd- 5th street, 5. Upgrades to highway intersections at Princeton Avenue and 13th street are required to ensure safe vehicular circulation  in and out of the Town Centre  and restaurants, d) Leisure/recreation al and entertainments, e) institutional, f) Residential, f) Mixed Use, f) Office and Financial  OCP ESA Development Permit Area - General Environmental Management 16.5(6) The sequence and timing of development should consider important fish and wildlife activities such as breeding, nesting and spawning seasons and assist in minimizing soil erosion District of Peachland Water Master Recommendat ions 6. - 2. Asset Management - Conditions, operation and maintenance of the water infrastructure assets should assessed utilizing an assets management program    OCP Policy Blue Water Residential 15.7(1) The Following uses will be supported a) Low Density Residential, b) Medium Density Residential, c) Special Needs/Affordabl e or Social Housing, d) Parks and public open space OCP Tourist Commercial Policy 15.10(3) Support the following types of uses and activities in this designation a) fixed roof visitor accommodation including hotels and motels, b) campgrounds, c) restaurants, d) tourist attractions, d) neighborhood pubs   OCP ESA District of     OCP Policy Blue OCP Institutional     APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 179  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents Development Permit Area - General Environmental Management 16.5(7) Areas to be preserved free of development should be temporarily fenced or otherwise protected from damage prior to commencing development of the site with care taken to included the root system of the trees within the fenced area Peachland Water Master Plan Recommendat ions 6 - 3 Water Treatment: Water treatability studies involving selection of appropriate technologies and piloting should be undertaken prior to proceeding with any design or construction related activities for treatment facilities Water Residential 15.7(2) Protect the integrity of the low density character Policy 15.15(1) Expand the range of institutional service level in relation to the community's growth OCP ESA Development Permit Area - Environmental Assessment 16.5(1) A report prepared by a registered biologist or other District of Peachland Water Master Plan Recommendat ions 6 -4 Water Conservation:    OCP Policy Blue Water Residential 15.7(6) Any proposal for multiple family residential use will require a OCP Institutional Policy 15.15(2) Encourage establishment of community health care facilities      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 180  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents relevant environmental professional with terms of reference agreed to by the District and MoE, Lands and Parks may be required for development proposals in or adjacent to environmentally sensitive areas. This report should include the following and other information deemed relevant a) mapping which identifies the ESA areas on the site,) criteria used to define the boundaries of ESA's. c) inventory of significant vulnerable, threatened or endangered species and related habitat classification within the site, d)  impact statement describing effects It is recommended that the District document the water conservation strategy being employed. This is especially timely and relevant considering the District's Universal water metering program beginning in 2007 zoning amendment which will provide residents an opportunity for review and comment      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 181  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents of proposed development on natural conditions, e) measures for mitigating habitat degradation and conserving species including limits of proposed leave areas, f) habitat compensation alternative where compensation is approved OCP ESA Development Permit Area - Environmental Assessment 16.5(2) Provide design details of the proposed mitigating measures in an environmental management plan prepared by landscape architect and or professional engineer with assistance by a registered professional biologist or other District of Peachland's Climate Change Initiatives - Drought Management: 1. Education: Develop and distribute educational material to water users in the District with information on the benefits of efficient water use and    OCP Core Commercial Policy 15.8(5) Reinvestment in single family residential dwellings and other low intensity land uses will be discouraged in the core Commercial area in order to capitalize on the opportunity to accommodate higher density development  Shoreland Plan Objectives 4.1.2: TO allow for a range of recreational opportunities along the foreshore, in accordance with the specific policies for each unit of the shoreland plan       APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 182  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents environmental professionals methods of conservation. Promote the profile of conservation within the community by using open houses and print media. Employ summer students to tour residential neighborhood s to provide educational material to residents found watering during restricted times OCP Urban Wildfire Interface Development Permit Area Guidelines 16.11.1(1 - a) The use of fire resistant materials for roofs and exterior walls - District of Peachland's Climate Change Initiatives - Drought Management: 2. Regulation: review current    OCP Core Policy 15.8(10) The District of Peachland will consider using a Comprehensive Development Zone to regulate the specific land Shoreland Plan Objectives 4.1.4 Quality Recreational Facilities and Structures: To promote the development, enhancement and      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 183  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents Non woody materials will be required for roofing watering restrictions and amend bylaws so as to reduce morning peak flows.  Review agricultural volume allotment following a water audit to determine adequate volumes for Peachland soils. Begin enforcement of watering restrictions by issuing no fee tickets with summer student public educator, to be followed with monetary fines in subsequent years use of new development within Core Commercial area of the Town Centre  continued maintenance of quality recreational facilities and structures in attractive settings throughout the uplands and foreshore, which contribute positively to the aesthetic appearance of the shore land  OCP Urban Wildfire Interface Development Permit Area District of Peachland's Climate Change    OCP Policy Resort Commercial 15.11(2) Shoreland  Plan Unit 5 Permitted Uses 5.1 Development of      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 184  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents Guidelines 16.11.1(1 - c) All conifers less than 15cm in diameter are at breast height and that the trees are cut at a right angle, as low as possible to the ground to reduce the risk of injury to people and animal moving through the area Initiatives - Drought Management 3. Operational and Maintenance: Minimize leakage by designing upgrades and replacements to the water distribution system for the lowest possible pressure level for safe and reliable water supply Development proposals along the foreshore of this area will be considered if the following criteria is addressed a) must be associated with the hotel resort area on the upland side, b) maximize the lake frontage, c) permits traffic through the area and beyond William St, d) respects the foreshore near the mouth of Trepanier Creek as an Environmental Conservation Area, e) complies with Ministry of Environments requirements for development on the foreshore  the shoreland shall be oriented to upgrading and expansion of both public and commercial recreation oriented facilities such as a) public park, b) marina rentals  OCP Urban Wildfire Interface District of Peachland's    OCP Light Industrial Policy Beach Avenue Plan 3.2 Residential      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 185  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents Development Permit Area Guidelines 16.11.1 ( 1 - d) Healthy trees within 10 meters of homes and buildings can be retained however branches should not be within 3 meters of building or attachments such as balconies Climate Change Initiatives - Drought Management 4. Economic and Financial Review current acreage charge policy. To promote increased equity among water users consider charging acreage fees only on land recognized by Revenue Canada as farm status and create a basic domestic water allotment and corresponding charge. This places priority on agricultural water needs while creating equality 15.12(1) Direct light industrial activity to the Upper Princeton Light Industrial designated area Development: Form and character of multifamily projects adjacent to single family homes should be sensitive to existing development. New development may be staged to avoid disruption. Maximizing views of ale, limiting the height along Beach Avenue. Mixed use developments in the core, without compromising the primacy of retail, Need to recognize the demographic shift for housing forms and types, while promoting quality in the new development.      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 186  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents among domestic users with regard to water, regardless of lot size. OCP Urban Wildfire Interface Development Permit Area Guidelines 16.11.1(1-g) The branches and trees are removed so that pills of debris do not pose a fire hazard District of Peachland's Climate Change initiatives: Drought Management Phase 2 -1 Estimate potential benefits, costs of metering and develop an implementati on plan that includes public forums and information sessions    OCP Light Industrial Policy 15.12(2) Where Council is considering OCP amendment applications for new light industrial land use. Council shall evaluate the following considerations a) site suitability, b) potential for detrimental traffic, impact o surrounding properties, c) potential detrimental environmental impacts, d) the municipal services can be economically provided to this Beach Avenue Plan 3.6: The study area contains significant concentration of Peachland's institutional facilities including municipal offices, fire hall, recreation complex, seniors centre, etc. This issue area addressed relocation possibilities and the ultimate expansion of or addition to the institutional facilities. It was largely agreed that the municipal offices/fire hall at 3rd Street an beach Avenue occupy valuable real estate and      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 187  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents site. could potentially be relocated to free up the land for a higher and better use  Shoreland Environmental Objectives 4.2.3 Manage and Protect the Foreshore: To manage and protect the foreshore thought the Municipality to promote retention of its natural character District of Peachland's Climate Change Initiatives Drought Management Implementati on: Phase 1 of the water conservation strategy was implemented immediately, followed by Phase 2 the following year.    OCP Light Industrial Policy 15.12(3) Through the use of Zoning Bylaw provisions and where applicable, Development Permit Area provisions ensure that all industrial development occurs compatibly with other nearby land uses and in accordance to accepted standards and guidelines regarding: sitting and dimensions of buildings, location lighting an screening of parking and loading facilities, Beach Avenue Plan 4.1 The Principles a. The Beach Avenue Neighborhood will evolve into a community that is well integrated both internally and externally. It will be physically and psychologically linked to surrounding communities by land and water, and there will be means to easily access amenities within the area. It is expected that sound marketing and design will facilitate greater use of the commercial core by Peachland residents and      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 188  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents landscaping and buffering from other uses, exterior character, location and design of signs and screening of storage yards visitors from other Central Okanagan communities b) The Beach Avenue Neighborhood will be an attraction to locals and visitors because it will be alive with interesting activity throughout the year. All aspects of the community including the commercial, civic and residential fabric will help to create, reinforce and control a healthy liveliness. The experiential qualities will be manifested in visual interest, the rich cultural environment, synergy created between the waterside and land side interface and dynamic programmed events      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 189  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents Shoreland Environmental Objective 4.2.4 Aesthetic Quality: To preserve and enhance the natural aesthetic quality of the foreshore Town Centre Concept Plan - Details of Plan: Stormwater Management: Limited stormwater management facilities currently exist within the Town Centre. 4 storm drainage upgrade scenarios were considered    OCP Light Industrial Policy 15.12(7) Investigate the possibility of expanding the light industrial designation by annexing lands outside the Municipality in the vicinity of the existing industrial areas Beach Avenue Plan 4.1 Principles c) Peachland's Beach Avenue Neighborhood will be an area, in which people will feel comfortable to live, work, conduct business and recreate. Because of these qualities, it will also be an attraction to regional an international visitors. While recognizing the important role that density plays in helping provide economic efficiencies, they are caters to pedestrian comfort and experience. The quaint physical environment supports an ambience which is intimate and friendly   Shoreland Plan Unit Town Centre      Beach Avenue Plan     APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 190  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents 2 Development Issue: 1 No improvements are permitted in the Environmental Zone, 2. Improving Fish spawning channels in Deep Creek by volunteer groups is encouraged,3. Improvements to the appearance of Antler Beach Park by Regional District of Central Okanagan and Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks are encouraged. Concept Plan - Water - A comprehensiv e review of the District Water system was completed march 2001. Analysis indicated that minimal upgrades are required to service the proposed development within the Town Centre area 4.1 Principles d) Peachland's Beach Avenue Neighborhood will have its own unique signature. This signature compliments the natural and cultural environment in which it sits and at the same time, sets it apart from other communities in the area. The physical, cultural and social signature for the Beach Avenue Neighborhood results from the strengthening of Peachland's community based values. These value focus on enhance rich visual experiences (which compliment the physical setting, strengthening arts and culture within the community,     APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 191  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents supporting and maintaining a healthy vitality and reinforcing a scale of development and activity which is friendly, intimate and quaint  Shoreland Plan Unit 2 Permitted Uses 2.1  Due to the sensitive nature of the fishery habitat, no development shall be permitted to take place along the foreshore of Okanagan Lake or on the banks of Deep Creek Town centre Concept Plan - Sanitary Sewer: Relatively new sanitary sewer designed to accommodate both existing and future development. No upgrades to the system are required. Increasing the service population within Town Centre will reduce capacity available for future development    OCP Agricultural Policy 15.13(1) Subdivision within the ALR will only be considered if the agricultural viability of the parcel is not negatively affected  Beach Avenue Plan 4.2 opportunities - 1. Mixed Use development in the core area, 2. Medium density residential from civic centre down to the campgrounds, 3. Time-share condos associated with a hotel/resort, 4. Home occupation and Offices, 5. Studio suites, 6. Rooftop gardens, 7. High end townhomes, 8. Seniors housing, 9. Special needs/housing/co ngregate care facilities      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 192  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents to the south Shoreland Plan Unit 2 Permitted Uses 2.2 This unit is designated as a conservation area, 75 meters each direction from the mouth of Deep Creek Universal Water Metering Program Information Brochure for the community of Peachland. An equitable approach to conserving our shared resource. For the next year the District will be monitoring the metered water usage for residences and businesses throughout Peachland. Every quarter you will receive a mock water bill detailing your water usage and estimated    OCP Rural Policy 15.13(1) restrict urban development in rural areas  Beach Avenue Plan 4.2 Opportunities The Streetscape: 1. Special landmark features, 2. Special land mark buildings, 3. Gateway treatments especially at the south entrance to Beach and at 13th street, 4. Focal point on the water side at the end of 13th street, 6. Revitalization and urbanization of Beach Avenue, 7. Landscape treatment of 13th street, 8. Landscape treatment of street ends in downtown core, 9. Theme the signage entering and within the Beach Avenue Neighborhood, 10 Pedestrian orientation and features, 11. Make      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 193  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents water bill for the period. The current flat rate charge for water will continue to be in effect until the end of March 2009. You are not expected to pay your mock water bill, it is for educational purposes only the buildings relate to the street  Shoreland Plan Unit 8 Development Issue: 1 Protection of natural resources District of Peachland's Sanitary Sewer Servicing and Phasing Plan 2.1 Objectives: Determine loadings by area based on current conditions and population growth projections. Identify sewer    OCP Rural Policy 15.13(2) Subdivision of rural designation lands to minimum sized parcels of 2 hectares where deemed appropriate  Beach Avenue Plan 5.7 Increase in Housing: It is a goal of this Plan to encourage increased residential densities in the neighborhood. New multiple family forms of housing will be developed as townhome's apartments and other innovative forms and at      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 194  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents phasing (where and when) Identify preferred infrastructure configuration and sizing as a system (design optimization). Identify future major system upgrades as triggered by population and system growth densities reaching 200 unities per hectare. Residential units are also encouraged above commercial uses, further increasing the opportunities for housing  Shoreland Plan Unit 8 Permitted Uses 8.1 Due to the sensitive nature of the fishing habitat, no development shall be permitted on the foreshore     OCP Rural Policy 15.14(3) Development of rural areas is to be considered only once urban services are available  Beach Avenue Plan 6.0 Goal 2 - Objective 1: Increase the total supply of housing in the neighborhood, Objective 2 Support new multiple family residential forms in select locations, Objective 3 Introduce design control that will produce a quality living      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 195  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents environment, Objective 4 Ensure sensitive transition of low density residential areas Shoreland Plan Unit 8.2 The mouth of Trepanier Creek and the foreshore of Okanagan Lake for a distance of 75m in both directions shall be designated an Environmental Conservation Area     OCP Development Permits, Policies and Actions 16.1(1) Require all existing areas of land zoned which allow for multiple family, commercial, industrial and industrial uses within the District and all such areas zoned to these uses after adoption of the OCP to adhere to the relevant Development Permit Area guidelines set out in this section  Beach Avenue Plan 6.0 Goal 5 Arts and Culture; Objective 1. Incorporate public art into any redevelopment of streetscape, buildings and other public space, Objective 2 Define venues to host arts and cultural events, Objective 3 Effectively organize to develop and control the arts and cultural initiatives for the benefit of local residents and tourists  Shoreland Plan Committee Recommendations    OCP Development Permits, Policies Beach Avenue Plan 6.0 Goal 6 Phasing and Revitalization:      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 196  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents Unit # 1 This unit is adjacent to Antlers Beach Regional park. Therefore no development is to occur. No change to the Plan. The Committee suggests that the municipal beach section of Antlers Beach, removing steel posts and various debris and Actions 16.1(2) Amend and fine tune the Development Permit Area designations in the OCP as sector or neighborhood planning and rezoning occurs.  It is a principal goal of this plan to encourage strategically phased development to avoid community disruption. Redevelopment of the Beach Avenue low density residential neighborhood will occur over many years. Revitalization of improvements to various roads and streetscapes will be conducted in a strategic manner. Objective 1. A phased approach to redevelopment will be taken to avoid any major community disruption, Objective 2 revitalization key feature streets such as Beach Ave, Objective 3 Relocate civic     APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 197  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents buildings from the core  Shoreland Plan Committee Recommendations Unit # 2. This Unit's location at the mouth of Deep Creek prohibits development in this environmentally sensitive area. No change to the plan     OCP Development permits, Policies and Actions 16.1(3) The District will consider designation of Agricultural Development Permit Areas and will amend the OCP in accordance with recently enacted provisions of the Local Government Act  District of Peachland Water Master Plan Recommendations 6 - 6 Communications Program: It is recommended that the District continue its communications program with the community to provide information on future water capital investments and to solicit feedback on the Districts plans from community members   Shoreland Plan Committee Recommendations Unit 3 Due to the Rip rap shoreline along Highway 97, access and use of this area is limited.    OCP Development Permits, Policies and Actions 16.1(4) The District will establish development Town Centre Concept Plan: Design Guidelines: 1. Respect the existing character of Peachland, 2. Reinforce the subject area as the      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 198  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents No change to the plan permit guidelines addressing development within wildfire hazard areas  Town Centre, 3. Encourage and facilitate diversity of design, 4. Protect views and vistas, 5. Composition of small forms, 6. Step building form down from the highway to the lake, 7. Develop streets for people, . Bold use of color and materials Beach Avenue Plan 3, 7 Environment and Open Space: The category of environment and open space was raised with particular reference to the foreshore and the need to increase the amount of parks/open space as urban densification occurs. Any development proposals along the shore will be    OCP Development Permits, Policies and Actions 16.1(5) The District will pursue the ongoing identification of ESA's. As new sites are identified, relevant Development Permit areas will be amended to reflect new information  The Corporation of the District of Peachland Recreation Mission Statement 'Growth of Community': Special Events: Special events contribute to a feeling of community identity and spirit. Therefore the District will encourage the development of such special events to ensure this objective is      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 199  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents subject to Municipal Bylaws and/or Ministry of Environment approvals. promotes. Support to Local Community Groups: Local recreation groups and agencies are and will continue to organize and sponsor leisure opportunities These local groups aid the quality of life in Peachland through their various efforts. The district of Peachland recognizes their contributors and supports them with access to facilities Beach avenue Plan 5.5 Clean and Green: It is a goal of this Plan to encourage and maintain a high quality environment for visitors and residents alike. Landscaped treatments in the    OCP Steep Slopes Development Permit Area Guidelines 16.4(1) Setbacks - for developments on or near steep hillsides, the District may require that buildings and      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 200  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents downtown core, along with feature streets such as Beach Avenue and 13th Street, near the waterfront and in the residential areas will add to the appeal of the area., structures be setback a given distance as specified in the Development Permit from the top of the steep hillside or the toe of the slope  Beach Avenue Plan Goal # 4 Environment, Open Space and Trails: It is a principal goal of this plan to incorporate natural areas and open space to protect the integrity of the environment, enhance livability and to facilitate trail linkages within and beyond the neighborhood: Objective 1. Protect the Shoreland area and creeks in accordance to OCP Policies, Objective 2. Expand public opens space/parks as the    OCP Steep Slopes Development Permit Area Guideline 16.4(2) Safe Use of Development - for developments in areas where the District considers that the land is subject or may be subject to erosion, land slop, rock falls or subsidence, the district may require that Development Permit include a report certified by a professional engineer with experience in      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 201  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents neighborhood increases residential densities, Objective 3 Introduce a trail system to enhance pedestrian mobility throughout the neighborhood geotechnical engineering that the land may be used safely for the use intended  Beach Avenue Plan Green Gateway 5. Park linkages, Public Open Space, Connection to trails 2000, Creekside Trail, Enhance natural planting along both sides of Todd Road     OCP ESA Development Permit Area - Ravine and Stream Corridors 16.5(4) Where dedication may not be appropriate the use of density bonusing, transfer or development rights to an adjoin parcel, land trades or purchase and covenants could be used.  The Corporation of the District of Peachland Policy 6.6.2 I) The manager or designate shall    OCP ESA Development Permit Area - In stream Work 16.5(1) In stream work, culverts      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 202  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents inspect parks, trails, playgrounds, playground equipment and tennis courts a minimum of once a month, inspection results will be documented on the appropriate checklist and stream crossings should meet the standards of the Land development Guidelines and the requirements of the BC Water Act regulations The District of Peachland Policy 5.2.2 1) The District of Peachland will strive to eliminate in a timely fashion any tree dammed hazardous. When available fiscal and human resources limit the ability of the District to remove high risk trees, priority shall be placed on trees deemed to carry the highest risk. The standard for rating the hazardousness of a tree will be the International Society of    OCP ESA Development Permit Area - In stream Work 16.5(2) Construction practices should be in accordance with the Land Development Guidelines. All in stream work must receive written approval from BC Environment in accordance with the BC Water Act regulations       APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 203  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents Arboriculture 12 point hazard evaluation system. The Public Works Manager will administer this program and have final judgment on all matters concerning any measures take for any tree deemed hazardous The Corporation of the District of Peachland Policy Boulevard Tree Planting - Subdivision Development: It is the policy of council that the District of Peachland requires developers of subdivisions creating six or more parcels to pay a levy of 125.00 per lot created for the planting of boulevard trees. Species of trees to be chosen are to be    OCP ESA Development permit Area - Bonding and Environmental Monitoring 16.5(1) Provide bonding in accordance with the Subdivision and Development Services Bylaw for 125 percent of the value of the erosion control and environmental management work, pursuant to  Section 925 of      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 204  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents compatible with the area in which they are being planted, the size of boulevard, width of street overhead utility lines and underground utilities. The following list of trees have been chosen to be compatible with the area, the Local Government Act  The Corporation of the District of Peachland Recreation Mission Statement: Protection of Natural Resources: Protection of natural and aesthetic features, views and resources of historical significance enhances the quality of living. Provision of public access contributes to a greater understanding and    Shoreland Plan Objectives: 4.1.5 Structure Design and Appearance: To ensure that all structures on the foreshore and lake bed are designed and constructed to minimize interruption of the natural environmental processes and contribute positively to the aesthetic appearance of the shorelands      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 205  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents appreciation of our community and contributes to community growth. The District of Peachland provides maintenance to local parks and public accesses. The District of Peachland encourages partnership with community groups, as well as the entire community in stewardship for the respect and care of natural areas and development of future parks.       Shoreland Objectives 4.1.7 Development of Adjacent Lands: To ensure the continued viability of the shoreland plan pursuing discussion as to the future development of foreshore and      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 206  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents uplands adjacent to the south boundary of the Municipality, the objective being to ensure that such developments or lack of development will not negatively impact upon Municipal lands, from environmental, social and economic perspectives      Shoreland Plan Policies 5.1.6 200 Year Flood Limit: All permanent buildings and structures shall be located above the 200 year flood limit which is defined as the elevation 343.7 meters above sea level        Shoreland Plan Unit 1: Permitted Uses 1.1 No       APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 207  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents shoreland development shall be permitted       Shoreland Plan Unit 3 Development Issues 1. Limited use due to nature of riprap shoreline        Shoreland Plan Unit 3 Permitted Uses 3.1 Due to lack of beach area and to lack of upland development potential no foreshore development will be permitted        Shoreland Plan Unit 3 Permitted Uses 3.2 Recreational uses of the foreshore shall be oriented o boating, personal watercraft, fishing and waterskiing        Shoreland Plan     APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 208  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents unit 4 Permitted Uses 4.2 Foreshore and marine use are to be oriented to boating, personal watercraft, fishing and water skiing       Shoreland Plan Unit 5 Development Issues 5. The foreshore shall be landscaped and management will be considered to retard erosion below Beach Avenue between 3rd street and 5th street        Shoreland Plan Permitted Uses 6.1 The shoreland shall be oriented to its present use for boating and mixed use except for a swimming only area north from a point 10m      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 209  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents from the municipal wharf 5th street to the north end of Swim Bay       Beach Avenue Plan 3.3 Form and Character of Downtown/Beac h Avenue: The input showed most definitely that the physical appeal of the Downtown area and beach Avenue was paramount to this Plan. Already an extremely attractive location, there was an interest to build upon the aesthetic value with amenities, streetscape and development of new buildings. Along with the physical improvements, there was a keen desire to      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 210  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents enhance the cultural life and pedestrian orientation of the area, already a very special venue at the waterfront       Beach Avenue Plan 3.4 The Lakeside/Foresh ore Area: The Okanagan Lake waterfront is appreciated as a major asset for Peachland. The public input specifically called of careful scrutiny of any development proposed along the foreshore. Any means to enhance its tourism/recreati onal value must be done sensitively so that the public value is not compromised. The challenge      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 211  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents will be in making those small improvements or undertaking reclamation measure, whether it is a pier, docking facilities, pathway or beaches, so they do not compete with other goals and objectives of this Plan       Beach Avenue Plan 5.3 Diversity in Land Uses and Activity: It is a goal of this plan to encourage a diversity of land uses and activity throughout the neighborhood. This goal supports the complete community concept of building higher density residential near shopping,      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 212  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents services, employment and amenities. The activity in this community should also build upon art, culture and tourism, allowing for a vibrant environment to unfold       Beach Avenue Plan - Land Use Policies 7.2.1 General Town Centre Policies: a) Preserve and enhance views towards the lake, protect view corridors and discourage larger mass buildings, b) Create a focal point feature trough public are, landscape design or public plaza that will draw shoppers and visitors into the Town Centre, c) Encourage      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 213  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents property owners and developers to maximize site coverage within the Town Centre and provide adequate space for outdoor seating, landscaping, public and private space and other amenity areas that enhance the physical and visual appeal of the area, d) design guidelines shall be in keeping with Schedule C of this Plan and adopted as Development Permit Areas of the District of Peachland Official Community Plan.....       Beach Avenue Plan 7.2 Core Commercial      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 214  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents Policies 2.3 Permit high density housing to locate at the end of 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th street to take advantage of views though street corridors       Beach Avenue Plan 7.2 Core Commercial Policies 2.6 Consider amending Zoning Bylaw to enable the District to negotiate community amenities through a density bonus scheme where additional residential density would be permitted in exchange for the provision of an amenity considered valuable by the community such as a waterfront      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 215  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents walkway, public parking, public plazas, open space and others       District of Peachland Water Master Plan 6.0 Recommendatio ns: Sitting of Facilities: The Water Master Plan provides general locations only for facilities identified. Detailed site selection should be undertaken and finalized for the water treatment plan and water reservoirs. Additionally, right of way for the distribution trunk main should also be assessed and established where required        Town Centre Concept Plan - key Objectives:      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 216  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents To Promote mixed use along Town Land       Town Centre Concept Plan Key Objectives: To permit maximum densities of 80 units/acre to encourage 100% parcel coverage, To encourage heights of 8 stories using stepped back design (10 stories with density bonusing)  Bylaw 1779 - preserve and enhance fish habitat through the implementation of the provincial Riparian Area Regulation Bylaw 1228 - A bylaw to establish a reserve fund for storm water drainage systems improvements Bylaw 1582 A Bylaw to Provide for the regulation of solid waste collection, recycling and disposal  Subdivision and Development Bylaw 1230 - 10.0 Traffic Management: The Approving Officer may require the Applicant to provide a traffic impact analysis Subdivision and Development Services Bylaw 1230 - 13.0 Site Preparation: In no case shall land be cleared excavated, filled paved or graveled or the surface features of land otherwise be altered for the purpose of development without Bylaw 1639 Encourage the redevelopment of older homes and other low density land uses to high density commercial, residential and mixed use development within the area designated Core Commercial on the Land - Use Map      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 217  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents subdivision approval Bylaw 1434 - A bylaw to amend Tree Cutting Bylaw #1288 Bylaw 1854 - A bylaw to establish a cross connection control program and process for the District of Peachland Bylaw 1899 - A bylaw to provide for the regulation of solid waste  Subdivision and Development Services Bylaw 1230 Schedule B 2.03 Local Highways: Local highways within a proposed subdivision shall be arranged so that their use by through traffic will be discouraged Subdivision and Development Services Bylaw 1230 Schedule B 1.03 Geotechnical Evaluation: The Applicant shall be responsible for engaging the services of a qualified Geotechnical Engineer to investigate surface and sub surface conditions within the proposed subdivision Bylaw 1865 - Sustainable Development Strategy and Affordable Housing  Bylaw 1085 - A bylaw to Provide for the Control of Livestock that are running at Large within the boundaries of the corporation of the district of peach land Bylaw 1441 A Bylaw to Amend the Corporation of the District of Peachland Solid Waste management Regulations bylaw 1326, 1995 Bylaw 1463 - A bylaw to provide for the Regulations of Garbage Collection and disposal  Bylaw 1856 - A bylaw to regulate traffic within the corporate limits of the DoP Zoning Bylaws - Park and Open Space g. Height of Buildings; Measurements to be determined as per Part 1 Definitions, of this Bylaw: 1. Principal buildings: The height shall not Zoning Bylaw part 4 F. Secondary Suites - Bylaw 1751 1. Secondary Suites are subject to the following regulations a) secondary suites are only permitted in the R-1S Single Family Residential Suite Zone or RR-      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 218  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents exceed 9 meters (30 ft), 2. Accessory buildings and structures: The height shall not exceed 4.5 meters (15ft) except for a caretakers residence, the maximum height of which shall not exceed 9 meters (30ft) 1S Rural Residential Secondary Suite Zone b) only one secondary suite per parcel is permitted, c) on parcels that are 0.4 hectares in size or larger secondary suites can be located in accessory building provided they comply with the provisions of this bylaw d) A secondary suite shall not exceed 90m2 or 40% of the residential floor space in the single family residential or accessory building in which it is located, e) no secondary suite can be less that 32m2 in size Bylaw 1288 - A bylaw to regulate and prohibit the cutting and Bylaw 1228 - A bylaw to establish a reserve fund Zoning Bylaw Part 4.4 Garbage  and recyclable Material   Bylaw 1398 A bylaw to Amend Peachland Traffic Regulation Bylaw Zoning Bylaws CD-2 Comprehensive Development Subdivisions and Development Services Bylaw 1230 Schedule  B      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 219  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents removal of trees within the District of Peachland for storm water drainage systems improvements Containers: Any multiple residential, commercial or industrial development shall provide a fenced enclosure for garbage containers and passive recycling containers as follows: a) Containers shall be clearly labeled for source separation 1309 Zone DB Homes - Part 20-2: The intent of this zone is to provide for a mixed residential and commercial development as an integrated project based upon a comprehensive development Plan B. Permitted uses 1. Land and structures may be used for a designated combination of the following uses and others 1. Multiple Family Residential, 11. Ground Floor Office/Retail 2.02 Consistency with Official Community Plan : The location classification and standard of all highways proposed within a subdivision shall take into account the proposed use of the land and shall conform  to the provisions of the DoP's OCP Bylaw 1092 - A bylaw to provide regulations for the prevention and spread of fire and for the preservation of life within the Bylaw 923 A bylaw to regulate connections to and the use of the waterworks system of the  Bylaw 993 - A bylaw of the Corporation of the District of Peachland to regulate the use of parks, beaches and blvds  Comprehensive Development Zone Ducharme Part 20- 3 A. Intent: The Intent of this zone is to provide for a four unit residential      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 220  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents corporate limits of the district of Peachland DoP and to establish and regulate water rates within the municipality development based upon a comprehensive development plan Bylaw - 652: A bylaw to reserve certain lands within the municipality of Peachland for the purpose of use as municipal public parks Zoning Bylaw Flood Control Requirements Par 8 A Flood Control Requirements 1.1 Notwithstandi ng any other regulations of this bylaw, no building or any part thereof shall be constructed, reconstructed, moved or extended nor shall any mobile home or unit modular home or structure be located a) within 15 meters..  Subdivision and Development Bylaw 1230 - 10.0 Traffic Management: The Approving Officer may require the Applicant to provide a traffic impact analysis  CD Zoning Intent - Fill in here      APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 221  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents Bylaw 1842 - A bylaw to establish a special reserve fun for the purpose of Beetle Kill pursuant to Section 188(1) of the Community Charter Subdivision and Development Services Bylaw 1230 - Section 5 - 5.0 Water Distribution System: In subdivision here parcels are created, each parcel shall be supplied with a complete water distribution system connected to a community water system as required in Schedule A and all system components shall be installed in accordance with the standards set out in Schedule D of this bylaw       Zoning Bylaws: Bylaw 1688 -     APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 222  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents Parks and Open Space Zone Part 29 J. Landscaping. 1. All developed portions of the lot not covered by buildings structures or parking areas and roadways shall be landscaped including the retention of mature trees. This landscaping shall be maintained 2. Screen planting at least 3 meters (10ft) wide shall be provided along all lot lines and shall include trees, 3. Screen planting at least 1.5 meters (5ft) high in a strip at least 1.5 meters (5ft) wide and solid decorative fence at least 1.5 meters (5ft) high shall be provided along all lot lines separating the developed potion of the lot from any A bylaw to prescribe water use restrictions. The purpose of this bylaw is to assist in the protection, preservation and maintenance of the water supply to users at all times by implementing water use restrictions during times of limited supply. These restrictions are staged in accordance with the severity of supply limitations and are generally applied to the use of sprinkler     APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 223  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents residential lot, 4. The boulevard areas of highway abutting a lot shall be seeded or sodded with grass on the side of the highway abutting the lot except at driveways systems, whether automatic or manual. The use of hand held watering devices with shut off valves and the use of micro irrigation or drip irrigation systems is restricted only during the most severe of supply conditions. Nurseries, farms and vineyards are fully exempt. Bylaw 1779 - preserve and enhance fish habitat through the implementation of the provincial Riparian Area Regulation Bylaw 1228 - A bylaw to establish a reserve fund for storm water drainage systems improvements        Bylaw 1228 - A bylaw to establish a           APPENDIX A: CONTINUED 224  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents reserve fund for storm water drainage systems improvements TOTALS 68 55 4 14 3 38 81 57 28   APPENDIX B: SUSTAINABILITY INVENTORY ARMSTRONG  225 Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents Bylaw 929 A By- law  for the prevention of fires, firefighting and the protection of persons and property Bylaw 1310 A bylaw to authorize the entering into of agreement for the supply of water to localities in another municipality    Bylaw 1398 WHEREAS Section 532 (1) of the Local Government Act provides that Council’s power under Section 532 of the Local Government Act includes a power to regulate all uses of a highway other than uses referred to in Section 531; and further provides that a person shall not encumber or obstruct a highway except under the terms and conditions imposed by the Council. Bylaw 1557 A Bylaw to amend the City of Armstrong Development Application Procedures Bylaw NO 1538, 2005 Bylaw 1231  - A bylaw to adopt the "City of Armstrong Official Community Plan By-Law number 1231 1996" BYLAW No. 1619 A bylaw to enter into an Inter-Community Business License Agreement Bylaw 1473 A bylaw to provide for use, regulation and protection of public lands and parks within the City of Armstrong Bylaw 1632 A bylaw to prescribe water restrictions    Bylaw 1340, 1999 A By-law to Regulate Traffic, Parking and the use of highways within the city of Armstrong Bylaw 1268 A bylaw to regulate zoning, parking, signs, screening, and floodplain elevations in the City of Armstrong pursuant to Part 26, Division 7 - Land Use Designation of the Municipal Act of British Columbia Capital Reserve Expenditure Bylaw 1629   APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 226  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents OCP General Plan Objectives 3.2 ( c) To value the natural and cultural environment acting in a stewardship role balancing preservation with sustainable development OCP Floodplain Lands 15.2 a) To protect development and human life from the hazards associated with the Floodplain of Meighan Creek and Deep Creek   Bylaw 1422, 2002  A bylaw to prevent untidy and unsightly premises Bylaw 1570 A Bylaw to Regulate the Subdivision and Development of Land. Bylaw 1084 A bylaw to establish procedures to amend an OCP or a zoning bylaw  OCP Natural Environmental Objectives 8.2 (a ) To protect agricultural lands with a high capability for agricultural production in the total community (b) To manage and direct growth to ensure that the environmental integrity of Armstrong is preserved and enhanced, (c ) To support and promote stewardship of natural environment with the ethics of OCP Floodplain Lands 15.2 b) Pursuant to section 945(4)(b) of the Municipal Act, all lands in the Meighan Creek and Deep Creek Floodplain are shown on Schedule C of this Plan are hereby designated a Development Permit Area for the protection of development from    Bylaw 1421  A bylaw to regulate noise within the boundaries of the city of Armstrong   APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 227  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents dynamic process, finiteness, diversity, and complexity, education and connection, (d) To establish, protect and enhance Environmentally Sensitive Areas within the City and to ensure that development is protected from hazardous conditions associated with natural processes hazardous conditions to include consideration of potential upstream impacts of flooding resulting from development and shall comply with the guidelines set out in Section 17 Permit Areas of this plan OCP Natural Environment Policies 8.3 (d) Council, in cooperation with Armstrong/Spallu mcheen parks and Recreation Commission will support the preparation of a Environmentally Sensitive and Natural Areas Inventory OCP Floodplain Lands 15.2 c) Council may require covenants pursuant to Section 215 of the Land Titles Act and/or a report by a certified Geo- technical Engineer as a condition precedent to development approval in the Natural Environment Policies 8.3 (c ) Council recognizes shared local and regional issues associated with pollution and degradation of air, land and water and will seek to mitigate these through local and regional initiatives  OCP Residential Policies 10.3 (e) (iv) The maintenance of substantial buffer zones adjacent to major roads identified on Schedule D OCP General Plan Objectives 3.2 (g) To preserve and enhance the land use , form and character of development , architecture and natural features  that make Armstrong an attractive and unique community OCP General Plan Objectives 3.2(a) To maintain and enhance the City of Armstrong as a diverse, vibrant, unique and attractive community OCP Economic Development Objectives 6.2 (a) To stimulate economic growth in Armstrong that will expand the assessment base and provide employment opportunities  APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 228  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents Floodplain areas shown on Schedule C OCP Natural Environment Policies 8.3 (e) Council may seek funding and support for further policy research on the topic of sustainable development and carrying capacity of the City OCP Development Permit Areas Objectives 17.2 b) To protect development on lands within the Deep Creek and Meighan Creek floodplain that Council considers to be subject to natural hazards of flooding through restrictions on the use of land reviewed in this section OCP Solid Waste Management Objectives 19.11 a) To accept and support the principles, objectives and strategies set out in the Regional District of North Okanagan Solid Waste Management Plan (November , 1995)  OCP Residential Policies 10.3 (l) Trails, pedestrian walkways and Bicycle ways in general, and as designated on the Armstrong Greenways Plan on Schedule C should be provided in all new subdivisions where necessary to provide access to school, park or commercial facilities and to ensure continuity in overall pedestrian traffic movement OCP Natural Environment Policies 8.3 (a) Council will protect the natural environment through the development approval process and day to day decisions and in areas of particular environment sensitivity will accomplish this through Development Permit Areas as set out in Section 17 'Permit Areas' of this Plan OCP General Plan Objectives 3.2 (b) To maintain and enhance the social well being, development and the quality of life for all the citizens of Armstrong OCP Economic Development Objectives 6.2 (b) To provide a diversity of types of growth which will be compatible with and enhance the character and atmosphere of Armstrong OCP Boundary Adjustment and Amalgamation Policies 9.3 (b) In accordance with the objectives and policies of Section 14 of this Plan, Council will not support any OCP Development Permit Policies  17.3 b)I Council has the objective to prevent the pollution of soils and OCP Solid Waste Management Policies  19.12 a) Council will participate and comply with the policies implementation financing and operation  OCP Commercial Policies 11.3 e) ii) Neighborhood Commercial should 1. Not increase traffic volumes on local residential streets; 2. be located at the intersection of collector and/or OCP Natural Environment Policies 8.3 (b) Council may refer development application to the Ministry of Environment in cases where OCP General Plan Objectives 3.2 (d) To recognize the unpredictable nature of the long term future and foster a flexible and adaptable approach to planning for such OCP Economic Development Objectives 6.2 (c ) To protect and enhance existing employment and business base dependent upon a sustainable use of the physical  APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 229  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents application to exclude lands from the Provincial Agricultural Land Reserve (ALR) with the exception of those lands cited in Section 14, or if further exclusion is deemed necessary and beneficial in a regional planning context and feasible in terms of the City's servicing capacities maintain the water quality of Deep Creek and Meighan Creek as well as the adjacent upland and tributary watercourses strategies of the Regional District of North Okanagan Solid Waste Management Plan (November 1195) as adopted arterial roadways, 3. Where possible provide access from minor roads, not arterials, 4. Provide adequate onsite parking and landscaping, 5. provide adequate screening from adjacent residential uses; and 6. avoid interfacing of the commercial use with single family uses where possible environmental impact is questionable resource base in Armstrong and the surrounding area OCP Residential Policies 10.3 (k) Where new residential development adjoins farmlands in the Agricultural Land Reserve, the Approving Officer will require buffering in accordance with Agriculture Land Commission policies as a condition precedent to subdivision OCP Municipal Water Supply and Distribution Objectives 19.2 a) To ensure adequate water supply and distribution to accommodat e projected infill growth in the City and growth   OCP Residential Policies 10.3 (l) Trails, pedestrian walkways and Bicycle ways in general, and as designated on the Armstrong Greenways Plan on Schedule C should be provided in all new subdivisions where necessary to provide access to school, park or commercial facilities and to ensure continuity in overall pedestrian traffic movement OCP Natural Environment Policies 8.3 (a) Council will protect the natural environment through the development approval process and day to day decisions and in areas of particular environment sensitivity will accomplish this through OCP General Plan Objectives 3.2 (b) To maintain and enhance the social well being, development and the quality of life for all the citizens of Armstrong OCP Economic Development Objectives 6.2 (b) To provide a diversity of types of growth which will be compatible with and enhance the character and atmosphere of Armstrong  APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 230  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents approval within the six participating Water Districts and to maintain service in those areas presently serviced outside of the City's boundaries  Development Permit Areas as set out in Section 17 'Permit Areas' of this Plan OCP Commercial Policies 11.3 g) Recreational Commercial i) Recreation Commercial uses will be permitted within the area designated on Schedule B ii) Recreation Commercial uses should : i) Provide a high standard of appearance that serves to strengthen and enhance the character of Armstrong 2. have a high degree of visibility to the highway and make maximum use of the meted OCP Municipal Water Supply and Distribution Objectives 19.2 b) To ensure compliance with fire flow regulations for development    OCP Commercial Policies 11.3 e) ii) Neighborhood Commercial should 1. Not increase traffic volumes on local residential streets; 2. be located at the intersection of collector and/or arterial roadways, 3. Where possible provide access from minor roads, not arterials, 4. provide adequate onsite parking and landscaping, 5. provide adequate screening from adjacent residential uses; and 6. avoid interfacing of the commercial use with single family uses OCP Natural Environment Policies 8.3 (b) Council may refer development application to the Ministry of Environment in cases where environmental impact is questionable OCP General Plan Objectives 3.2 (d) To recognize the unpredictable nature of the long term future and foster a flexible and adaptable approach to planning for such OCP Economic Development Objectives 6.2 (c ) To protect and enhance existing employment and business base dependent upon a sustainable use of the physical resource base in Armstrong and the surrounding area  APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 231  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents amount of this exposure thereby stimulating tourist interest in Armstrong 3. take advantage of natural features which lend themselves well to recreation facilities such as gold courses and campgrounds; and 4. where applicable, not create excessive traffic flows through residential areas. where possible OCP Industrial Policies 12.3 d) Pursuant to section 945(4)(a) of the Municipal Act, all industrial development is designated as a Development Permit Area for the protection of the natural environment an shall comply with the guidelines set out in Section 17 'Permit Areas' of this Plan OCP Municipal Water Supply and Distribution Objectives 19.2 c) To continue to supply and distribute in an efficient manner safe clean and healthy drinking water to the City and customers outside the   OCP Parks and Recreation Objectives 16.2 d) To provide recreation and alternative transportation networks for the City providing connections between residential, recreational, natural areas, commercial, heritage and other opportunities OCP Boundary Adjustment, Amalgamation and Regional Context Objectives (a) To facilitate growth for the term of this Plan within current municipal Provincial (ALR) boundaries, (b) To remain open to the principle of amalgamation with the OCP General Plan Objectives 3.2 (e) To respect diversities in values, cultures, histories, economies, ecosystems, built environments and distinct places OCP Economic Development Objectives 6.2 (d) To encourage those types of growth to which Armstrong is best suited and for which Armstrong has an advantage, particularly forestry agriculture, urban residential and tourist-oriented activities  APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 232  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents City  Township of the Splallumcheen subject to the positive outcome of an independent and objective restructuring study with broad community support ( c) To participate and cooperate in regional planning regional growth management OCP Agricultural Objective s 14.2 a) To recognize and support the positive and integral economic, social and historical role that farming plays in the community OCP Municipal Water Supply and Distribution Objectives 19.2 d) To continue to actively protect the watershed in order to maintain water quality    OCP Parks and Recreation Objectives 16.2 g) To promote a long term regional network of Greenways and trails OCP Boundary Adjustment and Amalgamation Policies (a) - Council is committed to maintaining and planning for lands within the current City boundaries established on Schedules B, C, D and will consider expansion or annexation only if such is deemed necessary and OCP General Plan Objectives 3.2 (f) To balance the interests and needs of communities with the interests of individuals, and recognize that communities include both geographic communities and communities of interests. OCP Economic Development Objectives 6.2 (e) To ensure that new development takes place in a logical and economic fashion, such that excessive capital and maintenance costs due to inappropriate timing or location, are avoided  APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 233  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents beneficial in a regional planning context and feasible in terms of the City's servicing capacities OCP Agricultural Objectives 14.2 b) To recognize and support the mandate of the Agricultural Land Commission to preserve agricultural lands and farm viability for those City lands in the Agricultural Land Reserve OCP Municipal Water Supply and Distribution Objectives 19.2 e) To embark on a water conservation program    OCP Transportation Network Objectives 18.1 a) To provide an efficient and safe transportation systems of roads, bicycle lanes, sidewalks and trails for the City  OCP Residential Objectives10.2 (b) To promote residential development that is safe, clean, well serviced and aesthetically creates, compliments or enhances the form and character, and/or heritage of local neighborhoods OCP General Plan Objectives 3.2 (h) To foster a process of meaningful public participation in planning by all individuals , groups, governmental and non governmental agencies OCP Economic Development Objectives 6.2 (f) To ensure that economic development serves to benefit the whole community and prioritizes local initiatives and businesses toward a goal of improved self-reliance OCP Agricultural Objectives 14.2 c) Council supports a regional and comprehensive approach to agricultural and growth issues. Accordingly, council will support the maintenance of OCP Water Supply and Distribution Policies19.3 a) Council will ensure an adequate supply of potable water and a system of distribution   OCP Transportation Network Objectives 18.1 b) To promote Major Road Networks outside the existing City boundaries and developed areas OCP Residential Policies 10.3 (a) Residential uses shall be permitted at the location designated on the Land Use Designations Map (Schedule B) and are differentiated OCP General Plan Objectives 3.2 (i) To provide long term community development , land use and servicing objectives and policies that are intended to be implemented over the course of OCP Economic Development Objectives 6.2 (g) To ensure that  the costs associated with new development are adequately borne by the new development such that excessive financial burdens  APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 234  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents the Agricultural Land Reserve boundaries unless exclusion has been indentified in this Section or removal or alternate uses can be justified in a regional context that will meet the demand of a projected infill population of 5700 people within the City, growth within the six participating Water Districts and the maintenance of those services that are currently provided outside of the City  as follows (i) Low Density Residential - Single Family (R.1 & R.1-A), Single Family with Secondary Suite (R.1-B) and Two Family (R.2) development; and,  (ii) Multi- Family Residential Low and Medium Density Apartment and Multi-Family (R.3) All development of these lands shall be subject to the provisions of the zones cited in brackets which are contained in the Zoning Bylaw; as well as the relevant policies of this Section that follow many years and any application in conformity with this Plan may or may not be approved by Council are not placed on the municipality and tax payers OCP Agricultural Policies 14.2 f) Council will support an OCP Water Supply and Distribution Policies 19.3   OCP Transportation Network Objectives 18.1 c) TO acquire road allowances as OCP Residential Policies 10.3 (C) Multi-family Residential OCP Social Development Objectives 4.2 (a) To incorporate a OCP Economic Development 6.2 (h) To promote and maintain an  APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 235  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents application for permitted use of agricultural properties though which Greenways/trails have been identified under the Armstrong Greenways Plan b) Council will regulate Industrial Commercial and multi- storey residential development to ensure compliance with fire flow availability of 2500 gallons per minute for 2.5 hrs  development occurs to support the proposed Major Road Network development as shown on Schedule B should be integrated with low density development in a form and character that complements adjacent low density neighborhoods. Pursuant to section 945 (4) (e) of the Municipal Act, all multi-family development is designated as a Development permit Area to regulate the form and character of development and shall comply with the guidelines set out in Section 17 'Permit Areas' of this Plan social development perspective into overall planning (b) To support and promote positive social development and minimize negative impacts and seek the improvement of the quality of life for all its members, (c  ) To recognize and respond to the social issues and needs facing the residents of the City and play a role in encouraging and supporting the effective delivery of services economically viable commercial district OCP Agricultural Policies 14.2 g) Future development of those portions of OCP Water Supply and Distribution Policies19.3 c) Council will   OCP Transportation Network Objectives 18.1 d) To encourage alternative transportation OCP Residential Policies 10.3 (m)  Council encourages and support OCP Social Development Policy 4.3 (a) Council recognizes that OCP Economic Development 6.2 (i) To improve municipal financial capabilities by  APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 236  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents the Armstrong Greenways Plan outlined in Section 16 Parks and Recreation and shown on Schedule C of the Plan and designated within the Agricultural Land Reserve will require application the Agricultural Land Commission and will be reviews on the basis of impacts to adjacent agricultural lands. Furthermore, such development will recognize the riparian rights of upland property owners. not consider significant land use or density changed beyond the infill areas and densities identified in this Plan without a full engineered analysis of the impact to the water supply system  networks such as sidewalks, walkways and bicycle routes innovative and creative design and development in new residential areas and with the infill of vacant parcels within existing residential areas social well-being of all citizens and positive social development is necessary to a healthy community and will act to support these through its planning and day to day decisions. reducing costly duplication of local government services and providing a more efficient administrative system OCP Parks and Recreation Objectives 16.2 a) To ensure in cooperation with the township of Spallumcheen and the Regional District of North Okanagan, that adequate parks and open space OCP Water Supply and Distribution Policies 19.3 d) Council will not provide for additional industrial flows for Dairyworld or Colonial Farms   OCP Transportation Network Objectives 18.1 e) To promote the acquisition and use of railway lines through the City for alternate uses OCP Commercial Objectives 11.2 (d) To ensure a high standard of attractiveness and architectural continuity for new commercial OCP Social Development Policy 4.3 (b) Council will cooperate and liaise with agencies and groups such as the Social planning Council to anticipate and remain aware of OCP Economic Development 6.2 (j) To continue support and participation on regional economic development bodies such as the North Okanagan Council for Economic Development Policy  APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 237  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents areas, facilities and programs are provided to meet the present and growing needs of the City's residents and those from the surrounding region. without a full engineered analysis of the water supply system  development through the Development Permit process the changing social needs and issues in Armstrong OCP Parks and Recreation Objectives 16.2 b) To provide a variety and range of recreational and educational opportunities through a diverse mix of recreation and natural areas opportunities ranging from intensive to passive uses OCP Water Supply and Distribution Policies 19.3 e) All cost associated with land use, density or industrial flow changes will be borne by the developer or industry as applicable    OCP Transportation Network Objectives 18.1 f) To continue to support the Regional (Public) Transit System OCP Commercial Objectives 11.2 (f) To ensure continuity of the City's various commercial zones in accordance with the designations of this plan OCP Social Development Policy 4.3 (c) Council will review the appropriateness of initiatives of individuals, groups and agencies that address social issues and needs of the community OCP Economic Development Policy 6.2 (k)  To continue to support the Armstrong/Splallum cheen Chamber of Commerce OCP Parks and Recreation Objectives 16.2 e) To enhance and restore natural systems where appropriate within the City with particular attention to the Deep and Meighan Creek OCP Water Supply and Distribution Policies 19.3 f) The city will continue to use chlorine as a disinfectant    OCP Transportation Network Objectives 18.1 g) To support a long term infrastructure upgrading and replacement plan to be financed out of general revenue on an annual basis OCP Commercial Policies 11.3 a) Commercial uses shall be permitted at the locations designated on the Land Use Designations Map (Schedule B) and are OCP Social Development Policy 4.3 (d) Council recognizes the values and positive social impacts of a community composed of diverse and unique cultures OCP Commercial Objectives 11.2 (a) To ensure a balance of commercial types and uses to service the present  and future needs of Armstrong's residents, the surrounding trading area and visitors to the City  APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 238  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents natural systems differentiated as follows: i) General Commercial, ii) Highway and Tourist Commercial, iii) Neighborhood Commercial, iv) Service Commercial, v) Recreation Commercial, vi) Comprehensive Development Area All development of these lands shall be subject to the provisions of the zones cited in brackets, which are contained in the Zoning Bylaw, as well as the relevant policies of this Section that follow. There are no designations new Shopping Centre Commercial Uses and will seek to promote and enhance this, as well as to eliminate racism and discrimination through day-to- day decisions and planning. OCP parks and Ocp Water    OCP Transportation OCP OCP Social OCP Commercial  APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 239  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents Recreation Objectives 16.2 f) To promote education and experience through connection to the human and natural landscapes of the City Supply and Distribution Policies 19.3 g) The City will implement testing and monitoring procedures and frequencies that will prove to health Officials and the publish that the drinking water is safe without added filtration  Network Policies 18.3 a) Council will secure the dedication of adequate right of ways and require construction to City standards of all portions of the Major Road as diagrammed on Schedule D and in accordance with all policies of this Section Commercial Policies 11.3 b) Pursuant to section 945(4)(e) of the Municipal Act, all land designated Commercial on the Land Use Designation Map Schedule B including all designations cited herein are hereby designated as a Development Permit Area to regulate the form and character of development. These shall comply with the guidelines for the Commercial Development Permit Area as set out in Section 17 'Permit Area' of this Plan Development Policy 4.3 (e) Council recognizes that development of land has social impacts and will act through the approval process to minimize negative and maximize positive impacts Objectives (b) To maintain the Downtown Commercial Area as attractive and vibrant commercial centre for the City commensurate with the unique heritage value that it possesses OCP Parks and Recreation Policies 16.3 e) Council, in cooperation with OCP Water Supply and Distribution Policies 19.3 h) Council will   OCP Transportation Network Policies 18.3 b) Council will ensure in the long term that through OCP Commercial Policies 11.3 c) i) Schedule B designated OCP Social Development Policy 4.3 ( f) Council will support OCP  Industrial Objectives 12.2 a) To promote and attract light industrial uses that  APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 240  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents Armstrong and Spallumcheen parks and Recreation Commission and the School District will support the preparation of a natural areas and open space inventory which in part would identify Environmentally Sensitive Areas in the City. Furthermore if such areas are established, Council may create new Development Permit Areas for the protection of the natural environment as set out in Section 17 Permit Areas of this Plan seek to actively protect the watershed to prevent uses that might contribute to a decline in the water supply quality  traffic is discouraged from travelling through the developed areas by promoting East to West Secondary Highway outside the City to be consistent with the Okanagan Valley Transportation Plan once completed General Commercial over the bulk of the downtown area and the northern portions of Smith Drive. General Commercial uses will form the basis of the Comprehensive Development Area as set out in the policies of this Section integrated planning and coordination of services that involve participation and cooperation by all agencies and interests within the community are generally non- polluting and capital intensive and that will benefit the City in terms of sustained employment, revenues, training and expertise OCP Parks and Recreation Policies 16.3 g) Council in cooperation with Armstrong and Spallumcheen parks and Recreation OCP Water Supply and Distribution Policies 19.3 i) Council will embark on water conservation program   OCP Transportation Network Policies 18.3 e) Council will obtain and protect where possible a 25 meter wide right of way for the ultimate use comprising 2 travel lanes, a free OCP Commercial Policies 11.3 c) ii) Notwithstandin g other policies of this Section, and pursuant to section OCP Social Development Policy 4.3 (g) Council will seek to provide adequate cultural and recreational and public open space OCP Industrial Policies 12.3 b) Council will encourage industries at the locations cited above and shown on Schedule B with the following  APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 241  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents Commission supports community involvement to assist in the design, development and maintenance of parks and recreation facilities and the programming of recreation activities in the City consisting of public education and universal metering  left turn lane, 2 bike lanes, sidewalks on both sides, shallow utilities and street lighting or similar design 945(4)(e) of the Municipal Act, land within the Downtown General Commercial indicated on Schedule C is designated as a Development Permit Area to regulate the form and character of development. Development shall comply with the guidelines set out in Downtown Commercial Area of Section 17 of this Plan opportunities and a range of programs to meet the needs of all residents recognizing the social and health benefits for the community characteristics: 1) Industries for which Armstrong has an advantage by virtue of good transportation service (highway and rail) and access to a large labor base in the North Okanagan; ii) footloose industries which do not have severe location requirements and are therefore likely to choose locations which can offer an attractive residential environment, an adequate land base and available local work force, iii) non- polluting industries OCP Greenways Plan Policies 16.4 b) Parkland acquisition and development policies contained in this Section pursuant to section 992 of the Municipal Act shall apply to Armstrong Greenway Plan OCP Water Supply and Distribution Policies 19.3 j) Council will not consider significant land use or density changes without a full engineered analysis of   OCP Transportation Network Policies 18.3 g) Council will ensure that long term destination and local traffic is accommodated on the Major Road Network route shown as green on Schedule D in areas where on street parking is desirable OCP Commercial Policies 11.3 d) i) Highway and Tourist Commercial uses will be permitted within the areas designated on Schedule B ii) Highway and Tourist OCP Social Development Policy 4.3 (h) Council will continue to support efforts to build a Youth Centre subject to equal representation and partnership by the Township of Spallumcheen, OCP Development Cost Recover Objectives 20.2 a) To ensure that future growth and development contributes equitable funding toward required upgrading of the infrastructure  APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 242  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents designations as show on Schedule C of this plan. Where designation on a particular parcel of land to be developed exceeds the statutory 5% of the total area, Council may: limit acquisition to 5% of the land, purchase that amount that is in excess of the 5%; or enter into an agreement with the owner to acquire the excess amount through provisions set out in this Bylaw the impact to the water distribution system  by promoting the acquisition and protection of a 22 meter wide right of way and the ultimate construction of 2 travel lanes, 2 parking lanes, 2 sidewalks, shallow utilities and street lighting or similar design Commercial used should: 1. Provide a high standard of appearance that serves to strengthen and enhance the character of Armstrong 2. Have a high degree of visibility to the highway and make maximum use of the limited amount of this exposure thereby stimulating tourist interest in Armstrong and 3. where applicable not create excessive traffic flows through residential areas the business community and the public education system OCP Greenways Plan Policies 16.4 c) Council supports the ongoing work of the Armstrong Linear park Select Committee in its mandate to OCP Water Supply and Distribution Policies 19.3 k) Council will not provide for additional water consumption   OCP Transportation Network Policies 18.3 h) Council will ensure that long term destination and local traffic is accommodated on the Major Road network route OCP Commercial Policies 11.3 e) i. Neighborhood Commercial uses will be permitted within those areas OCP Affordable & Special Needs Objectives 5.2 (a) To recognize the need for safe, clean appropriate and affordable housing and to provide housing OCP Development Cost Recovery Objectives 20.2 b) To ensure that future growth and development contributes equitable funding toward park/school  APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 243  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents advise Council on matters relating to the implementation, development and maintenance of the Armstrong Greenways Plan and particularly in an advisory capacity for the complete of a Pilot Project by industries without a full engineered analysis of the system  shown as Blue on Schedule D in areas where on street parking is not desired by promoting the acquisition and protection of a 20 meter wide right of way and the ultimate construction of 2 travel lanes, 2 bike lanes, sidewalks on both side, shallow utilities and street lights or similar design designated on Schedule B for residential development provided that the function of the business serves the day to day commercial needs of a particular neighborhood rather than the community as whole or non- local users. opportunities to meet the changing needs of the City's residents at all stages of their lives by providing a balanced housing stock capable of meeting the needs of various age groups, family types, lifestyles and income groups site acquisition and/or development OCP Greenways Plan Policies 16.4 d) Future Development of those portions of the Armstrong Greenway Plan as indicated on Schedule C and designated within the Provincial Agricultural Land Reserve will require application to the Agricultural Land Commission and will be reviewed on the basis of impacts to adjacent OCP Water Supply and Distribution Policies 19.3 l) Council will not permit Industrial, Commercial, Residential development that requires a fire flow above what can be provided    OCP Transportation Network Policies 18.3 i) Council will encourage alternate transportation and decreased reliance on motor vehicles by providing for wide sidewalks, walkways and bicycle routes OCP Commercial Policies 11.3  h) Comprehensive Development Area i) It is the policy of Council to connect the present Downtown Commercial Area with Smith Drive commercial area with mixed use developing focusing on General Commercial Uses ii) Those OCP Affordable & Special Needs Objectives 5.2 (b) To support access and affordability for those individuals and groups with special housing needs and to ensure within Council's jurisdiction of authority, against discrimination of such groups   APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 244  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents agricultural lands. Furthermore, such development will respect the riparian rights of upland owners adjacent to the watercourse of Deep and Meighan Creek lands designated as Comprehensive Development Area on Schedule B shall require an amendment to the Zoning Bylaw to create a separate zone. These, form and character of development shall correspond to the Design and Development Guidelines OCP Development Permit Areas Objectives 17.2 a) To protect Deep Creek and Meighan Creek watercourses and associated natural areas that Council considers to be environmentally sensitive to development through restrictions on the use of land reviewed in his OCP Water Supply and Distribution Policies 19.3 j) Council will not consider significant land use or density changes without a full engineered analysis of the impact to the water distribution system    OCP Transportation Network Policies 18.3 j) Council will promote the use of public transit by continued construction of pull out features and bus stop improvements OCP Commercial Policies 11.3 i) Commensurate with the adoption process of this Plan, Council will amend the Commercial zoning provisions of the Zoning Bylaw to ensure continuity between the two Bylaws and to facilitate OCP Affordable & Special Needs Objectives 5.2 ( c) To promote a range of housing opportunities at a price and rent level appropriate to the financial capabilities of present and future residents   APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 245  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents Section Comprehensive Zones OCP Development Permit Areas Objectives 17.2 c) To protect the natural environment that Council considers to be at risk of degradation associated with industrial development through restrictions on the use of land reviewed in this Section OCP Water Supply and Distribution Policies 19.3 k) Council will not provide for additional water consumption by industries without a full engineered analysis of the  water distribution system    OCP Transportation Network Policies 18.3 k) Council will support the acquisition of railway lines for public use in the event that such lines should be abandoned OCP Industrial Objectives 12.2 b) To ensure an adequate land base of readily developable and serviceable light industrial land in the City to meet present and future demand OCP Affordable & Special Needs Policies 5.3(a) Council will monitor, through public feedback or demand, the stock of rental units in the City on an ongoing basis to ensure that adequate levels are maintained through the development approval process and in considering application pursuant to the Land Title Act and Condominium Act  OCP Development Permit Areas Objectives 17.2 f) To establish Development Permit Areas where new information is received concerning areas where protection of the natural environment or protection of OCP Water Supply and Distribution Policies 19.3 l) Council will not permit Industrial, Commercial Residential development that requires a fire flow above what can be   OCP Transportation Network Policies 18.3 l) Council will continue to maintain and upgrade the transportation network based on a long term infrastructure upgrading and replacement plan through providing funds out of federal revenue to OCP Industrial Objectives 12.2 c) TO ensure the adequate protection of the natural environment with new industrial development OCP Affordable and Special Needs Policy 5.3 ( b) Council will assess on an ongoing basis the need for affordable housing and special needs housing and given a clearly established demand, may seek to secure its   APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 246  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents development from hazards are considered necessary. provided  adequately maintain and upgrade the infrastructure to a level that will ensure that the transportation network will be protected on a life cycle basis provision through the development approval process OCP Development Permit Areas Policies 17.3 d)i) Council has the objective to ensure that the industrial development does not degrade the natural environment  OCP Water Supply and Distribution Policies 19.3 m) The City will continue to supply Water Districts subject to existing water license agreements OCP Water Supply and Distribution Policies 19.3 n) The City will extend a water main to the Highland park area, in the short term to correct the existing distribution deficiency     OCP Development Permit Areas Objectives 17.2 d) To regulate the form and character of the Downtown Commercial Area that Council considers to be of a unique and high architectural and visual quality and heritage value through restrictions on the use of land reviewed in this Section OCP Affordable & Special Needs Policies 5.3 (c ) Pursuant to section 963.1 of the Municipal Act, Council may apply the Density Bonusing provisions set out in Section 10 of this Bylaw to integrate affordable or special needs housing   APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 247  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents  OCP Water Supply and Distribution Policies 19.3 o) The City will upgrade the Powerhouse Road to Rosedale Avenue transmission main by the year 2010 or implement an alternate source of supply (ground water) if proven more desirable and attractive     OCP Development Permit Areas Policies 17.3 a.i) Design drawings for Development Permit Application must conform with regulations specified in the Zoning Bylaw or any other applicable bylaw or Provincial statute and these drawing should include i) a detailed scaled landscaping will coordinate with existing developments in the area and or the natural surroundings as well as the size and density of planting, type and density of ground cover, the dimensions of the landscape area, street furniture OCP Affordable & Special Needs Policies 5.3 (d) Council may amend the Zoning Bylaw to allow secondary suites in single family zones on a neighborhood by neighborhood basis subject to the following (i) Successful neighborhood public review processes; (ii) minimum standard established in the Zoning Bylaw; and, (iii) a successful infrastructure impact review   APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 248  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents and lighting, 2) a detailed scaled development plan indicating the location and size of buildings, parking areas, fencing, outside lighting as well as the size, design and location of any signs and 3) the building design showing the character of the building exterior architectural details, building materials and colors.  OCP Water Supply and Distribution Policies 19.3 p) The City will continue to upgrade the water distribution system in conjunction with major street upgrading    OCP Development Permit Area Policies 17.3 ii) In the case that land or a portion thereof, falls within more than one Development Permit Area, only one application will be required and OCP Affordable and Special Need Policy 5.3 (f) Council will seek to ensure physical access and protect against discrimination for special needs groups through the development approval process   APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 249  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents  this shall include all guidelines and conditions stated for each other Permit Areas designated on the property  OCP Water Supply and Distribution Policies 19.3 q) All costs for water distribution associated with land use, density changes will be borne by the developer of Industry as applicable     OCP Development Permit Areas Policies 17.3 e)i) Council has the objective to conserve and enhance the unique form, character and heritage of the downtown OCP Heritage Conservation Objectives (a) To preserve representative examples of the area’s economic, social and institutional history, as well as significant clusters and areas of heritage resources, (b) To Integrate preservation with community goals and planning for growth and change, ( c) To increase public awareness of and support preservation heritage resources   OCP Liquid Waste Management    OCP Development Permit Areas OCP  Heritage Conservation Policies 7.3 (a)   APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 250  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents Objectives 19.5 a) To provide adequate and efficient sewer collection, treatment and storage facilities in order to accommodat e a projected residential infill population and modest growth for low discharge commercial and industrial operations  17.3 f)i) Council has the objective to ensure that the form and character of commercial development maintains and enhances the attractive character and visual quality of the city Council recognizes the importance of its heritage resources as representative of its history and key to its identity, character and sense of place, and will seek to integrate heritage conservation and awareness about heritage into planning and day to day decisions  OCP Liquid Waste Management Objectives 19.5 b) To compete studies, testing, modeling and assessment of the collection treatment, storage and spray    OCP  Heritage Conservation Policies 7.3 (b) Council regards the goals and recommendations established in the Heritage Management Plan (June 1993) R. Hobson and Associates) as a positive framework and resource for the   APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 251  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents irrigation distribution system and accordingly develop a long term maintenance and repair plan OCP Liquid Waste Management Objectives 19.5 c) To ensure the continued production of high quality wastewater for spray irrigation in balance  with current and projected demand  management of the City's heritage and will refer to this report in the course of administrative planning and day to day decisions  OCP Liquid Waste Management Objectives 19.5 d) To minimize creek discharge and to promote water conservation     OCP Heritage Conservation Policies 7.3 (i) Council may apply for funds for the Ministry of Municipal Affairs in order to prepare design guidelines for heritage conservation   APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 252  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents areas (s) which will reflect the original design of heritage buildings. These guidelines may include those for compatible infill buildings in residential areas with significant values and for appropriate complimentary street furniture and landscape treatment   OCP Liquid Waste Management Policies 19.6 a) The City will ensure an adequate collection system to accommodat e residential growth up to the population infill projection of 5700 people     OCP Residential Objectives 10.2 (a) To provide a balance of residential housing types that will allow for the orderly, efficient, attractive and sustainable development commensurate with the social, economic, environmental and heritage objectives and policies of this Plan   APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 253  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents   OCP Liquid Waste Management Policies 19.6 b) The City will provide for modest growth for low sewer discharge commercial and industrial operations and avoid high discharge commercial and industrial operations     OCP Residential Objectives 5.2 ( c) To encourage and support residential development that is innovative in design, construction and urban form    OCP Liquid Waste Management Policies 19.6 c) Council will not consider significant land use or density changes beyond the infill areas and densities identified in this Plan without a full engineered    OCP Residential Objectives 5.2 (d) To secure, where appropriate, amenities and affordable or special needs housing for the benefit of the community    APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 254  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents analysis of the impact to the collection system   OCP Liquid Waste Management Policies 19.6 d) The City will complete the camera study and develop a long term repair maintenance program to minimize sewer blockages and failures     OCP Residential Objectives 5.2 (e) To allow for flexibility with the infill of existing lots that in size and configuration cannot meet existing standards    OCP Liquid Waste Management Policies 19.6 e) The City will extend the Colonial Farms force main directly to the sewage treatment plant as growth demands require    OCP Residential Policies 10.3 (f) Pursuant to section 963.1 of the Municipal Act the Council may apply a bonus density of residential designations without amendment to this Plan where an application for amendment to   APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 255  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents  the Zoning Bylaw proposes the provision of affordable or special needs housing.   OCP Liquid Waste Management policies 19.6 f) The City will proceed with actual flow testing and study to supplement the computer model and assess infiltration volumes     OCP Residential Policies 10.3 (g) Concurrent with the adoption of this Plan, Council will review and amend the Zoning Bylaw to reduce the permitted gross density for the zones corresponding to Multi-Family Residential (R.3 and R.4) and in doing so will combine the two zones to create a single Multi- Family Residential zone for the purposes of acquiring or securing amenities and/or affordable or special needs housing through the Density Bonusing provisions as set   APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 256  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents out in this Section   OCP Liquid Waste Management policies 19.6 g) Council will not provide for additional industrial flows for Dairyworld or Colonial Farms without a full engineered analysis of the collection systems     OCP Residential Policies 10.3 (i) Subsequent to the adoption of this Plan, Council may amend this Bylaw and the Zoning Bylaw to establish provisions for Comprehensive Development Zones with the intention of facilitating mixed use residential, commercial and open development on sites where Council regards that flexibility in the design and development approval process would lead to a more attractive and creative development with a higher degree of amenities    OCP Liquid Waste Management Policies 19.6 h) All costs    OCP Residential Policies 10.3 (e) Pursuant to Section 963.1 of the Municipal Act,   APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 257  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents associated with land use, density of industrial flow changes will be borne by the developer or industry as applicable  Council may apply a bonus density for residential designation without amendment to this Plan where an application for amendment to the Zoning Bylaw proposes the following or site amenities (i) Dedication of park land suitable to the Council over and above the 5% required pursuant to section 992 of the Municipal Act where their location conforms to the Parks and Open Space Plan shown on Schedule C, (ii) Provision of Greenway components where their location conforms to the Armstrong Greenways Plan shown on Schedule C; (iii) Long term security and management of  APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 258  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents significant areas of mature natural vegetation where these have been identified by environmental agencies   OCP Liquid Waste Management policies 19.6 i) The City will proceed with aeration enhancement to the treatment cells over a 5 yr prior to meet permit requirements and to provide future capacity for residential growth to the projected infill population of 5700     OCP Commercial Objectives 11.2 (c ) To make the connection between the Downtown and Smith Drive commercial areas through mixed use residential, commercial and open space development    OCP Liquid Waste Management Policies 19.6 j) Council will    OCP Commercial Objectives 11.2 (e) To establish small, compact neighborhood   APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 259  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents not consider significant land use or density changes without a full engineered analysis of the impact to the treatment system  commercial areas to serve local residents   OCP Liquid Waste Management Policies 19.6 k) Council will not provide for additional flows or increased wastewater strength from industries without a full engineered analysis of the impact to the treatment systems     OCP Institutional and Civic Objectives 13.2 a) To ensure that Assembly, Civic and Public Service uses are well services and located where they best meet the needs of the community b) To cooperate with School District in planning for school facilities in the City, c) to Cooperate with Health Care agencies for facilities planning in the City    OCP Liquid Waste Management    OCP Development Permit Area Policies 17.3 g)i)   APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 260  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents Policies 19.6 l) The city will not accept flows from outside its jurisdiction unless options for extending the life of the liquid waste management treatment system are implemented  Council has the objective to ensure that multi- family development occurs in a manner that ensure high visual and architectural quality and maintain the high quality of life that is integral to the experience of place   OCP Liquid Waste Management Policies 19.6 m) Council will ensure that treatment continues  to produce a high quality wastewater to be reclaimed for spray irrigation     OCP Development Permit Area Objectives 17.2 e) To regulate the form and character of commercial and multi-family residential development through Development Permit guidelines reviewed in this Section    OCP Liquid Waste Management Policies 19.6 n) Council will    OCP Heritage Sites , and Conservation Areas Objectives 17.4 a) TO   APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 261  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents avoid industrial or commercial operations that have high flow or high strength wastewater  conserve designated Provincial and Municipal Heritage Sites throughout the City that Council considers to have a heritage value with buildings and structures that are representative of the City's unique economic, social, natural and institutional history, through restrictions reviewed in this Section   OCP Liquid Waste Management Policies 19.6 o) All costs associated with land use density industrial/co mmercial flow or strength changes will be borne by the developer or industry as    OCP Heritage Sites and Conservation Areas Objectives b) To establish Heritage Conservation Area where Council considers such designation is deemed necessary and beneficial for the Heritage of such areas    APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 262  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents applicable   OCP Liquid Waste Management Policies 19.6 p) The City will ensure adequate storage, spray irrigation and creek discharge facilities and programs to accommodat e residential growth up to the projected infill population of 5700 people     OCP Development Cost Recovery Policies 20.3 a) Properties designated or zoned as Single Family Residential, Country Residential or other designation which do not permit Multi- family residential until adequate provision has been made to meet the costs of the services described in this section    OCP Liquid Waste Management Policies 19.6 q) Council will continue  to monitor actual irrigation demand and subscribe to adequate acreage to balance    OCP Development Cost Recovery Policies 20.3 c) Council will review the level of per unit costs from time to time to ensure an equitable portion of costs are being recovered from growth and development    APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 263  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents irrigation usage with annual inflows   OCP Liquid Waste Management Policies 19.6 r) The City will seek to ensure minimal creek discharge     OCP Implementation and Review Objectives 21.2 c) TO support a coordinated approach to the implementation of this Plan involving all governmental and non governmental agencies, groups or individuals with an interest    OCP Liquid Waste Management Policies 19.6 s) Council will promote and support water conservation programs over the long term to achieve flow reductions     OCP Implementation and Review Policies 21.2 e) Council will continue to support an open and coordinated approach to planning involving senior government agencies, other local and regional jurisdictions, local agencies, association and   APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 264  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents groups, individuals and the public at large   OCP Liquid Waste Management 19.6 t) The City will proceed with an infiltration study in the intermediate term to minimize flows of ground water and storm water into the sanitary system     OCP Implementation and Review Polices 21.2 f) This Official Community Plan should be reviewed at annual intervals or as conditions warrant in order to evaluate its effectiveness in attaining its objectives. Furthermore a major review of the Plan should be undertaken in 5 years    OCP Liquid Waste Management Policies 19.6 u) To accommodat e modest growth for low sewer discharge commercial and industrial operations.     APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 265  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents High discharge commercial and industrial operations will be avoided   OCP Liquid Management Policies 19.6 v ) Council will not consider significant land use or density changed beyond the infill areas and densities identified in this Plan without a full engineered analysis of the reservoir, withdrawal facilities and irrigation system      OCP Liquid Management Policies 19.6 w) Council will not consider accepting     APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 266  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents additional flows from Dairyworld or Colonial Farms without a full engineered analysis of the reservoir, withdrawal facilities and irrigation system   OCP Liquid Management Policies 19.6 x) All costs resulting from approved land use, density or industrial flow changes will be borne by the developer or industry as applicable      OCP Liquid Management Policies 19.6 y) The city will not accept flows from outside     APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 267  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents its jurisdiction unless options for extending the life of the liquid waste management storage system are implemented and additional irrigation acreage is secured. All costs associated with accepting flows, including a capital cost contribution for the existing infrastructure will be the responsibility of the source from which flows will be received   OCP Liquid Management Policies 19.6 z) Council will not consider     APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 268  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents significant density changes or new growth areas beyond the infill areas and densities established in this Plan without a detailed review of cost implications and development cost charge options   OCP Drainage Management Objectives 19.8 b) To secure access across lands adjacent to the creeks for the purposes of maintenance and dredging on a regular basis      OCP Drainage Management Objectives 19.8 c) To       APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 269  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents maximize the quality of the water in the creeks   OCP Drainage Management Objectives 19.8 d) To emphasize natural hydrological elements and systems in the development and maintenance of the City's drainage facilities         OCP Drainage Management Objectives 19.8 e) To minimize hazard and potential damage associated with flooding in low lying areas         OCP Drainage Management Policies 19.9        APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 270  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents a) Council will not approve the development of land through which Meighan or Deep Creek flow without securing dedication and or Statutory Right of Way for the purpose of maintaining and dredging the creeks.   OCP Drainage Management Policies 19.9 d) Council will refer all applications for works in and about the creeks including the discharge of storm water, to the Provincial Ministry of the Environment        APPENDIX B: CONTINUED 271  Greening the City Water and Sewage Waste Reduction and Recycling Energy Efficiency and Renewables Atmospheric Change and Air Quality Transportation Planning and Traffic Management Land Use and Urban Form Housing and Community Development Economic Development Individual Policies, Objectives and Guidelines of the Core bylaws, plans and policy documents  TOTALS 27 66 3 0 0 21 26 47 17       APPENDIX C: WRITTEN INFORMED CONSENT  272  T H E  U N I V E R S T I T Y  O F  B R I T I S H  C O L U M B I A                              Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences                             3333 University Way                             Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7  OKANAGAN Consent Form Principal Investigator:  Co-Investigator: Donna Senese, PhD Allisha Luther BSSc. Associate Professor Master’s Candidate Community, Culture & Global Studies Interdisciplinary Graduate Studies Irving K. Barber School of Arts & Sciences Tel: +1-250-317-7217 Tel: +1-250-807-9325 Email: allishaluther@hotmail.com Email:donna.senese@ubc.ca  This research study is being conducted in partial fulfillment of a Master’s in Interdisciplinary Studies at the University of British Columbia Okanagan. The purpose of the study is to examine sustainability practices in small communities within British Columbia. This study is being conducted in Armstrong and Peachland, British Columbia. This study will involve focus groups and interviews therefore the interview will be on site at Peachland and Armstrong’s municipal office to ask questions and conduct focus group discussions. You are being invited to take part in this research study because the researcher believes that you have valuable knowledge, experience, and insights that you can contribute. If you decide to participate in this study, you will be expected to share your time with the researcher for one interview and participation in the focus group. The total length of time with the researcher is one to two hours for the interview and one to two hours for the focus group.  All efforts to maintain your confidentiality will be made. If you do not wish your identity disclosed, the researchers will keep it strictly confidential. This means that in all documents (including notes, audio recordings, and any in final results of the research) you will be identified only by an alias. Some      273  participants may wish to have their contributions to the study made known. In that case, your real name will be used. The researcher would like to audiotape some of your conversations. She will always ask your permission beforehand. You have the right to ask that she stop recording at any time. You also have the right to withdraw from any interview at any time. In addition, you have the right to keep any information that includes you confidential. If you do not wish to have certain information included for the research at any time, you are free to say so and the researcher will honor that request. All material produced from your interactions with the researcher will be stored digitally on a password- protected computer. Upon completion of this project, all research material will be stored on a digital- storage medium in a secure, locked filing cabinet located at UBCO. Only the primary investigator and co- investigator will have access to these files. It is assumed that there is no risk involved in participation in this study. The researcher will make every effort to review her interpretation of the material she gathers with research participants to make sure she is not missing important information or just “getting it wrong.” The potential benefits of this study to the community of Armstrong and Peachland may be to help develop policies garnered towards sustainability action planning and to help assist the process for developing sustainability indicators. It is not assumed that there will be primary benefits to individual participants or the researcher. The researcher will review her thesis in as complete a state as time permits with participants so they have a chance to see what their participation has helped to produce. In addition, a copy of the final thesis will be lodged with the municipality of Armstrong and Peachland. The researcher will also make an electronic copy available to any participant who is interested. If you have any questions or would like more information, you may contact Allisha Luther at alishaluther@hotmail.com or Dr. Donna Senese at Donna.Senese@ubc.ca  If you have any concerns about your treatment or rights as a research subject, you may contact the Research Subject Information Line in the UBC Office of Research Services at 1-888-822-8598 or the UBC Okanagan Research Services Office at 250-807-8832. Your participation in this study is entirely voluntary and you may refuse to participate or withdraw from the study at any time. Your signature below indicates that you have received a copy of this consent form for your own records and indicates that you consent to participate in this study. If you do not indicate that you would like the researcher to use your real name, your identity will be kept confidential.  I would like the researcher to use my real name and identity in the final thesis and future discussion of the research ______       274   ____________________________________________________ Signature     Date  ____________________________________________________ Printed Name  I would like to receive an electronic copy of the final thesis. My email address is:                  APPENDIX D: INTERVIEW FACESHEET  275   T H E  U N I V E R S T I T Y  O F  B R I T I S H  C O L U M B I A                             Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences                             3333 University Way                             Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7  OKANAGAN SUSTAINABILTY ACTION PLANNING 1. How do you define sustainable community? 2. Please tell me about the importance of sustainability action planning in your community? 3. What initiatives has your local government taken to increase  sustainability? 4. What is your future course of action for sustainability? 5. Have you used any toolkits and/or strategies to guide policy towards sustainability? If so which ones? Did you find them effective? Did you have to adapt them to fit your community? How do you measure effective? 6. Is there a role for the community in SAP? What is it? 7. What are some of the challenges and obstacles that you have faced in sustainability action planning? 8. What advantages and strong points that your community has? How do you judge that? 9. Do you have any indicators for sustainability? 10. Would the development of sustainability indicators benefit your community and local government? 11. What are the major areas for improvement in regards to sustainability? 12. What do you think the indicators for sustainability are? 13. Are the different than in bigger communities?   GOVERNANCE 1. What is your definition of sustainable governance? 2. What is the role of governance in sustainability action planning? 3. Who are the primary actors responsible for sustainability for your municipality? Can you tell me about their roles and responsibilities? 4. What local legislations and policies have been made towards sustainability planning? Have there been changes in the past 5 years? 5. Is sustainability a trans-boundary governance issue?  Can you describe the process? If yes, what challenges/best practices are you aware of? 6. Is the public sector including citizens and stakeholders encouraged to participate in sustainability practices? 7. How does this differ from urban settings?   

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