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The (un)making of home, entitlement, and nation : an intersectional organizational study of power relations.. 2011

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   The (Un)Making of Home, Entitlement, and Nation: An Intersectional Organizational Study of Power Relations in Vancouver Status of Women, 1971-2008   by   Benita Bunjun  B.A., The University of British Columbia M.A., The University of British Columbia   A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF   DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY   in   The Faculty of Graduate Studies   (Interdisciplinary Studies)   THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver)   October 2011    © Benita Bunjun, 2011 ii  Abstract  Women's organizing and organizations in North America emerge at historical moments within the larger women's movement across geographies, political climates, and nation formations. Within all movements, the workings of power relations are active, demanding constant negotiations and contestations. This is a case study of one feminist organization, Vancouver Status of Women (VSW). I illustrate the ways VSW challenged, contested, reproduced and reinforced power relations and specifically nation-building discourses. Drawing on both extensive historical archival data and in-depth expert interviews, I engaged in a qualitative case study of VSW's workings of power relations from its inception in 1971 to 2008.  I interviewed thirty-one women who worked in some capacity as staff or board members.  Archival research involved locating primary documents such as organizational meeting minutes, policies, annual reports, bylaws, newsletters, publications, organizational correspondence, and other relevant documentation. By engaging in an intersectional critical race feminist discourse analysis, I explicate the construction of VSW as home, and demonstrate how nation-building discourses of belonging and entitlement are embedded within this organizational site. Organizational processes and policies indicate the historical trajectory of how, when and who challenged, responded, and reproduced power relations. This study provides several theoretical, methodological, and substantive implications. My research challenges dominant organizational theory's notion that organizations are neutral sites. I argue that organizations are constituted as sites of colonial encounters by demonstrating how power as relational and archival are invoked and deployed in VSW, and some of its effects.  I illustrate how VSW is embedded in the colonial archive of the Royal Commission on the Status of Women which reproduced nation-building discourses of essentialism, racialization, and exclusion. The research also offers a conceptualization of power present in organizations while applying Foucault's understanding of power as a network of relations and discourses that circulates as productive.  I also present a theoretical framework of the modalities of entitlement embedded in national belonging and accumulated national capital across multiple sites producing the exalted feminist of the nation.  Lastly, I propose a more nuanced ethical Affirmative Action Policy based on participants' lessons learnt that shifts beyond tokenism and representation.   iii  Preface  Certificate of Approval University of British Columbia, Office of Research Services Behavioural Research Ethics Board UBC BREB Number: H09-00668   iv  Table of Contents  Abstract ................................................................................................................... ii Preface ................................................................................................................... iii Table of Contents ...................................................................................................... iv List of Tables ........................................................................................................... viii List of Figures ........................................................................................................... ix Acknowledgement ...................................................................................................... x Dedication ............................................................................................................... xi Chapter 1: Introduction ................................................................................................ 1 Research Purpose and Questions ................................................................................... 1 Vancouver Status of Women as the Case Study .................................................................. 4 Positioning the Researcher .......................................................................................... 5 Conceptual and Methodological Frameworks .................................................................... 8 Vancouver Status of Women's Organizational Eras ............................................................. 12 Dissertation Outline ................................................................................................. 18 Chapter 2: Review of Literature and Theoretical Frameworks ............................................. 22 The Complexity of Power ........................................................................................... 22 Foucault and Power Relations .................................................................................. 25 Power as Archival ................................................................................................. 28 Nation-Building and Colonial Anxieties ........................................................................... 30 Women as Nation-Building Agents.............................................................................. 38 Social Movements .................................................................................................... 43 "The" Women's Movement and Feminist Organizations in Canada: Contesting Hegemonic Feminism . 46 Contesting the Personal is Political and Sisterhood is Global ............................................. 49 Intersectional Feminist Frameworks .............................................................................. 53 Conclusion ............................................................................................................. 55 Chapter 3: Research Methods ...................................................................................... 59 Power Relations in Feminist Research: Negotiating Researcher Dilemmas ................................ 59 Research Methods .................................................................................................... 65 Archival Research ................................................................................................. 66 In-Depth Expert Interviews ...................................................................................... 67 Participant Recruitment ...................................................................................... 68 Interview Process .............................................................................................. 69 Data Analysis .......................................................................................................... 71 Positioning the Participants ........................................................................................ 73 Participant Demographics ....................................................................................... 73 v Strengths and Limitations of Research Methods ................................................................ 78 Factors Facilitating and Strengthening the Study ........................................................... 78 The Intersectionality of Research Methods ................................................................ 78 Multiple Intersecting Insider Positions ..................................................................... 79 Factors Limiting the Study....................................................................................... 81 Indigenous Research Participants and Researcher Colonial Dilemmas ............................... 82 Critical Feminist Researcher Reflections ........................................................................ 85 Chapter 4: The Making of The Royal Commission on the Status of Women and the Emergence of Vancouver Status of Women: Discourses on Nation-Building, Racialization, and Exclusion ......... 89 The Royal Commission on the Status of Women ................................................................ 89 Political Landscape and Context .................................................................................. 93 Royal Commissions as Nation-Building Colonial Projects ...................................................... 95 Discourses of Exclusion, Essentialism, and Racialization ..................................................... 97 The Emergence and Making of Vancouver Status of Women ............................................... 105 RCSW Report Constructs VSW's Mandate as Legitimate .................................................. 115 Final Reflections ................................................................................................... 120 Chapter 5: The Intersectionality, Contestation and Reinforcement of Power Relations ............ 125 Theorizing Power ................................................................................................... 125 Research Participants' Conceptualization of Power within Organizations ............................... 129 Power as Communication and Articulation ................................................................. 131 Power as Hierarchy and Hegemonic Feminism ............................................................. 133 Power as Influence .............................................................................................. 138 Power as Organizational Role(s) and Accumulation of Organizational Knowledge .................. 144 Power as Leadership and Empowerment .................................................................... 150 Power as (Cou)Rage and Anger ............................................................................... 153 Multiple Sites of Power Relations: Organizations, Movements, Nation-State, and Globalization.... 160 Conclusion and Considerations................................................................................... 169 Chapter 6: The (un)Making of Home: Discourses of Power, Entitlement and Nation-Building ..... 173 The Making of Home as Entitlement ............................................................................ 174 Theorizing Entitlement ............................................................................................ 181 Participants' Articulation of Entitlement ................................................................... 181 Modalities of Entitlement ...................................................................................... 188 Spatial Entitlement .......................................................................................... 188 Affective Entitlement ....................................................................................... 190 Symbolic Entitlement ....................................................................................... 192 Political Entitlement ........................................................................................ 193 Intersecting Power