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A study of changes to the websites of British Columbia wineries between 2004 and 2012 Madhumita, Faria 2013

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A STUDY OF CHANGES TO THE WEBSITES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA WINERIES BETWEEN 2004 AND 2012  by  Faria Madhumita  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS  in  THE COLLEGE OF GRADUATE STUDIES  (Interdisciplinary Studies) [Management]   THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  (Okanagan)    March 2013  ? Faria Madhumita, 2013    ii  Abstract This study evaluates the changes that took place in British Columbia wineries? websites from 2004 to 2012. Through a longitudinal content analysis of website features, this research provides a better understanding of the technological status and marketing activities of British Columbia wineries. The first part of this research covers literatures on the wine industry and its e-commerce adoption. An extensive overview of e-commerce adoption models and website strategies were included in this thesis. Through adoption of the Website Stage Model, this study reveals that market integration increases from the basic stage to advanced stages but remains the same across advanced stages. The findings also show that there is an increasing tendency of wineries to complete online transactions on wineries? websites instead of outsourcing these transactions to third parties. In addition, this study identifies several new and emerging features in the wineries? websites that will help future research in the wine industry. Wineries will be able to use this research to easily assess their current website stage. This study also provides wineries with information about the level of sophistication of online marketing activities. The current trends illustrated by the data of British Columbia wineries will help wineries move their websites to a more advanced stage. Moreover, the research provides insights for wineries in British Columbia to adopt e-commerce using the industry specific market integration model.        iii  Table of Contents  Abstract .......................................................................................................................................... ii Table of Contents ......................................................................................................................... iii List of Tables ................................................................................................................................. v List of Figures .............................................................................................................................. vii Acknowledgements .................................................................................................................... viii Dedication ..................................................................................................................................... ix 1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Background ...................................................................................................................... 2 1.1.1 Global Wine Industry ................................................................................................ 2 1.1.2 Canadian Wine Industry ........................................................................................... 4 1.1.3 British Columbia Wine Industry ............................................................................... 5 1.1.4 E-commerce Adoption in the Wine Industry ............................................................ 7 1.2 Research Question ............................................................................................................ 9 1.3 Development of Hypothesis ........................................................................................... 11 2 Literature Review and Theoretical Background .............................................................. 13 2.1 E-Commerce Adoption Models ..................................................................................... 14 2.2 Website Design Elements versus Effective Website Contents ...................................... 17 2.3 Internet Communication and Multichannel Marketing .................................................. 20 2.4 E-Commerce and Marketing Integration Models........................................................... 20 3 Research Methodology ........................................................................................................ 25 3.1 Theoretical Framework .................................................................................................. 25 3.2 Research Method ............................................................................................................ 27 3.3 Data Collection ............................................................................................................... 29 3.3.1 First Step: Creating a British Columbia Winery List ............................................. 30 3.3.2 Second Step: Define categories of features and classify web contents .................. 33 3.3.3 Third Step:  Classify Winery Websites into Different Website Stages .................. 47 3.3.4 Fourth Step: Develop ratio data for independent variables .................................... 48 4 Results ................................................................................................................................... 50 4.1 Overview of Wineries in British Columbia.................................................................... 50     iv  4.1.1 Classification of Winery Website Existence ........................................................... 51 4.1.2 Classification of Website Stages ............................................................................. 53 4.1.3 Classification of Status of the Transactions Integration Stage ............................... 55 4.2 Descriptive Statistics of Market Integration in 2004 and in 2012 .................................. 58 4.3 Testing of Hypothesis..................................................................................................... 64 4.3.1 Descriptive Statistics of Market Integration on New Set of Variables in 2012 ...... 65 4.3.2 Multinomial Logistic Regression on New Set of Variables in 2012 ...................... 66 4.3.3 One-Way ANOVA of Market Integration on Website Stages ................................ 68 4.4 Winery Website Existence: New, Existing, and Disappeared ....................................... 71 4.4.1 One-Way ANOVA and T-Test on Winery Website Existence .............................. 72 4.5 Other Variables .............................................................................................................. 76 4.5.1 Marketing Function Features (13 items) ................................................................. 76 4.5.1.1 Descriptive Statistics of Marketing Function Features .................................... 77 4.5.1.2 One-Way ANOVA and T-Test of Marketing Function Features .................... 79 4.5.2 Technological Function Features (6 items)............................................................. 80 4.5.2.1 Descriptive Statistics of Technological Function Features ............................. 80 4.5.2.2 One-Way ANOVA and T-Test of Technological Function Features .............. 81 4.5.3 Legal and Social Awareness (3 items) .................................................................... 83 4.5.3.1 Descriptive Statistics of Legal and Social Awareness Features ...................... 83 4.5.3.2 One-Way ANOVA and T-Test of Legal and Social Awareness Features ...... 84 5 Discussion ............................................................................................................................. 86 5.1 Institutional Pressure and Competitive Pressure versus E-Business Adoption ............. 89 5.2 Contribution ................................................................................................................... 90 5.3 Limitations ..................................................................................................................... 92 6 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................ 94 References .................................................................................................................................... 96 Appendices ................................................................................................................................. 104 Appendix A: List of British Columbia Wineries .................................................................... 104 Appendix B: List of British Columbia Winery Websites ....................................................... 111 Appendix C: List of British Columbia Winery Websites in Terms of Websites? Existence .. 116      v  List of Tables  Table 3.1      The Sources of British Columbia Wineries List ...................................................... 31 Table 3.2      Functional Features for Website Stages ................................................................... 35 Table 3.3      Content Categories with Content features ............................................................... 39 Table 3.4      New Content Features .............................................................................................. 40 Table 3.5      Features used to analyze 2004 and 2012 data .......................................................... 43 Table 3.6      Emerging Features in the Wineries' Websites ......................................................... 45 Table 4.1      NEW, EXISTING and DISAPPEARED Wineries? Websites................................. 51 Table 4.2      Classification of Website Stages with Original Set of Variables in 2004 (i) .......... 53 Table 4.3      Classification of Website Stages with New Set of Variables in 2012 (ii) ............... 54 Table 4.4      Classification of Transactions Integration stage in 2004 (i) .................................... 56 Table 4.5      Classification of Transactions Integration stage in 2012 (ii) ................................... 57 Table 4.6      Frequency of Market Integration on Original Set of Variables in 2004 (i) ............. 59 Table 4.7      Frequency of Market Integration on Original Set of Variables in 2012 (ii) ............ 59 Table 4.8      Frequency of Internal Market Integration on Original Set of Variables in               2004 (i) .................................................................................................................... 59 Table 4.9      Frequency of Internal Market Integration on Original Set of Variables in                                           2012 (ii) ................................................................................................................... 60 Table 4.10    Frequency of External Market Integration on Original Set of Variables in            2004 (i) .................................................................................................................... 60 Table 4.11    Frequency of External Market Integration on Original Set of Variables in           2012 (ii) ................................................................................................................... 60 Table 4.12    Frequency of Market Integration, Internal Market Integration, and External     Market Integration based on Original set of Variables in 2004 (i) .......................... 62 Table 4.13    Frequency of Market Integration, Internal Market Integration, and External     Market Integration based on Original set of Variables in 2012 (ii) ......................... 62 Table 4.14    Descriptive Statistics of Market Integration, Internal Market Integration, and External Market Integration based on Original Set of Variables in 2004 (i) .......... 63 Table 4.15    Descriptive Statistics of Market Integration, Internal Market Integration, and External Market Integration based on Original Set of Variables in 2012 (ii) ......... 64 Table 4.16    Descriptive Statistics of Market Integration, Internal Market Integration,                and External Market Integration on New Set of Variables in 2012 ........................ 65 Table 4.17    Regression - Model Fitting Information of New Set of Variables in 2012 ............. 67 Table 4.18    Regression - 3 Stages Classification of New Set of Variables in 2012 ................... 67 Table 4.19    Regression - Pseudo R- Square of New Set of Variables in 2012 ........................... 67 Table 4.20    Regression - Likelihood Ratio Tests of New Set of Variables in 2012 ................... 68 Table 4.21    Descriptive Statistics of Market Integration on Winery Website Stages ................. 69 Table 4.22    Market Integration One-Way ANOVA: Website Stages ......................................... 69 Table 4.23    Market Integration T-test: Website Stages .............................................................. 70     vi  Table 4.24    Descriptive Statistics of Market Integration on Winery Website Existence ........... 72 Table 4.25    Market Integration One-Way ANOVA: NEW vs. EXISTING vs.      DISAPPEARED ...................................................................................................... 72 Table 4.26    Market Integration T-Test: NEW vs. EXISTING vs. DISAPPEARED .................. 73 Table 4.27    Descriptive Statistics of Internal Market Integration on  Winery Website       Existence .................................................................................................................. 74 Table 4.28    Internal Market Integration One-Way ANOVA: NEW vs. EXISTING                     vs. DISAPPEARED ................................................................................................. 74 Table 4.29    Internal Market Integration T-Test: NEW vs. EXISTING vs. DISAPPEARED .... 74 Table 4.30    Descriptive Statistics of External Market Integration on                                      Winery Website Existence ....................................................................................... 75 Table 4.31    External Market Integration One-Way ANOVA: NEW vs. EXISTING vs. DISAPPEARED ...................................................................................................... 75 Table 4.32    External Market Integration T-test: NEW vs. EXISTING vs.              DISAPPEARED ...................................................................................................... 76 Table 4.33    Frequency of Marketing Function Features ............................................................. 77 Table 4.34    Marketing Function Group Statistics: Presence vs. Portals vs. Transactions Integration ................................................................................................................ 79 Table 4.35    Marketing Function One-Way ANOVA: Presence vs. Portals vs.            Transactions Integration .......................................................................................... 79 Table 4.36    Marketing Function T-Test: Presence vs. Portals vs. Transactions                Integration ................................................................................................................ 80 Table 4.37    Frequency of Technological Function Features....................................................... 81 Table 4.38    Technological Function Group Statistics: Presence vs. Portals vs.           Transactions Integration .......................................................................................... 82 Table 4.39    Technological Functions One-Way ANOVA: Presence vs. Portals vs.     Transactions Integration .......................................................................................... 82 Table 4.40    Technological Functions T-Test: Presence vs. Portals vs.                          Transactions Integration .......................................................................................... 82 Table 4.41    Frequency of Legal and Social Awareness Features ............................................... 83 Table 4.42    Legal and Social Awareness Group Statistics: Presence vs. Portals vs.       Transactions Integration .......................................................................................... 84 Table 4.43    Legal and Social Awareness One-Way ANOVA: Presence vs. Portals                    vs. Transactions Integration ..................................................................................... 84 Table 4.44    Legal and Social Awareness T-Test: Presence vs. Portals vs. Transactions Integration ................................................................................................................ 85       vii  List of Figures  Figure 1.1      Increase of Market Integration across website stages ............................................ 11 Figure 4.1      New, Existing and Disappeared Wineries? Websites ............................................. 52 Figure 4.2      Classification of Website Stages Using Original Set of Variables in 2004 (i) ....... 53 Figure 4.3      Classification of Website Stages Using New set of Variables in 2012 (ii) ............ 54 Figure 4.4      Classification of Transactions Integration stage in 2004 (i) ................................... 56 Figure 4.5      Classification of Transactions Integration stage in 2012 (ii) .................................. 57 Figure 4.6      Market Integration features increase from basic stage to advanced stages, but  remain the same in the advanced stages ................................................................ 71                          viii  Acknowledgements This thesis would not have been possible without the guidance and support of a number of people.  First and foremost, I acknowledge the support and help of Dr. Eric Li, my supervisor. I am grateful to him for the motivation, inspiration and enthusiasm I received from him while working on my research. This thesis was made possible because Dr. Ying Zhu, my co-supervisor, provided me with the opportunity to continue the research that she conducted nine years ago. I would like to thank her for her detailed guidance on my data analysis for this research. I would also like to thank Dr. Arjun Bhardwaj, my committee member, for his insightful and helpful suggestions. I would like to thank Dr. Carolyn Labun, Director, Centre for Scholarly Communication, for her sincere support, help, and encouragement throughout the time I worked on my research paper. I would also like to thank Amy Modhal for her support while I worked on formatting my thesis. In addition, I would like to thank Barbara Sobol, and other UBC librarians, for sharing their expertise.  My sincere gratitude goes to my parents: Muhammad Abul Hossain and Parveen Hossain. My father?s doctorate degree and his wish to get me higher education made it possible for me to come 7,000 miles away from my family and pursue higher studies. My mother?s endless blessings and daily support helped me to survive this endeavour. I am thankful to my elder sister Shifat Shimin for her encouragement to be a better person throughout my life. I am thankful to my twin sister Simia Madhuchhanda for her tremendous support. I thank my brothers-in-law Shahriar Pervez and especially Shahriar Quayyum for his thorough support, my niece Samaira and nephew Aariz. Last but not least, I am thankful for being blessed with the love of my grandmothers; my family; Fazle Sadi; relatives, especially Lulu Mama; and Maggie, Rumana, Nafisa, Deena, Bannya; and my other friends for their support and belief in me which helped me accomplish my dream.       ix  Dedication  To Abbu - My father, For his endless encouragement since I was born To Ammu - My mother, For her ceaseless prayers and belief in me To Mou Api - My elder sister, For her constant motivation & inspiration To Simia Api - My twin sister, For her continuous care and deeply appreciated love To Tomal ? My friend, For his sincere support and enthusiasm And last and most importantly, my grandmothers: To Nanu - My late maternal grandmother For her prayers throughout my life and especially To Dadu - My late paternal grandmother For her immense care and love throughout my life: I hope you are proud of me and smiling for me in Paradise  ***This is a Tribute to the Seven Loves of My Life***     1  1 Introduction The wine industry is one of the fastest growing industries in Canada. In 2010, the industry accounted for sales of CAD 897 million (Jordan, 2011). This fast growing and fast changing business environment, however, creates challenges to reach their target customers because of the intensified competition. Through a longitudinal content analysis, my current research seeks to advance the theoretical framework on market integration by examining the changes in wineries? website features over time.  British Columbia is the second largest grape growing province in Canada (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 2012). There are over two hundred and fifty wineries in this province, many of which are operated on a relatively small to medium scale. The limited resources in fact constrain the promotion capacity of many wineries and in many cases the wineries have to rely on word-of-mouth or websites to promote their wines and brands. With advances in e-commerce technologies, more wineries have their own websites. However, the roles of these websites are varied, as some of them are primarily providing a source of information while others are important sales vehicles for the company. In response to this situation, this research focuses on exploring how wineries reach their target market through e-commerce technologies.  The purpose of this research is to identify and evaluate the changes in the website stages of the wineries and their impact on wineries? market integration strategies through a longitudinal analysis. Based on the website stage model developed by Rao, Metts, and Monge (2003) and its extension by Zhu, Basil, & Hunter (2009), my research examines changes in the wineries? websites between 2004 and 2012. The potential contribution of this research is to provide an effective method to help wineries in British Columbia identify the stages of their websites based     2  on the proposed theoretical model of the website stages and increase their market integration. The results from the longitudinal study demonstrate changes in the usage of technology and the incorporation of marketing functions in a time span of eight years. Other stakeholders in the wine industry such as the British Columbia Wine Institute (BCWI) could benefit from the results by integrating this knowledge of current Internet and website usage, by increasing the sophistication level of marketing activities, and by recognizing the trends identified in developing sustainable programs for the wine industry. 1.1 Background  1.1.1 Global Wine Industry Previous literature on wine production divides the major wine producing countries into two groups: the Old World and the New World countries. The Old World countries include France, Italy, Spain, Germany, Portugal etc.; whereas the New World countries include Australia, California, Chile, Argentina, Mexico, Peru, Bolivia, Columbia etc. The New World countries usually have short history in wine production but they are focusing on the economies of scale (Campbell & Guibert, 2007). Also, the New World countries are advanced in responding to an international standard of quality wine (Bisson et al., 2002). Furthermore, they adjust their pricing strategies and target the mass wine consumers, therefore put them in an advantageous position in the global market (Mora, 2006). According to Moulton & Lapsley (2001), the New World countries are very effective in getting attention of young consumers by focusing on branding and product development strategies. On the contrary, the Old World countries are struggled to hold their customer base as their core competence is on managing the extraordinary appellation and terroir instead of serving the mass market (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation, 2012).     3  Competition in wine selling has dramatically increased worldwide in the past few decades. Wine businesses had been experiencing overproduction in the market in comparison to consumption (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation, 2012). Being new in the global wine industry, Canadian wine industry faces increasing competition in the global wine market. Also, the New World wine producers have led to a challenging environment in the domestic market for the Canadian wine industry (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 2012). Regardless of the status of the wine producing nations, wine industries increasingly face the need to integrate production, marketing and distribution of wines. According to Taplin (2006), there is a growing tendency of consolidation had been identified among distributors and producers in the US wine industry. In a similar vein, Mora (2006) found that relevant businesses in the wine industry are merging and shortening the logistic chain to come closer to the market. Apart from this new industry trend, Bisson et al. (2002) also notice that environmental-friendly and sustainable practices in the wine industry have positive impacts on wine consumption. Their research also found that wine tourism will add value and bring in economically beneficial for the wine industry. These are some of the issues that policy makers and stakeholders in the wine industry have to pay more attention to in the future. Last but not least, global wine industry is becoming increasingly sophisticated in the use of e-commerce. E-commerce enables wineries to communicate with customers without any geographic limitation and time constraints (Sellitto, 2004). A brief discussion of the Canadian wine industry is presented in the following section.          4  1.1.2 Canadian Wine Industry  Canada is not a major wine producing country compared to the Old World wine producers such as France, Italy, Germany etc. However, because of its cool climate, the Canadian wine industry considered to be a niche marketer of internationally-respected wines such as icewines. Canada has been recognized as the leader of icewine production in the world for its superior quality (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 2012). The Canadian wine-making industry has grown rapidly in the last two decades. In 1992, there were only 28 wineries but in 2012, there were more than 600 wineries in Canada (Wines of Canada, 2012). There are two major grape growing regions in Canada: the Niagara Peninsula region of Ontario and the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia. The annual per capita consumption increased from 11.3 litres to 14.6 litres between 2000 and 2007 (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 2012). The Canadian wine industry expects the wine and culinary tourism to rise by 50% in Ontario and British Columbia between 2005 and 2015 (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 2009). Not only have the number of new wineries and the amount of wine consumption increased but also the Canadian wine industry has become a growing field for research and development, technology improvement, and collaboration (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 2012).  In response to the growth in wine production, the Canadian Wine Industry has formed a quality system called the Vintners Quality Alliance (VQA) to ensure the quality of Canadian wines. The VQA system also acts as an important marketing tool for both domestic and international consumers as it guarantees the production quality, content, varietal percentage etc.  (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 2012; Canadian Vintners Association, 2011; Carew, 1998).      5  The Canadian government and a number of industry associations implement several projects and developments to improve the Canadian wine industry operation. For example: the Cool Climate Oenology and the Viticulture Institute (CCOVI) focus on research and development activities while the Federal Provincial Agreement on Internal Trade (AIT) aims to develop a system to improve the distribution system of Canadian wines at an inter-provincial level. An industry specific food safety program called the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) was introduced by the Canadian Vintners Association (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 2012). These programs and initiatives enhance advancements in wine-making technologies and reinforce the quality control system in the Canadian wine industry. In summary, as rapid growing wine regions such as Okanagan in British Columbia are mainly composed of small and medium sized wineries, it is necessary to explore effective and affordable marketing strategies in order to maintain their competitiveness in the marketplace. Before I discuss the theoretical foundation of this research, the following section provides an extensive overview of my research site ? the British Columbia wine industry. 1.1.3 British Columbia Wine Industry  British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada. Its diverse terrain includes coastal beaches, mountains and fertile valleys. British Columbia?s five viticulture areas are commonly designated as the Okanagan Valley, the Similkameen Valley, the Fraser Valley, Vancouver Island, and the Gulf Islands (Canadian Vintners Association, 2011a). The Okanagan Valley is in British Columbia?s interior region which is considered to be the oldest and largest grape growing region in British Columbia.      6  British Columbia started producing wine commercially in the mid-1930s (Carew, 1998). Until the 1960s and 1970s, the industry produced low quality wines (Rabkin & Beatty, 2007). Due to different government mark-up policies, the domestic market was protected from imported products and as a result the market was full of low quality wines. In 1989, the Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between Canada and the United States took place and domestic market conditions started to change. Since then, British Columbia started producing premium quality wine (Carew, 1998). The low quality hybrid grapes were replaced by higher quality Vinifera grapes (Rabkin & Beatty, 2007). The value of wine producing grapes rose from CAD 3 million to CAD 7 million in 1989 and 1996 respectively (Carew, 1998). In 2012, there were seven hundred and ten vineyards which included wineries and independent grape growers throughout the wine regions in British Columbia (Canadian Vintners Association, 2011a). All these wine producing regions in British Columbia receive various kinds of support from the British Columbia Wine Institute (BCWI). BCWI was established to integrate public and private sector interaction among institutions, thus, helping British Columbia to develop a competitive wine industry (Hira and Bwenge, 2011). The BCWI acts as the voice of the British Columbia wine industry to the government, supports activities to get recognition for British Columbia?s quality wine and tourism, and works closely with Tourism BC to market the wine sector of British Columbia. Moreover, BCWI claims a major role in marketing British Columbia?s wine. The institute plans to increase British Columbia VQA wines? market share to 23.5% market share in 2013. Apart from this, BCWI designs a wine calendar for Western Canada with events and programs to create awareness and brand loyalty among media, consumers and other partners (British Columbia Wine Institute, 2011). In 2008, a provincial wine association called BC Wine Authority (BCWA) was developed under the Agri-Food     7  Choice and Quality Act. This new association aims to examine wine quality and VQA certification in order to increase British Columbia wines? competitiveness in the domestic and global wine markets (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 2012). In addition to institutional development and government policies, wineries also started developing different types of marketing strategies in order to access to the domestic and international customers. Among all the marketing channels, website have been one of the most common and popular channel that adopted by wineries. The next section provides an insight on the of e-commerce adoption in the wine industry. 1.1.4 E-commerce Adoption in the Wine Industry This research on the B.C. wineries? websites examines a variety of e-commerce activities. E-commerce generally refers to business activities that involve buying, selling, and/or exchanging products or services via the Internet (Turban, King, & Lang, 2009, p. 4). Min, Song, and Keebler (2002) pointed out that e-commerce transforms a traditional market orientation into a more efficient and effective way of implementing market orientation in an online medium in order to sustain competitive advantage (p. 1; see also Jaworski & Kohli, 1993; Kohli & Jaworski, 1990).  In the wine industry, e-commerce has become almost as important as bricks and mortar. It helps wineries to reach their potential customers, domestically and internationally, in a more cost-effective way compared to what they could access before the Internet era. A report conducted by Statistics Canada (2007) showed that 40% of firms that adopted e-commerce in their businesses were able to reach new customer base. In the past, other than selling wines at their own wine shops, wineries used to sell their wines through third party liquor stores,     8  restaurants and sometimes via direct mail. In an Australian study conducted on the wine industry, it was found that consumers who used to purchase wine through catalogues or direct mail, started using Internet as a new medium to purchase wines (Bruwer & Wood, 2005). With advancements in e-commerce technologies, wineries are selling their products online without any significant increase in their operation cost.  E-commerce technology helps wineries to market their products through their websites and attract customers to their wineries. One of the basic marketing strategies that wineries adopted is to provide information about the winery, products, and contacts. Thach (2009) conducted a research on the.wineries? e-commerce adoption in the United States and divided wineries? online marketing activities into three levels: ?Wine 1.0? - wineries provide basic information on the winery website and does not allow the consumers to interact with the winery; ?Wine 2.0? - wineries interact with consumers through social media, discussion forums, and blogs; and ?Wine 3.0? - wineries provide experiential components such as wine reviews and critiques that can be accessed by the customers through mobile devices such as smartphones  (Thach, 2009). The research findings showed that, many of the websites had not fully utilized the ?Wine 2.0? features as a marketing tool in their businesses.  Another study on Canadian wineries? e-commerce adoption shows that winery information presented on the website can help wineries to create brand image and it can act as an important marketing strategy (Madill & Neilson, 2010).  Wineries provide details about location, opening hours, and amenities like accommodation facilities (B&B), restaurants, and special events are common information on their websites. Some wineries? websites also include information about accommodation services and restaurants in their neighbourhood. Many wineries are now engaged in different types of tourism-related activities such as wine tours, wine     9  festivals, and tasting events. Finally, even though customers cannot taste the wine online, many winery websites did provided information of their wines and experts? recommendation to showcase their wines to the customers. Regardless of the benefits of e-commerce adoption, one of the main challenges faced by the wineries is the lack of resources (Madill & Neilson, 2010). As most of wineries are SMEs, it is difficult for the wineries to engage in e-commerce activities. However, the research by Thach (2009) found that most of the wineries in the United States were in ?Wine 1.0? group. Other wineries were in ?Wine 2.0? group, but without utilizing the full out of the marketing tools it includes. The research on Canadian wine industry (Madill & Neilson, 2010) found that most of the wineries provided information on their websites as a marketing strategy, instead of conducting e-commerce activities. In essence, website has become an essential component for the overall winery business and wine marketing. As the number of wineries implementing e-commerce is increasing, it is important to have a better understanding of the technological status of wineries through analyzing their websites.  1.2 Research Question As mentioned in the previous section, e-commerce activities can help firms develop and sustain their competitive advantages. However, different types of e-commerce activities might contribute differently to the firm?s market orientation strategy. In order to understand how wineries adopt different e-commerce strategies and capture the changes of wineries? e-commerce strategies over time, my primary research question is as follows: What changes took place in the websites of B.C. wineries from 2004 to 2012? My research also address the following sub-    10  questions: the differences in percentage of websites belong to each website stage in 2004 and 2012; how wineries in B.C. adopt different online market integration strategies in different time periods; wineries? preferred methods to complete online transactions; and how the New, Existing and Disappeared wineries? websites differ from each other in terms of market integration. My research uses three datasets: a dataset of B.C. wineries? e-commerce activities which was recorded in 2004, a dataset of e-commerce activities on B.C. wineries? websites in 2012, and a dataset which is a combination of the 2004 and 2012 dataset. Forty-nine features were recorded in the 2004 dataset (see also Zhu, 2005), while six new features were added to the 2012 dataset; thus, a total of fifty-five website features were used in this longitudinal study1. The website stage models developed by Rao, Metts, & Monge (2003) and Zhu et al. (2009) were used as the theoretical foundation for this research.  In line with the 2004 dataset, the wineries from the 2012 dataset were divided into three groups to capture the changes in their website status: 1) websites beginning operation after 2004 and currently in operation; 2) websites in operation in 2004 and currently operating; and websites in operation before 2004 but currently out of operation. These three groups have been denoted as 1) New, 2) Existing, and 3) Disappeared wineries throughout this research. New features (i.e. social media, blog, video etc.) were tested in both the existing wineries and the new wineries and compared to see which features are more prevalent in the existing wineries, and which features are more prevalent in the new wineries.                                                  1 Forty-nine features from the 2004 dataset has been denoted as the ?original set of variables?, and fifty-five features from the 2012 dataset has been denoted as the ?new set of variables? throughout this research.     11  In order to identify the changes that took place over time in the wine industry, I compared the 2004 dataset with the 2012 dataset based on the website stage model.  Also, new features were tested with the 2012 dataset.  There are three main contributions of this research to the research on wine marketing. First, the research identifies the changes in the B.C. wine industry over time. Second, the findings of this research present the contemporary best practices of website marketing in the wine industry. Finally, wineries will be able to use these results in order to understand the market, and apply them in their own businesses according to their level of competency. 1.3 Development of Hypothesis  Building on the hypothesis from previous research, my research proposes that market integration features will increase across the website stages. Therefore, my hypothesis is:  H1: Market Integration features increase across the B.C. wineries? website stages                    Figure 1.1 Increase of Market Integration across website stages Market Integration = Internal + External  Presence Stage Portals Stage Transactions Integration Stage Indirect Direct     12  In order to test the hypothesis, one-way ANOVA, t-test, and multinomial logistic regression were performed using the new set of variables on the 2012 dataset. In addition to testing the hypothesis, a new dataset was created merging only the B.C. section of the 2004 dataset with the 2012 dataset. The impact of market integration on New, Existing and Disappeared winery websites in 2012 was tested on this dataset by performing one-way ANOVA and t-test.  Finally, other variables such as marketing function features, technological function features, and legal and social awareness features were tested by performing one-way ANOVA and t-test, to demonstrate the impact of these variables on winery websites in different stages.       13  2 Literature Review and Theoretical Background  Advancements in online technologies allow firms to reach their customers and to generate sales (Moe & Fader, 2004; Venkatesh & Agarwal, 2006, p. 367). E-commerce usually refers to the buying, selling, and/or exchanging activities in the Internet; however, the concept also refers to customer and business-oriented activities such as providing services to customers and collaborating with business partners (Turban, King, & Lang, 2009, p. 4; see also Henderson, Dooley, & Akridge, 2004). A company?s presence on the Internet might change the fundamental ways of conducting business. However, there are web presences; for instance, a firm's e-commerce activities might span from the very basic to full business integration. The amount of e-commerce activities is also related to the size and the financial capability of the firms.  Previous studies have also identified two main types of firms: click-and-mortar and pure-play. Click-and-mortar firms refer to the firms that engage in e-commerce activities as an additional marketing channel (Turban, King, & Lang, 2009, p. 5), while pure-play firms refer to the firms that operate only on the Internet, without having any offline presence (Ashworth et al., 2006). The most popular examples of pure-play firms include Amazon and eBay. Amazon focuses on adding value to its products, for instance, recommending products that the customer might like to buy (Kha, 2000). Ebay, alternatively, focuses on buyer protection and fraud protection in their online business (Mishra, 2010). Dell, on the other hand, being in the PC industry, sells its products and provides customer service solely online. One of their key success factors is interactive customer service which helps them to build a relationship with customers (Kha, 2000). These pure-play organizations, from completely different industries, are running their business successfully with an online presence only.      14  In the wine industry, wineries are solely dependent on physical storefronts. As a result, it is difficult for them to reach customers beyond their geographic location (Madill & Neilson, 2010). That being said, e-commerce adoption has become increasingly important for wineries. Most of the wineries have both offline and online presence but many of them only have limited online activities (Thach, 2009). Therefore, bricks-and-mortars have become the dominant marketing channel in the wine industry. Some good examples of bricks-and-mortars in the wine industry are the Cedar Creek Estate Winery, the Burrowing Owl Estate Winery, the 3 Mile Estate Winery, and the Summerhill Pyramid Winery in British Columbia. There are very few pure-play wineries in British Columbia. For instance, new wineries such as the Soaring Eagle Winery and the Pentage Winery sell wines solely online.  2.1 E-Commerce Adoption Models E-commerce adoption of a company is dependent on the organization?s e-readiness factors (e.g., organizations resources) and environmental e-readiness factors (e.g. e-commerce strategies obtained by competitors and/or business partners) (Molla & Licker, 2005; Raymond, 2001). Wang and Cheung (2004) identified two forms of environmental pressure (institutional pressure and competitive pressure) which drive firms to adopt e-commerce. An organization?s e-commerce adoption depends on the availability of resources such as human, technological, and business resources of an organization (Molla & Licker, 2005). In the case of SMEs, resource availability is limited (Mendo & Fitzgerald, 2005) compared to large firms; therefore, e-commerce adoption could be difficult. However, due to inexpensive Internet technology, it has been quite common among the SMEs to have a presence on the Internet, regardless of whether they are conducting e-commerce activities. Therefore, the extent of employing e-commerce is dependent on the organization?s resource capability. At present, almost all kinds of businesses,     15  starting from SMEs to large businesses, own websites. It has become an important part of marketing for any business to introduce their websites the moment the business starts. Even if a company conducts little or no operations through its website, companies still come up with websites in order to introduce themselves to the market. Nevertheless, there are many businesses that fail to utilize the potential of having websites (Hausman & Siekpe, 2009). In the field of consumer behaviour, several technology adoption models have been developed in the past few decades. For example, the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) is a psychological model which predicts human behaviour (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980, p. 5). According to TRA, attitude2 and subjective norm3 together trigger an individual?s behavioural intention4 (Davis, Bagozzi, & Warshaw, 1989). Hence, TRA can help businesses to predict consumers? behaviour and approach them accordingly. Also, it can play an important role in convincing people resulting in an expected outcome.  Ajzen (1991) extended TRA and developed the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). According to TPB, the ultimate predictor of human behaviour is the perceived behavioural control5(Ajzen, 2012). TPB considers three determinants that influence human behaviour: behavioural beliefs, beliefs about the behaviour?s likely outcome; normative beliefs, beliefs                                                  2 ?Attitude? refers to a person?s sense of understanding good and bad and then taking decision based on that (Ajzen, & Fishbein, 1980, p. 6) 3 ?Subjective norm? refers to a person?s consideration of the social surrounding while making a decision (Ajzen, & Fishbein, 1980, p. 6) 4 ?Behavioural intention? refers to a person?s decision to perform or not to perform a task (Ajzen, & Fishbein, 1980, p. 5) 5 ?Perceived behaviour control? refers to the notion of predicting intentions and behaviour (Ajzen, & Fishbein, 1980, p. 17)     16  about the referents? actions; and control beliefs, beliefs about the factors that may aid in or hinder the performance of the behaviour (Ajzen, 2012). Attitude in TRA is similar to behavioural beliefs in TPB, while subjective norm in TRA is similar to normative beliefs in TPB. In general, TRA and TPB study human attitude and behaviour. TRA was used to develop another model called the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Davis, Bagozzi, & Warshaw, 1989). TAM is a model for determining users? adoption of information systems. According to Davis et al. (1989), two primary behaviours help to determine a user?s technology acceptance: perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use in the context of using the computer. These two characteristics influence people?s tendency to accept technology (Song & Zahedi, 2005) and help online customers engage in online activities more comfortably. That being said, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use will affect customers? online behaviour positively.  Previous studies on e-commerce not only identified the driving forces for the adoption of e-commerce, but also proposed a number of assessment tools to evaluate website effectiveness. An example of such a tool is the Extended Web Assessment Method (EWAM). Schubert (2003) developed a set of web assessment methods such as expectation and ranking of website quality features, design quality of web sites for e-commerce, concepts and procedure models for web evaluation. An electronic commerce application assessment tool, EWAM, was created in order to measure the quality and success of e-commerce applications employed by a firm from the consumers? point of view. (Schubert, 2003; see also Molla & Licker, 2005; Song & Zahedi, 2005).  Schubert (2003) used EWAM in order to evaluate websites in two different industries: consumer goods and electronic banking. He found that the websites could not meet their customers? expectations. On the other hand, Molla & Licker (2005) found that the perceived     17  usefulness and perceived ease of use (TAM) of a website positively affects customer loyalty. Song & Zahedi (2005) adopted the TPB along with some other theories and developed the Belief Reinforcement Model (BRM) to measure the effectiveness of website elements in consumers? purchasing behaviour. The findings of their study showed that website elements can positively affect consumers? purchasing intentions.  2.2 Website Design Elements versus Effective Website Contents A well designed website can make a lot of differences in customers? minds (Mithas, Ramasubbu, Krishnan, & Fornell, 2007), however, website design depends largely on the nature of the business. According to Song & Zahedi (2005), website design technologies, promotional activities and customer service provided by the websites would positively affect online customers? buying intentions and their perception of the company. They also mentioned that, in order to predict the reaction of the customers, it is necessary to understand how website contents influence online customers? perception toward the firm.  Website design elements can be very effective in communicating value to customers. Therefore, it is mandatory to understand the online customers? preferences, how they might react to the overall website, and then design websites accordingly.  Another important factor in a website is the prices of the products/services. Baye et al. (2004) showed a significant price dispersion over the Internet when they conducted a study about consumer electronic products? price on a price comparison website. Customers are exposed to many options in just a few clicks. Therefore, it is essential to offer a competitive price; otherwise there is a risk of losing customers easily.  Also, social referents, especially the people who had experience with the website or an expert?s recommendation can act as an important element of a     18  website (Song & Zahedi, 2005). This feature was introduced in TRA and TPB as subjective norm and normative beliefs respectively. Such referents can have significant effects on customers while they make purchase decisions. Thus, organizations can consider external referents as an important element while designing a website.  Hausman & Siekpe (2009) introduced that a website should have both computer factors and human factors in order to assist customers in online shopping. The human factors included features like animation, feedback options, language options, and the like, in order to motivate the web shoppers to make purchase decisions; whereas computer factors included features like a site map and easy navigation in order to increase the website?s usefulness (Hausman & Siekpe, 2009). Song & Zahedi (2005) identified similar features like human factors in their study which they termed purchase facilitation. According to their study, it is essential for the online customers to experience the presence of certain facilitating conditions. These include, product description, Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ), use of multimedia, animations and the like while designing websites (Song & Zahedi, 2005).  Another study by Liao & Cheung (2001) found that lively features make the online experience pleasurable and initiate willingness among customers to engage in online shopping. All of these studies focused on the life content of the websites such as graphics, three-dimensional objects, animation, moving objects and so on. Online customers will perceive these features positively, thus they will be likely to engage in online shopping. It has been shown that the major limitation of all businesses (e.g. small, large, domestic, global, e-business, e-commerce etc.) is to create personal relationships with customers online (Henderson, Dooley, & Akridge, 2004). Previous studies reported it was difficult for businesses     19  to perform after sales service. Post-purchase service can help a company develop relationships with customers in a variety of ways, such as money back guarantee options that lessen customers? risk and at the same time build trust (Pavlou & Gefen, 2004). It can act as a base for maintaining a relationship with customers and for building trust. Trust is critical to online businesses as it directly influences customer attitude towards a website. In EWAM, Trust, which was included in the concept of subjective norm in TRA, was another important factor to measure a website?s success from the customers? point of view. (Schubert, 2003). Therefore, while designing websites, firms must consider web contents that aid in building trust, for instance, in order to reduce the risk of uncertainty, websites should include contents related to customers? security and privacy, such as a privacy policy (Malhotra, Kim, & Agarwal, 2004). However, it is every business?s goal to get loyal customers in both online or offline businesses. In online businesses, customers have plenty of options to choose from and switch to other companies? products or services.  Therefore, even if a customer buys a product online, it is difficult to project whether the same customer will come back or not.  Retaining online customers is more of a challenge for online businesses than for offline businesses. Mithas, Ramasubbu, Krishnan, & Fornell, (2007) identified three factors of websites that help online businesses create customer loyalty: content, functionality, and structure. Among these three factors, website content is the fundamental feature that determines online shoppers? attitudes towards the business such as animated objects, information about products and so on. Functionality of a website involves ease of use and usefulness, which increase customer satisfaction while using a website; and structure, which involves the organization of the webpage, the layout of the website, navigation etc. All these website design features were identified by several studies which have been discussed above (Mithas et al., 2007; Molla &     20  Licker, 2005; Song & Zahedi, 2005; Schubert, 2003). Finally, it is also important to update the websites constantly (Mithas et al., 2007). 2.3 Internet Communication and Multichannel Marketing Most companies take the Internet as a supplementary channel for interacting with their customers which helps to build relationships with them (Berger, Lee, & Weinberg, 2006).  Multichannel marketing has been growing increasingly over the past few years. The concept, in general, refers to the use of more than one channel (such as physical store, website, third parties, sales team) to distribute products or services (Neslin & Shankar, 2009). In this research context, multichannel refers to the use of offline and online retail settings. A study of consumers? channel preference showed that consumers prefer to purchase offline rather than online even if they have prior online shopping experience (Frambach, Roest, & Krishnan, 2007). In this sense, companies should focus on both offline and online aspects instead of depending on managing customer relationships online only. However, it is not always the good quality websites that succeed in e-commerce applications; perhaps exceptionally good websites tend to fail in e-commerce (Schubert, 2003). Therefore, while designing websites, companies should focus on the usefulness of web features and pre-examine how customers? are going to react.  2.4 E-Commerce and Marketing Integration Models  Previous literatures on e-commerce adoption introduced a number of website stage models which showed the step-by-step website growth. These website stage models include improved versions of earlier models and combinations of different e-commerce models (Zhu, Basil, and Hunter, 2009; Mendo and Fitzgerald, 2005; Rao, Metts, and Monge, 2003; Daniel, Wilson, & Myers, 2002). These stage models introduce benchmarks for each stage. According to     21  Rao et al. (2003), stage models can lead a firm?s e-commerce involvement to further advancement. Some literature on stage models are discussed below.  Daniel, Wilson, & Myers (2002) developed an e-commerce adoption stage model which had four stages: i) Developers6, ii) Communicators7, iii) Web Presence8, and iv) Transactors9. Their findings showed that when a stage has all its basic features and adds some additional features to it, it becomes the subsequent stage, which is the way stages evolve.  Therefore, these stages evolve sequentially. According to the authors, a firm?s website reaches its most advanced stage when it has online payment options. However, with the popularity of social media and the increasing number of features in developing customer relationships, online transactions should not be considered as the end point of e-commerce. In this research I argued that there are different stages of market integration and online-transactions. Rao et al. (2003) introduced a website stage model for SMEs which was similar to the context of Daniel, et al. (2002); for instance, clustering the web features into different website stages and the concept of sequentially evolving website stages. In line with the above research, my current research shows the evolution of websites from a basic state to an advanced state in                                                  6 ?Developers? refer to ?firms that were developing basic e-commerce features such as information about the company, products and contact? (Daniel et al., 2002, p.260). 7 ?Communicators? refer to ?firms that were communicating to employees, customers and suppliers via email? (Daniel et al., 2002, p.260).  8 ?Web Presence? refers to ?firms that enabled online order feature for products and services? (Daniel et al., 2002, p.260).  9 ?Transactors? refer to ?firms that were developing online payment options? (Daniel et al., 2002, p.260).      22  four subsequent stages: i) Presence10, ii) Portals11, iii) Transactions Integration12, and iv) Enterprises Integrations13. However, it is not necessary to start from the first stage and then move to an advanced stage. In fact, a business can enter into any website stage depending on its capability and resource availability (Rao et al., 2003). The Transactions Integration stage acted as the most advanced stage in the research of Daniel et al. (2002). Daniel et al. (2002) encouraged future research to find out the next stage of the e-commerce facilities provided by firms? websites. That being said, in Rao et al.?s (2003) research, the most advanced stage was the Enterprises Integration stage. The Enterprises Integration stage involved full integration with both customers and suppliers involving Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and Supply Chain Management (SCM) respectively. Zhu, Basil, & Hunter (2009) developed an extended model based on Rao et al.?s (2003) website stage model in their research on Canadian wineries. Their research included further division of market integration which involves internal market integration14 and external market integration15. Their findings showed that both internal market integration and external market                                                  10 ?Presence stage? refers to the initial stage of a company?s website which provides basic information about the company, involves one-way communication (Rao et al., 2003, p.16).  11  ?Portals Stage? refers to the second stage that involves interaction between the company and its customers (Rao et al., 2003, p.17). 12 ?Transactions Integration Stage? refers to third stage that involves transactional activities between customers/businesses and company (Rao et al., 2003, p. 18). 13 ?Enterprises Integration Stage? refers to the final stage where full integration with customers and suppliers takes place (Rao et al., 2003, p. 20). 14 ?Internal market integration? occurs when firms offer products/services to customers beyond their core products/services (Zhu, Basil, and Hunter, 2009, p.289)  15 ?External market integration? occurs when firms offer products/services of other businesses to their customers in order to expand their business opportunities (Zhu, Basil, & Hunter, 2009, p.289).     23  integration increased across the website stages. Firms, in internal market integration, can add new products or services to their current products/services. For external market integration, firms can link their businesses with other businesses. The extended model divided the transactions Integration stage of Rao et al.?s (2003) stage model into two parts: i) indirect transactions16 and ii) direct transactions17. The research found that the majority of the studied websites were involved in indirect transactions by engaging third parties while completing the transaction process. However, there are some criticisms about stage models. For instance, Mendo & Fitzgerald (2005) criticized the stage models for their single dimensional approach and argued the importance of implementing a multidimensional framework for SME?s involvement in e-business. Their findings show that most of the businesses? websites made changes in their websites for improving the image or navigation protocol instead of adding transactional or other features pertinent to e-commerce. On the other hand, studies that adopted the website stage models showed that the use of advanced web features increased across the website stages (Klievink & Janssen, 2009; Zhu et al. 2009; Teo & Pian, 2004; Rao et al. 2003; Daniel et al. 2002).   Previous studies on website stage models and market integration showed that firms? websites are becoming more sophisticated. Websites increasingly involve a variety of marketing options that advanced step-by-step through the website stages. Klievink & Janssen (2009)                                                  16 ?Indirect transaction? refers to third party involvement to complete the transaction process while purchasing products online (Zhu, Basil, & Hunter, 2009, p.290).  17 ?Direct transaction? occurs when firm?s website completes the entire transaction process on its own, without any third party involvement (Zhu, Basil, & Hunter, 2009, p.290).     24  implied that website stages help to provide guidance to enhance capabilities required to go to the next stage. Thus, website stages help businesses to minimize the transition time for website stage growth. Finally, when a business is in an advanced stage, it is considered that it has fulfilled all features of the previous stages and have more features included in the later stages (Rao et al. 2003; Daniel et al. 2002). In essence, implementation of e-commerce can be a superior advantage to a business for making profit. Depending on the extent of implementing e-commerce, a business requires a significant amount of investment at the beginning. However, proper use of e-commerce can make it a lot easier for companies to run their businesses successfully. E-commerce can aid wineries in attracting new customers, maintaining relationships with current customers, engaging in logistics activities, getting rid of intermediaries and finally internationalizing business.  Also, by adopting market integration into the websites, firms can expand their current businesses as well as customers.                  25  3 Research Methodology Building on past research that identified the market integration stage among the wineries in Canada (i.e. Zhu, 2005), my current study adopts the longitudinal approach by integrating the 2004 data with the newly collected 2012 data. As mentioned in a previous section, the main purpose of this study is to examine the changes in B.C. wineries? websites over time. This section presents the details of the theoretical framework, followed by a detail explanation of the coding method and analysis procedures. 3.1 Theoretical Framework This research focuses on studying the changes in the B.C. wine industry in terms of e-commerce adoption and market integration over time, specifically the changes reflected by the wineries? websites. This research uses wineries? websites to explore current trends in the industry. Wineries in British Columbia have an indispensable role in the Canadian wine industry; this research is primarily focused on the B.C. wine industry and aimed to show the difference in the wineries? websites between 2004 and 2012. In this research, I adopted the website stage models developed by Rao et al. (2003) and Zhu (2005). In their website stage models, Rao et al.?s (2003) identified four website stages: i) the Presence stage, ii) the Portals stage, iii) the Transactions Integration stage, and 4) the Enterprises Integration stage. It is a progressive stage model and the first website stage is the most basic state of a website and as the website stages go higher, websites become more advanced. A brief description of the stages is as follows: i) Presence stage: This is the initial stage of a company?s website which provides basic information about the company. For example, this stage provides information about the     26  company?s background, products, and contact options and involves one-way communication only (Rao et al., 2003, p. 16).  ii) Portals stage: This stage involves interaction between the company and its customers to a certain level. It is a two-way communication website stage which involves features like order placement, online feedback and the like (Rao et al., 2003, p. 17). iii) Transactions Integration stage: This stage is a more advanced stage of a website. It involves transactional activities between the customers and the company and/or between businesses and the company (Rao et al., 2003, p. 18). iv) Enterprises Integration stage: This is considered to be the most advanced stage of a website. It involves full integration with the customers and suppliers, and involves customer relationships management (CRM) and supply chain management (SCM) (Rao et al., 2003, p. 20). From the description of the website stage model, it can be seen that the first website stage (Presence) shares only basic information about the company and does not allow the audience to contact the company, thus it is referred to as a one-way communication website. The second stage (Portals) not only involves all the features of the Presence stage but also allows the audience to contact the company, which is referred to as a two-way communication website. Thus, the main difference between the Presence stage and the Portals stage is the level of communication (one-way communication vs. two-way communication). The Transactions Integration is the next stage that involves all features from the previous stages and new features such as transactional options for the customers and businesses. The last stage, Enterprises Integration, involves back office and front office integration which is the most advanced stage of the website stage model. In summary, this website stage model is a progressive stage model where the websites advance across the website stages.     27  Based on Rao et al.?s (2003) model, Zhu (2005) developed a revised model which focused on identifying the market integration stage of the Canadian wineries. Market Integration, according to Zhu (2005), refers to marketing related activities on the wineries? website. It includes internal and external market integration options. For instance, internal market integration activities refer to the activities other than selling wine that take place at the wineries such as the restaurant at the winery while external market integration refers to the activities with other organizations, i.e. a winery?s website providing information about a tour agency. The previous research hypothesized that market integration features will increase across the website stages. Based on the data collected from the websites of Canadian wineries, the research results showed that the more advanced a website stage is the more market integration features it has.  Both Rao?s (2003) and Zhu?s (2005) models acted as the theoretical foundations for my current research. Because of the limited number of wineries identified in the Enterprises Integration stage in the previous study, this study concentrates on analyzing the first three stages: i) the Presence stage, ii) the Portals stage, and iii) the Transactions Integration stage. This longitudinal research investigates all the changes that occurred between 2004 and June 2012. The current research also analyzes the trends that have been taking place in the wine industry reflected through wineries? websites. 3.2 Research Method Content analysis has been used as the primary research method for this research because of its ability to capture the changes among the content of the websites. Bryman (2004) addresses the benefits associated with content analysis. For instance, content analysis quantifies contents based on a predefined category in an organized way (p. 181). In other words, the advantage of     28  content analysis is that the researcher can conduct the research without any cooperation from the subject to be studied (i.e. websites). The results, therefore, will be unbiased as it is entirely based on the contents without any other influence (Breuning, 2010).  In this study, content analysis allowed me to perform a thorough analysis of B.C. wineries websites. Compared to the limitations of other data collection methods such as the limited response rate in the survey method, high cost and time consumption in the interview method, content analysis allows researchers to collect and analyze a set of complex data directly from the websites without being subjective and within a short time frame. There are many website studies that used content analysis as a primary research method for data collection (e.g., Bravo, Matute & Pina, 2012; Carr, Schrock & Dauterman, 2012; Stein, 2009). Bravo et al. (2012) studied the websites of financial institutions to identify the use of corporate social responsibility (CSR); Carr et al. (2012) studied a social media website (Facebook) to identify the speech acts (expressive, assertive or humorous) of the users on their status messages; Stein (2009) studied U.S. based social movement organizations? websites to assess the extent of social movement features? presence on their websites; Loda, Teichmann & Zins (2009) studied tourism companies? websites and identified the effectiveness of marketing in terms of increasing tourism. In this research, each winery website has been treated as a unit of analysis. All data has been collected and coded from the wineries? websites. The content analysis mainly focuses on examining web features, functions, and trends of the wineries? websites.  Content analysis also allowed me to capture the changes on the wineries? websites and discover the overall trends. It is crucial to have a precise and consistent coding process when     29  conducting a longitudinal study (Breuning, 2010) and the method allowed me to use the same coding process to collect data at different points in time.    In a nutshell, as this study involves a comparison between two datasets collected in 2004 and 2012, content analysis has been found to be the most effective method for this research. It helps to identify changes among contents of the websites in different point in time. In addition, it is an appropriate method for carrying out a longitudinal study. I used the same coding process used by the previous study, which is based on market integration and website stage model. As a result, the codes were predefined and that helped to keep this longitudinal study consistent. However, this research identifies some new features, and those features have been coded and added to the coding book. Finally, this study has focused on identifying features that existed on the winery websites. The particular questions that are to be investigated in the content analysis have been formulated to examine the extended website stage model. In this research, the key function of the content analysis is to formulate different market integration features, identify new features, calculate frequencies, percentages and rates, and depict results. 3.3 Data Collection In order to be consistent with the previous study, I have adapted the data collection method outlined in Zhu (2005). The adapted method involves the following four steps: (1) preparing a list of B.C. wineries? websites, (2) defining web features identified by using content analysis, (3) classifying the wineries? websites into the Presence, the Portals, and the Transactions Integration stages, and (4) developing ratio data for independent variables which will be discussed in a later section. The following section describes each step in detail:       30  3.3.1 First Step: Creating a British Columbia Winery List  Given the longitudinal study in nature, many new wineries began to operate and some old ones were no longer in existence. This step involved three tasks. First, in order to compile an accurate British Columbia's wineries ' list, an extensive Internet search was conducted by browsing the seven Internet resources (Table 3.1). However, there are other British Columbia winery lists available (e.g., BCLC licensed wineries). In my research, I have used the same website sources that were used by the previous study conducted in 2004.                  31  Table 3.1 The Sources of British Columbia Wineries List Source Description of the Source Number of Wineries Listed 1. Canadian Yellow Pages  (w.yellowpages.ca) An online directory of Canadian businesses. Winery list has been found under the Winery index. 140 B.C. wineries are listed in this website.  2. Canadian Vintners Association (CVA)  (www.canadianvintners.com) A non-profit website of Canada?s national association for vintners.  19 CVA members from B.C. are found in this website. 3. Wine Dining (www.winedining.net) A non-profit website, listing wineries, hotels, and other relevant information based on different regions in Canada. 99 B.C. wineries are listed in this website. 4. bcwine.com (www.bcwine.com) A non-profit website listing wineries based on the regions in British Columbia.  194 B.C. wineries are listed in this website. 5. Wines of Canada (www.winesofcanada.com) Personal website developed and maintained by Robert A. Bell from 1992, including information on history, wines, wineries, associations etc.  223 B.C. wineries are listed in this website. 6. Canadian Winery Index (www.travelenvoy.com) An online wine guide and world winery index that categorizes wineries according to countries. 91 B.C. wineries are listed in this website. 7. Canadian Wineries (www.canwine.com) A list of wineries in terms of regions in Canada; it also provides information on associations, magazines, wine sales and distribution information and so on.  52 B.C. wineries are listed in this website.      32  In total 818 B.C. wineries were identified from the above mentioned seven sources and these wineries? websites acted as a pool for selecting the final sample for this research. All duplicate wineries were deleted from the list. Non-winery websites such as websites of wine shops, wine cellars, U-vints18, wine merchants, and wine equipment service providers were removed from the list as these businesses do not produce wine. In addition, wineries listed in the Yellow Pages? website, but not found in other websites, were searched one by one in order to make sure that the final list does not include any wine related business that is not a winery. A list of 259 B.C. wineries in 2012 was generated (See Appendix A for the list of all B.C. wineries). Several wineries were found that had website addresses, however, while searching for the websites, messages like ?domain not found?, ?domain name expired? and ?domain for sale? appeared on their webpage. These websites were not included in this study. Also, websites with the ?coming soon? message were not part of this research. However, several websites were found that mentioned they are under construction but provided contact information or email hyperlinks, therefore these websites were included in this research. Finally, 193 B.C. wineries? websites were included in this study (See Appendix B for the list of B.C. winery websites included in this research).  The second task of this step was to combine the 2012 data with the 2004 data. Zhu (2005) created a list of 222 wineries across Canada but this study only focuses on the B.C. wineries? websites. Therefore, only B. C. wineries were selected from the 2004 wineries? list. In the third task, the wineries were categorized into three groups to capture the changes in website status:   1) New wineries, 2) Existing wineries, and 3) disappeared wineries (See Appendix C for a list of                                                  18 There are businesses that have wine making equipment and wine producing kits and they help customers to make their own wine with the help of the assistants and later on when the wine is suitable for drinking, customers are notified to pick up their wines (U-VintNS.Ca, 2012).     33  new, existing, and disappeared B.C. winery websites). Thus, the newly created list helped me to identify how many wineries? websites were launched between 2004 and 2012, how many wineries? websites existed since 2004 to 2012, how many wineries? websites disappeared after 2004. In essence, it was found that in the past few years, there was remarkable growth in the number of wineries in B.C. There were only 83 wineries in 2004, whereas there were 193 wineries in 2012. Of these, 131 wineries were new.    3.3.2 Second Step: Define categories of features and classify web contents  Once the final list of B.C. wineries was created, all the wineries? websites were visited one by one and the web features on every page of each winery website were recorded explicitly in the coding book19. The coding procedure is based on the market integration and website stage models. Two categories of features were used in order to analyze the websites, i.e. functional features and content features as used by Zhu et al. (2009). First, functional features were used to identify a winery?s website stage, for instance, in the Presence stage category, web features represent information about one-way communication characteristics of the website; the Portals stage category is a two-way communication stage which involves ways of contacting the website owner through the websites, and the Transactions Integration stage includes transactional features of the website (see Table 3.2).  In addition, a set of functional features was used to capture the characteristics of the market integration stage proposed by Zhu et al. (2009). Market integration features involve marketing related activities by the wineries which are presented on                                                  19 The coding book has been adapted from the previous research conducted on Canadian wineries? websites in 2004 (Zhu, 2005).     34  the wineries' websites. As mentioned in a previous section, these features include internal market integration and external market integration. Internal market integration refers to business activities offered at the winery other than selling wines i.e. a bistro at the winery; whereas, external market integration refers to business activities with other organizations and the purpose of those activities are beyond selling wines i.e. a winery?s involvement with a tour agency to build up the business network and attract more consumers in the future. One new internal market integration feature was added to the present research, Rent Facility, which has been discussed later. The following section provides brief descriptions of these functional features.                  35  Table 3.2 Functional Features for Website Stages Presence stage Portals stage Transactions Integration stage Market Integration stage Internal Market Integration External Market Integration 1) Information about the winery and the vineyard 2) Information about wine products or  services 3) Contact information 4) Email address included on the website 5) One-way communication 1) Information about placing of  orders 2) Online feedback function  3) Search function 4) Site map or site index 5) Email with hyperlink 6) Two-way communication 1) Direct money transactions 2) Indirect money transactions through third party websites 3) Overall money transactions 4) Business to business  5) Business to customers 6) Communities 7) E-marketplace 8) Hyperlinks to or content about third party E-marketplace 9) E-auction 1) In-house tour activities provided by wineries 2) In-house wine tasting provided by wineries 3) In-house food services provided by wineries 4) In-house gift shop provided by wineries 5) In-house accommodation provided by wineries 6) In-house rent facility provided by wineries (new feature) 1) Hyperlinks or content about tour agencies held by other companies 2) Hyperlinks or content about restaurants held by other companies 3) Hyperlinks or content about wine shops held by other companies 4) Hyperlinks or content about accommodations provided by other companies 5) Hyperlinks or content about associations 6) Hyperlinks or content about website design companies 7) Hyperlinks or content about transportation service providers 8) Hyperlinks or content about organizations other than those mentioned above  "The Extended Website Stage Model: A Study of Canadian Winery Websites", Zhu et al. (2009, p. 291).           36  a. Presence Stage  The Presence stage acts as the preliminary stage of the website stage model. It involves only basic information about the winery that flows in one direction, i.e. from the website to the audience, therefore, this stage is referred to as one-way communication (Rao et al., 2003). Some of the web features of the Presence stage include: (i) about winery, (ii) about products, (iii) contact information, and (iv) e-mail. b. Portal Stage The Portal stage is the second stage of the Rao?s website stage model. It has all the features of the Presence stage along with some additional features such as online order placement, online feedback option and hyperlinked email. These features allow customers to communicate with wineries? representative(s), therefore, this stage refers to two-way communication stage (Rao et al., 2003). The functional features included in the Portals stage are (i) order placement option, (ii) online feedback function, (iii) search function, (iv) site map, and (v) hyperlinked e-mail.  c. Transactions Integration Stage This is a more advanced stage compared to the Presence stage and the Portals stage. The most important characteristic of this stage is the money transaction option. That being said, it requires advanced technical skill and IT framework (Rao et al., 2003). This stage involves both direct and indirect money transactions. Direct Transactions refer to the online payment process completed in the winery?s website, whereas, Indirect Transaction refer to the payment process that needs to be completed with the help of third parties (Zhu, 2005). The functional features of this stage are: (i) direct transactions, (ii) indirect transactions, (iii) business-to-business (B2B),     37  (iv) business-to-customers (B2C), (v) communities, (vi) e-marketplace, (vii) third-party e-marketplace, and (viii) e-auction. d. Market Integration  Market integration refers to the web features that indicate relationships between wineries and their other business activities and/or between wineries and other organizations (Zhu, 2005). The second model that was used as a reference for this research is the extension of Rao et al.?s (2003) website stage model. The revised model includes the market integration stage (Zhu, 2005; Zhu et al., 2009). In this research context, market integration refers to the wineries? involvement with other activities. For instance, food, tour agencies and so on. Market integration was divided into two parts: i) internal market integration, and ii) external market integration.  i) Internal Market Integration Internal market integration refers to the wineries? activities other than selling wine that take place at the winery (Zhu, 2005). The functional features that represent internal market integration are: (i) in-house tour activities, (ii) in-house wine tasting, (iii) in-house food service, (iv) in-house gift shop, (v) in-house accommodation, and (vi) in-house rent facilities (new feature). ii) External Market Integration External market integration involves wineries? activities other than selling wines which involves other organizations such as retailers, bed & breakfast and so on. In general, wineries? websites include hyperlinks to these organizations. The functional features corresponding external market integration are: (i) tour agencies, (ii) restaurants, (iii) wine shops, (iv)     38  accommodation, (v) association, (vi) website design companies, (vii) transportation service providers, and (viii) other organizations. Content feature categories were used to classify Marketing Function features, Technological Functions features, Legal & Social Awareness Features, and Winery Characteristics. As the names of the content categories implies, Marketing Function features include features that are used for marketing purpose, Technological Function features include features that involve the use of technology in the websites, Legal & Social Awareness features include legal features on the wineries? websites, and Winery Characteristics include features like family owned business and language of the website. Some new content features were identified and included in this research, which will be explained in a later section. All of the content features from the previous study, as well as new features found by this research, are demonstrated in Table 3.3.                39  Table 3.3 Content Categories with Content features Marketing Function features Technological Functions Features Legal and Social Awareness Features Winery Characteristics 1. Newsletters 2. Press releases 3. Awards won by the wines 4. Toll-free contact capability 5. Business hours 6. Customized wine labels 7. Tasting notes and recipes 8. Map and Location 9. Events held by winery  New Features: 10. Artwork exhibitions 11. Account membership option in wineries? website 12. Social media such as Facebook, Twitter etc. 13. Blog 1. Photo album and gallery 2. Virtual tour 3. Background Music 4. Online visitor counter 5. Dynamic pictures and Flash affects, moving pictures or words   New Feature:                          6. Videos uploaded on the website or own YouTube video links on website 1. Website copyright statement 2. Legal notice 3. Privacy statement         1. Family owned business or not 2. Languages used on the website       Note. Adapted from "The Extended Website Stage Model: A Study of Canadian Winery Websites? (Zhu et al., 2009, p. 292).           40  The total number of content features included in this research is twenty four. Among these, eighteen features were from the previous study and six new features were identified by this study. The new features are listed in Table 3.4 followed by a brief description.   Table 3.4 New Content Features Market Integration Marketing Function features             Technological Functions Feature 1. Rent Facility 1. Artwork Exhibitions 2. Account Membership options 3. Social Media 4. Blog  1. Videos uploaded on the website or YouTube videos 1) Rent Facility Like other internal market integration features, rent facilities provided by the wineries take place at the winery?s location. It includes providing rental to wineries? patio, wine tasting room, dining room and the area inside the winery for arranging events, wedding receptions, birthday parties or picnics. However, there are many wineries that don?t charge for arranging picnics in their winery, those are not included under this feature. A good example of this feature would be the LaStella winery which provides rental options to wedding receptions along with offering catering service. Another interesting example could be the Elephant Island Orchard Wines that provide rental offers for its tree house.  In the Marketing Function features category, four new features have been identified. These are Artwork Exhibitions, Account Membership options, Social Media, and Blog. Brief descriptions of these features are as follows:     41  2) Artwork Exhibitions: Many wineries offer artworks, paintings and similar exhibitions at the winery. Sometimes these wineries arrange exhibitions of the artworks done by local people which portray their community involvement. Some wineries own good collections of artworks while others sell them, for instance, Bluemoon Winery arranged an artwork exhibition by community people that involved selling as well.     3) Account membership option Many wineries have account membership options which helps their customer to track their previous orders and activities with the winery. Customers can also place advanced order for the limited number of wines which are not ready to be sold yet. Customers have their own login ID and password specifically created for the winery. This helps them to keep record of their activities with the winery. 4) Social Media Social media is the most prominent new content feature among the recent Marketing Function features. In includes Facebook, Twitter, Myspace and other social media. Sometimes a winery has only one social media such as Facebook. On the other hand, wineries also have more than one or two social media at a time, sometimes wineries include a group of social media options. Wineries also ask the customers to like their page on Facebook or follow them on Twitter to get the most recent updates about the wineries? activities. They also mention social media is the easiest way to get all kind of information, specifically the recent ones about the wineries. It takes time to update the winery website therefore it is difficult to change the contents of the websites on a daily basis. Therefore, many wineries? websites mention this on their     42  websites and ask to join their page on social media. In addition, the wineries also allow customers to share wineries? stories, videos etc. on their social media page.  5) Blog Winery blogs are new and becoming popular among wineries. These blogs might include recent stories, photos, videos and the like along with options for the customers to send their comments. A good example of a winery with a blog could be Cedar Creek Estate Winery, which includes brief description with videos such as videos on wine making. These blogs posts can also be shared via social media.  6) Videos or YouTube Videos uploaded on the wineries? website or YouTube videos on the wineries? website have been included as a new content feature under Technological Functions Features. Wineries usually post videos of different events, reviews from wine experts, for example, Mt. Boucherie Family Estate Winery has a separate video gallery which has a video on wine review by a wine expert.  In total, forty-nine functional features and content features were adopted from Zhu (2005). In this research, one new functional feature (see Table 3.2) and five new content features (see Table 3.3) were added to the forty-nine features from the previous study (Zhu, 2005), thus brought the total number of variables to fifty-five. A list of all features in 2004 and all features in 2012 are presented in Table 3.5.      43  Table 3.5 Features used to analyze 2004 and 2012 data Features used to analyze 2004 data Features used to analyze 2012 data 1. About winery 2. About products 3. Contact information 4. Email  5. Order placement 6. Online feedback 7. Search function 8. Site map 9. Email with hyperlink 10. Direct money transactions 11. Indirect money transactions 12. Business to business 13. Business to customers 14. Communities 15. E-marketplace 16. Hyperlinks to E-marketplace 17. E-auction 18. In-house tour activities 19. In-house wine tasting 20. In-house food services 21. In-house gift shop 22. In-house accommodation 23. Hyperlinks/content on tour agencies 24. Hyperlinks/content on restaurants 25. Hyperlinks/content on wine shops 26. Hyperlinks/content on accommodation 27. Hyperlinks/content on associations 28. Hyperlinks/content on website design 29. Hyperlinks/content on transportation 30. Hyperlinks/content on other organization 31. Newsletters 1. About winery 2. About Products 3. Contact Information 4. Email 5. Order placement 6. Online feedback 7. Search Function 8. Site map 9. Email with hyperlink 10. Direct money transactions 11. Indirect money transactions 12. Business to business 13. Business to customers 14. Communities 15. E-marketplace 16. Hyperlinks to E-marketplace 17. E-auction 18. In-house tour activities 19. In-house wine tasting 20. In-house food services 21. In-house gift shop 22. In-house accommodation 23. In-house rent facility (New) 24. Hyperlinks/content on tour agencies 25. Hyperlinks/content on restaurants 26. Hyperlinks/content on wine shops 27. Hyperlinks/ content on accommodation 28. Hyperlinks/content on association 29. Hyperlinks/content on website design  30. Hyperlinks/content on transportation     44  32. Press releases 33. Awards 34. Toll-free contact 35. Business hours  36. Customized wine labels 37. Tasting notes/recipes 38. Map 39. Events 40. Photo gallery 41. Virtual tour 42. Background music 43. Online visitor counter 44. Animation 45. Copyright statement 46. Legal notice 47. Privacy statement 48. Family owned business or not 49. Languages used on website    31. Hyperlinks/content on other organizations 32. Newsletters 33. Press releases 34. Awards 35. Toll-free contact 36. Business hours 37. Customized wine labels 38. Tasting notes/recipes 39. Map 40. Events 41. Artwork exhibitions (New) 42. Account membership (New) 43. Social media (New) 44. Blog (New) 45. Photo gallery 46. Virtual tour 47. Background music 48. Online visitor counter 49. Animation 50. Videos uploaded on website/YouTube link (New) 51. Copyright statement 52. Legal notice 53. Privacy statement 54. Family owned or not 55. Languages used on website         45  In addition, a few more content features were identified by this research. These features were not very common in the wineries websites. However, these are important features and expected to gradually increase in the wineries? websites. A list of these emerging features is shown in Table 3.6 followed by a brief description.                Table 3.6 Emerging Features in the Wineries' Websites Emerging Content Features 1. Charity/ Donation options 2. Return/ Refund facility 3. Coupons offered by wineries 4. Seminar/ Workshop 5. Browse   1) Charity/Donation  Some wineries offer charity or donation to different organizations they support in the community. By adding this feature, wineries show their concern about the society. One example of such a winery is Tinhorn Creek which supports Boys and Girls club of Canada. Another example is Township7 Vineyards and Winery which supports community groups, animal rescue groups, such as Big Brothers Big Sisters Society of Langley, B.C. Rabbit/Small Animal Rescue Society etc.   2) Return/Refund Facility  It is the most common feature among the emerging features. Return/Refund facility provided by a winery is a very important feature as it helps to build trust among the customers of     46  the winery. Many wineries that had this feature also included order exchange and/or order cancellation options.  3) Coupons Some wineries? websites were found to offer online coupon to get discount while ordering wine online or for using the coupon while visiting the winery. Some wineries offer Groupon coupons such as Gorfrey Brownell Vineyards. Another example is House of Rose Winery that allows the website visitors to print a coupon and when they will show the coupon to the winery, they will get wine vinegar for free with a purchase of a wine.   4) Seminar/Workshop A few wineries had seminar and/or workshop options as a website feature. In general, such seminars are on wine education and the like, and can be very interesting for the wine consumers. One example of a winery that had this feature is Godfrey Brownell Vineyards that arranges workshops on their wine producing methods and philosophies.   5) Browse This feature is a very useful feature which allows a customer to find out locations where a winery?s wines are available. The customer needs to type the name of the wine in a search box and also can set the category as restaurant, liquor store or any category where he wants to look for the wine. The result will show where that particular wine can be found. By using this option, a customer neither needs to come all the way to the winery to buy that particular wine, nor does he need to order online with shipping charge. This feature will help customers to find the nearest location where the wine from a specific winery can be found.     47  The above mentioned features are very useful features both for the wineries and the customers. These features were identified and recorded in the dataset while conducting content analysis on the websites. However, as these are not common features for most of the wineries? websites, they were not included in the statistical analysis. Although these features are beyond the scope of this study, they could be considered for future research.  3.3.3 Third Step:  Classify Winery Websites into Different Website Stages The website of each winery was analyzed explicitly in order to identify its website stage as well as investigate the website features that a winery?s website has. All web features listed on each web page of a winery website were recorded. Then, each winery was categorised into the following three categories: the Presence stage (web features such as information about the winery, wines, contact etc.); the Portals stage (web features such as order placement, providing online feedback, ways of contacting the producer through the website etc.); the Transactions Integration stage (web features such as direct payment, payment through a third party online). Also, a set of functional features was used to capture the characteristics of the market integration stage proposed by Zhu (2005).  The website analysis focused on the wineries? websites only and did not include anything that was not available on the wineries? web pages.  During the coding process, if a winery was found to have one website and owned branches in different provinces, only the B.C. part of the website was analyzed. In this research, 55 items were coded for each of the 193 winery websites. For the coding process, a data collection form designed by Zhu (2005) were used in order to record data, take notes and comments, and track records in an excel spreadsheet. This form helped to conduct content analysis and allowed an in detailed evaluation of each website as it had     48  all the features needed to evaluate a website. For example, while analyzing a website, if it had information about the winery, the ?about winery? feature was marked ?Yes?. Likewise, if the website did not have any information about ?order placement?, that feature was marked ?No?. Every winery website was evaluated against all the features by marking ?Yes? or ?No?.  3.3.4 Fourth Step: Develop ratio data for independent variables  It can be seen from the last step that all of the website features are categorical variables and most of them are dichotomous variables with ?Yes? or ?No?. ?Yes? was marked as ?1? and ?No? was marked as ?0? in the dataset for statistical analysis. In this research, the dependent variable is the website stage whereas the independent variables are market integration, marketing functions, technological function, legal and social awareness, and winery characteristics.  For the independent variables, ratio scales were created from the dichotomous variables. Six functional features were used for assessing internal market integration and a 7-point ratio scale (0 to 6) was created for this variable. Likewise, external market integration included eight functional features, thus a 9-point ratio scale (0 to 8) was created for this variable.  Thirteen content features were used for assessing marketing functions; therefore, a 14-point ratio scale (0 to 13) was developed for this variable. For technological function, six content features were used for assessment, thus a 7-point ratio scale (0 to 6) was constructed for this variable. For legal and social awareness, three content features were used for assessment, thus a 4-point ratio scale (0 to 3) was created for this variable. These scales helped to conduct multinomial logistic regression.  An example of using one of these scales is: the Portals stage includes six categorical variables such as information on order placement, online feedback function, search function, site map or site index, email with hyperlink and other features that reflect the two-way     49  communication nature.  These categorical variables have been calculated into ratio variables, for instance, if a winery?s website has five of the Portal stage features, then five of the Portal stage features are marked "Yes", which equals to one, therefore, the sum of the Portals stage is five.                           50  4 Results  4.1 Overview of Wineries in British Columbia  The results section has been described in five steps. First of all, an overview of the British Columbia wineries in 2004 (i) and 2012 (ii)20 has been demonstrated which includes classification of winery websites based on: 1) the status of the website existence, 2) website stages, and 3) the status of the Transactions Integration website stage. Second, comparisons of descriptive statistics of market integration, internal market integration, and external market integration have been presented by comparing the original variables in 2004 and in 2012 dataset. Third, descriptive statistics on market integration has been reported for the new set of variables (6 new from 2012 and 49 from 2004). Also, in order to test the hypothesis, one-way ANOVA, t-test, and multinomial logistic regression has been conducted on market integration on the new set of variables (55 variables). Fourth, one-way ANOVA and t-test on market integration features have been conducted on the status of wineries? existence: New, Existing and Disappeared wineries, using a newly generated dataset which combines 2004 and 2012 dataset. Finally, the fifth step includes the descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA, and t-test on other variables such as marketing function features, technological function features, and legal and social awareness features, across the three stages using the new set of variables on the 2012 dataset.                                                    20 From this point, "(i)" has been used for 2004 dataset; "(ii)" has been used for 2012 dataset.     51  4.1.1 Classification of Winery Website Existence Table 4.1 shows the distribution of the 214 B.C. wineries? websites based on the status of their existence: New, Existing and Disappeared. In this table, the New wineries? websites are the wineries that launched their websites after 2004 (NEW), the Existing wineries websites are the websites that were included in the previous research in 2004 and were still in operation in 2012 (EXISTING). And the Disappeared wineries? websites are the websites that existed in 2004 but no longer existed in 2012 (DISAPPEARED). The majority of the websites fall under the New category accounting for 61.2% of all B.C. wineries, followed by Existing at 29%, and Disappeared at 9.8%. Table 4.1 NEW, EXISTING and DISAPPEARED Wineries? Websites  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid NEW 131 61.2 61.2 61.2 EXISTING 62 29.0 29.0 90.2 DISAPPEARED 21 9.8 9.8 100.0 Total 214 100.0 100.0          52  Figure 4.1 shows that the number of new wineries in B.C. increased 1.5 times from 83 wineries in 2004 to 193 wineries in 2012. And the number of wineries that no longer present themselves in the Internet in 2012 is relatively small. Therefore, B.C. wine industry demonstrates a growth potential with many new wineries starting their businesses online after 2004.    Figure 4.1 New, Existing and Disappeared Wineries? Websites           53  4.1.2 Classification of Website Stages  (i) Original Set of Variables in 2004 dataset Table 4.2 and Figure 4.2 illustrate the classification of 83 B.C. wineries? website stage in 2004. In 2004, most websites were in the Portals stage which accounted for 56.6% of the total B.C. wineries, followed by the Presence stage at 27.7% and the Transactions Integration stage at15.7%. Table 4.2 Classification of Website Stages with Original Set of Variables in 2004 (i)                   Figure 4.2 Classification of Website Stages Using Original Set of Variables in 2004 (i)  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative  Percent Valid Presence Stage 23 27.7 27.7 27.7 Portals Stage 47 56.6 56.6 84.3 Transactions Integration Stage 13 15.7 15.7 100.0 Total 83 100.0 100.0      54  (ii) New Set of Variables in 2012 dataset Table 4.3 and Figure 4.3 show the classification of 193 B.C. wineries? website stage in 2012. Similar to 2004, wineries? websites in the Portals stage still accounted for the largest portion, 39.9% of B.C. wineries, followed by Transactions Integration stage of 31.6% and Presence stage of 28.5% in 2012. Table 4.3 Classification of Website Stages with New Set of Variables in 2012 (ii)    Figure 4.3 Classification of Website Stages Using New set of Variables in 2012 (ii)   Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Presence Stage 55 28.5 28.5 28.5 Portals Stage 77 39.9 39.9 68.4 Transactions Integration Stage 61 31.6 31.6 100.0 Total 193 100.0 100.0      55  Table 4.2 and Table 4.3 represent the distribution of website stages among wineries in 2004 using the original set of variables and 2012 using the new set of variables respectively. Both in 2004 (Table 4.2) and 2012 (Table 4.3), most wineries? websites were in the Portals stage. Hence, the result is consistent in two different time periods. Furthermore, the percentage of websites in the Presence Stage in 2004 and 2012 is quite close which were 27.7% and 28.5% respectively. However, the number of websites at Transactions Integration stage increased from 15.7% in 2004 to 31.6% in 2012, which is more than double.  In general, based on the results, B.C. wineries engaged in more sophisticated website activities than eight years ago. The reduced cost of information technology could be a contributing factor for adopting more advanced technology in the wine industry, such as online order and payment methods.   4.1.3 Classification of Status of the Transactions Integration Stage (i) Original Set of Variables in 2004  The Transactions Integration stage involves both Indirect Transactions and Direct Transactions. Indirect Transactions refer to the websites that involve third parties (i.e. Paypal) to complete a money transaction. In contrast, Direct Transactions refer to the websites that allow customers to complete a transaction via credit cards on the wineries? websites. Table 4.4 and Figure 4.4 show that 4.8% of wineries in B.C. were in the Indirect Transactions stage, while 10.8% were in the Direct Transactions stage in 2004.       56  Table 4.4 Classification of Transactions Integration stage in 2004 (i)  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Presence Stage 23 27.7 27.7 27.7 Portals Stage 47 56.6 56.6 84.3 Indirect Transactions Stage 4 4.8 4.8 89.2 Direct Transactions Stage 9 10.8 10.8 100.0 Total 83 100.0 100.0       Figure 4.4 Classification of Transactions Integration stage in 2004 (i)         57  (ii) New set of Variables in 2012 Table 4.5 and Figure 4.5 show that, only 1% of the B.C. wineries were in the Indirect Transactions stage, while Direct Transactions stage accounted for 30.6% of the total B.C. wineries in 2012. Table 4.5 Classification of Transactions Integration stage in 2012 (ii)  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Presence Stage 55 28.5 28.5 28.5 Portals Stage 77 39.9 39.9 68.4 Indirect Transactions Stage 2 1.0 1.0 69.4 Direct Transactions Stage 59 30.6 30.6 100.0 Total 193 100.0 100.0         Figure 4.5 Classification of Transactions Integration stage in 2012 (ii)     58  Table 4.4 and Table 4.5 represent the classification of the status of the Transactions Integration stage in 2004 and 2012 respectively. In 2004, 4.8% wineries were in the Indirect Transactions stage (Table 4.4) and the number decreased to 1% in 2012 (Table 4.5). However, the portion of wineries in the Direct Transactions increased from 10.8% in 2004 (Table 4.4) to 30.6% in 2012 (Table 4.5). The results demonstrate that winery websites are becoming increasingly sophisticated in online business. Wineries? websites are more likely to conduct online transactional activities on their own websites rather than outsourcing to third parties.  4.2 Descriptive Statistics of Market Integration in 2004 and in 2012 In this section, data collected in 2004 and 2012 has been compared by using the same set of original variables generated in 2004. A comparison on market integration, internal market integration, and external market integration has been reported for year (i) 2004 and (ii) 2012 across the website stages. As mentioned in previous sections, market integration is the sum of internal and external market integration features. As this section uses the original set of variables, the market integration includes thirteen features: five internal and eight external market integration features.  Table 4.6 and Table 4.7 show the number of wineries having the market integration features in 2004 and 2012 respectively. The proportion of wineries having market integration features slightly decreased from 97.6% in 2004 to 92.2% in 2012.       59  Table 4.6 Frequency of Market Integration on Original Set of Variables in 2004 (i)  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid NO 2 2.4 2.4 2.4 YES 81 97.6 97.6 100.0 Total 83 100.0 100.0    Table 4.7  Frequency of Market Integration on Original Set of Variables in 2012 (ii)  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid NO 15 7.8 7.8 7.8 YES 178 92.2 92.2 100.0 Total 193 100.0 100.0   Table 4.8 and Table 4.9 show 83.1% wineries? websites in 2004 had the internal market integration features and 88.1% in 2012 had them. The tables show that the proportion of internal market integration features in the wineries? websites in 2004 and 2012 was similar.    Table 4.8 Frequency of Internal Market Integration on Original Set of Variables in 2004 (i)  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid NO 14 16.9 16.9 16.9 YES 69 83.1 83.1 100.0 Total 83 100.0 100.0         60  Table 4.9 Frequency of Internal Market Integration on Original Set of Variables in 2012 (ii)  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid NO 23 11.9 11.9 11.9 YES 170 88.1 88.1 100.0 Total 193 100.0 100.0   Table 4.10 and Table 4.11 show that external market integration was 92.8% in 2004, whereas 80.8% in 2012. Although it was a decrease in external market integration on the wineries? websites in 2012 compared to 2004, the number of wineries that had external market integration features in 2012 was more than double than that in 2004. Table 4.10 Frequency of External Market Integration on Original Set of Variables in 2004 (i)  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid NO 6 7.2 7.2 7.2 YES 77 92.8 92.8 100.0 Total 83 100.0 100.0     Table 4.11 Frequency of External Market Integration on Original Set of Variables in 2012 (ii)  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid NO 37 19.2 19.2 19.2 YES 156 80.8 80.8 100.0 Total 193 100.0 100.0       61  In this section, Table 4.12 and Table 4.13 show the frequency of market integration across website stages using original set of variables in 2004 and 2012 respectively. Table 4.12 shows that in 2004, 91.3% of wineries? websites at the Presence stage had market integration features and all the wineries in the Portals and the Transactions Integration stage had such features. On the other hand, in 2012, 80% of wineries in the Presence stage had market integration features, followed by 94.8% in the Portals stage and all wineries in the Transactions Integration stage had such features (Table 4.13).  Table 4.12 and Table 4.13 show that the internal market integration features in the Presence stage is almost the same in 2004 and 2012 (69.6% and 69.1% respectively). Internal market integration increased in the Portals stage from 87.2% in 2004 (see Table 4.12) to 92.2% in 2012 (see Table 4.13). In the Transactions Integration stage, internal market integration increased to 100% in 2012 (see Table 4.13) from 92.3% in 2004 (see Table 4.12). On the other hand, external market integration features in the Presence stage decreased from 78.3% in 2004 (see Table 4.12) to 69.1% in 2012 (see Table 4.13). In the Portals stage, external market integration decreased from 97.9% in 2004 (see Table 4.12) to 87% in 2012 (see Table 4.13). In the Transactions Integration stage, external market integration decreased from 100% in 2004 (see Table 4.12) to 83.6% in 2012 (see Table 4.13). The reason could be the increasing number of wineries in the Transactions Integration stage, which was 13 in 2004 and 51 in 2012. The results demonstrate that the number of wineries has the internal market integration features increased in 2012 compared to 2004, whereas, external market integration decreased in 2012 compared to 2004. The potential reason for the decrease in external market integration could be the number of wineries was more than double in 2012 than in 2004, and     62  many of the websites could have been new in 2012 and hadn?t incorporated all of the market integration features yet.  Table 4.12 Frequency of Market Integration, Internal Market Integration, and External Market Integration based on Original set of Variables in 2004 (i)  3 Stage Model Presence Stage Portals Stage Transactions Integration Stage Count Column N % Count Column N % Count Column N % Market Integration NO 2 8.7% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% YES 21 91.3% 47 100.0% 13 100.0% Internal Market Integration NO 7 30.4% 6 12.8% 1 7.7% YES 16 69.6% 41 87.2% 12 92.3% External Market Integration NO 5 21.7% 1 2.1% 0 0.0% YES 18 78.3% 46 97.9% 13 100.0%  Table 4.13 Frequency of Market Integration, Internal Market Integration, and External Market Integration based on Original set of Variables in 2012 (ii)  3 Stage Model Presence Stage Portals Stage Transactions Integration Stage Count Column N % Count Column N % Count Column N % Market Integration NO 11 20.0% 4 5.2% 0 0.0% YES 44 80.0% 73 94.8% 61 100.0% Internal Market Integration NO 17 30.9% 6 7.8% 0 0.0% YES 38 69.1% 71 92.2% 61 100.0% External Market Integration NO 17 30.9% 10 13.0% 10 16.4% YES 38 69.1% 67 87.0% 51 83.6%     63  Table 4.14 and Table 4.15 show the results of descriptive statistics of market integration, internal market integration and external market integration using original set of variables in 2004 and 2012 respectively. In 2004, wineries in the Portals Stage had more market integration features on their websites than those in the Presence and the Transactions Integration stage. The same pattern remained true in 2012 as well.  Table 4.14 Descriptive Statistics of Market Integration, Internal Market Integration, and External Market Integration based on Original Set of Variables in 2004 (i)  3 Stage Model Presence Stage Portals Stage Transactions Integration Stage Market Integration Features Sum Mean 4 6 5 Median 3 6 6 Maximum 8 10 12 Standard Deviation 2 3 3 Internal Market Integration Features Sum Mean 1 2 2 Median 1 2 3 Maximum 4 5 5 Standard Deviation 1 1 1 External Market Integration Features Sum Mean 2 3 3 Median 2 4 2 Maximum 6 7 7 Standard Deviation 2 2 2           64  Table 4.15 Descriptive Statistics of Market Integration, Internal Market Integration, and External Market Integration based on Original Set of Variables in 2012 (ii) 4.3 Testing of Hypothesis The hypothesis proposed in this research is: H1: market integration features increase in use across the three website stages. In this section, descriptive statistics of market integration using the new set of variables on 2012 dataset has been presented. Next, multinomial logistic regression has been used to assess whether the presence of market integration across the three website stages is statistically significant. The regression has been conducted on 2012 data using the new set of variables.    3 Stage Model Presence Stage Portals Stage Transactions Integration Stage Market Integration Features Sum Mean 3 5 4 Median 3 4 4 Maximum 7 10 10 Standard Deviation 2 2 2 Internal Market Integration Features Sum Mean 2 3 3 Median 2 3 3 Maximum 5 5 5 Standard Deviation 1 1 1 External Market Integration Features Sum Mean 1 2 2 Median 1 2 2 Maximum 6 6 6 Standard Deviation 1 1 1     65  4.3.1 Descriptive Statistics of Market Integration on New Set of Variables in 2012  Table 4.16 shows the descriptive statistics of market integration features based on new set of variables in 2012 dataset. Wineries in the Portals stage had more internal and external market integration features on their websites than those in the Presence stage. However, for wineries in the Transactions Integration stage, the usage of Internal and external market integration features did not show an increase from the Portal?s stage. In essence, the table exhibits that the average of market integration features increases from the Presence stage to the Portals stage, but remains the same between the Portals stage and the Transactions Integration stage.   Table 4.16 Descriptive Statistics of Market Integration, Internal Market Integration, and External Market Integration on New Set of Variables in 2012     3 Stage Model Presence Stage Portals Stage Transactions Integration Stage Market Integration Features Sum Mean 3 5 5 Median 4 5 4 Maximum 7 10 10 Standard Deviation 2 2 2 Internal Market Integration Features Sum Mean 2 3 3 Median 2 3 3 Maximum 5 6 6 Standard Deviation 2 1 1 External Market Integration Features Sum Mean 1 2 2 Median 1 2 2 Maximum 6 6 6 Standard Deviation 1 1 1     66  4.3.2 Multinomial Logistic Regression on New Set of Variables in 2012 Multinomial logistic regression has been performed to test the significance of market integration features across the three website stages. The regression has been conducted on data collected in 2012 using the new set of variables (55 variables).   The Website Stage is the dependent variable and it includes three stages: the Presence stage, the Portals stage, and the Transactions Integration stage. As it is a categorical variable with more than two categories, multinomial logistic regression has been chosen over other regression methods to analyze the data. The Presence stage has been used as the reference group for the analysis. Four quantitative variables have been used as independent variables: Sum of market integration features (MI_SUM), Sum of marketing function features (mfeatsum), Sum of technological functions features (tech_sum), and Sum of legal and social awareness features (legalsum). Results of multinomial logistic regression conducted on the new set of variables in 2012 dataset have been reported in the following section: Table 4.17 shows that the independent variables significantly (x2[54] =116.1, p<.001) predicted the website stage. Therefore, the ?Intercept Only? model (Null model) can be rejected. The table also shows that the ?Final? model (four quantitative predictors? model) has given better predictions compared to the Null model. Table 4.18 presents that the four quantitative predictors? model provided better accuracy for the Presence stage, the Portals stage and the Transactions Integration stage compared to the Null model. In sum, Table 4.17 exhibits that the ?Final? model is outperforming the ?Intercept Only? model. Therefore, this is a good model to predict all three of the website stages.       67   Table 4.17 Regression - Model Fitting Information of New Set of Variables in 2012 Model Model Fitting Criteria Likelihood Ratio Tests -2 Log Likelihood Chi-Square df Sig. Intercept Only 390.090    Final 274.015 116.075 54 .000   Table 4.18 Regression - 3 Stages Classification of New Set of Variables in 2012 Observed Predicted Presence Stage Portals Stage Transactions Integration Stage Percent Correct Presence Stage 32 17 6 58.2% Portals Stage 13 47 17 61.0% Transactions Integration Stage 7 21 33 54.1% Overall Percentage 26.9% 44.0% 29.0% 58.0%  Table 4.19 exhibits that 51% of variation in the dependent variable can be explained by the proposed model with the four independent variables.   Table 4.19 Regression - Pseudo R- Square of New Set of Variables in 2012 Cox and Snell .452 Nagelkerke .510 McFadden .276        68  In Table 4.20, the Likelihood ratio test indicates the contribution of independent variables on the model. For instance, market integration features (MI_SUM) and technological functions features (tech_sum) have significant contribution (p<.05) on the model. Marketing ffeatures (mfeatsum) has marginal effects (p=.073 <.1) on the model.   Table 4.20 Regression - Likelihood Ratio Tests of New Set of Variables in 2012 Effect Model Fitting Criteria Likelihood Ratio Tests -2 Log Likelihood of Reduced Model Chi-Square df Sig. Intercept 274.015a .000 0 . MI_SUM 310.601 36.587 20 .013 mfeatsum 303.850 29.836 20 .073 tech_sum 292.450 18.436 8 .018 legalsum 282.937 8.922 6 .178  The chi-square statistic is the difference in -2 log-likelihoods between the final model and a reduced model. The reduced model is formed by omitting an effect from the final model. The null hypothesis is that all parameters of that effect are 0.  4.3.3 One-Way ANOVA of Market Integration on Website Stages Table 4.21 shows the means of market integration features in the Presence, the Portals, and the Transactions Integration stages are 3.15, 4.75, and 4.62 respectively. In Table 4.22, the ANOVA omnibus F-test (F = 9.6, p < .001) illustrates a significant mean difference in terms of market integration across the three website stages. The t-test results in Table 4.23 indicate a statistically significant difference (p<.001) on the number of market integration features between the Presence and the Portal stages, as well as the difference (p<=.001) between the Presence and     69  Transactions Integration stage. However, there is no difference between the Portals and the Transactions Integration stage. Table 4.21 Descriptive Statistics of Market Integration on Winery Website Stages    Table 4.22 Market Integration One-Way ANOVA: Website Stages  Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 95.084 2 47.542 9.594 .000 Within Groups 941.476 190 4.955   Total 1036.560 192                     N Mean Std. Deviation Presence Stage 55 3.15 2.264 Portals Stage 77 4.75 2.097 Transactions Integration Stage 61 4.62 2.346 Total 193 4.25 2.324     70  Table 4.23 Market Integration T-test: Website Stages  (I) 3 Stage Model (J) 3 Stage Model Mean Difference (I-J) Std. Error Sig. 95% Confidence Interval  Lower Bound Upper Bound Bonferroni Presence Stage Portals Stage -1.608* .393 .000 -2.56 -.66 Transactions Integration Stage -1.477* .414 .001 -2.48 -.48 Portals Stage Presence Stage 1.608* .393 .000 .66 2.56 Transactions Integration Stage .130 .382 1.000 -.79 1.05 Transactions Integration Stage Presence Stage 1.477* .414 .001 .48 2.48 Portals Stage -.130 .382 1.000 -1.05 .79 *. The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level.                        71  From the results presented above, it can be seen that market integration increases from the basic stage to the advanced stages, and it remains the same in the advanced stages. Therefore, H1 is partially supported and it is presented in figure 4.6. Figure 4.6 shows that market integration features increase from the Presence stage to the Portals and the Transactions Integration stage, and remain the same in the Portals and the Transactions Integration stage.   Figure 4.6 Market Integration features increase from basic stage to advanced stages, but remain the same in the advanced stages  4.4 Winery Website Existence: New, Existing, and Disappeared A new dataset was created by merging the 2004 dataset and 2012 dataset in order to report the existence of the winery websites. As mentioned in a previous section, the existence of the winery websites includes three types of websites: New, Existing and Disappeared21. In this section, one-way ANOVA and t-test have been performed in order to test the impact of the market integration features in the existence of the winery websites.                                                   21 In the new dataset, the variables has been denoted as EXISTENCE for the Existence category, NEW for the New wineries? websites, EXISTING for the Existing wineries? websites and DISAPPEARED for the Disappeared wineries? websites. Indirect Transactions Integration Stage Presence Stage Market Integration = Internal + External Portals Stage Direct     72  4.4.1 One-Way ANOVA and T-Test on Winery Website Existence    Table 4.24 shows the means of market integration features in the New, Existing and Disappeared winery websites are 3.93, 4.94 and 4.24 respectively. In Table 4.25, the ANOVA omnibus F-test (F = 4.056, p<.05) shows a significant mean difference among the three winery website groups. The t-test results in Table 4.26 show a statistically significant difference (p<.05) between NEW and EXISTING websites in terms of market integration. However, there is no difference (p>.05) between DISAPPEARED and NEW, as well as DISAPPEARED and EXISTING websites. The reason could be the small sample size of the disappeared wineries.  Table 4.24 Descriptive Statistics of Market Integration on Winery Website Existence  N Mean Std. Deviation NEW 131 3.93 2.223 EXISTING 62 4.94 2.401 DISAPPEARED 21 4.24 2.343 Total 214 4.25 2.320   Table 4.25 Market Integration One-Way ANOVA: NEW vs. EXISTING vs. DISAPPEARED  Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 42.441 2 21.220 4.056 .019 Within Groups 1103.933 211 5.232   Total 1146.374 213            73  Table 4.26 Market Integration T-Test: NEW vs. EXISTING vs. DISAPPEARED  (I) Winery Existence (J) Winery Existence Mean Difference (I-J) Std. Error Sig. 95% Confidence Interval  Lower Bound Upper Bound Bonferroni NEW EXISTING -1.004* .353 .015 -1.86 -.15 DISAPPEARED -.307 .538 1.000 -1.60 .99 EXISTING NEW 1.004* .353 .015 .15 1.86 DISAPPEARED .697 .578 .686 -.70 2.09  DISAPPEARED NEW .307 .538 1.000 -.99 1.60 EXISTING -.697 .578 .686 -2.09 .70 *. The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level.   Table 4.27 shows the average number of internal market integration features in the New, Existing and Disappeared winery websites are 2.18, 3.10 and 1.48 respectively. In Table 4.28, the ANOVA omnibus F-test (F = 13.894, p<.001) shows a significant mean difference among the three website stages. The t-test results in Table 4.29 show a statistically significant difference (p<.001) between NEW and EXISTING websites. Also, there is a statistically significant difference (p<.001) between EXISTING and DISAPPEARED websites in terms of internal market integration. However, there is no difference (p>.05) between NEW and DISAPPEARED websites.          74  Table 4.27 Descriptive Statistics of Internal Market Integration on Winery Website Existence  N Mean Std. Deviation NEW 131 2.18 1.373 EXISTING 62 3.10 1.468 DISAPPEARED 21 1.48 1.365 Total 214 2.37 1.482   Table 4.28 Internal Market Integration One-Way ANOVA: NEW vs. EXISTING vs. DISAPPEARED  Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 54.474 2 27.237 13.894 .000 Within Groups 413.619 211 1.960   Total 468.093 213      Table 4.29 Internal Market Integration T-Test: NEW vs. EXISTING vs. DISAPPEARED  (I) Winery Existence (J) Winery Existence Mean Difference (I-J) Std. Error Sig. 95% Confidence Interval  Lower Bound Upper Bound Bonferroni NEW EXISTING -.921* .216 .000 -1.44 -.40 DISAPPEARED .699 .329 .104 -.09 1.49 EXISTING NEW .921* .216 .000 .40 1.44 DISAPPEARED 1.621* .354 .000 .77 2.47 DISAPPEARED NEW -.699 .329 .104 -1.49 .09 EXISTING -1.621* .354 .000 -2.47 -.77 *. The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level.      75  Table 4.30 shows the average number of external market integration features on the wineries? websites under the New, Existing and Disappeared categories are 1.76, 1.84 and 2.76 respectively. In Table 4.31, the ANOVA omnibus F-test (F = 4.176, p<.05) shows a significant mean difference among the three website stages. The t-test results in Table 4.32 show a statistically significant difference (p<.05) between NEW and DISAPPEARED websites in terms of external market integration. Also, there is a statistically significant difference (p<.05) between EXISTING and DISAPEARED websites. However, there is no difference (p>.05) between NEW and EXISTING websites in terms of external market integration.  Table 4.30 Descriptive Statistics of External Market Integration on Winery Website Existence  N Mean Std. Deviation NEW 131 1.76 1.404 EXISTING 62 1.84 1.462 DISAPPEARED 21 2.76 1.998 Total 214 1.88 1.509   Table 4.31 External Market Integration One-Way ANOVA: NEW vs. EXISTING vs. DISAPPEARED   Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups  18.461 2 9.231 4.176 .017 Within Groups  466.380 211 2.210   Total  484.841 213          76  Table 4.32 External Market Integration T-test: NEW vs. EXISTING vs. DISAPPEARED  (I) Winery Existence (J) Winery Existence Mean Difference (I-J) Std. Error Sig. 95% Confidence Interval  Lower Bound Upper Bound Bonferroni NEW EXISTING -.083 .229 1.000 -.64 .47 DISAPPEARED -1.006* .349 .013 -1.85 -.16 EXISTING NEW .083 .229 1.000 -.47 .64 DISAPPEARED -.923* .375 .044 -1.83 -.02 DISAPPEARED NEW 1.006* .349 .013 .16 1.85 EXISTING .923* .375 .044 .02 1.83 *. The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level 4.5 Other Variables This section shows the descriptive statistics of other variables such as marketing function features, technological function features and legal and social awareness features across the three website sages using the new set of variables in 2012 dataset. As mentioned in the fourth step of the research method, ratio scales were created for each of these variables. These ratio scales aid in performing t-test, in order to show the difference among the stages in terms of these variables.  4.5.1 Marketing Function Features (13 items) Marketing function features are website features that were exclusively used for marketing purpose such as customer care features, advertising features etc., for instance, press release, tasting notes/ recipes, events etc. Thirteen content features (see Table 3.3) were used for evaluating marketing function of wineries? websites, thus a 14-point ratio scale (0 to 13) was     77  created for marketing function features.  In this sections, descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA and t-test have been performed on marketing function features. 4.5.1.1 Descriptive Statistics of Marketing Function Features The frequency of marketing function features are presented in Table 4.33. Table 4.33 shows that most of the marketing features increased across the website stages. For instance, the proportion of wineries having Newsletters feature increased from 14.5% in the Presence stage to 36.4% in the Portals stage and further to 42.6% in the Transactions Integration stage. Another good example is the social media feature. 45.9% wineries? websites in the Transactions Integration stage had it, followed by the Portals stage at 39% and the Presence stage at 12.7%. In essence, Table 4.33 illustrates that the presence of marketing function features increased as the website stage advanced.   Table 4.33 Frequency of Marketing Function Features  3 Stage Model Presence Stage Portals Stage Transactions Integration Stage Count Column N % Count Column N % Count Column N % Tasting Notes/Recipes NO 27 49.1% 18 23.4% 17 27.9% YES 28 50.9% 59 76.6% 44 72.1% Newsletters  NO 47 85.5% 49 63.6% 35 57.4% YES 8 14.5% 28 36.4% 26 42.6% Press Release NO 46 83.6% 54 70.1% 32 52.5% YES 9 16.4% 23 29.9% 29 47.5% Events  NO 39 70.9% 34 44.2% 29 47.5% YES 16 29.1% 43 55.8% 32 52.5% Toll-Free  NO 46 83.6% 62 80.5% 48 78.7%     78  YES 9 16.4% 15 19.5% 13 21.3% Open Hours  NO 18 32.7% 27 35.1% 13 21.3% YES 1 1.8% 1 1.3% 0 0.0% YES, Daily Open 8 14.5% 18 23.4% 7 11.5% YES, Seasonal  19 34.5% 22 28.6% 24 39.3% YES, Year Around  9 16.4% 9 11.7% 17 27.9% Customized Wine Label  NO 53 96.4% 76 98.7% 58 95.1% YES 2 3.6% 1 1.3% 3 4.9% Awards  NO 38 69.1% 40 51.9% 29 47.5% YES 17 30.9% 37 48.1% 32 52.5% Maps  NO 25 45.5% 24 31.2% 19 31.1% YES 30 54.5% 53 68.8% 42 68.9% Art Exhibitions NO 51 92.7% 66 85.7% 56 91.8% YES 4 7.3% 11 14.3% 5 8.2% Account Membership  NO 50 90.9% 72 93.5% 50 82.0% YES 5 9.1% 5 6.5% 11 18.0% Social Media  NO 37 67.3% 32 41.6% 20 32.8% YES, Facebook 7 12.7% 10 13.0% 6 9.8% YES, Twitter 3 5.5% 3 3.9% 4 6.6% YES, Facebook & Twitter 7 12.7% 30 39.0% 28 45.9% YES, several social media 1 1.8% 1 1.3% 1 1.6% YES, share options 0 0.0% 1 1.3% 2 3.3% Blogs NO 47 85.5% 66 85.7% 53 86.9% YES 8 14.5% 11 14.3% 8 13.1%           79  4.5.1.2 One-Way ANOVA and T-Test of Marketing Function Features  One-way ANOVA and t-test have been performed in order to find out the difference in use of Marketing Function features across the website stages. Table 4.34 shows the means of marketing function features of wineries? websites in the Presence, the Portals and the Transactions Integration stage are 3.47, 4.95 and 5.48 respectively. In Table 4.35, the ANOVA omnibus F-test (F = 13.163, p<.001) shows a significant mean difference among the three website stages. The t-test results in Table 4.36 show that there is a significant difference between the Presence and the Portals stage (p<.001) as well as between the Presence and the Transactions Integration stage (p<.001). However, the difference between the Portals and the Transactions Integration stage is not significant.   Table 4.34 Marketing Function Group Statistics: Presence vs. Portals vs. Transactions Integration 3 Stage Model Mean Std. Deviation N Presence Stage 3.47 2.332 55 Portals Stage 4.95 2.241 77 Transactions Integration Stage 5.48 1.920 61 Total 4.69 2.306 193   Table 4.35 Marketing Function One-Way ANOVA: Presence vs. Portals vs. Transactions Integration  Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 124.249 2 62.125 13.163 .000 Within Groups 896.714 190 4.720   Total 1020.964 192          80  Table 4.36 Marketing Function T-Test: Presence vs. Portals vs. Transactions Integration (I) 3 Stage Model (J) 3 Stage Model Mean Difference (I-J) Std. Error Sig. 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound Upper Bound Presence Stage Portals Stage -1.48* .384 .000 -2.40 -.55 Transactions Integration Stage -2.00* .404 .000 -2.98 -1.03 Portals Stage Presence Stage 1.48* .384 .000 .55 2.40 Transactions Integration Stage -.53 .372 .475 -1.43 .37 Transactions Integration Stage Presence Stage 2.00* .404 .000 1.03 2.98 Portals Stage .53 .372 .475 -.37 1.43 Based on observed means.  The error term is Mean Square(Error) = 4.720. *. The mean difference is significant at the .05 level.  4.5.2 Technological Function Features (6 items) Technological function features refer to web features that reflect the technology adoption of the websites, for instance, video uploads on websites, animation, background music etc. Six content features were used for evaluating technological function of a winery?s website, thus, a 7-point ratio scale (0 to 6) was created for this variable. Descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA and t-test have been performed on the technological functions features in the following section. 4.5.2.1 Descriptive Statistics of Technological Function Features Table 4.37 shows that most of the technological function features increased across the website stages, for instance, Background music increased from 1.8% in the Presence stage to 3.9% in the Portals stage to 6.6% in the Transactions Integration stage. Also, Animation is the highest with 49.2% in the Transactions Integration stage, followed by the Portals stage at 36.4%     81  and the Presence stage at 21.8%. Overall, the table shows that most of the technological features increased as the website stage advanced.  Table 4.37 Frequency of Technological Function Features  3 Stage Model Presence Stage Portals Stage Transactions Integration Stage Count Column N % Count Column N% Count Column N % Photo Album/Gallery NO 40 72.7% 38 49.4% 33 54.1% YES 15 27.3% 39 50.6% 28 45.9% Virtual Tour  NO 55 100.0% 74 96.1% 57 93.4% YES 0 0.0% 3 3.9% 4 6.6% Background Music  NO 54 98.2% 74 96.1% 57 93.4% YES 1 1.8% 3 3.9% 4 6.6% Online Visitor Counter  NO 55 100.0% 77 100.0% 61 100.0% YES 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% Animation  NO 43 78.2% 49 63.6% 31 50.8% YES 12 21.8% 28 36.4% 30 49.2% Videos/YouTube links NO 54 98.2% 60 77.9% 47 77.0% YES 1 1.8% 17 22.1% 14 23.0%   4.5.2.2 One-Way ANOVA and T-Test of Technological Function Features Table 4.38 shows the means of technological function features used by wineries in the Presence, the Portals and the Transactions Integration stage are 0.53, 1.17 and 1.31 respectively. In Table 4.39, the ANOVA omnibus F-test (F = 11.885, p<.001) shows a significant mean difference among the three website stages. The t-test results in Table 4.40 show that there is a significant difference between the Presence and the Portals stage (p<.001) as well as between the Presence and the Transactions Integration stage (p<.001). However, there is no difference     82  between the Portals and the Transactions Integration stage in terms of technological function features.  Table 4.38 Technological Function Group Statistics: Presence vs. Portals vs. Transactions Integration   Table 4.39 Technological Functions One-Way ANOVA: Presence vs. Portals vs. Transactions Integration  Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 20.217  2 10.109 11.885 .000 Within Groups 161.596 190 .851   Total 181.813 192      Table 4.40 Technological Functions T-Test: Presence vs. Portals vs. Transactions Integration (I) 3 Stage Model (J) 3 Stage Model Mean Difference (I-J) Std. Error Sig. 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound Upper Bound Presence Stage Portals Stage -.64* .163 .000 -1.03 -.25 Transactions Integration Stage -.78* .171 .000 -1.20 -.37 Portals Stage Presence Stage .64* .163 .000 .25 1.03 Transactions Integration Stage -.14 .158 1.000 -.52 .24 Transactions Integration Stage Presence Stage .78* .171 .000 .37 1.20 Portals Stage .14 .158 1.000 -.24 .52 Based on observed means.  The error term is Mean Square(Error) = .851. *. The mean difference is significant at the .05 level. 3 Stage Model Mean Std. Deviation N Presence Stage .53 .634 55 Portals Stage 1.17 1.018 77 Transactions Integration Stage 1.31 1.009 61 Total 1.03 .973 193     83  4.5.3 Legal and Social Awareness (3 items) Legal and social awareness features include the web contents that are concerned with legal issues like copyright, privacy and legal statements. Three content features were used to assess the legal and social awareness of a winery?s website, thus, a 4-point ratio scale (0 to 3) was created for this variable. Descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA and t-test have been performed on the legal and social awareness features in the following section. 4.5.3.1 Descriptive Statistics of Legal and Social Awareness Features Table 4.41 shows that most of the legal and social awareness features increased in use by wineries across the website stages. For instance, privacy statements feature is 29.5% in the Transactions Integration stage, followed by the Portals stage at 14.3% and the Presence stage at 5.5%.  In sum, the table shows that most of the legal and social awareness features increased across the website stages.   Table 4.41 Frequency of Legal and Social Awareness Features  3 Stage Model Presence Stage Portals Stage Transactions Integration Stage Count Column N % Count Column N % Count Column N % Legal Notice NO 55 100.0% 75 97.4% 59 96.7% YES 0 0.0% 2 2.6% 2 3.3% Copyright Statement NO 35 63.6% 24 31.2% 25 41.0% YES 20 36.4% 53 68.8% 36 59.0% Privacy Statement NO 52 94.5% 66 85.7% 43 70.5% YES 3 5.5% 11 14.3% 18 29.5%      84  4.5.3.2 One-Way ANOVA and T-Test of Legal and Social Awareness Features Table 4.42 shows the means of the legal and social awareness features on wineries? websites under the Presence, the Portals and the Transactions Integration stage are 0.42, 0.86 and 0.92 respectively. In Table 4.43, the ANOVA omnibus F-test (F = 9.204, p<.001) shows a significant mean difference among the three website stages. The t-test results in Table 4.44 show that there is a significant difference (p<.05) between the Presence and the Portals stage as well as between the Presence and the Transactions Integration stage (p < .001). However, there is no difference (p>.05) between the Portals and the Transactions Integration stage in terms of the legal and social awareness features.    Table 4.42 Legal and Social Awareness Group Statistics: Presence vs. Portals vs. Transactions Integration 3 Stage Model Mean Std. Deviation N Presence Stage .42 .567 55 Portals Stage .86 .720 77 Transactions Integration Stage .92 .737 61 Total .75 .715 193    Table 4.43 Legal and Social Awareness One-Way ANOVA: Presence vs. Portals vs. Transactions Integration  Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 8.662 2 4.331 9.204 .000 Within Groups 89.401 190 .471   Total 98.062 192           85  Table 4.44 Legal and Social Awareness T-Test: Presence vs. Portals vs. Transactions Integration (I) 3 Stage Model (J) 3 Stage Model Mean Difference (I-J) Std. Error Sig.   95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound Upper Bound Presence Stage Portals Stage -.44* .121 .001 -.73 -.15 Transactions Integration Stage -.50* .128 .000 -.81 -.19 Portals Stage Presence Stage .44* .121 .001 .15 .73 Transactions Integration Stage -.06 .118 1.000 -.34 .22 Transactions Integration Stage Presence Stage .50* .128 .000 .19 .81 Portals Stage .06 .118 1.000 -.22 .34 Based on observed means.  The error term is Mean Square(Error) = .471. *. The mean difference is significant at the .05 level.                  86  5 Discussion  This research focuses on the marketing perspective of the B.C. winery websites. It involves some variables which directly represent the marketing side of the websites, such as market integration (which included six internal market integration features and eight external market integration features) and marketing function features (which included thirteen marketing features), and technological function features such as videos, animation etc.  The results of my analysis show that the hypothesis (H1: market integration features increases across the website stages) is partially supported. As hypothesized, the results show that market integration features increase from the basic stage to the advanced stages; however, these features remain the same in the advanced stages. Thus, market integration features increases from the basic stage, the Presence stage, to the advanced stages, the Portals stage and the Transactions Integration stage; but remain the same in the advanced stages: the Portals stage and the Transactions Integration stage (71.5% of the winery websites in 2012).  A possible reason for this result could be that in the past eight years, winery websites became more familiar with market integration features; thus most of the wineries in the advanced stage adopted these features on their websites.  This study involves a comparison of overall trends in the B.C. winery websites from 2004 to 2012. There were only 83 winery websites in B.C. in 2004, whereas in 2012, there were 193 winery websites. In 2004, 27.7% of the studied websites were classified in the Presence stage, while 56.6% of them were in the Portals stage and 15.7% in the Transactions Integration stage. In 2012, 28.5% of the winery websites were classified in the Presence stage, 39.9% of them in the Portals stage and 31.6% were in the Transactions integration stage. These results show that     87  the percentage of winery websites in the Presence stage in 2012 (28.5%) was quite close to the 2004 percentage (27.7%). However, the percentage of websites in the Portals stage decreased in 2012 compared to 2004 (39.9% and 56.6% respectively), while the percentage of websites in the Transactions Integration stage has increased from 15.7% in 2004 to 31.6% in 2012.   The Transactions Integration stage was classified into two groups: Indirect Transactions and Direct Transactions. As mentioned in Chapter 3, the term Indirect Transactions refers to websites that involves third parties in the completion of online transactions, whereas Direct Transactions refers to completing transactions on websites via credit cards. In 2004, 4.8% websites were in the Indirect Transactions stage and 10.8% were in the Direct Transactions stage. However, in 2012, there was only 1% of websites were in the Indirect Transactions stage and 30.6% in the Direct Transactions stage. The results show that there is an increasing tendency to use sophisticated technology for online transactions among winery websites. Wineries prefer to invest in advanced technology instead of outsourcing to a third party to complete online transactions.  This research findings show that the external market integration features decreased in the winery websites in 2012 compared to 2004. External market integration refers to a winery?s activities with other organizations (i.e. tour agencies, associations etc.) other than selling wines. A study conducted on British Columbia wine industry (Hira and Bwenge (2011) also reported there was limited collaboration among the local businesses and institutions. Wineries should take this into account in order to expand their business which in turn could help them gain a strong customer base.      88  This study also identifies the winery websites? existence from 2004 to 2012. As mentioned in previous chapters, this research combined the 2004 dataset (only the British Columbia province) (Zhu, 2005) with the 2012 dataset in order to identify (i) new winery websites launched after 2004, (ii) winery websites operating since 2004, and (iii) winery websites operated in 2004 but currently out of operation. The results show that one hundred and thirty one winery websites were classified as ?New? websites, sixty-two websites were considered as ?Existing? websites and only twenty-one websites were identified as ?Disappeared? websites out of the two hundred and fourteen winery websites in British Columbia. The results show that the Existing winery websites had the highest number of market integration features. One of the explanations could be these Existing winery websites became more developed over time and they employed more market integration features than the other two groups. Also, another reason is that many of the winery websites were still New websites in 2012 and had not employed market integration features.  In addition, this research identified Marketing Function features, Technological Function features, and Legal and Social Awareness features on the B.C. wineries? websites in 2012. The results show that all these features increased in the Portals stage compared to the Presence stage. However, all of these features remained the same in the Portals stage and the Transactions Integration stage.        89  5.1 Institutional Pressure and Competitive Pressure versus E-Business Adoption  This research exposes the extent of e-commerce adoption in the B.C. wine industry. This study shows that 193 out of 259 B.C. wineries (74.5%) engaged in e-business in 2012, whereas in 2004, 61.5% B.C. wineries (83 out of 135) were using e-commerce. This research further shows that e-commerce adoption increased in the wine industry by 13% in eight years. However, wineries that do not engage in e-commerce activities must have the resources required to adopt e-commerce. As mentioned in Chapter 1, most of the wineries are SMEs; therefore, it is difficult for them to adopt e-commerce. The following factors play important roles in e-commerce adoption: organizational e-readiness, government support, competitive pressure etc. (Ifinedo, 2011). Organizational e-readiness acts as one of the crucial factors for SMEs for e-business adoption (Tan, Tyler, & Manica, 2007). Other important factors include the organization?s resource availability (such as financial resources, human resources, and technological resources) (Raymond, 2001).  Wineries with no e-commerce activities face increasing external pressure, such as institutional and competitive pressure. The result shows that only 28.5% of wineries are in the Presence stage and the rest of the wineries are in the advanced stages. Apart from domestic competition, wineries also face increasing competition from international competitors, particularly from the United States. The external pressure makes it more challenging to adopt e-commerce. This research, therefore, will help the wineries adopt e-commerce by providing a step-by-step industry specific winery website model. This allows wineries to understand the trend of winery website features and make e-business adoption decisions based on their level of capability.      90  5.2 Contribution My research contributes to the field of marketing and e-commerce in the wine industry in many ways. First of all, this longitudinal study identifies the changes in the wineries? websites that took place over the eight-year time span. It will help researchers to observe the differences in the industry?s website structure and content between 2004 and 2012. Second, this research identifies industry specific website contents for the wine industry. There are limited studies on wine industry websites and this study will contribute to the theoretical understanding of the unique characteristics of the wine industry. The findings will also have practical implications by providing an opportunity to winery owners (both SMEs and large) and marketers to understand how to create competitive advantages through online market integration. In addition, this study will contribute to the understanding of managers of wineries? e-commerce activities.  This research focuses on the wineries in B.C. The findings show the wineries? present status within the context of the website stage model and market integration functions. These results will enable wineries  to identify which website stage they belong to and what website features can be included to reap the full potential of being in that particular stage. Apart from identifying their current website stages, wineries could also benefit from this research by obtaining knowledge about the next advanced stage they can reach as well as the corresponding features of those stages. In addition, this research will allow wineries to adopt a variety of online market integration options in order to increase the sphere of their business. Furthermore, this research identifies emerging web features (charity, coupon, seminar, return/refund etc.) in the wineries? websites and future researchers might want to consider these in their studies. Between 2004 and 2012, one hundred and thirty one B.C. wineries launched their websites on the Internet. The significant growth in wineries? online presence shows the     91  importance of e-commerce in the wine industry in B.C. and Canada. The e-commerce adoption by the wineries was mostly in the preliminary stage in 2004 and the number of wineries was small for coming to a conclusion about the entire B.C. wine industry. However, after eight years, many wineries have entered a matured website state and the number of websites has increased as well. This study, therefore, demonstrates the current trends prevalent in a relatively higher number of winery websites in 2012. In addition, this study found that quite a large percentage of B.C. wineries, 25.5%, have not yet adopted e-commerce. This study might help these wineries to adopt e-commerce and reap the full potential of their websites.  More broadly, my research provides an overarching picture of the website stages of wineries and shows evidence of the sophistication of the information technology adopted by the wine industry. In addition, this study identified the existence and significance of any new features on the wineries? websites; thus it can be expected to encourage wineries to discover new and innovative market integration features. My findings might assist wine institutions like BCWI in marketing B.C. wines in a more effective way, thus helping the industry   gain recognition both at the domestic and international levels.  In addition, policy makers could use this research to encourage cluster networks in the wine industry and other relevant industries. Furthermore, in order to increase online sales, policy makers could modify the interprovincial shipping law and help the industry expand. Also, a decrease in tax on the wines could help the industry to obtain more online sales. Last but not least, policy makers should support wineries that could not yet adopt e-commerce in their business due to lack of resource capability.      92  This research could also help other industries to collaborate with wineries, especially industries specific to experiential in nature; such as tourism, restaurant etc. These industries could benefit from this research as they can directly integrate their business with the wine industry, which in turn will help them to gain a completely new customer base.  Finally, B.C. wineries should be able to readily exploit this study in implementing a sophisticated industry specific website model, which will help them to thrive in the highly competitive wine industry, collaborate with other industries, and expand their market in order to realize their potential by applying the market integration strategy. 5.3 Limitations One of the limitations of this study is not testing the variables in the entire Website Stage Model introduced by Rao et al. (2003). The model had four stages and the previous study on the Canadian wine industry (Zhu, 2005) identified only twelve wineries? websites in the fourth stage (the Enterprises Integration stage). As this research is focused on the B.C. wine industry where the majority of the wineries are relative small and new to e-commerce, this research did not include the most advanced website stage. However, due to low costs and advancements in e-commerce, there is a possibility that a few winery websites in British Columbia could be in the Enterprises Integration stage.  Also, as the number of wineries? websites increased in the eight-year time span, there could be a relatively higher number of wineries? websites in that stage.  Another limitation could be that this research used content analysis as a research method, answering the ?what? questions by identifying the features adopted by the winery websites. However, content analysis does not answer the ?why? questions which would have allowed the audience to know the reason behind adding those features in the winery websites. Future     93  research can focus on understanding why wineries adopt and/or don?t adopt content features on their websites by using qualitative methods such as interviews and surveys.  In addition, there are differences in coding the web features among researchers. All of the web features are not always coded exactly the way they are defined in the coding book but are quite close to the definition. Therefore, it could be possible for any other researcher to code a web feature in a slightly different way. However, the coding book has all the definitions of variables (web features) clearly explained and the researchers must follow the coding book as closely as possible.  Furthermore, this research only considered the data collected from the winery websites and it does not include the aesthetic look of the website. Future research can include the aesthetic aspects of the websites, in addition to the content features. For instance, future research can include a screen shot of the website design.  Last but not least, future studies can examine the effectiveness of each feature. This can be done by measuring the sales and consumer responses to each feature.            94  6 Conclusion This research focuses on a very important and emerging wine industry of B.C. with the number of wineries and the e-commerce adoption rate increasing noticeably in the past few years. Also, the e-commerce adoption rate within the B.C. wine industry has increased by 13% since 2004.This study involves a thorough search of wineries in B.C. and focuses on the wineries that engage in e-commerce, exploring the changes in winery websites in B.C. from the year 2004 to 2012. Through a longitudinal content analysis of a set of marketing features, technological features, and the contemporary trends on winery websites, this research aims to provide a better understanding of the technological status and marketing activities of B.C. wineries over time.  In this study six new variables were identified in 2012, namely, rent facility, artwork exhibitions, account membership, social media, blog, and videos. The most prominent new feature is the use of social media, such as Facebook, Twitter etc. on the winery websites. This new feature allows wineries to add a completely new arena to their business, by allowing the visitors to know about the most up-to-date information about the winery.  The research findings will allow wineries to easily assess their current website stage in terms of technological progress as well as offer them solutions to move to an advanced website stage. The results demonstrate the changes in the usage of technology and the incorporation of marketing functions in the nine-year time span.  Government agencies and wine institutes (such as the British Columbia Wine Institute) could benefit from the results by integrating the knowledge of  current Internet and website usage, the sophistication level of marketing activities, and the trends illustrated by the data of British Columbia wineries in their policy making process.     95  In conclusion, apart from demonstrating the trends of existing web features and identifying new web features in the wine industry, this research also identified a number of emerging features which are very important to improve business and create awareness in the wine market. These new features, which include charity/donation, return/refund facility, coupons, seminar/workshop on wine, and browse wine option, provide new online consumption experiences to wine consumers. As few wineries? websites included these features, this study did not include them in the analysis. 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WINERIES REGION LOCATION 1 22 Oaks Winery  Vancouver Island   2 3 Mile Estate Winery Okanagan Valley Naramata Bench 3 40 Knots Estate Winery Winery  Vancouver Island   4 8th Generation Vineyard Okanagan Valley Summerland 5 Aces Wine Group Okanagan Valley Naramata Bench 6 Adega On 45th Estate Winery Okanagan Valley Osoyoos        7 Adora Estate Winery                                                   Okanagan Valley Summerland and Peachland 8 Alderlea Vineyards Vancouver Island   9 Alto Wine Group Okanagan Valley Okanagan Falls 10 Ancient Hills Vineyards Okanagan Valley Kelowna 11 Antelope Ridge Estate Winery Okanagan Valley The Golden Mile 12 Arise Vineyards     13 Arrowleaf Cellars                                                       14 Artisan Sakemaker at Granville Island Fraser Valley   15 Avalon Cottage     16 Averill Creek Winery  Vancouver Island   17 A'Very Fine Winery    Lower Mainland  18 Baccata Ridge Winery Okanagan Valley Northern Okanagan/ Shuswap 19 Backyard Vineyard Winery Fraser Valley Fraser Valley 20 Baillie -Gorhman Estate Winery   Creston 21 Barking Dog Organic Vineyard    Victoria 22 Beaufort Vineyards Vancouver Island Courtenay 23 Beaumont Family Estate Winery Okanagan Valley The Slopes of Mount Boucherie  24 Bella Vista Vineyards                                                   25 Benchland Vineyards  Okanagan Valley   26 Bertrand Creek Farms    lindell beach 27 Black Cloud Winery Okanagan Valley Penticton 28 Black Hills Estate Winery Okanagan Valley Black Sage Road 29 Black Widow Winery Okanagan Valley Pentiction 30 Blackwood Lane Vineyards & Winery Fraser Valley Langley 31 Blasted Church Vineyards Okanagan Valley Skaha Lake 32 Blossom Winery                                                           33 Blue Grouse Vineyards & Winery Vancouver Island       105  34 Blue Heron Fruit Winery                                               Fraser Valley   35 Blue Moon Estate Winery Vancouver Island Comox Valley 36 Blue Mountain Vineyards & Cellars                                     Okanagan Valley Okanagan Falls 37 Bonaparte Bend Winery                                                 Off the Beaten Path   38 Bonitas Family Estate Winery Okanagan Valley Summerland 39 Bounty Cellars  Okanagan Valley Kelowna 40 Burrowing Owl Vineyards                                                 41 Calliope Handcrafted Wines                                              42 Calona Vineyards                                                      Okanagan Valley Kelowna 43 Carbrea Vineyard Gulf Islands   44 Carriage House Wines      45 Cassini Cellers Okanagan Valley   46 CedarCreek Estate Winery(Greata Ranch Vineyards)                           47 Chandra Estate Winery Okanagan Valley Oliver 48 Chase and Wareen Estate Winery  Vancouver Island   49 Cherry Point Vineyards                                                Vancouver Island   50 Church & State Wines Okanagan Valley Oliver 51 Clos du Soleil Winery  Okanagan Valley Similkameen Valley 52 Coastal Black Estate Winery Vancouver Island  Black Creek 53 Columbia Gardens Vineyard & Winery Off the Beaten Path Kootenay Region 54 Constantin & Vasilica Winery  Fraser Valley lindell beach 55 Cranbrook Vineyards Ltd                                                 Cranbrook 56 Crowsnest Vineyards                                                   Okanagan Valley Similkameen Valley 57 Cumberland Winery           Cumberland 58 Damali Lavender Farm Winery and B&B Vancouver Island   59 D'Angelo Estate Winery  Okanagan Valley Penticton 60 D'Asolo Vineyards                                                     Vancouver 61 De Vine Vineyards Vancouver Island   62 Deol Estate Winery  Vancouver Island Cowichan valley 63 Desert Hills Estate Winery Inc     64 Dirty Laundry Vineyards Ltd Okanagan Valley Summerland 65 Divino Estate Winery Ltd Vancouver Island Cobblehill 66 Divino's Quayside Wine Cellar      67 Domaine Combret Estate Winery  Okanagan Valley Oliver 68 Domaine de Chaberton Estate Winery  Fraser Valley   69 Domaine Renegade                                                      Nanaimo 70 Domaine Rochette Winery Vancouver Island Saanich 71 Dragonfly Hill Winery Vancouver Island Brentwood Bay     106  72 Dunham & Froese Estate Winery  Okanagan Valley Oliver 73 East Kelowna Cider Company Okanagan Valley Kelowna 74 Eauvivre Winery & Vinyards Ltd   Cawston 75 Echo Valley Vineyards                                                   76 Edge of the Earth Vineyards    Armstrong 77 Elephant Island Orchard Wines Okanagan Valley Naramata 78 Emerald Coast Vineyards Vancouver Island Port Alberny 79 Enrico Vineyard Inc Vancouver Island Mill Bay 80 Ex Nihilo Vineyards    Winfield 81 Fairview Cellars Okanagan Valley Oliver 82 Fermented Grape Winemaking Shop Ltd     83 First Estate Cellars Okanagan Valley Summerland & Peachland 84 Forbiden Fruit Winery   Cawston 85 Fort Berens Estate Winery Ltd Off the Beaten Path   86 Fort Wine Co Inc The     87 Foxtrot Winery Okanagan Valley Naramata Bench 88 Gabriola Island Winery Gulf Islands Gabriola Island 89 Ganton & Larsen Prospect Winery  Okanagan Valley   90 Garry Oakes Vineyard    Salt Spring Island 91 Gehringer Brothers Estate Winery     92 Gersighel Wineberg Okanagan Valley Oliver 93 Gillanders Wine Cellar Ltd    Surrey 94 Glenterra Vineyards Vancouver Island Vancouver Island 95 Glenugie Winery      96 Godfrey-Brownell Vineyards                                            Vancouver Island   97 Golden Beaver Winery  Okanagan Valley   98 Golden Mile Cellars      99 Granite Creek Estate Wines   Tappen 100 Gray Monk Estate Winery                                                 101 Greata Ranch Vineyards     102 Hainle Vineyards Estate Winery Okanagan Valley Peachland 103 Hawthorne Mountain Vineyards                                            104 Haywire Winery Okanagan Valley Summerland 105 Heaven's Gate Estate Winery Okanagan Valley Summerland 106 Herder Winery & Vineyards                                               107 Heron Ridge Estates Winery Off the Beaten Path Kootenay 108 Hester Creek Estate Winery                                              109 Hidden Chapel Winery Okanagan Valley Oliver 110 Hillside Estate Winery          107  111 Hollywood and Wine Estate Vineyards     Summerland 112 Honeymoon Bay Blackberry Winery  Vancouver Island Vancouver Island 113 Hornby Island Winery Gulf Islands   114 House Of Rose Winery     115 Howling Bluff Estate Wines Okanagan Valley Naramata Bench 116 Hunting Hawk Vineyards      117 Inniskillin Okanagan Vineyards Inc     118 Intigue Wines Okanagan Valley   119 Isabella Winery Fraser Valley Richmond 120 Jackson-Triggs Vintners Okanagan Valley   121 Joie Wines                                                              122 K Mountain Vineyards      123 Kalala Organic Estate Winery  Okanagan Valley Westbank 124 Kermode Wild Berry Wines  Fraser Valley   125 Kettle Valley Winery Ltd     126 Kitsilano Wine Cellar     127 Kraze Legz Vineyard & Winery     128 La Frenz Estate Winery     129 Lake Breeze Vineyards     130 Lake Valley Wines Okanagan Valley West Kelowna 131 Lang Vineyards                                                          132 Larch Hills Winery Okanagan Valley Salmon Arm 133 LaStella Winery  Okanagan Valley Osoyoos 134 Laughing Stock Vineyards Okanagan Valley Naramata Bench 135 Little Straw Vineyards Okanagan Valley Kelowna 136 Little Tribune Winery Gulf Islands Hornby Island 137 Lotusland Vineyards Fraser Valley Abbotsford 138 Lulu Island Winery Ltd Fraser Valley Richmond 139 Malahat Estate Vineyard Vancouver Island Malahat 140 Marichel Vineyard & Winery  Okanagan Valley Naramata 141 Marley Farm Winery                                                       142 Marshwood Estate Winery                                                 143 McWines the Winemakers Ltd                       North Vancouver 144 Meadow Vista Honey Wines Okanagan Valley Kelowna 145 Merridale Ciderworks Vancouver Island   146 Meyer Family Vineyards  Okanagan Valley Okanagan Falls 147 Middle Mountain Mead   GULF ISLAND 148 Millstone Estate Winery Vancouver Island Vancouver Island 149 Misconduct Wine Company  Okanagan Valley Pentiction 150 Mission Hill Family Estate Winery  Okanagan Valley West Kelowna     108  151 Mistaken Identity Vineyards Ltd Gulf Islands Salt Spring Island 152 Mistral Estate Winery                                                   153 Montagu Cellars Winery      154 MooBerry Winery Vancouver Island Vancouver Island 155 Moon Curser Vineyards Okanagan Valley Osoyoos 156 Morning Bay Vineyard  Gulf Islands near vancouver 157 Mount Boucherie Estate Winery Okanagan Valley Kelowna 158 Mt Lehman Winery Fraser Valley Abbotsford 159 MT St Michael Winery Vancouver Island   160 Muse Winery Vancouver Island North Saanich 161 Neck Of The Woods Winery Fraser Valley   162 Newton Ridge Vineyards                                                  163 Niche Wine Co Okanagan Valley Kelowna 164 Nichol Vineyard and Esate Winery Okanagan Valley Naramata 165 Nk'Mip Cellars Okanagan Valley Osoyoos 166 Noble Ridge Winery                       Okanagan Valley Okanagan Falls 167 Okanagan Crush Pad Winery Okanagan Valley Summerland 168 Okanagan Villa Estate Okanagan Valley Kelowna 169 Oliver Twist Estate Winery Okanagan Valley Oliver 170 Orchard Hill Estate Cidery  Okanagan Valley Osoyoos 171 Orofino Vineyards                                                         172 Osoyoos Larose Estate Winery  Okanagan Valley Osoyoos 173 Ovino Winery Okanagan Valley Salmon Arm 174 Pacific Breeze Winery Fraser Valley Vancouver 175 Painted Rock Estate Winery Ltd Okanagan Valley Pentiction 176 Paradise Ranch Wines Corp.    Vancouver 177 Peller Estates Winery      178 Pemberton Valley Vineyards  Off the Beaten Path near whistler 179 Pent?ge Winery Okanagan Valley Pentiction 180 Pinot Reach Cellars                                                   Okanagan Valley Kelowna 181 Poplar Grove Winery Okanagan Valley Pentiction 182 Prpich Vineyards Okanagan Valley Okanagan Falls 183 Quails' Gate Estate Winery Okanagan Valley   184 Quinta Ferreira Estate Winery Okanagan Valley Oliver 185 Raven Ridge Cidery Inc                                                  186 Recline Ridge Vineyards & Winery Ltd     187 Red Rooster Winery Okanagan Valley Pentiction 188 Rivers Bend Winery     189 Road 13 Vineyards  Okanagan Valley Oliver 190 Robin Ridge Winery   Keremeos     109  191 Rocky Creek Winery Vancouver Island Cowichan Bay 192 Rollingdale Winery Inc Okanagan Valley Kelowna 193 Ruby Tuesday Winery Okanagan Valley Pentiction 194 Rustic Roots Winery   Cawston 195 Rustico Farm & Cellars Okanagan Valley South Okanagan 196 Salt Spring Vineyard                                                  Fraser Valley   197 Sandhill Wines                                                          198 Sanduz Estate Wines Inc Fraser Valley Richmond 199 Saturna Island Vineyards Gulf Islands   200 Scherzinger Vineyards Cottage Winery     201 Sea Cider     202 See Ya Later Ranch     203 Seven Stones Winery      204 Silk Scarf Winery  Okanagan Valley Summerland 205 Silver Sage Winery Okanagan Valley Oliver 206 Silverside Farm & Winery Vancouver Island Cobblehill 207 Skimmerhorn Winery & Vineyard Ltd Off the Beaten Path Creston 208 Slamka Cellars Okanagan Valley Kelowna 209 Sleeping Giant Fruit Winery  Okanagan Valley Summerland 210 Soaring Eagle Estate Winery Okanagan Valley Penticton, naramata road 211 Sonoran Estate Winery                                                     212 South Island Wines  Vancouver Island Cobblehill 213 Sperling Vineyards Okanagan Valley Kelowna 214 Spierhead Winery Okanagan Valley Kelowna 215 Spiller Estate Fruit Winery                  Okanagan Valley Penticton 216 St. Hubertus Estate Winery                                            Okanagan Valley Similkameen Valley 217 St. Lazlo Estate Winery                                                  218 St. Urban Winery                                                      Fraser Valley   219 Stag's Hollow Winery & Vineyard Okanagan Valley Okanagan Falls 220 Starling Lane Winery Ltd Vancouver Island Victoria 221 Stone Estate Winery Okanagan Valley Oliver 222 Stoneboat Vineyards Okanagan Valley Oliver 223 Stonehill Estate Winery Okanagan Valley Pentiction 224 Sumac Ridge Estate Winery Ltd Okanagan Valley Summerland 225 Summerhill Estate Winery                                                226 Sunnybrae Vineyards & Winery   Tappen 227 Synergy Winery & Vineyard     228 Tangled Vines Estate Winery Okanagan Valley Okanagan falls 229 Tantalus Vineyards Okanagan Valley Kelowna 230 The Fort Wine Co. Estate Winery                                       Fraser Valley       110  231 The Rise Cellars Okanagan Valley Vernon 232 The View Winery & Vineyard Okanagan Valley Kelowna 233 The Vineyard at Bowen Island     234 Therapy Winery  Okanagan Valley Naramata Bench 235 Thornhaven Winery                                                     Okanagan Valley Summerland 236 Tinhorn Creek Vineyards Ltd Okanagan Valley Oliver 237 Township 7 Vineyards & Winery Okanagan Valley & Fraser Valley  Langley and Naramata 238 Treasury Wine Estates     239 Twisted Tree Vineyards & Winery Okanagan Valley Osoyoos 240 Unsworth Vineyards Vancouver Island Cowichan Valley 241 Van Westen Vineyards      242 Vancouver Urban Winery   Vancouver 243 Venturi-Schulze Vineyards Vancouver Island Cobblehill 244 Vicori Winery     245 Victoria Estate Winery                                                  246 Vigneti Zanatta winery and vineyards Vancouver Island   247 Village Winery                                                          248 Vineyard at Bowen Island                             249 Vista D'Oro Farms & Winery Fraser Valley Langley 250 Volcanic Hill Vineyard and Cellars Okanagan Valley Kelowna 251 Wellbrook Winery                                                      Fraser Valley   252 Westham Estate Wineries Inc Fraser Valley Delta 253 Wild Goose Vineyards & Winery Inc Okanagan Valley Okanagan Falls 254 Willow Hills Vineyard  Okanagan Valley   255 Winchester Cellars                                                    Vancouver Island   256 Working Horse Winery and Vineyards  Okanagan Valley Peachland 257 Yellowpoint Vineyard     258 Young and Wyse Collection  Okanagan Valley Osoyoos 259 Zero Balance Vineyards                111  Appendix B: List of British Columbia Winery Websites   NO. WINERIES WEBSITES 1 22 Oaks Winery www.22oakswinery.ca/ 2 3 Mile Estate Winery http://www.3milewinery.com/home.html 3 40 Knots Estate Winery Winery http://www.40knotswinery.com/ 4 8th Generation Vineyard http://www.8thgenerationvineyard.com/home.php 5 Aces Wine Group www.aceswine.ca/ 6 Alderlea Vineyards http://www.alderlea.com/ 7 Alto Wine Group www.altowinegroup.com/ 8 Ancient Hills Vineyards ancienthillwinery.com/ 9 Antelope Ridge Estate Winery http://www.anteloperidge.com/ 10 Arrowleaf Cellars www.arrowleafcellars.com/ 11 Artisan Sakemaker at Granville Island http://artisansakemaker.dreamhosters.com/ 12 Avalon Cottage http://www.avaloncottage.ca/ 13 Averill Creek Winery www.averillcreek.ca/ 14 Baccata Ridge Winery http://baccataridgewinery.com/ 15 Baillie -Gorhman Estate Winery www.bailliegrohman.com/ 16 Beaufort Vineyards www.beaufortwines.ca/ 17 Beaumont Family Estate Winery http://www.beaumontwinery.com/ 18 Black Cloud Winery www.blackcloud.ca/ 19 Black Hills Estate Winery www.blackhillswinery.com/ 20 Black Widow Winery www.blackwidowwinery.com/ 21 Blackwood Lane Vineyards & Winery http://www.blackwoodlanewinery.com/ 22 Blasted Church Vineyards http://blastedchurch.com/ 23 Blossom Winery/Lulu Island Winery Ltd www.blossomwinery.com/ 24 Blue Grouse Vineyards & Winery http://www.bluegrousevineyards.com/ 25 Blue Heron Fruit Winery www.blueheronwinery.ca/ 26 Blue Moon Estate Winery bluemoonwinery.ca/ 27 Blue Mountain Vineyards & Cellars www.bluemountainwinery.com 28 Bonaparte Bend Winery www.bbwinery.com 29 Bonitas Family Estate Winery www.bonitaswinery.com/ 30 Bounty Cellars www.bountycellars.com/ 31 Burrowing Owl Vineyards www.bovwine.com 32 Calliope Handcrafted Wines www.calliopewines.com 33 Calona Vineyards www.calonavineyards.ca/ 34 Camelot Vineyards http://camelotvineyards.ca/ 35 Cassini Cellers www.cassini.ca/ 36 CedarCreek Estate Winery(Greata Ranch Vineyards) www.cedarcreek.bc.ca 37 Celista Estate Winery http://www.celistawine.com/index.html     112  38 Chase and Wareen Estate Winery www.chaseandwarren.ca/ 39 Cherry Point Vineyards www.cherrypointvineyards.com/ 40 Church & State Wines http://churchandstatewines.com/ 41 Clos du Soleil Winery www.closdusoleil.ca 42 Coastal Black Estate Winery http://www.coastalblack.ca/ 43 Columbia Gardens Vineyard & Winery www.cgwinery.com/ 44 Crowsnest Vineyards www.crowsnestvineyards.com/ 45 D'Angelo Estate Winery www.dangelowinery.com/ 46 Damali Lavender Farm Winery and B&B http://www.damali.ca/pages/vineyard/ 47 De Vine Vineyards http://devinevineyards.ca/ 48 Deol Estate Winery www.deolestatewinery.com/ 49 Desert Hills Estate Winery Inc http://www.deserthills.ca/ 50 Dirty Laundry Vineyards Ltd http://www.dirtylaundry.ca/ 51 Divino Estate Winery Ltd http://www.divinowine.ca/ 52 Divino's Quayside Wine Cellar http://www.quaywine.com/ 53 Domaine de Chaberton Estate Winery  www.domainedechaberton.com/ 54 Dragonfly Hill Winery http://www.dragonflyhillvineyard.com/ 55 Dunham & Froese Estate Winery www.dunhamfroese.ca 56 East Kelowna Cider Company http://www.eastkelownacider.com/ 57 Eauvivre Winery & Vinyards Ltd http://www.eauvivrewinery.ca/ 58 Elephant Island Orchard Wines http://www.elephantislandwine.com/ 59 Emerald Coast Vineyards emeraldcoastvineyards.ca/ 60 Enrico Vineyard Inc http://enricowinery.com/ 61 Ex Nihilo Vineyards exnihilovineyards.com/ 62 Fairview Cellars www.fairviewcellars.ca/ 63 Forbiden Fruit Winery http://www.forbiddenfruitwines.com/ 64 Fort Berens Estate Winery Ltd http://www.fortberens.ca/ 65 Foxtrot Winery www.foxtrotwine.com 66 Ganton & Larsen Prospect Winery http://www.prospectwinery.com/ 67 Garry Oaks Winery www.garryoakswine.com 68 Gehringer Brothers Estate Winery http://www.gehringerwines.ca/G/Home.html 69 Glenterra Vineyards http://glenterravineyards.com/home.html 70 Godfrey-Brownell Vineyards www.gbvineyards.com/ 71 Golden Beaver Winery www.goldenbeaverwinery.com/ 72 Granite Creek Estate Wines http://www.granitecreek.ca/ 73 Gray Monk Estate Winery www.graymonk.com 74 Greata Ranch Vineyards http://www.greataranchwinery.com/index.htm 75 Hainle Vineyards Estate Winery https://www.hainle.com/ 76 Haywire Winery www.haywirewinery.com/ 77 Herder Winery & Vineyards www.herder.ca/ 78 Heron Ridge Estates Winery www.heronridgeestateswine.com/ 79 Hester Creek Estate Winery www.hestercreek.com     113  80 Hidden Chapel Winery www.hiddenchapelwinery.com 81 Hillside Estate Winery www.hillsideestate.com/ 82 Hollywood and Wine Estate Vineyards   www.hollywoodandwine.ca/ 83 Honeymoon Bay Blackberry Winery http://www.honeymoonbaywinery.com/ 84 Hornby Island Winery www.hornbywine.com/ 85 House Of Rose Winery http://www.houseofrose.ca/ 86 Howling Bluff Estate Wines www.howlingbluff.ca/ 87 Hunting Hawk Vineyards/Edge of the Earth Vineyards www.edgeoftheearthvineyard.com 88 Inniskillin Okanagan Vineyards Inc http://www.inniskillin.com/ 89 Intigue Wines www.intriguewines.ca/ 90 Isabella Winery isabellawinery.com/ 91 Jackson-Triggs Vintners http://www.jacksontriggswinery.com/ 92 Kalala Organic Estate Winery www.kalalawines.ca/wine/ 93 Kermode Wild Berry Wines www.kermodewildberry.com/ 94 Kettle Valley Winery Ltd http://www.kettlevalleywinery.com/ 95 Kitsilano Wine Cellar http://www.kitswine.com/ 96 Kraze Legz Vineyard & Winery http://www.krazelegz.com/ 97 La Frenz Estate Winery http://www.lafrenzwinery.com/ 98 Lake Breeze Vineyards http://www.lakebreeze.ca/ 99 Lake Valley Wines http://lakevalleywines.com/ 100 Larch Hills Winery http://www.larchhillswinery.com/index.php 101 LaStella Winery www.lastella.ca 102 Laughing Stock Vineyards http://www.laughingstock.ca/main.php 103 Le Vieux Pin www.levieuxpin.ca/ 104 Little Straw Vineyards http://www.littlestraw.bc.ca/ 105 Little Tribune Winery http://www.littletribunefarmandwinery.com/ 106 Lotusland Vineyards http://www.lotuslandvineyards.com/ 107 Marichel Vineyard & Winery www.marichel.ca/ 108 Meadow Vista Honey Wines www.meadowvista.ca/ 109 Merridale Ciderworks http://www.merridalecider.com/ 110 Meyer Family Vineyards www.mfvwines.com/ 111 Middle Mountain Mead middlemountainmead.com/ 112 Millstone Estate Winery http://www.millstonewinery.ca/ 113 Misconduct Wine Company http://www.misconductwineco.com/ 114 Mission Hill Family Estate Winery http://www.missionhillwinery.com/default.asp 115 Mistaken Identity Vineyards Ltd http://www.mistakenidentityvineyards.com/ 116 MooBerry Winery www.mooberrywinery.com/ 117 Moon Curser Vineyards www.mooncurser.com/ 118 Morning Bay Vineyard www.morningbay.ca/ 119 Mount Boucherie Estate Winery http://mtboucheriewinery.com/ 120 Mt Lehman Winery http://www.mtlehmanwinery.ca/index2.php#/home/     114  121 Muse Winery http://www.musewinery.ca/ 122 Neck Of The Woods Winery http://www.neckofthewoods.ca/ 123 Niche Wine Co nichewinecompany.com/ 124 Nichol Vineyard and Esate Winery http://www.nicholvineyard.com/ 125 Nk'Mip Cellars http://www.nkmipcellars.com/ 126 Noble Ridge Winery http://www.nobleridge.com/ 127 Okanagan Villa Estate http://tastevibrantvines.com/ 128 Oliver Twist Estate Winery www.olivertwistwinery.com 129 Orchard Hill Estate Cidery www.orchardhillcidery.com/ 130 Orofino Vineyards http://www.orofinovineyards.com/ 131 Osoyoos Larose Estate Winery http://www.osoyooslarose.com/ 132 Ovino Winery http://www.ovinowinery.com/ 133 Pacific Breeze Winery http://www.pacificbreezewinery.com/ 134 Painted Rock Estate Winery Ltd http://www.paintedrock.ca/ 135 Paradise Ranch Wines Corp. http://www.icewines.com/ 136 Peller Estates Winery http://www.peller.com/okanagan/homepage.php 137 Pentage Winery http://www.pentage.com/ 138 Poplar Grove Winery http://www.poplargrove.ca/ 139 Quails' Gate Estate Winery http://www.quailsgate.com/ 140 Quinta Ferreira Estate Winery www.quintaferreira.com/ 141 Recline Ridge Vineyards & Winery Ltd http://recline-ridge.bc.ca/ 142 Red Rooster Winery http://www.redroosterwinery.com/ 143 Rivers Bend Winery http://www.riversbendwinery.com/ 144 Road 13 Vineyards www.road13vineyards.com 145 Robin Ridge Winery http://www.robinridgewinery.com/ 146 Rocky Creek Winery http://www.rockycreekwinery.ca/ 147 Rollingdale Winery Inc http://www.rollingdale.ca/ 148 Rustic Roots Winery http://www.rusticrootswinery.com/ 149 Rustico Farm & Cellars www.rusticowinery.com/ 150 Salt Spring Vineyard www.saltspringvineyards.com/ 151 Sandhill Wines www.sandhillwines.ca 152 Sanduz Estate Wines Inc http://www.sanduzwines.com/ 153 Saturna Island Vineyards http://www.saturnavineyards.com/ 154 Sea Cider http://www.seacider.ca/ 155 See Ya Later Ranch http://www.sylranch.com/ 156 Seven Stones Winery http://www.sevenstones.ca/ 157 Silk Scarf Winery www.silkw.net/ 158 Silver Sage Winery http://silversagewinery.com/ 159 Silverside Farm & Winery http://silversidefarm.com/ 160 Skimmerhorn Winery & Vineyard Ltd http://www.skimmerhorn.ca/ 161 Sleeping Giant Fruit Winery www.sleepinggiantfruitwinery.ca/     115  162 Sonoran Estate Winery www.sonoranestate.com 163 Sperling Vineyards www.sperlingvineyards.com/ 164 Spierhead Winery www.spierheadwinery.com/ 165 St. Hubertus Estate Winery www.st-hubertus.bc.ca 166 Stag's Hollow Winery & Vineyard http://www.stagshollowwinery.com/ 167 Starling Lane Winery Ltd http://www.starlinglanewinery.com/ 168 Stone Estate Winery www.riverstoneestatewinery.ca/ 169 Stoneboat Vineyards www.stoneboatvineyards.com/ 170 Sumac Ridge Estate Winery Ltd http://www.sumacridge.com/ 171 Summerhill Estate Winery www.summerhill.bc.ca 172 Tangled Vines Estate Winery http://www.tangledvineswinery.com/ 173 Tantalus Vineyards http://tantalus.ca/home.php 174 The Fort Wine Co. Estate Winery http://www.thefortwineco.com/ 175 The View Winery & Vineyard http://theviewwinery.com/ 176 Therapy Winery therapyvineyards.com 177 Thornhaven Winery www.thornhaven.com 178 Tinhorn Creek Vineyards Ltd http://www.tinhorn.com/ 179 Township 7 Vineyards & Winery http://www.township7.com/ 180 Unsworth Vineyards http://www.unsworthvineyards.com/ 181 Van Westen Vineyards www.vanwestenvineyards.com/ 182 Vancouver Urban Winery http://www.vancouverurbanwinery.com/ 183 Venturi-Schulze Vineyards http://www.venturischulze.com/ 184 Vigneti Zanatta winery and vineyards www.zanatta.ca/ 185 Vista D'Oro Farms & Winery http://www.vistadoro.com/ 186 Volcanic Hill Vineyard and Cellars http://www.volcanichillswinery.com/ 187 Wellbrook Winery http://www.wellbrookwinery.com/ 188 Westham Estate Wineries Inc http://www.westhamislandwinery.com/ 189 Wild Goose Vineyards & Winery Inc http://wildgoosewinery.com/ 190 Willow Hills Vineyard http://www.willowhillwines.com/eng/home.html 191 Winchester Cellars http://www.winchestercellars.com/ 192 Working Horse Winery and Vineyards www.workinghorsewinery.com/ 193 Young and Wyse Collection www.youngandwysewine.com            116  Appendix C: List of British Columbia Winery Websites in Terms of Websites? Existence  NO. WINERIES YEAR EXISTENCE 1 22 Oaks Winery 2012 NEW 2 3 Mile Estate Winery 2012 NEW 3 40 Knots Estate Winery  2012 NEW 4 8th Generation Vineyard 2012 NEW 5 A'Very Fine Winery 2004 DISAPPEARED 6 Aces Wine Group 2012 NEW 7 Alderlea Vineyards 2012 NEW 8 Alto Wine Group 2012 NEW 9 Ancient Hills Vineyards 2012 NEW 10 Antelope Ridge Estate Winery 2012 NEW 11 Arrowleaf Cellars 2012 EXISTING 12 Artisan Sakemaker at Granville Island 2012 NEW  13 Avalon Cottage 2012 NEW  14 Averill Creek Winery 2012 EXISTING 15 Baccata Ridge Winery 2012 NEW 16 Baillie -Gorhman Estate Winery 2012 NEW 17 Beaufort Vineyards 2012 NEW 18 Beaumont Family Estate Winery 2012 NEW 19 Bella Vista Vineyards 2004 DISAPPEARED 20 Benchland Vineyards 2004 DISAPPEARED 21 Black Cloud Winery 2012 NEW 22 Black Hills Estate Winery 2012 EXISTING 23 Black Widow Winery 2012 NEW 24 Blackwood Lane Vineyards & Winery 2012 NEW 25 Blasted Church Vineyards 2012 EXISTING 26 Blossom Winery/Lulu Island Winery Ltd.  2012 EXISTING 27 Blue Grouse Vineyards & Winery 2012 EXISTING 28 Blue Heron Fruit Winery 2012 EXISTING 29 Blue Moon Estate Winery 2012 NEW 30 Blue Mountain Vineyards & Cellars 2012 EXISTING 31 Bonaparte Bend Winery 2012 EXISTING 32 Bonitas Family Estate Winery 2012 NEW 33 Bounty Cellars 2012 NEW 34 Burrowing Owl Vineyards 2012 EXISTING 35 Calliope Handcrafted Wines 2012 EXISTING 36 Calona Vineyards 2012 EXISTING 37 Camelot Vineyards 2012 NEW 38 Carriage House Wines 2004 DISAPPEARED 39 Cassini Cellers 2012 NEW     117  40 CedarCreek Estate Winery(Greata Ranch Vineyards) 2012 EXISTING 41 Celista Estate Winery 2012 NEW 42 Chalet Estate Vineyard 2004 DISAPPEARED 43 Chase and Wareen Estate Winery 2012 NEW 44 Cherry Point Vineyards 2012 EXISTING 45 Church & State Wines 2012 NEW 46 Clos du Soleil Winery 2012 NEW 47 Coastal Black Estate Winery 2012 NEW 48 Columbia Gardens Vineyard & Winery 2012 NEW 49 Crowsnest Vineyards 2012 NEW 50 Damali Lavender Farm Winery and B&B 2012 NEW 51 D'Angelo Estate Winery 2012 NEW 52 De Vine Vineyards 2012 NEW 53 Deol Estate Winery 2012 NEW 54 Desert Hills Estate Winery Inc 2012 NEW 55 Dirty Laundry Vineyards Ltd 2012 NEW 56 Divino Estate Winery Ltd 2012 NEW 57 Divino's Quayside Wine Cellar 2012 NEW 58 Domaine Combret 2004 NEW 59 Domaine de Chaberton Estate Winery  2012 NEW 60 Dragonfly Hill Winery 2012 NEW 61 Dunham & Froese Estate Winery 2012 NEW 62 East Kelowna Cider Company 2012 NEW 63 Eauvivre Winery & Vinyards Ltd 2012 NEW 64 Echo Valley Vineyards 2004 DISAPPEARED 65 Elephant Island Orchard Wines 2012 EXISTING 66 Emerald Coast Vineyards 2012 NEW 67 Enrico Vineyard Inc 2012 NEW 68 Ex Nihilo Vineyards 2012 NEW 69 Fairview Cellars 2012 NEW 70 Forbiden Fruit Winery 2012 NEW 71 Fort Berens Estate Winery Ltd 2012 NEW 72 Foxtrot Winery 2012 NEW 73 Ganton & Larsen Prospect Winery 2012 NEW 74 Garry Oaks Winery 2012 EXISTING 75 Gehringer Brothers Estate Winery 2012 NEW 76 Glenterra Vineyards 2012 NEW 77 Glenugie Winery 2004 DISAPPEARED 78 Godfrey-Brownell Vineyards 2012 EXISTING 79 Golden Beaver Winery 2012 NEW 80 Golden Mile Cellars 2004 DISAPPEARED 81 Granite Creek Estate Wines 2012 EXISTING     118  82 Gray Monk Estate Winery 2012 EXISTING 83 Greata Ranch Vineyards 2012 NEW 84 Hainle Vineyards Estate Winery 2012 EXISTING 85 Hawthorne Mountain Vineyards 2004 DISAPPEARED 86 Haywire Winery 2012 NEW 87 Herder Winery & Vineyards 2012 EXISTING 88 Heron Ridge Estates Winery 2012 NEW 89 Hester Creek Estate Winery 2012 EXISTING 90 Hidden Chapel Winery 2012 NEW 91 Hillside Estate Winery 2012 EXISTING 92 Hollywood and Wine Estate Vineyards   2012 NEW 93 Honeymoon Bay Blackberry Winery 2012 NEW 94 Hornby Island Winery 2012 NEW 95 House Of Rose Winery 2012 NEW 96 Howling Bluff Estate Wines 2012 NEW 97 Hunting Hawk Vineyards/Edgeoftheheart Winery 2012 EXISTING 98 Inniskillin Okanagan Vineyards Inc 2012 NEW 99 Intigue Wines 2012 NEW 100 Isabella Winery 2012 NEW 101 Jackson-Triggs Vintners 2012 NEW 102 Joie Wines 2004 DISAPPEARED 103 Kalala Organic Estate Winery 2012 NEW 104 Kermode Wild Berry Wines 2012 NEW 105 Kettle Valley Winery Ltd 2012 EXISTING 106 Kitsilano Wine Cellar 2012 NEW 107 Kraze Legz Vineyard & Winery 2012 NEW 108 La Frenz Estate Winery 2012 EXISTING 109 Lake Breeze Vineyards 2012 EXISTING 110 Lake Valley Wines 2012 NEW 111 Lang Vineyards 2004 DISAPPEARED 112 Larch Hills Winery 2012 EXISTING 113 LaStella Winery 2012 NEW 114 Laughing Stock Vineyards 2012 EXISTING 115 Le Vieux Pin 2012 NEW 116 Little Straw Vineyards 2012 EXISTING 117 Little Tribune Winery 2012 NEW 118 Lotusland Vineyards 2012 EXISTING 119 Marichel Vineyard & Winery 2012 NEW 120 Marley Farm Winery 2004 DISAPPEARED 121 Meadow Vista Honey Wines 2012 NEW 122 Merridale Ciderworks 2012 NEW 123 Meyer Family Vineyards 2012 NEW     119  124 Middle Mountain Mead 2012 NEW 125 Millstone Estate Winery 2012 NEW 126 Misconduct Wine Company  2012 NEW 127 Mission Hill Family Estate Winery 2012 EXISTING 128 Mistaken Identity Vineyards Ltd 2012 NEW 129 Mistral Estate Winery 2004 DISAPPEARED 130 MooBerry Winery 2012 NEW 131 Moon Curser Vineyards 2012 NEW 132 Morning Bay Vineyard 2012 NEW 133 Mount Boucherie Estate Winery 2012 EXISTING 134 Mt Lehman Winery 2012 NEW 135 Muse Winery 2012 NEW 136 Neck Of The Woods Winery 2012 NEW 137 Niche Wine Co 2012 NEW 138 Nichol Vineyard 2004 DISAPPEARED 139 Nichol Vineyard and Esate Winery 2012 NEW 140 Nk'Mip Cellars 2012 EXISTING 141 Noble Ridge Winery 2012 NEW 142 Okanagan Villa Estate 2012 NEW 143 Oliver Twist Estate Winery 2012 NEW 144 Orchard Hill Estate Cidery 2012 NEW 145 Orofino Vineyards 2012 EXISTING 146 Osoyoos Larose Estate Winery 2012 NEW 147 Ovino Winery 2012 NEW 148 Pacific Breeze Winery 2012 NEW 149 Painted Rock Estate Winery Ltd 2012 NEW 150 Paradise Ranch Wines Corp. 2012 EXISTING 151 Peller Estates Winery 2012 NEW 152 Pentage Winery 2012 EXISTING 153 Poplar Grove Winery 2012 EXISTING 154 Quails' Gate Estate Winery 2012 EXISTING 155 Quinta Ferreira Estate Winery 2012 NEW 156 Raven Ridge Cidery Inc 2004 DISAPPEARED 157 Recline Ridge Vineyards & Winery Ltd 2012 EXISTING 158 Red Rooster Winery 2012 EXISTING 159 Rivers Bend Winery 2012 NEW 160 Road 13 Vineyards 2012 NEW 161 Robin Ridge Winery 2012 NEW 162 Rocky Creek Winery 2012 NEW 163 Rollingdale Winery Inc 2012 NEW 164 Rustic Roots Winery 2012 NEW 165 Rustico Farm & Cellars 2012 NEW     120  166 Salt Spring Vineyard 2012 EXISTING 167 Sandhill Wines 2012 EXISTING 168 Sanduz Estate Wines Inc 2012 NEW 169 Saturna Island Vineyards 2012 EXISTING 170 Scherzinger Vineyards 2004 DISAPPEARED 171 Sea Cider 2012 NEW 172 See Ya Later Ranch 2012 NEW 173 Seven Stones Winery 2012 NEW 174 Silk Scarf Winery 2012 NEW 175 Silver Sage Winery 2012 EXISTING 176 Silverside Farm & Winery 2012 NEW 177 Skimmerhorn Winery & Vineyard Ltd 2012 NEW 178 Sleeping Giant Fruit Winery 2012 NEW 179 Sonoran Estate Winery 2012 EXISTING 180 Sperling Vineyards 2012 NEW 181 Spierhead Winery 2012 NEW 182 Spiller Estate Fruit Winery 2004 DISAPPEARED 183 St. Hubertus Estate Winery 2012 EXISTING 184 Stag's Hollow Winery & Vineyard 2012 EXISTING 185 Starling Lane Winery Ltd 2012 NEW 186 Stone Estate Winery 2012 NEW 187 Stoneboat Vineyards 2012 NEW 188 Sumac Ridge Estate Winery Ltd 2012 EXISTING 189 Summerhill Estate Winery 2012 EXISTING 190 Tangled Vines Estate Winery 2012 NEW 191 Tantalus Vineyards 2012 NEW 192 The Fort Wine Co. Estate Winery 2012 EXISTING 193 The View Winery & Vineyard 2012 NEW 194 Therapy Winery 2012 NEW 195 Thetis Island Vineyards 2004 DISAPPEARED 196 Thornhaven Winery 2012 EXISTING 197 Tinhorn Creek Vineyards Ltd 2012 EXISTING 198 Township 7 Vineyards & Winery 2012 EXISTING 199 Unsworth Vineyards 2012 NEW 200 Van Westen Vineyards 2012 NEW 201 Vancouver Urban Winery 2012 NEW 202 Venturi-Schulze Vineyards 2012 EXISTING 203 Victoria Estate Winery 2004 DISAPPEARED 204 Vigneti Zanatta winery and vineyards 2012 EXISTING 205 Village Winery 2004 DISAPPEARED 206 Vista D'Oro Farms & Winery 2012 NEW 207 Volcanic Hill Vineyard and Cellars 2012 NEW     121  208 Wellbrook Winery 2012 EXISTING 209 Westham Estate Wineries Inc 2012 NEW 210 Wild Goose Vineyards & Winery Inc 2012 EXISTING 211 Willow Hills Vineyard 2012 NEW 212 Winchester Cellars 2012 NEW 213 Working Horse Winery and Vineyards 2012 NEW 214 Young and Wyse Collection 2012 NEW                        

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