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Female authorship and implicit power in women's erotica : Japanese "ladies' comics" and Fifty Shades… Eshghi, Shirin 2012

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Full Text

	
   	
    	
   	
    FEMALE	
  AUTHORSHIP	
  AND	
  IMPLICIT	
  POWER	
  	
   IN	
  WOMEN’S	
  EROTICA:	
  	
   JAPANESE	
  “LADIES’	
  COMICS”	
  AND	
  FIFTY	
  SHADES	
  OF	
  GREY	
  	
   by	
   	
   	
   Shirin	
  Eshghi	
   	
   M.	
  L.	
  I.	
  S.,	
  The	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia,	
  2005	
   	
   B.	
  A.,	
  The	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia,	
  1998	
   	
   	
   A	
  THESIS	
  SUBMITTED	
  IN	
  PARTIAL	
  FULFILLMENT	
  OF	
  THE	
  REQUIREMENTS	
  FOR	
   THE	
  DEGREE	
  OF	
   	
   	
   MASTER	
  OF	
  ARTS	
    	
   	
    in	
   	
   	
   The	
  Faculty	
  of	
  Graduate	
  Studies	
   	
   (Asian	
  Studies)	
   	
   	
   THE	
  UNIVERSITY	
  OF	
  BRITISH	
  COLUMBIA	
   	
   (Vancouver)	
   	
   	
   December	
  2012	
   	
   	
   	
   ©	
  Shirin	
  Eshghi,	
  2012	
    Abstract	
  	
   	
   Can	
  female	
  readers	
  perceive	
  empowerment	
  through	
  sexually	
  explicit,	
  fictional	
   stories	
  that	
  feature	
  depictions	
  of	
  misogynistic	
  relationships	
  or	
  encounters?	
  In	
  this	
   thesis,	
  I	
  will	
  attempt	
  to	
  answer	
  this	
  question	
  by	
  examining	
  English-­‐	
  and	
  Japanese-­‐ language	
  examples	
  of	
  sexual	
  writing	
  for	
  women,	
  specifically	
  the	
  genre	
  of	
  women’s	
   erotica	
  (erotic	
  fiction	
  for	
  a	
  female	
  audience).	
  	
   	
   I	
  will	
  describe	
  how	
  women’s	
  erotica	
  in	
  both	
  languages	
  is	
  predominantly	
  populated	
   by	
  female	
  authors,	
  and	
  will	
  argue	
  that	
  this	
  allows	
  readers	
  to	
  perceive	
  sexual	
   empowerment	
  even	
  when	
  encountering	
  storylines	
  that	
  feature	
  female	
  protagonists	
   disempowered	
  by	
  male	
  characters.	
  The	
  knowledge	
  that	
  the	
  author	
  is	
  a	
  woman	
   perpetuates	
  a	
  belief	
  on	
  the	
  side	
  of	
  the	
  reader	
  that	
  the	
  female	
  protagonist	
  is	
  safe,	
  and	
   that	
  she	
  will	
  enjoy	
  the	
  sexual	
  acts	
  that	
  take	
  place	
  within	
  the	
  story.	
  	
   	
   To	
  illustrate	
  this	
  point,	
  I	
  will	
  compare	
  the	
  recently-­‐published	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey	
   with	
  Toraware	
  no	
  yoru	
  (Captive	
  night),	
  a	
  1990s	
  example	
  of	
  “ladies’	
  comics”	
  (sexually	
   explicit	
  Japanese	
  manga	
  created	
  for	
  a	
  female	
  readership),	
  which	
  was	
  re-­‐published	
  in	
   e-­‐format	
  in	
  2009.	
  I	
  will	
  demonstrate	
  how	
  the	
  female	
  sex	
  of	
  the	
  authors	
  enables	
   readers	
  to	
  feel	
  in	
  control	
  and	
  empowered	
  despite	
  the	
  often	
  submissive	
  role	
  of	
  the	
   stories’	
  protagonists.	
  I	
  will	
  also	
  argue	
  that	
  both	
  works	
  have	
  been	
  marketed	
  and	
   framed	
  in	
  a	
  manner	
  that	
  alludes	
  to	
  Japanese-­‐	
  and	
  English-­‐language	
  autobiographical	
   sexual	
  writing	
  that	
  developed	
  from	
  the	
  early	
  20th	
  Century.	
  I	
  will	
  establish	
  how	
  the	
   confessional	
  nature	
  of	
  these	
  works	
  helped	
  construct	
  a	
  shared	
  reality	
  between	
   reader	
  and	
  author	
  in	
  regards	
  to	
  sex	
  and	
  womanhood.	
  	
   	
   The	
  solicitation	
  of	
  stories	
  from	
  ladies’	
  comics	
  readers	
  and	
  the	
  emergence	
  of	
  Fifty	
   Shades	
  of	
  Grey	
  from	
  the	
  fan	
  fiction	
  community	
  re-­‐enforces	
  the	
  perception	
  of	
  a	
   women-­‐only	
  space	
  where	
  text	
  is	
  influenced	
  solely	
  by	
  a	
  dialogue	
  between	
  female	
   author	
  and	
  female	
  reader.	
  Although	
  this	
  female-­‐centred	
  space	
  may	
  in	
  itself	
  be	
  a	
   source	
  of	
  empowerment,	
  the	
  sustainability	
  of	
  such	
  a	
  space	
  is	
  precarious	
  in	
  the	
   virtual	
  environment,	
  where	
  the	
  gender	
  of	
  author	
  and	
  reader	
  cannot	
  be	
  guaranteed.	
   	
   	
    	
    ii	
    Table	
  of	
  Contents	
   Abstract	
  .......................................................................................................................................	
  ii	
   Table	
  of	
  Contents	
  ...................................................................................................................	
  iii	
   List	
  of	
  Figures	
  ...........................................................................................................................	
  iv	
   Notes	
  ............................................................................................................................................	
  v	
   Acknowledgements	
  ................................................................................................................	
  vi	
   Dedication	
  ...............................................................................................................................	
  vii	
   Introduction	
  ..............................................................................................................................	
  1	
   Chapter	
  1:	
  Creating	
  a	
  Yardstick	
  of	
  Sexual	
  Power	
  ..........................................................	
  7	
   Chapter	
  2:	
  Contracting	
  Out	
  Pleasure	
  Online	
  ...............................................................	
  18	
   Conclusion	
  ...............................................................................................................................	
  56	
   Works	
  Cited	
  ............................................................................................................................	
  66	
   	
   	
    	
    	
    iii	
    List	
  of	
  Figures	
   	
   	
   Figure	
  1:	
  Toraware	
  no	
  yoru	
  (Zēnbu	
  jitsuwa!!	
  Dokusha	
  no	
  H	
  taikendan,	
  97)	
  ...................	
  36	
   Figure	
  2:	
  Toraware	
  no	
  yoru	
  (Zēnbu	
  jitsuwa!!	
  Dokusha	
  no	
  H	
  taikendan,	
  126)	
  ................	
  41	
   Figure	
  3:	
  Toraware	
  no	
  yoru	
  (Zēnbu	
  jitsuwa!!	
  Dokusha	
  no	
  H	
  taikendan,	
  127)	
  ................	
  42	
   Figure	
  4:	
  Toraware	
  no	
  yoru	
  (Zēnbu	
  jitsuwa!!	
  Dokusha	
  no	
  H	
  taikendan,	
  112)	
  ................	
  47	
   	
    	
    	
    iv	
    Notes	
   	
   All	
  translations	
  of	
  quoted	
  text	
  are	
  my	
  own	
  unless	
  otherwise	
  indicated.	
  	
   	
   The	
  genre	
  known	
  as	
  “ladies’	
  comics”	
  will	
  be	
  referred	
  to	
  throughout	
  without	
  italics	
   and	
  without	
  quotation	
  marks.	
  The	
  term	
  will	
  be	
  used	
  for	
  the	
  sexually	
  explicit	
  manga	
   genre	
  redīsu	
  komikku ,	
  which	
  is	
  sometimes	
  abbreviated	
  to	
   redikomi ,	
  and	
  which	
  also	
  has	
  the	
  Romanized	
  variant	
  “Lady’s	
  Comic.”	
   	
   In	
  order	
  to	
  address	
  possible	
  discrepancies	
  regarding	
  e-­‐book	
  page	
  numbering	
  for	
  E.L.	
   James’s	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  trilogy,	
  I	
  have	
  included	
  chapter	
  numbers	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  page	
   numbers	
  within	
  footnote	
  citations.	
  	
   	
   	
   	
    	
    v	
    Acknowledgements	
   	
   This	
  thesis	
  would	
  not	
  have	
  been	
  possible	
  without	
  the	
  collections	
  and	
  services	
   available	
  through	
  the	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Library	
  and	
  the	
  Women’s	
   Library	
  of	
  the	
  London	
  Metropolitan	
  University.	
  In	
  addition,	
  I	
  am	
  indebted	
  to	
  the	
   InterLibrary	
  Loan	
  office	
  at	
  UBC	
  Library,	
  through	
  which	
  I	
  was	
  able	
  to	
  access	
   resources	
  from	
  institutions	
  across	
  North	
  America	
  and	
  from	
  Japan.	
   	
   I	
  would	
  also	
  like	
  to	
  acknowledge	
  the	
  following	
  individuals:	
   	
   Nathen	
  Clerici,	
  Ihhwa	
  Kim,	
  Christina	
  Laffin,	
  Julie	
  Vig	
  and	
  my	
  sister	
  Roxana	
  for	
   their	
  invaluable	
  feedback.	
  	
  	
   	
   Manami	
  (D-­‐go)	
  Calvo,	
  Seamus	
  D.,	
  Kelly	
  Hansen,	
  Katherine	
  Kalsbeek,	
  Vanessa	
   Kam,	
  James	
  Welker,	
  Danielle	
  Winn	
  and	
  my	
  colleagues	
  at	
  Asian	
  Library	
  for	
  their	
   support	
  and	
  encouragement.	
   	
   The	
  late	
  Kinya	
  Tsuruta	
  for	
  infecting	
  me	
  with	
  a	
  love	
  for	
  modern	
  Japanese	
   literature.	
   	
   Stefania	
  Burk	
  and	
  Joshua	
  Mostow	
  who,	
  in	
  addition	
  to	
  generously	
  agreeing	
  to	
  sit	
   on	
  the	
  thesis	
  committee,	
  have	
  provided	
  me	
  with	
  continuous	
  guidance	
  and	
  support.	
   	
   Finally,	
  I	
  would	
  like	
  to	
  thank	
  my	
  supervisor,	
  Sharalyn	
  Orbaugh,	
  for	
  convincing	
   me	
  that	
  I	
  have	
  something	
  important	
  to	
  say,	
  and	
  my	
  parents	
  who,	
  through	
  their	
   immeasurable	
  sacrifice,	
  have	
  ensured	
  that	
  I	
  have	
  a	
  space	
  to	
  freely	
  say	
  it.	
   	
   	
   	
    	
    vi	
    Dedication	
   	
   	
    	
    For	
  Professor	
  Sharalyn	
  Orbaugh.	
   	
   The	
  Doctor:	
  You're	
  a	
  woman,	
  Seven!	
  	
   Seven	
  of	
  Nine:	
  Is	
  that	
  an	
  observation	
  or	
  a	
  diagnosis?	
   Star	
  Trek:	
  Voyager	
   Someone	
  to	
  Watch	
  Over	
  Me	
    	
    	
    vii	
    Introduction	
   	
   In	
  touch	
  with	
  the	
  erotic,	
  I	
  become	
  less	
  willing	
  to	
  accept	
  powerlessness,	
  or	
  those	
   other	
  supplied	
  states	
  of	
  being	
  which	
  are	
  not	
  native	
  to	
  me,	
  such	
  as	
  resignation,	
   despair,	
  self-­‐effacement,	
  depression,	
  self-­‐denial.1	
   	
   Audre	
  Lorde	
   	
   In	
  her	
  essay	
  Uses	
  of	
  the	
  Erotic:	
  The	
  Erotic	
  as	
  Power,	
  Audre	
  Lorde	
  asserts	
  that	
   the	
  erotic	
  is	
  a	
  power	
  that	
  is	
  generated	
  through	
  the	
  expression	
  of	
  feeling	
  and	
  the	
   sharing	
  of	
  experience.	
  She	
  maintains	
  that	
  the	
  power	
  of	
  the	
  erotic	
  has	
  a	
  positive	
   effect	
  on	
  women,	
  as	
  it	
  can	
  prompt	
  them	
  to	
  expect	
  and	
  demand	
  deeper	
  enjoyment	
   from	
  other	
  aspects	
  of	
  their	
  lives,	
  such	
  as	
  their	
  careers.	
  However,	
  she	
  warns	
  that	
  “to	
   share	
  the	
  power	
  of	
  each	
  other’s	
  feelings	
  is	
  different	
  from	
  using	
  another’s	
  feelings	
  as	
   we	
  would	
  use	
  a	
  kleenex.	
  And	
  when	
  we	
  look	
  the	
  other	
  way	
  from	
  our	
  experience,	
   erotic	
  or	
  otherwise,	
  we	
  use	
  rather	
  than	
  share	
  the	
  feelings	
  of	
  those	
  others	
  who	
   participate	
  in	
  the	
  experience	
  with	
  us.	
  And	
  use	
  without	
  consent	
  of	
  the	
  used	
  is	
   abuse.”2	
  ⁠	
  She	
  finishes	
  her	
  essay	
  by	
  praising	
  women	
  who	
  have	
  attempted	
  to	
  share	
  in	
   transmitting	
  this	
  erotic	
  power,	
  stating	
  “…I	
  find	
  more	
  and	
  more	
  woman-­‐identified	
   women	
  brave	
  enought	
  [sic]	
  to	
  risk	
  sharing	
  the	
  erotic’s	
  electrical	
  charge	
  without	
   having	
  to	
  look	
  away,	
  and	
  without	
  distorting	
  the	
  enormously	
  powerful	
  and	
  creative	
   nature	
  of	
  that	
  exchange.”⁠3	
   Does	
  the	
  distribution	
  of	
  women’s	
  erotic	
  writing	
  within	
  the	
  context	
  of	
  today’s	
   publishing	
  industry	
  fulfill	
  the	
  vision	
  of	
  empowerment	
  for	
  women	
  that	
  Lorde	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
    1	
  Audre	
  Lorde,	
  Uses	
  of	
  the	
  Erotic:	
  The	
  Erotic	
  as	
  Power	
  (New	
  York:	
  Out	
  &	
  Out	
  Books,	
  1978),	
  7.	
   2	
  Ibid.,	
  7.	
   3	
  Ibid.,	
  8.	
    	
    1	
    constructed	
  in	
  the	
  late	
  1970s?	
  Does	
  this	
  erotica	
  entail	
  women	
  writing	
  on	
  their	
  own	
   sexual	
  experiences	
  as	
  a	
  means	
  of	
  sharing	
  the	
  erotic	
  power	
  inherent	
  to	
  women,	
  or	
   does	
  it	
  exploit	
  women’s	
  sexuality?	
  In	
  this	
  thesis,	
  I	
  will	
  attempt	
  to	
  address	
  these	
   questions	
  by	
  demonstrating	
  how	
  female	
  authorship	
  may	
  impact	
  readers’	
  reception	
   of	
  women’s	
  erotica	
  as	
  a	
  type	
  of	
  sexual	
  empowerment.	
   In	
  May	
  2011,	
  the	
  first	
  instalment	
  of	
  E.L.	
  James’s	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey	
  trilogy	
  was	
   released	
  in	
  e-­‐book	
  format.	
  The	
  work	
  includes	
  explicit	
  depictions	
  of	
  sexual	
  acts	
   between	
  the	
  female	
  protagonist	
  and	
  the	
  main	
  male	
  character.	
  According	
  to	
  Bowker	
   Market	
  Research,	
  80	
  percent	
  of	
  its	
  readers	
  are	
  female,	
  and	
  while	
  the	
  idea	
  of	
  women	
   reading	
  and	
  writing	
  sexually	
  explicit	
  literary	
  works	
  is	
  not	
  new,	
  the	
  extraordinary	
   success	
  of	
  Fifty	
  Shades,	
  monopolizing	
  the	
  top	
  spot	
  on	
  best	
  sellers’	
  lists	
  and	
  resulting	
   in	
  a	
  movie	
  deal,	
  is	
  unprecedented.4	
  The	
  emergence	
  of	
  e-­‐publishing	
  is	
  considered	
  to	
   have	
  played	
  a	
  part	
  in	
  the	
  trilogy’s	
  success,	
  since	
  this	
  has	
  allowed	
  for	
  easy	
  access	
  to	
   the	
  work.5	
  Readers	
  can	
  simply	
  download	
  the	
  volumes	
  from	
  their	
  homes,	
  and	
  there	
  is	
   no	
  need	
  to	
  look	
  for	
  the	
  material	
  in	
  the	
  erotica	
  section	
  of	
  a	
  bookstore	
  or	
  go	
  to	
  a	
  sex	
   store	
  in	
  order	
  to	
  purchase	
  it.	
   Japanese	
  readers	
  have	
  long	
  had	
  easy	
  access	
  to	
  erotic	
  literature	
  created	
  for	
  a	
   female	
  audience.	
  Specifically,	
  sexually	
  explicit	
  ladies’	
  comics	
  appeared	
  in	
  the	
   marketplace	
  in	
  the	
  1980s,	
  and	
  these	
  were	
  made	
  available	
  via	
  bookstores	
  and	
   convenience	
  stores,	
  and	
  through	
  subscription.	
  The	
  comics	
  were	
  incorporated	
  into	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   4	
  “Who’s	
  Really	
  Reading	
  50	
  Shades?”	
  Bowker,	
  November	
  29,	
  2012,	
   http://www.bowker.com/en-­‐US/aboutus/press_room/2012/pr_11292012.shtml;	
  Philip	
  Stone,	
  "E	
  L	
   James:	
  £42,954,000	
  and	
  Counting…."	
  Bookseller	
  no.	
  5542	
  (September	
  7,	
  2012):	
  15,	
  Business	
  Source	
   Complete,	
  EBSCOhost	
  (accession	
  no.	
  80037735).	
   5	
  Rachel	
  Deahl,	
  "Will	
  There	
  Be	
  A	
  'Fifty	
  Shades'	
  Afterglow?"	
  Publishers	
  Weekly	
  259,	
  no.	
  18:	
  8,	
   Business	
  Source	
  Complete,	
  EBSCOhost	
  (accession	
  no.	
  74689776).	
  	
    	
    2	
    periodical	
  publications,	
  and	
  at	
  the	
  genre’s	
  peak	
  there	
  were	
  over	
  fifty	
  separate	
  titles	
   with	
  monthly	
  publication	
  numbers	
  exceeding	
  100	
  million	
  copies.⁠6	
  Ladies’	
  comics	
   can	
  now	
  be	
  purchased	
  in	
  e-­‐book	
  format	
  for	
  download	
  onto	
  computers	
  and	
  mobile	
   devices.	
   Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey,	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  many	
  ladies’	
  comics	
  stories,	
  include	
  sex	
  scenes	
   in	
  which	
  the	
  male	
  characters	
  sexually	
  dominate	
  the	
  female	
  characters.	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
   focuses	
  on	
  sadomasochistic	
  practices,	
  while	
  ladies’	
  comics	
  often	
  incorporate	
  scenes	
   of	
  resistance,	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  rape.	
  While	
  the	
  emergence	
  of	
  ladies’	
  comics	
  has	
  created	
   some	
  commentary	
  within	
  and	
  outside	
  of	
  Japan,	
  the	
  debate	
  surrounding	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
   has	
  exploded	
  within	
  the	
  international	
  media.	
  Readers,	
  researchers	
  and	
  journalists	
   question	
  whether	
  the	
  work	
  represents	
  sexual	
  empowerment	
  for	
  women,	
  or	
  whether	
   it	
  is	
  an	
  example	
  of	
  the	
  devaluation	
  of	
  women’s	
  needs	
  within	
  romantic	
  heterosexual	
   relationships.	
   In	
  the	
  Redbook	
  magazine	
  article	
  “What’s	
  the	
  Deal	
  with	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey?”	
   Dr.	
  Laura	
  Berman,	
  a	
  “sex	
  and	
  relationship	
  therapist,”	
  states	
  “…anything	
  that	
  gets	
   women	
  talking	
  about	
  sex	
  and	
  letting	
  go	
  of	
  shame	
  is	
  good.”⁠7	
  The	
  Globe	
  and	
  Mail	
   article,	
  “Mom’s	
  Latest	
  Guilty	
  Pleasure:	
  Bondage	
  Erotica,”	
  includes	
  an	
  interview	
  with	
   Fifty	
  Shades	
  reader	
  Clara	
  Rose,	
  who	
  praises	
  the	
  camaraderie	
  amongst	
  the	
  work’s	
   fans.	
  She	
  maintains	
  “it’s	
  about	
  women	
  talking	
  to	
  each	
  other	
  like	
  they	
  did	
  when	
  they	
    	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   6	
  Gretchen	
  Jones,	
  “Bad	
  Girls	
  Like	
  to	
  Watch:	
  Writing	
  and	
  Reading	
  Ladies'	
  Comics,”	
  in	
  Bad	
  Girls	
   of	
  Japan,	
  ed.	
  by	
  Laura	
  Miller	
  and	
  Jan	
  Bardsley	
  (Gordonsville,	
  VA:	
  Palgrave	
  Macmillan,	
  2005),	
  98.	
   7	
  "Love	
  Notes:	
  What's	
  the	
  Deal	
  with	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey?"	
  Redbook	
  (June	
  1,	
  2012):	
  94,	
   available	
  from	
  http://www.lexisnexis.com/hottopics/lnacademic	
    	
    3	
    were	
  in	
  college.”⁠8	
  Similarly,	
  International	
  Business	
  Times	
  quotes	
  How	
  to	
  Get	
  Your	
   Wife	
  to	
  Have	
  Sex	
  With	
  You	
  author	
  Logan	
  Levkoff	
  as	
  saying:	
   "What	
   I	
   love	
   most	
   about	
   the	
   hoopla	
   surrounding	
   ‘Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey’	
   is	
   that	
   the	
  story	
  here	
  isn't	
  really	
  about	
  women	
  getting	
  turned	
  on.	
  It's	
  not	
  even	
  about	
   women	
   desiring	
   more	
   sex	
   with	
   their	
   partners.	
   It's	
   about	
   women	
   sharing	
   information	
   with	
   each	
   other.	
   It's	
   about	
   storytelling	
   and	
   friendships.	
   Women	
   have	
  found	
  something	
  that	
  enhances	
  their	
  emotional	
  and	
  sexual	
  lives	
  and	
  want	
   to	
  pass	
  that	
  knowledge	
  onto	
  their	
  friends,	
  family	
  members,	
  and	
  even	
  the	
  world	
   at	
  large."⁠9 	
   Conversely,	
  in	
  the	
  Herald’s	
  “Mummy	
  Porn	
  and	
  a	
  Male	
  Model	
  of	
  Sexual	
   Fulfillment,”	
  Julie	
  Davidson	
  asserts	
  that	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey	
  follows	
  a	
  male-­‐created	
   framework	
  of	
  sexual	
  fulfillment,	
  and	
  suggests	
  that	
  the	
  book	
  has	
  a	
  similar	
   detrimental	
  effect	
  to	
  male-­‐produced	
  pornography.10	
  Yasmin	
  Alibhai-­‐Brown	
  adds	
   that	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  “gives	
  the	
  message	
  that	
  even	
  educated	
  women	
  can	
  only	
  be	
  fulfilled	
   if	
  entrapped	
  and	
  tortured	
  by	
  rich	
  and	
  powerful	
  men	
  –	
  that	
  abused	
  victims	
  ask	
  for	
  it	
   and	
  love	
  their	
  abusers.”11	
   While	
  Davidson	
  and	
  Alibhai-­‐Brown’s	
  negative	
  commentary	
  focuses	
  on	
  the	
  plot	
   and	
  content	
  of	
  the	
  work,	
  the	
  positive	
  discourse	
  emphasizes	
  sexual	
  empowerment	
   through	
  the	
  sharing	
  of	
  sexual	
  experience	
  via	
  the	
  consumption	
  of	
  erotic	
  literature.	
  I	
   believe	
  that	
  the	
  female	
  gender	
  of	
  the	
  author	
  is	
  a	
  contributing	
  factor	
  to	
  this	
   perception	
  of	
  empowerment,	
  and	
  that	
  female	
  authorship	
  negates	
  the	
  potentially	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   8	
  Zosia	
  Bielski,	
  “Mom's	
  Latest	
  Guilty	
  Pleasure:	
  Bondage	
  Erotica,”	
  The	
  Globe	
  and	
  Mail,	
  March	
  2,	
    2012,	
  Canadian	
  Periodicals	
  Index	
  Quarterly,	
  Gale	
  (document	
  no.	
  A281747148).	
   9	
  Justine	
  Ashley	
  Costanza,	
  "Why	
  Some	
  Find	
  "Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey"	
  Disturbing,	
  New	
  Film	
   Adaptation	
  Announced,	
  Erotic	
  Novel	
  Generates	
  Controversy,"	
  International	
  Business	
  Times,	
  March	
  27,	
   2012,	
  http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/articles/320222/20120327/fifty-­‐shades-­‐grey-­‐twilight-­‐fan-­‐fiction-­‐ edward.htm	
  	
   10	
  Julie	
  Davidson,	
  “Mummy	
  Porn	
  and	
  a	
  Male	
  Model	
  of	
  Sexual	
  Fulfilment,”	
  The	
  Herald,	
  July	
  14,	
   2012,	
  http://www.heraldscotland.com/mobile/comment/columnists/mummy-­‐porn-­‐and-­‐a-­‐male-­‐ model-­‐of-­‐sexual-­‐fulfilment.18148693	
   11	
  Yasmin	
  Alibhai-­‐Brown,	
  “Do	
  Women	
  Really	
  Want	
  to	
  be	
  So	
  Submissive?”	
  Independent,	
  July	
  2,	
   2012,	
  available	
  from	
  http://www.lexisnexis.com/hottopics/lnacademic	
    	
    4	
    antagonizing	
  elements	
  of	
  the	
  plot.	
  In	
  this	
  thesis,	
  I	
  assert	
  that	
  this	
  association	
  of	
   empowerment	
  with	
  female	
  authorship	
  is	
  due	
  in	
  part	
  to	
  the	
  relationship	
  between	
   this	
  material	
  and	
  foundational	
  erotic	
  texts	
  written	
  by	
  women,	
  and	
  that	
  English-­‐	
  and	
   Japanese-­‐language	
  publishers	
  have	
  exploited	
  this	
  expectation	
  of	
  empowerment	
  in	
   order	
  to	
  successfully	
  market	
  sexually	
  explicit	
  works	
  with	
  blatantly	
  misogynistic	
   content	
  to	
  a	
  female	
  audience.	
   In	
  the	
  first	
  chapter,	
  I	
  will	
  examine	
  the	
  development	
  of	
  Japanese-­‐	
  and	
  English-­‐ language	
  women’s	
  erotic	
  writings,	
  and	
  how	
  these	
  works	
  contributed	
  to	
  the	
   differentiation	
  of	
  women’s	
  erotica	
  from	
  pornography	
  by	
  building	
  a	
  reputation	
  for	
   aesthetic	
  value	
  and	
  authenticity.	
  Referring	
  to	
  Japanese	
  women’s	
  magazines	
  in	
  the	
   1920s	
  and	
  English-­‐language	
  works	
  for	
  women	
  published	
  between	
  the	
  1920s	
  and	
   the	
  1970s,	
  I	
  will	
  illustrate	
  how	
  the	
  autobiographical	
  nature	
  of	
  these	
  works	
   generated	
  confidence	
  in	
  readers	
  that	
  the	
  authors	
  were	
  sharing	
  personal	
  experiences	
   in	
  which	
  women	
  were	
  in	
  control	
  of	
  the	
  sexual	
  acts,	
  and	
  that	
  their	
  sexuality	
  was	
  not	
   commodified	
  as	
  one	
  might	
  expect	
  within	
  male-­‐centred	
  pornography.	
   In	
  the	
  second	
  chapter,	
  I	
  will	
  examine	
  the	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey	
  trilogy	
  and	
  the	
   ladies’	
  comics	
  work	
  Toraware	
  no	
  yoru	
    	
  (Captive	
  night)	
  in	
  order	
  to	
    demonstrate	
  how	
  these	
  contemporary	
  examples	
  of	
  women’s	
  erotica	
  are	
  in	
  clear	
   conflict	
  with	
  earlier	
  erotic	
  texts	
  created	
  for	
  women,	
  and	
  are	
  in	
  fact	
  similar	
  to	
  male-­‐ produced	
  pornography	
  as	
  they	
  remove	
  female	
  agency	
  within	
  sexual	
  acts,	
  and	
  also	
   depict	
  female	
  sexuality	
  as	
  a	
  commodity.	
  I	
  will	
  argue	
  that,	
  despite	
  these	
  aspects	
  of	
  the	
   stories,	
  the	
  emphasis	
  on	
  female	
  authorship,	
  which	
  is	
  prevalent	
  in	
  both	
  texts,	
  has	
   resulted	
  in	
  readers’	
  reception	
  of	
  the	
  material	
  as	
  following	
  the	
  tradition	
  of	
  previous	
    	
    5	
    examples	
  of	
  women’s	
  erotica,	
  where	
  women	
  writing	
  about	
  sexual	
  experience	
  was	
   associated	
  with	
  women’s	
  sexual	
  empowerment.	
  I	
  will	
  also	
  discuss	
  the	
  role	
  of	
  the	
   readers	
  in	
  providing	
  content,	
  and	
  how	
  this	
  also	
  contributes	
  to	
  the	
  notion	
  of	
  a	
   female-­‐exclusive	
  genre	
  devoid	
  of	
  male	
  authorship	
  and	
  readership,	
  thereby	
  removing	
   it	
  from	
  possible	
  connotations	
  with	
  pornography	
  targeted	
  towards	
  men.	
   I	
  will	
  conclude	
  the	
  thesis	
  by	
  speculating	
  on	
  how	
  the	
  growing	
  popularity	
  and	
   availability	
  of	
  digital	
  formats	
  will	
  complicate	
  the	
  ability	
  of	
  publishers	
  to	
  frame	
   women’s	
  erotica	
  as	
  a	
  “by	
  women	
  for	
  women”	
  genre.	
  I	
  will	
  describe	
  how,	
  despite	
   potentially	
  increasing	
  accessibility	
  for	
  female	
  readers	
  and	
  opportunities	
  for	
  writers	
   of	
  women’s	
  erotic	
  fiction,	
  e-­‐publishing	
  will	
  also	
  make	
  it	
  less	
  feasible	
  to	
  exclude	
  male	
   readers	
  and	
  writers	
  from	
  the	
  virtual	
  space.	
  The	
  incursion	
  of	
  men	
  into	
  this	
  female	
   sphere	
  of	
  women’s	
  erotica	
  will	
  ultimately	
  impact	
  the	
  reception	
  of	
  the	
  genre	
  by	
   female	
  readers,	
  and	
  whether	
  the	
  material	
  will	
  be	
  viewed	
  as	
  empowering	
  by	
  this	
   female	
  readership.	
  	
   	
    	
    	
    6	
    Chapter	
  1:	
  Creating	
  a	
  Yardstick	
  of	
  Sexual	
  Power	
   	
   Lorde’s	
  Uses	
  of	
  the	
  Erotic	
  points	
  to	
  two	
  characteristics	
  that	
  are	
  regularly	
   applied	
  to	
  differentiate	
  pornography	
  from	
  erotica.	
  First,	
  Lorde	
  states	
  that	
   “pornography	
  is	
  a	
  direct	
  denial	
  of	
  the	
  power	
  of	
  the	
  erotic,	
  for	
  it	
  represents	
  the	
   suppression	
  of	
  true	
  feeling.”12	
  This	
  bears	
  similarities	
  to	
  the	
  argument	
  that	
  erotica	
   has	
  more	
  aesthetic	
  value	
  than	
  pornography.	
  Further,	
  while	
  pornography	
  focuses	
   almost	
  exclusively	
  on	
  depictions	
  of	
  sexual	
  acts,	
  erotica	
  requires	
  character	
  and	
  plot	
   development.	
  Second,	
  Lorde	
  muses	
  that	
  “to	
  share	
  the	
  power	
  of	
  each	
  other’s	
  feelings	
   is	
  different	
  from	
  using	
  another’s	
  feelings	
  as	
  we	
  would	
  use	
  a	
  kleenex.”13	
  Lorde	
   appears	
  to	
  be	
  referring	
  to	
  pornography	
  here,	
  as	
  well,	
  suggesting	
  that	
  the	
  erotic’s	
   power	
  lies	
  in	
  the	
  sharing	
  of	
  the	
  authentic	
  and	
  personal,	
  unlike	
  the	
  exploitative	
   nature	
  of	
  pornography.	
  These	
  ideals	
  are	
  reflected	
  in	
  Gayle	
  Rubin’s	
  comparison	
  of	
   erotica	
  and	
  pornography.	
  She	
  states:	
   Although	
   the	
   term	
   ‘pornography’	
   was	
   originally	
   used	
   to	
   refer	
   to	
   all	
   kinds	
   of	
   explicitly	
   sexual	
   writing	
   and	
   art,	
   it	
   has	
   increasingly	
   been	
   associated	
   with	
   the	
   phenomenon	
  of	
  inexpensive	
  commercial	
  erotica.	
  Particularly	
  since	
  World	
  War	
   Two,	
   the	
   term	
   has	
   acquired	
   connotations	
   of	
   the	
   ‘cheap	
   stuff’:	
   mass-­‐market,	
   commercial	
   materials	
   distinct	
   from	
   more	
   expensive,	
   artistic	
   or	
   sophisticated	
   ‘erotica’.	
   	
   She	
  later	
  adds:	
   Erotica	
  has	
  had	
  the	
  connotations	
  of	
  being	
  softer,	
  classier,	
  better	
  produced,	
  less	
   blatant,	
  and	
  often	
  less	
  bluntly	
  explicit	
  than	
  pornography.	
  14	
   	
   In	
  this	
  chapter,	
  I	
  will	
  discuss	
  this	
  differentiation	
  between	
  the	
  terms	
  erotica	
  and	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   12	
  Lorde,	
  2.	
   13	
  Ibid.,	
  7.	
    14	
  Gayle	
  Rubin,	
  “Misguided,	
  Dangerous	
  and	
  Wrong:	
  An	
  Analysis	
  of	
  Anti-­‐pornography	
   Politics,”	
  in	
  Bad	
  Girls	
  and	
  Dirty	
  Pictures:	
  The	
  Challenge	
  to	
  Reclaim	
  Feminism,	
  ed.	
  Alison	
  Assiter	
  and	
   Avedon	
  Carol	
  (London:	
  Pluto	
  Press,	
  1993),	
  25.	
    	
    7	
    pornography,	
  and	
  will	
  demonstrate	
  how	
  early	
  examples	
  of	
  modern	
  Japanese-­‐	
  and	
   English-­‐language	
  erotic	
  texts	
  directed	
  towards	
  women	
  strengthened	
  notions	
  of	
  the	
   aesthetic	
  value	
  and	
  authenticity	
  of	
  erotic	
  writing	
  through	
  female	
  authorship.	
  	
  	
   In	
  her	
  book	
  At	
  Home	
  with	
  Pornography:	
  Women,	
  Sexuality,	
  and	
  Everyday	
  Life,	
   Jane	
  Juffer	
  discusses	
  the	
  aesthetic	
  value	
  prescribed	
  to	
  erotica.	
  Rather	
  than	
   attributing	
  plot	
  and	
  character	
  development	
  to	
  a	
  feminine	
  need	
  for	
  romantic	
   storylines,	
  Juffer	
  argues	
  that	
  the	
  inclusion	
  of	
  details	
  such	
  as	
  the	
  female	
  protagonist’s	
   career	
  within	
  literary	
  erotica	
  serves	
  to	
  reflect	
  the	
  reality	
  of	
  women’s	
  lives.	
  Juffer	
   states:	
   The	
  act	
  of	
  writing	
  erotica	
  in	
  the	
  1980s	
  became	
  another	
  venue	
  for	
  distributing	
   the	
   information	
   about	
   women's	
   bodily	
   pleasures	
   and	
   sexual	
   fantasies	
   that	
   was	
   produced	
  in	
  the	
  masturbation	
  discourse....	
  In	
  fact,	
  literary	
  erotica	
  has	
  provided	
   a	
   way	
   for	
   women	
   to	
   explore,	
   under	
   the	
   legitimating	
   auspices	
   of	
   aesthetic	
   discourse,	
   the	
   many	
   different	
   ways	
   to	
   reconcile	
   reality	
   and	
   fantasy,	
   the	
   everyday	
  and	
  the	
  erotic."15	
   	
   Juffer	
  asserts	
  that	
  it	
  is	
  the	
  inclusion	
  of	
  details	
  on	
  the	
  everyday	
  reality	
  of	
  women	
  that	
   differentiates	
  erotica	
  from	
  pornography,	
  where	
  sexual	
  acts	
  happen	
  without	
  any	
   context	
  that	
  could	
  be	
  considered	
  to	
  mirror	
  real	
  life.	
   Juffer	
  also	
  maintains	
  that	
  English-­‐language	
  women’s	
  erotica	
  that	
  emerged	
  in	
   the	
  1980s	
  directly	
  benefited	
  from	
  the	
  work	
  of	
  writers	
  and	
  educators	
  such	
  as	
  Betty	
   Dodson,	
  Lonnie	
  Barbach,	
  and	
  Nancy	
  Friday,	
  who	
  focused	
  their	
  attention	
  on	
  women’s	
   masturbation.	
  They	
  urged	
  women	
  through	
  workshops	
  (in	
  the	
  case	
  of	
  Dodson)	
  and	
   literary	
  texts	
  to	
  seek	
  sexual	
  satisfaction	
  without	
  the	
  presence	
  of	
  a	
  partner.	
  Juffer	
   explains:	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
    15	
  Jane	
  Juffer,	
  At	
  Home	
  with	
  Pornography:	
  Women,	
  Sex,	
  and	
  Everyday	
  Life	
  (New	
  York:	
  New	
   York	
  University	
  Press,	
  1998),	
  105.	
    	
    8	
    Masturbation	
   discourse	
   laid	
   the	
   foundation	
   for	
   much	
   of	
   the	
   women's	
   erotica	
   and	
  couples'	
  porn	
  that	
  appeared	
  in	
  the	
  1980s	
  and	
  1990s;	
  teaching	
  women	
  that	
   masturbation	
   was	
   an	
   accepted	
   activity	
   was	
   a	
   necessary	
   first	
   component	
   to	
   their	
   consumption	
   of	
   erotic	
   materials.	
   Furthermore,	
   masturbation	
   discourse,	
   especially	
   as	
   it	
   valorized	
   the	
   clitoris,	
   helped	
   distinguish	
   erotica	
   from	
   pornography,	
  a	
  genre	
  connected	
  to	
  men's	
  orgasms	
  and	
  masturbation.16	
   	
   The	
  masturbatory	
  texts	
  that	
  Juffer	
  refers	
  to,	
  which	
  include	
  Nancy	
  Friday’s	
  My	
  Secret	
   Garden,	
  were	
  published	
  in	
  the	
  same	
  timeframe	
  as	
  Lorde’s	
  1978	
  essay,	
  and	
  were	
   focused	
  on	
  the	
  exchange	
  of	
  the	
  personal	
  through	
  autobiographical	
  and	
  biographical	
   stories	
  and	
  fantasies.	
  This	
  personal	
  element	
  in	
  the	
  creation	
  of	
  the	
  texts	
  strengthened	
   the	
  idea	
  that	
  the	
  material	
  was	
  based	
  in	
  reality,	
  even	
  when	
  the	
  content	
  touched	
  on	
   sexual	
  fantasies.	
  Women	
  readers,	
  in	
  turn,	
  used	
  the	
  texts	
  to	
  embark	
  on	
  their	
  tangible	
   goals	
  of	
  discovering	
  their	
  bodies	
  and	
  sexuality.	
   Additionally,	
  the	
  exchange	
  of	
  sexual	
  fantasies	
  and	
  experiences	
  via	
  texts	
  and	
   publications	
  resulted	
  in	
  a	
  shared	
  understanding	
  of	
  women’s	
  sexuality	
  that	
  could	
   only	
  be	
  created	
  by	
  women	
  themselves.	
  Nancy	
  Friday	
  concludes:	
   What	
   women	
   needed	
   and	
   were	
   waiting	
   for	
   was	
   some	
   kind	
   of	
   yardstick	
   against	
   which	
   to	
   measure	
   ourselves,	
   a	
   sexual	
   rule	
   of	
   thumb	
   equivalent	
   to	
   that	
   with	
   which	
  men	
  have	
  always	
  provided	
  one	
  another.	
  But	
  women	
  were	
  the	
  silent	
  sex.	
   In	
   our	
   desire	
   to	
   please	
   our	
   men,	
   we	
   had	
   placed	
   the	
   sexual	
   constraints	
   and	
   secrecy	
   upon	
   one	
   another	
   which	
   men	
   had	
   thought	
   necessary	
   for	
   their	
   own	
   happiness	
  and	
  freedom.	
  We	
   had	
   imprisoned	
   each	
   other,	
   betrayed	
  our	
  own	
  sex	
   and	
   ourselves.	
   Men	
   had	
   always	
   banded	
   together	
   to	
   give	
   each	
   other	
   fraternal	
   support	
  and	
  encouragement,	
  opening	
  up	
  for	
  themselves	
  the	
  greatest	
  possible	
   avenues	
  for	
  sexual	
  adventure,	
  variety	
  and	
  possibility.	
  Not	
  women.17	
   	
   The	
  sexual	
  “yardstick”	
  that	
  Friday	
  refers	
  to	
  involves	
  the	
  sharing	
  of	
  personal	
   experience	
  in	
  order	
  to	
  create	
  a	
  knowledge	
  database	
  for	
  women	
  from	
  which	
  to	
  draw	
   in	
  order	
  to	
  achieve	
  sexual	
  empowerment.	
  Friday	
  worked	
  towards	
  establishing	
  this	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   16	
  Ibid.,	
  73.	
    17	
  Nancy	
  Friday,	
  My	
  Secret	
  Garden:	
  Women’s	
  Sexual	
  Fantasies	
  (New	
  York:	
  Pocket	
  Books,	
   1978),	
  7-­‐8.	
    	
    9	
    yardstick	
  through	
  the	
  contributions	
  of	
  women	
  who	
  agreed	
  to	
  participate	
  in	
  her	
   study	
  of	
  female	
  fantasy.	
  	
   Since	
  the	
  yardstick	
  functions	
  as	
  a	
  shared	
  reality,	
  it	
  is	
  imperative	
  that	
  it	
  be	
   based	
  on	
  the	
  true	
  and	
  the	
  personal.	
  Friday	
  also	
  maintains	
  that	
  autobiography	
  is	
   necessary	
  to	
  achieve	
  empowerment.	
  She	
  states:	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  Today	
   we	
   have	
   a	
   flowering	
   of	
   women	
   who	
   write	
   explicitly	
   and	
   honestly	
   about	
  sex	
  and	
  about	
  what	
  goes	
  on	
  in	
  a	
  woman’s	
  mind	
  and	
   body	
   during	
   the	
   act.	
   Marvelous	
  writers	
  like	
  Edna	
  O’Brien	
  and	
  Doris	
  Lessing.	
  But	
  even	
  with	
  women	
   as	
   outspoken	
   as	
   these,	
   they	
   feel	
   the	
   need	
   for	
   a	
   last	
   seventh	
   veil	
   to	
   hide	
   acknowledgement	
  of	
  their	
  sexuality;	
  what	
  they	
  write	
  calls	
  itself	
  fiction.	
  It	
  is	
  a	
   veil	
   I	
   feel	
   it	
   would	
   be	
   interesting	
   and	
   even	
   useful	
   to	
   remove	
   as	
   a	
   step	
   in	
   the	
   liberation	
  of	
  us	
  all,	
  women	
  and	
  men	
  alike.	
  For	
  no	
  man	
  can	
  be	
  really	
  free	
  in	
  bed	
   with	
  a	
  women	
  who	
  is	
  not.18	
   	
   Therefore,	
  according	
  to	
  Friday,	
  even	
  literary	
  authors	
  such	
  as	
  O’Brien	
  and	
  Lessing	
   must	
  acknowledge	
  their	
  own	
  sexual	
  experience	
  within	
  their	
  work	
  so	
  that	
  their	
   writings	
  can	
  strengthen	
  the	
  yardstick	
  of	
  women’s	
  experience.	
   Previous	
  to	
  the	
  emergence	
  of	
  these	
  texts,	
  American	
  readers	
  had	
  already	
  been	
   exposed	
  to	
  confession	
  romance	
  magazines	
  featuring	
  purportedly	
  autobiographical	
   stories	
  that	
  incorporated	
  sexual	
  experiences.	
  This	
  magazine	
  genre	
  grew	
  from	
  the	
   publication	
  True	
  Story,	
  which	
  solicited	
  women	
  readers	
  to	
  submit	
  their	
  stories	
  for	
   $1000.19	
  True	
  Story	
  began	
  publication	
  in	
  1919,	
  and	
  the	
  genre	
  flourished	
  over	
  the	
   following	
  decades.	
  According	
  to	
  George	
  Gerbner,	
  “by	
  the	
  turn	
  of	
  mid-­‐century,	
  some	
   forty	
  titles	
  in	
  the	
  romance	
  confession	
  field	
  tried	
  to	
  lure	
  advertising	
  sponsorship	
  with	
    	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   18	
  Ibid.,	
  14.	
    19	
  Roseann	
  Mandziuk,	
  “Confessional	
  Discourse	
  and	
  Modern	
  Desires:	
  Power	
  and	
  Please	
  in	
   True	
  Story	
  Magazine,”	
  Critical	
  Studies	
  in	
  Media	
  Communication	
  18,	
  no.	
  2	
  (2001):	
  174,	
   doi:10.1080/07393180128076	
    	
    10	
    a	
  guaranteed	
  circulation	
  of	
  16	
  million	
  copies.”20	
   The	
  titles	
  of	
  the	
  magazines	
  encouraged	
  the	
  notion	
  that	
  the	
  stories	
  within	
  their	
   pages	
  were	
  based	
  on	
  confessions	
  submitted	
  by	
  their	
  readers.	
  Five	
  of	
  the	
  eight	
   romance	
  periodicals	
  included	
  in	
  Leo	
  Bogart’s	
  1956	
  study	
  “Magazines	
  Since	
  the	
  Rise	
   of	
  Television”	
  included	
  the	
  word	
  “true”	
  within	
  their	
  titles.	
  In	
  addition	
  to	
  True	
  Story	
   Bogart	
  lists	
  True	
  Romance,	
  True	
  Experience,	
  True	
  Love	
  Story	
  and	
  True	
  Confessions.21	
   Like	
  the	
  masturbatory	
  texts	
  of	
  the	
  1970s,	
  confession	
  magazines	
  solicited	
  first-­‐ person	
  accounts	
  from	
  women.	
  However,	
  while	
  the	
  masturbatory	
  texts	
  encouraged	
   sexual	
  fantasy	
  and	
  experimentation	
  as	
  a	
  method	
  of	
  empowerment,	
  the	
  confession	
   magazines	
  highlighted	
  empowerment	
  through	
  adherence	
  to	
  traditional	
  notions	
  of	
   womanhood.	
  	
   Maureen	
  Honey	
  provides	
  the	
  following	
  description	
  of	
  the	
  typical	
  plot	
  of	
  the	
   confession	
  magazine	
  story:	
   While	
  a	
  wide	
  variety	
  of	
  crises	
  assail	
  the	
  confessions	
  heroine,	
  her	
  shame	
  is	
  most	
   often	
   due	
   to	
   sexual	
   transgression:	
   premarital	
   sex,	
   affairs	
   with	
   married	
   men,	
   giving	
  birth	
  out	
  of	
  wedlock.	
  Driven	
  to	
  the	
  arms	
  of	
  a	
  man	
  by	
  her	
  desperate	
  need	
   for	
   warmth,	
   acceptance,	
   and	
   meaning,	
   the	
   narrator	
   violates	
   her	
   own	
   moral	
   standards	
  or	
  blinds	
  herself	
  to	
  her	
  lover’s	
  lack	
  of	
  character	
  in	
  order	
  to	
  avoid	
  re-­‐ entering	
  the	
  cold	
  world	
  from	
  which	
  she	
  is	
  trying	
  to	
  escape.	
  The	
  price	
  for	
  her	
   illusory	
   safety	
   is,	
   however,	
   guilt	
   and	
   self-­‐debasement	
   as	
   she	
   clings	
   desperately	
   to	
   a	
   man	
   who	
   does	
   not	
   respect	
   her.	
   Isolated	
   even	
   further	
   from	
   other	
   people	
   than	
   she	
   had	
   been	
   by	
   her	
   need	
   to	
   dissemble,	
   the	
   narrator	
   is	
   pushed	
   to	
   the	
   limits	
   of	
   her	
   endurance	
   as	
   she	
   tries	
   to	
   hide	
   her	
   “sin”	
   from	
   the	
   world.	
   The	
   tension	
   of	
   this	
   drama	
   is	
   resolved	
   when	
   the	
   narrator	
   finally	
   faces	
   reality	
   and	
   makes	
  a	
  decision	
  to	
  act	
  in	
  accordance	
  with	
  her	
  values	
  (usually	
  by	
  ending	
  the	
   relationship)	
  or	
  heroically	
  pulls	
  herself	
  together	
  to	
  lead	
  a	
  decent	
  life.22	
   	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   20	
  George	
  Gerbner,	
  “The	
  Social	
  Role	
  of	
  the	
  Confession	
  Magazine,”	
  Social	
  Problems	
  6,	
  no.	
  1	
   (Summer,	
  1958):	
  29,	
  http://www.jstor.org/stable/798993	
   21	
  Leo	
  Bogart,	
  “Magazines	
  Since	
  the	
  Rise	
  of	
  Television,”	
  Journalism	
  &	
  Mass	
  Communication	
   Quarterly	
  33,	
  no.	
  2	
  (Spring	
  1956):	
  166,	
  doi:	
  10.1177/107769905603300201	
   22	
  Maureen	
  Honey,	
  “The	
  Confession	
  Formula	
  and	
  Fantasies	
  of	
  Empowerment,”	
  Women’s	
   Studies	
  10,	
  no.3	
  (January	
  1984):	
  307,	
  Academic	
  Search	
  Premier,	
  EBSCOhost	
  (accession	
  no.	
  5809142).	
    	
    11	
    Sex	
  in	
  the	
  confession	
  magazine	
  was	
  equated	
  with	
  moral	
  failure,	
  and	
  it	
  was	
  by	
   resisting	
  sexual	
  desire	
  that	
  female	
  protagonists	
  were	
  shown	
  to	
  embody	
  strength.	
   Honey	
  also	
  discusses	
  the	
  prominence	
  of	
  womenly	
  self-­‐sacrifice	
  within	
  the	
  stories,	
   stating:	
  “Because	
  their	
  compulsion	
  for	
  adventure,	
  romance,	
  and	
  unconditional	
  love	
   has	
  caused	
  them	
  to	
  act	
  in	
  destructive	
  ways,	
  narrators	
  equate	
  acting	
  on	
  demands	
  of	
   self	
  with	
  pain.”23	
  By	
  focusing	
  on	
  the	
  notion	
  of	
  self-­‐sacrifice,	
  the	
  confession	
   magazines	
  are	
  in	
  clear	
  contrast	
  with	
  works	
  such	
  as	
  My	
  Secret	
  Garden,	
  where	
   addressing	
  one’s	
  own	
  needs	
  through	
  self-­‐gratification	
  is	
  a	
  primary	
  objective.	
  	
   Additionally,	
  the	
  act	
  of	
  confession	
  itself	
  reinforced	
  a	
  common	
  understanding	
  of	
   the	
  ideal	
  woman.	
  Roseann	
  Mandziuk	
  discusses	
  how	
  confession	
  within	
  True	
  Story	
   facilitated	
  the	
  construction	
  of	
  a	
  shared	
  female	
  identity	
  amongst	
  writers	
  and	
  readers:	
   Because	
   the	
   writers	
   and	
   readers	
   for	
   True	
   Story	
   are	
   articulated	
   as	
   the	
   same	
   gender	
   and	
   class,	
   the	
   evaluation	
   of	
   the	
   interlocutor	
   in	
   this	
   commodity	
   confessional	
   draws	
   its	
   authority	
   not	
   from	
   a	
   hierarchical	
   distance	
   or	
   superior	
   position	
  but	
  from	
  the	
  invocation	
  of	
  a	
  commonly	
  shared	
  reservoir	
  of	
  values.	
  The	
   power	
  in	
  the	
  form	
  is	
  dispersed	
  horizontally,	
  across	
  the	
  moral	
  code,	
  rather	
  than	
   invoked	
  vertically,	
  between	
  different	
  points	
  on	
  a	
  social	
  hierarchy.	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  In	
   accordance	
   with	
   the	
   revelation/mediation	
   process	
   characteristic	
   of	
   women’s	
   reading,	
   moreover,	
   the	
   confession	
   functions	
   as	
   a	
   mediating	
   act	
   between	
  collaborators,	
  such	
  that	
  the	
  act	
  itself,	
  and	
  the	
  mutual	
  participation	
  in	
   it,	
  potentially	
  offers	
  exoneration	
  to	
  both	
  writer	
  and	
  reader.24	
    	
   Despite	
  their	
  differences,	
  both	
  My	
  Secret	
  Garden	
  and	
  confession	
  magazines	
  such	
  as	
   True	
  Story	
  employed	
  confession	
  as	
  a	
  way	
  for	
  female	
  readers	
  to	
  identify	
  with	
  the	
   information	
  being	
  transmitted.	
  The	
  works	
  also	
  allowed	
  readers	
  and	
  writers	
  to	
    exchange	
  information	
  in	
  a	
  climate	
  of	
  collaboration	
  that	
  further	
  facilitated	
  the	
  sense	
   of	
  “exoneration”	
  that	
  Honey	
  describes.	
  Female	
  authorship	
  was	
  essential	
  to	
  making	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   23	
  Ibid.,	
  316.	
    24	
  Mandziuk,	
  185.	
  	
    	
    12	
    the	
  confession	
  formula	
  effective	
  for	
  both	
  types	
  of	
  works.	
  The	
  author’s	
  gender	
   facilitated	
  the	
  female	
  reader’s	
  ability	
  to	
  identify	
  with	
  the	
  author	
  and	
  narrator,	
   creating	
  an	
  environment	
  where	
  authors	
  and	
  readers	
  could	
  potentially	
  become	
   collaborators.	
   The	
  concept	
  of	
  confession	
  also	
  played	
  a	
  prominent	
  part	
  in	
  stories	
  with	
  sexual	
   content	
  that	
  appeared	
  in	
  Japanese	
  women’s	
  magazines	
  of	
  the	
  1920s.	
  Maeda	
  Ai	
   maintains	
  that	
  the	
  emergence	
  of	
  these	
  women’s	
  periodicals	
  coincided	
  with	
  a	
  surge	
   in	
  the	
  number	
  of	
  women	
  who	
  had	
  attained	
  a	
  secondary	
  education.	
  He	
  also	
  links	
  the	
   popularity	
  of	
  the	
  magazines	
  to	
  an	
  increase	
  in	
  women	
  working	
  outside	
  the	
  home,	
   with	
  a	
  disposable	
  income.25	
  Thus,	
  women	
  were	
  experiencing	
  personal	
   empowerment	
  on	
  many	
  levels;	
  sexual	
  empowerment	
  via	
  disseminating	
  sexual	
   experience	
  complemented	
  this	
  trend.	
   In	
  her	
  book	
  Turning	
  Pages:	
  Reading	
  and	
  Writing	
  Women’s	
  Magazines	
  in	
   Interwar	
  Japan,	
  Sarah	
  Frederick	
  offers	
  a	
  detailed	
  discussion	
  on	
  the	
  women’s	
   magazine	
  Nyonin	
  geijutsu,	
  which	
  was	
  published	
  between	
  1928	
  and	
  1932.	
  Of	
   particular	
  interest	
  to	
  Frederick	
  is	
  the	
  special	
  issue	
  entitled	
  “Jidenteki	
  ren’ai	
   shōsetsugō”	
    	
  (which	
  Fredrick	
  translates	
  as	
  the	
  “autobiographical	
    love	
  fiction”	
  issue).	
  The	
  issue	
  involved	
  women	
  writers	
  confessing	
  love	
  stories	
  that	
   often	
  included	
  reference	
  to	
  sexual	
  experiences.	
  Frederick	
  points	
  out	
  that,	
  while	
   explicit	
  terms	
  were	
  often	
  masked	
  by	
  fuseji	
  (“x”	
  characters	
  taking	
  place	
  of	
  the	
  actual	
   words	
  within	
  the	
  stories	
  so	
  as	
  to	
  avoid	
  confiscation	
  by	
  censors),	
  the	
  scenes	
  within	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
    25	
  Maeda	
  Ai,	
  “The	
  Development	
  of	
  Modern	
  Fiction	
  in	
  the	
  late	
  Taishō	
  Era:	
  Increasing	
   Readership	
  of	
  Women’s	
  Magazines,”	
  trans.	
  Rebecca	
  Copeland,	
  in	
  Text	
  and	
  the	
  City:	
  Essays	
  on	
  Japanese	
   Modernity,	
  ed.	
  James	
  A.	
  Fujii	
  (Durham:	
  Duke	
  University	
  Press,	
  2004),	
  169-­‐172.	
    	
    13	
    the	
  stories	
  were	
  clearly	
  understood	
  by	
  readers	
  through	
  context.26	
   Stories	
  from	
  the	
  autobiographical	
  love	
  issue	
  provided	
  a	
  sense	
  of	
  authenticity	
   since	
  they	
  were	
  said	
  to	
  reflect	
  the	
  authors’	
  own	
  experiences.	
  “Kiri	
  no	
  naka	
  no	
  koi”	
   	
  (Love	
  within	
  the	
  mist)	
  by	
  Ōi	
  Sachiko	
    	
  features	
  a	
  protagonist	
    named	
  “Madmoiselle.”	
  Near	
  the	
  middle	
  of	
  the	
  story,	
  the	
  narrator	
  states	
  the	
   following:	
    27	
    	
   If	
  one	
  leans	
  towards	
  thinking	
  that	
  the	
  author	
  Ōi	
  Sachiko	
  and	
  Madmoiselle	
  are	
   one	
  and	
  the	
  same,	
  then	
  that’s	
  good.	
  That’s	
  the	
  best.	
  Why?	
  Because	
  I	
  wouldn’t	
   care	
  to	
  speak	
  of	
  the	
  love	
  of	
  another.	
   	
   Ōi	
  highlights	
  the	
  authenticity	
  of	
  her	
  work	
  by	
  claiming	
  that	
  she	
  would	
  not	
   appropriate	
  the	
  love	
  story	
  of	
  someone	
  else,	
  so	
  the	
  reader	
  can	
  assume	
  that	
  the	
   content	
  of	
  the	
  story	
  has	
  its	
  basis	
  in	
  Ōi‘s	
  personal	
  reality.	
   Frederick	
  also	
  mentions	
  another	
  Nyonin	
  geijutsu	
  special	
  issue	
  that	
  focused	
  on	
   true	
  stories	
  or	
  jitsuwa.	
  According	
  to	
  Frederick,	
  Nyonin	
  geijutsu,	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  more	
   mainstream	
  women’s	
  magazines	
  such	
  as	
  Shufu	
  no	
  tomo	
  (Housewife’s	
  friend)	
   solicited	
  jitsuwa	
  stories	
  from	
  readers,	
  although	
  the	
  stories	
  were	
  then	
  stylized	
  by	
  the	
   magazines’	
  authors	
  and	
  editors.	
  Frederick	
  writes:	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  Jitsuwa	
  is	
  a	
  journalistic	
  classification	
  rather	
  than	
  any	
  particular	
  writing	
  style,	
   so	
   it	
   is	
   hard	
   to	
   characterize	
   generally.	
   Most	
   of	
   the	
   jitsuwa	
   here	
   were	
   not	
   written	
   in	
   the	
   first	
   person,	
   but	
   there	
   was	
   usually	
   (but	
   not	
   always)	
   a	
   female	
   protagonist	
  and	
  a	
  female	
  author’s	
  name	
  (a	
  real	
  name	
  or	
  something	
  along	
  the	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
    26	
  Sarah	
  Frederick,	
  Turning	
  Pages:	
  Reading	
  and	
  Writing	
  Women’s	
  Magazines	
  in	
  Interwar	
    Japan	
  (Honolulu:	
  University	
  of	
  Hawaii	
  Press,	
  2006),	
  144-­‐145.	
   27	
  Ōi	
  Sachiko	
   ,	
  “Kiri	
  no	
  naka	
  no	
  koi”	
   (March	
  1929):	
  81.	
    	
    ,	
  Nyonin	
  geijutsu	
    	
    14	
    lines	
   of	
   X-­‐ko).	
   At	
   the	
   same	
   time,	
   the	
   protagonists’	
   names	
   are	
   often	
   different	
   from	
   the	
   authors’,	
   and	
   many	
   episodes	
   are	
   told	
   through	
   surprisingly	
   indirect	
   narration.	
   For	
   example,	
   many	
   of	
   the	
   jitsuwa	
   use	
   a	
   diary	
   format	
   or	
   epistolary	
   form	
   in	
   which	
   a	
   letter	
   to	
   a	
   relative	
   or	
   husband	
   tells	
   most	
   of	
   the	
   story.	
   These	
   forms	
  call	
  attention	
  to	
  how	
  mediated	
  the	
  stories	
  are.28	
   	
   While	
  jitsuwa	
  were	
  an	
  important	
  facet	
  of	
  women’s	
  magazines	
  of	
  that	
  period,	
  the	
  fact	
   that	
  the	
  stories	
  were	
  not	
  published	
  as	
  is	
  but	
  adapted	
  and	
  transformed	
  into	
  fictional	
   narratives	
  points	
  to	
  the	
  importance	
  of	
  the	
  female	
  gender	
  of	
  the	
  writer	
  in	
  order	
  to	
   maintain	
  the	
  authentic	
  tone	
  of	
  the	
  works.	
  In	
  addition	
  to	
  the	
  female	
  authors	
  who	
   wrote	
  for	
  Nyonin	
  geijutsu,	
  the	
  magazine	
  itself	
  was	
  entirely	
  women-­‐run.29	
  	
   The	
  periodical	
  also	
  espoused	
  predominantly	
  proletarian	
  values,	
  setting	
  itself	
   away	
  from	
  some	
  of	
  the	
  consumeristic	
  tendencies	
  of	
  other	
  women’s	
  magazines	
  at	
  the	
   time,	
  such	
  as	
  Shufu	
  no	
  tomo.30	
  Frederick	
  states:	
   The	
   people	
   involved	
   in	
   this	
   project	
   took	
   seriously	
   the	
  significance	
   of	
   providing	
   an	
   alternative	
   to	
   highly	
   profitable	
   magazines	
   while	
   being	
   savvy	
   about	
   the	
   difficulty	
   in	
   doing	
   so	
   in	
   a	
   way	
   that	
   was	
   not	
   so	
   naïve	
   after	
   all.	
   They	
   aimed	
   to	
   have	
   greater	
   political	
   and	
   artistic	
   effect	
   by	
   constructing	
   a	
   politically	
   active	
   popular	
   audience,	
   seeking	
   in	
   a	
   sense	
   both	
   to	
   criticize	
   commercial	
   mass	
   culture’s	
   products	
   for	
   and	
   about	
   women	
   and	
   to	
   produce	
   popular	
   culture	
   by	
   and	
  for	
  women,	
  in	
  the	
  sense	
  of	
  culture	
  of	
  and	
  for	
  the	
  good	
  of	
  “the	
  people.”31	
   	
   The	
  objective	
  of	
  creating	
  commercial	
  culture	
  while	
  refuting	
  commodification	
  that	
   encompassed	
  women	
  also	
  came	
  through	
  in	
  the	
  Nyonin	
  geijutsu	
  stories	
  that	
  touched	
   on	
  sex.	
  These	
  works	
  included	
  obvious	
  references	
  to	
  sexuality	
  either	
  through	
  direct	
   language	
  or	
  through	
  its	
  intimation	
  via	
  fuseji;	
  however,	
  its	
  dual	
  objective	
  of	
   espousing	
  proletarian	
  values	
  to	
  readers	
  placed	
  it	
  at	
  odds	
  with	
  mass	
  market	
   capitalism,	
  thereby	
  positioning	
  itself	
  away	
  from	
  male-­‐dominated,	
  mainstream	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   28	
  Frederick,	
  161.	
   29	
  Ibid.,	
  141.	
   30	
  Ibid.,	
  138.	
   31	
  Ibid.,	
  139.	
    	
    15	
    pornography.	
  This	
  is	
  reflected	
  in	
  Joel	
  Kovel’s	
  essay,	
  the	
  “Antidialectic	
  of	
   Pornography,”	
  in	
  which	
  he	
  argues:	
   Pornography	
  is	
  the	
  captivity	
  of	
  the	
  erotic	
  within	
  mass	
  culture.	
  It	
  is	
  the	
  erotic	
   less	
  its	
  negativity,	
  less	
  its	
  ambivalence,	
  its	
  association	
  of	
  sexuality	
  with	
  death,	
   and,	
   finally,	
   its	
   truthfulness.	
   For	
   truthfulness	
   is	
   the	
   one	
   property	
   of	
   erotic	
   representation	
   which	
   redeems	
   the	
   whole	
   and	
   gives	
   to	
   it	
   the	
   possibility	
   of	
   aesthetic	
   realization.	
   The	
   representation	
   of	
   the	
   erotic	
   moment	
   of	
   dissolution	
   requires	
   fidelity	
   to	
   the	
   tragic	
   character	
   of	
   existence,	
   requires	
   the	
   capacity	
   to	
   look	
   into	
   the	
   abyss	
   beyond	
   desire	
   and	
   give	
   it	
   signification.	
   Truthfulness	
   stands	
   forth	
   as	
   the	
   ultimate	
   value	
   of	
   the	
   erotic,	
   and	
   truthfulness	
   inheres	
   in	
   the	
   internal	
   relation	
   of	
   the	
   elements	
   of	
   the	
   work	
   and	
   not	
   in	
   its	
   manifest	
   subject.	
   For	
   this	
   reason	
   great	
   erotic	
   art	
   need	
   not	
   be	
   all	
   explicit	
   in	
   its	
   depiction	
   of	
   sexuality.	
  A	
  poem	
  by	
  Emily	
  Dickinson	
  is	
  no	
  less	
  erotic	
  than	
  a	
  work	
  by	
  Bataille,	
   even	
   if	
   the	
   latter	
   confronts	
   the	
   problem	
   of	
   the	
   erotic	
   directly.	
   Similarly,	
   no	
   more	
   erotic	
   novel	
   has	
   ever	
   been	
   written	
   than	
   Anna	
  Karenina,	
   even	
   if	
   it	
   lacks	
   any	
   direct	
   representation	
   of	
   sexuality.	
   By	
   contrast,	
   the	
   attempt	
   to	
   make	
   pornography	
   more	
   “erotic”	
   by	
   improving	
   production	
   values,	
   introducing	
   more	
   or	
   less	
   credible	
   kinds	
   of	
   characters,	
   and	
   cutting	
   out	
   the	
   ranker	
   forms	
   of	
   exploitation,	
   succeeds	
   only	
   in	
   softening	
   the	
   pornography	
   and	
   expanding	
   its	
   market	
   further	
   into	
   the	
   normal	
   zone	
   of	
   mass	
   culture,	
   where	
   it	
   now	
   abuts	
   upon	
   the	
   domain	
   of	
   the	
   soap	
   opera.	
   Softer	
   pornography	
   is	
   more	
   acceptable,	
   especially	
   to	
   women	
   (who	
   now	
   comprise,	
   I	
   have	
   heard,	
   forty	
   percent	
   of	
   the	
   pornographic	
   videotape	
   market),	
   but	
   it	
   remains	
   fully	
   pornographic,	
   indeed,	
   signifies	
  the	
  assimilation	
  of	
  sex-­‐hygiene	
  into	
  pornography.32	
   	
   Here,	
  Kovel	
  associates	
  erotica	
  with	
  truthful	
  representations	
  of	
  sex,	
  and	
  links	
   pornography	
  with	
  mass	
  market	
  exploitation	
  of	
  the	
  sexual	
  experience.	
  	
   Truth	
  and	
  autobiography	
  figured	
  prominently	
  within	
  the	
  English-­‐language	
   masturbatory	
  texts	
  and	
  confession	
  romance	
  magazines,	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  in	
  Nyonin	
   geijutsu;	
  however,	
  the	
  works	
  differed	
  in	
  their	
  stated	
  goals	
  for	
  including	
  sexual	
   content	
  and	
  associating	
  the	
  accounts	
  with	
  real	
  women.	
  The	
  masturbatory	
  texts	
  were	
   aimed	
  at	
  providing	
  readers	
  with	
  increased	
  sexual	
  understanding	
  and	
  fulfillment.	
   Confession	
  magazines	
  acknowledged	
  sexual	
  experience	
  as	
  a	
  part	
  of	
  women’s	
  reality,	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
    32	
  Joel	
  Kovel,	
  “The	
  Antidialectic	
  of	
  Pornography,”	
  in	
  Men	
  Confront	
  Pornography	
  (New	
  York:	
   Crown	
  Publishers,	
  1990),	
  165.	
    	
    16	
    but	
  also	
  related	
  the	
  primarily	
  negative	
  consequences	
  of	
  pursuing	
  sexual	
  pleasure.	
   Meanwhile,	
  the	
  Nyonin	
  geijutsu	
  autobiographical	
  love	
  issue	
  included	
  themes	
  of	
   autobiography	
  and	
  sexual	
  experience	
  in	
  order	
  to	
  validate	
  the	
  integrity	
  of	
  its	
  authors,	
   and	
  to	
  more	
  effectively	
  transmit	
  other	
  messages	
  within	
  the	
  text,	
  such	
  as	
  proletarian	
   ideals.	
   Even	
  when	
  depicting	
  fantasy,	
  these	
  works	
  acknowledged	
  women’s	
  realities,	
   achieving	
  the	
  “ultimate	
  value	
  of	
  the	
  erotic”	
  that	
  Kovel	
  describes.	
  Additionally,	
  the	
   stories	
  highlighted	
  the	
  notion	
  of	
  confession	
  and	
  autobiography	
  as	
  a	
  means	
  to	
   underscore	
  the	
  truthful	
  representation	
  of	
  the	
  female	
  experience,	
  creating	
  the	
   perception	
  of	
  common	
  understanding	
  between	
  the	
  author	
  and	
  reader.	
  	
   In	
  the	
  next	
  chapter	
  I	
  will	
  examine	
  how	
  the	
  reception	
  of	
  contemporary	
  forms	
  of	
   English-­‐	
  and	
  Japanese-­‐language	
  erotic	
  fiction	
  has	
  been	
  influenced	
  by	
  the	
  first-­‐ person	
  nature	
  of	
  these	
  early	
  works.	
  I	
  will	
  illustrate	
  how	
  contemporary	
  women’s	
   erotica	
  has	
  been	
  packaged	
  similarly	
  to	
  these	
  autobiographical	
  stories	
  and	
  shared	
   personal	
  fantasies	
  in	
  order	
  to	
  gain	
  credibility	
  with	
  a	
  female	
  readership.	
  I	
  will	
  also	
   explain	
  how	
  this	
  is	
  done	
  partly	
  through	
  the	
  emphasis	
  of	
  female	
  authorship,	
  and	
  how	
   this	
  results	
  in	
  “softening	
  the	
  pornography”	
  and	
  the	
  expansion	
  of	
  “its	
  market	
  further	
   into	
  the	
  normal	
  zone	
  of	
  mass	
  culture”	
  of	
  which	
  Kovel	
  warns.	
   	
    	
    	
    17	
    Chapter	
  2:	
  Contracting	
  Out	
  Pleasure	
  Online	
  	
  	
   	
   For	
  her	
  thesis	
  entitled	
  “Pour	
  une	
  remise	
  en	
  question	
  de	
  la	
  victimisation	
  des	
   femmes	
  comme	
  public	
  des	
  medias:	
  Le	
  cas	
  de	
  la	
  consommation	
  de	
  la	
  pornographie	
   par	
  les	
  femmes,”	
  Judith	
  Plante	
  interviewed	
  thirty-­‐six	
  women	
  as	
  part	
  of	
  her	
  study	
  on	
   women’s	
  consumption	
  of	
  pornographic	
  films.	
  When	
  the	
  participants	
  were	
  asked	
   whether	
  they	
  had	
  watched	
  any	
  pornographic	
  films	
  that	
  were	
  created	
  by	
  women,	
   those	
  that	
  responded	
  in	
  the	
  affirmative	
  considered	
  these	
  works	
  to	
  have	
  better-­‐ constructed,	
  more	
  romantic	
  storylines	
  as	
  compared	
  to	
  movies	
  created	
  by	
  men.	
   When	
  asked	
  how	
  such	
  a	
  film	
  with	
  scenes	
  of	
  domination	
  differed	
  from	
  similar	
  male-­‐ created	
  works,	
  one	
  respondent	
  indicated	
  that:	
   «	
   …mais	
   c’était	
   moins	
   hard.	
   Quand	
   la	
   femme	
   disait	
   non	
   l’homme	
   arrêtait.	
   Il	
   retentait	
   “sa	
   chance”	
   plus	
   tard	
   dans	
   le	
   film.	
   Il	
   y	
   a	
   aussi	
   plus	
   de	
   fantasmes,	
   si	
   on	
   peut	
  dire,	
  féminins.»	
  (Lorette)33	
   	
   “…but	
  it	
  was	
  less	
  hard.	
  When	
  the	
  woman	
  said	
  no	
  the	
  man	
  stopped.	
  He	
  tries	
  “his	
   luck”	
  again	
  later	
  on	
  in	
  the	
  film.	
  There	
  were	
  also,	
  one	
  could	
  say,	
  more	
  feminine	
   fantasies.”	
  (Lorette)	
   	
   In	
  addition,	
  the	
  women	
  who	
  had	
  never	
  watched	
  female-­‐produced	
   pornography	
  were	
  asked	
  how	
  they	
  would	
  expect	
  a	
  female	
  director	
  to	
  approach	
  a	
   film	
  as	
  compared	
  to	
  a	
  male	
  counterpart.	
  Participants	
  responded	
  as	
  follows:	
   «Elle	
   va	
   peut-­‐être	
   vouloir	
   plus	
   refléter	
   ce	
   qu’elle	
   aimerait,	
   elle,	
   ses	
   propres	
   fantasmes.	
   Je	
   suis	
   sûre	
   qu’il	
   y	
   aurait	
   beaucoup	
   plus	
   d’érotisme,	
   plus	
   de	
   caresses,	
  plus	
  de	
  préliminaires.	
  Et	
  l’ambiance	
  ne	
  serait	
  pas	
  du	
  tout	
  la	
  même,	
  ça	
   serait	
   moins	
   juste	
   un	
   prétexte.»	
   (Andrée)	
   Une	
   autre	
   s’étonne	
   que	
   la	
   littérature	
   érotique	
  féminine	
  ne	
  soit	
  pas	
  mise	
  en	
  films,	
  car	
  «il	
  y	
  a	
  beaucoup	
  de	
  femmes	
  qui	
   en	
  écrivent.	
  Et	
  il	
  y	
  a	
  d’excellents	
  livres.»	
  (Élizabeth)	
   	
   “She	
  would	
  perhaps	
  want	
  to	
  reflect	
  what	
  she	
  enjoys,	
  herself,	
  her	
  own	
  fantasies.	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
    33	
  Judith	
  Plante,	
  “Pour	
  une	
  remise	
  en	
  question	
  de	
  la	
  victimisation	
  des	
  femmes	
  comme	
  public	
   des	
  medias:	
  Le	
  cas	
  de	
  la	
  consommation	
  de	
  la	
  pornographie	
  par	
  les	
  femmes,”	
  (M.A.	
  thesis,	
  Université	
   de	
  Sherbrooke,	
  2002),	
  80,	
  Proquest	
  Dissertations	
  &	
  Theses	
  (document	
  id:	
  305497792).	
    	
    18	
    I	
   am	
   certain	
   that	
   there	
   would	
   be	
   much	
   more	
   eroticism,	
   more	
   cuddling,	
   more	
   foreplay.	
  And	
  the	
  setting	
  wouldn’t	
  be	
  the	
  same	
  at	
  all,	
  there	
  would	
  be	
  less	
  of	
  it	
   just	
   being	
   a	
   pretext.”	
   (Andrée)	
   Another	
   was	
   surprised	
   that	
   women’s	
   erotic	
   literature	
   was	
   not	
   made	
   into	
   films	
   because	
   “there	
   are	
   a	
   lot	
   of	
   women	
   who	
   write.	
  And	
  there	
  are	
  some	
  excellent	
  books.”	
  (Élizabeth)34	
   	
   The	
  responses	
  of	
  the	
  participants	
  reflect	
  not	
  only	
  a	
  perception	
  that	
  female	
   characters	
  within	
  the	
  pornographic	
  films	
  had	
  more	
  control,	
  such	
  as	
  the	
  female	
   protagonist’s	
  “no”	
  having	
  an	
  effect,	
  but	
  also	
  emphasize	
  an	
  expectation	
  that	
  a	
  female	
   creator	
  would	
  incorporate	
  her	
  own	
  sexual	
  preferences	
  into	
  the	
  stories,	
  and	
  that	
  this	
   would	
  correspond	
  to	
  “feminine”	
  tastes.	
  While	
  the	
  women	
  cited	
  are	
  referring	
  to	
   pornographic	
  films	
  specifically,	
  Élizabeth’s	
  comment	
  that	
  it	
  is	
  surprising	
  that	
   pornographic	
  films	
  are	
  not	
  based	
  on	
  women’s	
  erotic	
  fiction	
  demonstrates	
  that	
  the	
   two	
  genres	
  could	
  be	
  regarded	
  similarly	
  by	
  consumers.	
  I	
  believe	
  that,	
  as	
  a	
  result	
  of	
   the	
  well-­‐developed	
  history	
  of	
  women’s	
  literary	
  erotica	
  and	
  its	
  tradition	
  of	
   incorporating	
  autobiography,	
  there	
  is	
  a	
  much	
  higher	
  expectation	
  that	
  literary	
  works	
   will	
  express	
  an	
  understanding	
  of	
  women’s	
  needs	
  and	
  the	
  empowerment	
  of	
  female	
   protagonists.	
   In	
  this	
  chapter,	
  I	
  will	
  compare	
  the	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey	
  trilogy	
  to	
  the	
  ladies’	
   comics	
  work	
  Toraware	
  no	
  yoru	
  (Captive	
  night).	
  I	
  will	
  demonstrate	
  how	
  both	
  these	
   works	
  incorporate	
  examples	
  of	
  extreme	
  disempowerment	
  of	
  the	
  female	
   protagonists	
  and	
  yet	
  provide	
  a	
  similar	
  expectation	
  of	
  empowerment	
  and	
  pleasure	
  to	
   readers	
  as	
  the	
  female-­‐created	
  pornographic	
  films	
  had	
  to	
  the	
  participants	
  in	
  Plante’s	
   study.	
  I	
  will	
  illustrate	
  how	
  this	
  can	
  be	
  attributed	
  in	
  part	
  to	
  the	
  association	
  of	
  these	
   literary	
  works	
  with	
  autobiographical	
  erotic	
  writings	
  created	
  decades	
  earlier,	
  such	
  as	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   34	
  Ibid.,	
  81.	
    	
    19	
    those	
  discussed	
  in	
  Chapter	
  1.	
   Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey	
  and	
  Toraware	
  no	
  yoru	
  differ	
  greatly	
  in	
  format.	
  As	
  the	
  genre	
   title	
  suggests,	
  ladies’	
  comics	
  are	
  pictorial	
  works	
  that	
  are	
  a	
  sub-­‐genre	
  of	
  manga	
   (Japanese	
  comics),	
  and	
  are	
  often	
  serialized	
  within	
  periodicals.	
  Gretchen	
  Jones	
   describes	
  ladies’	
  comics	
  as	
  being	
  focused	
  on	
  “highly	
  explicit	
  representations	
  of	
   sexual	
  acts.”	
  She	
  also	
  states	
  that	
  “a	
  large	
  proportion	
  of	
  the	
  images	
  reflect	
  violence,	
   often	
  toward	
  the	
  female	
  characters	
  themselves.	
  Illustrations	
  of	
  gang	
  rape,	
  various	
   forms	
  of	
  sexual	
  degradation	
  and	
  humiliation,	
  and	
  even	
  torture	
  abound	
  in	
  the	
  pages	
   of	
  Ladies’	
  Comics…”35	
   Toraware	
  no	
  yoru	
  is	
  a	
  short	
  standalone	
  story	
  that	
  was	
  originally	
  distributed	
   within	
  a	
  ladies’	
  comics	
  periodical	
  and	
  was	
  re-­‐published	
  seventeen	
  years	
  later	
  as	
   part	
  of	
  an	
  e-­‐book	
  anthology	
  of	
  the	
  author’s	
  works.	
  In	
  contrast,	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey	
   has	
  no	
  illustrations,	
  and	
  is	
  a	
  full-­‐length	
  monographic	
  trilogy.	
  Unlike	
  Toraware	
  no	
   yoru,	
  which	
  was	
  created	
  and	
  distributed	
  within	
  the	
  framework	
  of	
  mainstream	
   publishing,	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  stemmed	
  from	
  a	
  piece	
  of	
  fan	
  fiction,	
  freely	
  available	
  on	
  the	
   Internet.	
  Despite	
  these	
  differences,	
  the	
  emergence,	
  dissemination,	
  and	
  reception	
  of	
   ladies’	
  comics	
  bears	
  similarities	
  with	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey,	
  providing	
  an	
  important	
   basis	
  for	
  comparison.	
   Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey	
  originated	
  from	
  the	
  fan	
  fiction	
  work	
  Master	
  of	
  the	
  Universe,	
   that	
  was	
  based	
  on	
  the	
  Twilight	
  series,	
  which	
  was	
  published	
  between	
  2005	
  and	
  2008	
   and	
  which	
  resulted	
  in	
  a	
  successful	
  movie	
  franchise.36	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  was	
  adapted	
  into	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
    35	
  Gretchen	
  Jones,	
  “Ladies’	
  Comics:	
  Japan’s	
  Not-­‐So-­‐Underground	
  Market	
  in	
  Pornography	
  for	
   Women,”	
  U.S.	
  -­‐	
  Japan	
  Women’s	
  Journal	
  English	
  Supplement,	
  22	
  (2002):	
  3.	
   36	
  “Bio,”	
  The	
  Official	
  Website	
  of	
  Stephanie	
  Meyer,	
  http://www.stepheniemeyer.com/bio.html	
    	
    20	
    an	
  e-­‐book	
  in	
  2011,	
  making	
  its	
  way	
  to	
  traditional	
  print	
  publication	
  approximately	
   one	
  year	
  after	
  the	
  original	
  e-­‐book	
  was	
  released.37	
  In	
  her	
  essay,	
  “One	
  True	
  Pairing:	
   The	
  Romance	
  of	
  Pornography	
  and	
  the	
  Pornography	
  of	
  Romance,”	
  Catherine	
  Driscoll	
   examines	
  the	
  production	
  of	
  sexually	
  explicit	
  fan	
  fiction,	
  and	
  argues	
  that	
  these	
  works	
   blur	
  the	
  genre	
  lines	
  of	
  pornography	
  and	
  romance.	
  She	
  states,	
  “Fan	
  fiction,	
  like	
   romance,	
  is	
  commonly	
  represented	
  outside	
  its	
  reading	
  communities	
  as	
  immature	
   because	
  of	
  its	
  undiscriminating	
  and	
  excessive	
  investment	
  in	
  popular	
  culture.	
  But	
  fan	
   fiction	
  is	
  also	
  represented	
  as	
  a	
  (usually	
  secret)	
  substitute	
  for	
  real	
  romantic	
  and	
   sexual	
  relationships	
  —	
  as	
  a	
  type	
  of	
  amateur	
  porn.”38	
   In	
  her	
  book	
  Onna	
  wa	
  poruno	
  o	
  yomu	
  (Women	
  reading	
  porn),	
  Mori	
  Naoko	
   suggests	
  that	
  the	
  success	
  of	
  ladies’	
  comics	
  versus	
  other	
  genres	
  of	
  pornography	
  for	
   women	
  is	
  related	
  to	
  the	
  fact	
  that	
  the	
  material	
  was	
  introduced	
  within	
  a	
  space	
  that	
   was	
  already	
  carved	
  out	
  exclusively	
  for	
  women	
  within	
  the	
  manga	
  genre.	
  Mori	
   determines	
  that	
  pornographic	
  films	
  in	
  the	
  1980s	
  and	
  1990s	
  were	
  not	
  easily	
   accessible	
  by	
  women	
  because	
  of	
  their	
  availability	
  through	
  stores	
  that	
  catered	
  to	
   men.	
  In	
  particular,	
  women	
  with	
  children	
  were	
  excluded	
  from	
  these	
  “adult-­‐only”	
   spaces.	
  In	
  contrast,	
  ladies’	
  comics	
  were	
  shelved	
  within	
  areas	
  already	
  designated	
  for	
   women’s	
  reading	
  by	
  bookstores	
  and	
  convenience	
  stores,	
  where	
  girls’	
  and	
  women’s	
    	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   37	
  David	
  Marr,	
  “From	
  Hornsby	
  to	
  New	
  York:	
  How	
  an	
  Erotic	
  E-­‐book	
  Became	
  a	
  $1m	
   Blockbuster,”	
  The	
  Sydney	
  Morning	
  Herald,	
  March	
  12,	
  2012,	
   http://www.smh.com.au/entertainment/books/from-­‐hornsby-­‐to-­‐new-­‐york-­‐how-­‐an-­‐erotic-­‐ebook-­‐ became-­‐a-­‐1m-­‐	
  blockbuster-­‐20120311-­‐1uso5.html	
   38	
  Catherine	
  Driscoll,	
  “One	
  True	
  Pairing:	
  The	
  Romance	
  of	
  Pornography	
  and	
  the	
  Pornography	
   of	
  Romance,”	
  in	
  Fan	
  Fiction	
  and	
  Fan	
  Communities	
  in	
  the	
  Age	
  of	
  the	
  Internet:	
  New	
  Essays	
  (Jefferson,	
   N.C.:	
  McFarland	
  &	
  Co.,	
  2006),	
  85.	
    	
    21	
    comics	
  and	
  magazines	
  were	
  shelved	
  separately	
  from	
  men’s	
  material.39	
  I	
  believe	
  that,	
   as	
  a	
  consequence,	
  ladies’	
  comics	
  were	
  inaccessible	
  to	
  men	
  in	
  the	
  same	
  way	
  as	
   women	
  were	
  excluded	
  from	
  acquiring	
  mainstream,	
  male-­‐oriented	
  pornography.	
   While	
  women	
  could	
  feel	
  safe	
  entering	
  the	
  physical	
  space	
  set	
  aside	
  for	
  women’s	
   material	
  and	
  ladies’	
  comics,	
  men	
  would	
  likely	
  find	
  these	
  same	
  spaces	
  unwelcoming,	
   possibly	
  emasculating.	
   Similarly,	
  many	
  English-­‐language	
  examples	
  of	
  women’s	
  erotic	
  fiction,	
  including	
   Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey,	
  are	
  categorized	
  within	
  contemporary	
  romance,	
  a	
  genre	
  which	
  is	
   almost	
  exclusively	
  female	
  in	
  both	
  authorship	
  and	
  readership.	
  Random	
  House	
  has	
   categorized	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey	
  as	
  “Fiction	
  -­‐	
  Romance	
  -­‐	
  Contemporary”	
  and	
  “Fiction	
   -­‐	
  Erotica.”40	
  In	
  addition,	
  Amazon.com	
  lists	
  the	
  trilogy	
  under	
  “Books	
  >	
  Romance	
  >	
   Contemporary”	
  and	
  “Books	
  >	
  Literature	
  &	
  Fiction	
  >	
  Women's	
  Fiction	
  >	
   Contemporary	
  Women.”41	
  The	
  category	
  of	
  romance	
  not	
  only	
  occupies	
  an	
  exclusive	
   space	
  within	
  bookstores,	
  but	
  it	
  also	
  makes	
  for	
  its	
  own	
  space	
  within	
  the	
  virtual	
   environment.	
  While	
  the	
  readers	
  may	
  not	
  notice	
  the	
  explicit	
  categorization	
  of	
  Fifty	
   Shades	
  under	
  the	
  term	
  “romance”	
  in	
  the	
  online	
  marketplace,	
  the	
  work	
  is	
  nonetheless	
   presented	
  along	
  with	
  similar	
  books	
  from	
  that	
  genre.	
  As	
  a	
  result,	
  despite	
  the	
   ambiguity	
  of	
  E.	
  L.	
  James’s	
  name	
  (a	
  pseudonym	
  with	
  only	
  first	
  and	
  middle	
  initials,	
   and	
  a	
  last	
  name	
  which	
  is	
  also	
  used	
  as	
  a	
  masculine	
  first	
  name),	
  the	
  reader	
  is	
  assured	
   that	
  the	
  writer	
  is	
  female,	
  and	
  that	
  the	
  work’s	
  primary	
  audience	
  and	
  main	
  consumers	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   39	
  Mori	
  Naoko	
    ,	
  Onna	
  wa	
  poruno	
  o	
  yomu:	
  josei	
  no	
  seiyoku	
  to	
  feminizumu	
  	
   (Tokyo:	
  Seikyūsha	
   ,	
  2010),	
  197-­‐198.	
   40	
  “Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey:	
  Book	
  One	
  of	
  the	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  Trilogy,”	
  Random	
  House,	
  Inc.,	
   http://www.randomhouse.com/book/222129/fifty-­‐shades-­‐of-­‐grey-­‐by-­‐e-­‐l-­‐james	
   41	
  “Fifty	
  Shades	
  Trilogy:	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey,	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  Darker,	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  Freed	
  3-­‐volume	
   Boxed	
  Set,”	
  Amazon.com,	
  http://www.amazon.com/Fifty-­‐Shades-­‐Trilogy-­‐Darker-­‐ 3/dp/034580404X/ref=zg_bs_books_8	
   	
  :	
    	
    22	
    are	
  also	
  women.	
   Toraware	
  no	
  yoru	
  was	
  originally	
  published	
  in	
  print	
  but	
  is	
  now	
  sold	
  exclusively	
   as	
  an	
  e-­‐publication.	
  Similar	
  to	
  Fifty	
  Shades,	
  the	
  work’s	
  virtual	
  space	
  resides	
  under	
  a	
   female-­‐exclusive	
  category.	
  The	
  e-­‐book	
  provider	
  eBookJapan	
  lists	
  the	
  anthology	
  in	
   which	
  the	
  story	
  appears	
  under	
  the	
  category	
  TL/Redikomi	
  (Teens’	
  Love	
  Comics	
  /	
   Ladies’	
  Comics)	
  where	
  the	
  sexually	
  explicit	
  ladies’	
  comics	
  material	
  is	
  grouped	
   together	
  with	
  the	
  less	
  graphic	
  “teens’	
  love”	
  genre	
  depicting	
  romantic	
  stories	
  for	
  a	
   younger	
  female	
  audience.42	
   Meanwhile,	
  the	
  format	
  and	
  publication	
  method	
  of	
  Toraware	
  no	
  yoru	
  and	
  Fifty	
   Shades	
  prompt	
  their	
  exclusion	
  from	
  community	
  spaces	
  such	
  as	
  libraries.	
  In	
  the	
  case	
   of	
  Fifty	
  Shades,	
  some	
  libraries	
  have	
  argued	
  that	
  it	
  is	
  because	
  the	
  work	
  originated	
  as	
  a	
   self-­‐published	
  title	
  that	
  it	
  is	
  deemed	
  out	
  of	
  scope	
  for	
  their	
  collections.43	
  Manga	
   collection	
  and	
  preservation	
  has	
  also	
  been	
  hindered	
  within	
  Japanese	
  libraries.	
  The	
   inclusion	
  of	
  manga	
  stories	
  within	
  hard-­‐to-­‐maintain	
  periodical	
  titles	
  and	
  the	
   valuation	
  of	
  the	
  material	
  as	
  being	
  lowbrow	
  has	
  complicated	
  manga	
  collection	
  within	
   these	
  institutions.44	
  A	
  library	
  catalogue	
  search	
  for	
  Aya,	
  the	
  original	
  publication	
  in	
   which	
  Toraware	
  no	
  yoru	
  was	
  published,	
  retrieved	
  no	
  results	
  within	
  Japanese	
   academic	
  and	
  public	
  libraries,	
  and	
  it	
  appears	
  that	
  only	
  Japan’s	
  National	
  Diet	
  Library	
    	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   42	
  “Tīnsurabu,	
  redīsukomikku:	
  denshishoseki,	
  komikku	
  wa	
  eBookJapan  	
    	
   	
   eBookJapan ,	
   http://www.ebookjapan.jp/ebj/lady/index.asp	
   43	
  Barbara	
  M.	
  Jones,	
  "Controversy	
  in	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey,"	
  American	
  Libraries	
  43,	
  no.	
  5/6	
   (May	
  2012):	
  21,	
  Canadian	
  Periodicals	
  Index	
  Quarterly,	
  Gale	
  (document	
  no.	
  A294299891)	
   44	
  Naiki	
  Toshio	
   	
   ,	
  “Nihon	
  ni	
  okeru	
  manga	
  no	
  hoson	
  to	
  riyō” ,	
  Karento	
  aweanesu	
  (Current	
  Awareness) 	
  293	
  (September	
  20,	
   2007):	
  8-­‐9,	
  http://current.ndl.go.jp/files/ca/ca1637.pdf	
    	
    23	
    houses	
  the	
  magazine	
  run.45	
  Therefore,	
  even	
  without	
  the	
  sexual	
  content,	
  both	
  works	
   can	
  be	
  seen	
  as	
  going	
  against	
  the	
  norms	
  of	
  both	
  commercial	
  publishing	
  and	
  public	
   libraries,	
  and	
  may	
  therefore	
  attract	
  readers	
  who	
  are	
  otherwise	
  ostracized	
  from	
   these	
  spaces.	
  Further,	
  formatting	
  issues	
  provide	
  some	
  libraries	
  with	
  alternative	
   excuses	
  for	
  why	
  this	
  sexually	
  explicit	
  material	
  is	
  not	
  being	
  purchased.	
   Finally,	
  ladies’	
  comics	
  and	
  manga	
  are	
  similar	
  to	
  fan	
  fiction	
  in	
  that	
  both	
  types	
  of	
   material	
  are	
  tied	
  to	
  pop	
  culture	
  trends	
  and	
  reader	
  communities.	
  While	
  I	
  will	
  not	
  be	
   able	
  to	
  fully	
  investigate	
  the	
  role	
  of	
  reader	
  communities	
  in	
  this	
  thesis,	
  I	
  feel	
  that	
  it	
  is	
   important	
  to	
  highlight	
  the	
  possible	
  similarities	
  between	
  the	
  audiences	
  of	
  both	
   genres,	
  in	
  that	
  they	
  include	
  fans	
  who	
  have	
  an	
  expectation	
  of	
  an	
  adherence	
  to	
   narrative	
  formula,	
  and	
  also	
  have	
  experience	
  exerting	
  power	
  through	
  their	
  own	
   submissions	
  and	
  writings.	
  Driscoll	
  writes:	
   Frances	
   Ferguson	
   argues	
   that	
   pornography’s	
   development	
   of	
   “a	
   variety	
   of	
   genres	
   with	
   a	
   variety	
   of	
   target	
   audiences	
   …	
   performs	
   a	
   major	
   service	
   by	
   educating	
   a	
   self-­‐selecting	
   audience	
   into	
   the	
   possibility	
   of	
   sexual	
   self-­‐ realization.	
   The	
   meaning	
   of	
   the	
   pornographic	
   object,	
   in	
   other	
   words,	
   is	
   its	
   audience’s	
  self-­‐image.”	
  Although	
  available	
  sexual	
  identities	
  may	
  be	
  coded	
  into	
   porn	
  as	
  a	
  dominant	
  reading	
  or	
  packaged	
  into	
  its	
  categorization,	
  self-­‐realization	
   is	
  a	
  fantasy	
  of	
  pornography	
  that	
  does	
  not	
  necessarily	
  either	
  project	
  or	
  rely	
  on	
   “the	
   audience’s	
   self-­‐image.”	
   The	
   element	
   of	
   fan	
   fiction	
   that	
   most	
   obviously	
   contradicts	
  this	
  is	
  not	
  the	
  diversity	
  of	
  sexual	
  motifs	
  and	
  scenes	
  but	
  rather	
  the	
   communities	
   that	
   moderate	
   all	
   fan	
   fiction,	
   the	
   shared	
   reality	
   demanded	
   by	
   canon,	
  and	
  the	
  amalgamation	
  of	
  these	
  in	
  romance	
  narratives.46	
   	
   As	
  Driscoll	
  suggests,	
  fan	
  fiction	
  involves	
  community	
  participation	
  in	
  the	
   creation	
  of	
  text,	
  and	
  this	
  is	
  influenced	
  by	
  the	
  expectations	
  of	
  a	
  “canon”	
  that	
  involves	
   a	
  particular	
  community-­‐built	
  understanding	
  of	
  genre	
  and	
  categorization.	
  Despite	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   45	
  “Aya,”	
  NDL	
  Search,	
  National	
  Diet	
  Library	
    ,	
    http://iss.ndl.go.jp/books/R100000002-­‐I000000082154-­‐00	
   46	
  Driscoll,	
  91-­‐92.	
    	
    24	
    this	
  increased	
  level	
  of	
  involvement	
  and	
  expectation	
  of	
  adherence	
  to	
  and	
   understanding	
  of	
  canon,	
  fan	
  fiction	
  Internet	
  communities	
  allow	
  for	
  the	
  anonymity	
  of	
   contributors	
  and	
  readers.	
  Those	
  who	
  are	
  involved	
  do	
  not	
  have	
  to	
  identify	
   themselves	
  by	
  name.	
  For	
  instance,	
  E.L.	
  James	
  wrote	
  under	
  the	
  pseudonym	
   Snowqueens	
  IceDragon.47	
  This,	
  too,	
  is	
  similar	
  to	
  ladies’	
  comics,	
  where	
  authors	
   generally	
  write	
  under	
  female	
  pseudonyms,	
  even	
  though	
  they	
  are	
  not	
  necessarily	
   female.48	
  Hence,	
  for	
  both	
  fan	
  fiction	
  and	
  ladies’	
  comics,	
  credibility	
  is	
  desired	
  from	
   reader	
  communities	
  even	
  though	
  the	
  true	
  identities	
  of	
  authors	
  and	
  contributors	
  are	
   hidden	
  from	
  these	
  communities.	
  As	
  a	
  result,	
  I	
  believe	
  any	
  demographic	
  information	
   gleaned	
  about	
  the	
  background	
  of	
  an	
  author	
  is	
  crucial	
  to	
  maintaining	
  the	
  credibility	
   of	
  the	
  author	
  as	
  someone	
  who	
  is	
  capable	
  of	
  telling	
  the	
  story.	
  In	
  the	
  fan	
  fiction	
   context,	
  this	
  would	
  entail	
  proving	
  that	
  one	
  is	
  familiar	
  with	
  the	
  source	
  text,	
  which	
   serves	
  as	
  a	
  basis	
  for	
  reality	
  or	
  “canon”	
  to	
  which	
  the	
  fan	
  fiction	
  community	
  conforms.	
   I	
  assert	
  that,	
  within	
  women’s	
  erotica,	
  establishment	
  of	
  credibility	
  involves	
  the	
   author	
  demonstrating	
  that	
  she	
  can	
  reflect	
  on	
  the	
  true	
  sexual	
  experiences	
  of	
  women.	
   This	
  is	
  done	
  by	
  assuring	
  the	
  reader	
  that	
  the	
  author	
  herself	
  has	
  a	
  female	
  body	
  and	
   can	
  therefore	
  empathize	
  with	
  the	
  female	
  reader’s	
  sexual	
  needs.	
  	
   Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey	
  has	
  evolved	
  from	
  the	
  original	
  fan	
  fiction	
  story	
  Master	
  of	
  the	
   Universe	
  that	
  James	
  wrote	
  as	
  Snowqueens	
  Icedragon.	
  Direct	
  references	
  to	
  the	
   Twilight	
  story	
  have	
  been	
  removed,	
  and	
  some	
  members	
  of	
  the	
  fan	
  fiction	
  community	
   have	
  since	
  criticized	
  James	
  for	
  not	
  crediting	
  her	
  fans	
  with	
  assisting	
  in	
  the	
  success	
  of	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   47	
  Natalie	
  Zutter,	
  “Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey	
  Author	
  E.L.	
  James	
  Hates	
  the	
  Twilight	
  Fans	
  that	
  Made	
   her	
  Famous,”	
  May	
  11,	
  2012,	
  http://crushable.com/entertainment/el-­‐james-­‐snowqueens-­‐icedragon-­‐ fifty-­‐shades-­‐of-­‐grey-­‐twilight-­‐fandom-­‐wank-­‐860/#ixzz2B3E0NMXm	
   48	
  Jones,	
  “Bad	
  Girls	
  Like	
  to	
  Watch,”	
  99.	
    	
    25	
    her	
  publications	
  through	
  support	
  of	
  and	
  feedback	
  on	
  the	
  original	
  work.49	
  Yet,	
  James	
   does	
  readily	
  credit	
  the	
  author	
  of	
  Twilight,	
  Stephanie	
  Meyer,	
  not	
  only	
  for	
  providing	
  a	
   framework	
  for	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey,	
  but	
  also	
  for	
  inspiring	
  her	
  to	
  follow	
  her	
  aspiration	
   of	
  becoming	
  a	
  writer.	
  In	
  an	
  interview	
  with	
  BBC	
  Radio	
  4’s	
  Woman’s	
  Hour,	
  James	
  not	
   only	
  mentions	
  Meyer,	
  but	
  also	
  attributes	
  the	
  success	
  of	
  the	
  work	
  and	
  the	
  coinage	
   “mommy	
  porn”	
  to	
  mothers	
  discussing	
  the	
  work	
  when	
  accompanying	
  their	
  children	
   to	
  school	
  outings.50	
  She	
  does	
  not,	
  however,	
  speak	
  specifically	
  to	
  the	
  fandom	
  that	
   initially	
  gave	
  rise	
  to	
  its	
  popularity,	
  which	
  ultimately	
  gained	
  mainstream	
  publisher	
   interest.	
  By	
  de-­‐emphasizing	
  the	
  importance	
  of	
  fan	
  fiction	
  in	
  the	
  success	
  of	
  her	
  work,	
   James	
  repositions	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey	
  from	
  a	
  piece	
  of	
  fan	
  fiction	
  that	
  is	
  focused	
  on	
   the	
  Twilight	
  canon,	
  to	
  a	
  literary	
  work	
  that	
  has	
  emerged	
  from	
  the	
  shared	
  interest	
  and	
   understanding	
  amongst	
  women.	
  By	
  doing	
  so,	
  James	
  encourages	
  the	
  association	
  of	
   the	
  work	
  with	
  women’s	
  erotic	
  fiction	
  that	
  is	
  rooted	
  in	
  the	
  exchange	
  of	
  sexual	
   experience	
  as	
  a	
  means	
  of	
  empowerment.	
  As	
  a	
  result,	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey	
  is	
   presented	
  as	
  providing	
  the	
  same	
  possibilities	
  of	
  empowerment	
  even	
  when,	
  as	
  I	
  will	
   outline	
  below,	
  the	
  work’s	
  content	
  sits	
  contrary	
  to	
  the	
  ideas	
  espoused	
  in	
  the	
   masturbatory	
  texts.	
   The	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  trilogy	
  is	
  comprised	
  of	
  the	
  works	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey,	
  Fifty	
   Shades	
  Darker	
  and	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  Freed.	
  The	
  story	
  follows	
  Anastasia	
  (Ana)	
  Steele,	
  a	
   young,	
  awkward,	
  unremarkable	
  woman	
  about	
  to	
  be	
  graduated	
  from	
  university,	
  and	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
    49	
  Jane	
  Litte,	
  “Master	
  of	
  the	
  Universe	
  versus	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  by	
  E.L	
  James	
  Comparison,”	
  Dear	
   Author	
  (blog),	
  March	
  13,	
  2012,	
  http://dearauthor.com/features/industry-­‐news/master-­‐of-­‐the-­‐ universe-­‐versus-­‐fifty-­‐shades-­‐by-­‐e-­‐l-­‐james-­‐comparison/	
   50	
  “Woman’s	
  Hour,	
  Erica	
  James,”	
  interview	
  by	
  Jane	
  Garvey,	
  (BBC	
  Radio	
  4,	
  Tuesday April 10, 2012), http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b01ddxbm  	
    26	
    Christian	
  Grey,	
  a	
  sexy,	
  mysterious,	
  excessively	
  rich,	
  self-­‐made	
  C.E.O.	
  of	
  a	
  massive	
   conglomerate,	
  who	
  happens	
  to	
  have	
  a	
  troubled	
  past.	
  The	
  two	
  characters	
  meet	
  when	
   Ana’s	
  beautiful	
  and	
  accomplished	
  roommate	
  falls	
  ill,	
  and	
  asks	
  Ana	
  to	
  take	
  her	
  place	
   as	
  reporter	
  for	
  an	
  interview	
  with	
  Christian	
  to	
  be	
  published	
  in	
  the	
  student	
   newspaper.	
   Despite	
  being	
  badly	
  dressed,	
  unprepared,	
  and	
  falling	
  on	
  her	
  face	
  as	
  she	
  enters	
   Christian’s	
  office	
  for	
  the	
  interview,	
  Ana	
  manages	
  to	
  intrigue	
  Christian	
  to	
  the	
  point	
   that	
  he	
  begins	
  to	
  pursue	
  her.	
  His	
  proposition,	
  however,	
  is	
  not	
  for	
  a	
  romantic	
   relationship,	
  but	
  a	
  dominant/submissive	
  arrangement,	
  seeing	
  Ana	
  enter	
  into	
  a	
   written	
  contract	
  that	
  would	
  provide	
  Christian	
  authorization	
  to	
  use	
  specified	
   techniques	
  and	
  instruments	
  during	
  sexual	
  activity.	
  The	
  contract	
  would	
  also	
  allow	
   him	
  to	
  enforce	
  rules	
  on	
  dress,	
  eating	
  and	
  exercise	
  throughout	
  the	
  duration	
  of	
  the	
   contract.	
  The	
  majority	
  of	
  the	
  first	
  volume	
  of	
  the	
  trilogy	
  centres	
  around	
  this	
  contract.	
   Although	
  the	
  contract	
  is	
  presented	
  as	
  an	
  object	
  of	
  discussion	
  between	
  the	
   characters,	
  I	
  believe	
  it	
  also	
  acts	
  as	
  an	
  agreement	
  between	
  the	
  author	
  (E.L.	
  James)	
   and	
  the	
  reader,	
  in	
  which	
  there	
  is	
  an	
  understanding	
  that	
  the	
  protagonist	
  will	
  always	
   be	
  safe,	
  even	
  if	
  she	
  gives	
  up	
  complete	
  control	
  over	
  her	
  body	
  and	
  sexuality	
  to	
  the	
   male	
  character.	
  	
   In	
  Le	
  pacte	
  autobiographique,	
  Philippe	
  Lejeune	
  highlights	
  the	
  importance	
  of	
   labeling	
  a	
  narrator	
  with	
  the	
  author’s	
  own	
  name	
  in	
  order	
  for	
  a	
  work	
  to	
  be	
  received	
  as	
   autobiography.	
  He	
  asserts	
  that	
  the	
  simple	
  use	
  of	
  “je”	
  (I)	
  does	
  not	
  imply	
  that	
  it	
  refers	
   to	
  the	
  author.	
  Instead,	
  by	
  indicating	
  that	
  the	
  narrator	
  has	
  the	
  author’s	
  name,	
  the	
   text’s	
  framework	
  as	
  autobiography	
  is	
  communicated	
  to	
  the	
  readers.	
  However,	
    	
    27	
    Lejeune	
  also	
  points	
  out	
  that	
  while	
  identifying	
  the	
  narrator	
  with	
  a	
  different	
  name	
  to	
   that	
  of	
  the	
  author	
  serves	
  to	
  disassociate	
  the	
  author	
  from	
  the	
  narrator,	
  the	
  complete	
   omission	
  of	
  a	
  narrator’s	
  name	
  can	
  result	
  in	
  a	
  lack	
  of	
  clarity	
  as	
  to	
  who	
  the	
  narrator	
   represents.	
  In	
  this	
  ambiguous	
  state,	
  the	
  narrator	
  could	
  be	
  equated	
  with	
  the	
  author.51	
  	
   While	
  the	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  trilogy’s	
  narrator	
  is	
  clearly	
  identified	
  and	
  named	
  as	
  Ana	
   Steele,	
  the	
  writer	
  of	
  the	
  contract	
  itself	
  is	
  unknown.	
  The	
  contract	
  is	
  not	
  expressed	
   through	
  dialogue	
  between	
  characters,	
  but	
  is	
  represented	
  as	
  print	
  text	
  that	
  is	
  read	
  by	
   the	
  characters	
  in	
  the	
  story.	
  Before	
  being	
  presented	
  with	
  the	
  dominant/submissive	
   contract,	
  Ana	
  is	
  asked	
  to	
  sign	
  a	
  non-­‐disclosure	
  agreement	
  that	
  Christian	
  clearly	
   states	
  has	
  been	
  created	
  by	
  his	
  lawyer;	
  however,	
  the	
  dominant/submissive	
  contract	
   is	
  presented	
  without	
  mention	
  of	
  the	
  writer.	
  The	
  reader	
  may	
  conclude	
  that	
  it	
  is	
  also	
   Christian’s	
  lawyer	
  who	
  created	
  the	
  contract,	
  but	
  since	
  the	
  lawyer	
  remains	
  unnamed	
   and	
  never	
  appears	
  in	
  the	
  text,	
  the	
  identity	
  of	
  the	
  contract	
  creator	
  remains	
   ambiguous.	
  This	
  ambiguity	
  facilitates	
  the	
  reader’s	
  acceptance	
  of	
  the	
  contract	
   passages	
  as	
  being	
  narrated	
  by	
  E.L.	
  James	
  directly.	
  	
   As	
  a	
  result,	
  although	
  the	
  contract	
  is	
  presented	
  by	
  Christian	
  to	
  Ana,	
  the	
  control	
   over	
  the	
  document	
  remains	
  with	
  E.L.	
  James	
  as	
  author	
  and	
  woman.	
  Ana’s	
  safety	
   within	
  her	
  role	
  as	
  submissive	
  is	
  therefore	
  guaranteed	
  by	
  the	
  female	
  creator	
  to	
  the	
   female	
  audience.	
  James	
  underlines	
  the	
  conditions	
  of	
  safety	
  by	
  detailing	
  Christian’s	
   responsibilities	
  as	
  a	
  dominant	
  to	
  Ana:	
   15.1	
  The	
  Dominant	
  shall	
  make	
  the	
  Submissive’s	
  health	
  and	
  safety	
  a	
  priority	
  at	
   all	
   times.	
   The	
   Dominant	
   shall	
   not	
   at	
   any	
   time	
   require,	
   request,	
   allow,	
   or	
   demand	
   the	
   Submissive	
   to	
   participate	
   at	
   the	
   hands	
   of	
   the	
   Dominant	
   in	
   activities	
   detailed	
   in	
   Appendix	
   2	
   or	
   in	
   any	
   act	
   that	
   either	
   party	
   deems	
   to	
   be	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   51	
  Philippe	
  Lejeune,	
  Le	
  pacte	
  autobiographique	
  (Paris:	
  Éditions	
  du	
  Seuil,	
  1975),	
  28-­‐30.	
    	
    28	
    unsafe.	
   The	
   Dominant	
   will	
   not	
   undertake	
   or	
   permit	
   to	
   be	
   undertaken	
   any	
   action	
  which	
  could	
  cause	
  serious	
  injury	
  or	
  any	
  risk	
  to	
  the	
  Submissive’s	
  life…	
   	
   The	
  contract	
  continues:	
   15.2	
   The	
   Dominant	
   accepts	
   the	
   Submissive	
   as	
   his,	
   to	
   own,	
   control,	
   dominate,	
   and	
  discipline	
  during	
  the	
  Term.	
  The	
  Dominant	
  may	
  use	
  the	
  Submissive’s	
  body	
   at	
   any	
   time	
   during	
   the	
   Allotted	
   Times	
   or	
   any	
   agreed	
   additional	
   times	
   in	
   any	
   manner	
  he	
  deems	
  fit,	
  sexually	
  or	
  otherwise.52	
   	
   The	
  contract	
  also	
  provides	
  the	
  author	
  with	
  a	
  venue	
  to	
  outline	
  the	
  types	
  of	
   sexual	
  activities	
  that	
  will	
  take	
  place	
  within	
  the	
  trilogy,	
  and	
  what	
  acts	
  will	
  be	
   excluded.	
   Appendices	
  2	
  and	
  3	
  of	
  the	
  contract	
  include	
  lists	
  of	
  “limits.”	
  Here,	
  the	
  reader	
  is	
   presented	
  with	
  a	
  detailed	
  account	
  of	
  “hard	
  limits”	
  (activities	
  that	
  will	
  definitely	
  not	
   take	
  place)	
  and	
  “soft	
  limits”	
  (activities	
  that	
  are	
  negotiable).	
   APPENDIX	
  2	
   Hard	
  Limits	
   No	
  acts	
  involving	
  fire	
  play.	
   No	
  acts	
  involving	
  urination	
  or	
  defecation	
  and	
  the	
  products	
  thereof.	
   No	
  acts	
  involving	
  needles,	
  knives,	
  cutting,	
  piercing,	
  or	
  blood.	
   No	
  acts	
  involving	
  gynecological	
  medical	
  instruments.	
   No	
  acts	
  involving	
  children	
  or	
  animals.	
   No	
  acts	
  that	
  will	
  leave	
  any	
  permanent	
  marks	
  on	
  the	
  skin.	
   No	
  acts	
  involving	
  breath	
  control.	
   No	
   activity	
   that	
   involves	
   the	
   direct	
   contact	
   of	
   electric	
   current	
   (whether	
   alternating	
  or	
  direct),	
  fire,	
  or	
  flames	
  to	
  the	
  body.	
   	
   APPENDIX	
  3	
   Soft	
  Limits	
   To	
  be	
  discussed	
  and	
  agreed	
  between	
  both	
  parties:	
   	
   Does	
  the	
  Submissive	
  consent	
  to:	
   Masturbation	
   Cunnilingus	
   Fellatio	
   Swallowing	
  semen	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
    52	
  E.L.	
  James,	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey:	
  Book	
  One	
  of	
  the	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  Trilogy	
  (Random	
  House	
   Digital,	
  Inc.,	
  2011),	
  chap.	
  11,	
  165-­‐166.	
  	
    	
    29	
    Vaginal	
  intercourse	
   Vaginal	
  fisting	
   Anal	
  intercourse	
   Anal	
  fisting	
   	
   Does	
  the	
  Submissive	
  consent	
  to	
  the	
  use	
  of:	
   Vibrators	
   Butt	
  plugs	
   Dildos	
   Other	
  vaginal/anal	
  toys	
   	
   Does	
  the	
  Submissive	
  consent	
  to:	
   Bondage	
  with	
  rope	
   Bondage	
  with	
  leather	
  cuffs…53	
   	
   Appendix	
  3	
  continues	
  with	
  a	
  list	
  of	
  other	
  possible	
  types	
  of	
  bondage,	
  as	
  well	
  as	
   forms	
  of	
  “discipline,”	
  such	
  as	
  spanking	
  and	
  caning.	
  While	
  the	
  contract	
  is	
  drafted	
  by	
   Christian,	
  the	
  terms	
  of	
  the	
  contract	
  are	
  negotiable,	
  and	
  Ana	
  spends	
  considerable	
   time	
  considering	
  revisions	
  to	
  the	
  document.	
  The	
  reader	
  can	
  therefore	
  believe	
  that	
   the	
  protagonist	
  is	
  in	
  control	
  of	
  the	
  events	
  that	
  will	
  take	
  place,	
  even	
  when	
  these	
   events	
  involve	
  her	
  losing	
  physical	
  control	
  (via	
  bondage	
  or	
  restraints),	
  or	
  losing	
  her	
   free	
  will	
  (another	
  part	
  of	
  the	
  contract	
  states	
  that	
  “the	
  Submissive	
  will	
  wear	
  clothing	
   only	
  approved	
  by	
  the	
  Dominant”).54	
  Although	
  we	
  find	
  out	
  in	
  subsequent	
  volumes	
   that	
  the	
  contract	
  is	
  never	
  signed,	
  many	
  of	
  the	
  sexual	
  acts	
  included	
  in	
  the	
  series	
   follow	
  the	
  conditions	
  proposed	
  within	
  it.	
  For	
  example,	
  many	
  of	
  the	
  gadgets	
  listed	
   are	
  ultimately	
  used,	
  and	
  the	
  techniques	
  that	
  Ana	
  was	
  willing	
  to	
  try	
  are	
  acted	
  out	
   within	
  the	
  work.	
   The	
  content	
  of	
  the	
  contract	
  has	
  sparked	
  much	
  criticism	
  because	
  it	
  is	
  essentially	
   entrapment	
  into	
  slavery;	
  however,	
  fans	
  of	
  the	
  work	
  assert	
  that	
  it	
  is	
  empowering	
  as	
  it	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   53	
  Ibid.,	
  170-­‐171.	
   54	
  Ibid.,	
  169.	
    	
    30	
    instigates	
  dialogue	
  amongst	
  women.	
  Some	
  point	
  to	
  the	
  fact	
  that	
  Ana	
  ultimately	
  does	
   not	
  sign	
  the	
  contract	
  as	
  indicative	
  of	
  Ana’s	
  independence	
  and	
  power.55	
  Yet,	
  Ana	
   strives	
  to	
  fulfill	
  many	
  of	
  the	
  sexual	
  demands	
  that	
  are	
  included	
  within	
  the	
  contract,	
   and	
  constantly	
  refers	
  back	
  to	
  it	
  when	
  contemplating	
  how	
  she	
  can	
  best	
  please	
   Christian	
  in	
  the	
  relationship.	
  Thus,	
  the	
  contract	
  is	
  effectuated	
  regardless	
  of	
  Ana’s	
   refusal	
  to	
  sign	
  it.	
  	
   The	
  one	
  aspect	
  of	
  the	
  contract	
  on	
  which	
  Ana	
  clearly	
  reneges	
  involves	
   controlling	
  her	
  fertility.	
  Although	
  the	
  contract	
  states	
  that	
  “the	
  Submissive	
  will	
   ensure	
  that	
  she	
  procures	
  oral	
  contraception	
  and	
  ensure	
  that	
  she	
  takes	
  it	
  as	
  and	
   when	
  prescribed	
  as	
  to	
  prevent	
  any	
  pregnancy,”	
  Ana	
  fails	
  to	
  remember	
  to	
  take	
  her	
   birth	
  control	
  shot	
  and	
  thus	
  becomes	
  pregnant	
  soon	
  after	
  the	
  couple	
  marries.56	
   Although	
  Christian	
  is	
  at	
  first	
  furious	
  at	
  this	
  development,	
  he	
  eventually	
  accepts	
  the	
   situation	
  after	
  Ana	
  risks	
  her	
  life	
  in	
  order	
  to	
  save	
  Christian’s	
  sister	
  from	
  being	
  hurt	
  by	
   the	
  trilogy’s	
  villain.	
  By	
  the	
  story’s	
  conclusion,	
  Ana	
  is	
  depicted	
  as	
  being	
  pregnant	
  with	
   a	
  second	
  baby	
  while	
  continuing	
  to	
  take	
  part	
  in	
  sexual	
  bondage	
  with	
  her	
  husband.57	
   Therefore,	
  it	
  is	
  only	
  the	
  adherence	
  to	
  a	
  traditional	
  womanly	
  role	
  within	
  the	
  context	
   of	
  motherhood	
  and	
  self-­‐sacrifice	
  that	
  Ana	
  is	
  shown	
  to	
  reverse	
  the	
  clauses	
  of	
  the	
   contract,	
  while	
  the	
  other	
  aspects	
  of	
  the	
  document	
  continue	
  to	
  be	
  enforced.	
  	
   Although	
  the	
  items	
  within	
  the	
  contract	
  itself	
  demonstrate	
  a	
  complete	
   disregard	
  for	
  the	
  rights	
  of	
  the	
  woman,	
  the	
  fact	
  that	
  Ana	
  is	
  able	
  to	
  contribute	
  to	
  the	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   55	
  Lynn	
  Crosbie,	
  “Shades	
  Trilogy	
  Secret?	
  She’s	
  Got	
  the	
  Power,”	
  The	
  Globe	
  and	
  Mail,	
  May	
  1,	
   2012,	
  Canadian	
  Periodicals	
  Index	
  Quarterly,	
  Gale	
  (document	
  no.	
  A288210387).	
   56	
  James,	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey,	
  chap.	
  11,	
  167.	
   57	
  E.L.	
  James,	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  Freed:	
  Book	
  Three	
  of	
  the	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  Trilogy	
  (Random	
  House	
   Digital,	
  Inc.,	
  2012),	
  epilogue,	
  540-­‐541.	
  	
    	
    31	
    contract	
  by	
  making	
  revisions,	
  after	
  which	
  she	
  follows	
  through	
  by	
  enacting	
  some	
  of	
   the	
  contract’s	
  clauses,	
  effectively	
  makes	
  Ana	
  into	
  a	
  creator	
  of	
  the	
  pornographic	
  story	
   that	
  unfolds	
  in	
  the	
  novel.	
  At	
  one	
  point,	
  Ana	
  walks	
  out	
  on	
  Christian	
  after	
  she	
  asks	
  to	
   experience	
  a	
  harsh	
  punishment,	
  and	
  realizes	
  that	
  it	
  is	
  too	
  much	
  for	
  her	
  to	
  handle.	
   Christian	
  is	
  quick	
  to	
  point	
  out,	
  however,	
  that	
  she	
  could	
  have	
  mitigated	
  the	
  pain	
  had	
   she	
  used	
  a	
  “safe	
  word,”	
  insinuating	
  that	
  she	
  had	
  the	
  power	
  to	
  change	
  the	
  outcome	
   through	
  words,	
  but	
  was	
  just	
  too	
  stupid	
  to	
  use	
  them.58	
   While	
  this	
  dynamic	
  of	
  Ana	
  as	
  porn-­‐writer	
  is	
  incorporated	
  in	
  the	
  story’s	
  plot,	
   how	
  the	
  material	
  was	
  created	
  and	
  distributed	
  also	
  adds	
  to	
  the	
  notion	
  of	
  shared	
   stories.	
  E.L.	
  James’s	
  original	
  Master	
  of	
  the	
  Universe	
  story	
  was	
  released	
  within	
  a	
  fan	
   fiction	
  website,	
  where	
  story	
  sharing	
  is	
  done	
  exclusive	
  of	
  publishing	
  houses	
  and	
   marketing	
  campaigns.	
  Although	
  fan	
  fiction	
  stories	
  are	
  generally	
  based	
  on	
  highly	
   popular	
  works	
  with	
  mass	
  market	
  distribution,	
  the	
  re-­‐purposing	
  of	
  popular	
  works	
  by	
   individual	
  fans	
  via	
  fan	
  fiction	
  communities	
  subverts	
  the	
  consumerism	
  inherent	
  to	
   mass	
  market	
  culture.	
  	
   As	
  mentioned	
  previously,	
  James	
  has	
  downplayed	
  the	
  fan	
  fiction	
  origins	
  of	
  the	
   work;	
  however,	
  she	
  continues	
  to	
  highlight	
  the	
  amateur	
  storytelling	
  common	
  in	
  the	
   genre,	
  re-­‐conceptualizing	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  as	
  a	
  work	
  to	
  be	
  shared	
  amongst	
  women,	
   rather	
  than	
  Twilight	
  fans.	
  This	
  idea	
  of	
  women	
  sharing	
  stories	
  outside	
  of	
  mass-­‐ market	
  publishing	
  norms,	
  coupled	
  with	
  the	
  marketing	
  of	
  the	
  book	
  as	
  a	
  piece	
  of	
   erotica	
  (in	
  addition	
  to	
  simply	
  “romance”),	
  allows	
  for	
  the	
  association	
  of	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
    	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
    58	
  E.L.	
  James,	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  Darker:	
  Book	
  Two	
  of	
  the	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  Trilogy	
  (Random	
  House	
   Digital,	
  Inc.,	
  2011),	
  chap.	
  2,	
  35.	
  	
    	
    32	
    with	
  previous	
  erotic	
  texts,	
  such	
  as	
  those	
  of	
  which	
  Juffer	
  speaks.59	
   Just	
  as	
  women’s	
  erotica	
  in	
  the	
  English-­‐language	
  book	
  market	
  entails	
  sexually	
   explicit	
  material	
  targeted	
  towards	
  a	
  female	
  audience,	
  Japanese	
  ladies’	
  comics	
  are	
   published	
  specifically	
  for	
  the	
  female	
  reader.	
  The	
  ladies’	
  comics	
  story	
  Toraware	
  no	
   yoru	
  by	
  Kishida	
  Reiko	
    	
  was	
  originally	
  published	
  in	
  the	
  August	
  1992	
  issue	
  of	
    Aya.	
  The	
  work	
  was	
  later	
  re-­‐published	
  in	
  e-­‐book	
  format	
  within	
  a	
  four-­‐story	
   anthology	
  of	
  Kishida’s	
  works.	
  Toraware	
  no	
  yoru	
  begins	
  with	
  the	
  protagonist	
  Nanako	
   shopping	
  for	
  gifts	
  to	
  celebrate	
  her	
  5th	
  wedding	
  anniversary	
  with	
  her	
  husband	
   Hiroyuki.	
  Nanako	
  purchases	
  a	
  watch	
  and	
  a	
  bottle	
  of	
  rosé	
  to	
  share	
  with	
  her	
  husband	
   that	
  evening.	
  She	
  muses	
  that	
  every	
  year	
  they	
  dine	
  together	
  with	
  flowers,	
  a	
  kiss,	
  and	
   the	
  rosé.	
  As	
  she	
  returns	
  home	
  and	
  fishes	
  for	
  her	
  key	
  with	
  presents	
  in	
  hand,	
  she	
   wonders	
  to	
  herself	
  whether	
  she	
  should	
  wear	
  her	
  Dior	
  dress	
  or	
  a	
  Nina	
  Ricci	
  outfit	
   (neither	
  of	
  which	
  she	
  can	
  wear	
  with	
  underwear,	
  as	
  she	
  can’t	
  risk	
  a	
  panty	
  line)	
  when	
   she	
  is	
  suddenly	
  attacked	
  from	
  behind	
  by	
  a	
  man	
  and	
  sedated.	
  She	
  later	
  wakes	
  up	
  in	
   an	
  opulent	
  bedroom	
  and	
  notices	
  that	
  she	
  is	
  being	
  watched	
  by	
  a	
  long-­‐haired,	
  goateed	
   man	
  clad	
  in	
  a	
  leather	
  jacket	
  and	
  sunglasses.	
  Although	
  Nanako	
  at	
  first	
  attempts	
  to	
   escape,	
  she	
  realizes	
  that	
  she	
  is	
  chained	
  to	
  the	
  bed,	
  and	
  is	
  at	
  the	
  man’s	
  mercy.	
  The	
   man	
  proceeds	
  to	
  blindfold	
  her	
  and	
  perform	
  cunnilingus	
  on	
  her.	
  As	
  part	
  of	
  the	
  sex	
   act,	
  the	
  man	
  opens	
  the	
  bottle	
  of	
  rosé,	
  and	
  pours	
  this	
  over	
  her	
  genitals.	
  He	
   subsequently	
  unshackles	
  her	
  and	
  takes	
  off	
  her	
  blindfold.	
  She	
  questions	
  her	
  captor,	
   asking:	
  	
  	
   	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   59	
  Juffer,	
  73.	
    	
    33	
     !? !?	
   Wh…	
  what	
  exactly	
  is	
  your	
  purpose!?	
  To	
  mock	
  me!?	
   	
   To	
  which	
  he	
  responds:	
   	
   ……  	
  	
   No,	
  it’s	
  to	
  gratify	
  you.60	
   	
   He	
  subsequently	
  presents	
  her	
  with	
  a	
  vibrator,	
  stating	
  that	
  it	
  is	
  an	
  anniversary	
   present,	
  and	
  gives	
  her	
  directions	
  on	
  relaxing	
  her	
  body	
  before	
  he	
  inserts	
  the	
  object.	
   Although	
  she	
  verbally	
  protests	
  by	
  saying	
  “Hiroyuki…	
  tasukete	
  tasukete…!”	
   (Hiroyuki…	
  save	
  me	
  save	
  me…!)	
  readers	
  are	
  shown	
  a	
  conflicting	
  visual	
  image	
  of	
  an	
   orgasmic	
  Nanako.	
   Pausing	
  here,	
  one	
  may	
  ask	
  how	
  a	
  tale	
  of	
  confinement	
  and	
  rape	
  can	
  be	
   delivered	
  to	
  readers	
  as	
  an	
  enjoyable	
  sexual	
  fantasy.	
  While	
  the	
  analysis	
  of	
  rape	
   fantasies	
  themselves	
  is	
  the	
  subject	
  of	
  a	
  separate	
  discussion,	
  I	
  believe	
  that	
  this	
  story	
   manages	
  to	
  assure	
  the	
  reader	
  that,	
  to	
  use	
  the	
  kidnapper’s	
  words,	
  it	
  is	
  the	
  woman’s	
   gratification	
  which	
  is	
  at	
  issue	
  in	
  the	
  story,	
  and	
  that	
  the	
  protagonist	
  is	
  not	
  in	
  danger	
   of	
  being	
  hurt.	
  This	
  assurance	
  that	
  the	
  protagonist	
  is	
  safe	
  results	
  from	
  a	
  perception	
   that	
  the	
  story	
  stems	
  from	
  an	
  entirely	
  female-­‐created	
  framework,	
  which	
  on	
  the	
   surface	
  appears	
  to	
  be	
  free	
  from	
  harmful	
  male	
  pornographic	
  consumerism.	
   The	
  title	
  of	
  the	
  anthology	
  in	
  which	
  the	
  e-­‐version	
  of	
  Towareru	
  no	
  yoru	
  appears	
   is	
  Zēnbu	
  jitsuwa!!	
  Dokusha	
  no	
  H	
  taikendan	
    !!	
    H  	
  (All	
  true	
    stories!!	
  Stories	
  from	
  readers’	
  sexual	
  experiences).	
  Here	
  we	
  see	
  the	
  appearance	
  of	
   the	
  term	
  jitsuwa,	
  the	
  real-­‐life	
  stories	
  that	
  Frederick	
  examined	
  in	
  Turning	
  Pages,	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   60	
  Kishida	
  Reiko	
    ,	
  Toraware	
  no	
  yoru	
   in	
  Zēnbu	
  jitsuwa!!	
  Dokusha	
  no	
   H	
  taikendan	
   !!	
   H 	
  (Ohzora	
  Publishing	
  Co.	
   ,	
  2009),	
  105-­‐106,	
   http://www.ebookjapan.jp/ebj/book/60034346.html	
    	
    34	
    referenced	
  in	
  the	
  previous	
  chapter.	
  In	
  addition	
  to	
  the	
  work’s	
  author	
  having	
  a	
  female	
   name,	
  it	
  is	
  made	
  clear	
  to	
  the	
  purchaser	
  that	
  the	
  stories	
  in	
  the	
  anthology	
  are	
  all	
  “true”	
   and	
  will	
  involve	
  first-­‐person	
  accounts	
  from	
  women.	
  This	
  biographical	
  dimension	
  of	
   the	
  anthology	
  is	
  further	
  highlighted	
  within	
  the	
  title	
  page	
  of	
  each	
  story,	
  which	
   includes	
  a	
  brief	
  blurb	
  on	
  the	
  background	
  of	
  the	
  reader	
  who	
  submitted	
  her	
   confession	
  to	
  be	
  made	
  into	
  comic	
  form.	
  The	
  title	
  page	
  of	
  Toraware	
  no	
  yoru	
  (Figure	
  1)	
   includes	
  an	
  image	
  of	
  a	
  bare-­‐chested	
  woman,	
  suspended	
  from	
  above,	
  entangled	
  by	
   roses	
  and	
  being	
  caressed	
  by	
  a	
  man.	
  In	
  addition	
  to	
  the	
  title,	
  Kishida’s	
  name,	
  and	
  an	
   introductory	
  headline,	
  the	
  following	
  three	
  call-­‐outs	
  appear	
  on	
  the	
  top	
  left	
  and	
   bottom	
  right	
  corner	
  of	
  the	
  page:	
     	
   Confessional	
  notes	
  special	
  edition:	
  Love’s	
  hesitation	
   	
   	
   True	
  confession	
   	
   This	
  story	
  is	
  based	
  on	
  a	
  work	
  submitted	
  by	
  a	
  Tokyo	
  housewife	
  (25	
  years	
  old)61	
   	
   I	
  believe	
  that	
  these	
  statements	
  reinforce	
  the	
  message	
  on	
  the	
  anthology’s	
  cover	
  –	
  that	
   everything	
  included	
  within	
  the	
  pages	
  is	
  produced	
  exclusively	
  by	
  women.	
  Not	
  only	
  is	
   the	
  author/illustrator	
  a	
  woman,	
  but	
  the	
  content	
  of	
  the	
  story	
  stems	
  from	
  the	
  real-­‐life	
   experience	
  of	
  the	
  Tokyo	
  housewife	
  who,	
  we	
  can	
  assume,	
  made	
  it	
  safely	
  back	
  home	
   with	
  fond	
  memories	
  of	
  the	
  experience,	
  otherwise	
  she	
  would	
  not	
  have	
  be	
  in	
  a	
   position	
  to	
  send	
  the	
  confession	
  in	
  to	
  the	
  periodical	
  where	
  it	
  was	
  originally	
   published.	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   61	
  Kishida,	
  97.	
    	
    35	
    	
    	
   Figure	
  1:	
  Toraware	
  no	
  yoru	
  (Zēnbu	
  jitsuwa!!	
  Dokusha	
  no	
  H	
  taikendan,	
  97).	
  Illustration	
  by	
  Kishida	
  Reiko.	
   Image	
  courtesy	
  Ohzora	
  Publishing	
  Co.	
  and	
  Kishida	
  Reiko.	
    The	
  notion	
  of	
  true	
  stories	
  and	
  jitsuwa	
  is	
  also	
  emphasized	
  in	
  a	
  pair	
  of	
   interviews	
  with	
  ladies’	
  comics’	
  authors	
  that	
  were	
  published	
  in	
  the	
  women’s	
    	
    36	
    magazine	
  Fujin	
  kōron	
  in	
  2001.	
  The	
  articles	
  focus	
  on	
  the	
  trend	
  of	
  including	
  storylines	
   about	
  mother-­‐in-­‐law	
  relations	
  within	
  the	
  comics.	
  In	
  her	
  February	
  2001	
  interview,	
   Hazuki	
  Sei	
  claims	
  that	
  the	
  plot	
  of	
  one	
  of	
  her	
  stories,	
  which	
  depicts	
  a	
  mother-­‐in-­‐law	
   enduring	
  a	
  compression	
  fracture	
  that	
  ultimately	
  ruins	
  a	
  couple’s	
  trip	
  to	
  Saipan,	
  is	
   actually	
  a	
  jitsuwa.	
  Hazuki	
  states	
  that	
  this	
  stems	
  from	
  her	
  own	
  experience,	
  and	
  even	
   the	
  dialogue	
  between	
  the	
  characters	
  is	
  taken	
  from	
  reality.62	
  Similarly,	
  in	
  a	
  July	
  2001	
   interview,	
  Ide	
  Chikae	
  maintains	
  that	
  all	
  of	
  her	
  horror-­‐themed	
  ladies’	
  comics	
  are	
  also	
   based	
  on	
  jitsuwa.	
  In	
  Ide’s	
  case,	
  the	
  stories	
  come	
  via	
  reader	
  submissions,	
  which	
  Ide	
   adapted	
  for	
  use	
  in	
  her	
  manga.63	
   Mori	
  discusses	
  the	
  solicitation	
  of	
  reader	
  stories	
  in	
  Onna	
  wa	
  poruno	
  o	
  yomu.	
  She	
   states	
  that	
  the	
  more	
  sexually	
  explicit	
  stream	
  of	
  ladies’	
  comics	
  originated	
  from	
   women’s	
  magazines	
  that	
  solicited	
  first-­‐person	
  accounts	
  of	
  sexual	
  experiences	
  from	
   their	
  readers.	
  The	
  magazines	
  originally	
  began	
  by	
  incorporating	
  reader	
  comments	
  in	
   their	
  articles	
  on	
  sex	
  and	
  sexuality,	
  but	
  later	
  transformed	
  reader	
  submissions	
  into	
   serialized	
  manga	
  stories.	
  The	
  magazine	
  publishers	
  subsequently	
  decided	
  to	
  create	
   dedicated	
  ladies’	
  comics	
  periodicals.64	
  Mori	
  indicates	
  that,	
  although	
  both	
  magazine	
   and	
  mainstream	
  book	
  publishers	
  began	
  producing	
  ladies’	
  comics	
  in	
  the	
  1980s	
  and	
   1990s,	
  the	
  sexually	
  explicit	
  manga	
  were	
  derived	
  from	
  women’s	
  magazine	
   publishers,	
  while	
  mainstream	
  publishers	
  concentrated	
  on	
  producing	
  ladies’	
  comics	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   62	
  Yamada	
  Mihoko,	
  Hazuki	
  Sei	
  and	
  Tsuruma	
  Satoko	
    	
   	
   	
  ,	
   	
   	
  ,	
   	
   ,	
  “	
  Shūtome,	
  rōkaigo,	
  itaden	
  mangaka	
  no	
  nichijō	
  wa	
  ‘redikomi’	
  yori	
  yonari”	
   	
   ,	
  Fujin	
  kōron	
   	
  86	
  (February	
  7,	
  2001):83.	
   63 Ide	
  Chikae	
   	
   ,	
  “Rasetsu	
  no	
  ie	
  no	
  sakka	
  ga	
  akasu	
  jujitsu	
  wa	
  redkomi	
  yori	
  horāna	
   monogatari” 	
   ,	
  Fujin	
  kōron	
   ,	
  86	
  (July	
  22,	
  2001):	
  36.	
  	
   64	
  Mori,	
  75.	
    	
    37	
    that	
  simply	
  included	
  more	
  adult-­‐themed	
  content	
  such	
  as	
  plots	
  involving	
  office	
  work	
   and	
  families.	
  65	
  	
   Mori	
  also	
  points	
  to	
  women’s	
  magazines	
  of	
  the	
  1920s	
  that	
  incorporated	
   confessional	
  texts	
  as	
  setting	
  the	
  foundation	
  for	
  the	
  use	
  of	
  reader	
  submissions	
  within	
   ladies’	
  comics.	
  Mori	
  argues	
  that,	
  while	
  these	
  early	
  examples	
  of	
  kokuhaku	
   (confessions)	
  were	
  normally	
  limited	
  to	
  issues	
  relating	
  to	
  love	
  and	
  marriage,	
  the	
   same	
  magazines	
  continued	
  to	
  create	
  and	
  solicit	
  kokuhaku	
  in	
  the	
  1960s	
  and	
  70s,	
   although	
  changing	
  their	
  focus	
  to	
  deal	
  with	
  sex	
  and	
  sexuality	
  specifically.66	
   The	
  women’s	
  magazines	
  from	
  which	
  the	
  ladies’	
  comics	
  were	
  derived	
  were	
   already	
  publishing	
  non-­‐fictional	
  accounts	
  of	
  reader	
  concerns	
  regarding	
  sex.	
  By	
  using	
   the	
  term	
  kokuhaku	
  for	
  both	
  reader	
  questions	
  and	
  for	
  the	
  manga	
  stories,	
  the	
   magazine	
  publishers	
  created	
  an	
  expectation	
  from	
  readers	
  that	
  the	
  ladies’	
  comics	
   erotic	
  fantasies	
  were	
  based	
  on	
  reality.	
  I	
  assert	
  that	
  discussions	
  on	
  sex	
  within	
  the	
   magazine	
  articles	
  constructed	
  a	
  “we’re	
  all	
  in	
  this	
  together”	
  type	
  of	
  group	
   consciousness	
  about	
  women’s	
  sexuality.	
  Women	
  could	
  read	
  about	
  other	
  women’s	
   sexual	
  issues	
  to	
  gain	
  understanding	
  of	
  their	
  own	
  concerns,	
  even	
  when	
  the	
  specific	
   accounts	
  did	
  not	
  entirely	
  mirror	
  their	
  own	
  experiences.	
   Through	
  kokuhaku	
  terminology,	
  ladies’	
  comics	
  producers	
  continue	
  to	
  associate	
   their	
  works	
  with	
  non-­‐fiction	
  articles	
  and	
  autobiographical	
  stories	
  found	
  in	
  women’s	
   magazines,	
  creating	
  a	
  parallel	
  expectation	
  of	
  common	
  understanding	
  that	
  hinges	
  on	
   female-­‐created	
  input.	
  The	
  major	
  difference	
  here	
  is	
  that,	
  while	
  the	
  articles	
  may	
   examine	
  a	
  broad	
  range	
  of	
  problems	
  and	
  issues	
  regarding	
  sex,	
  the	
  ladies’	
  comics	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   65	
  Ibid.,	
  79-­‐81.	
   66	
  Ibid.,	
  77-­‐78.	
    	
    38	
    stories	
  specifically	
  emphasize	
  a	
  commonality	
  in	
  sexual	
  pleasure.	
  If	
  the	
  author	
  of	
  a	
   ladies’	
  comics	
  story	
  is	
  basing	
  the	
  plot	
  on	
  a	
  true	
  experience	
  of	
  pleasure,	
  then	
  pleasure	
   can	
  be	
  expected	
  for	
  the	
  reader,	
  as	
  well.	
   Gretchen	
  Jones	
  also	
  highlights	
  the	
  importance	
  of	
  reader	
  submissions	
  in	
  ladies’	
   comics.	
  In	
  her	
  essay	
  “Bad	
  Girls	
  Like	
  to	
  Watch:	
  Writing	
  and	
  Reading	
  Ladies’	
  Comics,”	
   Jones	
  states:	
   The	
  authors/creators	
  of	
  these	
  comics	
  and	
  their	
  readers	
  seem	
  to	
  acknowledge	
   one	
   another,	
   and	
   work	
   together	
   to	
   create	
   content	
   that	
   “works.”	
   The	
   reader-­‐ supplied	
   comments	
   in	
   particular	
   seem	
   to	
   suggest	
   to	
   other	
   readers	
   that	
   there	
   are	
   other	
   women	
   who	
   consume	
   these	
   comics,	
   and	
   have	
   similar	
   problems	
   or	
   concerns.	
  This	
  form	
  of	
  “sisterhood”	
  is	
  similar	
  to	
  an	
  observation	
  Linda	
  Williams	
   makes	
  in	
  her	
  reconsideration	
  of	
  Hitchcock’s	
  Psycho	
  and	
  its	
  female	
  viewership.	
   She	
  asserts	
  that	
  women	
  enjoy	
  being	
  in	
  the	
  company	
  of	
  other	
  women	
  and	
  being	
   scared	
  together,	
  forming	
  a	
  connection	
  between	
  women.	
  The	
  reader	
  comments	
   in	
   ladies’	
   comics	
   may	
   function	
   in	
   much	
   the	
   same	
   way:	
   creating	
   connections	
   between	
   female	
   readers.	
   At	
   the	
   same	
   time,	
   male	
   aggression	
   can	
   be	
   transformed	
   into	
   a	
   game	
   that	
   women	
   can	
   safely	
   manipulate,	
   secure	
   in	
   their	
   position	
  as	
  the	
  sole	
  arbiters	
  of	
  their	
  fantasy	
  world.67	
   	
   Jones	
  indicates	
  that	
  female	
  readers	
  are	
  able	
  to	
  “safely	
  manipulate”	
  the	
  male	
   aggression	
  that	
  takes	
  place	
  within	
  ladies’	
  comics	
  not	
  only	
  because	
  these	
  readers	
   provide	
  their	
  own	
  input	
  to	
  the	
  storyline,	
  but	
  also	
  because	
  both	
  readers	
  and	
  writers	
   create	
  a	
  women-­‐only	
  sphere	
  where	
  these	
  stories	
  are	
  created.	
  	
   The	
  effectiveness	
  of	
  the	
  stories	
  as	
  sexual	
  fantasies,	
  therefore,	
  hinges	
  on	
  the	
   sense	
  that	
  the	
  works	
  stem	
  from	
  true	
  sexual	
  experiences,	
  and	
  also	
  that	
  the	
  stories	
  are	
   not	
  mediated	
  by	
  or	
  created	
  for	
  men.	
  Although	
  some	
  ladies’	
  comics	
  stories	
  are	
  in	
  fact	
   written	
  by	
  men,	
  these	
  creators	
  write	
  under	
  female	
  pseudonyms,	
  further	
  illustrating	
   the	
  need	
  for	
  the	
  genre	
  to	
  appear	
  as	
  a	
  female-­‐only	
  medium	
  in	
  order	
  for	
  the	
  stories	
  to	
    	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
    67	
  Jones,	
  “Bad	
  Girls	
  Like	
  to	
  Watch,”	
  104.	
    	
    39	
    be	
  effectively	
  marketed	
  to	
  the	
  female	
  readership.68	
   Toraware	
  no	
  yoru	
  ends	
  happily	
  for	
  the	
  female	
  protagonist.	
  Upon	
  sensing	
  that	
   the	
  kidnapper	
  is	
  about	
  to	
  initiate	
  intercourse,	
  Nanako	
  breaks	
  the	
  wine	
  bottle	
  and	
   threatens	
  him,	
  only	
  to	
  see	
  him	
  reveal	
  himself	
  as	
  her	
  loving	
  husband,	
  Hiroyuki.	
  A	
   confused	
  Nanako	
  learns	
  that	
  Hiroyuki	
  set	
  up	
  the	
  kidnapping	
  in	
  the	
  hopes	
  that	
  it	
   would	
  be	
  shigekiteki	
  (stimulating),	
  and	
  that	
  it	
  would	
  be	
  an	
  enjoyable	
  present	
  to	
  her.	
   While	
  she	
  is	
  momentarily	
  unconvinced	
  and	
  prepares	
  to	
  leave,	
  she	
  stops	
  abruptly	
   when	
  she	
  sees	
  the	
  lavish	
  table	
  setting	
  meant	
  to	
  celebrate	
  the	
  anniversary.	
  (Figure	
  2)	
   It	
  becomes	
  clear	
  that	
  Hiroyuki	
  has	
  borrowed	
  this	
  villa	
  from	
  a	
  friend	
  for	
  the	
  occasion,	
   and	
  although	
  he	
  had	
  planned	
  to	
  stop	
  the	
  charade	
  much	
  earlier,	
  he	
  found	
  her	
  to	
  be	
  so	
   very	
  kawaii	
  (cute)	
  that	
  he	
  let	
  the	
  charade	
  and	
  the	
  sexual	
  acts	
  continue.69	
  	
  	
   Hiroyuki	
  also	
  presents	
  Nanako	
  with	
  a	
  luxurious	
  robe,	
  and	
  she	
  responds	
  by	
   forgiving	
  Hiroyuki.	
  (Figure	
  3)	
  The	
  story	
  finishes	
  with	
  her	
  giving	
  him	
  a	
  watch	
  and	
   stating	
  that	
  next	
  year	
  she	
  may	
  turn	
  the	
  tables	
  and	
  stage	
  a	
  kidnapping	
  as	
  part	
  of	
  his	
   present.70	
    	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   68	
  Ibid.,	
  99.	
    69	
  Kishida,	
  127.	
   70	
  Ibid.,	
  131.	
    	
    40	
    	
   Figure	
  2:	
  Toraware	
  no	
  yoru	
  (Zēnbu	
  jitsuwa!!	
  Dokusha	
  no	
  H	
  taikendan,	
  126).	
  Illustration	
  by	
  Kishida	
  Reiko.	
   Image	
  courtesy	
  Ohzora	
  Publishing	
  Co.	
  and	
  Kishida	
  Reiko.	
    	
    41	
    	
   Figure	
  3:	
  Toraware	
  no	
  yoru	
  (Zēnbu	
  jitsuwa!!	
  Dokusha	
  no	
  H	
  taikendan,	
  127).	
  Illustration	
  by	
  Kishida	
  Reiko.	
   Image	
  courtesy	
  Ohzora	
  Publishing	
  Co.	
  and	
  Kishida	
  Reiko.	
    	
    42	
    	
    Although	
  neither	
  James	
  nor	
  Kishida	
  purport	
  that	
  these	
  stories	
  are	
  about	
  themselves,	
   both	
  works	
  incorporate	
  characters	
  who	
  are	
  empowered	
  to	
  write.	
  Ana	
  re-­‐writes	
  the	
   contract,	
  while	
  Nanako	
  represents	
  the	
  writer	
  of	
  the	
  original	
  confessional	
  work	
  on	
   which	
  the	
  story	
  is	
  said	
  to	
  be	
  based.	
  Both	
  Ana	
  and	
  Nanako,	
  therefore,	
  determine	
  the	
   direction	
  of	
  the	
  storylines,	
  reinforcing	
  the	
  perception	
  that	
  these	
  are	
  female-­‐created	
   and	
  female-­‐driven	
  narratives.	
   By	
  excluding	
  male	
  creators,	
  these	
  works	
  situate	
  themselves	
  outside	
  the	
  realm	
   of	
  pornography,	
  and	
  its	
  association	
  with	
  the	
  blatant	
  commodification	
  of	
  women’s	
   sexuality.	
  A	
  heterosexual	
  female	
  would	
  not	
  seem	
  to	
  pose	
  the	
  same	
  threat	
  as	
  a	
  male	
   reader,	
  as	
  she	
  would	
  not	
  enjoy	
  the	
  consumption	
  of	
  descriptions	
  of	
  female	
  sexual	
  acts	
   as	
  would	
  a	
  male.	
  Yet,	
  acquisition	
  and	
  consumerism	
  runs	
  rampant	
  throughout	
  both	
   Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey	
  and	
  Toraware	
  no	
  yoru.	
  Although	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  begins	
  with	
  Ana	
   receiving	
  a	
  number	
  of	
  gifts	
  from	
  Christian,	
  many	
  of	
  which	
  could	
  be	
  seen	
  as	
   enhancing	
  her	
  scholarship	
  or	
  career	
  (such	
  as	
  a	
  first	
  edition	
  set	
  of	
  Tess	
  of	
  the	
   d’Urbervillles	
  and	
  a	
  Macbook	
  Pro),	
  these	
  gifts	
  multiply	
  to	
  include	
  clothing,	
  jewelry,	
   and	
  finally	
  an	
  extra	
  sports	
  car	
  to	
  add	
  to	
  a	
  previous	
  car	
  given	
  to	
  her	
  by	
  Christian.	
  Ana	
   is	
  at	
  first	
  conflicted	
  by	
  these	
  purchases,	
  and	
  states	
  that	
  they	
  make	
  her	
  “feel	
  cheap.”71	
   However,	
  she	
  eventually	
  consents	
  to	
  Christian’s	
  gift-­‐giving,	
  and	
  the	
  reader	
  is	
  given	
   examples	
  throughout	
  the	
  novel	
  of	
  how	
  the	
  gifts	
  signal	
  his	
  love	
  for	
  her,	
  and	
  are	
   meant	
  to	
  protect	
  or	
  support	
  her.	
  Unlike	
  Fifty	
  Shades,	
  Toraware	
  no	
  yoru	
  offers	
  no	
   pretence	
  of	
  the	
  gifts	
  being	
  useful	
  for	
  Nanako’s	
  educational	
  or	
  career	
  enhancement	
  -­‐	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
    71	
  James,	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey,	
  chap.	
  15,	
  243.	
  	
    	
    43	
    in	
  fact,	
  there	
  is	
  no	
  mention	
  of	
  Nanako	
  having	
  any	
  profession	
  or	
  life	
  outside	
  of	
  her	
   relationship	
  with	
  her	
  husband.	
   The	
  gifts	
  that	
  appear	
  in	
  Toraware	
  no	
  yoru	
  and	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey	
  represent	
  a	
   luxurious	
  lifestyle	
  that	
  would	
  be	
  out	
  of	
  reach	
  to	
  most	
  readers.	
  In	
  Fifty	
  Shades,	
   Christian’s	
  character	
  resembles	
  Ann	
  Douglas’s	
  description	
  of	
  a	
  Harlequin	
  Romance	
   hero	
  who	
  is	
  “always	
  the	
  heroine’s	
  superior,	
  older,	
  handsome	
  in	
  a	
  predatory	
  way,	
   dressed	
  in	
  stunning	
  clothes,	
  lord	
  of	
  at	
  least	
  a	
  plantation	
  and	
  sometimes	
  head	
  of	
  a	
   corporation.”72	
  Christian’s	
  wealth	
  seems	
  limitless,	
  and	
  he	
  tells	
  Ana	
  that	
  he	
  earns	
   “roughly	
  one	
  hundred	
  thousand	
  dollars	
  an	
  hour.”73	
  His	
  decadent	
  lifestyle	
  includes	
   helicopters,	
  charity	
  galas,	
  and	
  trips	
  abroad.	
  Ana	
  also	
  bears	
  similarities	
  to	
  Douglas’s	
   description	
  of	
  the	
  typical	
  Harlequin	
  heroine,	
  who	
  is	
  described	
  as	
  “usually	
  an	
   immigrant	
  from	
  another	
  less	
  modern	
  culture	
  to	
  the	
  energized,	
  bewildering	
  terrain	
   of	
  the	
  male.”74	
  Christian	
  transforms	
  Ana	
  from	
  an	
  awkward,	
  badly	
  dressed	
  college	
   student	
  who	
  regularly	
  wears	
  Converse	
  shoes	
  to	
  a	
  stylish	
  executive	
  wearing	
   “Christian	
  Louboutin	
  shoes,	
  a	
  steal	
  at	
  $3,295.”75	
  In	
  Toraware	
  no	
  yoru,	
  Hiroyuki	
  and	
   Nanako’s	
  residence	
  is	
  a	
  huge,	
  Western-­‐style	
  estate	
  that,	
  given	
  the	
  country’s	
  space	
   constraints,	
  would	
  be	
  difficult	
  to	
  imagine	
  could	
  even	
  exist	
  in	
  Japan.	
  Hideyuki’s	
   friend’s	
  villa,	
  in	
  which	
  Nanako	
  finds	
  herself	
  after	
  the	
  abduction,	
  seems	
  no	
  less	
   spacious	
  and	
  over-­‐the-­‐top.	
   These	
  descriptions	
  of	
  high	
  fashion	
  and	
  wealth	
  that	
  are	
  far	
  removed	
  from	
  the	
   average	
  reader’s	
  everyday	
  life	
  is	
  a	
  common	
  trait	
  within	
  romance	
  fiction.	
  However,	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   72	
  Ann	
  Douglas,	
  “Soft-­‐Porn	
  Culture,”	
  The	
  New	
  Republic	
  (August	
  30,	
  1980):	
  26.	
   73	
  James,	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  Darker,	
  chap.	
  5,	
  108.	
  	
   74	
  Douglas,	
  26.	
   75	
  James,	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  Darker,	
  chap.	
  6,	
  125.	
  	
    	
    44	
    despite	
  the	
  improbability	
  of	
  these	
  objects	
  ever	
  being	
  part	
  of	
  the	
  reader’s	
  lifestyle,	
   romance	
  novel	
  fans	
  can	
  still	
  associate	
  the	
  commodification	
  found	
  in	
  the	
  works	
  with	
   real	
  world	
  understanding.	
  Janice	
  Radway	
  discusses	
  this	
  point	
  in	
  Reading	
  the	
   Romance:	
   Romantic	
   authors	
   draw	
   unconsciously	
   on	
   cultural	
   conventions	
   and	
   stereotypes	
   that	
   stipulate	
   that	
   women	
   can	
   always	
   be	
   characterized	
   by	
   their	
   universal	
   interest	
   in	
   clothes.	
   However,	
   at	
   the	
   same	
   time	
   that	
   the	
   fictional	
   characterizations	
   depend	
   on	
   these	
   previously	
   known	
   codes,	
   they	
   also	
   tacitly	
   legitimate	
   them	
   through	
   simple	
   repetition,	
   thereby	
   justifying	
   the	
   readers’	
   own	
   likely	
   preoccupation	
   with	
   these	
   indispensable	
   features	
   of	
   the	
   feminine	
   universe….	
   	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  A	
   similar	
   sort	
   of	
   descriptive	
   detail	
   also	
   characterizes	
   the	
   mention	
   of	
   domestic	
   architecture	
   and	
   home	
   furnishings	
   in	
   romantic	
   fiction.	
   If	
   the	
   novels	
   are	
  set	
  in	
  the	
  historical	
  past,	
  the	
  narrator’s	
  eye	
  lingers	
  lovingly	
  over	
  the	
  objects	
   and	
   accoutrements	
   of	
   pre-­‐electrical	
   living.	
   If	
   the	
   story’s	
   setting	
   is	
   contemporary,	
   brand	
   name	
   appliances,	
   popular	
   furniture	
   styles,	
   and	
   trendy	
   accessories	
   such	
   as	
   “lush”	
   green	
   plants,	
   macramé	
   wall	
   hangings,	
   and	
   silk	
   flowers	
  typically	
  populate	
  the	
  heroine’s	
  apartment.	
  Both	
  kinds	
  of	
  descriptions	
   assert	
   tacitly	
   that	
   the	
   imaginary	
   world	
   of	
   the	
   novel	
   is	
   as	
   real	
   as	
   the	
   reader’s	
   world	
   because	
   it	
   is	
   filled	
   with	
   the	
   same,	
   solid,	
   teeming	
   profusion	
   of	
   commodities.76	
   	
   Although	
  material	
  possessions	
  depicted	
  in	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  and	
  Toraware	
  no	
  yoru	
   include	
  exorbitant	
  clothes	
  and	
  furnishings	
  that	
  may	
  not	
  be	
  realistically	
  acquired	
  by	
   most	
  readers,	
  the	
  stories	
  still	
  show	
  themselves	
  to	
  be	
  based	
  in	
  reality	
  by	
  also	
   featuring	
  items	
  that	
  fans	
  can	
  find	
  and	
  purchase.	
  For	
  instance,	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  makes	
   mention	
  of	
  several	
  Apple	
  products	
  that	
  are	
  attainable	
  by	
  middle-­‐income	
  readers.	
  In	
   Toraware	
  no	
  yoru,	
  Kishida	
  not	
  only	
  provides	
  brand-­‐name	
  identification	
  of	
  Nanako’s	
   clothing	
  and	
  the	
  watch	
  she	
  gives	
  to	
  Hiroyuki,	
  but	
  she	
  also	
  identifies	
  the	
  rosé	
  as	
  the	
   pricey	
  Perrier-­‐Joüet	
  Belle	
  Epoque,	
  illustrating	
  the	
  bottle	
  in	
  detail.	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
    76	
  Janice	
  Radway,	
  Reading	
  the	
  Romance:	
  Women,	
  Patriarchy,	
  and	
  Popular	
  Culture	
  (Chapel	
  Hill:	
   University	
  of	
  North	
  Carolina	
  Press,	
  1984),	
  193-­‐194.	
    	
    45	
    In	
  addition	
  to	
  these	
  tangible	
  gifts,	
  we	
  are	
  shown	
  examples	
  of	
  sexual	
  acts	
  as	
   substituting	
  presents	
  in	
  both	
  stories.	
  In	
  the	
  second	
  volume	
  of	
  James’s	
  trilogy,	
  Ana	
   offers	
  three	
  birthday	
  presents	
  to	
  Christian:	
  an	
  acceptance	
  of	
  his	
  marriage	
  proposal	
   (stating,	
  “What	
  do	
  you	
  give	
  the	
  man	
  who	
  has	
  everything?	
  I	
  thought	
  I’d	
  give	
  you…	
   me”),	
  a	
  solar-­‐powered	
  helicopter,	
  and	
  a	
  gift	
  box	
  that	
  includes	
  “an	
  eye	
  mask,	
  some	
   nipple	
  clamps,	
  a	
  butt	
  plug,	
  his	
  iPod,	
  his	
  silver	
  gray	
  tie–and	
  last	
  but	
  by	
  no	
  means	
   least–the	
  key	
  to	
  his	
  playroom.”77	
  	
   The	
  distinction	
  between	
  material	
  gifts	
  and	
  the	
  exchange	
  of	
  sexual	
  acts	
  is	
  also	
   blurred	
  in	
  Toraware	
  no	
  yoru.	
  As	
  mentioned	
  previously,	
  while	
  the	
  rosé	
  is	
  purchased	
   as	
  an	
  anniversary	
  gift	
  for	
  Hiroyuki	
  from	
  Nanako,	
  it	
  is	
  transformed	
  into	
  a	
  sex	
  aid	
   when	
  Hiroyuki	
  pours	
  the	
  champagne	
  over	
  and	
  into	
  Nanako.	
  (Figure	
  4)	
  Hiroyuki	
  also	
   makes	
  it	
  clear	
  that	
  the	
  kidnapping	
  and	
  forced	
  sex	
  is	
  the	
  main	
  part	
  of	
  his	
  anniversary	
   present	
  to	
  Nanako,	
  and	
  should	
  be	
  viewed	
  similarly	
  to	
  the	
  robe	
  and	
  dinner	
  –	
  just	
   another	
  lavish	
  commodity.	
  Nanako	
  also	
  refers	
  to	
  the	
  experience	
  as	
  a	
  gift	
  when	
  she	
   suggests	
  that	
  she	
  may	
  do	
  the	
  same	
  for	
  him	
  the	
  subsequent	
  year.	
    	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
    77	
  James,	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  Darker,	
  chap.	
  20,	
  456;	
  Ibid.,	
  463.	
    	
    46	
    	
   Figure	
  4:	
  Toraware	
  no	
  yoru	
  (Zēnbu	
  jitsuwa!!	
  Dokusha	
  no	
  H	
  taikendan,	
  112).	
  Illustration	
  by	
  Kishida	
  Reiko.	
   Image	
  courtesy	
  Ohzora	
  Publishing	
  Co.	
  and	
  Kishida	
  Reiko.	
    	
   	
    47	
    Although	
  the	
  acquisition	
  of	
  goods	
  such	
  as	
  clothing	
  can	
  be	
  viewed	
  as	
  a	
  common	
   characteristic	
  of	
  romance	
  novels,	
  the	
  notion	
  of	
  sex	
  as	
  commodity	
  is	
  more	
  clearly	
   associated	
  with	
  pornography.	
  Thus,	
  both	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  and	
  Toraware	
  no	
  yoru	
  parallel	
   pornography	
  by	
  equating	
  the	
  protagonists’	
  sexuality	
  with	
  overt	
  commodification	
  of	
   sex.	
  Furthermore,	
  while,	
  as	
  Juffer	
  points	
  out,	
  erotica’s	
  development	
  was	
  founded	
  on	
   the	
  emergence	
  of	
  masturbatory	
  texts,	
  where	
  women	
  were	
  encouraged	
  to	
  discover	
   their	
  sexuality	
  through	
  masturbation	
  and	
  the	
  lack	
  of	
  male	
  intervention	
  to	
  achieve	
   sexual	
  satisfaction,	
  sex	
  scenes	
  within	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey	
  and	
  Toraware	
  no	
  yoru	
   remove	
  this	
  type	
  of	
  sexual	
  agency	
  from	
  the	
  female	
  characters.	
  In	
  Fifty	
  Shades,	
  Ana	
  is	
   virtually	
  sexless	
  until	
  she	
  meets	
  Christian.	
  She	
  is	
  a	
  virgin	
  and	
  claims	
  not	
  to	
  have	
  had	
   any	
  real	
  sexual	
  interest	
  in	
  any	
  other	
  man.	
  Moreover,	
  the	
  dominant/submissive	
   contract	
  tabled	
  by	
  Christian	
  includes	
  a	
  clause	
  that	
  expressly	
  forbids	
  masturbation	
   without	
  Christian’s	
  consent.	
  It	
  states:	
  “15.19	
  The	
  Submissive	
  shall	
  not	
  touch	
  or	
   pleasure	
  herself	
  sexually	
  without	
  permission	
  from	
  the	
  Dominant.”78	
  The	
  only	
   masturbation	
  scene	
  in	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  occurs	
  when	
  Christian	
  guides	
  Ana’s	
  hands	
  to	
   sexually	
  stimulate	
  herself	
  as	
  a	
  prelude	
  to	
  intercourse.79	
   The	
  vibrator	
  in	
  Toraware	
  no	
  yoru	
  is	
  shown	
  as	
  a	
  gift	
  from	
  Hiroyuki,	
  and	
  he	
  uses	
   it	
  to	
  penetrate	
  Nanako.	
  She	
  does	
  not	
  use	
  the	
  vibrator	
  on	
  herself,	
  and	
  the	
   masturbatory	
  tool	
  is	
  used	
  for	
  his	
  satisfaction	
  and	
  voyeuristic	
  pleasure.	
  Thus,	
  for	
   both	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey	
  and	
  Toraware	
  no	
  yoru,	
  masturbation	
  is	
  converted	
  from	
  a	
   form	
  of	
  sexual	
  empowerment,	
  where	
  women	
  discover	
  their	
  sexuality	
  exclusive	
  of	
   male	
  intervention,	
  into	
  an	
  act	
  that	
  is	
  completely	
  under	
  the	
  control	
  of	
  the	
  male,	
  and	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
    78	
  James,	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey,	
  chap.	
  11,	
  167.	
  	
   79	
  Ibid.,	
  chap.	
  23,	
  407-­‐408.	
  	
    	
    48	
    for	
  male	
  sexual	
  fulfillment.	
   This	
  passive	
  nature	
  of	
  sexual	
  fulfillment	
  also	
  places	
  the	
  works	
  more	
  in	
  line	
   with	
  the	
  romance	
  genre	
  than	
  within	
  the	
  tradition	
  of	
  erotica.	
  In	
  her	
  book	
  entitled	
   Shopping	
  Around:	
  Feminine	
  Culture	
  and	
  the	
  Pursuit	
  of	
  Pleasure,	
  Hilary	
  Radner	
  states:	
   In	
  the	
  world	
  of	
  the	
  category	
  romance,	
  the	
  only	
  way	
  a	
  woman	
  can	
  have	
  a	
  man	
  is	
   to	
  be	
  had	
  by	
  him	
  in	
  the	
  way	
  that	
  she	
  desires.	
  The	
  woman	
  must	
  always	
  take	
  a	
   position	
   of	
   passivity	
   in	
   relation	
   to	
   the	
   man.	
   This	
   position	
   must	
   appear	
   to	
   be	
   involuntary	
  and	
  unselfconscious.	
  This	
  is	
  one	
  of	
  the	
  fundamental	
  contradictions	
   of	
   feminine	
   sexuality:	
   it	
   is	
   based	
   on	
   a	
   passivity	
   that	
   is	
   the	
   result,	
   not	
   of	
   nature,	
   but	
  of	
  certain	
  ideological	
  choices	
  that	
  must	
  appear	
  natural	
  and	
  inevitable.80	
   	
   Ana	
  and	
  Nanako	
  express	
  desire	
  for	
  their	
  lovers,	
  but	
  their	
  sexual	
  fulfillment	
  is	
   contingent	
  on	
  the	
  actions	
  of	
  the	
  male	
  characters	
  in	
  the	
  stories.	
  Ana	
  is	
  discouraged	
  to	
   climax	
  on	
  her	
  own	
  according	
  to	
  the	
  terms	
  of	
  the	
  contract.	
  Although	
  she	
  ultimately	
   does	
  not	
  sign	
  the	
  document,	
  she	
  follows	
  this	
  advice	
  and	
  is	
  never	
  shown	
  to	
  climax	
   without	
  Christian	
  present,	
  with	
  the	
  exception	
  of	
  when	
  she	
  is	
  unconscious	
  and	
   dreaming	
  of	
  him.81	
  Meanwhile,	
  Nanako’s	
  sexuality	
  is	
  only	
  brought	
  out	
  in	
  response	
  to	
   the	
  actions	
  of	
  her	
  husband,	
  through	
  abduction	
  and	
  force.	
   Additionally,	
  both	
  James	
  and	
  Kishida	
  are	
  careful	
  to	
  situate	
  the	
  sexual	
  acts	
   featuring	
  confinement	
  and	
  domination	
  as	
  temporary	
  escapes.	
  These	
  present	
   themselves	
  as	
  sexual	
  fantasies	
  within	
  the	
  stories,	
  through	
  which	
  readers	
  can	
  indulge	
   while	
  secure	
  in	
  the	
  knowledge	
  that	
  the	
  gentle	
  partner	
  is	
  right	
  around	
  the	
  corner.	
   Both	
  Christian	
  and	
  Hiroyuki	
  change	
  their	
  appearance	
  when	
  playing	
  the	
  dominant	
   role.	
  Christian	
  usually	
  changes	
  into	
  a	
  designated	
  pair	
  of	
  jeans,	
  and	
  Hiroyuki	
   transforms	
  himself	
  with	
  a	
  leather	
  jacket,	
  sun	
  glasses	
  and	
  facial	
  hair	
  in	
  order	
  to	
  play	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
    80Hilary	
  Radner,	
  Shopping	
  Around:	
  Feminine	
  Culture	
  and	
  the	
  Pursuit	
  of	
  Pleasure,	
  (New	
  York:	
   Routledge,	
  1994),	
  75.	
   81	
  James,	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey,	
  chap.	
  14,	
  225.	
  	
    	
    49	
    the	
  role	
  of	
  Nanako’s	
  captor.	
  	
  	
   As	
  a	
  result,	
  the	
  reader	
  is	
  offered	
  a	
  fantasy	
  sex	
  life	
  within	
  the	
  cushion	
  of	
   normalcy	
  that	
  more	
  closely	
  resembles	
  her	
  everyday.	
  However,	
  unlike	
  the	
  fantasies	
   told	
  within	
  My	
  Secret	
  Garden,	
  the	
  fantasies	
  here	
  are	
  not	
  owned	
  by	
  the	
  female	
   protagonists	
  who	
  tell	
  them.	
  Although	
  Ana	
  admits	
  that	
  she	
  enjoys	
  some	
  of	
  the	
  rough	
   sex	
  opportunities	
  that	
  Christian	
  proposes,	
  his	
  enjoyment	
  remains	
  the	
  main	
   instigation	
  for	
  her	
  engagement	
  in	
  these	
  activities.	
  It	
  is	
  his	
  fantasy	
  that	
  takes	
   precedence,	
  and	
  her	
  enjoyment	
  is	
  a	
  happy	
  side-­‐effect	
  of	
  this.	
  Unlike	
  Christian,	
   Hideyuki	
  never	
  climaxes	
  within	
  Toraware	
  no	
  yoru;	
  however,	
  all	
  the	
  sex	
  acts	
  are	
   orchestrated	
  by	
  him,	
  without	
  any	
  input	
  from	
  Nanako.	
  Also,	
  Hideyuki’s	
  decision	
  to	
   continue	
  with	
  the	
  abduction	
  scene	
  longer	
  than	
  planned	
  is	
  based	
  on	
  his	
  enjoyment	
  of	
   watching	
  Nanako.	
  In	
  addition,	
  Christian	
  and	
  Hideyuki	
  control	
  the	
  places	
  in	
  which	
   the	
  sex	
  takes	
  place.	
  The	
  sadomasochistic	
  sex	
  instruments	
  that	
  Christian	
  uses	
  are	
   kept	
  within	
  his	
  “play	
  room,”	
  and	
  the	
  rougher	
  sex	
  acts	
  also	
  take	
  place	
  here.	
  Hideyuki,	
   meanwhile,	
  has	
  borrowed	
  the	
  villa	
  from	
  his	
  friend.	
  Both	
  areas	
  are	
  temporary	
  and	
   belong	
  to	
  the	
  male	
  protagonists.	
  The	
  role	
  of	
  the	
  female	
  character,	
  therefore,	
  is	
  to	
   play	
  within	
  the	
  male	
  fantasy,	
  not	
  to	
  create	
  and	
  control	
  her	
  own.	
   In	
  her	
  analysis	
  of	
  ladies’	
  comics,	
  Jones	
  often	
  refers	
  to	
  Jennifer	
  Wicke’s	
  article	
   “Through	
  a	
  Gaze	
  Darkly:	
  Pornography’s	
  Academic	
  Market.”	
  Wicke	
  maintains	
  that	
   pornography	
  reaches	
  beyond	
  the	
  pornographic	
  work	
  itself,	
  and	
  that	
  the	
  consumer	
   plays	
  a	
  role	
  in	
  the	
  creation	
  of	
  the	
  pornographic	
  fantasy.	
  She	
  states:	
  “Pornography	
  is	
   not	
  ‘just’	
  consumed,	
  but	
  is	
  used,	
  worked	
  on,	
  elaborated,	
  remembered,	
  fantasized	
    	
    50	
    about	
  by	
  its	
  subjects.”82	
  Following	
  this	
  premise,	
  one	
  can	
  argue	
  that	
  readers	
  of	
   literary	
  erotica	
  look	
  beyond	
  the	
  text	
  to	
  realize	
  their	
  erotic	
  fantasies.	
  The	
  perceived	
   authenticity	
  of	
  the	
  story	
  that	
  stems	
  from	
  the	
  gender	
  of	
  the	
  author	
  may	
  have	
  just	
  as	
   powerful	
  an	
  effect	
  on	
  the	
  ability	
  of	
  women	
  readers	
  to	
  accept	
  and	
  enjoy	
  the	
  work	
  as	
   the	
  words	
  within	
  the	
  novels.	
  Although	
  online	
  reader	
  reviews	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  media	
   reviews	
  of	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey	
  indicate	
  deficiencies	
  in	
  plot	
  and	
  style,	
  readers	
  are	
  still	
   able	
  to	
  make	
  use	
  of	
  the	
  work	
  to	
  enhance	
  their	
  sex	
  lives.83	
  They	
  look	
  to	
  elements	
   outside	
  of	
  the	
  book’s	
  content	
  as	
  a	
  part	
  of	
  this	
  endeavour,	
  and	
  it	
  is	
  thus	
  that	
  E.L.	
   James’s	
  background	
  becomes	
  part	
  of	
  the	
  consumeristic	
  experience.	
   Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey	
  and	
  Toraware	
  no	
  yoru	
  contradict	
  Lorde’s	
  ideal	
  of	
  the	
   “power	
  of	
  the	
  erotic”	
  in	
  two	
  substantial	
  ways.	
  The	
  stories	
  commodify	
  women’s	
   sexuality,	
  and	
  female	
  sexual	
  agency	
  is	
  limited	
  if	
  not	
  excluded	
  from	
  the	
  works.	
  At	
  the	
   same	
  time,	
  both	
  titles	
  mimic	
  earlier	
  erotic	
  texts	
  by	
  emphasizing	
  female	
  authorship	
   of	
  and	
  control	
  over	
  the	
  storylines.	
  In	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey,	
  this	
  is	
  done	
  through	
  the	
   promotion	
  of	
  E.	
  L.	
  James	
  as	
  an	
  emerging	
  writer	
  who	
  is	
  contributing	
  to	
  a	
  larger	
   community	
  of	
  women	
  sharing	
  stories.	
  The	
  emphasis	
  on	
  female	
  authorship	
  also	
   assures	
  the	
  reader	
  that	
  the	
  story	
  will	
  resolve	
  itself	
  favourably	
  for	
  the	
  protagonist,	
   and	
  will	
  result	
  in	
  sexual	
  fulfillment.	
  This	
  is	
  reinforced	
  by	
  the	
  depiction	
  of	
  Ana	
  as	
  co-­‐ author	
  of	
  the	
  dominant/submissive	
  contract,	
  demonstrating	
  that	
  the	
  story	
  is	
   controlled	
  by	
  women	
  both	
  from	
  within	
  the	
  plot	
  (Ana	
  as	
  the	
  character)	
  and	
  through	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   82	
  Jennifer	
  Wicke,	
  “Through	
  a	
  Gaze	
  Darkly:	
  Pornography’s	
  Academic	
  Market,”	
  Transition	
  54	
   (January	
  1991):	
  78,	
  http://www.jstor.org/stable/2934903	
   83	
  “Customer	
  Reviews:	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey:	
  Book	
  One	
  of	
  the	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  Trilogy,”	
   Amazon.com,	
  http://www.amazon.com/Fifty-­‐Shades-­‐Grey-­‐Book-­‐Trilogy/product-­‐ reviews/0345803485/ref=dp_top_cm_cr_acr_txt?ie=UTF8&showViewpoints=1;	
  Viv	
  Groskop,	
  “'Fifty	
   Shades'	
  Has	
  Done	
  Wonders	
  for	
  Book	
  Selling,	
  but	
  Nothing	
  for	
  Literature,”	
  The	
  Independent	
  (London)	
   July	
  5,	
  2012,	
  available	
  from	
  http://www.lexisnexis.com/hottopics/lnacademic	
    	
    51	
    the	
  book’s	
  publication	
  (via	
  the	
  author,	
  E.L.	
  James).	
  	
   Toraware	
  no	
  yoru	
  also	
  highlights	
  female	
  authorship	
  via	
  its	
  marketing	
  as	
  a	
   kokuhaku	
  confessional	
  story,	
  giving	
  readers	
  the	
  impression	
  that	
  the	
  work	
  is	
  based	
   on	
  real	
  sexual	
  fulfillment.	
  Here	
  again,	
  through	
  the	
  belief	
  that	
  the	
  story	
  is	
  female-­‐ created	
  and	
  controlled,	
  readers	
  are	
  assured	
  that	
  the	
  character	
  is	
  based	
  on	
  a	
   pleasurable	
  reality,	
  and	
  that	
  she	
  will	
  be	
  safe	
  and	
  sexually	
  satisfied	
  despite	
  the	
   character’s	
  seeming	
  lack	
  of	
  control	
  within	
  the	
  story.	
   In	
  her	
  study	
  of	
  Japanese	
  ani-­‐paro	
  (animation	
  parody)	
  based	
  on	
  the	
  Harry	
   Potter	
  series,	
  Sharalyn	
  Orbaugh	
  demonstrates	
  how	
  this	
  example	
  of	
  fan	
  fiction	
  draws	
   from	
  the	
  collaborative	
  practices	
  already	
  in	
  place	
  for	
  the	
  creation	
  and	
  dissemination	
   of	
  shōjo	
  manga	
  (comics	
  targeted	
  towards	
  girls	
  and	
  women).	
  She	
  maintains:	
   From	
  the	
  time	
  shōjo	
   magazines	
  were	
  first	
  launched,	
  a	
  system	
  of	
  feedback	
  was	
   put	
   in	
   place,	
   allowing	
   girls	
   to	
   write	
   in	
   to	
   the	
   magazines	
   to	
   express	
   their	
   reactions	
  to	
  stories	
  in	
  previous	
  issues	
  and	
  later	
  to	
  submit	
  stories	
  and	
  essays	
  of	
   their	
   own.	
   This	
   practice	
   continued	
   through	
   the	
   1990s,	
   as	
   readers	
   of	
   Ladies’	
   Comics	
   and	
   commercial	
   yaoi	
  manga,	
   for	
   example,	
   wrote	
   in	
   to	
   express	
   opinions	
   about	
  the	
  erotic	
  stories	
  in	
  previous	
  issues	
  and	
  to	
  request	
  specific	
  kinds	
  of	
  sex	
   acts	
  in	
  future	
  work.”84	
   	
   The	
  ani-­‐paro	
  stories	
  examined	
  by	
  Orbaugh	
  also	
  follow	
  the	
  fan	
  fiction	
  tradition	
  of	
   building	
  a	
  community	
  of	
  writers	
  who,	
  while	
  writing	
  individual	
  stories,	
  also	
  rely	
  on	
   each	
  other	
  for	
  input	
  and	
  support.	
  This	
  results	
  in	
  the	
  collective	
  subversion	
  of	
  the	
   roles	
  of	
  reader	
  and	
  writer.	
  Orbaugh	
  states:	
   As	
   opposed	
   to	
   the	
   idea	
   of	
   a	
   single	
   author	
   organizing	
   a	
   singular,	
   autonomous	
   text	
   with	
   a	
   particular	
   “implied	
   reader”	
   in	
   mind	
   and	
   then	
   readers	
   consuming	
   that	
  text	
  passively	
  and	
  acceding	
  to	
  the	
  implied	
  reader	
  role	
  set	
  out	
  for	
  them	
  (or	
   else	
  rejecting	
  the	
  text	
  altogether),	
  we	
  see	
  multiple	
  readers	
  actively	
  seizing	
  the	
   text	
   and	
   expanding	
   its	
   possibilities	
   in	
   incredibly	
   diverse	
   ways…	
   If	
   the	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
    84	
  Sharalyn	
  Orbaugh,	
  “Amateur	
  Manga	
  and	
  Shōjo	
  Reading	
  Practices,”	
  in	
  Girl	
  Reading	
  Girl	
  in	
   Japan,	
  ed.	
  Tomoko	
  Aoyama	
  and	
  Barbara	
  Hartley	
  (London:	
  Routledge,	
  2010),	
  176.	
    	
    52	
    traditional	
   idea	
   of	
   literature	
   was	
   based	
   on	
   a	
   capitalistic	
   notion	
   of	
   property	
   (through	
   copyright)	
   and	
   a	
   phallogocentric	
   idea	
   of	
   intellectual	
   ownership	
   and	
   creative	
  authority	
  (through	
  the	
  idea	
  of	
   the	
  genius	
  male	
  auteur),	
  contemporary	
   fan	
  fiction	
  is	
  anarchic,	
  hyper-­‐democratic	
  in	
  that	
  anyone	
  at	
  all	
  can	
  participate,	
   and	
  feminist	
  in	
  its	
  resistance	
  to	
  phallogocentrism.85	
   	
   Reader	
  contributions	
  in	
  ladies’	
  comics	
  periodicals	
  such	
  as	
  Aya,	
  where	
  Toraware	
  no	
   yoru	
  first	
  appeared,	
  stemmed	
  from	
  the	
  shōjo	
  manga	
  culture	
  of	
  story	
  exchange.	
  Fifty	
   Shades	
  of	
  Grey	
  has	
  its	
  roots	
  in	
  fan	
  fiction	
  online	
  writings	
  where	
  authors	
  find	
   encouragement	
  and	
  input	
  from	
  a	
  test	
  group	
  of	
  readers	
  who	
  collectively	
  create	
  new	
   works	
  based	
  on	
  mainstream	
  texts.	
  Both	
  Toraware	
  no	
  yoru	
  and	
  Fifty	
  Shades,	
   therefore,	
  bear	
  similarities	
  with	
  the	
  ani-­‐paro	
  Harry	
  Potter	
  works	
  described	
  by	
   Orbaugh.	
  	
   However,	
  female	
  authorship	
  and	
  control	
  are	
  also	
  essential	
  in	
  order	
  for	
   Toraware	
  no	
  yoru	
  and	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  to	
  effectively	
  construct	
  the	
  perception	
  of	
   reader/writer	
  collaboration	
  and	
  exchange.	
  Since	
  both	
  works	
  aim	
  to	
  demonstrate	
   that	
  sexual	
  satisfaction	
  for	
  the	
  female	
  author	
  is	
  possible,	
  the	
  authors	
  must	
  exhibit	
   credibility	
  regarding	
  female	
  sexuality	
  and	
  the	
  sexual	
  response	
  of	
  the	
  female	
  body.	
  	
   While	
  Toraware	
  no	
  yoru	
  and	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  assume	
  credibility	
  through	
  female	
   authorship,	
  as	
  I	
  have	
  illustrated	
  above,	
  the	
  content	
  of	
  the	
  works	
  entail	
  female	
   protagonists	
  that	
  are	
  frequently	
  disempowered	
  sexually.	
  Therefore,	
  I	
  believe	
  that	
  it	
   is	
  the	
  concept	
  of	
  a	
  female-­‐centred	
  collaborative	
  space	
  and	
  not	
  the	
  material	
  itself	
  that	
   results	
  in	
  the	
  perception	
  of	
  empowerment	
  amongst	
  readers.	
  The	
  removal	
  of	
  female	
   authorship	
  would	
  collapse	
  this	
  dynamic.	
  	
   Gayle	
  Rubin	
  maintains	
  that	
  an	
  increase	
  in	
  women’s	
  involvement	
  in	
  the	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   85	
  Ibid.,	
  178-­‐179.	
  	
    	
    53	
    production	
  of	
  pornography	
  can	
  have	
  a	
  positive	
  impact	
  on	
  women’s	
  sexuality.	
  She	
   states:	
   There	
   are	
   legitimate	
   feminist	
   concerns	
   with	
   regard	
   to	
   sexually	
   explicit	
   materials.	
   Although	
   pornography	
   should	
   not	
   be	
   singled	
   out,	
   it	
   should	
   not	
   be	
   immune	
  from	
  feminist	
  criticism.	
  Porn	
  is	
  certainly	
  not	
  uniformly	
  pleasing,	
  well	
   produced,	
  artistically	
  edifying	
  or	
  politically	
  advanced.	
  There	
  is	
  plenty	
  of	
  room	
   for	
  improvement	
  and	
  for	
  porn	
  that	
  is	
  well	
  made,	
  creative,	
  more	
  diverse,	
  more	
   attuned	
   to	
   women’s	
   fantasies,	
   and	
   more	
   infused	
   with	
   feminist	
   awareness.	
   This	
   will	
  only	
  happen	
  as	
  more	
  women	
  and	
  more	
  feminists	
  become	
  involved	
  in	
  the	
   production	
   of	
   sexually	
   explicit	
   material.	
   A	
   feminist	
   politics	
   on	
   pornography	
   should	
  be	
  aimed	
  at	
  making	
  it	
  easier	
  –	
  not	
  more	
  difficult	
  –	
  for	
  this	
  to	
  occur.86	
   	
   Contrary	
  to	
  Rubin’s	
  assertion	
  that	
  female	
  production	
  could	
  heighten	
  feminist	
   awareness	
  within	
  pornography,	
  by	
  diminishing	
  female	
  sexual	
  agency	
  and	
   highlighting	
  commodification,	
  both	
  Toraware	
  no	
  yoru	
  and	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey	
   reinforce	
  a	
  traditional,	
  male-­‐dominated	
  framework	
  of	
  pornography.	
  Female	
   production	
  of	
  the	
  works	
  is	
  stressed	
  in	
  order	
  to	
  assure	
  readers	
  of	
  the	
  authenticity	
  of	
   sexual	
  fulfillment	
  of	
  the	
  heroines,	
  resulting	
  in	
  the	
  readers’	
  perception	
  of	
  personal	
   sexual	
  empowerment	
  through	
  the	
  act	
  of	
  reading	
  the	
  material.	
  However,	
  female	
   authorship	
  has	
  not	
  altered	
  the	
  inclusion	
  of	
  sexual	
  commodification	
  and	
   disempowerment	
  within	
  the	
  stories	
  themselves.	
   In	
  this	
  chapter,	
  I	
  have	
  attempted	
  to	
  illustrate	
  how	
  examples	
  of	
  contemporary	
   women’s	
  erotica	
  have	
  tried	
  to	
  emulate	
  the	
  appearance	
  of	
  truthful	
  disclosure	
  on	
   sexual	
  experience	
  that	
  was	
  intrinsic	
  to	
  earlier	
  erotic	
  texts	
  authored	
  by	
  women.	
  This	
   has	
  been	
  done	
  through	
  the	
  emphasis	
  on	
  female	
  authorship,	
  but	
  in	
  the	
  absence	
  of	
   storylines	
  that	
  are	
  “more	
  infused	
  with	
  feminist	
  awareness.”	
  Instead	
  of	
  breaking	
  the	
   boundaries	
  of	
  women’s	
  sexual	
  fulfillment	
  through	
  shared	
  sexual	
  experience,	
  the	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   86	
  Rubin,	
  38.	
    	
    54	
    works	
  follow	
  the	
  constraints	
  of	
  romance	
  fiction	
  and	
  its	
  pre-­‐determined	
  roles	
  for	
   women’s	
  sexuality.	
  Nonetheless,	
  the	
  material	
  has	
  made	
  inroads	
  in	
  the	
  publication	
   and	
  distribution	
  methods	
  of	
  sexually	
  explicit	
  writing	
  for	
  women,	
  and	
  in	
  the	
   concluding	
  chapter,	
  I	
  will	
  discuss	
  how	
  newly-­‐developed	
  reader	
  spaces	
  could	
  either	
   undermine	
  or	
  facilitate	
  the	
  development	
  of	
  a	
  more	
  powerful	
  form	
  of	
  women’s	
   erotica.	
   	
    	
    55	
    Conclusion	
   	
   In	
  her	
  Newsweek	
  article	
  entitled	
  “She	
  Works	
  Crazy	
  Hours.	
  She	
  Takes	
  Care	
  of	
   the	
  Kids.	
  She	
  Earns	
  More	
  Money.	
  She	
  Manages	
  her	
  Team.	
  At	
  the	
  End	
  of	
  the	
  Day,	
  She	
   Wants	
  to	
  be...	
  Spanked?”	
  Katie	
  Roiphe	
  asks:	
   Is	
   there	
   something	
   exhausting	
   about	
   the	
   relentless	
   responsibility	
   of	
   a	
   contemporary	
   woman's	
   life,	
   about	
   the	
   pressure	
   of	
   economic	
   participation,	
   about	
   all	
   that	
   strength	
   and	
   independence	
   and	
   desire	
   and	
   going	
   out	
   into	
   the	
   world?	
   It	
   may	
   be	
   that,	
   for	
   some,	
   the	
   more	
   theatrical	
   fantasies	
   of	
   sexual	
   surrender	
  offer	
  a	
  release,	
  a	
  vacation,	
  an	
  escape	
  from	
  the	
  dreariness	
  and	
  hard	
   work	
  of	
  equality.87	
   	
   Roiphe	
  argues	
  that	
  Fifty	
  Shades’	
  popularity	
  is	
  due	
  to	
  its	
  portrayal	
  of	
  “sexual	
   surrender”	
  to	
  a	
  dominant	
  male.	
  Roiphe	
  suggests	
  that	
  this	
  is	
  craved	
  for	
  by	
  the	
   modern	
  woman	
  who	
  has	
  tired	
  of	
  being	
  in	
  control	
  outside	
  of	
  the	
  bedroom.	
  	
   In	
  this	
  thesis,	
  I	
  have	
  attempted	
  to	
  challenge	
  the	
  notion	
  that	
  women’s	
  erotica	
   such	
  as	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey	
  reflects	
  a	
  general	
  desire	
  by	
  women	
  to	
  be	
  dominated	
  by	
   men.	
  I	
  propose	
  that,	
  regardless	
  of	
  whether	
  the	
  content	
  of	
  these	
  works	
  conflicts	
  or	
   conforms	
  with	
  the	
  female	
  reader’s	
  own	
  needs	
  and	
  desires,	
  it	
  is	
  the	
  reception	
  of	
   women’s	
  erotica	
  as	
  a	
  shared	
  female-­‐centred	
  reality	
  that	
  facilitates	
  the	
  genre’s	
   acceptance	
  and	
  that	
  enables	
  a	
  sense	
  of	
  empowerment.	
  Rather	
  than	
  yearning	
  for	
  a	
   sexual	
  relationship	
  that	
  stands	
  opposed	
  to	
  her	
  expectations	
  of	
  empowerment	
  within	
   her	
  career,	
  the	
  reader	
  is	
  able	
  to	
  disregard	
  what	
  she	
  may	
  well	
  consider	
  unacceptable	
   in	
  her	
  real	
  romantic	
  relationships,	
  or	
  in	
  her	
  work	
  life.	
  I	
  believe	
  this	
  is	
  due	
  to	
  the	
  fact	
   that	
  women’s	
  erotica,	
  through	
  its	
  female	
  authorship	
  and	
  consumption,	
  appears	
  to	
  be	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   87	
  Katie	
  Roiphe,	
  "She	
  Works	
  Crazy	
  Hours.	
  She	
  Takes	
  Care	
  of	
  the	
  Kids.	
  She	
  Earns	
  More	
  Money.	
   She	
  Manages	
  her	
  Team.	
  At	
  the	
  End	
  of	
  the	
  Day,	
  She	
  Wants	
  to	
  be...	
  Spanked	
  ?"	
  Newsweek	
  159,	
  no.	
  18	
   (April	
  23,	
  2012):	
  24-­‐28,	
  Health	
  Reference	
  Centre	
  Academic,	
  Gale	
  (document	
  no.	
  A286792852).	
   	
    	
    56	
    in	
  a	
  female-­‐controlled	
  environment,	
  while	
  the	
  reader’s	
  own	
  relationships	
  and	
  career	
   more	
  clearly	
  reflect	
  male	
  influences.	
   While	
  Roife	
  maintains	
  that	
  the	
  appeal	
  of	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey	
  is	
  a	
  result	
  of	
  its	
   distancing	
  from	
  reality,	
  I	
  believe	
  that	
  it	
  is	
  the	
  positioning	
  of	
  the	
  work	
  within	
  reality,	
   as	
  an	
  instrument	
  to	
  facilitate	
  discussion	
  on	
  personal	
  experience,	
  that	
  has	
  made	
  it	
  a	
   phenomenon.	
  Through	
  the	
  emphasis	
  on	
  female	
  authorship	
  and	
  readership,	
  and	
   through	
  the	
  labeling	
  of	
  the	
  work	
  as	
  “erotica,”	
  readers	
  and	
  fans	
  are	
  encouraged	
  to	
   consider	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  as	
  contributing	
  to	
  Friday’s	
  “yardstick”	
  of	
  the	
  reality	
  of	
   women’s	
  sexual	
  experience.	
  However,	
  this	
  sense	
  of	
  reality	
  is	
  contingent	
  on	
  the	
   positioning	
  of	
  the	
  work	
  in	
  a	
  female-­‐created	
  and	
  female-­‐centred	
  space.	
  If	
  the	
  work	
   were	
  to	
  be	
  shown	
  to	
  have	
  greater	
  male	
  influence	
  or	
  control	
  (such	
  as	
  with	
  male	
   authorship),	
  the	
  entirety	
  of	
  the	
  work,	
  including	
  the	
  possibility	
  of	
  sexual	
  satisfaction,	
   would	
  not	
  prove	
  to	
  be	
  effective	
  with	
  the	
  target	
  audience	
  of	
  women.	
   In	
  an	
  interview	
  appearing	
  in	
  the	
  literary	
  magazine	
  Nami,	
  Japanese	
  authors	
   Yamamoto	
  Fumio	
  and	
  Mitsuno	
  Momo	
  discuss	
  “Onna	
  ni	
  yoru	
  onna	
  no	
  tame	
  no	
  R-­‐18	
   bungakushō”	
    R-­‐18  	
  (By	
  women	
  for	
  women	
  restricted	
  18	
    literary	
  prize),	
  which	
  is	
  awarded	
  to	
  the	
  best	
  submitted	
  work	
  that	
  falls	
  under	
  the	
   kannō	
  shōsetsu	
  (erotic	
  stories)	
  genre.88	
  	
  Although	
  the	
  emergence	
  of	
  the	
  genre	
  can	
  be	
   traced	
  to	
  primarily	
  male-­‐authored	
  works,	
  kannō	
  shōsetsu	
  is	
  now	
  dominated	
  by	
   female	
  writers.89	
  Japanese-­‐language	
  media	
  refer	
  to	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey	
  as	
  kannō	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
    88	
  Mitsuno	
  Momo	
  and	
  Yamamoto	
  Fumio,	
  “Taidan	
  Mitsuno	
  Momo	
  X	
  Yamamoto	
  Fumio	
  –	
  Onna	
    ni	
  yoru	
  onna	
  no	
  tame	
  no	
  R-­‐18	
  bungakushō”	
   	
   	
   ,	
  Nami	
   	
  35(September	
  2001):	
  52-­‐57.	
   89	
  "'Shin	
  kannō	
  shōsetsu'	
  wa	
  josei	
  ga	
  kaite	
  josei	
  ga	
  yomu" ,	
  Themis	
  (April	
  2004):	
  104.	
    	
    –  R-­‐18  57	
    shōsetsu	
  although	
  publisher	
  Hayakawa	
  Bunko	
  has	
  categorized	
  the	
  work	
  under	
  the	
   genre	
  headings	
  bungei	
  (literature),	
  eigaka	
  sakuhin	
  (works	
  made	
  into	
  movies),	
  and	
   renai	
  /	
  seishun	
  (love/youth)	
  .90	
  Yamamoto	
  and	
  Mitsuno,	
  who	
  served	
  as	
  adjudicators	
   for	
  the	
  R-­‐18	
  prize	
  in	
  2001,	
  discuss	
  the	
  reasoning	
  behind	
  the	
  establishment	
  of	
  the	
  R-­‐ 18	
  prize,	
  and	
  the	
  types	
  of	
  works	
  they	
  expect	
  and	
  hope	
  to	
  see	
  from	
  contributors.	
   Mitsuno	
  suggests	
  that	
  women	
  are	
  able	
  to	
  provide	
  a	
  truer	
  representation	
  of	
  women’s	
   eroticism	
  when	
  they	
  write	
  without	
  the	
  interference	
  of	
  men.91	
   However,	
  the	
  exclusion	
  of	
  male	
  involvement	
  from	
  women’s	
  erotica	
  is	
  not	
   guaranteed.	
  While	
  the	
  success	
  of	
  e-­‐publications	
  has	
  facilitated	
  access	
  by	
  women	
  to	
   erotic	
  works,	
  it	
  has	
  also	
  made	
  it	
  easier	
  for	
  men	
  to	
  read	
  erotic	
  fiction	
  that	
  purports	
  to	
   be	
  targeted	
  towards	
  women.	
  I	
  have	
  already	
  discussed	
  how	
  creators	
  of	
  women’s	
   erotica	
  could	
  include	
  men	
  writing	
  under	
  pseudonyms	
  or	
  otherwise	
  involved	
  in	
  the	
   publication	
  process.	
  Men	
  may	
  now	
  also	
  find	
  it	
  easier	
  to	
  be	
  part	
  of	
  the	
  readership	
  of	
   these	
  and	
  other	
  examples	
  of	
  women’s	
  erotic	
  writings,	
  as	
  e-­‐formats	
  do	
  not	
  require	
   them	
  to	
  enter	
  a	
  physical	
  space	
  in	
  order	
  to	
  access	
  the	
  material,	
  and	
  they	
  will	
  not	
  be	
   seen	
  intruding	
  on	
  the	
  women’s-­‐only	
  space	
  where	
  this	
  material	
  resides.	
  As	
  a	
  result,	
   women’s	
  sexual	
  fantasies	
  expressed	
  within	
  women’s	
  erotica	
  could	
  become	
  a	
   commodification	
  of	
  men’s	
  desires,	
  just	
  as	
  mainstream	
  pornography	
  is.	
   While	
  men’s	
  production	
  and	
  consumption	
  of	
  erotica/pornography	
  that	
  entails	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   90	
  “Eibei	
  de	
  bakuhatsuteki	
  ni	
  ureteiru	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey	
  no	
  3-­‐bu	
  saku”	
    Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey ,	
  Asahi	
  Shinbun	
   ,	
  July	
  30	
  2012,	
  Kikuzo	
  II	
   Visual;	
  “SM	
  kannō	
  shōsetsu,	
  Ōbei	
  no	
  hahaoya	
  sedai	
  de	
  dai	
  hitto	
  denshi	
  shoseki	
  atooshi”  ,	
  Sankei	
  Shinbun	
   ,	
  October	
  30,	
  2012,	
   http://www.iza.ne.jp/news/newsarticle/books/breview/602487/;	
  “Fiftī	
  sheizu	
  obu	
  gurei	
  jyō:	
   Hayakawa	
  onrainu”	
   ,	
   Hayakawa	
  Online,	
  http://www.hayakawa-­‐online.co.jp/product/books/125701.html.	
   91	
  	
  Mitsuno	
  and	
  Yamamoto,	
  54.	
    	
    58	
    women’s	
  submission	
  is	
  widely	
  viewed	
  as	
  negative,	
  reading	
  the	
  same	
  type	
  of	
   storyline	
  created	
  “for	
  women	
  by	
  women”	
  may	
  be	
  viewed	
  as	
  the	
  trait	
  of	
  a	
  considerate	
   lover.	
  The	
  Dr.	
  Oz	
  Show,	
  a	
  medical	
  television	
  talk	
  show,	
  dedicated	
  an	
  April	
  2012	
   episode	
  to	
  the	
  subject	
  of	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey	
  entitled	
  “Is	
  this	
  the	
  Prescription	
  for	
  the	
   Female	
  Libido?”92	
  In	
  a	
  post	
  appearing	
  on	
  the	
  show’s	
  blog,	
  Paul	
  Hokemeyer	
  tells	
   readers	
  how	
  much	
  he	
  has	
  learnt	
  through	
  reading	
  the	
  novel,	
  stating,	
  “…	
  I	
  gained	
  great	
   insight	
  into	
  what	
  women	
  want	
  out	
  of	
  men	
  and	
  how	
  we	
  can	
  be	
  better	
  lovers.”	
  He	
  goes	
   on	
  to	
  list	
  five	
  main	
  points	
  that	
  he	
  cites	
  as	
  takeaways	
  from	
  the	
  book,	
  including	
  “sex	
  is	
   a	
  whole	
  lot	
  more	
  than	
  penetration,”	
  and	
  “sex	
  is	
  an	
  important	
  communication	
  tool	
  in	
   a	
  relationship.”93	
   In	
  her	
  Woman’s	
  Hour	
  interview,	
  James	
  also	
  mentions	
  receiving	
   correspondence	
  from	
  men	
  who	
  read	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey	
  and	
  “have	
  taken	
  certain	
   things	
  away	
  from	
  it”	
  even	
  though	
  “it’s	
  not	
  written	
  for	
  men,	
  it’s	
  written	
  for	
  women.”	
   In	
  addition,	
  BBC	
  presenter	
  Jane	
  Garvey	
  informs	
  listeners	
  that	
  some	
  men	
  claim	
  to	
   kiss	
  their	
  wives’	
  copies	
  of	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  “before	
  leaping	
  into	
  the	
  marital	
  bed.”94	
  These	
   observations	
  are	
  supported	
  by	
  a	
  recent	
  study	
  that	
  revealed	
  that	
  male	
  consumers	
   currently	
  account	
  for	
  20	
  percent	
  of	
  the	
  purchases	
  of	
  the	
  work.	
  Although	
  it	
  is	
   possible	
  that	
  these	
  purchases	
  include	
  gifts	
  for	
  women,	
  this	
  statistic	
  demonstrates	
   that	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  does	
  not	
  have	
  an	
  exclusively	
  female	
  readership.95	
  	
   Meanwhile,	
  from	
  2006	
  to	
  2008	
  a	
  series	
  of	
  Japanese	
  manga	
  entitled	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   92	
  “Is	
  this	
  the	
  Prescription	
  for	
  Female	
  Libido?	
  50	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey,”	
  The	
  Doctor	
  Oz	
  Show,	
  April	
   25,	
  2012,	
  http://www.doctoroz.com/episode/prescription-­‐female-­‐libido-­‐50-­‐shades-­‐grey	
   93	
  Hokemeyer,	
  Paul.	
  “Why	
  Men	
  Should	
  Read	
  50	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey.”	
   http://www.doctoroz.com/blog/paul-­‐hokemeyer-­‐phd-­‐jd/why-­‐men-­‐should-­‐read-­‐50-­‐shades-­‐grey	
   94	
  “Woman’s	
  Hour,	
  Erica	
  James.”	
   95	
  “Who’s	
  Really	
  Reading	
  50	
  Shades?”	
    	
    59	
    Dokyumento	
  uwakizuma	
  taiken	
  hōkoku  	
    (Documentary:	
  report	
  on	
  cheating	
  women’s	
  experiences)	
  was	
  released	
  by	
  Mediox,	
  a	
   publishing	
  house	
  primarily	
  involved	
  in	
  the	
  male-­‐oriented	
  erotic	
  manga	
  market.	
  The	
   Dokyumento	
  uwakizuma	
  series	
  overtly	
  exploits	
  the	
  ladies’	
  comics	
  genre	
  for	
  the	
   enjoyment	
  of	
  its	
  male	
  readership.	
  The	
  cover	
  of	
  volume	
  six	
  in	
  the	
  series	
  reads:	
   !!	
   All	
  real	
  experiences!!	
   	
   	
   Report	
  on	
  experiences	
   	
   	
   The	
  lewd	
  adventures	
  of	
  wives	
  revealed	
  in	
  ladies’	
  comics	
  magazines	
   	
   The	
  cover	
  picture	
  features	
  a	
  woman	
  looking	
  straight	
  at	
  the	
  reader	
  with	
  a	
  speech	
   bubble	
  that	
  reads:	
   	
   Women	
  manga	
  artists	
  depict	
  the	
  love	
  and	
  sexuality	
  of	
  wives!96	
   	
   The	
  terminology	
  used	
  is	
  very	
  similar	
  to	
  the	
  cover	
  page	
  of	
  Kishida’s	
  anthology	
   in	
  which	
  Toraware	
  no	
  yoru	
  appears.	
  The	
  emphasis	
  is	
  on	
  confession,	
  true	
  stories,	
  and	
   female	
  authorship.	
  Further,	
  the	
  title	
  page	
  for	
  each	
  story	
  within	
  the	
  anthology	
   includes	
  information	
  on	
  the	
  kokuhakubito	
  (confessor).	
  Her	
  age,	
  profession,	
  and	
   female	
  pseudonym	
  are	
  also	
  provided.	
  This	
  information	
  sits	
  at	
  the	
  far	
  right	
  of	
  the	
   page	
  as	
  round,	
  seal-­‐like	
  text	
  art,	
  while	
  the	
  female	
  manga	
  artist’s	
  name	
  is	
  featured	
   prominently	
  at	
  the	
  bottom	
  of	
  the	
  page.	
   The	
  stories	
  included	
  in	
  the	
  volume	
  depict	
  rape	
  scenes	
  or	
  express	
  some	
  type	
  of	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   96	
  Dokyumento	
  uwakizuma	
  taiken	
  hōkoku  ,	
  6,	
  Mediox  ,	
  2008.	
    	
    60	
    initial	
  reluctance	
  on	
  the	
  part	
  of	
  the	
  female	
  protagonists.	
  By	
  indicating	
  that	
  the	
   stories	
  are	
  created	
  by	
  women,	
  the	
  male	
  readers	
  see	
  the	
  plot	
  as	
  stemming	
  from	
  the	
   female	
  fantasy	
  world	
  and	
  not	
  their	
  own,	
  thus	
  enhancing	
  the	
  perception	
  that	
  the	
   scenarios	
  in	
  the	
  text	
  would	
  be	
  enjoyed	
  by	
  women.	
  At	
  the	
  same	
  time,	
  women’s	
   reading	
  and	
  writing	
  of	
  sexually	
  explicit	
  content	
  becomes	
  fetishized,	
  it	
  is	
  therefore	
   not	
  only	
  the	
  depictions	
  of	
  women	
  that	
  are	
  being	
  consumed	
  by	
  the	
  male	
  readership,	
   but	
  the	
  female	
  readers	
  and	
  writers	
  of	
  ladies’	
  comics	
  that	
  also	
  become	
  commodified	
   for	
  male	
  sexual	
  enjoyment.	
  	
   Dokyumento	
  uwakizuma	
  taiken	
  hōkoku	
  is	
  a	
  print	
  publication	
  that	
  is	
  clearly	
   targeted	
  towards	
  a	
  male	
  audience.	
  This	
  is	
  apparent	
  through	
  the	
  work’s	
   advertisements	
  of	
  cell	
  phone	
  sex	
  chat	
  services	
  for	
  men.	
  Therefore,	
  the	
  volumes	
   would	
  be	
  made	
  available	
  within	
  the	
  physical	
  space	
  alongside	
  other	
  male-­‐oriented	
   manga.	
  However,	
  in	
  the	
  virtual	
  context,	
  there	
  is	
  no	
  need	
  to	
  re-­‐package	
  ladies’	
  comics	
   for	
  a	
  male	
  audience	
  in	
  order	
  for	
  it	
  to	
  be	
  easily	
  accessible	
  by	
  the	
  male	
  reader.	
  Male	
   consumers	
  can	
  covertly	
  purchase	
  and	
  read	
  the	
  material	
  for	
  their	
  own	
  enjoyment.	
   The	
  availability	
  of	
  ladies’	
  comics	
  like	
  Toraware	
  no	
  yoru	
  in	
  digital	
  format	
  may	
   therefore	
  result	
  in	
  an	
  increased	
  male	
  readership	
  for	
  the	
  genre.	
   Friday’s	
  My	
  Secret	
  Garden	
  describes	
  a	
  predominantly	
  negative	
  reaction	
  from	
   men	
  to	
  women’s	
  sexual	
  fantasies.	
  Friday	
  recounts	
  her	
  own	
  personal	
  experience	
   where	
  her	
  lover	
  was	
  put	
  off	
  when	
  she	
  shared	
  a	
  fantasy	
  that	
  did	
  not	
  include	
  him.97	
   The	
  fact	
  that	
  My	
  Secret	
  Garden	
  was	
  published	
  decades	
  previous	
  to	
  the	
  contemporary	
   works	
  discussed	
  in	
  this	
  thesis	
  suggests	
  that	
  men’s	
  attitude	
  to	
  women’s	
  fantasies	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   97	
  Friday,	
  2-­‐3.	
    	
    61	
    may	
  have	
  shifted.	
  However,	
  the	
  fantasies	
  introduced	
  in	
  Friday’s	
  work	
  were	
  collected	
   by	
  Friday	
  herself,	
  and	
  there	
  was	
  no	
  opportunity	
  for	
  the	
  reworking	
  of	
  the	
  stories	
  by	
   men,	
  and	
  therefore	
  more	
  directly	
  signified	
  the	
  exclusion	
  of	
  male	
  participation	
  in	
  the	
   retelling	
  of	
  sexual	
  experience	
  and	
  enjoyment.	
  In	
  the	
  case	
  of	
  e-­‐books	
  and	
  online	
   writing	
  communities,	
  male	
  readers	
  have	
  the	
  ability	
  to	
  influence	
  the	
  texts,	
  either	
   through	
  their	
  buying	
  power	
  (purchasing	
  material	
  that	
  is	
  of	
  interest	
  to	
  them	
  and	
   influencing	
  future	
  publication	
  decisions)	
  or	
  through	
  direct	
  contributions	
  to	
  online	
   texts	
  (through	
  pseudonymous	
  online	
  identities).	
  Friday	
  suggests	
  that	
  the	
  men	
  she	
   encountered	
  were	
  intimidated	
  by	
  the	
  fact	
  that	
  they	
  sometimes	
  were	
  not	
  included	
  in	
   their	
  partners’	
  fantasies.	
  By	
  gaining	
  control	
  over	
  the	
  production	
  of	
  women’s	
  erotic	
   texts,	
  male	
  readers	
  are	
  able	
  to	
  manipulate	
  the	
  fantasies	
  and	
  allay	
  the	
  discomfort	
  of	
   being	
  excluded	
  from	
  women’s	
  sexual	
  fulfillment.	
   Lorde’s	
  “power	
  of	
  the	
  erotic”	
  encourages	
  women	
  to	
  share	
  and	
  be	
  empowered	
   by	
  their	
  erotic	
  experiences,	
  and	
  to	
  infuse	
  this	
  power	
  into	
  their	
  everyday	
  lives.	
   James’s	
  work	
  is	
  remarkable	
  in	
  that	
  it	
  has	
  reached	
  such	
  a	
  large	
  number	
  of	
  women	
   through	
  book	
  sales,	
  and	
  has	
  instigated	
  discussion	
  amongst	
  an	
  even	
  broader	
   audience.	
  In	
  her	
  Publisher’s	
  Weekly	
  article,	
  Rachel	
  Deal	
  demonstrates	
  how	
  Fifty	
   Shades	
  of	
  Grey	
  has	
  influenced	
  mainstream	
  publishers	
  to	
  pay	
  more	
  attention	
  to	
  erotic	
   titles.	
  Deal’s	
  interviews	
  with	
  publishing	
  industry	
  representatives	
  reveal	
  that	
  Shades	
   of	
  Grey’s	
  success	
  is	
  being	
  attributed	
  to	
  the	
  work’s	
  ability	
  to	
  remain	
  in	
  the	
  romance	
   genre	
  while	
  still	
  attracting	
  readers	
  who	
  would	
  not	
  normally	
  read	
  romance	
  fiction.	
   While	
  Deal’s	
  article	
  suggests	
  that	
  the	
  high	
  sales	
  of	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  will	
  mostly	
  facilitate	
   the	
  publication	
  of	
  other	
  romance	
  works	
  that	
  include	
  similar	
  sadomasochistic	
    	
    62	
    themes,	
  there	
  is	
  still	
  potential	
  for	
  the	
  trilogy’s	
  success	
  to	
  also	
  favourably	
  impact	
   writers	
  of	
  other	
  types	
  of	
  women’s	
  erotica,	
  and	
  increase	
  their	
  chances	
  of	
  getting	
  their	
   works	
  published.	
  98	
   Although	
  there	
  is	
  no	
  multi-­‐million	
  dollar	
  bestseller	
  in	
  the	
  ladies’	
  comics	
  world,	
   the	
  influence	
  that	
  readers	
  of	
  this	
  genre	
  have	
  on	
  the	
  content	
  and	
  direction	
  of	
   publications	
  is	
  no	
  less	
  relevant.	
  Ladies’	
  comics	
  have	
  come	
  into	
  the	
  e-­‐book	
   marketplace	
  alongside	
  other	
  manga	
  and	
  mainstream	
  titles,	
  and	
  readers’	
  input	
   regarding	
  the	
  direction	
  of	
  earlier	
  print	
  publications	
  has	
  ensured	
  the	
  variety	
  of	
   storylines	
  and	
  sub-­‐genres	
  available	
  in	
  today’s	
  e-­‐book	
  environment.	
  The	
  relative	
  lack	
   of	
  commentary	
  on	
  the	
  ladies’	
  comics	
  genre	
  in	
  the	
  Japanese	
  media	
  may	
  indicate	
  that	
   there	
  is	
  decreased	
  stigmatization	
  of	
  the	
  works,	
  making	
  them	
  less	
  newsworthy.	
   By	
  reaching	
  a	
  large	
  number	
  of	
  women	
  and	
  by	
  encouraging	
  dialogue,	
  both	
  Fifty	
   Shades	
  of	
  Grey	
  and	
  Toraware	
  no	
  yoru	
  would	
  seem	
  to	
  have	
  fulfilled	
  in	
  part	
  Lorde’s	
   hope	
  that	
  women	
  would	
  continue	
  to	
  share	
  their	
  erotic	
  experiences.	
  However,	
  both	
   works	
  assert	
  power	
  through	
  their	
  categorization	
  within	
  female	
  space,	
  and	
  not	
   through	
  the	
  content	
  of	
  their	
  stories.	
  Through	
  female	
  authorship	
  and	
  consumption	
   the	
  works	
  differentiate	
  themselves	
  from	
  material	
  found	
  within	
  male	
  space;	
   however,	
  any	
  incursion	
  by	
  male	
  creators	
  or	
  readers	
  into	
  the	
  realms	
  of	
  women’s	
   erotic	
  fiction	
  and	
  ladies’	
  comics	
  will	
  dissipate	
  whatever	
  power	
  they	
  exert.	
   At	
  the	
  same	
  time,	
  freely	
  available	
  writing	
  via	
  the	
  Internet	
  does	
  provide	
   opportunities	
  for	
  a	
  raw	
  exchange	
  of	
  stories	
  by	
  women	
  who	
  are	
  unrestricted	
  by	
  the	
   codes	
  of	
  romance	
  and	
  male-­‐created	
  pornographic	
  formulae,	
  effectively	
  building	
  new	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   98	
  Deahl,	
  8-­‐9.	
    	
    63	
    spaces	
  and	
  categorizations.	
  In	
  his	
  book	
  The	
  Erotic	
  Engine,	
  Patchen	
  Barss	
  discusses	
   how	
  pornography	
  has	
  instigated	
  several	
  technological	
  advancements,	
  such	
  as	
  the	
   development	
  of	
  discrete	
  access	
  to	
  material	
  that	
  would	
  be	
  difficult	
  to	
  obtain	
   physically	
  by	
  users.	
  He	
  states:	
   Pornography	
   was	
   such	
   a	
   massive	
   force	
   on	
   the	
   early	
   Internet	
   for	
   several	
   reasons.	
   Anonymity	
   and	
   convenience	
   were	
   part	
   of	
   it	
   –	
   you	
   could	
   get	
   porn	
   piped	
   directly	
   into	
   your	
   living	
   room	
   without	
   ever	
   having	
   another	
   person	
   see	
   your	
   face,	
   hear	
   your	
   voice,	
   or	
   even	
   know	
   your	
   name.	
   The	
   global	
   scope	
   of	
   the	
   Net	
   meant	
   that	
   people	
   who	
   lived	
   in	
   places	
   where	
   pornography	
   in	
   traditional	
   media	
   was	
   illegal	
   or	
   unavailable	
   could	
   now	
   acquire	
   it.	
   And	
   at	
   the	
   same	
   time,	
   people	
  were	
  no	
  longer	
  limited	
  by	
  geography	
  when	
  it	
  came	
  to	
  connecting	
  with	
   others.	
   The	
   Internet	
   opened	
   up	
   entirely	
   new	
   possibilities	
   for	
   friendship,	
   romance	
  and	
  passion.99	
   	
   Several	
  of	
  the	
  aspects	
  that	
  Barss	
  mentions	
  here	
  come	
  into	
  play	
  for	
  both	
  Fifty	
   Shades	
  of	
  Grey	
  and	
  Toraware	
  no	
  yoru.	
  The	
  works	
  are	
  available	
  to	
  anyone	
  with	
   Internet	
  access,	
  and	
  connections	
  can	
  be	
  made	
  via	
  the	
  Internet	
  with	
  other	
  readers	
  of	
   the	
  material.	
  In	
  addition,	
  while	
  anonymity	
  of	
  purchase	
  is	
  complicated	
  by	
  banking	
   requirements	
  that	
  involve	
  providing	
  first	
  and	
  last	
  names,	
  readers	
  can	
  still	
  search	
  for	
   and	
  acquire	
  these	
  titles	
  without	
  the	
  exposure	
  intrinsic	
  to	
  buying	
  the	
  material	
  from	
  a	
   physical	
  space.	
  There	
  is	
  also	
  no	
  need	
  for	
  readers	
  to	
  identify	
  themselves	
  by	
  name	
  or	
   gender	
  in	
  order	
  to	
  participate	
  in	
  reader	
  communities.	
   Barss	
  quotes	
  Star	
  Trek	
  creator	
  Rick	
  Berman	
  as	
  saying,	
  “Without	
  porn	
  and	
  Star	
   Trek,	
  there	
  would	
  be	
  no	
  Internet.”100	
  While	
  pornography	
  may	
  have	
  propelled	
  the	
   development	
  of	
  the	
  tools	
  that	
  make	
  up	
  the	
  e-­‐marketplace,	
  the	
  Star	
  Trek	
  imagination	
   helped	
  broaden	
  the	
  possibilities	
  vis-­‐a-­‐vis	
  what	
  the	
  Internet	
  could	
  offer	
  to	
  non-­‐ commercial	
  realms.	
  Similarly,	
  although	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey	
  and	
  Toraware	
  no	
  yoru	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
    99	
  Patchen	
  Barss,	
  The	
  Erotic	
  Engine	
  (Toronto:	
  Doubleday,	
  2010),	
  123.	
   100	
  Ibid.,	
  117.	
    	
    64	
    reflect	
  many	
  disempowering	
  characteristics,	
  they	
  have	
  also	
  established	
  and	
   solidified	
  venues	
  for	
  online	
  dissemination	
  of	
  women’s	
  erotic	
  texts.	
  These	
   advancements	
  in	
  publication	
  and	
  distribution	
  may	
  facilitate	
  and	
  encourage	
  the	
   growth	
  of	
  a	
  women’s	
  erotica	
  that	
  empowers	
  through	
  the	
  content	
  of	
  its	
  stories.	
  This	
   could	
  simultaneously	
  result	
  in	
  the	
  availability	
  of	
  a	
  broader	
  and	
  more	
  subversive	
   array	
  of	
  erotic	
  writing,	
  and	
  threaten	
  the	
  publication	
  norms	
  of	
  the	
  type	
  of	
  women’s	
   erotica	
  that	
  aligns	
  itself	
  with	
  romantic	
  fiction.	
   When	
  the	
  ultra-­‐powerful,	
  omnipotent	
  being	
  “Q”	
  encounters	
  a	
  young	
  female	
  of	
   the	
  same	
  species	
  on	
  Star	
  Trek:	
  The	
  Next	
  Generation,	
  he	
  warns,	
  “If	
  this	
  child	
  does	
  not	
   learn	
  how	
  to	
  control	
  her	
  power,	
  she	
  may	
  accidentally	
  destroy	
  herself…	
  or	
  all	
  of	
   you…	
  or	
  perhaps	
  your	
  entire	
  galaxy!”101	
  It	
  remains	
  to	
  be	
  seen	
  whether	
  the	
  next	
   generation	
  of	
  women’s	
  erotica	
  will	
  be	
  bound	
  within	
  the	
  restraints	
  of	
  patriarchy,	
  or	
   whether	
  it	
  will	
  chart	
  a	
  new	
  course,	
  and	
  wreak	
  havoc	
  on	
  the	
  galaxy.	
   	
    	
    	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
    101	
  “True	
  Q,”	
  Star	
  Trek:	
  The	
  Next	
  Generation	
  (Paramount	
  Television,	
  October	
  24,	
  1992).	
    	
    65	
    Works	
  Cited	
   	
   Alibhai-­‐Brown,	
  Yasmin.	
  “Do	
  Women	
  Really	
  Want	
  to	
  be	
  So	
  Submissive?”	
  Independent,	
   July	
  2,	
  2012.	
  Available	
  from	
  http://www.lexisnexis.com/hottopics/lnacademic	
   	
   “Aya.”	
  NDL	
  Search,	
  National	
  Diet	
  Library	
   .	
   http://iss.ndl.go.jp/books/R100000002-­‐I000000082154-­‐00	
   	
   Barss,	
  Patchen.	
  The	
  Erotic	
  Engine.	
  Toronto:	
  Doubleday,	
  2010.	
   	
   Bielski,	
  Zosia.	
  “Mom's	
  Latest	
  Guilty	
  Pleasure:	
  Bondage	
  Erotica.”	
  The	
  Globe	
  and	
  Mail.	
   March	
  2,	
  2012.	
  Canadian	
  Periodicals	
  Index	
  Quarterly,	
  Gale	
  (document	
  no.	
   A281747148).	
   	
   “Bio.”	
  The	
  Official	
  Website	
  of	
  Stephanie	
  Meyer.	
   http://www.stepheniemeyer.com/bio.html	
   	
   Bogart,	
  Leo.	
  “Magazines	
  Since	
  the	
  Rise	
  of	
  Television.”	
  Journalism	
  &	
  Mass	
   Communication	
  Quarterly	
  33,	
  no.	
  2	
  (Spring	
  1956):	
  153-­‐166.	
  doi:	
   10.1177/107769905603300201	
   	
   Costanza,	
  Justine	
  Ashley.	
  "Why	
  Some	
  Find	
  "Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey"	
  Disturbing,	
  New	
   Film	
  Adaptation	
  Announced,	
  Erotic	
  Novel	
  Generates	
  Controversy."	
   International	
  Business	
  Times,	
  March	
  27,	
  2012.	
   http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/articles/320222/20120327/fifty-­‐shades-­‐grey-­‐ twilight-­‐fan-­‐fiction-­‐edward.htm	
   	
   Crosbie,	
  Lynn.	
  “Shades	
  Trilogy	
  Secret?	
  She’s	
  Got	
  the	
  Power.”	
  The	
  Globe	
  and	
  Mail,	
  May	
   1,	
  2012.	
  Canadian	
  Periodicals	
  Index	
  Quarterly,	
  Gale	
  (document	
  no.	
   A288210387).	
   	
   “Customer	
  Reviews:	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey:	
  Book	
  One	
  of	
  the	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  Trilogy.”	
   Amazon.com.	
  http://www.amazon.com/Fifty-­‐Shades-­‐Grey-­‐Book-­‐ Trilogy/product-­‐ reviews/0345803485/ref=dp_top_cm_cr_acr_txt?ie=UTF8&showViewpoints= 1	
   	
   Davidson,	
  Julie.	
  “Mummy	
  Porn	
  and	
  a	
  Male	
  Model	
  of	
  Sexual	
  Fulfillment.”	
  The	
  Herald,	
   July	
  14,	
  2012.	
   http://www.heraldscotland.com/mobile/comment/columnists/mummy-­‐ porn-­‐and-­‐a-­‐male-­‐model-­‐of-­‐sexual-­‐fulfilment.18148693	
   	
   Deahl,	
  Rachel.	
  "Will	
  There	
  Be	
  A	
  'Fifty	
  Shades'	
  Afterglow?"	
  Publishers	
  Weekly	
  259,	
  no.	
   18:	
  8-­‐9.	
  Business	
  Source	
  Complete,	
  EBSCOhost	
  (accession	
  no.	
  74689776).	
   	
    	
    66	
    Dokyumento	
  uwakizuma	
  taiken	
  hōkoku ,	
  6.	
  Mediox ,	
  2008.	
   	
   Douglas,	
  Ann.	
  “Soft-­‐Porn	
  Culture.”	
  The	
  New	
  Republic	
  (August	
  30,	
  1980):	
  25-­‐29.	
   	
   Driscoll,	
  Catherine.	
  “One	
  True	
  Pairing:	
  The	
  Romance	
  of	
  Pornography	
  and	
  the	
   Pornography	
  of	
  Romance.”	
  In	
  Fan	
  Fiction	
  and	
  Fan	
  Communities	
  in	
  the	
  Age	
  of	
   the	
  Internet:	
  New	
  Essays,	
  79-­‐96.	
  Jefferson,	
  N.C.:	
  McFarland	
  &	
  Co.,	
  2006.	
   	
   “Eibei	
  de	
  bakuhatsuteki	
  ni	
  ureteiru	
  ‘Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey’	
  no	
  3-­‐bu	
  saku”	
   Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey .	
  Asahi	
  Shinbun	
   	
  July	
  30	
  2012.	
  Kikuzo	
  II	
  Visual.	
   	
   	
  “Fiftī	
  sheizu	
  obu	
  gurei	
  jyō:	
  Hayakawa	
  onrainu”	
   .	
  Hayakawa	
  Online.	
   http://www.hayakawa-­‐online.co.jp/product/books/125701.html	
   	
   “Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey:	
  Book	
  One	
  of	
  the	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  Trilogy.”	
  Random	
  House,	
  Inc.	
   http://www.randomhouse.com/book/222129/fifty-­‐shades-­‐of-­‐grey-­‐by-­‐e-­‐l-­‐ james	
   	
   “Fifty	
  Shades	
  Trilogy:	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey,	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  Darker,	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  Freed	
  3-­‐ volume	
  Boxed	
  Set.”	
  Amazon.com.	
  http://www.amazon.com/Fifty-­‐Shades-­‐ Trilogy-­‐Darker-­‐3/dp/034580404X/ref=zg_bs_books_8	
   	
   Frederick,	
  Sarah.	
  Turning	
  Pages:	
  Reading	
  and	
  Writing	
  Women’s	
  Magazines	
  in	
   Interwar	
  Japan.	
  Honolulu:	
  University	
  of	
  Hawaii	
  Press,	
  2006.	
   	
   Friday,	
  Nancy.	
  My	
  Secret	
  Garden:	
  Women’s	
  Sexual	
  Fantasies.	
  New	
  York:	
  Pocket	
   Books,	
  1978.	
   	
   Gerbner,	
  George.	
  “The	
  Social	
  Role	
  of	
  the	
  Confession	
  Magazine.”	
  Social	
  Problems	
  6,	
  	
   no.	
  1	
  (Summer,	
  1958):	
  29-­‐40.	
  http://www.jstor.org/stable/798993	
   	
   Groskop,	
  Viv.	
  “'Fifty	
  Shades'	
  Has	
  Done	
  Wonders	
  for	
  Book	
  Selling,	
  but	
  Nothing	
  for	
   Literature.”	
  The	
  Independent	
  (London)	
  July	
  5,	
  2012.	
  Available	
  from	
   http://www.lexisnexis.com/hottopics/lnacademic	
   	
   Hokemeyer,	
  Paul.	
  “Why	
  Men	
  Should	
  Read	
  50	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey.”	
   http://www.doctoroz.com/blog/paul-­‐hokemeyer-­‐phd-­‐jd/why-­‐men-­‐should-­‐ read-­‐50-­‐shades-­‐grey	
   	
   Honey,	
  Maureen.	
  “The	
  Confession	
  Formula	
  and	
  Fantasies	
  of	
  Empowerment.”	
   Women’s	
  Studies	
  10,	
  no.	
  3	
  (January	
  1984):	
  303-­‐320.	
  Academic	
  Search	
  Premier,	
   EBSCOhost	
  (accession	
  no.	
  5809142).	
   	
    67	
    	
   Ide	
  Chikae	
   	
   .	
  “’Rasetsu	
  no	
  ie’	
  no	
  sakka	
  ga	
  akasu	
  genjitsu	
  wa	
  redikomi	
  yori	
   horāna	
  monogatari” 	
   .	
  Fujin	
  kōron	
   ,	
  86	
  (July	
  22,	
  2001):	
  36.	
   	
   “Is	
  this	
  the	
  Prescription	
  for	
  Female	
  Libido?	
  50	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey.”	
  The	
  Doctor	
  Oz	
  Show.	
   April	
  25,	
  2012,	
  http://www.doctoroz.com/episode/prescription-­‐female-­‐ libido-­‐50-­‐shades-­‐grey	
   	
   James,	
  E.L.	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  Darker:	
  Book	
  Two	
  of	
  the	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  Trilogy.	
  Random	
  House	
   Digital,	
  Inc.,	
  2011.	
  	
   	
   ________.	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  Freed:	
  Book	
  Three	
  of	
  the	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  Trilogy.	
  Random	
  House	
   Digital,	
  Inc.,	
  2012.	
  	
   	
   ________.	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey:	
  Book	
  One	
  of	
  the	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  Trilogy.	
  Random	
  House	
   Digital,	
  Inc.,	
  2011.	
  	
   	
   Jones,	
  Barbara	
  M.	
  "Controversy	
  in	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey."	
  American	
  Libraries	
  43,	
  no.	
   5/6	
  (May	
  2012):	
  21.	
  Canadian	
  Periodicals	
  Index	
  Quarterly,	
  Gale	
  (document	
  no.	
   A294299891)	
   	
   Jones,	
  Gretchen.	
  “Bad	
  Girls	
  Like	
  to	
  Watch:	
  Writing	
  and	
  Reading	
  Ladies'	
  Comics.”	
  In	
   Bad	
  Girls	
  of	
  Japan,	
  edited	
  by	
  Laura	
  Miller	
  and	
  Jan	
  Bardsley,	
  97-­‐109.	
   Gordonsville,	
  VA:	
  Palgrave	
  Macmillan,	
  2005.	
   	
   ________.	
  “Ladies’	
  Comics:	
  Japan’s	
  Not-­‐So-­‐Underground	
  Market	
  in	
  Pornography	
  for	
   Women.”	
  U.S.	
  -­‐	
  Japan	
  Women’s	
  Journal	
  English	
  Supplement,	
  22	
  (2002):	
  3-­‐31.	
   	
   Juffer,	
  Jane.	
  At	
  Home	
  with	
  Pornography:	
  Women,	
  Sex,	
  and	
  Everyday	
  Life.	
  New	
  York:	
   New	
  York	
  University	
  Press,	
  1998.	
   	
   Kishida	
  Reiko	
   .	
  “Toraware	
  no	
  yoru”	
   .	
  In	
  Zēnbu	
  jitsuwa!!	
   Dokusha	
  no	
  H	
  taikendan	
   !!	
   H .	
  Ohzora	
  Publishing	
   Co.	
   ,	
  2009.	
  http://www.ebookjapan.jp/ebj/book/60034346.html	
   	
   Kovel,	
  Joel.	
  “The	
  Antidialectic	
  of	
  Pornography.”	
  In	
  Men	
  Confront	
  Pornography,	
  153-­‐ 167.	
  New	
  York:	
  Crown	
  Publishers,	
  1990.	
   	
   Lejeune,	
  Philippe.	
  Le	
  pacte	
  autobiographique.	
  Paris:	
  Éditions	
  du	
  Seuil,	
  1975.	
   	
   Litte,	
  Jane.	
  “Master	
  of	
  the	
  Universe	
  Versus	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  by	
  E.L	
  James	
  Comparison.”	
   Dear	
  Author	
  (blog).	
  Mar	
  13	
  2012.	
  http://dearauthor.com/features/industry-­‐ news/master-­‐of-­‐the-­‐universe-­‐versus-­‐fifty-­‐shades-­‐by-­‐e-­‐l-­‐james-­‐comparison/	
   	
   	
    68	
    Lorde,	
  Audre.	
  Uses	
  of	
  the	
  Erotic:	
  The	
  Erotic	
  as	
  Power.	
  New	
  York:	
  Out	
  &	
  Out	
  Books,	
   1978.	
   	
   "Love	
  Notes:	
  What's	
  the	
  Deal	
  with	
  Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey?"	
  Redbook	
  (June	
  1,	
  2012).	
   Available	
  from	
  http://www.lexisnexis.com/hottopics/lnacademic	
   	
   Maeda	
  Ai.	
  “The	
  Development	
  of	
  Modern	
  Fiction	
  in	
  the	
  late	
  Taishō	
  Era:	
  Increasing	
   Readership	
  of	
  Women’s	
  Magazines.”	
  Translated	
  by	
  Rebecca	
  Copeland.	
  In	
  Text	
   and	
  the	
  City:	
  Essays	
  on	
  Japanese	
  Modernity,	
  edited	
  by	
  James	
  A.	
  Fujii.	
  Durham:	
   Duke	
  University	
  Press,	
  2004.	
   	
   Mandziuk,	
  Roseann.	
  “Confessional	
  Discourse	
  and	
  Modern	
  Desires:	
  Power	
  and	
  Please	
   in	
  True	
  Story	
  Magazine.”	
  Critical	
  Studies	
  in	
  Media	
  Communication	
  18,	
  no.	
  2	
   (2001):	
  174-­‐193.	
  doi:	
  10.1080/07393180128076	
   	
   Marr,	
  David.	
  “From	
  Hornsby	
  to	
  New	
  York:	
  How	
  an	
  Erotic	
  E-­‐book	
  Became	
  a	
  $1m	
   Blockbuster.”	
  The	
  Sydney	
  Morning	
  Herald,	
  March	
  12,	
  2012.	
   http://www.smh.com.au/entertainment/books/from-­‐hornsby-­‐to-­‐new-­‐york-­‐ how-­‐an-­‐erotic-­‐ebook-­‐became-­‐a-­‐1m-­‐	
  blockbuster-­‐20120311-­‐1uso5.html	
   	
   Mitsuno	
  Momo	
  and	
  Yamamoto	
  Fumio.	
  “Taidan	
  Mitsuno	
  Momo	
  X	
  Yamamoto	
  Fumio	
  –	
   Onna	
  ni	
  yoru	
  onna	
  no	
  tame	
  no	
  R-­‐18	
  bungakushō”	
   	
   	
   – R-­‐18 .	
  Nami	
   	
  35(September	
  2001):	
  52-­‐57.	
   	
   Mori	
  Naoko	
   .	
  Onna	
  wa	
  poruno	
  o	
  yomu:	
  josei	
  no	
  seiyoku	
  to	
  feminizumu	
   	
  :	
   .	
  Tokyo:	
  Seikyūsha	
   ,	
  2010.	
   	
   Naiki	
  Toshio	
   	
   .	
  “Nihon	
  ni	
  okeru	
  manga	
  no	
  hoson	
  to	
  riyō” .	
  Karento	
  aweanesu	
  (Current	
  Awareness)	
   	
  293	
  (September	
  20,	
  2007):	
  7-­‐12.	
   http://current.ndl.go.jp/files/ca/ca1637.pdf	
   	
   Ōi	
  Sachiko	
   .	
  “Kiri	
  no	
  naka	
  no	
  koi”	
   .	
  Nyonin	
  geijutsu	
   	
  (March	
  1929):	
  80-­‐83.	
   	
   Orbaugh,	
  Sharalyn.	
  “Amateur	
  Manga	
  and	
  Shōjo	
  Reading	
  Practices.”	
  In	
  Girl	
  Reading	
   Girl	
  in	
  Japan,	
  edited	
  by	
  Tomoko	
  Aoyama	
  and	
  Barbara	
  Hartley,	
  174-­‐186.	
   London:	
  Routledge,	
  2010.	
   	
   Plante,	
  Judith.	
  “Pour	
  une	
  remise	
  en	
  question	
  de	
  la	
  victimisation	
  des	
  femmes	
  comme	
   public	
  des	
  medias:	
  Le	
  cas	
  de	
  la	
  consommation	
  de	
  la	
  pornographie	
  par	
  les	
   femmes.”	
  M.A.	
  thesis,	
  Université	
  de	
  Sherbrooke,	
  2002.	
  Proquest	
  Dissertations	
   &	
  Theses	
  (document	
  id:	
  305497792).	
   	
   	
   	
    69	
    Radner,	
  Hilary.	
  Shopping	
  Around:	
  Feminine	
  Culture	
  and	
  the	
  Pursuit	
  of	
  Pleasure.	
  New	
   York:	
  Routledge,	
  1994.	
   	
   Radway,	
  Janice.	
  Reading	
  the	
  Romance:	
  Women,	
  Patriarchy,	
  and	
  Popular	
  Culture.	
   Chapel	
  Hill:	
  University	
  of	
  North	
  Carolina	
  Press,	
  1984.	
   	
   Roiphe,	
  Katie.	
  "She	
  Works	
  Crazy	
  Hours.	
  She	
  Takes	
  Care	
  of	
  the	
  Kids.	
  She	
  Earns	
  More	
   Money.	
  She	
  Manages	
  her	
  Team.	
  At	
  the	
  End	
  of	
  the	
  Day,	
  She	
  Wants	
  to	
  be...	
   Spanked	
  ?"	
  Newsweek	
  159,	
  no.	
  18	
  (April	
  23,	
  2012):	
  24-­‐28.	
  Health	
  Reference	
   Centre	
  Academic,	
  Gale	
  (document	
  no.	
  A286792852).	
   	
   Rubin,	
  Gayle.	
  “Misguided,	
  Dangerous	
  and	
  Wrong:	
  An	
  Analysis	
  of	
  Anti-­‐pornography	
   Politics.”	
  In	
  Bad	
  Girls	
  and	
  Dirty	
  Pictures:	
  The	
  Challenge	
  to	
  Reclaim	
  Feminism,	
   edited	
  by	
  Alison	
  Assiter	
  and	
  Avedon	
  Carol,	
  18-­‐40.	
  London:	
  Pluto	
  Press,	
  1993.	
   	
   "'Shin	
  kannō	
  shōsetsu'	
  wa	
  josei	
  ga	
  kaite	
  josei	
  ga	
  yomu" .	
  Themis	
  (April	
  2004):	
  104-­‐105.	
   	
   “SM	
  kannō	
  shōsetsu,	
  Ōbei	
  no	
  hahaoya	
  sedai	
  de	
  dai	
  hitto	
  denshi	
  shoseki	
  atooshi”  .	
  Sankei	
   Shinbun	
   ,	
  October	
  30,	
  2012.	
   http://www.iza.ne.jp/news/newsarticle/books/breview/602487/	
   	
   Stone,	
  Philip.	
  "E	
  L	
  James:	
  £42,954,000	
  and	
  Counting…."	
  Bookseller	
  no.	
  5542	
   (September	
  7,	
  2012):	
  15.	
  Business	
  Source	
  Complete,	
  EBSCOhost	
  (accession	
  no.	
   80037735).	
   	
   “Tīnsurabu,	
  redīsukomikku:	
  denshishoseki,	
  komikku	
  wa	
  eBookJapan 	
   	
   	
   eBookJapan .	
   http://www.ebookjapan.jp/ebj/lady/index.asp	
   	
   “True	
  Q.”	
  Star	
  Trek:	
  The	
  Next	
  Generation.	
  Paramount	
  Television,	
  October	
  24,	
  1992.	
   	
   “Who’s	
  Really	
  Reading	
  50	
  Shades?”	
  Bowker.	
  November	
  29,	
  2012.	
   http://www.bowker.com/en-­‐ US/aboutus/press_room/2012/pr_11292012.shtml	
   	
   Wicke,	
  Jennifer.	
  “Through	
  a	
  Gaze	
  Darkly:	
  Pornography’s	
  Academic	
  Market.”	
   Transition	
  54	
  (January	
  1991):	
  68-­‐89.	
   	
   “Woman’s	
  Hour,	
  Erica	
  James.”	
  Interview	
  by	
  Jane	
  Garvey.	
  BBC	
  Radio	
  4,	
  Tuesday	
  April	
   10,	
  2012.	
  http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b01ddxbm	
   	
   	
   	
   	
    70	
    Yamada	
  Mihoko,	
  Hazuki	
  Sei	
  and	
  Tsuruma	
  Satoko	
   	
   	
   	
  ,	
   	
   	
  ,	
   	
   .	
  “	
  Shūtome,	
  rōkaigo,	
  itaden	
  mangaka	
  no	
  nichijō	
  wa	
  ‘redikomi’	
  yori	
   yonari”	
   	
   .	
  Fujin	
  kōron	
   	
  86	
  (February	
  7,	
  2001):	
  82-­‐85.	
   	
   Zutter,	
  Natalie.	
  “Fifty	
  Shades	
  of	
  Grey	
  Author	
  E.L.	
  James	
  Hates	
  the	
  Twilight	
  Fans	
  that	
   Made	
  her	
  Famous.”	
  May	
  11,	
  2012.	
  http://crushable.com/entertainment/el-­‐ james-­‐snowqueens-­‐icedragon-­‐fifty-­‐shades-­‐of-­‐grey-­‐twilight-­‐fandom-­‐wank-­‐ 860/#ixzz2B3E0NMXm	
    	
    71	
    

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