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The impact of "The Met : Live in HD" on local opera attendance van Eeden, Stephan 2011-12-31

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    The	
  Impact	
  of	
  The	
  Met:	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  	
   on	
  Local	
  Opera	
  Attendance	
   	
   by	
   	
   Stephan	
  van	
  Eeden	
   	
   B.Mus.,	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia,	
  2009	
   	
   	
   	
   A	
  THESIS	
  SUBMITTED	
  IN	
  PARTIAL	
  FULFILLMENT	
  OF	
  	
   THE	
  REQUIREMENTS	
  FOR	
  THE	
  DEGREE	
  OF	
   	
   MASTER	
  OF	
  ARTS	
   	
   in	
   	
   Faculty	
  of	
  Graduate	
  Studies	
   	
   (Interdisciplinary	
  Studies)	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   THE	
  UNIVERSITY	
  OF	
  BRITISH	
  COLUMBIA	
   (Vancouver)	
   	
   	
   April,	
  2011	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   ©	
  Stephan	
  van	
  Eeden,	
  2011	
    ABSTRACT	
   	
   Live-­‐streamed	
  movie	
  theatre	
  broadcasts	
  are	
  a	
  new	
  phenomenon	
  in	
  opera.	
  In	
  2006-­‐ 2007,	
  the	
  Metropolitan	
  Opera	
  in	
  New	
  York	
  began	
  transmitting	
  select	
  live	
  Met	
   performances	
  into	
  cinemas	
  across	
  Canada,	
  the	
  U.S.	
  and	
  Europe.	
  The	
  program	
  was	
   entitled	
  The	
  Met:	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  and	
  since	
  its	
  inception,	
  has	
  expanded	
  in	
  audience	
  reach,	
   content	
  and	
  mandate.	
  Many	
  local	
  live	
  opera	
  companies	
  speculate	
  that	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  is	
  a	
   threat	
  to	
  their	
  business.	
   	
   This	
  study	
  identifies	
  and	
  assesses	
  the	
  impact	
  of	
  The	
  Met:	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  on	
  local	
  opera	
   attendance.	
  A	
  survey	
  was	
  conducted	
  in	
  a	
  major	
  North	
  American	
  city	
  with	
  a	
  resident	
   midsize	
  professional	
  opera	
  company	
  and	
  a	
  midsize	
  amateur	
  opera	
  company.	
  We	
   surveyed	
  HD-­‐attendees	
  at	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  performances	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  at	
  amateur	
  and	
   professional	
  live	
  opera	
  performances.	
   	
   The	
  study	
  investigates	
  whether	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  actually	
  exposes	
  new	
  audiences	
  to	
  opera,	
   how	
  attendees	
  compare	
  HD	
  and	
  live	
  opera,	
  and	
  whether	
  viewers	
  are	
  more	
  likely	
  to	
   see	
  a	
  live	
  local	
  production	
  or	
  simply	
  more	
  likely	
  to	
  view	
  another	
  broadcast.	
  The	
   results	
  show	
  that	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  does	
  not	
  at	
  present	
  cannibalize	
  the	
  local	
  live	
  opera	
   audience,	
  but	
  it	
  does	
  establish	
  an	
  audience	
  for	
  itself.	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  is	
  not	
  viewed	
  as	
  an	
   inferior	
  product	
  to	
  live	
  opera.	
  There	
  is	
  evidence	
  that	
  the	
  program	
  is	
  so	
  successful	
   that	
  it	
  builds	
  a	
  loyal	
  following	
  –audiences	
  attend	
  because	
  they	
  enjoy	
  the	
  experience,	
   some	
  decide	
  to	
  subscribe,	
  others	
  begin	
  to	
  prefer	
  the	
  format.	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  attendees	
  are	
   very	
  likely	
  to	
  reattend	
  HD	
  but	
  not	
  necessarily	
  live	
  opera.	
  There	
  is	
  no	
  evidence	
  that	
    	
    ii	
    Live	
  in	
  HD	
  generates	
  more	
  live	
  opera	
  attendance	
  or	
  brings	
  new	
  audiences	
  into	
  local	
   opera	
  houses.	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
    	
    iii	
    PREFACE	
   	
   This	
  study	
  was	
  completed	
  with	
  approval	
  from	
  the	
  UBC	
  Behavioural	
  Research	
  Ethics	
   Board	
  under	
  supervision	
  from	
  principal	
  investigator	
  Charles	
  B.	
  Weinberg.	
  All	
   research	
  work	
  was	
  completed	
  within	
  the	
  Ethics	
  Certificate	
  expiry	
  date.	
  The	
  Ethics	
   Certificate	
  number	
  is	
  H10-­‐02727.	
  	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
    iv	
    TABLE	
  OF	
  CONTENTS	
   	
   ABSTRACT.....................................................................................................................................................ii	
   PREFACE .......................................................................................................................................................iv	
   TABLE	
  OF	
  CONTENTS.............................................................................................................................. v	
   LIST	
  OF	
  TABLES.........................................................................................................................................vi	
   LIST	
  OF	
  FIGURES..................................................................................................................................... vii	
   ACKNOWLEDGMENTS......................................................................................................................... viii	
   INTRODUCTION..........................................................................................................................................1	
   Introduction.............................................................................................................................................1	
   Research	
  Purpose .................................................................................................................................2	
   LITERATURE	
  REVIEW .............................................................................................................................3	
   Opera	
  goes	
  to	
  the	
  Movies...................................................................................................................3	
   Shugoll	
  Research	
  Report:	
  “Metropolitan	
  Opera	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  Survey” ...............................7	
   HYPOTHESIS	
  AND	
  SPECIFIC	
  AIMS .................................................................................................. 10	
   Hypothesis............................................................................................................................................. 10	
   Specific	
  Aims ........................................................................................................................................ 10	
   DATA	
  COLLECTION	
  AND	
  METHODOLOGY.................................................................................. 11	
   The	
  Survey ............................................................................................................................................ 11	
   Data	
  Collection .................................................................................................................................... 12	
   At	
  the	
  movies................................................................................................................................... 14	
   At	
  the	
  live	
  companies .................................................................................................................. 14	
   Data	
  Analysis........................................................................................................................................ 15	
   Statistical	
  Analysis............................................................................................................................. 16	
   RESULTS ..................................................................................................................................................... 17	
   Validation,	
  Editing	
  and	
  Data	
  Consolidation............................................................................ 17	
   Research	
  Questions........................................................................................................................... 18	
   Who	
  attends	
  Live	
  in	
  HD?............................................................................................................. 18	
   Is	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  a	
  possible	
  competitor	
  for	
  live	
  opera?......................................................... 22	
   Why	
  do	
  people	
  attend	
  Live	
  in	
  HD? ......................................................................................... 28	
   What	
  do	
  people	
  prefer:	
  HD,	
  live	
  or	
  both? ........................................................................... 31	
   Is	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  a	
  first	
  step	
  into	
  live	
  opera? ............................................................................. 34	
   Does	
  attendance	
  to	
  HD	
  promote	
  live	
  opera	
  attendance?............................................. 36	
   DISCUSSION............................................................................................................................................... 44	
   Success	
  (and/or	
  Failure)	
  of	
  the	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  Program .......................................................... 44	
   Possible	
  Changes	
  in	
  Opera-­‐Going	
  Behavior............................................................................ 45	
   LIMITATIONS............................................................................................................................................ 48	
   FUTURE	
  DIRECTIONS ........................................................................................................................... 50	
   BIBLIOGRAPHY........................................................................................................................................ 52	
   APPENDICES ............................................................................................................................................. 55	
   Appendix	
  A:	
  Comments	
  from	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  Survey................................................................... 55	
   Appendix	
  B:	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  Survey ..................................................................................................... 56	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
    v	
    LIST	
  OF	
  TABLES	
   	
   Table	
  1:	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  attendance	
  among	
  recent	
  live	
  professional	
  and	
  amateur	
   operagoers ..........................................................................................................................................4	
   Table	
  2:	
  Sampling	
  locations	
  for	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  survey ................................................................... 13	
   Table	
  3:	
  Demographic	
  profile	
  of	
  different	
  sample	
  locations	
  for	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  survey.... 17	
   Table	
  4:	
  Subscription	
  status	
  (percent	
  of	
  cases)......................................................................... 20	
   Table	
  5:	
  Comparison	
  demographics	
  of	
  opera	
  audiences....................................................... 22	
   Table	
  6:	
  Perception	
  comparison	
  between	
  HD/live	
  for	
  given	
  decision-­‐making	
  criteria ............................................................................................................................................................... 23	
   Table	
  7:	
  Evaluation	
  criteria	
  ratings	
  for	
  HD	
  and	
  live ................................................................ 25	
   Table	
  8:	
  Preference	
  by	
  subscription	
  status ................................................................................. 33	
   Table	
  9:	
  0-­‐1	
  live	
  operagoers	
  (N=21)............................................................................................... 36	
   Table	
  10:	
  Likelihood	
  of	
  future	
  attendance	
  vs.	
  preference..................................................... 40	
   Table	
  11:	
  Comparison	
  future	
  attendance	
  mean	
  scores.......................................................... 42	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
    	
    vi	
    LIST	
  OF	
  FIGURES	
   	
   Figure	
  1:	
  Past	
  live	
  attendance	
  in	
  aggregated	
  sample	
  and	
  individual	
  sample	
  locations ............................................................................................................................................................... 19	
   Figure	
  2:	
  Past	
  HD	
  attendance	
  in	
  aggregated	
  sample	
  and	
  individual	
  sample	
  locations ............................................................................................................................................................... 19	
   Figure	
  3:	
  Evaluation	
  criteria	
  rankings	
  from	
  1	
  to	
  6 ................................................................... 24	
   Figure	
  4:	
  Evaluation	
  criteria	
  ratings	
  from	
  HD	
  and	
  live .......................................................... 25	
   Figure	
  5:	
  Select	
  qualitative	
  responses	
  about	
  price	
  sensitivity............................................ 26	
   Figure	
  6:	
  Ticket	
  cost	
  comparisons	
  between	
  HD	
  and	
  live....................................................... 27	
   Figure	
  7:	
  Most	
  important	
  reason	
  to	
  attend	
  in	
  aggregated	
  sample .................................... 29	
   Figure	
  8:	
  Most	
  important	
  reason	
  in	
  sampling	
  locations ........................................................ 30	
   Figure	
  9:	
  Most	
  important	
  reason	
  to	
  attend	
  trended	
  over	
  past	
  attendance ................... 31	
   Figure	
  10:	
  Preference	
  for	
  HD,	
  live	
  or	
  both ................................................................................... 32	
   Figure	
  11:	
  Preference	
  trended	
  by	
  HD/live	
  attendance .......................................................... 34	
   Figure	
  12:	
  HD/live	
  future	
  attendance	
  and	
  preference	
  for	
  0-­‐1	
  past	
  live	
  operagoers. 35	
   Figure	
  13:	
  Likelihood	
  of	
  live/HD	
  future	
  attendance ............................................................... 37	
   Figure	
  14:	
  Likelihood	
  of	
  live/HD	
  future	
  attendance:	
  mean	
  scores ................................... 38	
   Figure	
  15:	
  Likelihood	
  of	
  HD/live	
  future	
  attendance	
  with	
  increased	
  past	
  live	
  opera	
   attendance........................................................................................................................................ 39	
   Figure	
  16:	
  Preference	
  and	
  future	
  attendance	
  mean	
  scores	
  for	
  frequent	
  HD/live	
   attendees	
  and	
  HD/professional	
  live	
  opera	
  subscribers ............................................... 41	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
    	
    vii	
    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS	
   	
   I	
  would	
  like	
  to	
  thank	
  my	
  supervisors,	
  Dr.	
  Charles	
  Weinberg	
  and	
  Professor	
  Nancy	
   Hermiston,	
  for	
  their	
  guidance	
  and	
  expertise	
  to	
  help	
  me	
  complete	
  this	
  research.	
  I	
   would	
  also	
  like	
  to	
  thank	
  the	
  local	
  professional	
  and	
  amateur	
  opera	
  companies	
   without	
  whose	
  collaboration	
  and	
  cooperation	
  this	
  study	
  would	
  not	
  have	
  been	
   possible.	
  Lastly,	
  I	
  would	
  like	
  to	
  thank	
  my	
  father,	
  Dr.	
  Stephan	
  F.	
  van	
  Eeden.	
  His	
   continued	
  professional	
  advice	
  throughout	
  the	
  data	
  collection,	
  analysis	
  and	
  writing	
   process,	
  not	
  only	
  made	
  my	
  research	
  efforts	
  better,	
  but	
  also	
  made	
  me	
  become	
   conscious	
  of	
  his	
  extensive	
  knowledge	
  as	
  an	
  established	
  researcher.	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
    	
    viii	
    INTRODUCTION	
   Introduction	
   Live-­‐streamed	
  cinema	
  broadcasts	
  are	
  a	
  new	
  phenomenon	
  in	
  opera.	
  Beginning	
  in	
  late	
   2006,	
  the	
  Metropolitan	
  Opera	
  launched	
  the	
  audience-­‐development	
  initiative,	
  The	
   Met:	
  Live	
  in	
  HD,	
  and	
  began	
  transmitting	
  select	
  live	
  opera	
  performances	
  into	
  movie	
   theatres	
  in	
  local	
  communities	
  and	
  cities	
  across	
  Canada,	
  the	
  United	
  States	
  and	
   Europe.	
  From	
  the	
  beginning,	
  the	
  Met’s	
  broadcasts	
  were	
  hailed	
  as	
  the	
  savior	
  of	
  a	
   dying	
  art	
  form.	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  was	
  bringing	
  opera	
  to	
  the	
  masses	
  and	
  creating	
  a	
  new	
  buzz	
   among	
  established	
  live	
  opera	
  audiences.	
  Currently	
  in	
  its	
  fifth	
  season,	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  has	
   appeared	
  on	
  over	
  1300	
  screens	
  in	
  45	
  countries	
  and	
  sold	
  over	
  5	
  million	
  tickets	
   worldwide.1	
  The	
  program	
  has	
  expanded	
  in	
  content,	
  audience	
  reach	
  and	
  mandate.	
   First	
  developed	
  as	
  an	
  initiative	
  to	
  reach	
  new	
  audiences,	
  the	
  Met	
  (by	
  its	
  own	
   admission)	
  has	
  expanded	
  its	
  definition	
  to	
  include	
  existing	
  audiences.2	
   	
  	
   The	
  appeal	
  of	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  to	
  renew	
  an	
  aging	
  opera	
  audience	
  and	
  its	
  potential	
  as	
  a	
   source	
  of	
  revenue	
  has	
  led	
  other	
  large	
  opera	
  companies,	
  including	
  Covent	
  Garden,	
  La	
   Scala	
  and	
  San	
  Francisco	
  to	
  develop	
  their	
  own	
  cinema-­‐based	
  live	
  broadcast	
   initiatives.3	
  Cinema	
  broadcasting	
  has	
  also	
  expanded	
  into	
  other	
  performing	
  arts	
   genres.	
  The	
  National	
  Theatre,	
  the	
  Bolshoi	
  Ballet	
  and	
  the	
  Los	
  Angeles	
  Symphony	
  are	
   now	
  offering	
  movie	
  theatre	
  programming.	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   1	
  The	
  Metropolitan	
  Opera,	
  “FAQs	
  Live	
  in	
  HD,”	
  The	
  Metropolitan	
  Opera,	
   http://www.metoperafamily.org	
  (accessed	
  March	
  1,	
  2011).	
   2	
  Ibid.	
   3	
  For	
  more	
  information	
  see	
  Rebecca	
  Winzenreid,	
  “Big	
  Screen	
  Dreams:	
  A	
  New	
  Stage	
  for	
   Opera,”	
  Opera	
  America	
  Magazine	
  2,	
  no.	
  2	
  (Summer	
  2008):	
  40.	
    	
    1	
    	
   The	
  impact	
  of	
  cinema	
  broadcasts	
  on	
  local	
  live	
  attendance	
  remains	
  essentially	
   unstudied.	
  The	
  popularity	
  and	
  financial	
  sustainability	
  of	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  suggests	
  that	
  the	
   form	
  will	
  continue	
  to	
  be	
  an	
  alternative	
  for	
  audiences	
  to	
  see	
  opera.	
  Many	
  local	
  opera	
   companies	
  speculate	
  that	
  the	
  Met’s	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  is	
  a	
  threat	
  to	
  their	
  business.	
  They	
   worry	
  about	
  competing	
  with	
  the	
  convenience,	
  quality,	
  and	
  price	
  that	
  the	
  broadcasts	
   offer.	
  Opera	
  companies	
  are	
  especially	
  anxious	
  of	
  a	
  substitution	
  effect	
  among	
  their	
   established	
  patron-­‐base.	
  On	
  the	
  other	
  hand,	
  perhaps	
  the	
  broadcasts	
  are	
  building	
  a	
   new	
  audience	
  local	
  live	
  companies	
  can	
  tap	
  into.	
  	
   	
   Research	
  Purpose	
   This	
  study	
  empirically	
  identifies	
  and	
  assesses	
  the	
  impact	
  of	
  The	
  Met:	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  on	
   local	
  opera	
  attendance.	
  The	
  study	
  takes	
  place	
  in	
  a	
  major	
  North	
  American	
  city.	
  We	
   surveyed	
  HD-­‐attendees	
  at	
  both	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  and	
  professional	
  and	
  amateur	
  live	
  opera	
   performances.	
  We	
  investigated	
  whether	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  actually	
  exposes	
  new	
  audiences	
   to	
  opera	
  and	
  how	
  attendees	
  compare	
  HD	
  and	
  live	
  opera.	
  The	
  purpose	
  was	
  to	
  assess	
   the	
  future	
  attendance	
  intension	
  of	
  those	
  who	
  attend	
  Live	
  in	
  HD.	
  The	
  results	
  of	
  the	
   study	
  will	
  help	
  inform	
  how	
  local	
  live	
  opera	
  companies	
  must	
  respond	
  to	
  technologies	
   like	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  to	
  maintain	
  and	
  build	
  their	
  own	
  audiences.	
   	
    	
   	
   	
   	
    2	
    LITERATURE	
  REVIEW	
   Opera	
  goes	
  to	
  the	
  Movies	
   Live	
  in	
  HD	
  has	
  been	
  a	
  topic	
  of	
  fascination	
  among	
  mainstream	
  media	
  outlets,	
  music	
   critics	
  and	
  commentators.	
  The	
  Met’s	
  cinema	
  broadcasts	
  are	
  often	
  lauded	
  for	
  single-­‐ handedly	
  bringing	
  opera	
  to	
  a	
  broader	
  audience.	
  Newsweek	
  proclaimed	
  the	
  HD	
   experiment	
  as	
  a	
  bold	
  attempt	
  "to	
  popularize	
  opera	
  and	
  perhaps	
  save	
  it	
  from	
   obscurity".4	
  Variety	
  reported	
  that	
  "after	
  years	
  on	
  the	
  ropes,	
  high	
  art	
  is	
  battling	
   back".5	
  Much	
  of	
  the	
  credit	
  is	
  given	
  to	
  the	
  Metropolitan	
  Opera’s	
  new	
  General	
  Manger,	
   Peter	
  Gelb,	
  whose	
  previous	
  executive	
  incarnation	
  was	
  at	
  the	
  helm	
  of	
  Sony	
  Classical.	
   	
   The	
  ready	
  acceptance	
  of	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  by	
  opera	
  audiences	
  is	
  interesting	
  in	
  itself.	
  	
   Audiences	
  have	
  embraced	
  the	
  broadcasts	
  so	
  completely	
  that	
  the	
  Metropolitan	
  Opera	
   has	
  expanded	
  the	
  program	
  to	
  eleven	
  operas	
  per	
  season,	
  added	
  multiple	
  encore	
   presentations	
  and	
  even	
  introduced	
  reserved	
  seating	
  and	
  an	
  option	
  to	
  subscribe.	
  	
   	
   Live	
  in	
  HD	
  has	
  not	
  had	
  difficulty	
  in	
  finding	
  an	
  audience	
  among	
  opera-­‐lovers.	
  Daniel	
   Wakin	
  of	
  the	
  New	
  York	
  Times	
  commented	
  that	
  the	
  broadcasts	
  have	
  “spawned	
  almost	
   a	
  cult	
  following,	
  with	
  sell-­‐outs,	
  group	
  visits,	
  opera	
  buff	
  chatter	
  at	
  intermission	
  and	
   picnic	
  baskets".6	
  In	
  conjunction	
  with	
  this	
  study,	
  three	
  separate	
  surveys	
  were	
   conducted	
  requesting	
  feedback	
  from	
  local	
  live	
  opera	
  audiences	
  about	
  their	
  opera	
   experience.	
  These	
  surveys	
  were	
  completed	
  post-­‐performance	
  and	
  were	
  conducted	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   4	
  Andrew	
  Moravscsik,	
  “Sopranos	
  at	
  the	
  Cineplex,”	
  Newsweek,	
  March	
  19,	
  2007.	
    5	
  Elizabeth	
  Guider	
  and	
  Ian	
  Mohr.	
  “Pop	
  Goes	
  the	
  Opera,”	
  Variety,	
  April	
  2-­‐8,	
  2007,	
  5.	
    2009.	
    	
    6	
  Daniel	
  J.	
  Wakin,	
  "Verdi	
  With	
  Popcorn,	
  and	
  Trepidation,"	
  New	
  York	
  Times,	
  February	
  15,	
    3	
    in	
  a	
  large	
  metropolitan	
  area.	
  They	
  found	
  that	
  about	
  40%	
  of	
  respondents	
  had	
   previously	
  attended	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  (see	
  Table	
  1).	
   	
   	
   Table	
  1:	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  attendance	
  among	
  recent	
  live	
  professional	
  and	
  amateur	
   operagoers	
   Have	
  you	
  ever	
  attended	
  	
   Live	
  in	
  HD?	
    Local	
   Professional	
   Company1	
    Est.	
  Yearly	
  Attendance	
   45,000	
    Local	
  Amateur	
   Company2	
    Local	
  Amateur	
   Company3	
    6700	
    6700	
    40.70%	
   59.30%	
   N=81	
    42.50%	
   57.50%	
   N=40	
    YES	
   NO	
   	
    36.80%	
   63.20%	
   N=106	
    	
    1	
  Survey	
  of	
  subscribers	
  post-­‐2009/10	
  Season	
    	
    2Post-­‐performance	
  survey	
  after	
  first	
  opera	
  in	
  2010	
  Season	
  	
   3Post-­‐performance	
  survey	
  after	
  second	
  opera	
  in	
  2010	
    	
    Season	
    	
   Why	
  has	
  HD	
  found	
  an	
  audience	
  so	
  quickly?	
  Part	
  of	
  the	
  reason	
  may	
  lie	
  in	
  Live	
  in	
  HD’s	
   format.	
  Opera	
  has	
  a	
  long	
  lineage	
  with	
  other	
  media	
  including	
  radio,	
  television	
  and	
   film	
  as	
  described	
  in	
  Martha	
  Citron’s	
  seminal	
  work	
  Screen	
  Opera.7	
  But	
  arguably	
  the	
   broadcasts	
  move	
  beyond	
  previous	
  incarnations	
  and	
  offer	
  a	
  fresh	
  adaptation	
  of	
  the	
   live	
  opera-­‐going	
  experience	
  itself.8	
   	
  	
   Live	
  in	
  HD	
  has	
  the	
  uncanny	
  ability	
  to	
  provide	
  a	
  genuine	
  operatic	
  experience.	
  The	
   broadcasts	
  are	
  able	
  to	
  reference	
  the	
  norms	
  of	
  live	
  opera	
  while	
  drawing	
  upon	
   conventions	
  from	
  established	
  media	
  formats:	
  cinema	
  and	
  television.	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  is	
   still	
  opera,	
  but	
  cinematic	
  in	
  context	
  and	
  televised	
  in	
  execution.	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   7	
  For	
  more	
  information	
  see	
  Marcia	
  Citron,	
  Opera	
  on	
  Screen	
  (New	
  Haven:	
  Yale	
  University	
   Press,	
  2000).	
   8	
  For	
  more	
  information	
  see	
  James	
  Steichen.	
  “The	
  Metropolitan	
  Opera	
  Goes	
  Public:	
  Peter	
  Gelb	
   and	
  the	
  Institutional	
  Dramaturgy	
  of	
  The	
  Met:	
  Live	
  in	
  HD,”	
  Music	
  and	
  the	
  Moving	
  Image	
  2,	
  no.	
  2	
   (Summer	
  2009):	
  24.	
    	
    4	
    	
   The	
  movie	
  theatre	
  environment	
  replicates	
  the	
  communal	
  atmosphere	
  of	
  live	
  opera	
   but	
  also	
  normalizes	
  the	
  forced	
  aspect	
  of	
  film.	
  The	
  norms	
  of	
  television	
  are	
  also	
   present.	
  Heyer	
  compares	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  to	
  live	
  sportscasting.9	
  The	
  broadcasts	
  draw	
   upon	
  techniques	
  used	
  in	
  large-­‐scale	
  televised	
  sports	
  like	
  NFL	
  Football	
  and	
  NHL	
   Hockey.	
  Sportscasting	
  conventions	
  reveal	
  themselves	
  in	
  the	
  camerawork	
  before	
  and	
   during	
  the	
  opera,	
  interviews	
  and	
  documentaries	
  during	
  intermission,	
  and	
  the	
   general	
  production	
  of	
  the	
  programming	
  throughout.	
  Broadcasts	
  are	
  edited	
  “in-­‐ camera”	
  from	
  an	
  editing	
  console	
  with	
  multiple	
  monitors	
  simultaneously	
  with	
  the	
   action	
  on	
  stage.	
   	
   The	
  interplay	
  between	
  established	
  media	
  formats	
  (cinema	
  and	
  television)	
  allow	
  the	
   broadcasts	
  to	
  appeal	
  to	
  known	
  modes	
  of	
  communication	
  while	
  introducing	
  a	
  new	
   voice	
  to	
  the	
  mix:	
  opera.	
  The	
  result	
  may	
  be	
  that	
  audiences,	
  including	
  established	
   operagoers,	
  accept	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  as	
  a	
  legitimate	
  alternative	
  to	
  in-­‐person	
  live	
  opera.	
   	
   Abfalter	
  and	
  Mirski	
  investigated	
  whether	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  audience	
  members	
  experience	
  a	
   sense	
  of	
  telepresence	
  with	
  the	
  actual	
  live	
  event	
  in	
  the	
  opera	
  house.10	
  Telepresence	
   refers	
  to	
  an	
  immersion	
  effect	
  to	
  the	
  extent	
  where	
  a	
  feeling	
  of	
  transference	
  occurs	
   from	
  one's	
  physical	
  setting.	
  The	
  authors	
  used	
  simple	
  contingency	
  questions	
  and	
  a	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   9	
  Paul	
  Heyer,	
  "Live	
  from	
  the	
  Met:	
  Digital	
  Broadcast	
  Cinema,	
  Medium	
  Theory,	
  and	
  Opera	
  for	
   the	
  Masses,"	
  Canadian	
  Journal	
  of	
  Communication	
  33,	
  no.	
  4	
  (December	
  2008):	
  591.	
   10	
  For	
  more	
  information	
  see	
  Daniel	
  Abfalter,	
  and	
  P.	
  Mirski,	
  “Cinema	
  Live-­‐Opera.	
  Value	
   Enhancement	
  through	
  Telepresence.”	
  International	
  Conference	
  on	
  Arts	
  and	
  Cultural	
  Management	
   (AIMAC	
  2009),	
  Dallas,	
  TX,	
  June	
  28,	
  2009.	
    	
    5	
    qualitative	
  tool	
  (GABEK®-­‐WinRelan®)	
  to	
  analyze	
  interview	
  responses	
  from	
  patrons	
   during	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  and	
  La	
  Scala	
  cinema	
  broadcasts	
  in	
  Innsbruck,	
  Austria.	
  The	
  surveys	
   were	
  conducted	
  during	
  intermission	
  breaks	
  and	
  the	
  sample	
  consisted	
  of	
  two	
  groups	
   (N=24,	
  N=36).	
  A	
  statistical	
  comparison	
  indicated	
  non-­‐significant	
  differences	
   between	
  the	
  groups	
  so	
  they	
  were	
  analyzed	
  as	
  one	
  sample.	
  According	
  of	
  Abfalter	
  and	
   Mirski,	
  patrons	
  experienced	
  moments	
  of	
  submersion	
  that	
  is	
  indicative	
  of	
  a	
  live	
   performance	
  although	
  telepresence	
  was	
  not	
  consistently	
  achieved.	
  Ultimately,	
  the	
   study	
  suggests	
  that	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  references	
  live	
  opera	
  –	
  not	
  replacing	
  it	
  but	
  providing	
   an	
  alterative	
  yet	
  satisfying	
  experience.	
   	
   In	
  a	
  2009	
  New	
  York	
  Times	
  article,	
  Peter	
  Gelb	
  is	
  famously	
  quoted	
  saying,	
  “Nothing	
   makes	
  up	
  for	
  being	
  in	
  the	
  opera	
  house	
  itself,	
  […]	
  but	
  [Live	
  in	
  HD]	
  is	
  the	
  next	
  best	
   thing”.11	
  What	
  is	
  unknown	
  is	
  whether	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  “gives	
  a	
  taste”	
  of	
  live	
  opera	
  and	
   leads	
  to	
  live	
  opera-­‐going	
  behavior.	
  Some	
  have	
  suggested	
  any	
  attendance	
  windfall	
  is	
   the	
  Met’s	
  alone.12	
  Nevertheless,	
  commentators	
  like	
  Daniel	
  Wakin	
  (New	
  York	
  Times)	
   and	
  Adam	
  Wasserman	
  (Opera	
  News)	
  are	
  hopeful	
  that	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  democratizes	
  opera	
   and	
  brings	
  new	
  audiences	
  to	
  the	
  art	
  form	
  and	
  then	
  into	
  local	
  opera	
  houses.13	
   Instead,	
  what	
  may	
  be	
  true	
  is	
  that	
  HD	
  broadcasts	
  are	
  their	
  own	
  unique	
  legitimate	
   experience	
  that	
  may	
  simply	
  lead	
  to	
  more	
  visits	
  to	
  the	
  movie	
  theatre	
  not	
  live	
  opera.	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   11	
  	
  Peter	
  Gelb	
  as	
  cited	
  in	
  Daniel	
  J.	
  Wakin,	
  "Verdi	
  With	
  Popcorn,	
  and	
  Trepidation,"	
  New	
  York	
   Times,	
  February	
  15,	
  2009.	
   12	
  For	
  more	
  information	
  see	
  either	
  James	
  Steichen,	
  The	
  Metropolitan	
  Opera	
  Goes	
  Public,	
  30,	
  or	
   Daniel	
  J.	
  Wakin,	
  “Verdi	
  With	
  Popcorn,”	
  New	
  York	
  Times.	
   13	
  For	
  more	
  information	
  see	
  either	
  Daniel	
  J.	
  Wakin,	
  “The	
  Multiplex	
  as	
  Opera	
  House,”	
  New	
   York	
  Times,	
  September	
  7,	
  2006,	
  or	
  Adam	
  Wasserman,	
  “Changing	
  Definitions,”	
  Opera	
  News	
  72,	
  no.	
  6	
   (December	
  2007):	
  61.	
  	
    	
    6	
    	
   Beyond	
  commentary	
  in	
  consumer	
  media,	
  speculations	
  on	
  media	
  format	
  and	
   preliminary	
  conclusions	
  on	
  telepresence,	
  little	
  quantitative	
  research	
  has	
  been	
  done	
   on	
  the	
  impact	
  of	
  Live	
  in	
  HD.	
  Abfalter	
  and	
  Minski’s	
  survey	
  did	
  show	
  that	
  respondents	
   viewed	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  as	
  a	
  compliment	
  to	
  staged	
  opera.	
  Attendees	
  would	
  recommend	
   Live	
  in	
  HD	
  to	
  others,	
  thought	
  the	
  broadcasts	
  were	
  worth	
  the	
  money,	
  and	
  considered	
   the	
  experience	
  a	
  success.14	
  Abfalter	
  and	
  Minski	
  also	
  found	
  several	
  visitors	
  would	
   prefer	
  the	
  broadcasts	
  to	
  a	
  second-­‐rank	
  opera	
  performance	
  in	
  a	
  regional	
  theatre.	
   Perhaps	
  Peter	
  Gelb	
  was	
  only	
  referring	
  to	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  being	
  the	
  “next	
  best	
  thing”	
  to	
   live	
  performance	
  at	
  his	
  first-­‐rank	
  Metropolitan	
  Opera.	
  	
   	
   The	
  most	
  notable	
  study	
  (completed	
  in	
  July	
  2008)	
  is	
  the	
  Shugoll	
  Research	
  Report	
   “Metropolitan	
  Opera	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  Survey”	
  commissioned	
  by	
  Opera	
  America,	
  a	
  leading	
   trade	
  organization.	
  The	
  Shugoll	
  Report	
  serves	
  as	
  the	
  baseline	
  for	
  the	
  research	
   completed	
  in	
  this	
  study.	
   	
   Shugoll	
  Research	
  Report:	
  “Metropolitan	
  Opera	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  Survey”	
   Shugoll	
  Research	
  surveyed	
  audiences	
  that	
  attended	
  select	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  transmissions	
   in	
  32	
  cities	
  across	
  North	
  America.15	
  The	
  surveys	
  were	
  conducted	
  in	
  collaboration	
   with	
  34	
  participating	
  local	
  opera	
  companies.	
  The	
  stated	
  aims	
  of	
  the	
  survey	
  were	
  to:	
   • Profile	
  the	
  HD	
  audience	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   14	
  Abfalter	
  and	
  Mirski,	
  “Cinema	
  Live-­‐Opera,”	
  (2009):	
  11.	
    15	
  For	
  more	
  information	
  see	
  Shugoll	
  Research.	
  “The	
  Metropolitan	
  Opera	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  survey.”	
    Shugoll	
  Research	
  Corporation,	
  July	
  2008,	
  http://www.shugollresearch.com/images/documents/	
   opera_report.pdf	
  	
  (accessed	
  March	
  1,	
  2011).	
    	
    7	
    •  Determine	
  the	
  preferred	
  form	
  of	
  opera:	
  live	
  or	
  HD	
    •  Identify	
  reasons	
  for	
  attending	
  the	
  HD	
  transmissions	
    •  Assess	
  reactions	
  to	
  HD	
  transmissions	
    •  Identify	
  the	
  attendance	
  decision	
  process	
    Surveys	
  were	
  distributed	
  by	
  opera	
  company	
  volunteers	
  at	
  screenings	
  of	
  La	
  Bohème	
   and	
  Peter	
  Grimes	
  in	
  March	
  and	
  April	
  2008	
  respectively.	
  Each	
  company	
  was	
  given	
  a	
   total	
  of	
  263	
  surveys	
  based	
  on	
  an	
  estimated	
  response	
  rate	
  of	
  38	
  percent.	
  Shugoll	
   determined	
  a	
  total	
  of	
  100	
  surveys	
  per	
  company	
  would	
  be	
  adequate	
  to	
  draw	
  some	
   broad	
  conclusions.	
  The	
  total	
  received	
  was	
  5,306.	
  Assuming	
  all	
  8,942	
  surveys	
  were	
   handed	
  out,	
  the	
  actual	
  response	
  rate	
  was	
  59	
  percent.	
   	
   The	
  Shugoll	
  Report	
  found	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  attracted	
  people	
  who	
  had	
  not	
  seen	
  opera	
   recently	
  (about	
  18%	
  of	
  respondents)	
  but	
  most	
  were	
  moderate	
  and	
  frequent	
  live	
   operagoers.	
  A	
  net	
  total	
  of	
  five	
  percent	
  of	
  HD-­‐attendees	
  had	
  never	
  seen	
  live	
  opera.	
   When	
  compared	
  to	
  their	
  earlier	
  research,	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  did	
  not	
  diversify	
  the	
  basic	
   demographic	
  profile	
  of	
  the	
  opera-­‐going	
  audience	
  (mostly	
  white,	
  older,	
  and	
  highly	
   educated).	
  Only	
  a	
  small	
  segment	
  was	
  under	
  25	
  years	
  old.	
  However,	
  the	
  median	
   household	
  income	
  was	
  lower	
  for	
  HD	
  than	
  for	
  live	
  opera	
  with	
  45%	
  of	
  respondents	
   earning	
  less	
  than	
  $75,000	
  a	
  year.	
   	
   In	
  terms	
  of	
  future	
  attendance	
  and	
  preference,	
  the	
  majority	
  of	
  the	
  audience	
  were	
   “very	
  likely”	
  to	
  reattend	
  both	
  HD	
  (90%)	
  and	
  live	
  (75%).	
  A	
  smaller	
  portion	
  of	
  non-­‐ recent	
  live	
  opera	
  attendees	
  (30%)	
  was	
  “very	
  likely”	
  to	
  attend	
  live	
  opera	
  in	
  the	
    	
    8	
    future.	
  Most	
  respondents	
  preferred	
  to	
  attend	
  both	
  (58%),	
  while	
  a	
  minority	
   preferred	
  HD	
  exclusively	
  (15%)	
  or	
  live	
  (27%).	
   	
   The	
  Shugoll	
  Report	
  concluded	
  that	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  had	
  certainly	
  found	
  an	
  audience	
  that	
   enjoys	
  attending	
  the	
  broadcasts.	
  Respondents	
  were	
  very	
  likely	
  to	
  reattend	
  HD	
  and	
   not	
  necessarily	
  deterred	
  from	
  live	
  opera.	
  Most	
  respondents	
  said	
  they	
  were	
  very	
   likely	
  to	
  attend	
  live	
  opera	
  in	
  the	
  future	
  (75%).	
  The	
  survey	
  did	
  not	
  show	
  that	
  Live	
  in	
   HD	
  promoted	
  live	
  opera	
  attendance.	
  	
   	
   Although	
  the	
  Shugoll	
  Report	
  provides	
  a	
  point	
  of	
  comparison	
  for	
  this	
  study,	
  the	
   survey	
  was	
  conducted	
  in	
  the	
  infancy	
  of	
  Live	
  in	
  HD.	
  Since	
  that	
  time	
  HD’s	
  market	
   presence	
  has	
  increased	
  and	
  the	
  program	
  has	
  expanded	
  in	
  content	
  and	
  audience	
   reach.	
  Currently	
  in	
  its	
  fifth	
  season,	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  has	
  built-­‐up	
  an	
  audience	
  (some	
  of	
   whom	
  subscribe)	
  with	
  a	
  record	
  of	
  past	
  HD	
  attendance	
  and	
  perhaps	
  changing	
   preferences.	
   	
   Most	
  importantly,	
  the	
  Shugoll	
  Report	
  does	
  not	
  adequately	
  examine	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  in	
  the	
   context	
  of	
  local	
  live	
  opera.	
  The	
  survey	
  does	
  not	
  consider	
  how	
  HD-­‐audiences	
  perceive	
   live	
  local	
  opera,	
  how	
  they	
  evaluate	
  it	
  and	
  how	
  they	
  compare	
  their	
  HD	
  and	
  live	
   experiences.	
  The	
  survey	
  also	
  does	
  not	
  show	
  if	
  opera-­‐going	
  audiences	
  attend	
  HD	
  and	
   live	
  for	
  the	
  same	
  reasons,	
  nor	
  does	
  the	
  survey	
  show	
  if	
  the	
  attendance	
  decision-­‐ process	
  is	
  different	
  or	
  the	
  same.	
   	
    	
    9	
    HYPOTHESIS	
  AND	
  SPECIFIC	
  AIMS	
   Hypothesis	
   Rather	
  that	
  simply	
  updating	
  the	
  existing	
  literature,	
  this	
  study	
  focuses	
  on	
  empirically	
   identifying	
  and	
  assessing	
  the	
  effect	
  of	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  on	
  local	
  live	
  attendance.	
  The	
   purpose	
  is	
  to	
  investigate	
  the	
  future	
  attendance	
  intension	
  and	
  preference	
  of	
  those	
   that	
  attend	
  opera	
  in	
  the	
  movie	
  theatres. The	
  working	
  hypothesis	
  for	
  this	
  study	
  was	
   that	
  the	
  overall	
  effect	
  of	
  “The	
  Met:	
  Live	
  in	
  HD”	
  generates	
  more	
  interest	
  and	
  therefore	
   more	
  attendance	
  for	
  local	
  live	
  opera.	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  lowers	
  the	
  barrier	
  of	
  entry	
  among	
   people	
  that	
  are	
  not	
  regular	
  operagoers,	
  including	
  younger	
  audiences.	
  Among	
   existing	
  local	
  operagoers,	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  gives	
  exposure	
  to	
  a	
  greater	
  variety	
  of	
  works	
  not	
   otherwise	
  available	
  in	
  the	
  local	
  market.	
  The	
  program	
  does	
  not	
  replicate	
  live	
  opera,	
   but	
  rather	
  provides	
  a	
  positive	
  experience	
  that	
  may	
  lead	
  both	
  new	
  and	
  established	
   operagoers	
  to	
  try	
  or	
  retry	
  “the	
  real	
  thing”	
  at	
  their	
  local	
  opera	
  company.	
  	
   	
   Specific	
  Aims	
   The	
  research	
  questions	
  are:	
   Who	
  attends	
  Live	
  in	
  HD?	
   Is	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  a	
  possible	
  competitor	
  for	
  live	
  opera?	
   Why	
  do	
  people	
  attend	
  Live	
  in	
  HD?	
   What	
  do	
  people	
  prefer:	
  HD,	
  live,	
  or	
  both?	
   Is	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  a	
  first	
  step	
  into	
  live	
  opera?	
   Does	
  attendance	
  to	
  HD	
  promote	
  live	
  opera	
  attendance?	
   	
    	
    10	
    DATA	
  COLLECTION	
  AND	
  METHODOLOGY	
   The	
  study	
  was	
  conducted	
  in	
  a	
  major	
  North	
  American	
  city	
  with	
  the	
  cooperation	
  of	
  its	
   midsize	
  professional	
  opera	
  company	
  (approx.	
  $4	
  million	
  annual	
  operating	
  budget)	
   and	
  midsize	
  amateur	
  opera	
  company	
  (approx.	
  $250,000	
  annual	
  operating	
  budget).	
   The	
  city	
  also	
  served	
  as	
  sampling	
  location	
  for	
  the	
  original	
  Shugoll	
  Report.	
   	
   In	
  the	
  2010-­‐2011	
  season,	
  the	
  professional	
  opera	
  company	
  presented	
  four	
  operas	
   with	
  4-­‐6	
  performances	
  each.	
  The	
  amateur	
  opera	
  company	
  presented	
  three	
  operas	
   with	
  4	
  performances	
  each.	
  Approximate	
  live	
  attendance	
  (at	
  full	
  capacity)	
  is	
  45,000	
   and	
  6700	
  people	
  respectively.	
  For	
  the	
  2010-­‐2011	
  Season,	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  presented	
  12	
   operas	
  with	
  2-­‐3	
  broadcasts	
  each	
  for	
  a	
  total	
  of	
  31	
  performances	
  (including	
  live	
   simulcast	
  and	
  encore	
  presentations).	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  was	
  transmitted	
  into	
  six	
  movie	
   theatres	
  in	
  the	
  metropolitan	
  area.	
  Approximate	
  capacity	
  HD	
  attendance	
  (at	
  full	
   capacity)	
  is	
  59,400	
  for	
  all	
  metropolitan	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  venues.	
   	
   The	
  Survey	
   To	
  obtain	
  information	
  about	
  the	
  possible	
  local	
  impact	
  of	
  Live	
  in	
  HD,	
  a	
  self-­‐ administered	
  survey	
  of	
  HD-­‐attendees	
  was	
  carried	
  out.	
  In	
  keeping	
  with	
  the	
  existing	
   Shugoll	
  literature,	
  a	
  similar	
  methodology	
  was	
  employed.	
  Some	
  of	
  the	
  Shugoll	
   findings	
  serve	
  as	
  benchmarks	
  for	
  our	
  results.	
  Additional	
  independent	
  variables	
  like	
   subscription	
  status	
  and	
  past	
  HD	
  attendance,	
  and	
  dependent	
  variables	
  like	
  opera-­‐ type	
  preference	
  and	
  evaluation	
  criteria,	
  were	
  added.	
  	
   	
    	
    11	
    The	
  key	
  difference	
  with	
  this	
  survey	
  (compared	
  to	
  the	
  Shugoll	
  Report)	
  was	
  that	
   respondents	
  were	
  asked	
  more	
  detailed	
  questions	
  about	
  both	
  their	
  HD	
  and	
  live	
  opera	
   experiences.	
  The	
  construction	
  of	
  the	
  survey	
  used	
  a	
  within-­‐subjects	
  design	
  approach.	
  	
   We	
  wanted	
  to	
  measure	
  the	
  value	
  of	
  specific	
  dependent	
  variables	
  for	
  both	
  HD	
  and	
  for	
   live	
  for	
  the	
  same	
  subjects.	
  This	
  enabled	
  the	
  direct	
  comparison	
  of	
  responses	
  within	
   the	
  same	
  study.	
  	
   	
  	
   The	
  survey	
  was	
  constructed	
  using	
  an	
  online	
  platform	
  called	
  SurveyMonkey.	
  The	
   survey	
  was	
  electronically	
  distributed	
  via	
  email	
  invitation	
  or	
  through	
  a	
  custom-­‐built	
   website.	
  This	
  method	
  had	
  the	
  advantages	
  of	
  low	
  cost,	
  easy	
  distribution	
  and	
  greater	
   flexibility	
  in	
  survey	
  design.	
  Online	
  distribution	
  also	
  did	
  not	
  impact	
  patron	
   experience	
  during	
  performance.	
  Surveys	
  were	
  self-­‐administered	
  and	
  completed	
   post-­‐performance	
  by	
  participants.	
  	
   	
   Data	
  Collection	
   To	
  examine	
  the	
  hypothesis	
  and	
  research	
  questions,	
  audience	
  surveys	
  were	
   conducted	
  at	
  select	
  performances	
  of	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  at	
  a	
  major	
  movie	
  theatre	
  in	
  the	
   downtown	
  metropolitan	
  area	
  less	
  than	
  1	
  kilometer	
  away	
  from	
  the	
  live	
  professional	
   opera	
  venue.	
  In	
  order	
  to	
  reach	
  a	
  broader	
  HD-­‐going	
  audience,	
  the	
  same	
  survey	
  was	
   conducted	
  at	
  select	
  professional	
  and	
  amateur	
  opera	
  performances	
  (Lucia	
  di	
   Lammermoor	
  and	
  Don	
  Giovanni)	
  during	
  the	
  same	
  period	
  as	
  the	
  HD	
  broadcasts.	
  The	
   types	
  of	
  operas	
  presented	
  ranged	
  from	
  very	
  popular	
  works	
  (Don	
  Giovanni)	
  to	
  lesser-­‐ known	
  works	
  (Boris	
  Godunov).	
  In	
  the	
  Shugoll	
  Report,	
  the	
  authors	
  found	
  differences	
    	
    12	
    in	
  responses	
  at	
  Peter	
  Grimes	
  (a	
  lesser-­‐known	
  opera)	
  and	
  La	
  Bohème	
  (a	
  well-­‐known	
   work).	
  We	
  wanted	
  to	
  sample	
  HD-­‐attendees	
  at	
  a	
  wide	
  range	
  of	
  works	
  to	
  avoid	
  this	
   problem.	
  Our	
  goal	
  was	
  to	
  provide	
  a	
  representative	
  and	
  sufficiently	
  random	
  sample	
   of	
  the	
  local	
  opera-­‐going	
  audience	
  that	
  has	
  attended	
  Live	
  in	
  HD.	
  	
   	
   An	
  aggregate	
  of	
  187	
  surveys	
  were	
  collected	
  at	
  the	
  three	
  different	
  sampling	
  locations.	
   Data	
  collection	
  took	
  place	
  over	
  the	
  course	
  of	
  51	
  days	
  (November	
  4-­‐December	
  25).	
   Since	
  the	
  survey	
  was	
  self-­‐administered	
  online,	
  the	
  survey	
  collection	
  period	
  closed	
   after	
  the	
  actual	
  events.	
  The	
  method	
  of	
  survey	
  distribution	
  was	
  dependent	
  on	
  the	
   sampling	
  location	
  (see	
  Table	
  2).	
   	
   	
   Table	
  2:	
  Sampling	
  locations	
  for	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  survey	
   Opera	
   Performance	
    Type	
  of	
   Performance	
   at	
  sampling	
   location	
    Date	
   (2010)	
    Distribution	
   Method	
    N	
    Live	
  in	
  HD,	
   downtown	
   movie	
   theatre	
    Boris	
   Godunov,	
  Das	
   Rheingold,	
   Don	
  Pasquale,	
   Don	
  Carlo	
    HD	
    Advertisement	
   Card,	
  Self-­‐ Administered	
   online	
    80	
    9%	
    Amateur	
   opera	
   company,	
   live	
  theatre	
    Don	
  Giovanni	
    Live	
    Nov	
  13,	
   Nov	
  20,	
   Nov	
  27,	
   Nov	
  29,	
   Dec	
  4,	
   Dec	
  11	
   Nov	
  4-­‐7	
    Advertisement	
   Card,	
  Self-­‐ Administered	
   Online	
    55	
    3%	
    Professional	
   opera	
   company	
    Lucia	
  di	
   Lammermoor	
    Live	
    Dec	
  4-­‐11	
    Email	
  Invitation,	
  	
   Self-­‐ Administered	
   Online	
    31	
    6%	
    	
    Response	
   Rate	
    Presenter	
    13	
    At	
  the	
  movies	
   Movie	
  theatre	
  HD-­‐attendees	
  were	
  handed	
  an	
  advertisement	
  card	
  that	
  directed	
  them	
   to	
  voluntarily	
  give	
  feedback	
  on	
  an	
  online	
  survey.	
  The	
  card	
  directed	
  the	
  participant	
   to	
  a	
  custom-­‐built	
  website.	
  Volunteers	
  gave	
  out	
  the	
  cards	
  with	
  promotional	
  material	
   for	
  the	
  local	
  professional	
  opera	
  company.	
  The	
  cards	
  were	
  distributed	
  pre-­‐ performance.	
  	
   	
   The	
  sampling	
  period	
  spanned	
  six	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  broadcasts	
  over	
  the	
  course	
  of	
  28	
  days.	
   An	
  estimated	
  300	
  or	
  600	
  people	
  attended	
  each	
  broadcast	
  (the	
  live	
  simulcasts	
  were	
   transmitted	
  into	
  two	
  theatres).	
  Estimated	
  total	
  attendance	
  was	
  2000	
  attendees	
  and	
   900	
  advertisement	
  cards	
  were	
  made	
  available	
  for	
  distribution.	
  A	
  total	
  of	
  80	
  surveys	
   were	
  collected.	
  Assuming	
  all	
  the	
  cards	
  were	
  handed	
  out,	
  the	
  response	
  rate	
  was	
  9	
   percent.	
  	
   	
   At	
  the	
  live	
  companies	
   Audience	
  members	
  at	
  the	
  amateur	
  opera	
  performances	
  were	
  prompted	
  to	
   participate	
  with	
  an	
  advertisement	
  placed	
  in	
  the	
  concert	
  program.	
  Advertisement	
   cards	
  were	
  not	
  distributed	
  but	
  were	
  available	
  in	
  the	
  theatre	
  lobby.	
  Similar	
  to	
  the	
   movie-­‐theatre	
  attendees,	
  respondents	
  participated	
  through	
  the	
  custom-­‐built	
   website.	
  Estimated	
  total	
  attendance	
  at	
  the	
  amateur	
  performances	
  was	
  1,913	
  (based	
   on	
  point-­‐of-­‐sale	
  data).	
  A	
  total	
  of	
  55	
  surveys	
  were	
  collected	
  yielding	
  an	
  estimated	
   response	
  rate	
  of	
  3	
  percent.	
   	
    	
    14	
    Audience	
  members	
  at	
  the	
  professional	
  performances	
  were	
  prompted	
  to	
  participate	
   through	
  an	
  email	
  invitation	
  to	
  the	
  online	
  survey.	
  The	
  invitation	
  was	
  sent	
  to	
  500	
   randomly	
  selected	
  professional	
  opera	
  subscribers.	
  A	
  total	
  of	
  31	
  surveys	
  were	
   collected	
  yielding	
  an	
  estimated	
  response	
  rate	
  of	
  6	
  percent.	
   	
   Data	
  Analysis	
   The	
  study	
  design	
  and	
  results	
  are	
  primarily	
  descriptive	
  in	
  nature.	
  The	
  survey	
  used	
  a	
   variety	
  of	
  question	
  types	
  including	
  nominal	
  multiple-­‐choice	
  (to	
  measure	
   frequencies),	
  and	
  ordinal	
  and	
  interval	
  scale	
  questions	
  (to	
  measure	
  ranking	
  and	
   ratings).	
  Qualitative	
  responses	
  were	
  limited	
  to	
  a	
  single	
  open-­‐ended	
  question	
  to	
  give	
   comments	
  about	
  the	
  value	
  difference	
  between	
  live	
  and	
  HD	
  formats.	
  Open-­‐ended	
   comments	
  were	
  not	
  coded	
  and	
  left	
  as	
  qualitative	
  responses.	
  Selected	
  comments	
  are	
   available	
  in	
  Appendix	
  A.	
  	
  Appropriate	
  significance	
  tests	
  were	
  used	
  to	
  validate	
   quantitative	
  findings.	
  Please	
  see	
  Appendix	
  B	
  for	
  a	
  copy	
  of	
  the	
  survey.	
   	
   The	
  results	
  of	
  the	
  survey	
  were	
  analyzed	
  using	
  the	
  following	
  process:	
   •  Validation	
  of	
  collected	
  data	
    •  Editing	
  and	
  clean	
  up	
  of	
  the	
  collected	
  data	
  set	
  including	
  data	
  consolidation	
    •  Tabulation	
  of	
  results	
  including	
  one-­‐way	
  frequency	
  and	
  cross-­‐tabulation	
  of	
   significant	
  findings	
    •  Descriptive	
  statistics	
  including	
  mean	
  and	
  dispersion	
    •  Statistical	
  tests	
  and	
  tests	
  for	
  variance	
  to	
  validate	
  mean	
  differences	
    	
    	
    15	
    Statistical	
  Analysis	
   We	
  used	
  a	
  variety	
  of	
  scale	
  types	
  to	
  measure	
  selected	
  dependent	
  variables.	
  Likert	
   and	
  rating	
  scales	
  are	
  assumed	
  to	
  have	
  equal	
  intervals.	
  All	
  values	
  reported	
  are	
  mean	
   ±	
  standard	
  deviation.	
  For	
  hypothesis	
  testing,	
  95%	
  confidence	
  intervals	
  were	
   calculated	
  and	
  significance	
  was	
  assumed	
  at	
  the	
  0.05	
  level.	
   	
   Paired	
  sample	
  student	
  t-­‐tests	
  were	
  used	
  to	
  compare	
  future	
  attendance	
  rates,	
   evaluation	
  and	
  perception	
  scores	
  (means)	
  within	
  the	
  sample.	
  Independent	
  sample	
  t-­‐ tests	
  were	
  employed	
  to	
  compare	
  means	
  for	
  the	
  same	
  variable	
  (for	
  example,	
   likelihood	
  of	
  future	
  attendance	
  to	
  live	
  opera)	
  across	
  chosen	
  sample	
  segments.	
  To	
   assess	
  equality	
  of	
  variance	
  within	
  the	
  segments	
  and	
  within	
  the	
  population,	
  a	
  basic	
   Levene’s	
  test	
  was	
  used.	
  We	
  assumed	
  the	
  sample	
  segments	
  were	
  independent.	
  To	
   compare	
  means	
  for	
  more	
  that	
  two	
  segments	
  we	
  used	
  a	
  basic	
  one-­‐way	
  ANOVA	
   procedure.	
  We	
  did	
  not	
  make	
  corrections	
  for	
  multiple	
  comparisons.	
  In	
  cross-­‐ tabulations,	
  the	
  Pearson	
  Chi-­‐Square	
  test	
  was	
  used	
  to	
  measure	
  associations	
  between	
   variables.	
    	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
    16	
    RESULTS	
   Validation,	
  Editing	
  and	
  Data	
  Consolidation	
   Participation	
  in	
  the	
  study	
  required	
  explicit	
  consent	
  and	
  previous	
  attendance	
  to	
  at	
   least	
  one	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  broadcast.	
  Since	
  data	
  collection	
  was	
  self-­‐administered,	
  the	
   survey	
  had	
  two	
  initial	
  screening	
  questions	
  to	
  ensure	
  consent	
  and	
  previous	
  HD	
   attendance.	
  In	
  total	
  21	
  responses	
  were	
  removed	
  from	
  the	
  survey.	
  	
   	
   In	
  order	
  to	
  obtain	
  a	
  broad	
  sample	
  of	
  people	
  that	
  have	
  attended	
  Live	
  in	
  HD,	
  we	
   sampled	
  at	
  both	
  HD	
  and	
  live	
  venues.	
  The	
  demographic	
  profile	
  was	
  similar	
  between	
   sample	
  locations	
  (see	
  Table	
  3).	
  However,	
  we	
  knew	
  that	
  participants	
  from	
  the	
  movie	
   theatre	
  might	
  answer	
  differently	
  than	
  those	
  from	
  the	
  live	
  venues.	
  This	
  turned	
  out	
  to	
   be	
  the	
  case.	
  Key	
  differences	
  between	
  sample	
  locations	
  are	
  noted	
  in	
  the	
  individual	
   results	
  sections.	
  	
   	
   	
   Table	
  3:	
  Demographic	
  profile	
  of	
  different	
  sample	
  locations	
  for	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  survey	
   	
   Gender	
   Female	
   Male	
   Age	
   <50	
  	
   50-­‐59	
   60	
  or	
  more	
   Education	
   <High	
  School	
   High	
  School	
  Graduate	
   College	
   College	
  Graduate	
   Prof./Grad.	
  Degree	
   Annual	
  Household	
  Income	
   <24999	
    	
    Movie	
  Theatre	
   HD	
  Survey	
   N=79	
   70%	
   30%	
   N=77	
   13%	
   18%	
   69%	
   N=79	
   0%	
   1%	
   14%	
   17%	
   68%	
   N=56	
   11%	
    Live	
  Opera	
  Venues	
   HD	
  Survey	
  	
   N=79	
   53%	
   47%	
   N=79	
   	
   	
   	
   N=81	
    19%	
   18%	
   63%	
   1%	
   1%	
   17%	
   18%	
   63%	
    N=58	
   7%	
    17	
    	
   25000-­‐49999	
   50000-­‐74999	
   75000-­‐99999	
   100000+	
    Movie	
  Theatre	
   HD	
  Survey	
   21%	
   29%	
   7%	
   32%	
    Live	
  Opera	
  Venues	
   HD	
  Survey	
  	
    12%	
   28%	
   19%	
   34%	
   Note:	
  N-­‐values	
  indicate	
  response	
  rate	
  to	
  demographic	
  questions	
  in	
  survey	
    	
   The	
  survey	
  data	
  was	
  edited	
  to	
  ensure	
  the	
  online	
  questionnaire	
  was	
  completed	
    properly,	
  coded	
  for	
  statistical	
  analysis,	
  and	
  consolidated	
  into	
  a	
  single	
  database.	
  The	
   results	
  below	
  are	
  organized	
  into	
  six	
  sections	
  aligned	
  with	
  the	
  research	
  questions.	
   	
   Research	
  Questions	
   Who	
  attends	
  Live	
  in	
  HD?	
   The	
  majority	
  of	
  people	
  who	
  attend	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  are	
  established	
  live	
  operagoers,	
   including	
  local	
  live	
  opera	
  subscribers.	
  For	
  only	
  a	
  small	
  percentage	
  of	
  respondents	
   (6.3%)	
  is	
  HD	
  their	
  only	
  form	
  of	
  opera	
  attendance	
  in	
  the	
  past	
  3	
  seasons.	
  A	
  large	
   majority	
  of	
  participants	
  have	
  attended	
  live	
  opera	
  in	
  the	
  past	
  in	
  the	
  local	
  area	
   (93.2%),	
  and	
  most	
  have	
  attended	
  at	
  least	
  one	
  opera	
  in	
  the	
  past	
  3	
  seasons	
  (93.8%).	
  	
   	
   In	
  terms	
  of	
  past	
  HD	
  attendance,	
  a	
  large	
  portion	
  of	
  participants	
  has	
  attended	
  Live	
  in	
   HD	
  very	
  frequently	
  (47.8%)	
  (see	
  Figure	
  2).	
  A	
  large	
  portion	
  of	
  frequent	
  live	
   operagoers	
  are	
  also	
  frequent	
  HD	
  goers	
  (61.4%).	
  In	
  general,	
  greater	
  live	
  attendance	
   is	
  marginally	
  associated	
  with	
  greater	
  HD	
  attendance	
  using	
  a	
  Pearson	
  Chi-­‐Square	
   measure	
  of	
  association	
  	
  (p=0.059).	
  Participants	
  that	
  attend	
  a	
  lot	
  of	
  each	
  form	
  (10	
  or	
   more)	
  tend	
  to	
  be	
  subscribers.	
  Some	
  participants	
  are	
  subscribers	
  to	
  both	
  HD	
  and	
  live	
    	
    18	
    professional	
  opera	
  (12%).	
  Only	
  10.8	
  percent	
  of	
  “10	
  or	
  more”	
  live	
  attendees	
  are	
  non-­‐ subscribers,	
  and	
  31.0	
  percent	
  of	
  “10	
  or	
  more”	
  HD	
  attendees	
  are	
  non-­‐subscribers.	
  	
   	
   	
   Figure	
  1:	
  Past	
  live	
  attendance	
  in	
  aggregated	
  sample	
  and	
  individual	
  sample	
  locations	
   Past	
  Live	
  Attendance	
   (Movie	
  N=79)	
  (Live	
  N=81)	
    70	
    70	
    60	
    60	
    50	
    Percent	
  %	
    Percent	
  %	
    (Aggregated	
  N=160)	
    36.3	
    40	
   30	
    23.1	
    20	
   10	
    6.3	
    6.9	
    0	
    1	
    18.8	
   8.8	
    Movie	
  Theatre	
   Live	
  Venues	
    50	
   40	
   30	
   20	
   10	
   0	
    0	
   2	
  to	
  3	
    4	
  to	
  5	
    6	
  to	
  9	
    10	
  or	
   more	
    0	
    1	
    2	
  to	
  3	
    4	
  to	
  5	
    6	
  to	
  9	
    10	
  or	
   more	
    	
    	
    	
   Figure	
  2:	
  Past	
  HD	
  attendance	
  in	
  aggregated	
  sample	
  and	
  individual	
  sample	
  locations	
   Past	
  HD	
  Attendance	
   (Aggregated	
  N=163)	
    (movie	
  N=80),	
  (live	
  N=83)	
    70	
    70	
    50	
   40	
   30	
   20	
    16	
    11	
    11.7	
    Movie	
  Theatre	
   Live	
  Venues	
    60	
    47.9	
   Percent	
  %	
    Percent	
  %	
    60	
    13.5	
    10	
    50	
   40	
   30	
   20	
   10	
    0	
    0	
   1	
    2	
  to	
  3	
    4	
  to	
  5	
    6	
  to	
  9	
   10	
  or	
  more	
    1	
    2	
  to	
  3	
    4	
  to	
  5	
    6	
  to	
  9	
   10	
  or	
  more	
    	
    	
    	
   Past	
  attendance	
  and	
  subscription	
  is	
  marginally	
  dependent	
  on	
  the	
  sampling	
  location	
   There	
  are	
  more	
  frequent	
  past	
  live	
  attendees/subscribers	
  at	
  the	
  live	
  sample	
  locations	
    	
    19	
    and	
  similarly	
  for	
  HD	
  (see	
  Figure	
  1,	
  2	
  and	
  Table	
  4).	
  Three	
  subscriber	
  groups	
  stand	
   out:	
  local	
  professional	
  live	
  opera,	
  HD,	
  and	
  none.	
  Subscription	
  status	
  is	
  not	
  mutually	
   exclusive.	
  Some	
  participants	
  are	
  subscribers	
  to	
  both	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  and	
  the	
  professional	
   opera	
  company	
  (12%).	
  The	
  sample	
  arguably	
  contains	
  a	
  disproportionate	
  number	
  of	
   live	
  professional	
  opera	
  subscribers	
  because	
  only	
  subscribers	
  were	
  available	
  to	
  be	
   surveyed	
  at	
  the	
  professional	
  venue.	
   	
   Table	
  4:	
  Subscription	
  status	
  (percent	
  of	
  cases)	
   	
   Samples	
   	
   	
   	
    	
    N	
    Aggregated	
   Movie	
  Theatre	
   Live	
  Venues	
   	
    156	
   76	
   80	
    Local	
  Professional	
    Live	
  in	
  HD	
    None	
    35.30%	
   30.10%	
   39.70%	
   25.00%	
   43.40%	
   42.10%	
   45.00%	
   17.50%	
   37.50%	
   Subscription	
  Status	
  is	
  not	
  mutually	
  exclusive	
    	
   In	
  order	
  to	
  examine	
  the	
  demographic	
  profile	
  of	
  the	
  current	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  audience,	
  we	
   compared	
  our	
  results	
  with	
  the	
  Shugoll	
  Report	
  and	
  the	
  preliminary	
  feedback	
  survey	
   conducted	
  at	
  the	
  amateur	
  opera	
  performances	
  (see	
  Table	
  5).	
  The	
  three	
  different	
   surveys	
  have	
  varying	
  sample	
  sizes.	
  	
   	
   First,	
  we	
  compared	
  our	
  results	
  with	
  the	
  Shugoll	
  Report	
  to	
  see	
  if	
  our	
  sample	
  is	
   representative	
  of	
  the	
  HD-­‐going	
  audience.	
  We	
  also	
  wanted	
  to	
  see	
  if	
  there	
  were	
  any	
   demographic	
  changes	
  over	
  time.	
  The	
  two	
  surveys	
  show	
  a	
  similar	
  demographic	
   profile	
  for	
  gender,	
  age,	
  and	
  education.	
  	
   	
   Second,	
  we	
  compared	
  our	
  results	
  with	
  the	
  preliminary	
  feedback	
  survey	
  to	
  see	
  if	
   there	
  were	
  any	
  demographic	
  differences	
  with	
  the	
  local	
  live	
  opera	
  audience.	
  These	
    	
    20	
    results	
  are	
  also	
  consistent	
  in	
  gender,	
  age	
  and	
  education.	
  The	
  Shugoll	
  Report	
   indicated	
  that	
  the	
  demographic	
  profile	
  of	
  the	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  audience	
  in	
  their	
  survey	
   was	
  similar	
  -­‐except	
  for	
  income-­‐	
  to	
  live	
  opera	
  according	
  to	
  their	
  previous	
  research.	
  	
   	
   From	
  these	
  results,	
  we	
  can	
  conclude	
  that	
  1)	
  our	
  methods	
  produced	
  a	
  representative	
   sample	
  of	
  the	
  HD-­‐going	
  population	
  despite	
  the	
  small	
  sample	
  size,	
  2)	
  the	
   demographic	
  profile	
  for	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  has	
  not	
  changed	
  since	
  the	
  Shugoll	
  Report	
  and	
  3)	
   the	
  demographic	
  profile	
  is	
  similar	
  to	
  live	
  opera.	
   	
   In	
  the	
  Shugoll	
  Report,	
  the	
  authors	
  found	
  a	
  lower	
  household	
  income	
  distribution	
   when	
  compared	
  to	
  live	
  opera	
  surveys	
  (45%	
  of	
  respondents	
  had	
  annual	
  household	
   income	
  less	
  than	
  $75,000).	
  They	
  concluded	
  this	
  might	
  be	
  because	
  of	
  the	
  diversity	
  of	
   markets	
  in	
  their	
  study	
  that	
  included	
  smaller	
  markets.	
  For	
  our	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  survey,	
  54	
   percent	
  of	
  respondents	
  indicated	
  an	
  annual	
  household	
  income	
  of	
  less	
  than	
  $75000.	
   Interestingly,	
  the	
  amateur	
  live	
  opera	
  survey	
  further	
  skewed	
  results	
  towards	
  lower	
   household	
  incomes	
  (59%).	
  The	
  similar	
  results	
  found	
  between	
  the	
  HD	
  surveys	
  and	
   with	
  live	
  amateur	
  opera	
  may	
  indicate	
  that	
  in	
  our	
  local	
  market	
  the	
  median	
  household	
   income	
  for	
  operagoers	
  is	
  lower.	
  Alternatively,	
  it	
  may	
  indicate	
  that	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  and	
   amateur	
  live	
  opera	
  attracts	
  a	
  more	
  price-­‐conscious	
  audience.	
  The	
  majority	
  of	
   respondents	
  who	
  attend	
  HD	
  and	
  live	
  opera	
  are	
  older	
  (60	
  years	
  or	
  older)	
  who	
  may	
  be	
   retired	
  and	
  without	
  a	
  large	
  annual	
  disposal	
  income.	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
    21	
    Table	
  5:	
  Comparison	
  demographics	
  of	
  opera	
  audiences	
   Live	
  in	
  HD	
   Shugoll	
  Report	
  	
   Amateur	
  Live	
  Opera	
  	
   	
   Survey	
   Survey	
   Survey1	
   Gender	
   N=158	
   N=5210	
   N=118	
   Female	
   61%	
   66%	
   60%	
   Male	
   39%	
   34%	
   40%	
   Age2	
   N=156	
   N=5227	
   N=118	
   <50	
  	
   16%	
   	
   16%	
   28%	
   50-­‐59	
   18%	
   	
   24%	
   21%	
   60	
  or	
  more	
   66%	
   	
   60%	
   51%	
   Education	
   N=160	
   N=5187	
   N=118	
   <High	
  School	
   0%	
   1%	
   1%	
   High	
  School	
  Graduate	
   1%	
   4%	
   4%	
   College	
   16%	
   12%	
   11%	
   College	
  Graduate	
   17%	
   25%	
   30%	
   Prof./Grad.	
  Degree	
   66%	
   58%	
   54%	
   Annual	
  Household	
  Income	
   N=114	
   N=4298	
   N=80	
   <24999	
   9%	
   6%	
   19%	
   25000-­‐49999	
   17%	
   18%	
   16%	
   50000-­‐74999	
   28%	
   21%	
   24%	
   75000-­‐99999	
   13%	
   17%	
   16%	
   100000+	
   33%	
   38%	
   25%	
   	
   Note:	
  N-­‐values	
  indicate	
  response	
  rate	
  to	
  demographic	
  questions	
  in	
  survey	
   1	
  	
  Post	
  Performance	
  Surveys	
  for	
  2010-­11	
  Season	
  for	
  local	
  Amateur	
  Company	
   	
   2	
  	
  Shugoll	
  Report	
  Age	
  Demographic	
  Categories	
  are	
  <55,	
  55-­64,	
  65+	
  respectively	
   	
    	
   Is	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  a	
  possible	
  competitor	
  for	
  live	
  opera?	
    Live	
  in	
  HD	
  may	
  be	
  a	
  competitor	
  for	
  live	
  opera	
  audiences	
  if	
  respondents	
  perceive	
  that	
   both	
  formats	
  are	
  in	
  the	
  same	
  product	
  category	
  and	
  both	
  fulfill	
  the	
  same	
  opera	
  going	
   needs.	
  	
   	
   To	
  evaluate	
  differences	
  in	
  perception	
  between	
  HD	
  and	
  live	
  we	
  asked	
  respondents	
  to	
   rate	
  the	
  importance	
  of	
  eight	
  different	
  criteria	
  in	
  their	
  decision	
  to	
  attend.	
  Table	
  6	
   shows	
  that	
  ratings	
  for	
  the	
  decision-­‐making	
  criteria.	
  Mean	
  scores	
  are	
  calculated	
  on	
  a	
   5-­‐point	
  Likert	
  Scale	
  from	
  1	
  (not	
  at	
  all	
  important)	
  to	
  5	
  (extremely	
  important).	
  T-­‐tests	
   are	
  used	
  to	
  compare	
  means	
  for	
  paired	
  HD	
  and	
  live	
  ratings.	
  	
    	
    22	
    	
   In	
  general,	
  respondents	
  rate	
  the	
  decision	
  criteria	
  similarly	
  in	
  importance.	
  There	
  are	
   some	
  differences.	
  Respondents	
  rate	
  “support	
  opera	
  performance”	
  as	
  more	
   important	
  in	
  their	
  live	
  opera	
  attendance	
  than	
  HD	
  (although	
  HD	
  does	
  rate	
  surprising	
   high).	
  “Theatre	
  comfort”	
  and	
  “convenience”	
  in	
  contrast	
  are	
  also	
  more	
  important	
   determinants	
  in	
  the	
  decision	
  to	
  attend	
  HD	
  than	
  live.	
  	
   	
   Table	
  6:	
  Perception	
  comparison	
  between	
  HD/live	
  for	
  given	
  decision-­‐making	
   criteria	
   Mean	
   Scores	
    	
  	
   I	
  love	
  opera	
  and	
  want	
  to	
  see	
  as	
  much	
  as	
  possible	
  (N=147)	
    Price	
  of	
  ticket	
  (N=145)	
    I	
  want	
  to	
  support	
  opera	
  performance	
  (N=140)	
    Physical	
  comfort	
  of	
  theatre	
  (N=145)	
    Convenient	
  location	
  of	
  theatre	
  (N=146)	
    Ease	
  of	
  Parking	
  (N=142)	
    I	
  want	
  to	
  see	
  a	
  particular	
  star	
  (N=142)	
    Time	
  of	
  performance	
  (N=142)	
    HD	
    Standard	
   Deviation	
  	
    LIVE	
    4.3333*	
   4.1905	
    0.97456	
   1.049	
    HD	
    3.6966	
    1.243	
    LIVE	
    3.6207	
    1.161	
    HD	
    3.5143*	
   3.7429	
    1.243	
   1.153	
    3.4897*	
   3.1793	
    1.161	
   1.045	
    3.684*	
   3.1986	
    1.113	
   1.093	
    2.4648	
   2.4718	
    1.452	
   1.303	
    3.338	
   3.3028	
    1.172	
   1.172	
    2.9296	
   3.000	
    1.195	
   1.155	
    LIVE	
   HD	
   LIVE	
   HD	
   LIVE	
   HD	
   LIVE	
   HD	
   LIVE	
   HD	
   LIVE	
    *p<0.05	
   5-­‐point	
  LIKERT	
  SCALE	
   1	
  =“not	
  at	
  all	
  important”	
  and	
  5	
  =“extremely	
  important”	
  	
    	
   	
   	
   	
  	
    	
    23	
    HD  Figure	
  3:	
  Evaluation	
  criteria	
  rankings	
  from	
  1	
  to	
  6	
   SINGING QUALITY  LIVE  !"""""""""#"  SINGING QUALITY  PROD QUALITY  $"""""""""#""  PROD QUALITY  	
   ACOUS  ORCH  %""""""""#"  VIEW  &""""""""#"  ACOUS ORCH VIEW*  EXTRAS*  '"""""""#"  (""""""""#"  EXTRAS  *p<0.05	
    	
   We	
  also	
  asked	
  respondents	
  to	
  rank	
  given	
  evaluation	
  criteria.	
  Evaluation	
  criteria	
  are	
   singing,	
  production,	
  sound,	
  orchestra	
  quality,	
  view	
  from	
  seat	
  and	
  extras.	
  “Extras”	
   refer	
  to	
  value-­‐added	
  content	
  such	
  as	
  pre-­‐performance	
  interviews.	
  Participants	
  rank	
   the	
  evaluation	
  criteria	
  for	
  HD	
  and	
  live	
  in	
  same	
  order	
  (see	
  Figure	
  3).	
  Rankings	
   produce	
  means	
  ±	
  standard	
  deviation	
  on	
  an	
  equal	
  interval	
  scale.	
  T-­‐tests	
  are	
  used	
  to	
   compare	
  means	
  for	
  paired	
  HD	
  and	
  live	
  evaluation	
  criteria	
  rankings.	
  Although	
  “view	
   from	
  seat”	
  and	
  “extras”	
  are	
  ranked	
  in	
  the	
  same	
  order,	
  their	
  mean	
  differences	
  are	
   statistically	
  significant.	
  These	
  results	
  suggest	
  that	
  the	
  forms	
  are	
  in	
  the	
  same	
  product	
   category	
  and	
  both	
  HD	
  and	
  live	
  opera	
  fulfill	
  the	
  same	
  needs	
  for	
  operagoers.	
  	
   	
   Given	
  that	
  operagoers	
  perceive	
  both	
  HD	
  and	
  live	
  in	
  same	
  product	
  category,	
  we	
   asked	
  respondents	
  to	
  rate	
  the	
  delivery	
  of	
  HD	
  and	
  live	
  on	
  the	
  evaluation	
  criteria	
  from	
   poor	
  to	
  excellent.	
  HD	
  is	
  rated	
  consistently	
  higher	
  in	
  evaluation	
  criteria	
  compared	
  to	
   live	
  across	
  the	
  aggregate	
  sample	
  (see	
  Figure	
  4).	
  These	
  results	
  are	
  all	
  statistically	
   significant	
  (Table	
  7).	
  	
   	
   	
   	
    24	
    Figure	
  4:	
  Evaluation	
  criteria	
  ratings	
  from	
  HD	
  and	
  live	
   1	
    1.5	
    1=poor	
  to	
  4=excellent	
   2	
   2.5	
   3	
    3.5	
    Acoustics-­‐sound	
  quality	
  rating	
    4	
    HD	
   LIVE	
    View	
  from	
  Seat	
  Rating	
   Production	
  Quality	
  Rating	
   Singing	
  Quality	
  Rating	
   Orchestra	
  Quality	
  Rating	
   Extras	
  Quality	
  Rating	
    	
   p<0.05	
   	
   Table	
  7:	
  Evaluation	
  criteria	
  ratings	
  for	
  HD	
  and	
  live	
   Live	
  in	
  HD	
   3.331*	
    Standard	
   Deviation	
   0.72701	
    LIVE	
   3.0966	
    Standard	
   Deviation	
   0.65959	
    N	
   145	
    View	
  from	
  Seat	
  Rating	
    3.7203*	
    0.49513	
    2.8951	
    0.81977	
    143	
    Production	
  Quality	
  Rating	
    3.7808*	
    0.51853	
    3.1301	
    0.61323	
    146	
    Singing	
  Quality	
  Rating	
    3.8966*	
    0.34809	
    3.1931	
    0.61573	
    145	
    Orchestra	
  Quality	
  Rating	
    3.8889*	
    0.41157	
    3.2639	
    0.61435	
    144	
    3.614*	
    0.617	
    2.5614	
    0.80962	
    114	
    	
   Acoustics-­‐sound	
  quality	
   rating	
    Extras	
  Quality	
  Rating	
    *p<0.05	
   	
   We	
  also	
  asked	
  participants	
  to	
  rate	
  the	
  ticket	
  cost	
  of	
  both	
  HD	
  and	
  live	
  opera.	
  Live	
  in	
   HD’s	
  ticket	
  cost	
  is	
  rated	
  more	
  reasonable	
  across	
  the	
  aggregate	
  sample,	
  even	
  with	
   live	
  opera	
  subscribers	
  (see	
  Figure	
  6).	
  Ticket-­‐cost	
  scores	
  are	
  means	
  (±	
  standard	
    	
    25	
    deviation)	
  that	
  are	
  measured	
  on	
  an	
  equal	
  interval	
  scale	
  from	
  1	
  to	
  4	
  (not	
  at	
  all	
   reasonable	
  to	
  very	
  reasonable).	
  The	
  resultant	
  means	
  provide	
  a	
  measure	
  of	
   reasonability.	
   	
   Although	
  we	
  did	
  not	
  formally	
  analyze	
  qualitative	
  comments,	
  many	
  respondents	
   expressed	
  price-­‐sensitivity	
  to	
  the	
  cost	
  of	
  live	
  professional	
  opera	
  (see	
  Figure	
  5).	
  This	
   suggests	
  that	
  ticket	
  cost	
  may	
  a	
  barrier-­‐of-­‐entry	
  to	
  live	
  opera.	
  It	
  should	
  be	
  noted	
  that	
   price	
  sensitivity	
  exists	
  even	
  if	
  respondents	
  prefer	
  to	
  attend	
  both	
  HD	
  and	
  live	
  opera.	
   	
   Figure	
  5:	
  Select	
  qualitative	
  responses	
  about	
  price	
  sensitivity	
   	
   I	
  appreciate	
  the	
  costs	
  involved	
  in	
  live	
  opera	
  but	
  find	
  the	
  cost	
  prohibitive	
  for	
  the	
  type	
  of	
   seat	
  I	
  would	
  want	
  at	
  a	
  live	
  performance.	
  (Female,	
  Age:	
  60+)	
   	
   Price	
  and	
  limited	
  runs	
  (conflicting	
  schedules)	
  prevent	
  me	
  from	
  accessing	
  live	
  local	
   opera,	
  so	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  gives	
  me	
  access	
  to	
  seeing	
  opera	
  performances	
  I	
  can’t	
  otherwise	
   afford.	
  (Female,	
  Age:	
  30-­‐39)	
   	
   [T]icket	
  price	
  for	
  good	
  seats	
  is	
  what	
  holds	
  me	
  back	
  from	
  going	
  to	
  more	
  live	
   performances.	
  (Female,	
  Age:	
  60+)	
   	
   I	
  am	
  retired	
  and	
  tickets	
  for	
  live	
  opera	
  are	
  too	
  expensive	
  for	
  me,	
  particularly	
  to	
  see	
  an	
   opera	
  I	
  know	
  very	
  well.	
  (Female,	
  Age:	
  60+)	
   	
   I	
  still	
  love	
  live	
  opera,	
  but	
  can’t	
  afford	
  excellent	
  seats.	
  (Female	
  Age:	
  60+)	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
    26	
    	
   Figure	
  6:	
  Ticket	
  cost	
  comparisons	
  between	
  HD	
  and	
  live	
   70	
    Percent	
  (%)	
    60	
   50	
   40	
   HD	
    30	
    Live	
    20	
   10	
   0	
   not	
  at	
  all	
   reasonable	
    not	
  very	
   reasonable	
    somewhat	
   reasonable	
    very	
   reasonable	
    	
  	
    N=152	
  for	
  Live,	
  N=165	
  for	
  HD	
   Ticket	
  Cost	
  Mean	
  Scores	
    1	
    1.5	
    2	
    2.5	
    3	
    3.5	
    Ticket	
  Cost	
  Mean	
  Scores	
  for	
  	
   Subscriber	
  Groups	
    4	
    1=not	
  at	
  all	
  to	
  4=very	
  reasonable	
   How	
  would	
  you	
  evaluate	
  professional	
  opera	
   ticket	
  cost?	
   How	
  would	
  you	
  evaluate	
  ticket	
  cost?	
    	
    	
   Prof.	
  Live	
   Subscriber	
   (N=55)	
   s.d.	
   HD	
   Subscriber	
   (N=47)	
   s.d.	
   Non-­‐ Subscriber	
   (N=61)	
   s.d	
   	
   	
    $	
  for	
  HD	
   $	
  of	
  Live	
   3.6*	
   3.0	
   0.56437	
   3.7021*	
    069389	
   2.3617	
    0.50712	
   3.6129*	
    0.89505	
   2.3155	
    0.49106	
    1.04149	
   *p<0.05	
    Note:	
  N=152	
  for	
  Ticket	
  Cost	
  Mean	
  Scores	
    These	
  results	
  indicate	
  that	
  operagoers	
  probably	
  compare	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  and	
  live	
  opera.	
   Operagoers	
  place	
  both	
  forms	
  in	
  their	
  consideration	
  set	
  when	
  deciding	
  to	
  attend	
    	
    27	
    opera.	
  HD	
  is	
  not	
  perceived	
  as	
  an	
  inferior	
  product	
  to	
  live	
  opera.	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  is	
  rated	
   consistently	
  higher	
  than	
  live	
  opera	
  in	
  quality	
  measures	
  and	
  ticket	
  cost	
  is	
  rated	
  much	
   more	
  reasonable.	
   	
   Why	
  do	
  people	
  attend	
  Live	
  in	
  HD?	
   We	
  asked	
  respondents	
  to	
  choose	
  the	
  one	
  most	
  important	
  reason	
  why	
  they	
  attend	
   HD	
  and	
  live	
  opera.	
  We	
  found	
  they	
  attend	
  HD	
  and	
  live	
  for	
  different	
  reasons.	
  Three	
   reasons	
  stand	
  out	
  and	
  were	
  selected	
  by	
  most	
  respondents:	
  “I	
  had	
  a	
  positive	
  previous	
   experience”,	
  “I	
  want	
  to	
  see	
  particular	
  opera”,	
  or	
  “I	
  have	
  a	
  subscription”	
  (see	
  Figure	
  7	
   and	
  8).	
  For	
  live	
  opera,	
  the	
  most	
  important	
  reason	
  for	
  attendance	
  is	
  “subscription”	
   (31%)	
  or	
  “particular	
  opera”	
  (22%).	
  For	
  HD,	
  the	
  reason	
  is	
  “previous	
  experience”	
   (36%).	
  	
   	
   The	
  Shugoll	
  Report	
  found	
  that	
  the	
  most	
  important	
  reason	
  for	
  attending	
  an	
  HD	
   transmission	
  was	
  to	
  see	
  a	
  particular	
  opera	
  (73%).	
  In	
  our	
  study,	
  only	
  18	
  percent	
  of	
   respondents	
  chose	
  that	
  reason.	
  This	
  represents	
  a	
  fundamental	
  shift	
  in	
  the	
  market	
   position	
  of	
  Live	
  in	
  HD.	
  The	
  change	
  in	
  operagoers	
  attend	
  HD	
  not	
  only	
  implies	
  product	
   maturity	
  but	
  that	
  the	
  form	
  has	
  established	
  its	
  own	
  following.	
   	
   Our	
  aggregated	
  sample	
  is	
  made	
  up	
  of	
  many	
  professional	
  live	
  opera	
  and	
  HD	
   subscribers.	
  For	
  live	
  opera,	
  subscription	
  status	
  affects	
  the	
  primary	
  attendance	
   reason.	
  “I	
  have	
  a	
  subscription”	
  is	
  primarily	
  selected	
  by	
  live	
  opera	
  subscribers	
  (93%	
   of	
  the	
  total)	
  versus	
  “particular	
  opera”	
  (56%	
  of	
  the	
  total)	
  by	
  non-­‐subscribers.	
   Additionally	
  most	
  live	
  professional	
  opera	
  subscribers	
  choose	
  “subscription”	
  (76%).	
  	
   	
    28	
    	
   Interestingly,	
  the	
  subscription	
  effect	
  is	
  dampened	
  for	
  HD	
  –“previous	
  experience”	
  is	
   the	
  still	
  the	
  leading	
  choice	
  for	
  HD	
  attendance	
  regardless	
  of	
  subscription	
  status.	
  The	
   majority	
  of	
  professional	
  live	
  opera	
  subscribers	
  (44%)	
  choose	
  “previous	
  experience”	
   as	
  well	
  as	
  HD	
  subscribers	
  (42%)	
  and	
  non-­‐subscribers	
  (27%).	
  	
   	
  	
   Figure	
  7:	
  Most	
  important	
  reason	
  to	
  attend	
  in	
  aggregated	
  sample	
   Most	
  Important	
  Reason	
  in	
  Aggregated	
  Sample	
    Aggregated	
  Sample	
    31.7	
   Live	
    11.7	
   22.1	
    I	
  have	
  a	
  subscription	
   I	
  enjoyed	
  my	
  previous	
   experience	
    11.9	
   HD	
    35.8	
   17.9	
    0	
    5	
    10	
    15	
    20	
    25	
    30	
    35	
    I	
  want	
  to	
  see	
  a	
  particular	
   opera	
    40	
    Percent	
  %	
    	
   Live	
  (N=145)	
   HD	
  (N=151)	
    	
   The	
  sampling	
  locations	
  (either	
  at	
  the	
  movie	
  theatre	
  or	
  live	
  venues)	
  did	
  affect	
  a	
   respondent’s	
  choice	
  (see	
  Figure	
  8).	
  In	
  the	
  movie	
  theatre	
  sample,	
  the	
  subscription	
   effect	
  is	
  dampened	
  and	
  “particular	
  opera”	
  becomes	
  more	
  prevalent	
  for	
  live	
  opera.	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
    	
    29	
    	
   Figure	
  8:	
  Most	
  important	
  reason	
  in	
  sampling	
  locations	
    Live	
  Venues	
   Movie	
  Theatre	
    Sampling	
  Locations	
    Most	
  Important	
  Reason	
  in	
  Sampling	
  Locations	
   Live	
    HD	
    I	
  have	
  a	
  subscription	
   I	
  enjoyed	
  my	
  previous	
   experience	
    Live	
    I	
  want	
  to	
  see	
  a	
  particular	
   opera	
    HD	
   0	
    10	
    20	
    30	
    40	
    50	
    Percent	
  %	
    	
    	
    For	
  Movie	
  Theatre:	
  HD	
  (N=80),	
  Live	
  (N=72)	
   For	
  Live	
  Venues:	
  HD	
  (N=84),	
  Live	
  (N=78)	
    When	
  the	
  three	
  most	
  important	
  reasons	
  are	
  trended	
  over	
  the	
  past	
  attendance	
  of	
   each	
  form	
  respectively,	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  displays	
  decision	
  patterns	
  consistent	
  with	
  a	
   healthy	
  growing	
  arts	
  organization	
  (see	
  Figure	
  9).	
  As	
  attendance	
  increases	
   “particular	
  opera”	
  becomes	
  less	
  important,	
  and	
  “previous	
  experience”	
  more	
   important.	
  “Subscriptions”	
  exhibit	
  a	
  slow	
  build	
  in	
  intent.	
  In	
  contrast,	
  the	
  trends	
  in	
   the	
  live	
  opera	
  decision-­‐pattern	
  with	
  increased	
  live	
  attendance	
  are	
  more	
  erratic.	
  This	
   may	
  be	
  due	
  to	
  the	
  fact	
  that	
  live	
  opera	
  is	
  already	
  an	
  established	
  and	
  mature	
  product.	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
    	
    30	
    	
   Figure	
  9:	
  Most	
  important	
  reason	
  to	
  attend	
  trended	
  over	
  past	
  attendance	
   Main	
  Reason	
  for	
  HD	
  attendance	
  	
   (N=163)	
    Main	
  Reason	
  for	
  Live	
  attendance	
   (N=149)	
    80%	
    80%	
    70%	
    70%	
    60%	
    60%	
    50%	
    50%	
    40%	
    40%	
    30%	
    30%	
    20%	
    20%	
    10%	
    10%	
    0%	
    0%	
   1	
    2	
  to	
  3	
   4	
  to	
  5	
   6	
  to	
  9	
   10	
  or	
   more	
    0	
    Past	
  HD	
  Attendance	
  (3	
  Seasons)	
    1	
    2	
  to	
  3	
  4	
  to	
  5	
  6	
  to	
  9	
   10	
  or	
   more	
    Past	
  Live	
  Attedance	
  (3	
  Seasons)	
    I	
  want	
  to	
  see	
  a	
  particular	
  opera	
    	
    I	
  have	
  a	
  subscription	
   I	
  enjoyed	
  my	
  previous	
  experience	
    	
   	
   What	
  do	
  people	
  prefer:	
  HD,	
  live	
  or	
  both?	
   Overwhelmingly	
  the	
  majority	
  of	
  participants	
  (72.3%)	
  prefer	
  “both”	
  HD	
  and	
  live	
   opera	
  (see	
  Figure	
  10).	
  This	
  result	
  is	
  consistent	
  across	
  the	
  aggregate	
  population	
   suggesting	
  that	
  both	
  HD	
  and	
  live	
  opera	
  fulfill	
  the	
  opera-­‐going	
  needs	
  of	
  attendees,	
   and	
  consumers	
  will	
  be	
  happy	
  to	
  attend	
  either.	
  A	
  minority	
  of	
  participants	
  have	
  a	
   preference	
  for	
  either	
  “live”	
  (9.4%)	
  or	
  “HD”	
  (18.2%).	
  If	
  a	
  unique	
  preference	
  is	
   expressed,	
  nearly	
  twice	
  as	
  many	
  people	
  prefer	
  HD	
  to	
  live.	
  This	
  is	
  in	
  contrast	
  to	
  the	
   Shugoll	
  Report	
  that	
  asked	
  HD-­‐attendees	
  for	
  their	
  preferred	
  form.	
   	
    	
    31	
    Figure	
  10:	
  Preference	
  for	
  HD,	
  live	
  or	
  both	
   Aggregated	
  Sample	
  (N=159)	
    Both	
    Live	
    HD	
    0	
    20	
    40	
   60	
   Percent	
  %	
    80	
    100	
    	
    Live	
  Venue	
  (N=81)	
  and	
  Movie	
  Theatre	
  (N=78)	
  Sample	
  Locations	
  	
    77.8	
    Both	
    66.7	
    14.8	
    Live	
    3.8	
    Live	
  Venues	
   Movie	
   Theatre	
    7.4	
    HD	
    29.5	
   0	
    20	
    40	
   60	
   Percent	
  %	
    80	
    100	
    	
    	
   Sampling	
  location	
  has	
  an	
  impact	
  on	
  preference	
  (see	
  Figure	
  10).	
  When	
  examining	
  the	
   sample	
  taken	
  at	
  the	
  movie	
  theatre,	
  the	
  preference	
  for	
  HD	
  increases	
  (29.5%)	
  while	
   preferences	
  for	
  “both”	
  decreases	
  marginally	
  and	
  “live”	
  decreases	
  drastically	
  (3.8%).	
    	
    32	
    At	
  the	
  live	
  sampling	
  locations,	
  the	
  preference	
  for	
  live	
  increases	
  compared	
  to	
  the	
   aggregate	
  measurement,	
  HD	
  decreases,	
  but	
  the	
  dominant	
  preference	
  for	
  “both”	
   remains	
  (77.8%).	
  These	
  findings	
  may	
  be	
  the	
  result	
  of	
  systemic	
  differences	
  in	
  the	
   samples	
  or	
  simply	
  that	
  patrons	
  respond	
  more	
  positively	
  to	
  their	
  most	
  recent	
   (whether	
  it	
  be	
  HD	
  or	
  live)	
  opera	
  experience.	
  	
   	
  	
   Preference	
  is	
  affected	
  by	
  subscription	
  status	
  (see	
  Table	
  8).	
  If	
  subscribers	
  choose	
  a	
   unique	
  preference	
  (either	
  one	
  or	
  the	
  other),	
  HD	
  subscribers	
  prefer	
  “HD”	
  much	
  more	
   than	
  live	
  subscribers	
  prefer	
  “live”.	
  The	
  majority	
  of	
  non-­‐subscribers	
  have	
  a	
  strong	
   preference	
  for	
  “both”	
  with	
  the	
  remaining	
  minority	
  of	
  respondents	
  preferring	
  HD	
  to	
   live	
  opera.	
   	
   Table	
  8:	
  Preference	
  by	
  subscription	
  status	
   	
    Professional	
  Live	
   HD	
  Subscriber	
   Non-­‐Subscriber	
   Subscriber	
  (N=55)	
   (N=47)	
   (N=61)	
   	
   	
   	
   1.8%	
   34%	
   18%	
   14.5%	
   4.3%	
   8.2%	
   83.6%	
   61.7%	
   73.8%	
    What	
  form	
  to	
  do	
  you	
  	
   prefer?	
   HD	
   	
   Live	
   	
   Both	
   	
   Preference	
  is	
  also	
  affected	
  by	
  past	
  attendance	
  (see	
  Figure	
  9).	
  More	
  than	
  half	
  of	
  very	
    frequent	
  (10	
  or	
  more)	
  live	
  operagoers	
  are	
  also	
  very	
  frequent	
  HD	
  goers	
  (61.4%).	
  This	
   segment	
  strong	
  prefers	
  to	
  attend	
  “both”	
  (90.9%).	
  However	
  in	
  the	
  aggregated	
  data,	
   as	
  past	
  live	
  attendance	
  increases	
  it	
  trends	
  towards	
  a	
  strong	
  preference	
  for	
  “both”,	
   and	
  as	
  past	
  HD	
  attendance	
  increases	
  it	
  trends	
  towards	
  a	
  strong	
  preference	
  for	
   “both”	
  but	
  also	
  a	
  weak	
  preference	
  for	
  “HD”.	
   	
   	
   	
    33	
    	
   Figure	
  11:	
  Preference	
  trended	
  by	
  HD/live	
  attendance	
   Preference	
  vs.	
  Past	
  HD	
  Attendance	
   (N=157)	
    Preference	
  vs.	
  Past	
  Live	
  Attendance	
   (N=159)	
    100%	
    100%	
    90%	
    90%	
    80%	
    80%	
    70%	
    70%	
    60%	
    60%	
    50%	
    50%	
    40%	
    40%	
    30%	
    30%	
    20%	
    20%	
    10%	
    10%	
    0%	
    0%	
    1	
    2	
  to	
  3	
   4	
  to	
  5	
   6	
  to	
  9	
   10	
  or	
   more	
    0	
    LIVE	
    2	
  to	
  3	
   4	
  to	
  5	
   6	
  to	
  9	
   10	
  or	
   more	
    Live	
  Attendance	
  (3	
  Seasons)	
    HD	
  Attendance	
  (3	
  Seasons)	
   HD	
    1	
    HD	
    BOTH	
    LIVE	
    BOTH	
    	
    	
   	
   It	
  should	
  be	
  noted	
  that	
  we	
  examined	
  only	
  the	
  HD-­‐going	
  population	
  in	
  this	
  study.	
  All	
   respondents	
  had	
  to	
  have	
  attended	
  at	
  least	
  one	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  transmission.	
  In	
  the	
  larger	
   opera-­‐going	
  population	
  there	
  are	
  operagoers	
  that	
  do	
  not	
  attend	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  and	
  may	
   have	
  a	
  strong	
  preference	
  for	
  live.	
  However	
  in	
  the	
  HD-­‐going	
  population,	
  our	
  findings	
   suggest	
  that	
  those	
  HD-­‐attendees	
  that	
  are	
  also	
  frequent	
  live	
  opera	
  attendees	
  or	
  live	
   subscribers	
  have	
  a	
  strong	
  preference	
  for	
  “both”	
  forms,	
  while	
  frequent	
  HD	
  attendees	
   or	
  HD	
  subscribers	
  are	
  not	
  so	
  clear	
  cut,	
  either	
  preferring	
  “both”	
  or	
  “HD”.	
  Overall,	
  the	
   findings	
  suggest	
  there	
  is	
  a	
  group	
  that	
  go	
  to	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  that	
  only	
  prefer	
  HD.	
  	
   	
   Is	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  a	
  first	
  step	
  into	
  live	
  opera?	
   Live	
  in	
  HD	
  is	
  not	
  a	
  first	
  step	
  into	
  live	
  opera.	
  The	
  majority	
  of	
  those	
  attending	
  HD	
  have	
   attended	
  more	
  than	
  one	
  live	
  opera	
  in	
  the	
  past	
  3	
  seasons	
  (86.9%).	
  For	
  the	
  movie	
    	
    34	
    theatre	
  group,	
  only	
  11.4	
  percent	
  of	
  participants	
  had	
  not	
  attended	
  live	
  opera	
  in	
  the	
   last	
  3	
  seasons.	
  This	
  is	
  contrast	
  to	
  the	
  Shugoll	
  Report	
  that	
  found	
  that	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
   attracted	
  a	
  greater	
  portion	
  of	
  recent	
  live	
  opera	
  non-­‐attendees	
  (18%).	
   	
   The	
  small	
  portion	
  (13.1%)	
  of	
  participants	
  that	
  have	
  only	
  attended	
  very	
  few	
  live	
   operas	
  (0	
  or	
  1)	
  in	
  the	
  past	
  3	
  seasons	
  are	
  very	
  likely	
  to	
  reattend	
  HD	
  and	
  much	
  less	
   likely	
  to	
  reattend	
  live	
  (see	
  Figure	
  12	
  and	
  Table	
  9).	
  We	
  treated	
  the	
  response	
  to	
  our	
   scale	
  from	
  1	
  (not	
  all	
  likely)	
  to	
  4	
  (very	
  likely)	
  as	
  if	
  they	
  were	
  interval	
  data	
  to	
  generate	
   mean	
  ±	
  standard	
  deviation	
  future	
  attendance	
  scores.	
  All	
  results	
  are	
  statistically	
   significant	
  (p<0.05).	
   	
   Figure	
  12:	
  HD/live	
  future	
  attendance	
  and	
  preference	
  for	
  0-­‐1	
  past	
  live	
  operagoers	
   HD/live	
  Futre	
  Attendance	
    Stated	
  Preference	
    100	
   80	
    Both	
    Precent	
  %	
    HD	
   Live	
    60	
    38.1	
    Live	
   HD	
    40	
   61.9	
    20	
   0	
   not	
  at	
  all	
   likely	
    not	
  very	
   somewhat	
   very	
  likely	
   likely	
   likely	
    0	
    	
    20	
    40	
   60	
   Percent	
  %	
    N=21	
    80	
    	
   N=21	
    	
  	
   These	
  participants	
  also	
  have	
  a	
  high	
  preference	
  for	
  HD	
  (more	
  than	
  “both”)	
  and	
  no	
   unique	
  preference	
  for	
  live	
  (see	
  Figure	
  12).	
  Table	
  9	
  shows	
  that	
  past	
  HD	
  attendance	
  of	
   0-­‐1	
  live	
  operagoers	
  ranges	
  from	
  1	
  to	
  10	
  or	
  more,	
  the	
  greatest	
  portion	
  in	
  the	
  latter	
   category	
  (62%).	
  This	
  segment	
  consists	
  primarily	
  of	
  HD	
  subscribers,	
  and	
  non-­‐ 	
    35	
    subscribers.	
  Both	
  non-­‐subscribers	
  and	
  HD-­‐subscriber	
  prefer	
  HD	
  exclusively	
  (not	
   both).	
   	
   These	
  results	
  suggest	
  that	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  does	
  not	
  promote	
  live	
  attendance	
  for	
  low	
   frequency	
  live	
  attendees	
  but	
  does	
  entice	
  further	
  HD	
  attendance.	
  	
   	
   Table	
  9:	
  0-­‐1	
  live	
  operagoers	
  (N=21)	
   Likelihood	
  to	
  Reattend	
  Scores	
  (N=21)	
   	
   HD	
   Standard	
  Dev.	
   Live	
   Future	
  attendance	
  Score	
   3.95*	
   0.2188	
   2.52	
   Past	
  HD	
  Attendance	
  (N=21)	
   	
   1	
   2-­‐3	
   4-­‐5	
   Past	
  HD	
  attendance	
  (%)	
   9.5%	
   9.5%	
   4.8%	
   Preference	
  vs.	
  Subscription	
  Status	
  (N=21)	
   	
   HD	
  subscriber	
   Non-­‐subscriber	
   (N=12)	
   (N=8)	
   What	
  do	
   HD	
   67%	
   63%	
   you	
  prefer?	
   Both	
   33%	
   37%	
   (%)	
   	
    	
    Standard	
  Dev.	
   1.12	
   *p<0.05	
   6-­‐9	
   10	
  or	
  more	
   14.3%	
   61.9%	
   Subscriber	
  to	
  other	
   (N=2)	
   50%	
   50%	
    %	
  within	
  Subscription	
  Groups	
   Subscription	
  Groups	
  are	
  not	
  Mutual	
  Exclusive	
    	
   Does	
  attendance	
  to	
  HD	
  promote	
  live	
  opera	
  attendance?	
   HD	
  promotes	
  attendance	
  to	
  itself	
  and	
  probably	
  does	
  not	
  promote	
  live	
  opera	
   attendance.	
  There	
  is	
  no	
  evidence	
  of	
  a	
  relationship	
  between	
  past	
  HD	
  attendance	
  and	
   future	
  live	
  opera	
  attendance.	
  Attendees	
  “try	
  it”	
  they	
  “like	
  it”	
  and	
  want	
  to	
  reattend	
   HD	
  not	
  live	
  opera.	
  	
  	
  	
   	
   In	
  the	
  aggregated	
  sample,	
  HD	
  future	
  attendance	
  is	
  more	
  likely	
  than	
  live	
  future	
   attendance	
  (see	
  Figure	
  13).	
  This	
  finding	
  is	
  consistent	
  with	
  the	
  Shugoll	
  Report.	
  In	
    	
    36	
    both	
  studies,	
  over	
  90	
  percent	
  of	
  respondents	
  are	
  very	
  likely	
  to	
  reattend	
  Live	
  in	
  HD.	
   In	
  contrast,	
  the	
  likelihood	
  of	
  live	
  future	
  attendance	
  has	
  decreased	
  since	
  the	
  Shugoll	
   Report	
  from	
  75	
  percent	
  to	
  64	
  percent.	
   	
   When	
  comparing	
  future	
  attendance	
  between	
  sample	
  locations	
  (movie	
  theatre	
  and	
   live	
  venues),	
  the	
  mean	
  difference	
  is	
  greatest	
  in	
  the	
  movie	
  theatre	
  segment	
  of	
  the	
   aggregated	
  sample	
  (see	
  Figure	
  14).	
  We	
  treated	
  the	
  response	
  to	
  our	
  scale	
  from	
  1	
  (not	
   all	
  likely)	
  to	
  4	
  (very	
  likely)	
  as	
  if	
  they	
  were	
  interval	
  data	
  to	
  generate	
  mean	
  ±	
  standard	
   deviation	
  future	
  attendance	
  scores.	
  All	
  results	
  are	
  statistically	
  significant	
  within	
   samples	
  and	
  between	
  samples	
  (p<0.05).	
  	
   Figure	
  13:	
  Likelihood	
  of	
  live/HD	
  future	
  attendance	
   Live	
  (N=162),	
  HD	
  (N=159)	
   100	
    91.8	
    90	
   80	
   Percent	
  %	
    70	
    63.6	
    60	
   50	
    LIVE	
    40	
    HD	
    30	
    18.5	
    14.2	
    20	
   10	
    3.1	
   0.6	
    0	
    5.7	
    1.9	
    not	
  at	
  all	
  likely	
   not	
  very	
  likely	
   somewhat	
  likely	
    very	
  likely	
    	
    Future	
  Attendance	
  Comparison	
  with	
  Shugoll	
  Report	
   	
   	
   Very	
  Likely	
   Somewhat	
  Likely	
    	
    Future	
  Attendance	
  for	
  Live	
   (N=5230)	
   Shugoll	
  Report	
  	
    75%	
   17%	
    (N=162)	
   Live	
  in	
  HD	
  Survey	
   	
    63.6%	
   18.5%	
    Future	
  Attendance	
  for	
  HD	
   (N=5237)	
   Shugoll	
  Report	
    (N=159)	
   Live	
  in	
  HD	
  Survey	
    90%	
   8%	
    91.8%	
   5.7%	
    37	
    	
   Figure	
  14:	
  Likelihood	
  of	
  live/HD	
  future	
  attendance:	
  mean	
  scores	
   Future	
  Attendance	
  Mean	
  Scores	
   Aggregate	
  (N=159),	
  Live	
  Venues	
  (N=80),	
  Movie	
  Theatre	
  (N=79)	
   Somewhat	
  Likely	
  to	
  Very	
  Likely	
    4	
    *	
    3.9	
    *	
   	
  	
  *	
    3.8	
   3.7	
   3.6	
    Aggregated	
  Sample	
    3.5	
    Live	
  Venues	
    3.4	
    Movie	
  Theatre	
    3.3	
   3.2	
   3.1	
   3	
   HD	
    	
   HD	
   LIVE	
    Aggregated	
   Sample	
   3.8868*	
   3.4025	
    Standard	
   Dev.	
   0.42069	
   0.89386	
    LIVE	
   Movie	
   Theatre	
   3.962*	
   3.2658	
    Standard	
   Dev.	
   0.25028	
   0.94338	
    	
   Live	
   Venues	
   3.8125*	
   3.5375	
    Standard	
   Dev.	
   0.52996	
   0.82591	
   *p<0.05	
    	
   Likelihood	
  of	
  future	
  attendance	
  to	
  either	
  form	
  seems	
  to	
  be	
  independent	
  of	
  past	
   attendance	
  to	
  the	
  other.	
  Past	
  live	
  attendance	
  does	
  not	
  predict	
  HD	
  future	
  attendance	
   (see	
  Figure	
  15).	
  The	
  likelihood	
  of	
  live	
  future	
  attendance	
  does	
  increase	
  with	
  past	
  live	
   attendance	
  (from	
  2.1	
  to	
  3.9).	
  The	
  more	
  you	
  attend,	
  the	
  more	
  likely	
  you	
  are	
  to	
  go.	
   However,	
  the	
  likelihood	
  to	
  reattend	
  HD	
  is	
  very	
  high	
  no	
  matter	
  what	
  the	
  level	
  of	
  live	
   attendance.	
  	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
    	
    38	
    	
   Figure	
  15:	
  Likelihood	
  of	
  HD/live	
  future	
  attendance	
  with	
  increased	
  past	
  live	
  opera	
   attendance	
   Likelihood	
  of	
  Future	
  Attendance:	
  Live	
  (N=160),	
  HD	
  (N=157)	
   not	
  at	
  all	
  -­-­>	
  very	
  likely	
    4	
   3.5	
   3	
   2.5	
   Reattend	
  HD	
    2	
    Reattend	
  live	
    1.5	
   1	
   0	
    1	
    2	
  to	
  3	
    4	
  to	
  5	
    6	
  to	
  9	
    10	
  or	
   more	
    Past	
  Live	
  Attendance	
  (3	
  Seasons)	
    	
   	
   The	
  future	
  attendance	
  decision	
  is	
  also	
  affected	
  by	
  preference	
  (see	
  Table	
  10).	
   Preference	
  is	
  one	
  indicator	
  of	
  loyalty	
  that	
  may	
  be	
  associated	
  with	
  deciding	
  to	
   reattend	
  in	
  the	
  future.	
  We	
  found	
  that	
  those	
  that	
  prefer	
  “HD”,	
  are	
  much	
  more	
  likely	
  to	
   reattend	
  HD	
  than	
  live.	
  Interestingly,	
  those	
  that	
  prefer	
  “both”	
  or	
  “live”	
  are	
  likely	
  to	
   reattend	
  both	
  HD	
  and	
  live	
  opera.	
  There	
  is	
  an	
  apparent	
  asymmetry	
  in	
  the	
  future	
   attendance	
  response	
  to	
  each	
  form	
  when	
  the	
  sample	
  is	
  divided	
  by	
  preference.	
  This	
   leads	
  to	
  further	
  investigation	
  whether	
  this	
  phenomenon	
  is	
  persistent.	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
    39	
    Table	
  10:	
  Likelihood	
  of	
  future	
  attendance	
  vs.	
  preference	
    Do	
  you	
  prefer	
  HD,	
  live	
  or	
  both?	
    	
   	
   HD	
   	
   	
   Live	
   Both	
   	
   	
   Total	
    How	
  likely	
  are	
  you	
  attend?	
   	
   HD	
   Mean	
   3.9655*	
   N	
   29	
   Standard	
  Deviation	
   0.1857	
   Mean	
   3.5	
   N	
   14	
   Standard	
  Deviation	
   0.94054	
   Mean	
   3.9204*	
   N	
   113	
   Standard	
  Deviation	
   0.33117	
   Mean	
   3.891*	
   N	
   156	
   Standard	
  Deviation	
   0.4185	
    Live	
   2.6207	
   29	
   1.08278	
   3.5333	
   15	
   0.91548	
   3.6174	
   113	
   0.70813	
   3.4277	
   159	
   0.88917	
   *p<0.05	
    	
   We	
  examined	
  two	
  other	
  loyalty	
  factors	
  that	
  may	
  be	
  associated	
  with	
  promoting	
   future	
  attendance:	
  frequent	
  past	
  attendance	
  and	
  subscription	
  status.	
   	
   We	
  compared	
  preferences	
  and	
  future	
  attendance	
  mean	
  scores	
  of	
  very	
  frequent	
  HD	
   attendees	
  with	
  very	
  frequent	
  live	
  attendees	
  (the	
  largest	
  groups	
  of	
  our	
  sample).	
  We	
   also	
  compared	
  professional	
  live	
  opera	
  subscribers	
  with	
  HD	
  subscribers	
  (see	
  Figure	
   16).	
  	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
    40	
    Figure	
  16:	
  Preference	
  and	
  future	
  attendance	
  mean	
  scores	
  for	
  frequent	
  HD/live	
   attendees	
  and	
  HD/professional	
  live	
  opera	
  subscribers	
  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	
    	
    	
   Respondents	
  were	
  separated	
  into	
  three	
  mutually	
  exclusive	
  groups	
  since	
  some	
  very	
   frequent	
  live	
  operagoers	
  are	
  also	
  very	
  frequent	
  HD	
  goers.	
  To	
  compare	
  future	
   attendance	
  means	
  scores	
  within	
  groups,	
  we	
  used	
  paired	
  T-­‐tests	
  (see	
  Figure	
  13).	
  To	
   compare	
  future	
  attendance	
  mean	
  scores	
  across	
  groups	
  we	
  used	
  a	
  basic	
  one-­‐way	
   ANOVA	
  procedure.	
  HD	
  future	
  attendance	
  means	
  across	
  groups	
  are	
  not	
  statistically	
   significant	
  (p>0.05).	
  Live	
  future	
  attendance	
  means	
  across	
  groups	
  are	
  significant	
   (p<0.05).	
   	
   We	
  found	
  that	
  very	
  frequent	
  live	
  attendees	
  prefer	
  “both”	
  and	
  are	
  likely	
  to	
  reattend	
   HD	
  and	
  live.	
  In	
  contrast,	
  very	
  frequent	
  HD	
  attendees,	
  prefer	
  “both”	
  and	
  “HD”	
  and	
  are	
   much	
  more	
  likely	
  to	
  reattend	
  HD	
  than	
  live.	
  For	
  respondents	
  that	
  are	
  very	
  frequent	
   live	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  very	
  frequent	
  HD	
  attendees,	
  they	
  strongly	
  prefer	
  both	
  and	
  are	
  equally	
   likely	
  to	
  reattend	
  HD	
  and	
  live.	
  This	
  result	
  is	
  replicated	
  when	
  comparing	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
    	
    41	
    and	
  professional	
  live	
  opera	
  subscribers.	
  The	
  only	
  difference	
  is	
  that	
  HD	
  future	
   attendance	
  means	
  were	
  statistically	
  significant	
  (p<0.05)	
  using	
  the	
  one-­‐way	
  ANOVA	
   procedure.	
   	
   These	
  findings	
  suggest	
  that	
  when	
  a	
  respondent	
  displays	
  loyalty	
  to	
  HD	
  (either	
  in	
   preference,	
  past	
  attendance	
  or	
  subscription),	
  they	
  are	
  likely	
  to	
  reattend	
  HD	
  but	
  not	
   necessarily	
  live	
  opera.	
  If	
  the	
  respondent	
  displays	
  loyalty	
  to	
  live	
  opera	
  (along	
  the	
   same	
  metrics),	
  they	
  are	
  likely	
  to	
  want	
  to	
  reattend	
  both.	
  Table	
  11	
  summarizes	
  the	
   future	
  attendance	
  mean	
  scores	
  for	
  the	
  groups	
  we	
  compared	
  within	
  the	
  sample.	
  	
   	
   The	
  implication	
  is	
  that	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  and	
  live	
  opera	
  may	
  produce	
  asymmetrical	
  future	
   attendance	
  behavior.	
  Our	
  sample	
  does	
  not	
  include	
  people	
  who	
  have	
  not	
  attended	
   Live	
  in	
  HD.	
  This	
  population	
  may	
  not	
  be	
  interested	
  in	
  attending	
  cinema	
  opera	
  and	
   may	
  have	
  a	
  strong	
  preference	
  for	
  live	
  opera.	
  The	
  point	
  is	
  that	
  there	
  is	
  an	
  analogous	
   population	
  among	
  HD-­‐goers,	
  and	
  when	
  live	
  operagoers	
  do	
  attend	
  HD	
  they	
  are	
  likely	
   to	
  want	
  to	
  attend	
  HD	
  again.	
   Table	
  11:	
  Comparison	
  future	
  attendance	
  mean	
  scores	
   	
    N	
    0-­1	
  past	
  live	
  attendees	
    21	
    HD	
  preference	
   HD	
  subscribers	
    29	
   28	
    Reattend	
   HD	
   3.9524*	
   	
   3.9655*	
   4.0*	
    10	
  or	
  more	
  HD	
   attendees	
   Non-­subscribers	
    41	
    4.0*	
    60	
    Live	
  preference	
    14	
    3.9167*	
   	
   3.5	
    	
    Standard	
   Reattend	
   Dev.	
   LIVE	
   0.21822	
   2.5238	
   	
   	
   0.1857	
   2.6207	
   0	
   2.8214	
   	
   0	
   2.878	
   	
   0.33404	
   3.2333	
   	
   	
   0.94054	
   3.5333	
    Standard	
   Dev.	
   1.12335	
   	
   1.08278	
   1.05597	
   	
   0.97967	
   	
   0.9273	
   	
   0.91548	
   42	
    	
    113	
    Reattend	
   HD	
   3.9204*	
    10	
  or	
  more	
  HD/live	
   attendees	
   10	
  or	
  more	
  past	
  live	
   attendees	
   Prof.	
  live	
  subscribers	
    35	
    4.0	
    0	
    21	
    HD/Live	
  Prof	
   Subscribers	
    19	
    3.8571	
   	
   3.7222*	
   	
   4.0	
    0.47809	
   	
   0.70147	
   	
   0	
    Both	
  preference	
    N	
    36	
    Standard	
   Reattend	
   Dev.	
   LIVE	
   0.33117	
   3.6174	
   3.9143	
   	
   3.9524	
   	
   4.0	
    Standard	
   Dev.	
   0.70813	
   	
   0.37349	
   0.21822	
   	
   0	
    4.0	
    0	
   *p<0.05	
    	
   We	
  can	
  conclude	
  that	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  attendance	
  produces	
  high	
  rates	
  of	
  future	
   attendance	
  that	
  are	
  independent	
  of	
  whether	
  the	
  participant	
  has	
  attended	
  live	
  opera	
   frequently	
  or	
  infrequently.	
  Combined	
  with	
  the	
  asymmetrical	
  relationship	
  found	
  in	
   future	
  attendance,	
  our	
  findings	
  suggests	
  that	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  effectively	
  promotes	
  itself	
   and	
  probably	
  does	
  not	
  promote	
  live	
  opera	
  attendance.	
    	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
    	
    43	
    DISCUSSION	
   The	
  discussion	
  focuses	
  on	
  two	
  areas:	
  1)	
  the	
  success	
  (and/or	
  failure)	
  of	
  the	
  Live	
  in	
   HD	
  program	
  and	
  2)	
  possible	
  changes	
  in	
  opera-­‐going	
  behavior	
  in	
  the	
  local	
  opera	
   market.	
   	
   Success	
  (and/or	
  Failure)	
  of	
  the	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  Program	
  	
   Over	
  its	
  short	
  history	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  has	
  had	
  great	
  success	
  drawing	
  audiences	
  into	
  the	
   movie	
  theatre	
  to	
  watch	
  opera.	
  Every	
  season,	
  the	
  program	
  has	
  expanded	
  in	
  audience	
   reach	
  and	
  content.	
  In	
  our	
  case,	
  the	
  2010-­‐2011	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  Season	
  consisted	
  of	
  31	
   performances	
  transmitted	
  into	
  six	
  movie	
  theatres	
  in	
  the	
  metropolitan	
  area.	
  In	
   contrast,	
  the	
  local	
  professional	
  opera	
  company	
  presented	
  18	
  performances	
  at	
  one	
   downtown	
  venue.	
  Over	
  the	
  past	
  5	
  years,	
  HD	
  has	
  grown	
  while	
  live	
  opera	
  has	
   remained	
  the	
  same.	
  The	
  local	
  market	
  seems	
  to	
  be	
  able	
  to	
  bear	
  more	
  opera	
   performance	
  like	
  Live	
  in	
  HD.	
  The	
  Met	
  has	
  effectively	
  tapped	
  into	
  this	
  unmet	
  demand.	
   Arguably	
  the	
  program	
  boosts	
  the	
  general	
  consumption	
  of	
  opera	
  performance	
   reaching	
  a	
  wider	
  audience	
  and	
  reinvigorates	
  the	
  art	
  form.	
   	
  	
   However,	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  still	
  fails	
  to	
  attract	
  new	
  audiences	
  to	
  opera.	
  The	
  majority	
  of	
   people	
  who	
  attend	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  are	
  established	
  live	
  operagoers.	
  The	
  demographic	
   profile	
  of	
  the	
  audience	
  has	
  not	
  changed	
  since	
  the	
  program’s	
  inception	
  and	
  Live	
  in	
   HD’s	
  audience	
  is	
  also	
  similar	
  to	
  the	
  current	
  live	
  opera	
  audiences.	
  Ironically,	
  if	
  Live	
  in	
   HD	
  draws	
  mainly	
  existing	
  operagoers,	
  the	
  program	
  will	
  have	
  its	
  greatest	
  success	
  in	
   markets	
  with	
  an	
  established	
  local	
  live	
  opera	
  audience.	
    	
    44	
    	
   More	
  importantly,	
  there	
  is	
  no	
  evidence	
  that	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  attendees	
  (including	
  the	
   infrequent	
  live	
  opera	
  goers)	
  are	
  more	
  likely	
  to	
  want	
  to	
  attend	
  the	
  real	
  experience	
  in	
   their	
  local	
  opera	
  house.	
  Indeed,	
  there	
  is	
  some	
  evidence	
  that	
  the	
  program	
  is	
  so	
   successful	
  that	
  it	
  builds	
  a	
  loyal	
  following	
  –audiences	
  attend	
  because	
  they	
  enjoy	
  the	
   experience,	
  some	
  decide	
  to	
  subscribe,	
  others	
  begin	
  to	
  prefer	
  the	
  format.	
  All	
  in	
  all,	
  HD	
   audiences	
  are	
  very	
  likely	
  to	
  want	
  to	
  come	
  back	
  to	
  another	
  broadcast.	
   	
   Possible	
  Changes	
  in	
  Opera-­Going	
  Behavior	
   Several	
  factors	
  may	
  be	
  changing	
  opera-­‐going	
  attendance	
  behavior	
  and	
  preferences	
   among	
  HD	
  attendees.	
  Our	
  results	
  suggest	
  that	
  operagoers	
  perceive	
  HD	
  and	
  live	
   opera	
  in	
  the	
  same	
  product	
  category.	
  Both	
  forms	
  fulfill	
  the	
  same	
  needs	
  for	
   operagoers	
  –an	
  authentic	
  operatic	
  experience.	
  HD	
  is	
  not	
  perceived	
  as	
  an	
  inferior	
   product	
  to	
  live	
  opera.	
  In	
  fact,	
  HD	
  is	
  rated	
  consistently	
  higher	
  in	
  basic	
  comparative	
   evaluation	
  criteria	
  and	
  its	
  ticket	
  cost	
  is	
  rated	
  more	
  reasonable.	
  HD	
  may	
  lure	
  away	
   price-­‐sensitive	
  patrons,	
  or	
  those	
  who	
  simply	
  cannot	
  afford	
  live	
  opera.	
   	
   The	
  change	
  in	
  the	
  most	
  important	
  reason	
  for	
  attendance	
  to	
  “previous	
  experience”	
   for	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  represents	
  a	
  fundamental	
  shift	
  in	
  the	
  format’s	
  market	
  position.	
  The	
   product	
  is	
  becoming	
  an	
  opera	
  mainstay.	
  Operagoers	
  are	
  attending	
  because	
  of	
   product	
  satisfaction,	
  which	
  may	
  lead	
  to	
  greater	
  product	
  loyalty.	
  Loyalty	
  is	
  evident	
  by	
   the	
  prevalence	
  in	
  HD	
  subscription	
  and	
  the	
  shift	
  in	
  preferences	
  since	
  the	
  Shugoll	
   Report.	
  Not	
  only	
  do	
  more	
  people	
  prefer	
  HD	
  exclusively,	
  more	
  people	
  prefer	
  it	
  over	
    	
    45	
    live.	
  Over	
  only	
  five	
  seasons,	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  has	
  managed	
  to	
  build	
  an	
  audience.	
  For	
  the	
   foreseeable	
  future,	
  HD	
  should	
  continue	
  to	
  do	
  so.	
   	
  	
   The	
  good	
  news	
  story	
  for	
  live	
  local	
  opera	
  companies	
  is	
  that	
  for	
  people	
  who	
  do	
  attend	
   live	
  opera	
  on	
  a	
  regular	
  basis,	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  does	
  not	
  dissuade	
  live	
  attendance.	
  The	
   overwhelming	
  majority	
  of	
  HD-­‐attendees	
  do	
  still	
  prefer	
  both	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  and	
  live	
   opera.	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  does	
  not	
  draw	
  away	
  the	
  established	
  audience	
  from	
  attending	
  live	
   opera,	
  but	
  rather	
  gives	
  operagoers	
  that	
  do	
  not	
  see	
  live	
  professional	
  opera	
  regularly,	
   for	
  whatever	
  reason,	
  an	
  opportunity	
  to	
  see	
  opera	
  on	
  a	
  regular	
  basis.	
  	
   	
   There	
  may	
  be	
  asymmetrical	
  future	
  attendance	
  behavior	
  induced	
  by	
  HD	
  and	
  live	
   opera.	
  Although	
  we	
  did	
  not	
  survey	
  those	
  who	
  do	
  not	
  attend	
  Live	
  in	
  HD,	
  for	
  regular	
   live	
  opera	
  attendees	
  who	
  do	
  attend,	
  HD	
  is	
  a	
  complement	
  –an	
  added	
  opera	
   experience	
  for	
  regular	
  live	
  opera	
  attendance.	
  For	
  some	
  portion	
  of	
  frequent	
  HD	
   attendees,	
  HD	
  may	
  be	
  a	
  substitute	
  for	
  infrequent	
  live	
  opera	
  attendance.	
   “Complement”	
  suggests	
  that	
  two	
  products	
  will	
  be	
  consumed	
  together,	
  and	
   “substitute”	
  suggests	
  one	
  product	
  will	
  be	
  consumed	
  instead	
  of	
  the	
  other.	
  	
   	
   Possible	
  reasons	
  for	
  the	
  substitution	
  effect	
  shown	
  at	
  HD	
  may	
  be	
  that	
  it	
  is	
  more	
   affordable	
  and	
  not	
  perceived	
  as	
  an	
  inferior	
  good	
  to	
  live	
  opera.	
  Pinpointing	
  these	
   reasons	
  requires	
  further	
  study.	
   	
    	
    46	
    This	
  research	
  shows	
  that	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  does	
  not	
  at	
  present	
  cannibalize	
  the	
  local	
  live	
   opera	
  audience,	
  but	
  it	
  does	
  establish	
  an	
  audience	
  for	
  itself	
  and	
  probably	
  does	
  not	
   promote	
  live	
  opera	
  attendance.	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  is	
  not	
  viewed	
  as	
  an	
  inferior	
  product	
  to	
   live	
  opera.	
  The	
  program	
  does	
  not	
  generate	
  more	
  live	
  opera	
  attendance	
  nor	
  does	
  it	
   bring	
  new	
  audiences	
  into	
  local	
  opera	
  houses.	
    	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
    	
    47	
    LIMITATIONS	
  	
   The	
  study	
  used	
  a	
  similar	
  methodology	
  to	
  the	
  Shugoll	
  Report.	
  The	
  goal	
  was	
  to	
  obtain	
   a	
  broad	
  sample	
  of	
  the	
  HD-­‐going	
  population.	
  We	
  had	
  access	
  to	
  two	
  distinct	
   populations	
  rather	
  than	
  a	
  true	
  random	
  sample.	
  Some	
  groups	
  may	
  be	
  over-­‐ represented	
  (professional	
  live	
  opera	
  subscribers)	
  and	
  other	
  groups	
  may	
  be	
  under-­‐ represented	
  (ad	
  hoc	
  infrequent	
  operagoers).	
  In	
  addition,	
  to	
  conclusively	
  answer	
  the	
   research	
  questions	
  that	
  involve	
  future	
  live	
  opera	
  attendance	
  our	
  sample	
  would	
  need	
   to	
  include	
  respondents	
  that	
  do	
  not	
  attend	
  Live	
  in	
  HD.	
  Our	
  study	
  (by	
  design)	
  does	
  not	
   include	
  these	
  operagoers.	
   	
   The	
  sampling	
  procedure	
  was	
  bound	
  by	
  available	
  resources	
  and	
  access	
  to	
  the	
  HD-­‐ going	
  population.	
  The	
  survey	
  was	
  only	
  conducted	
  at	
  one	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  venue,	
  a	
   downtown	
  location	
  less	
  than	
  1	
  kilometer	
  away	
  from	
  the	
  live	
  professional	
  opera	
   theatre.	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  is	
  transmitted	
  into	
  multiple	
  venues	
  in	
  urban,	
  suburban	
  and	
  rural	
   communities.	
  Location	
  could	
  have	
  an	
  impact	
  on	
  our	
  findings.	
   	
   The	
  survey	
  was	
  completely	
  self-­‐administered.	
  Respondents	
  had	
  to	
  read	
  the	
   advertisement	
  card	
  (prompted	
  by	
  an	
  incentive	
  to	
  win	
  opera	
  tickets)	
  and	
  be	
   motivated	
  to	
  respond	
  post	
  performance.	
  Survey	
  taking	
  could	
  not	
  inhibit	
  the	
  patron	
   opera	
  going	
  experience.	
  In	
  contrast	
  to	
  Shugoll’s	
  survey,	
  the	
  survey	
  was	
  conducted	
   online	
  instead	
  of	
  with	
  pencil	
  and	
  paper	
  during	
  opera	
  performances	
  at	
  intermissions.	
  	
   	
    	
    48	
    As	
  a	
  result,	
  the	
  survey	
  did	
  not	
  enjoy	
  the	
  same	
  high	
  response	
  rate	
  as	
  the	
  Shugoll	
   Report.	
  The	
  procedure	
  where	
  participants	
  were	
  required	
  to	
  complete	
  the	
  survey	
   sometime	
  after	
  their	
  experience	
  could	
  have	
  adversely	
  affected	
  the	
  response	
  rate	
  and	
   quality	
  of	
  the	
  responses.	
  A	
  greater	
  response	
  rate	
  would	
  have	
  reduced	
  possible	
   random	
  error	
  in	
  the	
  sample	
  and	
  increased	
  the	
  validity	
  of	
  the	
  findings.	
  Nevertheless,	
   our	
  sample	
  was	
  representative	
  when	
  compared	
  with	
  demographic	
  measures	
  in	
  the	
   original	
  Shugoll	
  Report.	
   	
   The	
  robustness	
  of	
  the	
  findings	
  is	
  not	
  only	
  bound	
  by	
  small	
  sample	
  size	
  but	
  also	
  by	
  the	
   statistical	
  tools	
  used.	
  The	
  statistical	
  procedures	
  undertaken	
  in	
  this	
  study	
  are	
   preliminary.	
  Multivariate	
  analysis	
  and	
  corrections	
  for	
  multiple	
  comparisons	
  for	
   example	
  would	
  increase	
  the	
  validity	
  and	
  robustness	
  of	
  the	
  findings.	
  	
   	
   Finally,	
  the	
  ability	
  to	
  generalize	
  this	
  survey	
  to	
  other	
  cities	
  needs	
  to	
  be	
  investigated.	
   The	
  study	
  was	
  completed	
  in	
  only	
  one	
  city.	
  This	
  city	
  and	
  the	
  movie	
  theatre	
  was	
  a	
   sample	
  location	
  in	
  the	
  original	
  Shugoll	
  Report.	
  Nevertheless,	
  findings	
  may	
  be	
   influenced	
  by	
  local	
  conditions	
  specific	
  to	
  the	
  geographic	
  area	
  and	
  may	
  be	
  different	
  in	
   other	
  metropolitan	
  areas	
  were	
  local	
  live	
  opera	
  exists.	
    	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
    49	
    FUTURE	
  DIRECTIONS	
   This	
  study	
  serves	
  as	
  a	
  preliminary	
  insight	
  into	
  the	
  effect	
  of	
  The	
  Met:	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  on	
   local	
  opera	
  attendance.	
  Further	
  empirical	
  research	
  is	
  required	
  to	
  reinforce	
  or	
   possibly	
  challenge	
  the	
  conclusions	
  drawn	
  from	
  the	
  survey.	
  	
  	
   	
   We	
  concluded	
  that	
  a	
  possible	
  substitution	
  effect	
  exists	
  for	
  some	
  portion	
  of	
  the	
  HD	
   audience.	
  We	
  suspect	
  that	
  this	
  effect	
  may	
  be	
  driven	
  by	
  price-­‐sensitivity	
  combined	
   with	
  the	
  fact	
  that	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  is	
  not	
  viewed	
  as	
  an	
  inferior	
  good.	
  Future	
  surveys	
  should	
   focus	
  on	
  pinpointing	
  the	
  trade-­‐off	
  operagoers	
  make	
  in	
  their	
  attendance	
  and	
  the	
  role	
   price	
  plays	
  on	
  opera-­‐going	
  decisions.	
   	
   We	
  were	
  also	
  not	
  able	
  to	
  establish	
  if	
  there	
  was	
  a	
  relationship	
  with	
  future	
  attendance	
   to	
  either	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  or	
  live	
  opera	
  and	
  past	
  attendance	
  to	
  the	
  other.	
  To	
  determine	
   conclusively	
  whether	
  HD	
  attendance	
  affects	
  the	
  likelihood	
  of	
  live	
  attendance,	
  one	
   would	
  also	
  need	
  to	
  survey	
  live	
  opera	
  audiences	
  that	
  do	
  not	
  attend	
  Live	
  in	
  HD.	
   Perhaps	
  a	
  relationship	
  does	
  exist	
  but	
  further	
  research	
  is	
  required.	
   	
   Our	
  study	
  took	
  place	
  in	
  only	
  one	
  metropolitan	
  area.	
  Although	
  this	
  city	
  is	
   representative	
  of	
  other	
  opera	
  markets,	
  several	
  findings	
  may	
  be	
  the	
  result	
  of	
  local	
   conditions.	
  A	
  broader	
  study	
  in	
  multiple	
  markets	
  will	
  be	
  able	
  to	
  reveal	
  whether	
  the	
   effects	
  of	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  are	
  widespread.	
  We	
  concluded	
  that	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  might	
  be	
  more	
   successful	
  in	
  areas	
  with	
  established	
  opera	
  companies	
  because	
  a	
  receptive	
  opera-­‐ going	
  audience	
  already	
  exists.	
  The	
  Metropolitan	
  Opera	
  transmits	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  into	
    	
    50	
    urban,	
  suburban	
  and	
  rural	
  communities.	
  A	
  study	
  that	
  includes	
  all	
  these	
  different	
   types	
  of	
  markets	
  will	
  be	
  able	
  to	
  gauge	
  the	
  penetration	
  of	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  where	
  there	
  is	
   no	
  live	
  opera	
  company.	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
    	
    51	
    BIBLIOGRAPHY	
  	
   	
   Abfalter,	
  Daniel	
  and	
  Peter	
  Mirski.	
  “Cinema	
  Live-­‐Opera.	
  Value	
  Enhancement	
  through	
   Telepresence.”	
  International	
  Conference	
  on	
  Arts	
  and	
  Cultural	
  Management	
   (AIMAC	
  2009),	
  Dallas,	
  TX,	
  June	
  28,	
  2009.	
  	
   	
   AV	
  Magazine.	
  “Metropolitan	
  Opera	
  sent	
  live	
  to	
  European	
  cinemas.”	
  AV	
  Magazine,	
   June	
  2008.	
   	
   Bomback,	
  Larry	
  and	
  Anthony	
  Cekay.	
  “Highlights	
  from	
  the	
  2007	
  Annual	
  Field	
   Report.”	
  Opera	
  America	
  (Winter	
  2008):	
  38-­‐39.	
   	
   Citron,	
  Marcia	
  J.	
  Opera	
  on	
  Screen.	
  New	
  Haven:	
  Yale	
  University	
  Press,	
  2000.	
   	
   Clines,	
  Francis	
  X.	
  "A	
  Day	
  at	
  the	
  Opera,	
  a	
  Snack	
  for	
  the	
  Soul."	
  New	
  York	
  Times,	
  April	
   14,	
  2008.	
   	
   Economist.	
  "The	
  Final	
  Frontier."	
  Economist	
  384,	
  no.	
  8537	
  (July	
  14,	
  2007):	
  70-­‐72.	
  	
   	
   Elberse,	
  Anita	
  and	
  Crissy	
  Perez.	
  “The	
  Metropolitan	
  Opera.”	
  Harvard	
  Business	
  School	
   Cases	
  (December	
  2008):	
  1-­‐18.	
   	
   Eskow,	
  Gary.	
  “New	
  York”s	
  Met	
  In	
  HD.”	
  Mix	
  32,	
  no.	
  5	
  (April	
  2008):	
  28-­‐30.	
   	
   Guider,	
  Elizabeth	
  and	
  Ian	
  Mohr.	
  “Pop	
  Goes	
  the	
  Opera.”	
  Variety,	
  April	
  2-­‐8,	
  2007:	
  5-­‐7.	
   	
   Hall,	
  T.	
  Edward.	
  The	
  Hidden	
  Dimension.	
  New	
  York:	
  Doubleday,	
  1966.	
   	
   Hayes,	
  Dade.	
  “Met	
  back	
  in	
  multiplex.”	
  Daily	
  Variety	
  300,	
  no.	
  34	
  (August	
  2008):	
  1-­‐10.	
   	
   Heyer,	
  Paul.	
  "Live	
  from	
  the	
  Met:	
  Digital	
  Broadcast	
  Cinema,	
  Medium	
  Theory,	
  and	
   Opera	
  for	
  the	
  Masses."	
  Canadian	
  Journal	
  of	
  Communication	
  33,	
  no.	
  4	
   (December	
  2008):	
  591-­‐604.	
   	
   Innis,	
  A.	
  Harold.	
  The	
  Bias	
  of	
  Communication.	
  Toronto:	
  University	
  of	
  Toronto	
  Press,	
   1951.	
   	
   Itzkoff,	
  Dave.	
  “Sorry,	
  No	
  Nudity	
  In	
  Met”s	
  “Salome”	
  Broadcast.”	
  New	
  York	
  Times,	
   October	
  10,	
  2008.	
  	
   	
   Kennicott,	
  Philip.	
  “Tchaikovsky	
  Goes	
  to	
  the	
  Cineplex:	
  The	
  Met”s	
  Broadcasts	
  to	
  the	
   Move	
  Theatres	
  Create	
  a	
  Cultural	
  Hybrid.”	
  Washington	
  Post,	
  February	
  24,	
   2007.	
   	
    	
    52	
    Le	
  Monde.	
  “Dix	
  représentations	
  du	
  Met	
  diffusées	
  dans	
  des	
  salles	
  de	
  cinéma.”	
  La	
   Monde,	
  August	
  30,	
  2008.	
   	
   McCarthy,	
  Kevin	
  et	
  al.	
  The	
  Performing	
  Arts	
  in	
  a	
  New	
  Era.	
  Santa	
  Monica:	
  Rand	
   Corporation,	
  2001.	
   	
   McLennan,	
  Douglas.	
  “Singing	
  to	
  the	
  Cheap(er)	
  Seats.”	
  Los	
  Angeles	
  Times,	
  February	
  4	
   2007.	
   	
   Milzoff,	
  Rebecca.	
  “Met	
  Tech.”	
  New	
  York	
  41,	
  no.	
  1	
  (2008):	
  71.	
   	
   Moravscsik,	
  Andrew.	
  “Sopranos	
  at	
  the	
  Cineplex.”	
  Newsweek,	
  March	
  19,	
  2007.	
   	
   Netrebko,	
  Anna.	
  “Peter	
  Gelb.”	
  Time	
  171,	
  no.	
  19	
  (2008):	
  101.	
   	
   Opera	
  News.	
  “Ticket	
  Sales	
  to	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  Series	
  up	
  43%:	
  Press	
  Release.”	
  Opera	
  News	
   Online.	
  (May	
  8,	
  2009).	
  http://www.metoperafamily.org/operanews	
   (accessed	
  May	
  10,	
  2009).	
  	
   	
   Parks,	
  Bob.	
  "One-­‐Click	
  Opera."	
  Opera	
  News	
  68,	
  no.	
  12	
  (June	
  2004):	
  76-­‐77.	
  	
   	
   Rose,	
  Brian.	
  “All	
  the	
  World”s	
  an	
  Electronic	
  Stage:	
  The	
  Metropolitan	
  Opera	
  Ventures	
   into	
  the	
  Media	
  Future.”	
  Television	
  Quarterly	
  38,	
  no.	
  2	
  (Winter	
  2008):	
  14-­‐8.	
   	
   Sheppard,	
  W.	
  Anthony.	
  Review	
  of	
  the	
  Metropolitan	
  Opera”s	
  New	
  HD	
  Movie	
  Theater	
   Broadcasts.	
  American	
  Music	
  25,	
  no.	
  3	
  (Fall	
  2009):	
  383-­‐87	
   	
   Shugoll	
  Research.	
  “The	
  Metropolitan	
  Opera	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  survey.”	
  Shugoll	
  Research	
   Corporation.	
  (July	
  2008).	
  http://www.shugollresearch.com/images/	
   documents/opera_report.pdf	
  (accessed	
  May	
  10,	
  2009).	
  	
   	
   Steichen,	
  James.	
  “The	
  Metropolitan	
  Opera	
  Goes	
  Public:	
  Peter	
  Gelb	
  and	
  the	
   Institutional	
  Dramaturgy	
  of	
  The	
  Met:	
  Live	
  in	
  HD.”	
  Music	
  and	
  the	
  Moving	
   Image	
  2,	
  no.	
  2	
  (Summer	
  2009):	
  24-­‐30.	
   	
   Tommasini,	
  Anthony.	
  “It”s	
  Not	
  Over	
  Till	
  the	
  HD	
  Video	
  Is	
  Screened.”	
  New	
  York	
  Times,	
   August	
  28,	
  2009.	
   	
   Wakin,	
  Daniel	
  J.	
  "The	
  Multiplex	
  as	
  Opera	
  House:	
  Will	
  They	
  Serve	
  Popcorn?"	
  New	
   York	
  Times,	
  September	
  7,	
  2006.	
  	
   	
   Wakin,	
  Daniel	
  J.	
  "Verdi	
  With	
  Popcorn,	
  and	
  Trepidation."	
  New	
  York	
  Times,	
  February	
   15,	
  2009.	
   	
    	
    53	
    Wasserman,	
  Adam.	
  "Changing	
  Definitions."	
  Opera	
  News	
  72,	
  no.	
  6	
  (December	
  2007):	
   60-­‐61.	
  	
   	
   Winzenreid,	
  Rebecca.	
  “Big	
  Screen	
  Dreams:	
  A	
  New	
  Stage	
  for	
  Opera.”	
  Opera	
  America,	
   (Summer	
  08):	
  40-­‐43.	
   	
   Young,	
  Marcia.	
  "Beaming	
  Up	
  the	
  Next	
  Generation."	
  Opera	
  News	
  72,	
  no.	
  3	
  (September	
   2007):	
  54-­‐55.	
  	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
    	
    54	
    APPENDICES	
  	
   Appendix	
  A:	
  Comments	
  from	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  Survey	
   	
   Select	
  qualitative	
  responses	
  answering	
  the	
  question:	
  “Has	
  The	
  Met:	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
   changed	
  your	
  opinion	
  about	
  the	
  value	
  of	
  local	
  live	
  opera?”	
   	
   “I	
  have	
  always	
  been	
  impressed	
  by	
  local	
  live	
  performances	
  in	
  the	
  past,	
  but	
  now	
  that	
  I	
   have	
  seen	
  The	
  Met,	
  I	
  love	
  the	
  costumes	
  and	
  staging,	
  the	
  amazing	
  quality	
  of	
  the	
  acting	
   and	
  choreography,	
  and	
  of	
  course	
  the	
  quality	
  of	
  the	
  singing.	
  I	
  also	
  love	
  the	
  backstage	
   interviews	
  with	
  famous	
  singers	
  who	
  I	
  would	
  never	
  get	
  to	
  see	
  in	
  our	
  area.	
  It	
  is	
  not	
   quite	
  the	
  same	
  atmosphere	
  of	
  live	
  theatre,	
  but	
  overall	
  the	
  experience	
  is	
  superior.	
  I	
   realise	
  (sic)	
  there	
  is	
  a	
  huge	
  budget	
  difference,	
  and	
  our	
  city	
  is	
  still	
  “small	
  town”	
   artistically	
  speaking,	
  but	
  it	
  has	
  grown	
  hugely	
  over	
  the	
  years	
  and	
  will	
  continue	
  to	
   grow.”	
   	
   “I	
  appreciate	
  the	
  costs	
  involved	
  in	
  live	
  opera	
  but	
  find	
  the	
  cost	
  prohibitive	
  for	
  the	
   type	
  of	
  seat	
  I	
  would	
  want	
  at	
  a	
  live	
  performance.	
  I	
  was	
  a	
  subscriber	
  to	
  my	
  local	
  live	
   opera	
  company	
  for	
  many	
  many	
  years,	
  but	
  now	
  the	
  Met	
  HD	
  performances	
  suit	
  my	
   budget	
  and	
  the	
  quality	
  is	
  wonderful,	
  although	
  I	
  acknowledge	
  the	
  experience	
  is	
   different.”	
   	
   “I	
  enjoy	
  both,	
  and	
  believe	
  the	
  Met	
  has	
  created	
  a	
  new	
  art	
  form	
  that	
  can’t	
  be	
  compared	
   with	
  attending	
  a	
  traditional	
  performance.	
  Each	
  is	
  great	
  in	
  its	
  own	
  way.”	
   	
   “I	
  like	
  the	
  fact	
  Met	
  LIVE	
  in	
  HD	
  always	
  encourages	
  us	
  to	
  support	
  our	
  local	
  opera-­‐-­‐and	
   that	
  nothing	
  beats	
  live	
  performance.	
  That	
  said	
  .	
  .	
  .	
  ticket	
  price	
  for	
  good	
  seats	
  is	
  what	
   holds	
  me	
  back	
  from	
  going	
  to	
  more	
  live	
  performances.”	
   	
   “It	
  hasn’t	
  changed	
  my	
  opinion	
  of	
  local	
  live	
  opera,	
  but	
  it	
  reminds	
  me	
  to	
  go.	
  Price	
  and	
   limited	
  runs	
  (conflicting	
  schedules)	
  prevent	
  me	
  from	
  accessing	
  live	
  local	
  opera,	
  so	
   Live	
  in	
  HD	
  gives	
  me	
  access	
  to	
  seeing	
  opera	
  performances	
  I	
  can’t	
  otherwise	
  afford.”	
   	
   “It	
  just	
  emphasized	
  the	
  relative	
  paucity	
  of	
  local	
  performances	
  and	
  variety”	
   	
   “I	
  still	
  love	
  life	
  opera,	
  but	
  can’t	
  afford	
  excellent	
  seats.”	
   	
   “I	
  prefer	
  live	
  opera	
  but	
  I	
  consider	
  the	
  HD	
  an	
  enjoyable,	
  but	
  quite	
  different,	
   experience.”	
   	
   “My	
  wife	
  and	
  I	
  are	
  were	
  new	
  to	
  opera	
  when	
  HD	
  transmissions	
  started.	
  Due	
  to	
  HD,	
   we	
  have	
  come	
  to	
  love	
  opera	
  and	
  to	
  attend	
  live	
  performances.”	
   	
   	
    	
    55	
    Appendix	
  B:	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  Survey	
   	
   Q.A:	
  Have	
  you	
  attended	
  a	
  The	
  Met:	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  opera	
  transmission[s]	
  in	
  the	
  movie	
   theatre?	
  (select	
  one)	
   	
   Attended	
  	
   	
   Not	
  Attended	
   	
   	
   	
   Q.1:	
  In	
  the	
  current	
  2010/2011	
  season,	
  which	
  of	
  The	
  Met:	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  transmissions	
   have	
  you	
  attended?	
  (check	
  all	
  that	
  apply)	
   	
   Das	
  Rheingold	
  (Oct	
  9)	
   	
   Das	
  Rheingold	
  Encore	
  (Nov	
  20)	
   	
   Das	
  Rheingold	
  Encore	
  (Nov	
  29)	
   Boris	
  Godunov	
  (Oct	
  23)	
   Boris	
  Godunov	
  Encore	
  (Nov	
  27)	
   Don	
  Pasquale	
  (Nov	
  13)	
   Don	
  Pasquale	
  Encore	
  (Dec	
  4)	
   Don	
  Carlo	
  (Dec	
  11)	
   I	
  haven’t	
  attended	
  this	
  season	
   	
   Q.2:	
  How	
  many	
  The	
  Met:	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  transmissions	
  have	
  you	
  attended	
  in	
  its	
  past	
  3	
   seasons	
  including	
  this	
  one?	
  (select	
  one)	
   	
  	
   1	
   	
   2-­‐3	
   	
   4-­‐5	
   6-­‐9	
   10	
  or	
  more	
   	
   Q.3:	
  What	
  is	
  the	
  most	
  important	
  reason	
  why	
  you	
  decided	
  to	
  attend	
  The	
  Met:	
  Live	
  in	
   HD?	
  (select	
  one)	
   I	
  wanted	
  to	
  see	
  a	
  particular	
  opera	
   	
   I	
  enjoyed	
  my	
  previous	
  The	
  Met:	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
   	
   experience	
   I	
  heard	
  something	
  good	
  about	
  the	
  production	
   I	
  wanted	
  to	
  try	
  something	
  new	
   I	
  have	
  a	
  subscription	
  for	
  The	
  Met:	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
   I	
  was	
  attending	
  with	
  a	
  friend	
  or	
  spouse	
   I	
  heard	
  something	
  good	
  about	
  the	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
   experience	
   Other	
  (please	
  specify):	
  _________________________	
    	
    56	
    	
   Q.5:	
  How	
  important	
  were	
  each	
  of	
  the	
  following	
  in	
  your	
  decision	
  to	
  attend	
  the	
  The	
   Met:	
  Live	
  in	
  HD?	
  	
   Please	
  indicate	
  the	
  level	
  of	
  importance	
  with	
  5	
  being	
  extremely	
  important	
  and	
  1	
   being	
  not	
  at	
  all	
  important	
   	
   5-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐	
  3	
  -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐1	
   I	
  love	
  opera	
  and	
  want	
  to	
  see	
  as	
  much	
  as	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   possible	
   I	
  want	
  to	
  see	
  a	
  particular	
  opera	
  star	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   I	
  want	
  to	
  see	
  a	
  particular	
  opera	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   I	
  want	
  to	
  support	
  opera	
  performance	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   Price	
  of	
  ticket	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   Ease	
  of	
  parking	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   Physical	
  comfort	
  of	
  theatre	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   Convenient	
  location	
  of	
  theatre	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   Time	
  of	
  performance	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   Q.6:	
  Overall,	
  what	
  is	
  your	
  rating	
  of	
  The	
  Met:	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  transmission(s)	
  on	
  the	
   following	
  characteristics?	
  (please	
  indicate	
  your	
  rating)	
   Please	
  indicate	
  rating	
  with	
  4	
  being	
  excellent,	
  3	
  being	
  good,	
  2	
  being	
  fair	
  and	
  1	
  being	
   poor	
   	
   4-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐1	
   Acoustics	
  –sound	
  quality	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   View	
  from	
  your	
  seat	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   Production	
  quality	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   Singing	
  quality	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   Orchestra	
  quality	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   Extras	
  –back-­‐stage	
  interviews,	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   intermission	
  documentaries	
   	
   Q.6A:	
  What	
  is	
  the	
  most	
  important	
  characteristic	
  in	
  your	
  evaluation	
  of	
  The	
  Met:	
  Live	
   in	
  HD?	
   Please	
  rank	
  the	
  characteristics	
  from	
  1	
  to	
  6,	
  with	
  1	
  being	
  the	
  most	
  important	
  and	
  6	
   being	
  the	
  least	
  important	
   	
   Acoustics	
  –sound	
  quality	
   	
   View	
  from	
  your	
  Seat	
   	
   Production	
  Quality	
   Singing	
  Quality	
   Orchestra	
  Quality	
   Extras	
  –	
  back-­‐stage	
  interviews,	
   intermission	
  documentaries	
   	
   Q.7:	
  How	
  would	
  you	
  evaluate	
  the	
  ticket	
  cost	
  of	
  the	
  The	
  Met:	
  Live	
  in	
  HD?	
  (select	
  one)	
   	
    57	
    Very	
  Reasonable	
   	
   Somewhat	
  Reasonable	
   	
   Not	
  too	
  Reasonable	
   Not	
  at	
  all	
  Reasonable	
   I	
  don’t	
  know	
  the	
  ticket	
  cost	
   	
   Q.8:	
  How	
  likely	
  are	
  you	
  to	
  attend	
  another	
  The	
  Met:	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  transmission	
  in	
  a	
   movie	
  theater?	
  (select	
  one)	
   Very	
  Likely	
   	
   Somewhat	
  Likely	
   	
   Not	
  too	
  Likely	
   Not	
  at	
  all	
  Likely	
   Don’t	
  Know	
   	
   Q.8a:	
  How	
  likely	
  are	
  you	
  to	
  attend	
  each	
  of	
  the	
  following	
  types	
  of	
  operas	
  if	
  presented	
   by	
  The	
  Met:	
  Live	
  in	
  HD?	
  	
  	
   	
    Very	
  likely	
    Somewhat	
   Likely	
    Not	
  too	
   Likely	
    Not	
  at	
  all	
   Likely	
    Don’t	
  know	
    Traditional	
  operas	
  (eg.	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   Don	
  Pasquale,	
  Lucia)	
   Famous	
  well-­‐known	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   operas	
  (eg.	
  La	
  Boheme,	
   Rigoletto)	
   Modern	
  operas	
  (eg.	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   Nixon	
  in	
  China)	
   Lesser-­‐Known	
  operas	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   (eg.	
  Le	
  Comte	
  Ory,	
   Cappricco)	
   	
   Q.8b:	
  Did	
  you	
  know	
  that	
  you	
  can	
  subscribe	
  to	
  a	
  full	
  season	
  of	
  The	
  Met:	
  Live	
  in	
  HD?	
   (select	
  one)	
   Yes	
   	
   No	
   	
   	
   Q.8c:	
  How	
  likely	
  are	
  you	
  to	
  subscribe	
  to	
  a	
  full	
  season	
  of	
  The	
  Met:	
  Live	
  in	
  HD?	
  (select	
   one)	
   	
   Very	
  Likely	
   	
   Somewhat	
  Likely	
   	
   Not	
  too	
  Likely	
   Not	
  at	
  all	
  Likely	
   Don’t	
  Know	
   	
   Q.12:	
  Have	
  you	
  attended	
  a	
  live	
  opera	
  performance	
  in	
  Vancouver?	
  (select	
  one)	
    	
    58	
    	
   Attended	
  	
   	
   Not	
  Attended	
   	
   	
   [SKIP	
  IF	
  YOU	
  HAVE	
  NOT	
  ATTENDED	
  LIVE	
  OPERA	
  IN	
  VANCOUVER]	
   Q.13:	
  What	
  is	
  the	
  most	
  important	
  reason	
  for	
  attending	
  live	
  opera	
  performances	
  in	
   Vancouver?	
  [select	
  one]	
   	
   I	
  want	
  to	
  see	
  a	
  particular	
  opera	
   	
   I	
  enjoyed	
  my	
  previous	
  The	
  Met:	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
   	
   cinema	
  opera	
  and	
  was	
  interested	
  in	
  live	
   I	
  hear	
  something	
  good	
  about	
  the	
  production	
   Going	
  to	
  the	
  opera	
  is	
  a	
  great	
  night	
  out	
   I	
  have	
  a	
  subscription	
   I	
  attend	
  with	
  a	
  friend	
   I	
  enjoyed	
  my	
  previous	
  live	
  opera	
  experience	
   	
   [SKIP	
  IF	
  YOU	
  HAVE	
  NOT	
  ATTENDED	
  LIVE	
  OPERA	
  IN	
  VANCOUVER]	
   Q.13:	
  How	
  important	
  are	
  each	
  of	
  the	
  following	
  in	
  your	
  decision	
  to	
  attend	
  live	
  opera	
   performances	
  in	
  Vancouver?	
   Please	
  indicate	
  the	
  level	
  of	
  importance	
  with	
  5	
  being	
  extremely	
  important	
  and	
  1	
   being	
  not	
  at	
  all	
  important.	
   	
   5-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐3-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐1	
   I	
  love	
  opera	
  and	
  want	
  to	
  see	
  as	
  much	
  as	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   possible	
   I	
  want	
  to	
  see	
  a	
  particular	
  opera	
  star	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   I	
  want	
  to	
  support	
  opera	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   Price	
  of	
  ticket	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   Ease	
  of	
  parking	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   Physical	
  comfort	
  of	
  theatre	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   Convenient	
  location	
  of	
  theatre	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   Time	
  of	
  performance	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
  [SKIP	
  IF	
  YOU	
  HAVE	
  ATTENDED	
  LIVE	
  OPERA	
  IN	
  VANCOUVER]	
   Q.12a:	
  Although	
  you	
  have	
  not	
  attended	
  a	
  live	
  opera	
  performance	
  in	
  Vancouver,	
   What	
  would	
  the	
  most	
  important	
  reason	
  for	
  attending	
  live	
  opera	
  performances	
  in	
   Vancouver?	
  [select	
  one]	
   	
   I	
  want	
  to	
  see	
  a	
  particular	
  opera	
   	
   I	
  enjoyed	
  my	
  previous	
  The	
  Met:	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
   	
   cinema	
  opera	
  and	
  was	
  interested	
  in	
  live	
   I	
  hear	
  something	
  good	
  about	
  the	
  production	
   Going	
  to	
  the	
  opera	
  is	
  a	
  great	
  night	
  out	
    	
    59	
    I	
  have	
  a	
  subscription	
   My	
  friend(s)	
  or	
  spouse	
  wants	
  to	
  go	
  the	
  opera	
   	
   [SKIP	
  IF	
  YOU	
  HAVE	
  ATTENDED	
  LIVE	
  OPERA	
  IN	
  VANCOUVER]	
   Q.13a:	
  Although	
  you	
  have	
  not	
  attended	
  a	
  live	
  opera	
  performance	
  in	
  Vancouver,	
  how	
   important	
  will	
  each	
  of	
  the	
  following	
  be	
  in	
  your	
  decision	
  to	
  attend	
  future	
   performances	
  in	
  Vancouver?	
   Please	
  indicate	
  the	
  level	
  of	
  importance	
  with	
  5	
  being	
  extremely	
  important	
  and	
  1	
   being	
  not	
  at	
  all	
  important.	
   	
   5-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐	
  3	
  -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐1	
   I	
  love	
  opera	
  and	
  want	
  to	
  see	
  as	
  much	
  as	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   possible	
   I	
  want	
  to	
  see	
  a	
  particular	
  opera	
  star	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   I	
  want	
  to	
  support	
  opera	
  performance	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   Price	
  of	
  ticket	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   Ease	
  of	
  parking	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   Physical	
  comfort	
  of	
  theatre	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   Convenient	
  location	
  of	
  theatre	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   Time	
  of	
  performance	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
  [SKIP	
  IF	
  YOU	
  HAVE	
  NOT	
  ATTENDED	
  LIVE	
  OPERA	
  IN	
  VANCOUVER]	
   Q.14:	
  Overall,	
  what	
  is	
  your	
  rating	
  on	
  the	
  following	
  characteristics	
  of	
  live	
  opera	
   performances	
  available	
  in	
  Vancouver?	
   Please	
  indicate	
  rating	
  with	
  4	
  being	
  excellent,	
  3	
  being	
  good,	
  2	
  being	
  fair	
  and	
  1	
  being	
   poor	
   	
   4-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐1	
   Acoustics	
  –sound	
  quality	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   View	
  from	
  your	
  seat	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   Production	
  Quality	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   Singing	
  Quality	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   Orchestra	
  Quality	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   Extras	
  –pre-­‐show	
  talks,	
  open	
  dress	
  rehearsals	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   [SKIP	
  IF	
  YOU	
  HAVE	
  NOT	
  ATTENDED	
  LIVE	
  OPERA	
  IN	
  VANCOUVER]	
   Q.14A:	
  What	
  is	
  the	
  most	
  important	
  characteristic	
  in	
  your	
  evaluation	
  of	
  a	
  live	
  opera	
   performance?	
   Please	
  rank	
  the	
  characteristics	
  from	
  1	
  to	
  6,	
  with	
  1	
  being	
  the	
  most	
  important	
  and	
  6	
   being	
  the	
  least	
  important	
   	
   Acoustics	
  –	
  sound	
  quality	
   	
   View	
  from	
  your	
  Seat	
   	
   Production	
  Quality	
   Singing	
  Quality	
    	
    60	
    	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
    Orchestra	
  Quality	
   Extras	
  –	
  pre-­‐show	
  talks,	
  open-­‐dress	
   rehearsals	
   	
   Q.15:	
  How	
  would	
  you	
  evaluate	
  the	
  ticket	
  cost	
  for	
  professional	
  live	
  opera	
   performances	
  (e.g.	
  Vancouver	
  Opera)?	
  (select	
  one)	
   Very	
  Reasonable	
   	
   Somewhat	
  Reasonable	
   	
   Not	
  too	
  Reasonable	
   Not	
  at	
  all	
  Reasonable	
   I	
  don’t	
  know	
  the	
  ticket	
  cost	
   	
   Q.15:	
  How	
  likely	
  are	
  you	
  to	
  attend	
  a	
  local	
  professional	
  live	
  opera	
  performance	
  in	
  the	
   next	
  12	
  months?	
  (select	
  one)	
   Very	
  Likely	
   	
   Somewhat	
  Likely	
   	
   Not	
  too	
  Likely	
   Not	
  at	
  all	
  Likely	
   Don’t	
  Know	
   	
   Q.15a:	
  How	
  likely	
  are	
  you	
  to	
  attend	
  each	
  of	
  the	
  following	
  types	
  of	
  operas	
  if	
   presented	
  by	
  a	
  professional	
  company	
  (e.g.	
  Vancouver	
  Opera)?	
  	
  	
   	
    Traditional	
  operas	
  (eg.	
   Lucia,	
  Cinderella,	
  Don	
   Giovanni)	
   Famous	
  well-­‐known	
   operas	
  (eg.	
  La	
  Boheme,	
   La	
  Traviata)	
   Modern	
  operas	
  (eg.	
   Lillian	
  Alling,	
  Nixon)	
    Very	
  likely	
    Somewhat	
   Likely	
    Not	
  too	
   Likely	
    Not	
  at	
  all	
   Likely	
    Don’t	
  know	
    	
    	
    	
    	
    	
    	
    	
    	
    	
    	
    	
    	
    	
    	
    	
   Lesser-­‐known	
  operas	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   (eg.	
  La	
  Clemenza	
  di	
  Tito,	
   Albert	
  Herring)	
   	
   Q.16:	
  How	
  likely	
  are	
  you	
  to	
  purchase	
  a	
  subscription	
  to	
  Vancouver	
  Opera	
  in	
  the	
   future?	
  (select	
  one)	
   Very	
  Likely	
   	
   Somewhat	
  Likely	
   	
   Not	
  too	
  Likely	
   Not	
  at	
  all	
  Likely	
   Don’t	
  Know	
    	
    61	
    	
   Q.16A:	
  Are	
  you	
  more	
  likely	
  to	
  purchase	
  single	
  tickets	
  rather	
  than	
  subscription	
   tickets?	
   Very	
  Likely	
   	
   Somewhat	
  Likely	
   	
   Not	
  too	
  Likely	
   Not	
  at	
  all	
  Likely	
   Don’t	
  Know	
   	
   Q.10:	
  Where	
  and	
  how	
  often	
  you	
  enjoy	
  live	
  opera	
  performances?	
  	
   	
    Frequently	
    Occasion-­‐ ally	
    Rarely	
    Never	
    I	
  attend	
  the	
  Vancouver	
  Opera	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   performances	
   I	
  attend	
  the	
  UBC	
  Opera	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   performances	
   I	
  attend	
  the	
  Pacific	
  Opera	
  Victoria	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   performances	
   I	
  attend	
  Seattle	
  Opera	
  performances	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   I	
  travel	
  to	
  other	
  opera	
  houses	
  in	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   Canada	
  or	
  other	
  countries	
  	
   	
   Q.9a:	
  In	
  total,	
  how	
  many	
  local?	
  	
  live	
  opera	
  performances	
  have	
  you	
  attended	
  in	
  the	
   last	
  3	
  seasons	
  including	
  this	
  one?	
  (select	
  one)	
  	
   	
   0	
   1	
   	
   2-­‐3	
   	
   4-­‐5	
   	
   6-­‐9	
   10	
  or	
  more	
   	
   Q.11:	
  Are	
  you	
  are	
  currently	
  a	
  subscriber	
  to	
  any	
  of	
  the	
  following?	
  (check	
  all	
  that	
   apply)	
   	
   Vancouver	
  Opera	
   	
   UBC	
  Opera	
   	
   Pacific	
  Opera	
  Victoria	
   Seattle	
  Opera	
   The	
  Met:	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
   Other	
   None	
   	
   Q.17:	
  Do	
  you	
  prefer	
  to	
  attend:	
   	
    62	
    	
   The	
  Met:	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  opera	
  transmission	
   	
   Live	
  opera	
  performance	
   	
   Both	
  HD	
  opera	
  transmissions	
  and	
  live	
   opera	
  performances	
   	
   Q.18:	
  Has	
  The	
  Met:	
  Live	
  in	
  HD	
  changed	
  your	
  opinion	
  about	
  the	
  value	
  of	
  local	
  live	
   opera?	
   	
   Comments:	
   	
    	
   Q.19:	
  What	
  is	
  your	
  gender?	
   Female	
   	
   Male	
   	
   	
   Q.20:	
  What	
  is	
  your	
  age?	
   Under	
  21	
   	
   21-­‐29	
   	
   30-­‐39	
   40-­‐49	
   50-­‐59	
   60+	
   	
   Q.21:	
  What	
  is	
  the	
  highest	
  level	
  of	
  education	
  you	
  completed?	
   Less	
  than	
  High	
  School	
   	
   High	
  School	
  Graduate	
   	
   Some	
  College	
   College	
  Graduate	
   Graduate	
  or	
  Professional	
   Degree	
   	
   Q.22:	
  What	
  is	
  your	
  annual	
  household	
  income	
  before	
  taxes?	
   Less	
  than	
  $24999	
   	
   $25000	
  to	
  $49999	
   	
   $50000	
  to	
  74999	
   $75000	
  to	
  $99999	
   $100,000+	
   	
   	
   Q.23:	
  We	
  are	
  interested	
  in	
  knowing	
  how	
  far	
  you	
  live	
  from	
  downtown	
  Vancouver.	
  	
    	
    63	
    	
   What	
  is	
  your	
  postal	
  code:	
  _____________	
   	
   	
   	
    	
    64	
    

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