UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Can planting trees bring co-benefits? : smallholder tree planting for development and carbon mitigation Anderson, Emily Kathryn 2010

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Enabling Conditions $-)"'&-M!Q2-/&*&2-1!),0!)!10*!2K!V,0U0X&1*&-M!V2'&*&6)';!126&)';!062-2%&6!)-/!0-:&,2-%0-*)'!1&*0!62-/&*&2-1!*+)*!K)6&'&*)*0!*+0!,0)'&Y)*&2-!2K!)!1866011K8'!V,2Z06*4!Q2-/&*&2-1!+):&-M!&-K'80-60!2:0,!*+0!V2*0-*&)'!V,2Z06*!),0)!6)-!2V0,)*0!)*!:),&281!16)'01\!'26)';!,0M&2-)';!-)*&2-)'!)-/!&-*0,-)*&2-)'4!?+010!62-/&*&2-1!&-6'8/0!*+0!):)&')"&'&*#!2K!,0128,601!-06011),#!K2,!V,2Z06*!1866011;!&-6'8/&-M!"2*+!V+#1&6)'!)-/!&-*)-M&"'0!,0128,601;!'&W0!&-K2,%)*&2-!)-/!1W&''14!! Basic Project Characteristics 3)1&6!D,2Z06*!Q+),)6*0,&1*&61!/016,&"0!*+0!T+2;!T+)*;!T+0-;!T+0,0!)-/!+2T!2K!*+0!V,2Z06*\!T+2!&1!V),*&6&V)*&-M!)-/!*+0!,0')*&2-1+&V1!"0*T00-!V),*&6&V)-*1;!'0-M*+!)-/!1&Y0!2K!*+0!V,2Z06*;!T+)*!0-/!V,2/86*1!*+0!V,2Z06*!&1!+2V&-M!*2!)6+&0:0;!)-/!*+0!V')--0/!%0*+2/1!K2,!/&,06*'#!)6+&0:&-M!*+0%4!! Project Characteristics for Overcoming Barriers and Sustaining Participation H-0!18"10*!2K!V,2Z06*!6+),)6*0,&1*&61!62%V,&101!*+0!0'0%0-*1!2K!V,2Z06*!/01&M-!V8*!&-!V')60!*2!K)6&'&*)*0!*+0!18VV2,*!)-/!V),*&6&V)*&2-!2K!'26)'!V02V'0!&-!*+0!V,2Z06*4!F26)'!18VV2,*!)-/!V),*&6&V)*&2-!&1!-06011),#!K2,!'2-MU*0,%!V,2Z06*!181*)&-)"&'&*#;!K2,!"2*+!/0:0'2V%0-*!)-/!6),"2-!"0-0K&*14!A-!*+0!6)10!2K!6),"2-!V,2Z06*1;!&*!T&''!)'12!"0!&%V2,*)-*!*2!1068,0!*+0!181*)&-0/!V),*&6&V)*&2-!2K!V,2Z06*!&-:01*2,1!)-/!"8#0,14!E062%%0-/0/!)-/!62%%2-!V,)6*&601!K,2%!*+0!'&*0,)*8,0!K2,!)6+&0:&-M!6),"2-!)-/!/0:0'2V%0-*!"0-0K&*1!T0,0!62%V),0/!K2,!0)6+!V,2Z06*!6+),)6*0,&1*&6!)-/!*+0-!6')11&K&0/!)662,/&-M!*2!T+0*+0,!*+0#!628'/!"0!0XV06*0/!*2!"0!2K!F&W0'#!?0-1&2-;!D211&"'0!?0-1&2-;!.'&M-%0-*;!2,!5#-0,M#;!)662,/&-M!*2!*+0!/0K&-&*&2-1!2K!*+010!*0,%1!M&:0-!&-!506*&2-!<4<4c!)"2:04!?2!)11&1*!&-!18%%),&Y&-M!)-/!62%%8-&6)*&-M!,018'*1;!V,2Z06*!6+),)6*0,&1*&61!T0,0!M,28V0/!&-*2!*+,00!",2)/!6)*0M2,&01!81&-M!"2**2%U8V!+&0,),6+&6)'!62/&-M!%0*+2/1!2K*0-!810/!T&*+![8)'&*)*&:0!/)*)!L30,-),/!<==`N4!.!18%%),#!2K!,018'*1!&1!V,010-*0/!&-!?)"'0!<4c;!T&*+!)!%2,0!/0*)&'0/!/&16811&2-!K2''2T&-M!&-!506*&2-!<4>;!&-6'8/&-M!/016,&V*&2-1!2K!*+0!*+,00!V,2Z06*!6+),)6*0,&1*&6!6)*0M2,&014! ! "#! !"#$%&'()!"*+%,-./%,&/%01-201&"0,&130%+4-%1&-0&5+26%./&.7"+"./%+-1/-.1&87%0&"4+292+%1/+3&-1&"//%:5/%,&92+&.2;#%0%9-/1&92+&.$-:"/%& "0,&,%<%$25:%0/""   Development Climate Tensions and Synergies in Realizing Co-Benefits Enabling Conditions Supportive government, policy and socioeconomic environments; emphasis on secure land and tree tenure and sufficient resources to support land- use change Supportive government, policy and socioeconomic environments; emphasis on secure land and tree tenure and sufficient resources to support land- use change Alignment Basic Project Characteristics Participants and Partnerships: Social NGOs, Multi-stakeholder partnerships Participants and Partnerships: Technical NGOs   Project Timeline: Longer term projects; Shorter term or flexible contracts; Short-term returns to farmers are emphasized Project Timeline: Longer-term projects; contract terms long enough to meet certification requirements; Short-term returns to investors are emphasized   Project Size: Small scale, small farm size Project Size: Large scale, large farm size Likely Tension: Contract length, project size Possible Tension: Participants and partnerships, project location, financing, agroforestry practices, end products, time to returns, monitoring Alignment: Agroforestry practices Synergy: Financing, agroforestry practices, end products, time to returns; project length     Project Location: More developed countries favoured   Financing: Primarily donor funds. Farmers need access to upfront credit, financial incentives or markets Financing: Carbon finance available  ! "#!   Development Climate Tensions and Synergies in Realizing Co-Benefits Basic Project Characteristics Agroforestry Practices: Mixed species, context- matched agroforestry! practices Agroforestry Practices: High carbon systems    End Product: Tangible products for local and regional consumption and sale End Product: Intangible carbon credits for sale on international markets    Monitoring: Involve community to lower costs Monitoring: Extensive monitoring to ensure credit validity   ! "#! !  Development Climate Tensions and Synergies in Realizing Co-Benefits Project Characteristics for Overcoming Barriers and Sustaining Participation Focus: Sustained participation of local farmers Focus: Reducing financial risk of investors and generating valid, competitive carbon credits.   Project Design: Flexible, participatory design and implementation that responds to local needs and conditions Project Design: Rigid, standardized design and implementation  Recommendations: Preliminary site assessments, on-going education and technical support, active interaction with project context to improve enabling conditions, integration with other development activities, facilitating access to markets for tree products, participatory demonstration farms, short-term returns to farmers. Recommendations and common practices: Top- down management, long- term contracts, minimal education and technical support provided, centralized carbon broker to access carbon markets, short-term returns to investors. Likely Tension: Interaction with project context; community participation and flexibility of project design; choice and decision making; provision of education, training and technical support; facilitating access to markets Possible tension: Preliminary site assessments, integrating with other development activities; demonstrating benefits Synergy: Integrating with other development activities to diversify funding   Decision-making: Bottom-up, community- driven Decision-making: Often top-down and may involve only a few people.  ! 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