UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Can planting trees bring co-benefits? : smallholder tree planting for development and carbon mitigation Anderson, Emily Kathryn 2010

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'26)';!,0M&2-)';!-)*&2-)'!)-/!&-*0,-)*&2-)'4!?+010!62-/&*&2-1!&-6'8/0!*+0!):)&')"&'&*#!2K! ,0128,601!-06011),#!K2,!V,2Z06*!1866011;!&-6'8/&-M!"2*+!V+#1&6)'!)-/!&-*)-M&"'0! ,0128,601;!'&W0!&-K2,%)*&2-!)-/!1W&''14!! Basic Project Characteristics 3)1&6!D,2Z06*!Q+),)6*0,&1*&61!/016,&"0!*+0!T+2;!T+)*;!T+0-;!T+0,0!)-/!+2T!2K!*+0! V,2Z06*\!T+2!&1!V),*&6&V)*&-M!)-/!*+0!,0')*&2-1+&V1!"0*T00-!V),*&6&V)-*1;!'0-M*+!)-/!1&Y0! 2K!*+0!V,2Z06*;!T+)*!0-/!V,2/86*1!*+0!V,2Z06*!&1!+2V&-M!*2!)6+&0:0;!)-/!*+0!V')--0/! %0*+2/1!K2,!/&,06*'#!)6+&0:&-M!*+0%4!! Project Characteristics for Overcoming Barriers and Sustaining Participation H-0!18"10*!2K!V,2Z06*!6+),)6*0,&1*&61!62%V,&101!*+0!0'0%0-*1!2K!V,2Z06*!/01&M-!V8*!&-! 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Farmers need access to upfront credit, financial incentives or markets  !  Financing: Carbon finance available  "#!  Basic Project Characteristics  !  Development  Climate  Agroforestry Practices: Mixed species, contextmatched agroforestry! practices  Agroforestry Practices: High carbon systems  End Product: Tangible products for local and regional consumption and sale  End Product: Intangible carbon credits for sale on international markets  Monitoring: Involve community to lower costs  Monitoring: Extensive monitoring to ensure credit validity  Tensions and Synergies in Realizing Co-Benefits  "#!  !  Project Characteristics for Overcoming Barriers and Sustaining Participation  !  Tensions and Synergies in Realizing Co-Benefits  Development  Climate  Focus: Sustained participation of local farmers  Focus: Reducing financial risk of investors and generating valid, competitive carbon credits.  Likely Tension: Interaction with project context; community participation and flexibility of project design; choice and decision making; provision of education, training and technical support; facilitating access to markets  Project Design: Flexible, participatory design and implementation that responds to local needs and conditions  Project Design: Rigid, standardized design and implementation  Possible tension: Preliminary site assessments, integrating with other development activities; demonstrating benefits  Recommendations: Preliminary site assessments, on-going education and technical support, active interaction with project context to improve enabling conditions, integration with other development activities, facilitating access to markets for tree products, participatory demonstration farms, short-term returns to farmers.  Recommendations and common practices: Topdown management, longterm contracts, minimal education and technical support provided, centralized carbon broker to access carbon markets, short-term returns to investors.  Decision-making: Bottom-up, communitydriven  Decision-making: Often top-down and may involve only a few people.  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