UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Navigating marine ecosystem services and values Klain, Sarah 2010

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Ecosystem Category Services Provisioning, market goods  Definition Production of benefits which involves ecosystems The production of tangible goods and services that are bought and sold  Regulating Supporting (processes, organisms, sites, habitats)  Processes that maintain functioning ecosystems, including air, soil and water quality  Subsistence Outdoor recreation Education & research (naturebased) Artistic  Use of renewable wild resources for food, shelter, fuel, clothing, tools or transportation Activities in natural or semi-natural settings for the purpose of relaxation or amusement, e.g., kayaking, recreational fishing  Ceremonial Benefits Material Aesthetic Place/heritage Activity Spiritual Inspiration Knowledge Existence/bequest Option Social capital & cohesion Identity Employment Values Preferences, principles, virtues Market Non-market Self-oriented Other-oriented Individual Holistic/group Physical Metaphysical Transformative Anthropocentric Bio/eco-centric  Inputs to final products from ecosystems that contribute to human well-being, e.g., pollination, nutrient cycling, primary production  Activities associated with learning about the natural world or research related to a natural or semi-natural landscape/seascape Associated with the creation and appreciation of beauty from nature Set of actions performed on a special occasion for symbolic value and linked to biotic features of land/seascape Valued goods, experiences and conditions Tangible products of ecosystems, e.g., fish, wood Relating to beauty or appreciation of beauty Meaning or importance associated with a location; locations that serve as reminders of past events for people and communities Intangible benefits associated with an action, e.g., satisfaction from collecting wild food Related to metaphysical forces that exist beyond the individual Mental stimulation to do or feel something Theoretical as well as practical information and/or skills Intangible non-use benefits associated with knowing that something exists or satisfaction in preserving a natural landscape for future generations The predicted benefit of future use of a natural resource Contributing to enhancing relationships among people Ideas, relationships and sense of belonging that shape people Contribution to work that provides monetary income Underlying ideals or properties of physical and/or abstract objects or actions representing degrees of importance (Brown 1984) Types of values Economic value derived from a marketed good or service Valued independent of a commodity; something that is valued intrinsically Valued for an individual's enjoyment Valued for the enjoyment of others, particularly friends and family Value held by one person Value held by group or community Value derived from experience involving tangible things or activities Value from conceptual experience, e.g., existence value Important for its contribution towards changing values Human-centered value Value centered on all life, including ecological processes  !  >J0!G3!G*L0!)*L*G%G*3+F.!1%G%!3+!3T*+*3+F!T0&G%*+*+4!G3!L%&*+0!T&3G0IG01!%&0%F.!3*)!%+1!4%F! 10M0)3TL0+G!%+1!&%+R01!T&*3&*G*0F!H3&!*LT&3M*+4!L%+%40L0+G!%&0!+3G!%+%)#Q01!*+!G'*F!FGJ1#V! ! !  5P! !  !  !  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Category Economic Activity Commercial fishing Sportfishing Marine Transport Eco-tourism Science & Biological Monitoring Artistic Fisheries Management Education Tangible NonMonetary Benefit Biodiversity/Wildlife Natural Beauty Cultural Heritage Site Outdoor Recreation, Unspecified Recreation, Fishing Safe Anchorage Recreation, Coastal Hiking Unique Natural Feature Recreation, Boating Ceremonial Site Recreation, Exploring Dive Site Stewardship Activities Scientific Study Site  ! !  No. of Polygons  Relative Value  Area (km2)  No. of Participants  32 25 19 20  570 415 297 524  5,411 4,383 3,774 10,762  6 5 4 7  9 4 2 1  314 100 115 30  2,683 217 2,148 88  4 1 2 1  61 59 37  839 318 505  6,151 2,144 727  18 9 10  30 24 14  44 421 126  663 2,516 24  2 11 4  12 10 7 4 3 3 2 2  52 118 223 8 56 21 11 85  93 246 227 25 923 9 7 129  3 9 5 1 2 2 2 2  [P! !  !  ! Category Intangible NonMonetary Benefit Spiritual/Inspiration/Awe Education Peace Sense of Place/Home Transformational Intergenerational Community Identity Existence Threat Activity Salmon Aquaculture Commercial development Logging Pollution (from wood or sewage) Boat traffic congestion Fish Processing Plant Overfishing Pulp Mill Potential Dam Dragging Dredging Fisheries Mismanagement Gravel Mining Poaching  No. of Polygons  Relative Value  Area (km2)  No. of Participants  28 8 5 4 3 3 2 1  417 72 10 121 72 170 53 77  1,320 2,434 49 465 811 143 6 880  9 5 2 4 2 2 1 1  53 5 5  1442 51 23  13,190 9 77  17 3 3  4 2 2 2 2 2 1 1  74 20 6 107 105 22 80 80  377 12 4 1,001 3 28 591 591  3 1 1 2 2 2 1 1  1 1 1  10 1 7  28 6 22  1 1 1  (  O%)J0!%FI&*"01!G3!"*31*M0&F*G#!%+1!S*)1)*H0!S%F!'*4'0&!G'%+!M%)J0!%FF*4+01!G3!3G'0&!+3+U L3+0G%&#!M%)J0F!K8%")0!7VP!%+1!B*4J&0!7VaNV!8'*F!I%+!"0!T%&G*%))#!0YT)%*+01!"#!G'0!I%G043&*Q%G*3+! 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Frequency  8 6 4 2  Threat & Non-Monetary (n=18) Threat & Monetary (n=16)  >32 - 64  >16 - 32  >8 - 16  >4 - 8  >2 - 4  >1 - 2  Monetary & Non-Monetary (n=21) >1/2 - 1  >1/4 - 1/2  >1/8 - 1/4  >1/16 - 1/8  >1/32 - 1/16  >1/64-1/32  >0 - 1/64  0  0  Observed:Expected Overlap Ratio  ?$%6*+(J=U(\$/&.%*"1(.:(.8/+*#+3L+CK+-&+3(.#+*5"K(*"&$.(:.*($'3$#$36"5/=(( -!403L0G&*I!FI%)0!S%F!JF01!G3!T&3M*10!F#LL0G&#!*+!G'0!&%+40!3H!&%G*3!H&0WJ0+I*0F!1*FT)%#01V!8'*F!FI%)0!0LT'%F*Q0F! G'0!"*L31%)!1*FG&*"JG*3+!3H!G'0!&%G*3!3H!3"F0&M01e0YT0IG01!3M0&)%TV!!!  ! !  [c! !  !  !  ! A"A"O"# B6*5)9==7'K,<-'*2951,9'(,P-'C<-'*2951,:9)&*+,.-5,7'(767(&9)+, 8'0!L%]3&*G#!3&!*+G0&M*0S00F!G'%G!FT%G*%))#!*10+G*H*01!L3+0G%&#!%+1!+3+UL3+0G%&#!M%)J0F!K{cPZ! 3&!Pbq5PN!'%1!3M0&)%TT*+4!%&0%F!3H!L3+0G%&#!%+1!+3+UL3+0G%&#!*LT3&G%+I0.!"JG!%!L*+3&*G#! K{P_Z!3&!`q5PN!1&0S!T3)#43+F!G'%G!1*1!+3G!3M0&)%T!KB*4J&0!7VbNV!=%+#!*+G0&M*0S00F!WJ%)*H*01! 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Non-Monetary & Monetary Non-Monetary & Threat Monetary & Threat  Observed:Expected Overlap Probability Ratio 1.054  Percentage of 0.5km2 cells assigned value 67.1%  1.103  29.0%  1.110  36.9%  ! 8'0!*LT)*I%G*3+F!3H!G'0!F*4+*H*I%+G!I3&&0)%G*3+F!"0GS00+!G'&0%GF!%+1!M%)J0F!%F!S0))!%F!G'0!3M0&)%T! &%G*3F!4&0%G0&!G'%+!3+0!%L3+4!L3+0G%&#!M%)J0.!+3+UL3+0G%&#!M%)J0!%+1!G'&0%G!KB*4J&0!7Vb!%+1! 8%")0!7V7N!%&0!0YT&0FF01!*+!G'0!T%&%T'&%F01!S3&1F!3H!%+!*+G0&M*0S00e!G3!'%M0!'0%)G'#! 0I3F#FG0LF.!S0!+001!G3!)0%&+!'3S!G3!S3&R!S*G'!G'0!0I3F#FG0L!&%G'0&!G'%+!]JFG!G%R0!H&3L!*GV! >0M0)3T*+4!0LT)3#L0+G!3TT3&GJ+*G*0F!G'%G!L*+*L*Q0!0+M*&3+L0+G%)!&*FRF!%+1!FJTT3&G! )*M0)*'331F!G'&3J4'!G'0!)3+4UG0&L!T&3M*F*3+!3H!:$!*F!%!I0+G&%)!I'%))0+40!H3&!I3LLJ+*G*0F!%&3J+1! G'0!S3&)1V!;+!G'*F!I%F0!FGJ1#.!4*M0+!G'0!T&0M%)0+I0!%+1!*+G0+F*G#!3H!G'&0%GF!%FF3I*%G01!S*G'! ! !  [_! !  !  ! 0I3+3L*I%))#!*LT3&G%+G!%&0%F.!*G!S3J)1!"0!S*F0!G3!*+M0FG!L%+%40L0+G!&0F3J&I0F!*+G3!*+M3)M*+4! 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SPONSORING AGENCIES: $3I*%)!$I*0+I0F!%+1!9JL%+*G*0F!/0F0%&I'!23J+I*)!3H!2%+%1%!K$$9/2N!! PROJECT TITLE: Quantifying Nature's Bounty: The Contribution of Marine Ecosystems to Local Communities <,Q;E?E<7;,(,e9EQf(B7;,L(()"*-H(FF_(F^DD DOCUMENTS INCLUDED IN THIS APPROVAL:  B7;,(799QI4,BL!!  !!  )"*-H(FF_(F^D^!  Document Name Version Date Protocol: Contribution of Marine Ecosystems to Local Communities 1 March 3, 2010 Consent Forms: RDMW Consent Form 1 March 3, 2010 Questionnaire, Questionnaire Cover Letter, Tests: Interview Script RDMW 1 March 12, 2010 Letter of Initial Contact: Interview Request Letter RDMW 1 March 8, 2010 !! 8'0!%TT)*I%G*3+!H3&!0G'*I%)!&0M*0S!%+1!G'0!13IJL0+GKFN!)*FG01!%"3M0!'%M0!"00+!&0M*0S01!%+1!G'0! 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