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Rheology of synovial fluid with and without viscosupplements in patients with osteoarthritis : a pilot… Bhuanantanondh, Petcharatana 2009

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RHEOLOGY OF SYNOVIAL FLUID WITH AND WITHOUT VISCOSUPPLEMENTS IN PATIENTS WITH OSTEOARTHRITIS: A PILOT STUDY  by  PETCHARATANA BHUANANTANONDH  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE  in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Biomedical Engineering)  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver)  September 2009  © Petcharatana Bhuanantanondh, 2009  ABSTRACT Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease that is characterized by the breakdown of articular cartilage. Over 80% of people over the age of 60 show radiographic evidence of OA. Rheology of synovial fluid is of interest because of its significance in the joint lubrication. However, there are still many questions related to synovial fluid rheology and its relation with OA. Although viscosupplementation has been used as a treatment for OA for many years, its clinical effect remains controversial. Therefore, the purposes of this pilot study were to determine rheological behavior of synovial fluid in patients with OA to better understand its role in joint lubrication, and to determine in vitro the effect of different viscosupplements on the rheological properties of synovial fluid. A detailed rheological characterization of synovial fluid from 22 patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty was performed. The results showed that synovial fluid in OA exhibited a non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior and viscoelastic properties. Within an individual, rheological properties of synovial fluid from the left knee differed substantially from the right knee. Moreover, rheopectic behavior (i.e. shear stress increases over time at a constant shear rate) was observed in OA synovial fluid. All three viscosupplements considered in this study (i.e. Orthovisc®, Suplasyn®, and Synvisc®) exhibited a non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior.  Within the range of  frequency from 0.1 to 10 Hz., Orthovisc® exhibited a linear viscoelastic behavior, whereas Synvisc® and Suplasyn® exhibited a gel-like behavior and a viscous-like behavior, respectively. By adding viscosupplements to OA synovial fluid, the results showed cross linked high molecular weight viscosupplement is more efficient than the non cross-linked  11  ones in improving the overall rheological properties of synovial fluid.  Furthermore,  rheological properties of synovial fluid mixed with viscosupplements in vitro were nearly unchanged over 2 weeks. In conclusions, synovial fluid in OA exhibited a non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior, viscoelastic properties, and rheopectic behavior.  Cross-linked viscosupplement  is more efficient than the non cross-linked ones in improving the overall rheological properties of synovial fluid. The rheology of synovial fluid mixed with viscosupplements was nearly unchanged over 2 weeks.  111  TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Overview 1.2 Study Purpose 1.3 Research Objectives Thesis Organization 1.4  ii iv vi vii x 1 1 3 3 3  CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE BACKGROUND 2.1 Synovial Joint 2.1.1 Articular Cartilage 2.1.2 Synovium 2.1.3 Synovial Fluid 2.2 Osteoarthritis 2.2.1 Pathology of Osteoarthritis 2.2.2 Classification of Osteoarthritis 2.2.3 Treatments of Osteoarthritis 2.3 Tribology 2.3.1 Friction 2.3.2 Wear 2.3.3 Lubrication 2.3.4 Biotribology 2.4 Rheology 2.4.1 Steady Shear Test (Viscometry) 2.4.2 Small Amplitude Oscillatory Shear Test (SAOS) 2.4.3 Rheological Models Rheology of Hyaluronic Acid 2.5 2.6 Rheology of Synovial Fluid 2.6.1 Viscosity 2.6.2 Viscoelasticity 2.6.3 Rheology of Synovial Fluid in OA with Viscosupplements 2.6.4 Summary of Rheology of Synovial Fluid  5 5 5 7 8 9 9 10 11 14 14 15 15 17 17 20 21 24 26 28 28 31 34 34  CHAPTER 3 METHODS Subjects 3.1 3.2 Apparatus 3.2.1 Bohljn Gemini HR° Rheometer 3.2.2 Kinexus Viscosupplements 3.3 3.3.1 Orthovisc  36 36 38 38 38 39 39  iv  3.3.2 Suplasyn® Synvisc® Hylan G-F 20 3.3.3 3.4 Experimental Procedure 3.4.1 Experiment 1: Rheology of Synovial Fluid 3.4.2 Experiment 2: Rheology of Viscosupplements Experiment 3: Effects of Viscosupplements on the Rheology of 3.4.3 Synovial Fluid Experiment 4: Stability of Rheological Properties of Synovial Fluid 3.4.4 Mixed with Cross-Linked Viscosupplement Over Time CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Rheology of Synovial Fluid Viscometric Property 4.1.1 4.1.2 Rheopectic Property 4.1.3 Viscoelastic Properties Bilateral Knee Arthroplasty 4.1.4 4.1.5 Model Fitting 4.2 Rheology of Viscosupplements 4.2.1 Orthovisc® 4.2.2 Suplasyn® 4.2.3 Synvisc® 4.2.4 Comparison of the Rheological Properties of Orthovisc®, Suplasyn®, and Synvisc® 4.3 Effects of Viscosupplements on the Rheology of Synovial Fluid 4.3.1 Viscometric Properties 4.3.2 Viscoelastic Properties 4.3.3 Comparison of the Rheological Properties of Synovial Fluid After Added with Orthovisc®, Suplasyn®, and Synvisc® 4.4 Stability of Rheological Properties of Synovial Fluid Mixed with CrossLinked Viscosupplement Over Time  .39 39 40 40 42 43 44 46 46 46 50 54 60 63 66 66 68 69 71 74 74 76 81 82  CHAPTERS CONCLUSIONS  86  BIBLIOGRAPHY  89  APPENDICES APPENDIX A The University of British Columbia Research Ethics Board’s Certificates of Approval  103 103  APPENDIX B Vancouver Coastal Health Authority Clinical Trials Administration Office Approval 106 APPENDIX C Data  108  V  LIST OF TABLES Table 2.1: Kellgren-Lawrence grading of severity of knee osteoarthritis  11  Table 2.2: Viscometric property for normal and pathological synovial fluids  29  Table 3.1: Demographic, degree of severity of OA, and synovial fluid appearance 37 Table 4.1: Zero shear viscosity (7o) and viscosity at shear rate 1000/s (‘liooo)  48  Table 4.2: Comparison of 7o between the present study and Mazzucco et al  49  Table 4.3: Percentage of the samples fit in the established range of i7 from previous work on normal and degenerative synovial fluid  49  Table 4.4: Ratios of shear stress at 450 s/shear stress at 0 s (at 0.01 s_i and 0.05 s ) 1 52 Table 4.5: Storage  G’ and loss moduli G” at 0.5 and 2.5 Hz. for synovial fluid 56  Table 4.6: Storage G’ and loss G” moduli for synovial fluid samples in the present study and in different groups from previous studies  57  Table 4.7: Crossover frequency and relaxation time of synovial fluid samples  58  Table 4.8: Viscoelastic properties of synovial fluid from 2 subjects during bilateral total knee arthroplasty 62 Table 4.9: Rheological indexes of Cross and Carreau-Yasuda models  65  Table 4.10: Viscoelastic properties of Orthovisc®, Suplasyn®, and Synvisc®  73  Table 4.11: Viscoelastic properties of synovial fluid (SF), SF with Orthovisc®, SF with Suplasyn®, and SF with Synvisc®  82  Table 4.12: Viscoelastic properties of synovial fluid (SF), SF with Synvisc® day 1, and SF with Synvisc® day 14 (sample SN16 and SN19)  84  vi  LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2.1: Velocity profile for a fluid flowing between two plates  18  Figure 2.2: Cone and plate geometry  20  Figure 3.1: Calibration of the Bohlin Gemini F1R’° rheometer with Cannon Certified Viscosity Standard oil (1 Pa s) 41 Figure 3.2: Strain sweep test  42  Figure 3.3: Calibration of the Kinexus rheometer with Cannon Certified Viscosity Standard oil(i Pas) 43 Figure 4.1: Viscosity as a function of shear rate for synovial fluid samples  47  Figure 4.2: Shear stress as a function of time at shear rate 0.01 s-i (sample SN19) 51 Figure 4.3: Shear stress as a function of time at shear rate 0.05 s-i (sample SN19) 51 Figure 4.4: Storage and loss moduli as a function of time from SAOS measurement (sample SN15)  54  Figure 4.5: Storage and loss moduli as a function of time from SAOS measurement (sample SNi2)  55  Figure 4.6: Complex viscosity as a function of frequency for synovial fluid samples  59  Figure 4.7: Viscosity as a function of shear rate (sample SN 17, left vs. right knees) 60 Figure 4.8: Viscosity as a function of shear rate (sample SN 22, left vs. right knees) 61 Figure 4.9: Storage and loss moduli as a function of frequency from SAOS measurement (sample SN 17, left vs. right knees)  61  Figure 4.iO: Storage and loss moduli as a function of frequency from SAOS measurement (sample SN 22, left vs. right knees)  63  Figure 4.11:Model fitting for sample SN15  64  Figure 4.12: Model fitting for sample SNi9  64  vii  Figure 4.13: Viscosity as a function of shear rate for Orthovisc® at 25 °C and 37 °C 67 Figure 4.14: Storage and loss moduli as a function of frequency from SAOS measurement for Orthovisc® at 25 °C and 37 °C  67  Figure 4.15: Viscosity as a function of shear rate for Suplasyn® at 25 °C and 37 °C 68 Figure 4.16: Storage and loss moduli as a function of frequency from SAOS measurement for Suplasyn® at 25 °C and 37 °C  69  Figure 4.17: Viscosity as a function of shear rate for Synvisc® at 25 °C and 37 °C 70 Figure 4.18: Storage and loss moduli as a function of frequency from SAOS measurement for Synvisc® at 25°C and 37 °C  70  Figure 4.19: Viscosity as a function of shear rate for Orthovisc®, Suplasyn® and Synvisc®  72  Figure 4.20: Viscosity as a function of shear rate for synovial fluid (SF), SF with Orthovisc®, SF with Suplasyn® and SF with Synvisc® (sample SN2O)  75  Figure 4.21: Viscosity as a function of shear rate for synovial fluid (SF), SF with Orthovisc®, SF with Suplasyn® and SF with Synvisc® (sample SN2 1)  75  Figure 4.22: Storage and loss moduli as a function of frequency from SAOS measurement for synovial fluid (SF) and SF with Orthovisc® (sample SN2O)  77  Figure 4.23: Storage and loss moduli as a function of frequency from SAOS measurement for synovial fluid (SF) and SF with Orthovisc® (sample SN21)  77  Figure 4.24: Storage and loss moduli as a function of frequency from SAOS measurement for synovial fluid (SF) and SF with Suplasyn® (sample SN2O)  78  Figure 4.25: Storage and loss moduli as a function of frequency from SAOS measurement for synovial fluid (SF) and SF with Suplasyn® (sample SN21)  79  Figure 4.26: Storage and loss moduli as a function of frequency from SAOS measurement for synovial fluid (SF) and SF with Synvisc® (sample SN2O)  80  Figure 4.27: Storage and loss moduli as a function of frequency from SAOS measurement for synovial fluid (SF) and SF with Synvisc® (sample SN21)  80  viii  Figure 4.28: Viscosity as a function of shear rate for synovial fluid (SF), SF with Synvisc® day 1 and SF with Synvisc® day 14 (sample SN 16)  83  Figure 4.29: Storage and loss moduli as a function of frequency from SAOS measurement for synovial fluid (SF), SF with Synvisc® day 1, and SF with Synvise® day 14 (sample SN 16)  84  ix  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my supervisors Dr. Dana Grecov and Dr. Ezra Kwok for all their generous support, guidance, and encouragement throughout my study. I also would like to extend my appreciation to Dr. Bassam Masri and Dr. Don Garbuz for helping me collecting the samples for this study. Sincere thanks to Dr. Pierre Guy for his advice.  I also would like to thank my thesis committee, Dr. Thomas Oxland,  and Professor Bruno Jaggi for their time and advice. Finally, I would like to thank my parents and my brother for whom I am forever grateful for their unconditional love and support.  x  CHAPTER 1  INTRODUCTION  1.1  Overview Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disorder associated with aging,  affecting the quality of life of people worldwide. OA is a degenerative joint disease that is characterized by the breakdown of articular cartilage [60] resulting in joint pain and stiffness. It is also known as a group of overlapping distinct diseases that affect the entire joint, not only the articular cartilage [21]. OA can affect any synovial joints, but the knee is the most commonly affected weight-bearing joint [74]. It is reported that over 80% of individuals over the age of 60 show radiographic evidence of OA. The prevalence of OA increases with advancing age and does so exponentially after the age of 50 [67]. As the population ages, the incidence and prevalence of OA will continue to rise unless measures are taken to improve disease prevention [1251. Articular cartilage and synovial fluid are closely linked in providing joint lubrication. Damage to the articular cartilage may result in deficient rheological properties of the synovial fluid and eventually will have an effect on the performance of the joint. Rheological characteristics of synovial fluid are of interest because of their significance in the joint lubrication. In a healthy joint, synovial fluid is highly viscous at low shear rates and highly elastic at high shear rates, allowing it to do an excellent job of protecting the articular cartilage from wear [3].  However, in a diseased joint, the composition of the  synovial fluid is changed resulting in deterioration of rheological properties. Synovial fluid becomes less viscous and therefore less effective in lubrication [97, 112]. In OA, this 1  reduction in viscosity results from a decline in both the molecular weight and concentration of hyaluronic acid [811. In addition, it has been suggested that the loss of viscoelasticity of synovial fluid is directly related to the severity of OA [3]. In order to better understand its role in joint lubrication, a thorough elucidation of the rheological properties of the synovial fluid is necessary. Also, it may become useful as a diagnostic aid for OA. The goals for treatment of OA are to minimize pain and maintain joint mobility [38]. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used to treat OA, but they are associated with significant gastrointestinal side effects [49].  Another non-  operative treatment for OA is intraarticular injections of hyaluronic acid known as viscosupplementation. The concept of viscosupplementation for OA was first proposed by Balazs et al. [16]. Viscosupplement is used for reducing pain and improving joint mobility in patients with OA [13] by restoring the physiological homeostasis of the OAjoint. There are different formulations of viscosupplement that are commercially available. Viscosupplement can be derived either from animal or from biological fermentation of streptococcal origin [85].  There is also the family of cross-linked  hyaluronic acid derivatives name hylans. Hylans are polymers of hyaluronan that have been cross-linked through their hydroxyl group [12]. Although viscosupplementation has been used as a treatment for OA for many years, its clinical effect remains controversial. Some studies reported the efficacy of intraarticular hyaluronic acid use in selected patients with OA [96, 1211. However, other studies suggest that intraarticular hyaluronic acid has not proven to be clinically effective [5].  Therefore, further studies are warranted to  determine possible differences between different commercial viscosupplements and their effects on rheological behavior of synovial fluid.  2  1.2  Study Purpose The purposes of this pilot study were to perform a rheological characterization of  synovial fluid in patients with OA to better understand its role in joint lubrication, and to determine in vitro the effect of different viscosupplements on the rheological properties of synovial fluid.  1.3  Research Objectives 1. To perform rheological characterization of synovial fluid in patients with severe OA. 2. To determine whether there are any differences in rheological behavior between different viscosupplements. 3. To determine in vitro the rheological changes of synovial fluid attributable to the addition of different formulation of visco supplements. 4. To determine in vitro the stability of rheological behavior of synovial fluid mixed with cross-linked viscosupplement over time.  1.4  Thesis Organization The thesis is organized as follows: In chapter 2, the background information about synovial joint and OA are provided.  Principles of tribology and rheology are introduced. A review of the literature regarding rheology of hyaluronic acid and rheology of synovial fluid are also presented. In chapter 3, the demographic of the subjects as well as inclusion and exclusion criteria are presented. Moreover, the details regarding apparatus and viscosupplements used in the study, and experimental procedures are provided.  In chapter 4, results from rheological 3  characterizations of synovial fluid, viscosupplements, as well as synovial fluid mixed with viscosupplements are included. In addition, rheological characterizations of synovial fluid, viscosupplements, as well as synovial fluid mixed with viscosupplements are discussed. Finally, chapter 5 presents the conclusions and recommendations for future work.  4  CHAPTER 2  LITERATURE BACKGROUND In this chapter, the background related to synovial joint and its components are provided. Then, the pathology, classification, and treatment of osteoarthritis are described. In addition, the terms “tribology”, “biotribology” as well as the principles of rheology are introduced. Finally, literature review on rheological properties of hyaluronic acid, synovial fluid and pathological synovial fluid are presented.  2.1  Synovial Joint A synovial or diarthrodial joint is a freely movable joint which is characterized by a  synovial cavity filled with the lubricating substance known as synovial fluid. The articular surface of a synovial joint is covered completely by a layer of articular cartilage.  A  synovial joint is a sophisticated system that includes articular cartilage, synovium, and synovial fluid as key components within synovial fluid compartment.  2.1.1  Articular Cartilage Articular cartilage, the connective tissue that covers on the ends of the bones, serves  as both a shock absorber and a smooth load bearing surface to accommodate movement with minimal friction [33].  It is an avascular, aneural, and alymphatic tissue [26].  Articular cartilage can withstand enormous loads with little deformation and is highly wear-resistant [72]. The total cartilage surface area in the human knee joint is from 102 to 163 cm , while the thickness of cartilage is from 2-5 mm [41]. 2  5  The extracellular matrix of articular cartilage is a biphasic material consisting of a solid porous matrix (chondrocytes, collagen fibres, and proteoglycans) and an interstitial fluid phase (water and electrolytes). The cells, known as chondrocytes, are responsible for producing and maintaining the extracellular matrix composing cartilage. These cells are the only cell type in articular cartilage and may occupy as little as less than 5% of the total volume [83]. In the extracellular matrix of articular cartilage, the most abundant constituent is water. Collagen is the second largest component. Although there are several forms of collagen, the most prevalent type in articular cartilage is Type II [26]. Type II collagen contributes to the structural framework of articular cartilage and therefore provides mechanical stability [25].  Another main component of the extracellular matrix is  proteoglycan. The majority of the proteoglycans in articular cartilage are found in the aggregated form called ‘Aggrecan’ [26].  The primary function of proteoglycans is to  supply compressive stiffness [109]. Proteoglycans attract water molecules into the matrix and therefore produce a large osmotic pressure giving cartilage its swelling and turgidity. Articular cartilage is typically divided into three zones: superficial, middle and deep [66]. The superficial zone is approximately 10% of the cartilage thickness. In this zone, the collagen fibers are tightly packed together and arranged parallel to the surface. The concentration of water  is high, but proteoglycan concentration is relatively low. The  smooth superficial zone of the cartilage helps to reduce friction between the articular surfaces and to distribute forces.  In the middle zone, the collagen fibers are randomly  oriented. The concentration of water is lower, but higher for proteoglycans as compared to the superficial region.  In the deep zone, the fibers form radially oriented bundles and  6  extend across the tidemark, which is the interface between uncalcified and calcified cartilage, to anchor to the subchondral bone. Water content is the lowest in this zone, but the proteoglycans concentration is quite high.  2.1.2  Synovium The synovium is the thin, flexible lining of the joint composed of synoviocytes.  Most of the cells are macrophages or specialized fibroblasts [8]. The synovium has an extensive extracellular matrix, with a net of capillaries present beneath the cell layer. It is about 50-60 jim thick in the normal human knee [117]. Subsynovium extracellular matrix is mainly composed of Type III collagen, while type I collagen is less prominent. Type V collagen is also present [6, 107].  In addition to collagens, subsynovium extracellular  matrix is composed of hyaluronan [126], chondroitin sulphate [127], fibronectin [98], and proteoglycans [29]. A key function of the synovium is to serve as a semi-permeable membrane for exchange of solutes [69]. An ultrafiltrate of plasma and hyaluronan synthesized by type B cells of the synovium [56] pass across its capillary walls, through the extracellular matrix, into the joint cavity. The ultrafiltrate of plasma and hyaluronan form synovial fluid which is contained within the joint cavity. As well as allowing for solute transfer, the synovium must also offer sufficient hydraulic resistance to retain the lubricant macromolecules in synovial fluid within the joint cavity [29]. Since articular cartilage has no blood supply, the joint relies on the synovium to import nutrients and remove waste products from the joint.  7  2.1.3  Synovial Fluid Synovial fluid is a dialysate of blood plasma secreted by cells lining the synoviuni  [78] and forms an interface with both the synovium and cartilage. The volume of synovial fluid in normal human knee joint is -1-2 ml [108]. lubrication and bearing functions. coefficient of friction  (ji).  It plays a crucial role in joint  It has been shown that synovial fluid has a low  The coefficient of friction of bovine synovial fluid is reported to  be range from 0.002 to 0.01 [71, 73]. Synovial fluid also acts as an important carrier in supplying nutrient to the cartilage and removing catabolic products since articular cartilage is avascular [17]. The concentration of protein in normal synovial fluid was previously studied. Albumin and globulins are the main plasma proteins in normal synovial fluid [68]. The protein content of normal synovial fluid is much lower than that of plasma [108]. In inflammatory and degenerative joint diseases, however, the protein content in synovial fluid increases [12]. Bole [19] reported that, in normal synovial fluid, phospholipids and cholesterol were found in very small amount and the lipid concentration is substantially lower than that of plasma.  However, rheumatoid arthritis synovial fluid contained  significant amount of phospholipids, cholesterol, and triglycerides as high as 40% to 60% of the lipid concentration in rheumatoid arthritis serum. Cellular components including leukocytes and polymorphonuclear cells are found in small amounts in normal synovial fluid, but increase in joint diseases [78]. Lubricating molecules in synovial fluid include hyaluronic acid and proteoglycan 4. Proteoglycan 4 is also referred to as lubricin.  Hyaluronic acid is present in synovial fluid  at a concentration of 2-3 mg/mi [12], while lubricin is present at 0.0291 mg/mi [118]. In  8  normal joints, the half-life of hyaluronic acid has been reported to be on the order of hours [30].  -  24  In diseased joints, both the concentration and molecular weight of hyaluronic  acid are lower than that in normal synovial fluid [77]. The concentration of hyaluronic acid in OA and rheumatoid arthritis are 0.7-1.1 mg!mL and 0.8-1.5 mg/mL, respectively. The molecular weight of hyaluronic acid in OA and rheumatoid arthritis are 0.3 MDa and 0.6 MDa, respectively. The pH values of normal synovial fluid are between 7.3 and 7.43 [35], while the pH values of synovial fluid with OA and rheumatoid arthritis ranges from 7.4 to 8.1 and from 6.6 to 7.6, respectively [61].  2.2  Osteoarthritis The term “arthritis” is used to describe more than 100 different types of  inflanmiatory or degenerative diseases that affect joints and connective tissue.  The  symptoms are characterized by pain, swelling and stiffness in and around one or more joints and can develop gradually or suddenly.  The most common form of arthritis is  osteoarthritis. 2.2.1  Pathology of Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis (OA), also known as degenerative joint and “wear and tear” disease,  is characterized by degeneration of articular cartilage [201.  As the disease progresses,  osteophytes and small bony outgrowths form around the margins of the joint.  The  breakdown of articular cartilage often results in joint pain and loss of mobility, which may lead to long-term disability. The etiology of OA remains elusive. Multiple risk factors including age, gender, nutritional deficiency, estrogen status, bone density and genetic have been found to contribute to this disorder. Local biomechanical factors such as obesity,  9  joint deformity, meniscus pathology, ligament injury, muscular weakness, overloading by risk sports, and occupations are also associated with degenerative changes [43, 1151. In OA, there is an alteration in the cartilage matrix that permits the cartilage to be more infused with water resulting in cartilage softening. In addition, there are changes in other structures of the joint such as the capsule, inflammatory changes in synovial lining, and arthritic cysts [101]. In advanced stages of OA, the fluid diffusion, which is a major source of nutrition of the cartilage, is reduced and chronic synovial effusion expands the joint space. With further erosion of the articular cartilage, fragments of cartilage matrix and necrotic bone become incorporated into the synovial membrane [21].  Articular  cartilage and synovial fluid are closely linked in providing lubrication, cushion, and protective barrier between the ends of the bones [128]. Therefore, damage to articular cartilage may result in deficient rheological properties of the synovial fluid. Changes in either will have an effect on the performance of the joint. 2.2.2  Classification of Osteoarthritis The clinical diagnosis of OA is based on clinical and radiographs. Radiographs are  widely used for classifying the severity of OA. In 1957, Kellgren and Lawrence [59] developed a classification for OA based on radiographic findings.  The Keligren and  Lawrence (K!L) grading system is the most widely used system to grade radiographic severity.  The K/L system assigns a rating from 0-4 in order of severity (Table 2.1).  However, it should be noted that the criteria for grading OA are related to the sequential presence of osteophytes, narrowing of the joint space and subchondral sclerosis.  10  Therefore, it is unclear how to classify the severity of OA based on the KJL grading system in individuals with decreased joint space but no presence of osteophytes. Table 2.1: Kellgren-Lawrence grading of severity of knee osteoarthritis Grading Grade 0 ‘Normal’ Grade 1 ‘Doubtful’ Grade 2 ‘Minimal’ Grade 3 ‘Moderate’  Grade 4 ‘Severe’  2.2.3  Keligren & Lawrence Definition Definite absence of OA Possible osteophyte lipping, doubtful narrowing ofjoint space Definite osteophytes, possible narrowing ofjoint space. Moderate multiple osteophytes, and definite narrowing of joint space and some sclerosis and possible deformity of bone ends. Large osteophytes marked narrowing ofjoint space, and severe sclerosis of subchondral bone.  Treatments of Osteoarthritis The goals of current treatments for OA are to control pain and maintain articular  function rather than alter the natural course of the disease [38]. An initial non-operative treatment of OA consists of patient education, weight loss, physical therapy, occupation therapy, assistive devices followed by pharmacologic intervention [57]. Pharmacologic intervention may include topical and oral analgesics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID5) and intra-articular corticosteroid injections. While NSAIDs are commonly used for OA treatment, they produce significant gastrointestinal side effects and do not seem to alter the disease process [114]. These gastric side effects have led to a recent development in NSAID therapy known as cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2) inhibitors. Study reported equal efficacy but significantly decreased gastrointestinal adverse events when compare to most NSAIDs [37].  11  An alternative treatment for OA is the use of glucosamine sulfate. Glucosamine is a constituent of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and proteoglycans that are naturally found in healthy cartilage and synovial fluid.  It also helps in synthesizing mucin or mucous  secretions which act as lubricant in synovial joints [55].  Results from clinical trials  suggested that glucosamine sulfate may potentially delay joint structure changes in OA [94, 103]. Meta-analysis studies also showed that individual with OA of the knee or spine have significantly less symptoms while taking glucosamine than those taking placebo [28, 1061. Natural joint space narrowing in knee OA is slow (< 0.1 mm/year), but can be prevented by glucosamine sulfate [28]. However, there is still uncertainty about its effectiveness. Another non-operative treatment for OA is intraarticular injections of hyaluronic acid known as viscosupplementation. The concept of viscosupplementation for OA was first proposed by Balazs et al. [16]. viscosupplements.  There are various commercial products of  Viscosupplements can be extracted either from rooster combs (e.g.  Orthovisc®) or from biological fermentation of streptococcal origin (e.g. Suplasyn®) [85]. There is also the family of cross-linked hyaluronan derivatives name hylans (e,g. Synvisc®). Hylans are polymers of hyaluronan that have been cross-linked through their hydroxyl group [12]. Synvisc® (hylan G-F 20) is a mixture of two hylan polymers derived from rooster comb HA, 80% by volume bylan A fluid and 20% by volume hylan B gel [1]. The goal of viscosupplementation is to restore the physiological homeostasis of the OA joint. The hyaluronic acid used in viscosupplement has been shown to stimulate the production of hyaluronic acid in vitro.  It restores the homeo stasis in the joint [14].  Moreover, the addition of hyaluronic acid may help maintain joint environment by stabilizing and protecting the collagen fibrous network, the cells and pain receptors [15].  12  The half-life of hyaluronic acid injections in the joint varies from 24 hours to 2 weeks and the longest residence time ranging from 5 to 30 days [85].  Beyond the  residence time, there is no longer a significant amount of synthetic fluid in the joint. However, clinical studies have shown that the benefits of viscosupplement can last from 6 months up to a year after the last injection [124]. It is assumed to result from the transient nature of the hyaluronic acid within the joint [22]. Bagga et al. [10] reported 13% increase in synovial fluid hyaluronic acid concentration and increase in complex shear modulus at 3 months after hyaluronic acid injection. This suggests that viscosupplement could promote endogeneous hyaluronic acid production. In addition, the interactions on the molecular level between hyaluronic acid and pain receptors in the joint contribute to analgesic effect [53]. The majority of studies reported the efficacy of hyaluronic acid use in selected patients with OA [96, 1211. A clinical benefit was usually measured by a decrease in pain or improved function. However, some studies reported that intraarticular hyaluronic acid has not proven to be clinically effective’ [5]. There has been a perception that higher molecular weight hyaluronic acids are more effective in OA treatment [9].  The more  recent study, however, suggested that low or high molecular weight hyaluronic acids preparation have similar efficacy [7]. For patients with OA whose noninvasive or nonoperative treatments are ineffective, surgical treatment is the option. Surgical treatment may be helpful in either correcting structural abnormalities or preventing the progression of the disease.  Current surgical  treatment modalities include osteotomy, debridement, arthrodesis, and arthroplasty. There  13  are inherent risks associated with surgery. Thus, the risks and benefits must be weighed before considering surgical treatment [51].  2.3  Tribology The synovial joint is a perfect tribological system with low friction and high wear  resistance. The term tribology is derived from the Greek word ‘tribos’, which means ‘to rub’. In general, tribo logy can be defined as the study and application of the principles of friction, wear and lubrication of interacting surfaces in relative motion [49]. Therefore,  biotribology can be defined as the study of friction, wear, and lubrication in biological systems, e.g. synovial joints.  Section 2.3.1  -  2.3.3 are basic principles needed to  understand any study of tribology and biotribology.  2.3.1  Friction Friction can be defined as the resistance to motion which exists when one solid  body slides over another [4].  The friction force is a tangential force which acts in a  direction directly opposite to the direction of motion. Friction is not a property of material, but, it is often dependent on the surfaces that are in contact. The coefficient of friction, p, is defined as the ratio of the friction force, Fr, due to the normal load, W. In mathematical terms, it can be expressed as  F  w  (2.1)  14  2.3.2  Wear Wear is defined as ‘the progressive loss of substance from the operating surface of a  body occurring as a result of relative motion at the surface’ [89]. There are different types of wear; such as adhesive wear, abrasive wear, fatigue wear and corrosive wear [47]. Adhesive wear occurs when the contacting asperities of two sliding bodies undergo shearing. The adhesion between the two surfaces in contact causes the detachment of fragments from one surface to form wear debris to the other surface. In abrasive wear, the harder material fractures, or plastically deforms the softer material. Fatigue wear occurs when two surfaces meet in a cyclic manner. The cyclic loading may cause surface cracks which in time can break off the surface. Corrosive wear occurs as a result of reaction products, such as oxides, being formed on one or both surfaces. Fretting wear is also considered a wear mechanism. Fretting wear is defmed as a combined mechanical and chemical wear which can occur where low amplitude oscillatory motion takes place between two surfaces [1221.  2.3.3  Lubrication Lubrication is a process of reducing friction and/or wear between relatively moving  surfaces by the application of a lubricant. Different types of lubrication are discussed in the following sections. In hydrodynamic lubrication or fluid film lubrication, a viscous fluid film is compressed between two surfaces and a sufficient hydrodynamic pressure is generated to support the load and keeps the sliding surfaces completely separated. The thickness of this fluid film depends upon the bulk physical properties of the lubricants. For rotating disks with parallel axes, the ‘simple’ Reynolds equation yields  15  k 4.9Ii”1 =  R  where h 0 is the minimum lubricant film thickness, average velocity  1 +U (u 2 )i 2,  (2.2)  W}  i  is the absolute viscosity, U is the  1 is the velocity at surface 1, U U 2 is the velocity at  surface 2, W is the applied normal load per unit width of disk, and R is the reduced radius of curvature (i / R  =  1/R 1 + 1/R ). R 2 1 is the radius of curvature at surface 1, and R 2 is The dimensionless term (iU /  the radius of curvature at surface 2.  w)  is sometimes  referred to as the hydrodynamic factor [27, 48]. In elastohydrodynamic lubrication, the surfaces deform elastically. More elastic boundaries allow a greater volume of fluid to be drawn into the converging gap resulting in thicker fluid films.  The comparable Dowson-Higginson expression for minimum film  thickness is =  R  W)  RJ  RE’)  (2.3)  The term E’ represents the reduced modulus of elasticity: 1  where  (1_v2) 1  (1_v2) +  2  (2.4)  2 E  a is the pressure-viscosity coefficient, E is the modulus,  V  is Poisson’s ratio, and  the subscripts 1 and 2 refer to the two solids in contact. All the other terms are the same as previously stated [40, 48]. In addition, squeeze film lubrication can occur when surfaces approach one another. The approaching surfaces tend to squeeze out the intervening fluid, but this action is strongly resisted by viscous forces. In boundary lubrication, the solid surfaces are so close 16  to each other. The lubricating fluid forms protective layers on the surfaces. Thus, the intimate contact between the rubbing surfaces can be protected and it can minimize damage on contact [119]. In the mixed lubrication, a combination of boundary, hydrodynamic and elastohydrodynamics lubrication is observed.  2.3.4  Biotribology The goal of many studies in biotribology has been to describe joint operation from  the tribological point of view.  Synovial joint is the most sophisticated and complex  tribological system which involves contacting surfaces (i.e. articular cartilage) as well as the surrounding medium (i.e. synovial fluid). However, until now the mechanisms of the remarkable joint performance are still not fully understood. Degradation of either part of the articular cartilage-synovial fluid system leads to increased friction, wear, and reduction of mobility. A joint disease that is characterized by changes in articular cartilage and bone which results in deformation, increase in friction and, finally, wear of cartilage is called osteoarthritis.  Thus, OA may be considered as a tribological problem.  Furey [48]  suggested possible connections between tribology/normal synovial joint lubrication and degenerative joint disease.  A better understanding of the mechanisms of normal joint  performance from a tribological point of view could lead to advancement in the prevention and treatment of OA.  2.4  Rheology Rheology is the study of the deformation and flow of materials under various kinds  of stress and strain. Stress is the amount of force exerted per unit area, while shear stress is defined as a stress which is applied parallel to a face of a material. Strain is a measure of 17  the change of the shape or deformation of a material. Thus, shear strain can be defined as a measure of deformation in shear. .vx  ]  -  ty x  Figure 2.1: Velocity profile for a fluid flowing between two plates  The viscosity is defined as the resistance of a fluid to flow or deform [1231. Using the coordinates shown in Figure 2.1, Newton’s law of viscosity is shown in equation  dv =—p-——where  (2.5)  is the shear stress, p is the viscosity, v is the velocity component along x axis.  Newtonian fluids would behave according to Newton’s law where the shear stress exerted on the fluid would be linearly proportional to the shear rate. In a non-Newtonian fluid, the relation between the shear stress and the strain rate is nonlinear. Non-Newtonian fluids exhibit a variety of different behaviors. Shear thinning is a type of non-Newtonian fluid behavior where viscosity decreases with increasing rate of shear stress. The opposite behavior, where the viscosity increases with increasing rate of shear, is called shear thickening. Some non-Newtonian fluids show a time-dependent change in behavior. Thixotropy is a time-dependent change in viscosity; that is viscosity decreases over time at  18  a constant shear rate. On the contrary, a time-dependent change in behavior where the viscosity increases over time at a constant shear rate is called rheopexy. Fluids also exhibit viscoelastic behavior.  Viscoelasticity is the property of  materials that exhibit both viscous and elastic behaviors. Ai inelastic fluid deforms under the action of force. It dissipates all the energy as heat and retains the deformation even when the force is removed. On the other hand, an elastic body deforms under the action of force but it stores all the energy; thus, when the force is removed it regains its original configuration. For a viscoelastic fluid, it deforms under the action of force and retains partially its deformation even when the force is removed. When undergoing deformation, viscoelastic materials store some of the strain energy in the material as potential energy and dissipate some of this energy as heat. In the study of rheology, rheometry is used to experimentally determine rheological properties of materials.  A rheometer is an instrument, which can impose a strain and  measures the resulting torque or it can exert a torque on a material and measures its response with time. A rheometer can be of the controlled stress type or the controlled rate type. To characterize the rheological behavior of the material, different flow test techniques such as steady shear or oscillatory shear could be used. The measuring systems used on the rheometer can be selected from the following geometries based on the material properties: 1. Cone and plate 2. Parallel plate 3. Concentric cylinder  19  4. Double gap concentric cylinder  2.4.1  Steady Shear Test (Viscometry) Steady shear test measures the viscosity as a function of shear rate. Steady shear  flow can be produced by confining a material between two plates and move one plate at a constant velocity. A cone and plate geometry (Figure 2.2) is widely used in rheometers. In the cone and plate, the cone rotates at a constant angular velocity with a fixed plate while measuring the torque generated by the tested material. The viscosity at various shear rates can be calculated through the relation formula between torque and viscosity.  ç5  plane section  L-zZi0 :4  R  Figure 2.2: Cone and plate geometry  T  =  r2rfr d 2 r  3T  =  2,r-—  (2.6)  (2.7)  3 2,rR  20  7=  11=  (2.8)  =—  r 0  3T  T 3 4 @°  €‘ 3 0 i’rR  1=  ) 3 02irR  3TG  (2.9)  Q 3 2,zR  where o is the cone angle, T is the torque on the cone, R is the radius of plate, 0 is the angular velocity of the cone, r is the shear stress,  ‘  is the shear rate, and p is the  viscosity.  2.4.2  Small Amplitude Oscillatory Shear Test (SAOS) Viscoelastic properties of the material can be determined using oscillatory shear  test. The velocity field of SAOS flow can be defined as below  =  =  COS#X  vy =0  v=0  where  (2.10)  v v, ,v are the velocity components along the axis of a Cartesian system of ,  reference (x,y,z), ‘(t) is the oscillatory shear rate, 0 ‘ i s the amplitude of the shear rate oscillation, and  0  is the frequency of the shear rate oscillation.  For small strains,  y(0,t)= j’(t’)it’  =  coswt’dt’ =  =  Yo sinat  (2.11)  where Yo is the strain amplitude.  21  Generally materials are tested in the ‘linear viscoelastic region’. When a material is strained at low strain amplitudes in a sinusoidal way, the material’s response to sinusoidal input is sinusoidal with the same frequency. However, the shear stress is usually not in phase with the input strain. There is a phase shift  ‘8’ between the strain wave and stress  response. The stress response would be,  r sin(at + 6) 0  (2.12)  =  (r 0 sincotcosS + sin6cosat)  (2.13)  =  0 cos6)sinat + (T ( 0 sin6)coso#  (2.14)  where rç is the amplitude of the oscillatory shear stress. Shear stress has two components. One component is in phase with the imposed strain, and the other component is in phase with the imposed strain rate.  SAOS can  measures both components of stress, elastic and viscous, when the material is subjected to sinusoidal stress or strain. Storage or elastic modulus (G’) represents energy stored in elastic structure of the material. If it is higher than the loss modulus, the material is more solid like. Loss or viscous modulus  (G”) represents amount of energy dissipate in the  material. If it is greater than the storage modulus, the material is more viscous like. Storage modulus (elastic modulus): To  G =—cos6  (2.15)  Yo Loss modulus (viscous modulus): To  G’=—sinS  (2.16)  Yo 22  For an elastic material, 6 is zero, and the shear stress is proportional to the imposed strain following Hooke’s law.  For a viscous material, 6 is 90°, and the shear stress  response is proportional to the shear rate. For a viscoelastic material, 6 is between  00  and  90° and both storage modulus and loss modulus are non zero. SAOS measures elastic modulus and loss modulus as a function of frequency. In SAOS test with a cone and plate geometry, the elastic modulus and viscous modulus are calculated as follows [82]: Storage modulus: G=  3GTcosó 00 3Ø 2,rR  (2.17)  Loss modulus:  G”=  30 0 T0 sinS  (2.18)  2R where 0 is the cone angle, I is the amplitude of the torque on the cone, S is the phase difference between torque and torsional angle, and  Ø is the amplitude of torsional angle  through which the cone oscillates. In SAOS test, for a fluid that exhibits viscoelastic behavior, at low frequency the loss modulus  G” is higher than the storage modulus G’. As frequency increases, both  moduli increase. At higher frequencies, the storage modulus G’ exceeds the loss modulus  G”. The frequency at which loss modulus G” and storage modulus G’ are equal is called cross over frequency.  The inverse of the cross over frequency is identified with the  relaxation time [110]. Relaxation time is the time that characterizes a material’s stress relaxation after deformation. Viscoelastic fluids deform when subjected to stress, but when 23  the stress is removed the internal molecular configuration of the fluid can sustain stress for some time before it relaxes [821. In SAOS test, a frequency-dependent viscosity function is also determined. The frequency-dependent viscosity is called complex viscosity (z7 *) which can be defined as follows [821: 77 * (0)  where i7’  =  G” I  component of 77  2.4.3  =  17’  —  ” 7 i1  (2.19)  is the dynamic viscosity and 17”  =  G’ / a) is the out of phase  •  Rheological Models  Constitutive modeling represents the appropriate tensorial expressions for the stress in a flow as a function of deformation matching observed material behavior. For a Newtonian fluid, the constitutive equation can be expressed as follows [82]  r xx  xy  2 aX  r xz  ãv  YX  JY  YZ  =  6X  2 —-  —-+-----  —-+-—-  8x  ôz 612  6V  —a- + —6x 6y  ãz  where  —+ X 8 63y  —- +  ôy  6z  are the components of stress tensor, v ,  ãz  (2.20)  2—-  6y  ,  v are the components of velocity. ,u  is viscosity. For a Newtonian fluid, the viscosity is constant in steady shear.  Thus, the  generalized Newtonian constitutive model was developed for material for which viscosity is not constant.  24  For generalized Newtonian constitutive models, the relationship between stress tensor and rate of the deformation tensor is as follows Txx  TJçy  Txz  =“(r) z.zx  where  Tzy  (2.21)  2  Tzz  is the shear rate, 7’ are the components of the rate of deformation tensor, and  ‘  p(’) is the viscosity function of local shear rate. In equation 2.21, the rate of deformation tensor can be calculated by equation 2.22  ôv, 2—s,>  lxx  Ixy  r  rxy r  YX  Y  i3v  —+------  8x  lxz  8y  av  8v  —s- + &y ox  Yzz  ,  —-+--—-  Oz  Ox  2  Ov  —sv  —+-----  Oz  Oy  av  av  3x  z  —-+——-  + —-  Oz  Oy  (2.22)  2—-  8z  The viscosity of generalized Newtonian is a function of shear rate. The generalized Newtonian constitutive equation can capture the non-Newtonian behavior with sufficient accuracy for inelastic fluids. The viscosity as a function of local shear rate can be identified by fitting with the viscosity experimental data. There are several models that can be used to better fit the material’s characteristic. Two models are introduced here: Cross model [34] and Carreau-Yasuda model [82]. Cross Model: —  17cD =  1  (2.23)  i+(x,>)  25  where 77 is the viscosity, 77 o is the zero shear viscosity, i7 is the infinite shear viscosity,  2 is a time constant, n is a rate constant describes the slope. Carreau-Yasuda Model: -__=  [i + 770  7c  (2)a  ]--  (2.24)  where i is the viscosity, ‘7o is the zero shear viscosity, i7 is the infmite shear viscosity,  2 is a time constant, n is a rate constant describes the slope, a is a constant.  2.5  Rheology of Hyaluronic Acid Hyaluronic acid (HA) is also called hyaluronan and was discovered by Meyer and  Palmer in 1934 [79] in the vitreous humor of cattle eyes. HA is present not only in the vitreous humor but also in the extracellular matrix and synovial fluid.  It is a linear  glycosaminoglycan (GAG) which consists of alternating disaccharide units of D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine linked by 13(1-3) and 13(1-4) glycosidic linkages [64]. In normal synovial fluid, HA is a glycosaminoglycan polymer with an average molecular weight of 106  -  i0 Da [95] and a concentration of  3 mg/ml [58]. Both high  molecular weight of HA and high concentration of HA is necessary for normal joint function [111]. In solutions at low concentrations (< 1 mg/ml), HA exists as an extended random coil [1111 while at higher concentrations (> 1 mg/mI) a transient entanglement network is formed [112]. On the other hand, a study by Scott et al. [113] has shown that HA chains form an irregular honeycomb-like structure of enormous dimensions even at the relatively low concentration of 1 jig / ml. The network-forming ability of HA in solutions  26  gives rise to the non-Newtonian behavior of HA solutions [64] and affects the viscoelasticity of the solution [801. Rheological properties of HA have been studied widely. Miyazaki and colleagues [80] observed that measured viscosity values of HA in NaC1 solution decreased gradually. The decrease in apparent viscosity was more pronounced in high molecular weight HA than in low molecular weight HA. Ambrosio et al. [2] investigated the effect of molecular weight of HA. The results showed that low molecular weight HA exhibited Newtonian characteristics throughout the shear rate analyzed (l0°-10 s’). For high molecular weight HA, shear thinning behavior was observed at shear rates greater than 1 s. Gibbs et al. [50] measured the dynamic viscoelastic properties of HA solutions. As the oscillation frequency increased, a sharp transition from viscous to elastic behavior occurred.  The same relaxation mechanism of HA solutions was observed from time-  temperature, time-concentration and time-ionic strength superpositions.  The relaxation  mechanism involves a breakdown of highly elastic hydrogen-bonded network, followed by viscous flow. Kobayashi and colleagues [62] investigated the effect of molecular weight of HA on the storage (G’) and loss (G”) moduli. They reported that at high molecular weight a transient entanglement network is formed, but it was absent for HA at low molecular weight.  For the higher molecular weight HA solutions, a distinct transition from viscous  to elastic behavior occurred as the oscillation frequency increased.  Another study by  Ambrosio et al. [2] also observed that HA solutions of higher molecular weight (1.2 MDa) showed entanglement, whereas lower molecular weight (150 KDa) did not. Also, the low molecular weight HA showed viscous behavior; whereas for the high molecular weight HA  27  the dynamic moduli G’ and G” exhibited cross-over (i.e. it showed viscous behavior at low frequency and elastic behavior at high frequency). Another study by Falcone et al.[42] conducted a study on the cohesive and rheological properties of HA at different molecular weights (0.35 x 106 to 1.8 x 106 Da). It was found that the cohesive nature of HA was highly dependent on molecular weight and solution concentration. The study also showed that viscosity strongly depends on concentration and molecular weight of the polymer. The effect of addition of hyaluronate segments on the viscosity of HA solutions was investigated by Fujii et al. [46]. They reported that longer NaHA was found to increase storage G’ and loss G” moduli whereas shorter NaHA decreased both moduli. Also, addition of sodium glucuronate was found to decrease both the moduli whereas addition of N-acetyl glucosamine was found to increase both the moduli. The effect of concentration on elasticity of hyaluronan-aggrecan solutions was studied by Nishimura et al. [86]. They determined storage G’ and loss G” moduli using a controlled stress rheorneter. Elasticity at different concentrations was studied. Aggrecan solution alone showed little elasticity.  Addition of hyaluronan (0.00 1 to 0.1 mg/mi)  markedly increased elasticity, but not viscosity.  Elasticity of the hyaluronan-aggregan  solution reached a plateau at 500:1 (w/w) ratio.  2.6  Rheology of Synovial Fluid  2.6.1  Viscosity The rheological propertites of synovial fluid are of interest due to their significant  in joint lubrication. Normal synovial fluid is non-Newtonian, in that its viscosity depends  28  on shear rate and it demonstrates a shear thinning effect [93]. The rheological properties for synovial fluid from normal, osteoartbritic and rheumatoid arthritic joints were investigated in several studies. Normal synovial fluids were found to have the highest viscosity followed by degenerative synovial fluids and inflammatory synovial fluids, respectively [32, 110-112] (Table 2.2). Previous study by Conrad et a!. [31] reported that synovial fluid viscosity found to be a good marker for OA severity.  Table 2.2: Viscometric property for normal and pathological synovial fluids. Reference  (Pa s) Normal/Postmortem Osteoarthritis Cooke et al. [321 > 20 (Normal) 0.1-1 Schurz & Ribitsch [112] 1-40 (PostMortem) 0.1-1 Schurz [111] 6-12 (Post Mortem) 0.1-1 Safari et a!. [110] 10-34 (Normal) NR * The values have been estimated from published charts. NR not reported.  Inflammatory 0.1 0.004-0.07 0.005-0.05 0.01-0.1  A study by Bloch and Distenfass [18] found that synovial fluid from rheumatoid arthritis showed Newtonian characteristics in flow; the viscosity was of the order of 10 centipoises.  Synovial fluid from traumatic arthritis, however, showed thixothropic  properties; that is, the viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate. Non-Newtonian and shear thinning behavior is characteristic of normal and traumatic arthritis synovial fluid, whereas Newtonian behavior is characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis synovial fluid [39]. A study by Reimann [104] also showed that there are differences in the viscosity of synovial fluid in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, OA (mostly damaged cartilage) and torn meniscus (mostly normal cartilage).  29  Rainer and Ribitsch [1021 examined the viscosity of normal synovial fluid as a function of shear rate. They reported that zero shear rate viscosity, ‘lo ,ranged from 6-175 Pa.s, and the ratio ‘7O/17,3OO ranged from 70-250. Another study by Schurz and Ribitsch [112] reported that 170/177=300=100)  170  and  ‘7O/77,>_300  were found to be higher for normal (‘70 = 1-40;  as opposed to degenerative synovial fluids (i7= 0.1-1; ‘70/’&=300 =  40) which were in turn higher than inflammatory synovial fluids (‘70 ‘70/’7=300  =  0.004-0.007;  1-4). Schurz and Ribitisch [112] suggested that synovial fluid viscosity can  be used to differentially diagnose degenerative and inflammatory joint disease. The effect of HA concentration on the flow properties of synovial fluid has been investigated in numerous studies.  It was found that HA/protein concentration correlated  with the apparent viscosity of synovial fluid at a shear rate of 1 s_I [44]. A study by Levine and Kling [70] indicated that the decrease in the intrinsic viscosity matched the decrease in HA concentration in rheumatoid arthritis fluid compared to OA synovial fluid. On the other hand, Stafford and colleagues [116] reported that although the HA concentration in rheumatoid arthritis fluid was less than that of OA fluid; there were no significant difference in the intrinsic viscosity of the two fluids. A more recent study by Praest et al. [99] found that the viscosity of synovial fluid from patients with inflammatory and noninflammatory joint diseases correlated well with the HA concentration. Furthermore, the  viscosity of synovial fluid of various joint diseases showed a better correlation with HA concentration than with average molecular weight. In addition, a study by O’Neill and Stachowiak [92] showed that synovial fluid exhibits rheopectic behavior; that is stress increases as a function of time during shear at a  30  constant rate. In their study, a constant shear rate was applied to the sample, which is the synovial fluid from a patient with OA, over a period of time. The results showed that, at temperatures of 20 °C or less, the synovial fluid’s viscosity increases with time at a constant shear rate. Another study by Oates et al. [87] also observed rheopectic behavior in a synovial fluid model when applied a constant shear rate of 0.05 s. Similar rheopexy also observed in bovine synovial fluid and albumin solutions of similar concentration [88]. 2.6.2  Viscoelasticity The viscoelastic properties of synovial fluid, which are well suited to the joint, were  first investigated by Ogston et al. [91]. Myers et al. [84] conducted a study to examine the viscoelastic properties of normal synovial fluid from human knee joints at different frequencies that correspond to different joint speeds. At low frequencies of oscillation, that is characteristic of slow joint motion, synovial fluid acts as a viscous fluid.  At high  frequencies of oscillation, that is characteristic of rapid joint motion, synovial fluid exhibits elastic-like behavior. For the “near normal” synovial fluid, viscous modulus G” is greater than elastic modulus G’ at very low frequencies. At higher frequency, synovial fluid has an elasticlike response. For the “near normal” fluid, elastic modulus G’ is greater than viscous modulus G” over most of the frequency range, and cross over frequency can be observed at a fairly low frequency (0.02 Hz) [110].  However, for pathological synovial fluids, their  elastic modulus G’ at frequencies above 0.1 Hz is lower than that of normal synovial fluids [105]. In addition, for “near normal” synovial fluid and synovial fluid from patients with ligament defects, the mean values of  ii”  were higher than the mean values of  i’.  On the  31  contrary, for synovial fluids from patients with meniscus lesions, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) seronegative and RA seropositive, the mean values of of  ,“  i’  were higher than the mean values  [110]. Similar findings were also found by Anadere et al. [3] for the RA seronegative  and RA seropositive fluid groups indicating decreased of elasticity in RA fluids. Furthermore, Anadere et al. [3] also found that both viscous and elastic components were decreased in the diseased fluids. The most pronounced changes were observed in fluids from patients with RA and traumatic diseases, while moderated changes were observed in OA fluids. Relaxation times for normal synovial fluid were longer compared to pathological synovial fluids [102, 105, 112]. The long relaxation times may impart normal synovial fluid with load bearing capacity [102]. From a study by Schurz and Ribitisch [112], the relaxation time ranges for normal, degenerative, and inflammatory synovial fluids were 40100 s, 8-20 s, and 0.02-1 s, respectively. However, another study by Safari et al.[l 101 reported that the relaxation time ranges for near normal, ligament defected, seronegative, and RA seropostitive were 0.65  —  5.82 s, 0.59  —  0.89 s, 0.022  —  RA  0.03 s, and  <  0.022 s, respectively. Lai et al. [65] computed the relaxation spectra and stress relaxation functions from experimental data of the dynamic moduli. They reported a significantly shorter relaxation time for osteoarthritic synovial fluid than for normal synovial fluid. The relaxation time for osteoarthritic synovial fluid was in the order of 0.1 s, whereas it was in the order of 10 s for normal synovial fluid. A more recent study by Gomez and Thurston [52] showed that the relaxation times for RA synovial fluids were higher than for mixed connective tissue disease indicating greater elasticity. A higher degree of elasticity found in the degenerative joint disease fluid compared to the RA fluid.  32  Synovial fluid is elastic at higher concentrations of hyaluronic acid [90]. Anadere at a!. [3] found higher concentration of HA in synovial fluids from patients with meniscus defects and OA than from synovial fluids of patients with RA seronegative.  HA  concentration affected the elasticity of the synovial fluids. Ferguson et al. [45] reported that when osteoarthritic synovial fluid was diluted, relaxation times were lowered and a more Newtonian flow behavior occurred.  Concentration of RA synovial fluid by  evaporation gave rise to an increase in viscosity, but elastic properties were not restored. With regard to HA molecular weight, Dahl et al. [36] asserted that normal synovial fluid HA molecular weight (7x10 6 Da) is significantly higher than RA synovial fluid HA molecular weight (4.8x 106 Da). Another study by Schurz and Ribitisch [112] reported that the molecular weight of HA in normal synovial fluid is 1 Da in rheumatoid and osteoarthritic synovial fluid.  Da, while it is reduced to  106  The deterioration of rheological  properties in diseased synovial fluids is likely attributable to the decrease in molecular weight of HA.  The decrease in concentration and molecular weight of HA could be  responsible for the altered in viscoelastic properties of pathological synovial fluid [129]. Mazzucco et al. [76] have investigated rheological properties of fluid from patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty and revision arthroplasty. The general behavior of joint fluid samples was shear thinning. At low frequencies, loss modulus was found to dominate over shear modulus and both moduli increased at higher frequencies. They also observed that crossover frequency increased in arthroplasty fluids in comparison to normal synovial fluid.  Also, storage and loss moduli were found to decrease in patients undergoing  arthroplasty.  33  2.6.3  Rheology of Synovial Fluid in OA with Viscosupplements The goal of viscosupplementation is to restore the rheological properties of the  synovial fluid. Grecomoro et al. [54] studied the rheological changes in synovial fluid of patients due to intraarticular infiltration of HA. Three treatments were administered to the patients i.e. intra articular infiltration of high molecular weight sodium hyaluronate (one 20 mg vial/week for 3 weeks), oral anti-inflammatory agents, and fluid aspiration.  One  sample per week for 3 treatment weeks followed by a further 3 weeks as control were collected to perform rheologic measurement.  The results indicated that intraarticular  hyaluronic acid was found to temporarily increase viscosity of synovial fluid in patients. The rheological behaviors of OA synovial fluid before and after the addition of two commercial viscosupplements (linear and cross-linked) were investigated by Mathieu and colleagues [75]. The results showed that synovial fluid becomes less non-Newtonian when mixed with the linear hyaluronic acid. On the contrary, when mixed with cross-linked hyaluronic acid, the non-Newtonian behavior of the fluid was reinforced. Furthermore, the results suggested that linear and cross-linked viscosupplements induce large differences in OA synovial fluid rheological behavior. They asserted that, compare to the linear one, the cross-linked HA is more efficient in improving the rheological behavior of the OA synovial fluid. The rheology of the fluids was nearly unchanged over 6 weeks.  2.6.4  Summary of Rheology of Synovial Fluid Non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior is characteristic of normal and traumatic  arthritis synovial fluid.  Several studies reported that synovial fluid exhibits rheopectic  behavior [87, 88, 92]. A study by O’Neill and Stachowiak [92] showed that OA synovial  34  fluid exhibits rheopectic behavior at temperatures of 20 °C or less. However, it has not been reported whether OA synovial fluid exhibits rheopectic behavior at 37 °C. The rheological parameters reported in most studies are viscosity at steady shear and dynamic moduli. However, for a thorough elucidation of the rheological properties of synovial fluid, other rheological parameters such as complex viscosity, cross over frequency and relaxation time should also be considered. One of the treatments for OA that aims to restore the rheological properties of synovial fluid is viscosupplementation. Only one study by Mathieu et al. [75] examined the effect of linear and cross-linked viscosupplements on rheological behaviour of OA synovial fluid.  Therefore, further studies are needed to determine the effects of  viscosupplements on rheological behavior of synovial fluid.  35  CHAPTER 3  METHODS In this chapter, the methodology for this pilot study is provided in detail. Subject’s demographic data as well as inclusion and exclusion criteria are presented. The apparatus and experimental procedures are described.  3.1  Subjects After ethics review and approval by the University of British Columbia Clinical  Research Ethics Board and Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute, twenty six patients volunteered to enroll in the study. Copies of the University of British Columbia Research Ethics Board’s Certificates of Approval and Vancouver Coastal Health Authority Clinical Trials Administration Office Approval are included in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. However, two patients had “dry” knees and synovial fluid samples from two other patients contained insufficient fluid for rheological testing. Therefore, the synovial fluid samples tested in this study were obtained from 22 subjects (16 females and 6 males) during knee arthroplasty for OA. Subjects ranged from 44 to 85 years old (mean age 64 years) (Table 3.1). Diagnosis of the severity of OA was made according to the Kellgren-Lawrence radiographic grading system [59]. All samples came from orthopedic reconstructive service at Vancouver Acute (University of British Columbia Hospital or Vancouver General Hospital) in accordance with a protocol approved by the University of British Columbia Clinical Research Ethics Board and Vancouver Coastal Health Research  36  Institute.  Subjects were asked to give an informed consent to allow for joint fluid  aspiration and access to clinical results. Inclusion Criteria -  -  Diagnosed with knee OA and required knee replacement. Between 30 and 85 years of age.  Exclusion Criteria -  -  -  Diagnosed with other arthritic conditions (e.g. inflammatory arthritis) Under the age of 30 or over 85 years of age. Had surgery on their study knee within 10 years prior to enrollment in the study.  Table 3.1: Demographic, degree of severity of OA, and synovial fluid appearance Subject SNO1 SNO2 SNO3 SNO4 SNO5 SNO6 SNO7 SNO8 SNO9 SN1O SN1 1 SN12 SN1 3 SN14 SN1 5 SN16 SN 17 SN18 SN1 9 SN2O SN2 1 SN22  Age 74 71 69 57 51 76 67 53 71 65 53 85 65 63 70 62 47 77 52 68 63 44  Gender LtIRt F Lt M Lt F Rt M Rt M Rt F Rt F Lt F Rt F Rt F Rt F Rt F Lt M Rt F Rt F Rt F Rt F Bilateral M Rt F Rt F Rt M Lt F Bilateral  Degree 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4  SF appearance bright red, slightly cloudy light yellow, clear light yellow, clear light yellow, slightly cloudy orange, slightly cloudy light yellow, clear light yellow, clear red, cloudy light yellow, clear light yellow, fairly clear red, slightly cloudy bright red clear bright red cloudy yellow, slightly cloudy yellow, clear light yellow, clear light yellow, slightly cloudy yellow, clear light yellow, clear orange, clear light yellow, clear light yellow, clear ,  37  3.2  Apparatus  3.2.1  Bohlin Gemini HR’ 0 Rheometer The Bohlin Gemini HR° rheometer is a rotational rheometer.  It has a high  resolution air bearing design and performance which is sensitive with extremely low torque errors without compromising stiffness and strength.  The Gemini provides continuous  torque control range from 3 nNm to 200 mNm. The torque resolution is 1 nNm and the position resolution is 50 nrad. The automated zero gap setting and control from PC or on the instrument sets a reproducible zero gap before actual measurement. The gap is closed automatically using this zero gap as the reference, once the sample is loaded on the plate. The ‘EasySwap’ technology allows the instrument to be configured with a variety of temperature control units attached. The Peltier device is used for an accurate temperature control [23].  The Gemini has undergone a significant number of calibrations and  verifications by the manufacturer. The oils used in these calibrations are all traceable to international standards.  The Gemini has been approved by the Canadian Standards  Association.  3.2.2  Kinexus The Kinexus is a rotational rheometer. The motor and air bearing system for the  Kinexus enables the Kinexus systems to provide the wide continuous torque range (0.05 jiNm to 200 mNm). The torque resolution is 0.1 nNm and the position resolution is less than 10 nrad. The gap and normal force system for the Kinexus combines high speed and ultra-fine resolution gap control with high sensitivity and ultra-responsive normal force control. The gap resolution is 0.1 urn. This provides optimal sample loading capabilities for all material types and allows the system to be able to capture transient material 38  response.  The environmental controller incorporates interchangeable lower plate.  In  addition, the environmental controller is designed for thermal stability, minimized thermal gradients and temperature resolution to 0.01 °C.  All measurement geometries and  accessories are auto-recognized and auto-configured [24]. The Kinexus has undergone a significant number of calibrations and verifications by the manufacturer. The oils used in these calibrations are all traceable to international standards.  The Kinexus has been  approved by the Canadian Standards Association.  3.3  Viscosupplements Viscosupplement is used for reducing pain and improving joint mobility in patients  with OA.  It aims to restore the homeostasis in the joint. In this study, rheological  behaviors of several viscosupplements were examined. 3.3.1  Orthovisc® Orthovisc® (Amika Therapeutics, Inc.) is derived from rooster combs. It contains  15mg/mi of sodium hyaluronate (NaHA) dissolved in physiological saline. 3.3.2  Suplasyn® Supiasyn® (Bioniche Pharma Group Ltd.) is produced by biofermentation.  It  contains 20 mg/mi of hyaluronic acid sodium salt.  3.3.3  Synvisc® Hylan G-F 20 Synvisc® Hylan G-F 20 (Genzyme Biosurgery) is derived from rooster combs. It  contains 8 mg/mi of hylan A and hylan B in buffered physiological sodium chloride solution.  39  3.4  Experimental Procedure  3.4.1  Experiment 1: Rheology of Synovial Fluid Informed consent was obtained from each subject prior to the surgery. At the time  of the surgery, synovial fluid of approximately 2-5 ml. was aspirated from each subjects’ knee joint into a test tube by an experienced surgeon under sterile condition, after anesthetic had been achieved and just prior to operation’s initial incision. Clinical data including age, gender, radiographs were collected by routine chart review. Rheological behavior of each synovial fluid sample was evaluated as soon as possible after aspiration (within 2 hours). In case the measurement could not be performed within 2 hours, aspirated synovial fluid was kept in a refrigerator at approximately 4 °C for testing within 2 days after aspiration. •  The rheometer was first calibrated with Cannon Certified Viscosity Standard oil (1 Pa s) (Figure 3.1)  •  Rheological characterization of the samples was evaluated by Bohlin Gemini HR° rheometer with a staInless steel cone and plate geometry (30 mm diameter cone with a  10  cone angle) at 37 °C. The gap was zeroed before loading sample in  every measurement. The gap was set at 30 JIm. •  In the steady shear test, all samples were presheared at 100  s  for 2 mm. after  loading in order to erase any differences in shear history during preparing and loading samples. Then, the shear rates ranged from 0.01 to 1000 s’ were applied to the samples. In addition, constant shear rates at 0.01 s and 0.05 s_i were applied to the samples for 450 sec. in order to examine the changes in shear stress over time.  40  •  In the small amplitude oscillatory shear test (SAOS), preliminary strain sweep tests were performed on the samples in order to identify the linear viscoelastic response range of the samples (Figure 3.2).  In all SAOS experiments, the amplitude  sweeping tests were performed firstly to ensure the frequency sweeping tests in linear viscoelastic regimes. Then, frequency sweep measurements were conducted in the linear region, at 5% strain, over a frequency range of 0.01-10 Hz. •  Two measurements were performed in each steady shear and SAOS test. Note that only two measurements were performed in each test. This is because synovial fluid evaporates quickly at physiological temperature.  10  n  (I)  1  —---—-—-—.---.  .  .—  ,e  •  .  .  •  .  0 U U)  ‘I  0.1  0.01  0.1 Shear Ra (1,)  Figure 3.1: Calibration of the Bohlin Gemini HR’ 0 rheometer with Cannon Certified Viscosity Standard oil (1 Pa s)  41  10  .  .  •  .  •  .  •  .  •  .  •  .  •  .  a  .  •  .  •  .  a  .  a  .  •  •  .•  •  .  •  .  •  .  aG’  •  .  1 0%  5%  10%  %Sbajn  Figure 3.2: Strain sweep test  3.4.2  Experiment 2: Rheology of Viscosupplements The samples used in this experiment were three different brands of commercial  viscosupplements (i.e. Orthovisc®, Suplasyn®, and Synvisc® Hylan G-F 20) •  The rheometer was first calibrated with Cannon Certified Viscosity Standard oil (1 Pa s) (Figure 3.3).  •  Rheological behaviors of the samples were evaluated by Kinexus rheometer with a stainless steel plate and plate geometry (20 mm diameter plate) at 25 °C and 37 °C. The gap was zeroed before loading sample in every measurement. The gap was set at0.5mm.  •  In the steady shear test, all samples were presheared at 100 s 4 for 2 mm. after loading in order to erase any differences in shear history during preparing and  42  loading samples. Then, the shear rates ranged from 0.01 to 1000 s were applied to the samples. •  In all SAOS experiments, the amplitude sweeping tests were performed firstly to ensure the frequency sweeping tests in linear viscoelastic regimes. Then, frequency sweep measurements were conducted in the linear region, at 5% strain, over a frequency range of 0.1-10 Hz.  •  Two measurements were performed in each steady shear and SAOS test. 10 n  In  1  —.  0.1 0.01  •__-•__-•__-•-—-•--_#--—  .----.  0.1  ,  .—.  1  .  .-  10  100  Shear Rate (1,)  Figure 3.3: Calibration of the Kinexus rheometer with Cannon Certified Viscosity Standard oil (1 Pa s)  3.4.3  Experiment 3: Effects of Viscosupplements on the Rheology of Synovial Fluid Two of the synovial fluid samples obtained in “Experiment 1” were aliquoted into  four tubes.  One (0.5 ml) contained synovial fluid alone; in the other three (0.5 ml),  viscosupplements (i.e. Orthovisc®, Suplasyn®, and Synvisc® Hylan G-F 20) were added in each of the three tubes in a volume ratio of 1:1 and they were mixed at ambient temperature 30 minutes before rheological measurements. 43  •  The rheometer was first calibrated with Cannon Certified Viscosity Standard oil (1 Pa s).  •  Rheological behaviors of the samples were evaluated by Kinexus rheometer with a stainless steel plate and plate geometry (20 mm diameter plate) at 37 °C. The gap was zeroed before loading sample in every measurement. The gap was set at 0.5 mm.  •  In the steady shear test, all samples were presheared at 100 s_i for 2 mm. after loading in order to erase any differences in shear history during preparing and loading samples. Then, the shear rates ranged from 0.01 to 1000 s_i were applied to the samples.  •  In all SAOS experiments, the amplitude sweeping tests were performed firstly to ensure the frequency sweeping tests in linear viscoelastic regimes. Then, frequency sweep measurements were conducted in the linear region, at 5% strain, over a frequency range of 0.1-10 Hz.  •  3.4.4  Two measurements were performed in each steady shear and SAOS test.  Experiment 4: Stability of Rheological Properties of Synovial Fluid Mixed with Crossed-Linked Viscosupplement Over Time. Two of the synovial fluid samples obtained in “Experiment 1” were aliquoted into  two tubes. One (1 ml) contained synovial fluid alone; in the other (1 ml), Synvisc® was added in a volume ratio of 1:1 and they were mixed at ambient temperature 30 minutes before rheological measurements at the baseline. Then, mixed samples of synovial fluid and Synvisc® were stored in a refrigerator at approximately 4 °C for rheological measurements at 14 days later. Samples that were stored in a refrigerator were allowed to 44  come to room temperature 10 mm. before loading.  Rheological measurements were  performed on both synovial fluid and synovial fluid with Synvisc®. •  The rheometer was first calibrated with Cannon Certified Viscosity Standard oil (1 Pas).  •  Rheological characterization of the samples was evaluated by Bohlin Gemini ° rheometer with a stainless steel cone and plate geometry (30 mm diameter 11 HR cone with a  10  cone angle) at 37 °C. The gap was zeroed before loading sample in  every measurement. The gap was set at 30 tim. •  In the steady shear test, all samples were presheared at 100  s_I  for 2 mm. after  loading in order to erase any differences in shear history during preparing and loading samples. Then, the shear rates ranged from 0.01 to 1000 s’ were applied to the samples. •  In all SAOS experiments, the amplitude sweeping tests were performed firstly to ensure the frequency sweeping tests in linear viscoelastic regimes. Then, frequency sweep measurements were conducted in the linear region, at 5% strain, over a frequency range of 0.01-10 Hz.  •  Two measurements were performed in each steady shear and SAOS test.  45  CHAPTER 4  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In this chapter, the results from this pilot study which are rheological properties of synovial fluid, rheology of viscosupplements, the effects of viscosupplements on the rheology of synovial fluid, and the stability of rheological properties of synovial fluid mixed with cross-linked viscosupplement over time are presented and discussed.  4.1  Rheology of Synovial Fluid In this experiment, the steady shear and oscillatory shear measurements were  performed in OA synovial fluid in order to examine the rheological behaviors of synovial fluid. 4.1.1  Viscometric Property  All 24 synovial fluid samples exhibited non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior; that is viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate (Figure 4.1). This is the characteristic for normal and degenerative arthritis [39, 112]. Results showed that rheological behaviors of synovial fluid varied widely in OA. The variability is demonstrated by the wide range of zero shear viscosity. The zero shear viscosity (7o) varied from 0.28 to 10.59 Pa s (Table 4.1). However, at high shear rate the viscosities are mostly the same, even though the physiological shear rates are not in that high range. To ensure the repeatability of the data, two measurements were performed for steady shear test and the precision of the data is within 2% (Appendix C. 1). Most of the samples (80%) exhibited viscosity plateau at low shear rates. 46  L17 sod woij Ajuo  pUTUwx aM SUTOf 1UU0U JOJ  ‘JJJ] STpflS WOS UT ‘JAOJOJi’4  snoTAJd ut pi.ioda suio1 pnoqs PU!IJ  ‘JAMOH  A0UcS 1  SJOqO  O  ping  (prns  J1iAOUiS JO SflTSOOSiA  UO WOIJ piA  s) (iodojd  ZJflTIOS  uuou tpoq  [TT-oIT ‘cj  UT  ‘[ri i  fl Tfl pou  i Xpnis sng  UT  sjdums  sTprns SflOTAJd woj  SflO3STA JO OUJ psqqso Ot{ UO  g Aprns usaid  ui g i(prns [9L]  SijA ‘UKT  J %IL ‘[ill]  j7 jqj) iqaj s  [ i 1-01 1 ‘E1 STprnS  JOJ prnjj P!A0U1S JO kJiSOSTA JO UU1  pu  •UJ  ‘(z idq ui  ptw jui.iou ioj  (E7 jqj) ui p sjdms ‘4 JO %L I IT0 u sduis uo  2ut.i  (q  )OM SflOTAaId uioij  1t 0  urnpui qi nq ‘iMon1u s  j  ij  ui  i oxnzzN  pijsqqiso  jo uii  i(prns  usaid  u Oü jo  donp.i uj jrno uunp sofqns woj puinqo osj aiM siduws 1 ‘n ‘(vi) X.is  pinjj jTAou(S qrqM uT  p  i oonzzy  iq prns iqou o uudwoD  1J JqS UiSJOUT  I!M  SSJ3p iISO3STA qj JoTArnpq UTWTftfl J14S ttUTUO1A\N-UOU pTqrqx s duiis ping 1 JrnAOU(g  .uqs jo UO!JnJnJ r r  sidunm P1flIJ II!A0UAS .IOJ 1u  :it’  £sOzs!A  (‘r) aiei etis 0001  001  01  1  10  100 10•0  I  •z  61NS.  .  •.v  SINSv 1NS. 01NS.  • 1  001  00  C 00  ci) ci) ci) ci) ci)  c  O U -I c  Z ci)  (JDciD  -.  00  Ci) ci) i) Ci) Ci) ci) ci) ci) Ci) Ci) ci) ci)  C/)  N a C  ‘  p c  H-  Pp  co  JI  !‘  +  00  C  00 C  Q INJ  IN  —‘  IN  c  IN)  C  C  00  IN  (J  IN)  IN.  —  C  L  (3  t  00 -  •  C  • Go  ‘J  k) — L’J k  1’) IN)  —  4 C C IN)  a  a C rj  I.  cPppp  )  ci) a  +(fQ  a  (fJJ)  —.  -  —  C’  r  Q_ a pz  c E.  a  a  —  a  C  a a  Q  a  a  Cl)  a  -  Cl)  .  a p  Q-  .  a  C  Cl)  a  a  aI)  Cl)  -*  Q  ‘  a  Cl)  Cl)  o  o  Cl)  C  c  Cl)  —•  .  Table 4.2: Comparison of ‘lo between the present study and Mazzucco et a!. 1761  ‘io (Pa s)  Present Study  Range  0.279  Median  —  Mazzucco et al. [761  10.59  0.087 25 -  2.23  1.3  Table 4.3: Percentage of the samples fit in the established range of work (1111 on normal and degenerative synovial fluid.  170  from previous  % Samples Parameter  (Pa s)  Group  Range Present Study  Mazzucco et al. [761  Normal  6- 12  83  29  Degenerative  0.1 -1  17  71  It should be noted that many patients with OA participated in this study presented an increased volume of synovial fluid. Friction is introduced when excess lubricant is introduced into the bearing. In this case the moving element has to overcome the excess lubricant by pushing it out of the way thereby demanding more energy for the moving element to perform some work. Friction causes wear generated by high viscous stresses. Therefore, a supplementary wear can occur in OA joints, which is not related to the degradation of the cartilage, though to the lubricant friction. In addition, some of the OA synovial fluid in this study presented impurities. One general cause of bearing failure is the dirt in the lubrication system. This will lead to a supplementary wear.  49  In the present study, two patients had “dry” knees and synovial fluid samples from two other patients contained insufficient fluid for rheological testing. For poorly lubricate bearings, abrasive wear could occur. In this case two surfaces pass over one another close enough for the asperities to “lock and adhere” with one another causing a wear particle to break off. Also in this case a supplementary wear can occur due to the small quantity of synovial fluid. In general, the viscosity of OA synovial fluid is decreased compare to healthy synovial fluid. For bearings in general, if an application involves high speeds and low loads, then a low viscosity lubricant is adequate. Inversely, if an application involves low speeds and high loads, then high viscosity lubricant should be chosen.  In choosing a  lubricant we must ensure the viscosity is high enough to provide a continuous fluid film in the contact area, but not too high so as to create friction due to viscous shear. The knee involves low speeds and high loads, so a higher viscosity is recommended.  4.1.2  Rheopectic Property Constant shear rates of 0.01 and 0.05 s , were applied to 19 synovial fluid samples. 1  The results showed that at low shear rates of 0.01 and 0.05  synovial fluid samples  exhibited rheopectic behavior; that is the shear stress increases over time at a constant shear rate. Examples of rheopectic behavior of synovial fluid at the shear rates of 0.01 and 0.05 s  are shown in Figure 4.2 and 4.3, respectively.  50  0.3 0.25 0.20.15  •.  0.1 0.05  1  0 0  100  200  300  400  500  Time (s)  Figure 4.2: Shear stress as a function of time at shear rate 0.01 s_i (sample SN19). Synovial fluid exhibited rheopectic behavior; that is the shear stress increases over time at a constant shear rate of 0.01 s_i.  1.2 1  4  .  .  .  . .  0.6 0.4  In  0.2 0—  0  —________  100  200  300  400  500  lime(s)  Figure 4.3: Shear stress as a function of time at shear rate 0.05 s_i (sample SN19). Synovial fluid exhibited rheopectic behavior; that is the shear stress increases over time at a constant shear rate of 0.05 s  51  Table 4.4 shows that the ratio of and the ratio of t=45Os  t—45Os  /o=o at 0.01  =4508 /J=  at 0.05  t=45Os  at 0.01 s’ ranged from 1.57—6.48  1 ranged from 1.23—3.40. In general, the ratios of /=o at 0.05 s s  s,  in synovial fluid samples were higher than that of  with the median of 2.12 and 1.59, respectively. These results  suggested that the shear stress of OA synovial fluid at the shear rate of 0.01 s builds up at higher rate than at the shear rate of 0.05 s*  Table 4.4: Ratios of shear stress at 450 s/shear stress at 0 s (at 0.01 s_i and 0.05 s ) 1 Sample SNO6 SNO7 SNO8 SNO9 SN1O SN11 5N12 SN13 SN14 SN15 SN16 SN17Lt. SN17 Rt. 5N18 SN19 SN2O SN21 SN22 Lt. SN22Rt. Range Median  t=45Os ‘t=O  at 0.01 s_i  1.89 1.83 2.10 2.10 2.24 3.55 1.71 2.96 4.63 2.22 1.72 5.55 6.48 1.85 1.84 2.12 1.57 2.37 2.81 1.57-6.48 2.12  t=45Os “t=O  at 0.05  1.28 1.46 1.53 1.58 1.52 2.12 2.11 1.53 1.59 2.06 1.75 2.46 3.40 1.67 1.81 1.23 1.41 1.79 1.52 1.23-3.40 1.59  52  Rheopexy in synovial fluid has previously been observed in several studies [63, 87, 88, 92]. O’neill and Stachowiak [92] found rheopectic behavior in OA synovial fluid at temperature below 20 °C. Above this temperature, rheopexy was not observed. The ratio lt=450s ‘7t=o 1  was approximately 1.15 (note that this value is estimated from published  graph). The results from the present study are not consistent with their findings. In the present study, the rheopectic behavior was observed in OA synovial fluid samples at 37 °C. The differences of the findings may be caused by several factors which include the types of instrument and the constant shear rate that was applied to the sample. It should be noted that in O’neill and Stachowiak [92] study the constant shear rate applied to the sample was not reported. Rheopectic behavior is an important behavior of synovial fluid.  Viscosity of  synovial fluid increases with duration of shearing. It seems that the longer the duration of shearing, the better the lubricating film which is generated by the body. Oates et al. [88] asserted that rheopectic behavior is attributed to protein aggregation which appears to play an important role in enhancing the viscoelastic properties of synovial fluid. Furthermore, rheopectic behavior indicates the temporary protein network formation which may help explain joint stiffness after inactivity.  It has been reported that in degenerative joint  diseases, the protein content in synovial fluid increases [12].  The increase of protein  content in OA synovial fluid and rheopectic behavior of synovial fluid may be associated with the increase in joint stiffness following prolonged inactivity found in patients with OA. However, the mechanism of rheopectic behavior in relation to joint lubrication is still not well understood.  53  4.1.3  Viscoelastic Properties The linear viscoelastic properties were observed in synovial fluid samples. At low  frequencies, loss modulus G” was higher than storage modulus increased, both moduli,  G’. As the frequency  G” and G’, increased. At higher frequencies, the storage modulus  G’ exceeded loss modulus G” in many samples. The cross over frequency, at which the loss and storage moduli are equal, was observed in 18 of the 24 synovial fluid samples obtained (Figure 4.4). In the other 6 samples, even at high frequency, the storage modulus G’ was not sufficiently large enough to measure a cross over (Figure 4.5). In the absent of cross over, synovial fluid samples displayed a viscous-like behavior. 10  .  I  .  I  I  . 0  z  1  .  I  .  E  o  .  0.1 0.01  0.1  1  10  Frequency (Hz)  Figure 4.4: Storage and loss moduli as a function of frequency from SAOS measurement (sample SN15). Viscoelastic properties were observed in synovial fluid samples. This graph shows that syriovial fluid exhibited viscoelastic behavior. At low frequencies, loss modulus was higher than storage modulus. At higher frequencies, storage modulus exceeded loss modulus. The cross over frequency was observed.  54  .  . I  . t  0.1  I  .  .  I  I  .  I  •  I  m  .GTTI  Z .  -i 0 . 0 1  I  0.001 0.01  0.1  1  10  Frequency (Hz)  Figure 4.5: Storage and loss moduli as a function of frequency from SAOS measurement (sample SN12). Viscoelastic properties were observed in synovial fluid samples. This graph shows that synovial fluid exhibited viscous-like behavior. Loss modulus was higher than storage modulus over the range of frequency.  Table 4.5 summarizes the storage G’ and loss moduli  G” from synovial fluid  samples tested at the frequencies of 0.5 and 2.5 Hz. These frequencies, 0.5 and 2.5 Hz., correspond to joint movement during walking and running, respectively [11]. To ensure the repeatability of the data, two measurements were performed for SAOS test and the precision of the data is within 2% (Appendix C.2-C.3). The results showed that the mean of the storage modulus G’ is higher than that of the loss modulus G” in both frequencies. This suggested that, on average, OA synovial fluids in the present study play a role as elastic shock absorber during both walking and running. The function of shock absorber also is related to viscoelasticity.  55  I  (ID  CD  CD  CD  C)  C)  E’  Q_  (ID  C  CD  CD  •  .  CD  CD  x C  ‘J  -  (ID  rj  0  CD  CD  C  i-  (ID  z.  C  -  (ID  CD  CD  .  I I  H  ‘  C  Z  Cl)ClD  CI) CI) CI) Cl) C/) Cl) CI) CI) CI) Cl) Cl) Cl) Cl) CI) CI) CI)  -  C \C 00 C (J -1. (  ON -.) D 00 00 C C 3 0 00 . 00 ON - C L  —  -  Ui  i—’  UiC  i’J  Ui ON ) L.) C .D k) Ui  H-I  Ui  NP (J )—  •  C C 00  C U 4  zzzzzzzzzzzzz C C C C C C C C C  C)) CI) CI) Cl)  •  C  —  -  ON Ui ON Ui L O  C •  ON  ( )  (3 ON C00C40C00  L’) C C -1  -  L’J - C00 M ON ON Ui -1 ON O C  H- I 00 C ON Ui ON Ui 00 00 Ui - D 00 J JOUiON  UiL)  p  —.00 -1  I  L  C  -c  H-  (/)Cl)  -l  t’J ON )4  C  C 00 C k) -‘ —a L’) ( ‘J -1 -‘ 00 L) . . L0000CNcI0CcIJCN0000  .  H-  ;j  k)  Cl) CD  H-  CD  tJ  -,  J.  (1.  N  (I  0  0  —  -  0  Ci)  .  —  Table 4.6: Storage G’ and loss G” moduli for synovial fluid samples in the present study and in different groups from previous studies. Group Normal 52-78 years old Balazs_[12] Osteoarthritis * Balaz_[12] TKA Muzzucco_et_al. [76] Present Study  *  Frequency (Hz)  G’ (Pa)  G” (Pa)  2.5  18.9 ± 3.3  10.1 ± 1.2  NR  8.5 ± 5.4  4.8 ± 2.8  2.5  1.9 ±0.5  1.4 ±0.3  2.5  3.55 ± 0.56  2.51 ± 0.26  Data are presented as mean ± standard error. * Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation. These results were reported in 2 which is assumed to be an editing error for dynes/cm dynes/sec 2 (0.1 Pa). Viscoelasticity has an important effect on the lubrication system and the lubrication performances. Increasing the viscoelasticity, the load capacity is increased, but at the same time for enough high viscoelasticity the friction is reduced.  In OA synovial fluid the  viscoelasticity decreases. Therefore, it affects the lubrication performance of the joint. It should be pointed out that most of the subjects enrolled in this study were diagnosed as “severe” OA (see Table 3.1 in Chapter 3). Diagnosis of the severity of OA in this study was made according to the Kellgren-Lawrence radiographic grading system [59]. The results of viscometric property presented in Table 4.3 showed that based on established range from previous studies [32, 110-112] synovial fluid samples in this study fit in both normal and degenerative range. However, the results of viscoelastic properties presented in Table 4.5 and Table 4.6 showed that all synovial fluid samples in this study fit in osteoarthritis range based on previous study by Balazs [12]. The results from this study suggested that rheological behaviors, both viscosity and viscoelasticity, of synovial fluid could play an important role in diagnosis of the severity of OA.  57  Table 4.7: Crossover frequency and relaxation time of synovial fluid samples Sample  Crossover Frequency  SNO1 SNO2 SNO3 SNO4 SNO5  0.09 0.09 0.09  11.24 11.24 11.24  No  N/A  0.13 No 0.13 0.13 0.97 0.06 No No 0.06 0.18 0.09 0.06 0.18  7.87 N/A 7.87 7.87 1.03 16.13 N/A N/A 16.13  Relaxation Time  ‘°c  SNO6 SNO7 SNO8 SNO9 SN1O SN11 SN12 SN13 SN14 SN15 SN16 SN17Lt. SN17 Rt. SN18 SN19 SN2O SN21 SN22Lt. SN22 Rt. Range Mean±SD  0.55 0.55 0.09 No 0.40 0.18 No 0.06—0.97 0.22 ± 0.06  5.46 11.24 16.13 5.46 1.83 1.83 11.24 N/A 2.51 5.46 N/A 1.03—16.13 8.43 ± 1.17  Table 4.7 shows that the average crossover frequency for the synovial fluid samples in this study was 0.22 Hz., which is much lower than that reported in Mazzucco et a! [76]. In their study, the average crossover frequency was at 1.8 Hz.  The differences of the  results from one study to another may be caused by several factors including the type of the instrument and geometry used in the study, and the way the fluid is handled in each study. In addition, the relaxation time  (2,.),  were calculated from crossover frequency  a, 58  =  1/2,. [1101. The relaxation time of the synovial fluid samples in the present study  varied widely and ranged from 1.03  —  16.13 s. It was observed that most of synovial fluid  samples that have high relaxation time also have high viscosity. Synovial fluids with high viscosity tend to take more time for their structures to relax after deformation. Figure 4.6 shows that from the oscillatory measurement, synovial fluid samples also exhibited non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior, which is consistent with the behavior observed in steady shear test. However, the plateau was observed at high frequency.  100  10  A  A  A  A  *  A  A  n  5  •SN10 SN12  $  1  A  A  $ • AA  $  ASN15  AAS:  x  A  .  .  0.1  .  .  .  I  A  SN19  I  .  0  U  0.01 0.01  0.1  1  10  Frequency (Hz)  Figure 4.6: Complex viscosity as a function of frequency for synovial fluid samples Synovial fluid samples exhibited non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior. The complex viscosity decreases with increasing frequency.  59  4.1.4  Bilateral Knee Arthroplasty In two of the subjects, synovial fluid samples were obtained from both knees during  bilateral total knee arthroplasty. The results showed that the viscosity varied substantially from knee to knee in each case. In sample SN1 7, the viscosity of synovial fluid from the left knee was higher than that from the right knee in lower shear rates (Figure 4.7). However, in sample SN22, the viscosity of synovial fluid from the left knee was greater than the one from the right knee over the range of shear rates (Figure 4.8). These results support the findings from Mazzucco et al. [76]. They suggested that rather than a systemic disorder, local alterations control the properties of the synovial fluid.  10 • • 1  •  •  •  •  • •  • .  •• *  Lt.Kneei 1 Rt.Knee  .  *  0.1  I m  0.01 0.01  0.1  1  10  100  1000  Shear Rate (1k)  Figure 4.7: Viscosity as a function of shear rate (sample SN 17, left vs. right knees). Synovial fluid from both knees exhibited non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior. The viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate.  60  10  .• •. . I  I In I  I  1  Lt. Knee .  •  0.1 •  0.01 0.01  0.1  1  10  :  100  1000  Shear Rate (lj)  Figure 4.8: Viscosity as a function of shear rate (sample SN 22, left vs. right knees). Synovial fluid from both knees exhibited non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior. The viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate.  10  1 F •  0.1  --  0.01 0.01  G”Lt.Knee  *  In  2  j111  ‘ 1  ‘G’ Lt. Knee AG Rt.Knee T1  R  .  •  0.1  1  G’ Rt. Knee  10  Frequency (Hz)  Figure 4.9: Storage and loss moduli as a function of frequency from SAOS measurement (sample 5N17, left vs. right knees). Synovial fluid from both knees exhibited viscoelastic behavior. At low frequencies, loss modulus was higher than storage modulus. At higher frequencies, storage modulus exceeded loss modulus. The cross over frequency was observed.  61  For sample SN17, synovial fluid from both knees exhibited viscoelastic behavior; that is loss modulus G” was higher than storage modulus G’ at low frequencies. At higher frequencies, the storage modulus G’ exceeded loss modulus G”, and the cross over frequency were observed (Figure 4.9). The values of viscoelastic parameters were close to each other. However, the cross over for sample from the left knee was observed at lower frequency than the one from the right (Table 4.8).  Table 4.8: Viscoelasfic properties of synovial fluid from 2 subjects during bilateral total knee arthroplasty Subject  Lt/Rt  G’0.5Hz  G”0.5Hz  ‘-‘2.5Hz  G”2.5Hz  Crossover Frequency  SN17  Lt Rt Lt Rt  1.26 1.05 3.2 0.54  1.09 1.01 2.74 0.68  1.86 1.89 5.95 0.83  1.81 1.75 4.13 1.66  0.264 0.546 0.183 no  SN22  For sample SN22, synovial fluid from both knees showed different behaviors. The cross over frequency was observed in synovial fluid sample from the left knee, but not in the other. Synovial fluid from the left knee exhibited viscoelastic behavior. In synovial fluid from the right knee, loss modulus G” was larger than storage modulus entire range of oscillation frequency (Figure 4.10).  G’  over the  Synovial fluid from the right knee  exhibited viscous-like behavior. Moreover, all viscoelastic parameters of synovial fluid from the left knee were considerably higher than the right knee. (Table 4.8)  62  10 a...’’ a  •1  I.  AAAA  12  •GLt.Knee A  •  G Lt. Knee T AG”Rt Knee G’Rt.Knee  •  •  A  0.1AA  0.011 0.01  H  0.1  1  10  Frequency (Hz)  Figure 4.10: Storage and loss moduli as a function of frequency from SAOS measurement (sample SN22, left vs. right knees). Synovial fluid from the left knee exhibited viscoelastic behavior. The cross over frequency was observed. However, synovial fluid from the right knee exhibited viscous-like behavior.  Interestingly, the results from the present study showed that, of the two subjects, a substantial difference in viscoelastic behavior of synovial fluid between the left and right knee only observed in one subject, but not in the other.  Since only two cases were  examined, no conclusion can be drawn whether deterioration of rheological properties in synovial fluid on one side can predict the deterioration on the contralateral side. There are many factors that may contribute to the variability of the rheological properties of synovial fluid within a single subject, including left- or right-sided dominance, joint geometry, and trauma history.  4.1.5  Model Fitting The generalized Newtonian constitutive equation can capture the non-Newtonian  behavior with sufficient accuracy for inelastic fluids. The fluids can be characterized by fitting 63  the viscosity experimental data to a model so that a few parameters can be compared among fluids. There are several models that can be used to better fit the material’s characteristic. 10  II U)  I  1  I • Data • Cross Model A Carreau-Yasuda Model  a, a’ U)  0  a  U U)  • •  0.1  >  A •A  •  0.01 0.01  0.1  1  10  A  •  •  A  • a  •  100  1000  Shear Rate (1,)  Figure 4.11: Model fitting for sample SN15. At low shear rates, both models fit well with the data. However, within the physiological shear rates range from 0.01-100 s_i, Carreau-Yasuda model appeared to fit the data better than Cross model.  100  10 I  Data aCross Model iCanau-Yasuda Modeli  1, cn  1-  0 U U)  • a  > 0.11  •  0.01 0.01  0.1  1  10  100  a  a  1000  Shear Rate (1,)  Figure 4.12: Model fitting for sample SN19. At low shear rates, both models fit well with the data. However, within the physiological shear rates range from 0.01-100 s_i, Carreau-Yasuda model appeared to fit the data better than Cross model.  64  Table 4.9: Rheological indexes of Cross and Carreau-Yasuda models Sample  Cross Carreau-Yasuda n a n A. 2 SN1 1.26 1.19 4.61 0.43 5.3 SN2 1 0.75 2.19 0.49 3.69 SN3 1.32 1.3 6.59 0.44 6.08 SN4 1.31 3.29 82.11 0.53 19.17 SN5 0.9 2.89 2.01 0.51 14.98 SN6 1.25 0.55 8.48 0.52 3.33 SN7 1.05 2.1 2.38 0.44 8.75 SN8 1.27 0.9 5.11 0.48 4.6 SN9 1.33 0.61 6.07 0.46 2.03 SN1O 1.32 1.29 4.44 0.42 5.49 SN11 0.71 5.25 0.91 0.47 15.15 SN12 0.83 0.75 3.2 0.65 8.61 SN13 1.41 2.54 101.5 0.45 12.34 SN14 1.19 0.52 4.94 0.5 2.94 SN15 1.01 1.5 2.54 0.5 7.65 SN16 1.4 1.17 5.28 0.41 4.94 SN17 Lt 1.08 1.18 2.83 0.49 6.13 SN17 Rt. 1.23 0.37 4.02 0.49 1.94 5N18 1.34 0.41 5.34 0.45 1.95 SN19 1.42 1.29 5.42 0.39 5.17 SN2O 0.89 0.1 2.35 0.6 0.85 SN21 0.79 1.91 1.09 0.46 6.01 SN22 Lt. 1.35 0.5 5.25 0.45 2.38 SN22 Rt. 1.6 1.76 6.07 0.41 7.43 4775* 5395* 1.185* 1.17±0.23 0.47±0.39 (0.71 1.6) (0.1 5.25) (0.91 10.15) (0.39— 0.65) (0.85 19.17) Data for n index report in mean ± standard deviation and range. Data report in median and range due to high skewness of the data. —  *  —  —  —  Two models were used for fitting the data, Cross model and Carreau-Yasuda model. Figure 4.11 and 4.12 shows that at low shear rates, both models fit well with the data. However, within the physiological shear rates range from 0.01-100 s, Carreau-Yasuda model appeared to fit the data better than Cross model.  Table 4.9 shows rheological  indexes in Cross model and Carreau-Yasuda model. For Cross model, n index ranged from  65  0.71  —  1.6, while it ranged from 0.39  —  0.65 in Carreau-Yasuda model. These values  indicated the non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior.  4.2  Rheology of Viscosupplements Viscosupplementation is the use of intraarticular injection of hyaluronic acid or  hylans to treat OA.  There are various commercial products of viscosupplements which  differ in origin (animal or bacterial), molecular weight, and resident time in the joint [10, 85].  In this study, rheological characterization was performed on three different  viscosupplements (i.e. Orthovisc®, Suplasyn®, and Synvisc®). To ensure the repeatability of the data, two measurements were performed in each test and the precision of the data is within 2% (Appendix C.4-C.6). 4.2.1  Orthovisc® Orthovisc® exhibited non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior; that is viscosity  decreases with increasing shear rate.  A plateau at low shear rates was also observed  (Figure 4.13). In the oscillatory measurement, it was found that at low frequencies, loss modulus G” was higher than storage modulus G’. At higher frequencies, the storage modulus G’ exceeded loss modulus G”. The cross over frequency was also observed (Figure 4.14). Moreover, there was nearly no change in rheological properties when testing at25°Cand37°C.  66  100 •-I-*i •  .  -  10 *  •25C 37C  -  0.01  0.1  1  10  100  1000  Shear Rate (1j)  Figure 4.13: Viscosity as a function of shear rate for Orthovisc® at 25 °C and 37 °C. Orthovisc® exhibited non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior; that is viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate. There was nearly no change in rheological property when testing at 25 °C and 37 °C.  1000 E  —_______  1  .  100-  *  1 a  I  i  •t  *  f  1 + G”25C •G’25C  •  AG°37C .G37C  io  1  -—---——----  0.1  1  -____  10  Frequency (Hz)  Figure 4.14: Storage and loss moduli as a function of frequency from SAOS measurement for Orthovisc® at 25 °C and 37 °C. Viscoelastic property was observed. Orthovisc® exhibited viscoelastic behavior. There was nearly no change in rheological property when testing at 25 °C and 37 °C.  67  However, compare to the result from Mazzucco et al. [76], the zero shear viscosity of Orthovisc® in the present study was approximately 2 times higher. The differences of the findings might be due to several factors. First, the result in this study presented the viscosity as a function of shear rate, whereas the result in Mazzucco et al [76] reported the viscosity as function of shear stress. Second, the type of rheometer and the measurement geometry used in this study are different from the ones used in Mazzucco et al. [76]. Finally, Orthovisc® has the molecular weight range from 1-2.9 MDa. This wide range of molecular weight might contribute to the difference of the results.  4.2.2  Suplasyn® In a steady shear measurement, Suplasyn® showed a shear thinning behavior  (Figure 4.15).  However, it should be pointed out that there was a sharp decrease in  viscosity at lower shear rates. Note that the bump of the data in Figure 4.15 is likely due to the rheometer.  10  U  ..  I 1  • • 1  .25C •  .37C  *  In  II  >  0.1  H  0.01  0.1  1  10  100  1000  S hear Rate (1&)  Figure 4.15: Viscosity as a function of shear rate for Suplasyn® at 25 °C and 37 °C. Suplasyn® exhibited non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior; that is viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate. There was only a slight change in rheological property when testing at 25 °C and 37 °C. a 68  100 10 I 1-  oi  *  I  I  1  * I  I p  .  •G”25C  I  • •  1  I  .G25C  I  AG 3 T 7C  •  .G’37C’  .  0.001 0.1  1  10  Frequency (Hz)  Figure 4.16: Storage and loss moduli as a function of frequency from SAOS measurement for Suplasyn® at 25 °C and 37 °C. Viscoelastic property was observed. Suplasyn® exhibited viscous-like behavior. There was nearly no change in rheological property when testing at 25 °C and 37 °C.  In the oscillation test, Suplasyn® exhibited a viscous-like behavior; that is the loss modulus G” remained larger than the storage modulus G’ over the entire range of oscillation frequency (Figure 4.16).  There was only a slight change in rheological  properties when testing at 25 °C and 37 °C.  4.2.3  Synvisc® In a steady shear measurement, Synvisc® showed a shear thinning behavior (Figure  4.17). In the oscillation test, Synvisc® exhibited a gel-like behavior; that is the storage modulus G’ remained larger than the loss modulus G throughout the range of oscillation frequency (Figure 4.18).  This result is consistent with a study by Mathieu et al. [75].  Nearly no change in rheological properties when testing at 25 °C and 37 °C was observed.  69  1000  -r I.  —  1  100-  I I  io  •  U  I  .  >  e37C  I I  1  I I I I  0.1 0.01  0.1  1  10  100  1000  Shear Rate (1k)  Figure 4.17: Viscosity as a function of shear rate for Synvisc® at 25 °C and 37 °C Synvisc® exhibited non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior; that is viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate. There was nearly no change in rheological property when testing at 25 °C and 37 °C.  1000  100 ê  ,  I  *  I  •  •  *  f  ‘  *  *  •G25C .G’25C AG”37C .G’37C  *  io-  1  0.1  1  10  Frequency (Hz)  Figure 4.18: Storage and loss moduli as a function of frequency from SAOS measurement for Synvisc® at 25 °C and 37 °C. Viscoelastic property was observed. Synvisc® exhibited gel-like behavior. There was nearly no change in rheological property when testing at 25 °C and 37 °C.  70  4.2.4  Comparison of the Rheological Properties of Orthovisc®, Suplasyn®, and Synvisc® Figure 4.19 shows that when compared to Orthovisc® and Synvisc®, Suplasyn® had  the lowest viscosity throughout the entire range of shear rates. It was observed that, at lower shear rates  (‘-  0.01  —  1 s’), Synvisc® had higher viscosity than Orthovisc®, but had  lesser viscosity at higher shear rates. At shear rate 0.01  , 1 s  the viscosity of Synvisc® was  about two orders of magnitude higher than that of Suplasyn®. Note that the bump of the data in Figure 4.19 is likely due to the rheometer. The results showed that different formulations of viscosupplements used in this study exhibited a consistent trend of differences in rheological properties.  All three  viscosupplements exhibited a non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior. The viscosity of Synvisc® was the highest, whereas the viscosity of Suplasyn® was the lowest. This finding is consistent with a study by Prieto et al. [100]. The average molecular weight (MW) of Synvisc® is 6 MDa, where as the average MW of Orthovisc® and Suplasyn® are 1-2.9 MDa and 0.5-0.7 MDa, respectively [85].  The results from the present study indicated that  viscosity of the viscosupplement highly depends on MW of the hyaluronic acid.  In  addition, it was observed that, as shear rate increases, the viscosity of Synvisc® showed a more dramatic decrease than that of Orthovisc® and Suplasyn®. This finding is in line with the results from previous study which reported that the decrease in apparent viscosity was more pronounced in high MW hyaluronic acid than low MW hyaluronic acid [80].  71  1000.00  +  A A  • .  A  . .  ‘*1 10.00  •  A  1.00  .Suplasyn’ ASyfl\iiSC  A  8 >  Orthois  •  ••a.•.  •  •  ::  •.  .*. 0.10 0.01  0.1  1  10  100  1000  Shear Ra (1k)  Figure 4.19: Viscosity as a function of shear rate for Orthovisc®, Suplasyn® and Synvisc®. Suplasyn® had the lowest viscosity throughout the entire range of shear rates. At lower shear rates ( 0.01 1 s’), Synvisc® had higher viscosity than Orthovisc®, but had lesser viscosity at higher shear rates. —  Table 4.10 shows that the dynamic moduli, G’ and G”, at both 0.5 and 2.5 Hz. were smallest in Suplasyn®.  It was also observed that the storage modulus G’ of Synvisc® was  largest at both frequencies. On the other hand, Orthovisc® was found to have the largest loss modulus G”. It should also be pointed out that, for Orthovisc®, at 37 °C the cross over shifted to a higher frequency than at 25 °C. For Synvisc®, the values of G’ and G”, at both 0.5 and 2.5 Hz. were very close to the values reported in a study by Mathieu et a!. [75] (estimated from the published graph). However, for Orthovisc®, the values of G’ and 0’ at 2.5 Hz. in the present study were about 2 times and 1.5 time, respectively higher that that reported in Mazzucco et a!. [76]. Several factors, including the type of rheometer, the measurement geometry, the gap used in the measurements, and the wide range of MW of Orthovisc® (MW 1-2.9 MDa) might contribute to these differences.  72  Table 4.10: Viscoelastic properties of Orthovisc®, Suplasyn®, and Synvisc® Sample  Temp.  G’05Hz  G”0.5Hz  G’2.5Hz  G”2.5Hz  Crossover Frequency  Orthovisc®  25°C 37°C 25°C 37 °C 25°C 37°C  67.48 51.21 0.43 0.29 100.9 91.85  56.42 45.86 2.84 2.56 27.78 26.13  141 111.2 3.67 3.36 126.1 118.1  72.07 61.48 11.15 10.78 23.86 22.46  0.251 0.398 no no no no  Suplasyn® Synvisc®  Regarding the viscoelastic properties, viscosupplements tested in this study behaved differently from each other. Within the frequency ranging from 0.1 to 10 Hz., Synvisc® (MW 6 MDa) exhibited gel-like behavior. For Orthovisc® (MW 1-2.9 MDa), a distinct transition from viscous to elastic behavior occurred as the oscillation frequency increased. However, a viscous-like behavior was observed in a viscosupplement with low MW, Suplasyn® (MW 0.5-0.8 MDa).  These findings suggested that the differences in  rheological behavior are related to MW of the viscosupplements and its network forming ability. Previous studies reported that at high MW a transient entanglement network is formed, but it was absent for hyaluronic acid at low MW [2, 63].  The network-forming  ability of hyaluronic acid in solutions gives rise to the non-Newtonian behavior of hyaluronic acid solutions [64] and affects the viscoelasticity of the solution [80].  In  addition, the results from this study showed that there were slight changes in viscosity and viscoelastic behavior of the viscosupplements when the temperature changes from 25 °C to 37°C.  73  4.3  Effects of Viscosupplements on the Rheology of Synovial Fluid A variety of viscosupplement is commercially available and has been used as a  treatment for OA for many years.  However, its clinical effect is still inconclusive.  Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of viscosupplement on rheological behavior of synovial fluid in OA.  To ensure the repeatability of the data, two  measurements were performed in each test and the precision of the data is within 2 % (Appendix C.4-C6).  4.3.1  Viscometric Properties In the steady shear measurement, shear thinning behavior was observed in all  samples.  For sample SN2O, the addition of viscosupplements to synovial fluid led to  increase in viscosity over the range of shear rates. Among the synovial fluid mixed with viscosupplement samples, the viscosity was lowest in synovial fluid mixed with Suplasyn®, and highest in synovial fluid mixed with Synvisc®. Adding Orthovisc® into synovial fluid increased the viscosity of synovial fluid more than one order of magnitude (Figure 4.20). The result of adding Synvisc® in synovial fluid in the present study is consistent with the finding in Mathieu et al.  [751;  that is the viscosity of synovial fluid increased more than  two orders of magnitude. For sample SN21, almost the same behaviors as in sample SN2O were observed. However, in this sample, the viscosity of synovial fluid mixed with Suplasyn® at lower shear rates  (-  0.01  —  10 s’) was slightly lower than that of synovial fluid alone, but at  higher shear rates, the viscosity of synovial fluid mixed with Suplasyn® exceeded that of synovial fluid alone (Figure 4.21). Note that the bump of the data showed in Figure 4.20 and Figure 4.21 is likely due to the rheometer.  74  100  U)  •  •  10  •  .  •  .  .  .  .  .  •  .  AA  • .  AA U) 0 V U)  • SF-fOrthovisc A SF+Suplasyn • SF+Synvisc  I..  1  A  .,  .  .  .  •  •  •  •  A  I.  • •,  0.1  •  •  •  A  Al:  ..  .  0.01 0.01  0.1  1  10  100  1000  Shear Rate (lj)  Figure 4.20: Viscosity as a function of shear rate for synovial fluid (SF), SF with Orthovisc®, SF with Suplasyn® and SF with Synvisc® (sample SN2O). Non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior was observed in all samples. The addition of viscosupplements to synovial fluid led to increase in viscosity over the range of shear rates. The viscosity was lowest in synovial fluid mixed with Suplasyn®, and highest in synovial fluid mixed with Synvisc®.  1000 100  •  •  •  •  •  U)  10  j  •  •  I  •  I  • •.• •  U)  8U)  • II  I, A  >  .SF •SF-fOrthoisc ASF+SupIasyn  A  p A  S  .SF-f-Synisc  J  0.1 0.01 0.01  1  10  100  1000  Shear Ra (1j)  Figure 4.21: Viscosity as a function of shear rate for synovial fluid (SF), SF with Orthovisc®, SF with Suplasyn® and SF with Synvisc® (sample SN21). Non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior was observed in all samples. The viscosity was lowest in synovial fluid mixed with Suplasyn®, and highest in synovial fluid mixed with Synvisc®.  75  A non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior was observed in all samples of synovial fluid mixed with viscosupplements.  In general, the addition of viscosupplements to  synovial fluid led to the increase in viscosity.  Among the synovial fluid mixed with  viscosupplement samples, the viscosity was lowest in synovial fluid mixed with Suplasyn®, and highest in synovial fluid mixed with Synvisc®.  The results suggested that  viscosupplement with high MW is associated with a greater increase in the viscosity of synovial fluid.  4.3.2  Viscoelastic Properties Synovial fluid with Orthovisc® In the oscillatory test, synovial fluid sample SN2O exhibited viscous-like behaviour,  that is the loss modulus G” remained larger than the storage modulus G’ throughout the range of oscillation frequency (Figure 4.22). increased both  The addition of Orthovisc® in synovial fluid  G’ and G”. Both dynamic moduli in synovial fluid with Orthovisc® sample  were greater than synovial fluid alone about an order of magnitude and they remained greater over the entire range of frequency. Moreover, it was observed that synovial fluid with Orthovisc® exhibited a viscoelastic behavior; that is at low frequencies, loss modulus  G” was higher than storage modulus G’. At higher frequencies, the storage modulus G’ exceeded loss modulus G”. The cross over frequency was also observed (Figure 4.22). In the other synovial fluid sample (SN21), the viscoelastic behavior was observed. By adding Orthovisc® in this synovial fluid sample, both dynamic moduli increased, but it was less pronounced than in synovial fluid sample SN2O. Synovial fluid with Orthovisc® also exhibited viscoelastic behavior (Figure 4.23).  76  100 t  10 A ‘I)  A  •  •  •  I  .  1  0  ‘  ..  .G”SF .GSF iG” SF+Orthoisc ;.G’SF+Orthoisc  t  *  .  .  0.1  0.01 0.1  1  10  Frequency (Hz)  Figure 4.22: Storage and loss moduli as a function of frequency from SAOS measurement for synovial fluid (SF) and SF with Orthovisc® (sample SN2O). Synovial fluid sample SN2O exhibited viscous-like behaviour throughout the range of oscillation frequency. Both dynamic moduli in synovial fluid with Orthovisc® sample were greater than synovial fluid alone over the entire range of frequency. Synovial fluid with Orthovisc® exhibited a viscoelastic behavior. 100  •  a  10  A  A  .  A  A  S  •  •  -  A  (I)  •  .  •  :  I  • G SF .GSF  •  A  G SF+Orthod1sc  .  0  I  1  • G SF+Orthovisc  0.1 0.1  10 Frequency (Hz)  Figure 4.23: Storage and loss moduli as a function of frequency from SAOS measurement for synovial fluid (SF) and SF with Orthovisc® (sample SN21). Synovial fluid sample SN21 exhibited viscoelastic behaviour. Both dynamic moduli in synovial fluid with Orthovisc® sample were greater than synovial fluid alone over the entire range of frequency. Synovial fluid with Orthovisc® exhibited a viscoelastic behavior.  77  Synovial fluid with Suplasyn® Figure 4.24 shows that synovial fluid with Suplasyn® exhibited a viscous-like behavior which was also observed in SN2O synovial fluid sample.  The addition of  Suplasyn® in synovial fluid slightly increased both G’ and G”. However, only the loss modulus G” of synovial fluid with Suplasyn® remained greater than that of synovial fluid alone throughout the range of oscillation frequency. 100 A A  10  A A  •G”SF •G’SF AG SF+Suplasyn •GSF+Suplasyn  A  2  1  A  •  A  e •  •  a  I  I  10 Frequency (Hz)  Figure 4.24: Storage and loss moduli as a function of frequency from SAOS measurement for synovial fluid (SF) and SF with Suplasyn® (sample SN2O). Synovial fluid sample SN2O exhibited viscous-like behaviour throughout the range of oscillation frequency. The addition of Suplasyn® in synovial fluid slightly increased both dynamic moduli. Synovial fluid with Suplasyn® exhibited viscous-like behavior.  In the other synovial fluid sample (SN21), it was observed that adding Suplasyn® in synovial fluid induced viscous-like behavior to synovial fluid (Figure 4.25). Before the addition of Suplasyn®, SN2 1 showed a viscoelastic behavior that is at low frequencies, loss modulus  G” was higher than storage modulus G’. At higher frequencies, the storage  modulus  G’ exceeded loss modulus G”. However, in synovial fluid with Suplasyn®, the  loss modulus G” remained larger than the storage modulus  G’ over the range of 78  frequency. In addition, it was found that adding Suplasyn® in sample SN2 1 only increased the loss moduli at higher frequency. However, adding Suplasyn® in synovial fluid did not increase the storage moduli.  100 A A  1O . *  1  RG”SF •G’SF  A  •  A  !  A  •  •  AGSF-I-Suplasyn .G’SF-fSuplasyn  •  0.1 0.1  1  10  Frequency (Hz)  Figure 4.25: Storage and loss moduli as a function of frequency from SAOS measurement for synovial fluid (SF) and SF with Suplasyn® (sample SN21). Synovial fluid sample SN21 exhibited viscoelastic behavior. The addition of Su1asyn® in synovial fluid only slightly increased loss moduli. Synovial fluid with Suplasyn exhibited viscouslike behavior.  Synovial fluid with Synvisc® It was observed that the addition of Synvisc® in synovial fluid induced a gel-like behavior in both SN2O and SN21 synovial fluid samples; that is the storage modulus  G’  remained larger than the loss modulus G” throughout the range of oscillation frequency. This finding is consistent with a study by Mathieu et al. [75].  79  100  10  -L  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  SF .  1 0  .  I  .  I  .GSF  .  *  AG”  SF+Synisc  .GSF+Synvisc  0.1 a  0.01 0.1  1  10  Frequency (Hz)  Figure 4.26: Storage and loss moduli as a function of frequency from SAOS measurement for synovial fluid (SF) and SF with Synvisc® (sample SN2O). Synovial fluid sample SN2O exhibited viscous-like behaviour throughout the range of oscillation frequency. Both dynamic moduli in synovial fluid with Synvisc® sample were greater than synovial fluid alone over the entire range of frequency. Synovial fluid with Synvisc® exhibited gel-like behavior throughout the range of oscillation frequency.  100 }  10  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  • A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  .G’SF  Il)  • 0  x  I  1  :  :  •  •GSF  •  AG” SF+Synisc  I  G’ SF-fSynisc  0.1 0.1  1  10  Frequency (Hz)  Figure 4.27: Storage and loss moduli as a function of frequency from SAOS measurement for synovial fluid (SF) and SF with Synvisc® (sample SN21). Synovial fluid sample SN2 1 exhibited viscoelastic behavior. Both dynamic moduli in synovial fluid with Synvisc® sample were greater than synovial fluid alone over the entire range of frequency. Synovial fluid with Synvisc® exhibited gel-like behavior throughout the range of oscillation frequency.  80  Adding Synvisc® in synovial fluid substantially increased the dynamic moduli in both SN2O and SN2 1 synovial fluid samples. At frequency 0.1 Hz, the storage modulus  G’ increased more than two-order of magnitude after added Synvisc® in sample SN2O (Figure 4.26). The less pronounced increase was observed in sample SN21 (Figure 4.27). The loss modulus G” increased about same magnitude in both SN2O and SN2 1.  4.3.3  Comparison of the Rheological Progerties of Synovial Fluid After Added with Orthovisc®, Suplasyn®, and Synvisc Table 4.11 shows that in sample SN2O, the addition of viscosupplements improved  the rheological properties of the synovial fluid. The dynamic moduli, G’ and G”, at both 0.5 and 2.5 Hz. increased in all samples of synovial fluid added with viscosupplements. However, in sample SN21, only the addition of Orthovisc® and Synvisc® increased the dynamic moduli at both frequencies.  Suplasyn® only increased the loss modulus at  frequency of 2.5.Hz, but not in other parameters. modulus  It was also observed that the storage  G’ of Synvisc® was largest at both frequencies. In general, Orthovisc® seemed to  affect both G’ and G” of synovial fluid somewhat the same. However, Suplasyn® affected more on the loss modulus G” than the storage modulus  G’, while Synvisc® contributed  more to the storage modulus G’ than the loss modulus G”. In addition, the results showed that viscosupplements induced changes in viscoelastic behavior of synovial fluid.  Cross-linked high MW viscosupplement  (Synvisc®) showed greater effects on the changes in the rheological behavior of synovial fluid than high MW hyaluronic acid (Orthovisc®) and low MW (Suplasyn®) viscosupplement. The viscosupplement with low MW had the least effect on viscoelastic behavior of synovial fluid. Low MW viscosupplement mainly contributed to the increase  81  in viscous modulus of the synovial fluid.  On the other hand, cross-linked high MW  viscosupplement led to the overall improvements in rheological behavior of synovial fluid, especially the viscosity and the elasticity of synovial fluid. These findings are in line with a study by Mathieu et al. [75]. In their study, they asserted that, in comparison to linear hyaluronic acid, the cross-linked hyaluronic acid is much more efficient in improving the rheological properties of the OA synovial fluid.  Table 4.11: Viscoelastic properties of synovial fluid (SF), SF with Orthovisc®, SF with Suplasyn®, and SF with Synvisc®. Sample  Mixed Sample  GSHZ  G”0 5Hz  G’2.5Hz  G”2.5Hz  Crossover Frequency  SN2O  SF SF+Orthovisc® SF+Suplasyn® SF+Synvisc® SF SF+Orthovisc® SF+Sup1asyn SF+Synvisc®  0.46 6.42 0.88 29.35 1.98 8.95 0.88 38.32  0.76 8.61 2.05 8.08 2.06 8.99 2.05 13.03  1.53 18.32 2.89 37.29 4.67 21.16 2.93 51.51  1.99 16.57 6.79 9.71 3.43 15.21 6.59 14.23  no 1.585 no no 0.398 0.631 no no  SN21  4.4 Stability of Rheological Properties of Synovial Fluid Mixed with Cross-Linked Viscosupplement Over Time In this experiment, the effects of Synvisc® on rheological behavior of synovial fluid were determined.  To ensure the repeatability of the data, two measurements were  performed in each test and the precision of the data is within 2% (Appendix C.4-C.6). Figure 4.28 shows that synovial fluid and synovial fluid mixed with Synvisc® exhibited shear thinning behavior.  The addition of Synvise into synovial fluid samples led to a  marked increase in the viscosity throughout the range of shear rates. Furthermore, the 82  addition of Synvisc® induced a gel-like behavior in the synovial fluid; that is storage  G’ remained greater than loss modulus G” throughout the range of oscillation  modulus  frequency (Figure 4.29). However, there were nearly no changes in rheological behaviors in synovial fluid mixed with Synvisc® on day 1 and 14 days later. Table 4.12 summarizes viscoelastic properties of the samples. 1000 100 •  *  io, .  t t •  •  .  •  I  * *  e  •SF+Syniscday1 ASF+SynAsc day 14  *  1  • •  >  * •.* •  0.01 0.01  0.1  1  10  100  1000  Shear Rate (1j)  Figure 4.28: Viscosity as a function of shear rate for synovial fluid (SF), SF with Synvisc® day 1 and SF with Synvisc® day 14 (sample SN16). Non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior was observed in all samples. The viscosity increases with increasing shear rate. There were nearly no changes in rheological behaviors in synovial fluid mixed with Synvisc® on day 1 and 14 days later.  The results in the present study suggested that the rheological properties of synovial fluid are nearly unchanged over 2 weeks, which is consistent with previous work [75]. They reported that there were no changes in rheological properties of synovial fluid over 6 weeks which suggested that there is no ongoing hyaluronic acid degradation in isolated synovial fluid. Although the addition of viscosupplements to synovial fluid plays a role in improving the rheological behavior of synovial fluid in OA in this study, it should be pointed out that this is an in-vitro study. Therefore, the results cannot be applied to in vivo 83  conditions. In order to better understand the mechanisms of viscosupplements in OA joints and its clinical benefits, in vivo studies are needed.  100 ‘IIIII*.  a  I I I  iIaI  a  —  1  . 1  • •  •G”SF •GSF AGSF+Syniscday1  1 ‘‘a..,.  1  101  • •  a  •  •  • •  •  .  a  •  •G”SF+Synisc day 14 •G’SF+SynvTscdayl AG’SF+SyrMsc day 14  *  0.1• 0.01  0.1  1  10  Frequency (Hz)  Figure 4.29: Storage and loss moduli as a function of frequency from SAOS measurement for synovial fluid (SF), SF with Synvisc® day 1, and SF with Synvisc® day 14 (sample SN16). Synovial fluid sample SN16 exhibited viscoelastic behavior. Both dynamic moduli in synovial fluid with Synvisc® sample were greater than synovial fluid alone over the entire range of frequency. Synovial fluid with Synvisc® exhibited gel-like behavior throughout the range of oscillation frequency. There were nearly no changes in rheological behaviors in synovial fluid mixed with Synvisc® on day 1 and 14 days later.  Table 4.12: Viscoelastic properties of synovial fluid (SF), SF with Synvisc® day 1, and SF with Synvisc day 14 (sample SN16 and SN19) Subject  SN16  5N19  Sample  G’05Hz  G”0.5Hz  G’2.5Hz  G”2.5Hz  Crossover Frequency  SF SF+Synvisc Dayl SF+Synvisc Day_14 SF SF+Synvisc Dayl SF+Synvisc Day_14  5.11 43.58  3.32 14.52  8.46 55.81  4.43 14.46  0.062 no  42.27  14.24  55.21  14.18  no  5.67 47.51  3.84 13.81  9.62 60.03  5.06 14.15  0.089 no  46.61  13.09  59.06  13.22  no  84  Limitations to study There are several limitations to the study.  Firstly, most of the synovial fluid  obtained from subjects diagnosed with degree 4 of OA during the total knee arthroplasty. To better understand the rheological behavior of synovial fluid in OA, synovial fluid from different stages of OA is needed. Secondly, the rheological measurements were performed in a condition that is different from physiological condition of human knee joint. The geometry used in the measurement is not the same as articular cartilage. In addition, the gap used in the measurement is much larger than in the natural knee joint which is estimated at O.1im [120]. Finally, this is an in vitro study. Thus, further studies in vivo are warranted in order to better understand the mechanisms of viscosupplement in OA joints and its clinical benefits.  85  CHAPTER 5  CONCLUSIONS  In this pilot study, rheological characterizations of synovial fluid in OA were performed. In addition, rheological properties of different viscosupplements, the effects of viscosupplements on rheological behavior of synovial fluid in OA, and the stability of rheological behavior of synovial fluid mixed with cross-linked viscosupplement over time were determined. The findings from this pilot study are summarized as follows: 1)  Rheological behaviors of synovial fluid varied widely in OA. Synovial fluid in OA exhibited a non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior and viscoelastic property. Moreover, rheopectic behavior (i.e. shear stress increases over time at a constant shear rate) was observed in OA synovial fluid at physiological temperature 37 °C. In addition, the results from this study suggested that the shear stress of OA synovial fluid at the shear rate of 0.01 s 1 builds up at higher rate than at the shear rate of 0.05 si. The results also indicated that, within an individual, rheological properties of synovial fluid from the left knee differed substantially from the right knee when testing at physiological temperature 37 oc.  2)  Apparent differences in rheological properties of different viscosupplements were observed.  The viscosity of Synvisc® was the highest, whereas the  viscosity of Suplasyn® was the lowest. Within the range of frequency from 0.1 to 10 Hz., Orthovisc® exhibited a linear viscoelastic behavior, whereas Synvisc® and Suplasyn® exhibited a gel-like behavior and a viscous-like behavior,  86  respectively. There were slight changes in viscosity and viscoelastic properties when the temperature changes from 25 °C to 37 °C. 3)  The results suggested that the addition of viscosupplements to synovial fluid led to the increase in viscosity. The viscosity was highest in synovial fluid mixed with Synvisc®, and was lowest in synovial fluid mixed with Suplasyn®. The results also indicated potential trends that, within the range of frequency from 0.1 to 10 Hz., synovial fluid with Orthovisc® exhibited a linear viscoelastic behavior, whereas synovial fluid with Synvisc® and synovial fluid with Suplasyn® exhibited a gel-like behavior and a viscous-like behavior, respectively. The findings suggested that cross-linked viscosupplement (Synvisc®) was more efficient than the non-cross-linked ones (Orthovisc®, Suplasyn®) in improving the overall rheological behavior of synovial fluid.  4)  The results indicated that rheological properties of synovial fluid mixed with cross-linked viscosupplement were nearly unchanged over 2 weeks.  Recommendations for future work -  A more complete rheological characterization of synovial fluid in healthy joint and  disease joint is still needed in order to better understand its role in joint lubrication. Future studies need to include a larger sample of people with knee OA and over a broader span of OA severity. -  There are many factors that relate to OA, such as the age, gender, body mass index  (BMI), and trauma history. Therefore, it is of interest to examine whether there are any associations between these factors and the rheology of synovial fluid.  87  -  Since there is a product using an electrical stimulation as a non-invasive treatment  for OA, it is of interest to study the effect of electrical stimulation on the rheological behaviour of synovial fluid. Therefore, further investigation can be done using an electro rheological cell. -  Varieties of viscosupplements are commercially available.  However, its  mechanism in improving the rheological behaviour of the synovial fluid in OA is not well understood. Therefore, in vitro and in vivo studies on the effects of various formulations of viscosupplement on OA synovial fluid are warranted.  88  BIBLIOGRAPHY [1] Adams ME, Lussier AJ, Peyron JG. A risk-benefit assessment of injections of hyaluronan and its derivatives in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. Drug Saf 2000;23:1 15-130. [2] Ambrosio L, Borzacchiello A, Netti P, Nicolais L. 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Biorheology. 1981; 18:122-127.  102  APPENDIX A The University of British Columbia Research Ethics Board’s Certificates of Approval  103  The University of British Columbia Office of Research Services Clinical Research Ethics Boani Room 210, 828 West BC V5Z 1L8 —  10th Avenue,  Vancouvei  ETHICS CERTIFICATE OF FULL BOARD APPROVAL  ‘RINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: )ana Grecov  NST1TUTION I DEPARTMENT: UBCiApphed SciencelMechanical  I.JBC CREB NUMBER: 1108-02272  NSTITUTION(S) WHERE RESEARCH WILL BE CARRIED OUT: Institution  /ancouver Coastal Health (VCHRINCHA) JBC )tber locations where the research will be conducted:  SIt•  Vancouver General Hospital Vancouver (excludes UBC Hospital)  WA  O-INVESTlGATOR(S): Ezra Kwok etcharatana Bhuanantanondh ‘ierre Guy  PONSORING AGENCIES: 4/A ROJECT TITLE: Theological Characterization of Synovial Fluid in Patients with Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Study HE CURRENT UBC CREB APPROVAL FOR THIS STUDY EXPIRES: October 21, 2009 rhe full UBC Clinical Research Ethics Board has reviewed the above described research project, including assodate locumentation noted below, and finds the research project acceptable on ethical grounds for research invoMng humar ubjects and hereby grants approval. EB FULL BOARD MEETING EVIEW DATE: )ctober 21, 2008 )OCUMENTS INCLUDED IN THIS APPROVAL:  )ocunwnt Name  rotocol: Theological Characterization of Synovial Fluid in ‘atients with Osteoarthritis (Protocol) onsent Forms: Theological Characterization of Synovial Fluid in ‘atients with Osteoarthritis (Consent Form) etter of Initial Contact: .etter of Initial Contact Rheological of SF in OA  I Version I  Date  2  January 16, 2009  2  January 16, 2009  2  jai 16,  )ATE DOCUMENTS APPROVED:  lanuary 27, 2009  ERTlFlCATlON: In respect of clinical trials: 1. The membership of this Research Ethics Board complies with the membership requirements for Research thics Boards defined in DMsion 5 of the Food and Drug Regulations. The Research Ethics Board carries out its functions in a manner consistent with Good Clinical Practices. This Research Ethics Board has reviewed and approved the dilnical trial protocol and informed consent form or the trial which is to be conducted by the qualified investigator named above at the specified clinical trial site. This approval and the views of this Research Ethics Board have been documented in writing.  he documentation included for the above-named project has been reviewed by the UBC CREB, and the research study, as presented in the documentation, was found to be acceptable on ethical grounds for research nvolving human subjects and was approved by the UBC CREB. Approval of the Clinical Research Ethics Board by:  Dr. Gail Beliward, Chair  104  The University of British Columbia Office of Research Services Clinical Research EthIcs Board— Room 210, 828 West 10th Avenue, Vancouve, BC V5Z 1L8  ETHICS CERTIFICATE OF EXPEDITED APPROVAL: AMENDMENT RlNClPAL INVESTIGATOR: )ana Grecov  DEPARTMENT: BClAppIied Science/Mechanical  IUBC CREB NUMBER: o6-o2272  NSTITUTION(S) WHE RE RESEARCH WILL BE CARRIED OUT: Inslibition I Sit. fancouver Coastal Health (VCHRINCHA) Vancouver General Hospital JBC Vancouver (excludes UBC Hospital) (ancouver Coastal Health (VCHRINCKA) UBC Hospital hher locations wtere the research will be conducted: tiA 0-INVESTIGATOR(S): Ezra Kk )on Garbuz ‘etcharatana Bhuamntanondh ierre Guy lassamA Masri PONSORlNG AGENCIES: IA ROJECT TITLE: Theological Characterization of Synovial Fluid in Patients with Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Study REMINDER: The current UBC CREB approval for this study expires: October 21, 2009 MENDMENT(S): )ocument Name  rotocoI: Theological Characterization of Synovial Fluid in atients with Osteoarthritis (Protocol) 5 onsent Fonts: Theological Characterization of Synovial Fluid in atients with Osteoarthritis (Consent Form  I Version I  Date  4  16 2009  5  Jul 16 2009  MENDMENT APPROVAL DATE: July 28, 2009  ERTlFICATION: n respect of clinical trials: 1. The membership of this Research Ethics Board complies with the membership requirements for Research Ethics 3oards defined in Division 5 of the Food and Drug Regulations. ?. The Research Ethics Board carries out Its functions in a manner consistent with Good Clinical Practices. 3. This Research Ethics Board has reviewed and approved the clinical trial protocol and informed consent form for the -ial which is to be conducted by the qualified investigator named above at the specified clinical trial site. This approval nd the views of this Research Ethics Board have been documented in writing. The amendment(s) for the above-named project has been reviewed by the Chair of the University of British Columbia Clinical Research Ethics Board and the accompanying documentation was found to be acceptable on ethical grounds for research involving human subjects. Approval of the Clinical Research Ethics Board by one of Dr. Peter Loeen, Chair Dr. James McCormack, Associate Chair  105  Appendix B Vancouver Coastal Health Authority Clinical Trials Administration Office Approval  106  UBC j  Vancouver  to.aatHeatth Research Institute  Robert MeMaster, D. PhiL Interim Vice President, Research, VancouverCoastsl Health Executive Director, Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute Amoetete Dean Rcses, Facu of Medine The University of British Coimbia  1ktd,h,r b hrøiqh  June 4, 2009  Dr. BA. Masri Department of Orthopaedics Lower Limb Reconstruction and Oncology th Room 3114, 910 West 10 Avenue Vancouver, B.C. Vancouver Coastal Health Authority Research Study #V09-O 154 FINAL CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL TITLE:  Rheological Characterization of Synovial Fluid in Patients with Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Study  Sponsor:  Unfunded Research  This is to inform you that your project has been approved. Approval has been granted until October 21, 2009  I.  UBC Ethics Committee Certificate of Approval #1108-02272  2.  VCHA Clinical Trials Administration Office Approval  Yours truly.  for: Dr. Robert McMaster Interim Vice-President Research  A joint venture in research between the Vancouver Coastal Health Authority and The University of British Columbia. Room 100 —2647 Willow St., Vancouver. BC V5Z 3P1 Tel: 604-875-5641. Fax: 604-875-5684 www.vcbri.ca  107  APPENDIX C Data  108  S..  Is) 00 CJ  00  C C C C C C C  -‘  N  (Ji  .  L3  —  00  -  Cl)  0  a  N  Cl) Cl)  CD  Cl)  CCCCCCCCCCC C C C C C C C C C C C  Is) — Is)  CCCCCCpCCCC  ) Cl)  0  CD  -1 .I -) 00 4 D  C 00 C C3 00 D  CJ  —  —  CD  a  -H C Is) .D C LJ Is)  Lr - C C 00 c.J C 00 —..) C C  U 00  —..)  00  —.) C Is) ON  — D  -  .  C  -  —LI 00  p—’  —  —. Is) Is) ON ON  ‘  Cd) Cl)  -—H 00 C C —a ON (.3 C ON C.3 00 00 - ON C 0 —. 00 —. ON C.’.)  -  Cl) Cl)  C0000  00 00 -.. .l 0000 0 C Is) —..  C C C  CC.  Is) C3 -1  CCC. CCCC. 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