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Identification of metastasis-associated genes in prostate cancer Lin, Dong 2010

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 IDENTIFICATION OF METASTASIS-ASSOCIATED GENES IN PROSTATE CANCER  by DONG LIN M.D., China Medical University, 2000 M.Sc., China Medical University, 2003  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Pathology and Laboratory Medicine)  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver) March 2010    © Dong Lin, 2010 ii    ABSTRACT  Metastasis is thought to be based on genetic and epigenetic alterations. The mechanisms underlying prostate cancer metastasis are not clear. Studies aimed at identifying genes with key roles in this process have been impeded by lack of clinically relevant models. The heterogeneity of primary prostate cancer specimens from patients, consisting of non-metastatic and metastatic subpopulations, hampers identification of metastasis-associated genes by direct comparison of primary and secondary cancers. To overcome such hurdles, metastatic and non-metastatic tumor sublines have been developed from one patient‟s primary prostate cancer specimen using subrenal capsule grafting into NOD-SCID mice. Chromosomal alterations present in the metastatic subline, but not in non-metastatic counterparts, were identified in a small percentage of cells in the parental tissue, suggesting that metastatic potential of primary cancers can be associated with a small cancer cell subpopulation. Sublines with different metastatic potential derived from same patient‟s multifocal primary cancer provide valuable materials for identifying metastasis-associated genes and predictive markers. To identify metastasis-associated genes, differential gene expression analysis of metastatic PCa1-met and non-metastatic PCa2 prostate cancer sublines was carried out. Among various differentially expressed genes identified, ASAP1, a gene not previously associated with prostate cancer, was upregulated in the metastatic subline as confirmed by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining. In clinical specimens, ASAP1 protein staining was elevated in 80% of primary prostate cancers and substantially higher in metastatic lesions compared to benign prostate tissue. Extra ASAP1 gene copies were detected in 58% of primary prostate cancer specimens. Increased ASAP1 protein expression was iii   correlated with prostate cancer metastasis and PSA recurrence. siRNA- and shRNA-induced reduction of levels of ASAP1 protein markedly suppressed in vitro PC-3 cell migration, matrigel invasion and metastasis in vivo. These results indicate that ASAP1 plays an important role in prostate cancer invasion and metastasis and suggest that it provides a potential predictive marker and therapeutic target for the disease. Furthermore, the approach used to identify metastasis- associated genes by comparison of gene profiles of paired metastatic and non-metastatic sublines was validated. The subrenal capsule xenograft system provides a valuable platform for studying various aspects of prostate cancer metastasis.  iv   TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT …………..……..……………………………………………..…………………... ii TABLE OF CONTENTS …………………..……….……………………………..………….. iv LIST OF TABLES ……………………..…………………………………………………….. viii LIST OF FIGURES ………………………………….…………………………..………….... ix LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ……………………………………………………...……….… xi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ………………………………………………………..……..….. xiv DEDICATION …………………………………………………..…………………..………… xv CO-AUTHORSHIP STATEMENT………………………………………………………....xvi CHAPTER 1     INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………… 1 1.1 PROSTATE GLAND AND PROSTATE CANCER ……………………….……… 1 1.1.1   Prostate gland …………………………………………...…………….. 1 1.1.2   Prostate cancer …………….………………………………………... 3 1.2 CANCER INVASION AND METASTASIS ……………………………...………… 5 1.2.1   Overview ………………..………………………………...…………… 5 1.2.2   Cancer invasion …………………….……………………...………..… 5 1.2.3   Adhesive structures associated with tissue invasion and cell migration ………………………………………………………...… 8 1.2.4   Genes associated with prostate cancer invasion and metastasis...................................................................................…. 9 1.3 PROSTATE CANCER MODELS ………………………………………..…...……17 1.3.1   Rat model ……………………………………..……………………… 17 1.3.2   Canine model ………………………….…….…………………...….. 17 1.3.3   Mouse model ………………………….……….……...………………18 1.3.4   Xenograft model ………………..………………….…………...……. 20 1.4 SERIAL ANALYSIS OF GENE EXPRESSION (SAGE) ……………...…..…… 23 v   1.5 HYPOTHESES AND SPECIFIC AIMS ………………………………………..… 26  CHAPTER 2      DEVELOPMENT OF METASTATIC AND NON-METASTATIC SUBLINES FROM A PATIENT’S PROSTATE CANCER SPECIMEN  – IDENTIFICATION OF A SMALL SUBPOPULATION WITH METASTATIC POTENTIAL IN THE PRIMARY TUMOR ……….… 28 2.1. INTRODUCTION ……………...…………………………………………………… 28 2.2. MATERIALS AND METHODS ………………………...………….……………… 30 2.2.1. Materials and animals ……………….…………….………………… 30 2.2.2. Prostate cancer tissue acquisition …………………...……..……... 30 2.2.3. Subrenal capsule grafting and development of transplantable  tumor tissue lines …………………………...………………........… 31 2.2.4. In vivo orthotopic metastatic assay………….……………………… 31 2.2.5. Histopathological and immunohistochemical staining ………….... 32 2.2.6. Spectral karyotyping (SKY)……………………………………….... 33 2.2.7. Fluorescence in situ hybridization ……………………………..…... 33 2.3. RESULTS ……………………………………………………………………….….. 34 2.3.1. Development of metastatic and non-metastatic sublines from primary prostate cancer tissue via xenografting and in vivo metastatic assay ……………..…………………………….... 34 2.3.2. Identification by SKY of unique chromosomal aberrations in tumor tissue lines ………..………………………………………... 38 2.3.3. Detection of cancer cells in parental tissues carrying the metastatic clone signature (10q and 6p alterations) ……….…..… 38 2.4. DISCUSSION …………………………………………………………..………….. 42  CHAPTER 3      IDENTIFICATION OF ASAP1, A PROSTATE CANCER METASTASIS-ASSOCIATED GENE …………………………………… 45  3.1. INTRODUCTION ………………….……………..……………………………..…. 45 vi   3.2. MATERIALS AND METHODS ……………………….…………………………... 48 3.2.1. Materials and animals ……….………………..…………………….. 48 3.2.2. Xenografts ………..…………………………………..………………. 48 3.2.3. SAGE library construction and comparative analysis ………….… 48 3.2.4. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) ….. 49 3.2.5. Clinical prostate cancer tissues ……………………………….….... 50 3.2.6. Post-operative follow-up ………………………………………….…. 51 3.2.7. Histopathological and immunohistochemical staining …………… 51 3.2.8. ASAP1 scoring ……………………………………………………….. 51 3.2.9. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis for determination of ASAP1 gene copy number ………………….….. 52 3.2.10. Statistical analysis …………………………………………………… 52 3.3. RESULTS ……………………………………………………………………...…… 53 3.3.1. Comparative analysis of SAGE libraries of metastatic and non-metastatic prostate cancer sublines …………………….. 53 3.3.2. Differential ASAP1 gene expression in PCa1-met and PCa2 tumor sublines …………………………………………… 57 3.3.3. Differential expression of ASAP1 protein in xenograft tissues .…. 57 3.3.4. Expression of ASAP1 protein in clinical prostate samples …...…. 59 3.3.5. Association of ASAP1 protein expression in primary tumors with clinicopathological parameters …………………………..…… 62 3.3.6. ASAP1 gain/amplification in clinical prostate samples ……….. 62 3.4. DISCUSSION ………………………………………………………………………..66  CHAPTER 4      FUNCTIONAL VALIDATION OF ASAP1 AS A METASTASIS- ASSOCIATED GENE IN PROSTATE CANCER ..................................71 4.1. INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………….……...71 4.2. MATERIALS AND METHODS ……………………………………………….……74 4.2.1. Materials and animals ……………………………..………………….74 vii   4.2.2. Cell cultures …………………………..……………………………….74 4.2.3. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) and cell transfection ………………74 4.2.4. Generation of the lentiviral constructs …………………………..….75 4.2.5. Virus production and transductions …………………..……………..76 4.2.6. Western blotting ………………..……………………………………..77 4.2.7. In vitro cell proliferation assay …………………...…………………..78 4.2.8. Scratch wound healing migration assay …………………………....78 4.2.9. Matrigel invasion assays ………………………………………..……78 4.2.10. In vivo orthotopic metastatic assay ………………………………….79 4.2.11. Histopathological and immunohistochemical staining ……………79 4.2.12. Statistical analysis …………………………………………………….80 4.3. RESULTS ……………………………………………………………………..……..80 4.3.1. Knockdown of ASAP1 protein by siRNA decreases PC-3 cell migration and invasion …………………………………..……...……80 4.3.2. Effect of reduced ASAP1 expression on in vitro invasion and  in vivo metastatic ability of PC-3 cells stably transduced with  shRNA ……………………………………………….…………...……82 4.3.3. Effect of ASAP1 overexpression on invasiveness of LNCaP  cells ……….…………………..………………………………….……84 4.4. DISCUSSION ………………………………………………………………………..88  CHAPTER 5      SUMMARY AND SPECULATIONS ………………………………...…..92 REFERENCES ………………………………………………………………………………. 99 APPENDIX …………………………………...………………………………………………121 A1. Animal Care Certificate……………………………………………………………..122 A2. UBC Ethics Board Approval………………………………………………………..124 viii   LIST OF TABLES   Table 1.1     Metastasis-related genes in prostate cancer …………………………. 10 Table 2.1      Biological characteristics of tumor lines LTL-220M, LTL-220N and LTL-221N……..…………………………………………36 Table 3.1    Characteristics of LongSAGE tag frequency distribution …………… 54 Table 3.2     Compositions of human specific tags in PCa1-met and PCa2 libraries……………………………………………………………………...56 Table 3.3      ASAP1 expression in clinical prostate tissues …………..…….………63 Table 3.4      Association between ASAP1 expression and clinicopathological parameters …………………...……………………………………………64 Table 4.1      Decreased metastasis of PC-3 cells in vivo by reduction of ASAP1 expression……………...…………………………………...……………..86     ix   LIST OF FIGURES  CHAPTER 1 Figure 1.1      Normal adult prostate glands ………………………………………………2 Figure 1.2      Cancer metastasis cascades ………………………………………………6 Figure 1.3      An outline of the regular SAGE and LongSAGE methods ……………25 CHAPTER 2 Figure 2.1     Development of metastatic and non-metastatic tumor tissue sublines from a primary prostate cancer tissue….....……………………….…… 35 Figure 2.2     Different local invasive and metastatic abilities of the LTL-220M, LTL-220N and LTL-221N sublines ……………………………………….37 Figure 2.3     SKY analysis of the LTL-220M, LTL-220N and LTL-221N sublines ……………………………………………………….……………39 Figure 2.4     FISH detection of 10q and 6p alterations in the LTL-220M, LTL-220N, LTL-221N sublines and their parental (early-generation) grafts ………40 CHAPTER 3 Figure 3.1     Different local invasive ability of PCa1-met and PCa-2…………………47 Figure 3.2     Confidence intervals highlight expressed tag types with non-linear                      relationships between LongSAGE libraries derived from PCa1-met          and PCa2.……………………………………….…………………..………55 Figure 3.3     Differential ASAP1 expression in PCa1-met and PCa2 sublines…..… 58 Figure 3.4     Immuno-histochemical staining of ASAP1 in a tissue microarray of clinical prostate samples ………………………………………………60 Figure 3.5     ASAP1 protein expression in clinical samples of invasive and metastatic prostate cancer …………………………………………….….61 Figure 3.6     Probabilities of Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) recurrence-free survival in patients treated with radical prostatectomy according  to ASAP1 expression ……………………………...………...……………65 x   Figure 3.7     Gain and/or amplification of ASAP1 shown by dual-color FISH in human primary prostate cancer tissues ………………………………67 CHAPTER 4 Figure 4.1    Schematic representation of ASAP1 and ASAP1b proteins………… 72 Figure 4.2     Effects of siRNA-reduced ASAP1 protein expression on cell migration and matrigel invasiveness of PC-3 cells …………….……….81 Figure 4.3     Effects of stable ASAP1 knockdown on cell invasiveness of PC-3 cells …………………………………………..……………………………...83 Figure 4.4     Effects of stable ASAP1-knockdown on metastatic activity of PC-3     cells in NOD-SCID mice …………………………………………….…... 85 Figure 4.5     Effects of stable ASAP1 protein overexpression on cell invasiveness of LNCaP cells…….….……………………………………. 87      xi   LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS  ADP adenosine diphosphate ANK ankyrin repeats AR androgen receptor ARF ADP ribosylation factor Arf GAP ADP ribosylation factor GTPase-activating protein ASAP1 ArfGAP with SH3 domain, ankyrin repeat and PH domain 1 ATP adenosine triphosphate BAC bacterial artificial chromosome BAR Bin–Amphiphysin–Rvs domain BCA bicinchoninic acid BMPs bone morphogenetic proteins BPH benign prostatic hyperplasia BRCA2 breast cancer 2 CAMs cell adhesion molecules cDNA complementary deoxyribonucleic acid CI confidence interval c-Met mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor CMOST comprehensive mapping of SAGE tags CTL cytotoxic T-lymphocyte CO2 carbon dioxide CXCR4 CXC chemokine receptor 4 DAB 3,3'-diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride DAPI 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole DARC Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines DMEM Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium DNA deoxyribonucleic acid ECM extracellular matrix EDTA ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid xii   EmGFP emerald green fluorescent protein EMT epithelial - mensenchymal transition ET-1 endothelin-1 ETV6 E26 transformation-specific family variant 6 EZH2 enhancer of zeste homolog 2 FAK focal adhesion kinase FBS fetal bovine serum FFPE formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded FISH fluorescence in situ hybridization GAP GTPase-activating protein GEM genetically engineered mouse GFP green fluorescent protein GSTP1 glutathione S-transferase pi 1 H&E hematoxylin and eosin IDC invasive ductal carcinoma IGF insulin-like growth factor IGFBP3 IGF-binding protein 3 L.N. lymph node kDa Kilodaltons MHC major histocompatibility MKK mitogen-activated protein kinase-kinase MMPs matrix metalloproteinases MPR mouse prostate reconstitution MSR1 macrophage scavenger receptor 1 MTT methylthiazolyldiphenyl tetrazolium NKX3.1 NK3 homeobox 1 NOD-SCID nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency PAR1 protease-activated receptor 1 PBS phosphate buffered saline PCR polymerase chain reaction PH pleckstrin homology domain xiii   PIN prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia PRD proline rich domain PIP2 phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate PSA Prostate-specific antigen PTEN phosphatase and tensin homolog PVDF polyvinylidene difluoride qRT-PCR quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction RefSeq Reference Sequences database RIPA Radioimmunoprecipitation assay RNA Ribonucleic acid RNASEL ribonuclease L RPMI Roswell Park Memorial Institute SAGE serial analysis of gene expression SD standard deviation SDS sodium dodecyl sulfate SH3 Src homology 3 SHH sonic hedgehog homolog siRNA small interfering RNA SKY spectral karyotyping TGF transforming growth factor TMA tissue microarrays TMPRSS2/ETS transmembrane protease, serine 2/ E26 transformation-specific family TNM Tumor/Nodes/Metastases TRAMP transgenic mouse model of prostate UGS urogenital sinus VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor  xiv   ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  First, I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude to Dr. Yuzhuo Wang for all his guidance, encouragement and efforts during the course of my graduate studies. I extend my gratitude to the supervisory committee members, Drs. Marianne D. Sadar, C. Blake Gilks, Cheryl D. Helgason and Cheryl Wellington, for their time and valuable input during my research. I would like to acknowledge many members of the Dr. Wang‟s laboratory for helpful advice and support throughout my studies: Yuwei Wang, Akira Watahiki, Fang Zhang, Peter W. Gout, Hui Xue, Rebecca Wu, Takashi Kagami, Jun Guan, Margaret Sutcliffe, Hisae Nakamura and Chris Low. I would also like to thank my professional collaborators who have made so many of my experiments possible, especially Drs. Martin E. Gleave, Alan I. So, Ladan Fazli, Antonio Hurtado-Coll and Dieter Fink at The Vancouver Prostate Centre; Dr. Jeremy A. Squire and Jane Bayani at The Ontario Cancer Institute; Drs. Victor Ling and Lin Liu at the BC Cancer Research Centre and Dr. John C. English at Vancouver General Hospital. I would like extend my appreciation to the financial support from The Cancer Research Society and The Prostate Cancer Foundation of British Columbia. Last but not least, I would especially like to profoundly thank my family: my wife Xin Dong, whose constant support and devotion allowed me to get the project finished, and my parents who dedicated most of their lives to my education. xv            To my parents and my wife, Xin Dong  &  In memory of my grandma   xvi   CO-AUTHORSHIP STATEMENT  The experiments described within this thesis were conceived, designed, conducted and analyzed by me, Dong Lin, and Dr. Yuzhuo Wang. All manuscripts were written by myself and Dr. Yuzhuo Wang. A number of additional people contributed to the work as outlined below: Lin Liu was responsible for SAGE library construction under the guidance of Dr. Victor Ling. Dr. Akira Watahiki aided in bioinformatic analysis. Drs. Martin E. Gleave, Alan I. So and John C. English provided the clinical samples and guided the data analysis associated with clinical information. Technical assistance was contributed by Yuwei Wang (animal experiments), Dr. Jeremy A. Squire, Jane Bayani (spectral karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization), Drs. Peter W. Gout and Marianne D. Sadar (data interpretation and presentation), Dr. Fang Zhang (RNA preparation and cloning) and Dr. Ladan Fazli (tissue microarray construction and evaluation).  1   Chapter 1  INTRODUCTION  1.1. PROSTATE GLAND AND PROSTATE CANCER 1.1.1. Prostate gland The prostate is an accessory reproductive gland. Its function is to produce and secrete a slightly alkaline (pH 7.3) fluid that usually constitutes 25-30% of seminal fluid. The alkalinity helps neutralize the acidity of the vaginal tract, prolonging the lifespan of sperm (Cunha et al., 1987). The prostate is a retroperitoneal organ encircling the neck of the bladder and urethra and is devoid of a distinct capsule. Prostatic parenchyma can be divided into four anatomically and biologically distinct zones or regions: the peripheral, central, and transitional zones and the region of the anterior fibromuscular stroma (McNeal, 1988). Histologically, the prostate is a compound tubuloalveolar organ which shows small to fairly large glandular structures lined by epithelium. The structures are characteristically lined by two layers of cells: a basal layer of low cuboidal epithelium covered by a layer of columnar secretory cells, with rare neuroendocrine cells scattered throughout the basal layer (Fig.1.1). The prostate glands have a distinct basement membrane and are separated by abundant fibromuscular stroma, which itself is composed of multiple cell types (e.g., fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells) (McNeal, 1998; Ware, 1994). Prostatic growth is clearly controlled by testicular androgens since castration leads to atrophy of the prostate. Common diseases of the prostate include prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)   2      Figure1.1. Benign adult prostate glands. (A). In this benign gland, the tall secretory epithelial cells (arrow) have uniform round or oval nuclei. Prominent nucleoli are not seen. (B). Anti-P63 antibody shows that basal cells are present in a continuous pattern (arrow head).  3   and cancer (Kumar, 2007). BPH occurs so often in advanced age that it can almost be regarded as part of the aging process. Prostatic carcinoma is also a common phenomenon and merits careful consideration. 1.1.2. Prostate cancer Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed non-skin cancer among Canadian men, and is a major cause of cancer-related deaths. The Canadian Cancer Society estimated that, in 2008, 24,700 new cases of prostate cancer would be diagnosed, constituting about 26% of all new male cancer cases, and that 4,300 men would die of the disease. Currently, 1 in 7 men will develop prostate cancer during their lifetime and 1 in 27 will die of it, a ratio of 1 death per 4 diagnosed cases, which is very similar to the ratio observed for breast cancer in women. Prostate cancers are mostly adenocarcinomas developed primarily within the luminal epithelium of the peripheral zone. Prostate cancer is a heterogeneous disease that progresses from prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), commonly considered as a precursor of prostatic adenocarcinoma, to invasive adenocarcinoma and ultimately to metastatic carcinoma. Heterogeneity of this disease at histological and molecular levels is commonly observed, especially in multifocal prostate cancers (in ~80% of clinical cases) arising independently within the same prostate (Barry et al., 2007; Cheng et al., 1998; Mehra et al., 2007; Ruijter et al., 1999). Little is known about the causes of prostatic cancer. Several risk factors, such as age, race, family history, hormone levels, viruses and diet are suspected to play significant roles in its development (Damber and Aus, 2008; Nelson et al., 2003). At present, little evidence exists for a clearly defined series of genetic events leading to prostate cancer development, although molecular studies have identified several candidate genes involved in sporadic prostate cancer  4   pathogenesis and progression, such as GSTP1, PTEN, NKX3.1, AR, SHH, EZH2 and TMRPSS2/ETS (Deutsch et al., 2004; Morris et al., 2007). In addition, inherited prostate cancer susceptibility genes have been identified, including RNASEL, MSR1 and BRCA2 (Deutsch et al., 2004; Dong, 2006; Edwards and Eeles, 2004). Digital rectal examination and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening are commonly used for prostate cancer detection. At present, final diagnosis is based on examination of histopathological or cytological biopsy specimens. An important part of evaluating prostate cancer is determining the stage and grade, which helps define prognosis and is useful when selecting therapies. The most common stage system is the four-stage TNM system (abbreviated from Tumor/Nodes/Metastases). Its components include tumor size, number of involved lymph nodes and any other metastases. Gleason scoring is the most commonly used system for grading prostatic adenocarcinoma based on microscopic appearance of the cancers (Gleason and Mellinger, 2002). Malignancies with higher Gleason scores are more aggressive and have poor prognosis. Depending on factors such as tumor characteristics and patients‟ life expectancy, treatments of localized prostate cancer include active monitoring, radical prostatectomy and radiotherapy. Currently the treatments of choice for metastatic or advanced prostate cancer include androgen ablation and chemotherapy, which can lead to substantial remissions. However, metastatic prostate cancer inevitably progresses to a castration-resistant stage and is essentially incurable (Coffey, 1993; Greenlee et al., 2000).     5   1.2. CANCER INVASION AND METASTASIS 1.2.1. Overview Metastasis is defined as the spread of tumor cells from one tissue to another, not directly connected with it, where they form secondary tumors. Most cancer related deaths are from metastasis (Fidler, 2002a; Fidler, 2002b). There are three major routes for metastasis: lymphatic vessels, blood vessels and serosal membranes. Lymphatic and hematogenous dissemination are commonly observed in epithelial malignancies, including prostate cancers (Wong and Hynes, 2006). The metastatic cascade is an ordered sequence of events required for metastasis to occur (Chambers et al., 2002; Fidler, 2003). To initiate a metastatic colony, a tumor cell must (a) detach from the primary mass; (b) invade local tissue stroma; (c) intravasate; (d) survive in the circulation; (e) extravasate at other organs; (f) penetrate parenchyma; and (g) adapt to the new microenvironment and form a new tumor (Bacac and Stamenkovic, 2008; Gupta and Massague, 2006) (Fig.1.2). 1.2.2. Cancer invasion Local tissue invasion is one of the fundamental early steps in metastasis. In this step, a cancer cell must have the ability to invade through the basement membrane of a tissue layer and the interstitial stroma (Bogenrieder and Herlyn, 2003; Gupta and Massague, 2006). To develop invasive potential, cancer cells often: (1) require a decrease in their cell-cell attachments; and (2) acquire an ability to break down the extracellular matrix (ECM) (Liotta, 1986). Lowering cell-cell affinity is largely due to loss of intercellular adhesion proteins, e.g., E- cadherin, which are crucial for maintenance of epithelial tissue architecture and polarity (Foty and Steinberg, 2004). In epithelial cancer, E-cadherin can be replaced by other cadherins, most  6         Figure 1.2. Cancer metastasis cascade. See text section 1.2.2.    7   commonly N-cadherin, a cadherin family member predominantly expressed in mesenchymal tissue. This process is a crucial event in “epithelial to mesenchymal transition” (EMT), defined as the conversion of epithelial cell to motile, fibroblast-like cells that express mesenchymal rather than epithelial cell markers. EMT is observed when epithelial cells progress through stages of carcinogenesis in vitro and is thought to reflect invasive and metastatic properties of transformed epithelial cells (Yang and Weinberg, 2008). However, it is still a controversial concept, as EMT is difficult to prove in vivo. Degradation of the ECM is initiated by proteases secreted by different types of cells, including cancer cells, cancer-associated fibroblasts and infiltrating immune cells. It has been reported that the invasive and metastatic potential of cancer is associated with activity of plasminogen activators, Cathepsin B and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) (Baricos et al., 2003; Birkedal-Hansen et al., 1993; Lah and Kos, 1998; Nemeth et al., 2002). In addition to the degradation of the ECM, protease-induced cleavage of matrix proteins also serves to generate binding sites for integrins, cell-substrate adhesion molecules which are required to anchor cells during tissue invasion. Furthermore, cleavage and activation of extracellular growth factors and chemokines enhance the motion of cancer cells (Koblinski et al., 2000). MMPs are the most widely studied proteases involved in tissue invasion. They comprise a family of highly homologous zinc-dependent endopeptidases. MMPs can degrade a variety of ECM components, such as collagen and gelatin, once they are activated (Nemeth et al., 2002). MMPs have been implicated in normal processes such as wound healing and inflammation. In addition, their activity has been correlated with deregulated ECM degradation and metastasis in a variety of cancers including prostate cancer (Bellezza et al., 2005; Dong et al., 2005).   8   1.2.3. Adhesive structures associated with tissue invasion and cell migration Focal adhesion: Focal adhesions are large multiprotein complexes generated by cells which provide anchorage of stationary and migratory cells to underlying substrate. They are characterized by clusters of integrins through which a mechanical link between the actin cytoskeleton and the ECM are formed (Geiger et al., 2001). Anchorage of the cytoskeleton to the cell membrane involves a variety of structural molecules and signaling components (Cavalcanti- Adam et al., 2007). Although focal adhesions are thought to be involved in cell adhesion and migration-dependent invasive processes, they do not appear to support ECM degradation in tissue invasion (Gimona and Buccione, 2006). Podosomes: Podosomes are highly dynamic, actin-rich adhesion structures, which are found in macrophages, endothelial cells, certain transformed fibroblasts, osteoclasts and invasive cancer cells (Buccione et al., 2004; Gimona and Buccione, 2006). Consistent with their function in adhesion of cells to solid substrates, podosomes consist of a densely packed actin core surrounded by a protein complex commonly observed in focal adhesion structures (Buccione et al., 2004; Chellaiah et al., 2000; Linder and Aepfelbacher, 2003). In addition, podosomes govern tissue invasion and matrix remodeling by controlling focal activation of MMPs and degradation of the ECM. The level of ECM degradation is limited and may only involve part of the matrix in the immediate vicinity of the podosomes since these structures have a short half-life (2-12 min) (Linder, 2007). The formation, maintenance and turnover of podosomes are regulated by non- receptor tyrosine kinases (e.g. Src and FAK) and Rho GTPases with involvement of microtubules and the intermediate filament cytoskeleton (Chellaiah, 2005; Moreau et al., 2006; Ory et al., 2002; Tanaka et al., 1995).  9   Invadopodia: Invadopodia are actin-based protrusions of cancer cells and transformed cells which mediate proteolysis of ECM constituents (Chen, 1989; Kelly et al., 1998). Invadopodia are highly enriched with actin filaments (F-actin) and components required for actin assembly, including the Arp2/3 actin nucleation complex, N-WASP and cortactin, as well as signaling proteins (Buccione et al., 2004; Clark et al., 2007; Linder, 2007; Lorenz et al., 2004; Mizutani et al., 2002). The proteolytic potential of invadopodia is mainly due to MMPs, such as MT1-MMP, MMP-2 and MMP-9 (Artym et al., 2006; Chen and Wang, 1999; Deryugina et al., 2001; Monsky et al., 1994). The ASAP1 protein identified in this study has been found to form a complex with cortactin and play a role in invadopodia formation (Onodera et al., 2005). Compared with podosomes, invadopodia are more commonly observed in highly invasive cancer cells, including PC-3 prostate cancer cells (Desai et al., 2008). Invadopodia are less dynamic, have a larger structure and importantly are more aggressive in ECM degradation than podosomes (Buccione et al., 2009). 1.2.4. Genes associated with prostate cancer invasion and metastasis  At present, metastasis is poorly understood at the molecular and mechanistic level in most cancers, including prostate cancer. It has been suggested that  multiple genetic and/or epigenetic changes are required to enable establishment of a cancer at an extra-prostatic site (Bernards and Weinberg, 2002). Some genes have been linked to regulation of the various steps of metastatic development (Table 1.1), including the following.     10    Table 1.1. Metastasis-related genes in prostate cancer.  Gene Symbol Locus Name Function  References BMP6 6p24-p23 Bone morphogenetic protein 6 TGFβ superfamily; stimulate osteoblastic differentiation of pluripotent mesenchymal cells (Autzen et al., 1998; Bentley et al., 1992; Ebisawa et al., 1999; Masuda et al., 2003) CAV1 7q31.1 Caveolin 1 Membrane protein; molecular transport and signal transduction (Li et al., 2001; Tahir et al., 2001; Williams et al., 2005; Yang et al., 1998) CDH1 16q22.1 E-cadherin; Cadherin 1 Adherens junction protein; promotes cell- cell adhesion; prevent cell detachment (Bussemakers et al., 2000; Day et al., 1999; Tran et al., 1999) CTSB 8p22 Cathepsin B Lysosomal cysteine proteinases; degrade collagen IV, fibronectin and laminin (Fernandez et al., 2001; Sinha et al., 2001) CTSD 11p15.5 Cathepsin D Lysosomal aspartyl protease (Miyake et al., 2003) CXCL12 10q11.1 Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 Chemokine; manipulate chemotactic response of metastatic cancer cells (Arya et al., 2004; Sun et al., 2003) CXCR4 2q21 Chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 Receptor of CXCL12 (Arya et al., 2004; Sun et al., 2003) EDN1 6p24.1 Endothelin 1 Mitogenic factor for osteoblasts, promote the growth of osteoblasts and contribute to the osteoblastic reaction (Nelson and Carducci, 2000) EZH2 7q35-q36 Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 Polycomb repressive complex 2/3; gene transcription repressor; promote proliferation and invasion (Bachmann et al., 2006; Bryant et al., 2007; Saramaki et al., 2006; Varambally et al., 2002) F2R 5q13 Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) Regulate thrombotic response; increase cell adhesion to platelets (Chay et al., 2002; Trikha and Nakada, 2002) HPN 19q11- q13.2 Hepsin Type II transmembrane serine protease; weaken epithelia-stromal adhesion; activate pro-urokinase (pro-uPA), Laminin- 332 and pro-hepatocyte growth factor (pro-HGF). (Chen et al., 2003; Klezovitch et al., 2004; Stamey et al., 2001; Tripathi et al., 2008) (Landers et al., 2005; Stephan et al., 2004) ITGA6; ITGB1  2q31.1; 10p11.2 α6 β1-integrin Bind  to components of extracellular matrix; promote migration and invasion; (Edlund et al., 2001; Schmelz et al., 2002; Vafa et al., 1998) ITGAV; ITGB3  2q31-q32; 17q21.32 αv β3-integrin Bind  to components of extracellular matrix; promote migration and invasion (Murant et al., 1997; Zheng et al., 1999) KAI1/CD82 2q31.1; 11p11.2 Prostate cancer anti-metastasis gene Type III transmembrane protein; inhibit cancer cell invasion and migration  (Dong et al., 1995; Dong et al., 1996; Marreiros et al., 2005; Sridhar and Miranti, 2006) MAP2K4 17p11.2 Mitogen-activated protein kinase- kinase 4; MKK4 Metastasis suppressor gene; activate JNK and P38 (Kim et al., 2001; Vander Griend et al., 2005) MAP2K7 19p13.3- p13.2 Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7; MKK7 Metastasis suppressor gene; activate JNK (Vander Griend et al., 2005) MMP9 20q11.2- q13.1 Matrix metallopeptidase 9 Degrade extracellular matrix (type IV and V collagens) (Lichtinghagen et al., 2002; Wood et al., 1997) PLAU 10q24 Urokinase-type plasminogen activator; uPA Serine proteinases; conver plasminogen to plasimin; promote degradation of extracellular matrix components (Festuccia et al., 1998; Hoosein et al., 1991; Miyake et al., 1999a; Miyake et al., 1999b; Van Veldhuizen et al., 1996; Xing and Rabbani, 1999) (McCabe et al., 2000) S100A4 1q21 S100 calcium binding protein A4 Calcium-binding protein; accelerate tumorigenesis and invasion of human prostate cancer through the transcriptional regulation of MMP9. (Gupta et al., 2003; Saleem et al., 2006)  11   Detachment from the primary tumor mass Detachment of cancer cells from the primary tumor mass is associated with the functional down-regulation of intercellular adhesion, which is promoted by a lower expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) in metastatic cells. Amongst the most studied of the CAMs are the cadherins. Cadherins are transmembrane molecules with an extracellular domain for calcium- dependent homotypic binding, while the intracellular carboxyl terminal is anchored to the cytoskeleton by the complex of α-, β- and γ-catenin molecules (Ozawa et al., 1989). Loss or down-regulation of E-cadherin is a common feature of high-grade, late-stage prostate cancer (Murant et al., 2000; Umbas et al., 1992) and of prostate cancer cell lines, including PC-3, LNCaP and C4-2 (Bussemakers et al., 2000; Day et al., 1999; Tran et al., 1999). Downregulation of E-cadherin mRNA and protein was observed in bone or lymph node metastases of prostate cancers. (Bryden et al., 2002; Junior et al., 2008; Pontes-Junior et al., 2009; Pontes Junior et al., 2008) Invasion of local stroma Local stromal interactions:  Integrins, another important group of CAMs, are a family of transmembrane glycoprotein heterodimers with α and β subunits which can form a large number of heterodimers.  Integrins mediate interactions between tumor cells and the ECM during cell invasion and migration by binding to components of the basement membrane and interstitial stroma such as fibronectin, laminin, thrombospondin and collagens. LNCaP and C4-2 prostate cancer cell lines primarily use integrins for binding matrix components (Edlund et al., 2001). Up-regulation of α6β1 integrin pair has been associated with increased metastatic behavior and enhanced cell migration of prostate cancer cells (Schmelz et al., 2002; Vafa et al., 1998). In patients‟ tumor tissues, increased α6β1-integrin expression has been associated with invasion of  12   seminal vesicles by prostate cancer cells (Schmelz et al., 2002) and there is a trend toward increased expression of the αvβ3 integrin pair in metastatic prostate carcinomas (Murant et al., 1997; Zheng et al., 1999). Degradation of local stroma: ECM is degraded by several groups of proteinases, including MMPs (e.g., MMP-9), serine proteinases (e.g., hepsin, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA)), cysteine proteinases (e.g., Cathepsin B) and aspartyl proteinases (e.g., Cathepsin D). Studies demonstrated higher MMP-9 protein levels in cancerous prostate tissue compared to benign prostate tissue and an association between changes in expression of specific MMPs and aggressiveness and progression of human prostate cancers (Lichtinghagen et al., 2002; Wood et al., 1997). DNA microarray studies of gene expression in human prostate cancer have revealed the elevated expression of hepsin, a type II transmembrance serine protease (Chen et al., 2003; Dhanasekaran et al., 2001; Ernst et al., 2002; Stamey et al., 2001; Stephan et al., 2004). Hepsin mRNA was found to be up-regulated in more than 90% of human prostate cancer cases (Landers et al., 2005; Stephan et al., 2004), although the mechanism of regulation of its activity remains unknown.  By binding to specific membrane-bounded or soluble cell surface uPA receptors (uPAR), uPA catalyses the conversion of inactive plasminogen to plasmin, which can degrade many ECM components. uPA expression has been associated with the malignant phenotype of prostate cancer  cell lines (Festuccia et al., 1998; Hoosein et al., 1991). Elevated serum levels of uPA and/or uPAR have been correlated with serum PSA levels, development of metastasis, and overall survival rate among prostate cancer patients (McCabe et al., 2000; Miyake et al., 1999a; Miyake et al., 1999b; Van Veldhuizen et al., 1996). Cysteine proteinases include several cathepsins including cathepsin B, K and S. Aspartyl proteinases include cathepsins D and E. Both Cathepsin B and cathepsin D have been associated with prostate cancer  13   invasion and metastasis in clinical samples and in cancer cell models (Fernandez et al., 2001; Miyake et al., 2003; Sinha et al., 2001). Tumor microenvironment: Stromal cells can produce and secrete many soluble factors, such as growth factors and cytokines, and mediate the intercellular communication between stroma and epithelium that controls cancer progression. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secreted by cancer cells and surrounding stromal cells binds to its receptors on endothelial cells, thereby promotes cancer angiogenesis and contributes to cancer cell growth and intravastion (Nguyen and Massague, 2007). The overexpression of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) by stromal cells has been shown to drive malignant transformation of prostate epithelium in mouse, while antisense RNA to IGF-I receptor inhibits prostate cancer proliferation and invasion (Chung et al., 2005). Members of the transformation growth factor (TGF)-β family secreted by cancer cells and fibroblasts promote cancer cell invasion by inducing EMT via activation of Smad signaling pathways (Keller et al., 2001). Moreover, TGF-β can induce the trans-differentiation of cells of a stromal fibroblastic phenotype to a myofibroblastic phenotype, i.e. reactive stroma. The reactive stroma, in turn, can promote cancer cell motility and metastasis (Bhowmick and Moses, 2005).  Many experiments have shown that tumor-infiltrating immune cells, such as tumor-associated macrophages, dendritic cells and lymphocytes, can promote carcinogenesis, local tissue invasion and metastasis (Bunt et al., 2007; Wyckoff et al., 2007; Yu and Fu, 2006). Tumor-infiltrating M2 macrophages and dendritic cells produce immunosuppressive cytokines such as IL-5, IL-10 and TGF-β, which inhibit the antigen-specific immune response and the formation of an adaptive anti-tumor immunity (Dhodapkar et al., 2001). Neutrophils and mast cells can also promote cancer progression by secreting tumor- promoting growth factors, cytokines and proteases. It has been reported that neutrophils play an  14   important role in ras-driven tumor progression (Ji et al., 2006). Granulocytes were also identified as a source of MMP-9 expression in skin cancer models (Coussens et al., 2000). Survival in the circulation  To escape intense host immunological assault, malignant cells circulating in blood or lymphatic vessels often down-regulate expression of class I human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA) that interferes with cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated killing. Downregulation of Major Histocompatibility (MHC) class I molecule expression and alteration of intracellular processing of presented antigens, leading to interference of tumor recognition by antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes,  have been observed in some prostate cancers (Sanda et al., 1995). The ability of circulating malignant cells to withstand mechanical stress, such as blood turbulence, is another important aspect allowing survival in the circulation. Activation of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1, thrombin receptor, F2R) expressed by prostate cancer cells, including cell lines, has been shown to increase cell adhesion to platelets, a coupling which protects cancer cells from the significant shear stresses in the circulation (Chay et al., 2002; Trikha and Nakada, 2002). Extravasation  PAR1 and integrin αvβ3 are highly expressed in prostate cancer cells. These proteins may contribute to bony metastases by facilitating attachment of cancer cells to blood vessel walls and the process of extravasation (Chay et al., 2002; Cooper et al., 2002). KAI1/CD82, the first prostate cancer metastasis suppressor gene identified (Dong et al., 1995), is thought to be involved in inhibiting cancer cell migration and invasion. A loss of KAI1 expression has been correlated with poor prognosis in human prostate cancer (Dong et al., 1996; Ichikawa et al., 1991a). Down-regulation of KAI1 mRNA levels was reported to be correlated with an absence  15   of wild-type p53, and/or a loss of expression of other transcription factors, i.e. junB and AP2, in a number of prostate cancer cell lines (Marreiros et al., 2005). The loss of KAI1 may promote metastasis by removing a negative regulator of c-Met and Src signaling (SC Sridhar and CK Miranti, oncogene, 2006). KAI1 may also arrest the cancer cells at a later stage in the metastatic cascade by binding to the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC), a seven transmembrane protein expressed on endothelial cells (Bandyopadhyay et al., 2006). Homing in on distal organs and formation of new colonies Expression of CXCL12, a chemokine, and CXCR4, receptor of CXCL12, was significantly elevated in metastatic prostate cancer compared to normal or benign prostate tissue (Sun et al., 2003). It was found that human prostate cancer cell lines expressed functional chemokine CXCR4 receptors and that the CXCL12 ligand enhanced their migratory capabilities (Arya et al., 2004). Loss of functions of two metastasis-suppressor genes, mitogen-activated protein kinase-kinase 4 (MKK4) and 7 (MKK7), may also be linked to prostate cancer metastasis. The MKK4 protein is highly expressed in benign prostate tissue whereas reduced in neoplastic prostate tissue and there was an inverse relationship between the reduction of MKK4 expression and metastatic potential of prostate cancer cells (Kim et al., 2001). Findings that overexpression of MKK4 or MKK7 in rat prostate cancer cell line AT6.1 could suppress lung metastasis in vivo and have no effect on the growth of primary tumor suggest that the kinase activities of MKK4 and MKK7 are essential for disseminated cells to colonize the lung (secondary site). It was also suggested that the JNK pathway, rather than the p38 pathway mediates the metastasis suppression by MKK4 (Vander Griend et al., 2005).  16   Osteoblastic metastases in bone are commonly observed in advanced prostate cancer. Interaction between cancer cells and bone stromal cells, especially osteoblasts is thought play an important role in colonization of prostate cancer in bone. Elevated expression of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in prostate cancer cells has been implicated in bone metastasis. In clinical samples, BMP6 was detected in 50% of metastatic prostate cancer samples, but not non-metastatic or benign samples (Autzen et al., 1998). Secretion of BMP6 was thought to contribute to osteoblastic lesions by stimulating osteoblastic differentiation of pluripotent mesenchymal cells (Ebisawa et al., 1999). Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a mitogenic factor for osteoblasts, could be secreted by prostate cancer cells, promote the growth of osteoblasts and contribute to the osteoblastic reaction when cancer cells colonize in bone (Nelson and Carducci, 2000). It has been shown that co-culturing prostate cancer cells with osteoblasts led to increased proliferation of the cancer cells relative to the culture without osteoblasts (Gleave et al., 1991). Co-culture of prostate cancer cells with osteoblasts showed decreased expression of IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), a putative growth suppressor, and increased expression of MDM2, a protein regulates p53 (Fizazi et al., 2003). These observations indicate that bone-derived factors can promote the progression of prostate cancer metastasis, although these factors have yet to be identified. Although many genes have been linked to prostate cancer metastasis, the majority of the key elements of metastasis are still not clear. This is largely due to lack of clinically relevant models which develop spontaneous metastasis.    17   1.3. PROSTATE CANCER MODELS Preclinical prostate cancer models currently used mainly include those derived from rat, canine, mouse and human sources. 1.3.1 Rat model Rats are one of the few species that develop prostate cancer spontaneously (Pollard, 1973; Shain et al., 1975). One of the best known rat models of prostate cancer was the Dunning rat model; it exists in various forms, including well-differentiated, non-metastatic and multiple highly metastatic variants (Cooke et al., 1988; Isaacs, 1982). Cell fusion of its variants resulted in a non-metastatic heterokaryon (Ichikawa et al., 1991b). The system was therefore suitable for identification of metastasis suppressor genes and its use led to the discovery of metastasis-related foci at 8p, 10q, 11p and 17p and a number of metastasis suppressor genes, including KAI (11p12) and MKK4 (17p11.2). Prostate cancers have been induced in Lobund-Wistar and Noble rats by administration of sex hormone, illustrating the role of androgen in prostate cancer progression and providing a valuable tool for studies of chemoprevention and dietary modulation (Noble, 1977; Pollard et al., 1982). Some limitations of rat models include long latency periods and low tumor incidence. 1.3.2 Canine model Prostate cancer also occurs spontaneously in canines (Waters et al., 1998). Canine prostate cancer mimics several characteristics of its human counterpart with regard to heterogeneity, prevalence in elderly populations and association with skeletal metastasis (Bostwick et al., 2000). Dogs develop osteoblastic bone lesions that mimic the human disease, thus making this model relevant for preclinical testing of bone-targeted therapies (Bostwick et  18   al., 2000). However, the canine prostate is lack of zonal differences observed in human but rather is histologically homogenous consisting predominantly of epithelium with minimal stromal elements (McNeal, 1984). The long latency associated with the emergence of prostate cancer in canine models also presents a major obstacle for their use in research. Furthermore, experiments with the models are rather costly (Navone et al., 1998). 1.3.3 Mouse model Mouse prostate reconstitution model Timothy Thompson et al. reported a model for prostate disease research that is now referred to as the mouse prostate reconstitution (MPR) model (Thompson et al., 1989). This model is based on an investigational „„organ reconstitution‟‟ model of prostate gland development engineered by Cunha and Chung, which involved isolation of pure populations of fetal mouse urogenital sinus (UGS) epithelial and mesenchymal cells, followed by their recombination and reimplantation under the renal capsule of a host mouse (Cunha and Chung, 1981). In this MPR model, isolated mouse cells can be genetically manipulated (e.g., by transduction with recombinant retroviruses prior to reimplantation) to investigate how specific genetic changes can affect the development of the prostate structure. Use of p53-knockout mice as recipients of myc and ras oncogenes resulted in development of prostate cancer micro- metastases in bone and other tissues (Thompson et al., 1995). CAV1 (Caveolin-1), a metastasis- related gene, was identified by comparing mRNA expression patterns in cell lines derived from primary versus metastatic mouse prostate cancers (Thompson, 1998).   19   Transgenic mouse models or genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models Transgenic animals carry an exogenous vector construct (transgene) inserted into the genome of all their cells, allowing germ line transmission to offspring (Sigmund, 1993). GEM models can be divided into two categories, those generated by overexpression of an oncogene with a prostate-specific promoter and those with targeted deletion of specific genes. The transgenic mouse model of prostate (TRAMP) was one of the first effective models for studying malignant progression of prostate cancer. It is based on use of the minimal rat probasin promoter to drive prostate epithelium-specific expression of SV40 early genes (T and t antigens) in the dorsolateral lobe of the mice (the murine equivalent of the peripheral zone) (Greenberg et al., 1995). By 12 weeks of age, TRAMP mice typically develop PIN lesions and invasive cancer. By 24 to 30 weeks of age, 100% of the mice develop poorly differentiated prostate cancer associated with metastasis predominantly to lymph nodes and lungs (Kaplan- Lefko et al., 2003). However, there is currently no evidence that the SV40 early genes are involved in the development of human prostate cancer. Several murine models have been generated by overexpression or disruption of genes that are deregulated in human prostate cancer. Of these models, phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) knockout models are the best characterized (Carver and Pandolfi, 2006; Liao et al., 2007; Shen and Abate-Shen, 2007). A loss of one or both PTEN alleles, observed in approximately 70% of human primary prostate cancers, is associated with metastatic disease (Gray et al., 1998). In mice, loss of one PTEN allele is associated with the development after a long latency period of high-grade PIN with no invasive adenocarcinoma (Di Cristofano et al., 1998; Podsypanina et al., 1999). Prostate-specific loss of PTEN expression using the Cre-loxP1  20   recombination strategy leads to invasive prostate cancer within 12 weeks, with subsequent metastases to lymph nodes and lung in some animals (Wang et al., 2003). Compound mutational mouse models incorporate at least two mutations of prostate cancer-related genes. NKX3.1 encodes a homeodomain transcription factor that is frequently deleted in human PIN and prostate cancer. Loss of Nkx3.1 function only leads to PIN in mice (Mogal et al., 2007). Nkx3.1 +/-  and Pten +/- compound mutant mice show development of invasive prostate cancer and lymph node metastasis (Abate-Shen et al., 2003). Mice nullizygous for PTEN and p53 in the prostate also develop locally invasive prostate cancer (Chen et al., 2005). The advantages of GEMs are that (1) various stages of tumor progression can be studied over time; (2) specific genetic abnormalities can be induced in a tissue-specific manner; (3) tumors developed in mice with an intact immune system (immunocompetent mice) which can mirror the tumor-stroma interaction occurring in human tumors. GEMs have expanded our understanding of the molecular mechanisms for the development of prostate cancer. However, the GEMs can not reliably mimic the complexity of the human tumor. There are also significant biological and histopathological differences between human and mouse prostates (Roy-Burman et al., 2004), which warrant caution in the extrapolation of results obtained with these models to the human situation. Thus, despite the advantages of GEMs, their use in the preclinical anticancer drug discovery is still very limited. 1.3.4 Xenograft model Nude (athymic) and severe combined immuno-deficient (SCID) mice are commonly used as hosts for inoculation of established cancer cell lines or direct grafting of cancer tissues. The classic human prostate cancer cell lines, PC-3, LNCaP, and DU145, are the three most widely  21   used cell lines. PC-3 cells, originally derived from a bone metastasis, show much stronger invasive and metastatic ability compared to LNCaP and DU145 cells and thus are favored for metastasis studies (Hoosein et al., 1991). Metastatic sublines of the LNCaP cell line, originally derived from a lymph node metastasis, are also used (Thalmann et al., 2000). The ability of the sublines to colonize metastatic sites was found to be modulated by the presence of human stroma (Gleave et al., 1991). These established cell lines provide valuable sources for gene isolation and functional analysis. However, their relevance to human disease is not optimal, as long-term culturing likely decreases their biological relevance. A NCI retrospective study showed anticancer drugs activity in tumor cell lines xenograft did not correlate with their activity against the same human tumor histology in phase II clinical trials (Johnson et al., 2001) In contrast, xenografts derived from primary human tumors/biopsies showed similarities in clinical outcome, treatment sensitivity and resistance when compared to their clinical human tumor counterparts (Scholz et al., 1990).  Xenograft models can be established by injection of primary cancer cell suspensions mixed with Matrigel into mice. The CWR series and LAPC series of xenografts were developed using this strategy (Klein et al., 1997; Pretlow et al., 1991). To identify metastasis-associated genes, a variety of sublines of the CWR22 xenograft have been employed (Chen et al., 1998; Mousses et al., 2002). However, the effects of Matrigel components on the original patient material are likely to be considerable, especially with regard to differentiation, and thus can alter the original characteristics of the cancer specimens (Fong et al., 1991; Freeman et al., 1994). Furthermore, similar to cell line-based models, these models lack a proper stroma component and structural micro-environment essential for stromal-epithelial interactions which have been  22   shown to be important in the regulation of prostate cancer progression (Chung et al., 2005; Chung et al., 2006). Models based on grafting of human tissues which retain proper stromal-epithelial interactions should present a more accurate picture of prostate cancer biology than isolated cell suspension and cultured cell populations. The Rotterdam PC-Models were developed by simply cutting primary tissues into small fragments and transplanting them subcutaneously in both shoulders of athymic nude mice (van Weerden et al., 1996). Xenografts of human primary cancer feature the molecular heterogeneity and histological complexity that exist in the clinical human cancer. Early generations of these xenografts have the added advantage of containing stroma from the original human tumor and can mimic the cell-to-cell interactions of the human tumor microenvironment, albeit exception of interactions involving certain immune cells. Orthotopic xenografts using human primary tumors are thought to be more clinically relevant compared with cell lines, as there is a stronger predictive response value for anticancer drug test. One disadvantage associated with xenografts obtained directly from patient primary tumors is the low take rates. The engraftment rate in prostate cancer is particularly low (~5%) and in subsequent xenograft tumors, no significant metastases are observed (Rembrink et al., 1997). Recently, our laboratory has developed a number of clinically relevant prostate cancer models based on subrenal capsule grafting of histologically intact human prostate cancer tissue into NOD-SCID mice (Wang et al., 2005a). Comparison of three graft sites (subcutaneous, subrenal capsule and orthotopic) demonstrated that the subrenal capsule graft site has a superior engraftment rate. This site not only allows survival of high grade prostate cancers, but also of low grade cancers and even benign prostate tissue, probably a result of high tissue perfusion of the kidney providing superior nutrient supply. Human cancer tissue is highly heterogeneous,  23   containing various cancer subpopulations. Subrenal capsule grafting makes it possible to retain such heterogeneity in the xenografts - a condition crucial for a clinically relevant model. Therefore, models based on early generations of subrenal capsule xenografts hold promise for application in personalized chemotherapy. This model system has been shown to be suitable for quick assessment of the chemosensitivity of patients' cancers and selection of the most effective regimens in NSCLC patients (Dong et al., 2010). On the other hand, relatively homogeneous tumor tissue lines developed from same patient‟s primary cancer tissue by serial transplantation, demonstrated difference in tissue invasiveness and spontaneous metastatic ability and provided valuable tools for studying prostate cancer metastasis. 1.4. SERIAL ANALYSIS OF GENE EXPRESSION (SAGE) Metastasis is thought to stem from accumulated genetic/epigenetic alterations leading to changes at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. Recent advances in comprehensive gene expression profiling techniques have provided important information for identification of potential diagnostic and prognostic cancer markers. Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) is a gene expression profiling method that allows for global, unbiased and quantitative characterization of transcriptomes (Velculescu et al., 1995) and  has been used in studies of a variety of cancers including prostate cancer (Minagawa et al., 2008; Peters et al., 2005; Untergasser et al., 2002; Waghray et al., 2001; Weeraratna et al., 2004). This technique is based on the following concepts: (1) a short nucleotide sequence called a SAGE „tag‟, derived from a defined position of mRNA, is almost always sufficient to map to the transcriptome, and (2) the number of a tag observed is related to the expression level of the transcript (Velculescu et al., 1995) (Fig. 1.3). Compared with other gene profiling methods such as microarray-based  24   analyses, advantages of SAGE include: (1) SAGE does not require prior knowledge of gene sequences and, hence, is useful for identification of novel transcripts; (2) the data exists in absolute units (i.e. tag counts) and is easy to expand upon comparison of results from different experiments (Saha et al., 2002; Velculescu and Kinzler, 2007) and (3) human and mouse transcripts in xenografts used in this study can be distinguished via comparison with human and mouse sequences in genomic databases. The LongSAGE method uses 17 bp SAGE tags compared with regular SAGE, which uses 10 bp tags, and therefore leads to greater precision in the mapping of genes (Saha et al., 2002). The outline of the regular SAGE and LongSAGE methods was shown in Fig 1.3. cDNA is synthesized from mRNA isolated from cells or tissues and then digested by an anchoring enzyme, commonly Nla III to generate CATG overhang. Following Nla III digestion, linkers that contain a recognition site for the tagging enzyme are ligated to the 3′ cDNA ends. Linker-cDNAs are digested with a tagging enzyme, Bsmf I (for regular SAGE) or Mme I (for LongSAGE), that recognizes and binds to a sequence in the adapters and cuts the cDNA14 bp (in regular SAGE) or 21 bp (in LongSAGE) downstream to generate linker-tag fragments. Free linker-tag fragments are ligated together into „ditags‟ and amplified by PCR with primers specific to the unique adapters. Ditags are released from adapters by digestion with Nla III, then are concatenated into long chain and subcloned into a vector. The cloned concatamers are sequenced to generate a series of tags which can be quantified and analyzed by a computer program such as DiscoverySpace.   25      Figure 1.3. An outline of the regular SAGE and LongSAGE method. (Adapted from Porter, D. et al., 2006). See text section 1.4.   26   1.5. HYPOTHESES AND SPECIFIC AIMS The ultimate goals of the studies described in this thesis were (i) to investigate the contribution of tumor heterogeneity to prostate cancer metastasis and (ii) to identify genes associated with this process. The hypotheses underlying this work were: (1) Sublines with different metastatic abilities, characterized by unique chromosomal alterations, can be developed from a patient‟s primary prostate cancer tissue;  (2) Prostate cancer metastasis-associated genes can be discovered via differential gene expression analysis of paired metastatic and non- metastatic sublines derived from the same patient‟s primary cancer tissue; (3) Certain genes/gene products identified by this method play an important role in prostate cancer metastasis and potentially provide predictive markers and/or therapeutic targets for the disease. The specific aims of this study were: 1. To develop sublines from a patient‟s primary prostate cancer tissue using subrenal capsule grafting techniques and determine the metastatic ability of the sublines by in vivo metastatic assays. 2. To identify unique chromosomal aberrations of metastatic tumor tissue subline(s) and determine if small or large numbers of cells carry such aberrations in the parental tissues. 3.  To identify potential metastasis-associated genes by differential LongSAGE analysis of paired metastatic and non-metastatic tumor sublines. 4. To verify differential expression of candidate gene(s) in pairs of metastatic and non- metastatic tumor lines and clinical prostate cancer samples and to check for correlations of candidate gene expression with clinicopathological factors.  27   5. To investigate the role of candidate gene(s) in prostate cancer metastasis by in vitro and in vivo functional assays.   28   Chapter 2  Development of metastatic and non-metastatic sublines from a patient’s prostate cancer specimen  – Identification of a small subpopulation with metastatic potential in the primary tumor  2.1.  INTRODUCTION The majority of prostate cancer death is caused by metastatic dissemination of the primary tumor (Jemal et al., 2005). Metastasis is a complex multi-step process thought to be driven by changes in the expression of multiple genes caused by genetic or/and epigenetic alterations (Fidler, 2003; Gupta and Massague, 2006). Prostate cancer has been recognized as a multifocal disease that generally consists of a dominant (index) tumor and one or more independent tumors of smaller volume with different histological features and a wide spectrum of biological behavior (Arora et al., 2004; Bostwick et al., 1998; Ruijter et al., 1996; Wise et al., 2002). The histological, biological and genetic heterogeneity of multifocal prostate cancers suggests that they arise independently from different clones (Barry et al., 2007; Cheng et al., 1998; Mehra et al., 2007; Ruijter et al., 1999). Experimental assays based on a mouse cancer cell line demonstrated that only a small portion of cancer cells was endowed with metastasis- promoting functions, indicating that metastatic lesions are derived from descendants of a rare cell in the primary tumor (Fidler, 2003). On the other hand, recent advances in molecular profiling of cancers suggest that the metastatic potential of human tumors is encoded in the bulk of a primary A version of this chapter will be submitted for publication. Dong Lin, Jane Bayani, Yuwei Wang et.al. Development of metastatic and non-metastatic sublines from a patient‟s prostate cancer specimen. (Submitted).  29   tumor, thus challenging the above hypothesis (Gupta and Massague, 2006). It is still controversial as to whether a minority or a majority of cancer cells in primary tumors has metastatic potential. Studies of prostate cancer metastasis at the cellular and tissue level have been impeded by a lack of optimal experimental models. While established cultured cancer cell lines representing different stages of cancer progression can be very useful for identifying mechanisms underlying metastasis, they do not adequately mimic clinical disease (Sharpless and Depinho, 2006; Voskoglou-Nomikos et al., 2003). Efforts have been therefore focused on use of prostate cancer specimens from patients. However, the significant differences in microenvironment between primary and secondary prostate cancers and the typical heterogeneity of such specimens (e.g. consisting of both non-metastatic and potentially metastatic subpopulations) make it difficult to identify genes underlying the development of metastasis (Fidler, 2002a). To overcome the above hurdles, our laboratory recently developed experimental prostate cancer models that resembles the clinical situation and allows establishment of transplantable prostate cancer sublines that differ in metastatic ability and as such can be useful for investigating development of metastasis at the cellular and molecular level. The model is based on subrenal capsule grafting of a patient‟s primary prostate cancer tissue in immuno-deficient mice leading to establishment of a transplantable, heterogeneous tumor line retaining major growth and histopathological features of the original cancer (Cutz et al., 2006; Lee et al., 2005; Wang et al., 2005a; Wang et al., 2005b). The present study was aimed at examining whether metastatic potential of cells is associated with a minority of the cells in a primary tumor or with the bulk of the tumor. The approach used was based on establishing metastatic and non-metastatic sublines from a patient‟s  30   prostate cancer specimen, generating a marker(s) for the metastatic subline and identifying cells with such markers in the primary tumor. To achieve this, a number of transplantable prostate cancer sublines were developed via subrenal capsule grafting in NOD-SCID mice from different foci of a prostate cancer. Tissue invasive or metastatic abilities of the sublines were then determined in vivo via orthotopic grafting and monitoring organs/tissues of the hosts. Each subline was then investigated for chromosomal alterations. Such alterations exclusively present in a metastatic subline were further investigated in parental cancer tissues by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to identify how many cells carrying the same chromosomal alterations existed in the primary prostate cancer specimen. 2.2. MATERIALS AND METHODS 2.2.1. Materials and animals Chemicals, stains, solvents and solutions were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich Canada Ltd, Oakville, ON, Canada, unless otherwise indicated. Male 6- to 8-week old NOD-SCID mice were bred by the BC Cancer Research Centre Animal Resource Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, Canada. Mice were housed in groups of three in microisolators with free access to food and water and their health was monitored daily. Animal care and experiments were carried out in accordance with the guidelines of the Canadian Council on Animal Care. 2.2.2. Prostate cancer tissue acquisition Prostate cancer tissue specimens were obtained via prostatectomy from a 70-year-old male, with informed consent, at the Urology Research Unit, Carlton Centre, San Fernando, Trinidad. The patient, diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer (Gleason grade 5+5), had not  31   received neoadjuvant therapy prior to prostatectomy. The specimens were examined by pathologists and shipped overnight, immersed in cold Hanks' balanced salt solution supplemented with antibiotics, to Vancouver, Canada. 2.2.3. Subrenal capsule grafting and development of transplantable tumor tissue lines Xenografting was performed as previously described (Wang et al., 2005b). In brief, within 24 hrs of its arrival, tumor tissue was cut into small pieces about 1×3×3 mm 3  in size. The tumor pieces were grafted under the kidney capsules of male NOD/SCID mice supplemented with testosterone (10 mg/mouse) via subcutaneously implanted testosterone pellets. After 90 days of growth (or earlier if required by the health status of the hosts), the animals were sacrificed by CO2 for necropsy. Tumors were harvested, measured, photographed and fixed for histopathological analysis. Some of the rapidly growing tumors were cut into pieces and maintained for up to five transplant generations by serial subrenal capsule transplantation into testosterone-supplemented male NOD-SCID mice. Three transplantable lines derived from this patient were used for the study presented here. 2.2.4. In vivo orthotopic metastatic assay Orthotopic grafting was performed as previously described (Wang et al., 2005b). In brief, tumor tissues were harvested and were then grafted into the anterior prostates of male, testosterone-supplemented NOD-SCID mice (two per mouse). After 5 weeks, mice were sacrificed for gross examination of lymph nodes. Lymph nodes, lungs, livers, kidneys, spleens and bone (femur) of the hosts were fixed for examination of metastases using histological and immunohistochemical techniques.  32   2.2.5. Histopathological and immunohistochemical staining Tissues of the original tumor specimen, its transplants and metastases were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin and then embedded in paraffin. Sections (5 m thick) were cut on a microtome and mounted on glass slides. For histopathological examination, every fourth section was de-waxed in Histoclear (National Diagnostic, Atlanta, GA) and hydrated in graded alcohol solutions and distilled water for H&E staining and examination under a light microscope. For immunohistochemical staining, endogenous peroxidase activity was blocked with 0.5% hydrogen peroxide in methanol for 30 min followed by washing in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.4. Five percent normal goat serum in PBS was applied to the sections for 30 min to block non-specific sites. The sections were then incubated with primary antibodies overnight at 4°C or with control IgG from non-immunized mice or rabbits. Mouse anti-human mitochondria monoclonal antibody was obtained from Chemicon International (Temecula, CA). Following incubation with the primary antibodies, sections were washed with PBS and incubated for 30 min at room temperature with biotinylated secondary anti-mouse secondary antibody (Amersham International, Arlington Heights, IL). After incubation with the secondary antibodies, sections were washed in PBS (three 10-min washes), and then incubated for 30 min at room temperature with avidin-biotin complex (Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA). Following a further 30 min of washing in PBS, immunoreactivity was visualized using 3,3'-diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride (DAB) in PBS and 0.03% hydrogen peroxide. Sections were counterstained with 5% (w/v) Harris hematoxylin and dehydrated in graded alcohols. Control sections were processed in parallel with rabbit non-immune IgG (Dako, Carpinteria, CA) used at the same concentrations as the primary antibodies.  33   2.2.6. Spectral karyotyping Standard metaphase spreads were prepared from actively growing xenograft cultures as previously described (Bayani and Squire, 2004; Cutz et al., 2006). The slides were hybridized with SKYPaints (Applied Specrtral Imaging Inc. Vista, CA) according to the manufacturer‟s instructions. The hybridized slides were imaged and analyzed using Applied Spectral Imaging HiSKY analysis software (ASI Inc, Vista,CA). 2.2.7. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) For copy number analysis, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone RP11-464P23, covering FBXO9 (6p12), was obtained from the The Centre for Applied Genomics (TCAG, Toronto, Canada).  DNA was extracted from this BAC clone and directly labeled with Spectrum Green dUPT (Vysis/Abbott Laboratories, Des Plaines, IL) by nick translation, using the Vysis Nick Translation Kit (Vysis/Abbott Laboratories).  To confirm the proper mapping location and hybridization efficiency, the labeled BAC clone was hybridized to normal human metaphase spreads. A SpectrumOrange labeled probe for PTEN was obtained from Vysis (Vysis/Abbott Laboratories) as well as a SpectrumAqua labeled centromere 6 probe (Vysis/Abbott Laboratories). Five micron formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections, representing early xenografts derived from individual tumor foci and the later derived sublines, were dewaxed in xylene and dehydrated in 100% ethanol. The tissue sections were incubated in 10 mM citrate buffer at 80 o C for 1 hour, rinsed in water, pepsin digested and dehydrated and co- denatured for 10 minutes at 80 o C using the Vysis Hybrite Hybridization System (Vysis/Abbott Laboratories) and then allowed to hybridize overnight at 37 o C.  The following day, the slides were processed using a wash of 0.3% NP-40/0.4×SSC for 2 minutes at 72 o C and a wash of  34   0.1%NP-40/2×SSC for 5 minutes at RT. The slides were rinsed in 1xPBS and mounted with DAPI/Antifade medium (Vectashield/ Vector Laboratories Canada). Two hundred nuclei per slide were scored using a fluorescence microscope (Carl Zeiss Canada). 2.3. RESULTS 2.3.1. Development of metastatic and non-metastatic sublines from primary prostate cancer tissue via xenografting and in vivo metastatic assay The procedures for development of these sublines and assessing their metastatic ability are briefly illustrated in Figure 2.1. Tissues derived from different foci in a prostate cancer specimen from one patient were grafted under kidney capsules of NOD-SCID mice supplemented with testosterone and propagated by serial subrenal capsule grafting. Three tumor tissue lines were developed from parental tissues with tumor volume doubling times of 4, 4 and 7 days (Table 2.1). All three lines were poorly differentiated and histologically similar to the parental tissues (Fig. 2.2A-C). The human origin of the tumor lines was confirmed by immunohistochemistry using anti-human mitochondria antibody (Fig. 2.2D-F). The metastatic ability of each tumor tissue line was determined by examination of tissues/organs of mice carrying xenografts in the orthotopic site (anterior prostate). At 5 weeks after grafting, apparent local tissue invasion was observed in mice carrying a tumor line designated LTL-220M (Fig. 2.2 A, D). In addition, major metastatic foci were observed in local lymph nodes and distal metastases  were found in lung, liver, kidney and spleen (Fig.2.2G, J). In contrast, the other tumor lines, i.e. LTL-220N and LTL-221N, derived from different foci, did not show significant local tissue invasion or distal metastases (Fig. 2.2B, C, E, F, H, I, K, L and Table 2.1).   35       Figure 2.1. Development of metastatic and non-metastatic tumor tissue sublines from a primary prostate cancer tissue. H&E staining show the similar histological morphology between parental tissue and developed tumor lines. Arrows show the tumor tissues grafted in the prostates of NOD-SCID mice.  36         Table 2.1. Biological characteristics of tumor lines LTL-220M, LTL-220N and LTL-221N  LTL-220M LTL-220N LTL-221N  Doubling time 4 days 4 days 7 days Local invasion Yes Yes/No No Local lymph node metastasis Yes No No Distal metastasis Yes No No  37    Figure 2.2. Different local invasive and metastatic abilities of the LTL-220M, LTL-220N and LTL-221N sublines. A-C: hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. D-L: immunohistochemical staining with human- specific anti-mitochondria antibody. Column 1: when grafted orthotopically, the LTL-220M showed extensive invasion into host prostate (A, D) and distant metastases to host lung (G) and liver (J). Column 2 and 3: when grafted orthotopically, the LTL-220N and LTL-221N did not show apparent invasion to host prostate and no metastasis to distant organs including lung (H), spleen (I), liver (K) and kidney (L). Mouse prostate are indicated with arrows. (original magnification: A, B, D, E, G-J x200; C, F, K, L x400)  38    2.3.2. Identification by SKY of unique chromosomal aberrations in tumor tissue lines SKY analysis was performed to identify unique chromosomal aberrations present in the metastatic tumor line but not in the two non-metastatic tumor lines. It was found that all three tumor lines were diploid in nature but had different chromosomal alterations (Fig.2.3A-C). LTL- 220M:46, XY, +der(1;14) (14p11->14q:1p11->1qter), del2p23, der(3)t(2;3)(?;p24), der(6)t(6,10)(p;q23), -14; LTL-220N: 46,der (X;16)(qter;p11),Y,der(21)?t(?;21)(?;p11); LTL- 221N:47,XY,der(14)t(13or18;14)(q?;p11),der(14)(6?;14)(?;qter),der(20)dup(20)(q13qter)t(4;20)( q22;qter),der(21)?t(?;21)(?:?). There was a marked difference between the metastatic LTL-220M and the non-metastatic LTL-220N and LTL-221N tumor lines in a net gain of 10q and net loss of 6p. Based on the SKY data, the gain of 10q22.1-10qter and loss of 6p can in this case be used as a signature for distinguishing metastatic populations from non-metastatic populations. 2.3.3. Detection of cancer cells in parental tissues carrying the metastatic clone signature (10q and 6p alterations) To determine the presence of the 10q and 6p alterations previously identified by SKY, the three tumor tissue lines were examined by FISH, using a SpectrumGreen-labeled probe for FBXO9 (6p12), SpectrumAqua-labeled probe for centromere 6, and a SpectrumOrange-labeled probe for PTEN (10q23). As expected, FISH identified 2 copies for PTEN (10q23), centromere 6, and FBXO9 (6p12) per cell in both the LTL-220N and LTL-221N non-metastatic tumor lines (Fig. 2.4 B, C). The metastatic LTL-220M tumor line showed a net loss of FBXO9 (6p12) and   39    Figure 2.3. SKY analysis of the LTL-220M, LTL-220N and LTL-221N sublines. The metastatic LTL-220M (A) showed the primary clone with an unbalanced translocation der(6)t(6,10)(p;q23) resulting in the net loss of 6p and gain of 10q. The non-metastatic LTL-220N (B) and LTL-221N (C) showed no changes in copy number of chromosomes 6 or 10, but aberrations of other chromosomes.  40         Figure 2.4. FISH detection of 10q and 6p alterations in the LTL-220M, LTL-220N, LTL-221N sublines and their parental (first-generation) grafts. (A). The metastatic LTL-220M tumor line showed a net loss of FBXO9 (6p12) and gain of PTEN (10q23). Insets represent three detected clones: i) gain of PTEN, loss of FBXO9,2 copies of centromere 6; ii) gain of PTEN, 3 copies of centromere 6, 2 copies of FBXO9; iii) gain of PTEN, 2 copies of centromere 6, 1 copy of FBXO9. (B, C). The non metastatic LTL-220N and LTL- 221N sublines were consistently identified with 2 copies of PTEN, centromere 6 and FBXO9 per cell. (D). The parental xenograft of the metastatic LTL-220M line showed heterogeneity in copy number for each of the genomic loci tested: (a) The majority of cells (60%) possessed 2 copies of PTEN (10q23), centromere 6 and FBXO9 (6p12); (b) a small population (~20%) possessed 2 copies of PTEN (10q23), centromere 6 and one copy of FBXO9 (6p12); (c) the rest (~20%) showed gain of PTEN (10q23), 2 copies of centromere 6 and one copy of FBXO9 (6p12) (E, F). The parental xenografts of the non-metastatic LTL- 220N and LTL-221N showed 2 copies each for PTEN (10q23), centromere 6 and FBXO9 (6p12) as observed in the established tumor lines. (PTEN: red; FBXO9: green; centromere 6: blue)  41   gain of PTEN (10q23). In the LTL-220M line, three different subpopulations of about the same size were identified showing similar chromosome alterations: (i) a gain of PTEN (10q23), loss of FBXO9 (6p12), 2 copies of centromere 6; (ii) a gain of PTEN (10q23), 3 copies of centromere 6, and 2 copies of FBXO9 (6p12); (iii) a gain of PTEN, 2 copies of centromere 6 and one copy of FBXO9 (6p12) (Fig. 2.4A). For PTEN, a 10q23 copy number gain was due to the gain of 1-5 copies. For FBXO9 (6p12), the majority of the cells only showed one copy for the locus (~60%), but in cells where there were 2 copies for FBXO9 (6p12), there was a concomitant extra copy of centromere 6. Thus the 2 copies of FBXO9 (6p12) were likely a result of polysomy for normal chromosome 6. Taken together, net gain of PTEN(10q23) and loss of FBXO9(6p12) are exclusively observed in most of the cells in the metastatic LTL-220M subline instead of LTL- 220N and LTL-221, indicating that this molecular signature could be used as a marker to identify the presence of such a subpopulation in the parental tissues. Screening of cells in sections of parental xenografts of the non-metastatic LTL-220N and LTL-221N showed 2 copies each for PTEN (10q23), centromere 6 and FBXO9 (6p12) as observed in the established tumor lines (Fig. 2.4 E, F). However, the parental xenograft of the metastatic LTL-220M line showed heterogeneity in copy number for each of the genomic loci tested: (i) The majority of cells (60%) possessed 2 copies of PTEN (10q23), centromere 6 and FBXO9 (6p12); (ii) a small population (~20%) possessed 2 copies of PTEN (10q23), centromere 6 and one copy of FBXO9 (6p12); (iii) the rest (~20%) showed gain of PTEN (10q23), 2 copies of centromere 6 and one copy of FBXO9 (6p12) (Fig. 2.4 D). This last subpopulation in the parental xenograft showed the same PTEN, centromere 6 and FBXO9 copy number changes as the type iii subpopulation in the metastatic LTL-220M subline.  42   2.4. DISCUSSION Subrenal capsule xenografting in immuno-deficient mice was used to develop the patient- derived prostate cancer sublines since this method has a very high engraftment rate (>90%) (Wang et al., 2005a) in contrast to more commonly used subcutaneous grafting (take rates of 20- 40%) (Fichtner et al., 2008; Johnson et al., 1995; Mattern et al., 1985; Merk et al., 2009; Perez- Soler et al., 2000). The high engraftment rate is likely a result of high tissue perfusion of the kidney, providing superior nutrient supply for better graft survival and development of graft microvascularity (Cutz et al., 2006; Lee et al., 2005; Sharpless and Depinho, 2006; Voskoglou- Nomikos et al., 2003; Wang et al., 2005a). This is especially important to minimize loss of tumor subpopulations during grafting. Although the three sublines were generated from one patient‟s prostate cancer specimen, they showed significant differences in growth rate and karyotype (Fig. 2.3 and Table 2.1). This diversity is consistent with the widely accepted heterogeneous nature of prostate cancers. Importantly, the sublines also showed marked differences in local tissue invasiveness and metastatic ability as shown by an in vivo metastatic assay (Fig. 2.2). This provides functional evidence of the presence in the primary tumor of subpopulations with different metastatic potential. SKY was instrumental in identifying chromosomal aberrations (gain of 10q and loss of 6p) present in the metastatic LTL-220M subline in contrast to the non-metastatic sublines. The FISH probes, based on gain of 10q (i.e. PTEN) and loss of 6p (i.e. FBXO9), could be used to specifically identify the metastatic LTL-220M subline cells, as such alterations were expressed by all three subpopulations of the LTL-220M cells. The small differences observed with the probes in the three LTL-220M subline subpopulations are probably a result of genomic  43   instability. It should be noted that the PTEN and FBXO9 probes were only used to identify cells with 10q gain and 6p loss for proof-of-hypothesis in this particular case. The gene copy number changes do not appear to be suitable as general markers of metastasis, since loss of the PTEN gene, rather than its gain, is usually observed in prostate cancer development and metastasis (Gray et al., 1998). Actually no PTEN protein expression was detected in LTL-220M cells by immunohistochemistry in spite of PTEN copy number gain (data not shown), which is consistent with the reports of PTEN inactivation by epigenetic regulation or mutation in advanced prostate cancers (Li et al., 1997; Whang et al., 1998). Studies aimed at identifying metastatic markers may benefit from further studies with these and other paired patient-derived metastatic and non- metastatic tumor sublines at the RNA or protein level. The small percentage of cancer cells in the parental tissues that were identified with the “metastatic signature” indicates that metastatic ability was associated with a minority rather than a majority of the cells at least in some primary tumors. This finding is consistent with the clonal selection hypothesis of metastasis as supported by other groups which used cultured mouse cell lines (Fidler and Kripke, 1977; Fidler and Talmadge, 1986). However, it is in contrast with a report that the metastatic potential of human tumors is encoded in the bulk of a primary tumor (Ramaswamy et al., 2003). In that study, pools of cancer cells were analyzed with an array-based method, involving a signature composed of 17 genes that could not distinguish cells with full metastatic ability from cells that responded only partially to the gene probing. As a result more cells could have been identified as being metastatic than were actually present in the primary tumor. In the present study, the finding that metastatic potential is associated with a subpopulation in the primary tumor was made by screening of individual cells with a signature that had been successfully used to distinguish cells with metastatic ability as shown by an in vivo  44   assay. While the present study indicates that metastatic potential of cells in a primary tumor may be associated with a small subpopulation, it is recognized that in some cases primary tumors may contain a large subpopulation of metastatic cells due to the fast outgrowth of a metastatic clone. In any case, it is essential to establish signatures for specific identification of cells with metastatic potential. The metastatic and non-metastatic prostate cancer sublines used in the present study were established from one patient‟s fresh primary tumor tissue which highly favored retention of properties of the original cancer, using identical experimental conditions (e.g., micro- environment). As such they are very similar in genetic background. Some genetic differences that they do display are likely related to metastatic ability. In view of this, the sublines could provide useful tools for identifying metastasis-associated genes via, for example, comparative gene expression analysis. It is likely that genes, found to be differentially expressed in metastatic and non-metastatic prostate cancer sublines, will include some with critical roles in metastasis. Such genes and/or their products could serve as potential targets for therapy of metastatic prostate cancer.   45     Chapter 3  IDENTIFICATION OF ASAP1, A PROSTATE CANCER METASTASIS-ASSOCIATED GENE  3.1. INTRODUCTION Prostate cancer is the most common cancer as well as the second leading cause of cancer- related deaths for North American males. Once prostate cancer has metastasized it is incurable, and most deaths from this disease are due to metastases that are highly resistant to conventional therapies. Metastatic prostate cancer is hence a terminal disease. Development of new therapeutic targets, as well as reliable biomarkers for detection of metastatic potential in primary tumors, is of critical importance for improved disease survival and management (Foley et al., 2004; Glinsky et al., 2004; Isaacs, 2005). Metastasis is a multi-step process thought to be based on changes in expression of specific genes (Fidler, 2003). In view of this, changes in the expression of certain genes may serve as metastatic biomarkers and/or new targets for therapy of metastatic disease (Foley et al., 2004). Although effort have been made towards identification of metastatic biomarkers for prostate cancer (Foley et al., 2004; Glinsky et al., 2004; Paris et al., 2005; Varambally et al., 2005), few prognostic assays have so far been submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration (Gutman and Kessler, 2006). This is largely due to a lack of optimal models for A version of this chapter has been published. Dong Lin, Akira Watahiki, Jane Bayani  et al (2008). ASAP1, a gene at 8q24, is associated with prostate cancer metastasis. Cancer Res 68: 4352-9.  46   studying the development of prostate cancer metastasis. While prostate cancer cell lines representing different stages of tumor progression can be useful for identifying mechanisms underlying metastasis and developing novel therapeutics, they do not adequately mimic clinical disease (Sharpless and Depinho, 2006; Voskoglou-Nomikos et al., 2003). Efforts have therefore focused on models based on prostate cancer specimens from patients. However, the typical heterogeneity of such specimens, consisting of both non-metastatic and metastatic subpopulations, makes it difficult to identify genes with critical roles in the development of metastasis (Fidler, 2002a; Wang et al., 2005b). To overcome such a hurdle, a pair of metastatic (PCa1-met) and a non-metastatic (PCa2) sublines were generated from a  patient‟s prostate cancer specimen (Lin et al., 2008; Wang et al., 2005b) (Fig. 3.1). Using a modified version of Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE), i.e. LongSAGE (Saha et al., 2002), orthotopically grown xenografts of these two closely related sublines were compared with a view to identifying genes that were differentially expressed and as such could play a role in the development of metastatic ability. A number of differentially expressed genes were identified, including genes previously reported to have a role in tissue invasion and metastasis of prostate cancer cells. Differentially expressed genes that had not previously been associated with prostate cancer were also identified, including ASAP1 (AMAP1/DDEF1), a gene encoding an Arf GTPase-activating protein reported to have a role in breast cancer invasive activities (Onodera et al., 2005). Expression of ASAP1 protein was examined in primary and metastatic prostate cancer specimens in comparison with benign prostate samples. A correlation was sought between expression of ASAP1 protein and a variety of clinicopathological parameters.  47      Figure 3.1. Different local invasive ability of PCa1-met and PCa2. Tissue sections showing (i) differences in host tissue invasiveness between PCa1-met and PCa2 orthotopic xenografts during an 8-week assay and (ii) human origin of the cancer cells. A, PCa1-met cells have penetrated smooth muscle surrounding a mouse host prostatic duct (arrow) and grown around it; B, in contrast, host tissue is apparently not invaded by PCa2 cells. C, D, IHC staining with anti-human mitochondria antibody shows that human cancer cells are positively stained in contrast to the mouse host's prostatic ductal epithelial cells. (original magnification x100)   48    3.2. MATERIALS AND METHODS 3.2.1. Materials and animals Chemicals, stains, solvents and solutions were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich Canada Ltd, Oakville, ON, unless otherwise indicated. Six- to eight-week old NOD-SCID mice were obtained from the breeding program at the BC Cancer Research Centre Animal Resource Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver. 3.2.2. Xenografts The prostate cancer tissue sublines were maintained by serial transplantation of subrenal capsule xenografts into male NOD-SCID mice supplemented with testosterone (10 mg/mouse); metastatic and non-metastatic abilities of tumor sublines were confirmed using orthotopic grafting, as described in Chapter 2. In this chapter, a pair of metastatic (PCa1-met) and non- metastatic (PCa2) sublines developed from another patient‟s primary tumor were used for SAGE and following studies. Orthotopically grafted tissues were harvested for SAGE, qRT-PCR and immunohistochemical analysis. Animal care and experiments were carried out in accordance with the guidelines of the Canadian Council on Animal Care. 3.2.3. SAGE library construction and comparative analysis Total RNA was extracted from orthotopically grafted PCa1-met and PCa2 tissues (16 th  generations) using TRIZOL Reagent (Invitrogen, Burlington, ON) following the manufacturer‟s instructions. The quality of the RNA samples was analyzed using Agilent Bioanalyzer (Agilent  49   Technologies, Santa Clara, CA). SAGE libraries were constructed using an I-SAGE kit (Invitrogen). The libraries‟ clones were sequenced by the BC Genome Sciences Centre (BCGSC). Sequenced tags of the two tumor sublines were analyzed using DiscoverySpace, a BCGSC-developed SAGE gene expression analysis software tool (http://www.bcgsc.ca/bioinfo/software/discoveryspace/). The tags were filtered by “Experimental SAGE Tags Quality” (quality factor (QT) ≥95%) and annotated using the human and mouse gene and genome data “CMOST” integrated database. Since the transplantable xenograft tissues contain both human (tumor) and mouse (stroma) tissue, the SAGE tags were categorized as human-specific, mouse-specific, shared by human and mouse, and unmapped. In the present study, only human-specific tags were analyzed. Audic and Claverie p-statistics (DiscoverySpace) was used to establish whether differences found for selected tags between PCa1-met and PCa2 tissues were statistically significant. Each tag‟s ratio was calculated from frequencies per 100,000 human tags. 3.2.4. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) Total RNA was isolated from xenograft tissues using the RNeasy mini kit (Qiagen, Mississauga, ON) following the manufacturer‟s suggestions. The quality of the RNA samples was analyzed using Agilent Bioanalyzer (Agilent Technologies). RNA (1 µg) was treated with 0.5 units deoxyribonuclease I (amplification grade, Invitrogen) and then annealed with 50 ng random hexamer oligonucleotide. The cDNA was synthesized using the Superscript first strand synthesis system for RT-PCR (Invitrogen) following the manufacturer‟s suggestions. The cDNA products were diluted 20-fold prior to PCR amplification. Expression of selected genes was analyzed using a 7900HT Sequence Detection System (Applied Biosystems, Inc., Foster City,  50   CA). The qRT-PCR reaction was carried out in a 10 µL volume using cDNA (converted from 2.5 ng total RNA), a 150 nM gene-specific primer pair and Platinum SYBR Green qPCR SuperMix-UDG with ROX (Invitrogen). Duplicate reactions were performed for each sample, and data averaged and normalized to a geometric mean of the expression of two housekeeping genes, hprt and K-alpha-1, reported to be stably expressed in prostate tissue (Ohl et al., 2005). Gene expression data are presented as fold-change of one subline relative to the other subline. Since the xenograft samples consisted of both human and mouse cells, the following human- specific primers were designed for the ASAP1, hprt and K-alpha-1 genes, to ensure that only human cDNA, and not mouse cDNA, was amplified in qRT-PCR reactions. ASAP1: forward 5‟- CCCCTTTTGCAGCAACTTACA and reverse 5‟- TCCTATGTCCCACAGTAAGCTGG; hprt: forward 5‟-GGTCAGGCAGTATAATCCAAAG and reverse 5‟- CGATGTCAATAGGACTCCAGAT; K-alpha-1: forward 5‟- GAGGTTGGTGTGGATTCTGTT and reverse 5‟-AGCTGAAATTCTGGGAGCAT. Gene expression levels are expressed as mean ± SD. 3.2.5. Clinical prostate cancer tissues Specimens were obtained from patients, with their informed consent, following a protocol approved by the Clinical Research Ethics Board of the University of British Columbia (UBC) and the BC Cancer Agency. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) were constructed (Lee et al., 2005) at the Prostate Centre, Vancouver General Hospital (VGH) of 10 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 66 paraffin-embedded radical prostatectomy specimens from randomly selected cancers (Dept Pathology, VGH/UBC) that had not been subjected to any treatment before surgery. Areas with sufficient amounts of carcinoma and normal prostatic epithelium in  51   the original, diagnostic H&E-stained tissue sections were identified by a pathologist. Using a Tissue Microarrayer (Beecher Instruments, Silver Spring, MD), four tissue cores were taken from each BPH and malignant specimen for TMA construction. All patients were clinically staged as TNM (UICC system) based on clinical and radiological features (i.e., bone and computerized tomography scans). In addition, sections from 11 lymph node, 2 lung and 5 bone metastatic prostate cancers were obtained for ASAP1 protein analysis. 3.2.6. Post-operative follow-up Following surgery, patients were tested every 6 months for serum PSA levels. PSA recurrence was defined as a sustained elevation, on two or more occasions, of serum total PSA >0.2 ng/ml and was assigned to the date of the first elevated value. All patients receiving any form of neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy were excluded from the study. 3.2.7. Histopathological and immunohistochemical staining Preparation of paraffin-embedded tissue sections and immunohistochemical analyses were carried out as previously described (see Chapter 2). For ASAP1 protein staining, rabbit polyclonal anti-ASAP1 primary antibody was obtained from Abcam (Cambridge, UK). Biotinylated anti-rabbit secondary antibody was obtained from Amersham International (Arlington Heights, IL). All tissue sections were lightly counterstained with 5% (w/v) Harris hematoxylin. Control sections were processed in parallel with rabbit non-immune IgG (Dako, Carpinteria, CA) used at the same concentrations as the primary antibodies. 3.2.8. ASAP1 scoring Cytoplasmic  ASAP1 protein staining in tissue samples was evaluated by two independent pathologists in blinded analyses. Specimens were graded from 0 to +3 intensity to represent a  52   range from no staining to strong staining. The analyses were performed on the mean value of ASAP1 protein expression for each specimen. 3.2.9. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis for determination of ASAP1 gene copy number Dual-color FISH karyotypic analysis of paraffin-embedded tumor tissue (5 µm sections) was performed as described in Section 2.2.7. To determine ASAP1 gene copy numbers, two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones (RP11-582G12 and RP11-140N11) containing specific ASAP1 sequences were used; chromosome 8 was identified using a CEP 8 centromere probe. BAC DNAs were extracted by standard methods and labelled with Spectrum Orange (Abbott Molecular Inc./Vysis Inc., Des Plaines, IL). The chromosome localization and sequence identity of the BAC clones was confirmed by normal metaphase FISH and PCR analyses. 3.2.10. Statistical analysis  The Chi-square test was used to evaluate the association between ASAP1 protein expression and clinicopathological parameters. Differences of ASAP1 expression in benign, primary and metastatic cancer tissues were assessed using the Mann-Whitney U-test. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival probability functions, and the differences were assessed with the log-rank test. Multivariate survival analyses were performed using the Cox proportional hazards regression mode. Statistical significance in this study was set as P≤0.05.   53   3.3. RESULTS 3.3.1. Comparative analysis of SAGE libraries of metastatic and non-metastatic prostate cancer sublines Tissues from PCa1-met and PCa2 sublines, maintained as xenografts in mice, were grafted orthotopically (16 th  generation) and after seven tumor volume doublings harvested for SAGE. LongSAGE libraries of the PCa1-met and PCa2 sublines were prepared, containing 132,163 and 134,206 useful tags respectively, after removing tags with poor quality (quality factor <95%). Mapping of the tags to a Reference Sequences database (RefSeq) revealed that 88,001 (21,290 tag types) of the PCa1-met tags and 66,383 (17,206 tag types) of the PCa2 tags were of specific human origin; 15,678 tags (6,878 tag types) in PCa1-met and 38,943 tags (11,582 types tag) in PCa2 library were of specific mouse origin; 23,201 tags (2,623 types tag) in PCa-1 met and 20,949 tags (2,627 types tag) in PCa2 are mapped both human and mouse database; 5,283 (4,395 types tag) and 7,931 tags (6,231 types tag) did not map to either human and mouse database (Table 3.1). In this study, only human specific tags were analyzed in following steps. A scatter plot illustrates differential expressed tags between PCa1-met library and PCa2 library by Audic and Claverie statistics (Fig.3.2). A significant number of tags were differentially expressed between two libraries (P≤0.05), including 27,130 tags (419 tag types) upregulated and 22,545 tags (412 tag types) downregulated in PCa1-met library compared with PCa2 library (Table 3.2). Tags that were mapped ambiguously to more than one gene and differed by less than two-fold were excluded from further analysis. Application of this filter reduced differentially expressed tag types to 646 (340 upregulated tag types and 306 downregulated tag types). These 646 tag types represented 596 genes, including 318 genes up- regulated and 278 genes down-regulated in the PCa1-met library, relative to the PCa2 library.  54           Table 3.1 Characteristics of LongSAGE tag frequency distribution  Library Human specific Mouse specific Human & mouse Shared  Unmapped Total PCa1-met Total tags 88,001 15,678 23,201 5,283 132,163  Tag types 21,290 6,878 2,623 4,395 35,168 PCa2 Total tags 66,383 38,943 20,949 7,931 134,206   Tag types 17,206 11,582 2,627 6,231 37,646   55        Figure 3.2. Confidence intervals highlight expressed tag types with non-linear relationships between LongSAGE libraries derived from PCa1-met and PCa2. Scatter plot dots represent tag types and their placement indicates their counts in either libraries. Dots that fall outside the confidence interval (CI) lines are statistically significantly differentially expressed (Audic and Claverie statistics). Green line, 95% CI; yellow line, 99% CI and black line, 99.9% CI.  56         Table 3.2. Compositions of human specific tags in PCa1-met and PCa2 libraries.  Total tags Tag types Expressed at similar level in both libraries* 104,709 29,633 Up-regulated in PCa1-met library+ 27,130 419 Up-regulated in PCa2 library+ 22,545 412 Total 154,384 30,464  *  Audic and Claverie statistics, P>0.05. +  Audic and Claverie statistics, P≤0.05.   57   Some of these differentially expressed genes have previously been reported to play a role in cancer with regard to tissue invasion and metastasis, including, EZH2, CCL2, CCR7 and S100A4. Of the differentially expressed genes not previously associated with prostate cancer, the ASAP1 gene was of particular interest, since its tags in the metastatic library (10.33/100,000) were found to be more prevalent than in the non-metastatic library (1.55/100,000) (P=0.04) and it is localized at 8q24, a commonly amplified region in advanced prostate cancer. 3.3.2. Differential ASAP1 gene expression in PCa1-met and PCa2 tumor sublines To validate differential ASAP1 expression in the PCa1-met and PCa2 tumor sublines, expression of the ASAP1 gene was measured using qRT-PCR in samples of the two sublines derived from 12 th , 14 th  and 16 th  generations harvested at 27-35 days post-grafting. The ASAP1- mRNA levels were significantly higher in the metastatic PCa1-met than in the non-metastatic PCa2 subline, showing 2.3±0.4, 2.3±0.1 and 2.1±0.3 fold differences in the 12 th , 14 th  and 16 th  generations, respectively (P<0.01, Fig.3.3A). The fold-change was essentially the same for the three generations examined, indicating that there was no major change in differential ASAP1 gene expression through five consecutive passages of the sublines. 3.3.3. Differential expression of ASAP1 protein in xenograft tissues Using immunohistochemistry, levels of ASAP1 protein were determined in xenografts of non-metastatic PCa2 and metastatic PCa1-met tissue, as well as benign and slow growing malignant tissue. The PCa2 and PCa1-met sublines showed moderate and strong cytoplasmic staining for ASAP1 protein, respectively (Fig.3.3B, C). The much stronger staining for ASAP1 protein in PCa1-met tissue compared to PCa2 tissue was consistent with the higher levels of  58     Figure 3.3. Differential ASAP1 expressions in PCa1-met and PCa2 sublines. A. Levels of ASAP1 mRNA in PCa1-met were consistently higher than those in paired PCa2 xenograft tissues in different generations (P<0.01). B-E. Immunohistochemistry showed ASAP1 protein expression in PCa1-met, PCa2, xenografts of benign and slow growing malignant prostate tissues: B, non-metastatic PCa2 cells showing moderate cytoplasmic expression and C, metastatic PCa1-met cells showing strong cytoplasmic expression of the ASAP1 protein. D, benign prostate tissue showing weak cytoplasmic expression of ASAP1. E, slow growing prostate cancer grafts showing moderate cytoplasmic expression of ASAP1. Mouse kidney is indicated with arrow. Original magnifications: 200x, inserts: 400x.  59   ASAP1-mRNA found in the PCa1-met subline. ASAP1 protein expressions were also detected in benign prostate tissue grafts (Fig.3.3D) and slow growing prostate cancer grafts (Fig.3.3E) which had survived transplantation into testosterone-supplemented NOD-SCID mice but did not show significant growth even after 6 months of grafting. In these cases, the benign tissue showed weak or no cytoplasmic ASAP1 protein staining; the slow growing malignant tumor grafts showed weak or moderate cytoplasmic ASAP1 protein staining similar to that observed in the non- metastatic PCa2 subline. Taken together, the xenograft-derived data suggest that highly elevated ASAP1 protein expression is associated with cancer cell aggressiveness and metastatic potential. 3.3.4. Expression of ASAP1 protein in clinical prostate samples A tissue microarray (TMA) of clinical prostate samples, i.e. 10 BPH and 66 primary cancer tissues, was examined for ASAP1 protein expression. Nine out of the 10 benign prostate tissues showed negative or only weak ASAP1 protein expression (Fig. 3.4D arrow), a finding consistent with the observations with benign prostate tissue xenografts (Fig.3.3D). In 53 out of the 66 prostate cancer tissues (80%) moderate to strong ASAP1 protein expression was observed. The intensity of ASAP1 protein staining in these prostate cancer tissues (2.1±0.6) (Fig. 3.4B-D) was significantly higher than in the benign tissues (0.9±0.3) (P<0.01) (Table 3.3). In 32 cancer cases, different cores obtained from the same patient‟s tissue showed varying ASAP1 staining levels. Strong ASAP1 expression was observed in perineural and vascular invasive prostate cancers (Fig. 3.5A, B). Individual metastatic prostate cancer tissues, i.e. 11 lymph node, 2 lung and 5 bone metastatic tissues, were also examined for ASAP1 protein expression. In all the tissues examined, ASAP1 protein expression (2.6±0.6) was very high (Fig. 3.5C-F) and significantly  60         Figure 3.4. Immuno-histochemical staining of ASAP1 in a tissue microarray of clinical prostate samples. A. Prostate cancer cells showed weak cytoplasmic staining for ASAP1, scored 1; B. Prostate cancer cells showed moderate cytoplasmic staining for ASAP1, scored 2; C. Prostate cancer cells showed strong cytoplasmic staining for ASAP1, scored 3;  D. Tissues of prostate cancers showed much stronger staining for ASAP1 compared with adjacent benign tissue (arrow). Original image magnifications: 200x.   61     Figure 3.5. ASAP1 protein expression in clinical samples of invasive and metastatic prostate cancer. A, B: strong ASAP1 expression in perineural invasive and intravascular prostate cancer cells; arrow head indicates a blood vessel. C: lymph-node metastatic prostate cancer tissues showing strong ASAP1 protein expression. D: lung metastatic prostate cancer tissue showing strong ASAP1 expression; lung tissue is indicated with an asterisk. E, F: bone metastatic prostate cancer tissue showing strong ASAP1 protein expression; bone matrices are indicated with an asterisk, prostate cancer cells with an arrow. Original magnifications: 100x (D, E), 200x (A, C, F) and 400x (B).  62   stronger than in the primary prostate cancer tissues (P<0.01), indicating that increased ASAP1 protein expression is associated with metastatic ability (Table 3.3). 3.3.5. Association of ASAP1 protein expression in primary tumors with clinicopathological parameters In examining whether ASAP1 expression in primary tumors was linked to clinicopathological factors, 66 cases were divided into two groups on the basis of ASAP1 staining intensity levels using a division point of 25% of the cancer cells showing strong ASAP1 staining in view of the heterogeneous ASAP1 expression observed in TMA. There was no correlation between ASAP1 levels and Gleason grade, margin and clinical stage. A significant association was found between strong ASAP1 expression and positive clinical stage of metastasis (M+) (P=0.04). There was a clear trend towards a higher frequency of PSA recurrence in patients whose samples showed strong ASAP1 expression (P=0.05) (Table 3.4). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that strong ASAP1 staining was coupled to increased risk of PSA recurrence after surgery, although statistical significance using the log-rank test was not fully reached (P=0.07) (Fig. 3.6). In a multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, strong ASAP1 is not an independent risk factor of PSA recurrence. 3.3.6. ASAP1 gain/amplification in clinical prostate samples The ASAP1 gene is located at 8q24. Gain of this region is one of the most common chromosomal alterations in advanced prostate cancer. To investigate whether gain/amplification of the ASAP1 gene was a common event in prostate cancer and whether it was correlated with increased ASAP1 protein expression, two ASAP1-specific BAC probes were used together for interphase FISH analysis of 10 benign and 38 primary prostate cancer samples. Chromosome 8  63            Table 3.3. ASAP1 expression in clinical prostate tissues.  number of cases ASAP1 staining P value Benign 10 0.9±0.3  Primary cancer 66 2.1±0.6 <0.01a Metastatic cancer 16 2.6±0.6 <0.01b  a ASAP1 expression in primary prostate cancer tissue is significantly increased compared to expression in benign prostate tissue (Mann-Whitney U-test). b ASAP1 expression in metastatic prostate cancer tissue is significantly increased compared to expression in primary prostate cancer tissue (Mann-Whitney U-test).  64       Table 3.4. Association between ASAP1 expression and clinicopathological parameters.     ASAP1 expression     (-)~(++)a +++a Total P valueb Gleason grade   Gleason<7 18 12 30 0.56   Gleason≥7 19 17 36  Clinical stage   T2 30 25 55 0.60   T3 7 4 11    M- 36 24 60 0.04   M+ 1 5 6  Margin   negative 25 21 46 0.67   positive 12 8 20  PSA recurrence   negative 17 16 33 0.05   positive 0 4 4  a (-)~(++): less than 25% cancer cells showed ASAP1 strong staining   (+++): ≥25% cancer cells showed ASAP1 strong staining b  Chi-squared analysis.       65         Figure 3.6. Probabilities of PSA recurrence-free survival in patients treated with radical prostatectomy according to ASAP expression. (log-rank test, p=0.07)  66   was identified using a CEP 8 centromere probe. As expected, the 10 benign prostate tissues did not show any increase in ASAP1 copy number per cell. In contrast, there was a significant increase in ASAP1 copy number in 22 of the 38 primary prostate cancer cases (57.9%). Among the 22 cases, 21 cases showed ASAP1 gain resulting from polysomy of chromosome 8, i.e. 20 cases showed low-level gain (3-4 copies of ASAP1 per cell; Fig. 3.7A), whereas one showed a high copy number gain (≥ 5 copies of ASAP1 per cell; Fig. 3.7B). The remaining case (4.5%) showed amplification of ASAP1 (cells with gain of ASAP1 signals relative to CEP 8 signals; Fig. 3.7C). Of the 38 cases there were only 31 where both ASAP1 protein expression and copy numbers were determined. In 17 cases where copy numbers had increased, 13 (76.4%) showed increased ASAP1 expression. However, in the remaining 14 cases with normal ASAP1 copy numbers, increased ASAP1 expression was also observed in 12 cases (85.7%), indicating  that there was no correlation between gain/amplification of ASAP1 and elevated ASAP1 protein expression (P=0.52). Taken together, the data suggest that gain/amplification of ASAP1 is a quite common occurrence in prostate cancer, but is not associated with increased ASAP1 protein expression. 3.4. DISCUSSION Most deaths from prostate cancer are due to metastases that are highly resistant to conventional therapies. So far, few metastasis-associated genes have been discovered that could be used as reliable metastatic biomarkers, or therapeutic targets, to improve management of the disease (Foley et al., 2004; Glinsky et al., 2004; Gutman and Kessler, 2006). In this study, gene expression of the metastatic PCa1-met and non-metastatic PCa 2 sublines, derived from the same patient‟s cancer, were compared by SAGE. One of the advantages of SAGE analysis is that  67          Figure 3.7. Gain and/or amplification of ASAP1 shown by dual-color FISH in human primary prostate cancer tissues. A. Nuclei showing a balanced increase in ASAP1 gene (red) and chromosome 8 number (green) indicating low polysomic copy gain (three to four copies). B Nuclei showing a balanced increase in ASAP1 gene and chromosome 8 number indicating high polysomic copy gain (five or more copies). C Nuclei showing an increase in ASAP1 copies relative to chromosome 8 copies indicating ASAP1 gene amplification. Original magnification, 400x.   68   human and mouse specific tags can be distinguished by annotation using human and mouse genome databases, making it possible to exclude the influence of mouse gene expression in xenograft tissues. In this study, non-annotated tags, and all the tags annotated with mouse genes,  were not included in further analysis, even though some of the tags were also annotated to human genes. As could be expected, some known metastasis-associated genes, were found to be differentially expressed in the two sublines, such as EZH2(11/1)(Varambally et al., 2002), S100A4 (9/0) (Saleem et al., 2006), CCR7 (7/0) (Muller et al., 2001) and CCL20 (8/0) (Beider et al., 2009). This indicates the validity of the approach used. ASAP1, also known as DDEF1 and AMAP1, is an ADP ribosylation factor GTPase- activating protein (ArfGAP). It was first identified on the basis of Arf GAP activity, and separately, in screening of Src-binding proteins (Brown et al., 1998; King et al., 1999). ASAP1 was found to bind to Src, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and phosphatidylinositol-4,5- bisphosphate (PIP2) and to be involved in regulation of cell migration (Brown et al., 1998; Liu et al., 2002; Liu et al., 2005; Randazzo et al., 2000). A role for ASAP1 in prostate cancer has not previously been reported. The finding in the present study showed that the level of ASAP1 expression increased progressively in both human prostate xenografts and clinical specimens going from benign to malignant to metastatic conditions. This phenomenon is consistent with observations in breast cancer and uveal melanoma studies. Thus high levels of ASAP1 expression in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) have been reported, whereas the adjacent non- cancerous mammary ductal epithelia showed very low expression levels (Ehlers et al., 2005; Onodera et al., 2005). Furthermore, ASAP1 protein was significantly up-regulated in high-grade uveal melanomas compared to low-grade tumors (Ehlers et al., 2005). However, these studies did not investigate association of ASAP1 expression with clinicopathological factors and disease  69   outcome as was done in the present study. In the latter, the correlation of strong ASAP1 expression with both positive clinical stage of metastasis and PSA recurrence suggests that increased ASAP1 expression is linked to aggressiveness and metastatic potential in primary prostate cancers. Several limitations in this study should be considered. Some associations of increased ASAP1 expression with clinical parameters, that were inconclusive due to limited statistical power, may attain statistical significance if the sample size is increased. For example, while there was a trend that patients with strong ASAP1 expression had an increased probability of PSA recurrence after surgery, only near statistical significance was observed using Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test (P=0.07). It should be noted that only 37 out of 66 cases of the patient cohort have been followed up. Only 4 out of the 37 cases (10.8%) had PSA recurrence after a median follow-up of 38 months. This recurrence rate is lower than other reported PSA recurrence rates (about 20%) following radical prostatectomy (Hull et al., 2002; Khan et al., 2005). Studies involving larger patient cohorts with longer follow-up will be helpful to clarify whether strong ASAP1 expression in primary tumors is indicative of recurrence of the disease. Gain of the 8q region has been reported as one of the most common chromosomal alterations in prostate cancer tissue (Gudmundsson et al., 2007; Haiman et al., 2007; Kim et al., 2007; Visakorpi et al., 1995; Yeager et al., 2007). It has also been observed in the highly invasive PC-3 prostate cancer cell line (Porkka et al., 2004; Tsuchiya et al., 2002). Gain of the 8q region has also been reported to correlate with metastatic progression and poor prognosis of prostate cancer (Ribeiro et al., 2006; van Dekken et al., 2003). As such, it is of major interest that the ASAP1 gene has been mapped to chromosomal location 8q24.21. The finding in the present study that copy number gain of the ASAP1 gene is likely a common event in primary  70   prostate cancer (57.9%) is similar to that observed for uveal melanoma, in which ASAP1 was amplified in approximately 50% of uveal melanomas. The latter study also showed that ASAP1 overexpression correlated strongly with gain in 8q copy number. However, such a correlation between increased ASAP1 expression and gain of ASAP1 was not observed in the present study. On the other hand, amplification of ASAP1 leading to increased protein expression cannot be excluded, since in our patient cohort highly increased ASAP1 protein expression was found in the case in which ASAP1 was amplified. Since only one such case was observed, larger patient cohorts should be examined for a relationship between ASAP1 amplification and increased ASAP1 protein expression. In summary, the findings in this study suggest that prostate cancer metastasis-associated genes can be successfully identified by comparison of gene expression patterns of paired metastatic and non-metastatic sublines derived from one patient‟s primary cancer tissue. The results obtained with clinical specimens suggest that ASAP1 and its products may be involved in prostate cancer progression and represent potential new biomarkers for identification of prostate cancer patients at high risk of metastasis. Further functional studies will help to clarify the role of ASAP1 in prostate cancer metastasis and may provide new insights into prostate cancer progression.    71   Chapter 4  FUNCTIONAL VALIDATION OF ASAP1 AS A METASTASIS- ASSOCIATED GENE IN PROSTATE CANCER  4.1. INTRODUCTION Tumor cells metastasize via a series of biological cascades. Tissue invasion is one of the key steps in this complex process. Reorganization of the cytoskeleton as well as degradation of the extracellular matrix is important for tumor cells in dissociating from the primary tumor, invading adjacent tissue and subsequently metastasizing to distant sites (Bacac and Stamenkovic, 2008; Mareel et al., 2009; Yamaguchi et al., 2005). Various studies have demonstrated that specific genes are involved in tissue invasion and metastasis of prostate cancer cells (Clarke et al., 2009; Gopalkrishnan et al., 2001). In the previous study (Chapter 3), a number of prostate cancer metastasis-associated genes were identified by comparison of metastatic and non-metastatic prostate cancer sublines derived from a patient‟s primary cancer specimen. The ASAP1 gene was particularly interesting due to its elevated expression in malignant, especially metastatic tissues and gene amplification/copy number gain in clinical cancer samples.  ASAP1 belongs to a family of ADP-ribosylation factors GTPase activating proteins (ARF GAPs) with two splice variants ASAP1 (125kDa) and ASAP1b (120kDa) in human (Onodera et al., 2005). Schematic representation of ASAP1 and ASAP1b was shown in Fig.4.1. Part of this chapter will be submitted for publication. Dong Lin, Yuwei Wang, Fang Zhang et.al. ASAP1 is important but not sufficient for prostate cancer invasion and metastasis. (In preparation).  72        Figure 4.1. Schematic representation of ASAP1 and ASAP1b proteins. Two splice variants, ASAP1 and ASAP1b were reported in human. The 120kDa isoform, ASAP1b, is lack of 4 of 16 proline-rich sequences (3 rd   to 6 th  , 57aa), which present in 125kDa isoform ASAP1. BAR: Bin–Amphiphysin–Rvs domain; PH: Pleckstrin homology domain; Arf GAP: Arf GAP (ADP-ribosylation factors GTPase activating protein) domain; ANK: Ankyrin repeats; PRD: Proline rich domain; SH3: SRC homology 3 domain.    73   ARFs represent a family of small G proteins that are involved in the regulation of membrane trafficking and the actin cytoskeleton (D'Souza-Schorey and Chavrier, 2006). The activation of ARFs is regulated by GTPase exchange factors (GEFs) and GAPs. The GEFs activate ARFs by facilitating ARFs to release GDP and bind with GTP, and GAPs deactivate ARFs by stimulating ARFs‟ GTPase activity, thus allowing for the hydrolysis of bound GTP to GDP. ASAP1 was identified based on its ARF GAP activity and through its interaction with Src independently (Brown et al., 1998; King et al., 1999). ASAP1 has been found to bind to and be phosphorylated by Src and FAK (focal adhesion kinase) and associated with focal adhesion structure and regulation of cell motility (Brown et al., 1998; Liu et al., 2002; Liu et al., 2005). Recently, ASAP1 was thought to contribute to the cancer invasive and metastatic phenotype in uveal melanoma and breast cancer (Ehlers et al., 2005; Onodera et al., 2005). In previous study (Chapter 3), increased ASAP1 protein expression was correlated with prostate cancer metastasis and poor PSA recurrence-free survival in xenograft model and clinical prostate cancer samples. The findings suggest that ASAP1 may play a role in prostate cancer metastasis. To investigate the role of ASAP1 in tissue invasion and metastasis of prostate cancer, ASAP1 protein expression was (i) reduced by siRNA and lentivirus-mediated RNA interference and (ii) overexpressed by lentivirus-mediated overexpression. Effects of the gene silencing or overexpression were evaluated in vitro and in vivo, using cell-based assays such as wound healing, matrigel invasion and orthotopical metastatic assays.     74   4.2. MATERIALS AND METHODS 4.2.1. Materials and animals Chemicals, stains, solvents and solutions were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich Canada Ltd, Oakville, ON, unless otherwise indicated. Six- to eight-week old NOD-SCID mice were obtained from the in-house breeding program of the BC Cancer Research Centre Animal Resource Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver. 4.2.2. Cell cultures The human prostate cancer cell lines, PC-3 and LNCaP, were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA). Cells were maintained in RPMI-1640 medium (Stem Cell Technologies, Vancouver, BC), supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (Gibco-BRL, Burlington, ON), penicillin (50 units/ml) and streptomycin (50 g/ml) (Stem Cell Technologies) in a humidified atmosphere of 95% air and 5% CO2 at 37°C. Subculturing was carried out using standard techniques, including trypsinization using 0.25% trypsin/1.0 mM EDTA. 4.2.3. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) and cell transfection siRNAs (Stealth™) targeting ASAP1 and negative control (scrambled) siRNAs were purchased from Invitrogen. The ASAP1-targeting Stealth™ RNAis were: siRNA1, 5‟- GACCAGAUCUCUGUCUCGGAGUUCA-3‟ and 5‟- UGAACUCCGAGACAGAGAUCUGGUC-3‟, and siRNA2,  5‟- GGGCAAUAAGGAAUAUGGCAGUGAA-3‟  and 5‟- UUCACUGCCAUAUUCCUUAUUGCCC-3‟. Vehicle and scrambled siRNAs were used as  75   controls. The scrambled sequences were 5‟-GAUCGCAGAUGUUUCUCGCUCGACA-3‟ and 5‟-UGUCGAGCGAGAAACAUCUGCGAUC-3‟. To examine the effect of the siRNAs on ASAP1 expression, PC-3 cells were plated in 6-well plates in antibiotic-free RPMI-1640. After 20 hours, the cells were transfected with 60 nmol/L siRNA in Lipofectamine TM  2000 reagent following the manufacturer‟s instructions. Briefly, a mixture of LipofectamineTM 2000 and siRNA in Opti-MEM (500 µl) was gently added to each well. After 8 hours, the transfection mixture was removed and fresh antibiotic-free RPMI-1640 was added. Vehicle (Lipofectamine TM 2000) and scrambled siRNA were applied in separate wells. Following 72 hours incubation, the PC-3 cells were harvested for western blot analysis, scratch wound healing and matrigel invasion assays. 4.2.4. Generation of the lentiviral constructs cDNAs for human ASAP1 were generously provided by Dr. Hisataka Sabe (Osaka Bioscience Institute, Suita, Osaka, Japan). shRNA oligos targeting ASAP1 and negative control oligos were purchased from Invitrogen. shRNA oligos were:sh-ASAP1-1, 5‟- TGCTGTTAAGTCTCGGAGTGCAGTTAGTTTTGGCCACTGACTGACTAACTGCACCGA GACTTAA-3‟and5‟- CCTGTTAAGTCTCGGTGCAGTTAGTCAGTCAGTGGCCAAAACTAACTGCACTCCGAG ACTTAAC-3‟; sh-ASAP1-2, 5‟- TGCTGTTCTGAGGTAGTTTAGGAAGAGTTTTGGCCACTGACTGACTCTTCCTACTACC TCAGAA-3‟ and 5‟- CCTGTTCTGAGGTAGTAGGAAGAGTCAGTCAGTGGCCAAAACTCTTCCTAAACTACC TCAGAAC-3‟; sh-control, 5‟-  76   TGCTCGAGACCGAATTCTAGAGGGCCCGGTACCACTAGTTAATTAATCGATACTAGT CTGCAGCTAGCGGCGCGCCTCTAGAGAATTCGGTCTCA-3‟ and 5‟- CCTGTGAGACCGAATTCTCTAGAGGCGCGCCGCTAGCTGCAGACTAGTATCGATTAA TTAACTAGTGGTACCGGGCCCTCTAGAATTCGGTCTCG-3‟. For ASAP1 knockdown experiment, oligonucleotide pairs were inserted into the pcDNA6.2™GW/EmGFP-miR vector (Invitrogen) and subcloned to pLC-EF1A-DEST destination vector, which contains elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1A) promoter, to generate the lentiviral expression clones, pLC-EF1A-control, pLC-EF1A-sh-ASAP1-1 and pLC-EF1A-sh- ASAP1-2. For the overexpression experiment, ASAP1 and ASAP1b coding sequences were cloned into pENTR2B vector (Invitrogen). KOZAC sequences were amplified by using primers that incorporate an EcoRI site and a DraIII site and were ligated in upstream of ASAP1 and ASAP1b coding sequence. Sequences of recombinant ASAP1 and ASAP1b were confirmed by full length sequencing.  The recombinant ASAP1 and ASAP1b were subcloned into pLG-A- DEST destination vector, which expresses the gene of interest driven by the ARR2PB promoter and also expresses eGFP driven by the ubiquitin-C promoter as a fluorescent marker, to generate the androgen-regulated lentiviral expression vectors, pLG-PP-ASAP1 and pLG-PP-ASAP1b. 4.2.5. Virus production and transductions One 10 cm dish was seeded with 4×10 6  293T cells (obtained from ATCC) from a non- confluent culture plate in 10 ml DMEM (Invitrogen), supplemented with 10 % FBS (Invitrogen) in antibiotic-free media. The following day, the cells were cotransfected by the calcium phosphate precipitation method according to the manufacturer‟s instructions (Promega Profection Mammalian Transfection System, Promega) with 10 µg lentiviral vector, 7.5 µg  77   pCMV Δ8.91, and 2.5 µg pVSV-G. 12 to 16 hours later, the cells were washed with 5 ml PBS and 5 ml DMEM containing 10% FBS. The supernatant was collected after 24 and 48 hours and filtered through a 0.45 µm filter (SE1M00300, Millipore) to remove debris. The supernatant containing the virus was stored at 4ºC for a maximum of two days and then moved to –80ºC for long term storage. For lentiviral transduction, cells were seeded in 6-well plates at a density of 1×10 5  in 2 ml. After 24 hours, the media was replaced with 0.5 ml virus stock mixed with 0.5 ml tissue culture medium containing 8 μg/ml polybrene. The medium was changed 16 hours after infection and the EGFP-positive cells were checked after 48 hours under a fluorescence microscope. 4.2.6. Western blotting Cells growing on a 6-well plate were harvested by scraper and protein lysates were prepared using modified RIPA buffer (1% NP-40, 0.5% sodium deoxycholic acid) supplemented with a protease inhibitor cocktail (Roche, Basel, Switzerland). Total lysate protein was determined using the BCA protein assay (Pierce, Rockford, IL). Typically, 5 µg of proteins were separated by electrophoresis through 7.5% SDS polyacrylamide gels and transferred to PVDF membranes (Immobilon-P, Millipore, Billerica, MA). Membranes were incubated with mouse anti-ASAP1 monoclonal primary antibody (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA) or rabbit anti-actin polyclonal primary antibody (Sigma) for 1 hour at room temperature. After washing and incubation with secondary antibodies, bands were visualized on autoradiography film by ECL (SuperSignal West Femto Maximum Sensitivity Substrate, Pierce).   78   4.2.7. In vitro cell proliferation assay Cells were seeded in 96-well plates (~1500 cells per well). Cell proliferation was assessed by methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium (MTT) assay every 24 hours. For the MTT assay, 10 μl MTT (5 mg/ml in PBS) was added to each well containing 100 μl media for a 4-hour incubation at 37 °C. 100 μl 20% SDS was added to each well to solubilize the dye. Absorbance was determined at 570 nm using a plate reader. Experiments were performed in triplicate. 4.2.8. Scratch wound healing migration assay PC-3 cells were seeded into 6-well culture plates using their regular maintenance medium. After the cells reached confluence, the medium was removed and a plastic pipette tip was drawn across the centre sections of the wells to produce clean ~1-mm-wide open areas (wounds) in the monolayers. Photographs were taken immediately and after 24 hours of further incubation at 37°C in RPMI-1640 medium with reduced serum content (0.1% FBS). Cell- recovered areas at 24 hours were measured to estimate the extent of cell migration. Data are presented as percentages calculated by normalizing the values obtained for the control cells as 100%. 4.2.9. Matrigel invasion assays Assays were performed using modified Boyden chambers consisting of 8 µm pore filter inserts in 24-well plates (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA). Cells in serum-free RPMI-1640 medium were plated (7.5x10 4 /well) on Matrigel-coated and uncoated membranes of the upper compartments and incubated at 37°C in a CO2 incubator, using RPMI-1640 containing 5% FBS in the lower chambers as a chemoattractant. After 22 hours the inserts were pulled out and the  79   remaining, non-invading cells on the upper surface removed with a cotton swab. The cells on the lower surface of the membrane were fixed in methanol, air-dried and stained with 0.1% crystal violet for 10 minutes. The cells on each membrane were counted in five fields (at 200x magnification) using a light microscope. Tumor cell invasion index was taken as the percentage of the number of cells that had passed through the Matrigel-coated membranes relative to the number of cells that had passed through the uncoated membranes. Data are presented as percentages calculated by normalizing the values obtained for the untreated cells as 100%. 4.2.10. In vivo orthotopic metastatic assay Cells were trypsinized from 10 cm dishes and resuspended with collagen at a concentration of 3×10 6/100 μl. Collagen gel pellets containing cells (6×105/20 μl) were dropped onto 10 cm dishes and incubated at 37°C for 30 minutes before grafting. The grafting procedure is the same as described before (Wang et al., 2005b). In brief, two pellets were grafted into anterior prostates of mice and, after 8 weeks, mice were killed for gross examination of lymph nodes. In addition, lymph nodes, lungs, livers, kidneys, spleens and bone (femur) of the hosts were fixed for examination of metastases using histological and immunohistochemical techniques. 4.2.11. Histopathological and immunohistochemical staining Preparation of paraffin-embedded tissue sections and immunohistochemical analyses were carried out as previously described (see Chapter 2). Mouse monoclonal anti-Ki67 primary antibody was obtained from Dako (Carpinteria, CA). Biotinylated anti-mouse secondary antibody was obtained from Amersham International (Arlington Heights, IL). All tissue sections  80   were lightly counterstained with 5% (w/v) Harris hematoxylin. Control sections were processed in parallel with mouse non-immune IgG (Dako) used at the same concentrations as the primary antibody. 4.2.12. Statistical analysis Data were presented as mean ± SD. Different values among groups were compared using a two-tailed unpaired Student's t test. Statistical significance in this study was set as P≤0.05.  4.3. RESULTS 4.3.1. Knockdown of ASAP1 protein by siRNA decreases PC-3 cell migration and invasion   In vitro scratch wound-healing  and cell invasion assays were used to examine the effect of reduced ASAP1 protein expression on migration and tissue invasion of PC-3 cells. These human prostate cancer cells, commonly used to represent advanced prostate cancer, were employed since they are apparently more invasive and metastatic than, e.g., LNCaP cells (Hoosein et al., 1991),  and were found to express ASAP1 protein more highly than LNCaP cells (Fig. 4.2A). Reduction of ASAP1 expression in PC-3 cells was obtained by transfection of the cells with ASAP1-targeting siRNAs. As shown by Western blot analysis, ASAP1 protein expression was markedly reduced 72 hours after transfection with siRNA 1 and 2, in contrast to cells transfected with the vehicle (lipofectamine TM 2000) or scramble siRNA (Fig. 4.2B). In the wound-healing assays, the scramble siRNA-treated control cell cultures showed similar healed wound areas as vehicle-treated cultures during a 24-hour period. In contrast, the cultures treated   81     Figure 4.2. Effects of siRNA-reduced ASAP1 protein expression on cell migration and matrigel invasiveness of PC-3 cells. A. Western blot showing ASAP1 protein expression in PC-3 cells is higher than that in LNCaP cells. B. Western blot showing reduction of ASAP1 protein content in PC-3 cells transfected with either siRNA1 or 2, targeting the ASAP1 gene, in contrast to vector- and scramble- treated cells. C. Healed scratch wound areas in monolayers of siRNA-transfected PC-3 cells are significantly smaller than those of vector-treated cultures 24 hours after scratching (P <0.01). D. siRNA- induced reduction of ASAP1 expression resulted in a markedly decrease of relative invasive ability in siRNA-transfected PC-3 cells compared with vector-treated cultures (29.5±14.5%, 29.8±12.6%%, respectively, P <0.01); data are expressed as mean ± SD.  82   with ASAP1-targeting siRNAs 1 and 2, showed significantly smaller healed wound areas (49.2±13.7% and 49.9±17.6%, respectively) compared to vector-treated cultures (P < 0.01; Fig. 4.2C). In the cell invasion assay, reduction of ASAP1 expression by siRNA resulted in a markedly decreased cell invasive ability (29.5±14.5% and 29.8±12.6% in siRNA1- and siRNA2- treated cultures, respectively) compared to vector-treated cultures (Fig. 4.2D). 4.3.2. Effect of reduced ASAP1 expression on in vitro matrigel invasion and in vivo metastatic ability of PC-3 cells stably transduced with shRNA Stable ASAP1-knockdown PC-3 cells were generated by transducing PC-3 cells with lentivirus carrying ASAP1-targeting shRNA sequences. Transduction efficiency was determined by checking EmGFP-positive cells under a fluorescence microscope (Fig. 4.3A). Stable PC-3 cells that were transfected with a control viral vector (PC-3-sh-control) expressed similar levels of endogenous ASAP1 protein as parental PC-3 cells. In contrast, cells that were transfected with ASAP1-targeting viral vectors (PC-3-sh-ASAP1-1 and PC-3-sh-ASAP1-2) showed significantly decreased ASAP1 expression (Fig. 4.3B). ASAP1 knockdown in single-cell clones of PC-3 cells were confirmed and a pool of several single-cell clones was used in subsequent experiments to avoid use of cells that had integrated non-functioning shRNA insertions. As shown by MTT assay, ASAP1 stable knockdown did not affect PC-3 cell growth compared to PC-3-sh-control and parental cells (Fig. 4.3C). In the cell invasion assay, PC-3-sh-control cells showed similar invasive ability as parental PC-3 cells. The stable ASAP1-knockdown cells showed a markedly lower invasive ability (59.0±11.9% and 41.4%±2.6 in PC-3-sh-ASAP1-1 and PC-3-sh-ASAP1-2 cells, respectively) compared to parental cells (Fig. 4.3D).  To study the effect of decreased ASAP1 expression on PC-3 cell metastasis  in vivo,  83       Figure 4.3. Effects of stable ASAP1 knockdown on cell invasiveness of PC-3 cells. A. Expression of EmGFP in lentivirus transfected (green) and parental PC-3 cells inspected under a fluorescence microscope. B. Western blot showed markedly decreased expression level of ASAP1 protein in PC-3 cells transfected with ASAP1-targeting viral vectors (PC-3-sh-ASAP1-1/2) compared with parental or vector control PC-3 cells. C. MTT assay showed the similar growth rate of parental, vector control and stable ASAP1 knockdown PC-3 cells. D, Relative invasive ability of ASAP1 knockdown PC-3 cells is markedly lower compared with vector control and parental PC-3 cells; data are expressed as mean ± SD.  84   NOD-SCID mice were randomly divided into two groups  (ten mice per group), and collagen pellets containing stable PC-3-sh-control and PC-3-sh-ASAP1-1 cells were grafted orthotopically into the prostate of each mouse. After 8 weeks, mice grafted with PC-3-sh-control cells had formed  primary tumors in the prostate glands and metastatic tumors  in local and distal lymph nodes (Fig. 4.4 A). In addition, in 6 out of 10 mice, presence  of metastases was identified by histopathological examination in other organs such as lung and kidney (Fig. 4.4 C, E).  In contrast, the mice grafted with the PC-3-sh-ASAP1-1 cells had developed tumors that were largely confined to  the prostate gland, with some metastases found in local lymph nodes and rarely in distal lymph nodes (Fig. 4.4B). The number of lymph node metastases in the mice of the PC-3-sh-ASAP1-1 group was much lower than that in the control group (P<0.01, Table 4.1). In addition, no apparent metastatic  foci were found in any of the other organs examined (Fig. 4.4D, F). 4.3.3. Effect of ASAP1 overexpression on invasiveness of LNCaP cells LNCaP cells were transfected with lentivirus carrying full coding sequences of ASAP1 or ASAP1b to generate cells that stably overexpressed ASAP1 or ASAP1b protein. Transduction efficiency was determined by checking GFP-positive cells under a fluorescence microscope (Fig. 4.5A). LNCaP cells stably transfected with control vectors (LNCaP-lv-control), did not show detectable endogenous ASAP1 expression, similar to parental LNCaP cells. In contrast, cells transfected with ASAP1 expression vectors (LNCaP-lv-ASAP1 and LNCaP-lv-ASAP1b) showed overexpression of ASAP1 at a level similar to that of PC-3 cells (Fig. 4.5B). As shown by MTT assay, ASAP1 or ASAP1b stable overexpression did not affect LNCaP cell growth compared to LNCaP-lv-control and parental cells (Fig. 4.5C). In the cell invasion assay,  85      Figure 4.4. Effects of stable ASAP1-knockdown on metastatic activity of PC-3 cells in NOD-SCID mice. PC-3-sh-control and PC-3-sh-ASAP1-1 were grafted into ventral prostates of NOD-SCID mice (orthotopic site). After 8 weeks, large, hardened lymph nodes were observed in the mice carrying PC-3-sh-control cells in local and distal lymph nodes (A, arrows); the metastasis in distal organ, e.g. lung, and containing proliferative cancer cells, were identified by H&E staining and IHC staining using specific, anti-human ki67 antibody (C, E, arrows). In contrast, mice bearing ASAP1-knockdown tumors showed a much lower number of enlarged, metastases-containing lymph nodes (B, arrow and Table 4.2); no apparent metastatic foci were found in distal organs, e.g. lung (D, F).  86            Table 4.1. Decreased metastasis of PC-3 cells in vivo by reduction of ASAP1 expression Group volume of primary tumor (mm3) number of lymph node>2mm p value PC-3-sh-control 1175.1±269.5 75 (n=10) *  PC-3-sh-ASAP1-1 1564.5±384.2 38 (n=8) + <0.01  * Metastases were found in lumbar, renal, liver, pancreatic and omentum lymph nodes. + Metastases were found in lumbar and renal lymph nodes only.  87         Figure 4.5. Effects of stable ASAP1 protein overexpression on cell invasiveness of LNCaP cells. A. Expression of GFP in lentivirus transfected (green) and parental LNCaP cells inspected under a fluorescence microscope. B. Western blot showing ASAP1 protein overexpressed in LNCaP cells transfected with lentivirus carrying either ASAP1 (125 kDa) or ASAP1b (120 kDa) coding sequence compared with parental LNCaP cells and PC-3 cells. C. MTT assay showed the similar growth rate of parental, vector control and ASAP1 or ASAP1b stably overexpressed LNCaP cells. D. Relative invasive ability of ASAP1 overexpressed LNCaP cells is similar to those of vector control or parental LNCaP cells; data are expressed as mean ± SD.   88   LNCaP-lv-ASAP1 and LNCaP-lv-ASAP1b cells did not show significantly increased invasive ability compared with LNCaP-lv-control and parental cells (Fig. 4.5D). 4.4. DISCUSSION Tissue invasion and metastasis are two major hallmarks of malignancy (Hanahan and Weinberg, 2000). As previously found, there is a good correlation between elevated ASAP1 protein expression and prostate cancer metastasis in clinical samples. In the present study, suppression of ASAP1 protein expression by ASAP1-targeting siRNAs and lentiviral vectors markedly reduced cell migration of PC-3 cells, their tissue invasive ability in vitro and their metastasis in vivo. Based on a literature survey, this is the first time that a role for ASAP1 in prostate cancer has been reported. The results obtained are consistent with findings by Onodera and colleagues that a lowering of ASAP1 protein levels reduced migration and tissue invasion of breast cancer cells in vitro (Onodera et al., 2005). In contrast, another group has reported that reduction of ASAP1 expression had no effect on migration or tissue invasion of cultured breast cancer cells using the same cell lines (Inoue et al., 2008). At present, it is not clear what the explanations are for the discrepancy between the observations of the two groups, but it may be speculated that it is based on subtle differences in experimental conditions, in particular differences in the siRNA sequences used. In the present study, the two siRNA and two shRNA sequences targeted different regions of ASAP1 mRNA. The marked reduction of tissue invasion by all four different sequences, compared to control/scramble sequences, supports the notion that the suppression of tissue invasion by PC-3 prostate cancer cells was not due to off-target effects, but rather a result of specific reduction of ASAP1 protein expression.  89   Tissue invasion in vitro has been linked to the formation and function of specialized cellular structures, i.e. invadopodia (Buccione et al., 2009; Stylli et al., 2008). They are responsible for focal degradation of underlying substrate. These proteolytically active plasma membrane protrusions are considered to be important for tissue invasion and metastasis in the majority of studies performed with cancer cell lines (Artym et al., 2006; Kelly et al., 1998; Mueller et al., 1999). It was recently reported that PC-3 cells also use invadopodia for tissue invasion; their formation is coordinated with localization of MMP-9 and focal degradation of the cellular matrix during the invasion process (Desai et al., 2008). Consistent with a function in tissue invasion, ASAP1 protein was found in invadopodia of breast cancer cells and in analogous structures (podosomes) in src-transformed fibroblasts, and shown to be required for the formation of the structures (Bharti et al., 2007; Onodera et al., 2005). Together, these findings suggest that ASAP1 may control PC-3 tissue invasion via regulation of the formation and function of invadopodia. Two splice variants of ASAP1 have been identified in human, ASAP1 and ASAP1b; the only structural difference between ASAP1 and ASAP1b is that the latter lacks the 3 rd  to 6 th  proline-rich sequences. It has been reported that ASAP1 or both variants function in tissue invasion by forming a trimeric protein complex with cortactin through its proline-rich sequences and paxillin through its SH3 domain in breast cancer (Bharti et al., 2007; Hashimoto et al., 2006; Onodera et al., 2005). It is not unlikely that a complex of ASAP1 and cortactin also plays a role in tissue invasion of prostate cancer cells. However, in the present study, overexpression of neither ASAP1 nor ASAP1b led to significant increases in tissue invasion of poorly invasive LNCaP cells. Interestingly, it was observed that paxillin protein expression in LNCaP cells is much lower than that in PC-3 cells (Posadas et al., 2009), while cortactin was found to be present  90   in both PC-3 and LNCaP cells at about the same level. This suggests that the LNCaP cells are deficient in certain molecules, other than ASAP1, that are required for tissue invasion. In addition, it has been reported that tissue invasion is dependent on extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation activity of matrix metalloprotease (MMP) associated with invadopodia. MT1-MMP, a membrane-type MMP molecule, is considered as a master regulator of invadopodia activity and protease-mediated tissue invasion of a number of cell lines (Clark et al., 2007; Nakahara et al., 1997). In prostate cancer cells, MT1-MMP protein and mRNA were expressed in PC-3 cells. In contrast, LNCaP cells showed no detectable MT1-MMP protein expression and only very low levels of MT1-MMP mRNA expression (Jung et al., 2003; Nagakawa et al., 2000). This suggests that while ASAP1 is likely an important factor in prostate cancer invasion and metastasis, its overexpression is in hindsight not likely to lead to increased tissue invasiveness if other metastasis-related proteins are absent. In view of this, the overexpression of ASAP1 or/and co- overexpression of its related proteins in cell lines with different genetic background may be helpful to clarify its role in cancer invasion and metastasis. In addition, the androgen regulated lentiviral vector overexpressing ASAP1, driven by the probasin promoter, provides a useful tool for prostate-conditional overexpression of ASAP1 in the mouse. Prostate-specific overexpression of ASAP1 in established transgenic/knockout mouse models, such as prostate-conditional PTEN knockout mice, may provide a better understanding of the role of ASAP1 in prostate cancer invasion and metastasis. In summary, the findings in this study suggest that ASAP1 plays a role in prostate cancer invasion and metastasis and may be used as a therapeutic target for prostate cancer metastasis. Overexpression of ASAP1 may be required, but is not sufficient to enhance cell invasion and metastasis in prostate cancer. Further studies on the role of ASAP1 in invadopodia and its  91   synergistic effect with other related and binding proteins will provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of ASAP1 controlling tissue invasion and metastasis in prostate cancer.  92    Chapter 5  SUMMARY AND SPECULATIONS  Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying prostate cancer metastasis is important for development of predictive markers and identification of new therapeutic targets. Proper strategy and access to clinically relevant models are essential to achieve this goal. To circumvent problems arising from tumor heterogeneity, one of the major hurdles in metastasis research, a number of cancer sublines with different metastatic abilities were developed from one patient‟s primary cancer tissue. Chromosomal aberrations in a metastatic subline were used to identify the presence of cells with metastatic potential in the primary tumor; the results indicate that metastatic ability of a tumor can be associated with a small cancer subpopulation and not necessarily predominant subpopulation. By differential gene expression analysis of metastatic and non-metastatic sublines a novel prostate cancer metastasis- associated gene, ASAP1, was identified. Analyses using experimental and clinical samples indicated that ASAP1 has a significant role in prostate cancer invasion and metastasis.  Tumor heterogeneity is a major hurdle for identification of metastasis-associated genes via comparative analysis of clinical primary and metastatic prostate cancer tissues. To circumvent this problem, a number of sublines from one patient‟s primary prostate cancer specimen were developed as described in Chapter 2 aimed at generating relatively pure metastatic and non-metastatic sublines. The use of subrenal capsule grafting methodology minimized loss of cancer subpopulations as suggested by very high engraftment rates (>90%)  93   and in view of superior nutrient supply at the graft site used. The significant differences in growth rate and karyotype of the sublines are consistent with the widely accepted heterogeneous nature of prostate cancers. Importantly, the sublines showed marked differences in local tissue invasiveness and metastatic ability as indicated by an in vivo metastatic assay. This provides functional evidence of the presence in human primary prostate cancers of subpopulations with different metastatic potential. It is still controversial whether metastatic potential of primary tumors is associated with a minority or with the bulk of the cancer cells. Using chromosomal aberrations that were unique for a metastatic subline as a marker, it was found that metastatic potential was associated with only a small number of cancer cells in the primary prostate cancer tissue. This suggests that metastatic potential of primary tumors can be associated with a minority of cells rather than with the bulk of the tumor as suggested by the clonal selection hypothesis. Comparing sublines with different metastatic potential derived from the same patient‟s multifocal primary tumor tissue appears to form a good strategy for identifying predictive metastatic markers. However, the matched tumor tissue lines (LTL-220M, LTL-220N and LTL- 221N) derived from only one patient‟s primary tumor likely do not fully represent the disease. Some genetic alterations observed in the metastatic subline (LTL-220M) may not be functionally linked to prostate cancer metastasis in the general population. For example, the particular marker used in this study, e.g. PTEN, was selected only because it is localized in the 10q region. It likely is only useful for indicating subgroups of cancer cells for the particular patient, and not suitable as a general marker for prostate cancer metastasis, since gain, rather than loss of PTEN, is usually observed in this process. Studies based on more paired patient-derived metastatic and non-metastatic cancer sublines are likely to provide a better coverage of the various cancer  94   subpopulations in heterogeneous clinical specimens. Common metastatic signatures in multiple metastatic tumor sublines should provide good candidates for predictive metastatic markers. The paired metastatic and non-metastatic sublines generated in this study are (1) established from one patient‟s primary tumor tissue using the same micro-environment (subrenal capsule); (2) quite clinically relevant as they are derived from cancer tissues rather than from cultured cells and as the establishment procedure was carried out in vivo under optimal nutritional conditions. In view of this, it is likely that genes, found to be differentially expressed in the sublines, will include some with critical roles in metastasis. Further analysis of DNA alterations and differential RNA expressions in matched sublines may lead to identification of suitable markers to identify metastatic potential in primary tumors, essential for better prediction of prostate cancer progression and disease management. In Chapter 3, ASAP1 was identified as a novel prostate cancer metastasis-associated gene by comparison of gene expressions of the metastatic PCa1-met and non-metastatic PCa2 sublines that had been derived from another patient‟s primary prostate cancer. The level of ASAP1 protein expression significantly increased progressively in both clinical specimens going from benign to malignant to metastatic conditions. This phenomenon is consistent with observations in breast cancer and uveal melanoma studies. Notably, the same expression pattern is also observed in subrenal capsule xenografts of benign, non-metastatic and metastatic cancer tissues, which provides evidence that this experimental system is relevant to the clinical situation. The correlation of strong ASAP1 expression in primary tumors with metastasis and PSA recurrence suggests that increased ASAP1 expression is linked to aggressiveness and metastatic potential of primary prostate cancers.  95   It should be noted that only 37 out of 66 cases of the patient cohort have been followed up and that only 4 out of the 37 cases (10.8%) had PSA recurrence in this study which is lower than other reported PSA recurrence rates following radical prostatectomy. Although there is a significant association of high ASAP1 expression with metastasis and poor outcome, studies involving larger patient cohorts with longer follow-up will be necessary to establish whether strong ASAP1 expression in primary tumors can be used as a predictive metastatic marker. Gain of the 8q region has been reported as one of the most common chromosomal alterations in prostate cancer tissue. It has also been reported to correlate with metastatic progression and poor prognosis of the disease. As such, it is of major interest that the ASAP1 gene has been mapped to chromosomal location 8q24.21. The results of the present study indicate that copy number gain of the ASAP1 gene is likely a common event in primary prostate cancer (57.9%), but a significant correlation between increased ASAP1 protein expression and gain of ASAP1 copy number was not observed. Similarly, copy number gain of the gene has not been found for breast cancers highly expressing ASAP1 (Onodera et al., 2005). On the other hand,  gain of chromosome 8q correlated strongly with expression of ASAP1 mRNA and protein in uveal melanoma (Ehlers et al., 2005). Thus, the genetic alteration and the mechanisms involved in ASAP1 overexpression may be different for various types of cancer. The transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of ASAP1 expression is not clear. Recently, it has been reported that 5‟-UTR of ASAP1 mRNA exhibits an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) activity in differentiated monocytes but not in breast cancer cells with elevated ASAP1 protein levels (Miyata et al., 2008). Studies on IRES-dependent ASAP1 expression in prostate cancer will be helpful to clarify the mechanisms of increased ASAP1 expression in prostate cancer.  96   Tissue invasion and metastasis are two major hallmarks of malignancy. The role of ASAP1 in prostate cancer tissue invasion and metastasis was further investigated by in vitro and in vivo functional assays as described in Chapter 4. Suppression of ASAP1 protein expression by ASAP1-targeting siRNAs and lentiviral vectors markedly reduced cell migration of PC-3 cells, their tissue invasive ability in vitro and their metastasis in vivo. This suggests that ASAP1 plays a role in prostate cancer cell invasion and metastasis and may be used as a therapeutic target for prostate cancer metastasis. Based on a literature survey, this is the first time that a role for ASAP1 in prostate cancer has been reported. ASAP1 was originally reported as an ArfGAP to exhibit efficient GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activities against Arf1 and Arf5, but very weak activity against Arf6 (Brown et al., 1998; Furman et al., 2002). ASAP1 was recently implicated in tissue invasion and was reported to be important for the assembly and function of invadopodia, dynamic actin-based structures essential in the degradation and penetration of the extracellular matrix by metastatic cancer cells. Both Arf1 and Arf6 activities have been reported to be involved in invadopodia function (Furman et al., 2002; Hashimoto et al., 2004). The GAP activity of ASAP1 against Arfs might regulate the secretory processes mediating transport of matrix proteases to the sites of invadopodia. On the other hand, there is evidence that ASAP1, independent of its GAP activity, may be involved in the formation and function of invadopodia and tumor invasion. It has been reported that ASAP1 can form a complex with paxillin and cortactin, key components of invadopodia in breast cancer. Furthermore, knockdown of ASAP1 or disruption of the complex inhibited the formation of invadopodia, or related structures called podosomes, and invasion of cells through matrigel (Bharti et al., 2007; Onodera et al., 2005). Importantly, GAP activity of ASAP1 appears to be dispensable for invadopodia and podosomes formation; the  97   phosphorylation of ASPA1 by src and intact SH3 domain may be required for the formation of podosomes (Bharti et al., 2007). ASAP1 can be recruited by GTP-Arf6 to sites of GTP-Arf6 activation (plasma membrane and cytoplasmic vesicles) and colocalizes with Arf6 at invadopodia without immediate hydrolysis of Arf6 (Hashimoto et al., 2005; Onodera et al., 2005). Recently the GEP100, a GEF of Arf6, was linked to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling-regulated breast cancer invasion (Morishige et al., 2008). These studies suggest that ASAP1 could act as an effector of GTP-Arf6 and play a role in invadopodia formation and cancer invasion as a scaffold/adaptor protein. A recent study by another group has demonstrated that invadopodia are associated with tissue invasion by matrix degradation in prostate cancer (Desai et al., 2008). For future studies, it is important to clarify the precise molecular mechanisms involved in ASAP1-mediated invadopodia formation and function in prostate cancer. Further studies on the interaction of ASAP1 and its related proteins, such as Arf1 and Arf6, their coordination in prostate cancer invasion and regulation of upstream signaling, may lead to a better appreciation of the role of ASAP1 in tissue invasion and metastasis of prostate cancer. Studies focusing on ASAP1 and related proteins in clinical prostate cancer samples should provide a better understanding of their roles in prostate cancer invasion and metastasis. The finding that ASAP1 has a role in prostate cancer metastasis suggests that the approach used to identify metastasis-associated genes by comparison of gene expressions of paired metastatic and non-metastatic sublines derived from the same patient‟s primary cancer tissue is valid. Cancer progression, including metastasis, is thought to involve multiple genetic and epigenetic changes. The metastasis cascade is apparently not controlled by a single gene, but rather by a set of genes. In this study, only differentially expressed genes in cancer cells, i.e.  98   human genes rather than those of the host, i.e. mouse genes, were analyzed and only the ASAP1 gene was further studied after SAGE analysis. 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Cancer Res 59: 1655-64.     121   APPENDIX  file:///C|/Users/Xindy/Desktop/Prostate%20cancer%20signature.html   THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  ANIMAL CARE CERTIFICATE  Application Number: A06-1460 Investigator or Course Director: Yuzhuo Wang Department: Cancer Genetics & Development (BCCA) Animals: Mice SCID 643  Start Date:  September 1, 2006  Approval Date:  December 22, 2006 Funding Sources:  Funding Agency:  Cancer Research Society Funding Title:  Molecular Signatures for Predicting Metastatic Potential of Primary Human Prostate Cancers: Applications of a New Cancer Modeling System   Unfunded title:  Molecular Signatures for Predicting Metastatic Potential of Primary Human Prostate Cancers: Applications of a New Cancer Modeling System The Animal Care Committee has examined and approved the use of animals for the above experimental project. This certificate is valid for one year from the above start or approval date (whichever is later) provided there is no change in the experimental procedures.  Annual review is required by the CCAC and some file:///C|/Users/Xindy/Desktop/Prostate%20cancer%20signature.html (1 of 2) [03/03/2010 12:32:30 PM] file:///C|/Users/Xindy/Desktop/Prostate%20cancer%20signature.html granting agencies.  A copy of this certificate must be displayed in your animal facility.  Office of Research Services and Administration 102, 6190 Agronomy Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3 Phone: 604-827-5111 Fax: 604-822-5093 file:///C|/Users/Xindy/Desktop/Prostate%20cancer%20signature.html (2 of 2) [03/03/2010 12:32:30 PM]  

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