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Dwelling, tourism and sustainability on the rural-urban fringe : a Bowen Island case study Pettipas, Donna Nona 2010

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DWELLING, TOURISM AND SUSTAINABILITY ON THE RURALURBAN FRINGE: A BOWEN ISLAND CASE STUDY  by Donna Nona Pettipas BFA, University of Victoria, 1981  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master of Arts in The Faculty of Graduate Studies (Resource Management and Environmental Studies)  The University of British Columbia (Vancouver)  January, 2010 © Donna Nona Pettipas, 2010  ABSTRACT The thesis examines the question of why people live in rural communities, what draws them to these communities and the significance of social sustainability. The focus is on the view of individual perspectives that could be obtained through the process of completed questionnaires and interviews. Results of the combined questionnaire and interviews were referenced to earlier studies and to government statistics. The community of Bowen Island served as the case study, a rural community with a historical and evolving relationship to Metro Vancouver, British Columbia. The research activity was designed to be one of information and knowledge gathering, rather than an issue-oriented approach. The approach taken is one of discovering patterns of shared values and the adaptive practices of islanders in their homes and community environs. Transcribed interview responses were grouped by enquiry type to facilitate comparison between participants across BI neighbourhoods, resulting in qualitatively rich personal narratives about home, habitat and community engagement. The community is physically engaged in a beautiful mountainous and marine environment, which is also a tourist destination. Fun is a quality of BI‘s community celebrations along with spirituality and a connection to nature, the backdrop to a privileged life-style; some with ‗plenty of dough‘ most somewhere in-between ranging to bohemian artists, sharing in the community dynamic. The major attraction and commitment to stay on BI was the desire to achieve and retain a connection to nature. Diverse opinions expressed by the respondents were accepted and respected by the group, the open discussions and commitment to the Island has resulted in a shared value system while respecting diversity. The major concern of the Islanders is the feeling of uncertainty resulting from issues of governance.  Shifts in ethical norms and  lifestyle patterns warrant examination: the dynamics that constitute a cohesive community can be seen in the lived experiences and individual intentions of people on an island such as Bowen where the cultural collective aspires to live very close to nature at the wild land and rural-urban fringe.  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ................................................................................................. ii TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................ iii LIST OF TABLES ......................................................................................... v LIST OF FIGURES ...................................................................................... vi LIST OF CHARTS ...................................................................................... vii GLOSSARY .............................................................................................. viii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............................................................................... x DEDICATION ........................................................................................... xii CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION ................................................................. 1 1.1 Dwelling & Tourism ............................................................................ 1 1.2 Sustainability..................................................................................... 4 1.3 Bowen Island as Case Study Location .................................................... 5 1.4 Social Sustainability............................................................................ 8 1.5 Case Study Methodology ..................................................................... 9 1.5.1 Interdisciplinary approach ............................................................. 10 1.5.2 Origin of the survey and interview questions ................................... 11 1.6 Survey Data Collection ...................................................................... 14 1.7 Interview Data Collection .................................................................. 15 CHAPTER TWO: RESULTS OF SURVEY ...................................................... 16 2.1 Bowen Island Population Demographics ............................................... 16 2.2 Best Reasons for Living on Bowen Island ............................................. 17 2.2.1 Summary of best reasons for living on Bowen Island ........................ 18 2.3 Environmentally Conscious and Taking Steps ....................................... 24 2.4 Employment .................................................................................... 25 2.4.1 Employment type: occupations and professions ............................... 25 2.4.2 Employment type versus commute to work ..................................... 27 2.4.3 Self-employment and home-based businesses ................................. 30 2.5 Home Type Characteristics and Design Participation .............................. 36 2.6 Is Tourism Positive, Negative or Otherwise for Bowen Island? ................. 40 CHAPTER THREE: INTERVIEW RESULTS ................................................... 42 3.1 Introduction .................................................................................... 42 3.1.1 What attracted you to Bowen Island? ............................................. 42 3.1.2 Would you say that you are happy living here on Bowen Island? ........ 43 3.2 Dwellings ........................................................................................ 43 3.2.1 What do you like most about your home? ........................................ 43 3.2.2 Home: orientation, layout and flexibility, centre and utility ................ 44 3.2.2.1 Orientation ......................................................................... 44 3.2.2.2 Layout and flexibility ............................................................ 45 3.2.2.3 Centre ............................................................................... 45 3.2.2.4 Utility ................................................................................ 45 3.2.3 Can you describe how your home design came about? ...................... 46 3.2.4 Composting, recycling and garbage disposal arrangements ................ 48 iii  3.2.5 Heating, ventilation and air conditioning ......................................... 49 3.3 Rural Forest/Wilderness Interfaces ..................................................... 50 3.3.1 How would you describe your relationship to the forest? .................... 50 3.3.2 Do you have conflicts with wildlife? ................................................ 52 3.3.3 Farming food, fishing and foraging ................................................. 54 3.4 Municipal Government ...................................................................... 56 3.5 Orientation: Home and Reach ............................................................ 70 3.5.1 Migration and mobility .................................................................. 70 3.5.2 Local mobility .............................................................................. 70 CHAPTER FOUR: SUMMARY ...................................................................... 72 4.1 Governance ................................................................................... 72 REFERENCES ............................................................................................ 86 APPENDIX A: PRELIMINARY SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE ........................... 95 APPENDIX B: INTERVIEW QUESTIONS .................................................... 97 APPENDIX C: SELECTED RESPONSES TO INTERVIEW QUESTIONS, TRANSCRIBED FROM AUDIO TAPE .................................................. 99 APPENDIX D: CONSENT FORM ............................................................... 150 APPENDIX E: BOWEN ISLAND COMMUNITY PROFILE, 2006 CENSUS ..... 151 APPENDIX F: THE EBERLE REPORT ........................................................ 157 APPENDIX G: CAT AND DEER PHOTOGRAPH .......................................... 158 APPENDIX H: UBC RESEARCH ETHICS BOARD CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL .................................................................................... 159  iv  LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Total of People: Personal Preferences ............................................. 19 Table 2 Percentages: Personal Preferences ................................................ 19 Table 3 Total of People: Environmentally Conscious (Q.23) and Taking Steps (Q.27) ..................................................................................... 24 Table 4 Percentages: Environmentally Conscience (Q.23) and Taking Steps (Q.27) ..................................................................................... 24 Table 5 Employment Type ....................................................................... 25 Table 6 Occupations (19 variables Q.16): Total Number of People and Percentages .............................................................................. 26 Table 7 Total of People: Employment Type versus Commute to Work (Q.5 vs. Q.25) ....................................................................................... 27 Table 8 Percentages of People: Employment Type versus Commute to Work (Q.5 vs. Q.25) ........................................................................... 27 Table 9 Total of People Surveyed in Each Area (0-3) who are Operating a Business from Home (Q. 17) ....................................................... 31 Table 10 Total of People Home Type Characteristics (9 variables Q.19), Participation in House Design (Q.24) ............................................ 37 Table 11 Percentages of People Home Type Characteristics (9 variables Q.19), Participation in House Design (Q.24) ............................................ 37 Table 12 Age versus Tourism: Total of People ............................................ 40 Table 13 Age versus Tourism: Percentages of People ................................... 40  v  LIST OF FIGURES Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  Bowen Island Dwellings ................................................................ 2 Surveys and Interview Participant Age Range................................. 16 Bowen Island and Mainland Travel ................................................ 71 Community Pentagon ................................................................. 81 Consumption Pentagon ............................................................... 82 Ecology Pentagon....................................................................... 83 Governance Pentagon ................................................................. 84 Orientation: Home and Reach Pentagon ........................................ 85  vi  LIST OF CHARTS Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart  1 Bowen Island Age Pyramid ........................................................... 17 2 Importance of Reasons: Best Reasons for Living on Bowen Island ...... 18 3 Natural Habitats.......................................................................... 20 4 Community ................................................................................ 20 5 Culture and Art ........................................................................... 21 6 Family ....................................................................................... 21 7 Health ....................................................................................... 22 8 Leisure and Recreation ................................................................ 22 9 Retirement ................................................................................. 23 10 Work ....................................................................................... 23 11 Employment Type ..................................................................... 25 12 Do Self-Employed People Commute to Work? ................................ 28 13 Do Retired People Commute to Work? .......................................... 28 14 Do Employees Commute to Work? ............................................... 29 15 People Commuting to Work by Employment Type .......................... 30 16 Where do the People Live, who Operate a Business out of their Home? ..................................................................................... 32 17 Where do the People Live, who do not Operate a Business out of their Home? .............................................................................. 32 18 Area 0-NE ................................................................................ 34 19 Area 1-SE ................................................................................ 34 20 Area 2-SW ............................................................................... 35 21 Area 3-NW ............................................................................... 35 22 People Operating a Business out of their Home, by Area ................. 36 23 Type of Home of People who Participated in the Design .................. 38 24 Type of Home of People who did not Participate in the Design .......... 38 25 Small Home.............................................................................. 39 26 Large Home.............................................................................. 40  vii  GLOSSARY  Community  Three components of community are geography, shared values and social capital. This research is influenced by human geography: an approach that uses both qualitative and quantitative methods in a ‗real world‘ context. Survey, interviews and census analysis were specifically employed. Bowen Islanders have committed themselves to shared values such as sustainable and diverse housing opportunities and belief in ‗a sense of community‘, which are inclusive and connected. Affordable Housing Declaration Bowen Island, 2006. (BI Undercurrent, June 23, 2006) Civic virtues are closely related to social capital ―…social capital refers to connections among individuals – social networks and the norms of reciprocity and trustworthiness that arise from them. Putnam R. p. 19 (2000)  Ethnographic Interview  An ethnographic interview is a ―meaning making‖ interaction producing a particular representation at a point in time in a particular setting or place. (Cerwonka and Malkki, 2007) on p.188 Shannon Hagerman, 2009  Rural Fringe  ‗Rural fringe‘ is all territory within a Census Metropolitan Area (CMA) or Census Area (CA) not classified as an urban core or an urban fringe.1  Sustainability  ―Sustainability is a term that has evolved from the idea of ‗sustainable development‘, defined as the realization of the development needs of all people without sacrificing the Earth‘s capacity to sustain all life. Sustainability means achieving equilibrium between human impacts and the carrying capacity of the natural world, which can be sustained indefinitely. Sustain-ability takes into account  1  Statistics Canada. 2007. 2006 Census Dictionary. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 92-566XWE. Ottawa. February 14 2008. Accessed June 3, 2009 http://12.statcan.ca/english/census06/reference/dictionary/index.cfm  viii  three interdependent elements: the environment, the economy and the social system. The balance between these elements will demand the adoption of a new ethic, a new lifestyle and new expectations to ensure our collective survival. Sustainability is key to our future quality of life.‖2 Tourism  Second home ownership within an 80 km distance from primary residence. ―People visiting their vacation homes or cottages are considered to be tourists.‖ January 2008 BC Stats L. Hallin3  Urban Fringe  ‗Urban fringe‘ includes all small urban areas within a CMA or CA that are not contiguous with the urban core of the CMA or CA.  2  BC Roundtable on the Economy and the Environment (Date & References needed) pg.15  3  http://www.bcstats.gov.bc.ca/pubc/bcbi0801.pdf Appendix 2: Defining the tourism sector, page10, Business Indicators January 2008 Issue: 08-01  ix  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS All of the most interesting aspects of this thesis belong to the residents of Bowen Island and my Supervisor and Supervisory board members. Any errors, omissions or inconsistencies are entirely mine. I am foremost indebted to the residents of Bowen Island: survey and interview participants whom allowed me to share something personal with them – their perceptions of home, neighbourhood and community along with their many stories of much interest. I am especially grateful to Dr. Les Lavkulich who accepted me into the RMES program as a graduate student and has been a tremendous support and guide throughout the last number of years. My thesis board members Professors Mike Meitner and Barbara Zeigler have also been strongly positive throughout the process of my study from graduate candidate to graduate, I am very grateful for their insights, continuity of interest and guidance. Hernán Epstein certainly deserves kudos for his consultation and preparation of the Statistical Tables and Analysis of the Preliminary Survey Questionnaire.  I am thankful to Mr. Gabe Tonin of BC Ferries who allowed me  free passage on several occasions to travel back and forth between Horseshoe Bay and Bowen to invite Bowen residents: day travellers and commuters to participate in the Preliminary Survey Questionnaire. Also, I wish to thank three Bowen Islanders; Dr. Julian Dunster for his permission to use the Bowen Island map produced by Dunster & Associates Ltd., and Susan Pratt for allowing me to use her award winning photograph of the cat and deer in the garden, which to me epitomizes a certain urban-wild land interface, and to Julie Ovenell-Carter for getting me into ‗Bowfest‘. I have my family to thank for their love, patience and belief in my efforts; our daughter and grandsons, my sisters, brother, nephews and nieces whose company I have missed…and my old friends who have also been patient with my pre-occupation. Most importantly I have to thank my husband Ted Polkinghorne, for his support and quotidian love over the last thirty years and these last few have been a doozy.  x  Last but not least, I have appreciated the diligence, intelligence and integrity of my fellow students, Professors and staff at the UBC Institute of Resources, Environment and Sustainability who have been and continue to be an inspiration to me.  xi  DEDICATION  I dedicate this work to my mother and my sister, both of whom passed away during my time as a graduate student.  Mary Louise Clarke October 1, 1913 – Dec. 7, 2006  Bernice Anne Rennie September 7, 1937 – April 10, 2008  Let death not be a barrier to Love  xii  CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Dwelling & Tourism The first decade of the new century brought an upswing in second home acquisitions on the rural urban fringe of many of the larger metropolis, the world over. In 2007 one third of all home purchases in the US were second homes. According to US real estate news the elder ‗baby boomers‘ are part of the driving force while the slightly younger investors between 34 to 55 years of age are the ground swell of buyers. In 2005 over 50,000 Spanish vacation properties were sold to British purchasers. UK and Netherlands studies are using research on multiple dwelling ―…as a lens through which to examine how people are managing the increasing complexity of modern living‖ (McIntryre, 1999). There are American and European studies on leisure places and the world‘s recreational residence phenomenon from Sweden to Turkey. Migration demographics show this growing trend across the globe; people are purchasing and moving to ―back-to-nature‖ homes and rural vacation properties, some for reasons of retirement and downsizing, others are compelled by a need to escape, others desire the ‗idyllic‘, life. This marks a yearning for the ‗second experience‘ outside the urban life, one which connects people with nature: some in a rural sense and others the need for the wild-land experience outside of conforms and human manipulation. In Canada the trend is a little more elusive; Stats Canada considers seasonal homes to be private dwellings that are occupied marginally and separately categorized from private dwellings, occupied by the usual residents. Nor is the category individuated in the Community Profile dwelling statistics of the single-family detached household. It is therefore difficult to breakdown the statistics of the growth of second home ownership on a national scale or distinguish second homes from main home purchases in the British Columbian real estate figures. Here in BC if you have an overnight stay at your non-rental vacation or cottage property, within an 80 km range of your main residence, statistically you are a tourist. 1  The type of home as a statistical category can be described as a single family home, a private and regular dwelling occupied by the usual residents, all of the participant interviewees live in this type of home category. Figure 1 Bowen Island Dwellings  In 2006 Bowen‘s private single-family households totalled 985 units, not including 30 private Multiple-family households, and 330 non-family households, making a total of 1340 occupied dwellings. Most of 1,085 (81%) households were owned and only 255 (19%) were rented. Over 90 percent (90.3) of islanders live in these 1210 units, which are all described as single-detached households. Recent statistics add another 84 residential building permits into the mix, making the total of 1420 dwellings units. However, some of the 84 building permits may have been for the alteration and improvement to the recently allowed secondary suites within the (already existing) single-family 2  household category, the total is only an approximation. Between the January 2000 and March 2009, 234 residential building permits were issued for single-family housing units, averaging 31 permits annually, (for both new dwellings and upgrades to existing dwellings) which does not indicate a huge amount of growth. The 84 new Residential Building Permits between 2006 and 2009 indicate that there has been a decline between 2008 and 2009, (over the same quarter period last year) from 11 permits down to > 4 (69.2%), most likely due to the recent financial recession. (BC Stats, accessed online August 3, 2009) The period of construction for Bowen Island‘s housing stock shows the growth rate was 5% per annum before 1946 vs. 12% per annum between 1996 and 2000. Thus making 8% the average growth in housing over a number of decades. The exceptions to this growth rate were the 1970‘s (27%) and the 1990‘s (~25%), both decades experienced high growth rates according to the BI, IM 2006 Census Profile. The homes built between 1971 and 1980 are coming up to the 40th year mark. This means that 40% of the residential buildings are nearing 50 years old and there are also a few historic buildings that have heritage associations, although they probably do not meet current building standards. The age of the housing stock could be an advantage in that they are prime for renovation and retrofit, which might be done using current best practices and utilize solar panels or other alternate electrical support, more efficient heating, better insulation, water cisterns, composting toilets etc. Richard Florida‘s book ‗Who‘s Your City How the Creative Economy is Making Where to Live the Most Important Decision in Your Life‖ suggests that one way to be more sustainable would be to share fuelling, renting and utilities because home mortgages are too expensive and permanent. Ironically, permanence is one of the strong dimensions being sought after in second home ownership, especially when the weekend/summer cabin is purchased with future retirement in mind and later evolves into the full time home. Perhaps in the future this type of ‗rental and shared residence‘ that Florida is projecting might be reversed and take place in the urban environment with the rural home 3  becoming the main residence.  1.2 Sustainability The 2006 Households and the Environment Survey conducted under the Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicator Initiative measured household behaviours related to the environment. It appears that individual Canadians have an important effect on their environment - when we have a closer look at household behaviours we find that overall: 17% of the energy consumed in Canada is used directly by households to heat and power homes. The survey showed 60% of Canadians had taken advantage of energy saving compact florescent light (CFL) bulbs (when it was the best thing going) and the use of programmable thermostats had doubled between 1994 and 2005, but 16% of those thermostats had apparently not been programmed, and the advantage of low wattage light bulbs, is in doubt due in part to the mercury used in the product. Water saving devices: showerheads and low-flow toilets became more popular, but only by an 18% increase over 1994 levels. Chemical pesticides that affect water quality were only down slightly after 12 years, 2006 compared back to 1994. Astonishingly almost 40% of households either flush their left over pharmaceuticals or throw them out with the trash. Vehicle use is 81% for commuters in the winter reducing to 73% in the warmer months. These statistics and behaviour indicators show weak changes in domestic behaviour on a national scale. The empirical knowledge behind these factors is the lived experiences of people and the specific consumptive patterns and practices thereof. Private consumption patterns at the individual level are related to the homes and situations of which they are apart. Rural living, neighbourhood clusters, suburban communities and urban centers each have circumstances and patterns of living requiring various amounts of consumption. Fostering sustainable behaviours on the community and household level takes commitment to establish norms (i.e. recycling practices, water conservation),  4  visibility in the home and community, personal contact, communication and incentives to remove barriers.4 Tourist wealth and mobility studies reveal challenges to urban and rural communities alike, specifically in the context of sustainable development. The influence of individual domestic behaviour is a currently under-explored area for Canadian indicators of sustainable practices. It is my view that the dialogue on sustainability has mainly emphasized academic concepts and arguments, typically environmental vs. economic concerns, whereas this case study will focus on aspects of social capital: the networking community of individuals and their personal domestic practices.  1.3 Bowen Island as Case Study Location Metro Vancouver is the largest metropolis on the Canadian, Pacific west coast and Bowen Island is an adjacent maritime community on the rural urban fringe. In its‘ early history the island served the indigenous peoples as a hunting ground and it is still Unceded territory of the Squamish Nation. Later it housed an ill-fated explosives factory. Bowen Island‘s local history is well documented, it has been a holiday destination for local Vancouverites since the early 1900‘s and today the island economy is still designed around tourism as an ecological-destination for recreation, leisure and ‗back-to-nature‘ retreats. The community of 3500 is also well known for a rather large proportion of creative artists and artisans that make the island their home. The location is an easy commute to the city; a fifteen-minute ride by ferry from Snug Cove to the mainland at Horseshoe Bay where buses and cars head for the highway to the larger communities to the north and east or to downtown Vancouver to arrive in about an hour‘s time. Bowen became a part of the Greater Vancouver Regional District in 1968 and is known for it‘s lively and well-reputed community of advocates. It became a Municipality within the Greater Vancouver Regional District (Metro Vancouver)  4  McKenzie-Mohr, D., Smith W. 2006 Fostering Sustainable Behaviour: An Introduction to Community-Based Social Marketing, New Society Publishers, Gabriola Island, BC  5  in 1999, and as well it is under the dual jurisdiction of the Island Trust Act (1989) and The Provincial Island Trust Act (1974). The Official Community Plan (OCP) was adopted in 1995 and is currently (August 2009) under review. The Bowen community holds a deep commitment to moving forward in fulfilling the mandates it has set towards sustainability and to preserve and protect the overall quality of life for all members of the community including lower income families and seniors, without compromising the natural landscape and wildlife co-habitants now and in the future. With housing as a priority in 2003 a Secondary Suite Task Force was formed, and presented its findings at the June 2006 Housing for Diversity Symposium. The outcome of the symposium was an affordable housing declaration, which set out what they believe affordable housing should be and also what they believe their community should be. The four top values that emerged from the symposium process were: sustainability and diversity of housing and inclusiveness and sense of community.  Today most of the islands‘ single-family detached houses either  have or can have secondary suites, which basically doubles the housing unit capacity. The second home acquisition phenomenon combined with Metro Vancouver‘s rising house and property prices has threatened Bowen Islands‘ cohesion, by creating an elitist landscape which has ‗out-priced‘ children of long time Island residents, and local service employees. The lack of housing diversity has the potential to create the kind of resentments that fracture communities, and therefore development is a pressing and contentious issue for the community. Small communities have unique characteristics in terms of how people relate to one another and to issues of sustainability. This case study is an investigation of these relationships within the adult population (19 years of age or older) living on Bowen Island (BI). The BI community is a microcosm of the challenges and achievements of other Canadian communities on the rural-urban fringe. The 39.94 square km island located just west of West Vancouver is a very hilly rural island. The population live in 1640 private dwellings (incl. seasonal, etc.) of these 1,340 are single detached family households with 1,085 6  owner occupied. The remaining 600 dwellings constitute rental homes and tourist/second-homes with 300 being used seasonally. In January 2008 the Bowen Island Development Assessment Tool was published on the Municipality‘s web site, which states its core mission: To advance economic, environmental and social wellbeing for present and future generations, by putting in place innovative policies and strategies designed to ensure our rural community prospers against this emerging and evolving backdrop. Indeed, this island will become nothing less than one of the nation‘s leading sustainable communities. (BIDAT, 2008:25) However, the island geography creates specific challenges for sustainability. For example Bowen‘s solid waste (600 tons per annum) is currently all taken off-island. There are non-municipal water systems and municipal water systems, from 14 watersheds, which are replenished by rainwater, not snow run off as in Vancouver. The carrying capacity of the BI watersheds and how it is related to the maximum capacity of the population and community now and over time as it builds out, are questions the community must grapple with. The build-out capacity of BI and the basis of those projections will be pivotal to planning and infrastructure decisions. ―Environmental problems by definition are found at the intersection of ecosystems and human social systems, so one should expect to find them doubly complex.‖ (Dryzek, 1997) The Bowen Island Sustainable Community Task Force utilizes the conceptual guidance of The Natural Step, as a framework for their sustainability action plans. The Pembina Institute has created a Green House Gas (GHG) emissions action plans for Bowen Island. The Forest and Water Management Society created the Bowen Island Geo-library, which is an interactive CD integrating a wealth of knowledge that maps local assets and resources: watersheds, population density, topography, flora and fauna. For a time it was an interactive web site for creative thinking, community investigation, discourse and planning, with an enormous amount of information available to be accessed 7  by community members, (children and adults alike) for decision-making and action at the community and municipal level.  1.4 Social Sustainability According to the Canadian Public Health Association (1992), Ottawa. Human and Ecosystem Health; A communities physical form is it‘s ―hard infrastructure‖ (sewers, roads, water, utilities) which is how we access environmentally sustainable practices. A healthy community also has a ‗soft infrastructure'‘8 that contributes to social wellbeing and networking which is social sustainability. This ―soft infrastructure‖ includes formal human services (health, education, social services, recreation and culture, etc.) as well as the community‘s informal structure the web of voluntary organizations and social relationships that comprise community. (Hancock, 1992) The process of social sustainability requires vision, ethics and sharedvalues. Surveys that compare social advantages of rural and small town communities to larger urban communities find that rural residents have a ‗value advantage‘ and are more likely than their counterparts to:  know their neighbours and are more likely to trust them.  often provide unpaid volunteer work for an organization, but, not more likely than their urban counterparts to give unpaid help to those they know; relatives and friends.  have a strong sense of belonging to their local community and are just as vulnerable as their urban counterpart in the degree of social isolation, level of political involvement or trust toward other people. (Turcotte, 2005) Notably controversy in small communities and issue-driven causes are often divisive especially between friends and neighbours: causing political lines to be ‗drawn in the sand‘, whereas shared values join people in their common community goals.  Maurie Cohen reminds us how ―…values are those core  beliefs and principals that motivate behaviour‖, and that ―…the world‘s most effective leaders are not issue-driven but rather vision and value-identified‖ 8  (Cohen, 2006). Any number of issues may divide: turf wars over artificial turf in the school sports field (Glave, 2008), or what will happened to the land development at Cape Roger Curtis, has caused ‗lines‘ to be drawn over these issues. But, the vision of diversity of housing for low-income earners, families and seniors: join people in a cause, which is value-identified. By exploring the opinions and behaviours of Bowens‘ full and part-time residents it is anticipated that this research will add to the knowledge of how values for the environment are integrated into domestic practices and effectively, taken from the household level, out into the immediate local community. The intent of this is research to expand the dialogue of domestic practices to include the perspectives of long time residents along with those moving to ‗back-to-nature‘ homes and cottages located between the urban and wild-land interface.  1.5 Case Study Methodology The research began in July 2007 and was conducted over a period of twenty-two months, completing in May 2009. In order to ensure that the chosen information gathering techniques were trustworthy a combination of methods were employed. Survey and interview data were compared to the latest Canadian Census and Community Profile. The study began with a Preliminary Questionnaire (PQ) of thirty questions regarding each participant‘s domestic situation, home ownership, community participation and general level of awareness of the local environment and municipal infrastructure. The data collected for the survey was by random sampling with the criteria that the participant be a resident of Bowen Island and over the age of 19. The results of the PQ were used to select 13 individuals for more in-depth, digital audio-recorded interviews. Of those selected to be interviewed, 8 were no longer available and so other individuals were then contacted from the list to complete the 13 interviews. An effort was made to balance the representation from the many neighbourhoods around the island.  9  Confidentiality was an accepted condition as part of the human research protocol required by the University‘s Behavioural Research Ethics Board (BREB). Some meetings were held in a public place; (a local café at the convenience of the interviewees), others were more private, in peoples‘ homes. However, anonymity5 may have lent itself to a certain freedom of expression. The face-toface encounters were relaxed, the circumstances casual and conversational. The focus of each interview was directed at completing the questions in a timely manner but importantly to allow enough time to include the last question of concerns each person might have for the future of the Bowen Island community. 1.5.1 Interdisciplinary approach The concept of sustainability has also been characterized by ‗its strong orientation toward action and behaviour‘ and ‗the interaction between human and natural systems‘ (Robinson, 2008). Issue driven interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary researchers interested in sustainable development are robust in partnering with other researchers and experts from many disciplines, working as a team to untangle the complex thread of human behaviour, perception, planning, and good governance, for the purpose of accelerating the process towards a sustainable future. One project in particular with the department of Forestry at UBC, at the Collaborative for Advanced Landscape Planning (CALP) was in developing landscape visualization techniques for participating in local decision-making on Bowen Island. The roots of this approach to interdisciplinary integration lie in an interpretive approach to interdisciplinarity, which is cautious, if not suspicious, about the utility and meaning of overarching theories and conceptual frameworks. Instead, such an approach emphasizes the inherently local and place-based nature of such concepts as sustainability, and the need for meaning to emerge from within the interplay between theoretical knowledge and local circumstance. (Robinson, 2008, pp.7)  5  The researcher did not know or have any contact with the participants prior to the commencement of this study.  10  One of the defining characteristics of transdisciplinarity is having a focus on ‘integrative understanding‘ and in terms of the sustainability field: ‗multiple knowledge realms‘ (Robinson, ibid). This is substantiated in the numerous studies that have been initiated and completed with Bowen Island as part of or as the test case: The Georgia Basin Digital Library, the Bowen Island Digital Library, Community Health Center research, a workshop with the Collaborative for Advanced Landscape Planning, and other supported Geonide studies, which spawned more research by Journeay et. al., O‘Shea, Sheppard, etc. leading to further analysis of those processes such as Savelson‘s Towards Sustainability on Bowen Island: A Case Study (2004). All of these studies have shed light on this research project. I have also benefited from the expertise of my Supervisory Board which crosses several disciplines: Environmental Psychology, Fine Art, Forestry, Land and Food Systems, and Resource Management and Environmental Studies, my research touches on and finds inter-relationship among these disciplines. However, this paper is neither specifically aimed at addressing societal problems nor creating an academic argument; rather it straddles both forms of research in being ‗curiosity-driven‘ and hopefully in the service of the community it is researching; to access a deeper appreciation and understanding of the different opinions and experiences of fellow community members. It is hoped that this paper will be informing of a specific time and place and reflect the stories and personal insights of a few passionate Bowen Islanders. The researcher in this case is playing witness to the personal thoughts and opinions of the subjects‘ as the natural experts of their own lives, home and community. 1.5.2 Origin of the survey and interview questions There are four sets of questions that are intrinsic to this study: the first set are the preliminary survey questions, secondly the interview questions, thirdly the research focus questions, and lastly the unanswered questions. Survey and interview questions were drawn from a wide spectrum of literature spanning: natural resource management, tourism, human geography, 11  multiple dwelling attachment, ‗serious leisure‘ (self-education & community volunteering) and ‗voluntary simplicity‘ living simply mindful of consumption, and work and leisure studies. (Williams 2002; Beckly & Halseth 2003; McIntyre, Williams & McHugh, 2006; Halseth, 2004; Stebbins, 1982; Elgin, 1981; Chaplin, 1999). Home and leisure studies report, three broad similarities in lifestyle activities: 1) Maintenance of the residence and its surrounds, 2) Contact with nature and wildlife, 3) Strong attachment to place and cross-generational continuity, (Chaplin 1999, Williams & Kaltenborn, 1999). Many related research concepts center on the dwelling and tourism or vacation properties within the context of community futures. Dwelling as attachment to and caring for place in the multiple is becoming increasingly common and begs the thorny question: What level of engagement and care is necessary to create sustainable democratic places?‖ (McIntyre et al, p.322) The subject matter of sustainable democratic places and community cohesion continue to be pressing as the Bowen community struggles to define their values and goals and strategize for the future. Another fairly recent Canadian study by Wilkinson focused on the psychological sense of rural communities as a process of social cohesion. If the community level is what counts in the process (of social cohesion), then interventions that deal with communities and community characteristics will show the most promise for success. If the individual or household level is what counts, then policies should be targeted toward individual and household characteristics. (Wilkinson, 2008 p.306) Which makes the point that community levels are different from individual and household levels and should be counted or targeted separately with regard to policy and interventions. The preliminary survey the questions were organized for a general examination of aspects of domestic behaviour and social sustainability; the impetus also came from the many books and continuing online community blogs 12  and websites: Fostering Sustainable Behaviour (McKenzie-Mohr & Smith, 2006) the Natural Step (Robert, 1999) the World Café and the Appreciative Inquiry Commons RSS feeds and conversations about the enduring challenges of individual behaviour, responsibility, sustainability and community. Participants were first surveyed and then interviewed with the goal of understanding what island life is like in terms of the qualities of home and environs and to acknowledge and consider other often less tangible meanings and values that influence behaviour (Williams, 2002). The survey posed thirty general questions and a similar number were asked in the more detailed inquiry of the interview. The advantage of the oneon-one interviews allowed the opportunity to evoke personal stories about living more closely in nature, special places in the landscape and the sense of relationship people have with the creatures and plants around them. Also of interest were: lifetime associations and family history that have embedded meanings in home, landscape and community. The final question of the interviews received a strong response regarding those issues that will have a far-reaching effect on islanders; which turned out to be a question of good governance. The responses to the preliminary survey questions engendered the interview questions and as a result of those engagements; the research focus questions were formed, many of the questions were not collated, although the questions seemed pertinent at the time, they now remain outside of the context of influencing factors. The general impetus for the research questions came about as an inquiry into what we can know about the influence from the rise of second home ownership on a small community. Also, where ‗sustainability‘ is part of the ‗values and discourse‘ of a Municipal plan, what impact might that be having on the residents and what are they actually doing in their own homes and environs? In other words is the movement for ‗best‘ ecological practices on Bowen Island being dictated to Islanders through the Municipality and The Islands Trust and their Municipal Council or are the ecological practices coming from the 13  whole host of the community members as a grass roots movement in civil society? The preliminary survey lent itself to statistical analysis, whereas the interviews resulted in a more personal, subjective and qualitative inquiry, although there are numerous possible vantages into this study. Due to the limits of time four of six research focus questions have been summarized, leaving two (and no doubt many more) questions remaining as outlined in the final summary.  1.6 Survey Data Collection In the first stage the data collected for the survey was by random sampling with the criteria that the participant be a resident (full or part-time) of Bowen Island and over the age of 19. The volunteers that completed the survey were recruited at a number of different locations on and off the island on twelve separate occasions. To begin with, a table was set-up with a sign ‗Bowen Island Residents Survey‘; and clipboards with the survey and (UBC/RMES logo) pens made available to facilitate a number of participants at once, in a face-to-face sampling. Several samplings happened at the Snug Cove Artisan Market in the village where the ferry docks and across from the heritage Library building. On the first day of survey taking (a Saturday in July 2007), there were 15 respondents. On the second occasion the following day, a table was set up at the Island Grocery store (the only place on Bowen with an ATM machine) and Sunday bottle recycling area, a short walk from the first location; 20 more recruits completed the survey. The next set of samplings took place on board the BC ferries, from Horseshoe Bay to Snug Cove and return. A small sign and table was set up on the passenger deck beside the concession stand, on four occasions (at different times of day to optimize commuter participation) and as a result, 34 other volunteers completed the questionnaire. Additionally, another 23 BI residents answered the survey during ‗Bowfest‘ the Island‘s summer festival on August 28th, 2008, at this point 92 surveys had been completed. The remaining 12 surveys were gathered during the (second stage) interview 14  period, taking the opportunity to engage individuals in general conversation, while visiting Bowen and simply inquiring if they would be interested to participate in the survey.  Four of the last 12 surveys were completed at the  ferry dock in Vancouver where the Granville Island Water Taxi boards the passengers that use the relatively new service (Spring 2009) to commute directly to and from Bowen daily. It is also relevant to know that all the surveys were completed in my presence, so that, any doubts about the questions could be and were clarified.  In total the survey was completed by 104 people, with 3  surveys voided the total was 101. Of the 101 respondents the interview refusal rate was 54%, meaning that 47 respondents, 46% were willing to be interviewed, which is a high percentage of willingness to engage.  1.7 Interview Data Collection The results of the PQ were used to select thirteen individuals for the more in-depth, digital audio-recorded interviews. Of those selected to be interviewed, eight were no longer available and so other individuals were then contacted from the list to complete the group of interviewees. An effort was made to balance the representation from the many neighbourhoods around the island. Ten of the fourteen neighbourhoods are represented. The participants were contacted by email and telephone from contact information submitted on the Preliminary Surveys, agreeing to be contacted for interview purposes. Place and time arrangements were made for the interviews; and participants received an honorarium of ($25.00 value) a return trip between Bowen Island and Granville Island on the Granville Island Water Taxi. Six of the interviews took place in the subjects‘ homes, and seven took place in cafés both on Bowen and in Vancouver.  15  CHAPTER TWO: RESULTS OF SURVEY 2.1 Bowen Island Population Demographics To ascertain the age validity of the PQ respondents, an age pyramid was made to see how it would compare with the 2006 Census. The age pyramid of the Bowen Island respondents (Figure 2.2) did somewhat concur with the 2006 Census age pyramid (Figure 2.3) of the entire BI population. Survey respondents were demographically similar in age range however a significantly smaller proportion of males responded 36%, compared to females 64%, of the total sample of 101 survey participants over the age 196. Accordingly, there are 130 more females than males on Bowen: the average age of BI women is 44.3 and that of men to be 45.3.7  Males  Females  Figure 2 Surveys and Interview Participant Age Range  6  The Census utilized ‗Decade of Birth cohorts‘ within a 5-year range, whereas a 10-year range was used in the PSQ. 7 The Eberle Report 2008 prepared for the Bowen Island Housing Affordability Update reported the population of Bowen is aging based on 2001 and 2006 Census the population aged 45-64 years and 65+ grew the fastest: each by 37%.  16  Chart 1 Bowen Island Age Pyramid  The oval indicates comparative PQ survey participant Age Group. (See Appendix F: Bowen Island Community Profile for original Chart)  2.2 Best Reasons for Living on Bowen Island To ascertain what draws people to live on Bowen Island, each participant was asked in Q.29 - Q.36: On a scale of personal preference please rate the listed best reasons for living on Bowen Island, where 1 is the most important and 10 is the least, with the following results. 17  Chart 2 Importance of Reasons: Best Reasons for Living on Bowen Island  Reference: High = 1 to 3; Medium = 4 to 6; Low = 7 to 10. Sample size: 1018 The values reported for Low, Medium and High in the Percentages Table above, are based on the number of people that answered the question, not the total number of people surveyed. Therefore, as an example, the 4.1% in the first cell indicates that 4.1% of those who rated Natural Habitat low, rated it as having Low importance (row percentages again). 2.2.1 Summary of best reasons for living on Bowen Island The pie charts clearly show that the greatest proportion of BI residents surveyed gave Natural Habitat (88%) the highest priority of ‗best reason‘ for living on Bowen with only 4% giving Natural Habitat a low priority score.  The  high priority results follow in descending order: Community 79%, Leisure and Recreation 67%, Family 65%, Health 64%, Culture and Art 40%, Retirement 33% and finally Work at 27% which is the percentage of those survey who gave the work as the highest priority reason, against the 57% who gave Work the 8  Note: The percentages in this chart differ slightly from those reported in the Percentages Table because they are calculated based on the total number of people interviewed, not the total number of people who answered each question. Also, this analysis could also be performed assuming a certain value (say, for example, 10) for the missing observations.  18  lowest priority of ‗best reasons‘ for living on Bowen. This points to the environment and community at the top of the list for Islanders, while leisure and recreation, family and health were equally important followed by more specialized responses to culture and art, retirement and work. Table 1 Total of People: Personal Preferences  Table 2 Percentages: Personal Preferences  Charts 2.2 thru 2.8, Reasons Comparative Pie Charts: have been calculated based on the total number of people surveyed, (not on the total number of people who answered the question).  19  Chart 3 Natural Habitats  Chart 4 Community  Natural Habitat closely followed by Community received the highest percentages, as the best reasons for living on Bowen Island, rated by the PQ survey participants.  20  Chart 5 Culture and Art  Chart 6 Family  Culture & Arts percentages were rated 25% in the high category, significantly less than Family. But, received a 32% higher rating in the medium category, than Family.  21  Chart 7 Health  Chart 8 Leisure and Recreation  Leisure & Recreation was third, closely following Nature (first) and Community (second) in the leading high rated category. Health came fifth after Family (fourth) in the same high rated category.  22  Chart 9 Retirement  Chart 10 Work  33% of participants in the PQ survey rated Work (fifth) as ‗best reason‘ for living on Bowen. Similarly in the high category Retirement placed sixth with 27%. Conversely, 57% rated Work in the low category of ‗best reasons‘.  23  2.3 Environmentally Conscious and Taking Steps The survey participants were asked whether they were environmentally conscientious or not and if they had taken steps in this regards in the following questions: Q.23 Would you describe yourself as environmentally conscientious and Q.27 Have you taken steps towards conservation of water, electricity or gas? Tables 3 and 4 show the results from the questionnaire. Table 3 Total of People: Environmentally Conscious (Q.23) and Taking Steps (Q.27)  Table 4 Percentages: Environmentally Conscience (Q.23) and Taking Steps (Q.27)  Percentages Conscientious (Q.23)  Yes No  Yes 93.7% 40.0%  Steps (Q.27) No 6.3% 60.0%  Total  91.0%  9.0%  Total 95 5 100  The 93.7% in the first cell of the second table indicates that among those that said they were environmentally conscientious, 95% actually took steps towards conservation of water, electricity or gas. The percentages reported are the ―row percentages‖. Among those who said they were not environmentally conscientious, 40% took steps towards conservation. Of those who consider themselves ‗environmentally conscientious‘, what kinds of steps have they taken and is there a disconnection between thinking oneself ecologically conscientious and actual practice? Is there evidence of actual sustainable practices? What is actually practiced may be revealed, when  24  people describe their homes and domestic utility, in the interview sections 3.2.2 - 3.2.4.  2.4 Employment 2.4.1 Employment type: occupations and professions Table 5 Employment Type  The preliminary questionnaire asked participants in Q.5 Are you (1) SelfEmployed (2) an Employee (3) Retired (4) a Student (5) other Chart 11 Employment Type  Chart 11 shows that the majority of participants were selfemployed 42%. Seconded only by the Employees at 35%, followed by those in the community that are retired, 20%, with minor percentages of student and ‗other‘ participants.  25  Table 6 Occupations (19 variables Q.16): Total Number of People and Percentages  Occupation Food Services Other Services Wood Products Construction Health Care Arts/Entertainment Undefined Management Education Public Administration Scientific Waste Managing Real Estate Retail Forestry Accommodation Finance Wholesale Total  722 81 321 23 62 72 10 55 61 91 54 51 56 53 44 113 72 52 41  # of People 6 8 2 5 12 11 10 5 8 2 14 4 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 100  % 6 8 2 5 12 11 10 5 8 2 14 4 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 100%  In the PQ we asked in Q.16 Your occupation or profession is called (Artist, Cook, etc.)?9 The occupation and profession category that employs the largest percentage of participants was the Labour Force Occupation Code 54: in the Professional, Scientific and Technical Services at 14%. Those employed in Code 62: Health Care and Social Assistance were 12%, closely followed by Code 71: Arts, Entertainment and Recreation at 11%, and the next largest group of 10% did not respond to the question of Occupation. These percentages are similar to those in the Community Facts Bowen Island MI Selected Census Characteristics, in the Labour Force by Industry category. However, the 2006 Census showed a different picture with a higher percentage of workers in the Construction trades,  9  Note: the professions are same as numbers below.  26  of 27%. A further comparison was made with the results of Q. 16 regarding the participants‘ professions, combined with Q. 5 as to whether participants were self-employed or employees, etc. vs. Q. 25, as to whether they commuted to work. 2.4.2 Employment type versus commute to work Table 7 Total of People: Employment Type versus Commute to Work (Q.5 vs. Q.25)  Table 8 Percentages of People: Employment Type versus Commute to Work (Q.5 vs. Q.25)  27  Chart 12 Do Self-Employed People Commute to Work?  Chart 13 Do Retired People Commute to Work?  28  Chart 14 Do Employees Commute to Work?  The result of the charts and tables of the employment type, profession and commuting, show that a high percentage of people are commuters. Up to 40% of respondents show that a high percentage of people are commuters. Up to 40% of respondents say that they commute to work. Another estimate by Bruce Howlett claimed that 60% of Bowen households have at least one commuter. Of interest is that there is literally a culture of commuting: the largest group is commuting employees at 72%; self-employed ~28% and retirees, 10%. Travelling on the BC Ferries, I observed the BI locals intensely involved in conversation with each other; talking and laughing during their twice-daily ferry commute for work and business to Metro Vancouver.  29  Chart 15 People Commuting to Work by Employment Type  The largest group of commuters are Employees 74% and (26% do not commute) whereas the percentages reverse for of Self-employed individuals with 27.9% commuting (72% do not commute). 10% of Retired people (those who completed the survey) also commuted off Island for work purposes. 2.4.3 Self-employment and home-based businesses Where do the self-employed individuals who operate a business out of their home live? The BI map (page 32) was subdivided into four areas centered on the south side of Grafton Lake and numbered clockwise from the North East quarter of the island. Area 0, NE has the highest concentration of respondents from Snug Cove up to Hood Point: 55 people; and 24 those people operate a home-based business.  30  Table 9 Total of People Surveyed in Each Area (0-3) who are Operating a Business from Home (Q. 17) 10  The percentages of people in each Area that operate a business out of their home (or not) are reported in the Percentages Table (row percentages). For example, 43.6% of the 55 respondents who live in Area 0 operate a business out of their home. Area 3 NW, has a high percentage of businesses 71.4% but the number of respondents was small, 7 people. Next, we present two pie charts detailing the areas a) Chart 16, where most people who operate a business out of their home land b) Chart 17, where most people who do not operate a business out of their home.  10 Also, it is important to note that since the number of people living in Areas 1 and 3 is relatively small, the percentages reported for these two Areas might not be very reliable.  31  Chart 16 Where do the People Live, who Operate a Business out of their Home?  Chart 17 Where do the People Live, who do not Operate a Business out of their Home?  32  Figure 2.3 Bowen Island Map with Subdivided Areas Area 0 NE, Area 1 SE, Area 2 SW, Area 3 NW Neighbourhoods of Interview Participants For area reference, see Figure 2, Bowen Island Map with subdivided Areas where people operate a business out of their home. We can also be interested 33  in which areas they do not operate business from home, by percentage. For this, we present four charts:  Chart 18 Area 0-NE  Chart 19 Area 1-SE  34  Chart 20 Area 2-SW  Chart 21 Area 3-NW  35  Chart 22 People Operating a Business out of their Home, by Area  Refer to Figure 2, Map of Bowen Island: subdivided into Areas: 0,1,2,3.  2.5 Home Type Characteristics and Design Participation Homes size and characteristics are indicators of consumption patterns. Owner designed and owner occupied homes were of specific interest. The largest proportion 60% those who live in either a cabin or a cottage, participated in the design of their home, although this is the smaller percentage of ‗home characteristic‘ representing only 6 dwellings. In total 43 individuals, of the 101 surveyed indicated that they had participated in the design of their homes. Which indicates that not quite half, but a significant proportion of homes have been designed with the input of the owner, as occupant and designer, with control over the utility and layouts that will be explored further in Chapter 3.  36  Table 10 Total of People Home Type Characteristics (9 variables Q.19), Participation in House Design (Q.24)  Table 11 Percentages of People Home Type Characteristics (9 variables Q.19), Participation in House Design (Q.24)  37  Chart 23 Type of Home of People who Participated in the Design  On the other hand, we can also be interested in whether people who live in different house types tend to participate in the design or not. For this, we could present 9 different charts, one for each house type. However, to simplify this and since only Small and Large Homes had an acceptable number of observations, we will only present the charts for these two cases. Chart 24 Type of Home of People who did not Participate in the Design  38  It may be that the smaller homes are older homes (Chart 6.1) and the 10% difference between large and small homes (Chart 6) are more recently constructed dwellings, although this is not for certain as building dates were not established. However in Question 19 ‗How would you characterize your home on Bowen?‘ 32% described their homes as small, and 40% described their homes as large. At the time the surveys were being filled out, when asked the scale was verbally articulated, a Small Home under 1500 sq. ft. (~139 sq. m.), a Large Home 2500 sq. ft (232 sq. m.) and larger. Mid-size home being between 1500 - 2500 sq. ft (139 sq. m. to 232 sq. m.) was an option the participant could choose to add. Chart 25 Small Home  39  Chart 26 Large Home  2.6 Is Tourism Positive, Negative or Otherwise for Bowen Island?  Table 12 Age versus Tourism: Total of People  Table 13 Age versus Tourism: Percentages of People  The percentages calculated for tourism activity were calculated as a fraction of the people within each age/decade of birth group. For example, the first column indicates that half of the people born in the 1980‘s think tourism is negative and the other half thinks it is Both/Other. All in all, there could be a 40  trend that indicates that older people think more positively of tourism than the younger generations. However, it is important to note that the number of people within each decade group is relatively small (especially in the extremes) and therefore, we should be careful in saying so. The trend is not very strong though, for example 88% of people born in the 1960‘s think tourism is positive, while the percentage is only 73% for those born in the 1950‘s. On the other hand, a vast majority seem to think that tourism is positive with 82% in favour of tourism.11  11  Individual #72 has a ‗3‘ as an answer for the effect on tourism.  41  CHAPTER THREE: INTERVIEW RESULTS 3.1 Introduction Census and community statistics reveal overarching patterns of human behaviour, largely in economic and geographic terms, with some social characteristics to identify and create a community profile, but the ‗ personality or lived quality‘ of a community is difficult to capture. The interview focus was on the subjects‘ daily continuum of practices and their common experience of the regular ‗good‘ life. After being crunched into numbers and percentages the reprieve for the individual voice is in the telling of their unique story. It is hoped that this methodology may reveal something of the experience of living on Bowen and express something beyond the mundane.  Many of the participant‘s  descriptions of their motivations, interactions, and concerns are included as full quotes because they are stories of experience. The lifestyles, domestic innovation and community building narratives enrich our understanding of what the people of Bowen want to preserve and protect. Thirteen individuals (including one couple) were chosen from the survey sample to be interviewed. Four of the subjects were under 45, seven were part of the largest population age group of Baby Boomers between 45 and 64 years old and two were older than 70 years. Seven were women and six were men. In terms of families and residences; the interviewees were six couples without children, three couples with children, and two single individuals living on their own; all homeowners, with the exception of one single women sharing a rented home. The interviewees occupy twelve detached single-family homes located in ten different neighbourhoods around the island. 3.1.1 What attracted you to Bowen Island? The answers to this question were mostly individual circumstances, namely: family home, family vacation home, a rural livelihood and nature. Two of the thirteen, interviewees described it as a second home or weekend place. Most described the attraction as family or community related. The following  42  pages are examples of respondent‘s comments, as to what personally attracted them. 102: The promise of community, the opportunity to put roots down, to be in a community; follow that trail and have that experience, which for me was not one that I grew up with. 15: My family had a place on Bowen all my life I came up here when I was a baby in the summer so it wasn‘t me choosing Bowen particularly. My grandparents bought property on when my mom was a little girl and they built a summer home. 50: It is a sanctuary and a magnet to attract our children to come and spend time with us. These quotes are a sample of the transcriptions, the rest will be found in the appendices transcriptions under Question 1.1. 3.1.2 Would you say that you are happy living here on Bowen Island? All those interviewed were affirmative about living on Bowen. Three residents described being ‗happy‘ to live on Bowen, four used the term ‗absolutely‘, one person said they were ‗lucky‘, the remaining five, said yes, that they were happy living on Bowen in response to the question.  3.2 Dwellings ‗Our need for domestic wellbeing is deeply rooted, and home is the unique phenomena that answers that yearning‘ (Rybczynski, 2001). As a preliminary assessment: the history of the home, its‘ design and domestic spatial arrangements and utility described by the occupants reveal an interesting creative edge and potential for new and more sustainable lifestyle norms. 3.2.1 What do you like most about your home? The responses to this question varied with emotional overtones from family values to practical uses that meet the necessities and functions of life. 43  The transcriptions below, are a sample of the interview responses, see the appendices under the interview responses to question 1.4. 51: Space for all our activities (work—an office each, pottery/painting studio, garage for car repairs), access to hiking, natural facilities and views (watch eagles whilst eating breakfast…) lower housing cost, low crime rate, sense of community, like-minded neighbours… 16: My wife and I built it from the ground up. We have lots of room and gardens and our dog can run free, and we have given an acre of land the my youngest son, his wife and their four kids live right next to us, which is very nice. I think that is the major part of it. 58: Well the thing I like most about it as that I identify it as home. I have a life-long commitment that I intend to live my entire life there… The house itself well, I just think it is the most fabulous place I can imagine…we built it, it took us a couple of years…it has architectural merit…at lot of it is from recycled materials from the old falling down farmhouse that we lived in for ten years. It‘s open, it has a grand total of two rooms, my partner is an artist and it acts as studio space primarily. 73: We worked a long time designing it, probably the outside area, the deck, and having it covered so we can use it…in the summer we just about live out there (note visually the house‘s windows and deck mostly face the waterfront of a small bay facing NW) 13: Secluded, but close to good neighbours, with a windy dirt trail. The original cottage foundation morphed from a cabin into a house…perched on the bedrock over-looking the ocean.  3.2.2 Home: orientation, layout and flexibility, centre and utility 3.2.2.1 Orientation Participants were asked: Which way is your home oriented? The logic of this question was to establish whether participants were utilizing passive solar in their homes and to get a sense of their view orientation. In brief, four responded that their homes are on the East-West axis, with the major windows 44  facing South, two had a similar axis but with North facing views. Three participants noted mostly East facing views with the North-South axis of their homes. Three homes had both North-West/South-East orientations the axis from the main widows of the home allowing a South/East prospect. Eight interviewees said that the light comes through their East facing bedroom window in the morning. This summary is gathered from the Interview Questions 1.5 & 1.5.6a.  3.2.2.2 Layout and flexibility This question relates to flexibility in home design: the participants were asked if their rooms were adaptable for multiple functions or was their layout divided into distinct room functions and/or separate public and private areas? Three participants described their homes as a mix of public and private spaces, while ten cited their homes to be of an open plan. Likewise ten owners described the utility of their rooms as flexible, while three participants described their layout was designed for ―distinct tasks‖, ―specific functions‖, and ―not very flexible‖. Summarized from Interview Questions 1.5.2 & 1.5.3.  3.2.2.3 Centre The question of which room the participants would consider to be the centre of their home relates to the sense of priority or central focus that the room has for the occupants.  Six participants cite that the kitchen is the centre  of their home, also five describe the living room as the centre, one called their great room centered on their masonry stove the home centre, and one individual said their personal room, which is a cabin was the centre of their home. Summary from Interview Question 1.5.4.  3.2.2.4 Utility Participants were asked home many toilets were in their homes and if any and how many were low flush. The greatest number of toilets in one house was five and they were all low flush. One person has three dual flush toilets and 45  another has three all low flush. Only one participant uses an electric composting toilet, three said they had two toilets and both were low flush, two had one low, one rigged i.e. a brick in the tank, and one person had three toilets but only one low flush, lastly two participants had two toilets both not low flush. Summary from Interview Question 1.5.5.  3.2.3 Can you describe how your home design came about? The atypical home arrangements of people who design their own home stands apart from standard development, some of these homes evolved from summer cottages to full time homes after retirement, another combines two house into one, another is a combination of four cabins for different functions. For example two of the participants describe how the design of their homes came about.  102: (I designed the house)… but, things never turn out to be exactly how you plan …now I get to tell the story… The original home was an 850 sq. ft. cabin so it was a small log cabin and I lived there for 12 years and the idea had always been to relocate the log house but reuse the foundation for a slightly larger home, when it came time that I could manage that. So that time came and I designed a slightly larger log home to sit on the same site and the size of that home is 1850 sq. ft.…everything was going perfectly to plan and the smaller home was going to be used as a office studio in another part of the lot…(paraphrasing …it was about a month before the delivery of the logs when I found out that the cost of moving the smaller house was beyond my means…so I had a house arriving within a month…couldn‘t move the cabin… had to make some very difficult decisions… had to build a new foundation to put this new house, which was already built on and had to make some difficult decisions from an architectural point of view, from a design point had to give up so many, many, many of the original ideas and try to put together something at the last minutes under stress. The outcome was much larger than I had intended and we had designed and that we needed and all the rest of it. 46  In the end it worked out well but the physical space worked out to be quite a bit more than we could need or use ourselves, but it has been wonderful to share. As with most things there are always accordance that you hadn‘t anticipated and this was one and the cabin because it was pretty private, with separate entrances lent itself to house sharing, so we shared it with friends…a couple of different couples, artists mostly…for a year or so, who needed someplace to call home. Designed with distinct privacy gradients… You reach the bedroom from the stairs… also some more private areas…the dining room living room kitchen is all open arranged around a central hearth; a masonry heater and that is the kind of center of the home. The upstairs is definitely a private space, because when we were sharing when we knew when we were going to share it, we designed it so everyone had a place to be. The houses are physically connected there is a connecting building which connects the two log structures and it is very much a transition space between the two homes…so that is shared space and when we first built the home we had a shared kitchen as well so the downstairs was more or less shared space and we recognized the importance of private space as well so we could go to a private space if people were making a meal downstairs likewise people we shared the house with also had their private space. I have shared the house in the past and I do have someone else living there now. It was a conscious choice to have …the kitchen is on the east side of the house, it gets morning light and early afternoon light as it tracts around, in proximity to the garden it is within 50 meters and the compost is right next to the garden. The separating of recyclables is in a little pantry room off the kitchen and then stored in the carport. 15: Nothing traditional, my husband and I have four little cabins; he has his own cabin, I have mine, we have a cabin for the washhouse which houses the bathroom and washer dryer and the other one is a little kitchen. Far from adequate and these were supposed to be our temporary dwellings. We were supposed to get one (house) eventually but we just haven‘t got one yet. Our living room – bedroom cabins are four hundred square feet. The cabins would morph into something else if we ever got a proper house built. Well, the home being Bowen…the house is a work in 47  progress we have only been there for twenty years and we are still working on it…but it has a lovely view it is on the west side, looking out over Paisley, (I look over at Paisley Island and Parksville) so it‘s got a nice view and it is five acres so we are property proud and house poor. We put all our money into the property and are still working on the house. The house is oriented west out towards Paisley (Island); I can see the lights of Parksville and Gibsons the view is looking out that way to the west. The windows all look out toward the view. There is one window that gets some morning sun but it (the land) is in a little pocket so we get the sun later at night…we don‘t see it first thing in the morning. The longest axis of the house is EW.  3.2.4 Composting, recycling and garbage disposal arrangements Eleven of the thirteen interviewees compost, recycle and have fairly convenient arrangements for recycling and garbage collection. One person has found that their goats do a brilliant job of eating all of their leftovers (including invasive plants) and so have no need to compost. Two others feed their leftovers to their chickens or farm animals. One person describes how they must protect their garden composting from rats (a fairly recent arrival on Bowen), and does do not currently compost, while another feeds the squirrels and crows with leftovers. Further transcriptions on this question can be found in the appendices under the interview responses question 1.5.1 102: It was a conscious choice to have …the kitchen on the east side of the house, it gets morning light and early afternoon light as it tracts around in proximity to the garden it is within 50 meters and the compositing is right next to the garden. The separating of recyclables is in a little pantry room off the kitchen and then stored in the carport. 83: I just go out the front door and recycle, the compost goes to the chickens and we have the bins outside by the front door for disposal.  48  103: The composting is just down the stairs, outside of the kitchen, but the garbage is about a city block away from here, it is not terrible but it is not close. 84: We used to compost our kitchen garbage but now we just feed it to the chickens, which is a lot easier than composting and we built a great big box out there to put our recycling in. 58: We have a greenhouse, which is attached to the kitchen, and we have composts in the garden and also because we have animals, we feed it to the chickens and the animals get the rest…we hardly produce any garbage put it that way. 15: We use the compost for our garden…just getting the thing in was a big deal…before the time of the rats your could just put out buckets of stuff, just use it when you needed, just a pile in a big open box…now we have to take a whole special wrapped box to put the compost in, we have done all that. 3.2.5 Heating, ventilation and air conditioning Electric baseboards and wood burning fireplaces are the common sources of heating; five residents use a combination of wood and electric. Two residents use wood stoves only, and two interviewees cited using radiant in-floor heating, (one water, one electric) combined with wood stove or electric baseboard. One resident uses a masonry heater, which is very efficient and uses very little wood, and electric baseboards in the upper story.  Ventilation and air conditioning are  natural, just opening the windows gives a good breeze on Bowen, a few people use fans in the summer, and one person cited the use of awnings over the large west facing windows. Below is a sample of the transcriptions, for further quotes see the appendices; interview responses to question 1.5.7.  15: We use electric baseboards, wood would have been our preference, but they are very efficient and our bills aren‘t high. Cooling… it does get warm in the summertime because we get the full on sun all day, the mornings are lovely and cool out there, but, by 4 o‘clock, whooo it‘s 49  warm. So we put up gazebos, tents and awnings and that helps and we have on both the living cabins we have very large overhangs and that helps keep them cool, with around 4‘ overhangs, the front walls are half windows. 103: Water heated (boiler system) radiant floors main and lower floors, electric baseboards upstairs. 13: We use electric baseboards primarily and a small airtight fireplace that we use quite often. We have old building materials we burn and we pick up wood around the island, we will get some delivered if we really run out…but I‘ve got thousands of pieces of wood underneath the house, old siding and old crap and we saw it up to burn it. 102: The dining room living room kitchen is all open arranged around a central hearth a masonry heater and that is the kind of center of the home. 3.3 Rural Forest/Wilderness Interfaces 3.3.1 How would you describe your relationship to the forest? All of the interviewees described their relationship to the forest with terms such as ‗intimate‘, ‗peaceful‘, ‗revered‘, ‗connected‘ and ‗positive‘. One individual describes navigating the forest during the night with a full moon and later in the pitch dark. Another person describes how they can make their way to the Cove and to Artisan Square all along the trails, seldom having to go onto the roadway. Samples of the transcriptions are below, further quotes can be found in the appendices in the interview responses to question 2.1.  102: Physically connected, as the forest is literally out my back door…So the trails they are now pretty well established public trails, but when I first moved there they were not all that well known hiking trails, and so it is an odd sense to go out the back door and basically walk into the forest which I have come to know quite well, in twenty years of hiking both the trails and kind of exploring off the trails… I didn‘t realize how well until… we hiked the trails through the night actually and for part of the evening there was a full moon, but I didn‘t realize how well I knew the island…until you actually walk it a night. You have a sense of where the trail 50  junctions are and where the creeks are which is not conscious but then you can‘t actually see your mind fills in all the empty spaces. It was remarkable to me I don‘t think I fully appreciated my understanding of the landscape forest until that day/ evening. I would say that I probably couldn‘t walk it blindfolded, but pretty close I can walk them in the pitch black. 40: I like to walk through the woods, but not so much right now (after the winter storms) the trees are a little unstable. 84: I have a relationship I go for a walk in the woods every day. 16: We have about 8.5 acres, and are surrounded by private acreage; we are pretty well in the woods. 58: We live on the interface…I never cut down a tree unless it is necessary… Our property was cleared about 100 years ago…and it was starting to get overgrown with Alders and I cut a few trees that were small and the few I left are now huge…so I revere the trees, and so we are lucky that it was cleared because I don‘t know what I would do, I wouldn‘t want to clear trees and I am glad that I don‘t have to. 15: Pretty intimate we are right there everyday. We have had to put up fences to keep the deer out, but we love seeing them so we, so they are all open fences. We feel like we are being quite good stewards not having a septic field and watching everything we put in the ground. 73: I always feel at home in the forest… If I walk from the Cove I will usually dip into the woods by the Police Station and go through the park there, because it is so relaxing as soon as you get off the main road, in the trees it is just so peaceful and relaxing. I love it here because I can walk out the end of the driveway this way then down the road just a tiny bit, and then the little trail through to the park and then out a little bit on the road and into the park again, so I can get to the Cove on trails practically. I can go up to Artisan Square on the trails through the woods and across the meadow and up these other trails…all on trails I love it. I am very much at home in the woods. I love trees.  51  3.3.2 Do you have conflicts with wildlife? Half of the interviewees cited no conflict with the wildlife, while seven experience some conflict, but frequently the conflict is with deer eating the garden plants. Two individuals said they had conflict with rats, and one mention of crows, ravens, stellar jays, turkey vultures, grey horned owls and squirrels. Two also cited problems with domestic dogs. There was also one person who was fearful of a possible cougar attack. For further quotes refer to the appendices: interview responses to question 2.1.1.  40: There didn‘t use to be so many gardens or deer, but I hear that once they discover your garden, are on their path so I‘m going to have to start sleeping out their to ward them off their path, don‘t like the crows either, the dog and I chase them away. 58: We fence our garden to keep out the deer, but we do have a lot of conflicts, the new squirrels (black ones) they are real marauders have wrecked havoc…Rats are a new species to Bowen there were no rats when we came here and I pretty sure they came over in a load of bark mulch that someone brought over, anecdotally I heard that when they were spreading the mulch the rats were jumping out all over and they have been quite a nuisance. We have chickens and we store feed and they make holes in that and they have taken up residence. The Blue jays have been increasing in numbers (Stellar jays) and they are also a nuisance, a lovely nuisance…we don‘t get any more nuts from our hazel nut trees, essentially they get stripped by the Jays an‘ the squirrels, they make their way up and down and basically strip everything before they are ready. We have resident Jays that come back every year, up to 10 or 12 of them and they can do a remarkable amount of damage. We call the place Raven Hill, because there are Ravens there all the time, and occasionally one will kill a chicken, we have had trouble and lost birds to transient species like turkey Vultures and grey horned Owls. But the biggest problem we have is not with wildlife but with dogs. We have lost number of sheep because of dog attacks. (Feral dogs?) No, just your cute little doggy-woggy 52  people let them off the leash and the dog disappears and dogs will attack animals, particularly if there are two of them. We lost a sheep to two little dogs and the way they did it was they were just yappy and they were running around and the sheep went crazy and ran into the fence and broke its‘ neck, and that‘s the way they did it. So dogs are the biggest issue. 103: Our rabbit goes out in the morning and comes back when the sun is setting…I think she sits under the deck to be honest. 15: We are not happy with the rats but that‘s about it. No, we watch the Eagles and the Ravens we got some incredible Ravens that sit in a big tree at the bottom of the garden and they know me when I go into the kitchen they‘ll appear …Every time I go into the kitchen in the morning, I‘ll just go and then I hear this rattling around and look into the tree (the Ravens) are looking to me to throw them scraps. The whole time I was growing up we never had rats…we‘ve had rats for the last fifteen years now. I think more and more people have horses and so I think that‘s what it is…they figure that they came over in the hay bails. 49: I‘m more one to think that they were here first, so there is no conflict. I am more for maintaining the trails on Bowen and I walk my dogs and ride my horse. 73: The only time I have any conflict is when there is a rumour that there is a cougar on the island…I am scared of cougars and I don‘t like to walk in the woods by myself, and I don‘t like that, I don‘t like fear… I wish that they would move soon. I feed the crows and ravens and the deer, I believe everything has a right to live…. I take out apples for the deer and I literally mix the crows a dish of left over cat food, left over bread and mix it and put it out every morning. I have three that come regularly but things got mixed up when I went away for a month. The squirrels ate whatever I put out there this winter too…especially this last winter…you know nothing goes to waste so it is wonderful.  53  3.3.3 Farming food, fishing and foraging 49: When we first moved to Bowen we were very ambitious about doing the landscape so we had a gardener come over and he was great he had lived on Bowen for many years and so he was not going to the nursery to buy plants but he dug up things that were already deer proof and we knew they were natural (native). We had a reason for getting the goats, clematis is beautiful but we had lots of it and its to the point where I just strangles everything out…and I just had so much growth of everything…and actually the goats were really good at eating bramble, but now they have eaten everything. They are Boar, South African they are probably about 100 lbs each. I had a custom shed built for them it is just small. But the horse, I don‘t have enough land for that, so I board her elsewhere on Bowen. 103: The majority of our 2.5 acres is native plant only the area around the house I have flowers, and I have a little mesh over some vegetables and I grow a lot of rhubarb. 102: Hobby farm vegetable garden.  (more  on  interview)  Woodlot  and  58: We rented it for a couple of years and then bought it. Primarily it was a mixed farm, an old homestead that was quite badly neglected and it had an old orchard on it and some chicken barns and garden plots. We started raising goats and sheep, tending the trees and planting some vegetables. So we had acreage when I was a kid and I got this sort of idea that you need land around you. And it had old fruit trees and what not, so I was very used to being able to climb at tree and pick fruit. When I went to kinder garden it was run by a women whose husband ran a dairy farm, well I hated kinder garden but, I loved being out in the barn with the farmer…even as I say this I indelibly smell the smells of that barn, and it laid down a very positive impact on me…. It was something my dad said, he‘d been a refuge, and to him the idea of owning land gave stability and gave you a sense of home and to him the idea that you could actually own a tree, that it was your tree was quite compelling and meaningful for him, so early lesson. You know there are domestic invasive plants too. We had a bit of a problem with things like ivy, also holly, which isn‘t 54  too difficult to maintain, but it is displacing native species. The biggest one is morning glory in the garden and we have been struggling with that in the garden two decades almost impossible to get rid of. We forage, but not for nettles although there are some, for mushrooms and stuff like that, and the berries. Huckleberries, thimbleberries, salmonberries, there also some wild plums but, I don‘t know the name. Yes, I fish for food. 40: Occasionally, Salmonberries on walks, blackberries to keep and huckleberries sometimes. I fish, but much less than in the past because the regulations are pretty strict around here. We used to catch lots of cod, whatever we wanted we‘d get, now your restricted to what you can keep. Last year we ‗prawned‘, we haven‘t done it this year it is a lot of work for not a lot of prawn. There is hunting by bow and arrow, but, I don‘t hunt, and none of my family hunts, for deer. There is covenants on the land up here (in Hood Point) you don‘t have livestock, you don‘t have chickens, swine, poultry, so you can‘t raise those. In Hood Point you have a covenant that you have to sign and agree to. 103: Huckleberries, we have an amazing amount of huckleberries, a lady from the islands showed me you put vodka and sugar or rum and sugar in it and then in the winter time you open it and you have this nice huckleberry liquor, and some of the time I serve them with breakfasts, with a mix with blueberries or raspberries. My husband is a vegetarian, but I know this fellow who digs clams on the island and get some from him, that is the closest I get to getting my own meat. 15: Lots of ferns and alder…there is something out there called Himalayan Impatiens (Indian Touch-Me-Not or Himalayan Impatiens/Balsam or Impatiens glandulifera) and they are incredibly invasive, I was noticing the other day they are the first thing that comes up in big clusters and they are really tall and they just self seed. I went okay but if you guys want to be on the property go on the other side of the fence, but they are always inside…I guess they like to good soil that I‘ve got in the garden area… I‘ve tried to keep them over there, they have a flower sort of hanging down…some call them fake orchids, fake Impatience doesn‘t really classify them, they have tiny open flowers, (I can‘t describe them very well), they have quite a long tap root, but they self seed so they are popping up everywhere. We 55  did have some ‗Black-eyed Susans‘ throughout but I got rid of them. Thankfully we don‘t but I know a lot of people that have a problem with Horsetail, but we don‘t have any, knock wood, because they are incredible invasive. We have a bit of ivy around but we keep it at bay. We have some wild strawberries and lots of blackberries, which is also the most invasive thing around but we have some trained up a fence, so…we can utilize them, but they are phenomenal, every year we have to have a blackberry purge. There is huckleberry down through the park here, but I haven‘t seen anything on the west side. The place was scalped before we bought it, when they were making it into a subdivision. My husband actually went and stood in front of the guy‘s bulldozer as he was taking down all the trees on the piece we had our eye on…and went Stop…leave us some greenery here please! So he did. No chickens yet, that is another retirement project…I keep asking my husband, not yet he says. I‘m going for the chickens and the dog. There are enough people on Bowen that they come by the school and say ‗Anybody want some eggs?‘… (If I‘m there) I always take a dozen; I‘ve got some in my car now. 3.4 Municipal Government Participants were asked what their current concerns are for the island and what changes in the last two years, do they believe will have the most far reaching effect on Bowen residents? The interviewees were very knowledgeable and informed about their community and local government therefore I have included most of the responses of ten participants in this section. The remaining participant responses can be found in the appendices under the interview questions 4.1.  16: The biggest problems on the Island at present are: 1. The ferry and ferry marshalling. 2. The failure to deal in a timely manner with the Cape Roger Curtis development. More than two years ago, Wolfgang Duntz proposed a form of development that gave something to all the stakeholders, but, the plan was thwarted by council, who seem to think that a $16 million dollar investment can simply be left to rot. The present 56  owners started out being cooperative but are now losing their patients as well as significant amount of money, and may simply go for the worst solution, which would be (the allowed) division into ten acre lots – a disaster for the future of the island, and certainly not in tune with the ‗Preserve and Protect‘ mandate of our ‗within the Islands Trust‖ municipality. By wanting too much the council and those who are pushing are likely to get too little. 3. The failure to deal in an economical and timely manner with planning for Snug Cove (the ‗village in a park‘). This has also hung fire for many years. The council seems unwilling to use local knowledge and expertise, and consistently spends money unnecessarily on study after study, the studies then being referred to an overworked council staff and ultimately ignored (as is the local expertise, given for free). 4. The inability of the Council to trust its citizen volunteers. 5. The failure to support Abbeyfield House of Bowen Island Society appropriately; Abbeyfield paid significant cash for the land for senior housing. Most such projects are awarded land grants. 6. The failure to arrange servicing and rezoning of the ‗surplus lands‘ resulting in unnecessary expenditures on interest to cover the (relatively low at ~ $ 2 million) cost of purchase. 13: Lack of leadership of our Municipality… lack of decision process has stopped so much: they have had a wonderful Snug Cove plan for a year and a half that they have not moved on. They have had a guarantee by BC Ferries that if they did something for double lane loading and unloading we could get a new ferry, they would not move on that, they‘ve had Cape Roger Curtis, they told the developer that they did not want 58 ten acre lots they wanted something for the community, the developers came up with a plan the Municipality and the Cape Roger Curtis Society (a very vocal society) said that it wasn‘t enough water frontage…they wanted all the waterfront property of the 650 acres… They wanted over 50 percent of the property to go back to the community as trails and everything else they developers did a neighbourhood plan based on their wants and needs and saying to the Municipality…that they could not give all of that without something in return to make a return on their investment, as they are very generous, but not benevolent, they are developers so the Municipality said yes that is fine, 57  then turned around and have stalled it and not done anything… Finally they did a meeting and the developer said you have until May 1, 2009 and then we will withdraw the Neighbourhood application and go back to the original plan of ten-acre lots…and so now it will have a barbed wire fence with a sign saying ‗Keep Out‘, and so we will loose the whole thing. We really haven‘t moved on anything at all, we made an election of people and elected people who have never had to make decisions on others behalf, and that means acting on nothing. We will get what we deserve. With 3200 people on Bowen Island…enabled all the development Powell River Credit Union Community Partnership Branch Plan, 800 members creating a selfsustaining branch office. No economic plan, two years ago purchase of property with no plan … promise was to sell the land off at a profit for the community… and now we are paying interest on the loan to buy it… There is a division of people on this island between some who need development…. things happening…and some people don‘t want any change…both are right in their own minds … I don‘t care what we do so long as we just do something instead of nothing! People who are on one side or the other of development have told me that they have lost friends over the issues…If you are a council member you just get accosted; he was sworn at and yelled at. Nothing is right, because you are not going to please all the people all the time, but you‘ve got to do something, you know, nothing gets done unless there is a decision made and as long as you are right 51 percent of the time you are a winner, you know…just do it! 102: I‘d have to say that the biggest issue on Bowen is that the ‗growth management‘ as a topic and then I will try to explain what my concern is that the sense that I get when talking about land use decisions on Bowen, and I am fairly involved with it I have been on stewardship committees since I arrived, mapped the island, contributed to OCP planning and sat on sustainability committees and taught and talked with neighbours and community members at length about what it means to live there, but, mostly how it is changing. People‘s perception is somehow locked into when they moved here their sense of the place; the landscape and the community are really calibrated by that 58  time. Yet things change; people come, people go, the landscape changes, for whatever reason, I can‘t quite put my finger on it. Perhaps you will discover it in your study, there is a difficulty understanding our community in the context of change, that it is actually a changing community. The landscape is changing and the character and fabric of the community is actually changing and yet our community planning and our land use planning doesn‘t totally acknowledge that. So that has been an issue that I see playing out in a range of topical issues: Cape Roger Curtis, I sat in on those meetings. I have to say that I am disappointed by the outcome. I am little bit disappointed in the way the decision was made. It is a planning process that has been ongoing now for many years and many different visions of what could happen has been put on the table. Probably the most constructive dialogue we had in the community happened about a month ago (May, 2009). The neighbourhood concept plan was put out on the table and there was a extremely large turnout on a beautiful spring day and we spoke for about seven hours with respect and with a fair bit of passion as Bowen Islanders tend to be from a time knowledge base and very articulate. A group of people expressed their opinions, that place (CRC) and what they felt should or aught to happen there. I found it fascinating from a planning perspective, land use planning perspective…beyond the political aspects of it and if we just kind of limit the conversation to a sense of place and how that translates into landscape and land use planning. There was a group of people that have the sense that the community is changing and they have watched it change over the years and they understand that it is going to change in the future. So those are people that I would say are a group that have the capacity for forward thinking and forward looking and the imagining how things might change and realize that things are going to change and so that camp of people were probably more supportive in looking for solutions that would accommodate growth that were more consistent with the planning principals of the community. There was a remarkably large proportion of the community whose reaction was negative simply because they didn‘t want anything to change. As far as I could tell this was the reason, which I respect but it is the issue, an unwillingness to think about the island, the landscape and community in the context of change. People forget that in Snug Cove we went through a whole planning process for the community and did a whole 59  visioning thing, full on community engagement process, and what astounded me was peoples‘ sense of the community was very narrow in terms of the temporal sense of the community. People were identifying areas that needed to be protected at all costs, but, if you look at those same areas in a historical perspective you realize that the areas had already been cleared and people came in the summers 1500 people came and lived in little vacation cottages in the alder forest, that for them is their sanctuary, their wild woodland forest that they walk through to get to the ferry everyday, it is their solace their sense of Bowen, and yet… you know for people in the 30‘s and 40‘, that was their vacation home, there were neighbourhoods, there were little stores and it was a thriving community…so I think that‘s the issue…a sense of history…a sense of how the landscape has changed and the lack of understand, how it will change in the future. The thing that I keep coming back to is that we have the OCP, and I became very aware after sitting on these committees and stewardship groups; that the principals are sound, but, I realized our community doesn‘t actually understand the implications of our OCP. For example, if you actually took our Official Community Plan took all of the setbacks, constraints and principals of what the community said how it wanted to grow and you took all the density rules and you took all those things into account and you imagined what the community would look like in 15 to 20 years, and built it out and you allowed them to develop to the density that‘s in the OCP and you physically located a structure taking into account all the setbacks and everything, if you did all that according to the principals of the community, and you showed the community the result, which I have done …. Their reaction is shock because what they see is a sprawling community that in fact isn‘t protecting the things that they care about, in fact it is compromising the water shed, in fact it is taking them in a direction that they hadn‘t really anticipated and for some reason they don‘t quite get it. We can‘t raise the consciousness in our planning, so the planning is typically very narrowly focused for the foreseeable future and it is not a proactive bit of planning at all, and I don‘t get it…I really don‘t understand. We actually got involved in a number of projects with land use modelling and landscape projects. Before we were a Municipality we approached the community and said hey, 60  you know we were looking for a good case study and this seems like a good spot, we have all this information and knowledge from our OCP, and our various stewardship groups, and the recently compiled Geolibrary information, so we had quite a lot of information and knowledge about the community. Land use and landscape modelling had just been introduced and we thought that it would be a great thing to do and so we took it on as a project to work on. You know you may actually tease that out in your study… We helped facilitate a number of planning sessions on Bowen where we had people show up at the gym, and hundreds of people showed up to tell us what they cared about, we heard all those stories… And the interesting thing is that we do sit, largely facing an urban centre and people get that this large urban centre is going to double in size. We had another project where we brought John Robinsons‘ Georgia Basin Futures Project, where Bowen Island was one of the case studies, so we set up a relationship where they came with their sustainability models for the community and we went through a session. We had people that now sit on council in the room thinking about Bowen in 2040, what would it look like, you know…we did all that stuff and a lot of very good things came out of that, but, I am absolutely fascinated that we look at an urban centre, our back is to the Islands Trust. We back into the rural hinterland and people have moved to Bowen for a lot of reasons but largely there is this sense that we are on that fringe, and there is a need to preserve and protect and people get that, whatever their experiences bring or that get reinforced everyday; they go into Vancouver to work and they go home to ‗preserve and protect‘. They are preserving and protecting largely what they came here for when the first arrived. You know for people that have been here 40 years they are the most fierce, they have the most passionate view of trying to keep things from changing because when they moved there was only a 1000 people, and they have fought those changes for the last 30 or 40 years and longer. People that have just moved to the Island, even those… 40: I would say that I have concerns about the synthetic field they are putting in, not really in favour of that, mind you I didn‘t do anything about it and I would also say that 61  the thing that will have the most far reaching effect is what happens to the OCP over at Cape Roger Curtis. If they go ahead with the big development, that will impact the rest of us as far as the ferries and the community services. I think it will probably effect negatively unless they do a lot of planning in advance…because they are not going to increase the ferry size…then if you put another 1000 people on the island…even now you wait for a ferry more than you did ten years ago. So, the increase in population has made some difference. If I travel at prime times I might miss a ferry but if I get there three quarters of an hour before they go I will get on. The OCP which is mainly the Snug Cover area, has the density levels, is being reviewed this year, and that will probably have a big impact on where we go. 83: Concerns, not really concerns, but I have been thinking at little more recently of the people who choose to live on Bowen and why and what is it about this place and something that comes to mind is that a lot of us come here, not intentionally, but it is almost as if we are running away, a little bit… If I think about what happens in cities in terms of poverty and the needs of other people, we tend to hide away from that a little bit here…sure the are certainly folks that are in need of financial assistance and all sorts of mental health, and Aids and things like that, but in a way we don‘t have that same concern and we tend to forget about the urban problems and tend to not respond. There is a concern that financially if we continue to struggle as a province what will that look like on Bowen and how will we respond to each other, because we are not used to it, really. It‘s not that we are not used to giving with each other, but there is something different about it, you can hide quite easily from issues and you can live in your little house and not be effected by your neighbours and whatnot, so that is a concern that I do have. And the other is also it is a really WASPy area, we don‘t have a wide range of cultures that come to Bowen, and I think that effects the way we act as a group, we are very insular, so of a similar problem…and there is a lot of children and how is that going to play out for them when most of their friends are white middle-class, I suppose it is the same in lots of different neighbourhoods, but it would be nice to have a bit little more multicultural compared to Vancouver it is not very multi-cultured. 62  The other concern that we have as a family is how sustainable is it really living on Bowen? The fact that we rely on this large vehicle that burns a lot of fossil fuel to get us here and the fact that our garbage has to leave the island, as there is nowhere that it can stay… It is not built into our infrastructure. Even though it is great that we have some land to grow some food on, but when we really think about life and what is should like for us in the future it‘s like, we don‘t want to do it, but maybe we need to live in the city. Maybe we would be living in a high-rise with gardens at the top…that kind of thing. So I don‘t know…it is something that we think about every few months. 103: In the last two years, I am worried about Bowen businesses that the people on the island aren‘t supporting the businesses, as they should. I suppose that that is one of the drawbacks to getting back and forth to Vancouver easier, is that people aren‘t using the hairdresser here, people aren‘t buying their gas here, people aren‘t buying their groceries here. So, I have seen a fair amount of turnover in the businesses here. Because I am here almost all of the time I don‘t like the idea of the bedroom community where people just come here to sleep and go and do their thing in Vancouver and come back…. so that kind of disturbs me. And I find people on the island on the one hand really like it here, and it is almost an attitude that ‗I‘ve moved here, no one else can come‘, and they don‘t want anyone else to come to the island, and even I am kind of like that in some ways say; I like my view, you can‘t see any other houses but on the other hand I recognize that we need the population base in order to keep the businesses growing, so I am always sort of torn between that…I don‘t have a good answer on how to help that. But, somehow I think that town Council needs to be a little bit more aware that the businesses are part of the community too, it is just not the houses what make the community and I feel that sometimes that the town Hall doesn‘t seem to recognize that in some of the decisions that they make. The costs are higher here, but like we have the building centre here and it is reasonably okay compared to Vancouver and the hair dresser is about the same and that sort of thing…but it is a vicious cycle; the less people shop here the more people put their prices up because in order to make the same amount on ‗one apple‘ you know what I mean they start putting the prices up so that they can make 63  their lease payments and their mortgage and everything right. So I think it just makes it worse when people go off island to do their shopping and I do buy a lot of things off island too. Bulk things I tend to buy off island, because there isn‘t a really great bulk here, but I do make a conscious decision to take my son to the hairdresser, that sort of thing. 16: The last three years have been a big hassle about the developing of the Cape Roger Curtis lands in the SW corner, but that has been partly resolved as of the meeting Monday night, (April 27th, 2009). We had a developer who wanted a very large development there and Council decided in its wisdom; they wouldn‘t allow the development to the extent that they wanted it. They have a thirty-five year plan which was going to build a neighbourhood on the south west corner of the island and an awful lot of people objected because they thought all these people were going to be here immediately not quite realizing that this is a thirty-five year plan …and you know people will come in at the same rate as they are coming, so that has been turned down. As to the outcome of Cape Roger Curtis will it then revert to the fifty lots or so? No, basically some people would like it to do that, but I think it is more likely that it will go down to the OCP density of say 224 lots. The amenities the Council had asked for will be reduced. They offered us 52% of the land and 82% of the waterfront and a lot of other concessions, but at the cost of at least 390 building sites, and our OCP says it is good for 224, so we have turned down their bid. They want to talk again, but you‘ve got to stick to 224 and so we may have to cut down on some of the amenities, so I think that that is where we may end up, we will know in another couple of weeks. I guess my other real concern is the size of our ferry which is reaching its capacity and overloaded two or three time a day, and we have been told by BC ferries that we can get a new ferry if we provide two car unloading lanes, on and off the ferry…it is just a matter of widening the street and handling the traffic. Council in its infinite wisdom has procrastinated on this for the last six, or seven years so nothing is happening there. I personally think it should but that‘s me. 58: Well, community integrity is absolutely the biggest issue. I don‘t mean this in that it should be a homogeneous 64  group of people, what I mean is cohesion, in that we stick together… in that there is a sense of identity in the community and that there is a shared notion of where we are headed. The Community plan review, which is supposed to happen every five years, but typically happen every fifteen years, is just beginning now we‘re, going to be just starting a review. It absolutely is the core document which will document where we are headed, my guess is, because these things are full of platitudes and nice talk…that there won‘t be an awful lot of change, in fact I am sort of a bit nervous that people won‘t want to tinker with things… a really good example for these sort of things is densities, or density designations for rural lands which have been set in stone. The way we measure density is essentially by just a unit or a dwelling, it says nothing about the footprint- or the size or the number of parcels or other measures? I think we should have a better way of doing that, because we are really still in a phase of rural sprawl. And I am a prime example, but I would say we were subdivided a hundred years ago and the land has been in stable use and it has only had a single family dwelling all that time, and the land is used. So I sort of set myself apart from the people who bought land in estate size, two and a half acre lots and then they put up a secondary dwelling and then they put in a suite and then they apply for a subdivision… you know. You have this essentially ad hoc, densification. So the community plan is certainly the biggest thing; yet it could end up meaning very little, unless the people are brave enough to embrace some new ideas. The other thing about it is of course that we have one node for development down here (indicates Snug Cove) and it has been suggested that we should be more decentralized. Containment boundaries…I mean you can see that Bowen is quite green in terms of Crown Land and in the reserve, but, there is where people live, in this area they are living in the watershed and we are getting degradation. The biggest issue obviously, is continued pressure… So you have an influx of people and that has been both beneficial and detrimental. Cape Roger Curtis is only a big issue in my mind because it is a big chunk of land. In point of fact the neighbourhood plan that is being put forward calls for over 50% to be protected with 80% of the foreshore to be protected; 65  community amenities mixed use, it meets the OCP in a huge number of ways, it is very innovative, but the density is higher than what the OCP currently allows. The curious thing is that a couple of years ago we legalized secondary suites, so essentially everything (built), there is about the island you can do times two, on paper. In reality it was only about 20 to 25% of people that people build it. But, in the new areas like on Cates Hill, it is 40% of people who built there are building suites. So the OCP allows the density of 224 units, and if you take 224 times 2 you know we are potentially 448 units. So they have said that they (CRC Developers) will build 390 and will build a fixed number of affordable housing units and build no suites. But people don‘t understand that aspect of it, they only understand that it is higher than the OCP. This little development which (just outside the Cove) is one ten acre junk, which is allowed one house and so that is 35 times the OCP density and people are essentially quite open to that because it‘s co-housing a form of housing they can relate to. Even though they don‘t want to live that way, but the way most people live, which is in single-family houses, they don‘t want to see it happen out there (at CRC). I would say that it is fairly disingenuous, and I am revealing my political frustrations on this. I am trying and Council is trying very, very hard to come up with alternatives to the proposed neighbour-hood plan and one that does allow for comprehensive development. In reality what is being proposed, the type of development that is being considered for development I think should be considered model development and viewed as very frightening and overwhelming. Curiously this whole area here (indicates area) has been subdivided and people aren‘t even aware of it or thinking about it there are 175 new homes going in and it is all serviced and ready to go…so the impacts from that one are just slowly being felt…this would be much the same thing here (CRC) as it would be developed over thirty-five years, only in a much more of a defined way. When I was talking about social cohesion, what I mean is getting along in a small community: for example Galiano Island an old forestry island ‗MacBlo‘ (MacMillian Bloedel) subdivided many, many years ago, but sold it the early 66  1990‘s to individuals who bought the 6,000 acres and there are approximately 92 lots, and average of 60 acres, some are as little as 20 acres and other as big as 160 acres. People buying them had mixed motives and the one thing that has been consistent is that they have wanted to build a house, and they have been denied. The BC Supreme Court ruled that their lands were to be used for Forestry not residential. The island is fractured almost 50/50 and their fighting over 90 houses, that you would never see…but it is an absolute disaster that it ever happened ‗the thin edge of the wedge‘ or whatever and the community is so badly fractured that they can‘t have Civil meetings. If you are on one side you have your friends and if on they other side, they have their friends. If you are very much involved you don‘t walk into the post office at the time that the other one is there. It is basically like the ‗Hatfield‘s and McCoy‘s‘ and has been going on for about 15 years. It hasn‘t repaired, in fact it has gotten worse. Denman Island another example, not as bad, but again around land use it twenty-two hundred acre junk of land, developers offered 50% of it including a lake to the community in exchange for up-zoning from 220 lots to 90 or additional 70 lots. It was denied the trustees just rejected it out of hand, because of the density. Again, on Bowen we have managed to maintain or improve civility around those kinds of things. By Incorporating there is much more visibility and transparency than there was when their were infrequent meetings of two trustees, plus a chair that is parachuted in. And a division of responsibilities so, Highways looks after your roads and the Regional District looks after your parks and services, so we are all at home. People love to complain about their government and rightly so, If I were going to give us a mark I would say between a C+ and a C-, you know you might get a B+ is some of these areas, certainly our Greenways Policy and some of that stuff is ground breaking and very good. But in terms of day-today services that people want and need, pretty mediocre and so people have good reason to complain. The inaction…it is largely a reflection of a) caution and b) consensus building. So, rather than doing something that is going to piss a bunch of people off, we just won‘t do it.  67  The other thing is ‗eyes bigger than stomachs‘, everybody wants everything and again with this demographic shift, more urbanized people and they just expect the snow to be gone and they expect the power to stay on or they expect to have one hundred programs available for their pre-school kid, and we can‘t afford to deliver those programmes. Regarding people possibly feeling uncomfortable, being on council I have gotten used to it, that I get assailed in public it is very uncomfortable…my partner, because we go for a walk and we get accosted by somebody ‗What are you going to do about X?‖ and certainly some people were passionate about Cape Roger Curtis and some people who were friends have different views so they feel constrained, they don‘t want to say things publicly because it goes against the grain. I just think that that is the cost of democracy. The thing to do is to manage that and maintain civility, and on that measure we are pretty good, we are pretty good, I know that is so. It is a remarkable little community; it‘s such an appealing place to live because of it‘s natural environment it is safe for children, safe for families…there are huge educational choices for children on the island (you may be aware of that). Home schools, or Montessori schools, there is a Private Middle School, all this for a very small island. A lot of people park their families here and then go off for work. So many of the various Island schools are closing because of the lower population, but ours are different we are family oriented here, but not for teenagers, they hate it and it has very limited opportunities for people in their twenty‘s. Interestingly …people go away…and then they come back to raise families and I have seen quite a few people who have spouses that commute…so we have this huge umbilicus that runs out. But, it is a good community in that sense. 15: Well the subdivisions I guess, there is a large one put in down at Blue Water; King Edward Bay and that will bring a lot more people if the economy turns around and they build all the houses, they said they are going to. And the Cape Roger Curtis, we will have to see what happens there…that still seems to be up in the air. I am worried, they say the total number of people that the island can support is, they say seven thousand and that to me seems huge, when we first moved here we were 250 people and I have seen it grow to now 4,000 and I‘m going…ahhh we are getting a little tight here…both of the water and septic capabilities. There is a concern that these new subdivisions are doing 68  everything properly, and that we are going to be able to provide the necessities of life, and that means water and sewage removal. 40: I have a concern that nobody is looking far enough ahead, everyone is worried about…well it started just the other night I was listening to CBC and Rick Maginis Ray was talking about (peak oil) with this American Scientist is saying the within 2 to 5 years oil supplies are really going to be headed downward, and he said it is going to take 10 or 20 years before we can begin solving the problem and nobody has started to think about it yet, nobody is working on it now and it will be 30 years before we are smoothly working on any system that you have set up 2050. Okay, so here Bowen Island is about to embark on the review of the community plan… the OCP and how many meetings has there been about Cape Roger Curtis an all these mega-homes, you know which way the ferry traffic is going to come-up and blah, blah, blah! To me it is like if we are just talking here. In the programme they went to visit one of the hundred Transformational Communities (meant ‗Transition Towns‘) that are transforming from being an ordinary community to a transformational (transition to sustainable practices) community. There was this one in England and they had their own currency…and they have only so many homes and families that are participating. And I think they are growing…Peterborough Ontario I believe has just become the 1000th city, to join up in this Transformational thing (Transition Town: www.transitiontownpeterboorough.net/) … and I think… who knew? And here is Bowen talking about all this stuff, and this is where we should be. We are an island with a bunch of really creative people here and we are wasting time talking about which lane the ferry is going to come up…we should be talking about the fact that we aren‘t going to have any cars here in ten or twenty years, if this is true then lets get real here…My new found concern here is that we are not addressing things which are really important and we are not looking ahead. To me you live on an island. You have a chance to make a utopia, you have a chance to make it the greenest, and the most sustainable community anywhere, and I don‘t see that being done. The sad thing is that more people want to move here and all they want to do is live in their mega-houses and they care nothing about the earth and they care nothing about the 69  animals. Its‘ pathetic, so I am concerned about a lot of people that move here, that they don‘t… care where they live, as long as it is elitist now to live here. 3.5 Orientation: Home and Reach 3.5.1 Migration and mobility The origin of the participants was of interest in terms of migration and mobility; ten of the interview participants were born in Canada and only three were born outside of the Country. As to the kind background where the participants grew up: six were from rural communities; three from urban centers, two had suburban upbringings and two were from towns. Directly before moving to BI ten of the participants had lived in either the Greater Vancouver district or outlaying communities, three had come from other Provinces and one was from the United Kingdom. Also of interest was the length of time that the respondents had lived on the Island: one person the most recent resident; had arrived only one year ago; three have lived on BI for five years.  Three other participants had lived on BI for ten, eleven and twelve  years respectively, while six interviewees had made their home there for twenty years and more. 3.5.2 Local mobility Day to day practices outside the home: walking, hiking, cycling, driving, shopping, commuting or visiting neighbours, indicate areas utility and patterns of mobility. Participants marked their home and reach areas on three maps denoting 1) walking habits 2) special places and areas visited around the island and 3) commuting destinations on the mainland. Each sketch by the participant centered on their home and general neighbourhood, moving out into the landscape trails and roadways, expanding outward to the other neighbourhoods, the community village at Snug Cove and out to the urban interface across the water to Horseshoe Bay and Vancouver and beyond. Of the thirteen interviewees, five mostly walked around their own neighbourhood and went to Snug Cove often, otherwise they did not venture around the island much, one 70  such person had only been to the Golf course once in the twenty years or so that they had lived there. Five participants travel the whole island on a regular basis and know it‘s trails and lakes very well, one person knows the Mt. Gardner trails well enough to traverse them in the dark. Another interviewee kayaks the perimeter of the island and also Killarney Lake, another cycles the island hills and dales, and yet another sails around the Island and to the mainland. All participants go to Snug Cove, as it is the centre of community life and travel to the mainland as necessary; only four of those interviewed are regular commuters. Figure 3 Bowen Island and Mainland Travel  71  CHAPTER FOUR: SUMMARY 4.1 Governance Bowen Island stands in a unique position, being an island at the rural urban fringe, although it shares many similarities with other maritime communities in The Islands Trust it is on the far end of the spectrum due to the large commuter population and being a Municipality of Metro Vancouver. The Islands Trust background report ‗Measuring Our Progress Report 2003‘12 showed that in 2001 the Bowen population was highly educated: 47% had attended University and around 38% had a bachelor‘s degree or higher. According to one 2003 Canadian study those holding a University degree were in the 70+ percentage, as members of at least one organization and undertaking at least one non-voting political activity. Analysts Neil Rothwell, and Martin Turcotte, respectively from the Research and Rural Data Section, Agriculture Division and the Social and Demographic Statistics Branch of Stats Canada found a strong and positive association using four indicators of civic engagement: i.e.: attendance at meetings, organizational membership, political involvement, and volunteering. A higher percentage of social engagement was found for individuals with higher levels of educational attainment in the rural/urban setting.  13  Individuals with a university degree were more likely to be civically engaged if they lived in rural areas. This was particularly true in terms of volunteering and political involvement. Martin Turcotte goes further in predicting that ‗higher education has definite implications for the future of civic engagement in rural Canada‘. The rural qualities combined with urban levels of higher education, give a demonstrated dynamic to the Bowen Island community. 12 ―Measuring Our Progress‖ background report on the Islands Trust website at www.islandstrust.bc.ca or contact Linda Adams, Chief Administrative Officer 13 Rural and Small Town Canada Analysis Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 1 pg.12 Statistics Canada – Catalogue no. 21-006-XIE Statistics Canada. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/21-006-x/21-006x2006001- eng.pdf accessed July 17, 2009  72  In his introduction to the draft outline of ‗Healthy Urban Governance‘ Trevor Hancock (2005) brings the ‗important distinction‘ between the meaning of Government and Governance to the fore, by inserting two small words into a quote by Osborne and Gaebler (1991), from their book forecasting the reinvention of Government; ―Governance is the process by which we collectively solve our problems and meet our society‘s needs. Government is ‗one of‘ the instrument‘s‘ we use.‖ stressing ‗one of‘ the instruments as he goes on to say (pg.2) that it is the ‗full engagement of the people whose lives are affected‖. Governance today requires not only the (often somewhat paternalistic) interest and support of well-meaning civic leaders and committed professionals, but the full engagement of the people whose lives are affected. (Hancock, 2005) Robinson and Cayuela‘s introduction to Accelerating Urban Sustainability in BC: Creating the Centre for Interactive Research on Sustainability (CIRS) states: First, many of the decisions that will strongly affect future sustainability for a given region do not happen at the level of individual consumption but instead at the level of collective decisions about such issues as land use, urban form, density, transportation infrastructure, and energy and water systems. (Robinson & Cayelua, 2008) Although it may be true that sustainability for a region does not happen at the level of individual consumption, the individuals who end up making those choices may be espousing one lifestyle while living in another. Each person returns to the home and infrastructure that is the current paradigm, which is basically hypocritical to the future that is being envisioned. Being ahead on one‘s time makes for contradictions between forward thinking and current living. There is a typical dichotomy for creative people being ahead of one‘s time; but in this case much of what we do is stuck in the old paradigm. The confluence of crisis and opportunity or the fracturing or the cohesion of community depends on many individuals and their actual will to create sustainable practices, not only from knowledge but also, on the foundation of their quotidian behaviour. 73  In this regard Bowen may have the ‗rural advantage‘, Municipal clout, and interactive technologies to rise to the task of the pressing challenges. The current Official Community Plan review and uptake of ‗interactive technologies‘, such as the Bowen ‗ning‘ web site (a purposeful community dialogue site, for active community engagement) are propelling the transition to more sustainable practices.  It is the combined new technologies of ‗strong interactive,  community engagement‘ (Robinson et al) and the fierce drive of individuals that will create a sustainable community that ‗the many‘ will participate in. Current participatory social research typically gathers a community of people together in a workshop or dialogue situation to discuss issues and goals through a participatory decision making process. New interactive processes in social and community engagement have stimulated awareness and developed interactive knowledge gathering tools. Intensive community engagement is required to enable communities to move forward in the transition to best management practices (BMP). Today there are a number of models for communities to choose from for example the HR Lanarc Matrix: ‗The Eight Pillars of Sustainability‘ which helps communities focus on what sustainable practices mean to them, and to identify the highest priority issues and goals and the steps to attaining them using BMP. Another community tool is the LEED Canada NC 1.0 Project Checklist which covers six aspects of sustainable development: sustainable sites, water efficiency, energy and atmosphere, materials and resources; indoor environmental quality and innovation and design processes. A third example; the ‗sustainability checklist‘ has been used in Port Coquitlam B.C., for their rezoning and development permit applications: land use, housing, community character and design, environmental protections and enhancement, social equity and economic development requirements are assessed to arrive at a triple bottom line score to assess the social, environmental and economic benefits or drawbacks. The multiple research studies and social research investment on Bowen Island are due in part to the Islands unique circumstance as well as because it is 74  a bellwether for other small communities on the rural urban fringe. Local knowledge has been gathered into the Bowen Island Geolibrary as part of the Georgia Basin Digital Library Project, which is an interactive framework for place-based explorations of sustainability issues. An incredible amount of design and planning hours have gone into the Bowen Island Sustainability Project since the Capilano College work of 2000; The Pembina Institute designed a Bowen Island Greenhouse Gas Action Plan and identified and drew up a plan for the Bowen Islands‘ GHG Mitigation Opportunities for GHG reduction and reducing actions. The Geoide Network supported research of Dr. John Robinsons‘ team and The Georgia Basin Digital Library have focused on infrastructure for a sustainable future, as well as the GeoCognito project whose motto is ‗Connecting People with Ideas and Ideas with Place‘. There has also been Dr. Stephen Sheppard‘s related project with Geoide at the Centre for Advanced Landscape Planning (CALP) where visual immersion projections are used to explore future visioning of local climate change scenarios. These new tools are meant to be ‗modes of engagement‘ which empower communities and their local decision-makers towards sustainable, development choices (Sheppard, 2009). Along with the academic community, The Islands Trust and State of Bowen Report, The Integrated Assessment Modeling Tool and The Natural Step program have equipped Bowen islanders for local governance with a phenomenal amount decision-making resources. The Bowen Community Forum and Bowen TV are also active in increasing the levels of local social engagement for decision-making. The last development plan commissioned for Snug Cove and the series of research undertakings required for the development of Cape Roger Curtis also raised levels of awareness and contentions. Bowen has a known history of ‗grass roots‘ community engagement and awareness of the conservation and preservation goals of the Island Trust, and Official Community Plan (as shown in our survey). On Bowen public awareness is fairly high but behaviour and integration of the best management practices are slow to come.  75  What will the new norms of a sustainable lifestyle look like? What will the new expectations bring; what patterns of behaviour must be changed and which ones preserved, what are the opportunities and/or barriers to change, and what are the ethics that will be used to guide those changes? These are but some of the BI community challenges as they transition to a more sustainability culture. The new local committees and forums are preparing and planning for both a diversity of housing and growth in island agriculture. These committees are part of the current (August 09) OCP Review and the outlook is very positive for the community as it works towards achieving many of its‘ collective goals. This case study presents the variety of community knowledge available but is more specifically interested in the actions and domestic lifestyles of Bowen households, and examines a sample of the actual practices. Real world practices of course are rife with contestation and BI is certainly not exempt, in fact it is more of an exemplar of community engagement and contested ground, especially now that the economy has been in a downward swing. Development contention is also very strong from the Bowen Island Eco-Alliance and coalition organization CRC Trust Society, they have retained a pre-eminent municipal lawyer to review the subdivision application for the CRC development and will challenge any decision Council makes regarding the ‗right‘ of the CRC land owners, if it does not coincide with either of the coalitions goals. (Bowen Ourselves, 2009) The Bowen Island Municipality Greenways Committee has been working to develop a Greenways Strategy for the Island along with the Islands Trust; in a recent interview, a Council member (Sue Ellen Fast) referred to the greenways strategy as ―an invitation to people to participate to help build a more sustainable island.‖ Building upon strengthening and broadening the OCP, reopening the bylaw is an opportunity for the community to engage in cooperative stewardship. In the summer (2009), the municipality held a public information session to focus on its proposed legislation. Approximately three-dozen members of the public were in attendance, asking questions and expressing both their support and concerns. It is interesting to note that only 36 people 76  attended the session. In contrast to the OCP information session, the new interactive website set up by John Dubrille, had a response of 300 residents completing an online survey over the summer (September, 2009). The gover‗ning‘ site has been accepted by the Municipality as a conversation and survey site. See Bowen Island Ourselves the social network on ‗Ning‘.14 According to the Islands Trust website, The proposed amendment to the OCP is to aid development decisions, which will support the conservation of natural resources, sensitive ecosystems, watersheds, coastline areas, unique landscape areas, cultural landscapes, wildlife habitats and migration routes, and other natural areas. The bylaw would allow these natural assets to be managed for recreation and eco-tourism, as well as for community health and wellness purposes.  A federation of independent local governments, including Bowen Island Municipality, work as The Islands Trust and Islands Trust Fund, which plans land use and regulates development in the trust area, which has a population of 25,000 people, a large group when compared to Bowen‘s population of 3500. Originally, there was hope that an island municipality would combine greater local autonomy with a ‗slow island, small footprint‘ approach to development. And although that hope has never been fulfilled, it still can be. (Islands Trust, 2009) The Trusts‘ response to the Official Community Plan review is that ―council is heading for a crisis‘ and basically; if any rezoning exceeds the OCP residential density limits, it will require the co-operation and the approval of the Trust Executive Committee who are forthright in the strategy of opposition to certain types of development. 4.2 Summary The question of why people are drawn to live on an island such as Bowen (BI) and the role of social sustainability as a rural-urban community dynamic, 14  bowegover.ning.com  77  are addressed by the thesis and measured through a combination of interviews and surveys. The interviews allow examination of the Islander‘s self-described behaviour at an individual domestic level, and the more general survey speaks to the cultural collective level of the community. The study has potential to act as feedback to the BI participants, community and other small communities. Ecological footprint determinants are useful to indicate consumption patterns and economics, however they give limited credence to the intentions and concerns of individuals or the significance of social sustainability created by community networking and shared values, which are the subject of this paper. Although unquantifiable, the upswing in second home acquisition is likely driven by peoples‘ desire and increasing need of the ‗second experience‘ away from the anonymity of urban life and toward an idealized rural ‗promise of community‘. If sustainable practices are to be integrated as behavioural norms, this will require ‗new ethics, new lifestyles‘ and ‗new expectations‘ as suggested by the BC Roundtable on the Environment (1993). In order to support the shift toward sustainable practices and the building of strong cohesive communities a more detailed understanding of domestic and community engagement is necessary. The goal of becoming sustainable is elusive and it takes more than the intent of a few people, even more than many sincere members of a community even when the Municipal goals are in place, it can be held back by economics, geography or fear and politics. Individuals and families are empowered to change many things in their own lifestyles, but on the larger scale the established infrastructures, economics, demographics and geography, will predetermine much of what can be done in the near future, to move towards sustainability. Which is why it is important to empower individuals and communities to plan for and create desirable outcomes for the future. Bowen has many challenges that impede the Islanders‘ goals for sustainable practices: among them is the fact that 60% of households have a commuter that must take the ferry to the mainland to work, which makes their carbon footprint twice or three times that of a person living on the mainland. The islands water supply is limited to being replenished by rain, and there is a 78  large imbalance is how water is conserved especially in light of the move towards local agriculture. One in twenty of the islands septic systems are failing. The increase in property values have out priced the islands‘ local resident volunteers whom have stood as the ‗communities cultural backbone‘, and they are moving away, as well as the general labour force of service workers (i.e. food service employees, hairdressers etc.), causing people to go to the city for more services and jeopardizing the local services economy. On the up side Bowen has many positive things of value going for it: for example the ability to live in such close proximity with nature requires a long commute for one family member in six out of ten homes, however there is a social benefit in the passage, this group of people meet everyday once or twice on the ferry, and traveling together has created strong bonds of friendship and a certain solidarity between fellow islanders. The proactive commuters have reduced their carbon footprints by using smaller ferries and walking into town or riding their bike as part of the commute. The opportunity to monitor and increase water conservation and rain water recycling can be combined with practices of permaculture for utilizing compost for new local agriculture. It is hoped that housing diversity can bring about a reversal and return of the outgoing (low income) creative members and elders of the community and also stimulate local services. New technologies for democratic local governance show promise, such as the Bowen ‗Ning‘, where there are intense discussions, issues debated and local surveys taken. Bowen has great potential to weather and remedy many challenges through creative design and ‗best practices‘ in community planning, land use and the built environment. Long-time and recent residents are attracted to Bowen Island dominantly because of the closeness to nature. Their chief concern is about their lifestyle and its fragility as a result of the uncertainties associated with the evolving governance system. Residents are relatively affluent and have the amenities of a metropolitan centre within minutes of commuting time, without the loss of natural habitat characteristic of the urban community. Through the acceptance of respect for diversity and open local governance they have developed strong 79  cohesive values that appear to be focused on conserving and committing to those values that make the Island attractive to its residents. Becoming sustainable is not Y + X = 7, it is much more elusive. BI is a satellite community and a unique little system; some consider it a privilege live there. Bowen citizens are interested, active and passionate about their community, they celebrate their shared values and have fun together. Surprisingly visitors are welcome, but the community has apprehensions about the islands‘ future demographic and development growth and ability to maintain the quality of life while maintaining ecological conservation. Consequently, governance is a very important aspect in Island life and subsequently the building of social capital is a priority. In some respects Bowen Island is unique, yet it stands as an exemplar of community: facing contemporary challenges in moving forward the integration of sustainable values and necessary practices to ensure its collective survival. The results of this research are congruent with the observations that rural communities are an integral component of societal life styles, and that there are strong feelings about the importance of nature to human well being and although there is considerable rhetoric about the ideals of ―sustainability‖, it can only be achieved by incorporating the realities of the societal values of communities, urban and rural. The Quality A building or a town becomes alive when every pattern in it is alive; when it allows each person in it, and each plant and animal, and every stream, and bridge, and wall and roof, and every human group and every road, to become alive in its own terms. And as that happens, the whole town reaches the state that individual people sometimes reach at their best and happiest moments, when they are most free. Remember the warm peach tree, flattened against the wall, and facing south. At this stage, the whole town will have this quality, simmering and baking in the sun of its own processes. (Alexander, 1977) 80  4.3 Five Pentagons of Sustainability Figure 4 Community Pentagon  81  Figure 5 Consumption Pentagon  82  Figure 6 Ecology Pentagon  83  Figure 7 Governance Pentagon  84  Figure 8 Orientation: Home and Reach Pentagon  85  REFERENCES Alexander, C., Ishikawa, S., Silverstein, M., Jacobson, M., Fiksdahl-King, I., Angel, S., (1977) A Timeless Way of Building, Volume 1, Center for Environmental Structure, Berkeley, California, Oxford University Press, New York Batschelet, Edward (1965) Statistical methods for the analysis of problems in animal orientation and certain biological rhythms. American Institute of Biological Sciences, Washington Boulding, Kenneth E. (1956) 1.The Value Image, 2. The Emotional Image, in The Image, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor Bowen Island Council Strategy for disposition of surplus lands in Snug Cove. (May 2007)15 British Columbia Roundtable on the Environment (1993) The Economy and Sustainability From ideas to action: a strategic plan for discussion and action to the Citizens of British Columbia. Pp.15, Victoria, BC 3 Business Indicators January 2008, Trend in B.C. Tourism Sector, Appendix 2: Defining the tourism sector Pp.10 4 www.bcstats.gov.bc.ca/pubs/bcbi/bcbi0801.pdf Cantor, David (1977) The Psychology of Place, London: Architectural Press Pp. 18 Cerwonka, A. and L. Malkki, 2007. Improvising theory: process and temporality in ethnographic fieldwork. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago16 Chaplin, D. (1999), Consuming work/productive Leisure; the consumption patterns of second home environments, Leisure Studies 18, (18-55)17 Cohen, Maurie J. ―The Death of Environmentalism: Introduction to the Symposium‖, Organization Environment 19 (2006) Pp. 74-81 SAGE journals online: accessed September 22, 2009 http://oae.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/19/1/74  15  ―The lands at the periphery of the Village center (within 1 kilometre radius of the Miller Road / Government Road intersection) need to be carefully managed in order to avoid the creation of a disjointed and sprawled Village center. Being at the periphery of the Village center, appropriate land uses and densities would be at a lesser scale and intensity than land situated within the Village centre. As well, it would desirable to avoid the development of commercial and community / civic facilities at the periphery of the Village center, except in cases where it can be demonstrated that a proposed commercial use cannot be accommodated within the Village center and all options within the Village center have been exhausted. The intent is to provide a seamless transition between the land within the Village center and the rural land that is outside of the Cove.‖ pg.5 16 Reference in Hagerman, S. (2009) Pp. 188 17 Davina Chaplin, in her book Consuming Work/Productive Leisure, considers the consumption patterns of second home environments with empirical evidence from ethnographic interviews and concluded that escape is the main theme, here too we find ‗escape and sanctuary‘. ―A major motive for the acquisition of second-homes has been theorized as ‗escape‘ principally from the ‗controlled, predictable, alienating world of their normal working lives‘.‖ (Chaplin 1999, p. 54)  86  Cole, R.J., Robinson, J., Brown, Z., M., (2008) Re-contextualizing the notion of comfort. Building Research & Information Volume 36, Issue 4 July 2008, pages 323 -336, Rutledge, London accessed 6 April, 2009 Cheung, Edward (1995, 2007) Baby Boomers, Generation X and Social Cycles, Volume 1: North American Longwaves. Longwave Press, Toronto Accessed online October 12, 2009 http://www.longwavepress.com/Baby_Boomers_Generation_X_SCv1a.pdf Cole, Raymond J. (2005) ‗Building environmental assessment methods: redefining intentions and roles‘, Building Research & Information, 33:5,455 — 467 Rutledge, London Online Publication Date: 01 September 2005 accessed 26 March 2009 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09613210500219063 Dryzek, John S. (1997). Making Sense of Earth‘s Politics: A Discourse Approach‖ in The Politics of the Earth: Environmental Discourses, Oxford University Press (note 2nd Edition, 2005)18 Dwelling Universe (2006): Statistics Canada web page, Figure 19 2006 Census Subject Matter Program. Modified August 20, 2007 Accessed September 23, 2009 http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census06/reference/dictionary/houint.cfm Environment and Resources (2005) Vehicle use, seasonal percentages5 Statistics Canada. Accessed: December 5, 2007 http://www.environmentandresouces.gc.ca/default.asp?lang=En&n=37BDC726-1 Elgin D. (1981, 1993) Voluntary Simplicity: Toward a Way of Life that Is Outwardly Simple, Inwardly Rich, New York: Quill / HarperCollins.19 Florida, Richard. (2008) Who‘s Your City How the Creative Economy is Making Where to Live the Most Important Decision of Your Life. Random House, Canada. On The Hour with George Stroumboulopoulos, CBC Television March 18, 2009 Flyvbjerg, Bent (2006) Five Misunderstandings About Case-Study Research Qualitative Inquiry Volume 12 Number 2 April 2006219-245 © 2006 Sage Publications http://qix.sagepub.com hosted at http://online.sagepub.com GBDL Team. (2002). Georgia Basin Digital Library: Infrastructure for a Sustainable Futur e, [GEOIDE Final Report]. Vancouver, BC: Natural Resources Canada and The University of British Columbia. Glave, James The New Green Turf War, Vancouver Magazine website; vanmag.com, pg.62 November 2008 Accessed September 18, 200920 18  ―Environmental problems by definition are found at the intersection of ecosystems and human social systems, so one should expect to find them doubly complex.‖ (Dryzek, 1997 Pp.8) 19 ―Duane Elgin's Voluntary simplicity is about being mindful of consumption habits and living simply. Eight elements of this simplicity in action encompass; simplicity in our civic lives; being compassionate, operating green businesses, ecological food production and consumption, instilling family values of low consumption, exercising frugality and the ‗uncluttering‘ our homes.‖ 20 A dispute over a Bowen Island playing field illustrates the complexities of planning for an 'earth-friendly' future. Island Commute: The environmental price of living on Bowen is exacted every time islanders hop the ferry to the mainland. Total up all the happy motoring and the results  87  Hagerman, S.M., (2009) Adapting conservation policy to the impacts of climate change: an integrated examination of ecological and social dimensions of change, Doctor of Philosophy, Thesis Resource Management and Environmental Studies Halseth, Greg (2003) Tourism Geographies: Tourism and migration: new relationships between production and consumption. Routledge: Canadian Journal of Regional Science, V2, Number 1 / February 1, 2000 Pg. 5 – 27 Hancock, Trevor (1992) Human and Ecosystem Health. Canadian Perspectives, Canadian Action, Canadian Public Health Association (CPHA), Ottawa. http://newcity.ca/Pages/social_sustainability.html Accessed Aug.25.20098 Harrap, R., Journeay, M., Talwar, S. and Brodaric, B. (2001) Discovering the Community of Our Future: Decision Support and Digital Library Tools Supporting Informed Community Decision-Making in the Georgia Basin Region. Presented May 2001, Queen‘s University. Kingston, Ontario Harrap, R., Talwar, S., Journeay, M., Brodaric, B., Grant, R., van Ulden, J. and Denny, S. (2006). The Georgia Basin Digital Library for Sustainable Development: A Digital Library Approach to Addressing the Societal Relevance of Geoscientific Knowledge. In A.K. Sinha (Ed.), Geoinformatics: Data to Knowledge (pp.35-51). Boulder, Colorado: Geological Society of America, Special Paper 397. Henderson, Lori (2006) A Water Framework and Leading Change Strategy for Bowen Island, Royal Roads, (unpublished Thesis) Henderson, Lori (2006) Water Future: A Community-Based Water Framework and Change Strategy for Bowen Island … - bimbc.ca21 Holland Barrs Planning Group, (2008) A Sustainable Development Strategic Plan for the Bowen Island Municipality: Bowen Island 2020 Vision and Sustainability Framework (July 2008), Vancouver B.C. accessed: September 9, 2009 Hopkins, R., (2008) The Transition Handbook: from oil dependency to local resilience, Green Books Environmental Publishers, UK Household and the Environment Survey (2006) Sustaining the Environment and Resources for Canadians (www.environmentandresources.ca/indicators) and the Statistics Canada website (www.statcan.ca). Last updated: 2007-11-15 Accessed: 2007-12-5 Islands Trust, ‗Measuring Our Progress‘ Bowen Island, Linda Adams, Chief Administrative Officer www.islandstrust.bc.ca accessed July 17, 2009 are grim. As of a 2000 estimate of Metro Vancouver greenhouse-gas emissions, Bowen‘s per capita carbon count was 17 tons. Coquitlam was a modest 6, Maple Ridge an even-better 5.4. http://glave.com/wp-content/uploads/vm_turfwar_nov08.pdf 21  ―The Islands Trust is a unique federation of local island governments with a provincial mandate (from the Islands Trust Act) to make land use decisions that will preserve and protect British Columbia‘s southern Gulf Islands. It includes a land trust that holds land and covenants for conservation.‖ (Islands Trust B.C. p.1)  88  Jacobs, Jane (2001) The Nature of Economies, Vintage Canada Edition, Random House Canada, Toronto Journeay J.M., Dunster J., (2002) The Bowen Island Digital Library; Spinning the Web of Community Knowledge, CD‐Rom Bowen Island, British Columbia: Bowen Island Forest Journeay, J.M., Robinson, J., Talwar, S., Walsh, M., Biggs, D., McNaney, K., Kay, B., Brodaric, B. and Harrap, R. (2000) The Georgia Basin Digital Library: Infrastructure for a Sustainable Future. Paper presented at the Conference: GeoCanada 2000, Calgary, Alberta. Journeay, M., MacKinnon, C., Dunster, J., (2004) Community forum and review of the Snug Cove village plan (Version 5): in search of common ground. 66 pp. Available at: http://www.bowenisland.info/snugcove/index.htm Julian, M. & Bailey, R. (2001). The State of Bowen Island: Volume 1. Report Bowen Island Sustainability Project: Bowen Island Municipality, University of British Columbia: School of Community and Regional Planning. 224 pp. http://www.bowenisland.info/collections/documents/documents.htm Little, R.B. (1989) Personal projects analysis: Trivial pursuits, magnificent obsessions, and the search for coherence. In: Buss, D. & Cantor N. (eds.). Personality Psychology: Recent trends and emerging directions. Springer Verlag, New York. p. 15–31.22 Lyle, David, (1983) The Book of Masonry Stoves: Rediscovering an Old Way of Warming, Brick House Publishing Company, Inc., Amherst, MA Lynch, Kevin (1960) The Image of the City The MIT Press, Cambridge MA McIntyre, N., Williams, D.N., & McHugh, K. (Eds). (2006). Multiple Dwelling and Tourism: Negotiating Place, Home and Identity. CAB International: Wallingford, UK McIntyre, Norman & Svanqvist, Berit Center for Parks, Recreation and Tourism Research, Lakehead University, ON, Canada McKenzie-Mohr, D., Smith W. (2006) Fostering Sustainable Behaviour: An Introduction to Community-Based Social Marketing, New Society Publishers, Gabriola Island, BC 7  22 This study suggests that attachment to place can be developed in four ways: 1) It arises through a desire to fulfill a ‗dream‘ of having such a place in the forest, 2) As a result of a long association through family ties and childhood experience, 3) As a site memorialized through family ‗traditions‘ and stories. 4) By maintaining and building the residence. (Further her research demonstrates) broad similarities to that were reported in other second-home studies (e.g., Chaplin 1999, Williams & Kaltenborn 1999) in that: 1) maintenance of the residence and its surrounds, 2) contact with nature and wildlife, 3) strong attachment to place and cross-generational continuity. 4) a merging of work and leisure and celebration of a ‗rustic minimalist‘ way of life are key aspects of this lifestyle.  89  McKenzie-Mohr: Georgia Basin/Puget Sound 2005 Workshops (1999)23 Osborne, David, and Gaebler, Ted. (1992) Reinventing Government: How the Entrepreneurial Spirit Is Transforming the Public Sector. Reading, MA: AddisonWesley. Putnam, R. (2000) Bowling Alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon and Schuster, Pp 288-290 Robert, K.H. (1999). The Natural Step: A Framework for Achieving Sustainability in Our Organizations: Natural Step Organization. Robinson J., Carmichael J., VanWynsberghe R., Tansey J., Journeay M., Rogers L. (2006) Sustainability as a Problem of Design: Interactivity Science in the Georgia Basin The Integrated Assessment Journal, Vol.6, Iss. 4 Pp. 165–192.24 http://journals.sfu.ca/int_assess/index.php/iaj/article/viewFile/252/227 Robinson, J. (2002) Interactive Science for Sustainability in the Georgia Basin, The Environment Canada Policy Research Seminar Series25 http://www.ec.gc.ca/seminar/Robinson_e.html Last reviewed 2003-07-16 accessed: September 20, 2009 Robinson, J. (2004). Squaring the Circle? Some Thoughts on the Idea of Sustainable Development, Ecological Economics 48, Pp. 369-384. Robinson, J. (2003). Future Subjunctive: Backcasting as Social Learning, Futures 35, 839‐856.  23 While each workshop was individually designed to reflect local needs and circumstances all nine were organized around a similar principle: that education alone is not sufficient to effect onthe-ground change. People also need to be given the tools, resources and incentives to do so. Therefore, all of the workshops included educational presentations on relevant topics as well as hands-on tools and resources to increase the likelihood that on-the-ground changes would result. This two-pronged approach is well supported in the social science literature on sustainable behavior, which has been compiled and summarized by Doug McKenzie-Mohr at St. Thomas University in New Brunswick. McKenzie-Mohr finds in his extensive literature reviews that enhancing knowledge and altering attitudes is not enough to induce behavior change. He cites numerous studies documenting that education alone often has little or no effect on sustainable behavior. A variety of barriers deter people from engaging in sustainable behavior, not just lack of knowledge. The cornerstone of sustainability is delivering programs that are effective in changing people‘s behavior. He therefore encourages ―community-based social marketing‖ approach which involves four components: 1) identifying barriers to change, 2) designating a strategy that uses behavior change tools, 3) piloting within a small segment of the community, and 4) evaluating the impacts before broadening the base. 24  This paper reports on the general findings of the Georgia Basin Futures Project, a five-year collaborative interdisciplinary participatory integrated assessment project undertaken in the Georgia Basin of Canada from 1999– 2004. 25 "QUEST, the Digital Library, the Climate Change Calculator, and Sustainability Tools and Resources provide citizens with learning tools designed to advance public acceptance of sustainability goals. The GBFP will continue to develop tools to motivate action. The ultimate goal is to make the Georgia Basin region the most interactively engaged citizenry in the world in thinking about sustainability, and acting on this knowledge." Pp.12  90  Robinson, J. (2008). Being Undisciplined: Transgressions and Intersections in Academia and Beyond. Futures 40, 70-86. Rousseau, David and Wesley, James. (1997) Healthy by Design: Building and Remodelling Solutions for Creating Healthy Homes, Hartley & Marks Rural and Small Town Canada Analysis Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 1 pg.12 Statistics Canada – Catalogue no. 21-006-XIE Statistics Canada. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/21-006x/21-006-x2006001- eng.pdf accessed July 17, 2009 Rybczynski, Witold (2001) Home: A Short History of an Idea, Simon & Schuster UK Ltd. Salter, J.D., Campbell, C., Journeay, M., and Sheppard, S.R.J. (2009) The digital workshop: exploring the use of interactive and immersive tools in participatory planning. The Journal of Environmental Management 90, pp. 2090-2101). Journal Homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ Savelson, A. (2004). Towards Sustainability on Bowen Island: A Case Study. Unpublished Masterʹs Thesis (Resource Management), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia Savelson, A., VanWynsberghe, R., Frankish, J. and Folz, H. (2005) Applicatio of a Health Promotion Model to Community-Based Sustainability Planning. Local Environments, 10(6) 629-647 British Columbia, Canada26 Schama, Simon. (1995) Landscape and Memory, Vintage Books, Random House Inc. New York Selznick, Philip (1992) The Moral Commonwealth: Social Theory and the Promise of Community, University of California Press27 Sheppard, S.R. J. (2006, 2008) Geoide: Future Visioning of Local Climate Change Scenarios With Integrated Geomatics/Visualization System & Local Climate Change Visioning Tools and Process for Community Decision-Making http://www.geoide.ulaval.ca/pjFiles_EN.html. Accessed September 9, 2009 Sheppard, S.R.J. (2006) Bridging the sustainability gap with landscape visualisation in community visioning hubs. The Integrated Assessment Journal, 2006 - Elsevier Ltd. Integrated Assessment Journal, Bridging Sciences & Policy, Vol. 6, Iss. 4 Pp. 79 -108 The Collaborative for Advanced Landscape Planning (CALP) http://calp.forestry.ubc.ca Sheppard, S.R.J., (2009) Collaborative GIS for spatial decision support and visualization Journal of Environmental Management Volume 90, Issue 6, May 2009, Pages 20902101  26  ―The future of human health and that of all other species depends on the viability and sustainability of a host of environments and ecosystems. Human behaviours have profound effects (both positive and negative) on such environments.(Abstract) 27 ‗...the emergence of community depends on the opportunity for, and the impulse toward, comprehensive interaction, commitment, and responsibility.‘  91  Shoji, M., Lemmon, S. and Carl, C. (2000) Bowen Island Information System: Project Report. Bowen Island, British Columbia: Bowen Island Sustainability Project, Capilano College, North Vancouver, B.C. Skjaeveland, Oddvar and Garling, Tommy and Maeland, John Gunnar (1996) A Multidimensional measure of neighbouring (MMN) American Journal of Community Psychology, Volume 24, Number 3/June, 1996 Springer Netherlands, link Oct. 12, 2006 accessed Sept. 20, 2009 also in Residential Environments Choice, Satisfaction and Behavior Spatial-physical Neighborhood Attributes Affecting Social Interactions. Smith, M. K. (2007) ‗Social capital‘, the encyclopaedia of informal education, www.infed.org/biblio/social_capital.htm © Mark K. Smith 2000, 2001, 2007. Last update: 11 May 200928 Statistics Canada. (2007)(2006) Census Dictionary, Statistics Canada, Catalogue no. 92566-XWE Ottawa. February 14, 2008. Accessed June 3, 2009.2 http://www.12.statcan.ca/english/census06/reference/dictionary/index.cfm Stebbins, R (1982) Serious Leisure: A conceptual statement. The Pacific Sociological Review. 25, 251-272 Stebbins, R.A. (2002) Organizational basis of leisure participation: A motivational exploration. State College. Pa: Venture Publishing. Strauss, A. & Corbin, J. (1990) Basics of Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques, Sage Publications Svanqvist, Berit Department of Social Sciences, Karlstad University Geography/Tourism, Karlstad, Sweden; Living in the Forest: Meanings and Use of Recreational Residences Todd, Nancy Jack, (2005), Safe and sustainable world: the promise of ecological design / Nancy Jack Todd. Turcotte, M. Rothwell29, N. Rural and Small Town Canada Analysis Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 1 Vol. 7, No. 1 The influence of education on civic engagement: Differences across Canada‘s rural-urban spectrum. Statistics Canada Turcotte, Martin, Social Engagement and Civic Participation: Are Rural and Small Town Populations Really at an Advantage? Rural and Small Town Canada Analysis Bulletin Vol. 6, No.4 (June 2005), Statistics Canada catno=21-006XIE2005004http://www.statcan.ca/cgi-bin/downpub/listpub.cgi  28 "Interaction enables people to build communities, to commit themselves to each other, and to knit the social fabric. A sense of belonging and the concrete experience of social networks (and the relationships of trust and tolerance that can be involved) can, it is argued, bring great benefits to people." 29 Neil Rothwell is an analyst in the Research and Rural Data Section, Agriculture Division and Martin Turcotte is an analyst in the Social and Demographic Statistics Branch, Statistics Canada. accessed July 17, 2009  92  Turner, B., Franklin, R., Journeay, M., Hocking, D., de Ferriere, A.F., Chollat, A., (2005) Waterscape Bowen Island: Water for Our Island Community. Miscellaneous Report (88) The Geological Survey of Canada. Van Diepen Albertine, Voogd, Henk (2000) Sustainability and planning: does urban form matter? International Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 3, Issue 4 2001, and Volume 4, pp. 59-74 Issue 1 InterScience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 4(1) HREF=http://ideas.repec.org/s/ids/ijsusd.html30 Wilkinson, Derek, (2008) Demographic and community factors affecting psychological sense of community, attraction, and neighbouring in rural communities, Canadian Review of Sociology, 45(3), pp. 305-329. https://rsvpn.ubc.ca/http/www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgibin/fulltext/121576163/31 Williams, D. R. (2002) Post-utilitarian forestry: What‘s place got to do with it? The Proceedings of ‗Human Dimensions and Natural Resources in the West‘ Conference; Human Dimensions Unit, College of Natural Resources Colorado State University. (Alta, WY, October 18-21, pp. 114-123). Fort Collins, CO Williams, D. R., and Kaltenborn, B. P. (1999). Leisure places and modernity: The use and meaning of recreational cottages in Norway and the USA. In D. Crouch (Ed.), Leisure practices and geographic knowledge (pp. 214-230) London: Routledge Wilson, Edward O. (1984) Biophilia: The human bond with other species. Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA32  30  ―There is an additional role of individual household behaviour that has been largely ignored: the spatial context of dwelling which is experiential and lived out in the complex web of building design, and urban form‖ (Van Diepen, A.,& Voogd, H., 2001). 31 If the community level is what counts in the process (of rural social cohesion), then interventions that deal with communities and community characteristics will show the most promise for success. If the individual or household level is what counts, then policies should be targeted toward individual and household characteristics. Metro adjacency is important because proximity to large urban centers provides a population base for commerce and employment and a wide range of services and cultural and institutional resources. In metro-adjacent com- munities, more people should connect with outsiders thus reducing the interaction with community members and decreasing the amount of cohesion, particularly neighboring but also PSOC. pp. 306 Metro adjacency also failed to significantly influence any of the cohesion measures. A gravitational place model would predict that people in metro-adjacent communities would be more likely to work or shop outside of the community. That might in itself be expected to reduce their time for contacting one another. Perhaps because we are dealing with quite small communities, it may be that most people do work or shop outside their communities, thereby negating any effect this variable could have had. It is rather surprising that metro adjacency did not reduce neighboring. Pp. 324-5 The only community variable with significant influence, being from an island-province community, positively influenced all three subdimensions of cohesion. That social cohesion was more clearly influenced by the individual characteristics studied in this research than by the community characteristics studied is an argument in support of programs directed toward individuals and families. pp. 326 32 ‗Humanity is exalted not because we are so far above other living creatures, but because knowing them well elevates the very concept of life’. p. 22.  93  Youatt, R. (2008) Rethinking Anthropocentric Politics Draft prepared for presentation at Political Theory Workshop Ohio State University, May 2008 psweb.sbs.ohiostate.edu/intranet/poltheory/youatt.pdf -  Bowen Island Documents and Web Sites Affordable Housing Working Group website BIM Link, A publication of the Bowen Island Municipality http://www.bimbc.ca/ at ‗bimlink‘ Dec. ‗08 Accessed Aug. 21, 2009 Bowen Island Community Foundation, BC, Canada http://www.bowenfoundation.com/index.php Bowen Island Ourselves - Participation in our own affairs Bowen Island Ourselves is a social network on Bowen ‗Ning‘. http://bowegover.ning.com/ Bowen Island, BC, Official Website http://www.bowenisland.com Bowen Island, BC, Relevant Documents http://www.firethorne.com/notbowencouncil/snugcove/index.htm Community profiles: Bowen Island. (2001) Statistics Canada http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census01/Products/standard/themes/DataProdu cts.cfm?S=2&G=S&C=5915062&P=59&ALEVEL=3&FREE=0 Draft of the Snug Cove Village Plan http://www.firethorne.com/notbowencouncil/snugcove/draftV/pdf Islands Trust33 Accessed: September 20, 2009 http://www.islandstrustfund.bc.ca/ Snug Cove Planning – Frinton http://www.firethorne.com/ferrycure/bulletin/frintonscvp-040312.htm The Appreciative Inquiry Commons – http://appreciativeinquiry.case.edu/. The World Café – http://www.theworldcafe.com.  33  …this organization has direct influence over development of islands on the B.C. coast. Its vision is ―to create a legacy of special places protecting both natural and cultural features in perpetuity, in order to sustain the unique character and environment of the Island Trust Area. Council is heading for a crisis because under Bowen‘s Letters Patent, as an island municipality any rezoning that exceeds the OCP residential density limit requires approval of the Island‘s Trust executive committee. And why should the Islands Trust approve a radical deviation in scale and character from the Snug Cove Village Plan that Bowen‘s own municipal council formulated as policy less than three years ago? Originally, there was hope that an island municipality would combine greater local autonomy with a ‗slow island, small footprint‘ approach to development. And although that hope has never been fulfilled, it still can be.  94  APPENDIX A: PRELIMINARY SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE  95  96  APPENDIX B: INTERVIEW QUESTIONS  97  98  APPENDIX C: SELECTED RESPONSES TO INTERVIEW QUESTIONS, TRANSCRIBED FROM AUDIO TAPE Question 1.1 50: First it is our sanctuary, secondly within 2.5 hours of Vancouver, third Waterfront and fourth a magnet to attract our children to come and spend time with us. In 2009, we are moving into our 5th year there. 102: The promise of community I would say… I traveled around quite a bit with my family as a child and moved pretty much every year, it was at University four years was the longest time I was in the same location since my early childhood…my father is a geologist. The opportunity of traveling and moving into and out of communities on a yearly basis and forming connections and breaking connections on a yearly basis got me interested very much in how people connect, how people define community and what that might be. So for me it was very much on first visit around 1987/88 and like most people I arrived on the ferry on a rainy February day to go hiking, afterwards…I was walking through Snug Cove, realizing this is a small community and people live here, people work from here. So I think I would say it was the promise of community, the opportunity to put roots down, be in a community; follow that trail and have that experience, which for me was not one that I grew up with. 73: My families had a place on Bowen all my life I came up here when I was a baby in the summers; it wasn‘t me choosing Bowen particularly. (My grandparents had bought property on Bowen, my mom was a little girl then, and they built a summer home, all the homes were like that then) 83: My husband and I have been married for two or three years and his parents were pressuring us to buy a place and we knew that both of us with our professions would need to live close to the city and we knew we wanted a smaller community, we wanted some land and we wanted to be able to afford it obviously and we didn‘t want to commute we didn‘t want to drive. So we had friends that lived on Bowen so we came over and stayed a few nights and practices to see how it was and we really enjoyed the community sense and location, so that is how we ended up here. We bought the house five years ago and moved here one year later. The house was built in a bunch of stages; 99  the guy who built it was a bit of a scavenger and built it in the 70‘s. It is about 1600 sq. ft. 103: I liked the idea of being close to the city with a totally different environment. Less density and close to nature, those are the main things. We have a three year old and we wanted him to grow up without worrying about cars and that sort of thing. (proximity to city, density and nature) 84: We moved to the island because we wanted to live in a rural setting with land and have chickens and farm and all that kind of (rural) stuff that you just couldn‘t do that in Vancouver. 16: Oh, it was quite and the fact that is was close to Vancouver I could get here in an hour or so and enjoy my weekend. Compared to places like say Saturna which took you a whole day to get there. In 1970‘s the land was a reasonable price and we had friends who had parents who had a place up here where we would come every year, so that was part of it. 58: Initially I was attracted here as a Boy Scout I visited when I was 10 years old. I moved here when I was 22 and what attracted me that it was essentially so close yet so far and I was trying to escape from the world and this was a convenient easy place to come to escape. But the very specific reason that I came was that there was an opportunity to rent a heritage farm, which I did and so an opportunity fell into my lap and I did it. Thirty-seven years later I still live there, so that was what attracted me was that I was able to get a place for $80.00 a month. We rented it for a couple of years and then bought it. Primarily it was a mixed farm, an old homestead that was quite badly neglected and it had an old orchard on it and some chicken barns and garden plots. We started raising goats and sheep, tending the trees and planting some vegetables. So I was transitioning from leaving home, which was in West Vancouver, but I had rented a place in Kitsilano and was living in a basement suite finishing University at UBC. 49: Well we were looking to buy our first house, we wanted a safe place, semi-rural we would have chosen something way out, but we both had to work in the city…and we found something in our price range too, so a combination of things. In the fall of ‘97 we moved. 100  15: It was my family because we immigrated here when I was three and a half. So I didn‘t chose it they choose it for me. I did choose to stay and I have lived here all my live now. We spent a few months in Vancouver and then came straight to Bowen. 40: I wanted to live on an island it was that simple. I came here from the east coast to meet this man, and we met up in Winnipeg and the whole deal was that I was coming out if I could live on an Island. And so he had to be able to commute to Vancouver, as he was working out of Vancouver, so we had to be at a distance where he could commute with the island. That was in 1977, and we actually went to real estate agent and they had a place, it was perfect was furnished and it was all one room. A one room 1920‘s cedar cottage, sitting right on the cliff on the ocean, it was perfect, with a Murphy bed. It was magical and I was living in a dream world, it didn‘t seem real you know, such a fantasy. Question 1.2 102: I was only living in the UBC area for less than a year, but previous to that I had been living in Vermont with a similar commuting lifestyle, living in the forest and commuting to a University. Question 1.3 102: I grew up in the deserts of the American southwest. 58: I was born in Alberta but my parents moved to the coast and I spent the first ten years in Cloverdale and the interesting thing about that was it is sort of a village an agricultural based interface area (too). So we had acreage when I was a kid and I got this sort of idea that you need land around you. And it had old fruit trees and what not, so I was very used to being able to climb at tree and pick fruit. When I went to kinder garden it was run by a women whose husband ran a dairy farm, well I hated kinder garden but, I loved being out in the barn with the farmer…even as I say this I indelibly smell the smells of that barn, and it laid down a very positive impact on me.  101  Then we moved to West Van and we lived in a couple of places there. It was something my dad said, he‘d been a refuge, and to him the idea of owning land gave stability and gave you a sense of home and to him the idea that you could actually own a tree, that it was your tree was quite compelling and meaningful for him, so early lesson. Question 1.4 51: Space for all our activities: work and an office each, a pottery/painting studio, garage for car repairs, access to hiking, natural facilities and views; we watch eagles whilst eating breakfast… lower housing cost, low crime rate, sense of community, and like-minded neighbours. 16: My wife and I built it from the ground up. We have lots of room and gardens and our dog can run free, and we have given an acre of land the my youngest son, his wife and their four kids live right next to us, which is very nice. I think that is the major part of it. 13: It is secluded, but close to good neighbours, and has a winding dirt trail. The original cottage foundation morphed to cabin to house…perched on the bedrock overlooking the ocean. 50: When I think of the place I would say that it created a sense of sanctuary over these years for a variety of reasons, but when I think of being there, that is the sense I have, that sense of sanctuary. 73: We worked along time designing it, probably the outside area, the deck, and having it covered so we can use it…in the summer we just about live out there (note visually the house‘s windows and deck mostly face the waterfront of a small bay facing NW) 103: I like the fact that I look basically onto the forest and the water. 84: I like the sunlight, I like the fact that the house isn‘t on a curb with equal spacing between one house and the next and I like the fact that our neighbours are friendly and they like to see us and we like to see them. The house itself…I like the open concept and I like the size, it could even be a bit smaller. 102  16: My wife and I built it from the ground up. We have lots of room and gardens and our dog can run free, and we have given an acre of land the my youngest son, his wife and their four kids live right next to us, which is very nice. I think that is the major part of it. 58: Well the thing I like most about it as that I identify it as home. I have a life-long commitment that I intend to live my entire life there. What else do I like about it well it has arable land, quite, solitude…I can take a pee out the front door and not disturb anybody. Again, I like that it is a compromise between…it is rural living within a suburban setting. The house itself well, I just think it is the most fabulous place I can imagine…we built it, it took us a couple of years…it has architectural merit…at lot of it is from recycled materials from the old falling down farmhouse that we lived in for ten years. It‘s open, it has a grand total of two rooms, my partner is an artist and it acts as studio space primarily. What I don‘t like about it is that it is north facing and we don‘t get any sun. The property is a ten acre chunk of land and looks exactly like a rectangle and the house is on the slope and the house is there and so the sunshine is behind the hill…so the aspect is north and it is a gentle slope. The house is built adjacent to where the old one is a trade off between view, privacy and light…and so what we did was build a house with a skylight along the length of the roof so that allows the light in, so its ah you know, made the best of what we were doing. We could have built lower down but we would have lost the view entirely and would have been closer to the road. 15: Well, the home being Bowen…the house is a work in progress we have only been there for twenty years and we are still working on it…but it has a lovely view it is on the west side, looking out over Paisley Island and Parksville. So it‘s got a nice view and it is five acres so we are property proud and house poor. We put all our money into the property and are still working on the house. The house is oriented west out towards Paisley Island, I can see the lights of Parksville and Gibsons, and so it is looking out that way to the west. The windows all look out toward the view. There is one window that gets some morning sun but the land is in a little pocket so we get the sun later at night…we 103  don‘t see it first thing in the morning. the house is EW.  The longest axis of  40: Its an incredibly beautiful house, it‘s a heritage farmhouse. It was very hard for me to move because I was in a Union Steamship heritage cottage in the Cove and I loved it, but I had a politic eviction and it took over six months to negotiate this rental and I had to share it with someone because of the expenses. I thought I would die being away from the ocean, cause I have lived on the ocean for years. But, it is an incredibly beautiful spot here, and so only recently what with winter and nothing green around, I have started to miss the ocean lately, but it is a beautiful house and magical to live in, built in 1923-24. Question 1.4.1 73: Oh yes, it was my choice to move here, fulltime in 2007 40: It is a little hard having to share the space but I am happy living here. That has been the hardest thing basically. Also though it is harder because, now I am a twenty-minute walk to the Cove, before I was right there. Because I have to think that it is going to take me a whole hour to go down to the Cove for a loaf of bread and come back home again, you know that‘s an hour gone. But, this is a beautiful house to live in. Question 1.5 16: It is a ridiculous piece of land, ten times longer than it is wide, which is about 200 ft. We are back up from the water; we view the water and the mountains. We build it in 1971. We started living here full time in ‗94/95, and the house is around 1200 to 1500 square ft. 40: NSEW, and it gets really hot in there in the summer and there is not window to open for a cross breeze or anything. It gets light a good part of the day, the living room and kitchen is a bit dark…but I had to sell my soul to paint it white and that brightens it up a little…and we have these storm windows on that are some ingenious custom made thing, and when they come off it is brighter. It is not as 104  bright as my last cottage because I had skylights and things. Question 1.5.1 50: We compost on BI all the time, but not in Vancouver, I have a compost pail but I haven‘t used it, it just isn‘t the same, I usually end up taking the garbage back to Vancouver with us because we do it when we are leaving and by the time you drop it off and get back in the car for the ferry line-up, it‘s not worth the three of four minutes when you might miss the ferry. We do have garbage pickup here and sometimes it gets picked up here, but mostly I take it with me. 102: It was a conscious choice to have …the kitchen is on the east side of the house, it gets morning light and early afternoon light as it tracts around, in proximity to the garden it is within 50 meters and the compositing is right next to the garden. The separating of recyclables is in a little pantry room off the kitchen and then stored in the carport…I should mention that the design of the house lends itself to house sharing…I have shared the house in the past and I do have someone else living their now, it has been designed to share: paraphrasing (there is enough space for privacy for everyone). 83: I just go out the front door and recycle, the compost goes to the chickens and we have the bins outside by the front door for disposal. 103: The composting is just down the stairs, outside of the kitchen, but the garbage is about a city block away from here, it is not terrible but it is not close. We keep it so far away because we have a dirt road, and they (garbage pickup) has already made a concession saying that they would come down the dirt road, otherwise they would only come down the paved road. 84: We used to compost our kitchen garbage but now we just feed it to the chickens, which is a lot easier than composting and we built a great big box out there to put our recycling in so that we can do it on mass rather than little bag by little bag…and I think we would love to have on of those holes in the counter top where you can clean off all 105  the scrapings and put them in the bucket, that will come somewhere down the road. 58: So we have a green house attached to the kitchen and we have compost in the garden and because we have animals, we feed it to the chickens and the animals get the rest…we hardly produce any garbage put it that way. 15: Putting in the composting was a big thing, which was good…the garbage is picked up at the end of the driveway so it is a bit of a walk out which is fine. We use the compost for our garden…just getting the thing in was the big deal…before the time of the rats you could just put out buckets of stuff, just use it when you needed, just a big pile in an open box…now we have to take a whole special wrapped box to put the compost in, we have done all that. The whole time I was growing up we never had rats…we‘ve had rats for the last fifteen years now. I think more and more people have horses and so I think that‘s what it is…they figure that they came over in the hay bails. 40: It is very sad about the compost situation…it is pretty good…we have the compost bucket under the sink and we have our recycling things over there and when they are full we take them away…the sad thing about the recycling is that we haven‘t got recycling bins and I was reluctant to just put it out there, so this whole year I have been putting the recycling stuff in the garbage and it breaks my heart, not making any compost. Question 1.5.1a 102: Yes, I designed the house…but things never turn out to be exactly how you plan… Now I get to tell the story… the original home was an 850 sq. ft. cabin so it was a small log cabin and I lived there for 12 years and the idea had always been to relocate the log house but reuse the foundation for a slightly larger home when it came time that I could manage that, so that time came and I designed a slightly larger log home to sit on the same site and the size of that home is 1850 sq. ft.…everything was going perfectly to plan and the smaller home was going to be used as a office studio in another part of the lot…(paraphrasing here) it was about a month before the delivery of the logs when I found out that the cost of moving the smaller house was beyond my means…so I had a house arriving within a month… 106  couldn‘t move the cabin… had to make some very difficult decisions… we had to build a new foundation to put this new house which was already built on and had to make some difficult decisions from an architectural point of view. Also from a design point had to give up so many, many, many of the original ideas and try to put together something at the last minutes under stress. The outcome was much larger than I had intended and we had designed and that we needed and all the rest of it. As with most things there are always issues that you hadn‘t anticipated and this was one of those times. As the cabin was pretty private, with separate entrances, it lent itself to house sharing, so we shared it with friends…a couple of different couples, artists mostly…for a year or so, who needed some place to call home. In the end it worked out well but the physical space worked out to be quite a bit more than we could need or use ourselves, but it has been wonderful to share. Question 1.5.2 50: Ours is a long and narrow hobbity cottage, open plan big kitchen, sink with view, dining room, (a step with a collection of wooden ducks) and an open fireplace, which can be seen thru the kitchen\dinning and living room. Our bedroom faces the water with big windows and it is a small room without a closet, it was not intended as a bedroom. Downstairs are couple of Adirondack chairs, the staircase is also not closed in and there is only a half wall between the kitchen and dinning room. Upstairs are the two bedrooms and a bathroom, and you can see from the picture that it is very hobbity. 102: Designed with distinct privacy gradients… the bedroom from the stairs… also some more private areas…the dining room living room kitchen is all open arranged around a central hearth a masonry heater and that is the kind of center of the home and the upstairs is definitely a private space, because when we were sharing when we knew when we were going to share we designed it so everyone had a place to be. The houses are physically connected there is a connecting building which connects the two log structures and it is very much a transition space between the two homes…so that is shared space and when we first built the home we had a shared kitchen as well so the downstairs was more or less shared space and we recognized the importance of private space as well so we could go to a 107  private space if people were making a meal downstairs likewise people we shared the house with also had their private space. 73: Upstairs open room, possible bedroom designed for expansion of family. 84: Well our downstairs den is both our chaos room and our storage room and our working room. Our dining room used to be down here and our living room used to be up there, so things sort of switch around, but generally not really I would say the child‘s room stays his room, our rooms stays as ours, and the guest room. …This house has been remodelled many times by many different owners since 1975/76 and I think it has had six different owners. Maybe in 1980 they added this and that… 58: We have a bedroom and there is a door on the bathroom. Other than that I would say that the kitchen is task specific, but other than the kitchen no, there is no living room in the house…I see it sort of like something we forgot about…we have something formerly known as the scuzz room and people lay about in there. There is a central kitchen and eating area and a kind of sitting area and a library and a pantry and a greenhouse and a boiler room and a sort of open area and bathroom on one floor. The other floor is all opened and then there is a bedroom off to the side. We have sheep…and my partner is an artist…and does various kinds of work…she has done a lot of wool work. I spend most of my time in my cubicle…my office also on the second floor. The house was built thirty years ago in 1979, and updated recently…the toilets were low flush back then…and they have been replaced. The bedroom is sort of in an attic with the windows all along the west wall. 15: Nothing traditional, my husband and I have four little cabins: he has his own cabin, I have mine, we have a cabin for the washhouse which houses the bathroom and the washer dryer and the other one is a little kitchen. Far from adequate and these were supposed to be our temporary dwellings, we were supposed to get one eventually but we just haven‘t got one yet, so. Our living room and bedroom cabins are four hundred square feet. The cabins would morph into something else if we ever got a proper house built.  108  40: My bedroom; I live in there because it is a shared house. In the day (when he‘s not home) I spend a lot more time whizzing around the house, but (when my roommate returns) I just kind of head off to my bedroom. It is this really big room with floor to ceiling windows across the front and I have my own bathroom in there. And it is just a super great big room to hang out in, and there are French doors that open out onto the deck, and so it is comfortable to hang out…my unused computer is up there too. Question 1.5.3 49: The house was built in 1980; it had a few owners before we had it. The garden is not very convenient as it is down the slope below the house, but we got two goats and now there is no more garden, but behind the deer proof fence I have a few flowers. Question 1.5.7 50: The basement is well insulated under the living room, but otherwise not, so it is quite cool and we also use it in the winter and I like it just as much, you feel refreshed when we come back…we don‘t have a TV...it‘s just a different space…you read and relax. 103: Water heated (boiler system) radiant floors main and lower floors, electric baseboards upstairs. 15: Electric baseboards, wood would have been our preference, but they are very efficient and our bills aren‘t high. Cooling…it does get warm in the summertime because we get the full on sun all day the mornings are lovely and cool out there, but by 4 o‘clock it‘s hot. So we put up gazebos, tents and awnings and that helps and we have on both the living cabins we have very large overhang and that helps keep them cool, and around a 4‘ overhang, as the front walls are half windows. Question 2.1 50: So when we walk out where we were walking through the forest and now there are these big paved roads and these places are being build and some of them with septic tanks and there is no soil, but, they are just scraping the trees down, cutting them for the view and it‘s pretty 109  distressing. I find that very distressing because it is not that I don‘t want to share because it would be good to have more people, but you don‘t get the feeling that they are coming to the Bowen that I like. We go hiking around Killarney Lake, and it is a pretty well trampled hiking ground. We go over to Tunstall Bay by to visit our friends and the same thing is happening there… it no longer looks like normal housing it looks ‗I have more money than you do‘ and I don‘t think that is the way it should be…it is just not nice! It is not jealously, we could have a big house if we wanted to, but, a big house like that is not sanctuary for example we went for a walk with friends and had a look at one of the new houses and it has little windows, if you want to be here you want big windows to open your-self to what is here, not small ones so that no one can look in. Right on a bluff and it has a view but it is pseudo luxury. I get these brochures sometimes, advertising luxury homes of Canada and I have been in some of these houses and there is no interaction there is no intimacy about them. Yes, there is intimacy, there is sanctuary and peace, and there is peacefulness about it. In the strata that I belong to everybody loves that peace, and nobody is being pretentious. The people that are there are loving their place and it is not over-built. It is within reason and it is really distressing in that our neighbour is being a very bad neighbour he has 14,500 sq. ft. and he subdivided it and made Alder Cove, a public access…which philosophically I would totally agree with but, (we worry) we are going to get broken into and there is going to be a fire danger at times, there is not water, there is going to be excrement down there and burning and noise and lack of safety for our place, which is going to be broken into. He was given a variance so that he could build what was excessive to the 10 acres and then he built it in three separate spots so that there is public access, but he wants to sell his place. So he came into paradise and overbuilt 14,000 square feet to show off and kind of ruined our peace because if anybody goes down there he is yelling at them…and I am thinking if he is yelling at them now what is he going to do when the public is there. We have had the experience of people who have less than him, he is very Bowen…and heavily into the church but he behaves in a very bad manner, and this destroys peoples‘ feeling of sanctuary. 102: Physically connected, as the forest is literally out my back door…So the trails they are now pretty well established public trails, but when I first moved there they were not all 110  that well known hiking trails, and so it is an odd sense to go out the back door and basically walk into the forest which I have come to know quite well, in twenty years of hiking both the trails and kind of exploring off the trails as well. It is a landscape that I have come to know quite well, I didn‘t realize how well until a number of years ago we had been mapping the island for about twenty years or so…a friend of mine thought that we didn‘t know where the creeks were located well enough from a stewardship point of view and so initiated a project to GPS map all of the creeks … so he would phone me up to go mapping whenever time permitted, so he phoned me up one day and said I am going to be mapping the creeks on Mount Gardiner would you like to come with me and I said sure that would be great I love it up there and he said we will meet at the Trail head at say 8 o‘clock, no make it 9 o‘clock and (paraphrasing I looked at my watch and said I don‘t think I can make it there in ten minutes and he said no, no, this evening. Because he needed the satellite orientation for the GPS, so we hiked the trails through the night actually and for part of the evening there was a full moon, but I didn‘t realize how well I knew the island…until you actually walk it a night. You have a sense of where the trail junctions are and where the creeks are which is not conscious but then you can‘t actually see your mind fills in all the empty spaces. It was remarkable to me I don‘t think I fully appreciated my understanding of the landscape forest until that day/ evening. I would say that I probably couldn‘t walk it blindfolded, but pretty close I can walk them in the pitch black. 73: I like to walk through the woods, but not so much right now, (after the winter storm) the trees are a little unstable. 83: I have a relationship; I go for a walk in the woods every day. 103: A positive one, I don‘t know how to describe it, we use it (the forest) on a recreational basis, I guess. So we will go out maybe once or twice (depending on the weather) and go down to the lake or walk around the lake, depending on if I am just with my son we might just look at the lake, and the forest a little bit…recreation. Well ravens get into the garbage sometimes and every once in a while a deer will eat something I don‘t want it to eat but other than that we don‘t have a conflict with the wildlife. 111  84: We built our garden in a way that would allow the deer to still have access along the trail that they had already created and besides that the ravens come and go and the eagles come and go, I don‘t think that we have blocked any greenway. We would have competing goals with the deer if our garden wasn‘t enclosed, I think, they do drive us crazy from time to time. 16: We have about 8.5 acres, and are surrounded by private acreages; we are pretty well in the woods. 58: We live on the interface…I never cut down a tree unless it is necessary…Our property was cleared about 100 years ago…and it was starting to get overgrown with Alders and cut I cut a few trees that were small and the few I left are now huge…so I revere the trees, and so we are lucky that it was cleared because I don‘t know what I would do, I would want to clear trees but I am glad that I don‘t have to, but it has grown up a lot and we have less light than we used to…and we lost a lot of trees this year ….we lost a big domestic eastern elm tree, and we lost a big cedar from wind and snow storms. 15: Pretty intimate we are right there every day. We have had to put up fences to keep the deer out, but we love seeing them so we, so they are all open fences. We feel like we are being quite good stewards not having a septic system and watching everything we put in the ground. The deficit is that I have never really done a good veggie garden; I‘ve always just done veggie plots in containers. So, I am looking forward to this year making a proper garden. 40: I always feel at home in the forest. I grew up in the trees in the woods, it was called ―House in the Woods‖, and with pine trees, so I played in the woods and lived in the woods… If I walk from the Cove I will usually dip into the woods by the Police Station and go through the park there, because it is so relaxing as soon as you get off that main road, in the trees it is just so peaceful and relaxing. I love it here because I can walk out the end of the of the driveway this way then down the road just a little tiny bit, and then the little trail through to the park and then out a little bit on the road and into the park again, so I can get to the Cove on trails practically. I can go up to Artisan Square on the trails through the woods and across the meadow and 112  up these other trails…all on trails I love it. I am very much at home in the woods, l love trees. Question 2.1.1 15: We are not happy with the rats but that‘s about it. No, we watch the Eagles and the Ravens we got some incredible Ravens that sit in a big tree at the bottom of the garden and they know me when I go into the kitchen they‘ll appear every time I go into the kitchen. In the morning I‘ll just go ‗and hear this rattling around and look into the tree, there they are looking for me to throw them any scraps. Our poor old doggy passed away on December, so we got a cat left. I will get another one, but that is a retirement project too, a couple of years ago yet. 49: I‘m more one to think that they were there first, so there is no conflict. I am one for maintaining the trails on Bowen and I walk my dogs and ride my horse. 73: There didn‘t use to be so many gardens or deer, but I hear that once they discover your garden, are on their path so I‘m going to have to start sleeping out their to ward them off their path… don‘t like the crows either, the dog and I chase them away. 58: We fence our garden to keep out the deer, but we do have a lot of conflicts, the new squirrels (black ones) they are real marauders and have wrecked havoc…Rats are a new species to Bowen there were no rats when we came here and I‘m pretty sure they came over in a load of bark mulch that someone brought over, anecdotally I heard that when they were spreading the mulch the rats were jumping out all over and they have been quite a nuisance. We have chickens and we store feed and they make holes in that and they have taken up residence. The Blue jays have been increasing in numbers (stellar jays) and they are also a nuisance, a lovely nuisance…we don‘t get any more nuts from our hazel nut trees, essentially they get stripped by the Jays an‘ the squirrels, they make their way up and down and basically strip everything before they are ready. We have resident Jays that come back every year, up to 10 or 12 of them and they can do a remarkable amount of damage. We call the place Raven Hill, because there are Ravens there all the time, and occasionally one will have one kill a chicken, we have had trouble and lost birds to 113  transient species like turkey Vultures and grey horned Owls. But the biggest problem we have is not with wildlife but with dogs. We have lost a number of sheep because of dog attacks. (Feral dogs?) No, just your cute little doggy-woggy people let them off the leash and the dog disappears and dogs will attack animals, particularly f there are two of them. We lost a sheep to two little dogs and the way they did it was they were just yappy and they were running around and the sheep went crazy and ran into the fence and broke its‘ neck, and that‘s the way the did it. So dogs are the biggest issue. 40: The only time I have any conflict is when there is a rumour that there is a Cougar on the island…I am scared of cougars and I don‘t like to walk in the woods by myself, and I don‘t like that and I don‘t like fear… I just wish that they would move soon. I feed the crows and ravens and the deer, I believe everything has a right to live. I take out apples for the deer and I literally make the crows I usually mix them a dish of left over cat food, left over bread…and mix it up and put it out every morning. I had three that came regularly…all the time, but things got mixed up when I went away for a month, the squirrels ate whatever I put out there this winter too…especially this winter…you know nothing goes to waste so it is wonderful. Question 2.2 49: When we first moved to Bowen we were very ambitious about doing the landscape so we had a gardener come over and he was great he had lived on Bowen for many years and so he was not going to the nursery to by plants but he dug up things that were already deer proof and we knew they were natural. We had a reason for getting the goat, clematis can be beautiful but we had lots of it and it gets to the point where it just strangles everything out…and I just had so much growth of everything…and actually goats are really good at eating bramble, but now they have eaten everything. They are Boar, South African they are probably about 100 lbs each, I had a custom goat shed built for them it is just small, but the horse, I don‘t have enough land for that, so I board her elsewhere on Bowen. 103: Our rabbit goes out in the morning and comes back when the sun is setting…I think she sits under the deck to be honest. 114  Question 2.3 103: The majority of our 2.5 acres is native plant only the area around the house I have flowers, and I have a little mesh over some vegetables and I grow a lot of rhubarb. 102: We have a hobby farm, our dogs have fenced kennels. 15: With the five acres we walk around the property but, we come down to the cove and do the walk through here, around Sunset, well there are a few walks but a lot of hills and I‘ve got pretty wonky knees so I prefer the flat, and come down to the Cove and walk on the flat, so. We have some food growing and some native plants and ferns. 40: Basically within the fence is a flower garden. Last year we dug up some space over there (indicates the front of the house garden) and I‘m trying to get some tomatoes this year, and there is another space over there where we need to rotor-till and then we can plant some more things over there. Question 2.3.1 58: You know there are domestic invasive plants and we had a bit of a problem with things like ivy, also holly that isn‘t too difficult to maintain, but it is displacing native species. The biggest one is morning glory in the garden and we have been struggling with that in the garden two decades almost impossible to get rid of. We forage, but not for nettles although there are some, for mushrooms and stuff like that, and the berries. Huckleberries, thimbleberries, salmonberries, there also some wild plums but, I don‘t know the name. 15: Lots of ferns and alder…there is something out there called Himalayan Impatience and they are incredibly invasive, I was noticing the other day they are the first thing that come up in big clusters and they are really tall and they just self seed, I went okay but if you guys want to be on the property go on the other side of the fence, but they are always inside…I guess they like the good soil that I‘ve got in the garden area…I‘ve tried to keep them over 115  there, they have a flower sort of hanging down…some call them fake orchids, fake….Impatience doesn‘t really classify them, they have tiny open flowers, I can‘t describe them very well….they have quite a long tap root, but they self seed so they are popping up everywhere, we did have some ‗black-eyed Susans‘, throughout but I got rid of them, thankfully we don‘t, but I know a lot of people who have problems with Horsetails, but we don‘t have any, but knock wood, because they are incredibly invasive. We have a bit of ivy around but we keep it a bay. We have some wild strawberries and lots of blackberries, which are also the most invasive thing around but we have some trained up a fence, so…. we can utilize them, but they are phenomenal, every year we have to have a blackberry purge. There is huckleberry down through the park here, but I haven‘t seen anything on the west side…the place was scalped before we bought it, when they were making it into the subdivision…My husband actually went and stood in front of the guys bulldozer as he was taking down all the trees on the piece that we had our eye on…and went Stop…leave us some greenery here please, so he did. But the land was pretty well taken down to it‘s bare essentials, because the rest of the island has huckleberries, I know…but I have never seen any out there on our little property. Alders are the worst; three years ago we had a fellow come and take down as many as possible and I noticed this year we are getting many of them back again, so you just have to keep on top of them. Anyway they are good screens and stuff but we don‘t want them to go everywhere. I have allergies and in fact my eyes were quite itchy this morning, the alder bloom is really agitating. Question 2.3.2 73: Occasionally, Salmonberries on walks, blackberries to keep and huckleberries sometimes. 103: Huckleberries, we have an amazing amount of huckleberries, a lady from the islands showed me you put vodka and sugar or rum and sugar in it and then in the winter time you have open it and you have this nice huckleberry liquor, and some of the time I serve them with breakfasts, with a mix with blueberries or raspberries.  116  Question 2.4 73: I fish, much less than in the past because the regulations are pretty strict around here. We used to catch lots of cod, whatever we wanted we‘d get, now your restricted to what you can keep. Last year we prawned, we haven‘t done it this year it is a lot of work for not a lot of prawn. There is hunting by bow and arrow, but, I don‘t hunt, and none of my family hunts, for deer. There is covenants on the land up here (in Hood Point) you don‘t have livestock, you don‘t have chickens, swine, poultry, so you can‘t raise those. Hood point you have a covenant that you have to sign and agree to. 103: My husband is a vegetarian, but, I know this fellow who digs clams on the island and get some from him, that is the closest I get to getting my own meat. 58: Yes, I fish for food. 15: No chickens yet, that is another retirement project…I keep asking my husband but not yet he says. I‘m going for chickens and I‘m going for a dog. There are enough people on Bowen that they come by the school and say, ‗anybody wants some eggs?‘ So the Secretary and I always take a dozen…I‘ve got some in my car right now, they are the best. But, I know that people with chickens are having trouble with the Ravens though. I have those Ravens living right there so if I have chickens we might run into a conflict though. Question 3.1 13: I would change a couple of neighbours like; one neighbour closed off a beach access that was open for about 50 years, I would change that. With the whole neighbourhood I can‘t see anything, it is very, very rural, just love it. 50: The neighbour has the golf course built up and they are developing a whole lot of houses here (indicates near the golf course). I find that very distressing actually, when we first came it was quite as can be and now they are building great big huge houses. Although that is quite a good size house (~2000 sq. ft.) as you can imagine, that it has more than enough room. But, they are building things that make 117  it look piddling. I find them ostentatious and inappropriate to Bowen…. And to my mind I don‘t believe that the people that are putting in those kinds of places have any idea about when you talk about low flush toilets or composting. They want to have the hot tubs and every bedroom has to have a bath and shower, those people will never watch their water, and it is hugely important…Sometimes in the summer our water is low, we have water license, the guy who is our next door neighbour is totally irresponsible, we share a water license with him and he is always violating it. And it seems you know when it‘s yellow let it mellow, or when you take a shower save water… and when you bring your sheets…take them back, you know. In the winter we can wash them but in the summer we can‘t, and we have the septic field. There is not a lot of soil on Bowen it is basically a big rock. So those people have no idea (very many of them) they wouldn‘t have built those kind of houses their building…it‘s like West Van, like we are privileged and lucky to be there so we can‘t be nasty But the houses and the whole place where we are is rather organic and these houses are …‖let me show off‘, now they probably won‘t be there a lot, but, what they are building is a really unsustainable kind of building. 73: I would like to keep it from the road getting too busy, I would like speed bumps back on the road, we had rubber ones that you put on and they had to take them off for the snow plough…I want them back on. I don‘t want streetlights, sidewalks or a super highway. 83: We would like to know most of the neighbours; I see this road as our neighbourhood. We (have been here for five years) but we still feel that we are new to the island, and are just beginning to understand the dynamics of things and it feels like decisions are very slow to come about when you want to make some changes, and rightly so when you want to make a development or something or whatever other things are going on, on the island. That would be something that would be nice to see that we have a good group of folks on council that are making good decisions quickly. But, that happens a lot in neighbourhoods. 103: The road is just a dirt road here and it‘s expensive to up keep and it ruins axles and tires. In the winter we have to hike a kilometre or two to get to the car, which we park on the other side. 118  84: People don‘t observe the speed limit signs, and you have to share the road with the cars. I kind of wish that Millers‘ had the same kind of consideration that Hood Point and Tunstall did, you know when ocean front property was still affordable, having purchased an ocean front property and turning it into a recreational center, but that never happened. So we have Millers‘ Landing beach, but it is not a very nice beach, we could throw in a dock and some things, I think but we don‘t have a coalition to organize that yet. Note: the rest of the recorded interview was lost due to battery failure. 58: Absolutely nothing, I would like to prevent the change that is taking place in my neighbourhood. What is very challenging is that (on map) here is our parcel of land, you can see this yellow/orange, and it is called Surplus Lands, it is now known as Community lands and these lands were acquired out of Crippen Park, so between 1984 and four years ago (2005) this was all park land and now this is sitting here essentially untouched. But there are plans to develop the land. Right now it is not part of the OCP but the community plan is being reviewed starting next week so it will be quite contentious. This is fairly steep land NE slope, this is industrial area down below and it is also the interface between the agricultural land because this is in the Land Reserve there are guidelines for development, but they are only that, they are just guidelines and not a requirement. So the guidelines say 30 meters, so there could be a buffer, but currently this is all forest. So I am worried about development there. We have two neighbours who access their land from us; there is a possibility that this property immediately adjacent to us could be developed for a single house, which is not a big deal. And the area behind us is a 40-acre institutional site, and they own all this around here so that could be a potential worry. And this land around here is adjacent and identical size as our ten acres and they want to put 35 houses on that. So essentially we are under siege here, here and potentially all around. We are very close to Snug Cove, we used to seem we were a long, long way away but we are virtually at the interface, so if you ever wanted a post card kind of representation of the all the problems of development at the urban fringe, we‘re it! So a lot of it depends on whether you have soft or hard edges… Our community plan that was done in 2005, the Snug Cove Village Plan talks about a ‗seamless transition from the village to the rural lands 119  beyond‘, that is the ‗seamless transition‘ so it is a question of how that is interpreted. 15: I don‘t know it is a pretty quite neighbourhood…we have seen the kids grow up behind us and they were noisy for a while but they are all grown up now…no I think our neighbourhood is doing quite well. I was at a neighbourhood last month and they were talking about subdividing a couple of plots to put in an application to subdivide. But we are all aware of what constitutes a good neighbourhood and yes …I think we‘ve got a good little spot out there. 40: Well I don‘t really have any close neighbours here, I don‘t have any friends really close by…I kind of miss that…you know you need a cup of sugar but there is nobody to go borrow it from and I miss that, after having that in the Cove. I would get rid of a lot of cars on the Cove. Question 3.1.1a 58: We see a twinkle from the neighbours‘ lights through the trees and that is it. And what we see is the light as we view towards the east and see the dome of light emanating from the city and we see the lights on the mountain ski lifts. We don‘t have any immediate lights the closest lights are in the works yard, which is down here. 49: The house is on a half-acre which is the smallest size on Bowen, it would be nice to have a little more privacy and land…the house is the last house on the road and we were the last, but the property beside us in under development, and you can‘t really say what people can do with their property. The neighbours are great though and I think that is one of the pluses living on Bowen, we have great neighbours. 15: The fellow who lives across … he has three horses and a barn and he has one light over where the barn is, but that glows in the night, but it is sort of down hill, so it doesn‘t effect us at all. We love seeing the stars, so yes…it is amazing how much ambient light we get coming over from Vancouver… you look back over the mountain…and you can see it from way down our way…it is phenomenal.  120  40: There is nothing that bothers me in terms of lights…it was really nice though when they had Earth hour, and I went out and there were houses that I would normally see lights from that were off and it was such a quite and still night, and I thought this is nice, really nice. There aren‘t a lot of lights around. Nothing really offends me from lights. Question 3.1.1b 102: You‘re always aware which way the wind is blowing from the sound in the forest. 73: Sounds bounce across the bay so we hear from that house over there. 103: We can hear construction if people are really pounding at something, because as you can see we of live in a kind bowl almost, (oval shaped valley) and we can hear a kind of echo. But mostly we can hear roosters and dogs barking, those are the main irritants, I guess, other than that we don‘t hear too much, oh yes in the frogs at night and in the summer time we get crickets, birds…you hear a lot of birds. 58: Because of the hill the sound comes around and you hear every time the ferry comes and goes, we hear that…you hear trains go by on the other side and all the blasting and work, it catches up on the hill. When we moved here on the island there were 400 people on the island and now there are 4,000. So obviously, it is a lot noisier and a lot busier, but considering what people think of ambient noise levels, we have a low ambient noise level. But it is certainly noticeable, you know you hear trucks changing gears, it is noticeable and we are much more aware, but it is not a din. I know friends I go visiting who have an apartment in a high rise just off Burrard Street. And I go ‗how do you live here?‘ and he said ‗you just get used to it‘, which I guess is the answer. You tune out that these are buses going up hill. When people would come to visit they would show up on a Friday evening, make their way through city traffic and come over and it would be dark and they would say ‗what do you people do here‘, and there was actually a lot to do… and I said you know when people come over they primarily want to go for a walk, so they would say we will go for a walk in the morning and then we will come back and make 121  a bit of breakfast. And so we are tiptoeing around while they are still asleep at 10 am and they wake up and this is a repeating pattern, they wake up late because there is no noise, and they are exhausted. The are very apologetic and have their little walk after breakfast and then have lunch and then have to have an afternoon nap and then by the evening they are just coming to life so shall we do something social or sit and talk and then by Sunday they are pretty much attuned, and they go, oh my god we have to go back to town. When I think of people‘s stressors… and I‘m getting a bit of it because I am commuting back to town, I am going later today for instance. Basically it is quite, but noisier than it used to be. 49: Last Saturday night, in fact a very rare thing, but, we could hear cars screeching, in the middle of the night about 3 in the morning and I just thought it was kids, but then I saw these lights and they were police searchlights that were lighting up the whole neighbourhood. So what had happened was this BMW got all smashed up and I figured that they ran out of the car and into the forest…and I thought on Bowen, my God! 40: You know I was right in the Cove, but I didn‘t hear the traffic…it bothers me…it is way down there but it feels like it is right in my head sometimes…what is interesting is that I was right in the Cove, but just down a tiny dip, and no one was coming fast off the ferry…I would hear the bang, bang, bang of the cars coming off the ramp, none of that bothered me like the traffic here bothers me…(maybe the house being on a hill it tends to catch the sounds.) 50: If we go up to the golf course I hear the construction certainly and we go walking up to the golf course frequently. Question 3.1.2a 73: Eighty homes are a lot for one NERPS person we should have more than one, but I do have a generator and power kit. 50: Strata of summer homes, no one is there full-time. Our next door neighbours that have the big house, they live here full time, but I don‘t think he would even call us is 122  there was a problem and he heard about it. disaster, it is going to be a DISASTER.  If there is a  Question 3.1.2b 58: There are several levels to that, we are fairly independent, as far as electricity; power has gone out before. I mean the security of power supply is much, much better than it used to be. This is all underground from where it comes on the Island and the Cove basically has electricity. In 1971 our power was out for seventeen days and it was cold, as cold as -16, very different climate from Vancouver here, once you come around the corner you have the North outflow winds, so you get the Arctic outflow, same as Abbotsford and Chilliwack, it comes down through the valleys, down through from Whistler, so you get a north wind and it is cold and dry. And you know, in Vancouver it will be dead calm, so we loose power on occasion. I don‘t want a generator. But we have some batteries, and I have several thousand gallons of water storage, and we have wood to heat and food stored. So I am somewhat prepared…but on a community level we are very vulnerable to interface wildfire, which would be the biggest threat on this island. There are some areas on the west side if you had a fire out break like on a day like today with a strong westerly wind, it would basically fan across the island. There is really only one portal other than private boats to get on and off the island. The island is not very secure that way…and Earth- quakes are another thing altogether, everybody is in the same boat essentially. But our fire hall is not earthquake (seismic) resistant. 49: The power goes out on Bowen in the winter so we have to be prepared for that, lots of battery operated things, lots of flashlights and radios and extra water is basically stored and I have a propane stove that gets us by. I have neighbour who has a generator but I usually just use batteries. It has been better lately; I remember the last time it happened it was about a day 'n 'half. 15: Yeh, we‘ve got NERPS, which is a good group of people out there, they have come round and given us our little signs to put up. I think every one is soon going to need a refresher course on it, but I feel the neighbourhood people they know whose got the generators and whose got 123  everything we need to have in case of an emergencies…the realtor just up the street is our NERPS person.  Question 3.1.2c, 3.1.2e 49: I don‘t want to be a downer but it does worry me that with the growth on Bowen we are starting to see things like theft, which was unheard of. I think most people would tell you that they don‘t lock their door and I am included in that. But, lately in the paper I mean it is nothing compared to the city, but when you are on Bowen you are used to it being so safe, it really makes you think, so we are getting more of that, and just more traffic and so more concerns about safety because of that. I feel like an old fuddyduddy, but if I see litter I pick it up, on Bowen we are not used to people littering and now I see it and it is worrisome, you wonder what kind of people are these? 50: We belong to the South Bowen Neighbourhood Association and at a meeting one of the ladies said about the many new people coming ‗…it is getting really bad, one of these days we are going to have to start locking our houses‖, we always do accept when we are just going to go for a walk for just and hour or so. 103: I‘m a timid person so I don‘t actually like to be home alone here at night, but I think that is a reflection of me as opposed to the area. 15: Can‘t tell you where the key to our door is, as I never lock it?  Question 3.1.3 103: We drive a hybrid car. The house was originally all electric heat and he said it would be more efficient to put in radiant heat, but judging from our hydro bill, I don‘t know if that is the case. When the weather is good, like right now (May) I will hang all my sheets to dry, because we have an open plan loft I hang the sheets on the railing, but the clothes I do in the dryer in the wintertime. My husband takes the vanpool or rides his bike or will walk to the ferry terminal, for his commute. 124  58: You know, I have to couch this …again it is a tiered kind of thing…I think the water taxi‘s are terrific, and for the simple reason it makes it much more appealing for people to go to work or come for a visit and it provides an outlet for people who live on the island to go to Granville Island; take in theatre, go to a movie or go to a show, shop at we have very limited shopping here, and come back. So on that level I am very pleased, it is indicative of the growth on the island and I am one who essentially am conflicted about that, because I think we have become a much more sophisticated community than what we were before and it have come at an expense and part of that expense is the insularity of the place. So people live here despite the fact that it is an island not because it is an island. So I came here because it was an island, I came here to get away from…essentially now we have more connectivity. So that has it‘s up sides but it also erodes a lot of the community character, and when you see that this whole part of the island is developing and you have a cove there and the intention is to have the ferry here, eventually this is going to become all south slope land, it will become a very appealing place to live for the kind of person who would live in West Vancouver, and so your demographics are going to change quite rapidly. But, you know to me there is such a thing as an ideal size community and we are tracking towards that…I am concerned where the (a sum total is) and whether the population increase will level off or not? The carrying capacity is a different thing, what I just take it from is a body of works ‗A Pattern Language‘, which identifies communities with seven or eight thousand people, as an ideal size community, it is large enough to have services and not too large that you loose community. I have seen what happened on Salt Spring Island which is a good example, they have about three thousand people five years ago and now they are at 11,000 and they are socially fracturing; they are fracturing in terms of neighbourhood, in terms of community that people see themselves less as a Salt Springer and more as you know ‗from the south end‘ or people who identify with interest groups or with…it is big enough that you don‘t know people. Bowen has an unusual topography being very, very hilly, so we actually have quite concentrated little neighbourhoods and certainly there is character to the different neighbourhoods and they are active: he neighbourhood down here in Snug Cove and the neighbourhood at Miller‘s 125  Landing and Tunstall Bay. This neighbourhood: the Blue Water neighbourhood is not a strong neighbourhood, as people tend to be in castles there, which is quite interesting. When we had the lights out for earth day, Friday night and it was interesting in seeing this is a high wind district and seeing all the lights were on, half the lights were on in this new area here and this area here all the lights were off. And so you go there and it is a very different sense of community and I see that fracturing now. 49: Yes, actually we did the BC power smart program, came in and they reinsulated the crawl space and they gave us other tips about draft proofing the home. Last winter, I just had the double paned windows finally replaced, because you know they get a leak in between then they get a fog in between them, so they aren‘t proof anymore. So with the cost of heating and the terrible winter we had, we have to think of these things…it really makes you think about your own personal responsibility. 15: Other than no getting in enough swim time in the summer it is… hasn‘t been so bad…I love swimming in Tunstall Bay Beach…and I am finding that the summers aren‘t as warm as when I grew up…apart from that…no. 40: The owners had the basement insulated with blown-in insulation under the house last November. They are talking about getting new storm windows that are permanent, and I have six double glazed windows in the bedroom and they replaced four of them with new ones in…next they are going to insulate the attic next. I am investigating getting a stove, there are grants for this kind of thing so I need to investigate it a friend, got a really good one so I must go and see it. This stove is wood burning and we go buy wood and then there is the chopping and I am tired of chopping after 30 years. 51: What commuting changes in the last six months? The shelter at the dock is OK, but, relatively primitive: the ferry service is adequate, but the existing dock and marshalling arrangements are unacceptable, and the question has been languishing for more than 25 years. The marshalling should be removed from the village and a second dock built so that we have both backup and a suitable facility for Island emergencies (e.g. fire, earthquake) See: http:/www.firethorne.com/ferrycure/south-notes.htm for 126  details of the preferred south-side dock marshalling area solution. 13: Ferry marshalling off the main road and get some accessible parking for the Merchants, but the I just wish the Council would move ahead with the Snug Cove Plan and get the Municipality is very slow. My recommendation is to have a Ferry at Seymour Cove, …for the people living in Tunstall Bay and Blue Water everybody has to drive across the Island and probably 80% of them has a least one commuter, so why not have a commuting system, and get the cars out of Snug Cove. The people on the West side could have parking and commuting by the Golf Course. 50: We aren‘t here often enough. But, if I lived here I would want bus service we need to have a car or truck. 73: Bus service is something the island is lacking, we could use smaller vehicle and more of them... young people can go out for a drink because you are struck driving. 83: The water taxi is great, but we could use a better bus system say every hour to Snug Cove? 103: The wonderful thing about Bowen Island is that it is an island, and the terrible thing about Bowen Island is that it is an island. So it is not a bridge but just adds that extra level where if you want to go into town, you don‘t necessarily need your car you can just hop onto the ferry. A lot of my friends live in the downtown core and don‘t have cars, so it is so much easier for them to visit me, by using that. As a B&B owner I find that a lot of people are really happy about the little water taxi service, so to me it is a positive thing, I am happy that it is there. The bus service is pathetic, I should check but the last time I checked it was only on Saturday and Sunday and it ended at something like 5 o‘clock. So for any B&B guests that want to come here, and check in time is 3 o‘clock so they can usually make it on the bus, but if they want to go to dinner then I have to drive them and I don‘t even mention the bus service to people because it doesn‘t go far enough right and it stops at Endswell Farm which is not too close, and if it‘s not running later then there is no point because they need to get around, so I basically transport them back and forth in the car, if they don‘t have a car, that‘s what I do, so.  127  16: I don‘t really use it because when I go into town I take my wife and we go shopping and visit friends, we are all over the place. But, from what I hear the people who do use it love it. 49: Island Bus service I think is great I see the people walk off the bus and onto the ferry and I think it is great, but I wish we had the bus in our neighbourhood. We are this finger that goes South and East and I think there is not enough business in the area. I haven‘t tried either of the Coal Harbour or the Granville Island Water taxi yet. It varies depending on my teaching schedule, I start early on Mondays and Wednesday and I would have to get up at 4 in the morning if I took to the bus, so I drive on those days, instead I get up at 5:30 and drive my truck onto the ferry and drive to work and I can leave my car in the Cove and park anywhere and it is great, I get on the ferry and then I take the bus downtown and then I take the sky-train and that is right here. It is still two hours, but I look at it as part of my workday and I work during that time marking papers and reading. 15: The water taxi to Granville Island is just phenomenal, it is wonderful addition to the island. I just hope there are enough people to keep it going…they have already cut back there schedule quite bit, because they were finding that no enough people were taking the mid-day sailings…but I imagine they will have to up that in the summer because…They are doing a good job of marketing it…Come to Bowen…‘cause it is a good place to come. Yes, it is wonderful…they have a good system… the fact that you have to phone to make a reservation seemed like a bit of a pain at first, but, that‘s good, they need to know how many people they are going to get too. So, I think it is wonderful, but I don‘t know about the Coal Harbour one…my husband commutes in a big truck everyday so…neither one of us take it…but Granville Island it‘s good…my daughter comes over to visit she just lives over by City Hall so she just takes the water taxi to visit, yeh it is great. I usually go and pick her up while I have to get something at the store. 40: My roommate commuted for 27 years by car and in a van pool for a numbers years, but, he had a few accidents…because he drives like a maniac, so he decided he wouldn‘t drive anymore so he started taking the bus and he did that for about three week and he was doing fine…and then he thought he would try the water taxi and he loves it 128  in the winter he was driving his car down to the Cove and now he is riding his bike. From Granville Island he then bikes up to his work around Oak at 10th and after work the reverse. When I went to Hawaii in the winter my next-door neighbour drove me down to the water taxi and I gave her my rubber boots and put on my runners, got to Vancouver and took a cab to the airport. Coming back I did the same thing in reverse…and by the time I got out of the airport at 6 o‘clock in the morning…I was back on Bowen at 7, it would have taken me 3 hours otherwise. That is fantastic and it costs a lot, at a certain point though things are worth it…I haven‘t taken the Coal Harbour boat yet. What is really, really missing is a taxi service on the island. We had a wonderful taxi service, but it doesn‘t exist anymore…I don‘t have a car and if want to take the cat to the vet I‘ve got to find somebody who is going to be around and I have to ask them for a favour, and I would rather not do that. There are people on the island that have had to move because they are old and can‘t drive anymore, or their children don‘t want them to drive…and there is no one to take them places. We want to have a serviced that comes when you need it and not because your 90 years old or crippled. Seniors got a bus and you had to call up and make an appointment…but it just didn‘t work because you need the convenience of a taxi. Question 3.1.4 16: The Eagle Cliff Water District is metered we metered the houses about eight years ago and they go out to read the meters once-a-month from June to September, and we bill people for the basic costs and an escalating scale for those who use more than 150 gallons a day per house. And water use is less than half of what it used to be. The population hasn‘t changed very much on our system. The average consumptions has gone down quite rapidly… While we have never been short of it we don‘t want to be short of it. There is concern that they may run low near the golf course… and there are some old water systems on the island…and they use to much water, leaving their sprinklers on over the summer, it is basically the people who want to use 5000 gallons a day as opposed to 150. 102: We are at the head of a watershed and very aware of our water…. And our neighbours are huge gardeners and their garden is a beautiful orchard, and probably one third 129  of their property is the most remarkable orchard that I have seen, so their water comes from overland from my property, there is a very close connection that way, in ways that hearken back to the 20‘s and 30‘a you know that right of access to water …the way you connect with neighbours in those kind of very fundamental relationships is very present and… you certainly make pains to let the neighbours know if you are going to do anything that might effect the flow of water…. And certainly aware of what they do. There are impacts between two watersheds, at the head of a watershed and where it discharges at ground level.13) A water tasting test was done by the community and Eagle Cliff has best water. 50: I find that if there is a concern one of the things I don‘t like about the golf course is that they built too close to our drinking water and that is against the law and any time that you try to discuss with them about the riparian set backs that they are suppose to have … and the fisheries guy came and he said you know that you can‘t do this and he got sort of shouted down. Like it was either golf course or no golf course but, that is our drinking water and we can‘t drink it anymore…we are going to have to put in a full drinking system…And they cut down trees in that area and opened it up because it looks nice for the golf course, but, it‘s not very responsible because that‘s a problem and they didn‘t follow the law and they got away with it and they think that is pretty nice. They said they would do it all organic and I don‘t believe them…and they built their tool shed too close to our water too, and this is our drinking water and the person we bought our place from works at the golf course, so he knew and that was probably one of the reasons that he sold…well are fortunate that he did or we would not be able to have such a nice place, but at the same time; You think well you used to live here? So we will have to install a filtering system for our water. We bring water from the city back over there all the time. We do watch how much water we use, we are careful. 103: I think all the houses on this road have their own private wells, so we don‘t share that. 58: We have a creek on our property and we have a license for that. But upstream from us is a Church camp, so we have to treat our water…we share the water because there are other licenses on the creek, but we have our own year round water source. There is nothing to dissipate it is water 130  that has gone through a series of filters, and (we drink it directly out of our tap), it has gone through a cartridge filter and then a taste and odour filter and then it‘s gone through…its been zapped with ultraviolet light, so that kills everything and it is good eh. 49: We use the Municipal system from Grafton Lake. I have buckets and things to collect water, we are only short in late June & July, but it gets quite dry and I suppose I could use some underground irrigation. 15: We all have our own wells, which was part of the subdivision subjects that we all had to have our own well. We had a bit of a problem when the fellow up above us developed his property. He did a lot of blasting and levelled off a building site for himself…our water then looked a little murky…but we had it tested and then it cleared off a bit and so we are actually very lucky. 40: This used to be on the Snug Cove water system and come from the lake…but the sister (owner) for some reason bizarre reason (that is something I would have changed) she took it off the municipal water system when they started to meter the water (I think) then it got put it onto her sister‘s well. So now that it is fed by the well there are big shortages in the summer, you can‘t have company that stays more that two days. The water is limited, but it is good, it is spring water it seems to be excellent water, it is not cold in the summer though because it runs so close to the surface. Question 3.1.4a 13: Snow removal….do it yourself removal. 103: We share our road that with the rest of the people that live on the road, but really it is only half the people that contribute anything towards the maintenance of the road, the other half just kind of. … doesn‘t attend the meetings and does not pay for the maintenance, so we all make up the monies for that half whose decided that they don‘t care. It is kind of like, an informal strata, pretty much a small percentage of the people do most of the work. 40: We couldn‘t get out of the driveway for about three months because the owners didn‘t plough. Just couldn‘t 131  drive in or out…I got around walk…take the bus, my friend left his car at the bottom of the driveway. 15: We were quite lucky, neighbours stepped in, my husband has a snow blower of which he is quite proud, but it had lost a pin or something, and our neighbour just up behind us has a little back-ho and so he came down and cleared out our driveway for us, so we weren‘t stuck. 58: My back is still sore. We were inaccessible for a month and a half. So we were carrying things in and our neighbours were carrying things up and down the hill for longer than that, unusual. On a municipal wide level we took over the maintenance of our roads in 2005 and we now have three trucks with sanding and ploughing capability, so on a mileage basis, or equipment per unit per person, we have way, way better snow removal than most communities, but people still bitch an awful lot, you know. 49: Our road is considered tertiary, we were snowed in and we had to walk down to the Cove because we ran out of things, but it only took about a half an hour. Question 3.1.4b 73: We clean up the our Bay all nineteen people that use the docks here, we have a clean up weekend on the beach and we clean it up, we do our little bit, but that‘s not all of Hood Point. 13: Chamber of Commerce Citizen of the Year Awards, Youth awards etc.… there are many amazing people in charge of the Heritage Preservation Society and the Friends of the Library… Citizen of the Year has been going for about 30 years. The Bowen Island Community Foundation for Youth, and there will be the Nick Knack Nook, a thrift and recycling shop of used personal and household goods, but not building materials. 50: We think we should be more involved in the community (out for dinner or the plays), but we get there and we are just happy as clams (at the cottage) and don‘t leave. But, the guy who had the Miniature trains knew something about community. I would like to award it to him posthumously, because I thought it was a nice way to foster community spirit…he loved his little railway and that was a fun time. 132  Martin had a little miniature railway that you could ride on and all through around Fairview and the SBCA, would have a summer picnic and everybody would bring a few things, and he had a little garage to put it in, and everybody would ride on it. And it had tracks and the whole train is shorter than a counter with little cars and turrets and steam…it had a small track, half an acre or so and he would get his engineers cap and give everybody rides…little and big kids rode it, it was just a nice thing to do. 83: We would like to, we do support local initiatives for sustainability, such as the new second hand store that is being set up, and we would like to do more. 103: I am part of the Chamber of Commerce and I help out with that but, not too much…I‘m not in a group so much since I moved to Bowen, but, I have helped raise funds for other groups, which I am not necessarily involved in, for example the Bowen Island Foundation I helped organize a dinner and concert evening for that…my son is in the Montessori Pre-school so I volunteer a fair amount for that for fundraisers, and I help out at the Recycling Depot, and the Gardening Club I help out with that…helped out with PAWS, so I‘m not specifically attached to an organization but I help out. I guess depending on what the pledge was for…ya, probably I know that last year they were trying to get …BC hydro was giving a prize for the community that could reduce it‘s hydro by a certain amount and I know that Bowen was trying really hard for it but, I don‘t think we got it… that sort of thing 16: The Municipality awards Stewardship they have a range of criteria whereby you can, through the Provincial Government, where you can deed over your property and put covenants on it so you won‘ be taxed on it and it will become part of the Municipal Park System, a couple of people have done that. And the Municipal Council has a bylaw so that when you subdivide more than three or four properties we ask for a percentage of their land for amenities and we have a system, where the Municipality have said that any development must include 15% of the land set aside for low-cost housing. And of course we have all the Provincial guidelines for riparian setbacks, and our own guidelines, you can‘t build close to creeks and all that sort of thing.  133  58: I was on the Island Trust board for three years, and every year we have the Island Trust stewardship awards, Bowen have won those in the past, and I just wrote to somebody to say get your nominations in for this year. I think it is a great way to recognize people for the work they do. 15: On earth day with the light out, I thought we did well on that…at Gibson‘s I saw all the light go out that was really neat. I know the island participated quite heavily in the hydro contest that they had to reduce for hydro hour…which community could reduce our ecological area within BC we were second or something…Bob Turner the Mayor was really Gung Ho. We had to sign up online and it went well. Question 4.1 51: The biggest problems on the Island at present are: 1. The ferry and ferry marshalling. 2. The failure to deal in a timely manner with the Cape Roger Curtis development. More than two years ago, Wolfgang Duntz proposed a form of development that gave something to all the stakeholders, but, the plan was thwarted by council, who seem to think that a $16 million dollar investment can simply be left to rot. The present owners started out being cooperative but are now losing their patients as well as significant amount of money, and may simply go for the worst solution, which would be (the allowed) division into ten acre lots – a disaster for the future of the island, and certainly not in tune with the ‗Preserve and Protect‘ mandate of our ‗within the Islands Trust‖ municipality. By wanting too much the council and those who are pushing are likely to get too little. 3. The failure to deal in an economical and timely manner with planning for Snug Cove (the ‗village in a park‘). This has also hung fire for many years. The council seems unwilling to use local knowledge and expertise, and consistently spends money unnecessarily on study after study, the studies then being referred to an overworked council staff and ultimately ignored (as is the local expertise, given for free). 4. The inability of the council to trust its citizen volunteers. 5. The failure to support Abbeyfield appropriately; Abbeyfield paid significant cash for the land for senior housing. Most such projects are awarded land grants. 134  6. The failure to arrange servicing and rezoning of the ‗surplus lands‘ resulting in unnecessary expenditures on interest to cover the (relatively low at ~ $ 2 million) cost of purchase. 13: Lack of leadership of our Municipality…. the lack of decision process has stopped so much: they have had a wonderful Snug Cove plan for a year and a half that they have not moved on. They have had a guarantee by BC Ferries that if they did something for double lane loading and unloading we could get a new ferry, they would not move on that, they‘ve had Cape Roger Curtis, and they told the Developer that they did not want 58 ten acre lots they wanted something for the community, the Developer came up with a plan the Municipality and the Cape Roger Curtis Society (a very vocal society) said that it wasn‘t enough water frontage…they wanted all the waterfront property of the 650 acres… They wanted over 50 percent of the property to go back to the community as trails and everything else. The Developers did a neighbourhood plan based on their wants and needs and saying to the Municipality…that they could not give all of that without something in return to make a return on their investment, as they are very generous, but not benevolent they are Developers. So the Municipality said yes that is fine, then turned around and have stalled it and not done anything… Finally they did have a meeting and the Developer said you have until May 1, 2009 and then we will withdraw the Neighbourhood application and go back to the original plan of ten-acre lots…and so now it will have a barbed wire fence with a sign saying ‗Keep Out‘, and so we will loose the whole thing. We really haven‘t moved on anything at all, we made an election of people and elected people who have never had to make decisions on others behalf, and that means acting on nothing. We will get what we deserve. With 3200 people on Bowen Island…enabled all the development for example the Powell River Credit Union Community Partnership Branch Plan, 800 members creating a self-sustaining branch office. There is no economic plan: two years ago there was a purchase of property with no plan … the promise was to sell the land off at a profit for the community… and now we are paying interest on the loan to buy it… We have a division of people on this island who some need development and things happening…. Some people don‘t want any change…both are right in their own minds … I don‘t care 135  what we do so long as we just do something instead of nothing. People who are on one side or the other of development have told me that they have lost friends over the issues…You just get accosted, he was sworn at and yelled at! Nothing is right, because you are not going to please all the people all the time, but you‘ve got to do something, you know, nothing gets done unless there is a decision made and as long as you are right 51 percent of the time you are a winner, you know…just do it! 50: I think the fact that I did costumes and helped them put on a play when I first came. I see that here are people who can‘t afford to live on Bowen anymore, and these people are the backbone of the community. I‘m not a backbone of the community I just really enjoy going there. One of the people in our strata is going to retire there and he will be a wonderful backbone for the community, I just can‘t see my husband and I being that it would be nice, but, we live in Vancouver and it is a little bit hard as we are far from everything, and we aren‘t there enough. My concerns are for the community itself and the type of houses that are being built that are not good for the community…nobody seems to notice that the same fears for Cape Roger Curtis is happening at the Golf Course with the big houses, and developments and all the big trucks and SUV‘s and bad behaviour like driving their SUV to the village for a latte. 102: I‘d have to say that the biggest issue on Bowen is that the ‗growth management‘ as a topic and then I will try to explain what my concern is that the sense that I get when talking about land use decisions on Bowen, and I am fairly involved with it I have been on stewardship committees since I arrived, mapped the island, contributed to OCP planning and sat on sustainability committees and taught and talked with neighbours and community members at length about what it means to live there, but, mostly how it is changing. Peoples‘ perception is somehow locked into whenever they moved there; their sense of the place of the landscape and community is really calibrated by that time. Yet things change; people come, people go, even the landscape changes. But, for whatever reason, I can‘t quite put my finger on it perhaps you will discover it in your study, there is a difficulty understanding our community in the context of change; that it is actually a changing community, the landscape is changing and the character 136  and fabric of the community is actually changing, and yet our community planning and our land use planning don‘t totally acknowledged that. So that has been an issue that I see playing out in a range of topical issues for example; Cape Roger Curtis, I sat in on those meetings and I have to say that I am disappointed by the outcome, I am little bit disappointed in the way the decision was made. It is a planning process that has been ongoing now for many years and many different visions of what could happen has been put on the table. Probably the most constructive dialogue we had in the community happened about a month ago when the neighbourhood concept plan was put out on the table. There was a extremely large turnout on a beautiful spring day and we spoke for about seven hours with respect and with a fair bit of passion, as Bowen Islanders tend to from a time knowledge base and very articulate. The group expressed their opinions about that place and what they felt should or aught to happen there. I found it fascinating from a planning perspective, land use planning perspective…beyond the political aspects of it and if we just kind of limit the conversation to a sense of place and how that translates into landscape and land use planning. There was a group of people that have the sense that the community is changing and they have watched it change over the years and they understand that it is going to change in the future. So those are people that I would say are a group that have the capacity for forward thinking and forward looking and imagining how things might change and realize that things are going to change and so that camp of people were probably more supportive in looking for solutions that would accommodate growth that were more consistent with the planning principals of the community. There was a remarkably large proportion of the community whose reaction was negative simply because they didn‘t want anything to change. As far as I could tell this was the reason, which I respect but it is the issue, an unwillingness to think about the island, the landscape and community in the context of change. People forget that in Snug Cove we went through a whole planning process for the community and did a whole visioning thing, full on community engagement process, and what astounded me was peoples‘ sense of the community was very narrow in terms of the temporal sense of the community. People were identifying areas that needed to be protected at all costs, but, if you look at those same areas in a historical perspective you realize that the areas had already been cleared and people came in the summers 1500 people came and lived in little 137  vacation cottages in the alder forest, that for them is their sanctuary, their wild woodland forest that they walk through to get to the ferry everyday, it is their solace their sense of Bowen, and yet… You know for people in the 1930‘s and 1940‘s, that was their vacation home, there were neighbourhoods, there were little stores and it was a thriving community…So I think that‘s the issue…a sense of history…a sense of how the landscape has changed and the lack of understand, how it will change in the future. The thing that I keep coming back to is that we have the OCP. I became very aware after sitting on these committees and stewardship groups; that the principals are sound, but I realized our community doesn‘t actually understand the implications of our OCP. For example, if you actually took our Official Community Plan took all of the set-backs, constraints and principals of what the community said how it wanted to grow and you took all the density rules and you took all those things into account and you imagined what the community would look like in 15 to 20 years, and built it out and you allowed them to develop to the density that‘s in the OCP and you physically located a structure taking into account all the setbacks and everything, if you did all that according to the principals of the community, and you showed the community the result, which I have done …. Their reaction is shock because what they see is a sprawling community that in fact, isn‘t protecting the things that they care about. In fact it is compromising the water shed. In fact it is taking them in a direction that they hadn‘t really anticipated and for some reason they don‘t quite get…We can‘t raise the consciousness in our planning, so the planning is typically very narrowly focused for the foreseeable future. It is not a proactive bit of planning at all, and I don‘t get it…I really don‘t understand. We actually got involved in a number of projects; I do land use modeling and landscape projects. Before we became a Municipality we approached the community and said hey, you know we were looking for a good case study and this seems like a good spot, we have all this information and knowledge from our OCP, and our various stewardship groups, and we had the recently compiled Geolibrary information. So we had quite a lot of information and knowledge about the community…and we had just been introduced to land use and landscape modeling and I thought that it would be a great thing to do and so we took it on as a project to work on, so we did that. 138  You know you may actually tease that out in your study…when we helped facilitate a number of planning sessions on Bowen where we had people show up at the gym, and hundreds of people showed up to tell us what they cared about, we heard all those stories. And the interesting thing is that we do sit, largely facing an urban center, and people get that this large urban center is going to double in size. We had another project where we brought in John Robinsons‘ Georgia Basin Futures Project; where Bowen Island was one of the case studies. So, we set up a relationship where they came with their sustainability models for the community and we went through a session. We had people that now sit on Council in the room thinking about Bowen in 2040, what would it look like, you know…we did all that stuff and a lot of very good things came out of that, but, I am absolutely fascinated that we look at an urban center, while our back is to the Islands Trust. We back into the rural hinterland and people have moved to Bowen for a lot of reasons but largely there is this sense that we are on that fringe, and there is a need to preserve and protect and people get that, whatever their experiences bring or that they get reinforced everyday that they come into work in Vancouver and they go home to preserve and protect, they are preserving and protecting largely what they came there for when the first arrived. You know for people that have been there 40 years they are the most fierce, they have the most passionate view of trying to keep things from changing because when they moved there, there was only a 1000 people, and they have fought those changes for the last 30 or 40 years and longer. But, people that have just moved to the Island, even some of those oppose change. 73: I would say that I have concerns about the synthetic field they are putting in, not really in favour of it; mind you I didn‘t do anything about it. I would also say that the thing that will have the most far-reaching effect is what happens to the OCP over at Cape Roger Curtis. If they go ahead with the big development, that will impact the rest of us as far as the ferries and the community services. I think it will probably effect negatively unless they do a lot of planning in advance…because they are not going to increase the ferry size…then if you put another 1000 people on the island…even now you wait for a ferry more than you did ten years ago. So, the increase in population has made some 139  difference. If I travel at prime times I might miss a ferry but if I get there three quarters of an hour before they go I will get on. The OCP, mainly for the Snug Cover area, which has the density levels, is being reviewed this year, and that will probably have a big impact on where we go. 83: Concerns, not really concerns, but I have been thinking at little more recently of the people who choose to live on Bowen and why and what is it about this place and something that comes to mind is that a lot of us come here, not intentionally, but it is almost as if we are running away, a little bit… If I think about what happens in cities in terms of poverty and the needs of other people, we tend to hide away from that a little bit here…sure the are certainly folks that are in need of financial assistance and all sorts of mental health, and AIDs and things like that…but in a way we don‘t have that same concern and we tend to forget about the urban problems and tend to not respond… There is a concern that financially, if we continue to struggle as a Province what will that look like on Bowen and how will we respond to each other, because we are not used to it really. It‘s not that we are not used to giving with each other, but there is something different about it, you can hide quite easily from issues and you can live in your little house and not be effected by your neighbours and whatnot, so that is a concern that I do have. And the other is also it is a really WASPY area, we don‘t have a wide range of cultures that do come to Bowen, and I think that effects the way we act as a group, we are very insular, sort of a similar problem…And there are a lot of children and how is that going to play out for them when most of their friends are white middle-class. I suppose it is the same in lots of different neighbourhoods, but it would be nice to have a bit little more consciousness of cultures. Compared to Vancouver it is not multi-cultural. The other concern that we have as a family is how sustainable is it really living on Bowen? The fact that we rely on this large vehicle that burns a lot of fossil fuel to get us here and the fact that our garbage has to leave the island, as there is no way that it can stay, as it is not built into our infrastructure. Even though it is great that we have some land to grow some food on, when we really think about life and what is should be like for us in the future; it‘s like, we 140  don‘t want to but, maybe we need to live in the city. Maybe we would be living in a high-rise with gardens at the top…that kind of thinking…so I don‘t know…it is something that we think about every few months. 103: In the last two years, I am worried about Bowen businesses that the people on the island aren‘t supporting the businesses, as they should. I suppose that that is one of the drawbacks to getting back and forth to Vancouver easier, is that people aren‘t using the hairdresser here, people aren‘t buying their gas here, people aren‘t buying their groceries here. So, I have seen a fair amount of turnover in the businesses here. Because I am here almost all of the time I don‘t like the idea of the bedroom community where people just come here to sleep and go and do their thing in Vancouver and come back… so that kind of disturbs me. I find people on the island, on the one hand really like it here, and it is almost an attitude that ‗I‘ve moved here so no one else can come‘ and they don‘t want anyone else to come to the island, and even I am kind of like that some ways. Say, I like my view you can‘t see any other houses but, on the other hand I recognize that we need the population base in order to keep the businesses growing, so I am always sort of torn between that… I don‘t have a good answer on how to help that. But, somehow I think that our Municipal Council needs to be a little bit more aware that businesses are part of the community too. It is just not the houses that make the community and I feel that sometimes the town Council doesn‘t seem to recognize that in some of the decisions that they make. The costs are higher here, we have the building center here and it is reasonably okay compared to Vancouver and the hairdresser is about the same and that sort of thing… But it is a vicious cycle; the less people shop here the more people put their prices up because in order to make the same amount on ‗one apple‘ you know what I mean, they start putting the prices up so that they can make their lease payments and their mortgage and everything right? So I think it just makes it worse when people go off island to do their shopping and I do buy a lot of things off island too. Bulk things I tend to buy off island, because there isn‘t a really great bulk here, but I do make a conscious decision to take my son to the local hairdresser, that sort of thing. I have tried to stay out of the discussion on Cape Roger Curtis because people have really strong opinions, either way and I am fairly new to the Island and haven‘t grasped it 141  all and I don‘t want to be arguing with people all the time…so I am not really aware of what is a stake. …I know there was a meeting but I didn‘t follow up…well, I know it has been a lot of years and a lot of money…I find that really selfish it is like the people on the road, who won‘t pay for the road and won‘t help with the road…are of the stereotypical hippie-dippy attitude; we are all about nature, and we love everyone, but, I don‘t want anyone else coming on the island. I will give you an example: I phoned to introduce myself and said ―Hi my name is such and such, I‘m new to the road…blah, blah, blah…‖, the answer I got back was ―Yes, I know who you are I don‘t need to talk to you‖ and I don‘t know what that was about. But, I find that there is a bit of an attitude like that on the island. It is the new people verses the old people and they see the new people as ‗a different mindset‘ and I guess we are of a different mindset. But, I don‘t like that drawbridge mentality it bugs me. In Vancouver if you have been there for five years, you are an established member in that community. 16: The last three years have been a big hassle about the developing of the Cape Roger Curtis lands in the SW corner, but that has been partly resolved as of the meeting Monday night, (April 27th, 2009). We had a Developer who wanted a very large development there and Council decided in it‘s wisdom, decided they wouldn‘t allow the development to the extent that he wanted it. They have a thirty-five year plan which was going to build a neighbourhood on the south west corner of the Island and a awful lot of people objected because they thought all these people were going to be here immediately not quite realizing that this is a thirty-five year plan …and you know people will come in at the same rate as they are coming, so that has been turned down. As to the outcome of Cape Roger Curtis will it then revert to the fifty lots or so? No, basically some people would like it to do that, but I think it is more likely that it will go down to the OCP density of say 224 lots. The amenities the Council had asked for will be reduced. They offered us 52% of the land and 82% of the waterfront and a lot of other concessions, but at the cost of at least 390 building sites, and our OCP says it is good for 224, so we have turned down their bid. Council will want to talk again, but they‘ve got to stick to 224 and it may have to cut down on some of the amenities, so I think that that is where it may end up, we will know in another couple of weeks. I guess my other 142  real concern is the size of our ferry which is reaching it‘s capacity and overloaded two or three time a day, and we have been told by BC ferries that we can get a new ferry if we provide two car unloading lanes, on and off the ferry…it is just a matter of widening the street and handling the traffic. Council in its infinite wisdom has procrastinated on this for the last six, or seven years so nothing is happening there. I personally think it should but that‘s me. 58: Well, community integrity is absolutely the biggest issue. I don‘t mean this in that it should be a homogeneous group of people, what I mean is cohesion, in that we stick together. That there is a sense of identity in the community and that there is a shared notion of where we are headed. Community plan reviews, which are supposed to happen every five years, but typically happen every fifteen years, is just beginning now we‘re going to be just starting a review. It absolutely is the core document which will document where we are headed, my guess is, because these things are full of platitudes and nice talk…that there won‘t be an awful lot of change, in fact I am sort of a bit nervous that people won‘t want to tinker with things… a really good example for these sort of things is densities, or density designations for rural lands which have been set in stone, the way we measure density is essentially is just a unit or a dwelling, it says nothing about the footprint- or the size or the number of parcels or other measures? I think we should have a better way of doing that, because we are really still in a phase of rural sprawl and I am a prime example, but, I would say we were subdivided a hundred years ago and the land has been in stable use and it has only had a single family dwelling all that time, and the land is used. So I sort of set myself apart from the people who bought land and estate size two and a half acre lots and then they put up a secondary dwelling and then they put in a suite and then they apply for a subdivision, you know. You have this essentially ad hoc, densification, so the community plan is certainly the biggest thing yet it could end up meaning very little, unless the people are brave enough to embrace some new ideas. The other thing about it is of course that we have one node for development down (in the Cove) here and it has been suggested that we should be more decentralized. Containment boundaries…I mean you can see that Bowen is quite green in terms of Crown Land and in the reserve, but, there is where people live, in this area they are living in the 143  watershed and we are getting degradation. The biggest issue obviously, is continued pressure… So you have an influx of people and that has been both beneficial and detrimental. Cape Roger Curtis is only a big issue in my mind because it is a big chunk of land; in point of fact the neighbourhood plan that is being put forward calls for over 50 percent to be protected, 80% of the foreshore to be protected, and community amenities for mixed use. It meets the OCP in a huge number of ways, it is very innovative, but the density is higher than what the OCP currently allows. The curious thing is that a couple of years ago we legalized secondary suites, so essentially everything there is about the Island you can do times two, on paper. In reality it was only about 20 to 25% of people that people build (secondary suites) it. But, in the new areas like on Cates Hill, it is 40% of people who build there, are building secondary suites. So this would allow the density of 224 units, so if you take 224 times two, you know we are potentially 448 units. So they have said that they will build 390 and will build a fixed number of affordable housing units and build no suites. But people don‘t understand that aspect of it they only understand that it is higher than the OCP. The little development which is adjacent to us is one ten acre junk, which is allowed one house and so that is 35 times the OCP density and people are essentially quite open to that because it‘s co-housing a form of housing they can relate to, even though they don‘t want to live that way, but the way most people live, which is in single family houses, they don‘t want to see that happen out there. I would say that it is fairly disingenuous, and I am revealing my political frustrations on this. I am trying and Council is trying very, very hard to come up with alternatives to the proposed neighbourhood plan and one that does allow for comprehensive development. In reality what is being proposed, the type of development that is being considered for development… I think should be considered model development and viewed as very frightening and overwhelming. And curiously this whole area here (indicating on the map) was subdivided and people aren‘t even aware of it or thinking about. There are 175 new homes going in and it is all serviced and ready to go…so the impacts from that one area are just slowly being felt…this 144  would be much the same thing here (CRC) as it would be developed over thirty-five years, only in a much more of a defined way. When I was talking about social cohesion, what I mean is getting along in a small community. For example Galiano (the long skinny) Island is an old forestry Island that McMillan Bloedel subdivided many, many, many years ago, but sold in the early 1990‘s. Individuals bought the 6,000 acres and there are approximately 92 lots; average around 60 acres, some are as little as 20 acres and other as big as 160 acres. The people buying them had mixed motives but the one thing that has been consistent is that they have wanted to build a house, and they have been denied that as the BC Supreme Court Ruled that their lands were to be used for Forestry not residential. The Island is fractured almost 50/50 and their fighting over 90 houses, that you would never see…but it is an absolute disaster that it ever happened ‗the thin edge of the wedge‘ or whatever and the community is so badly fractured that they can‘t have Civil meetings; if you are on one side you have your friends and if on they other side, they have their friends. If you are very much involved you don‘t walk into the Post office at the same time that the other one is there. It is basically like the ‗Hatfield‘s and McCoy‘s‘ and has been going on for about 15 years. It hasn‘t repaired, in fact it has gotten worse. Denman Island is another example, not as bad, but again around land use; a twenty-two hundred acre junk of land, developers offered 50% of it including a lake to the community in exchange for up-zoning to 220 lots from 90 an additional 70 lots. It was denied; the trustees just rejected it out of hand, because of the density. Again, on Bowen we have managed to maintain or improve civility around those kinds of things. By Incorporating there is much more visibility and transparency than there was when their were infrequent meetings of two trustees, plus a chair that is parachuted in. Also the division of responsibilities so now Highways looks after your roads and the Regional District looks after your parks and services, so we are all at home. People love to complain about their government and rightly so. If I were going to give us a mark I would say between a C+ and a C-, you know you might get a B+ is some of these areas, certainly our Greenways Policy and some of that stuff is ground breaking and very good. But in terms of day-to145  day services that people want and need, pretty mediocre and so people have good reason to complain. Inaction is correct…it is largely a reflection of a) caution and b) consensus building. So, rather than doing something that is going to piss a bunch of people off, we just won‘t do it. The other thing is ‗eyes bigger than stomachs‘, everybody wants everything and again with this demographic shift, more urbanized people and they just expect the snow to be gone and they expect the power to stay on or they expect to have one hundred programs available for their pre-school kid, and we can‘t afford to deliver those programmes. To the first part about people feeling uncomfortable being on Council I have gotten used to it, that I get assailed in public it is very uncomfortable… Especially for my partner because we go for a walk and we get accosted by somebody ‗What are you going to do about X?‖ and certainly some people were passionate about Cape Roger Curtis and some people who were friends have different views so they feel constrained, they don‘t want to say things publicly because it goes against the grain. I just think that, that is the cost of democracy. The thing to do is to manage that and maintain civility, and on that measure we are pretty good, we are pretty good, I know that is so. It is a remarkable little community; it‘s such an appealing place to live because of it‘s natural environment, it is safe for children, safe for families…there are huge educational choices for children on the island (you may be aware of that). Home schools, or Montessori schools, there is a Private Middle School, all this for a very small island…a lot of people park families here and then go off for work. So many of the various Island schools are closing because of the lower population, but ours are different we are family oriented here, but not for teenagers, they hate it and it has very limited opportunities for people in their twenty‘s. Interesting…people go away…they come back to raise families and I have seen quite a few people who have spouses that commute…so we have this huge umbilicus that runs out. But, it is a good community in that sense. Final anecdote: I was at a board meeting over in Vancouver and Michael Ignatieff came and gave a very short speech…and there were about 25 people around the room all wanting to ask about infrastructure grants and some various goodies and you know, the role of Municipalities and the Orders of Government and all that kind of thing…And the media was there and people wanted to grand stand a bit, and he gave his speech and then everybody pushed their buttons to get 146  on the speakers list. The Chair introduced everybody and Major So and So, and someone from Port Moody asked a question. Then I was introduced as being from Bowen Island and before I said anything his demeanour changed and he just (he had been leaning forward, hard nuts and bolts stuff) and he went like this and he leaned back and said ‗You know people who live on the West coast are very fortunate, because it is a great place to live, people who live on Bowen Island are very fortunate, I hope you aren‘t asking me for money?‘ And the whole place erupted in laughter. And it is very true, this is a place of privilege we live in, it is recognized as that…you know I feel unbelievably fortunate to live here and that is why I am in community service. I serendipitously chose to live here and I chose to commit here and I have done that and I want to honour the land and to be a steward of the land and the community…so there you go. 49: It is pros and cons: they want to develop with more sustainability in the sense of having local businesses so that people can actually live and work on Bowen, which of course means more development, so there is a struggle between the two and so if you want an extreme bedroom community, where everyone has to commute…then it is lovely because it is just for completely living and you don‘t have the shops and what not, so I think we can‘t help have more growth but hopefully it‘s all done and planned well. For years since I moved to Bowen there have been different plans for the Cove and none of them have really come to fruition yet. What I have seen done I think has been done sensibly, so because there are more eyes on things about what is happening then I think that they are under better control than in the past. But, the growth is going to come. I sure hope that Cape Roger Curtis doesn‘t get developed to the extent that they are wanting, that would be a shame. So I think that there is a struggle against development, trying to make it sustainable development, which is everybody‘s dream, but show me where that is happening. On the passions that rise over issues… It ‗s a very interesting place that way because you have everyone for the most part, that is very involved in Bowen and there are very many different opinions…very many different opinionated people. One of the Councillors, she is no longer on Council, but she was actually a personal Consultant or Psychologist (whatever). She felt that her role on the Council was to try and get people together, so that they 147  could actually discuss things without them being angry at each other, it was difficult. But, the real difficulty is not being able to come to decisions…and it has always been that way…I think as long as I can remember. What tended to happen, it is less so now but, no decisions were officially made, but the old crowd on Bowen, if you will the old families, just felt like if they wanted to do something it happened in the middle of the night and others asked questions later on. So it would be nice to see that there was a little bit more control over that but, basically it was still pretty back woods that way…Trees got cut down in the middle of the night, and what are you going to do about it? So that sounds cynical, but there is less of that because more eyes are watching. 15: Well the subdivisions I guess, there is a large one put in down at Blue Water; King Edward Bay and that will bring a lot more people if the economy turns around and if they build all the houses, they said they are going to. And the Cape Roger Curtis, we will have to see what happens there…that still seems to be up in the air. I am worried, they say the total number of people that the island can support is, say seven thousand and that to me seems huge, when we first moved here we were 250 people and I have seen it grow to now 4,000 and I‘m going… Ah, we are getting a little tight here…both of the water and septic capabilities. That is a concern; that these new subdivisions are doing everything properly and that we are going to be able to provide the necessities of life, and that means water and sewage removal. 40: I have a concern that nobody is looking far enough ahead everyone is worried about CRC. Well it started just the other night I was listening to CBC and Rick Maginis Ray was talking about Peak oil this American Scientist who is saying that within 2 to 5 years oil supplies are really going to be headed downward, and he said it is going to take 10 or 20 years before we can begin solving the problem and nobody has started to think about it yet, nobody is working on it now and it will be 30 years before we are smoothly working on any system that you have set up by 2050. Okay, so here Bowen Island is about to embark on the review of the community plan… the OCP and how many meetings has there been about Cape Roger Curtis and all these mega-homes, you know which way the ferry traffic is going to come-up and blah blah blah. To me it is like if we are talking here…and they went to visit one of the thousand 148  ‗Transition Towns‘ that are transforming from being an ordinary community to a transitional community. There was this one in England and they had their own currency…and they have only so many homes and families that are participating. And I think they are growing…Peterborough Ontario has just become the 1000th City, to join up in this Transitional thing… and I think who knew? And here is Bowen talking about all this stuff, and this is where we should be. We are an island with a bunch of really creative people here and we are wasting time talking about which lane the ferry is going to come up…we should be talking about the fact that we aren‘t going to have any cars here in ten or twenty years, if this is true then lets get real here… My newfound concern here is that we are not addressing things that are really important and we are not looking ahead. To me you live on an island and you have a chance to make a utopia, you have a chance to make it the greenest, the most sustainable community anywhere, and I don‘t see that being done. The sad thing is that more people want to move here and all they want to do is live in their mega-houses and they care nothing about the earth and they care nothing about the animals. Its‘ pathetic, so I am concerned about a lot of people that move here, that they don‘t care where they live. It is elitist now to live here. …And I don‘t care for they way they think their dogs are so precious. You know…I have watched dogs kill animals and it is horrible…and people say ‗my animal wouldn‘t do that…my dog wouldn‘t do that‘…dog owners are the worst…I have owned dogs too. I have also had two cats that were killed by dogs and people the dog owners seem to think that they are immune…and their dogs are better than the deer and their dogs should be allowed to go out there and kill those deer if they wanted…and besides their dog wouldn‘t do that anyway…no matter that he is sitting there with blood dripping down his face. Anyway that‘s a concern…and the people with attitudes and who don‘t care enough about the environment that they live in. That is heart breaking…that they don‘t care.  149  APPENDIX D: CONSENT FORM  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Institute for Resources, Environment and Sustainability Resource Management and Environmental Studies Aquatic Ecosystem Research Laboratory 4th Floor – 2202 Main Mall Vancouver, BC Canada V6T 1Z4 www.ires.ubc.ca Graduate Research Project: Interview Consent Form Project Title: Dwelling and Tourism on the Urban-Wildland Interface Bowen Island Case Study Project Investigators: Ms. D.N. Pettipas (604-XXX-XXXX) Dr. Les Lavkulich (office: 604 8223477) Consent: I agree to participate in a research project by being interviewed regarding my perceptions of home and community on Bowen Island. The interview will be audio taped by the Interviewing Graduate Student and will require a commitment of up to 60 minutes of time. Interviews will be scheduled for the month of September of ‘07 and take place at each interview subject‘s Bowen Island residence or at a mutually agreeable locale for the convenience of the interviewee. I will participate in the research project subject to the following conditions: • I will allow my interview to be audio taped and stored in a secure database. • I understand that all information associated with this study will be held in confidence and only the experimenter will have access to the information. Each subject will be assigned a number, and that number will be on all documents rather than his/her name. I have been assured that any data resulting from this experiment will be stored in a password protected database and that only a sequentially generated ID number will be used to identify my interview responses. • I understand that I may refuse to participate and withdraw at any time and this will in no way affect me. • I can request a copy of this consent form for my records. • If I have any questions or concerns about the procedures used in this research, Ms. Pettipas has agreed to answer any questions and inquiries I may have. • I received payment for my participation in this research project in the form of a gift item with the UBC logo (pen or cup of approx. $20.00 value). • If you have any questions or concerns about this research project, you may contact Dr. Les Lavkulich (604-8223477) at the Institute for Resources, Environment and Sustainability, University of British Columbia. If you have any questions or concerns about your rights or treatment as a research subject, you may contact Dean Kuusela, Director pro tem Office of Research Services, UBC (604-822-8582). Name (Print): Phone: Date: Signature: E-mail:  150  APPENDIX E: BOWEN ISLAND COMMUNITY PROFILE, 2006 CENSUS  151  152  153  154  155  156  APPENDIX F: THE EBERLE REPORT  157  APPENDIX G: CAT AND DEER PHOTOGRAPH  158  APPENDIX H: UBC RESEARCH ETHICS BOARD CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL  159  

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