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The development of Shikoku Henro : the formation and dissemination of a pilgrimage in pre-modern Japan… Okawa, Eiji 2009

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THE DEVELOPMENT OF SHIKOKU HENRO The Formation and Dissemination of a Pilgrimage in Pre- Modern Japan: A Case Study of Shikoku by EDI OKAWA B.A., University of British Columbia, 2003 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER IN ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Asian Studies) THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver) May 2009 ©Eiji Okawa 2009 Abstract This study will examine the development of a pilgrimage in Shikoku, Japan, commonly known as Shikoku henro. Anyone familiar with this pilgrimage would know that this is a topic that has drawn much academic and non-academic attention in the recent years. We have come to know more about this pilgrimage than ever before, thanks to the meticulous studies that have been conducted by scholars in and out of Japan. If there is a general trend in the recent studies, it is toward the anthropological/sociological interpretation of the pilgrimage, and the interactions of the pilgrimage with the society in which it exists. These studies also tend to focus on the modern era. Doubtless, such focuses are immensely valuable when seeking to shed light to this complex phenomenon. However, it may be time that we can reconsider the historical processes around this pilgrimage, by incorporating the recent findings of this and other pilgrimages, and by re-examining the historical materials pertaining to the subject. Thus, I will focus on the pre-modern developments in the pilgrimage of Shikoku. Specifically, the religious themes and the activities of the religious specialists in relation to the pilgrimage will be thoroughly analyzed in the context of pre-modern Japan (before 1868). In doing so, I will deal with issues that have yet to be addressed, such as the relationship between the pilgrimage and the pilgrimage temples. One might be inclined to assume that the two came hand in hand from the start—that the temples and their affiliates, as the prime beneficiaries of the pilgrimage, must have taken various measures to lure the pilgrims. Such an assumption, however, would drape the dynamics behind the formation of this pilgrimage, as will be demonstrated in this thesis. ii Table of Contents Abstract ii Table of Contents iii List of Figures vi Acknowledgements vii Introduction 1 Definitions 2 Thesis Outline 4 Chapter 1: The "Roots" of Shikoku tfenro 10 1.1. Ascetics (shugenja WW^ Igyoja t f # ) 10 1.1.1. Heji Shugyo (Hl&iWtt) 11 1.1.2. Other Ascetics 15 1.2. Followers of Kobo Daishi 15 1.3. Pure Land Believers 16 1.4. The Influence of the "Roots" 17 1.5. Emerging Multi-site Pilgrimage in the Medieval Period 22 Chapter 2: Formulation of the Eighty-Eight-Site Pilgrimage 26 2.1. The Influence from Kumano and the Legend of Emon Saburo 26 2.1.1. Kumano Through Ishiteji 27 2.1.2. Emon Saburo Legend 29 2.1.3. Ishiteji Historicized 30 2.1.4. Evolving Legend 35 2.1.5. Reconsidering Kumano's Role in Henro 38 2.2. Organizing the Eighty-Eight 40 iii 2.2.1. Texts, Numbering System, and Arguments 43 2.2.2. Koyasan Affiliates 48 2.2.3. Sea Route, Location, and Numbers .51 2.3. Theorizing the Sacred Space 56 Chapter 3: Becoming a Popular Pilgrimage 60 3.1. Framework of Popular Henro 61 3.2. The Development in Travel Infrastructure 62 3.2. The Sacred Appeal of Shikoku 65 3.2.1. Sacralizing a Pilgrimage Space in Early Modern Japan 66 3.2.2. Shikoku as Abode of Kobo Daishi 68 3.2.3. Dispersed Sanctity 70 3.2.4. The Pilgrimage as Meritorious 77 3.3. The Sacralizing of the Pilgrims and the Practice of Alms-Giving 82 Chapter 4: The Actors in the Popularization Process 89 4.1. The Making of Shikoku Reijoki 90 4.2. Selling Pilgrimage Books 91 4.3. Fudasho and the Pilgrimage 92 4.4. Networking for Sponsors 98 4.4.1. Merchants and Seafarers 100 4.4.2. In Commemoration of the Deceased 102 4.4.3. Other Sponsors 104 4.5. Un-Systematized Pilgrimage 105 4.6. Information 107 Concluding Remarks 110 Prospects for Future Studies 113 iv Reference List 115 Appendices 124 v List of Figures Figure 1 Kobo Daishi from Shikoku Henro Michishirube 124 Figure 2. Seventeenth Century Henro 125 Figure 3. The Map of Shikoku Henro 126 Figure 4. The Current Names of the FudashoFrom Muro and Moreton (2008) 127 Figure 5. Illustration of the Ishiteji Precinct from the Shikoku Henro Reijoki 128 Figure 6. Kobo Daishi at River Sakase 129 Figure 7. A Girl with a Wart on Her Neck 130 VI Acknowledgements Having grown up on the island of Shodoshima, just off Shikoku and the site of a replicated henro pilgrimage, the white-clad pilgrims have been a familiar sight since my youth.1 Due to the distinct practice of the pilgrims offering "alms" to the local residents in Shodoshima (i.e., reverse settai), I had come to associate the pilgrims with the candies and crackers that they often gave to the local children. But somewhere in my mind, I always knew that there was something more to henro than candies and crackers. Fast forward about a decade and a half, 1 was so fortunate as to have the opportunity to conduct a study of Shikoku henro at the University of British Columbia. Here, I wish to thank my research supervisor Professor Nam-lin Hur for his help and guidance in the last two years. 1 thank also the Faculty of Graduate Studies and the Department of Asian Studies at UBC for accommodating my research. I would also like to extend my gratitude to Gideon Fujiwara and Maria Petrucci, my colleagues at UBC, who have given me much needed encouragement and feedback to complete this project. This thesis would not have been possible without them. But of course, all errors are mine alone. David C. Moreton, my true senpai, has given me warm support in the past year. Thank you David, for taking the time to give me valuable advice and comments, on henro and on other things. I always enjoyed reading/writing those emails! Lastly, 1 would like to thank my family and friends for their understandings and support. 1  For studies on this pilgrimage, see Reader (1988) and Oda (1996). VII Introduction Pilgrimage is "manifested in one form or another in virtually all the world's religions," the anthropologist James Preston says.2 In Japan, it occupied an important place in the lives of the common people since pre-modern times. One scholar has even described it as "one of the great pillars" of Japanese religion.3 Among the countless pilgrimages that boomed and waned in the history of Japan, there was Shikoku henro. Shikoku henro is a pilgrimage of eighty-eight sacred places on the island of Shikoku, the fourth largest island of the Japanese archipelago. It was one of the thriving pilgrimages of the early modern Japan (1600-1867). In the present day this is arguably the best known pilgrimage in Japan, attracting over one-hundred-and-fifty-thousand pilgrims annually according to one calculation.4 This pilgrimage is featured frequently in various mass media, most notably in the NHK national television programs. In 2008, NHK broadcasted a TV series titled Gaido tekuteku tabi - Shikoku hachijuhachikasho wo yuku (®3S"C < X <C Jfc H S A + A ^ r Wf £rtT< ). In this program, a celebrity ping-pong player Naomi Yotsumoto walked the entire pilgrimage route of nearly 1,400 kilometers, and introduced to viewers: (1) the eighty-eight temples in the pilgrimage, (2) the people and the landscape of Shikoku, and (3) the pilgrims who were on the pilgrimage route. Although the program covered all the temples and the basic liturgies of the pilgrimage, its main focus was not the "religious" dimensions of the pilgrimage. This is indeed suggested in its title—meaning "trudging along the eighty-eight-sites of Shikoku." Instead, the health benefits of walking and the 2Preston(1992),31. 3  Ian Reader and Paul Swanson cite Shinno Toshikazu. See Reader and Swanson (1997), 225. 4  NHK Matsuyama (2009). 1 interaction with the people of the local communities appear to have been the main concerns of the program, which also portrayed the pilgrimage as an exemplar of the traditional Japan.5 This indicates, as recent studies have noted, that Shikoku henro is a diverse cultural phenomenon with many facets and meanings, which cannot be simply understood solely from "religious" perspectives. Nevertheless, the religious dimensions are crucial to the underpinnings of Shikoku henro, because, as Mori Masato notes, the pilgrimage is a "cultural phenomenon developed upon religious values."6 On a similar note, Ian Reader, who has produced a number of landmark studies of this pilgrimage, comments that a pilgrimage is a "religion in its own right."7 Thus, this thesis will focus on the history of the religious dimensions of the pilgrimage. In particular, the key issues to be dealt with are: (1) the developments of religious ideas associated with the pilgrimage, (2) the activities of the religious specialists who facilitated the development of the pilgrimage, and (3) the process by which Shikoku henro became a booming pilgrimage in the early modern period. Definitions There are several terms that will recur throughout the following thesis. The most common ones will be defined here before proceeding. Others will be defined as they appear in the discussion. For example, the main host Yotsumoto composed a haiku poem per episode based on her experience. 6  Mori (2005), 10. 7  Reader (1996). 2 Henro (iHS& • SS§) is a multi-site religious pilgrimage consisting of eighty-eight designated stops on the island of Shikoku, in which the main figure of worship is Kobo Daishi ( I t fe^SP also known as Kukai ^M: 774-835), the founder of the Koyasan temple complex and the Shingon esoteric Buddhism in Japan. Kobo Daishi is also the legendary founder of Shikoku henro.8 Although there are henro pilgrimages in other parts of Japan, namely those that have been transplanted or copied from Shikoku (i.e., the henro pilgrimage in Shodoshima mentioned above), in this study, henro will refer to the pilgrimage in Shikoku unless otherwise noted. Henro also refers to the pilgrims who are doing this pilgrimage; hence this term in the thesis will refer to either the pilgrimage or to the pilgrims. The designated stops in this pilgrimage are commonly called fudasho (tLBf) literally meaning a place to offer pilgrims' calling cards, or reijo, (WLWi) meaning a sacred place. I will use fudasho throughout this work for the sake of consistency. 1 will not refer to them collectively as temples or shrines, because historically, the fudasho consisted of both Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines, and using either "temple" or "shrine" will have affiliative connotations to either Buddhism or Shintoism which would not be appropriate for discussing the phenomenon in pre-modern times. Fudasho, as mentioned above, is a place for pilgrims to leave their calling card, which is called osamefuda, or simply fuda ($WL • tL). This is a slip of paper or, in some cases, fabric of a specific colour that is inscribed with the name of the pilgrim among other 8  However, it should be noted that Kobo Daishi's founding of the pilgrimage is more a "legendary" history than a "real" history. In reality, it is unlikely that he founded the pilgrimage. For discussion on the "legendary" history versus "real" history of Shikoku henro, see Reader (2005), 107. By no means do I intend to dismiss the "legendary" history, for, as Reader notes, it is in many ways more important than the hard historical facts for the pilgrimage culture. However, in this study, I will focus on the "real" history. 3 standardized inscriptions. Fuda is a ritual implement of henro, to be offered to the deities of the fudasho as a means of symbolically communicating with them. Lastly, Kobo Daishi and Kukai technically refer to the same person but there are slight differences. Kobo Daishi is the posthumous title of the historical monk named Kukai. The former is also closely associated with the popular worship that developed after his death, in which he is considered one of the deities in the common Japanese pantheon. I will use Kukai when referring to the historical monk, and either Kobo Daishi or simply Daishi to refer to him posthumously or as the deified monk. Thesis Outline Shikoku henro did not suddenly emerge in the early modern period. There were extant pilgrimage traditions in Shikoku that influenced its creation and development. Indeed, the emergence of Shikoku henro was a "cumulative process," which incorporated elements from existing pilgrimage practices, as noted by Reader.9 What has not been sufficiently addressed in the studies to date, however, is how those older pilgrimages influenced Shikoku henro. For instance, were there themes that were carried over from the ancient and medieval pilgrimages to the one we see today? What developments were there in Shikoku in medieval times, that helped usher the thriving popular pilgrimage in the early modern period? In the first chapter, I will deal with these questions, by surveying the ancient and medieval pilgrimage traditions in Shikoku, and by analyzing them dialectically with the characteristics of the pilgrimage in the early modern and modern periods. This will allow us to assess holistically the relevance of the extant practices in the understanding of this pilgrimage. 9Reader(2005), 111. 4 Shikoku henro is known to have received substantial external influences in its formation. Among such influences, Kondo Yoshihiro, Yoritomi Motohiro and Shiraki Toshiyuki have argued that Kumano shugenja, or ascetics affiliated with the three shrines of Kumano in the Kii Peninsua, were seminal in providing the impetus to the development of the pilgrimage. However, it has not been convincingly demonstrated in concrete terms as to how they may have contributed to this pilgrimage. Reader comments that although the Kumano influences were important, to argue that the pilgrimage was formed solely by the influence from Kumano is problematic.10 Hence, in the second chapter, I will re-examine the relevance of the Kumano traditions in the pilgrimage, by focusing on one fudasho institution that is known to have been strongly influenced by Kumano. This is Ishiteji in Iyo province, the fifty-first fudasho of Shikoku henro. A famed pilgrimage legend that has been associated with the activities of the Kumano shugenja, the story of Emon Saburo, also will be examined. In doing so, I will look at the historical context around the Kumano shugenja in Shikoku, to argue that they did not, in fact, contribute to the development of this pilgrimage. In the second half of the chapter, I will consider other actors that made more significant contributions to the formulation of the Shikoku henro in the early seventeenth century: the ascetics from Koyasan. Their involvements with the pilgrimage will be examined through careful analysis of seventeenth century texts. In this section, attention will be paid to the physical route of the pilgrimage, and the religious themes that had become enmeshed in the pilgrimage, such as the piety of Kobo Daishi and the promise of salvation in the afterlife. In the third chapter, I will examine how the eighty-eight-site pilgrimage—established in the early seventeenth century by the ascetical devotees of Kobo Daishi—was transformed 10  Reader (2005), 109. 5 into a thriving popular pilgrimage, which attracted a large number of non-specialist pilgrims, in the late seventeenth century. In this section, I will build on the analytical model used by Asakawa Yasuhiro in his 2008 book—the most comprehensive study on the practice of alms-giving in the pilgrimage to date. Asakawa describes the structure of the pilgrimage in terms of the "hardware," or the physical route and infrastructure of the pilgrimage, and the "software," or the religious themes and ideas that established the sacredness of Shikoku, which served to attract a large number of pilgrims.'! These two elements combined, Asakawa argues, constituted the structure that sustained the pilgrimage. Unlike Asakawa, however, whose main concern was the implications of the pilgrimage on the host communities, I will delve into the "software" of the pilgrimage itself. That is, my focus in this section will be the sacred attraction of Shikoku that lured the people to conduct the pilgrimage, similar to what James Preston calls "spiritual magnetism."12 To be sure, the sacredness of Shikoku is a topic that has already been discussed by many scholars. But there has been no attempt to locate the sacredness of Shikoku henro in the early modern pilgrimage culture at large. There are numerous recent studies on early modern pilgrimages in Japan that provide useful points of comparison with Shikoku. Therefore, in this section, I will draw from: (1) previous studies on Shikoku, (2) recent studies on other pilgrimages, and (3) the primary documents from the early modern period that propagate the sacredness of Shikoku. This approach will not only allow us to enhance our understandings of the sacredness of Shikoku, but also enable us to observe a broader pattern in the sanctity of pilgrimage sites in early modern Japan. 11  Asakawa (2008), 82. 12  Preston (1992). 6 Hoshino Eiki is considered among the foremost scholars on Shikoku henro. His comparative approach and theoretical analysis have contributed immensely to our understandings of the pilgrimage. Hoshino emphasizes that the Shikoku henro was, and still is to a degree, relatively un-institutionalized.13 By un-institutionalized, he means that the pilgrimage developed without the coordinated efforts of the fudasho institutions. In more general terms, there was a relative lack in the involvement of organized religions, such as the Buddhist sects and the temples that they administered, in the formative phase of the popular pilgrimage. Hoshino provides reasons for this when he argues that the dispersal of the fudasho—both over the wide geographical area of Shikoku, and across the sectarian organizations—served to resist coordination by the fudasho. Also, the belief and liturgies of the pilgrimage were based more on the folk religion than on the organized religion.14 Shinno Toshikazu, another influential scholar in the study of pre-modern Japanese pilgrimages, has grappled with this issue, though with different interests from Hoshino. Shinno argues that the development of the Shikoku henro saw an interactive process between organized religion on one hand, and the wayfaring proselytizers on the other.15 In particular, the activities of an itinerant proselytizer named Yuben Shinnen in the late seventeenth century has been demonstrated as having been seminal to Shikoku henro. This fits Shinno's theory that the activities of the itinerant proselytizers, who occupied "peripheral" positions in organized religions, were critical in the history of Japanese religions. However, Hoshino foresees changes to this structure of the pilgrimage. When he wrote his 2001 book, he felt that there was a shift toward the institutionalization of the pilgrimage. Hoshino (2001), 383-386, 416. 14  Hoshino (2001), 92-93. 15  Shinno (1991). 7 Nevertheless, there are several issues that are yet to be resolved. For instance, what was the relationship between the fudasho and the pilgrimage? And if, as Hoshino argues, the pilgrimage resisted the institutionalization marshaled by the organized religions, why was this the case? How did this pilgrimage succeed? Who contributed to the development of the pilgrimage as it began to attract a large number of the common people in the early modern period? The final chapter will examine these issues, with particular attention paid to the activities of Shinnen, who made various contributions to the pilgrimage, and to the people around him who supported his activities. Based on my examination of the early modern primary materials and the wealth of secondary materials, both in Japanese and English, 1 argue that Shikoku henro was an organic cultural phenomenon based on religious values, as Mori noted, but also which reflected political, economical, and social developments of given historical periods. It began as a pilgrimage primarily of religions specialists, and later began to attract a large number of the common people—a process similar to what Hayami Tasuku has demonstrated for the Saigoku (Saikoku) Kannon pilgrimage.'6 Nevertheless, there were uniqueness of Shikoku, because there were different actors, historical circumstances, and objects of worship in Shikoku. Notable continuities in the religious themes are evident as the pilgrimage developed, such as that of the other-world and the piety of Kobo Daishi. But there were novel ideas as well, such as the symbolic presence of Daishi in the pilgrimage space, which was crucial for its success as a popular pilgrimage. Shikoku henro had some common religious ideas with other early modern pilgrimages, such as the leitmotif of the healing of illnesses, and the localization of an efficacious deity in the pilgrimage space. Hayami (1980). 8 Notwithstanding, there were pronounced differences as well, most notably the sacredness dispersed to the entire pilgrimage space—the island of Shikoku—than that localized to the precinct of a specific religious institution. This was the result of a distinct belief system of Shikoku henro, which indeed developed outside the interests of the organized religion. In the following pages, I will deliberate on these points in greater detail. It would bring me the greatest joy if this study contributed in any way to our understandings of this fascinating sacred journey. 9 Chapter 1: The "Roots" of Shikoku Henro In Shikoku, there have been pilgrimage practices of the ascetics and the religious specialists since ancient times—long before an eighty-eight-site pilgrimage that we now call Shikoku henro emerged. These traditions appear to have been different from Shikoku henro in many respects. Some differences were the scale and route of the pilgrimage, and the object of worship. However, they were important factors in the development of the pilgrimage, shaping the sacred geography of Shikoku. Since then symbols and themes have become ingrained in the landscape of Shikoku henro. Thus, they provided a rich repertoire of traditions for the evolving pilgrimage culture in Shikoku to draw from, which reached a milestone in the early modern period with the establishment of the eighty-eight-site pilgrimage. Surviving records indicate that there were three categories of devotees in the pre-henro pilgrimage tradition in Shikoku: (1) religious ascetics, (2) devotees of K5bo Daishi, and (3) Pure Land believers. 1.1. Ascetics (shugenja | £ I £ # / gydja f r # ) By religious ascetics, it is meant shugenja (liFSH^f) or gyoja{ff^), religious specialists who conducted rigorous exercises such as climbing boulders, performing magical exercises, sitting under waterfalls and so on to cultivate supernatural powers (shugen f|si&).17 The austerity training, combining indigenous nature worship with the imported Daoist, Shamanistic, and Esoteric Buddhist elements, developed in the mountain range of Kumano, Omine and Yoshino in Kii Peninsula and formed a ''loosely organized religion" known as shugendo in the late Heian period (794-1185). 17  Miyake (1999); Swanson (1981), 56. 10 The earliest known examples of austerity in Shikoku were conducted by Kukai, as evidenced in his own writings in Sango Shiiki (HSt-fUJflS), an autobiography written in 797. Here he writes about practicing Kokuzo gumonjiho (jM^MMMfrffe), which involves reciting a mantra dedicated to Bodhisattva Kokuzo one million times, at Mount Tairyu in Awa (site of present Tairyuji: no. 21) and in Mikurado cave at Cape Muroto in Tosa (site of present fudasho 24 to 26). He also left a record of his austerities at Mount Ishizuchi in Iyo province. For young Kukai, these activities were conducted to cultivate his religious capacities. Although there is no means to verify that he founded henro as legends claim, he did travel to some parts of Shikoku and conducted austerity exercises, and such places have been incorporated into the henro circuit. They have become renowned landmarks in the sacred geography of Shikoku. 1.1.1. Heft Shugyo (J2E&&JT) By the late Heian period, it is thought that there was a distinguished form of ascetic pilgrimage in Shikoku. Ryojin Hishd0fkMMs5'P) from the late twelfth century says: we train (shugyo Wff), with ninniku kesa ( S # ^ § ^ ) ' thrown over our shoulders, and oi 03z.) pack on our backs our clothes always drenched with saltwater, as we tread incessantly the "hej'i"(jU^/:}B.M) of Shikoku.2' Numbers in parenthesis following temples or shrines indicate their numerical designation on the current pilgrimage circuit, starting with Ryozenji (no.l) and ending with Okuboji (no.88). Robe worn by Buddhist practitioners. 20  Backpack of itinerant religious practitioners. 21  Gorai (1989), 106. Gorai, and Yoritomi and Shiraki reads the combination of characters 21$& as "heji." But in other versions, it is written as iSift, which is also read as henchi or henji. For example, see Terauchi (2007), 29. Nishi suggests that 32i££ and j23±fi were used interchangeably. See Nishi (2007), 47-48. See below for the definition of this term. 11 On the other hand, the excerpt from the Konjaku Monogatarishu (^ 1=f#J§nit) from the same period suggests that there was a pilgrimage tradition of religious adherents which involved walking around the island of Shikoku: In the time of antiquity, monks following the way of the Buddha, in a group of three, journeyed through the hechi/henchi (TUM) of Shikoku, which is the coastline oflyo, Sanuki, Awa and Tosa. When by mistake they step into the mountains, and become lost in the deep forests, they wished direly to get back to the shoreline. Such pilgrimage from the ancient period has been described as heji shugyo ( S I S I M T ) by folk scholar Gorai Shigeru and others.23 The term heji is thought to be a derivative of the word henjilhenchi (xUM), which, according to Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, means: (1) a realm where those who doubted the salvific powers of Amida Buddha are reborn after death, or the peripheries of the Buddhist Pure Land, and (2) a place far away from the centre.24 From the linguistic standpoint, Nishi Kosei defines the ancient word hechi (^h) as rigorous terrains by the water, such as precipitous shorelines or similar topographies in the mountains by bodies of water. When it was used in combination with Shikoku, as the hechi of Shikoku (Shikoku no hechi H15 (D ^ "h), it referred to the rigorous shoreline along Shikoku which became a renowned site of religious austerities, Nishi suggests.25 According 22  Ibid., 107. 23  For discussions on heji I hechi, see Gorai (1989), 106-107; Kondo (1982), 6-15; Shinjo (1982),481-485; Yoritomi and Shiragi (2001), 1-11; Terauchi (2007), 28-41; Nishi (2007), 42-59. Note Gorai, Yoritomi and Shiragi, and Terauchi use the term heji shugyo (heji training) to emphasis it as an activity, while others refer to it as aplace or path where the activity was practiced. Shinjo suggests that heji implied a place in Heian period, but later, around Koan period (1278-1288) it implied activity. All agree that there was a distinctive ascetic training at heji I hechi. Nihon Kokugo Daijiten in Japan Knowledge Plus online, http://www.jkn21 .com/body/display/ (accessed May 16,2009). 25  Nishi (2007), 53, 56. 12 to Gorai, heji shugyd was shugendo of the sea ($|CD{!J:i&) associated with the indigenous sea worship (MffiiUfflJ).26 This worship is thought to be based on the ancient belief in the spiritual realm of abundant wealth and longevity called tokoyo, located across the sea ($$<?) @Lfi(Dlf;-\&),27 which was conflated with the Buddhist concept of fudaraku, the realm of Bodhisattva Kannon, located on an island across the sea. In Shikoku, Cape Muroto and Ashizuri were centres of fudaraku worship and were considered, along with Kumano in Kii Peninsula, as the gateway to the Fudaraku Pure Land.28 In this practice, shugenja practiced austerity by the seaside, such as "circumambulating a precipitous boulder by the shore, advancing slowly as he hung onto the shells on the surface of the rock."29 According to Gorai, this practice predates Kukai and, unlike henro, which emerged later, it is not based on the worship of Kobo Daishi. In fact, Kukai himself is said to have conducted his austerities in Shikoku because he was a practitioner of heji shugyd?0 Gorai argues that this form of ascetical pilgrimage expanded to create a pilgrimage circuit that we now call henro. Thus he emphasizes that it is the "original form" of the pilgrimage. First, he says that there were many local austerity sites along the shoreline of Shikoku where heji shugyo training was conducted since the ancient times. These places were typically in close proximity to the sea and had caves or other topographic features suitable for shugenja austerities. Some of the fudasho that fit this description include Cape Muroto (site of Hotsumisakiji [no.24], Shinshoji [no.25], and Kongochoji [no. 26] ), and Kongofukuji (no. 38) on Cape Ashizuri. Then he suggests that there were local routes 26  Shugendo of the sea, according to Gorai, was later consumed in the shugendo of the mountains. 27  Gorai (1989), 131. On tokoyo, see Origuchi vol.2, 11. 28  Terauchi (2007), 36-37. 29  This is an example taken from Ryojin Hisho. Gorai (1989), 110-111; Yoritomi and Shiragi, 7. 30  Gorai (1989), 119, 135. 13 connecting a few heji shugyo sites together, which he calls chugyodo (ffcffiS). And finally there was a larger path around the entire island of Shikoku, ogyodo (^tffiM), which formed a route similar to the present henro route and thus considered as the bedrock of the pilgrimage. This developmental theory has been influential in the study of henro. For instance, Yoritomi Motohiro and Shiraki Toshiyuki follow this analysis in their co-authored book.31 Indeed, it is valuable in that it sheds lights on the pre-henro traditions in Shikoku, and in particular it explains why there are many austerity sites (gyoba ffW) in the precinct of the fudasho by the shore. However, it does not explain how many fudasho—without the links to shugendo austerity—were incorporated into the henro circuit. For instance, the first ten fudasho in Awa do not appear to have roots to shugendo austerities, similar to the four Kokubunji temples and Ichinomiya shrines of each province that were designated as fudasho. This suggests other logic was in play in formulating the henro circuit. Moreover, the ancient worship of the sea that is no longer a significant part of the belief system in the henro pilgrimage in the later period. This is also the case with liturgies such as circumambulating boulders.32 Heji shugyo appears as though it was a radically different form of pilgrimage from henro; therefore, overemphasis of it will result in a synchronic interpretation of a phenomenon built on a rich, diachronic process. Thus, in the discussion to follow, more attention will be paid to the historical factors that led to the formation of the henro pilgrimage. 31  Yoritomi and Shiraki (2001). 32  Note that there are some ascetics today who conduct austerity exercise as part of their henro. For example, in Shodoshima henro, there is a group of lay ascetics (gyoja t T # ) from Nara, who, in their annual pilgrimage, performs austerities at certain fudasho. For the majority of the henro, however, austerity exercise is not part of their pilgrimage. 14 1.1.2. Other Ascetics Shikoku had become a renowned site for ascetical training in the ancient to medieval periods. Shunjobo Chogen (1121-1206), known for his managing role in the renovation project of Todaiji, conducted ascetical training in Shikoku hen ( { S ^ T J E B J S ) in 1137 as an aspiring monk, at the tender age of seventeen. He also conducted austerity practices at Omine in Yoshino, Kumano in Kii and Ontake in Kiso, which suggests that his exercise in Shikoku was a part of his long-term training program to cultivate religious competency— based on austerity. Another record is a late thirteenth-century document from Daigoji in Kyoto, which lists Shikoku heji (E3HSS&), along with Omine, Katsuragi, and the Saigoku Kannon circuit, as places to conduct shugen training {shugen no narai WUfc'Z.li).34 It shows that Shikoku heji was indeed considered a place to conduct austerities, and it attracted ascetics from the centres of shugendo in the Kinai area in central Japan. 1.2. Followers of Kobo Daishi Another strand of pilgrims to Shikoku in the medieval period was those who made homage to places in Shikoku associated with Kobo Daishi. Zentsuji (no. 75) and Mandaraji (no. 72), were believed to be places where Daishi had spent his childhood; these were among the most common places for pilgrims to visit. Although their journey's motive was to visit Kobo Daishi's sanctuary, a popular destination of henro pilgrims in the early modern period, there is no record to suggest that there was any kind of organized pilgrimage route around places associated with Kobo Daishi's life. 33  Yoritomi and Shiraki (2001), 73-74. 34  Shinjo (1982), 483; Nishi (2007), 43-44. Note Shinjo states that Shikoku heji in this document implies the activity of doing the heji, whereas Nishi argues that it implied the physical place or route called Shikoku heji where austerity was conducted. 15 Shinjo Tsunezo argues that Shingon monks were particularly influential in shaping the henro culture in the medieval period because they tended to be devoted to their patriarch.35 But it should not be assumed that piety to Daishi was limited to affiliates of the Shingon sect. For example, Ippen Shonin (1239-1289), the founder of the Jishu sect, a branch of Japanese Pure Land Buddhism, also made a pilgrimage to Shikoku, and his impact on the henro circuit can be readily observed. He was a Shikoku native, born in Iyo, but took tonsure and left home. Ippen later came back to Shikoku and visited many places associated with Kobo Daishi. There are nine fudasho that can be traced to him, including Iwayaji (no. 45), Hantaji (no. 50), Zentsuji (no. 75), and Goshoji (no.78), a Jishu temple.36 His traces are left only in Iyo and Sanuki; nonetheless, he is thought to have influenced the pilgrimage culture with his eclectic worship that conjoined not only Kob5 Daishi and Kumano worship, but also nenbutsu chanting. Kumano, which we will examine later, left a notable imprint on the sacred places of Shikoku. In the fourteenth century, there appears to have been a steady inflow of pilgrims devoted to the Daishi. This is when a Zentsuji monk said, "those with heart all make pilgrimage to this temple."37 1.3. Pure Land Believers Some pilgrims also went to Shikoku in search for a Buddhist Pure Land. The spread of Amida worship in the late Heian period also rendered the image of Shikoku as the gateway to Amida's Western Pure Land, similar to how Shitennoji in Osaka was perceived.38 For 35  Shinjo (1982), 483. 36  Yoritomi and Shiraki (2001), 71-72. 37  Yoritomi and Shiraki (2001), 75. 38  Terauchi (2007), 37. 16 example, Enryakuji monk Chozo 0kM) is reported to have spontaneously left his temple. He went to Iyo in order to go to the Pure Land (gokuraku ojo WMQ^.). According to Terauchi Hiroshi, Shikoku, by virtue of being located southwest of the capital, Kyoto, as well as being an island isolated by the sea, was recognized by some as the Pure Land, which was believed to be located to the west. 1.4. The Influence of the "Roots" As seen above, Shikoku was indeed considered a sacred place where religious practitioners of various strands made pilgrimage in the ancient and medieval periods. These pilgrimages are, in a sense, the "roots" of the popular henro, as elements from them were carried over. However, it would be an overstatement to say that these were the original forms of henro because (1) there is no indication that there was an organized pilgrimage route consisting of designated fudasho. In other words, the route and the destinations were different, and (2) the belief system associated with the pilgrimage changed as the henro pilgrimage was transformed into an organized popular pilgrimage in the late seventeenth century. The pilgrimage culture in Shikoku saw drastic changes as time passed. With this in mind, how are these forebears of Shikoku henro relevant to the study of the pilgrimage? How could they be related, and how could they enhance our understandings of Shikoku henrol First, on the conceptual plane, the notion of the pilgrimage as an ascetical training to cultivate one's spiritual or physical capacities has been retained throughout the evolution of the pilgrimage to the present day. In an influential late-seventeenth century book on henro, Ibid., 39. 17 the pilgrims were encouraged "not to grudge the hardships (of the pilgrimage) and leave behind the impurities of the human society" as they engaged in henro. To be sure, the ascetical aspects of the non-specialists' pilgrimage would be different from that of the shugenja, for the former typically would not conduct specialists' exercises such as circumambulating boulders. But to the extent that rigorous exercise associated with the pilgrimage was considered as a means to elevate one's abilities, they are indeed comparable. A good example of Shikoku henro as ascetical training can be found in the unique social practice in many village communities in Shikoku. They send off young adults at a certain age on the pilgrimage as an initiation ritual. Upon return from the pilgrimage, they are recognized within the village community as grownups, and, in some cases, imbued with marriageable status. This practice is thought to have begun in the early modern period and continued to the post-war era as part of the communal life of villagers. It was thought that that the hardships associated with the pilgrimage prepared the youths well for the challenges that came with adulthood.41 More recently, Shikoku Reijokai ( B S i ^ w ) , the association of the fudasho temples in Shikoku, has advanced an explanation of the pilgrimage in terms of the four stages associated with reaching Buddha-hood, overlapping with the four prefectures that the pilgrimage route passes through. In what is essentially a "mandalization" of the pilgrimage space —that is, morphing the religious cosmology onto the physical landscape— Tokushima prefecture is rendered as the place for "awakening" (hosshin 5§'L\) the Buddha- hood, Kochi as "ascetical training" (shugyo IMf), Ehime as "enlightenment" (bodai # $ i ) , 40Shinnen(1690)(trans),6. 41  Maeda (1971), 181-184. 18 and Kagawa as "nirvana" {nehan tSl§). Here, "ascetical training" is treated as an integral component of the pilgrimage, and this model has been hugely influential in the pilgrimage guidebook of the present era.42 Indeed, asceticism has persevered in Shikoku pilgrimage from the ancient times to the early modern period, as Shinjo argues. Its influence may have been pronounced to a greater degree in Shikoku compared to other pilgrimages, due in part to the relative lack of the leisurely elements in Shikoku.43 Second, on the theological plane, the notion that Shikoku represented the "other world" has been also carried over from the ascetical pilgrimages discussed above. According to Miyake Hitoshi, shugendo austerity was performed in what was perceived as the "other world" (takai {&#), where supernatural capabilities could be cultivated, which in turn, could be used in "this world" to deliver practical benefits through rites and prayers to the people who desired such services.44 Following this analysis, the shugenja performing austerities in Shikoku were in a "liminal" zone, to borrow the term coined by Arnold van Gennep. I do not use this word to imply the social process it potentially insinuates, which has been deliberated by Victor Turner with his concept of communitas, for that is outside the scope of the current work. Instead, here it simply refers to the cosmic notion of the boundary between this and other worlds. As we have seen, the fudaraku worship associated with shoreline austerities also had similar other-worldly connotations. See for example, Miyazaki (2007). Shinjo (1982). Miyake (1999), iii. 19 In Shikoku, the perceived liminality of the pilgrimage space is manifest at least in two ways: (1) Shikoku as the sanctuary of K5bo Daishi, and (2) the association of Shikoku with death and afterlife. The notion that Kobo Daishi is present in Shikoku was the most obvious link to "sacredness" attributed to this pilgrimage. This concept was widely circulated in the early modern period through textual and oral transmission, which will be examined in greater detail later. This was the premise of the distinct sanctifying theme of Shikoku henro, dogyo ninin (lalfT—A), the idea that Kobo Daishi travels with each pilgrim in Shikoku to offer his protection. Indeed, Kobo Daishi's symbolic presence in Shikoku was the core of the sacred appeal of this pilgrimage. The association with death, on the other hand, was not as obvious as the theme of Daishi. Nevertheless, it was embedded in the symbolic dimension of the pilgrimage. When the pilgrims undertook the pilgrimage or made offerings to memorialize deceased family members, this became a common practice in Shikoku. Moreover, the standard regalia of the pilgrimage is imbued with the theme of death, with the pilgrims' hat {sugegasa IfSc) bearing a Buddhist poem on the ephemeral nature of life, usually also inscribed on coffins. The white pilgrims' robe (hakue/hakui/byakue E=]<fe) resembled the dress for death, particularly with the "reverse" order of wearing the robe— typically reserved for death rituals. The pilgrims' staff signified the tombstone, the stamping of the pilgrimage notebook (nokyocho iflft^kM) at each fudasho was equivalent to the passport to the other world, and so on.45 Shikoku was both a sacred domain associated with Kobo Daishi and the realm of death, where pilgrims consciously or subconsciously weaved through the symbolic boundary between this and the other world through the act of pilgrimage. The liminality of Shikoku 45  Reader (2005), 63-64. 20 was strengthened by its inevitable geographical feature; as an island surrounded by the sea; it evoked the sense of a different realm and in particular, as Reader notes, the Buddhist notion of the "other shore" associated with afterlife.46 These are some of the factors that contribute to defining the landscape of Shikoku as "other worldly" and sacred, which has been kept intact since ancient times to the present era in the minds of those engaged in Shikoku pilgrimage. On this note, the Kochi writer Kurahashi Yumiko comments of her 1990 pilgrimage. Near Cape Muroto on one rainy day, the mist in the air blended with the colours of the cherry blossom on the roadside, forming a fantastic scenery that evoked the boundary of this and other worlds.47 The idea of Shikoku as an exceptionally sacred domain is encapsulated in the common reference of Shikoku with an honorary prefix o, Shikoku as o-shikoku. (3oE3|!I). Third, on a soteriological plane, the idea of going to Shikoku to in search of the Pure Land—and, by extension, to secure post-death salvation—has been inherited from the early pilgrims that I called Pure Land believers. The motif of the Pure Land is evident in the pilgrimage song {goeika W&tWO of each of the eighty-eight fudasho, which first made its appearance in a 1687 henro guidebook, Shikoku henro Michishirube. These are still recited by some pilgrims today. Of the eighty-eight songs, twenty-two have the theme of Pure Land or afterlife.48 For instance, the goeika of Gokurakuji (no. 2) reads; "if you wish to go to the Pure Land of Amida Buddha, make it a habit of reciting namu-amidabutsu." (gokuraku no, mida nojodo ni ikitakuba, namu-amidabutsu kuchiguse ni seyo W^^'tff^^Wdbl^fxcf tc < ummmmii* n o# £-& x) 46  Reader (2005), 47. 47  Kurahashi (2002), 75. 48  They are goeika of fudasho: 2,3,5,6,8,10,12,13,14,16,19,26,38,44,45,46,48,52,56,57,61,and 64. 21 Fourth, the chief object of worship in Shikoku henro, Kobo Daishi, was shared with the medieval pilgrims who made homage to Daishi's homeland. This indicates that although there were various strands of religious practitioners engaged in the ancient and medieval pilgrimage in Shikoku, those most influential in organizing what has come to be known as Shikoku henro were the devotees of Kobo Daishi. Many elements of the ascetical training have morphed into traditions adopted by later pilgrims. They affect both the theoretical underpinning of the pilgrimage and in the perseverance required. This is, after all, a gruelling walk that requires one to forsake the comforts of home and trudge for a month-and-a-half. In a sense, all walking pilgrims are the new ascetics. 1.5. Emerging Multi-site Pilgrimage in the Medieval Period In the late medieval period (16th century), there was a pilgrimage in Shikoku that incorporated multiple sites. Some pilgrims from this period left graffiti at the temples and shrines that they visited, usually including such information as pilgrims' name, place of their origin, date, and the number of people in the pilgrimage group. And since there were invocations of Kobo Daishi (namu daishi henjo kongo MI&J^MM.Wk'skW]) inscribed around them, the pilgrimage was likely conducted in association with the worship of Kobo Daishi49 Such graffiti from the sixteenth century is evident at Jodoji (no. 49) in Iyo, Sanuki Kokubunji (no. 80), and Tosa Ichinomiya shrine (Zenrakuji: no. 30). Also, Ishiteji (no. 51) in Iyo, was designated as afudasho according to the temple's genealogy from 1567, and a legend from this temple also has Shosanji (no. 12) in Awa treated as a stop in Shikoku 49  Yoritomi and Shiraki (2001), 78. 22 henro. These sites are scattered around Shikoku and were likely designated as stops in the Shikoku pilgrimage. Hence, we can assume that by the sixteenth century, there was a multi- site pilgrimage inspired by the piety of Kobo Daishi. All these temples and shrines were later designated as fudasho of the pilgrimage. However, there is no record to suggest that the pilgrimage was organized into eighty-eight stops. The surviving graffiti is limited, since most of them were cleaned up in Meiji era.51 However, there are two noteworthy words that are common in the surviving graffiti. First, the combination of Chinese characters hen (j#)and ro/ji ( E§) (or iZ2S&), which appear along with the names of the pilgrims is thought to have been read as "henro" by this time, instead of "hejr" it was used as an identity marker of the pilgrims. That is, the pilgrims recognized their activity and called themselves henro.52 This was also how henro was commonly written in the early modern period. Second, the word dogyo ([Hff) meaning "doing the pilgrimage together," is written to indicate the number of people in the pilgrim group. This term was later developed into the distinctive sanctifying notion of Shikoku henro, dogyo ninin. But when it is found in this graffiti, this was not what it implied. The numbers following this word are random, thus seems to simply indicate the number of people physically present in the pilgrimage group. The word was likely adopted from the Saigoku Kannon pilgrimages, which, by the fourteenth century, had developed the practice of This legend is the legend of Emon SaburS which will be examined in the following section. For Ishiteji being designated as fudasho in 1567, see Kawaoka (2007), 68. 51Maeda(1971),34. 52  Yoritomi and Shiraki (2001), 77. 23 offering osamefuda at fudasho, typically inscribed with the name of a pilgrim and the number of people in the group marked by the word dogyo or dodo ([p]il).53 There was a mix of religious specialists and laypeople who did the pilgrimage during this period. For instance, at Jodoji, there is graffiti left by a resident of MyodS in Awa (H'Jtl^ jfifiA) during the Taiei era (1521-1528). The word, "resident" suggests he/she was a layperson. At the same temple, there are two instances of graffiti left by monks from Kongobuji at Koyasan and one by a monk from Shoshazan Enkyoji in Harima, & fudasho of the Saigoku pilgrimage. Both are dated Taiei 8 (1528).54 Enkyoji monk also left graffiti from the same period at Sanuki Kokubunji (no. 80).55 It is noteworthy that of the few surviving instances of graffiti, several were inscribed by the affiliates of Kdyasan and Enkyoji. Because Koyasan was a monastic complex, founded by Kobo Daishi, it likely housed many devotees who made the pilgrimage to Shikoku to pay homage to their patriarch. And from Enkyoji, we can discern the influence of the Saigoku Kannon pilgrimage, which had been burgeoning from the fifteenth century with people from every strata of society flooding the pilgrimage route.56 Also, as seen by the transposing of the term dogyo from the Kannon pilgrimage, Saigoku is thought to have provided stimulation to the development of a multi-site pilgrimage in Shikoku. Thus, by the sixteenth century, there was a multi-site pilgrimage in Shikoku called Shikoku henro. This pilgrimage resembles Shikoku henro as seen today because it was a pilgrimage circuit consisting of multiple temples and shrines, and was associated with the worship of Kob5 Daishi. But it does not seem to have had eighty-eight designated stops, nor 53  Sato (2006), 57. 54Maeda(1971),34. 55  Yoritomi and Shiragi (2001), 79. 56  Shinjo (1982), 443. 24 enjoyed participation by a large number of the common people, which became the characteristic of Shikoku henro in the early modern period. Chapter 2: Formulation of the Eighty-Eight-Site Pilgrimage As discussed above, multi-site pilgrimage in Shikoku was practiced in the medieval period. It begs the question: when and how did it develop into an organized pilgrimage circuit with eighty-eight fudasho, which attracted a large number of commoners? There are two separate elements to investigate when approaching this issue. First, how were the eighty-eight fudasho organized, and second, how did this pilgrimage spread to the common people? 2.1. The Influence from Kumano and the Legend of Emon Saburo The three shrines of Kumano in Kii Peninsula, Nachi, Hongu, and Shingu, were arguably the most important religious institutions in medieval Japan. They dispatched shugenja to the regions throughout Japan including Shikoku to: (1) spread the worship of the Kumano shrines, (2) transplant Kumano shrines to regions, and (3) cultivate and maintain parishes {kasumi ft). In these parishes, they monopolized certain prayer rituals and took the role of the sendatsu, or pilgrimage guide, who facilitated the journey of lay pilgrimage to Kumano. They were also instrumental in funneling income for the Kumano shrines. The shugenja, comprised of yamabushi (lilt^) and bikuni or nuns (.bbJxJIL), traveled around the country, staying at local temples and shrines to proselytize and manage parishes.57 In Shikoku, they left their marks by building Kumano shrines throughout the island, and by their physical presence at many of the fudasho. For instance, according to one study, there were one hundred and thirty-seven Kumano halls or shrines in Tosa alone.58 Another study Miyake (1992), 303. Kondo (1971), 261. 26 demonstrates that twenty-nine of eighty-eight fudasho have accommodated Kumano deities at one point or another.59 The influence of Kumano on Shikoku henro has been advocated particularly by Kondo Yoshihiro, who argues that Shikoku henro was formulated by the stimulation from the extant pilgrimage tradition in Kii Peninsula. According to him, in Kii, there were: (1) eighty-eight-sites within the pilgrimage, (2) hechi / heji (JH {£§) pilgrimage routes, (3) the worship of fudaraku, and (4) the practice off settai—alms-giving by the host society for the incoming pilgrims, which were all reproduced in Shikoku.60 The pilgrimage in Shikoku incorporated these elements from Kumano, but was organized around the figure of Kobo Daishi, according to Kondo.61 As exciting as his theory is, as Reader notes, there are no substantive records to prove this.62 It is possible, however, to examine the influence of Kumano by focusing on a specific fudasho institution where Kumano shugenja exerted influence, and by analyzing developments at that institution dialectically within the historical circumstances. With such an approach, the following section will reconsider the role of the Kumano shugenja in the formulation of Shikoku henro. 2.1.1. Kumano Through Ishiteji According to Yoritomi and Shiraki, who also stress the influence of Kumano, there were distinguished austerity sites in Shikoku, such as capes Muroto and Ashizuri, and Shido, that drew Kumano shugenja.^ However, since they were in Shikoku not merely to perform austerities but, more importantly, to spread the worship of the Kumano deities and to 59  Yoritomi and Shiraki (2001), 63. 60  Kondo (1982); on settai, see p. 158; on heji route, p.150-151; and on Oji and the number eighty eight, pp. 160-169. 61  Kondo (1982), 176. 62  Reader (2005). 63  Yoritomi and Shiraki (2001), 55-63. 27 establish economic bases for the Kumano shrines by cultivating parishes, these remote austerity sites were unsuitable for their operational bases. Thus, they sought to establish other strategic bases for their proselytizing activities. They found such bases in lyo, at Ishiteji (no.51) and at Yasakaji (no. 47). Both were entitled Kumanozan (fliJUl) signifying their connection to Kumano. They became the regional strongholds of the Kumano shugenja, from where Kumano influence dispersed. Ishitejij ( ; 6 ' ^ # ) was formerly called Annyoin (SfUPJrc), but incurred a name change when Kumano shugenja began to exert a greater degree of influence with the temple. Specifically, the name change is recorded to have taken place after the twelve deities of Kumano were "transplanted" to the precinct in the ninth century.64 Although the date given here, as seen in a 1567 temple genealogy, may not be historically accurate, it is indicative that behind the name change, there was a shift in the power structure within the temple in favour of the Kumano shugenja?5 We do know that by the time Chozen, a Shingon monk from Chishakuin, in Kyoto, made his pilgrimage in 1653, Ishiteji was the grandest monastery in lyo. Its prominent features were the worship halls for the Kumano deities and a large nagatoko ( i l i^) , a typical residential building of shugenja from Kumano hongil.66 Ishiteji indeed appears to have been a stronghold of Kumano shugenja. This is according to the temple genealogy of 1567. See Kawaoka (2007), 65. Kawaoka also demonstrates that the earlier name, Anyoin (^JUSt), was related to the worship of Yakushi associated with the healing hot spring of Dogo. During the medieval period, both Anyoin and Ishiteji were used concurrently to refer to the temple, but after Genna era (1615-1625), the name Anyoin ceased to be used. Kawaoka explains that this was the result of a process in which Kumano worship gradually gained currency throughout the medieval period, and eventually overtook the previous Yakushi tradition. 65  Kawaoka (2007). 65  According to D. Moerman, shugenja with affiliation to Kumano hongu were called nagatokoshu due to the type of building they lived in. Moerman (2005), 21. For Chozen's description of this temple in 1653, see Ch5zen (1653), 338. For a 1689 illustration of the precinct from Reijoki, see Figure 5 at the end of this thesis. 28 2.1.2. Emon Saburo Legend How could have Kumano shugenja been related to henrol The link can be observed, according to Yoritomi and Shiraki, in the story of Emon Saburo, considered an alternative tale to the founding legends of henro.6,1 The first known appearance of the legend is in the 1567 genealogy of Ishiteji, cited below. Note, however, that this legend did not credit Saburo with founding the pilgrimage. He went on the pilgrimage called Shikoku henro, but there is no reference to suggest he was considered the founder. Nor is there any indication that the pilgrimage referred to as Shikoku henro in this story was organized into eighty- eight sites. It only mentions Ishiteji (no. 51) and Shosanji (no.12) out of the current fudasho. In the later versions of the legend, he is represented as the patriarch of Shikoku henro. In Tencho 8 (831), there was a greedy man named Emon Saburo. He violated the Buddha and kami, and as a result (as divine punishment) his eight children died. Hence he took tonsure and went on Shikoku henro. At Shosanji in Awa. as he was ill/exhausted and on his last breath, he wished to be reborn to the household of the lord in Iyo (the Kono clan fflBfJS:). Kukai (who was at his side at Shosanji) heard this wish, engraved the name Emon Saburo on a small stone, and placed it in Saburo's left hand. (And Saburo passed away) After some years, a boy was born to Okitoshi, the lord of Iyo (EBWMfiJor Kono Okitoshi MWMfiJ). He inherited the headship of the household, and the stone (which the boy clasped in his hand at birth) is now stored at the main hall of Ishiteji. A hint of Kumano influence is in the places where the climax scenes take place, namely his death at Shosanji (no. 12) in Awa and his rebirth at Ishiteji. Shosanji was also a place where Kumano worship had taken roots, indicated by the existence of a Kumano hall in 1653.69 Yoritomi and Shiraki suggest that it was a centre of Kumano shugenja activities in According to one version of this legend, which has now come to be the standardized version, Saburo is the patriarch of Henro as he is the first person to do the pilgrimage after K5bo Daishi "founded" the sacred sites in his legendary pilgrimage in 815. 68  Yoritomi and Shiraki (2001), 39. 69  In Shikoku Henro Nikki, Chozen states that there was a Kumano hall in the precinct of this temple, which indicates that Kumano affiliates had been active here. The hall still exists today. 29 Awa. Also, later versions of the story say Saburd was from Monjuin, a sub-temple of Yasakaji (no. 47), another stronghold of Kumano, not far from Ishiteji. Therefore, in this legend, henro and Kumano seemingly converge, as all major events in the story take place at centres of Kumano. Hence, it is thought that the story was shaped and spread by Kumano shugenja, who advocated both the worship of Kobo Daishi and Kumano deities, and sought to promote places where their colleagues were active. There were no apparent contradictions in the Kumano shugenja accommodating the worship of Kobo Daishi. In fact, as already discussed, this tendency was also seen in Ippen. One indication of this syncretism is the presence of a worship hall for Kobo Daishi, or Daishido (jkM*&), at a temple that also had a worship hall for Kumano deities.71 In 1653, according to Kawaoka Tsutomu, there were three fudasho in Tyo that had Daishido; Daihoji (no. 44), Iwayaji (no. 45), and Ishiteji, all of which were places where Kumano shugenja were active.7 2.1.3. Ishiteji Historicized However, there are other historical factors that need to be considered in analyzing the relationship between Kumano shugenja, the Saburo legend, Ishiteji, and henro in this particular period. First, in the medieval period, Ishiteji prospered with the patronage of the Kono clan (M If ft), the ruling clan in Iyo at the time. The relationship between the temple and the clan can be dated to 1279, when the Kono transplanted the Mishima myojin deity to Ishiteji and 70  Yoritomi and Shiraki (2001), 60. 71  Note these were sub-halls within a precinct aside from the main hall that enshrined the chief deity (honzon). See Figure 5 at the end of the thesis for the illustration of the Ishiteji precinct from Reijoki. It shows that among numerous enshrinements in the precinct, Kumano halls (twelve deities of Kumano) were the largest. 72  Kawaoka (2007), 75. 30 sponsored the construction of worship halls in the precinct. This relationship evidently endured throughout the medieval period; in 1481, the renovation of the temple gate and main hall was also sponsored by the Kono. Then in 1562, the Kono issued a decree, which conferred on the monks of Ishiteji the privilege of bathing at a nearby hot spring, suggesting an amicable relationship.74 It was the economical and political support of the Kono that enabled Ishiteji to thrive in the medieval period, even after it lost the official support of the state it had enjoyed in the Heian and early Kamakura periods. In this context, the Saburo legend reveals another facet; that it was a product of Ishiteji's relationship with the Kono. Saburo's sacred rebirth, to reiterate, was to the Kono. As such, it was designed to sanctify the authority of the ruling household, which reminds us of Allan Grapard's comment that the ruling power in medieval Japan was often legitimized through sanctity.75 Thus, Saburo legend should be understood, at least in origin, within the temple- patron relationship with the Kono clan, and it emerged from the power dynamics surrounding this temple. Second, the period between late medieval and early Tokugawa era was a time of dramatic change for the Kumano shrines and their affiliated shugenja. Kumano, which was arguably the most important pilgrimage centre in Japan in the medieval period, began to decline and lost the spiritual appeal to lure pilgrims. The downturn of Kumano, according to Shinjo, was caused by the Kumano affiliates "resigning" from their role as sendatsu, thus cutting their ties to the Kumano shrines, and settling in the various regions of Japan. This Kawaoka (2007), 66. Heibonsha (1980), 391. Grapard (1992), 138. 31 was a pattern reinforced by the Tokugawa bakufu 's policy to "station" the mobile religious practitioners in the early seventeenth century.76 More specifically, according to Miyake Hitoshi, the organization of Kumano shugenja is known to have gone through a major transformation in the late sixteenth century.77 This was the time when Sh5goin (MlllK) in Kyoto, as the head temple of the Honzanha shugendo order, consolidated its control over Kumano shugenja by creating the post of a regional administrator (nengydji ^ f f • ) , who exercised authority over shugenja in the assigned territory. In this organizational framework, shugenja who had been previously affiliated with the Kumano shrines, rescinded the direct ties with Kumano, and instead became organized under the authority of the nengydji and, by extension, the Honzanha order. Although Kumano was still, in theory, the centre of Honzanha shugendo, the system brought different dynamics to the Kumano shugenja in the regions, as they were no longer liable to generate incomes for the Kumano shrines. Instead, they would remit fees to nengydji, who channeled the money to Shogoin. Considering Ishiteji was a regional centre of Kumano shugenja, one wonders how such change played out at this temple. How did the change affect the shugenja at Ishiteji? Did they diversify their activities as they lost their official ties to Kumano and became stationary shugenja? For example, did they begin performing different functions for the temple? Can they be correctly called Kumano shugenjal It is not unlikely, one could 76  Shinjo (1982), 854. That is, they were "mobile" in the medieval period, but became "sedentary" shugenja in the early modern period. Exception to this would be the Kumano nuns (bikuni) who maintained mobility and proselytized, and other class of Kumano agents called oshi (#P^P), who traveled and distributed talismans. However, Kumano as a pilgrimage centre declined in Tokugawa period, and sendatsu who had been the key agents in linking the lay people to Kumano had for the most part became sedentary shugenja. 77  Miyake (1992), 297-298. 32 assume, that they would have had interests other than acting as agents of the Kumano shrines, as they sought new ways to subsist and prosper in the changing environment. There are many questions that need to be answered. Third, the sixteenth century was also a time of change in the power structure of Iyo province. The Kono house began to decline in the mid-sixteenth century, with intra-clan power struggles and incessant warfare with Chosokabe of Tosa and with Otomo of Bungo, finally surrendering to the Toyotomi force in 1585. This political development inevitably affected the administration of Ishiteji because, as its primary patron weakened, so did its economic base. The temple needed to expand its base of support to maintain economic viability; its affiliates likely looked to the laypeople to replace the Kono as their major source of income. And fourth, amidst these changes surrounding Ishiteji, there was a fire in 1566 that destroyed many halls in the precinct, including the main hall of Yakushi. The year after the fire was when the temple document was compiled, containing a detailed genealogy and the earliest known version of the Saburo legend. Kawaoka notes that the motivation behind the production of this document was to list the treasures that were lost in the fire.78 Another pragmatic concern would have been to reconstruct the lost buildings. The reconstruction, of course, would require a large sum of money, which may have been more difficult to source than before because of the Kono's waning patronage. In this context, it is likely that those affiliated with Ishiteji were mobilized in a fundraising campaign to raise money for the reconstruction project by soliciting alms from Kawaoka (2007), 63. 33 the public, or kanjin (fftil), and to this end shugenja may have been involved. In my view, the Saburo legend was a type of proselytizing literature {shodo hungaku B H # ^ C ^ or shodo bungei Be2#^CS), closely related to the kanjin activity to finance the reconstruction. As the temple went through a series of renovations throughout the Tokugawa period, with the main hall being rebuilt in the Keicho era (1596-1615), and becoming the "grandest monastery" in 1653, the reconstruction was eventually successfully completed.79 The legend may have been an effective pitch when soliciting alms from the public. The success in raising money through this legend may have yielded more power to those within the temple who undertook the fundraising, and who also advocated the name, Ishiteji. The Saburd legend emerged at a time of crisis of this temple. Considering the circumstances, it was disseminated more out of the institutional needs of the temple than as a promotion of henro. To reiterate, it was not a founding legend of henro in its 1567 version. And it may have also been the key to the temple's surviving the turbulent years from the late sixteenth to the early seventeenth century. It is curious, then, that this legend included Shosanji. Perhaps it was the shugenja at Ishiteji who first spread the legend. They could have, with the network that they had with other shugenja in Shikoku, chosen Shosanji as the climatic location, rather than selecting another random place. It is possible that the shugenja at Ishiteji were heavily involved in the fundraising campaign, and in disseminating the Saburo legend. It would be beneficial to pursue this point further by examining temple documents. Ehimeken no chimei, 391; Kawaoka (2007), 72. 34 In Shikoku henro, the symbolic dimensions of legends have been well discussed. For example, Reader notes that legends were central to the "belief structure" and the "emotional and physical landscape of the pilgrimage,"80 while Hoshino deliberates the symbols of death and rebirth embedded in the Saburo legend.81 Doubtless these are critical points that shed light on the religious ideas and sacred appeal in this pilgrimage. But we could also draw from legends the historical circumstances that triggered the circulation of these tales, to answer such questions as which institutions actively promoted legends and why? The analysis above has shown that in the case of the Saburo legend, it was Ishiteji that disseminated it. I have suggested that it was likely prompted by the need to undertake the reconstruction of the temple. Moreover, in the background of this development was a shift in the support base of the temple, from the powerful ruling class in the medieval period to the masses in the early modern period. 2.1.4. Evolving Legend Legends can transform over time to maintain viability in the changing environment. In Shikoku, one example of such a transformation can be observed in the legend of Saba Daishi (mackerel Daishi) that takes place near Yakuoji (no. 23) in Awa.82 In this story, a fisherman, carrying a load of dried mackerel (saba) to the market, was approached by Kobo Daishi in the disguise of a mendicant, who asked him to spare one fish. The fisherman, not knowing who the mendicant was, refused to give him any fish. Then Daishi, to teach him a lesson, worked a miracle and brought a dead fish to life, which swam away in the water to the astonishment of the fisherman. As a result, the fisherman became a believer. This legend Reader (2005), 61. Hoshino (2001), 121-122. Reader (2005), 44, 110. 35 was originally attributed to Gy5ki ( f i l l 668-749), referred to as Saba Gyoki in a seventeenth century text.84 However, in the eighteenth century, as the cult of Kobo Daishi became predominant in the pilgrimage culture, it transformed from a Gyoki legend to a Kobo Daishi legend. This shows that legends are not static but dynamic, being remade in response to the changes that take place in its surrounding environment. They are reflective of the broader pilgrimage culture that evolves over time. Hence, by observing the changes in the legends, we can come to better understand the development in the pilgrimage culture itself. The Saburo legend incurred changes as well. The story above was the legend as it appeared in the 1567 Ishiteji document. As Kawaoka notes, this was the simplest known version of the legend.85 As time passed, it evolved, absorbing different elements of the pilgrimage that became eminent as time passed. Hence, the updated version of this legend, which Chozen recorded in 1653, included the following additional themes: 1. Saburo was a cleaner of nagatoko at Yasakaji (no. 47); 2. Saburo incurred the divine punishment when he struck a mendicant who came to beg for alms, shattering his begging bowl into eight pieces. The mendicant was Kobo Daishi in disguise, who had purposely come to Saburo to guide him in the right way; 3. Saburo did the pilgrimage repeatedly, while Kobo Daishi watched over him in different disguises, (i.e., without Saburo knowing). Daishi was happy to see him become a compassionate soul; 4. Saburo's final moment at Shosanji was on his twenty-first henro. Gyoki also contributed to the sacred landscape of Henro, considered responsible for the "founding" of the fudasho and the curving of the Buddha icons. Of the eighty-eight fudasho, thirty-seven claim legendary roots to Gyoki. See Yoritomi and Shiraki (2001), 13-15. 84Shinnen(1687). 85  Kawaoka (2007), 76. 36 First, Yasakaji was now involved. In fact, Chozen may have heard the version of the legend produced by Yasakaji, not Ishiteji, as this temple also disseminated this legend. Second, Kobo Daishi was represented as a powerful divinity who was present in Shikoku in the disguise of a mendicant monk, proactively punishing the wicked with the intent to guide them to the correct path, while rewarding the pilgrims by granting absolution (or happy rebirth in this case). Moreover, Daishi is said to have watched over Saburo throughout his pilgrimage in various disguise. And third, Saburo did the henro twenty-one times before his encounter with Kobo Daishi, indicating that: (1) it was thought meritorious to do the henro multiple times, and (2) the number twenty-one was considered valuable, associated with the day when Kukai is said to have entered nirvana (ennichi W. 0 ). What Chozen does not say, however, is that Saburo "founded" the pilgrimage. Also, he was not said to have gone on the pilgrimage to "search for" Kobo Daishi as some other versions have it. Instead, he went on the pilgrimage to repent the sin and to memorialize his children. It is in Emon Saburo Shikoki (#iP^Hl[S!Z9fff2) that Saburo is treated as the founder of henro. According to this version, henro was actually first established by Kobo Daishi, but the original pilgrim was Saburo, who went on henro not only to repent his sins, but to look for Kobo Daishi to ask for his forgiveness.86 In so doing, he struck osamefuda, bearing his name onto a column at each fudasho, so that Daishi would know that Saburo had been there. This was the beginning of the practice of offering osamefuda at fudasho, it says. It is also in Emon Saburo Shikoki that Saburo is said to have done the henro twenty times the "regular way" (jun-uchi \\\MtT~h) or in clockwise direction without success in finding Daishi. On his twenty-first time, however, he did it in "reverse order" (gyaku-uchi 86  Yoritomi and Shiraki (2001), 38-39. 37 Mff~h), which is sometimes regarded as a way of bettering the chance of the encounter with Kobo Daishi. The legend clearly accumulated changes over time and eventually became a founding legend of henro. Revisions were made to accommodate the developments around the pilgrimage, to effectively locate it in to the context of the evolving pilgrimage culture. Chozen's version shows that by the mid-seventeenth century, the presence of Daishi and his purported interaction with the people in Shikoku had become an important theme in the pilgrimage. Attributing the founding of henro to Saburo in Emon Saburo Shikdki suggests that henro had become distinguished enough, attracting a large number of pilgrims and being so renowned as a sacred pilgrimage, that someone would claim its founding. In fact, Emon Saburo Shikdki was circulated not by Ishiteji but by Monjuin, a sub-temple of Yasakaji (no. 47), which claims to be the funerary temple of Saburo (bodaiji H S I T F ) . Thus, attributing the founding of henro to Saburo was likely closely connected with the interests of Monjuin and Yasakaji. What had began as a simple story of Saburo incurring diving punishment had become fully incorporated into the henro culture that showed remarkable transformations throughout the seventeenth century. The legend grew alongside the developments around henro. 2.1.5. Reconsidering Kumano's Role in Henro How then, should the role of Kumano in the development of Shikoku henro be assessed? Surely, Kumano shugenja were active in the medieval period and contributed immensely to the developments of sacred places in Shikoku. However, sufficient evidence is lacking to 38 show that they were involved in any way in organizing the eighty-eight-site henro circuit. As demonstrated above, Kumano shugenja in the medieval times were in Shikoku to advance the interests of the Kumano shrines, to proselytize and cultivate parishes, not to organize or promote a pilgrimage in Shikoku, especially one dedicated to Kobo Daishi. It has also been shown, through historical analysis, that a legend that appears to have evidenced Kumano shugenja's involvement in developing the pilgrimage does not adequately show that they were indeed involved in that fashion. Moreover, considering the reorganization of Kumano shugenja under the Honzanha order in the late sixteenth century, it is questionable if the shugenja at Ishiteji could be correctly called Kumano shugenja, when Shikoku henro was transforming into a thriving popular pilgrimage in the seventeenth century. It may be more appropriate to refer to them as stationary shugenja without affiliation with Kumano. A truly meaningful addition to the historical study of Shikoku henro would be to systematically examine Ishiteji in the medieval and early modern periods, with particular attention paid to the shugenja and how they may have related to the temple and to the pilgrimage. Ishiteji offers-a fascinating prospect for future studies because it was a place where Kumano shugenja, domanial ruler, local people, and the emerging pilgrimage culture converged in a temple complex as it went through a shift from the medieval to the early modern period. For now, it can be said that there is nothing to suggest that Kumano or their affiliates ever provided institutional support to the development of henro. The Saburo legend, which seemingly suggests that henro was linked to the Kumano shugenja, through the Ishiteji/Shosanji/Yasakaji connection, does not appear to have contributed to the organization of the pilgrimage. Rather, it is more likely that the legend was spread in 39 connection to the independent interests of the fudasho institutions, and evolved over time alongside the developing culture of henro. In other words, the Saburo legend rode the wave of henro, but the wave was created elsewhere by other actors. 2.2. Organizing the Eighty-Eight The question of when henro was organized into an eighty-eight-site pilgrimage has been a subject of debate. In fact, Yuben Shinnen ( W # K ^ ? - 1691), a key person in the popularization of henro, wrote in his 1690 Shikoku henro Kudokuki (hereafter, Kudokuki) that it was not certain when or by whom the number was established. The first appearance of the number had been thought to have been in the late fifteenth century. There is a temple bell in Tosa which was inscribed with "village eighty-eight- places" ( t t J f fA+A^/ff ) , with a date that could be read as Bunmei 3 (1471). This has been suggested as evidence of a "replicated" henro in this village at this time. Thus, the "real" henro must have had eighty-eight sites before this time.89 Recently, however, this inscription was put under digital scrutiny by Uchida Kusuo who concludes that the hardly- legible inscription does not say Bunmei, and thus it does not serve as an evidence of the eighty-eight-site pilgrimage in this period.90 The earliest verifiable reference to the number, according to Uchida, is a 1631 Joruri play, Sekkyd Karukaya - Chapter on Koya (-fro # -^ 87  Shinnen (1690) (trans), 5. 88  Shikoku Henro, like the Kannon pilgrimage, has been replicated and reproduced in many places. They range in size from being small enough to fit within a single temple hall, to a larger circuit that takes about a week by foot, but all have eighty-eight stops or fudasho, and the chief object of worship is Kobo Daishi. One of the most well known, replicated Henro is on the island of Shodoshima on the Inland Sea, which, along with other replicated Henro on islands, is sometimes referred to as "Island Shikoku"(shima Shikoku)^ESB. For studies on these replicated pilgrimages, see Shinno (1996). 89  For example, see Kondo (1971), 132-133. 90  Uchida (2007), 94. 40 5 $*%>&•%> i^5?<£>##), a drama in which there is a mention that Shikoku "hento" had eighty-eight places.91 By the mid-seventeenth century, eighty-eight fudasho were clearly built into the pilgrimage, as seen in a 1653 pilgrimage diary, Shikoku henro Nikki, by the monk, Chozen. In this diary, Chozen notes that Kobo Daishi, the "founder" of the pilgrimage, began his pilgrimage with the "ten fudasho within ten ri in northern Awa,"92 starting with Ryozenji (no. 1), and proceeding in the order of Awa, Tosa, Iyo, and Sanuki, which is what is now called the "regular" order of the pilgrimage. (XM^M$. J j b # + 1 1 + £ PJf, S U J # ^ Mc®=-->7\ TO • ± { £ • # ^ • mt& H I - # P f f tTtil).93 Further, as he travels through Shikoku, he records having completed twenty-three fudasho in Awa,94 sixteen in Tosa,95 twenty-six in Iyo,96 and twenty-three in Sanuki,97 totaling eighty-eight and corresponding to the distribution offudasho in the four prefectures as seen today. Evidently, he did the henro with the aim of completing the designated fudasho, because, at the end of each province, he proclaimed the completion of all fudasho in the province. For example, as he entered Iyo from Tosa, he wrote that he had "completed all sixteen fudasho of Tosa" (JjX _t±'Jtl 7 5T\ +/N >r fJiJ&tk^). Therefore, by this time, henro had clearly marked eighty- eight fudasho. Note it refers to the pilgrimage as hento, not as henro. Uchida (2007), 102. Ri is a unit of distance used in pre-modern Japan, of about 3.6 to 4.2 km. Chozen (1653), 313. Note Chozen does not start at Ryozenji himself, but he writes of this tradition. Chozen (1653), 319,362. Chozen (1653), 331. Chozen (1653), 345. Chozen (1653), 360. 41 Chozen purchased what was essentially a guidebook of henro near Yakuoji (no. 23) in Awa.98 According to him, all pilgrims bought this book, which said that henro had eighty- eight fudasho. The total distance of travel was said to be four-hundred-and-eighty-eight ri, and the rivers and hills along the way numbered four-hundred-and-eighty-eight each." Chozen records that his actual pilgrimage measured, contrary to what the guide said, a little over two hundred and ninety nine ri. The number four-hundred-and-eighty-eight may have been more symbolic than actual. It is curious, nevertheless, that the number eighty-eight was attributed to four aspects of the pilgrimage. Clearly, the number was deliberately chosen. Unfortunately, we do not know with certainty the rationale behind the selection of this number, however, there is no shortage of explanations. 10° One theory that has been influential is that eighty-eight represents the number of evil passions {bonno jfKtSi), in Buddhist terms, which must be eradicated before one can attain salvation. This theory was offered in Kudokuki as a possible explanation.101 Reader suggests that this theory, along with the explanation based on Buddhist cosmology, which will be discussed below, were the most probable reasons for the selection, and that it likely emerged with the impetus from 98  Chozen (1653), 319, 362. The title of the text was "a diary of the Henro fudasho" (aggfLfif J 0 IE), which was circulated to the public (IftPsflSiC )̂. Although the text has not been found, it can be surmised that it functioned as a guidebook as Chozen periodically refers to it as he travels from fudasho to fudasho. On one occasion, he criticizes what he perceives to be an error of the guidebook. According to him, Sutoku Tenno (Tennoji/Koshoji: no. 79) was mistakenly designated as a fudasho. He states that the actual fudasho, that is the place where Kobo Daishi trained, was a temple of the Yakushi. ("tttHflflfiiffi J 0 ffi—^^Qltki- U h t , ^ffifP/g/fLFJ?/^ ffi.±lUMffl&) See Chozen (1653), 352. 99  Chozen (1653), 362. 100  See Reader (2005), 277-278. 101  See Shinnen (1690) (trans), 6. 42 Koyasan and esoteric Buddhism.102 Whatever the reason, the number was an important theme in the pilgrimage by the mid-seventeenth century. 2.2.1. Texts, Numbering System, and Arguments The pilgrimage circuit became more tightly organized under the number eighty-eight with the publication of Shikoku Henro Michishirube (hereafter Michishirube) in 1687, the first known mass-produced text on the pilgrimage; it became the most authoritative guidebook throughout the Tokugawa period.103 It was a concise guidebook listing all the fudasho with their chief deities {honzon if-W-), pilgrimage songs {goeika ^tkWC), and directions on getting around the pilgrimage routes. Moreover, it instituted the numbering system of fudasho, as it listed the eighty-eight fudasho in numerical order, from Ryozenji (no.l) to Okuboji (no.88), the order prescribed to the present day.104 With this guidebook, the pilgrimage circuit became more clearly defined and associated with the number eighty- eight. This number had become, as Reader says, the "framing device" of henro.105 It should be noted, however, that despite the guidebook instituting the numbering system, it did not suggest that the numerical order must be followed when actually doing the pilgrimage. Instead, it left it up to the pilgrims to begin the pilgrimage at whatever fudasho was convenient to them. They could also venture out in whichever direction that they wished, 102  Reader (2005), 278. 103  Shinno Toshikazu considers the publishing of this book as a major milestone in the history of henro, since it was the first time that Shikoku henro as an organized pilgrimage was represented to the public through a mass-produced medium. Previous henro texts such as Chozen's Shikoku Henro Nikki were personal accounts, not intended to reach the mass readership. See Shinno (1991). This book was evidently vastly popular, going through as many as three reprints in a year. (Kondo 1982). 104  For example, the first fudasho, Ryozenji, is listed as "number one Ryozenji" ( ' iSSIl |il # ) , the second fudasho, Gokurakuji, is shown as "number two Gokurakuji" (—©|j§5f;#), and so on. 105  Reader (2005), 112. 43 regular, clockwise (junuchi |!|SfT%>), or counter-clockwise (gyaku uchi {M.t\ ~h).106 Therefore, the numbering system had more to do with the organization of the pilgrimage route than with the actual practice of the pilgrimage. Nevertheless, it has made a lasting impact on the pilgrimage culture, since, even in the present era, it is common for the pilgrims to refer to the fudasho simply by their designated number rather than by the actual name of the fudasho institution.107 There are other arguments pertaining to the establishment of the eighty-eight-site pilgrimage in Shikoku. Matsuo Kenji argues that Shikoku henro as an eighty-eight-site pilgrimage was "established" in 1763 when Kohan, a high-ranking monk of KSyasan, "authenticated" the pilgrimage by writing a commentary on Shikoku Henro Ezu, the first map of henro. It is in this commentary that the number, eighty-eight, was signified in esoteric terms (WtWcffiM^Htf).108 Kohan explains that henro represented a mandala, and that there were eight lotus petals in each of the ten Buddhist cosmos, totaling eighty. To this, eight was added, because when the Buddha would make an advent—by the merits of henro—he would manifest in the eight petals. Thus henro had eighty-eight fudasho. Matsuo's thesis is that henro, while developed in part through effort by wayfaring religious practitioners such as Shinnen, it required the authority of the "official" monks of Koyasan to become firmly established. In Michishirube, Shinnen suggests to pilgrims entering Shikoku at Tokushima that although Kobo Daishi began his pilgrimage at Ryozenji, it was up to the pilgrim to begin at Idoji (no. 17), and to those entering Shikoku at Marugame in Sanuki, they could start the pilgrimage at Goshoji (no.78). 107  Hoshino (1997). 108  Matsuo (2002), 129-130. 44 Like Matsuo, Maeda Takashi suggests that henro established in the eighteenth century, but he contends it was earlier, in the 1710s.109 He bases this argument on the fact that the pilgrimage texts circulated after the Shotoku era (1711-1716) all have the fudasho listed with the numbering system practiced today. Both Matsuo and Maeda stress that henro was not established in the seventeenth century because Shikoku Reijoki (hereafter Reijoki), a detailed guide to the "sacred places" of Shikoku henro published in 1689, features more than eighty-eight places (Maeda says ninety-four, while Matsuo says ninety-three), and because it did not follow the numbering system seen in Michishirube.u0 Indeed Reijoki did not represent Shikoku henro as an eighty-eight-site pilgrimage as Michishirube had done two years prior. Nevertheless, as Uchida demonstrates, a careful analysis of Reijoki shows that it did indeed list eighty-eight fudasho as designated fudasho, and other sacred places such as Konpira shrine were listed as "extra" to the official fudasho.m It also noted the numerical order of fudasho, beginning with Ryozenji, but instead of following that order, it began with Zentsuji (no. 75), because this was the place associated with the birth of Kobo Daishi, to whom the pilgrimage was devoted. Clearly, Jakuhon was aware of the number eighty-eight and of the numbering system starting with Ryozenji. Then why did he not advocate them in this book? The reason for this is the difference the background of the writers of Michishirube and Reijoki. Michishirube was written by Shinnen, a mendicant devotee of Kobo Daishi based in Terashima, Osaka. Shinnen dedicated much of his life to Shikoku henro, doing the 109  Maeda (1971), 39. 110  Note Shikoku Reijoki is also called Shikoku Henro Reijoki. The cover of the book has the former title whereas in the text, the latter title is used. For the sake of consistency, I will refer to this book as Shikoku Reijoki throughout this thesis. 111  Uchida (2007).. 45 pilgrimage himself about twenty times and making tremendous contributions to the 119 popularization of the pilgrimage before passing away on his final henro in 1691. Although his formal religious affiliation is not clear, he did have some ties to K5yasan. But he spent much of his time on the field in Shikoku, doing the pilgrimage and soliciting alms for the development of the pilgrimage infrastructures, as will be discussed later, resembling the wayfaring proselytizers of the medieval period such as Koya hijiri,113 He has been dubbed as the "father" of henro, and is thought to have been the instigator in the organization of the pilgrimage route as seen in Michishirube.U4 He also initiated the writing of Reijoki, but the actual writing of this book was done by a scholar monk of Koyasan by the name of Jakuhon, who agreed to write upon Shinnen's request. The difference between the propensities of the two figures, Shinnen and Jakuhon, has been deliberated in length by Shinno.115 For the current analysis however, suffice it to say that Shinnen was a wayfaring proselytizer who interacted with the laypeople on the field. He was actively engaged in the pilgrimage in Shikoku, while Jakuhon was a scholarly monk at Koyasan, who was relatively isolated from the lay communities, as he focused on academic Buddhism, and never once stepped on the soil of Shikoku. When Shinnen approached Jakuhon, he was seeking an authority to sanction the pilgrimage. He was involved in shaping its raw beginnings, but he recognized that he lacked the recognition from a reputable religious institution. Jakuhon agreed to write the book, because, like Shinnen, he had a strong devotion to Kobo Daishi. Jakuhon, however, was not 11  In Kudokuki, he was self-titled as Mendicant Shinnen of Terashima, Osaka^SfcTFJbggpfeJI;!;). See Shinnen (1690), 508. 113  Shinno (1991). 114  Reader (2005), 116; Ehime-ken (2001), 223. 115  Shinno (1991), 128-142. 46 interested in the number eighty-eight or in the numerical order; he was not involved in developing the pilgrimage practice. To him it was a pilgrimage dedicated to Kobo Daishi, and as such it was appropriate to begin at Zentsuji, a temple associated with Daishi's birth. For these reasons, he disregarded the then-current practice of starting the pilgrimage at Ryozenji. Indeed, he was quite critical of some elements of the popular pilgrimage. For instance, he dismissed the miracle stories that he perceived to be irrational and superstitious.116 He was also critical of the goeika of each fudasho. He thought these were mindless words composed by foolish people, and, as such, should not be recited by good people (lit. should not come in contact with the mouths of good people).117 I do agree with Matsuo's main point that the authority of Koyasan was an important factor in the shaping of henro in pre-modern times. Certainly, the sanctification of the number eighty-eight by Kohan in Shikoku Henro Ezu was a major event in the history of the pilgrimage, particularly when Jakuhon had ignored the numbering system about seventy years prior. It shows that, by this time, the number had been firmly set into the pilgrimage landscape and was widely accepted. However, as we have seen, it should be recognized that a pilgrimage of eighty-eight fudasho was indeed formed and practiced before Koyasan authorities sanctioned it. In my view, there were a number of developments around the pilgrimage during the seventeenth century, but the most important was in the late seventeenth century when the mechanism of a popular pilgrimage was set in place. That Jakuhon did not follow the numbering system of the fudasho in Reijoki, and that Kdhan signified henro in esoteric terms were their ways of 116  This was one of Jakuhon's policy when writing the Reijoki. Jakuhon (1689), 19-24. 117  Jakukhon (1689), 288. 47 appropriating the pilgrimage, which was developing outside the grasp of the mainstream Shingon order. Nonetheless, they had interests as it developed out of the worship of Kobo Daishi, the founder of the Shingon order. The development of henro as a process incorporated these stimulations from Koyasan. But as Hoshino emphasizes, it was never fully appropriated or institutionalized by the Shingon sect or any other organized religion.118 2.2.2. Koyasan Affiliates Since 1690, it has never been satisfactorily explained just who it was who was the driving force behind the development of the eighty-eight-site pilgrimage route. But there is one group of religious specialists who have not received sufficient attention—ascetics from Koyasan. To be sure, their influence on the pilgrimage has been noted by many scholars. For instance, Shinjo notes that the Koya hijiri, the itinerant proselytizers from Koyasan, played important roles in the diffusion of the Kobo Daishi worship and the Shikoku henro to the regioins of Japan.119 Takeda Akira, a local folk scholar of Shikoku, argues that Koya hijiri initiated the practice of Shikoku henro.m However, neither provides evidence of these arguments. Therefore, in this section, 1 will investigate the activities of the ascetics from Koyasan to elucidate how they contributed to the development of the pilgrimage. Evidently, in the early Tokugawa period, there were Koyasan affiliates in Shikoku who conducted ascetical training and cultivated parishioners for the temple that they affiliated with at Koyasan. Chozen, in his 1653 pilgrimage, recorded several encounters with the ascetics from Koyasan, who were doing the henro. First, at the onset of his pilgrimage, on the ferry from Wakayama to Tokushima in Shikoku, there were several ascetics of 1,8  Hoshino (2005). 119  ShinjS (1982), 489. 120  Takeda (1969), 17. 48 Odawara in Koyasan {Odawara gyonin /JNHI!^fTA).12! He then encountered another group of Odawara gyonin at Shosanji (no. 12), with whom he shared a lodge at the temple. And about halfway through his pilgrimage, near Terayama (Enkoji: no. 39), coincidentally he runs into the same Odawara gyonin group that were on the boat with him in the beginning. Although this group arrived to Tokushima with Chozen, they went the other way, doing the pilgrimage in "reverse order" ($.{Z.#)< <5 }31),122 which suggests that they were fairly accustomed with the pilgrimage. Then, near Butsumokuji (no. 42), in Iyo, he meets a patron of a Koyasan temple, a village head (shoya E£M) named Seiuemon, who offers him a night's stay.123 According to Chozen, he was a devout "afterlife wisher" (goshd negai%. ^ l iV ' 1 ) who had done the pilgrimage several times.124 This Seiuemon highlights two points. First, if he was a patron of Koyasan, there were likely agent monks from Koyasan in this region who had succeeded in proselytizing—that is, cultivating a parish of the temple that he affiliated with. Second, that he did the henro more than once suggests that the practice of henro and the worship of Koyasan appear to have been closely linked, likely 121  Chozen (1653), 313. 122  Chozen (1653), 330. 123  The term "patron" is a translation of the word "danna" (JUB), which refers to those who had established an economic relationship with a temple in K5yasan. In this relationship, the temple performed certain religious services, such as memorializing the ancestors, in return of fees. The temples also sent agent-monks (shiso fj f^) with gifts to the patrons on a regular basis and collected annual fees (hatsuho $J|§). When the patrons made pilgrimage to Koyasan, it provided lodging (shukubo Hi#j). See Murakami (2006) and Yamamoto (2006). Although the term "danna" is also used in the official danka system of the Tokugawa regime, in which the danka temple certified the "non-Christian identity" of the danna patrons and exercised monopoly in conducting his/her death rituals, the danna relationship with K5yasan temples was different. Whereas the temple-patron relationship in the danka system was implemented universally by the policy of the state, the relationship with Koyasan temples was voluntary, and without exception, "extra" to the temple affiliation in the danka system. For danka system, see Hur (2007). 124  Chozen (1653), 334. The expression "afterlife wishers" may sound unnatural in English, as it is the direct translation of the Japanese term goshd negai. It refers to those who believe in the afterlife, and that one's afterlife could be enhanced substantially by performing certain meritorious activities the current life. In a sense, these afterlife wishers providing alms to Chozen was a means to prepare themselves for a better afterlife. It may have also implied the betterment of the afterlife of their household members or other associates. 49 through the shared worship of Kobo Daishi and concerns for post-death salvation. Henro, as well as the worship of Koyasan, could have been promoted by the agent monks from Koyasan who maintained a parish in Shikoku, as well as in other parts of Japan. In addition, there were others, who may have sought to recruit new souls to the temple, ascetics from Koyasan, such as Odawara gyonin, who were in Shikoku to do the henro as a form of ascetical training. Another sign of the involvement of the Koya affiliates is the 1631 Joruri text already mentioned. The story of Sekkyo Karukaya Koya no Maki was likely developed as a preaching tool by the affiliates of Kaya hall {Kayado j t i£) , a temple within Koyasan where Jishu sect hijiri practiced the "dancing nenbutsu."126 In this story, the pilgrimage is said to have begun when Akoya Gozen, the mother of Kobo Daishi, was kicked out of her village in Byobuga-ura in Sanuki with her infant son because the son would not stop crying. Akoya wandered through Shikoku, stopping at eighty-eight places along the way.'27 Shinno notes that this story differs from what had become the "mainstream" of the Kobo Daishi legend in that the backgrounds of Daishi's parents are radically different.128 In other words, it was a different version of Kobo Daishi's legend. In fact Shinnen, who supported the mainstream Kobo Daishi legend, was aware of this story but sharply rebuked it as a despicable and Like Shikoku, Koyasan was a sacred place closely associated with death. It was known at the time as the "Pure Land on this earth," and people from all over Japan made pilgrimage to this mountain monastic complex to pray for post-death salvation, for themselves and their household members. K5yasan commanded patrons from all over Japan, to whom it offered various memorializing services, through the parish system mentioned above. For this reason, it is sometimes referred to as the "national funerary temple of Japan." See Gorai (1975), Tamamuro (1994), Murakami (2005). 126  The name Karukaya is from one of the protagonists of the play, Karukaya Doshin >(lj j l i l ' f r , who renounced the world of men and came to Kayado in Koyasan. See Shinno (1988), 94; Murakami (2005), 72. 127  Note that in this story, Akoya Gozen was born to the royal family of China, but was exiled to Japan on a boat, arriving to Byobuga-ura in Sanuki, the present day Tadotsu. 128  Shinno (1988). In the mainstream view, Daishi's father was from the Saeki clan (fiffift), and the mother from Ato clan (M71R,), but this version has it that the father was named U S t t ^ , and a mother Akoya, who came adrift from China. See also Shinnen (1690) (trans), 17-18. Here, Shinnen offers his critique of this version. 50 corrupt fiction in 1690. As Shinno argues, this story was likely spread by a group of proseiytizers from Kayado who promoted henro. It is most probable that they were not affiliated with the other proselytizing groups based in Koyasan which had somehow become the mainstream force spreading the official version of the Kobo Daishi legend. What is evident from above is that the affiliates of Koyasan were widely engaged in henro during its formative phase. It appears that within the broad category of groups that contained "K5yasan affiliates," there were different factions that promoted henro in different ways, based on the specific institution (i.e., Kayado) they belonged to. 2.2.3. Sea Route, Location, and Numbers The numbering system of the fudasho, beginning with Ryozenji in northeastern Awa, hints that the pilgrimage circuit was likely initially designed by those who entered Shikoku from Kii Peninsula, because the port of Muya (ttSlt present day Naruto), near Ryozenji, was a convenient entry point to Shikoku from Kii Peninsula, where Koyasan is located. Since ancient days, the main sea route that connected Kinai area to Awa was the route from Kada QiWJS.) in Kii to Muya, connecting in between at Yura ( $ H) in Awaji.130 There was a great enough inflow of travelers at Muya around the turn of the seventeenth century, (1598, to be exact), that Awa daimyo Hachisuka Iemasa ordered the construction of Chokokuji (jk £h#), one of the eight "roadside temples" (ekiroji !R5<&TF) built primarily to provide free lodging for henro and other travelers, and to monitor the flow of people.131 129  Shinnen (1690) (trans), 18. 130  Ishiodori (2006), 8. 131  Ishiodori (2006), 11. For the Hachisuka edict on constructing the ekiroji, see Maeda( 1971), 36. For English translation of this edict, see Moreton (2001), 46. Another function of these ekiroji was for the security interest of the domain. See Moreton (2001), 46-47. 51 If henro pilgrims used this route to enter Shikoku, it would be most convenient for them to begin the pilgrimage someplace near Muya, such as Ryozenji, for if the starting point of the pilgrimage was designated far away from Muya, they would need to make an extra trip to begin their pilgrimage. For example, if Zentsuji in Sanuki was the first fudasho, they would have to walk about eighty-five kilometers from Muya to get there.132 And the pilgrimage circuit, being a loop, is laid out in such a way that, once completed, a pilgrim would be back near where he had begun.133 Thus a pilgrim coming from Kii could start the circuit near their point of entry to Shikoku, and end the pilgrimage near the point of departure from Shikoku. As such, the numbering system catered to the convenience of the pilgrims coming from Kii. However, seventeenth century sources on henro indicate that this logic did not necessarily apply to the pilgrimage. Ch5zen, who did the henro in 1653, actually made a visit to Koyasan before going to Shikoku. His route from Koyasan to Shikoku consisted of a land path from Koyasan to Wakayama, slightly south of Kada, followed by a sea route from Wakayama to Tokushima in Awa, which again is slightly south of Muya. He did not travel the traditional Kada-Yura-Muya route, and, as a matter of fact, he did not begin his pilgrimage at Ryozenji, but at Idoji (no. 17). Why was this the case? As 1 see it, there were two reasons for this. First, the Kada-Yura-Muya route likely lost its momentum after 1631. This was when Awa daimyo Hachisuka, who also ruled over Awaji since 1615 when the Tokugawa conferred the island to them, moved their base in 132  Distance according to road used today, courtesy of Google Maps website, http://maps.google.co.jp/ Note distances are measured from the city of Naruto and not its port where henro would have disembarked a ferry from Kii. 133  From the last fudasho, Okuboji, it is about a day's walk to Muya where they can aboard a ferry to get back to Kii. Reader (2005), 13. 52 Awaji from Yura to a castle in Sumoto ($H^), in an event known as Yurahike (SS.5I ft).134 With this, Yura, which had hitherto been a thriving connection port between Kada and Muya, soon become deserted. Therefore, it is possible that by the time of Chozen's travel, the Wakayama-Tokushima route had replaced the traditional Kada-Yura-Muya route as the main sea route to Awa from Kii. And since the Odawara gyonin from Koyasan also took the Wakayama-Tokushima route,135 this route may have been the standard one to Shikoku from Koyasan at the time. This is not to suggest that Yura permanently lost its function as a port. In fact, it is known that it once again became a thriving port, particularly after its renovation instigated by the Awa domain in 1764.136 Nevertheless, the Yurahike incident likely brought a change to the pattern of access to Shikoku from Kii in the seventeenth century, which necessarily affected the itinerary of the pilgrims. Secondly, he did not start at Ryozenji, because from Tokushima, it was more convenient to start at Idoji than at Ryozenji. In fact, it was suggested to him by a person at Jimyoin Ganjoji (l#^Pj£fJt$c#), a local Shingon temple in Tokushima, that although Daishi began his pilgrimage at Ryozenji, the route to Ryozenji from Tokushima was rough. Since the olden days, it had become the norm to start at Idoji, then come back to do the "ten fudasho within ten ri in northern Awa" at the end of the pilgrimage.137 What this implies is that the circuit beginning with Ryozenji was initially laid out by early pilgrims who came to Shikoku via Kada-Yura-Muya route. However, as the main sea route between Kii and Awa shifted to the Wakayama-Tokushima route, having been triggered by the Yurahike incident, it became common to disregard the numbering system in practice and begin the pilgrimage 134  Yunoki (1979), 281; Ishiodori (2006), 9. 135  They were aboard the same ferry as Ch5zen. See Chozen (1653), 313. 136  Yunoki (1979), 281. 137  Chozen (1653), 313. 53 at Idoji, as Chozen had. Later, in the seventeenth century, Shinnen suggests two sea routes from Osaka to Shikoku in Michirhirube; to Tokushima and to Marugame in Sanuki.138 From Tokushima, Shinnen says, one could either begin the circuit at Ry5zenji as Daishi had done, or at Idoji—whichever the pilgrim preferred. This clearly indicates that starting at Idoji had become a fairly common practice. Also, in the mid-seventeenth century, Jimyoin, the Shingon temple in Tokushima mentioned above, issued a "passport of Shikoku henro" {Shikoku henro no meguri tegata IZ3 H322S&/ M V ^J&), which appears to have been a travel document required to pass checkpoints along the henro route. In 1653, when Chdzen did his pilgrimage, he brought a letter from Hokiin i^M3%), a temple in Koyasan, to obtain this document.139 This suggests that (1) there was enough henro arriving to Shikoku at Tokushima for a local temple to assume the semi-official role of issuing the "passport," and (2) the "passport" was not issued to just any traveler. It required a kind of a referral letter from reputable religious institutions such as Koyasan temples. The authority of Koyasan was, in fact, exercised in henro from at least the mid-seventeenth century, and Shikoku henro was indeed recognized as a legitimate form of religious training by some Koyasan temples. It also reinforces what has been evident from the above analysis; there were droves of henro from Koyasan. Thus, I suggest that the eighty-eight-site pilgrimage in Shikoku was initially established by ascetics with affiliations with Koyasan. They were the ilk of Odawara gyonin that Chozen spotted in Shikoku, who may have been of the gyonin-gata (ascetic faction) group Shinnen (1687), 28-29. Chozen (1653), 313. 54 that formed one of the three major factions of pre-modern Koyasan. They likely had been going to Shikoku, via the Kada-Yura-Muya route, to make homage to Kobo Daishi's birthplace and to conduct a loosely organized pilgrimage that I referred to as medieval henro, as a part of their ascetical training. We have seen that there were affiliates of Koyasan who had left pilgrimage graffiti in the sixteenth century. Gradually, such pilgrimages incorporated various sacred places spread throughout Shikoku, eventually becoming organized into a route connecting eighty-eight sacred places. They also claimed this circuit as having been "established" by Kobo Daishi, who, in legend, began his pilgrimage at Ryozenji, because this was the very order that they themselves engaged in this pilgrimage. The timing of this formulation is not certain, but it was likely in the early 1600s. One hint of the date is Anrakuji (no. 6), which, being one of the "roadside temples" like Chokokuji in Muya, mentioned above, was built by the 1598 Hachisuka edict.141 Therefore, at the least we can discern that the "ten fudasho within ten ri in northern Awa" were determined after that year. There are no surviving records to show if or how the institutions of the sacred places were involved in the formulation of this pilgrimage. However, it may have been formed without much input from the fudasho side, since, as Chozen noted in 1653, many of the fudasho, particularly in Awa, were in a deplorable state; some were even deserted. The There were gyonin-gata (ascetics), gakuryo-gata (scholastic), and hijiri-gata (Jishu, nenbutsu) factions in pre-modern Koyasan. The gyonin-gata was particularly powerful at the onset of the Tokugawa period, while the looser association around the hijiri-gata engraved the worship of Pure Land at Koyasan. The Tokugawa shogunate took measures throughout the seventeenth centuiy to remake Koyasan into a centre of Shingon sect, and also to reorganize it under the authority of gakuryo-gata. As a result, the gyonin-gata faction waned in the Genroku era (1688-1704). See Murakami (2005) 71-80. As a side note, Anrakuji was one of the eight ekiroji, or road-side temples, built by the domain to provide lodging for travelers, including Henro. See Maeda (1971), 36, for the 1598 domain edict. However, Henro at that time was likely not organized into eighty-eight fudasho. 55 fudasho were likely passively incorporated into the pilgrimage circuit, which was organized by those who may have had no affiliations with the fudasho themselves, such as ascetics from Koyasan. 2.3. Theorizing the Sacred Space Allan Grapard has deliberated on the successive stages in the process of sacralizing a space in pre-modern Japan, which partly explains the formulation of the sacred space of Shikoku henro.142 First, there is a well-defined and delimited "sacred site" considered as the "residence of the divinity." Then, the sacredness expands to cover a wider territory, namely the entire space involved in a pilgrimage, or a "sacred area." This process of expansion, according to Grapard, was the result of a complex interaction between Shinto and Buddhism. In particular, the Buddhist concept that the experience of pilgrimage was a process toward Buddha-hood rather than a finite goal in its own right, and the transposing of Buddhist mandala onto the sacred space, were crucial driving forces in the expansion of the sacredness from a specific site to a larger area. There were some similarities to Shikoku. First, there were clearly delimited sacred sites associated with the life and legends of Kobo Daishi, such as Mount Tairyu, Cape Muroto and Zentsuji, which attracted devotees of Daishi. Then, the sanctity expanded to a larger area covered in pilgrimage, because: (1) as Grapard notes, the act of the pilgrimage itself sacralized the pilgrimage space, and (2) it was a multi-site pilgrimage that covered the entire island of Shikoku. The difference with Shikoku from Grapard's model was that the sacred space of the pilgrimage overlapped with extant pilgrimage traditions. As we have seen, the pilgrimage space (i.e., the island of Shikoku) was already rendered as sacred in 142  Grapard (1982), 196. 56 some religious traditions. What took place in this period was that the existing perceptions and ideas that rendered Shikoku sacred fused with the worship of Kobo Daishi, which was at the core of this pilgrimage on the rise. In Shikoku, formulating a sacred space for henro was not only the result of a "complex interaction of Shinto and Buddhism," but further complicated by the interactions with those current pilgrimage traditions, which have been discussed in detail above. This resembles what D. Moerman has noted about the Kumano pilgrimage in the medieval period. According to him, there was "a surplus of religious meanings (that) rendered Kumano a paradise of both the past and the future."143 Hence, the pilgrimage incorporated places that: (1) had gydja roots, including heji tradition such as Hotsumisakiji, Kongofukuji and Daihoji, (2) associated with Kumano such as Ishiteji, and (3) had no links to either tradition, such as the four Kokubunji temples and Ichinomiya shrines in each province. This mix of sacred places suggests that it was not organized by shugenja or Kumano affiliates, because it does not appear to be partial to either one of these traditions. Instead, the rationale behind the selection was to assemble a circuit of "sacred places" in Shikoku appropriate for a pilgrimage dedicated to Kobo Daishi. Under this rationale, the eighty-eight religious institutions with diverse backgrounds came together in a "cumulative process."144 It was also a process that has been dubbed as the "monotheising of Kobo Daishi" {Kongo ichizonka ^tW^W-ik) by Kondo. The term "monotheist" requires qualification here as it does not connote the sense of the word in the Judeo-Christian tradition, of the one and only sacred authority. Instead it merely means that in this pilgrimage, Daishi was designated as 143  Moerman (2005), 178. 144  As Maeda suggests, smaller local pilgrimage circuits, such as the ten fudasho in Awa, may have been incorporated to form a greater circuit around the entire island of Shikoku. See Maeda (1971), 61. 57 the central figure of worship, who existed along with other deities associated with the pilgrimage space, such as the main deity (honzon JfW) of the fudasho temples. The pilgrimage was organized around the piety of Daishi. This was seminal in hindsight—when we consider the popularization of the pilgrimage in the subsequent period—because Daishi was an acclaimed figure of worship among the common people, and the association of the pilgrimage with him was the most important sacred appeal of this pilgrimage. Mandalization, one of the key concepts in Grapard's model, has limited applicability to Shikoku. In the formative phase of the pilgrimage, there is not sufficient evidence to show that it played any part. The first clear example of mandalization is Shikoku Henro Ezu discussed above, which, as Matsuo demonstrates, signified the pilgrimage space in esoteric terms. However, henro texts from the seventeenth century do not mention mandala in the pilgrimage space. In particular, the leading advocate of the pilgrimage of the time, Shinnen, does not mention the mandala concept at all in the three henro books that he was involved with. It is not known either to what extent the mandalization seen in Shikoku Henro Ezu had influenced the consciousness of the commoner pilgrims. Such abstruse ideas may not have been fully appreciated by the commoners who were not trained in esoteric Buddhism. The mandalization that can be said to have left a significant impact on the pilgrimage space of Shikoku is the one that we see today, endorsed by the Reijokai. The four stages in the process toward Buddha-hood morphed onto the four prefectures covered in the pilgrimage. This mandala is commonly seen in recent henro guidebooks, and is a potent source of sanctity of the pilgrimage.145 However, it is difficult to see how mandala may have For example, see Miyazaki Tateki (2007). 58 sanctified Shikoku, as the pilgrimage was actually organized without apparent consideration of it. Chapter 3: Becoming a Popular Pilgrimage146 The analysis above has shown that the pilgrimage of Shikoku was organized into an eighty-eight-site pilgrimage in the early seventeenth century. We have seen that the pilgrimage attracted some common people since the medieval period. Nevertheless, the number of commoner pilgrims is known to have increased dramatically after the late seventeenth century. Maeda, who has made valuable contributions to the understanding of early modern henro by examining death registers kept at fudasho temples (kakocho iii5fei!), notes that the Genroku and Hoei eras (1688-1711) were the "starting point of popular henro" (J5KSi28S<^>tB%^) when the commoner henro begin to appear on the death registers on consistent basis.147 Although there are limitations in assessing the number of pilgrimage from death records alone, since it is biased to the weak and sick pilgrims who expired while on the pilgrimage, it does reflect a general pattern in the growth of the pilgrimage from the end of the seventeenth century onwards.148 In a larger perspective, Shikoku henro was one of many popular pilgrimages that flourished in the early modern period. Pilgrimages in Japan had hitherto been generally reserved for those in the upper echelon of the society, such as aristocrats and religious specialists such as monks and shugenja. It had now opened up to the commoners, expanding the base of participants, triggering unprecedented growth.149 In this period, The term "popular" here does not imply the socio-political connotations—the ilk of "elite" versus "popular." Instead, it simply means that the pilgrimage attracted a large number of non-specialists from the general public, who replaced the religious specialists as the primary participants of the pilgrimage. 147  Maeda (1971), 104. 148  Maeda (1971), 99-112. 149 In his monumental work on the socio-economical history of Japanese pilgrimage, Shinjo attributes this boom in pilgrimage culture in this period to the following reasons. 1. The general enhancement in the economic welfare of the commoners, both in rural and urban societies; { 60 innumerable pilgrimage sites boomed. Some of the most well-known ones were the Ise, Oyama, Zenkoji, Koyasan, Saigoku, Konpira and Shikoku henro. 3.1. Framework of Popular Henro Asakawa Yasuhiro provides a useful model in analyzing this development. He explains the popularization of henro (minshuka R M \\L) as a two-fold process involving developments in the hardware and software components which were integral parts of the "popular pilgrimage system" of Shikoku henro.150 By hardware, he means the physical pilgrimage route as expressed in Michishirube, which was more organized than in the preceding period. And by software, he refers to the establishment of a sacred appeal that pulled the pilgrims to Shikoku, which was based on legends and miracle stories {kudokutan JftW-M) that propagated the sacredness and the efficacies of Shikoku henro. These developments did not occur suddenly, but gradually, drawing from the repertoire of traditions that had accumulated in Shikoku. Nor did it yield a fixed final product, for the pilgrimage continuously responded to social, economical, and historical forces as it maintained itself as a thriving pilgrimage.151 Nevertheless, the significance of this period was that this was the time when the framework that sustained the pilgrimage well into the modern era was firmly set in place. 2. Incorporation of leisurely elements in pilgrimage, such as the rise of entertainment sector at pilgrimage sites (monzen machi P^BUBJ) and the idea of sight-seeing (monomi yusan feJUill HO; 3. Development of travel infrastructure, triggered by the daimyo's compulsory travels to Edo (sankin kotai i^SSSH"^) and expanding commercial activities; 4. The relative laxity in the authority to restrict pilgrimage. See ShinjS (1982), 699-853. Also Hoshino (2001), 182-183. 150  Asakawa (2008), 82. Note hardware/software analogy was first used on Henro by Hoshino, who explains that the attribution of Buddhist concepts to Henro in the modern period was a development in the software element of the pilgrimage. This contrasts, with the hardware element, such as the maintenance of the pilgrimage route. See Hoshino (2001), 385. 151  For case studies of henro responding to various social, economical, and historical forces, see Mori (2005). 61 3.2. The Development in Travel Infrastructure The travel infrastructures in Shikoku saw notable improvements in this period. As Shinjo argues, a major issue that hindered the travel in Shikoku and, by extension—inhibited the growth of henro—was the inability of travelers to cross rivers, particularly in Awa and Tosa.152 The problem is clearly expressed by Chozen in his 1653 diary, which records three occasions when he had to beg randomly of passing boats to get a ride across a river, and numerous other instances where he was troubled by rivers.153 This issue was addressed by Michishirube, which provides specific directions in river crossing, including eleven places in Awa and Tosa where boats were readily available for henros crossing the river. Cross referencing Chozen's diary and Michishirube indicates that there were boats available in 1687 at rivers where Chozen struggled to find a boat three decades prior. This included rivers such as the Nakagawa between Kakurinji (no. 20) and Tairyuji (no. 21). There are also other helpful river crossing tips found throughout the guidebook. For example, the river between Dainichiji (no. 28) and Tosa Kokubunji (no. 29) could be crossed by foot when the water level was low, according to the guidebook, but when it was high it was best to backtrack to a town called Noichi and take a boat available there.154 Thus, by following this guidebook, henro could make the pilgrimage without the trouble that Chozen had experienced. Moreover, Shinnen was evidently aware of the problems 152  Shinjo (1982), 1023-1025. 153  He begged to cross rivers at Nakagawa, between Kakurinji (no. 20) and Tairyuji (no. 21), between Yakuoji (no. 34) and Hotsumisakiji (no. 24), and between Gosha (no. 37) and Kongochqji (no. 38). (Chozen (1653), 317,319,328) However, a closer look at Chozen's diary reveals that there were some river crossing boats available to him in Tosa, where he records, on at least two occasions, riding a boat stationed at riverside for the free use of travelers. One of these was built by the Tosa daimyo (Chozen (1653), 324-325). On two other occasions, we find him taking a privately-operated ferry that collected fees (Chozen (1653), 326-327). 154  Shinnen (1687), 126. 62 caused by rivers. In writing Michishirube, he addressed that topic by listing all the river crossing options he was aware of. Shinnen also spearheaded the project to station route markers along the pilgrimage circuit to guide the pilgrims along the right path. Late seventeenth century sources say that because so many henro were getting lost, Shinnen stationed over two hundred markers, which were funded by the donations that he solicited from the "ten corners."155 It is not difficult to imagine that without adequate knowledge of the route, it would be a daunting task to navigate along a pilgrimage circuit of approximately 1,400 kilometers. This would take the pilgrim a solid month-and-a-half to walk. It was comprised of eighty-eight stops located variously in towns, villages and mountains. Without a doubt, navigation persisted as a problem for henro throughout the early modern and modern periods. Even in the present era, there are ongoing projects to reduce the chances of getting lost while walking the route—by placing more signs.156 However, it is noteworthy that the effort to mark the route indeed began in the late seventeenth century when the pilgrimage was beginning to attract a large number of commoner pilgrims. Recently, Kiyoyoshi Eitoku located thirty-three markers that are believed to have been stationed by Shinnen.157 There were two other aspects of travel that Michishirube dealt with: the access to Shikoku and available accommodations while in Shikoku. Near the beginning of this guidebook, Shinnnen lists two sea routes to Shikoku from Osaka, to Tokushima and to Marugame. He also lists the addresses and names of the persons who operated the ferries, 155  Shinnen (1690) (trans), 17; Shinnen (1687), 12-13. 156  For individuals involved in the installation of route markers in the Tokugawa and Meiji periods, see Mori (1986). In the present era, a project to install signs to mark the route for walking Henro was spearheaded by Miyazaki Tateki, who founded the Association to Preserve the Henro Route (Henromichi hozonkyokai ^A/?> Zf-hUfeW,^;), see Reader (2005), 259-262. 157  Ehime-ken (2001), 228. 63 and the price and distance of the ferry ride, enabling the henro from the Kansai area to more easily find his/her way to Shikoku.158 Regarding accommodations, the most prevalent type in the guidebook was not the commercial lodging where travelers paid fees to stay (although one such inn, hatago SfcH, is listed in Iyo), but the homes where local people provided lodgings out of compassion or in charity toward the henro. This suggests that they were likely zenkonyado (HMS$i) or free lodging for henro. For example, he says that a person named Yazaemon in a village between Kanonji (no. 16) and Idoji (no. 17) was compassionate toward henro and offered lodgings.159 In total, Shinnen gives the names of twenty-three people along the henro route who provided lodgings for henro}60 This information made the henro experience more accessible because it alleviated many travel concerns. It also demonstrates that Shinnen knew people along the henro route who supported the crucial travel infrastructure in Shikoku. His mentioning their names suggest that he knew them personally, which is not surprising, considering that he did the henro about twenty times himself.161 What made Michishirube stand out as a practical guidebook was that it was not merely a guide about the fudasho temples and shrines, but a guide to travel in Shikoku, which was enabled by the network of people cultivated by Shinnen. Note the guidebook says that for routes to Shikoku other than from Osaka, inquiry should be made at the place of departure to Shikoku. In other words, there were no other sea routes to Shikoku, other than those from Osaka. Shinnen (1687), 27-29. 159  Shinnen (1687), 63. 160  Ehime-ken (2001), 230. 161  Shinnen (1690) (trans), 17. 64 In sum, the travel infrastructure was notably improved toward the end of the seventeenth century, which enabled henro to make the pilgrimage with less hardship than in preceding periods. In particular, Shinnen and his Michishirube were instrumental in alleviating barriers which, in turn, accelerated the popularization of henro. 3.2. The Sacred Appeal of Shikoku Even if the development in the travel infrastructure made Shikoku henro more accessible to the commoners, the pilgrimage would not attract a large number of people without what James Preston calls "spiritual magnetism." This refers to the power of a sacred place to attract devotees. This power was not intrinsic to the place but derived from human concepts and values and are developed through historical and social forces.162 It is well known that henro was a pilgrimage associated with the worship of Kobo Daishi. But in what ways was Shikoku considered a sacred place connected to Kobo Daishi, and how was that sanctity developed? What did the pilgrims expect to achieve by doing this pilgrimage? How did the belief system of henro influence the host society of Shikoku? In Shikoku, there were three major sanctifying themes: (1) Shikoku as an abode of Kobo Daishi, (2) the pilgrimage as efficacious in delivering this and other worldly merits, and (3) the pilgrims as sacred and powerful. These themes are interconnected and formed the belief system of henro that not only attracted people from in and out of Shikoku to do the pilgrimage, but also triggered the development of a unique pilgrimage culture that integrated the local people of Shikoku, and functioned as the driving force of the pilgrimage from the mid-Tokugawa to the modern era. Preston (1992), 33. 65 In assessing the development of these ideas, the aforementioned Shikoku Henro Kudokuki (Kudokuki) published in 1690, is particularly useful. This book was similar to promotional texts produced by other pilgrimage centres. It contained a collection of miracle stories that demonstrated the efficacies of Shikoku henro, and as such, is an expression of the belief system associated with this pilgrimage. 3.2.1. Sacralizing a Pilgrimage Space in Early Modern Japan We will delve into the above in some detail, but first, since Shikoku henro was one of the many thriving pilgrimages at the time, I will begin by examining the general process of sacralizing a pilgrimage space in early modern Japan. Then we will look at some salient features of Shikoku. Many sacred places in early modern Japan lured a large number of pilgrims from near and far by claiming that they were sanctuaries where familiar deities manifested to the human world. By extension, these were deemed access points of the merits dispensed by those deities. In many respects, the success of a pilgrimage centre depended on the ability of its managing institutions (i.e., temples and shrines) to stir a public discourse on the potency of its deity in delivering practical merits that resonated with the concerns of the people.163 To this end, they would weave legends and miracle stories that highlighted the deity's value in dispensing merits to the pilgrims at the pilgrimage space. This is what anthropologist, Alan Morinis, refers to as "image making" of a pilgrimage centre.164 Such miracle stories were publicized by the administrators of the pilgrimage places; they were burnished and circulated textually and orally. 163  For instance, Asakawa discusses the "arena of discourse" that was formulated by the miracle stories in Kudokuki. Asakawa (2008), 80. 164  Morinis (1992), 22. 66 For example, as Miyazaki Fumiko and Duncan Williams demonstrate, the pilgrimage to Osorezan, in northern Japan, was associated with Jizo worship. This thrived in the late eighteenth century when Jizo worship was widespread.1 5 At Osorezan, the images of hells associated with Jizo's salvific activities, as they appear in Buddhist scriptures, were transposed to the physical landscape of this mountainous site to demonstrate that it was indeed a place where Jizo revealed himself to humanity. The benefits of visiting Osorezan, included this sense of entering the realm of the gods as well as the promise of healing of illnesses, salvation from hell and safety at sea. The promises and lures were publicized in texts compiled by the managing temple of the pilgrimage site, Entsuji, and through word of mouth to the pilgrims. Likewise, as Mark MacWilliams shows, the Bando Kannon pilgrimage thrived in the eighteenth century when the "promise of salvation given in the Kannon-gyo (Kannon sutra iHf$£) was accepted as a spiritual fact."166 A major means through which this circuit publicized its sacredness was a compilation of legendary chronicles of temples (engi }%M), which MacWilliams calls "propagandistic tracts." These localized the saving presence of Kannon to the temple precinct and fostered a new "mode of contact" between the Bodhisattva and pilgrims. It was suggested that the latter could expect to receive blessings from the former. Miyazaki Fumiko (2007); Miyazaki Fumiko and Williams (2001), 407. MacWilliams (1997), 375. Parenthesis by author. 67 Of all the impressive practical merits that popular pilgrimage sites claimed to deliver, the cure of illnesses was the most popular one. It was shared among many places, such as at Oyama in Sagami, Ise, and Osorezan.167 We can conclude that a general formula existed in order to create a sacred appeal to draw pilgrims. First, a well-known deity was localized to the precinct. Second, the benefits that were conferred by the deities of the pilgrimage sites were widely circulated as fact, through the printed texts and word of mouth. Third, the healing of illness was the most common benefit to be bruited about. Indeed, the sacred appeal of Shikoku fits such a generalized framework, but there were certain peculiarities, as discussed below. 3.2.2. Shikoku as Abode of Kobo Daishi The presence of the deified Kobo Daishi was effectively localized to Shikoku to create a powerful sacred appeal to draw pilgrims. The notion that Daishi was in Shikoku is thought to have derived from the belief that he was not really dead. No—he had merely entered nirvana at Koyasan with the promise that he would come back to the humanly world with Bodhisattva Maitreya {Miroku bosatsu ffiWl^irW) in some fifty-six-hundred-million years {nyujo densetsu A^fElft).1 Based on this belief, innumerable legends of Kobo Daishi developed, instigated by wayfaring proselytizers from Koyasan, such as Koya hijiri in the medieval period. This rendered a widely-held folk belief that Daishi was a "living messiah" 167  Tamamuro (1987), 295; Miyazaki Fumiko and Williams (2001); Davis (1992). 168  This belief is represented in the goeika (pilgrimage song) for Koyasan which reads, "oh, how grateful, Daishi is still present today, in the shade of the rocks on mount Koya" fc 9 fi'ifz^^ tzfr(D(D^>~^<D\/^fc>ti* 68 who traveled around the country in the guise of a monk, delivering practical benefits to the people.169 It must be noted here that this folk worship of Kobo Daishi was not limited to Shikoku or to the followers/affiliates of the Shingon sect. Rather, it extended beyond sectarian boundaries, and by the time henro became a popular pilgrimage, Kobo Daishi was an almost universal figure of worship prevalent throughout much of Japan.170 For the majority of the early modern Japanese, Daishi was much more than the historical monk who founded the Shingon sect of Buddhism in the ninth century. He was one of the most highly regarded and powerful deities in the Japanese pantheon of gods. Kudokuki indeed speaks of Daishi as a living messiah, saying that physically he was under the trees at Koyasan (i.e., in meditation, not dead), but spiritually, he was in Tosotsu paradise above the clouds (9H^ • f P ^ ) , the realm of Bodhisattva Maitreya, making advents at numinous places associated with his life. Further, in this book, the presence of Daishi was localized to Shikoku as it stressed that the eighty-eight places of Shikoku were among the places where he made daily advents (!).171 It also gave concrete examples of his sightings in Shikoku to reinforce that he could actually be found in Shikoku. A henro from Edo, Kudokuki says, who had heard that one was sure to meet Daishi in Shikoku, indeed saw him on the twenty-first day, dressed in a black monk's robe and chanting nenbutsu along the henro route.172 169  Miyata (1975) 170 _ _ Kobo Daishi is among the most popular divinities in Japanese folk lore, with more than three thousand known legends attributed to him. See Saito (1988), 49. 171  Shinnen (1690) (trans), 5-6. 172  The twenty-first day is significant in Daishi lore as it was the day when he is said to have entered nirvana; thought of as an especially efficacious day to receive his blessings {ennichi '0k B )• 69 Shikoku, then, was a sacred place where Daishi was present and where one could hope to encounter him. This is manifested in the concept of dogyd ninin (IWiTT—A), an idea that— in Shikoku—a pilgrim was in symbolic unity with Kobo Daishi, who traveled along the route and provided his protection to pilgrims throughout the pilgrimage. As Shinno argues, this concept was the organizing principle that brought the disparate eighty-eight fudasho together to form a sacred pilgrimage circuit.173 To this day, this concept is one of the most important and sacred leitmotifs of this pilgrimage. A standard inscription on the osamefuda, the pilgrims' white-robe {hakue S<&) and hanging bag {zudabukuro SJtPtiS), symbolizes that all pilgrims, even if physically alone, are accompanied spiritually by Daishi, himself.174 These ideas were the key to the sacred appeal of Shikoku that lured many commoner pilgrims. We learned earlier that the pilgrimage was first formed by ascetics who had come to Shikoku, since that location was associated with Kobo Daishi. However, for the pilgrimage to attract a large number of the common people, such an association was not enough. It required the tangible presence of the deity in the pilgrimage space, and the presence of a living deity was very effective in formulating a powerful spiritual lure. 3.2.3. Dispersed Sanctity The concept of dogyd ninin also alludes to another sacred feature that was more pronounced in Shikoku than at other pilgrimages in the early modern period. This refers to a sacredness that was dispersed throughout the entire pilgrimage route rather than being confined to the fudasho. This was because, in Shikoku, Daishi was thought to be present at 173  Shinno (1981). 174  See recent henro guidebooks, for example, Miyazaki Tateki (2007). 70 undisclosed locations rather than at the specified places such as the precinct of the fudasho. He was (and still is, to many believers) a dynamic deity who traveled on the henro route and interacted with the lucky pilgrims and the local people. As seen in the previous chapter, the Saburo legend in Emon Saburd Shikoki clearly expressed this idea. Here, Daishi first interacted with Saburo at Yasakaji, then watched over him in various disguises throughout his twenty-one pilgrimages, then presented himself to Saburo again at Shosanji. The entire henro route was indeed considered the haunt of Daishi, where pilgrims could hope to encounter him and receive his grace. This is why Taniguchi Hiroyuki notes that in Shikoku henro, the most significant space is the pilgrimage route that links the fudasho, not the fudasho themselves. According to Reader, Miyazaki Tateki, a leading advocate of the walking pilgrimage in the present day, also embraces this view.175 To be sure, Shikoku henro was not the only pilgrimage with a widespread sacred area. The Kannon pilgrimages of Saigoku and its replications, such as Band5, also had dispersed sanctity by virtue of being a multi-site pilgrimage spread over a wide geographical area. Yet, the Kannon pilgrimages focused the sanctity on the fudasho precinct, not on the pilgrimage route. For instance, MacWilliams cites two miracle stories of Oyaji, the nineteenth fudasho on the Bando Kannon pilgrimage, which exemplify a pilgrims's encounter with the Bodhisattva in its precinct.I76 To be sure, there were marked differences between the Kannon pilgrimages and Shikoku henro, which has to do with the nature of the main objects of the pilgrimages, and their relationships to the fudasho. Reader (2005), 261. MacWilliams (1997), 399-400. 71 First, both Kannon and K5bo Daishi were pan-sectarian deities since pre-modern times. However, as Hoshino notes, Kannon largely remained a transcendental figure who dwelled in the "realm of the Buddhas," 77 only manifesting on the human plane at select sacred places such as the fudasho of the Kannon pilgrimages. The worship of Kannon was even more universal than that of Daishi; it also had a longer lineage. It had arrived during ancient times when Buddhism was first imported to Japan. Indeed, Kannon was one of the most influential imported Buddhas. Daishi, on the other hand, was born in Japan as a human child and was thought to have achieved Buddha-hood as a human being. He was thus perceived as a figure existing on the "boundaries of human and Buddha worlds."178 This is precisely how Daishi is represented in Kudokuki when it says that after entering nirvana, he was spiritually in Tosotsu paradise, but made sorties into the humanly world on daily basis. Daishi was not entirely a divinity; he was part human and thus more accessible to the people. Second, Kannon was the main deity of the temples that were on the pilgrimage circuit, enshrined at the main hall of the temple {hondo 'Jf.'sL). It is for this reason that these pilgrimages have been classified as multi-site pilgrimages, organized around the temples' main figure of worship {horizon junrei ^ I f ^ l L ) . As a corollary, the focus of the sacredness was on the fudasho. On the other hand, Shikoku henro is categorized as a multi-site pilgrimage of places associated with a sacred figure {seiseki junrei M$$M%L), which is not necessarily the main object of worship at the aforementioned pilgrimage sites. In Shikoku, although the 177  Hoshino (1997). 178  Hoshino (1997), 296. 72 pilgrimage is centered upon the belief that Kobo Daishi had founded the pilgrimage, Daishi is not the main figure of worship at fudasho. At each fudasho, there is a main hall for the prime deity of the temple or shrine, which ranges from Kannon, Yakushi, Amida, Dainichi and others; there is a separate Daishi hall {Daishido ~XM*i£) for Kobo Daishi on the side.179 Thus, Kobo Daishi is not the focal point of worship si fudasho. He is an additional figure who coexists with the main deity of the fudasho, and who is especially important for the pilgrimage tradition, if less so for the "mundane" operations of the fudasho. Furthermore, although there is Daishido at every fudasho in the present day, in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, this was not the case. Records show that there was Daishido at twelve of the eighty-eight fudasho in 1653. This increased to thirty-five in 1689. In fact, the proliferation of Dashido at the fudasho in the Tokugawa period corresponds with the increase in the number of pilgrims. This suggests that they were built in response to the growing demands from the pilgrims.180 It appears that the position of Kobo Daishi in the fudasho during this period was ambiguous.181 Kobo Daishi was an important figure for many of the fudasho because they belonged to the Shingon sect, in which Daishi was venerated as the founder and a figure of worship.182 However, the belief system of Shikoku henro, and particularly its perception of Kobo Daishi, was not fully institutionalized by the fudasho in the formative phase of this pilgrimage. The belief system of henro emanated more from an unorganized folkloric belief that Daishi was a "living deity" than from organized religious sects such as Shingon, with 179  The standard procedure for pilgrims is to conduct rituals such as reciting an invocation for the deity three times and then offer afuda at the main hall first. They would then proceed to do the same at Daishido, of course with an invocation for Daishi. 180  Yoritomi and Shiraki (2001), 135. 181  Note that many scholars describe features of Shikoku henro in a similar tone, with the word "ambivalence." See for example, Asakawa (2008), Hoshino (2001) and Reader (2005). 182  In the present day, eighty of the eighty-eight fudasho are of Shingon sect. See Hoshino (1997). 73 which most fudasho affiliated. It should not be thought, however, that such "folkloric" belief was incompatible with the religious institutions of the fudasho, for they did fuse together to buttress the practices and the belief system of this pilgrimage. But it is important to note, as Hoshino stresses, that the practices and the belief system of henro largely developed outside the grasp of the fudasho.183 Hence the sacredness of Shikoku henro was not focused on the fudasho as it was in the Kannon pilgrimage. With these factors in the backdrop, it is not surprising that majority of the miracle stories listed in Kudokuki occurred outside the fudasho compound, in the "secular domain" such as in the homes of the local residents and roadside rivers and streams. For example, there is a famous story of the Sakase river in Awa, between Byodqji (no. 22) and Yakuoji (no. 23), which was crossed by foot. Pilgrims were much troubled, however, because on the river bed there were snails with a hone on their backs that punctured their feet.184 One day, a monk came and worked a miracle to "round" the hone of the snails, but only at the section of the river where the pilgrims crossed. From then onwards, the pilgrims were no longer troubled by the snails, and the monk, according to the story, was actually Kobo Daishi, the protector of henro.185 In this story the focus was not on the fudasho but the route between fudasho,186 and, as such, it was not a promotional tract disseminated by fudasho. It was likely folklore of the area, transmitted in the pilgrimage community and the local laypeople. 183  Hoshino (2001), 93. 184  Henro, in the early modern times, typically wore what is called ashinaka straw sandals that only covered a part of the sole of a foot, thus making their feet susceptible to puncture by the hone. For a history of the footwear of Henro, see Moreton (2001), 72-75. 185  Shinnen (1690) (trans), 11. For an illustration from Kudokuki of this story, see Figure 6 at the end of this thesis. 186  Asakawa (2008), 98-99. 74 Another story is of a family in Aizu in northern Japan. One day a mendicant came to their house and asked for a night's stay. The family happily accommodated him, but, being poor, they did not have much food to offer. Thus, they resorted to using a tiny amount of salt that they had kept in the attic, but when they opened the container of salt, they found that it was empty. The mendicant, seeing the sincerity of the family, performed a miracle and made a well of salt in their yard. (Salt was a precious commodity at the time. This meant that the mendicant gave them a source of wealth.) Astonished, the family asked the mendicant for his identity. He simply replied that he was from Shikoku hen (i.e., on the periphery of Shikoku and the route of henro). Realizing that they were in the presence of Kobo Daishi, the family became devotees and went on henro to express their gratitude. And upon return from the pilgrimage, their well of salt gushed out even more salt than ever before.187 Here, too, there is no fudasho that will benefit from the association in the story. Rather than having a specific sacred place in Shikoku, the entire Shikoku is treated as a sanctuary of Daishi, and an object of pilgrimage. As these two stories demonstrate, the sacredness of Shikoku was not limited to the fudasho. Whereas most other pilgrimages have the deity localized to the precinct of a pilgrimage place, in Shikoku, the entire island was considered the abode of Daishi. Even in multi-site Kannon pilgrimages, as MacWilliams has shown, the exemplary meetings with Kannon took place at the precinct of the fudasho.m In Kudokuki, to be sure, three of the twenty-four stories had direct linkage to fudasho institutions.189 These stories were likely 187  Shinnen (1690), 7. 188  MacWilliams (1997), 400. 189  One was the Saburo legend of Ishiteji. The other was a story of a woman named Myonin from Shido in Sanuki, who experienced a miraculous cure of her strange illness that caused her belly to swell to the size of a rice barrel. In this story she was cured when she made homage to Zentsuji, petitioned to Daishi for a cure, and vowed to go on henro once the wish was granted. Another was of a young monk from Bigo province who was saved by the miraculous grace of Daishi at Shiromineji (no. 81). 75 circulated by the respective fudasho to propagate their sacred appeal to attract pilgrims, solicit alms and encourage devotion. Nevertheless, they constituted a mere fraction of the stories in the book; most miracles occurred outside fudasho. This is a further indication that fudasho were not actively involved in producing or circulating miracle stories to promote the pilgrimage. One reason that this book did not list many tales related to fudasho was because the engi genre stories of the fudasho had already been recorded in Reijoki, published a year prior. However, it does not mean that Reijoki had featured stories about fudasho which directly promoted the pilgrimage. The stories in Reijoki focused on the sacred founding of the fudasho, but not on the pilgrimage, and it was the lack of propagation of the merits of the pilgrimage that was the main motivation behind the writing of the Kudokuki.] It appears that there were not many stories at fudasho that promoted the pilgrimage at the time; the Saburo legend was an exception. This suggests that the fudasho was not directly involved in promoting the pilgrimage, and that it had minimal interests in the emerging culture of the popular pilgrimage and in the activities of Shinnen to promote the pilgrimage. In the modern era, as David Moreton shows, some fudasho actively circulated their own miracle stories to showcase its efficacies in relation to henro.m For example, at Tastueji (no. 19), many miracle stories were publicized through texts by the early twentieth century. The most famous was the story of Okyo, a pilgrim with a sinful past who met due The forward was written by Jakuhon, who authored Reijoki upon Shinnen's request. It says that Shinnen had grieved that Reijoki did not mention the miracle stories associated with the pilgrimage. The reason why they were excluded was, as Jakuhon clearly stated, because he did not list stories that he perceived to be irrational. In fact, even in Kudokuki, his commentaries criticize the idea that Kobo Daishi would deliver punishment to those who mistreated him. For Shinnen though, these miracle stories that highlighted the tangible merits of the pilgrimage were the most important propagation of the pilgrimage (Shinno 1991), thus he pushed to publish this book. See also Yoritomi and Shiraki (2001), 127. 191  Moreton (2008). 76 punishment at the temple when the rope hanging from the temple bell entangled her hair and pulled her above the ground, releasing her only after she repented her sins.192 Such miracle tales may have been circulated since the Tokugawa period, but with the exception of the Saburo legend, there is scant evidence of them being disseminated by fudasho institutions before the Meiji period. 3.2.4. The Pilgrimage as Meritorious Similar to other pilgrimages, the popular notion that Daishi was present in Shikoku was consistent with the idea that in Shikoku, one could contact his grace and receive practical benefits that he was believed capable of dispensing. That is, people would go on the pilgrimage in part to have their pragmatic concerns addressed by the powers of Daishi. Here the concept of okage ($?PH • $dfr\~f), meaning divine help or protection, is fitting to explain the phenomenon. According to Yasumaru Yoshio, okage was a universal religious concept in what has usually been translated as "popular religions" of Japan.193 Making pilgrimages was considered an especially efficacious way to receive the okage of certain divinities, which would manifest in various practical benefits to better the lives or afterlives of the pilgrims or their associates.194 The pilgrimage sites were considered to be what Hoshino calls efficacious or wondrous place (arigatai basho)195 where the okage of a deity was channeled to the pilgrims. wMoreton(2008),51-52. 193  Yasumaru (2007), 12. The term "popular religion" refers to minshu shukyo ( R^^ f S t ) . There are problems with this translation, however, which have prompted Ian Reader and George Tanabe to use the term "common religions" instead. See Reader and Tanabe (1998). 194  For instance, their ancestors, household members, or in the case of intercessory pilgrimage {daisan f^#) , those who have requested the pilgrimage be done on their behalf. 195  Hoshino (1997), 291. 77 The types of okage that could be realized by making the pilgrimage are listed in Kudokuki. As we have mentioned earlier and as Tamamuro Fumio noted with Oyama, the most prevalent miracle that recurs throughout the book was the healing of illnesses.196 Ten of the twenty-four tales follow this pattern, emphasizing that any illness could be cured by having a deep faith in Kob5 Daishi and going on the pilgrimage. One such story is the story of a daughter of a man named Hichiuemon in Tosa, who was born with a wart on her neck. The wart enlarged as time passed, reaching the size of a peach by the time she was five or six years old. The parents tried various treatments but to no avail. Desperate, they realized that it was a curse of bad karma in the previous life, and that the only hope for cure was the grace of Daishi. Then, one day, a monk-henro came to their house, to whom they offered a night's stay. Together they discussed the situation. The parents made a vow that once the girl reached the age fifteen, they would take her on henro, but until then, they asked the monk to do the pilgrimage every year on their behalf. The monk agreed, and reiterated that they must devote themselves unquestionably to Daishi. Then he left to do the pilgrimage. From that time on, the wart began to subside, eventually disappearing within the year.197 In this particular story, in addition to the healing motif, there is the idea that the merit of henro was thought to be transferrable from one person to another. Another story of a young woman from Sanuki not only highlights the healing motif but also the prevalent discourse at the time that female bodies were "polluted" because of the menstruation cycle. This discourse was related to the idea that females, because of their 196  Tamamuro (1987), 295. 197  Shinnen (1690) (trans), 11. For a picture of this family, see Figure 7 at the end of the thesis. 78 biological function, were considered hapless sinners condemned to an especially gruesome hell, called the Blood Pool Hell (chi no ike jigoku sk(D'$Li$M). The Buddhist apocryphal explained that the menstrual blood or "red pollution" would contaminate the earth to the indignation of the deities of the earth, and the blood that entered the river water when they washed their garment would be consumed by "innocent" followers of the Buddha and 1 QR Kami—an unforgivable sin. Women were also restricted from entering some sacred places, as doing so would "foul" the precinct. There were even cases in which a Buddhist sutra, called Ketsubonkyo, considered effective in cancelling out the female sins, was carried by females as a protective amulet against menstrual pollution.199 With this background, we can begin to understand the dilemma that this girl from Sanuki faced when she fell seriously ill. When it appeared that she had no chance of recovery, she prayed to Daishi and made a vow that if she did recover, she would do the pilgrimage to thank him. Of course, she was cured. When she considered going on the thanks-pilgrimage, however, she worried of the pollution and of the long journey. Because of this, she needed to find a person to do the pilgrimage on her behalf. But she could not find a suitable surrogate. Finally, she had no choice but to go on her own. Miraculously, however, during her pilgrimage, the menstruation cycle was suspended so that there was no longer a concern of polluting the precinct. In addition, she managed a good pace (i.e., had divine assistance which made her legs strong!), all of which enabled her Williams (2005), 125. Glassman (2008), 185. 79 to complete the pilgrimage. It concludes that even young women were free of pollution while on their pilgrimage.200 This story shows that both the veneration of Daishi and doing the pilgrimage went hand- in-hand to yield tremendous benefits for believer-pilgrims. Moreover, the story was essentially an encouragement to young females to do the pilgrimage, assuring them that they need not worry about the feared "female pollution" while on this pilgrimage. Shikoku henro was indeed open to females and is thought to have attracted a large number of female pilgrims, as we also find in the present day. This contrasts from some pilgrimage sites, namely Koyasan, that proclaimed to restrict the participation of women.201 Another miracle story that was especially relevant for Shikoku henro was the cure of the leprosy. A leper from Waizumi, present-day Osaka, lamented that he/she could not mingle with others in public due to their illness. But he was miraculously cured when he went on Shikoku henro with a Buddhist monk.202 Shikoku henro is known to have attracted many lepers up to the modern era, because, for one thing, it was believed that their unfortunate illness would be cured by the power of Daishi, as demonstrated in this miracle story. And, second, for social reasons peculiar to pre-modern Japan, where leprosy disease was feared as dangerous and contagious, sufferers were stigmatized in communities to the extent that families could not keep a leper in their household. Otherwise, they risked being ostracized. 200  Shinnen (1690), 14-15. 201  However, it has been demonstrated by Tamamuro that this restriction was not always enforced in practice. For instance, a document from Jiganin (MBSPjrc), a sub-temple in Koyasan, which lists the pilgrims who stayed at its temple-lodging, includes the names of many women. Among them, was a girl named Iku, from the present Atsugi city in Kanagawa prefecture, who had visited Koyasan at the age of eighteen in 1850. The document, written by a temple staff, notes that she was the most beautiful woman under the heaven. ( ^ 18 t , 5^T—£HA-#Pff i fg) See Tamamuro (1996), 15. 202  Shinnen (1690), 12. 80 The stories in Kudokuki were concrete examples of the okage that was delivered to the people who either made the pilgrimage or had a third party do a pilgrimage for them. Most stories specified the name and the place of origin of the pilgrim, and the year when the miracle occurred; this detail made them seem like real stories. In effect, these stories were a crucial promotion of the pilgrimage, giving the people concrete incentives to go to Shikoku. And as Asakawa notes, the publication of Kudokuki was important for this pilgrimage, because it meant that these stories were exposed to the mass population through a medium of text, stirring an "arena of discourse" on the efficacies of the pilgrimage, and thus drawing a large number of pilgrims.203 Thus, Shikoku henro was effectively sanctified by a combination of ideas that localized the sacred attributes to the pilgrimage space in Shikoku. In many respects, there was a pattern shared with other pilgrimage places in the process of sacralizing the pilgrimage, such as localizing the presence of a powerful deity in the precinct. By extension, this propagated the pilgrimage place as an access point to the merits dispensed by that deity. As in other pilgrimages, Shikoku henro began to attract a large number of the commoner pilgrims in the early modern period as its reputation as an efficacious pilgrimage had circulated to the greater public through miracle stories that publicized its wondrous effects. But there were qualities unique to Shikoku as well, most notably the dispersed sanctity that came from the ambiguous position Kobo Daishi occupied in relation to the fudasho institutions. This ambiguity has created an interesting dynamic to the pilgrimage culture, as will be examined next. Asakawa (2008), 80. 81 3.3. The Sacralizing of the Pilgrims and the Practice of Alms-Giving As Yanagita Kunio once noted, Kobo Daishi, as he appeared in folk legends, tended to be easily irritated but also equally easily appeasable. This reflected the folk perception that kami (divinities) will bestow blessings to those who treat them with deference, but will punish those who show no respect.204 In Shikoku, this characteristic of Daishi was conflated with the image of henro to form a distinctive Daishi lore. Because Daishi was thought to be in Shikoku incognito, dispensing merits to the pious and administering punishments to the selfish and evil (kanzenchozku HilHFfl̂ II), it was also thought that any henro, in turn, could be Daishi. Thus, all ought to be graciously treated, or else face potential punishment. This notion was reinforced in Kudokuki, which listed anecdotes of Shikoku residents who mistreated a henro not knowing that he was actually Daishi in disguise. They received suitable punishments, the classic example being Saburo, whose eight children died after he struck a mendicant who turned out to be Daishi. On the contrary, there are also stories of those who treat henro graciously with pure intentions and receive practical rewards. Kudokuki, as Shinno argues, was not only a collection of miracle stories that spoke of the benefits of doing the henro but also propaganda that highlighted the sacredness of the pilgrims and encouraged the practice of Yanagita (1988), 10. Similar idea is manifest in the Japanese idiom "the kami that you do not 'touch' will not haunt you." (M h &&#i£jfi v) ft L) This idiom is typically considered the equivalent to the English "let sleeping dogs lie." The two idioms may have similar connotations. However, a striking difference is that whereas the subject in the English version is an animal, in the Japanese version it is a divinity {kami). This is an interesting testimony to the Japanese perception that divinities are considered as potential hazards who, by virtue of their awesome powers, can deliver fearsome punishments to those who interact with them in a wrong way. 82 almsgiving to henro. This is all clearly expressed in the following passage near the end of the book:205 As seen above (referring to twenty-four miracle stories in the book), those who mistreat henro are immediately punished, while those who venerate them are rewarded with fortune. Such cases are often seen and heard in Shikoku, thus those with heart have been kind to henro. Especially in the recent years there are many who perform the good deeds of offering settai including lodging for henro... the merits of venerating the henro and giving offerings to them are beyond words206 The identification of the pilgrims to Daishi is thought to be the most important motivations of settai ( ^ # ) , the practice of almsgiving to the henro.201 Even in the twentieth century, according to Oliver Statler's survey, the most common motive for providing settai was the idea that Daishi was still present in Shikoku in the disguise of a henro.208 As Reader notes, henro were perceived as a "specially efficacious conduit to the sacred" who dwelled on the margin of the human and sacred realm, empowered by the association with Daishi; they were venerably treated by the people of Shikoku. The pilgrims themselves were effectively sacralized. To the present day, the notion that henro were able to dispense merits through sacred association is preserved. In a 2007 henro guidebook, there is a manual for doing the alms- soliciting-training {takuhatsu shugyo fti^fl^fT or tenouchi shugyo ^<D\HWff), a mendicant exercise that is considered by some as a mandatory part of the walking pilgrimage.209 In this exercise, the pilgrims would walk from door-to-door at peoples' 205  Shinno (1991), 140-141. 206  Chozen (1653), 16. 207  See for example, Reader (2005), 125. 208  Statler (1983). 209  For the manual of takuhatsu exercise, see Miyazaki Tateki (2007A), 36. Some consider mendicancy a mandatory exercise, see Reader (2005), 125. 83 homes and businesses in Shikoku, to offer a recitation of a sutra to them, commonly the Heart Sutra {hannya shingyo Ix^f '^H). They did this with the idea that it would yield religious benefits to the "recipient"—that is, to those who agree to have the henro perform this exercise with them. The recipient would then be expected to provide alms to the pilgrim at the end of the ritual. Before commencing with this ritual, the guidebook says, a pilgrim should state to the recipient that his/her act was in wishing for the happiness, traffic safety or other practical benefits of their family members, and to memorialize their ancestors. Then, at the completion of the ritual, an earnest wish should be stated that the merits from the Buddha and Daishi would be bestowed upon the recipients' family. This shows that the idea of practical benefits, both this-worldly benefits such as traffic safety and the other- worldly benefits such as offering services to the ancestors, are still integral parts of the practice of settai in Shikoku. It also exemplifies Maeda's analysis that settai was not only an act of selfless-giving on the part of the provider, but a "give and take" transaction based on the idea that giving alms to the henro yielded religious merits in return.210 Settai was widespread throughout much of Shikoku, and involved making charitable donations such as food, money, lodging, travel provisions such as footwear, and in some amusing cases, even haircuts and foot care. In effect, this supported the henro travel and contributed immensely to the growth of the pilgrimage.211 To demonstrate the pervasiveness of this practice, as Shinjo notes, a pilgrim from Musashi province in Kanto recorded fifty occasions of receiving settai in 1836. Also, a family of four with no travel funds spent eleven month on the henro route, relying on settai 210  Maeda (1971), 224,238. 211  Moreton (2001), 76-69. 84 for provisions.212 As this practice became embedded in the communities in Shikoku, it not only enabled the pilgrims to make the pilgrimage with less expense, but also attracted pilgrims who made a living by doing the pilgrimage, permanently. Many such pilgrims were those who could not live in the mainstream society, such as fugitives from the law, the impoverished or homeless, and as mentioned above, lepers. They came to Shikoku and lived as "professional" henro, subsisting on the alms provided by the local people.213 To be sure, the sacralizing of the pilgrims and providing alms for them were not entirely unique to Shikoku. In pre-modern Japan, similar almsgiving practices were seen at other pilgrimages. In particular, as Winston Davis shows, it was pronounced in the Ise pilgrimage, in which the wealthy merchants and peasants, and the local authorities along the pilgrimage route provided alms for the rush of pilgrims who flooded the roads during the four peaks of the pilgrimage typically known as okage mairi (|5|IP!?# K) ).214 Here, as in Kudokuki of Shikoku, the oshi, priest-agents affiliated with the Ise shrine, spread stories emphasizing the merits of giving to the pilgrims and the what one could expect if they were treated poorly. Fujitani Toshio and Davis point out, however, that the real incentive behind the practice of giving to those in the Ise pilgrimage was not so much out of the fear of sacred retribution, but a fear of social unrest that neglecting the herd of popular pilgrims might engender. They suggest that there was a socio-political factor working behind the practice of giving in the Ise pilgrimage. In the Saigoku pilgrimage, settai is thought to have been prevalent from medieval times, but in the early modern period it declined, due to the increase in the 212  Shinjo (1982), 1080,1084. Note the family's henro was prolonged as one fell ill en route. 213  These henro have received much attention by scholars. See for example, Yoritomi and Shiraki (2001), 173-175;183-184; Maeda (1971). 214  Laura Nenzi has produced a chart outlining the four peaks. See Nenzi (2006), 77. 85 leisurely elements in the pilgrimage, which rendered the pilgrims more secular than sacred, and the commercialization in the communities along the pilgrimage route.215 In Shikoku too, the practice of settai and the host society's perception of henro were complicated by social factors. As Reader shows, because the pilgrimage attracted those purged from mainstream society—such as fugitives from the law, sufferers of diseases, and the impoverished—they were seen to dwell on the margins of not only this and other realms, but also of society; many pilgrims were potentially disruptive and dangerous. Some manipulated their sacred associations to extract as much as they could from the residents through settai. They also resorted to theft and/or forced-selling of sketchy medicines or other unwanted items, stressing that not buying them would result in a divine curse. For these "corrupt" pilgrims, henro was a means of living a better life than would otherwise be the case, without henro.211 These negative characteristics of unsavory pilgrims caused the people of Shikoku to perceive them as "sacred thieves and contagious saints," as summed brilliantly by Reader.218 Recent studies have shed much light to the practice of settai, highlighting important social factors that contributed to the perseverance of this practice. Asakawa argues that settai, as a daily practice of the Shikoku people, was not only motivated by the idea that henro might be Daishi in disguise. He reminds us that it was done periodically—more with the intent to drive away undesirable pilgrims than in expectation of merits.219 Thus, he shows that Maeda's analogy of "give and take" was not the only motivation behind this 2.5  Maeda (1971), 219; Shinjo (1982), 1094. 2.6  Reader (2005), 132. 217  Asakawa (2008), i. 218  Reader (2005), 134. 219  Asakawa (2008), 370-375. 86 practice. According to him, settai fits Pierre Bourdieu's concept of habitus as it was a durable and malleable practice based on accumulated experience of the people of Shikoku, who internalized it and carried it out perfunctorily. Moreover, he deliberates on the epistemological distinction made by the people of Shikoku between the "sincere" henro who are typically referred with an honorific ohenrosan (^o®S§ £ A/), and "undesirable" or "beggar" henro who were labeled in many communities in Shikoku as hendo {f^h t). The distinction, Asakawa tells us, was based on "folk knowledge" accumulated over time in the host communities of the pilgrimage. Likewise, Kouame argues that settai was embedded in the social structure of Shikoku, often conducted as planned and organized activity in the village communities. As such, it was not necessarily premised on the belief in the merit of giving and the fear of retribution that may otherwise befall, but was a practice integrated into the communal life of the Shikoku residents.220 As these scholars show, settai was not only based on the belief system that was propagated by Shinnen in Kudokuki. Nonetheless, I would maintain that sacralizing the pilgrims was a vital driving force in the prevalence and perseverance of settai in Shikoku. This is most apparent in the standardized practice, evident to this day, in which the pilgrims give afuda in return for the alms received, which is emphasized in Maeda's "give and take" analogy.221 Va&fuda would be kept by those who provided the alms as a protective amulet, and in some cases, even ground up and consumed as medicine. The idea that henro channeled merits from the sacred realm had indeed taken root in Shikoku. It was also closely related, as Moreton shows, to the widespread piety of Kobo Daishi in Shikoku. Daishi is commonly referred to as odaishi- 220  Reader (2005) 125. 221  According to Asakawa, this resembles Marshall Sahlins's model of transactions of "balanced reciprocities."Asakawa (2008), 212. 87 san or its abbreviated form, odaissan in Shikoku, and is the most accessible and familiar of the deities, which was doubtless not unrelated to the image of Daishi wandering on the pilgrimage route in the disguise of a henro. Even in the present period, people of Shikoku are heard to say that odaissan tests them, referring to the undesirable henro who beg at their doorstep, one of whom might just be Kobo Daishi in disguise.222 Although settai was practiced in other pre-modern pilgrimages as well, what stood out in Shikoku was the extent to which it was buttressed by the communities of Shikoku, and its persistence to the modern period. As we have seen, this practice was sustained by the folk perception that rendered henro sacred, which had been firmly set in place by the late seventeenth century when the pilgrimage began to attract a large number of people.223 Sacralizing of the pilgrims was indeed a crucial part of the pilgrimage mechanism of Shikoku henro, as it was inseparable from the widespread practice of settai that supported the pilgrimage. Moreover, the practice had become interwoven into the daily lives of the Shikoku residents. 222  Asakawa (2008), 435. 23  This was not the only factor in the longevity of settai. Sato Hisamitsu lists other factors as follows: (1) the relative underdevelopment of the travel infrastructure made the pilgrimage physically demanding, which prompted people to give alms to assist the henro; (2) many henro were poor and ill, who were prone to "collapse en route" (yukidaore fj # {SltV), in many cases even dying en route. This would be a great inconvenience to the host communities as they would be obliged to provide care for them or assist their repatriation to their place of origin (see Kouame {1997}). To minimize this, the people gave them alms to assist their travel; (3) settai was a vicarious means to receive benefits from the pilgrimage. When one could not go on the pilgrimage himself/herself, he/she could give alms to the henro and expect similar benefits. See Sato (2006), 78. 88 Chapter 4: The Actors in the Popularization Process We have seen above that the sanctity in Shikoku henro was dispersed to the entire island, rather than being focused solely on the fudasho, and that this was, in part, the result of the relative lack of invovement of the fudasho in the pilgrimage. Then, this begs the question— who was it who facilitated the popularization of the pilgrimage? I have touched on the involvement of Shinnen in the pilgrimage and noted that he has been dubbed as the "father of henro.'1'' In this section, I will further examine the involvement or lack thereof of the fudasho in the pilgrimage, and discuss the activities of Shinnen, as it related to the pilgrimage, with the aim of highlighting the people involved in its popularization process. It seems inescapable that Shinnen was the leader in the movement to popularize henro. He commanded various projects that promoted the pilgrimage, and, in effect, he triggered its tremendous growth from the late seventeenth century onwards. To recap, there were three parts in his involvement with the pilgrimage, which in the following discussion I will refer to as his henro project. First, through his own extensive time spent in Shikoku, he consolidated the physical pilgrimage route and contributed to building the infrastructure of the pilgrimage. These efforts were manifest in the guidebook, Michishirube, and in the route markers he erected along the pilgrimage route. Second, he was the driver behind the publication of three seminal texts on henro, Michishirube (1687), Reijoki (1689), and Kudokuki (1690), together dubbed the "Shinnen series" by Asakawa. This served to publicize the pilgrimage to the public at large, catalyzing its unprecedented boom. Third, he solicited support for henro from the public. One way that he did this was by encouraging the practice of settai to assist the pilgrims. Another method was rallying support from the public to carry out his henro projects. He also showed the way personally by doing the 89 pilgrimage about twenty times himself and actually dying on the pilgrimage; it is clear that henro had become his lifework. He also provided a wealth of data in his three books, from which we can discern the people who supported his projects and, by extension, those who contributed to the development of the pilgrimage. 4.1 . The Making of Shikoku Reijdki Reijdki, as mentioned above, was a collection of detailed engi of each fudasho. Thus, the book was essentially a promotion of the fudasho institutions, although it generally did not list the miracle stories associated with the pilgrimage. And, as such, it appears as though it reflected the interests of the fudasho. But even here, the involvements of the fudasho appear to have had been limited. Consider, for example, the process by which this book came into being. This was a book not written by the representatives of the fudasho but by a third party group organized by Shinnen. In the afterword to the book, an affiliate of the Gomado hermitage at Koyasan Okunoin (ifSSP \h%$%WkM.isL), by the name of Kotaku, said that he and Shinnen conducted fieldwork in Shikoku to collect data to write the book. Then this data was presented to Jakuhon at Koyasan, who agreed to write the book.224 The book was the result of a joint effort by Shinnen, Kotaku, and Jakuhon, none of whom were affiliated with any of the fudasho. To the extent that the engi of the fudasho was provided, the fudasho did contribute to the book, but the actual planning and the production of the book came from elsewhere. Hence, Reijdki does not represent an effort by the fudasho to promote themselves or the pilgrimage. Jakuhon (1689), 407; Yoritomi and Shiraki (2001), 123. 90 4.2. Selling Pilgrimage Books It is also interesting to learn where Michishirube, Reijoki, and Kudokuki were sold. Unlike the guidebooks and books on miracle stories of other pilgrimages such as the Kannon pilgrimages, they were not sold at any of the fudasho but at merchants' establishment in Osaka and Shikoku.225 When Michishirube was first published, it was sold at two merchant houses in Osaka, one merchant house each in Awa and Sanuki, and at a temple in Uwajima of Iyo called Manganji.226 The involvement of Manganji is particularly curious, as it was not a fudasho, but evidently Shinnen was well acquainted with it. In fact, Shinnen sought to help the temple by selling Michishirube and Reijoki here, allocating the revenue toward the necessary repairs of the temple.227 Then, three years later, when Kudokuki was published, there were two additional sales outlets of the books: a merchant house at Koyasan Odawara, and a merchant house in Tosa.228 With this, the books were available at all four provinces in Shikoku, and in Osaka and Koyasan, but not at any of the fudasho. That Koyasan has been included here was indicative of the fact that henro developed in close connection with the worship and pilgrimage to Koyasan, which flourished in the Tokugawa period.229 Why were these books not sold at fudasho? One reason for this is that Shinnen, despite his extensive time spent in Shikoku and his thorough knowledge of each fudasho, does not appear to have developed a formal relationship with the fudasho. For instance, even though 25  For example, according to MacWilliams, the engi that propagated the efficacies of the Bando Kannon pilgrimage were sold at fudasho. MacWilliams (1997), 381. 226  Shinnen (1687), 21. 227  Shinnen (1687), 182. 228  Shinnen (1690) (trans), 9. There were slight changes in where the books were sold at this time. For example, Manganji no longer sold them, as a merchant house in Uwajima replaced it as a sales outlet in lyo, and in Osaka, one of the two sales outlets changed. 229  Reader notes that Shinnen helped "intensify the link" between Koyasan, Kobo Daishi, and Henro. Reader (2005), 119. 91 he mentions the names of innumerable individuals who supported the henro in Michishirube, he does not mention even one person affiliated with a fudasho. And not one fudasho was listed as a possible accommodation for henro, when he listed other hermitages and some non-fudasho temples as available accommodations in Shikoku.230 It appears that there was some distance between Shinnen and fudasho. 4.3. Fudasho and the Pilgrimage Then a bigger question is why were fudasho not involved in Shinnen's henro project and by extension—the movement to popularize the pilgrimage? One possible reason is that Shinnen was not interested in an association with the fudasho. It is possible that he, like Miyazaki who is among the leading advocates of the pilgrimage in the present day, emphasize the act and the "path" of the pilgrimage more than its designated stops. And since there are eighty-eight fudasho, it would have been a challenge to form associations with all fudasho. Nevertheless, the lack of influence of any fudasho affiliates in his projects is striking, particularly in comparison with other pilgrimages of the period. For instance, while he approached monks at Koyasan to write the foreword, afterword, and even the body of henro books, none of the affiliates of the fudasho were involved in producing any part of the three books.231 Could not a monk at Zentsuji, for instance, have been approached by Shinnen to contribute to the book? We may never know if Shinnen ever sought support from the fudasho, but we can see from surviving records that the activity of the fudasho in Shinnen's projects was quite limited. 230  Hermitages here are to what Shinnen refers to as Daishido, which provided shelter for Henro. He also lists a non-fudasho temple near Yakuqji which was one of the ekiroji built by Awa daimyo to provide accommodation for Henro. Shinnen (1687). 231  The foreword to Michishirube was written by Kotaku, a monk at Koyasan Okunoin; Reijoki was written by Jakuhon as described above, and its afterword was written by Kotaku; and the foreword of Kudokuki was written by Jakuhon. 92 In this section, I will attempt to solve this riddle, which, in my view, is related to the "ambivalent" characteristics of this pilgrimage that many scholars talk about. There are three factors that can be analyzed to discover the lack of involvement of the fudasho: (1) the ambiguity of the pilgrimage, (2) the religious policy of the state, and (3) economic implications. First, as discussed above, the pilgrimage was centered upon the worship of Kobo Daishi, who was not the main figure of worship at the fudasho. This worship was integral to many fudasho institutions, particularly to those that belonged to the Shingon sect. Just the same, the worship of Daishi as seen in the pilgrimage culture—namely that Daishi was a "living deity" present in Shikoku—was based more on folk belief than on the doctrines of the organized Shingon sect. By extension, the popular pilgrimage culture spearheaded by Shinnen was an expression of popular beliefs that incorporated the religious institutions of fudasho, but was not limited to them. Hence henro was an ambiguous phenomenon from the perspective of the fudasho, which is related to the next point. Second, the religious policy implemented by the Tokugawa bakufu, the central government of early modern Japan, had tightly organized Buddhist institutions based on the hierarchical head-branch system (honmatsu seido Jf%.M$L), and subjected them to the codes issued on sectarian basis {hatto W^S.), which enabled the bakufu, though with some limitations, to subjugate religious organizations under its authority.233 The pilgrimage, then, was comprised of eighty-eight independent religious institutions, which overstepped boundaries in both the sectarian and head-branch affiliations. It also was located over a 232  For instance, Asakawa, Hoshino, and Reader use this term. See Asakawa (2008), Hoshino (2001), and Reader (2005). 233  Tamamuro (1987). 93 wide geographical area, extending beyond the framework of religious organizations as set forth by the bakufu.234 Further, the fudasho, which were for the most part, branch temples, could not freely associate with other temples, for they submitted to the authority of the head temples, which reserved the right to appoint and dismiss monks at the branch temples.235 Under this circumstance, the fudasho may have been disinclined to officially engage in the pilgrimage. Moreover, religious professionals (i.e., monks and nuns) fit into bakufu's religious policy within the framework of the head-branch system, and performed the quasi-official function of certifying the non-Christian identity of the danna patrons. They were fully recognized, while those outside of the framework, namely mobile religious professionals who wayfared to proselytize and solicit alms, were generally banned.236 Thus, the policy-makers made a distinction between "official" and "marginal" religious professionals, and the bakufu took measures to contain the latter. Shinnen was a "marginal" religious professional, and fudasho, as an "official" religious institution, could have been constrained politically from openly supporting his activities. And third, it was likely relevant that the designation as a fudasho brought little or no economic benefit to the fudasho. Neither Chozen's diary nor Shinnen's books indicate any economic transaction in which henro paid fees to fudasho}31 One source of income that henro brought to fudasho was the fees collected for stamping the pilgrim's stamp-book 234  Hoshino emphasizes that the disparity of the sectarian affiliations of the fudasho and the wide geographical area that separated the fudasho was the key reason why Shikoku Henro never developed an effective central organization. See Hoshino (2001), 91-92.. 235  Tamamuro (1987), 46. 236  Tamamuro (1987), 100-101. 37  The exception to this would be Ch5zen's hiring of a pilgrimage guide (sendatsu) at Shosanji and Tairyflji, who took him on an ascetic tour of hidden places of worship and austerity sites around the precinct. However, the fee was paid to the guide, not to the temple. See Chozen (1653), 315, 317. 94 (nokyocho S^HitS). Maeda notes that the oldest surviving nokyocho in Shikoku is dated from the Genroku era (1688-1704). 238 It appears, however, that nokyocho became widespread later, from around the Horeki era (1751-1764), when the standardized inscriptions in the nokyocho were simplified and the number of surviving books increased.239 Shinnen emphasized the offering of fuda, but not the stamping of the nokyocho?*0 Since offering of the fuda does not involve an economic transaction, it is likely that the pilgrims did not spend much money at fudasho until the later Tokugawa period. Another historically contingent factor is the relative economic stability of the Buddhist temples in this period, resulting from the proliferation of the danka system. In this system, the draconian anti-Christian policy of the bakufu, "in alliance with Buddhism" turned the entire population of Japan into loyal Buddhists, who not only had their annual anti-Christian inspection run by their affiliated Buddhist temples but also had the death rituals monopolized by that temple.241 This meant that the temples generally had a sound foundation of income and did not need to proselytize to cultivate new followers.242 The fudasho in Shikoku, for the most part, were danka temples that had stabilized their operations by the late seventeenth century, when Shinnen was fervent in promoting the pilgrimage. It is no wonder that the fudasho were not excessively thrilled about the pilgrimage, which brought them only minor economic benefits. Maeda (1971), 55-56. Shikoku Henro kenkyu-kai (2004a), 7. Shikoku Henro kenkyukai (2004b), 8. Hur(2007), 103. Tamamuro (1987), 62. 95 In sum, the pilgrimage was far from being central to the operation of the fudasho institutions. The practice was neither formulated nor endorsed by them. As we have seen, it was the ascetics from outside Shikoku who initiated the pilgrimage practice. Even when it became a highly popular pilgrimage, it was still of minor interest for them. In fact, Mori Masato points out that the fudasho tended to be indifferent to the pilgrimage—even in the modern era.243 For instance, one henro book from the post-war period criticized the, fudasho as being inconsiderate to the henro. According to Mori, only in the late 1980s, after the pilgrimage has been "commodified," did Reijokai, the association of the fudasho, begin to develop a "host consciousness" and undertake measures to enhance the pilgrims' experience of Shikoku henro. The movement to popularize the pilgrimage was initiated and carried out outside the main offices of the fudasho institutions. A similar pattern has been noted for the Saigoku pilgrimage by Yoshii Toshiyuki, who demonstrated that in Saigoku, only low-ranking monastic personnel actively promoted the pilgrimage in the late medieval period.244 They are called kanjin hijiri (Iftliilll), consisting mostly of bikuni and yamabushi, who raised funds from the public to finance various temple projects such as renovation. According to Yoshii, when soliciting for funds, it was effective to stress the temples' designation as the fudasho of the Kannon pilgrimage. These kanjin hijiri also acted as sendatsu, taking laypeople along the Saigoku pilgrimage, which of course, contributed to the spread of the pilgrimage. On the other hand, however, the main offices of the Saigoku fudasho were generally indifferent to being a. fudasho, and had little or no part in spreading the pilgrimage. Yoshii argues that it was the low-ranking kanjin hijiri who advocated the Kannon 243  Mori (2005), 183. 244  Yoshii (1996). 96 pilgrimage and facilitated its popularization. He further stressed that it was only later in the early modern period—after the kanjin hijiri had been eliminated—that the main offices of fudasho became engaged in promoting the pilgrimage, largely for financial reasons. A notable difference with Shikoku is that whereas the kanjin hijiri in Saigoku were directly affiliated with the fudasho institutions, Shinnen in Shikoku had no such affiliations. He appears to have been relatively independent from religious orders and based his activities on mendicancy and itinerant proselytizing. Hence, his involvement in the pilgrimage was voluntary. Why then did he go so far as to dedicate so much time and energy in the development of the pilgrimage? For one thing, he was a mendicant who based his life on itinerant religious practices, proselytizing and soliciting alms from the people in the communities that he visited. Second, he was a devotee of Kobo Daishi. This was important because it served as common ground between his activities and those of the Koyasan monks, such as Jakuhon, who contributed to producing momentous henro texts. This collaboration "authenticated" the pilgrimage with Koyasan's stamp of approval.245 And most fascinatingly, he had dedicated his life to the pilgrimage. As Reader notes, there is an "addictive" element to the pilgrimage that impels some people: (1) to keep coming back to do the pilgrimage, in what is sometimes labeled "Shikoku sickness" {Shikoku byd E9 Wl'M), or (2) to make the pilgrimage a way of life. That is, as opposed to the pilgrimage being an ephemeral experience away from daily life, it 245  Reader (2005), 119. To be sure, Jakuhon was "selective" in approving certain aspects of the pilgrimage. He did not, for example, recognize the numbering system, as mentioned above. He also dismissed as nonsense the goeika (pilgrimage songs) that were an important aspect of the popular pilgrimage. However, he did acknowledge the validity of the pilgrimage itself and acclaimed it as an efficacious means to practice Buddhism. 97 becomes the central part of their lives. Shinnen would fit into (2) here, since, for him, henro was the "raison d'etre" of his life. His commitment extended to the development of the pilgrimage, rallying support from the public to build infrastructure such as route markers, encouraging the practice of settai, and producing texts to publicize the pilgrimage. As Reader shows, historically, Shinnen was not the only person who had made the pilgrimage the centre of his/her life. Most notable of other henro devotees was Nakatsuka M5hei, who did the pilgrimage 282 times in the Meiji and Taisho periods, erected 237 route markers, and produced a guidebook.247 In the present day, there is Miyazaki, the founder of the Henro Michi Hozon Kyoryokukai (Association of Helping to Preserve the Henro Route) who placed 2,000 route markers and published a seminal guidebook for the modern walking henro in 1990, which has been popular and meticulously updated; it was reprinted in a seventh edition in 2007.248 These individuals have made tremendous contributions to the pilgrimage culture through their devotion to the pilgrimage. In the present era, we do see more direct engagements of the fudasho with the Shikoku Reijokai (Association of the Sacred Places of Shikoku) formed by the representatives of the fudasho. Historically, among the most significant stimulations to the pilgrimage came from the devotees who were not directly affiliated with the fudasho. 4.4. Networking for Sponsors Shinnen was doubtless a seminal figure in the popularization of the pilgrimage. However, his various henro projects could not have been achieved on his own. They were made 246  Reader (2005), 249-262. 247  Reader (2005), 121-122. 248  Miyazaki (2007A) and (2007B). 98 possible by the network of supporters that he had cultivated in and out of Shikoku who provided the economic and other support for his activities. Who were his supporters and why did they aid him so faithfully? One group of supporters was the local people of Shikoku who provided lodging and other services for henro, as listed in Michishirube. But there were others. Fortunately, he left us lists of sponsors who provided the funding to publish the three books. These offer a glimpse of the people who were involved in Shinnen's project to spread the pilgrimage. Shinnen gathered a diverse array of sponsors in his book projects; they are credited at the end of the each volume, which allows us to analyze who they were and how they may have related to henro, and to Shinnen. For example, the printing of Michishirube was funded by Noguchi Han'emon of Terashima in Osaka, where Shinnen had his hermitage.249 While Michishirube only lists one sponsor, the other two books list multiple sponsors. Shinno examines the sponsors of the two-volume Kudokuki, and points out that of the twenty-five donors, seventeen were female, again with a notable portion from Terashima, but also many from Awaji Island, Awa, Tosa and Iyo.250 The gender distribution of the sponsors is a striking indication that henro had a strong following among women, and that, as Nathalie Kouame notes, the idea that female pilgrims were somehow impoverished should be altogether reconsidered.251 As a matter of fact, it was predominantly women who provided the funds to publish this influential book. 9  Shinnen (1687), 327. 0  Shinno (1991), 127. 'Reader (2003), 124. 99 Reijoki has the most expansive list of sponsors. There are names of sixty-five individuals or groups that contributed toward this seven volume work. Many of the sponsors of Reijoki were also from Osaka, Awaji Island and Shikoku, and all but a few were laypeople. A closer look reveals that there were three major categories of sponsors: merchants, seafarers, and the people who provided sponsorship as a means to memorialize the deceased members of their household. 4.4.1 . Merchants and Seafarers Reijoki was, in part, funded by merchants involved in the thriving commercial activities of the late seventeenth century. In the list of sponsors, the status as a merchant is marked by the suffix ya (M), which follows the name of the business that they were engaged in. Most merchant sponsors were based in Osaka, notably in Terashima and Dotonbori, but among them, many were from Awa, or were affiliated with commercial activity involving Awa. This is indicated by their title Awaya (|ST$£Jt) or Komatsuya (/ht&S).253 Of the fourteen sponsors in volume two, five had either one of these two titles,254 and they appear consistently in other volumes as well. What were these merchants doing in Osaka? According to Yasuoka Shigeaki, the late seventeenth century was when specialty commodities from the regions were being distributed into Osaka, the hub of the early modern economic system, by certain merchant Sponsors are listed in all but volume six of the seven volume series. ~ 53  Komatsu is present-day Komatsushima in Tokushima, where Onzanji (no. 18) and Tatsueji (no. 19) are located. 254  Jakuhon (1689), 150. Of the four, two were definitely based in Osaka, as they are listed as Awaya Denkichi of Ddtonbori, and Awaya Mohe of the same place (^MMM^.W^'a WtfftViffiMjS.&M). The two others appear to be from Osaka as well. Their names, Awaya J6k5 and Awaya Kyube (ffi$LBk¥fryt M SEll^Lja^itf) appear without the indicator of their location. However, since they follow the listing of sponsors from DStonbori, they too were likely from D5tonbori in Osaka. 100 households that handled commodities from a particular region. In Awa, indigo, salt, sugar and lumber were been shipped out of Muya port in the early modern period,256 and indigo, specifically, was known to have been distributed in Osaka by the mid- to late seventeenth century.257 These merchant-sponsors were likely involved in this growing commercial link between Awa and Osaka,258 and Shinnen was successful in tapping into this commercial network to seek patrons who supported his publishing projects. Another prominent group of sponsors were from the Shiwaku Islands, a group of islands in the Inland Sea between Sanuki and Bizen. The people of Shiwaku were known for their exceptional skills in maritime navigation and in shipbuilding. When Reijoki was written, it was the "golden age" of the Shiwaku seafarers. They served the official function for the bakufu in transporting rice, the key commodity in the early modern economy. The ships went from Dewa in northern Honshu to the capital in Edo, by a shipping route known as the western shipping route (nishimawari kdro MM X) )K5§).259 This route involved navigating down along the western coast of Honshu from the northern domains to Shimonoseki, then turning into the Inland Sea toward Osaka, and then to Edo. Volume one of Reijoki appears to have been funded primarily by the people involved along this shipping route. In fact, five of the ten sponsors were from Ushijima in Shiwaku, which was one of the bases of their seafaring operation. Two more sponsors to this volume were from Dewa, one of whom, 255  Yasuoka (1975), 277. 256  Ishiodori (2006), 135. 257  Miyoshi (1975), 140. 258  Hoshino notes this also. Hoshino (2001). 259  Yukino (1979), 255. 260  Maruya Gozaemon, of Ushijima, who is said to have been a warrior of Bizen and who fought in Hideyoshi's invasion of Korea, was a leading figure among the seafarers of Ushijima, see Yukino (1979), 260. For the development of the "official" seafarers of Shiwaku, that is, those "hired" by the bakufu (kansen HTfn), see Seto (1982), 114-115. 101 Itoya Sohichi, was also a sponsor of Kudokuki. As Kondo Yoshihiro mentions, it proves that the worship of Shikoku henro had diffused as far north as Dewa.262 But more specifically, the worship had diffused along the sea lane, which was a pattern also shared with other notable pilgrimage sites such as Konpira and Osorezan.263 The sponsors that Shinnen acquired for Reijoki were naturally contingent on the economic developments of his time. The sacred pilgrimage of Shikoku spread partially through the channels provided by the markets of early modern period. 4.4.2. In Commemoration of the Deceased Another notable category of sponsors were those who sought the sponsorship to memorialize the deceased members of the household. This type of sponsor is easily distinguishable, because in the list of sponsors, their names are followed by the word "for" {tame ^ ) and the posthumous Buddhist title of the deceased (kaimyo $c4a). For example, Awaya Mohei of Dotonbori in Osaka dedicated his donation to four deceased individuals, Joun, Kyou, Eiho, and Kazen (# -S , %M, zkf^, "THr).264 In Reijoki, ten of the sixty five sponsors fell into this category. In fact, Shinnen successfully rallied sponsors to his henro projects by emphasizing the merits it would bring for the family members in the afterlife. Salvation of the "six types of kin" (7\ | ! ) was a key word that he used to obtain financial support, not only in the printing of books but also in erecting route markers along the henro route. The names of twenty-five sponsors of Kudokuki are listed following the phrase, "for salvation of all kindred for seven 261  Jakuhon (1689), 79, Shinnen (1690), 518. 262  Kondo (1982), 266. 263  For the analysis of Konpira worship in relation to the developments in maritime navigation, see Thai (2005). For Osorezan, see Miyazaki and Williams (2001). 264  Jakuhon (1689), 150. 102 generations" (^/N|i#S^1£5£#ilpJ!§-t!l), indicating that the donation had been given in the name of post-death salvation for all family members. In addition, thirty-three of his path markers have been identified by Kiyoyoshi Eitoku. Each have a standard inscription above the name and address of the sponsor that says, "for father, mother, and six types of kin" ( ^ ^ - S T / N H ) . 2 6 6 There are different conclusions that can be drawn from this. First, since the deceased had a kaimyo, we can determine that a Buddhist death ritual had already been performed for them by a bodaiji ( # $ ! # ) , a funerary temple that came hand in hand with the danka system,267 and as such, the memorializing here was done in addition to the standard Buddhist death rituals conducted in what has been dubbed "funerary Buddhism."268 Second, making offerings to the deceased household members indicate that the sponsors had a "household consciousness" characteristic of this period, in which the welfare of the household was thought to be dependent on the care provided for the dead members of the household by its living members.269 Third, sponsoring henro was believed to be efficacious for post-death salvation. This notion provided a way in which people could relate to henro, and by the same token, it enabled Shinnen to solicit charity from them to finance his henro projects. It also shows that the concern for the afterlife was paramount for the people in the late seventeenth century. Death had become one of the sources of meaning for this pilgrimage. It was nothing new. We have seen that when Chozen did his pilgrimage in 1653, there were fervent "afterlife 265  Shinnen (1690), 518. 266  Ehime-ken (2001), 229. 267  Hur (2007). 268  The term coined by Tamamuro Taijo. See Hur (2007), 20-21. 269  Hur (2007), 201-205. 103 wishers" who provided him general hospitality. This continues to be an important theme in the pilgrimage. For Shinnen, the notion of salvation in the afterlife not only allowed him to raise funds to promote henro but also served to create a wider appeal of the pilgrimage by catering to the universal concern that people had for death. In soliciting for funds, he tailored this association to the "household consciousness" and the practice of ancestral veneration that became prominent at the time. It was by such an interactive process that death became firmly incorporated into the belief system of henro. 4.4.3. Other Sponsors Of the sixty-five sponsors, only two were religious institutions. This included one temple in Awa called Amidaji, and one hermitage (tsujido i t ! £ ) in Iyo, both of which were represented by a monk.270 There was also one nun, although her whereabouts and institutional affiliation were not specified.271 Moreover, fudasho institutions or their affiliates do not appear as sponsors or benefactors in any of Shinnen's undertakings. In sum, the majority of the sponsors of Shinnen were laypeople, and a sizable portion were merchants. Shinnen likely targeted this group when he solicited sponsorship, and emphasized that sponsorship would be meritorious to the afterlife. The popularization of henro was facilitated by Shinnen and his sponsors who provided the necessary resource to commence his projects. Instead of the fudasho, it was the network that Shinnen cultivated that assembled the framework of popular henro. °Jakuhon (1689) ,201, 408. 1  Jakuhon (1689), 408. 104 4.5. Un-Systematized Pilgrimage Another characteristic of Shikoku henro that contrasted from many other popular pilgrimages was that it never developed a system of facilitating and managing pilgrims. The "system of pilgrimage management," to borrow Barbara Ambros' expression,272 here refers to the system in which the institutions of a pilgrimage site, such as temples and shrines, dispatch agents to various areas in the country to promote the pilgrimage to the laypeople. These agents, usually called to as oshi, shiso or sendatsu, depending on the pilgrimage site, were usually assigned a particular territory for their proselytizing activity, where they preached the merits of the pilgrimage, brought gifts and established relationship with the laypeople, to patronize them and drive them to perform the pilgrimage. This system was closely connected to the economic interests of the pilgrimage site as pilgrims were an important source of income. The agents were typically affiliated with a particular establishment within the pilgrimage site, such as a sub-temple. They sought to patronize potential pilgrims to monopolize services offered to them at the pilgrimage site. These services included accommodations and religious services. As such, this system was managed by the institution of the pilgrimage site which sought to expand its economic base by attracting more pilgrims. It was a systematic management of the pilgrimage that formed the link between the potential pilgrims and the sacred place, and a critical component of many thriving pilgrimages in pre-modern Japan such as Ise, Koyasan, Kumano, and Oyama. The lack of such systematized pilgrimage management in Shikoku meant that the pilgrimage did not have the direct link with the potential pilgrims that many other Ambros (2001), 369. 105 pilgrimages had.273 On a related note, there was also no pilgrimage guide (sendatsu %M) in pre-modern Shikoku that took the pilgrims on the henro route,274 who were seen in Kumano and Saigoku in medieval times, and at some mountain pilgrimage sites in the early modern times. There are records that show that individual fudasho did take measures to attract pilgrims. This included staging venues to display their otherwise "hidden" chief deities to the public (kaicho ISifeS). However, such efforts did not include developing a system of dispatching agents to attract pilgrims. That the pilgrimage did not develop these systems show that fudasho institutions were limited in diversifying the scope of economic activity in response to the growing pilgrimage, and that the degree of commercialization in henro remained modest in comparison to other pilgrimage sites. For instance, until the 1960's, fudasho in Shikoku generally did not provide commercial lodging for the pilgrims,275 and, as Reader and Constantine Vaporis note, there was a "relative lack of brothels" and other paying avenues for entertainment on the henro route.276 To be sure, there are two tiers when analyzing the commercialization of a pilgrimage site. One is the diversification of the activities of the actual temples and shrines, such as their directing a pilgrimage management system and temple lodging. Second is the development 273  Hoshino (2001), 91. 274  There are records of localized sendatsu pilgrimage guides within & fudasho in the mid-seventeenth century. For instance, Chozen was guided by a shugenja-\ikc sendatsu at Shosanji (no. 12) and Tairyuji (no. 21), who took him to various hidden places in the precinct and led ascetical liturgies. These sendatsu, however, do not appear to have drawn potential pilgrims to the pilgrimage sites. Rather, they provided guide service for the pilgrims who were already at the pilgrimage site. See Chozen (1653). 75  Mori (2005), 167. From surviving pilgrimage diaries from the Tokugawa period, there were indeed cases where the pilgrims stayed a night at a temple. For instance, Kanetaro from Tosa who did the Henro in 1805 stayed at lyadaniji (no. 71). However, this temple appears to have offered near-free lodging for the Henro. Whereas he often paid the "firewood fees" (kichin T^jf) at most other accommodations, there was no such fees here and he only paid the "rice fee," or cost for a meal. (Shikoku Henro kenkyukai {2003}, 36). However, these instances are quite rare. 276  Reader (2005), 130. 106 of a temple town (monzenmachi FIRIJPT) where commercial establishments offered various forms of entertainment for the pilgrims; this became an important feature for pilgrimage culture in the early modern period.277 By and large, the boom in pilgrimage had fewer economic implications in Shikoku in comparison to other pilgrimage sites. This is partly why Shikoku henro never developed a system to manage and deal with the pilgrims. 4.6. Information The key in understanding the spread of Shikoku henro to a mass population is information. By information, we refer to the dissemination of the sacred image of Shikoku, which circulated to the public through texts, word of mouth, and entertainment. This was particularly important for Shikoku, because unlike other major pilgrimage sites, it lacked the direct contacts between the pilgrimage site and the potential pilgrims; there was no pilgrimage management system. We have seen that the sacred image of Shikoku was first publicized on a mass scale by the publication of Michishirube, Reijoki, and Kudokuki in the late seventeenth century. This was a major event in the development of the pilgrimage, facilitating the flow of information to the undisclosed readership in early modern Japan. The commercial publishing industry was just beginning to boom, and, in particular, the travel-oriented literature.278 During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, more material on henro was produced, including Shikoku Henro Ezu, the first map of henro produced in 1763, and Shikoku Henro Meishozue of 1800. Like the three books above, these texts were detailed guides for the pilgrim. Again, these were not produced hyfudasho or their affiliates. They boosted the awareness of henro in the public and likely contributed to the boom in the 77  For instance, according to Foard, the 1848 guide of the Saigoku pilgrimage called Saikoku Sanjusankasho Meisho Zue provides a detailed account of the pleasure elements available at the temple town of Hasedera, the eighth temple on the circuit; it was so thorough that it required ten heavily illustrated volumes! See Forward (1982), 238. 278  Berry (2006). 107 pilgrimage population in the mid to late eighteenth and early nineteenth century. These texts were a major factor in publicizing and exposing the pilgrimage to the public and thereby encouraging them to do the pilgrimage. The sacred image of Shikoku was also spread informally, based on oral communication through commercial, personal and other relationships in the early modern Japanese society. The commercial network between Awa and Osaka and the shipping route between Dewa and Osaka, for example, provided an arena where people could exchange not only trade commodities but also information such as the wondrous cure of illness promised at an efficacious pilgrimage place. Also, as more pilgrims came to Shikoku, they, too, would be important source of information about the Shikoku henro upon their return home. They would tell others about their experiences and the stories that they had heard in Shikoku, thus reproducing the sacred images of Shikoku in their home communities. Some of these experiences were recorded in the form of travelogues that survive to the present day, but naturally, there would have been many more pilgrims who did not write about their experience in Shikoku but shared their pilgrimage experience orally with others. Entertainment also helped to spread the sacredness of Shikoku to the greater public. One of the theatrical representations of Shikoku henro was a Kabuki play in 1691 titled Shikoku henro. In this play, the merits of the pilgrimage are announced in the introduction. Although the main storyline of the play is the vengeance exacted by a widow for a murdered husband, there are incidents in the play that highlight the miraculous powers of the pilgrimage, such as the pilgrimage robe, which provides miraculous protection for one of the protagonists.279 And in the early nineteenth century, a prolific, popular writer, Jippensha Ikku, covered 279Kawai (2007), 105,110. 108 Shikoku henro in the fourteenth volume of his vastly popular Kaneno Waraji series, which mentioned, among other things, the practice of settai that was prevalent in Shikoku.280 These representations in various mediums not only forged the image of Shikoku as a very special pilgrimage place, but also spread that image to the urban and rural societies in early modern Japan. The image of Shikoku henro, circulated as information, created a powerful attraction for Shikoku, even without any systematic effort by the pilgrimage sites. Maeda (1971), 220-221. 109 Concluding Remarks This thesis has focused on how the pilgrimage that we now know as Shikoku henro had evolved. In doing so, particular attention was paid to the activities of the people involved in the pilgrimage, the religious ideas associated with their activities, and, where relevant, the historical circumstances during a particular period. It has demonstrated that the development of the pilgrimage culture in Shikoku was indeed a complicated process that incorporated the practices and ideas emanating from diverse categories of religious traditions. In the first chapter, I have shown that the pilgrimage practices of the religious specialists in the ancient to medieval period were relevant for the development of the popular pilgrimage that emerged much later. Themes such as death and afterlife, asceticism, and the piety of Kobo Daishi have been carried over to the present day. The second chapter dealt with the transformation of the loosely organized medieval pilgrimage into an organized pilgrimage of eighty-eight sites. The involvement of the Kumano shugenja was discussed, since they have been considered one of the major contributors to the pilgrimage in the medieval period. Their possible involvement in Shikoku was analyzed in relation to the larger changes that were taking place around the affiliates of the Kumano shrines at the time. The legend of Emon Saburo was examined to show that it was not necessarily an endorsement of the pilgrimage, but a story that emanated from the need of a religious institution to overcome a time of crisis. Saburo's story has been regarded as the founding legend of the pilgrimage and as evidence of Kumano shugenja involvement in the pilgrimage. 110 Following this analysis, I concluded that the Kumano shugenja were not, in fact, the major contributors of the formation of the pilgrimage as had been previously believed. By taking into account the historical records, the pilgrimage route, and the sea navigation to Shikoku, I have suggested that the pilgrimage was most extensively practiced among the ascetics of Koyasan, who had transformed it into an eighty-eight-site pilgrimage in the early seventeenth century. The third chapter investigated how the pilgrimage attracted a large number of the common people, and became a thriving, popular pilgrimage in the early modern period. Here, I focused on the developments in the late seventeenth century, particularly on the activities of a devotee of the pilgrimage, Shinnen, and analyzed how the mechanism of popular pilgrimage was set in place around this time. Two key factors in this transformation were the development of the travel infrastructure, and the formulation of a powerful sacred appeal of Shikoku that effectively lured people to do the pilgrimage. The sacred appeal of Shikoku was examined in comparison to that of other contemporaneous pilgrimages; we observed a common pattern of sacred images in early modern pilgrimages. A commonality shared with other pilgrimages was the localization of a deity to the pilgrimage space, which was considered an access point to the practical benefits dispensed by that deity. There were unique qualities to the Shikoku henro also. For instance, the dispersed sanctity and the sacralization of pilgrims—the latter being the impetus to the development of a distinctive and enduring culture of alms giving—both of which were related to the ambiguous sanctity associated with the folk worship of Kobo Daishi. The final chapter explored another peculiarity of Shikoku: the lack of involvement of the fudasho in the pilgrimage during its formative phase. In so doing, I have outlined the 111 reasons why organized religion was curiously absent from the organization and promotion of the pilgrimage: (1) the fact that the pilgrimage was based more on folk belief and practice than on the organized religions that the fudasho officially affiliated with, (2) the religious policy of the bakufu discouraged fudasho involvement in the pilgrimage, and (3) the pilgrims in the late seventeenth century brought only miniscule economic benefits to the fudasho. I have also demonstrated that even without the direct efforts of the fudasho, the pilgrimage succeeded because the sacred image of Shikoku was disseminated effectively to attract pilgrims. Major factors in the popularization were Shinnen's henro projects and the support he gathered from the laypeople in and out of Shikoku. Most strikingly, the pilgrimage's attraction hinged on the folk piety of Kobo Daishi, but nevertheless it incorporated the established religious institutions represented by the fudasho, and also had input from K5yasan. It was a product of the interactions between folk piety, itinerant proselytizers, religious authorities, the common people of Shikoku as the hosting society, and the countless pilgrims who walked the sacred pilgrimage route in Shikoku. The pilgrims were unified in the pilgrimage through the piety of Kobo Daishi and historically-determined social, economic, and political factors. In sum, Shikoku henro was a crossroad where various traditions converged, both diachronically through historical processes, and synchronically through the dynamic interaction between actors from different places on the social spectrum of a given period. 112 Prospects for Future Studies There are a vast number of studies on Shikoku henro conducted from a diverse range of academic disciples. In particular, there have been numerous studies on henro in recent years that have made tremendous contributions to our understanding, not only of this culturally-rich phenomenon, but also of the broader phenomenon of pilgrimage which is shared by cultures and religious traditions in many parts of the world.281 However, there might be room left to pursue historical inquiries further. This could be done by conducting research at fudasho that may yet have records to be unearthed, and through the investigation of local histories of the regions of Japan, where people who had done the Shikoku henro in pre-modern times may have left undiscovered records. There are three specific areas that await further investigation. First, Ishiteji incurred drastic changes from the mid-sixteenth to seventeenth centuries. It was the time when the shugenja affiliated with the Kumano shrines, who had settled at this temple, dissolved their ties to Kumano. As well, the patronage of the ruling Kono clan disintegrated, shifting the temple's base of support to the common people. In addition, a fire destroyed many halls in the precinct in 1566. Most importantly, it was the time when the pilgrimage was beginning to attract more attention. A closer examination of the temple records would enable a more detailed analysis of how this religious institution responded to the changing dynamics to maintain viability, as a period shifted from what historians generally refer to as "medieval" to what is labeled "early modern" period. Ishiteji is particularly interesting in the early modern period also because it was one of the few See for example, Asakawa (2008), Hoshino (2001), and Reader (2005). 113 fudasho in Shikoku that developed a large commercialized temple town {monzenmachi P1! fifBT), which may have been related to the Dogo hot springs in close proximity. Second, it has been thought that Shikoku henro was largely conducted on an individual basis and not on confraternities as with many other popular pilgrimages in early modern Japan.282 However, Kiyoyoshi Eitoku has discovered a pilgrimage travelogue that appears to have been based on a group pilgrimage.283 More accounts may be found of pilgrimages that were conducted on a confraternity basis; this could open up a new perspective on henro. Third, there appears to have been a close connection of the people of Tajima province to the pilgrimage. Chozen noted in 1653 that in Byobugaura, the site of Kaiganji, which is claimed to be the birthplace of Kobo Daishi, there was a hall built by a merchant from Tajima who was a devotee of Daishi. Then the first map of the pilgrimage, Shikoku Henro Ezu of 1763 was produced by Hosoda Shuei from Tajima. The replicated henro in Shodoshima on the Inland Sea, presently part of Kagawa prefecture in Shikoku, has historically drawn pilgrims from Tajima area. Could it have been that the people of Tajima were fervent devotees of Daishi? Was their coming to Shikoku related to the western shipping routes that have connected the regions in the western shore of Honshu to Osaka? Exploring these points further will surely benefit our understandings of the historical aspects of this pilgrimage tradition. For instance, Shinjo notes this. Shinjo (1982), 724. 283  Shikoku Junpai Hizuke-cho, from 1828, indicated that it was a record of the Suehiro confraternity (Suehiro-ko T^JEIS) from Harima province. See Kiyoyoshi (2007), 3. 114 Reference List Primary Materials Arai Raisuke §f#$Sifc. 1819. Shikoku junpai nikki i l l f f 012. In Hiroe Kiyoshi j£?X in, ed. 1966. Kinsei Tosa henro shiryo jll1i:±{£3l$& 3114^1. Kochi: Tosa Minzoku Gakkai: 88-111. Chozen M # . 1653. Shikoku henro nikki EUlJllSlr 0 12. In Kondo Yoshiriro )5MUW, ed.1982, Shikoku henro kenkyu E3H3M$f2E. Tokyo: Miyai shoten: 313-162. Denzo MM. 1828. Shikokuju oshuku narabini nyuyo hikae Hffl^Pf&jf Afflftl. In Kiyoyoshi Eitoku Hft"^^l@, ed. 2007. Shikoku henro kenkyu 26:13-34. Hirosueko JS^fll. 1828. Shikoku junpai hizukecho £9 H ^ # 0 P#i|fl. In Kiyoyoshi Eitoku l i f t pf^ltiS, ed. 2007. Shikoku henro kenkyu 26:3-12. Jakuhon M^. 1689. Shikoku reijoki Eff l f i#f2 7 vols. In Kondo Yoshiriro i&MlSrW; ed. 1973. Shikoku reijdkishu E9 E5JI. Tokyo: Benseisha, 3-410. Kanetaro Jfcfcgp. 1805. Shikokuju michisuji nikki Eg|IIcf1jif& 0 15. In Shikoku henro kenkyukai EgHi§3§W2E^,ed. 2003. Shikoku henro kenkyu sosho H H i I M 1 ^ M M , vol.2. Kochi: Shikoku henro kenkyukai. Kenmyo RBJ!. 1638. Kushoho shinno Shikoku reijo gojunkoki ^\§&M3.BWiW§;MM fTf2. In Iyo shidankai f f^5£t£#,ed. 1994. Shikoku henro kishu B @ S ^ I 5 H . Matsuyama: Aoba tosho. Ryosen sqjo ^flilf^IE. 1384. Saigoku junrei engi BH)lHfll^^2. In Ryaku engi kenkyukai ,ed. 1999. Ryaku engi: Shiryo to kenkyu l£ff |2 • g5(Sf £ $f 2E, vol.2. Tokyo: Bensei shuppan. 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Shikoku henro no kenkyu KHiS^CO^f^S. Kyoto: Kokusai nihon bunka kenkyu senta. Yoshii Toshiyuki "n #S&#. 1996. Saigokujunrei no seiritsu to junrei jiin no sosikika ffiH MtKD&fi. h Wh^finfOfflftfiC. In Shinno, ed. Honzon junrei :£SSWL.Tokyo: Yuzankaku: 46-67. Yunoki Manabu tt^^. 1979. Kinsei kain iunshi no kenkyu )5.WMM^.<D^^. Tokyo: Hosei daigaku shuppannkyoku. 123 Appendices Figure 1 Kobo Daishi from Shikoku Henro Michishirube IS SHI 124 Figure 2. Seventeenth Century Henro From Shikoku Henro Michishirube. 125 Figure 3. The Map of Shikoku Henro Map of the Shikoku Pilgrimage From Muro and Moreton (2008). Figure 4. The Current Names of the Fudasho Tokushima prefecture 1 Ryozenu 2 Gnkuraku|i 3 Kon&enjs 4 Dumrhiji 5 ]i2d|t SKunudamji 9 Honnji 10 Kiflluiaii 11 Ri|udcia 12 Shosan)i 15Kokubun)i 16 Ktnnon)i 1? ldo|i 18 Onzaoji 19 Tarsucii 22Byodon 23 Yak\ioji 6 Anrakuji 7 Jtkakuji 13 Datnichiji 14 Jorakuji 20 Kakurui)i 21 Tauyuji Kochi Prefecture 24 Hossunus»kiji25 Shinshoji 31 Qukunnji 32 Zrniibuj] 38 Kongofukuji 39 Enkop 26 Kongfichdp 27 Konomincii 28 Dauiichiji 33 >ekkeiji 34 Tancman 35 Kjyocikip 29 Kokubunn 30 Zenrakuji 36 Shoryuji 37 Iwamotoji Ehime Prefecture 40 Kanjizaifi 47 Yasaka|i 54 Knmwji 61 K6on;i 41 Ryiikoji 48 Sutuiji 55 Nankobo 62 H6|U|i 42 Bu(suraoku|t 43 Meuckip 44 Taihoji 49 J6do|i 50 Hantaji 51 libtcp 56 Taisanji 57 Eifukuji 58 Senniji 63 Kichifoji 64 Macgami|i 65 Sankak\i|i 45 Iwtyajt 46 Jomin 52 Taisanji 53 Enmyft|i 59 Kokuhunj! 60 Ynkomunc|> Kagawa Prefecture 66l'np«nji 67 Diikoji 68 Juincin 73Shu*shaku|i 74 Koyama)! 75 Zmrsuii 80 Kokuburi|i 81 Shiromtncti 82 Negoroii 87 Nagaoii 88 Okuboji 69 Kannonji 70 Motoyamaji 71 lyadaniji 72 Maodartfi 76 Kotizoji 77 D6ryu|i 78 Gosbop 79 Tenn&ji 83 Ichinormyaii 84 Yashimaji 85 Yakutiii 86 Shtdoji From Muro and Moreton (2008). 127 Figure 5. Illustration of the Ishiteji Precinct from the Shikoku Henro Reijoki 128 Figure 6. Kobo Daishi at River Sakase From Shikoku Henro Kudokuki. 129 Figure 7. A Girl with a Wart on Her Neck From Shikoku Henro Kudokuki. 130


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