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New English : a study of the editorial documents of a Chinese-British joint EFL textbook project Fan, Yong 2009-12-31

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NEWNGLISH:ASTUDYOFTHDITORIADOCUMENTSOFCHINES-BRIISJINEFLTEXTBOKPRJECTbyYONGFANB.A.ShanxiUniversity,1996M.Ed.eijngNorm alUniversity,2004ATHESISUBMITEDINPARTIALFULFILMENTOFREQIRTSFOHEDGROFMASTEROFARTSinTheFacultyofGraduateStudies(TeachingEnglishasSecondLanguage)THEUNIVERSITYOFBRITISHCOLUMBIA(Vancouver)July2009©YongFan,2009iABSTRACTNewEnglishisaserisoftextbooksco-publishedbytheBritshandChineseforChinesestudentsinprim aryandsecondaryschools.ToexploreconflictsandnegotiationsbetwentheBritshwritersandChineseditors,thepresntstudyexam inesrevisionsandcorrectionsbasedontheeditorialworkofBook5forseniorsecondarystudentsinthetextbookseris.InlightofaliteraturereviwonisuesofvarietisofEnglish,standardEnglish,ChinaEnglish,andasignificantconnectionbetwentextbookcontentandcontext,thepresntthesifocusesonanalyseofrevisionsandcorrectionsconcerningcontentandlanguage.Relvantfindingsilustrate(1)howrevisionsandcorrectionswercariedouttoensurecontextualconnectionsbetwenthetextbookandtargetdstudentsandtheirlearning;(2)howChineseditors’understandingsofacuracywerrelatedtotraitsofnativizationofEnglishwordsintheChinesecontext;and(3)howChineseditorstriedtom aintainastandarduseofEnglishbyfollowingtraditionalgram m randofficalstandardsfortextbookpublicationinChina.ThestudyhighlightstheefortsoftheChineseditorstoachievelocaleducationalobjectives,thepragm ticfunctionofEnglishtoservetheneedsoflocalearners,andagrowingexonorm ativem odelofEnglish.iTABLEO FO O O CO NTENTSO O OAbstract..............................................iTableofContents.........................................iListofTables...........................................ivAcknowledgements........................................vDedication.............................................viIntroduction............................................1Literatureview.........................................5BritshEnglishandAm ericanEnglish............................5ConflictsbetwencontntndcontextinEnglisheducation.................6onnetingcontntwithlocal xts............................8EnglishvarietisandstandardEnglish............................9ChinaEnglish........................................13Thepresntstudy......................................20Methodology...........................................21ContextfortheNewEnglishtextbooks...........................21Particpants.........................................22Theroleoftheresarcher..................................24Datcollction........................................tlasifati......................................26FindigsandDiscusion.....................................30Revisionandcorrectionsoncontent.............................30visionsrti language...........................39Conclusion............................................57Refrences.............................................61Apendices............................................67AppendixA.........................................67B.........................................68AppendixC.........................................78ivLISTO FO O O TABLESTable1:Backgroundinform ationoftheBritshwritersandChineseditors...........23able2:Codingofrevisionsandcorrections...........................27Table3:Revisions/correctionsforcontentaboutthewestrnandothercultures........30able4:evisions/correctionsforcontentaboutChinesecultures...............32Table5:Revisions/correctionsm adebyreplacingwords....................39able6:evisions/correctionsm adebyaddingords.....................4Table7:Revisionsm adebydeletingwords............................45able8:evisions/correctionsonsingularorpluralform sofnouns..............45Table9:Revisions/correctionsontense.............................46able10:evisionsongram m ticallabels............................48Table11:Revisions/correctionsonm echanics..........................49able12:evisions/correctionsbyrephrasingtext.......................51vACK NO WLEDG MENTSK O GK O GK O GIwouldliketoexpresm ysincerappreciationtoDr.StephenCareyandDr.RyukoKubotafortheirexpertise,nergyandpenetratingquestionswhichtaughtm etothinkm oredeeplyaboutm ythesi.Iowem yparticulargratiudetom ysupervisor,Dr.LingShiwhohasguided,enlightened,andsupportedm inalthetim eofresarchforandwritngofthisthesi.Iam gratefulfortheprivilegoflearningfromhersuccinctwritngandeficentworkingstyles.Ithankm yfam ilyfortheirspiritualsupport.Specialthanksalsogtom yfriendsfortheirfaithfulnesandencouragem nt.Iam alsoindebtedtom yform ercolleaguesfortheirgenerousasitanceandkeeninterstinm yresarch.viDEICATIO NO O OTomyfamily,tomyteachersandstudents,past,presntadnfuture1INTRO DUCTIO NO OO OO OEnglishinChinahasgonethroughalonghistoryasociatedwithpolitcalreform sandsocialdevelopment(Adam son,2002).Sincetheim plem ntationoftheFourModernizations1schem eandtheReform andOpen-upPolicy2inthelate1970s,profoundchangeshavetakenplaceinChina’sEnglisheducationasconsequenceoftheam endmentofEnglishcurriculaforalthelevelsofschooling(Adam son& Morris,1997;Hu,2002;Lam ,2002).Thegeneralpublicaswelasthepolicy-m akershaverealizedtheim portanceofEnglishlanguageasm eanstoachieveawiderangeofexchangeofscience,technologyandeconomywithothercountries.Englishhasbecomeakeysubjectrequiredinsecondaryandhighereducation.Itisalsoofferdtoprim arystudentsinm aincitestartinginGrade1.OficersandworkersfromaltradesandprofesionsarealsoencouragedtolearnEnglishforthecauseofm odernization.Inseveralyears,thenumberoflearnersofEnglishinChinarosesharply,whichalm ostequaledthetotalofthoseintherestofothernon-Englishspeakingcountries(Crystal,1985).AstheReform andOpen-uppolicycontinueonagreatrscaleandtheconnectionwiththeoutsideworldstrengthensinthenearfuture,Englishisperceivedtobeam usttogainacestointernationaleconomicactivities,furthereducationandpromisngcarers.Atheturnofthe21stcentury,China’sacesiontotheWTOanditshostingofthe2008Olym picGam eshighlighteditsinvolvem entintheprocesofglobalization,andEnglishwonthenationwidepopularityandconcernam ongpeoplerangifromthepolicy-m akersandeducationalisttothegeneralpublic(Bolton,2002;Jiang,2003;Nunan,2003;Pang,Zhou& Fu,1Thesrefrtothem odernizationofChina'sindustry,agricultre,nationaldefnseandscienceandtechnolgy.2 Rform andOp-upPlicywascrieotaroundthearlybegiigofth1980sadm jorlycharcterizebytheractieofthem rket-orintedecom ydom sticalyandtedvelopm entfthediplom aticreltionshipwitWsternuntris.[Xinhua,(Octobr7,208).U.S.cholrHailsGratChagesinChinCausedbyReform andOpe-pPolicy.People’sDailyOnlie.RetrievdApril5,209,fromhtp:/nglish.pple.com .n/901/9076/9084/651041.htm ]22002).Tom etthedem andsinthegrowinginternationalcomm unicationcorrelatedwithglobalizationandtoim proveEnglisheducationatllevels,theEnglishcurriculumforBasicEducation3inChinaunderwentathorougham endmentathebeginningofthenewcentury.Thetrialim plem ntationofGuidelineforCurriculumReforminBasicEducationbytheMinistryofEducationofthePeople’sRepublicofChinainJuly2001launchedtheal-roundreform foralthesubjectsinprim aryandsecondaryschools.TheMinistryofEducationorganizeddomesticexpertsofEnglisheducationtowritethenewcuriculumguidelinesforBasicEducation,aim ngtoenhancethequalityandeficencyofEnglisheducation.Isuedin2003bytheMinistryofEducation,theexperim entalversionofEnglishCurriculumStandardsforSeniorSecondarySchools(ECSS)ilustratestheobjectivesandstructureofEnglisheducationinacirulardiagram composedoflanguageskils,languageknowledge,learningstrategis,afectionandatitudes,andculturalwarenes(seAppendixA).Thenewcurriculumaim stocultivatestudents’atitudestowardsnational,internationalandcross-culturalcomm unication,tofostertheirm otivationandinterstinlearningandim provetheirlanguageskilsaswel.Thefivecomponentsalpointtothecore,nam ely,thecomprehensivelanguagecompetence.ComparedwithpreviousEnglishsylabuses,ECSSem phasizeshumanisticvaluesinparticular(Wang& Lam ,2009)andlaysm uchatentiontostudents’learningprocessandpractialbilitytousetheirlearnedknowledgeanddevelopedskilsinrealcontexts(Jin& Cortazi,2006).Thereform ulationoftheEnglishcurriculumstandardsconsequentlyrequirednewEnglishtextbooksbecauseEnglishtextbooksinChinahadalwaysbeenwritenandcompiledinacordancewiththeguidanceofcoursesylabuses.Ithasbeenacomm onbeliefthatEnglishtextbooksarecrucialtothequalityofEnglisheducation3Itrefrstosix-yearprim aryeducationadthre-yearjuniorsecondaryandthre-yearseniorsecondaryeducation.3becausetheyarethem ostim portantsourceofEnglishinputtom anystudentsinChina(Hu,2002).Toguidetextbookwritngandcompilingandim plem ntthenewEnglishcurriculumeficently,theobjectivesofECSSaregradedintofourlevelsandfullyinterpretdwithregardtothefivecomponents(languageskils,languageknowledge,learningstrategis,afectionandatitudes,andculturalwarenes).Asform ersylabuses,theguidelineofnewcurriculumalsocontainsawordlistsuggestingthevocabularythatseniorsecondarystudentshouldm aster.ThereisalsoonechapterinECSSfocusingonsuggestionsforwritngandusingtextbooks.Inefct,itcorrespondstotheguidelineforcurriculumreform whichencouragesrelvantinstiutionsandpublishinghousestocompiletheirowntextbookswithinthefram eworkofcurriculumandbasicrequirem nts(MinistryofEducation,2001).Theopeninvitaionofcompilingtextbooksbreaksthetraditionalpaternthatonlysomekeypublishinghouseswerdesignatedtodeveloptextbooksandenablesm anyorganizationstowriteandcompileEnglishtextbooks(Zhou,2008).Them arketofEnglishtextbookshasem rged,stim ulatingm anyeducationalpublisherstoparticpateintheproductionoftextbookscompatiblewiththenewcurriculumstandards.Someofthesepublishershavebeenpublishingtextualandaudio-visualteachingm aterialsim portedfromtheUKandUSAform orethanadecade.Anumberoftheim portedEnglishbooksandprogram shavewonpopularityam ongChineselarners.Alongwithwidely-spreadorignalm ediafromthesetwocountries,BritshEnglishandAm ericanEnglishhavebecometheidealm odelsforChineseEnglishlearners,especialycollegstudents(Hu,2004;2005).Form anyChinese,itherBritshEnglishorAm ericanEnglishisundeniablytheyardsticktojudgeand4evaluatetheauthentictyofEnglishpresntedintextbooks.Therefore,sekingpartnersfromtheUKorUSAtoco-publishtextbooksisaprefrenceforChinesepublishers.Intheory,thepublicationofEnglishtextbooksforseniorsecondaryschoolsiopentoalqualifedpublishers;however,theMinistryofEducationpresrvesthesupervisionofthequalityandcontentoftextbooksduetothefacthatseniorsecondaryeducationistheprerquisiteforhighereducationandpreparestudentsfortheNationalCollegEntranceExam .Since2005,sevenserisofEnglishtextbooksforseniorsecondaryschoolsubmitedbysevenpublishinghouseshavepasedtheevaluationsoftheMinistryofEducationandhavebeenpublished.ThesetextbooksarecollaborativeproductsofChinesepublishersandfam ouspublishersfromtheUKandUSA,suchasMcGraw-Hil,Pearson,Oxford,andMacm ilan.ThechiefditorsandwritersofthesebooksarealiedtobeSino-Angloasociationstosuchanextntthatheauthentictyandacuracyofthetextbookcontentareasured.Suchcross-culturalcooperation,however,m ayleadtoconflictsandnegotiationsinwritngandeditingtextbooks,theprocesofwhichisunknowntopeopleoutsidethecirleoftheeditorialteam .InChina,co-publicationofEnglishtextbooksforBasicEducationistilatitsinitialstage.Itis,therefore,worthwhiletoexam inetheeditorialworkofthesetxtbookstogaininsightsintothediferntviewsandatitudesbetwennative-EnglishspeakingwritersandChineseditorsintheprocesofwritngEnglishtextbooks.5LITERATUREVIEWBritshEnglishandAmericanEnglishAcordingtoKachru(1992b),theglobalsituationofEnglishcanbecategorizedintotheInnerCircle,OuterCircle,andExpandingCircle.TheInnerCircleconsistofthetraditionalEnglish-usingcountries,suchastheUK,USA,Canada,Australi,andNewZealnd,whereEnglishisthedominantofficalanguage.TheOuterCircleincludescountrieswhereEnglishhasbeenplayinganim portantroleineducationandgovernanceinalonghistory,suchasIndia,Nigeria,Singapore,andSouthAfrica.TheExpandingCirclem ainlyrefrstocountrieslikeChina,Russia,Japan,KoreandIran,inwhichpeoplerecognizetheim portanceofEnglishasaninternationalanguageandstudyEnglishwidelyforscientifc,technicalndeconomicpurposes.BritshEnglishandAm ericanEnglishrepresnthevarietyofEnglishfromtheInnerCircleandhaveestablishedtheirdominanceinthepractieofEnglishlanguageteaching(ELT)(Philipson,1992).Realizngtheprofitableinvestm entinELT,theBritshgovernmentregardsEnglishastheirgreatstasetandhasconstantlypromotedELTthroughofficalyfinancedEnglishteachertrainingprojectsandtextbookpublication(Philipson,1992).Intheearly1990s,thelarge-scalexportofEFLtextbookshadbroughtincomeasm uchas₤170m ilionintheUK,andELTwasrecognizedasnotonlyalrgem arketbutalsoagrowingindustry(Pennycook,1994).OverthepastwodecadestherehasarguablybeenaexponentialgrowthinthepublishingofELTm aterials.LiketheirBritshcounterparts,theAm ericangovernmenthasdevelopedtheirownagendatolegitm atethespreadofAm ericanEnglishbybookpromotionandincreasingthenumberofforeignstudentsintheUSA(Philipson,1992).OnceBritshorAm ericanEnglishisaceptdasparticularm odelincountriesoutsidetheInnerCircle,am rketforitslanguagepractie,includingtextbooksandnativespeakersasexperts,isnaturalycreatd(Kachru,1986),6whichinturnintensifesthespreadofthatvarietyofEnglish.Withanincreasingglobaleconomicexchange,theprolifcpopularculturepresntedinBritshorAm ericanEnglishhasalsoflowedintointernationalm arkets.SuchcultureproductionsarewelcomedasEnglishlearningm aterialsandthewaytoknowm oreaboutEnglishcultures,practialytheBritshorAm ericancultures.Consequently,thewidedifusionofculturesandteachingm aterialsrepresntedinBritshorAm ericanEnglishhasasuredthepeopleoutsidetheInnerCirclecountriesthatheauthenticEnglishiseitherofthesetwovarietis.TheyhavethereforenforcedtheirdominantstausofthestandardintheELTindustry.AsKachru(1986)aserts,itis“theagentsoflinguisticpower”,itspromotersandusers,whoendowthelanguagewiththepowerandcreatthebaseforthelanguage(p.135).ConflictsbetwencontentandcontextinEglisheducationWhilethesupposedlyauthenticEnglishbeingtransm itedwiththetextbooksproducedintheUKandUSA,theAnglo-Am ericancentriculturecariedbyEnglishhasbeenexportedaswel.Itisevidentthatlanguageisbynom eansisolatedwordsandorganizedgram m ticalstructuresbutpresntscontentandasociateswithcontext.Languagelearningwouldbediscouragingifthecontextwaslientolearners.AlthoughproducersofthosexportedEnglishtextbooksacknowledgetheneedtofaciltaenjoyablelarning,creatingdailysituationsanddevisinginform ationgapsintexts,thecontentisoftenabouttheAnglo-Am ericanspeechcomm unity(Canagarjah,1999).Insuchacontext,felingdistancedfromtheirnativeculturesorseparatedfromtheirownsocialcontextwhilelarningtheauthenticEnglish,learnerstendtoswitchoffratherthanrespondtolearningtaskssituatedinthosealiensituations(Canagarjah,1999;Kachru,1986;Prodromou,1988).AsPennycook(1994)contends,“theglobalexportof7English,Englishlanguageteaching,andEnglishtextbooksfrequentlyleadstosituationsofculturalconflictwherethenorm spresntedinthetextsareindirectonflictwithlocalsocialndculturalnorm s”(p.176).Inbrief,“Englishlanguagetachingbeliefs,practiesandm aterialsareneverneutral”,butsym bolizeparticularunderstandingsoflanguage,learning,andcomm unication(Pennycook,1994,p.178).Toappealtothegrowingglobalm arketofELT,theEnglishtextbookswritenitheInnerCirclecountriestrytopresntEnglishasninternationalanguage.Forexam ple,Gray(2002)observesthathecontentoftheglobalEnglishtextbookspublishedinBritainforuseinothercountrieshasbeen“subtlydeteritorialized”(p.157).Inotherwords,thecontentofm anyEnglishtextbooksaregradualylocatedm oreininternationalsetingsratherthanexclusivelyinBritain.However,bydefinition,theELTpublisherscannotbasetheirtextbookwritnginaspecifclocalcontextinordertom axim zeinternationalsale.Thecontentisorientatedtoavoidoffendingsensibilitesofpotentialbuyersandreaders,butthechosentopicsareoftenbland,resultinginalackofengagem ntofstudents(Gray,2002).Sincelanguageandcultureareoftenperceivedtobeinseparable,m anyELTpractionersandEnglishlearnersbelievethatBritshandAm ericanculturesareofgreatim portanceforlanguagelarning(Hu,2004;2005).Furtherm ore,whenstudentsaretaughttofosterinternationalunderstandingsthroughlearningEnglishfocusingoncomm unicationbetwennativespeakersandnonnativespeakers,theirinternationalawrenesturnsouttobelim tedwithintheknowledgeabouttheInnerCirclecountries(Matsuda,2002).Mostofthem tendtopursuethegoalthatheirEnglishsoundslikethatofanativespeakerorcanbeidentifedasAm ericanEnglish(Hu,2005;Matsuda,2002).Evidentlyem phasiontheAnglo-Am ericanculturedoesnotresultinthetrue8internationalunderstandingsbutinthefailuretopromotelinguisticandculturalpluralism(Kubota,2002).Educatorsareurgedtoproblem atizethecontentandcontextualconditionofEnglishtextbooksandtounderstandhowlanguageteachingentailspecifcontextualrealites,asWiddowson(1998)pointsout,“whatm akesthelanguagearealityforitsusersiitslocalvalue–thespecifcontextualconnectionandtheexclusiveappealtocomm onandcomm unalknowledgeandatitudes”(p.711).ConnectingcontentwithlocalcontextsOutsidetheInnerCirclecountries,thereareavarietyofELTcontextsforlearnerstoexperiencelanguagelearning.ScholarshavesuggestdthatELTcontentbeconnectedwithlocalcontextsinwhichthelearnerscanpractiewhatheylearnaboutthelanguage(Alptekin,1993&2002;Prodromou,1988).Em phasiznghowthetextistiedtolearners’fam ilarandunfam ilarknowledge,Alptekin(1993)arguesthatnative-Englishspeakingtextbookwritershaveatendencytocomposeintunewiththeirfam ilarculturalschem as,whichm aybeforeigntolanguagelarnersinadiferntcontext.InthecaseofEnglishasworldEnglish,Alptekin(1993)advocatesthatitisbetertodesignteachingm aterialslinkedwiththecontextoflearners’ownculture.Noticngthathowtheauthorityofanativespeakercanunderm inelearnerautonomy,resarchers(Alptekin,2002;Matsuda,2002)strestheim portanceforteachingm aterialstoem phasizediversitybothwithinandacrossculturesandsufficentexposuretovariouspartsoftheworld.Suchem phasem ayfaciltaelarners’understandingofEnglish-speakingculturesfromacomparativeperspectiveandalsohelpcultivatetheirinternationalawrenes.9Canagarjah(2002)echoestheim portanceoftheculturalim pactonlearnersofEnglishwiththerem arkthatitisnotappropriatetotransferstudentsfrom“a‘native’languagetoatrgetlanguage”,orfrom“hostculturetorecivingculture”,butfarbeterto“teachstudentstheskilsofnegotiatinglanguagesandcultures”(p.146).Toagreatrextnt,Pennycook(2001)critcizesthepredominantroleofEnglish,arguingitisunfairthatstudentsinnon-English-speakingcountriesarerquiredtoreachahighlevelofcompetenceinEnglishinordertopursuetheireducationandhavethem dependon“form sofWestrnknowledgethatareoftenoflim tedvalueandextrem inappropriacytothelocalcontext”(p.82).Thesubtlebutprofoundrelationshipbetwentextcontentandlearners’backgroundoflocalknowledgeim plicatestheurgencytoproblem atizethedirectlyadoptedauthenticlanguagem aterialsfromtheInnerCirclecountriesintextbooks,andtorethinktheteachingofEnglishaswidelyusedinternationalanguageintheOuterCircleandtheExpandingCirclecountries.Withthebeliefthateachinghowtolearnalnguagem anstofaciltaelarnerswithlanguageskilstobeter“negotiatebetwencultures,huttlebetwencomm unities”(Canagarjah,2002,p.146),resarchers(e.g.Alptekin,1993& 2002;Prodromou,1988;Widdowson,1998)suggestusingthelocalvarietisofEnglishandfocusingonanorganicintegrationoftextcontentandlocalculture.SuchanintegrationoflanguageandlocalculturesuggestafocusonlocalvarietyofEnglishwhichshouldcontributetoengaginglearningactivities.EnglishvarietisandstandarEnglishIftextbookwritngshouldtakeintoacountlocalvarietisofEnglish,thequestioniswhatlanguagestandarditshouldfollow.Languageisunstableinnature(Widdowson,1994).Whenalanguagem ovesbeyonditsnationandbecomesinternational,speakersofotherlanguagestakeit10overassecondtongueandaddsomefeaturesoftheirhomelanguages(Haliday,2006).Inotherwords,theforeignlanguageadaptsitselftothechangicirumstancestosustainitscomm unicativeandcomm unal values(Widdowson,1994).ThiselucidatesthedevelopmentofEnglishvarietis.Tracedbacktoitsorigns,EnglishfirstlyarivedinEnglandfromnorthernEurope,beginningtospreadroundtheBritshIslesinthefithcentury,andevolvedintoam other-tongueinthetwelfthcentury(Crystal,2003).Therehadbeenfiveorsevenm ilionm other-tongueEnglishspeakersm ainlylivingintheBritshIslestowardstheendofthesixtenthcentury(Crystal,2003).Englishthenm ovedwiththeBritshexplorerstoNorthAm ericainthesevententhcentury,andnearlytwocenturieslatersetleddownwithanidentityofAm ericanEnglishinthepresntUSAasaresultofpolitcalem ancipation(Kachru,1992a).Meanwhile,Englishm adeitsprogreswiththecontinuingBritshexplorationinthefurthernorthofAm erica,thepresntCanada,andinthesouthernhem isphere,thepresntAustraliandNewZealnd,andbecam eacomm onlanguageinthesecountrieswiththelpofm ilionsofim m grantsthroughanaturalprocesofasim lation(Crystal,2003).Duringthecolonialndpostcolonialperiods,Englishhasm adeitswayaroundtheworldinalrgerscaleandbecomepluralinterm sofpronunciation,vocabulary,idioms,andrhetoricalstyles(Kubota& Ward,2000).VarietisofEnglishorEnglishesaregrowingunasailblylike“ahotchpotchofdialectsandacentsatdiferntstagesofnativization”withconstantlyrevisedorreinventedrulesandlexis(Rajgopalan,2004,p.113).Englishinthepluralform hasbeenincreasinglyrecognizedandreflctedinvariousbranchesoflinguistics,resarchandpublicationsonworldEnglishes(Bolton,2005).InadditiontothevarietisofEnglishasanativelanguageintheInnerCirclecountries,Englishasnon-nativelanguageintheOuterCircleandtheExpandingCirclecountries11isrespectivelyidentifedasasecondlanguage(ESL)andforeignlanguage(EFL)(Kachru,1992b).AcordingtoKachru(1992a& b),thevarietisofEnglishinEFLteritorieslackofficalstausandareprim arilyperform ancevarietiswithrestrictedfunctionsinspecifcontexts,uchastourism ,comm ercandotherinternationaltransactions.Thesevarietisalsohaveidentitym odifiersindicatinggeographicalcharacteristics,uchasJapaneseEnglish,orChineseEnglish.Incomparison,EnglishvarietisinESLteritoriesareinstiutionalizedvarietiswithlocalizedcharacteristicsandextndedrangeoffunctionsintheeducational,administrative,andsociulturalcontextsofnations,suchasIndia,SingaporeandNigeria.Englishisnolongeraprivilegownedbycertaingroupsofpeople(Widdowson,1994).BritshEnglishandAm ericanEnglishareonlytwovarietiswithalonghistory.However,thebeliefthatBritshandAm ericanEnglishrepresntastandardEnglishpersitsam ongsomelinguist,SLAresarchers,andm anyEnglishteachersandlearners,nottom entiontheELTexam inationboardsandpublishingindustry(Jenkins,2006).Am ajorfearisthathevarietisofEnglishwilbecomem utualyuninteligble(Kachru& Nelson,2001),which,infact,im pliesthatam inorityofpeoplewouldhavethepowertoim poseauthority,toenforceconform itytoconventionsofEnglish,andtom aintaininstiutionalstability(Widdowson,1994).InviewofthefactthatEnglishservesthecomm unicativeandcomm unal needsofdiferntcomm unities,Englishm ustbediverse,andhavem ultiplestandards(Widdowson,1994).Thestandardvarietyofalnguageisaresultofthestandardizingprocestobearscribedvalues(Haliday,2006).BritshEnglishwasinitialyoneEnglishdialectselctedtocarythestandardofthenewlyfoundednation,anditstandardhadevolvedwiththesocialdevelopmenttom etnewdem andsinaresofadministration,comm erc, andeducationforalongtim e(Haliday,2006).Am ericanEnglish,beginningasthefirstofBritain’scolonialandthen12postcolonialoffspring,hadalsobeensocialysanctionedandstandardizedwithdistinguishingfeaturesonthelevelsofphonology,lexis,orthographyandgram m rtoachievecomm unicationandsym bolizeanindependentcomm unitywithitsownidentity,conventionsandvalues(Kachru,1992a;Schneider,2006).Ahalfcenturyago,theEnglishesofAustraliandNewZealndem rgedasnationalvarietisintheirownrighttohavetheirownstandardsdiferntfromthatofEngland,andbecam ethefocusofthedevelopmentofdictionaries,uchasMacquarieDictionary,codifiedthelocalstandards(Kiesling,2006).Inm uchthesam eway,thevarietisofEnglishintheOuterCirclecountrieswentthroughaprocesoflinguisticandculturalappropriationinasociationwithsociopolitcaldevelopment.A“federativestandard”foreachofthesevarietisofEnglishm ayprobablyevolveparticularlyforproteansituationsinthesam eacumulativem annerasBritshEnglishandAm ericanEnglishstandardshavedoneoveralongtim e(McArthur,2001,p.10).SoitisuggestdthatiftherecanbetwonationalstandardswithinoneEnglishintheUKandUSA,therecanitheorybem orethantwostandards(Kachru& Nelson,2001;McArther,2001).GiventhatastandardEnglishdevelopsendo-norm ativelyasappropriatetodiferntconditionsofuse(Widdowson,1994),andthatEnglishstandardshavebeenconventionsorinstiutionalizedrulesintheInnerCirclecountriesbasedondictionaries,gram m arndrhetorichandbooksanddisem inatedthroughvariousform sofm edia(Kachru& Nelson,2001),eachvarietyofEnglishhasitsownconventionsnegotiatedwithinthecomm unityconcerned.Hence,acomm onstandardforeachofthenewEnglishesintheOuterCircleandExpandingCirclecountriescanbepresrvedanddevelopedtoservecomm unicativeandcomm unal needsandm aintainstandardsofcomm unicativeefctivenes(Widdowson,1994).Itim pliesthatthiscomm onstandardisneitherconfinedtoexonorm ativeEnglishm odelsnordecidedbysome13native-Englishspeakers.Thenative-EnglishspeakerscanpossesrealEnglishintheirownparticularculturalcontextsofusebutm aylosetheirprivilegandauthorityinadiferntcontextorcountry,aslanguageauthentictyisnottransferable(Widdowson,1994).SothestandardoftheEnglishlanguageisintrinsicalycomparative.ThischalengestheasumptionthatsomenativespeakersofEnglisharexpertsandownthestandardandauthenticEnglish.Englishteachers,learners,andeditorsworkingforELTpublishingarealsochalengedtorethinkthestandardsandauthentictyofEnglish.ChinaEnglishChinahasuchalrgepopulationoflearnersandusersofEnglish,andthegrowthofEnglishintheChinesecontexthasatractedm uchatentionbothathomeandabroad.Theem rgenceof“ChinesePidginEnglish”,“ChineseEnglish”,“Chinglish”,“SinicizedEnglish”,“ChinaEnglish”,andalso“HongKongEnglish”(seAdam son,2002;Bolton,2002;Cheng,1992;Kirkpatrick& Xu,2002;Zhou& Feng,1987)notonlypresntsthevarietisofEnglishinChinabutalsoim pliesatitudestowardsEnglishatdiferntphaseofitsdevelopment.ChinesePidginEnglishistheearliestvarietythatookshapeintheeightenthcenturyinGuangdong,whentheBritshdidtradewiththeChineseinafewtradingposts,andspreadtothesoutheasterncoastalcitesaftertheestablishmentofso-caledTreatyPortsinthesoutheasternaresinthe1840s(Cheng,1992).ItisregardedasdeviatedvarietyfromtheBritshEnglishwithfeaturesresultedfromtheinterfrencefromChineseandlocalpeople’sresitancetolearnthefullform ofaforeigntonguefordignity(Hal,1966,ascitedinCheng,1992).Asm isionaryschoolsandAnglo-ChinesecollegswersetupandspreadacrossChinainthelateninetenthandearlytwentiethcentury,Englishwastaughtinform aleducationalcontexts,leadingtothe14“de-pidginisation”ofChinesePidginEnglish(Bolton,2002).Itwasthendisfavored,declinedandfinalydisappearedbecauseofsocialndpolitcalreasonsandpeople’sprefrenceforStandardBritshorAm ericanEnglish(Cheng,1992).HongKongEnglishwasderivedfromahybridofCantoneseandEnglish(Bolton,2000),reflctingthesociolinguistichistoryofHongKongfromaBritshcolonytothespecialadministrativeregionofChinaaftertheHandoverin1997.ConsideringthepostcolonialdevelopmentofthenewsocietisinAsianditsim pactonsociolinguisticdynam ics,Bolton(2000)arguesthatHongKongEnglishisavarietythatalreadyexistinthecomm unity. BasedonBulter’s(1997)criteriaforevaluatingavarietyofworldEnglishes,Bolton(2000)pointsoutthatitistherecognizableHongKongacent,thevocabularyexpresingspecialsocialphenomena,ahistoryofthecontactwithEnglish,andcreativeliterayworksbylocalwritersthatcanidentifyHongKongEnglishasvarietyofEnglish,thoughtherearefwrefrenceworksyet,suchasdictionariesandhandbooksforwritngstyles.Inefct,theacentofHongKongEnglishistheinfluenceofCantonese,asm anyChinesespeakEnglishwithdiferntacentsbecauseoftheirdialects.InBolton’s(2000)study,thediscoursebetwentwoHongKonggraduateshowingm anytransliteratedwordsanddirectranslationfromCantoneseorChinesem ayberegardedasHongKongEnglishandalsolikelybesenaseitherincorrectuseofEnglishorinterlanguage(e.g.Li,2000,ascitedinKirkpatrick& Xu,2002).“ChineseEnglish”and“Chinglish”arem oreoftenrefredtoasincorrectuseofEnglishduetotheinterfrenceoftheChineselanguage.Forinstance,PrideandLiu(1988),basedontheirfindingsoftheerorsm adebyChineselarners,uchasthem other-tonguetransferandovergenralizationofsyntactirulesofEnglish,suggesthatheChineselinguisticfeaturesinterm sofpronunciation,vocabulary,andgram m rarebroughttoEnglishduetolearners’15insufficentexposuretonativeEnglishandthetypeofEnglisheducationtheyhaverecived.Unlikethem other-tongueinterfrence,thefacthatconnotationsofsomeEnglishwordsandphraseusedintheChinesecontextarediferntfromthosegeneralyfoundinm ostEnglishcountries(Cheng,1992;Pride& Liu,1988;Zhou& Feng,1987).BasedonthestudyontheBeijngReviw,anEnglishjournalpublishedinChinareportingdomesticcurrentevents,Cheng(1992)hasfoundthatChineseculturalcharacteristicsaredistinctiveinEnglishtranslationsforidiomsandpolitcalregisters,andthatsinicizedlexicalitem swithdiferntconnotationsareclearlyculturebound.AsZhouandFeng(1987)pointout,whenEnglishisinadequatetoexpresthepeculiarsocialandculturalphenomena,Englishhastobe“nativizedorsinicizedlinguisticalyandculturaly”toserveas“avehicleofChineseculture”(p.118).Manyexam plesofnativizedEnglishinterm soflexisilustrateaculturatedEnglishwithChinesetraits(seCheng,1992;Pride& Liu,1988;Zhou& Feng,1987).Oneofthewidelycitedexam plesis“propaganda”.Itorignalyim pliesadisapprovingatitudeandm eansfalseinform ationthatagovernmentororganizationspreadsinordertoinfluencepeople’sopinionsandbeliefs,asexplainedinMacmilanEnglishDictionaryforAdvancedLearners(2003).IntheChinesecontext,“propaganda”hasbeenusedpositvelyandrefredonlytospreadingtrueinform ation,beliefs,andnewstopromoteacuse.Intheprocesofnativization,therearesomewordswhosem aningshavebeenitherextndedorreduced(Zhou& Feng,1987).Forinstance,“cadre”innativeEnglishm eansasm lgroupofpeoplewithinapolitcalpartyoranarm y;intheChinesecontext,however,“cadre”hasbeenextndedtoincludeleadingofficalsoftheComm unist Party,staeladers,m iltaryofficers,andcomm onadministrators.“Knowledge”orignalym eansacquaintancewithaparticularsubjectandknowingaboutafctorsituation,whileinnativizedEnglishitsm eaninghasbeenreducedtoacquaintancewithtruthsorprinciples16obtainedfrombooks.Politcalregistersobviouslybearm orenativizedfeaturesandneedfootnotes,uchas,“FourModernizations”and“OneCountryTwoSystem s”.ThelaterefrstothepolicyforreunificationofHongKong,Macu,andTaiwan.Likewise,someterm srelatedtouniqueChineseculturesneedexplanationforinteligbility.TaketheConfucianworksforinstance,“FourBooksandFiveClasics”(sihuwujing).ThefourbooksarecollectionsoftheConfucianprinciplesanddoctrines,andthefiveclasicsincludethesubjectsofliterature,history,politcs,cienceandarts.MostChinesecanrecognizewhatitrefrstoatfirstsight,whileforeignersunacquaintedwithChineseclasiculturem ustbeconfounded.Thereareothersinicizedterm sthathavealreadybeenwelknownoutsideChina,suchas“silkroad”,“toloseface”,“kowtow”,etc.ItisevidentthatEnglishhasbeenadaptingitselftofitinChinesecultures.Giventhislinguisticreality,andasaconsequenceofthedebateaboutthevarietisofEnglishinChina(seDu& Jiang,2001),localresarchers(e.g.Li,1993;Wang,1991;Jia&Xiang,1997)haveproposedtodefinethedevelopingvarietyofEnglishinChinaanddistinguishthenativizedEnglishwithChineseculturalelm ntsfromtheincorrectuseofEnglishduetoChineseinterfrence.InaarticleaboutChinese-Englishtranslation,Ge(1980)arguesthathetranslatedterm susedtoexpres“specifcthings”ofChinaarewordsof“ChinaEnglish”insteadof“ChineseEnglishorChinglish”(ascitedinDu& Jiang,2001,p.38).Forthefirstim e,“ChinaEnglish”wasofficalyputforward(Du& Jiang,2001).BelivingintheexistenceofChinaEnglish,Wang(1991)definesitasEnglishusedbyChineseinChina,conform ingtoakindstandardEnglishandpossesingChinesecharacteristicsaswel.HesuggestthatsometranslationsofChineseidiomsshouldbepromotedinpublications,suchas“Adogshouldn’tchasem ice–that’sthecat’sjob”,whichsoundsm orehumorousandlesoffensivethan“it’snoneofyourbusines”(p.7).Li(1993),m oreconcernedwiththedistinctivenatureofChina17English,am endsthedefinitiontostresthatChinaEnglishisconsideredasnaceptdvarietybasedonnorm ativeEnglishtoexpresuniqueChinesesocialndculturaleventsbym eansoftransliteration,borrowing,andsem anticregnerationwithChinesecharacteristicsbutwithoutthem other-tongueinterfrence.ToatchthepractieofChinesecharacteristicstothedefinition,JiaandXiang(1997)specifyChinaEnglishasvarietyofEnglishusedbytheChinese-speakingpeopleacordingtostandardEnglishandcharacterizedbyChinesefatureswhichareinevitableandusefulforspreadingChinesecultures.Obviouslytheirdefinitionsalem phasizestandardEnglishornorm ativeEnglishasfoundationandChinesecharacteristicsasnundeniablefactorofChinaEnglish.EventhoughstandardEnglishisnotspecifcalydefinedinWang’s(1991)andJiandXiang’s(1997)definitionsforChinaEnglish,itliteralym eansanorm ativevarietythatisdiferntfromeitherBritshorAm ericanEnglish.AsLi(1993)aserts,itrefrsavarietyofEnglishthatfollowsgeneralnorm sandcanbeaceptdandunderstoodbythepeopleintheEnglish-speakingcountries.ThehypothesithatEnglishhastwolayersproposedbyWenandYu(2003)alsoconcernsaceptabilityandunderstandability.Thefirstlayeriscomm onnorm sofEnglish,asharedlanguagesytem byalEnglishusers,andthesecondlayerconcernsthelocalizedEnglishvariety,whichlaysoverthefirstasprem isandthendem onstratesusers’localculturalfeatures.ItisfoundthathelocalizedEnglishcanbecompatiblewiththegeneralyusednorm ativeEnglishandachieveunderstandabilityaslongasitfollowscomm onnorm s(Wen& Yu,2003).Inasense,tofollowcomm onstandardsisforChinaEnglishtobeinteligbleandaceptable.However,itisinconclusivethatowhatextntthestandardsornorm sshouldbefollowedtohaveChinaEnglishaceptdandunderstoodbyalEnglishusers.Nevertheles,itcanbeinferdthatChinaEnglishisupposedtofollowcertainstandards,asKirkpatrickandXu18(2002)staethat“m odelsandstandardshavealwaysbeenofparticularim portanceinChineseculture”owingtotheinfluenceofConfucianism (p.275).SincestandardsplaykeyroleinuseofEnglishinChina,andpublicationsarexpectedtoretainstandardsandsetm odels,anyexpresionthatisuspectedasnon-standardwouldm ostlikelyberevisedbeforepublishing.Inotherwords,“ChineseEnglish”or“Chinglish”thatfailstofollownorm ativeEnglishm ustbepreventedfromspreadinginofficalpublications.Asam teroffact,theprofesionaltranslatorsandeditorsinpublishingaretrainedtoensurethestandards.Forinstance,Cheng(1992)hasfoundthatEnglishintheBeijngReviwreflctsitsdistinctivenesofculture-boundtextm ainlyonlexicalitem sbutalckofsignificantChinesefeaturesatthesyntactilevelbecausetheEnglishwritngsaredonebyspecialytrainedtranslators.Sim larlyinthearticleswritenbyChineswritersforthe21stCenturynewspaper,expresionswithexplictChinesecharacteristicsarefoundam ongwordsandphrasebutnotatthesyntactilevel(Wen& Yu,2003).However,itisbelievedthatChinaEnglishm aycaryChinesefaturesintherhetoricalstyleasresultoftheChinesethinkingm odes(Duan,2003;Kirkpatrick& Xu,2002).Forinstance,theChineseprefrexpresingabstractideasinconcretterm s,andtendtoaddcategorywordsorusem oreverbstom akeexpresionsspecifcandconcretinEnglishincomparisonwithBritshEnglish:ChinaEnglish:“TheseprinciplesapplytoalcaseofrelationsbetwenChinaandothercountris.”BritshEnglish:“TheseprinciplesapplytorelationsbetwenChinaandalothercountris.”ChinaEnglish:“Thelife-stylehasbecomeaceptdandwelcomedbym oreandm oreyoungpeopl.”BritshEnglish:“Thelife-stylehasfounditsgrowingpopularityandaceptanceam ongyoungpeopls.”(Duan,2003,p.9)19Percivingathingfromthestandpointthatalrespectsofthethingareintegratedandrelated,theChinesetrytounifyeverypartofthethingaswhole(Duan,2003).Insyntax,Chinesespeakersareusedtoaddresingreasonsorbackgroundsathebeginningandthenm aininform ationatheendofasentnce,anda“fram e-m ain”sequencethatprocedsfromsubordinatetom ainorfromm odifiertom odifiedcanbeobservedintheirEnglishexpresions(Kirkpatrick& Xu,2002).Forexam ple:ChinaEnglish:“Becauseofautomobileexhaustandindustrialpollutants,theairoverm anylrgciteshasbecomagryishhaze.”BritshEnglish:“Theairoverm anylargeiteshasbecomagrayishhazebecauseofautomobileexhaustndindustrialpollutants.”ChinaEnglish:“Thebeliefthathegovernmentshouldberesponsibleforaltheeconomictroubleiscomm onlyheld.”BritshEnglish:“Thebeliefiscomm onlyheldthathegovernmentshouldberesponsibleforaltheonomictrouble.”(Duan,2003,p.15)Chineseisaparatctiandtopic-omm entlanguage(Duan,2003;Kirkpatrick& Xu,2002).Itshowslogicalrelationsinasentnceordiscoursethroughsem anticcoherenceandcontext.ToaddthisfeaturetoacomplexEnglishsentnce,thewordordercanbearngedbythesequenceofevents,orseveralverbsandnounscanbeparaleldsuccesively(Duan,2003).Forexam ple:ChinaEnglish:“Inschool,weorkm ainlywithourbrains.Sportsm ustbegivenm oreatention.”BritshEnglish:“Inschoolwhereweorkm ainlywithourbrain,sportsm ustbegivenatention.”(Duan,2003,p.20)ItsuggestthatontheonehandChinaEnglishhasbeenbasedonanorm ativeEnglishbecauseofthetraditionofconform ingtostandardsandm odelsandforthesakeofinteligbilityandaceptabilityininternationalcomm unication,butontheotherhandithascariedcharacteristicsofChinesepeculiarculturesandChinesethinkingm odesinanaturalprocesleadingtoitsm odel.20ThepresntstudyDiferntfromthepreviouslym entionedresarchonpublishedwritngsandinform aldiscourse,thepresntresarchisgoingtoexplorervisionsandcorrectionsthatChineseditorsm adeintheeditorialprocesofacollaborativeEnglishtextbookofNewEnglishserisco-publishedbyBritshandChinesepublishers.Drawingontheprelim naryreviwofliteratureonvarietisofEnglish,standardEnglish,ChinaEnglish,andsignificantconnectionbetwentextbookcontentandcontext,thepresntstudyaim storevealgroundsform akingtextbookrevisionsandcorrectionssoastoprovideinsightsintothecollaborativeworkwithnativeEnglishtextbookwritersandshedlightonthedevelopmentofChinaEnglish.TheresarcherwasneditorresponsibleforoneoftheNewEnglishtextbooks,Book5,forChinesesniorsecondarystudents.Shehadengagedintheeditorialworkduringtheprocesofthetextbookwritngandediting.Drawingfromherexperience,sheexploresinthepresntstudytheconflictsandnegotiationsbetwenBritshwritersandChineseditors,inrelationtorevisionsandcorrectionsoncontentandlanguage.Theexplorationwilbeconductedbycomparingdiferntversionsofm anuscriptsandtextbookdraftsforpublicationtotrackchangesinthewritngandediting.Thestudyisguidedbythefollowingtwoquestions:(1)HowdidtheChineseandBritshpartnerscooperateintheprocesofwritngandeditingthetextbookandnegotiateinterm sofcontentandlanguage?(2)Whichstandarddidthetextbookconform to,BritshEnglishortheunderlyingnotionofstandardEnglishheldbytheChineseditors?21METH O DO LO G YH O O O GH O O O GH O O O GContextfortheNewEnglishtextbooksTheChinesepublisheroftheNewEnglish(NE)textbooksserisisafilatedwithoneprestigousuniversitythatfocusesonforeignlanguagetachingandresarch.Sincetheearly1990s,alongwiththegrowingawrenesam ongtheChinesepeoplefromalwalksoflifethatEnglishistheprerquisiteforpromisngcarers,theChinesepublisherhasgradualygrownintoakeypublisherengagedinpublishingteachingandlearningm aterialsofEnglishandotherforeignlanguages.SoonaftertheMinistryofEducationisuedthetrialim plem ntationoftheGuidelineforCurriculumReforminBasicEducation,theChinesepublisherofNEestablishedaparticulardepartm entandinitiatedtheprojectofpublishingitsownEnglishtextbooksandotherteachingm aterialsforschooleducation.GiventheprefrenceforBritshEnglish,theChinesepublisherdecidedtoco-publishtheNEtextbookswithoneBritshpublishinggroupwhichwasdistinguishedasoneofthebigestELTinternationalpublishers.EnglishtextbooksintheChinesecontextaresignificantlearningresourcesforstudentsandm ajorteachingm aterialstoteachers,othepublicationofnewtextbooksisexpectedtoguideEnglisheducationwiththenewcurriculumstandards.Undersuchacirumstance,thecollaborationinvolvedaprocesinwhichtheChinesesuggestdtopicsandtypesofgram m ticalknowledgeforeachNEtextbookwhiletheBritshdesignedspecifcthem esandselctedrelvantm aterialstowritetxtsandactivities.Thetwopartiesdiscussedthroughem ailsorface-to-facem etingsabouttheappropriatenesofthecontentforeachbookandworkedoutguidelinesforwhatandhowtowrite.ForcontentaboutChina,theChineseprovidedtheBritshwriterswiththenecesaryinform ation.OncetheBritshfinishedwritng,them anuscriptswersenttotheChineseforreviw.Toensuretheappropriatenesofthecontentforthetargetdusers,22theChineseditorsinvitedsomeexperiencedEnglishteachersfromelm ntaryandsecondaryschoolstoreviwthem anuscriptsandm akesuggestionsandcomm entsforrevision.Suchreviwandrevisionunderwentseveralturnsuntilthem anuscriptswerreadyforpublication.TheNEseriscontainthresetsoftextbooksforprim aryschools,juniorsecondaryschools,andseniorsecondaryschools.Forseniorsecondaryschools,thereareleventextbooksintotalforthreschoolyears.Exceptforthesecondsem sterinthethirdyearwhichhasonlyonebook,theothersem sterseachhastwobooks.ThistudyfocusesonBook5intheseniorsecondaryschoolseris.Usedinthefirsthalfofsem sterinthesecondschoolyear,Book5consistofsixm odulesandarevisionunit.Eachm oduleisthem e-basedandfollowsthepaternofthem e–function–structure–task.Specifcaly,itcomprisesectionssuchas1)introduction,2)readingandspeaking/vocabulary,3)gram m r, 4)vocabularyandlistening/speaking,5)everydayEnglish,6)function,7)speaking/readingandwritng,8)culturalcorner,and9)task.Altheactivitiesforlanguageskilsandknowledgeunfoldaroundthethem eforstudentstopractietheacquiredskilsandknowledge(setheexam pleofModule1inAppendixB).Togetheperm isionofusingtheeditorialdocumentsofNEBook5forthepresntresarch,theresarchersentaconsentform totheprojectm anageroftheChinesepublisherandobtainedascannedcopyofthesignedform byem ail.Pseudonym sareusedtorefrtothepublishers,thetextbookseris,thewritersandeditorstoprotectprivacy.ParticpantsTwoBritshwritersandfiveChineseditors(etheparticpants’profilesinTable1)werengagedintheprocesofwritngandeditingNEBook5forChinesesniorsecondaryschoolstudents.TheBritshwritersinthisresarchincludethewriterofthetextbook(Bruce)andthe23co-editor-in-chief(Bob)represntingtheBritshpublisher.Brucewrotetextsanddesignedexrciseacordingtothearngedoutlineofthetextbookcontent,whileBobm onitoredthewritngprogrestoensurethathewritngfollowedtheguidelinesandthewritngstylesandaddresdtheChineseditorialteam ’scomm entsandsuggestions.Bobalsom adedecisonstoadjusthecontentordeletextraexrcisetofitheestablishedtextbooklayout.BothBobandBruceheldam sterdegreinModernLanguagefromauniversityintheUK.BeforejoiningintheNEproject,theyhadm anyyearsofexperienceinbothwritngEnglishtextbooksforthenon-nativeEnglishspeakersandteachingEnglishasforeignlanguageinEuropeancountries.Table1:BackgroundinformationoftheBritshwritersandChineseditorsTheChineseditorialteam includestheco-editor-in-chiefrepresntingtheChinesepublisher,thedeputyeditor-in-chief,andthreeditors.Theteam offerdsuggestionsandcomm entsandfinalizedtherevisionsandcorrectionsintheprocesofeditingNEBook5.TheChineseco-editor-in-chief(Chang)hadoverfityearsofEnglishteachingandresarchexperienceandhadbeenichargeofwritngandcompilingEnglishbooksforavarietyofChineselarners.Thedeputyeditor-in-chief(Cheng)alsohadm anyyearsofEnglishteachingandresarchexperience.BothofChangandChengweruniversityprofesors.TheyhadbothstudiedinEnglish-speakingcountriesandobtainedam sterdegreinAppliedLinguisticsinthe1980sandthe1990srespectively.Askeym em bersintheChinesetam ,ChangandChengParticpants BobBruceChangChengChuChuiChunAge 50’s50’s80’s50’s30’s30’s30’sGender MMMMFFFHighestdegre .A. .A. .A. .A. M.A. M.A. M.Ed.Writngexperience√√√Editingexperience√√Teachingexperience√√√√√√24particpatedintheform ulationofthenationalEnglishcurriculumstandardsforseniorsecondaryschools.Twooftheotherthreditors(ChuandChui)hadbeenworkingaseditorsincetheycompletdM.A.program sinEnglishLiteratureandLinguisticsfromuniversitesinChina.Thethirdeditor(Chun)hadsixyears’EnglishteachingexperienceinasecondaryschoolandstartedtoworkasneditoraftercompletingherM.Ed.program inEducationalAdministrationinChina.TheroleofthersearcherTheresarcherwasoneofthesevenparticpantsandhadbeenengagedintheeditorialworkforoneyearfromJuly2004toJune2005inBeijng,China.Sheperform ededitorialroutinesaswelasuchdutiesasreviwingtheBritshwriter’sm anuscripts,particpatinginthediscussionofthem anuscripts,andsumm arizngthesuggestionsandcomm entsproposedbytheChineseditorialcomm ite. Deplyim presdbythecross-culturalnegotiationsoccurringintheeditorialproces,theresarcherfrequentlyreflctedonthisworkexperiencewhilestudyingduringherM.A.program inTeachingEnglishasaSecondLanguageatUBC.Throughrexam iningthem anuscriptsandeditorialdocumentsproducedduringtheprocesofeditorialworkforNEBook5,theresarcheranalyzedtherevisionsandcorrectionsfromtheperspectivesofbothaninsiderandanoutsidertoexplorethestandardstheChineseditorsfollowedintheprocesofco-publishinganEnglishtextbookforChinesestudents.DatacollectionHavingobtainedperm isionfromtheChinesepublishertousetheeditorialdocumentsforacdem icresarchonly,theresarcheretrievedthefollowingdocumentsaboutNEBook5withasitancefromform ercolleagues:25(1)DiferntversionsoftheBritshwriter’sm anuscripts;(2)Reportsandsumm ariesofthedetailedsuggestionsandcomm entsproducedatheeditorialm etings;(3)ThepublishededitionofNEBook5.Theabovedocuments,exceptthefinalpublication,werelctronicversionsusedforcomm unicationandinform ationexchangethroughem ails.Inanalyzingtherevisionsandcorrectionsm adebytheChineseditorsandtheBritshwriterbasedonthesuggestionsoftheChineseditors,theresarcherdesignedtwotypesofcomparisons.ThefirstcomparisoninvolvedthefirstandfinalversionoftheBritshwriter’sm anuscriptsandthesuggestionsandcomm entsinthesumm ariesandreportsoftheeditorialm etings.ThefocuswasontherevisionswhichtheBritshwriterm adeinlightoftheChineseeditors’suggestionsandcomm ents. Thesecondcomparisonwasconductedbetwenthefinalversionofthem anuscriptsandthepublishededition.Thefinalversionofthem anuscriptswasfirstlyarngedintopagelayouts,andthenseveraldraftswerproducedbeforetheywerprintedforpublication.Duringthisproces,BobadjustedtheorderofcertaincontentanddeletdsomeactivitieswhereastheChineseditorsexam inedandrexam inedthedraftstoensurezroerorinthedraftandprepareitforthepublishinghouse.Hence,therevisionsandcorrectionsdirectlym adebytheChineseditorsem rgedfromthesecondsetofcomparisons.Thedatacollectdthroughtwosetsofcomparisonsrangedfromtherevisionsregardingthecontentandlinguisticaspectstotherewritngoflanguageactivities.Inviewofthespaceandpurposeofthistudy,onlytherevisionsandcorrectionsrelatedtothecontentandlinguisticaspects4werselctedforthepresntresarch.4Sethesctionfdatclasifcationform reinform ation.26SincetheChineseditorsworkedasteam ,althesuggestionsandcomm entsraisedatheeditorialm etingswerbasedonagrem nt.Sim larly,therevisionsandcorrectionsm adebytheindividualeditorswhilexam iningandrexam iningthedraftsforpublishededitionwerbasedontheconsensusoftheteam m em bers. Inotherwords,thesuggestions,comm ents, andcorrectionsm adebytheChineseditorswerregardedasresultsofthecollaborativework.DataclassifcationDatbasedontwotypesofcomparisonsm entionedearlierwerclasifedintotwocategories:thecontentandlanguage(seTable2).Thecontentcategoryrefrstotheideasincludedinreadingpasagesandsentncesintheactivitiesdesignedforlanguagepractie.Underthecategoryofthecontent,thedatarefurtherclasifedintotwosubcategories.OneisrelatedtoChinesecultures,andtheotherisaboutthewestrnandothercultures.Theitem sinthiscategoryhavebeenrevisedandcorrectdonacountofculturalndpolitcalconsiderationsandforthesakeofacuracyandappropriatenes.Thecategoryoflanguagecoversrevisionsandcorrectionsrelatedtowordchoice,gram m r, m echanics,andrephrasing.Theitem srevisedandcorrectdbyreplacing,adding,deletingwords,andchoosingsingularorpluralform ofnounsareidentifedaswordchoice.Gram m rrefrstoitem srevisedonacountofthediferntunderstandingsoftenseandtheconventionofgram m ticallabels.Mechanicsoncernstheuseofpunctuationssuchasapostrophe,hyphen,comm aandfullstop.Rephrasingm eansthathesentncesorphrasehavebeenrestructuredorrewritentoexpresm eaningsbeter.Atotalof65revisionsweridentifedfromthepresntdata.Table2ilustratesthecodingschem eandexam plesofcodedrevisions.27Table2:CodingofrevisionsandcorrectionsCategoryDefiniton Examples Frequency(%)O riginalO O O textwritenbythBritsh RevisedtextbasedonsugstionsofthChiesContetWesternadothercultresRelatedtothewstrnadothercultresMarkTwainwasnexpresionusedbysilorsothisisipitwarnsipm ates…“MarkTwai”,wicm eanswterm to,asclusdbysailrs…5(8%)ThisfestivalisthendofOctobr,whentdacmebakteart. ThisfestivlisathendofOctobr,whentgostm eut.NicolKidmandTomCruiseusedVenti askinthefilmEysWidShut. (dlted)ChinescultresOnacountofcultrladpolitclreasnsandfortheacuracyandredibilt TheChinesrefrtotheirlanguagasHan,astwritngsytemdevlopedrpidlydurithHanDynasty.Them ainvarietyofthelnguagispokeninBijng. …theirlanguageasHan,asitbecam polrm ongthepopleduring…Oeoftm ainvarietisofthlanguageispokniBeijng. 18(27%)TheMachuriantigerishuntedforitsbodyprts,whicarusedintraitonalm edine. TheSiberiantigerusedtobeuntdforitsbodyparts,whicweruseintrditonalm edin.HongKong HogKong,ChinaPerhapsthemostfamousanimalindngeristeGintPd,aothrspciswhosehabitaisinCina. Anotherfamousanimalindagristhegitpd,whoseabitaisinChina.…ithefutretheraregoingtobem anyEngliss. …theraregoingtobem any“Englishs”.Thepadaisthesym boloftheWF.Toytrarenlyabout1,0left. Thepandaisthesym boloftWF.Tankstscientist’hrdwor,thenum broftepandalivnginthewildhasincresetoabout1,590.LanguageWordchoiceReplacingthewords definitons m enigs 2(34%)traditon storywhatpart whicpartfit strongButevnifheadwonevrythigitwspsibletowininhisport,LiNingretirdithtefeling… Butevnthoughehadwonevrythigitwasposibletwiniisport,LiNingretired…28Table2:(Continued)CodingofrevisionsandcorrectionsWiththepurposeofkeepingtheresarchobjective,theresarchersentthecompletdraftofthedataclasifcationandanalysitotheothertwoChineseditorsofBook5forreviw.CategoryDefiniton Examples Frequency(%)O riginalO O O textwritenbythBritsh RevisedtextbasedonsugstionsofthChiesLanguageWordchoiceAdingthewors writetom eatescol …atheschladresWhicexpresionisusedtoagre? Whicisusedtoshowagrem nt?Deltingthewords mphibian,goldentoad (delted)TheWF WFSingularorplrlfrm TheOriginsofChines TheOrignofChinesherdsofantelope herdsofantelopesG ramarG G G Tense Theonlyproblem isIdin’tralizthelcalcentwouldbesodifrnt… Theonlyproblem wasIdi’trealizthloclcentwouldbsodifernt…5(8%)WhatisthelastquestiontheinterviewrskSam ? …thelastquestiotheintrviweraskdSam ?Gram m ticallbels o-finitverbs -igform ,-dform ,ndinfitiverelativeclause atributieclauseMechanicsApostrophethe1980’s,the1850’s,the190’s the1980s,the1850s,the190s 8(12%)Hyphen thendofyeardance thend-of-yeardancee-mail em ailCom m a&Fulstop TheacentwhicismostimilartoBritshcabehardntheEastCoastoftUS. Theacent,whicism ostsim lrtoBrits,anbeheardntheEastCostoftheUS.Itwasgreatfun,evryonewasfriendly. Itwasgreatfun.Everyonesfrindly.RephrasingRewritngsntcesforclarity Ithe190’stheChinesgovrnm tbganctivlytoprtectheantelopes……goverm etbegantotakeanctipartinprotectingtheanteloes…7(1%)AChristifstivalwhiccom esathendof TisiaChristianfestivalwhicom esWhicfilm oesBilythinkisn’tatruestory? Wichfilm doesn’tBilythinkisatrustry?Total 65(10%)29Theirfedbackledtoafewrevisions,forinstance,therevisionsonthedescriptionofHalowen(Item s2and23inthefollowingsectionofFindingsandDiscussion).Whentheresarcherm entionedthatitwascorrectdfrom“thedeadcometotheearth”to“theghostcomeout”toreducethesuperstiousfeatures,theothertwoeditorsuggestdthatitwasrevisedforthesakeofacuracybutnottodisguisesuperstionbecausethefestivalwasreligousandaboutghostsbutnotthedead.Consideringtherem ainingsuperstioussignof“ghosts”,thedecisonwasthenm adetoapplyquotationm arkstoghoststoindicateitsfictiousm eaning.Foranotherexam ple,upontheresarcher’sinterpretaionoftherevisionaboutsavingTibetanntelopes(Item 11),oneoftheeditorsexpresdthathepreviousrevision,“WehopetheTibetanntelopewilsurvive”,forthesentnce,“PerhapstheTibetanntelopewilsurvive”,shouldnotbedeletdandcouldbebetertouse“believe”than“hope”.Thereareotheranalyseoftherevisionsrespondedbytheothertwoeditors,suchasreplacingpersonalpronounswithnouns(Item 34)andapplyingcomm astochangeadefiningclauseintoanon-definingclause(Item 53).30FINDIG SG G G ANDISCUSIO NO O ORevisionandcorrectionsoncontentWestrnandotherculturesTherearefiveitem s(Item 1-5),acountingfor8%ofthetotal,identifedastherevisionsandcorrectionsaboutthewestrnandothercultures.Table3comparestheorignalandrevisedversions.Table3:Revisions/correctionsforcontentabouthewestrnandothercultres5Thefirstitem isabouttheorignofMarkTwain’spennam e.TheChineseditorsdisagredwiththeBritshwriterandbelievedthat“anexpresionusedbythesailors”wasnotacurateanddidn’tindicatethat“MarkTwain”wascomm onlycaledbytheleadsm anonariverboatwhenthewaterwastwofathomsdeep.Sotheysim plifedthesourceofthepennam eandrevisedthesentncebyadding“waterm aktwo”.Item 2isanexrciseofm atchingthefestivalswiththeirdescriptions.TheChineseditorsbelievedthattheorignaldescriptionofHalowenwasOrignaltextwritenbytheBritsh Revised/correctdtextbasedonsuggstionsoftheChines1MarkTwainwasnexpresionusedbysailorsontheMisisippitowarnshipmates… “MarkTwain”,whichm eans“waterm aktwo”,sclusedbysilorsontheisisippitowarn…2ThisfstivalisatheendofOctober,whenthedeadcomebacktoarth. ThisfestivalisatheendofOctober,whenghostscomeout.3Carnival,Holi,Halowen,ThanksgivingDy,Christm asndRam dan Carnival,Holi,Halowen,ThanksgivingDyandChristm s.∧4NicoleKidmanandTomCruiseusedVenetianm sksinthefilm EyesWieShut. ∧5ItalinartistTiepoloandPietroLonghipaintedm anycarnivalscenes. ∧5Thesignsapplytotheoriginalandrevised/correctdofaltheitem sinTables3-12asfollows:a.originalwords,phraseandsentncsarputindot-linedboxes;b.replacedorrphrsdsteesreunderlined;c.addesntencesareinsquarebrackets;d.deletdwordsorstncesarindiatedas“∧”.31inappropriatebecauseitisafestivalabouttheghostsbutnotthedead.TheysuggestdtheBritshwriterewriteitas“whenghostscomeout”.InItem 3wersixfestivalsorignalyintroducedasawarm ing-upactivityunderthethem eofCarnival.TheChineseditorstaedthatHoli,anIndianfestival,andRam dan,aMuslinfestival,soundedalientoChinesestudents,andsuggestdrecruitingotherfestivals,uchasEaster,awestrnholiday,andLanternFestival,aChinesefestival.TheBritshwriterpartialyaceptdtheChineseditors’suggestionanddeletdRam danbutm aintainedHoliwithoutaddinganyotherfestival.Theorignalsinitem sof4and5werexrciseofrewritngsentncesunderthethem eofCarnival.TheChineseditorscomm entdthathecontentwasunsuitableandshouldbedeletd,becausethetwoItalinartistwerquiteforeigntoChinesestudentswhilethefilm EyesWideShutwascontroversialndcontainedm anysexsceneswhichshouldneverappearinthetextbook.Consideringalthefestivalspresntedinthem oduleofCarnivalbelongedtoforeigncultures,theChineseditorsadvisedtheBritshwritertosupplem ntsomeChina-relatedcontentandreachedacompromisewhenthewriterevisedarelvantwritngpractieaboutChinesefstivalswithsupplem ntalinstructions.ChineseculturesEightenitem s(Item 6-23),acountingfor27%ofthetotal,werrevisedandcorrectdbasedonfactsandonacountofChineseculturalndpolitcalreasons.Table4ilustratestherevisionsandcorrectionsm adebyreplacingwords,rewritngpartofsentnces,addingdetailedinform ation,anddeletingphraseorsentnces.32Table4:Revisions/correctionsforcontentaboutChinescultresOrignaltextwritenbytheBritsh Revised/correctdtextbasedonsuggstionsoftheChines6TheManchuriantigerishuntedforitsbodyparts,whichareusedintraditionalm edicine. TheSiberiantigerusedtobehuntedforitsbodyparts,whichwrusedintraditionalm edicine.7TheManchuriantigerisalsooneoftheraest.Todayonlyabout500arelft. TheSiberiantigerisalsooneoftheraest.odayonlybout1,000arelft.8(RefringtothenumberofSiberiantigersurvi)about500;perhaps20inChina,someinHunchunResrve about1,000;perhaps500inChina,someinHunchunResrve9Perhapsthem ostfam ousanim lindangeristhegiantpanda,notherspecieswhoshabitisinChina. Anotherfam ousanim lindangeristhegiantpanda,whosehabitaisinChina.10Thepandaisthesym boloftheWorldWildlifeFund.Todathereareonlyabout1,000left. Thepandaisthesym boloftheWorldWideFund.[Thankstoscientist’harwork,thenumberofthepandalivingintheildhasincreasedtoabout1,590].11Since1997theantelopepopulationhasslowlybeguntogrowagin.PerhapstheTibetanntelopewilsurvive. Since1997theantelopepopulationhasslowlybeguntogrowagin.∧12Explainwhytheanim lisindanger.Findouthowm anyrelft,andsaywhathegovernmentisdoingtohelpthem . …Findouthowm anyarelft,andsaywhatwecandotohelpthem .13Howm uchdoesateacher____inyourcountry? Howm uchdoesacook____inyourcountry?14(oneofthebriefnotesforthetopicofTheWritngSystm)typesofcharater ∧15writenChinese Chinesecharacters16ThehineserfertotheirlanguageasHan,astwritngsytm developedrpidlyduringtheHanDnasty.Them ainvarietofthelanguageispokeniBeijng. …theirlanguageasHan,asitbecam epopulrm ongthepeopleduringtheHanDynasty.Oneoftm ainvarietisofthelanguageispokeniBeijng.17…thelogoism adeupofthefirstwoPinyinletrsofLiNing’snam e,LandN,andm eansAnythingispossible. …thelogoism adeupofthefirstwopinyinletrsofLiNing’snam e,LandN.∧18Andifyouareagreatsportsm an,anythingispossible. …agreatsportsm an,anythingispossible,[sLiNing’sdvertisngslogansays].19HongKong HongKong,China33Table4:(Continued)Revisions/correctionsforcontentaboutChinescultresItem sof6-8relatetoaretypeoftigerlivingineasternSiberiaPlain,northeasternChina,andNorthKorea.ItiscaledSiberiantigerorManchuriantigerworldwide.ManchuriausedtorefrtoNortheastChina,theorignoftheanchupeopleandthecradleofQingDynasty.DuringWorldWarI,theJapaneseinvadersoccupiedthisregionandsetupapseudoManchurianregim withthelastem perorPuyiofQingDynastyasitspuppetadministration.TheChineseditorsthought“Manchurian”soundedcontentiousduetothehistoricalisuesandsuggestdusing“Siberiantiger”instead.However,theBritshwritersneglectdthesuggestion,leavingthenam ewithoutchange.ThentheChineseditorsreplacedalthe“Manchuriantiger”inthetextbookwith“Siberiantiger”forpublication.Item 6orignalydescribedtheconditionofSiberiantigersbasedonaninform ationtableofendangerdanim ls.Infact,theSiberiantigerishighlyprotectdathenationalevel,andthehuntingforanypurposehasalreadybeenbanned.Toconveytheacurateinform ation,theChineseditorsapplied“usedto”tochangethetensesoastoconfirm thatusingtheanim l’sbodypartsintraditionalm edicinewastopped.Thenumbersinitem sof7and8indicatedtheconditionsofSiberiantigers.TheBritshwritersm ightobtaintherelvantinform ationfromthesourceacesibleforthem ,whiletheChineseditorswerinclinedtorefrtotheChineseofficalsourceforacuracy.BysearchingtheofficalOrignaltextwritenbytheBritsh Revised/correctdtextbasedonsuggstionsoftheChines20inQinghaiandtheTibetanplateu intheQinghai-TibetanPlateu21N.EChina,thenortheastofChinaNortheastChina22Thisinternationaldim ensionsuggestthatinthefuture,therargoingtobem anyEngliss. Thisinternationaldim ensionsuggestthatinthefuture,therargoingtobem any“Englishes”.23ThisfestivalisatheendofOctober,whenghostscomeout. ThisfestivalisatheendofOctober,when“ghosts”comeout.34websiteofXinhuaNewsAgency,theyfoundthatthepopulationofSiberiantigerswasincreasingthroughartifcialbreding,andcorrectdthenumbersbasedonthereport.Likeitem sof6-8,item sof9and10regardinggiantpandaswerrevisedforthesakeofacuracy.FromtheChineseditors’viewpoints,thegiantpandawassfam ousasotherarespeciesindangerliketheSiberiantiger.Toconvincestudentsabouttheachievem entofartifcialbreding,theChineseditorsnotonlycorrectdthenumberofthepandaslivinginthewildbutalsom entionedtheim provem entowingtoscientist’work.Asam teroffact,thesituationsoftheendangerdspecieswerchanginginevitably,andtherevisednumberscouldnotbeultim ateresults,theChineseditorstilprefredtostandbythelocalofficalreportoguarantetheacuracyforpublication.Item sof11and12areconnectedwithanotherendangerdanim llivinginChina,theTibetanntelope.InItem 11thesecondorignalsentncewasthelastentnceinthetextaboutaherowhosacrifcedhislifetosaveTibetanantelopes.Itwasfirstlyrewritenas“WehopetheTibetanantelopewilsurvive”,sincetheChineseditorscomm entdthat“Perhaps”soundedpesim sticwhile“Wehope”couldtransm ittheoptim sticatitudestowardsthepreventionofTibetanantelopes.Butthesentncewasdeletdatlastforpublication,asneditorpointedoutthatheprecdingsentnceim pliedthesurvivalofTibetanantelopes.Whentheresarchersenttheinitialnalysiofthisrevisiontotheotherco-editors,theyrethoughtitandagredthatherevisedsentnceshouldhavebeenm aintainedanditwouldbebetertoreplace“hope”with“believe”,wherebythebeliefinwinningthebatleaginstheextinctionofraespeciescouldbepasedon.ComparedtoItem 11,Item 12istherubricforatskofsurveyingendangerdanim linChinaandreportsthegovernment’sreaction.TheChineseditorsbelievedthatprotectingendangerdanim lswastheobligationofthewholesocietyandeveryoneshouldtakeitastheir35ownresponsibility.Thereforetheysuggestdrevisingthelaterpartoftherubricas“whatwecandotohelpthem ”todeliverthem esagetostudentstohelpenhanceanawrenesoftheirsocialresponsibility.Sim larly,Item 13showstheChineseditors’concernaboutstudents’reactionsandfelingsthatcouldbeevokedbycertaincontent.Itisanexrciseoffilingintheblankwiththecorrectword“earn.”Whenreviwingthedraftsforpublishing,aneditorcomm entdthatteachers’alriescouldbeapolitcalysensitvetopicinclasinteractionwhilecooks’salrieswouldbeleslikelytobeargued.Thus,theychangedthesubjectfrom“teacher”to“cook”.Thethrecorrectionsinitem sof14,15and16arelinkedtotheChineselanguage.Item 14wasorignalyoneofthebriefnotesforthetopicofthewritngpractie.TheChineseditorsstaedthat“typesofcharacter”m ightm eansim plifedandtraditionalcharacters,orthestylesofChinesecaligraphy,ofwhichtherewouldbenumeroustypes,andwouldarouseam biguity.Insteadofadvisinghowtoreviseit,theChineseditorsrecomm endedtheBritshwritertosubstiutethetopicoftheChinesewritngsytem withstudents’personalstoriesofencounteringpeoplefromotherpartsofChinawithdiferntacents.TheBritshwriter,however,deletd“typesofcharacters”andprovidedsomespecifcinform ationratherthanchangedthewritngpractieasexpected.Item 15occursinastaem ntexplainingthatheChinesem ayspeakdiferntdialectsbuthavenodificultyinunderstandingthelanguageinitswritenform .TheChineseditorsconsideredthat“Chinesecharacters”wasm oreacurateandhencerplaceditwith“writenChinese”.Item 16isabouttheorignoftheChineselanguage.Theorignalsentncesim pliedthat“Han”(refringtotheChineselanguage)orignatedanddevelopedfromtheHanDynasty.AcordingtotheChinesehistory,theChineselanguagehadalreadydevelopedbeforeHanDynastybutoneparticularChinesecaligraphicstylebecam etheofficalscriptin36HanDynastyandwasidelyusedafterwards.TheBritshwriterobviouslyalsom isunderstoodthenatureofthedialectspokeniBeijng.Therefore,theChineseditorscorrectdtheorignofHanasthenam eofChineselanguageowingtoitspopularityduringtheHanDynasty,andclarifedthelanguagespokeniBeijngas“oneofthem ainvarietis”.Item sof17and18areaboutLiNing,afm ousgym nastaroundtheworldinthe1990s.Afteretirem nthestartedhisbusinesofsportswearwithhisnam easthebrandnam eandcreatdthelogowiththefirstwoletrsofhisnam einpinyin.“Anythingispossible”isthetranslationofhisChineseadvertisngsloganwithoutanyconnectionwithhisnam e.TheBritshwriterapparentlym ism atchedthesloganwiththelogo.SotheChineseditorsdeletdthesecondpartofthesentncebutadded“asLiNing’sadvertisngslogansays”totheendofthelastsentnceinItem 18topresrvetheintegrity.Theyalsorevisedthespeling“Pinyin”aspinyin,whichistandardizedinEnglishpublicationinChina.Alongwiththecorrectionofthespelingofpinyin,Item s19,20and21reflctthestandardizationofthenam esforgeographicalandadministrativeregionsbytheGeneralAdministrationofPresandPublication.“HongKong”shouldappearwith“China”inEnglishpublication,sinceHongKongisthespecialdministrativeregionofChina.TheplateucoveringbothQinghaiProvinceandTibetAutonomousRegioningeographyisofficalynam edastheQinghai-TibetanPlateu.ThenortheasternpartofChinaiscaleddong-bei(east-north)inChineserefringtothethreprovincesinnortheast.Conventionaly,“NortheastChina”isaceptdasspecialnam einEnglishlikeitsChinesenam eforthatregion.TheChineseditorshencestandardizedthespelingofthenam eforthisregionandkeepitconsistentinthebook.Therevisionsinitem sof22and23byusingquotationm arksdem onstratetheChineseeditors’atitudestowardstheterm sof“Englishes”and“ghosts”.Inthetextaboutthedifernce37betwenBritshandAm ericanEnglish,theBritshwriterm ntionedthedevelopmentofothervarietisofEnglishandpresntedthepluralform ofEnglish.TheChineseditorswerconcernedthatEnglishesm ightberegardediregularndnon-standardinthetxtbook,asneitherhadthepluralform ofEnglishbeenrecordedinthedictionarynortheconceptionofworldEnglishesbeenwidelyusedintheChinesecontext.Therefore,theyappliedquotationm arkstoEnglishes,indicatingthatitrefredtoavarietyofEnglishdistinguishableincertainaspects.Thequotationm arksusedfor“ghosts”inthedescriptionofHalowen,however,im pliedthatheChineseditorswerhighlyconsciousofgeneraleducationobjectivesandveryconcernedthattextbooksshouldconveyacurateandscientifcknowledgeforteachersandstudents.Aswhetrghostsexistornotcanhardlybeexplainedfromthescientifcview,“henghostscomeout”definitelysoundssuperstious.Whenthedraftswerundereviwforpublication,oneeditorsuggestdusingquotationm arksfor“ghosts”toindicatethepresumedm eaning.Unanim ouslytheChineseditorsagredthatitwasnecesarytoelim nateanysuperstioussuggestioninthetextbook.TherevisionsandcorrectionsoncontentforNEBook5notonlyservedacuracyandappropriatenesbutalsodisplayedsocialandculturalm eaningsandtheChineseditors’ideologicaltendency.Forinstance,Item 1aboutthepennam eofMarkTwain,item sof15and16abouttheorignofChineselanguage,item sof17and18aboutthesloganofLiNing’ssportswearbusines,werrevisedtoensureacuracyoffacts;whileitem sof6-12,relatedtoendangerdanim lsinChina,wercorrectdtodelivertheunderlyingnotionthathecontentconcernedshouldevokestudents’consciousnesofsocialdutiestoprotectwildanim lsandconservenature.AswasthesubstiutionofManchuriantigerwithSiberiantiger,therevisionfor38item sof2,13,22and23involvedwithappropriatenessuggestdtheChineseditors’conservativeatitudestocertaincontent.Forinstance,theeditorsfeltasuredaboutthedescriptionofHaloweniItem 23untilquotationm arkswerusedfor“ghost”,sothathem eaningcouldbeappropriatelyconveyed.Addingquotationm arkstothepluralform ofEnglishinItem 22showedtheeditors’prudenceaboutusingtheexpresionwithoutform alrefrences.Theadjustm entofthesubjectfromateachertoacookonthetopicofsalryinItem 13suggestdthatheeditorswerhesitanttointroducedebatabletopicsintextbooks.Forpolitcalconcerns,item sof19-21werrevisedtofollowthestandardsandm eanwhilesetfortextbookusersthem odelsofthespelingfortransliterations(e.g.pinyin)andsomeregions’officalnam es(e.g.HongKong,China)inEnglish.Concernedwiththecontextualconnectionandcomm unal knowledgeoftargetdtextbookusers(Widdowson,1998),theChineseditorstrovetolinkthecontentwithstudents’experienceandasurethathecontentcouldfaciltaelarningandsustainstudents’m otivationandinterstinEnglish.Thedeletionofitem sof4and5duetoinappropriatenesandirelvancepreciselyindicatedtheeditors’tendencytopresrvestudents’interstinlearning.However,therevisionswersometim sresultedfromacompromisebetwentheChineseandtheBritsh.Forinstance,Item 3andItem 14werrecomm endedtotiethecontenttotherealcontextbysupplem ntingaChina-relatedfestivalandadjustingthewritngtopictostudents’personalexperiencesoastostim ulatestudents’m otivationsofpractingthelearnedknowledgeandskils.TheBritshslightlyrevisedbutnotredesignedthesexerciseasexpected.Itcanbeinferdthathelackofknowledgeaboutlocalearners’experienceandtraditionalculturesm ayposeachalengetonativeEnglishtextbookwriters.39RevisionsandcorrectionsonlanguageWordchoiceAsumof22item s(Item 24-45),acountingfor34%ofthetotalcorrectionsarerlatedtoreplacing,addinganddeletingthewords,andchoosingsingularorpluralform ofnouns,m ostofwhichwerdeterm inedbytheChineseditors.Thefollowingtableilustratestherevisionsinitem sof24-36m adebyreplacingtheorignalwords.Table5:Revisions/correctionsmadebyreplacingwordsOrignaltextwritenbytheBritsh Revised/correctdtextbasedonsuggstionsoftheChines24Matchthetypesofbookwiththedefinitions. …withthem eanings25atchthewordswiththeirdefinitions. iththem eanings26Acordingtotraditionasoldieranfromtheseneofthebatle,Mrthon,toAthens,tobringtnewstoGrekvictoryagithePersians. Acordingtothestory,asoldieranfromthesceneofthebatle,Mrthon,toAtns,…27WhatpartofthecountryisSam nthastayingin? Whichpartofthecountry…28…alistofthegreatstportsm enandwomenttwntiethcentury,LiNing’snam wasinit. …alistofthegreatstportsm enandwomenttwntiethcentury,LiNing’snam easonit.29Howfitareyou? Howstrongareyou?30Whichsentncerferstowhodidsomething?Whichsentnceshowswhodid...?31arefrencetotheaction adescriptionoftheaction32Butevenifhehadwoneverythingitwaspossibltowinihisport,LiNiretiredwiththefelingthathehadfailed. Buteventhoughhehadwoneverythingitwaspossibletowinihisport,LiNing…33Eight-hourflexibleshifts,goodpay.Salestafrquirdinwel-knownclothesboutique.Goodrates,……tem porarypositonsforchefs,waiters…Eight-hourday,goodpay.Salestafrequiredinwel-knownclotheshop.Goodpay,……tem poraryjobsaschefs,waiters…40Table5:(Continued)Revisions/correctionsmadebyreplacingwordsItem sof24and25concerntherubricsfortheactivitiesofm atchingthewordswiththerightexplanationsordescriptions.Therubricswerorignalydesignedasm tchingthewordswiththe“definitions”.TotheChineseditors,thedefinitionofawordneededapreciseandform aldescription,whilexplanationsordescriptionsofcertainwordsinthetextbookforChinesestudentswerapparentlylesform al.Forexam ple,intheactivityofm atchingthedescriptionswiththetypesofbooks,studentswerexpectedtom atch“biography”with“thestoryofsomebody’slife”,and“fantsy”with“astorywhichhasnoconnectionwithreality”.TheChineseditorsuggestdsuchstaem ntsdonotpreciselydefine“biography”and“fantsy”.So“m eanings”replaced“definitions”inaltherubricsofsim laractivities.Liketheprecdingtwoitem s,Item 26alsoshowshowtheChineseditorschangedawordforacuracyofm eaning.TheorignalsentncepresntedtheorignoftheOlym picMarthonwhichstaedthat“acordingtotradition”asoldieranfromthebatlesceneofarthontoAthenstoreporthevictory.TheChineseditorsinsistedthat“tradition”m eantabelieforcustomthathadexistedforalongtim eam ongaparticulargroupofpeople,asdefinedinOxfordAdvancedLearner’sEnglish-ChineseDictionary(6thed.)(2004).Theyconsidereditinacuratetouse“tradition”inthiscontextandthereforeslectd“story”instead.Infact,acordingtothedefinitiongivenianotherEnglishdictionary,MacmilanEnglishDictionary(2003),“tradition”OrignaltextwritenbytheBritsh Revised/correctdtextbasedonsuggstionsoftheChines34…Hesailshalfwaycrosstheworldfollowingm uchbigerFrenchship.IntheendhecathesitupneartheGalpagosIsla… …TheSurprisesailshalfwaycrosstheworldfollowingm uchbiggerFrenchship.IntheenditcathesthershipupneartGalpagosIsland…35Excelntcomputerandorganizationskils. …computerandorganizationalskils36…hethoughthecouldgetrichquick. hethoughthecouldgetrichquickly.41m eans“averyoldbelief,customorstory”,whichcouldbeaceptableintheorignalsentnce.However,Macm ilandictionary,havingbeenpromotedintheChinesem arketinrecntyears,apparentlyisnotasreliableasOxforddictionarytotheChineseditors.Inthesim larway,thesuggestionstoreplacesomeoftheorignalwordsinitem sof27-32canbeatributedtotheChineseditors’understandingoftheseEnglishwords.Forinstance,theChineseditorsbelievedthatheword“what”m eantrequestingtheparticularinform ationaboutsomething,while“which”wasforsomethingthatcouldbeidentifedfromaknowngroupinthecontext.InthecaseofItem 27,theythought“whichpart”wasm oreappropriateandrevisedthesentnceacordingly.Regardingtheuseof“on”or“in”thelistinItem 28,theChineseditorsthoughtthat“on”indicatedapositonm oreincontactwiththesurfaceofsomething,andthe“list”inthiscontextwasnotonlyaserisofnam esbutalsovisualyapiecofpaper.Sotheybelievedthathephrase“LiNing’snam ewasonit(thelist)”wasm oreproperthan“init”.“Howfitareyou?”inItem 29wasaquestionintheinterviewithafirefighter.TheChineseditorscomm entdthathequestiondidnotsem tobecompatiblewiththedescriptionofafirefighterandsuggestdthat“strong”shouldbem oreacuratethan“fit”toexplainthathephysicalpowerwasthem ostim portantqualitesforafirefighter.DespitethefacthatheEnglishdictionarydefines“fit”asphysicalystrongandhealthy,theChineseditorsbelieved“fit”wasm oreconnectedwithhealthinesthanphysicalpower.Item 30isaquestionguidingstudentstodiscoverfeaturesofpasivesentnces.TheChineseditorsuggestdthat“refrsto”besubstiutedwith“shows”.TotheChineseditors,“refrto”signifiedtherelationofonethingwiththeother,while“show”guidedstudentstorecognizethedoerinthepasivesentnce.42Comparing“arefrencetotheaction”with“adescriptionoftheaction”inItem 31,anexrciserquiringstudentstorecognizethestructureofm oviesumm aries, theChineseditorsprefredthelaterastheythoughtthem eaningof“description”wasm oreunderstandableforstudents.ForItem 32,theChineseditorsadmitedthatboth“evenif”and“eventhough”basicalym eant“although”buthadverydelicatedifernces.Theyarguedthat“if”in“evenif”m ightconfusestudentswiththetenseinthecontextbecause“if”couldbeusedforthefuturetnseandasumption;while“eventhough”m ightrefrtoboththepresntandpastense(Alexander&Close,1988)andim plythathenaratedwasfact.InthecontextofItem 32indicatingthatLiNinghadalreadyachievedalotinhisport,“eventhough”wasevidentlym oreappropriatethan“evenif”.Thereplacem ntofwordsinItem 33,however,tookintoacounttheleveloftargetdstudentsandthewordlistoftheEnglishcurriculumstandards(MinistryofEducation,2003).TheorignalinItem 33presntedinareadingexrciseofjobads,inwhichthewords,“flexibleshifts”,“clothesboutique”,“rates”and“positons”wernorm alyusedinreality.Giventhatheguidelineofthecurriculumstandardsdidnotrecruithesewordsinitsrequiredwordlistforstudentstoacquire,theChineseditorsasumedsuchwordswerdificultwithregardtotheleveloftargetdstudentsandaskedtheBritshwritertosubstiutethewordswith“eight-hourday”,“clotheshop”,“pay”,and“jobs”respectively.Item 34concernsthereplacem ntofpronouns.Itisapartofam oviesumm aryaboutMasterandCommanderinapre-writngexrcise.Athebeginning,thewritersethefocusonthecaptin,asitread“MasterandCommanderisaboutthecaptinofaBritshsailngboat,the‘Surprise’duringthewarithNapoleon,athebeginningofthe19thcentury”,followedby“He43sailshalfwaycrosstheworld…”Apparently,“he”refredtothecaptinwholedthecrewanddrovetheboatocaththeFrenchship.TheChineseditors,however,thoughtthenarativewouldbecleartousetheboat,“theSurprise”,asthedoerof“sails”thatm ovedontheseandcouldfollowaship.Furtherm ore,thesubjectandobjectwouldbeconsistentasthings,anditwasunderstandablethatheboat“cathes”theship.Asaresult,“theSurprise”and“it”replacedtheorignaltwosubjectpronouns“he”,and“theFrenchship”replacedtheorignal“it”toavoidam biguity.Whentheinitialnalysiofthisrevisionwaspresntedtotheresarcher’sco-editorsforcomm ents, theyreconsideredthereplacem ntandthoughtthatitm ightbeunnecesary.Thereplacem ntofwordsinitem of35and36concernspartsofspeech.InItem 35,“organizationskils”appearedinajobadasoneoftherequirem ntsforthepositonofanadministrativeasitant.FromtheviewoftheChineseditors,“organization”asnounwasnotasproperas“organizational”intheory.InspiteofthefacthatheresultsofGooglesarchof“organizationskils”werm orethanthoseof“organizationalskils”,theChineseditorswerconfidentthatherevisionof“organizationalskils”wasnecesarytopresntthestandardandcorrectuseofadjectivesinthetextbook.InItem 36,“…hethoughthecouldgetrichquick”wasboutMarkTwain’sadventureplantotheAm azon.Theword“quick”obviouslyfunctionedasnadverbtodescribetheverbphrase“getrich”inaspeedym anner.Butsince“quickly”isuchafm ilaradverbform of“quick,”itcanbetheidealselctioninthiscontext.Incontrast,“getrichquick”m ightraiseconfusionorresultinincorrectuseofpartsofspeecham ongstudents.Thephrasewashencervisedas“getrichquickly”.Anothergroupoftherevisions(Item s37-41)werm adebyaddingwords,basedontheconsiderationthatextrawordswernecesarytoexpresthem eanings.44Table6:Revisions/correctionsmadebyaddingwordsItem 37isfromoneem ailm esagewritenbytheBritshstudenttelingherm otherthewaytogetintouch.TheChineseditorsthoughtitwasnecesarytoadd“addres”after“school”tocomplettheexpresion.Item 38isanoteaboutlearningstrategisthatencouragestudentstoGoogleonlinetosethenumbersoftheresultsof“exchangeprogram ”and“exchangeprogram m e”.Sim larly,“entries”wasddedafter“howm any”inthefirstpartofthesentncetokeepthem eaningintact.InItem 39aretwoquestionsofanctivityrequiringstudentstoidentifytheexpresionsofagrem ntanddisagrem ntunderlinedinthedialogue.TheChineseditorsrevisedthesentncesbyreplacing“usedtoagre/disagre”withtheverbalphrase“usedtoshowagrem ent/disagrem nt”soastofullyexpresthem eaning.Item 40isfromajobad.Althoughtheorignalversioncouldbeinferdthatatelphonesalespersonwasanted,theChineseditorsprefredadding“wanted”topresrvethewholenesbothinform andm eaning.Item 41,abriefxplanationofthebluewhale’shabitainatble,waslsorevisedbyadding“waters”atheendtoensureacuracy.Apartfromreplacingandaddition,theChineseditorsalsom adesuggestionstodeletwordsinthefollowingitem sof42and43.OrignaltextwritenbytheBritsh Revised/correctdtextbasedonsuggstionsoftheChines37Youcanwritetom eatheschoolor……writetom eatheschooladdres…38Sehowm anyyougetforexchangeprogramndhowm anyforme. Sehowm anyentriesyougetforxchangeprogramand…39Whichexprsionsareusedtoagre?hicepresiareusetdisare? …usedtoshowagrem nt?tsdisrem t40Telphonesalesperson.MustbefluentinEnglishandoneotherlanguage.…Telphonesalespersonwanted.MustbefluentinEnglishandone…41oceans,especialytheArctiandtheAntrcti …theArctiandtheAntarctiwaters45Table7:RevisionsmadebydeltingwordsThewordsinItem 42orignalypresntedinareadingactivityaboutclasifcationofanim ls.WhilerviewingtheBritshwriter’sm anuscripts,theChineseditorscomm entdthat“am phibian”wasomewhatacdem icand“goldentoad”wouldberaelyencounterdinstudents’dailyreading.Besides,thesewordsarenotinthenewcurriculumwordlist(MinistryofEducation,2003)thatstudentsarerquiredtom asterthem inseniorsecondaryschools.Takingacountofthesetwopoints,theChineseditorsuggestddeletingthewords.Item 43relatestotheuseof“the”inthetile.Asthegivenarticleintroducestheorganization,m isionandprojectsofWorldWildlifeFundforNature,i.e.theWF,theBritshwritertileditas“TheWF”.TheChineseditorsrefredtosomeEnglisharticlesofwhichthetilesinabbreviationdidnotusethedefinitearticle,andthendecidedtouse“WF”without“the”.Therevisionsofthewordsinthefollowingitem sof44and45arelinkedwiththeuseofsingularorpluralform sofnouns.Table8:Revisions/correctionsonsingularorpluralformsofnounsItem 44isoneofthregivenoptionsforareadingactivityrequiringstudentstochoosethebestitleforthepasageabouttheChineselanguage.IntheEnglishdictionary,“orign”isdefinedassourcefromwhichsomethingdevelopsorderivesandcanbeusedineithersingularOrignaltextwritenbytheBritsh Revised/correctdtextbasedonsuggstionsoftheChines42am phibian,goldentoad ∧43TheWF WFOrignaltextwritenbytheBritsh Revised/correctdtextbasedonsuggstionsoftheChines4TheOrignsofChinese TheOrignofhinese45…shootwholeherdsofantelopeattim e……shootwholeherdsofantelopes…46orpluralform .TheBritshwriterm ightnaturalychoosethe“origns”todescribethesourceorstartingpointastheyoftendid.TheChineseditors,however,insistedthathesourcefromwhichtheChineselanguagedevelopedshouldbespecifcandunique,andhencechangedthe“origns”intothesingularform .Acordingtothedictionary,“antelope”inItem 45hasthesam esingularndpluralform s,orregularpluralform with“s”.InthetextaboutsavingTibetanantelopes,thepluralform of“antelope”wasometim swritenasthesingular,forexam ple,inItem 45.TheChineseditorsbelievedthatitwasbetertoadd-stoshowthepluralform ofantelopetoavoidconfusionam ongstudents.GrammarTherearefiverevisionsandcorrections(item sof46-50)thatacountsfor8%ofthetotalandrelatestothetenseandgram m tical labels.Theseitem sreflct,tosomedegre,thediferncesinthepractieandunderstandingofcertaingram m rrulesbetwentheChineseandtheBritsh.Table9ilustratesitem sof46-48relatedtotheuseoftenses.Table9:Revisions/correctionsontenseTheorignalsentnceswritenbytheBritshwriterintheseitem swerunderstandableatfirstight,buttotheChineseditorstheusageoftensesm ightnotbeappropriate.Item 46isfromanem ailofanAm ericanexchangestudentwhodescribedherfirstexperienceinUKtoherm other.Shefirstwroteaboutthewelcomepartyandthenherproblem ofunderstandingBritshOrignaltextwritenbytheBritsh Revised/correctdtextbasedonsuggstionsoftheChines46Theonlyproblem isIdidn’trealizethelocalcentwouldbesodifrnt,butIguesI’llarnithpractie. Theonlyproblem wasIdidn’trealizethelocalcentwouldbesodifernt,butIguesI’llarnithpracti.47WhatisthelastquestiontheinterviewrasksSam ntha? WhatisthelastquestiontheinterviewraskedSam ntha?48Thesecrtarydidn’tunderstandm e.She___havebeenEnglish. Thesecrtarywasn’tlistening.She___haveherdhatIsaid.47English.Thetenseofthem ainverbinthefirstcomplexsentncewasorignalythepresnt(Theonlyproblem is…),whichsuggestdthatheproblem existedathem omentofwritngtheem ail.TheChineseditors,however,thoughtitshouldbethepastense(was),becausethefacthathestudentdidn’trealizetheproblem tookplaceinthepast.Item 47containsalisteningcomprehensionquestionaboutaninterviewithtwoexchangestudentstalkingabouttheiroverseaslivingexperiences.TotheChineseditors,theactionofaskingthequestionobviouslytookplaceinthepastbeforethepost-listeningactivity.Therefore,theyalterdthetensetothepast(asked).DiferntfromItem s46and47,theorignalsentnceinItem 48wasnexrciseonm akingdeductionsaboutthepastandwiththecorrectanswertofilintheblankwas“can’t”.FromtheChineseditors’perspective,itwasunderstandablethathecombinationofthem odalverbandtheverbinthepresntperfectensewouldm akeadeductionaboutwhatookplaceinthepast.However,theyfeltthatthem eaningof“can’thavebeenEnglish”wasawkward,becausewhetrthem entionedsecrtarywasEnglishornotwasfactandirelvanttothesituationthatshe“didn’tunderstandm e”.Inthiscase,theChineseditorsuggestdthat“shecan’t/couldn’tbeEnglish”wouldbeclearndm oreconvincing.Acordingly,theBritshwriteredesignedthesituationandrewrotethesentncesothatheChineseditorsfelthatheexrcisefulfiledthepractieofverbtenseinm akingadeduction.Item sof49and50relatetotheuseofgram m tical labelsanddem onstratetheChineseeditors’prefrenceforsometraditionalyusedterm sofEnglishgram m rintheChinesecontext.48Table10:RevisionsongrammaticallabelsTheChineseditorsconcurredthathetextbookshouldelim natetheconfusionbyusingsomefam ilarterm sofgram m r. Basedonthisconcurrence,item sof49and50werrevised.BasedontheChineseditors’Englishlearningandteachingexperiences,Chineselarnerswouldfindnon-finiteverbssomewhatdificulttograspbecausethefunctionsandform swercomparativelycomplexbecausetherewernosuchlanguagefaturesinChinese.When“non-finiteverbs”appearedintheBritshwriter’sm anuscripts,theChineseditorsfelthathetermm ightconfusestudents.Theysuggestdthat“-ingform ,-edform ,andinfinitive”shouldbeadequateforafullexplanationaboutnon-finiteverbs.Item 50wasrevisedforthepractieoftheclausesintroducedby“which”,“who”,“whose”,andprepositon+“whomorwhich”,relatedtopeopleorthings,andtheclausesoftim e,placeandreasonintroducedby“when”,“where”and“why”.Theseclauseswerdefinedas“relativeclauses”intheBritshwriter’sversion;whiletheChineseditorsreplacedthelabelwith“atributiveclauses”.Theyweroftheopinionthatheuseof“atributiveclauses”wasm oreappropriate,astheseclausesdidfunctionastributivesinthecomplexsentnces.MechanicsTherevisionsinthefollowingeightitem sof51-54,acountingfor12%ofthetotalcorrections,regardtheuseofsuchpunctuationsasapostrophesfordecades,hyphensincompoundwords,comm asincomplexsentnces,andfullstops.OrignaltextwritenbytheBritsh Revised/correctdtextbasedonsuggstionsoftheChines49non-finiteverbs -ingform ,-edform ,andinfinitive50relativeclauses atributiveclauses49Table11:Revisions/correctionsonmechanicsInItem 51,thedecadeswithapostropheswerpresntedintheBritshwriters’m anuscripts,whichcouldalsobewritenasthe1980s,the1850sandthe1990s.Astheform with“s”im m ediatelyfollowingthenumberwascomparativelyconcisewithouttheapostrophe,theChineseditorsrevisedalsim larexpresionswithoutapostropheintheseristextbooks.Theexam plesinItem 52arerlatedtohyphensincompoundwords.TraditionalEnglishgram m rbooks(e.g.Alexander& Close,1988)suggestthatwhentwoorm orewordsarecompoundedtogetherasnadjective,hyphensareappliedtojointhem .IntheBritshwriters’m anuscripts,“theendofyeardance”and“atkehomesalry”didnotusehyphensandwertakenasnon-standarduseofEnglishfromtheChineseditors’pointofview.AlthoughpeopleusedsuchcompoundwordseitherwithorwithouthyphensontheInternet,theChineseditorschosetostandardizetheuseofhyphensforcompoundedwordsasadjectives.Anotherdiscrepancyconcerningtheuseofhyphenappearsinthespelingof“e-m ail”or“em ail”.Itsem dthatheBritshwriterwasusedto“e-m ail”,whiletheChineseditorsprefredusing“em ail”withouthyphenasm ostusersoftheInternetdid,whichwasconfirm edbyaGooglesearch.Unlikehyphenswhichseldomafecthem eaningsofcompoundwords,thepractieofcomm asforrelativeclausescanvarytheweightoftheclausesinorignalsentnces.Forinstance,OrignaltextwritenbytheBritsh Revised/correctdtextbasedonsuggstionsoftheChines51the1980’s;the1850’s;the1990’s the1980s;the1850s;the1990s52theendofyeardance;atkehomesalry;e-m ail theend-of-yeardance;atke-homesalry;em ail53Theacentwhichism ostsim lartoBritshEngliscanbeheardontheEastCoastoftheUS. Theacent,whichism ostsim lartoBritshEnglish,canbeheardontheEstCoastoftheUS.54Itwasgreatfun,everyonewasfriendly. Itwasgreatfun.Everyonewasfriendly.50inItem 53“theacent”intheorignalsentncewasupposedtobespecifedbytheclauseinrelationtotheprecdingsentncewhichm entionedthatm anyfactorshadinfluencedAm ericanpronunciationsincethearivalofthefirstetlersfromEngland.TheChineseditorsrevisedthesentncebyaddingcomm astoseparatetheclausefromthem ainsentnceandhencetransferditfromadefiningclausetoanon-definingclause.Toasurethereasonforthisrevision,theresarchersentherinitialnalysitotheotherco-editorsforfedback.Theyagredthatm uchatentionwaspaidtothesentnceform ,andconfirm edthatheclause,“whichism ostsim lartoBritshEnglish”,asnon-definingclausecouldsuggestcorrectpausesforstudentstoreadthecomplexsentncebutwouldnotafecthewholenesofthesentncestructure.TherevisionforItem 54relatestotheapplicationoffullstop.TheorignaltextwasfromanAm ericanstudent’sem ailtoherm other.TheChineseditorscomm entdthatitwasrun-onsentnceandcouldbeungram m tical ornonstandardforwritenEnglish.RespondingtotheChinese’scomm ents, theBritshwriterchangedthecomm aintoafullstopandrevisedtheorignalsentnceastwocompletsentnces.RephrasingThefollowingtablecontainingsevenitem s(Item sof55-61,acountingfor11%ofthetotal)ilustratesrevisionsm adebyrephrasingthetextforthesakeofacuracy,consistency,clarityandstandarduseofgram m r.51Table12:Revisions/correctionsbyrephrasingtextTheorignalphraseinItem 55wastheexplanationexpectedtom atchtheidiom,“takesomethingforgranted”.RefringtotheEnglishdictionary,theChineseditorsbelievedthatheorignalexplanation(totakelitlenoticeofsomething)didnotexpresthefailuretoshowappreciationforcertainthings.Thus,theyrephrasedtheexplanationbyem phasizngtherelvantm eaning.Item sof56and57aretwodescriptionstobem atchedwiththefestivals.Theorignaltextswerarngedtom atchChristm as(AChristianfestivalwhichcomesinthem iddleofwinter)andHoli(Afestivalofcolourwhichm arksthebeginningofspringinIndia).Sincethedescriptionsfortheotherthrefestivalsintheactivitywercompletsentnces,theChineseeditorsthoughtitbetertokeepthesam esentncestructures.Byaddingthedem onstrativeOrignaltextwritenbytheBritsh Revised/correctdtextbasedonsuggstionsoftheChines55(“Takesomethingforgranted”means)totakelitlnoticeofsomething tobeusedtosomethingthatyoudon’tseitsvalueanddon’tshowtnks56AChristianfestivalwhichomesinthem iddleofwinter. ThisiaChristianfestivalwhichomesinthem iddleofwintr.57Afestivalofcolourwhichm arksthebeginningofspringinIndia. Thisiafestivalofcolourwhichm arksthebeginningspringinIndi.58Inthe1990’stheChinesegovernmentbeganctivelytoprotctheantlopesintheHohXilNatureResrve……begantotakeanctivepartinprotectingthentelopesintheHohXilNaturResrve…59Oneofthem ostfam ousm arthonsistheNewYorkm arthonwhichiswatchedbytom ilionpeoplearoundthestretsandacrossthebridgsofthecity’sfiveboroughs… Oneofthem ostfam ousm arthonsisinNewYork,andiswtchedbytwom ilionpeoplearoundthestretsandacrossthebridg…60Whichfilm doesBilythinkisn’tatruestory? Whichfilm doesn’tBilythinkisatruestory?61Am ericanssometim somitprepositonswheretheBritshusethem (I’lseyouMonday;Writem soon!). TheBritshuseprepositonswhereAm ericanssomtim somittm (I’lseyouMonday;Writem soon!).52pronounsandbeverbs,theyrevisedthephraseintosentnces(ThisiaChristianfestivalwhichcomesinthem iddleofwinter.Thisiafestivalofcolourwhichm arksthebeginningofspringinIndia)tokeeptheconsistencyaswelasthewholenesoftheexpresions.Item 58isfromthetextaboutsavingTibetanntelopes.Intheorignalsentnce,“actively”m odifyingtheverb“began”appearedtostresthathegovernment’sinitiationtoprotectheanim l.Bycontrast,theactionof“protect”sem dlesem phasized.Them eaningconsequentlydisregardedthegreatefortsthathegovernmenthadtakenithebatletoprotectantelopesthroughtheyears.Toclearlyconveytheexactm eaningandkeepitcoherentwiththecontext,theChineseditorsdecidedtoswitchtheem phasiontheinitiativetotheactionofprotectionbyrephrasingthepartofsentnceas“totakeanctivepartinprotectingtheantelopes”.Meanwhile,itwasexpectedtodeliveranunderlyingm esagethathegovernmentwasnotalonewhilefightingfortheprotectionoftheantelopesbuthadbeensupportedbythesociety,asitwasm entionedinthefollowingparagraphthathevoluntersfromaloverthecountrywerasitinglocalofficalsintheprotectionm ovem ent.IntheorignalsentnceofItem 59,theword“m arthon”wasm entionedtwiceinthem ainclause.Plusthelongrelativeclausem odifying“theNewYorkm arthon”,thewholesntenceappearedtoolongandsoundedrepetivefromtheChineseditors’view.SotheChineseditorsrephraseditoavoidrepetionandenhanceclarity.Theysubstiuted“theNewYorkm arthon”with“inNewYork”andrevisedtherelativeclauseaspartofthecompoundsentnce.Astheprecdingsentncem ntionedthatherewerm arthonsinoversixtycountriesandhundredsofcitesaroundtheworld,therevisedsentncesuggestdthattheNewYorkm arthononlyrefredtotheeventheldinNewYork.53Item 60isrelatedtothenegationof“think”inthecomplexsentnce.TraditionalyChineselearnershavebeentaughtthatwhen“think”isthem ainverbinacomplexsentnce,thenegationofthesubordinateclauseshouldbetransferdtonegate“think”inthem ainclause(.g.,“Idon’tthinkheisright”insteadof“Ithinkheisnotright”).TheorignalsentnceofItem 60writenbytheBritshwriter(Whichfilm doesBilythinkisn’tatruestory?)canberegardedasnon-standarduseofEnglish,thoughitcanbetherealuseoflanguage.However,fortheChineseeditorsitwasnecesarytorephrasethesentncebecausethetextbookusershouldbeguidedtofollowthestandarduseofgram m r.Item 61wasrephrasedbasedontheconsiderationofreadingconvenience.Inotherwords,theexam pleshouldim m ediatelyfollowthepartofthesentnceofwhichthem eaningisfurtherexplained.Theorignalsentnce(Am ericanssometim somitprepositonswheretheBritshusethem )suggestdthatAm ericansm ightexcludesomeprepositonsthatheBritshwoulduse.FortheChineseditors,itwasm oreacesibleforreadersiftherelvantinform ation(I’lseyouMonday;Writem soon!)wasim m ediatelygivenaftertherelatedpartofthesentnce.Sotheyadjustedtheorignalm ainclauseandsubordinateclause(TheBritshuseprepositonswhereAm ericanssometim somitthem )toachieveacesibilityandclarityaswel.TherevisionsandcorrectionsonlanguageconcerntheChineseditors’understandingsofacurateandeficentexpresionsinEnglish,whichsuggesthethinkingm odesoftheChinese(Duan,2003;Kirkpatrick& Xu,2002)andtraitsofnativizationofcertainEnglishwords(Zhou& Feng,1987).Forinstance,therevisionsforitem sof24-31indicatethathem eaningsofthosebeingreplacedwords(definition,tradition,fit,refrto,etc.)werreducedinsomedegreacordingtothegivenexplanationsindictionaries,whilethereplacedwords(m eaning,story,54strong,show,etc.)soundedm orepreciseinterm softheirChinesem aningsinthesam econtextsinwhichthereplacem ntswerinvolved.Thesupplem ntofwordsforitem sof37-41(atheschooladdres,toshowagrem nt,etc.)andtherephrasedtextinitem sof56-57(ThisisaChristianfestivalwhichomesinthem iddleofwinter;etc.)m ayreflcthatheChineseditorswerinclinedtoexpresideasconcret(Duan,2003)inordertopresrvetheexpresionsspecifcandintactinEnglish.Likewise,theselctionofsingularorpluralform sforitem sof44-45(orign,antelopes)m irorstheChineseditors’tendencytoconnecttheform swiththem eanings;whilethereplacem ntofpronounsinItem 34(TheSurprisesailshalfway…Intheend,itcathestheFrenchship…)suggestintegratedwaysofthinking(Duan,2003)bywhichtheChineseditorsinstinctivelyfollowedtorelatethesubjectswiththeverbstoclarifytheexpresion.Thechangeofthedefiningclausetonon-definingclauseinItem 53andtherephrasedtextinitem sof58,59and61regardingclarityandacuracyim plysomefeatureofChinese.Comparedwiththeorignaltext,therevisedtextinitem sof59and61(Oneofthem ostfam ousm arthonsisinNewYork,andiswatchedbytwom ilionpeople…;TheBritshuseprepositonswhereAm ericanssometim somitthem (I’lseyouMonday;Writem soon!)m ayreflctaChineseprefrenceofarngithesentncesbythesequenceofactionsorevents(Duan,2003;Kirkpatrick& Xu,2002).ThetenselsfeatureofChinesem ayalsohaveanefctonthetense-rlatedrevisionsforitem sof46-48toacertainextnt(Theonlyproblem swasIdidn’trealize…;thelastquestiontheinterviewrasked…;Thesecrtarywasn’tlistening.She____haveheardwhatIsaid.).Thatis,theChineseditorslikelythoughttwicebeforem akingtherevisionsbasedontheirunderstandingsoftherelatedcontextsandconcernaboutacuracyandeficency.55AsEnglishtextbooksarergardedasim portantteachingandlearningm aterialsinChina(Hu,2002),therevisionsandcorrectionsonlanguagealsoindicatetheChineseditors’concernaboutthelanguagelvelsoftargetdstudents.Therelvantconcerncanbeshowniitem sof33and42,thereplacem ntanddeletionofthewordswhichwernotlistedinthenewcurriculumwordlist(flexibleshifts,boutique,rates;am phibian,etc.).Thewordlistgeneralyservesasoneoftheteachingobjectivesandam easurem ntofthedificultylevelofthetextbookbecauseitisanim portantrefrenceforwritngtest.Asaresult,anatentiontothelanguageleveloftargetdstudentsledtoacrefulselctionofwordsanddificultycontrol.Itisanotherm ajorconcernfortheChineseditorsthattextbooksshouldm aintainnorm ativeEnglishandsetm odels,whichcanbedisplayedfromthefollowingrevisionsandcorrectionsatlexicalndsyntactilevels.Theyarethecorrectionsofpartsofspeechforitem sof35and36(organizationalskils,quickly),thecompoundwordsjoinedwithhyphensasadjectivesinItem 52(theend-of-yeardance,tc.),theuseoffullstoptocorrectarun-onsentnceastwocompletsentncesinItem 54(Itwasfun.Everyonewasfriendly.),andthealternationofthenegationfromthesubordinateclausetothem ainclausewith“think”inItem 60(Whichfilm doesn’tBilythinkisatruestory?).ItisevidentthatheChineseditorsrevisedtheseitem stosecurestandardsandm odelsinviewofstandardEnglishintheirperceptions.Therevisionofthegram m tical labelsinitem sof49and50(-ingform ,-edform ,andinfinitive;atributiveclauses)showsatendencyoftheChineseditorstofollowthetraditionalytaughtgram m rinChinaandtheirconcernoffaciltaingthelearning.Theconform ityofstandardEnglishcanalsobereflctedfromtherevisionsrefredtogram m rbooksandEnglishdictionaries,suchasthereplacem ntof“evenif”with“eventhough”inItem 32,andtherephrasingoftheexplanationfor“takesomethingforgranted”forItem 55.56However,specifcrulesorform alrefrencewernotalwaysavailable.Insuchacse,theChineseditorswouldsekagrem ntfromsomesourcetosupportheirdecisonbasedontheconsensusthatanyrevisionasresultofjustifedreasonswouldbeaceptable.Forinstance,thearticleinthetileofthetextaboutWFinItem 43wasdeletdwithrefrencetosim larEnglishtiles;theapostrophesinthedecadesinItem 51andthehypheni“em ail”inItem 52werrem ovedacordingtotheGoogleresultswhichshowedm ostpeopleprefredsim plerexpresions.Itm aybeinferdthatherevisionsandcorrectionseitherbasedonjustifedreasonsorresultedfromconform ityofnorm ativeEnglishwouldbecomem odelsforstudentstofollowandthereforecontributetotheconventionsofEnglishintheChinesecontextthroughthetextbookandalrgenumberofitsusers.57CO NLUSIO NO OO OO OThepresntstudy,basedonanalysioftheprocesofrevisionsandcorrections,ilustratehowNEBook5atchedim portancetothelocalvalueofEnglisheducationandendeavoredtointegrateChinesecultureinlanguagepractiesandconnecthecontentwiththelearningcontextsoastoengagestudentsinlearning.SuchanEnglishcurriculumhasbeenadvocatedbyseveralscholarsinEnglishlanguageducation(e.g.Alptekin,1993& 2002;Prodromou,1988;Widdowson,1998).Beinghighlyawreoftextbooksasim portantandstandardizedteachingm aterials,theChineseditorscrutinizedtheBritshwriter’sm anuscriptstoputforwardsuggestionsandcomm entsforrevisioninlightoftheChinesecontext.TheBritshwriteraceptdm ostoftheChinesecounterparts’uggestionsandrevisedthewritngcorrespondingly;however,theysem dlesconfidentindealingwithsomeChina-relatedcontentduetoinsufficentknowledgeabouttheChineseculturesandtargetdstudents’experience.Inm ostcaseofdisagrem nt,thetwopartiesfoundasolutionbym akingcompromise;however,whentheyreviwedthefinaldraftsforpublishing,theChineseditorsm adeextrarevisionswithoutconsultingtheBritshwriters.Withdeeperunderstandingsofthelocaleducationobjectivesandknowledgeoflocalculture,theChineseditorswerbeterpositonedtom akedecisonsaboutthecontentaboutChinam entionedinthetextbook.Asforlanguage,theystilkeptalertoanysignsofim properuseofEnglish,whichm ightm isnterpretorignalm eanings,deviatefromthestandards,andconfusestudents.TheydidsoeventhoughtheyknewthatheBritshwriter,asnativeEnglishspeakerandtrainedELTprofesional,wasupposedtowriteinstandardBritshEnglish.Inasense,theChinesecritcalyexam inedtheBritshwriter’sm anuscriptratherthanblindlytaketheBritshwriterasnauthorityoftheEnglishlanguageandacepthiswritngwithoutquestioning.58Drawnfromtheanalysioftheprocesofrevisionsandcorrectionsinthepresntstudy,theEnglishstandardsintheChineseditors’perceptionscanbeem bodiedbythegram m rtraditionalytaughtinChina,thestandardssetbytheChineseofficalorganizationforEnglishpublications,thewaysfollowedbyam jorityofEnglishusers,andform alrefrencesrepresntedbydictionariesandgram m rbooks,alofwhichcanbeutilzedtojustifytherevisionsandcorrectionsforacuracyandappropriatenes,regardlesofwhatvarietyofEnglishoneisfollowing.Acordingly,standardEnglishcanbeperceivedasanefctivem eansofconveyingm eaningsacuratelyandappropriately.Thatis,whentheChineseditorsheldtheinitiativeofm akingrevisionsandcorrectionsinviewoftheirconcernsaboutEnglishtextbooksandEnglisheducationinChina,theywouldsekgroundstojustifyeachrevisionandcorrectionandacepttherevisedandcorrectdastandarduseofEnglishaslongasacuracyandappropriateneswerachieved.LogicalytherevisionsefctedbytheChinesethinkingm odesandfeaturesoftheChineselanguageweralsostandard,althoughtheChineseditorsdidnotrecognizetheefct.Hence,itistheChinesewhobelievethatinstandardEnglishm eaningsshouldbeconveyedbasedontheprincipleofacuracyandappropriatenes.Thisem sdiferntfromLi’s(1993)interpretaionthatnorm ativeEnglishistheoneaceptdbynativeEnglishspeakers.Inthecaseoftextbooks,standardEnglishintheChineseditors’perceptionscanbewidelyspreadthroughm ilionsoftextbookusersandcontributetothedevelopingconventionsofEnglishinChina.Tosumup,inthewholeditorialprocesoftheco-publishedNEBook5,theChineseeditorstooktheinitiativetocloselyreviwtheBritshwriter’sm anuscriptsfromtheirperspectivestoelim nateeveryinacuratexpresionandnon-standarduseofEnglishbeforeprinting.ThecollaborativeworkwiththeBritshsuperficalysatisfiedm anyChinesepeople59whoclingtothelegitm ateBritshEnglish(Zhou& Feng,1987)sothathetextbookcouldbeendowedwiththesam equalityasotherproductsinthem arket.Inreality,theChineseditorswithprofoundunderstandingsoflocalcontextorientatedthetextbookwritngforChinesestudents’benefitsandensuredthelocalizedtextbooktoachievethelocaleducationobjectives.TherewasevidencethatheChineseditorsdidnotbelievethat“nativenes”m eansexpertise(Ram pton,1990),astheytookadvantagesoftheirknowledgeofChineseculturestodealwiththeChina-relatedcontentandalsom adegooduseoftheirEnglishknowledgetodealwithlanguageacuracyandappropriateneswithoutfelingdisadvantagedasnon-nativespeakers.TheirperceptionsofstandardEnglishandtheEnglishstandardsindicatedafocusonthepragm ticfunctionofEnglishtom akeEnglishservelocalearnersandagrowingdivergencefromanexonorm ativem odelofEnglish(Kirkpatrick& Xu,2002).NowthatNEBook5startsitsfirstunitonthetopicofthevarietisofEnglish(setheexam pleofModule1inAppendixB),andvariationsofEnglisharekeenlystudiedbyinternationalresarchersandvidlydem onstratedbyvariousm edia,theChineseditorshouldreflctontheirperceptionsofstandardEnglishandthinkaboutintroducingtypicalusageofothervarietisofEnglishintextbooks,suchasChinaEnglish.Infact,someresarchers(e.g.Chen&Hu,2006;Hu,2005),consideringtheparticularoleoftextbooksintheChinesecontext,haveproposedthattheEnglishtranslationsofsomeidiomsbearingChinesefeatureshouldbeadoptedintextbooks.ItisalsobelievedthatChineselarnerscanbeconsciousoftheirowncultureinEnglishandthusenhancethecross-culturalinteractions(Wei& Fei,2003).Beyondtextbooks,therehasbeenagrowingpasionm iroredfromtheInternetblogsandforumsthatChineseusersofEnglishappreciatetheChineseEnglishidiomswithdistinctiveChinesecharacteristics,howingastyleandidentity(Fan,2008).Inviewofthistendency,itcanbea60waytofaciltaethelearningbyacknowledgingtoChinesestudentsadevelopingvarietyofEnglishinChinaongroundsofaculturationandinevitableinfluenceofChinese,andpresntingthem asexam plesofChinaEnglish.ItisforeseablethathevarietyofEnglishinChinacanbem oredynam ic,aslanguagesaresubjectochangesasociatedwithlocalsocialdevelopmentandinternationalcomm unication(Haliday,2006;Widdowson,1994).However,itishardtopredictwhetr,whenandhowEnglishinChinatransfersfromtheperform ancephasetotheinstiutionalizedphase(Kachru,1992a& b).TheChineseditors’perceptionsofstandardEnglish,theEnglishstandardssuggesthowprofesionalsinlocalpublishingbusinesm akeEnglishservelocalneeds.ThelocalELTexpertswithacquiredunderstandingofChinesecultureshouldactivelyparticpateintheeditorialworktoenhancem aningfulintegrationofChinesecultureinEnglishtextbooksandguidethetextbookwritngandeditingtohelpdevelopChinaEnglish.61REFRENCESAdam son,B.(2002).Barbarianasaforeignlanguage:EnglishinChina’schools.WorldEnglishes,21,231-243.Adam son,B.& Morris,P.(1997).EnglishcurriculuminthePeople’sRepublicofChina.ComparativeEducationReviw,41(1),3-26.Alexander,L.G.& Close,R.A.(1988).LongmanEnglishgrammar.London;NewYork:Longm an.Alptekin,C.(1993).Target-languagecultureinEFLm 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fortheresarch“NewEnglish:AstudyoftheeditorialdocumentsofaChinese-BritshjointFLtxtbookproject”DearProjectManagerforNewStandardEnglishtextbookseris,Beinginspiredbym yeditorialworkoftheco-publishedNewStandardEnglishtextbooks,Iplantofocusm yMAthesiontheeditorialdocumentsStudent’sBookFiv.Thetileofresarcis“NewEnglish:AstudyoftheeditorialdocumntsofaChinese-BritshjoitELtextbookprojct”.BynalyzingthenationalEnglishcurriculumstndardsforhighschool,m ultipleversionsofthetextbookm anuscripts,andteditorialm etingsumm aries, Iwilexploretheonflictsandcross-culturalnegotiationsbetwentheBritshwritrsndChineseeditorsonthervisonsandcorretionsoftheontentndlinguisticaspectsforookFive.ThepurposeistorvealtheunderlyingnotionsofEnglisheducatiheldbytheChineseEFLprofesionalsandtheEnglishconntionsthathefollowed.Therefore,Iwilusethem entionededitorialdocumentsform ythesi:m ultipleversionsofm anuscriptsforthetextbook,thesumm arisofditorialm tings,andthefinalversionofthepublishedtextbook.Iwilkeeptsedocumentscarefullyinm ycomputerfileswithpaswordprotctiandusetm onlyforresarchpurpos.Iwilrfrtothetxtbookserisas“NEnglis”,andusepseudonym storfrtothepublishers,theChineseeditorsandBritshwriters.Therelnam eswilnotppearinm ythesi.Togetheperm isionofusingthosedocuments,Iam sendingthisconsentform toyoubyem ailatchment.IfyouonbehalfofEditorialDivsionofBasicEnglishEducationPublishingperm itm etousthedocumnts,pleasesignonthenextpageoftheconsentform .YoucanscnandsavethesignedpageasPDFumentndthenreturnitom ebyem ailathmnt.Pleasekeeponeopyforyourrefrence.Iwilrealyappreciateyourconsentandsupport.Ifyouhaveanyrequest,pleasefelfretocontactm e.Sincerly,YongFanMAcndidateofLED,UBC4649rgylStretVancouver,BCV5N3X7CanadaTel:778-8893524Em ail:fanyong_98@yahoo.com P.S.:Dr.LingShi,AsociateProfesor,ism ysupervisor,theprincipleinvestigatorm yresarch.Ifyouhaveanyfurtherquestionaboutheonsentletr,plscontactr.Addres:2034LowerMalRoad,UBC,Vancouver,BCV6T1Z2CnadaTel:604-822-4335Fax:3154Em il:lshi@interchange.ubc.ca79THEUNIVERSITYOFBRITISHCOLUMBIADepartmentofLanguageandLiteracyEducation2034LowrMlRodVancuver,B.C.anaV6T1Z4Tel:(604)82-578Fax:()-314RE:Consentform fortheresarch“NewEnglish:AstudyoftheeditorialdocumentsofaChinese-BritshjointEFLtxtbookprojct”DearYongFan,OnbehalfofEditorialDivsionofBasicEnglishEducationPublishing,ForeignLanguageTeachingandResarchPres,IconsentyoutousetheeditorialdocumentsofBookFiveofNwStandardEnglishtextbooksrisforyouradem icresarch.Nam e(print):______________________Signature:___________________Positon:ProjectManagerforNewStandardEnglishtextbookserisDate:_________________

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