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UBC Theses and Dissertations

New English : a study of the editorial documents of a Chinese-British joint EFL textbook project 2009

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NEW ENGLISH: A STUDY OF THE EDITORIAL DOCUMENTS OF A CHINESE-BRITISH JOINT EFL TEXTBOOK PROJECT by YONG FAN B.A. Shanxi University, 1996 M.Ed. Beijing Normal University, 2004 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in The Faculty of Graduate Studies (Teaching English as a Second Language) THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver) July 2009 © Yong Fan, 2009 ii ABSTRACT New English is a series of textbooks co-published by the British and Chinese for Chinese students in primary and secondary schools. To explore conflicts and negotiations between the British writers and Chinese editors, the present study examines revisions and corrections based on the editorial work of Book 5 for senior secondary students in the textbook series. In light of a literature review on issues of varieties of English, standard English, China English, and a significant connection between textbook content and context, the present thesis focuses on analyses of revisions and corrections concerning content and language. Relevant findings illustrate (1) how revisions and corrections were carried out to ensure contextual connections between the textbook and targeted students and their learning; (2) how Chinese editors’ understandings of accuracy were related to traits of nativization of English words in the Chinese context; and (3) how Chinese editors tried to maintain a standard use of English by following traditional grammar and official standards for textbook publication in China. The study highlights the efforts of the Chinese editors to achieve local educational objectives, the pragmatic function of English to serve the needs of local learners, and a growing exonormative model of English. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract.......................................................................................................................................... ii Table of Contents..........................................................................................................................iii List of Tables................................................................................................................................. iv Acknowledgements........................................................................................................................ v Dedication......................................................................................................................................vi Introduction....................................................................................................................................1 Literature review........................................................................................................................... 5 British English and American English................................................................................... 5 Conflicts between content and context in English education................................................. 6 Connecting content with local contexts..................................................................................8 English varieties and standard English................................................................................... 9 China English........................................................................................................................13 The present study..................................................................................................................20 Methodology.................................................................................................................................21 Context for the New English textbooks................................................................................ 21 Participants........................................................................................................................... 22 The role of the researcher..................................................................................................... 24 Data collection...................................................................................................................... 24 Data classification.................................................................................................................26 Findings and Discussion.............................................................................................................. 30 Revision and corrections on content.....................................................................................30 Revisions and corrections on language.................................................................................39 Conclusion.................................................................................................................................... 57 References.....................................................................................................................................61 Appendices....................................................................................................................................67 Appendix A...........................................................................................................................67 Appendix B...........................................................................................................................68 Appendix C...........................................................................................................................78 iv LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Background information of the British writers and Chinese editors...............................23 Table 2: Coding of revisions and corrections................................................................................ 27 Table 3: Revisions / corrections for content about the western and other cultures ...................... 30 Table 4: Revisions / corrections for content about Chinese cultures.............................................32 Table 5: Revisions / corrections made by replacing words........................................................... 39 Table 6: Revisions / corrections made by adding words............................................................... 44 Table 7: Revisions made by deleting words.................................................................................. 45 Table 8: Revisions / corrections on singular or plural forms of nouns..........................................45 Table 9: Revisions / corrections on tense...................................................................................... 46 Table 10: Revisions on grammatical labels................................................................................... 48 Table 11: Revisions / corrections on mechanics............................................................................49 Table 12: Revisions / corrections by rephrasing text.....................................................................51 vACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my sincere appreciation to Dr. Stephen Carey and Dr. Ryuko Kubota for their expertise, energy and penetrating questions which taught me to think more deeply about my thesis. I owe my particular gratitude to my supervisor, Dr. Ling Shi who has guided, enlightened, and supported me in all the time of research for and writing of this thesis. I am grateful for the privilege of learning from her succinct writing and efficient working styles. I thank my family for their spiritual support. Special thanks also go to my friends for their faithfulness and encouragement. I am also indebted to my former colleagues for their generous assistance and keen interest in my research. vi DEDICATION To my family, to my teachers and students, past, present and future 1INTRODUCTION English in China has gone through a long history associated with political reforms and social development (Adamson, 2002). Since the implementation of the Four Modernizations1 scheme and the Reform and Open-up Policy2 in the late 1970s, profound changes have taken place in China’s English education as a consequence of the amendment of English curricula for all the levels of schooling (Adamson & Morris, 1997; Hu, 2002; Lam, 2002). The general public as well as the policy-makers have realized the importance of English language as a means to achieve a wide range of exchange of science, technology and economy with other countries. English has become a key subject required in secondary and higher education. It is also offered to primary students in main cities starting in Grade 1. Officers and workers from all trades and professions are also encouraged to learn English for the cause of modernization. In several years, the number of learners of English in China rose sharply, which almost equaled the total of those in the rest of other non-English speaking countries (Crystal, 1985). As the Reform and Open-up policy continue on a greater scale and the connection with the outside world strengthens in the near future, English is perceived to be a must to gain access to international economic activities, further education and promising careers. At the turn of the 21st century, China’s accession to the WTO and its hosting of the 2008 Olympic Games highlighted its involvement in the process of globalization, and English won the nationwide popularity and concern among people ranging from the policy-makers and educationalists to the general public (Bolton, 2002; Jiang, 2003; Nunan, 2003; Pang, Zhou & Fu, 1 These refer to the modernization of China's industry, agriculture, national defense and science and technology. 2 The Reform and Open-up Policy was carried out around the early beginning of the 1980s and majorly characterized by the practice of the market-oriented economy domestically and the development of the diplomatic relationship with Western countries. [Xinhua, (October 7, 2008). U.S. Scholar Hails Great Changes in China Caused by Reform and Open-up Policy. People’s Daily Online. Retrieved April 5, 2009, from http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90776/90884/6510441.htm] 22002). To meet the demands in the growing international communication correlated with globalization and to improve English education at all levels, the English curriculum for Basic Education3 in China underwent a thorough amendment at the beginning of the new century. The trial implementation of Guideline for Curriculum Reform in Basic Education by the Ministry of Education of the People’s Republic of China in July 2001 launched the all-round reform for all the subjects in primary and secondary schools. The Ministry of Education organized domestic experts of English education to write the new curriculum guidelines for Basic Education, aiming to enhance the quality and efficiency of English education. Issued in 2003 by the Ministry of Education, the experimental version of English Curriculum Standards for Senior Secondary Schools (ECSSSS) illustrates the objectives and structure of English education in a circular diagram composed of language skills, language knowledge, learning strategies, affection and attitudes, and cultural awareness (see Appendix A). The new curriculum aims to cultivate students’ attitudes towards national, international and cross-cultural communication, to foster their motivation and interest in learning and improve their language skills as well. The five components all point to the core, namely, the comprehensive language competence. Compared with previous English syllabuses, ECSSSS emphasizes humanistic values in particular (Wang & Lam, 2009) and lays much attention to students’ learning processes and practical ability to use their learned knowledge and developed skills in real contexts (Jin & Cortazzi, 2006). The reformulation of the English curriculum standards consequently required new English textbooks because English textbooks in China had always been written and compiled in accordance with the guidance of course syllabuses. It has been a common belief that English textbooks are crucial to the quality of English education 3 It refers to six-year primary education and three-year junior secondary and three-year senior secondary education. 3because they are the most important source of English input to many students in China (Hu, 2002). To guide textbook writing and compiling and implement the new English curriculum efficiently, the objectives of ECSSSS are graded into four levels and fully interpreted with regard to the five components (language skills, language knowledge, learning strategies, affection and attitudes, and cultural awareness). As former syllabuses, the guideline of new curriculum also contains a wordlist suggesting the vocabulary that senior secondary students should master. There is also one chapter in ECSSSS focusing on suggestions for writing and using textbooks. In effect, it corresponds to the guideline for curriculum reform which encourages relevant institutions and publishing houses to compile their own textbooks within the framework of curriculum and basic requirements (Ministry of Education, 2001). The open invitation of compiling textbooks breaks the traditional pattern that only some key publishing houses were designated to develop textbooks and enables many organizations to write and compile English textbooks (Zhou, 2008). The market of English textbooks has emerged, stimulating many educational publishers to participate in the production of textbooks compatible with the new curriculum standards. Some of these publishers have been publishing textual and audio-visual teaching materials imported from the UK and USA for more than a decade. A number of the imported English books and programs have won popularity among Chinese learners. Along with widely-spread original media from these two countries, British English and American English have become the ideal models for Chinese English learners, especially college students (Hu, 2004; 2005). For many Chinese, either British English or American English is undeniably the yardstick to judge and 4evaluate the authenticity of English presented in textbooks. Therefore, seeking partners from the UK or USA to co-publish textbooks is a preference for Chinese publishers. In theory, the publication of English textbooks for senior secondary schools is open to all qualified publishers; however, the Ministry of Education preserves the supervision of the quality and content of textbooks due to the fact that senior secondary education is the prerequisite for higher education and prepares students for the National College Entrance Exam. Since 2005, seven series of English textbooks for senior secondary schools submitted by seven publishing houses have passed the evaluations of the Ministry of Education and have been published. These textbooks are collaborative products of Chinese publishers and famous publishers from the UK and USA, such as McGraw-Hill, Pearson, Oxford, and Macmillan. The chief editors and writers of these books are allied to be Sino-Anglo associations to such an extent that the authenticity and accuracy of the textbook content are assured. Such cross-cultural cooperation, however, may lead to conflicts and negotiations in writing and editing textbooks, the process of which is unknown to people outside the circle of the editorial team. In China, co-publication of English textbooks for Basic Education is still at its initial stage. It is, therefore, worthwhile to examine the editorial work of these textbooks to gain insights into the different views and attitudes between native-English speaking writers and Chinese editors in the process of writing English textbooks. 5LITERATURE REVIEW British English and American English According to Kachru (1992b), the global situation of English can be categorized into the Inner Circle, Outer Circle, and Expanding Circle. The Inner Circle consists of the traditional English-using countries, such as the UK, USA, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, where English is the dominant official language. The Outer Circle includes countries where English has been playing an important role in education and governance in a long history, such as India, Nigeria, Singapore, and South Africa. The Expanding Circle mainly refers to countries like China, Russia, Japan, Korea and Iran, in which people recognize the importance of English as an international language and study English widely for scientific, technical and economic purposes. British English and American English represent the variety of English from the Inner Circle and have established their dominance in the practice of English language teaching (ELT) (Phillipson, 1992). Realizing the profitable investment in ELT, the British government regards English as their greatest asset and has constantly promoted ELT through officially financed English teacher training projects and textbook publication (Phillipson, 1992). In the early 1990s, the large-scale export of EFL textbooks had brought income as much as ₤170 million in the UK, and ELT was recognized as not only a large market but also a growing industry (Pennycook, 1994). Over the past two decades there has arguably been an exponential growth in the publishing of ELT materials. Like their British counterparts, the American government has developed their own agenda to legitimate the spread of American English by book promotion and increasing the number of foreign students in the USA (Phillipson, 1992). Once British or American English is accepted as a particular model in countries outside the Inner Circle, a market for its language practice, including textbooks and native speakers as experts, is naturally created (Kachru, 1986), 6which in turn intensifies the spread of that variety of English. With an increasing global economic exchange, the prolific popular culture presented in British or American English has also flowed into international markets. Such culture productions are welcomed as English learning materials and the way to know more about English cultures, practically the British or American cultures. Consequently, the wide diffusion of cultures and teaching materials represented in British or American English has assured the people outside the Inner Circle countries that the authentic English is either of these two varieties. They have therefore enforced their dominant status of the standard in the ELT industry. As Kachru (1986) asserts, it is “the agents of linguistic power”, its promoters and users, who endow the language with the power and create the base for the language (p. 135). Conflicts between content and context in English education While the supposedly authentic English being transmitted with the textbooks produced in the UK and USA, the Anglo-American centric culture carried by English has been exported as well. It is evident that language is by no means isolated words and organized grammatical structures but presents content and associates with context. Language learning would be discouraging if the context was alien to learners. Although producers of those exported English textbooks acknowledge the need to facilitate enjoyable learning, creating daily situations and devising information gaps in texts, the content is often about the Anglo-American speech community (Canagarajah, 1999). In such a context, feeling distanced from their native cultures or separated from their own social context while learning the authentic English, learners tend to switch off rather than respond to learning tasks situated in those alien situations (Canagarajah, 1999; Kachru, 1986; Prodromou, 1988). As Pennycook (1994) contends, “the global export of 7English, English language teaching, and English textbooks frequently leads to situations of cultural conflict where the norms presented in the texts are in direct conflict with local social and cultural norms” (p. 176). In brief, “English language teaching beliefs, practices and materials are never neutral”, but symbolize particular understandings of language, learning, and communication (Pennycook, 1994, p. 178). To appeal to the growing global market of ELT, the English textbooks written in the Inner Circle countries try to present English as an international language. For example, Gray (2002) observes that the content of the global English textbooks published in Britain for use in other countries has been “subtly deterritorialized” (p. 157). In other words, the content of many English textbooks are gradually located more in international settings rather than exclusively in Britain. However, by definition, the ELT publishers cannot base their textbook writing in a specific local context in order to maximize international sale. The content is orientated to avoid offending sensibilities of potential buyers and readers, but the chosen topics are often bland, resulting in a lack of engagement of students (Gray, 2002). Since language and culture are often perceived to be inseparable, many ELT practitioners and English learners believe that British and American cultures are of great importance for language learning (Hu, 2004; 2005). Furthermore, when students are taught to foster international understandings through learning English focusing on communication between native speakers and nonnative speakers, their international awareness turns out to be limited within the knowledge about the Inner Circle countries (Matsuda, 2002). Most of them tend to pursue the goal that their English sounds like that of a native speaker or can be identified as American English (Hu, 2005; Matsuda, 2002). Evidently emphasis on the Anglo-American culture does not result in the true 8international understandings but in the failure to promote linguistic and cultural pluralism (Kubota, 2002). Educators are urged to problematize the content and contextual condition of English textbooks and to understand how language teaching entails specific contextual realities, as Widdowson (1998) points out, “what makes the language a reality for its users is its local value – the specific contextual connection and the exclusive appeal to common and communal knowledge and attitudes” (p. 711). Connecting content with local contexts Outside the Inner Circle countries, there are a variety of ELT contexts for learners to experience language learning. Scholars have suggested that ELT content be connected with local contexts in which the learners can practice what they learn about the language (Alptekin, 1993 & 2002; Prodromou, 1988). Emphasizing how the text is tied to learners’ familiar and unfamiliar knowledge, Alptekin (1993) argues that native-English speaking textbook writers have a tendency to compose in tune with their familiar cultural schemas, which may be foreign to language learners in a different context. In the case of English as world English, Alptekin (1993) advocates that it is better to design teaching materials linked with the context of learners’ own culture. Noticing that how the authority of a native speaker can undermine learner autonomy, researchers (Alptekin, 2002; Matsuda, 2002) stress the importance for teaching materials to emphasize diversity both within and across cultures and sufficient exposure to various parts of the world. Such emphases may facilitate learners’ understanding of English-speaking cultures from a comparative perspective and also help cultivate their international awareness. 9Canagarajah (2002) echoes the importance of the cultural impact on learners of English with the remark that it is not appropriate to transfer students from “a ‘native’ language to a target language”, or from “host culture to receiving culture”, but far better to “teach students the skills of negotiating languages and cultures” (p. 146). To a greater extent, Pennycook (2001) criticizes the predominant role of English, arguing it is unfair that students in non-English-speaking countries are required to reach a high level of competence in English in order to pursue their education and have them depend on “forms of Western knowledge that are often of limited value and extreme inappropriacy to the local context” (p. 82). The subtle but profound relationship between text content and learners’ background of local knowledge implicates the urgency to problematize the directly adopted authentic language materials from the Inner Circle countries in textbooks, and to rethink the teaching of English as a widely used international language in the Outer Circle and the Expanding Circle countries. With the belief that teaching how to learn a language means to facilitate learners with language skills to better “negotiate between cultures, shuttle between communities” (Canagarajah, 2002, p. 146), researchers (e.g. Alptekin, 1993 & 2002; Prodromou, 1988; Widdowson, 1998) suggest using the local varieties of English and focusing on an organic integration of text content and local culture. Such an integration of language and local culture suggests a focus on local variety of English which should contribute to engaging learning activities. English varieties and standard English If textbook writing should take into account local varieties of English, the question is what language standard it should follow. Language is unstable in nature (Widdowson, 1994). When a language moves beyond its nation and becomes international, speakers of other languages take it 10 over as a second tongue and add some features of their home languages (Halliday, 2006). In other words, the foreign language adapts itself to the changing circumstances to sustain its communicative and communal values (Widdowson, 1994). This elucidates the development of English varieties. Traced back to its origins, English firstly arrived in England from northern Europe, beginning to spread around the British Isles in the fifth century, and evolved into a mother-tongue in the twelfth century (Crystal, 2003). There had been five or seven million mother-tongue English speakers mainly living in the British Isles towards the end of the sixteenth century (Crystal, 2003). English then moved with the British explorers to North America in the seventeenth century, and nearly two centuries later settled down with an identity of American English in the present USA as a result of political emancipation (Kachru, 1992a). Meanwhile, English made its progress with the continuing British exploration in the further north of America, the present Canada, and in the southern hemisphere, the present Australia and New Zealand, and became a common language in these countries with the help of millions of immigrants through a natural process of assimilation (Crystal, 2003). During the colonial and postcolonial periods, English has made its way around the world in a larger scale and become plural in terms of pronunciation, vocabulary, idioms, and rhetorical styles (Kubota & Ward, 2000). Varieties of English or Englishes are growing unassailably like “a hotchpotch of dialects and accents at different stages of nativization” with constantly revised or reinvented rules and lexis (Rajagopalan, 2004, p. 113). English in the plural form has been increasingly recognized and reflected in various branches of linguistics, research and publications on world Englishes (Bolton, 2005). In addition to the varieties of English as a native language in the Inner Circle countries, English as non-native language in the Outer Circle and the Expanding Circle countries 11 is respectively identified as a second language (ESL) and foreign language (EFL) (Kachru, 1992b). According to Kachru (1992a&b), the varieties of English in EFL territories lack official status and are primarily performance varieties with restricted functions in specific contexts, such as tourism, commerce and other international transactions. These varieties also have identity modifiers indicating geographical characteristics, such as Japanese English, or Chinese English. In comparison, English varieties in ESL territories are institutionalized varieties with localized characteristics and extended range of functions in the educational, administrative, and sociocultural contexts of nations, such as India, Singapore and Nigeria. English is no longer a privilege owned by certain groups of people (Widdowson, 1994). British English and American English are only two varieties with a long history. However, the belief that British and American English represent a standard English persists among some linguists, SLA researchers, and many English teachers and learners, not to mention the ELT examination boards and publishing industry (Jenkins, 2006). A major fear is that the varieties of English will become mutually unintelligible (Kachru & Nelson, 2001), which, in fact, implies that a minority of people would have the power to impose authority, to enforce conformity to conventions of English, and to maintain institutional stability (Widdowson, 1994). In view of the fact that English serves the communicative and communal needs of different communities, English must be diverse, and have multiple standards (Widdowson, 1994). The standard variety of a language is a result of the standardizing process to bear ascribed values (Halliday, 2006). British English was initially one English dialect selected to carry the standard of the newly founded nation, and its standard had evolved with the social development to meet new demands in areas of administration, commerce, and education for a long time (Halliday, 2006). American English, beginning as the first of Britain’s colonial and then 12 postcolonial offspring, had also been socially sanctioned and standardized with distinguishing features on the levels of phonology, lexis, orthography and grammar to achieve communication and symbolize an independent community with its own identity, conventions and values (Kachru, 1992a; Schneider, 2006). A half century ago, the Englishes of Australia and New Zealand emerged as national varieties in their own right to have their own standards different from that of England, and became the focus of the development of dictionaries, such asMacquarie Dictionary, codified the local standards (Kiesling, 2006). In much the same way, the varieties of English in the Outer Circle countries went through a process of linguistic and cultural appropriation in association with sociopolitical development. A “federative standard” for each of these varieties of English may probably evolve particularly for protean situations in the same accumulative manner as British English andAmerican English standards have done over a long time (McArthur, 2001, p. 10). So it is suggested that if there can be two national standards within one English in the UK and USA, there can in theory be more than two standards (Kachru & Nelson, 2001; McArther, 2001). Given that a standard English develops endo-normatively as appropriate to different conditions of use (Widdowson, 1994), and that English standards have been conventions or institutionalized rules in the Inner Circle countries based on dictionaries, grammar and rhetoric handbooks and disseminated through various forms of media (Kachru & Nelson, 2001), each variety of English has its own conventions negotiated within the community concerned. Hence, a common standard for each of the new Englishes in the Outer Circle and Expanding Circle countries can be preserved and developed to serve communicative and communal needs and maintain standards of communicative effectiveness (Widdowson, 1994). It implies that this common standard is neither confined to exonormative English models nor decided by some 13 native-English speakers. The native-English speakers can possess real English in their own particular cultural contexts of use but may lose their privilege and authority in a different context or country, as language authenticity is not transferable (Widdowson, 1994). So the standard of the English language is intrinsically comparative. This challenges the assumption that some native speakers of English are experts and own the standard and authentic English. English teachers, learners, and editors working for ELT publishing are also challenged to rethink the standards and authenticity of English. China English China has such a large population of learners and users of English, and the growth of English in the Chinese context has attracted much attention both at home and abroad. The emergence of “Chinese Pidgin English”, “Chinese English”, “Chinglish”, “Sinicized English”, “China English”, and also “Hong Kong English” (see Adamson, 2002; Bolton, 2002; Cheng, 1992; Kirkpatrick & Xu, 2002; Zhou & Feng, 1987) not only presents the varieties of English in China but also implies attitudes towards English at different phases of its development. Chinese Pidgin English is the earliest variety that took shape in the eighteenth century in Guangdong, when the British did trade with the Chinese in a few trading posts, and spread to the southeastern coastal cities after the establishment of so-called Treaty Ports in the southeastern areas in the 1840s (Cheng, 1992). It is regarded as a deviated variety from the British English with features resulted from the interference from Chinese and local people’s resistance to learn the full form of a foreign tongue for dignity (Hall, 1966, as cited in Cheng, 1992). As missionary schools and Anglo-Chinese colleges were set up and spread across China in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, English was taught in formal educational contexts, leading to the 14 “de-pidginisation” of Chinese Pidgin English (Bolton, 2002). It was then disfavored, declined and finally disappeared because of social and political reasons and people’s preference for Standard British or American English (Cheng, 1992). Hong Kong English was derived from a hybrid of Cantonese and English (Bolton, 2000), reflecting the sociolinguistic history of Hong Kong from a British colony to the special administrative region of China after the Handover in 1997. Considering the postcolonial development of the new societies in Asia and its impact on sociolinguistic dynamics, Bolton (2000) argues that Hong Kong English is a variety that already exists in the community. Based on Bulter’s (1997) criteria for evaluating a variety of world Englishes, Bolton (2000) points out that it is the recognizable Hong Kong accent, the vocabulary expressing special social phenomena, a history of the contact with English, and creative literary works by local writers that can identify Hong Kong English as a variety of English, though there are few reference works yet, such as dictionaries and handbooks for writing styles. In effect, the accent of Hong Kong English is the influence of Cantonese, as many Chinese speak English with different accents because of their dialects. In Bolton’s (2000) study, the discourse between two Hong Kong graduates showing many transliterated words and direct translation from Cantonese or Chinese may be regarded as Hong Kong English and also likely be seen as either incorrect use of English or interlanguage (e.g. Li, 2000, as cited in Kirkpatrick & Xu, 2002). “Chinese English” and “Chinglish” are more often referred to as incorrect use of English due to the interference of the Chinese language. For instance, Pride and Liu (1988), based on their findings of the errors made by Chinese learners, such as the mother-tongue transfer and overgeneralization of syntactic rules of English, suggest that the Chinese linguistic features in terms of pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar are brought to English due to learners’ 15 insufficient exposure to native English and the type of English education they have received. Unlike the mother-tongue interference, the fact that connotations of some English words and phrases used in the Chinese context are different from those generally found in most English countries (Cheng, 1992; Pride & Liu, 1988; Zhou & Feng, 1987). Based on the study on the Beijing Review, an English journal published in China reporting domestic current events, Cheng (1992) has found that Chinese cultural characteristics are distinctive in English translations for idioms and political registers, and that sinicized lexical items with different connotations are clearly culture bound. As Zhou and Feng (1987) point out, when English is inadequate to express the peculiar social and cultural phenomena, English has to be “nativized or sinicized linguistically and culturally” to serve as “a vehicle of Chinese culture” (p. 118). Many examples of nativized English in terms of lexis illustrate acculturated English with Chinese traits (see Cheng, 1992; Pride & Liu, 1988; Zhou & Feng, 1987). One of the widely cited examples is “propaganda”. It originally implies a disapproving attitude and means false information that a government or organization spreads in order to influence people’s opinions and beliefs, as explained in Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners (2003). In the Chinese context, “propaganda” has been used positively and referred only to spreading true information, beliefs, and news to promote a cause. In the process of nativization, there are some words whose meanings have been either extended or reduced (Zhou & Feng, 1987). For instance, “cadre” in native English means a small group of people within a political party or an army; in the Chinese context, however, “cadre” has been extended to include leading officials of the Communist Party, state leaders, military officers, and common administrators. “Knowledge” originally means acquaintance with a particular subject and knowing about a fact or situation, while in nativized English its meaning has been reduced to acquaintance with truths or principles 16 obtained from books. Political registers obviously bear more nativized features and need footnotes, such as, “Four Modernizations” and “One Country Two Systems”. The latter refers to the policy for reunification of Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan. Likewise, some terms related to unique Chinese cultures need explanation for intelligibility. Take the Confucian works for instance, “Four Books and Five Classics” (sishu wujing). The four books are collections of the Confucian principles and doctrines, and the five classics include the subjects of literature, history, politics, science and arts. Most Chinese can recognize what it refers to at first sight, while foreigners unacquainted with Chinese classic culture must be confounded. There are other sinicized terms that have already been well known outside China, such as “silk road”, “to lose face”, “kowtow”, etc. It is evident that English has been adapting itself to fit in Chinese cultures. Given this linguistic reality, and as a consequence of the debate about the varieties of English in China (see Du & Jiang, 2001), local researchers (e.g. Li, 1993; Wang, 1991; Jia & Xiang, 1997) have proposed to define the developing variety of English in China and distinguish the nativized English with Chinese cultural elements from the incorrect use of English due to Chinese interference. In an article about Chinese-English translation, Ge (1980) argues that the translated terms used to express “specific things” of China are words of “China English” instead of “Chinese English or Chinglish” (as cited in Du & Jiang, 2001, p. 38). For the first time, “China English” was officially put forward (Du & Jiang, 2001). Believing in the existence of China English, Wang (1991) defines it as English used by Chinese in China, conforming to a kind standard English and possessing Chinese characteristics as well. He suggests that some translations of Chinese idioms should be promoted in publications, such as “A dog shouldn’t chase mice – that’s the cat’s job”, which sounds more humorous and less offensive than “it’s none of your business” (p. 7). Li (1993), more concerned with the distinctive nature of China 17 English, amends the definition to stress that China English is considered as an accepted variety based on normative English to express unique Chinese social and cultural events by means of transliteration, borrowing, and semantic regeneration with Chinese characteristics but without the mother-tongue interference. To attach the practice of Chinese characteristics to the definition, Jia and Xiang (1997) specify China English as a variety of English used by the Chinese-speaking people according to standard English and characterized by Chinese features which are inevitable and useful for spreading Chinese cultures. Obviously their definitions all emphasize standard English or normative English as a foundation and Chinese characteristics as an undeniable factor of China English. Even though standard English is not specifically defined in Wang’s (1991) and Jia and Xiang’s (1997) definitions for China English, it literally means a normative variety that is different from either British or American English. As Li (1993) asserts, it refers a variety of English that follows general norms and can be accepted and understood by the people in the English-speaking countries. The hypothesis that English has two layers proposed by Wen and Yu (2003) also concerns acceptability and understandability. The first layer is common norms of English, a shared language system by all English users, and the second layer concerns the localized English variety, which lays over the first as a premise and then demonstrates users’ local cultural features. It is found that the localized English can be compatible with the generally used normative English and achieve understandability as long as it follows common norms (Wen & Yu, 2003). In a sense, to follow common standards is for China English to be intelligible and acceptable. However, it is inconclusive that to what extent the standards or norms should be followed to have China English accepted and understood by all English users. Nevertheless, it can be inferred that China English is supposed to follow certain standards, as Kirkpatrick and Xu 18 (2002) state that “models and standards have always been of particular importance in Chinese culture” owing to the influence of Confucianism (p. 275). Since standards play a key role in use of English in China, and publications are expected to retain standards and set models, any expression that is suspected as non-standard would most likely be revised before publishing. In other words, “Chinese English” or “Chinglish” that fails to follow normative English must be prevented from spreading in official publications. As a matter of fact, the professional translators and editors in publishing are trained to ensure the standards. For instance, Cheng (1992) has found that English in the Beijing Review reflects its distinctiveness of culture-bound text mainly on lexical items but a lack of significant Chinese features at the syntactic level because the English writings are done by specially trained translators. Similarly in the articles written by Chinese writers for the 21st Century newspaper, expressions with explicit Chinese characteristics are found among words and phrases but not at the syntactic level (Wen & Yu, 2003). However, it is believed that China English may carry Chinese features in the rhetorical style as a result of the Chinese thinking modes (Duan, 2003; Kirkpatrick & Xu, 2002). For instance, the Chinese prefer expressing abstract ideas in concrete terms, and tend to add category words or use more verbs to make expressions specific and concrete in English in comparison with British English: China English: “These principles apply to all cases of relations between China and other countries.” British English: “These principles apply to relations between China and all other countries.” China English: “The life-style has become accepted and welcomed by more and more young people.” British English: “The life-style has found its growing popularity and acceptance among young peoples.” (Duan, 2003, p. 9) 19 Perceiving a thing from the standpoint that all respects of the thing are integrated and related, the Chinese try to unify every part of the thing as whole (Duan, 2003). In syntax, Chinese speakers are used to addressing reasons or backgrounds at the beginning and then main information at the end of a sentence, and a “frame-main” sequence that proceeds from subordinate to main or from modifier to modified can be observed in their English expressions (Kirkpatrick & Xu, 2002). For example: China English: “Because of automobile exhaust and industrial pollutants, the air over many large cities has become a grayish haze.” British English: “The air over many large cities has become a grayish haze because of automobile exhaust and industrial pollutants.” China English: “The belief that the government should be responsible for all the economic trouble is commonly held.” British English: “The belief is commonly held that the government should be responsible for all the economic trouble.” (Duan, 2003, p. 15) Chinese is a paratactic and topic-comment language (Duan, 2003; Kirkpatrick & Xu, 2002). It shows logical relations in a sentence or discourse through semantic coherence and context. To add this feature to a complex English sentence, the word order can be arranged by the sequence of events, or several verbs and nouns can be paralleled successively (Duan, 2003). For example: China English: “In school, we work mainly with our brains. Sports must be given more attention.” British English: “In school where we work mainly with our brain, sports must be given attention.” (Duan, 2003, p. 20) It suggests that on the one hand China English has been based on a normative English because of the tradition of conforming to standards and models and for the sake of intelligibility and acceptability in international communication, but on the other hand it has carried characteristics of Chinese peculiar cultures and Chinese thinking modes in a natural process leading to its model. 20 The present study Different from the previously mentioned research on published writings and informal discourses, the present research is going to explore revisions and corrections that Chinese editors made in the editorial process of a collaborative English textbook of New English series co- published by British and Chinese publishers. Drawing on the preliminary review of literature on varieties of English, standard English, China English, and significant connection between textbook content and context, the present study aims to reveal grounds for making textbook revisions and corrections so as to provide insights into the collaborative work with native English textbook writers and shed light on the development of China English. The researcher was an editor responsible for one of the New English textbooks, Book 5, for Chinese senior secondary students. She had engaged in the editorial work during the process of the textbook writing and editing. Drawing from her experience, she explores in the present study the conflicts and negotiations between British writers and Chinese editors, in relation to revisions and corrections on content and language. The exploration will be conducted by comparing different versions of manuscripts and textbook drafts for publication to track changes in the writing and editing. The study is guided by the following two questions: (1) How did the Chinese and British partners cooperate in the process of writing and editing the textbook and negotiate in terms of content and language? (2) Which standard did the textbook conform to, British English or the underlying notion of standard English held by the Chinese editors? 21 METHODOLOGY Context for the New English textbooks The Chinese publisher of the New English (NE) textbooks series is affiliated with one prestigious university that focuses on foreign language teaching and research. Since the early 1990s, along with the growing awareness among the Chinese people from all walks of life that English is the prerequisite for promising careers, the Chinese publisher has gradually grown into a key publisher engaged in publishing teaching and learning materials of English and other foreign languages. Soon after the Ministry of Education issued the trial implementation of the Guideline for Curriculum Reform in Basic Education, the Chinese publisher of NE established a particular department and initiated the project of publishing its own English textbooks and other teaching materials for school education. Given the preference for British English, the Chinese publisher decided to co-publish the NE textbooks with one British publishing group which was distinguished as one of the biggest ELT international publishers. English textbooks in the Chinese context are significant learning resources for students and major teaching materials to teachers, so the publication of new textbooks is expected to guide English education with the new curriculum standards. Under such a circumstance, the collaboration involved a process in which the Chinese suggested topics and types of grammatical knowledge for each NE textbook while the British designed specific themes and selected relevant materials to write texts and activities. The two parties discussed through emails or face- to-face meetings about the appropriateness of the content for each book and worked out guidelines for what and how to write. For content about China, the Chinese provided the British writers with the necessary information. Once the British finished writing, the manuscripts were sent to the Chinese for review. To ensure the appropriateness of the content for the targeted users, 22 the Chinese editors invited some experienced English teachers from elementary and secondary schools to review the manuscripts and make suggestions and comments for revision. Such review and revision underwent several turns until the manuscripts were ready for publication. The NE series contain three sets of textbooks for primary schools, junior secondary schools, and senior secondary schools. For senior secondary schools, there are eleven textbooks in total for three school years. Except for the second semester in the third year which has only one book, the other semesters each has two books. This study focuses on Book 5 in the senior secondary school series. Used in the first half of semester in the second school year, Book 5 consists of six modules and a revision unit. Each module is theme-based and follows the pattern of theme – function – structure – task. Specifically, it comprises sections such as 1) introduction, 2) reading and speaking / vocabulary, 3) grammar, 4) vocabulary and listening / speaking, 5) everyday English, 6) function, 7) speaking / reading and writing, 8) cultural corner, and 9) task. All the activities for language skills and knowledge unfold around the theme for students to practice the acquired skills and knowledge (see the example of Module 1 in Appendix B). To get the permission of using the editorial documents of NE Book 5 for the present research, the researcher sent a consent form to the project manager of the Chinese publisher and obtained a scanned copy of the signed form by email. Pseudonyms are used to refer to the publishers, the textbook series, the writers and editors to protect privacy. Participants Two British writers and five Chinese editors (see the participants’ profiles in Table 1) were engaged in the process of writing and editing NE Book 5 for Chinese senior secondary school students. The British writers in this research include the writer of the textbook (Bruce) and the 23 co-editor-in-chief (Bob) representing the British publisher. Bruce wrote texts and designed exercises according to the arranged outline of the textbook content, while Bob monitored the writing progress to ensure that the writing followed the guidelines and the writing styles and addressed the Chinese editorial team’s comments and suggestions. Bob also made decisions to adjust the content or delete extra exercises to fit the established textbook layout. Both Bob and Bruce held a master degree in Modern Language from a university in the UK. Before joining in the NE project, they had many years of experience in both writing English textbooks for the non- native English speakers and teaching English as a foreign language in European countries. Table 1: Background information of the British writers and Chinese editors The Chinese editorial team includes the co-editor-in-chief representing the Chinese publisher, the deputy editor-in-chief, and three editors. The team offered suggestions and comments and finalized the revisions and corrections in the process of editing NE Book 5. The Chinese co-editor-in-chief (Chang) had over fifty years of English teaching and research experience and had been in charge of writing and compiling English books for a variety of Chinese learners. The deputy editor-in-chief (Cheng) also had many years of English teaching and research experience. Both of Chang and Cheng were university professors. They had both studied in English-speaking countries and obtained a master degree in Applied Linguistics in the 1980s and the 1990s respectively. As key members in the Chinese team, Chang and Cheng Participants Bob Bruce Chang Cheng Chu Chui Chun Age 50’s 50’s 80’s 50’s 30’s 30’s 30’s Gender M M M M F F F Highest degree M.A. M.A. M.A. M.A. M.A. M.A. M.Ed. Writing experience √ √ √ Editing experience √ √ Teaching experience √ √ √ √ √ √ 24 participated in the formulation of the national English curriculum standards for senior secondary schools. Two of the other three editors (Chu and Chui) had been working as editors since they completed M.A. programs in English Literature and Linguistics from universities in China. The third editor (Chun) had six years’ English teaching experience in a secondary school and started to work as an editor after completing her M.Ed. program in Educational Administration in China. The role of the researcher The researcher was one of the seven participants and had been engaged in the editorial work for one year from July 2004 to June 2005 in Beijing, China. She performed editorial routines as well as such duties as reviewing the British writer’s manuscripts, participating in the discussion of the manuscripts, and summarizing the suggestions and comments proposed by the Chinese editorial committee. Deeply impressed by the cross-cultural negotiations occurring in the editorial process, the researcher frequently reflected on this work experience while studying during her M.A. program in Teaching English as a Second Language at UBC. Through reexamining the manuscripts and editorial documents produced during the process of editorial work for NE Book 5, the researcher analyzed the revisions and corrections from the perspectives of both an insider and an outsider to explore the standards the Chinese editors followed in the process of co-publishing an English textbook for Chinese students. Data collection Having obtained permission from the Chinese publisher to use the editorial documents for academic research only, the researcher retrieved the following documents about NE Book 5 with assistance from former colleagues: 25 (1) Different versions of the British writer’s manuscripts; (2) Reports and summaries of the detailed suggestions and comments produced at the editorial meetings; (3) The published edition of NE Book 5. The above documents, except the final publication, were electronic versions used for communication and information exchange through emails. In analyzing the revisions and corrections made by the Chinese editors and the British writer based on the suggestions of the Chinese editors, the researcher designed two types of comparisons. The first comparison involved the first and final version of the British writer’s manuscripts and the suggestions and comments in the summaries and reports of the editorial meetings. The focus was on the revisions which the British writer made in light of the Chinese editors’ suggestions and comments. The second comparison was conducted between the final version of the manuscripts and the published edition. The final version of the manuscripts was firstly arranged into page layouts, and then several drafts were produced before they were printed for publication. During this process, Bob adjusted the order of certain content and deleted some activities whereas the Chinese editors examined and reexamined the drafts to ensure zero error in the draft and prepare it for the publishing house. Hence, the revisions and corrections directly made by the Chinese editors emerged from the second set of comparisons. The data collected through two sets of comparisons ranged from the revisions regarding the content and linguistic aspects to the rewriting of language activities. In view of the space and purpose of this study, only the revisions and corrections related to the content and linguistic aspects4 were selected for the present research. 4 See the section of data classification for more information. 26 Since the Chinese editors worked as a team, all the suggestions and comments raised at the editorial meetings were based on agreement. Similarly, the revisions and corrections made by the individual editors while examining and reexamining the drafts for published edition were based on the consensus of the team members. In other words, the suggestions, comments, and corrections made by the Chinese editors were regarded as results of the collaborative work. Data classification Data based on two types of comparisons mentioned earlier were classified into two categories: the content and language (see Table 2). The content category refers to the ideas included in reading passages and sentences in the activities designed for language practice. Under the category of the content, the data are further classified into two subcategories. One is related to Chinese cultures, and the other is about the western and other cultures. The items in this category have been revised and corrected on account of cultural and political considerations and for the sake of accuracy and appropriateness. The category of language covers revisions and corrections related to word choice, grammar, mechanics, and rephrasing. The items revised and corrected by replacing, adding, deleting words, and choosing singular or plural form of nouns are identified as word choice. Grammar refers to items revised on account of the different understandings of tense and the convention of grammatical labels. Mechanics concerns the use of punctuations such as apostrophe, hyphen, comma and full stop. Rephrasing means that the sentences or phrases have been restructured or rewritten to express meanings better. A total of 65 revisions were identified from the present data. Table 2 illustrates the coding scheme and examples of coded revisions. 27 Table 2: Coding of revisions and corrections Category Definition Examples Frequency (%)Original text written by the British Revised text based on suggestions of the Chinese C o n t e n t C o n t e n t C o n t e n t C o n t e n t W e s t e r n W e s t e r n W e s t e r n W e s t e r n a n d a n d a n d a n d o t h e r o t h e r o t h e r o t h e r c u l t u r e s c u l t u r e s c u l t u r e s c u l t u r e s Related to the western and other cultures Mark Twain was an expression used by sailors on the Mississippi to warn shipmates… “Mark Twain”, which means “watermark two”, was a call used by sailors… 5 (8%) This festival is at the end of October, when the dead come back to earth. This festival is at the end of October, when the ghosts come out. Nicole Kidman and Tom Cruise used Venetian masks in the film Eyes Wide Shut. (deleted) C h i n e s e C h i n e s e C h i n e s e C h i n e s e c u l t u r e s c u l t u r e s c u l t u r e s c u l t u r e s On account of cultural and political reasons and for the accuracy and credibility The Chinese refer to their language as Han, as the writing system developed rapidly during the Han Dynasty. The main variety of the language is spoken in Beijing. …their language as Han, as it became popular among the people during… One of the main varieties of the language is spoken in Beijing. 18 (27%) TheManchurian tiger is hunted for its body parts, which are used in traditional medicine. The Siberian tiger used to be hunted for its body parts, which were used in traditional medicine. Hong Kong Hong Kong, China Perhaps the most famous animal in danger is the Giant Panda, another species whose habitat is in China. Another famous animal in danger is the giant panda, whose habitat is in China. …in the future there are going to be many Englishes. …there are going to be many “Englishes”. The panda is the symbol of the WWF. Today there are only about 1,000 left. The panda is the symbol of the WWF. Thanks to scientists’ hard work, the number of the panda living in the wild has increased to about 1,590. L a n g u a g e L a n g u a g e L a n g u a g e L a n g u a g e W o r d W o r d W o r d W o r d c h o i c e c h o i c e c h o i c e c h o i c e Replacing the words definitions meanings 22 (34%) tradition story what part which part fit strong But even if he had won everything it was possible to win in his sport, Li Ning retired with the feeling… But even though he had won everything it was possible to win in his sport, Li Ning retired… 28 Table 2: (Continued) Coding of revisions and corrections With the purpose of keeping the research objective, the researcher sent the complete draft of the data classification and analysis to the other two Chinese editors of Book 5 for review. Category Definition Examples Frequency (%)Original text written by the British Revised text based on suggestions of the Chinese L a n g u a g e L a n g u a g e L a n g u a g e L a n g u a g e W o r d W o r d W o r d W o r d c h o i c e c h o i c e c h o i c e c h o i c e Adding the words write to me at the school …at the school address Which expression is used to agree? Which…is used to show agreement? Deleting the words amphibian, golden toad (deleted) The WWF WWF Singular or plural form The Origins of Chinese The Origin of Chinese herds of antelope herds of antelopes G r a m m a r G r a m m a r G r a m m a r G r a m m a r Tense The only problem is I didn’t realize the local accent would be so different… The only problem was I didn’t realize the local accent would be so different… 5 (8%) What is the last question the interviewer asks Sam? …the last question the interviewer asked Sam? Grammatical labels non-finite verbs -ing form, -ed form, and infinitive relative clauses attributive clauses M e c h a n i c s M e c h a n i c s M e c h a n i c s M e c h a n i c s Apostrophe the 1980’s, the 1850’s, the 1990’s the 1980s, the 1850s, the 1990s 8 (12%) Hyphen the end of year dance the end-of-year dance e-mail email Comma & Full stop The accent which is most similar to British can be heard on the East Coast of the US. The accent, which is most similar to British, can be heard on the East Coast of the US. It was great fun, everyone was friendly. It was great fun. Everyone was friendly. R e p h r a s i n g R e p h r a s i n g R e p h r a s i n g R e p h r a s i n g Rewriting sentences for clarity In the 1990’s the Chinese government began actively to protect the antelopes… …government began to take an active part in protecting the antelopes… 7 (11%) A Christian festival which comes at the end of This is a Christian festival which comes… Which film does Billy think isn’t a true story? Which film doesn’t Billy think is a true story? Total 65 (100%) 29 Their feedback led to a few revisions, for instance, the revisions on the description of Halloween (Items 2 and 23 in the following section of Findings and Discussion). When the researcher mentioned that it was corrected from “the dead come to the earth” to “the ghost come out” to reduce the superstitious features, the other two editors suggested that it was revised for the sake of accuracy but not to disguise superstition because the festival was religious and about ghosts but not the dead. Considering the remaining superstitious sign of “ghosts”, the decision was then made to apply quotation marks to ghosts to indicate its fictitious meaning. For another example, upon the researcher’s interpretation of the revision about saving Tibetan antelopes (Item 11), one of the editors expressed that the previous revision, “We hope the Tibetan antelope will survive”, for the sentence, “Perhaps the Tibetan antelope will survive”, should not be deleted and could be better to use “believe” than “hope”. There are other analyses of the revisions responded by the other two editors, such as replacing personal pronouns with nouns (Item 34) and applying commas to change a defining clause into a non-defining clause (Item 53). 30 FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION Revision and corrections on content Western and other cultures There are five items (Item 1-5), accounting for 8% of the total, identified as the revisions and corrections about the western and other cultures. Table 3 compares the original and revised versions. Table 3: Revisions / corrections for content about the western and other cultures 5 The first item is about the origin of Mark Twain’s penname. The Chinese editors disagreed with the British writer and believed that “an expression used by the sailors” was not accurate and didn’t indicate that “Mark Twain” was commonly called by the leadsman on a riverboat when the water was two fathoms deep. So they simplified the source of the penname and revised the sentence by adding “watermark two”. Item 2 is an exercise of matching the festivals with their descriptions. The Chinese editors believed that the original description of Halloween was Original text written by the British Revised/corrected text based on suggestions of the Chinese 1 Mark Twain was an expression used by sailors on the Mississippi to warn shipmates… “Mark Twain”, which means “watermark two”, was a call used by sailors on the Mississippi to warn… 2 This festival is at the end of October, when the dead come back to earth. This festival is at the end of October, when ghosts come out. 3 Carnival, Holi, Halloween, Thanksgiving Day, Christmas and Ramadan Carnival, Holi, Halloween, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas. ∧ 4 Nicole Kidman and Tom Cruise used Venetian masks in the film Eyes Wide Shut. ∧ 5 Italian artists Tiepolo and Pietro Longhi painted many carnival scenes. ∧ 5 The signs apply to the original and revised/corrected of all the items in Tables 3-12 as follows: a. original words, phrases and sentences are put in dot-lined boxes; b. replaced words or rephrased sentences are underlined; c. added sentences are in square brackets; d. deleted words or sentences are indicated as “∧”. 31 inappropriate because it is a festival about the ghosts but not the dead. They suggested the British writer rewrite it as “when ghosts come out”. In Item 3 were six festivals originally introduced as a warming-up activity under the theme of Carnival. The Chinese editors stated that Holi, an Indian festival, and Ramadan, a Muslin festival, sounded alien to Chinese students, and suggested recruiting other festivals, such as Easter, a western holiday, and Lantern Festival, a Chinese festival. The British writer partially accepted the Chinese editors’ suggestion and deleted Ramadan but maintained Holi without adding any other festival. The originals in items of 4 and 5 were exercises of rewriting sentences under the theme of Carnival. The Chinese editors commented that the content was unsuitable and should be deleted, because the two Italian artists were quite foreign to Chinese students while the film Eyes Wide Shut was controversial and contained many sex scenes which should never appear in the textbook. Considering all the festivals presented in the module of Carnival belonged to foreign cultures, the Chinese editors advised the British writer to supplement some China-related content and reached a compromise when the writer revised a relevant writing practice about Chinese festivals with supplemental instructions. Chinese cultures Eighteen items (Item 6-23), accounting for 27% of the total, were revised and corrected based on facts and on account of Chinese cultural and political reasons. Table 4 illustrates the revisions and corrections made by replacing words, rewriting part of sentences, adding detailed information, and deleting phrases or sentences. 32 Table 4: Revisions / corrections for content about Chinese cultures Original text written by the British Revised/corrected text based on suggestions of the Chinese 6 The Manchurian tiger is hunted for its body parts, which are used in traditional medicine. The Siberian tiger used to be hunted for its body parts, which were used in traditional medicine. 7 The Manchurian tiger is also one of the rarest. Today only about 500 are left. The Siberian tiger is also one of the rarest. Today only about 1,000 are left. 8 (Referring to the number of Siberian tiger surviving) about 500; perhaps 20 in China, some in Hunchun Reserve about 1,000; perhaps 500 in China, some in Hunchun Reserve 9 Perhaps the most famous animal in danger is the giant panda, another species whose habitat is in China. Another famous animal in danger is the giant panda, whose habitat is in China. 10 The panda is the symbol of the World Wildlife Fund. Today there are only about 1,000 left. The panda is the symbol of the World Wide Fund. [Thanks to scientists’ hard work, the number of the panda living in the wild has increased to about 1,590]. 11 Since 1997 the antelope population has slowly begun to grow again. Perhaps the Tibetan antelope will survive. Since 1997 the antelope population has slowly begun to grow again. ∧ 12 Explain why the animal is in danger. Find out how many are left, and say what the government is doing to help them. … Find out how many are left, and say what we can do to help them. 13 How much does a teacher ____ in your country? How much does a cook ____ in your country? 14 (one of the brief notes for the topic of The Writing System) types of character ∧ 15 written Chinese Chinese characters 16 The Chinese refer to their language as Han, as the writing system developed rapidly during the Han Dynasty. The main variety of the language is spoken in Beijing. …their language as Han, as it became popular among the people during the Han Dynasty. One of the main varieties of the language is spoken in Beijing. 17 … the logo is made up of the first two Pinyin letters of Li Ning’s name, L and N, and means Anything is possible. …the logo is made up of the first two pinyin letters of Li Ning’s name, L and N. ∧ 18 And if you are a great sportsman, anything is possible. …a great sportsman, anything is possible, [as Li Ning’s advertising slogan says]. 19 Hong Kong Hong Kong, China 33 Table 4: (Continued) Revisions / corrections for content about Chinese cultures Items of 6-8 relate to a rare type of tiger living in eastern Siberia Plain, northeastern China, and North Korea. It is called Siberian tiger or Manchurian tiger worldwide. Manchuria used to refer to Northeast China, the origin of the Manchu people and the cradle of Qing Dynasty. During World War II, the Japanese invaders occupied this region and set up a pseudo Manchurian regime with the last emperor Puyi of Qing Dynasty as its puppet administration. The Chinese editors thought “Manchurian” sounded contentious due to the historical issues and suggested using “Siberian tiger” instead. However, the British writers neglected the suggestion, leaving the name without change. Then the Chinese editors replaced all the “Manchurian tiger” in the textbook with “Siberian tiger” for publication. Item 6 originally described the condition of Siberian tigers based on an information table of endangered animals. In fact, the Siberian tiger is highly protected at the national level, and the hunting for any purpose has already been banned. To convey the accurate information, the Chinese editors applied “used to” to change the tense so as to confirm that using the animal’s body parts in traditional medicine was stopped. The numbers in items of 7 and 8 indicated the conditions of Siberian tigers. The British writers might obtain the relevant information from the source accessible for them, while the Chinese editors were inclined to refer to the Chinese official source for accuracy. By searching the official Original text written by the British Revised/corrected text based on suggestions of the Chinese 20 in Qinghai and the Tibetan plateau in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau 21 N.E China, the northeast of China Northeast China 22 This international dimension suggests that in the future, there are going to be many Englishes. This international dimension suggests that in the future, there are going to be many “Englishes”. 23 This festival is at the end of October, when ghosts come out. This festival is at the end of October, when “ghosts” come out. 34 website of Xinhua News Agency, they found that the population of Siberian tigers was increasing through artificial breeding, and corrected the numbers based on the report. Like items of 6-8, items of 9 and 10 regarding giant pandas were revised for the sake of accuracy. From the Chinese editors’ viewpoints, the giant panda was as famous as other rare species in danger like the Siberian tiger. To convince students about the achievement of artificial breeding, the Chinese editors not only corrected the number of the pandas living in the wild but also mentioned the improvement owing to scientists’ work. As a matter of fact, the situations of the endangered species were changing inevitably, and the revised numbers could not be ultimate results, the Chinese editors still preferred to stand by the local official report to guarantee the accuracy for publication. Items of 11 and 12 are connected with another endangered animal living in China, the Tibetan antelope. In Item 11 the second original sentence was the last sentence in the text about a hero who sacrificed his life to save Tibetan antelopes. It was firstly rewritten as “We hope the Tibetan antelope will survive”, since the Chinese editors commented that “Perhaps” sounded pessimistic while “We hope” could transmit the optimistic attitudes towards the prevention of Tibetan antelopes. But the sentence was deleted at last for publication, as an editor pointed out that the preceding sentence implied the survival of Tibetan antelopes. When the researcher sent the initial analysis of this revision to the other co-editors, they rethought it and agreed that the revised sentence should have been maintained and it would be better to replace “hope” with “believe”, whereby the belief in winning the battle against the extinction of rare species could be passed on. Compared to Item 11, Item 12 is the rubric for a task of surveying endangered animal in China and reports the government’s reaction. The Chinese editors believed that protecting endangered animals was the obligation of the whole society and everyone should take it as their 35 own responsibility. Therefore they suggested revising the latter part of the rubric as “what we can do to help them” to deliver the message to students to help enhance an awareness of their social responsibility. Similarly, Item 13 shows the Chinese editors’ concern about students’ reactions and feelings that could be evoked by certain content. It is an exercise of filling in the blank with the correct word “earn.” When reviewing the drafts for publishing, an editor commented that teachers’ salaries could be a politically sensitive topic in class interaction while cooks’ salaries would be less likely to be argued. Thus, they changed the subject from “teacher” to “cook”. The three corrections in items of 14, 15 and 16 are linked to the Chinese language. Item 14 was originally one of the brief notes for the topic of the writing practice. The Chinese editors stated that “types of character” might mean simplified and traditional characters, or the styles of Chinese calligraphy, of which there would be numerous types, and would arouse ambiguity. Instead of advising how to revise it, the Chinese editors recommended the British writer to substitute the topic of the Chinese writing system with students’ personal stories of encountering people from other parts of China with different accents. The British writer, however, deleted “types of characters” and provided some specific information rather than changed the writing practice as expected. Item 15 occurs in a statement explaining that the Chinese may speak different dialects but have no difficulty in understanding the language in its written form. The Chinese editors considered that “Chinese characters” was more accurate and hence replaced it with “written Chinese”. Item 16 is about the origin of the Chinese language. The original sentences implied that “Han” (referring to the Chinese language) originated and developed from the Han Dynasty. According to the Chinese history, the Chinese language had already developed before Han Dynasty but one particular Chinese calligraphic style became the official script in 36 Han Dynasty and was widely used afterwards. The British writer obviously also misunderstood the nature of the dialect spoken in Beijing. Therefore, the Chinese editors corrected the origin of Han as the name of Chinese language owing to its popularity during the Han Dynasty, and clarified the language spoken in Beijing as “one of the main varieties”. Items of 17 and 18 are about Li Ning, a famous gymnast around the world in the 1990s. After retirement he started his business of sportswear with his name as the brand name and created the logo with the first two letters of his name in pinyin. “Anything is possible” is the translation of his Chinese advertising slogan without any connection with his name. The British writer apparently mismatched the slogan with the logo. So the Chinese editors deleted the second part of the sentence but added “as Li Ning’s advertising slogan says” to the end of the last sentence in Item 18 to preserve the integrity. They also revised the spelling “Pinyin” as pinyin, which is standardized in English publication in China. Along with the correction of the spelling of pinyin, Items 19, 20 and 21 reflect the standardization of the names for geographical and administrative regions by the General Administration of Press and Publication. “Hong Kong” should appear with “China” in English publication, since Hong Kong is the special administrative region of China. The plateau covering both Qinghai Province and Tibet Autonomous Region in geography is officially named as the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The northeastern part of China is called dong-bei (east-north) in Chinese referring to the three provinces in northeast. Conventionally, “Northeast China” is accepted as a special name in English like its Chinese name for that region. The Chinese editors hence standardized the spelling of the name for this region and keep it consistent in the book. The revisions in items of 22 and 23 by using quotation marks demonstrate the Chinese editors’ attitudes towards the terms of “Englishes” and “ghosts”. In the text about the difference 37 between British and American English, the British writer mentioned the development of other varieties of English and presented the plural form of English. The Chinese editors were concerned that Englishes might be regarded irregular and non-standard in the textbook, as neither had the plural form of English been recorded in the dictionary nor the conception of world Englishes been widely used in the Chinese context. Therefore, they applied quotation marks to Englishes, indicating that it referred to a variety of English distinguishable in certain aspects. The quotation marks used for “ghosts” in the description of Halloween, however, implied that the Chinese editors were highly conscious of general education objectives and very concerned that textbooks should convey accurate and scientific knowledge for teachers and students. As whether ghosts exist or not can hardly be explained from the scientific view, “when ghosts come out” definitely sounds superstitious. When the drafts were under review for publication, one editor suggested using quotation marks for “ghosts” to indicate the presumed meaning. Unanimously the Chinese editors agreed that it was necessary to eliminate any superstitious suggestion in the textbook. The revisions and corrections on content for NE Book 5 not only served accuracy and appropriateness but also displayed social and cultural meanings and the Chinese editors’ ideological tendency. For instance, Item 1 about the penname of Mark Twain, items of 15 and 16 about the origin of Chinese language, items of 17 and 18 about the slogan of Li Ning’s sportswear business, were revised to ensure accuracy of facts; while items of 6-12, related to endangered animals in China, were corrected to deliver the underlying notion that the content concerned should evoke students’ consciousness of social duties to protect wild animals and conserve nature. As was the substitution of Manchurian tiger with Siberian tiger, the revision for 38 items of 2, 13, 22 and 23 involved with appropriateness suggested the Chinese editors’ conservative attitudes to certain content. For instance, the editors felt assured about the description of Halloween in Item 23 until quotation marks were used for “ghost”, so that the meaning could be appropriately conveyed. Adding quotation marks to the plural form of English in Item 22 showed the editors’ prudence about using the expression without formal references. The adjustment of the subject from a teacher to a cook on the topic of salary in Item 13 suggested that the editors were hesitant to introduce debatable topics in textbooks. For political concerns, items of 19-21 were revised to follow the standards and meanwhile set for textbook users the models of the spelling for transliterations (e.g. pinyin) and some regions’ official names (e.g. Hong Kong, China) in English. Concerned with the contextual connection and communal knowledge of targeted textbook users (Widdowson, 1998), the Chinese editors strove to link the content with students’ experience and assure that the content could facilitate learning and sustain students’ motivation and interest in English. The deletion of items of 4 and 5 due to inappropriateness and irrelevance precisely indicated the editors’ tendency to preserve students’ interest in learning. However, the revisions were sometimes resulted from a compromise between the Chinese and the British. For instance, Item 3 and Item 14 were recommended to tie the content to the real context by supplementing a China-related festival and adjusting the writing topic to students’ personal experience so as to stimulate students’ motivations of practicing the learned knowledge and skills. The British slightly revised but not redesigned these exercises as expected. It can be inferred that the lack of knowledge about local learners’ experience and traditional cultures may pose a challenge to native English textbook writers. 39 Revisions and corrections on language Word choice A sum of 22 items (Item 24-45), accounting for 34% of the total corrections are related to replacing, adding and deleting the words, and choosing singular or plural form of nouns, most of which were determined by the Chinese editors. The following table illustrates the revisions in items of 24-36 made by replacing the original words. Table 5: Revisions / corrections made by replacing words Original text written by the British Revised/corrected text based on suggestions of the Chinese 24 Match the types of book with the definitions. … with the meanings 25 Match the words with their definitions. … with the meanings 26 According to tradition a soldier ran from the scene of the battle, Marathon, to Athens, to bring the news to Greek victory against the Persians. According to the story, a soldier ran from the scene of the battle, Marathon, to Athens, … 27 What part of the country is Samantha staying in? Which part of the country… 28 … a list of the greatest sportsmen and women of the twentieth century, Li Ning’s name was in it. … a list of the greatest sportsmen and women of the twentieth century, Li Ning’s name was on it. 29 How fit are you? How strong are you? 30 Which sentence refers to who did something? Which sentence shows who did...? 31 a reference to the action a description of the action 32 But even if he had won everything it was possible to win in his sport, Li Ning retired with the feeling that he had failed. But even though he had won everything it was possible to win in his sport, Li Ning… 33 Eight-hour flexible shifts, good pay. Sales staff required in well-known clothes boutique. Good rates, … …temporary positions for chefs, waiters… Eight-hour day, good pay. Sales staff required in well-known clothes shop. Good pay, … …temporary jobs as chefs, waiters… 40 Table 5: (Continued) Revisions / corrections made by replacing words Items of 24 and 25 concern the rubrics for the activities of matching the words with the right explanations or descriptions. The rubrics were originally designed as matching the words with the “definitions”. To the Chinese editors, the definition of a word needed a precise and formal description, while explanations or descriptions of certain words in the textbook for Chinese students were apparently less formal. For example, in the activity of matching the descriptions with the types of books, students were expected to match “biography” with “the story of somebody’s life”, and “fantasy” with “a story which has no connection with reality”. The Chinese editors suggested such statements do not precisely define “biography” and “fantasy”. So “meanings” replaced “definitions” in all the rubrics of similar activities. Like the preceding two items, Item 26 also shows how the Chinese editors changed a word for accuracy of meaning. The original sentence presented the origin of the Olympic Marathon which stated that “according to tradition” a soldier ran from the battle scene of Marathon to Athens to report the victory. The Chinese editors insisted that “tradition” meant a belief or custom that had existed for a long time among a particular group of people, as defined in Oxford Advanced Learner’s English-Chinese Dictionary (6th ed.) (2004). They considered it inaccurate to use “tradition” in this context and therefore selected “story” instead. In fact, according to the definition given in another English dictionary, Macmillan English Dictionary (2003), “tradition” Original text written by the British Revised/corrected text based on suggestions of the Chinese 34 … He sails half way across the world following a much bigger French ship. In the end he catches it up near the Galapagos Island… … The Surprise sails half way across the world following a much bigger French ship. In the end it catches the French ship up near the Galapagos Island… 35 Excellent computer and organization skills. …computer and organizational skills 36 …he thought he could get rich quick. …he thought he could get rich quickly. 41 means “a very old belief, custom or story”, which could be acceptable in the original sentence. However, Macmillan dictionary, having been promoted in the Chinese market in recent years, apparently is not as reliable as Oxford dictionary to the Chinese editors. In the similar way, the suggestions to replace some of the original words in items of 27-32 can be attributed to the Chinese editors’ understanding of these English words. For instance, the Chinese editors believed that the word “what” meant requesting the particular information about something, while “which” was for something that could be identified from a known group in the context. In the case of Item 27, they thought “which part” was more appropriate and revised the sentence accordingly. Regarding the use of “on” or “in” the list in Item 28, the Chinese editors thought that “on” indicated a position more in contact with the surface of something, and the “list” in this context was not only a series of names but also visually a piece of paper. So they believed that the phrase “Li Ning’s name was on it (the list)” was more proper than “in it”. “How fit are you?” in Item 29 was a question in the interview with a firefighter. The Chinese editors commented that the question did not seem to be compatible with the description of a firefighter and suggested that “strong” should be more accurate than “fit” to explain that the physical power was the most important qualities for a firefighter. Despite the fact that the English dictionary defines “fit” as physically strong and healthy, the Chinese editors believed “fit” was more connected with healthiness than physical power. Item 30 is a question guiding students to discover features of passive sentences. The Chinese editors suggested that “refers to” be substituted with “shows”. To the Chinese editors, “refer to” signified the relation of one thing with the other, while “show” guided students to recognize the doer in the passive sentence. 42 Comparing “a reference to the action” with “a description of the action” in Item 31, an exercise requiring students to recognize the structure of movie summaries, the Chinese editors preferred the latter as they thought the meaning of “description” was more understandable for students. For Item 32, the Chinese editors admitted that both “even if” and “even though” basically meant “although” but had very delicate differences. They argued that “if” in “even if” might confuse students with the tense in the context because “if” could be used for the future tense and assumption; while “even though” might refer to both the present and past tense (Alexander & Close, 1988) and imply that the narrated was a fact. In the context of Item 32 indicating that Li Ning had already achieved a lot in his sport, “even though” was evidently more appropriate than “even if”. The replacement of words in Item 33, however, took into account the level of targeted students and the wordlist of the English curriculum standards (Ministry of Education, 2003). The original in Item 33 presented in a reading exercise of job ads, in which the words, “flexible shifts”, “clothes boutique”, “rates” and “positions” were normally used in reality. Given that the guideline of the curriculum standards did not recruit these words in its required wordlist for students to acquire, the Chinese editors assumed such words were difficult with regard to the level of targeted students and asked the British writer to substitute the words with “eight-hour day”, “clothes shop”, “pay”, and “jobs” respectively. Item 34 concerns the replacement of pronouns. It is a part of a movie summary about Master and Commander in a pre-writing exercise. At the beginning, the writer set the focus on the captain, as it read “Master and Commander is about the captain of a British sailing boat, the ‘Surprise’ during the war with Napoleon, at the beginning of the 19th century”, followed by “He 43 sails half way across the world…” Apparently, “he” referred to the captain who led the crew and drove the boat to catch the French ship. The Chinese editors, however, thought the narrative would be clearer to use the boat, “the Surprise”, as the doer of “sails” that moved on the sea and could follow a ship. Furthermore, the subject and object would be consistent as things, and it was understandable that the boat “catches” the ship. As a result, “the Surprise” and “it” replaced the original two subject pronouns “he”, and “the French ship” replaced the original “it” to avoid ambiguity. When the initial analysis of this revision was presented to the researcher’s co-editors for comments, they reconsidered the replacement and thought that it might be unnecessary. The replacement of words in item of 35 and 36 concerns parts of speech. In Item 35, “organization skills” appeared in a job ad as one of the requirements for the position of an administrative assistant. From the view of the Chinese editors, “organization” as a noun was not as proper as “organizational” in theory. In spite of the fact that the results of Google search of “organization skills” were more than those of “organizational skills”, the Chinese editors were confident that the revision of “organizational skills” was necessary to present the standard and correct use of adjectives in the textbook. In Item 36, “…he thought he could get rich quick” was about Mark Twain’s adventure plan to the Amazon. The word “quick” obviously functioned as an adverb to describe the verb phrase “get rich” in a speedy manner. But since “quickly” is such a familiar adverb form of “quick,” it can be the ideal selection in this context. In contrast, “get rich quick” might raise confusion or result in incorrect use of parts of speech among students. The phrase was hence revised as “get rich quickly”. Another group of the revisions (Items 37-41) were made by adding words, based on the consideration that extra words were necessary to express the meanings. 44 Table 6: Revisions / corrections made by adding words Item 37 is from one email message written by the British student telling her mother the way to get in touch. The Chinese editors thought it was necessary to add “address” after “school” to complete the expression. Item 38 is a note about learning strategies that encourages students to Google online to see the numbers of the results of “exchange program” and “exchange programme”. Similarly, “entries” was added after “how many” in the first part of the sentence to keep the meaning intact. In Item 39 are two questions of an activity requiring students to identify the expressions of agreement and disagreement underlined in the dialogue. The Chinese editors revised the sentences by replacing “used to agree/disagree” with the verbal phrases “used to show agreement/disagreement” so as to fully express the meaning. Item 40 is from a job ad. Although the original version could be inferred that a telephone sales person was wanted, the Chinese editors preferred adding “wanted” to preserve the wholeness both in form and meaning. Item 41, a brief explanation of the blue whale’s habitat in a table, was also revised by adding “waters” at the end to ensure accuracy. Apart from replacing and addition, the Chinese editors also made suggestions to delete words in the following items of 42 and 43. Original text written by the British Revised/corrected text based on suggestions of the Chinese 37 You can write to me at the school or… …write to me at the school address… 38 See how many you get for exchange program and how many for exchange programme. See how many entries you get for exchange program and… 39 Which expressions are used to agree? Which expressions are used to disagree? …used to show agreement? …used to show disagreement? 40 Telephone sales person. Must be fluent in English and one other language. … Telephone sales person wanted. Must be fluent in English and one… 41 oceans, especially the Arctic and the Antarctic …the Arctic and the Antarctic waters 45 Table 7: Revisions made by deleting words The words in Item 42 originally presented in a reading activity about classification of animals. While reviewing the British writer’s manuscripts, the Chinese editors commented that “amphibian” was somewhat academic and “golden toad” would be rarely encountered in students’ daily reading. Besides, these words are not in the new curriculum wordlist (Ministry of Education, 2003) that students are required to master them in senior secondary schools. Taking account of these two points, the Chinese editors suggested deleting the words. Item 43 relates to the use of “the” in the title. As the given article introduces the organization, mission and projects of World Wildlife Fund for Nature, i.e. the WWF, the British writer titled it as “The WWF”. The Chinese editors referred to some English articles of which the titles in abbreviation did not use the definite article, and then decided to use “WWF” without “the”. The revisions of the words in the following items of 44 and 45 are linked with the use of singular or plural forms of nouns. Table 8: Revisions / corrections on singular or plural forms of nouns Item 44 is one of three given options for a reading activity requiring students to choose the best title for the passage about the Chinese language. In the English dictionary, “origin” is defined as a source from which something develops or derives and can be used in either singular Original text written by the British Revised/corrected text based on suggestions of the Chinese 42 amphibian, golden toad ∧ 43 The WWF WWF Original text written by the British Revised/corrected text based on suggestions of the Chinese 44 The Origins of Chinese The Origin of Chinese 45 …shoot whole herds of antelope at a time… …shoot whole herds of antelopes… 46 or plural form. The British writer might naturally choose the “origins” to describe the source or starting point as they often did. The Chinese editors, however, insisted that the source from which the Chinese language developed should be specific and unique, and hence changed the “origins” into the singular form. According to the dictionary, “antelope” in Item 45 has the same singular and plural forms, or regular plural form with “s”. In the text about saving Tibetan antelopes, the plural form of “antelope” was sometimes written as the singular, for example, in Item 45. The Chinese editors believed that it was better to add -s to show the plural form of antelope to avoid confusion among students. Grammar There are five revisions and corrections (items of 46-50) that accounts for 8% of the total and relates to the tense and grammatical labels. These items reflect, to some degree, the differences in the practice and understanding of certain grammar rules between the Chinese and the British. Table 9 illustrates items of 46-48 related to the use of tenses. Table 9: Revisions / corrections on tense The original sentences written by the British writer in these items were understandable at first sight, but to the Chinese editors the usage of tenses might not be appropriate. Item 46 is from an email of an American exchange student who described her first experience in UK to her mother. She first wrote about the welcome party and then her problem of understanding British Original text written by the British Revised/corrected text based on suggestions of the Chinese 46 The only problem is I didn’t realize the local accent would be so different, but I guess I’ll learn with practice. The only problem was I didn’t realize the local accent would be so different, but I guess I’ll learn with practice. 47 What is the last question the interviewer asks Samantha? What is the last question the interviewer asked Samantha? 48 The secretary didn’t understand me. She ___ have been English. The secretary wasn’t listening. She ___ have heard what I said. 47 English. The tense of the main verb in the first complex sentence was originally the present (The only problem is…), which suggested that the problem existed at the moment of writing the email. The Chinese editors, however, thought it should be the past tense (was), because the fact that the student didn’t realize the problem took place in the past. Item 47 contains a listening comprehension question about an interview with two exchange students talking about their overseas living experiences. To the Chinese editors, the action of asking the question obviously took place in the past before the post-listening activity. Therefore, they altered the tense to the past (asked). Different from Items 46 and 47, the original sentence in Item 48 was an exercise on making deductions about the past and with the correct answer to fill in the blank was “can’t”. From the Chinese editors’ perspective, it was understandable that the combination of the modal verb and the verb in the present perfect tense would make a deduction about what took place in the past. However, they felt that the meaning of “can’t have been English” was awkward, because whether the mentioned secretary was English or not was a fact and irrelevant to the situation that she “didn’t understand me”. In this case, the Chinese editors suggested that “she can’t/couldn’t be English” would be clear and more convincing. Accordingly, the British writer redesigned the situation and rewrote the sentences so that the Chinese editors felt that the exercise fulfilled the practice of verb tense in making a deduction. Items of 49 and 50 relate to the use of grammatical labels and demonstrate the Chinese editors’ preference for some traditionally used terms of English grammar in the Chinese context. 48 Table 10: Revisions on grammatical labels The Chinese editors concurred that the textbook should eliminate the confusion by using some familiar terms of grammar. Based on this concurrence, items of 49 and 50 were revised. Based on the Chinese editors’ English learning and teaching experiences, Chinese learners would find non-finite verbs somewhat difficult to grasp because the functions and forms were comparatively complex because there were no such language features in Chinese. When “non- finite verbs” appeared in the British writer’s manuscripts, the Chinese editors felt that the term might confuse students. They suggested that “-ing form, -ed form, and infinitive” should be adequate for a full explanation about non-finite verbs. Item 50 was revised for the practice of the clauses introduced by “which”, “who”, “whose”, and preposition + “whom or which”, related to people or things, and the clauses of time, place and reason introduced by “when”, “where” and “why”. These clauses were defined as “relative clauses” in the British writer’s version; while the Chinese editors replaced the label with “attributive clauses”. They were of the opinion that the use of “attributive clauses” was more appropriate, as these clauses did function as attributives in the complex sentences. Mechanics The revisions in the following eight items of 51-54, accounting for 12% of the total corrections, regard the use of such punctuations as apostrophes for decades, hyphens in compound words, commas in complex sentences, and full stops. Original text written by the British Revised/corrected text based on suggestions of the Chinese 49 non-finite verbs -ing form, -ed form, and infinitive 50 relative clauses attributive clauses 49 Table 11: Revisions / corrections on mechanics In Item 51, the decades with apostrophes were presented in the British writers’ manuscripts, which could also be written as the 1980s, the 1850s and the 1990s. As the form with “s” immediately following the number was comparatively concise without the apostrophe, the Chinese editors revised all similar expressions without apostrophe in the series textbooks. The examples in Item 52 are related to hyphens in compound words. Traditional English grammar books (e.g. Alexander & Close, 1988) suggest that when two or more words are compounded together as an adjective, hyphens are applied to join them. In the British writers’ manuscripts, “the end of year dance” and “a take home salary” did not use hyphens and were taken as non-standard use of English from the Chinese editors’ point of view. Although people used such compound words either with or without hyphens on the Internet, the Chinese editors chose to standardize the use of hyphens for compounded words as adjectives. Another discrepancy concerning the use of hyphen appears in the spelling of “e-mail” or “email”. It seemed that the British writer was used to “e-mail”, while the Chinese editors preferred using “email” without hyphen as most users of the Internet did, which was confirmed by a Google search. Unlike hyphens which seldom affect the meanings of compound words, the practice of commas for relative clauses can vary the weight of the clauses in original sentences. For instance, Original text written by the British Revised/corrected text based on suggestions of the Chinese 51 the 1980’s; the 1850’s; the 1990’s the 1980s; the 1850s; the 1990s 52 the end of year dance; a take home salary; e-mail the end-of-year dance; a take-home salary; email 53 The accent which is most similar to British English can be heard on the East Coast of the US. The accent, which is most similar to British English, can be heard on the East Coast of the US. 54 It was great fun, everyone was friendly. It was great fun. Everyone was friendly. 50 in Item 53 “the accent” in the original sentence was supposed to be specified by the clause in relation to the preceding sentence which mentioned that many factors had influenced American pronunciation since the arrival of the first settlers from England. The Chinese editors revised the sentence by adding commas to separate the clause from the main sentence and hence transferred it from a defining clause to a non-defining clause. To assure the reason for this revision, the researcher sent her initial analysis to the other co-editors for feedback. They agreed that much attention was paid to the sentence form, and confirmed that the clause, “which is most similar to British English”, as a non-defining clause could suggest correct pauses for students to read the complex sentence but would not affect the wholeness of the sentence structure. The revision for Item 54 relates to the application of full stop. The original text was from an American student’s email to her mother. The Chinese editors commented that it was a run-on sentence and could be ungrammatical or nonstandard for written English. Responding to the Chinese’s comments, the British writer changed the comma into a full stop and revised the original sentence as two complete sentences. Rephrasing The following table containing seven items (Items of 55-61, accounting for 11% of the total) illustrates revisions made by rephrasing the text for the sake of accuracy, consistency, clarity and standard use of grammar. 51 Table 12: Revisions / corrections by rephrasing text The original phrase in Item 55 was the explanation expected to match the idiom, “take something for granted”. Referring to the English dictionary, the Chinese editors believed that the original explanation (to take little notice of something) did not express the failure to show appreciation for certain things. Thus, they rephrased the explanation by emphasizing the relevant meaning. Items of 56 and 57 are two descriptions to be matched with the festivals. The original texts were arranged to match Christmas (A Christian festival which comes in the middle of winter) and Holi (A festival of colour which marks the beginning of spring in India). Since the descriptions for the other three festivals in the activity were complete sentences, the Chinese editors thought it better to keep the same sentence structures. By adding the demonstrative Original text written by the British Revised/corrected text based on suggestions of the Chinese 55 (“Take something for granted” means) to take little notice of something to be used to something that you don’t see its value and don’t show thanks 56 A Christian festival which comes in the middle of winter. This is a Christian festival which comes in the middle of winter. 57 A festival of colour which marks the beginning of spring in India. This is a festival of colour which marks the beginning of spring in India. 58 In the 1990’s the Chinese government began actively to protect the antelopes in the Hoh Xil Nature Reserve… …began to take an active part in protecting the antelopes in the Hoh Xil Nature Reserve… 59 One of the most famous marathons is the New York marathon which is watched by two million people around the streets and across the bridges of the city’s five boroughs… One of the most famous marathons is in New York, and is watched by two million people around the streets and across the bridge… 60 Which film does Billy think isn’t a true story? Which film doesn’t Billy think is a true story? 61 Americans sometimes omit prepositions where the British use them (I’ll see you Monday; Write me soon!). The British use prepositions where Americans sometimes omit them (I’ll see you Monday; Write me soon!). 52 pronouns and be verbs, they revised the phrases into sentences (This is a Christian festival which comes in the middle of winter. This is a festival of colour which marks the beginning of spring in India) to keep the consistency as well as the wholeness of the expressions. Item 58 is from the text about saving Tibetan antelopes. In the original sentence, “actively” modifying the verb “began” appeared to stress that the government’s initiation to protect the animal. By contrast, the action of “protect” seemed less emphasized. The meaning consequently disregarded the great efforts that the government had taken in the battle to protect antelopes through the years. To clearly convey the exact meaning and keep it coherent with the context, the Chinese editors decided to switch the emphasis on the initiative to the action of protection by rephrasing the part of sentence as “to take an active part in protecting the antelopes”. Meanwhile, it was expected to deliver an underlying message that the government was not alone while fighting for the protection of the antelopes but had been supported by the society, as it was mentioned in the following paragraph that the volunteers from all over the country were assisting local officials in the protection movement. In the original sentence of Item 59, the word “marathon” was mentioned twice in the main clause. Plus the long relative clause modifying “the New York marathon”, the whole sentence appeared too long and sounded repetitive from the Chinese editors’ view. So the Chinese editors rephrased it to avoid repetition and enhance clarity. They substituted “the New York marathon” with “in New York” and revised the relative clause as a part of the compound sentence. As the preceding sentence mentioned that there were marathons in over sixty countries and hundreds of cities around the world, the revised sentence suggested that the New York marathon only referred to the event held in New York. 53 Item 60 is related to the negation of “think” in the complex sentence. Traditionally Chinese learners have been taught that when “think” is the main verb in a complex sentence, the negation of the subordinate clause should be transferred to negate “think” in the main clause (e.g., “I don’t think he is right” instead of “I think he is not right”). The original sentence of Item 60 written by the British writer (Which film does Billy think isn’t a true story?) can be regarded as non- standard use of English, though it can be the real use of language. However, for the Chinese editors it was necessary to rephrase the sentence because the textbook users should be guided to follow the standard use of grammar. Item 61 was rephrased based on the consideration of reading convenience. In other words, the example should immediately follow the part of the sentence of which the meaning is further explained. The original sentence (Americans sometimes omit prepositions where the British use them) suggested that Americans might exclude some prepositions that the British would use. For the Chinese editors, it was more accessible for readers if the relevant information (I’ll see you Monday; Write me soon!) was immediately given after the related part of the sentence. So they adjusted the original main clause and subordinate clause (The British use prepositions where Americans sometimes omit them) to achieve accessibility and clarity as well. The revisions and corrections on language concern the Chinese editors’ understandings of accurate and efficient expressions in English, which suggest the thinking modes of the Chinese (Duan, 2003; Kirkpatrick & Xu, 2002) and traits of nativization of certain English words (Zhou & Feng, 1987). For instance, the revisions for items of 24-31 indicate that the meanings of those being replaced words (definition, tradition, fit, refer to, etc.) were reduced in some degree according to the given explanations in dictionaries, while the replaced words (meaning, story, 54 strong, show, etc.) sounded more precise in terms of their Chinese meanings in the same contexts in which the replacements were involved. The supplement of words for items of 37-41 (at the school address, to show agreement, etc.) and the rephrased text in items of 56-57 (This is a Christian festival which comes in the middle of winter; etc.) may reflect that the Chinese editors were inclined to express ideas concrete (Duan, 2003) in order to preserve the expressions specific and intact in English. Likewise, the selection of singular or plural forms for items of 44- 45 (origin, antelopes) mirrors the Chinese editors’ tendency to connect the forms with the meanings; while the replacement of pronouns in Item 34 (The Surprise sails half way…In the end, it catches the French ship…) suggests integrated ways of thinking (Duan, 2003) by which the Chinese editors instinctively followed to relate the subjects with the verbs to clarify the expression. The change of the defining clause to non-defining clause in Item 53 and the rephrased text in items of 58, 59 and 61 regarding clarity and accuracy imply some feature of Chinese. Compared with the original text, the revised text in items of 59 and 61 (One of the most famous marathons is in New York, and is watched by two million people…; The British use prepositions where Americans sometimes omit them (I’ll see you Monday; Write me soon!)) may reflect a Chinese preference of arranging the sentences by the sequence of actions or events (Duan, 2003; Kirkpatrick & Xu, 2002). The tenseless feature of Chinese may also have an effect on the tense-related revisions for items of 46-48 to a certain extent (The only problems was I didn’t realize…; … the last question the interviewer asked…; The secretary wasn’t listening. She____ have heard what I said.). That is, the Chinese editors likely thought twice before making the revisions based on their understandings of the related contexts and concern about accuracy and efficiency. 55 As English textbooks are regarded as important teaching and learning materials in China (Hu, 2002), the revisions and corrections on language also indicate the Chinese editors’ concern about the language levels of targeted students. The relevant concern can be shown in items of 33 and 42, the replacement and deletion of the words which were not listed in the new curriculum wordlist (flexible shifts, boutique, rates; amphibian, etc.). The wordlist generally serves as one of the teaching objectives and a measurement of the difficulty level of the textbook because it is an important reference for writing tests. As a result, an attention to the language level of targeted students led to a careful selection of words and difficulty control. It is another major concern for the Chinese editors that textbooks should maintain normative English and set models, which can be displayed from the following revisions and corrections at lexical and syntactic levels. They are the corrections of parts of speech for items of 35 and 36 (organizational skills, quickly), the compound words joined with hyphens as adjectives in Item 52 (the end-of-year dance, etc.), the use of full stop to correct a run-on sentence as two complete sentences in Item 54 (It was fun. Everyone was friendly.), and the alternation of the negation from the subordinate clause to the main clause with “think” in Item 60 (Which film doesn’t Billy think is a true story?). It is evident that the Chinese editors revised these items to secure standards and models in view of standard English in their perceptions. The revision of the grammatical labels in items of 49 and 50 (-ing form, -ed form, and infinitive; attributive clauses) shows a tendency of the Chinese editors to follow the traditionally taught grammar in China and their concern of facilitating the learning. The conformity of standard English can also be reflected from the revisions referred to grammar books and English dictionaries, such as the replacement of “even if” with “even though” in Item 32, and the rephrasing of the explanation for “take something for granted” for Item 55. 56 However, specific rules or formal reference were not always available. In such a case, the Chinese editors would seek agreement from some source to support their decision based on the consensus that any revision as a result of justified reasons would be acceptable. For instance, the article in the title of the text about WWF in Item 43 was deleted with reference to similar English titles; the apostrophes in the decades in Item 51 and the hyphen in “email” in Item 52 were removed according to the Google results which showed most people preferred simpler expressions. It may be inferred that the revisions and corrections either based on justified reasons or resulted from conformity of normative English would become models for students to follow and therefore contribute to the conventions of English in the Chinese context through the textbook and a large number of its users. 57 CONCLUSION The present study, based on analysis of the process of revisions and corrections, illustrate how NE Book 5 attached importance to the local value of English education and endeavored to integrate Chinese culture in language practices and connect the content with the learning context so as to engage students in learning. Such an English curriculum has been advocated by several scholars in English language education (e.g. Alptekin, 1993 & 2002; Prodromou, 1988; Widdowson, 1998). Being highly aware of textbooks as important and standardized teaching materials, the Chinese editors scrutinized the British writer’s manuscripts to put forward suggestions and comments for revision in light of the Chinese context. The British writer accepted most of the Chinese counterparts’ suggestions and revised the writing correspondingly; however, they seemed less confident in dealing with some China-related content due to insufficient knowledge about the Chinese cultures and targeted students’ experience. In most cases of disagreement, the two parties found a solution by making compromises; however, when they reviewed the final drafts for publishing, the Chinese editors made extra revisions without consulting the British writers. With deeper understandings of the local education objectives and knowledge of local culture, the Chinese editors were better positioned to make decisions about the content about China mentioned in the textbook. As for language, they still kept alert to any signs of improper use of English, which might misinterpret original meanings, deviate from the standards, and confuse students. They did so even though they knew that the British writer, as a native English speaker and trained ELT professional, was supposed to write in standard British English. In a sense, the Chinese critically examined the British writer’s manuscript rather than blindly take the British writer as an authority of the English language and accept his writing without questioning. 58 Drawn from the analysis of the process of revisions and corrections in the present study, the English standards in the Chinese editors’ perceptions can be embodied by the grammar traditionally taught in China, the standards set by the Chinese official organization for English publications, the ways followed by a majority of English users, and formal references represented by dictionaries and grammar books, all of which can be utilized to justify the revisions and corrections for accuracy and appropriateness, regardless of what variety of English one is following. Accordingly, standard English can be perceived as an effective means of conveying meanings accurately and appropriately. That is, when the Chinese editors held the initiative of making revisions and corrections in view of their concerns about English textbooks and English education in China, they would seek grounds to justify each revision and correction and accept the revised and corrected as standard use of English as long as accuracy and appropriateness were achieved. Logically the revisions effected by the Chinese thinking modes and features of the Chinese language were also standard, although the Chinese editors did not recognize the effect. Hence, it is the Chinese who believe that in standard English meanings should be conveyed based on the principle of accuracy and appropriateness. This seems different from Li’s (1993) interpretation that normative English is the one accepted by native English speakers. In the case of textbooks, standard English in the Chinese editors’ perceptions can be widely spread through millions of textbook users and contribute to the developing conventions of English in China. To sum up, in the whole editorial process of the co-published NE Book 5, the Chinese editors took the initiative to closely review the British writer’s manuscripts from their perspectives to eliminate every inaccurate expression and non-standard use of English before printing. The collaborative work with the British superficially satisfied many Chinese people 59 who cling to the legitimate British English (Zhou & Feng, 1987) so that the textbook could be endowed with the same quality as other products in the market. In reality, the Chinese editors with profound understandings of local context orientated the textbook writing for Chinese students’ benefits and ensured the localized textbook to achieve the local education objectives. There was evidence that the Chinese editors did not believe that “nativeness” means expertise (Rampton, 1990), as they took advantages of their knowledge of Chinese cultures to deal with the China-related content and also made good use of their English knowledge to deal with language accuracy and appropriateness without feeling disadvantaged as non-native speakers. Their perceptions of standard English and the English standards indicated a focus on the pragmatic function of English to make English serve local learners and a growing divergence from an exonormative model of English (Kirkpatrick & Xu, 2002). Now that NE Book 5 starts its first unit on the topic of the varieties of English (see the example of Module 1 in Appendix B), and variations of English are keenly studied by international researchers and vividly demonstrated by various media, the Chinese editors should reflect on their perceptions of standard English and think about introducing typical usage of other varieties of English in textbooks, such as China English. In fact, some researchers (e.g. Chen & Hu, 2006; Hu, 2005), considering the particular role of textbooks in the Chinese context, have proposed that the English translations of some idioms bearing Chinese features should be adopted in textbooks. It is also believed that Chinese learners can be conscious of their own culture in English and thus enhance the cross-cultural interactions (Wei & Fei, 2003). Beyond textbooks, there has been a growing passion mirrored from the Internet blogs and forums that Chinese users of English appreciate the Chinese English idioms with distinctive Chinese characteristics, showing a style and identity (Fan, 2008). In view of this tendency, it can be a 60 way to facilitate the learning by acknowledging to Chinese students a developing variety of English in China on grounds of acculturation and inevitable influence of Chinese, and presenting them as examples of China English. It is foreseeable that the variety of English in China can be more dynamic, as languages are subject to changes associated with local social development and international communication (Halliday, 2006; Widdowson, 1994). However, it is hard to predict whether, when and how English in China transfers from the performance phase to the institutionalized phase (Kachru, 1992a&b). 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World Englishes, 6, 111-125. 67 APPENDICES Appendix A Illustration of English education objectives and structure in English Curriculum Standards for Senior Secondary School: 68 Appendix B Module 1 of New English Book 5 for Senior Secondary Students: 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 Appendix C 78 Project Manager Consent Form THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Department of Language and Literacy Education 2034 Lower Mall Road Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1Z4 Tel: (604) 822-5788 Fax: (604) 822-3154 RE: Consent form for the research “New English: A study of the editorial documents of a Chinese-British joint EFL textbook project” Dear Project Manager for New Standard English textbook series, Being inspired by my editorial work of the co-published New Standard English textbooks, I plan to focus my MA thesis on the editorial documents of Student’s Book Five. The title of research is “New English: A study of the editorial documents of a Chinese-British joint EFL textbook project”. By analyzing the national English curriculum standards for high school, multiple versions of the textbook manuscripts, and the editorial meeting summaries, I will explore the conflicts and cross-cultural negotiations between the British writers and Chinese editors on the revisions and corrections of the content and linguistic aspects for Book Five. The purpose is to reveal the underlying notions of English education held by the Chinese EFL professionals and the English conventions that they followed. Therefore, I will use the mentioned editorial documents for my thesis: multiple versions of manuscripts for the textbook, the summaries of editorial meetings, and the final version of the published textbook. I will keep these documents carefully in my computer files with password protection and use them only for research purpose. I will refer to the textbook series as “New English”, and use pseudonyms to refer to the publishers, the Chinese editors and British writers. The real names will not appear in my thesis. To get the permission of using those documents, I am sending this consent form to you by email attachment. If you on behalf of Editorial Division of Basic English Education Publishing permit me to use the documents, please sign on the next page of the consent form. You can scan and save the signed page as a PDF document and then return it to me by email attachment. Please keep one copy for your reference. I will really appreciate your consent and support. If you have any request, please feel free to contact me. Sincerely, Yong Fan MA candidate of LLED, UBC 4649 Argyle Street Vancouver, BC V5N 3X7 Canada Tel: 778-8893524 Email: fanyong_98@yahoo.com P.S.: Dr. Ling Shi, Associate Professor, is my supervisor, the principle investigator of my research. If you have any further question about the consent letter, please contact her. Address: 2034 Lower Mall Road, UBC, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z2 Canada Tel: 604-822-4335 Fax: 604-822-3154 Email: lshi@interchange.ubc.ca 79 THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Department of Language and Literacy Education 2034 Lower Mall Road Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1Z4 Tel: (604) 822-5788 Fax: (604) 822-3154 RE: Consent form for the research “New English: A study of the editorial documents of a Chinese-British joint EFL textbook project” Dear Yong Fan, On behalf of Editorial Division of Basic English Education Publishing, Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, I consent you to use the editorial documents of Book Five of New Standard English textbook series for your academic research. Name (print): ______________________ Signature: ___________________ Position: Project Manager for New Standard English textbook series Date: _________________

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