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Transformative lighting strategies in Vancouver's urban context : using less, living better Chen, Leah Ya Li 2008

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Transformative Lighting Strategiesin Vancouver’sUrban ContextUsing Less, Living BetterbyLEAH YA U CHENB. Eng., University of Hunan, China, 1995A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENTOFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREEOFMASTER OF ADVANCED STUDIES INARCHITECTUREinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES(Master of Advanced Studies in Architecture)THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA(Vancouver)September 2008©Leah Ya Li Chen, 2008AbstractWe are now facing the challenge of sustainabledevelopment. This thesis focuses onthe building illumination of one downtownhospitality building, the RenaissanceVancouver Hotel (RVH), to demonstratethree options for sustainable developmentofarchitectural lighting.The thesis employs architectural exteriorlighting based on the technology of lightemitting diodes (LED5) as a vehicle todemonstrate how to reduce the energyconsumption and maintenance costsof decorative lighting on building façadesviathree transformative lighting strategies.These three transformative lighting strategiesdemonstrate three possibilities of applying LEDs todevelop architectural creativity andenergy sustainability for an outdoor decorativelighting system.The first transformation utilizesLEDs for the retrofit of existing compactfluorescentlights (CFL5) on the RVH’s façades androoftop, in order to improve and diversifythebuilding’s illumination in a sustainablemanner.The second transformation optimizesthe yearly programming of the newoutdoordecorative LED lighting in accordancewith differing seasonal and temporalthemes inorder to save energy, demonstratearchitectural creativity via versatile lightingpatterns,and systematically manage the unstablegeneration of renewable energy.The third transformation explores thepotential of on-site electricity generationin anurban context instead of its purchase fromBC Hydro. Photovoltaic (PV) panelswillgenerate the electrical requirementsof the RVH’s decorative exterior LEDlighting.This transformation will transfer daytimesolar energy to electricity for nightoutdoorbuilding illumination; consequently,it can encourage outdoor activitiesin the nighttimefor Vancouverites, and is a meansof compensating for the limiteddaytime hours inVancouver’s winter months.Table of ContentsAbstractiiTable of ContentsList of TablesvList of FiguresviList of Acronyms and AbbreviationsviiiAcknowledgementsixChapter 1: Introduction11.1 Defining the Problem11.2 Defining solutions61.3 Objective111.4 Methodology121.5 Value of Thesis17Chapter 2: Lighting Technologies202.1 Technical Knowledge212.2 Outdoor Lighting Design302.3 LEDs34Chapter 3: Vancouver393.1 Defining Vancouver’s Urban Context403.2 Urban Context TransformationHistory413.3 Introduction to Urban Lighting42Chapter 4: The First TransformativeLighting Strategy584.1 Chosen Site — RenaissanceVancouver Hotel594.2 Lighting Transformation CaseStudy604.3 The First Transformative LightingStrategy644.4 Conclusion73Chapter 5: The Second TransformativeLighting Strategy775.1 Introduction78III5.2 The Second TransformativeLighting Strategy795.3 Design Issues845.4 Discussion93Chapter 6: The Third TransformativeLighting Strategy986.1 Introduction996.2 The Photovoltaic System996.3 The Third TransformativeLighting Strategy1016.4 Batteries106Chapter 7: Discussion1087.1 Conclusion1097.2 Limitation of Thesis1127.3 Further Research113Bibliography114Appendix I126Appendix II127Appendix Ill129Appendix IV131Appendix V132ivList of TablesTable 2.1 Lamp Type Comparison —Summary 28Table 3.1 Age Characteristics of thePopulation in Vancouver and BritishColumbia in 2001 and 2006 Census55Table 3.2 By Month, Vancouver’s Sunlight Hours, DaylightHours and ExtremeDaily56Table 4.1 Comparison of Features of the CFLs andLED5 on the Rooftop 66Table 4.2 Electricity Consumption andTotal Cost of the CFLs and LEDs on theRooftop69Table 4.3 Comparison of Features of theCFLs and LEDs on the Façades of theRVH70Table 4.4 Electricity Consumption and Total Cost ofthe CFLs and LEDs on theRVH’s Façades71Table 4.5 Electricity Consumption and Total Cost ofthe CFLs and LEDs on theRVH’s Façades72Table 4.6 Electricity Consumption andTotal Cost of the CFLs and LEDs on theTop and Façades74Table 4.7 Comparison of Prices of Warm-white LEDLight Fixtures 76Table 5.1 2008: Seasonal Time Frequency Table79Table 5.2 The Percentage of Dimmed Illuminanceon RVH’s Rear Building81FaçadeTable 5.3 The Average Electricity Consumption ofBasic Rainbow Colours 82Table 5.4 Electricity Consumption of the Second TransformativeLightingStrategy83Table 6.1 The Estimated Total Cost of theRVH’s PV System 106Table 7.1 Electricity Consumption and Reduction110VList of FiguresFigure 2.1 The Visible Spectrum21Figure 2.2 Incandescent Lamp Spectrum 350-70023Figure 2.3 Fluorescent Lamp Spectrum 350-70024Figure 2.4 Mercury Vapor Lamp Spectrum 350-70025Figure 2.5 Metal Halide Lamp Spectrum 350-70025Figure 2.6 High-Press Sodium Lamp Spectrum 350-70026Figure 2.7 Low-Pressure Sodium Lamp Spectrum 350-70026Figure 2.8 LED Development35Figure 2.9 Canada’s CN Tower Illuminated by Coloured LEDs37Figure 3.1 Daytime and Nighttime Panorama of Vancouver’sSkyline 41Figure 3.2 Transformative Lighting Strategies andVancouver’s Urban Context 44Figure 3.3 BC’s Electricity Gap from 1965 to 202547Figure 3.4 Vancouver’s Emerging Actions in Nocturnal Illumination51Figure 3.5 Satellite Photography of Light Emission — Citiesin Western NorthAmerica52Figure 3.6 Digital Photography of Vancouver’s Nightscape53Figure 3.7 A Treated Picture Without Inefficient Lighting53Figure 4.1 The Shaw Tower’s Night Lighting63Figure 4.2 Canada Place’s Night Lighting64Figure 4.3 The RVH’s Night Lighting Fixtures and Effects65Figure 4.4 Proposed LED lights: eW Flex SLX and iColor Flex SLX from ColorKinetics67Figure 4.5 The Total Cost of the CFLs and LEDs on the Rooftop69Figure 4.6 Proposed LED lights: LW-UP-18-1C andLW-UP-19-1C from 70LightWildFigure 4.7 The Total Cost of the CFL5 and LED5 on theFaçades 72viFigure 4.8 The Electricity Consumption and Total Cost of theCFLs and LEDson the Façades73Figure 4.9 What 50,000 Hours Means in Practical Terms73Figure 4.10 The Electricity Consumption and Total Cost of theCFLs and LED5on the Façades and Rooftop74Figure 4.11 Lightwild Pixel LW-UP-19-1C75Figure 5.1 The LED Forms of Lightwild Pixel LW-UP-i 9-iCand Color Kinetics’iColor Flex SLX80Figure 5.2 The Dimming Patterns on RVH’s RearBuilding Façade atNighttime81Figure 5.3 Daily Electricity Consumption of the RVH’s Building Illumination84Figure 5.4 The Existing CFL5 and Mounting Points on the Façades86Figure 5.5 Blue to Aqua Colour Changes on the Frontand Rear BuildingFaçades87Figure 5.6 The Proposed Building Illumination’s Componentsof the RearFaçade88Figure 5.7 The Proposed Building Illumination’s Patternsof the Rear Façade 88Figure 5.8 The Direction of LED Lighting andCFL Lighting 89Figure 5.9 The Linear Accented LED Fixtures ConnectingDotted LEDs 90Figure 5.10 The Intelligent System of LED Fixtures92Figure 5.11 The Relationship of Canada Place,the Shaw Tower, and the RVH 93Figure 5.12 Interactive Building Skins, “theTower of Wind” 95Figure 5.13 The Illumination of the RVH Mirrorsthe Lighting Colours of CanadaPlace97Figure 6.1 Proposed Photovoltaic System ofthe RVH 102Figure 6.2 Monthly Total Sunlight Hours in Vancouver103Figure 6.3 PV Panels on the RVH’s Rooftop105Figure 7.1 Electricity Consumption Comparison110Figure 7.2 Proposed Vancouver WaterfrontPanorama 112viiLists of Acronyms and Abbreviations3Ds Max Autodesk 3Ds MaxAC Alternating CurrentCFL Compact Fluorescent LightCR1 Colour Rendering IndexCVR Constant Voltage RegulatorDC Direct CurrentH HourHID High-Intensity DischargeHIR Halogen InfraredHPS High-Pressure SodiumIDA International Dark-Sky AssociationlEA International Energy AgencyKW KilowattKWH Kilowatt HourLaser Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission ofRadiationLCD Liquid Crystal DisplayLED Light Emitting DiodeLPS Low-Pressure SodiumLUTW Light Up The World FoundationMH Metal HalideMV Mercury VaporMW MegawattsN NegativeOLED Organic Light Emitting DiodeP PositivePC Personal ComputerPhilips Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.y. or RoyalPhilips Electronics Inc.PV PhotovoltaicRGB Red, Green, and BlueRVH Renaissance Vancouver HotelSAD Seasonal Affective DisorderSSL Solid-State LightTABIA Toronto Association of Business ImprovementAreasUNWCED UN World Commission on Environment and DevelopmentUS DoE US Department of EnergyW WattV VoltviiiAcknowledgementsI am deeply grateful to all on my supervisory committee for their dedication,theirforesight and personal commitment to my thesis. Many thanks to my supervisorSherryMcKay and previous supervisor Ray Cole for their constructive criticism, expertiseininstruction, and hours of time spent on my thesis. I also wish to thank my committeemembers, Jerzy Wojtowicz and Scot Hem, for their insight and precise advice that hasbeen of so much help in bringing together all the work in a coherentandcomprehensive way. Special thanks to the chair of my supervisory committee,CindyPrescott and GSS advocator, Alyssa Joyce, who provided their academic perspectiveand their optimism, something of great value to me, an immigrant student at UBC.Iwould like to thank Patrick Todd, Clayton Burns, Bruce Catton, and Robert Chesterfortheir generous contributions of time, spirit of friendship, and open communicationleading to the meeting of minds and the process of learning and sharing.In addition, much gratitude is owed to Ben Gorton and Kevin Dowling fromPhilipsColor Kinetics, Kris Chemenkoff from Bernard & Associates, Hiltz Tannerfrom EAEnergy Alternatives Ltd., Joe from Zhongshan Margin Lighting Co., Darren LuceandNatasha Kennett from CDM2Lightworks, and Dave Irvine-Halliday and JamesLovefrom the University of Calgary.A big thank you to all the friends I have made in Vancouver for makingme feel athome. I would also like to thank my family for their understanding of my dedicationtomy study. Finally, my Godfather Henry Kwok has shared my dilemmas, stresses,andthen progress with his generous virtue. I will never forget all thatwe have experiencedtogether in my study time. It is something blessed from God. I believe that Hewillcontinue blessing this research.ixChapter 1:Introduction1.1 Defining the Problem“Meeting predicted worldwide energy consumption needs over the next hundredyearswill require fundamental changes in how we generate and use energy.”1 In thefield ofarchitectural illumination, the problems we encounter are how to retainhigh levels ofeffective night lighting in the context of energy depletion and scarceresources; how toreduce electricity consumption and maintenance costs in the meantime todeveloparchitectural lighting creativity and energy sustainability via an outdoordecorativelighting system; and how to provide electricity in an urban contextfor the mentionedbuilding illumination in a renewable, reliable and environmentally sound manner.Global lighting energy use in 1997, which included the correspondinglighting-relatedelectricity production and global fuel-based household lighting, was significant,totalingabout US$ 230 billion. It also corresponded to a carbon dioxide emission of2019million metric tonnes.2 In 2007, the total lighting industryrepresented $70 billionglobally.3 Compared with new buildings, existing buildingsconsume a great deal ofelectricity because of their reliance on inefficient light bulbs. Inaddition, existinglighting systems are more likely to be out of date in contrast to updatedelectrical lighttechnology or be at the end of their economic life due to their shortlife span and needto be replaced.4Approximately half of the world’stotal lighting electricity is demandedBasic Energy Sciences, Basic Research Needs for Solid-State Lighting, Report ofthe Basic EnergySciences Workshop on Solid-State Lighting, May 22-24, 2006, (Office of Basic EnergySciences) 3. 11July 2008 < Mills, “The $230-billion Global Lighting Energy Bill,” Expanded from versionpublished in theProceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Energy-Efficient Lighting (Stockholm,2002)Abstract, 31 March 2008 <>.Kevin Dowling, LED Essentials (Department of Energy: Webinar, Oct. 2007)4, 31March 2008< .pdf>.Ulrike Brandi and Christoph Geissmar-Brandi, Light for Cities: Lighting Designfor Urban Spaces. AHandbook (Basel: Birkhuser, 2007) 25.2by the 23 International Energy Agency (lEA)countries.5These 23 countries are majorindustrialized and urbanized ones with complex infrastructurewhere the reduction ofthe electricity demand of existing urban structures/formshas become necessary.Currently, building illumination faces two criticalchallenges: one is the reduction ofelectricity consumption, and the other isthe reduction of light pollution. There aremany stated causes of light pollution, andsome accounts may be accurate, but oftenthere are variations in how light pollution is defined, andfindings can be refuted. Thehuman eye has different reactions tolighting and its colours at night; we do notunderstand the interrelationships completely.Some of the arguments about lightpollution can be challenged. For instance, Wilsonand Yang’s City Lighting and LightPollution6 claims that:The trend to increase the amount of exterior lightingfor both utilitarianand decorative applications in cities must generate morelight pollutionand its associated adverse effects whichinclude wasted energy,artificial sky glow and varying degreesof population discomfort.However in many cases the current and proposedquantities of suchlighting are both unacceptable and unnecessary.7Two assertions here are misleading. The firstis the idea that an increase in theamount of exterior lighting automatically anddirectly leads to more light pollution. TheMills 1. The 23 International Energy Agency (WA)countries: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada,Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary,Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, theNetherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden,Switzerland, the United Kingdom, theUSA.6Reg. R.Wilson and Shiguang Yang, “CityLighting and Light Pollution,” Right Light 6, Shanghai9-11 May (2005), 31 March2008<>.Wilson & Yang 1.3definition of light pollution by the International Dark-SkyAssociation (IDA)8 is “anyadverse effect of artificial light including sky glow, glare, light trespass, lightclutter,decreased visibility at night, and energy waste.”9 According to this definition,we canincrease the quantity of exterior lighting which functions for nightactivity, if theinstallation and application of these lights can be well managed withoutthe productionof these effects. In addition, exterior lighting has been ignored far morethan interiorlighting. If we just limit the amount of exterior lighting withoutconsidering its function,nighttime city safety and security will be compromised. Therefore,it is possible todesign night lighting while avoiding the detriments associatedwith light pollution asidentified in Wilson and Yang.The second misleading assertion is the statement that exterior lightingapplications areassociated with wasted energy. Energy waste means we cannotreuse the energy thatprovides the lighting, so the authors’ hypothesis onlyinvolves the utilization ofnon-renewable energy for electric exterior lights. Nowadays,people are not onlythinking about using more renewable energy and how to generateit, but alsostate-of-the-art technologies and successfulexperience have demonstrated that nomatter whether we are considering exterioror interior lighting, we must fundamentallyshift the principles of energy consumption from traditionalones to those that are moreeffective, renewable, and sustainable.The demand for and uses of night lighting in cities have pushed the lightingindustryinto continual development. Solid-state lighting is emerging as apivotal technology forthe lighting industry. Light Emitting Diodes (LED5) havedemonstrated an advance ingeneral illumination as a viable source. LEDsare an energy-saving lighting resource,a new technology used for outdoor night lighting, so lighting companiesare developing8The International Dark-Sky Association (IDA) is a U.S.-basednon-profit organization to preserveand protect the nighttime environment and our heritage of dark skies through qualityoutdoor lighting.Its official website is: <>.IDA’s light pollution definition was accessed online, 31March 2008 <>.4LEDs rapidly. Cree, Inc.’° is one of the leading companies heavily involved indoing soin Toronto, Canada, one of the first large cities to shift to LED5. On July 11, 2007, theToronto Association of Business Improvement Areas announced that the citywouldinitiate an installation of LEDs throughout its infrastructure. Torontowas the secondcity to join the LEDCityTMprogram after Raleigh, North Carolina. Toronto’s citizensshould notice LEDs throughout parks, parking garages, and in architecturallightingover the course of 2008. On June28th,2007, The ON Tower lighting wastransformed from traditional light bulbs to vibrant, dynamic, and moreenergy-efficientLEDs, designed to use 60 percent less energy than the conventional lighting ofthe1990s. Other current and planned LED projects in the city include solar-poweredLED5in a park and LEDs in a public parking garage.12Vancouver is not only well-known as one of the most livable cities inthe world, but alsoas a famous tourist destination because of its naturalbeauties and uniqueurbanization — Vancouverism, which means,ideally, building equity, amenity, andlivability in a hyper-dense city. This thesis considers “Night Vancouverism.”However,through my observations, I have found that Vancouver’s waterfront public spaceshavebeen far too little used at nighttime as compared to the daytime. Inthe dark, thewaterfront walkway becomes unattractive and people refrain fromusing it. In thisthesis, the illumination of the Renaissance Vancouver Hotel(RVH), one hospitalitybuilding in Vancouver’s downtown, is the focal pointin demonstrating three options in‘°Cree, Inc., a North Carolina corporation established in 1987, producesLEDs, SiC and GaN materialproducts, and high-powered products using SiC and GaN materials. It isan LED pioneer. Its officialwebsite is:“Toronto Shifts to LED Lighting as Answer for EnergyEfficiency,” LED City Press Room, LEDCity, 11 July 2007, 31 March 2008<>.12“CN Tower Illuminated — Toronto, Meet Your New Skyline!” posted byAdam Schwabe on BlogTOwebsite, 29 June 2007, 31 March 2008< tower illuminated_toronto meetyour_newskyline!>;“Lighting Canada’s National Tower: Spectacular Light Show Launches CNTower Illumination — June28, 2007,” Toronto: CN Tower Website Release June 2007, 31 March 2008<http:!/www.cntower.calportal!GetPage.aspx?at= 1579>.5outdoor lighting strategies for the sustainable developmentof architectural lighting.LEDs not only offer solutions to the legibility of urbanstructure/form, which will betested, developed, and evaluated in this thesis, butalso allow outlets for illuminationflexibility and diversity, features that will alsobe presented. This thesis hascoincidentally been written in parallel with Vancouver’s emerging nighttimeimage andenhancements associated with the special “Look of the City” for the2010 Olympiccelebrations. The City of Vancouver is not only defining urban lightingopportunitiescity wide, but also considering issues of civic identity and energy efficiencyat a varietyof scales. The focus of this thesis on building illuminationof a hotel located on thewaterfront in downtown Vancouver shares its questions, analyses, approaches,andsimulations with further potential pragmatic projectsin various scales, so it is a timelyand feasible consideration of Vancouver’s urbanlighting development.131.2 Defining solutions1.2.1 Literature ReviewGeorge Monbiot’s Heat: How to Stop the Planetfrom Burning has demonstrated thatwe can achieve a 90% reduction in carbon emissions by 2030without bringingcivilization to an end. He shows that we can transform our houses,our power, and ourtransport systems to alleviate climate change.Monbiot cites some scientificallyimportant statistics: Canadians emit an averageof 19.05 tonnes of carbon dioxide ayear, compared with the Germans who emit 10.2 tonnes,and the French 6.8. ByMonbiot’s calculation, the sustainable limit for carbon dioxideemissions per capita is1.2 tonnes.14 Manbiot suggests that “Canada should cut her carbonemissions by94% between now and2030.15Thanks to new technologies and a few cunningapplications as mentioned in this book, Monbiot shows thatthis target will be‘Refer to Chapter 2 Environmental sustainability — Vancouver’sEmerging Actions.14George Monbiot, Heat: How to Stop the Planet from Burning(Toronto: Doubleday, 2006), 16. Thetotal capacity of the biosphere to absorb carbon will be reduced to 2.7billion tonnes a year by 2030when the world’s peoples will likely number around 8.2 billion. Carbon emissionsper person will beno greater than 0.33 tonnes, so carbon dioxide emissions will be 3.667 times0.33, equalling 1.2 tonnes.15Monbiot X.6achievable only by “the world’s most powerful political movement.”16 Monbiot is socompelling and provocative that his thoughts and proposals have had wideappeal,even though they will still require massive political supportand internationalinvolvement.Perhaps it might seem impossible to think that all politicians will ever team up todealwith the serious issues of global warming now, but that revolution may happen. Thekey information I have gained from Monbiot is that new technology and itsapplicationsmay save us from aggravated climate change, even if as anarchitecture student, Iprefer to think about something more practical and pragmatic for myresearch. Myposition is to study new technology for energysaving purposes in a selected building.According to BC Hydro’s statistics, lighting consumes 20 per cent of totalhouseholdelectricity. LED lights use only 5-10 per cent of the electricity of traditional light bulbs,but offer the same luminance. Even if we added double the capacityof general lightingin every building in Vancouver with LEDs, we still would consume less than 5 percentof the total electrical demand of current consumption.17 Theoretically, if this 5per centof electricity could be supplied by renewable energy, the lightingsystem wouldconsume zero electricity from the grid of BC Hydro.From Monbiot’s book, I understand how urgent global warmingnow facing humanbeings is, so we should undertake coordinated planet-wideinitiatives. Monbiotaddresses the special quality of electricity: “Notonly must it be made when we want it;it must also be made in precisely the quantities we demand.”18 He analyses presentresources supplying electricity world wide and concludes that the alternativetoexisting power systems is renewable energy. Therefore, my thesis proposesto dosomething by way of a project that is useful and feasible with respectto a renewableenergy system from the architectural stand point.16Monbiot XXV.17According to BC Hydro’s statistics and by my estimate and generally, LEDlights use less than 10 %of the electricity of traditional light bulbs, even a doubled capacity of lightingby LEDs will consumeless than 5% electricity: 2x10%x20%xlOO%4%<5%18Monbiot79.7Monbiot identified a serious concern about the reliability of renewable energy.Heconcluded that even if we adopt renewable energy as much as is possible, we still willnot be able to turn off power stations which burn fossil fuel.19 Hence, we need todesign an electricity consumption system to accomplish reliability in renewableenergy.Therefore, one objective of my research is to demonstrate that: “Buildings, instead ofbeing passive consumers of energy, would become power stations, constituent partsof local energy networks...“20In my thesis, a building’s lighting illumination and itspower supply have been designed to be independent from the grid. Myhypothesis isthat numerous mini-power stations associated with energy-saving technologywillsupport the “energy Internet”21 idea eventually.Also pertinent is research released by the UN World Commission on Environment andDevelopment (UNWCED). In 1987, this research group published “Our CommonFuture”,22 which focused the world’s attention on sustainability, climate change, andenergy issues. The report underlined that global warming and climate change, energycrisis, resource and food shortages, and economic and socialinstability, are thepredictable results of not changing development and consumptionpatterns so thatthey can be sustained into the foreseeable future.In ‘Our Common Future”, “sustainable development” is given a wide context:Humanity has the ability to make development sustainable to ensurethat it meets the needs of the present without compromisingthe abilityof future generations to meet their own needs.2310Monbiot 107.20Monbiot 124.21Monbiot 12422Our Common Future (1987) is a report from the UN WorldCommission on Environment andDevelopment (WCED) and was published in 1987 by former Norwegian Prime Minister GroHarlemBrundtland with a highly qualified and influential political and scientific team.23Gro Harlem Brundtland et al., Our Common Future, Reportof the World Commission onEnvironment and Development (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987) 24, 31 March 2008< 987-brundtland.pdf>.8The report states “Energy efficiency can only buy timefor the world to develop‘low-energy paths’ based on renewable sources, which shouldform the foundation ofthe global energy structure during the 21st Century.”24 Inaddition, the report alsostates that: “A mainspring of economic growthis new technology, and while thistechnology offers the potential for slowing dangerouslyrapid consumption of finiteresources, it also entails high risks, including new formsof pollution and theintroduction to the planet of new variations of life forms thatcould change evolutionarypathways.”25 The authors note that we are at the stageof utilizing new technologiesfor the prosperity of civilization and the reductionof energy consumption, despitesome potential side-effects. In the future, it iscertain that we will need to apply newtechnologies, reduce our energy consumption, and so offerenergy without pollution,but rational and detailed studies will be required todiminish the undesirable sideeffects, including pollution. My research is focused oncurrent LED technology forbuilding illumination. Technological advances and patternsof use and design will beaddressed in a sustainable manner and simulated.1 .2.2 SolutionsLEDs are a relatively recent technology. LED lights showtheir benefits in nocturnal,decorative, and advertisement lighting in the architecturaland construction fields,offering a high degree of efficiency, long life,brilliant colours, optional optics, lowmaintenance costs, low profile height, simpleinstallation, and ease of integration intoarchitecture.26 They are ideal for illuminating heat-sensitivematerials and operatessmoothly even at low temperatures, and aresuitable for outdoor use if appropriatelyprotected. LEDs are one-stop systems for customizedsolutions, safe operation, highresistance to breakage, easy mounting, andoperation with solar power and24Our Common Future (1987) 10.25Our Common Future (1987) 21.26J. Brent Protzman and Kevin W. Houser, “LEDs forGeneral Illumination: The State of the Science,”LEUKOS Vol. 3 No. 2 October (2006) 122; Energy Efficiencyand Renewable Energy, US Departmentof Energy, 31 March 2008 <>.9batteries.27According to the US Department of Energy(US D0E)’s estimation, by2025 LEDlighting could reduce lighting energy consumption by 50 per cent, andthe savings from2000 to 2020 by using LEDs could eliminate the need for 100 1000MW powerplantswith monetary savings of over $100 billion in the USA.28Taken a step further, strategies and methodologies related to architecturallightingdesign and applications for the “transformation/changeover” fromconventional lightingsystems to energy-saving LED systems are only now receivinglimited consideration.Separation of electricity suppliers, LED manufacturers, andend-user requirementsmay be defeating the extensive adoption of LEDlighting systems. Generally speaking,interior illumination consumes more electricity than exteriorillumination, but the latterneeds more maintenance and replacement by highly professional crews.While LED5’initial costs are still higher than those of conventional lights, higher maintenancecostsof conventional lights will offset this as well. Immediate LED installationswill offset theongoing costs of the degradation of conventional lights on building façades.From North America, and from Europe to Asia, we have seenLED technologyincorporated into building design without sustainable strategiesor withouttransferability of applications to other cities. For instance, ScotHem, city seniorplanner, has stated that the City of Vancouver expects differentlight application fromthose of Las Vegas, Dubai, and Shanghai. Thisresult has been an ad hoc proliferationof LED use for decorative architectural functions that has consumed anunwarrantedamount of both energy and time devoted to maintaining thesesystems.Colour-changing and energy-saving LEDs should be designedand used forhigh-quality architectural illuminations instead of simply switching fromconventional toLED lamps.27“Using LEDs to Their Best Advantage,” Building Technologies Program: Solid-State Lighting(USDepartment of Energy), 31 March 2008<>.28Dowling 4.101.3 ObjectiveThe goal of my research is to outline “transformative lightingstrategies” and create asustainable development methodology for the incorporationof LED technology intoindividual building illumination with the aim of reducingenergy and maintenance costsof outdoor decorative lighting. Furthermore, the thesiswill explore the potential formicro-renewable energy production.This thesis employs three transformative lighting strategies basedon LED technologyand renewable solar energy as applied to the façades of anurban building. My threetransformative lighting strategies form three different possibilitiesof applying LEDsindividually and collectively to a high-rise building withapplicability to differentcommercial buildings.1.3.1 Three transformative lighting strategiesThe first transformation utilizes LEDs for the retrofit ofexisting compact fluorescentlights (CFLs) on the façades and rooftop of the RenaissanceVancouver Hotel (RVH),in order to improve and diversify the building’s illumination in asustainable manner.The second transformation optimizes the yearlyprogramming of the new outdoordecorative LED lighting in accordance with differing seasonaland temporal themes inorder to save energy, to demonstrate architecturalcreativity via versatile lightingpatterns, and systematically to manage the unstablegeneration29 of renewableenergy.The third transformation explores the potential ofon-site electricity generation in anurban context instead of purchase from BC Hydro.Photovoltaic panels (PV5) willgenerate the electrical requirements of theRVH’s decorative exterior LED lighting.This transformation will transfer daytime solar energy toelectricity for night outdoorbuilding illumination; therefore, it will encourageoutdoor activities in the nighttime forVancouverites, and is a means of compensatingfor the limited daytime hours in29Monbiot 107. Most renewable energy resources, such as solar,wind and wave, cannot produceenergy in a continuous and stable-capacity state.11Vancouver’s winter months.1.3.2 Research Questions:1. Why does Vancouver’s urban context need to adopt transformativelightingstrategies?2. How much electricity and total cost will be saved for the RenaissanceVancouverHotel, based on my first transformative lighting strategy?3. How much better in quality and saving in quantity will thesecond transformativelighting strategy of outdoor decorative lighting (LED), inaccordance with differingseasonal themes, be?4. Can adequate electricity be supplied to the RVH’s transformativelighting by on-siteelectricity generation via photovoltaic(PV) panels?1.4 Methodology1.4.1 Study SiteAn initial study of the site included an interview with the Director of theEngineeringDepartment of Renaissance Vancouver Hotel, Mr. Carl Corrigan,in December 2007.From this interview, I gained basic knowledge about the RVH andits outdoor lighting,which contributed to chapter 3. The RVH management ispaying close attention to itsnight appearance and believes that its nightscape hasan impact on its number ofguests. Architect Bing Thom used outdoor decorativelighting on both rear and frontfaçades to represent the hotel’s welcoming attitudeand attractive qualities. Its outdoordecorative lights have been changed from 60Wincandescent lights to 18W CFLs,which give out static, warm yellowish light. Photocells andtimers have been used tocontrol this outdoor decorative lighting. In summer,the operation time is from 9:30pmto 1:00am; in the winter, from 4:30 pm to 1:00 am.3°The building currently consists ofa static CFL lighting array of 194 18-watt bulbs onits rear and front façades and 12018-watt bulbs on its circular top structure. This lightingdesign consumes30Carl Corrigan, Personal Interview, Vancouver, 3 December 2007.12approximately 12364 KW hours of energy per year at a cost of $556per annum.31 Thecommercial rate of BC Hydro’s electricity bill is 4.5 cents perKWh, one of the cheapestelectricity rates in North America. Information provided bythe RVH included data onthe existing exterior lighting, the lighting control system,environmental concerns, andfuture plans. This information was incorporatedin AutoCAD drawings for illustrativeand project design purposes.1.4.2 Site SurveyA site survey of the RVH’s building façades and the round rooftopstructure wasconducted to incorporate measurements not readily available fromthe RHV structuralblueprints into the AutoCAD illustrations for further 3-dimensionalmodeling and thearray of solar panels.Nightscape surveys were undertaken from at least 50 differentviewpoints, distances,and times-of-day to foster understanding ofthe physical, social, and emotionalperception of different nightscape impressions.In order to illustrate the shiftingnightscape of Vancouver’s skyline from day to nighttime,photographs of the city’swaterfront skyline were taken, a series of photographsfrom Stanley Park between10:00 am. and 10:40 pm. on May 12, 2007. A secondseries of photographs weretaken from the same location on January 28, 2008between 5:00 pm. and 5:30 pm. toillustrate Vancouver’s waterfront nightscape duringthe early dusk of the spring andwinter seasons. A panoramic picture was created by threephotographs from the samelocation with shifting angles of view, producing a comprehensivewaterfront urbanimage. Additionally, the existing conditionsof the selected site at daytime andnighttime are documented by a number of digital pictures,utilized as a first-handinventory for understanding the existing lighting of thechosen site and to developexperimental design concepts.31Calculation by author based on the data of the number of lampsand the current electricity ratereleased by the RVFI’s Engineering Department.131.4.3 Representational and Analytical Tools1.4.3.1 Maxwell RenderMaxwellRenderTM,32a computer simulation, was used to test and demonstratethedifferent lighting distributions that could be achieved with each lightingscenario. Thissystem combines photo-realistic rendering with detailed photometric computation toprovide a series of digital models illustrating the visual effects ofdifferent lightingscenarios for comparison. Maxwell Render claims to be a physically correct, unbiasedrendering engine capable of simulating light within a “real world” context.All lightingcalculations are performed using spectral information and high dynamic range data.Through my learning about and practice with Maxwell Render, theMaxwell plugin forAutodesk 3Ds Max (3Ds Max) allowed me to choose a nighttimefor my rendering inthe section of “Environment Settings,” and apply it to Vancouver. Even thoughMaxwellRender claims that its unique displacement technology is capable of simulatinganydetail without extra memory consumption, my computer, with an Intel Core4CPU, stillneeded almost 8 hours to render a high resolution image in1200X1 200 pixels throughthe Maxwell plugin. My first concern about the application ofMaxwell Render was itsspecial requirement for a powerful computer, sinceit calculated all data settings for therendering to be adjusted later on without any new calculations.Maxwell Render’s illumination system, “Emitter”, providesparameters of colour,luminance, temperature, MXI/HDR texture, Watts, and Lumens. LEDs asgenerallighting are a new application and in ongoing technological development, so, Icouldnot get LED materials from Maxwell’s material library. I had to createmy own LEDemitter materials with various parameters because of mydifferent light patterns.Additionally, those newly created LED materials were applied to geometriccylindersaccording to my proposed LED light fixtures to be mounted on the building façades.Creating lights by applying emitter materials is different from the previousmethod ofusing 3D Max to imitate lights illuminated on the surface. Becausethe complexity ofmy lighting design involved colour and intensitychanges, I needed to set up thoselights individually. Once the rendering has been produced byMaxwell Render, the32Maxwell Render software, 31 March 2008 <>.14colour and intensity can be adjusted and those images will be clearerand morephotorealistic. But I found the application “Multilight” to be very time-consuming duetothe complexity of my light design and the number of lights. However,the finalrenderings by Maxwell Render were of much higher resolution andmore impressivethan those by 3Ds Max. Because the parametersof physical location, date, and time inMaxwell Render are pre-set, the real physical conditions within the codeof thissoftware are also pre-set within certain limitations to reflect the complexityof realcircumstances. Autodesk 3Ds MaxAutodesk 3DsMaxTM33was used for upfront modeling. The computational model wasderived from direct digital photos, Google maps, and relevantattribute measurementsin real space for accurate architectural prototypes consistingof geometric, materialproperty, and photometric data.1.4.4 Comparative AnalysisComparative approaches of qualitative and quantitative data, including casestudies,interviews, historical design theories, comparative calculations,computationalvisualizations, and observational studies have been used throughoutthe design andevaluation processes. The transformative lighting design has beencompared withexisting night lighting in terms of design rationale, visual differences,and programmingflexibility. The transformative design approach is synthesizedfrom a retrofit of theexisting light setting and LEDs’ noted design approaches,such as intelligentcolour-changing, pattern creation, dimming, and rainbow colourseries.1.4.5 LED Efficiency AssessmentsLEDs differ from other conventional lights by using direct current (DC),versusalternating current (AC). Energy efficiency enhancementof the LED transformativelighting aspect of this study will be obtained through the use of versatilelightingscenarios and an on-site, direct current (DC), and renewableenergy generationAutodesk 3Ds Max software, 31 March, 2008<>.15system. Supplying the LED lighting system with direct current reducesenergyconsumption that otherwise would be required to convert the standard 120voltalternating current (AC) electrical service to the 12 or 24V DC utilized most effectivelyby LED systems. I will explore the potential of an on-siteelectricity generation systemwith photovoltaic panels to charge a battery system and subsequentlyprovide theelectrical energy requirements for the RVH’s outdoor LED lighting system. However,the cost of power supply units and controllers will not be included in the calculationofthe total cost of LED lights in my first transformative strategy. Furthermore, toachievea dynamic and vibrant nightscape for the RVH’s façades, colour-changingLEDs toretrofit existing CFLs, could be controlled by an intelligent system forbetterperformance. However, the cost of an intelligent colour-changing control systemisbeyond the scope of my light comparative analysis based on my first transformativestrategy, because the existing CFL array only shows a static yellowish effect.Energy consumption will be calculated by comparison of 1) thehourly and 50,000 hourelectricity consumption of the proposed LED light fixtures with thatof the existing CFLsvia manufacturers’ specifications and 2) annual changes in electricity consumptionofthe optimized lighting system with that of existing CFLlighting for a summer, spring-fall,and winter program.Cost comparison is based on a lifecycle assessment of 50,000 hours, consistingofproduct, maintenance, and energy costs. Basic data obtained from lighting productspecifications, the RVH’s engineering department, and B.C. Hydro have been usedtoillustrate the electricity consumption of the existing CFL lighting scenario.Electricalconsumption of the proposed LED lighting will be calculated according to the LEDmanufacturers’ specifications and the expert knowledge of local suppliers. Basedoninternational market availability, popularity, quality, and standardization ofelectriclighting, CFLs manufactured by “Marathon” under the umbrella of “Philips”34andLEDs’ manufactured both by “Philips Color Kinetics” and by “LightWild” willbe used forcomparison purposes. The proposed LED coloured lighting fixtures havebeen“Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.y. or Royal Philips Electronics Inc. usually known asPhilips isone of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands16employed on building façades for many years with guaranteedqualities.35LED coloured decorative lighting is a recent addition to themarketplace with researchstill ongoing; leading companies include CREE, PhilipsColor Kinetics and Lightwild inNorth America, OSRAM in Europe, and Marginlightin China. Marketing is so new thatthe prices of LEDs vary between both manufacturersand countries given marketplaceavailability, and the early stages of product research and development.A pricecomparison using some of the above manufacturers will beperformed to determinethe present market potential, and possible energy andmonetary savings of usingLEDs instead of conventional and CFL lighting designs so as toreveal the potential ofsustainable development of LED5 in Vancouver.1.4.6 Power supplyAccording to the experimental design employing the first andsecond transformativedesign strategies, a very limited amount of electricity will beneeded. In an urbancontext, due to the constraints of the architectureitself and its surroundingenvironments, most renewable energy generationis not suitable or doable, The RVHexists in such an urban context and as an existingbuilding expectant to retrofit. Theproposed on-site system explores a viablesolution for self-sufficient energy generationby using photovoltaic panels and a battery storagesystem integrated with the RVHbuilding.1.5 Value of ThesisThe thesis concludes with an argument for a perspective onLED outdoor decorativelighting based on its technological and economical advantages,the optimization ofarchitectural design, and its enhancement withthe contribution of micro-renewableenergy to urban sustainability and quality of life.The research reveals that, althoughLED technology application to architectural outdoor lighting has notyet achieved itsmaximum potential, it does have positive usesfor architectural lighting that shouldcontribute to images of nocturnal cities. This factorindicates that there is room forThe manufacturers’ specifications of existing CFLs and proposed LEDsare referred to inAppendices I, H and III.17using LEDs for improvement in architectural lighting.This thesis addresses some specific issues: LED technology, architecturaloutdoorlighting, the existing urban context, and building-integratedrenewable energy. Thestrengths and weaknesses of those issuesare explored to establish threetransformative lighting strategies as three possibilities foraccomplishing energyefficient and sustainable night lighting, reflecting the current Canadiangovernment’sconcept of “using less, living better.” A series of designapproaches and evaluationtools have been implemented in the re-design of the illumination usedfor the RVH toexamine and demonstrate the feasibility and sustainabilityof the three strategies.Vancouver’s urban context as defined in the thesis includes a varietyof architecturesand landscapes. Due to the limitation of time, participants, and data collection,thethesis has been narrowed down to the RVH, which is a typical hospitalitybuilding ofmodern design. Extrapolating research to other types of architecture,offices,residences, institutions, and commerce in general willextend different designapproaches and evaluation perspectives, enriching thenocturnal illumination ofVancouver’s urban context.In chapter three, I present a background analysis of the relationshipbetween nocturnalillumination and the selected Vancouver urbancontext. The fundamental issuesassociated with why the waterfront of downtown Vancouverneeds night lighting can beextended to more precise and detailed studiesin varying scales and contexts. In mythesis, my focus is on energy sustainability provenby cost evaluation, and achievedvia building-integrated renewable energy production in apractical and measurablemanner. Unlike most studies of LED, which reside in engineeringdisciplines and theirrelated publications, my thesis is positioned within thedisciplines of sustainabledevelopment and architectural design applications, and henceis related to literature inthese fields. It uses systematic strategies, their implementation,and their subsequentevaluation as relevant to design. In this thesis itis impossible to discuss and solve allthe environmental, economic, and social issues in terms of Vancouver’snocturnalillumination. However, I have investigated LED lightingdesign approaches and18evaluation methods in an appropriate and valid way via one small project that mightcontribute to such solutions by introducing three transformative lightingstrategies.Chapter four of the thesis addresses the financial and electrical savings to begarnered via the retrofit of existing CFLs to LEDs on the RVH’s façades. Inchapterfive, my experimental project design will include various intelligently controlled lightingprograms for different nights, such as those for normal weekday and weekend nights,and also for holiday, special event, and festival nights, all with the ability tomonitorenergy consumption and regulate light colours, patterns, and brightness onthebuilding façades according to energy availability, as derived fromthe PV system.Chapter six looks at the incorporation of a mini-renewable energytechnology, aphotovoltaic system, to provide the electrical energy requirementsfor a coloured LEDoutdoor decorative lighting system. The flexibility of the system will strengthenpublicawareness of the night lighting performance. The new systemwill be more suitable tothe unstable availability of electricity from renewable resources. Chapter sevenoffersthe conclusion of my thesis and discusses possible further and related studies.19Chapter 2:Lighting Technologies202.1 Technical KnowledgeThe design (and application) of artificiallighting is associated with the development oflighting technology. This chapter will introduce somequalities of current lightingtechnology including conventional light bulbs and LEDs.First of all, knowledge of light,colour, and light sources must be seen as essential tolight design.2.1.1 Light and ColourJarnrnaj[[rdr1FMTV [sho.twvej AM—10 10° 10 10 10 1102fJ6Wavelength (metersVisiblelightFig 2.1 The Visible Spectrum36Light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum.Visible light is about 380 nm to 770 nmin wavelength, with a colour range from deepviolet to rich red.37 Normally, the visiblespectrum is a rainbow — a continuouscoloured light. The three primary colours of lightare red, green, and blue, producing whitelight when mixed. Colour is influenced by thelight source, the properties of the object, the sensitivityof the eye, and brain reactions.When light is incident on an object, a partof it is absorbed, a part is reflected, and apart may be transmitted. The object mayalso emit light. All these characteristicscontribute to the observed colour. A specularly reflectingmaterial reflects light incident36“Light and Color Basics,” Building Technologies Program: Solid-StateLighting (US Department ofEnergy), 31 March 2008<http ://>.Gary Steffy, Architectural Lighting Design 2nd ed. (New York: Wiley,2002) 11.400 500 600 700Wavelength (nanometers)21on it in the same angle that it came from. A diffusely reflecting materialscatters lightincident on it in all directions. A glossy and semi-glossy materialcontains acombination of both specular and diffuse reflectance. Observersusually discountspecular reflection when visually evaluating the colour of a material.Diffusereflectance is an important characteristic when determining colourand appearance.38As above, this basic knowledge is necessary to a fundamental understandingof light,its perception and the composition of different spectra. The importantbackground isthat using the three primary colours of light, red, green, and blue, produceswhite lightand the rainbow spectrum to achieve LED colour changes.2.1.2 Light SourcesNatural light sources include sunlight, moonlight, starlight,natural flames andbioluminescence. Man-made light sources can be controlled byhumans. Electric lightshave been utilized in built environments since their invention.Electric lamps consumeelectricity to make visible light. Electricity can be generated from naturalsources.39Electric lights for building illumination have been consuming a great dealof electricity.Nowadays, because of energy depletion and scarce resources, sustainableandenvironmentally sound approaches to building illumination use energy-savinglights(LED5), but barely consume electricity from renewableresources. However, Dr. DaveIrvine-Halliday, a Professor of Electrical Engineering at the University ofCalgary,founded Light Up The World Foundation (LUTAI) in 1997, which wasthe firsthumanitarian organization to utilize renewable energy and solid-statelightingtechnologies in developing countries.402.1.3 Brief history and types of electric lightsHistorically, electrical lighting technology dates back to theinvention of the light bulb,the incandescent lamp, invented in 1879 by Thomas AlvaEdison. He was neither the38Silja Holopainen, Colorimetry, (Finland: Metrology Research Institute,Helsinki University ofTechnology, 2006), 31 March 2008<http://metrology.tkk.filcourses!S- 108.401 0/2006/Colorimetry.ppt>.Mark Karlen and James Benya, Lighting Design Basics (Hoboken: Wiley,2004) 3.°“About Us,” (Light Up The World Foundation), 31 March 2008 <>.22first nor the only person who tried to invent an incandescentlight bulb. Since then, thelight bulb has profoundly changed human existenceby illuminating the night andmaking it hospitable to a wide range of human activities.412.1.3.1 IncandescentFig 2.2 Incandescent Lamp Spectrum 350-700,adopted.42Over one hundred years ago, the invention of incandescentlamps totally changedpeople’s lives. Nowadays, the conventional incandescentlamp is the least expensivelighting product to purchase, but is also the most energy-consumingand inefficientlight source, both for indoors and outdoors. In incandescentlamps, when electriccurrent heats a filament, visible light is generated byless than 10% of the input energy,90% of the energy being dissipated asheat. Incandescent lamps are commonly usedin applications where such low outputs(below 2000 lumens) are needed, and wherethe lighting is often switched on and off. Some applications,such as incubation, takeadvantage of the relatively high heat production of suchlamps. However, due to theenergy crisis, inexpensive incandescent lamps are becoming lessfavorable for manyconsumers. Their disadvantages include short lifetimes(fewer than a few thousandhours), low efficiency (about 5-20 lumens/watt), withresultant high per-lumen energyuse and life cycle cost, attraction of insects,and high heat production.432.1.3.2 HalogenHalogen lamps are a type of incandescentlamp with longer life, ranging from 2000hours to 10,000 hours, but marginally more efficient. Halogenlamps are best suited for41Dietrich Neumann, with essays by Kermit Swiler Champaet al, Architecture of the Night: theIlluminated Building (New York: Prestel, 2002)10.42International Dark-Sky Association, Outdoor Lighting Code Handbook Version1.14. (Tucson:International Dark-Sky Association, December 2000 / September2002) 20, 31 March 2008< - 14.html>.‘International Dark-Sky Association 20; Karlen and Benya 6.23spotlights and are often dimmed for use with motion sensors;for example, outdoorsecurity/convenience lights frequently cycle on andoff. Halogen light has low efficiency,about 15-25 lumens/watt.44 A recent development inhalogen technology is thehalogen infrared (HIR) lamp with better efficiency. HIR technologyresults in more lightoutput and significantly less waste heat for the same energyuse.45Low-voltage incandescent and tungsten-halogen lamps with 12volts are smaller andeasier for accenting and display functions. Employing12 volts of electrical current,different from the 120 volts common for primary power inNorth America, is part of theprocess in the operation of low-voltage lamps.462.1.3.3 FluorescentFig 2.3 Fluorescent Lamp Spectrum 350-700, adopted.47Fluorescent lights are the most common sourceof lighting in residential, commercialand institutional facilities. In the fluorescentlamp, electric energy excites mercury gas,generating ultraviolet light, which excites a thin film of phosphorsto give off visible light.Fluorescent lamps are occasionally seen in outdoor arealighting. High-efficiencyfluorescent lighting can reduce energy costs by up to 75% andlast the equivalent ofeight life times of incandescent lights. Today’s fluorescent lampscome in a variety ofshapes and sizes to fit many different applications.The most common diameters are5/8” (T5), 1” (T8), and 1 1/2” (T12) for linear fluorescent lamps.Fluorescent lampshave high efficiency, about 40-70 lumens/watt, good colorrendition, and long lifetimes(10,000 - 20,000 hrs). Disadvantages of fluorescentlamps include fragility, poor outputmaintenance, attraction of insects, and potentially hazardousmercury waste. A ballast“Karlen and Benya 7.uBC Hydro, “Energy-Efficient Lighting,” BC Hydrofor Generations, (Vancouver: BC Hydro), 31March 2008 <>.46Karlen and Benya 6.International Dark-Sky Association 21.24is required to operate compact fluorescent lights (CFLs) for easy switching. However,CFLs can be screwed into light sockets to replace incandescent lamps withrelativelylow initial cost.482.1.3.4 Mercury Vapor (MV)Fig 2.4 Mercury Vapor Lamp Spectrum 350-700, adopted.49Mercury vapor lamps were the first widely used high-intensity discharge (HID)lamps,introduced after the Second World War. Because of their low luminous efficiency,poorcolor rendition, and high ultra-violet output, they are almost never usedin newconstruction.502.1.3.5 Metal Halide (MH)I I IFFig 2.5 Metal Halide Lamp Spectrum 350-700, adopted.51Metal halide lamps are HID lamps with mercury vapor and small amounts of variousmetallic halides. A ballast is required for application, and full output is not reachedfor2-10 minutes after power is applied. They give off white,blue-white or slightly differentcolour characteristics. Their colour rendering index (CR1)52 is 65 to 70, whichmeansthat the colour under this illumination is poor, even though metal halide lamps are verycommonly used in commercial outdoor lighting. The latest ones are calledceramicmetal halide lamps, with CR1 80 to 85. Advantages include a widevariety of moderateto high luminous output lamps (3500-170,000 lumens mean output), high efficiency48International Dark-Sky Association 21; Karlen and Benya 7.International Dark-Sky Association 21.°International Dark-Sky Association 22; Karlen and Benya 10.51International Dark-Sky Association 22.52The Colour Rendering Index (CR1) is a quantitative measure of the ability of a light source toreproduce the colours of various objects faithfully in comparison with an ideal or natural lightsource.25(45-90 lumens/watt mean), and good colour rendition. Disadvantagesinclude outputmaintenance, shorter lamp lifetime, poor colour changes, ultra-violet output if notadequately filtered, and potentially hazardous mercury waste.532.1.3.6 High-Pressure Sodium (HPS)Fig 2.6 High-Pressure Sodium Lamp Spectrum 350-700, adopted.54High-pressure sodium lamps are currently the most widely used HID lamps forroadway and parking lot lighting. Light is produced by passing an electricarc througha small tube filled with sodium vapor at about 1/4 atmospheric pressure, and a ballastand warm-up of about 10 minutes are required. Advantages include a long lifetime, awide variety of moderate to high luminous output lamps (2000 - 120,000 lumens meanoutput), high efficiency, and wide variability of cost of lamps and luminaires.Disadvantages include poorer colour rendition, poorer output maintenance andefficiency than with low-pressure sodium, and potentially hazardous mercury waste.552.1.3.7 Low-Pressure Sodium (LPS)Fig 2.7 Low-Pressure Sodium Lamp Spectrum 350-700, adopted.56Low-pressure sodium lighting is favored where energy consumption and costs aremajor concerns and where color discrimination is either not needed or is supplied byother lighting. A ballast is required and 7-15 minutes are needed to reach full output.Advantages include higher luminous efficiency and lowest energy use in conventionallights, low glare associated with the large lamps, good visibility especially for the agingeye and under poor atmospheric conditions such as fog or where light tends not toInternational Dark-Sky Association 22; Karlen and Benya 9.International Dark-Sky Association 22.International Dark-Sky Association 23; Karlen and Benya 10.56International Dark-Sky Association 23.26scatter, minimal effects on insects and other wildlife, as well as a lack of hazardousmercury wastes. Disadvantages include the lack of color rendition, shorter lamplifetime, higher lamp replacement costs compared to HPS, and large lamp size in thehigher output lamps.572.1.3.8 “Neon”“Neon” or “luminous tube” lighting is a term applied to a variety of small-diameterglass-tube sources for decorative purposes and signage. When electrical currentpasses through the gas fill, light is produced with a colour or spectrum characteristic.Since “Neon” lighting is used particularly for various colour applications requiringshape flexibility, mostly not suitable for those of the lighting sources above, it isunnecessary to compare “Neon” light traits with those of other lighting sources.However, when used for architectural outlining, “Neon” lights can consume a lot ofenergy.58 “Neon” lighting lasts 20,000 to 40,000 hours, can be dimmed, and can evenbe flashed on and off without affecting lamp life.592.1.3.9 Laser and Search LightsLaser is an acronym: Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. As alight source, a laser can have various properties, depending on the purpose for whichit is designed. Lasers can cause eye damage if aimed directly into the eye so laserillumination should be properly designed. The utility of sweeping laser or searchlightbeams in attracting attention to commercial activities or communityevents isquestionable, but the wide-reaching effects are not in question. These practices ofturning the entire night sky into an advertising medium can affect the appearanceofthe nighttime environment for thousands or even millions of people. The IDA6°discourages this use of the common nightscape, and the USA Pattern Code reflectsthis limitation.61 Laser light is useful in entertainment because the coherent natureofInternational Dark-Sky Association 24; Karlen and Benya 10.58International Dark-Sky Association 25.Karlen and Benya 12.60The International Dark-Sky Association (IDA)’s official website: www.darksky.org61Wikipedia, “Laser,” 31 March 2008 <http://en.wikipedia.orglwiki/Laser>.27laser light causes a narrow beam to be produced,which allows the use of opticalscanning to draw patterns or images on walls, ceilings or othersurfaces or stageeffects, including theatrical smoke and fog.622.1.3.10 SummaryThe table 2.1 approximately summarizes those different qualitiesof the most salientlamp types for the most common sizes encounteredin outdoor lighting, exclusive ofsports lighting. More relative comparisons will depend on the detailsof the application.Tab 2.1 Lamp Type Comparison — Summary63Lamp TypeFactor Incandescent Fluorescent Metal HalideHigh-Pressure Low-PressureSodium SodiumWattage 25-150 18-95 50-400 50-40018-180Output (lumens) 210-2700 1000-7500 1900-300003600-46000 1800-33000Efficiency8-18 55-79 38-75 72-115100-183(lumens/watt)Lumen90 (85) 85 (80) 75 (65) 90 (70)100 (100)Maintenance_(%)Lamp Life750-2000 10000-20000 10000-20000 18000-24000 16000(hours)Energy Use high medium medium lowlowestWattage 25-150 18-95 50-40050-400 18-180Note:• Output: approximate mean luminous outputs of lamps most commonlyused in outdoor lighting• Efficiency: mean luminous efficiency for lamp output rangeabove, taken at 50% of mean lifetime(does not include ballast losses)• Lumen Maintenance: percent of initial lamp output at 50%of mean lamp lifetime and at end ofmean lifetime (in parentheses)• Color Rendition: relative ability of average observer accurately to perceivecolors under Lightingfrom indicated lamps only(*under pure LPS light, some discrimination of reds and orangesispossible, though they will appear as shades of brown).2.1.4 Lighting Control System62Wikipedia, “Laser Lighting Display,” 31 March 2008<>.63International Dark-Sky Association 26.28The utilization of lighting controls becomes critical in reducing electricityconsumptionand its costs. Unneeded light and unnecessarily lit areas willcause a waste ofenergy.64 We are at the stage where we need to be seriously concerned about energyefficacy and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Today’s progressin light designhas been bringing lighting controls to a more important stage in terms of dynamictransitions, intelligent operations, and interactive responses. Listed beloware somedevices available to create better control systems. DimmersDimmers are devices used to vary the intensity of the light output by changing thevoltage to the lamp. Dimmers are used for both domestic and public lighting, and highpowered units are used in large theatres or architectural lightinginstallations. Theability to dim lamps can enhance the versatility or aestheticsof space andbackgrounds for special ambience and effects. Mostly, dimminglighting does not leaddirectly to energy savings because conventionally only certaininefficient lamps, suchas incandescent and halogen, can be dimmed.652.1.4.2 TimerA timer is a specialized type of clock used to control the sequence of anevent orprocess. Timers can save energy and control interior orexterior lighting, or evenappliances, by turning them on and off at a determined time. Most moderntimers aredigital, easy to operate, affordable, and can be programmed from24 hours to 7 dayson a seasonal daylight schedule. Many timers are plug-in products, soinstallationdoes not require an electrician.662.1.4.3 Motion Sensor/DetectorA motion sensor transforms the detection of motion into an electric signal byBC Hydro, “Automatic Lighting Controls,” BC Hydro for Generations(Vancouver: BC Hydro). 31March 2008 <>.65BC Hydro, “Dimmers”; Wikipedia, “Laser Lighting Display,” 31 March2008<>.BC Hydro, “Timers”; Wikipedia, “Timer,” 31 March 2008 <>.29measuring optical or acoustical changes to trigger a timingdevice. These devicesfunction to prevent illumination of unoccupied spaces.Outdoor security lights canaccount for a large portion of overall lighting energy costs, andare often left on whennot needed. Motion sensors are a good choice for controlling outdoorsecurity lights aslong as there is movement. After motion has stopped, the detector switches thelightsoff.672.1.4.4 PhotocellsA device altered by the effect of light is used for measuring or detectinglight or otherelectromagnetic radiation. Photocells are especially good for outdooror securitylighting control. They sense natural light and turn electric lights on whennatural lightlevels are low, off when light levels are higher. They allow theoutdoor lighting systemto adjust to the changing seasons. If exterior lighting is needed for onlya portion of thenight, a photocell can be used to turn lighting on and a time clock canturn it off. Somephotocells have delay mechanisms to preventtemporary cloud cover from turning thelights on.68All of those mentioned lighting control devices are adopted formy experimentalbuilding illumination. Moreover, a personal computer (PC) is usedto allow controlsoftware to direct a system combining all above control devices toachieve responsive,colour-changing and energy-saving lighting effects. Chapter 5,Philips Color Kineticssystem, and Figure 5.11 demonstrate acomprehensive lighting control systemsuitable for LED building illumination.2.2 Outdoor Lighting Design2.2.1 Design HistoryVery early in history, the Chinese and Japanese usedlanterns for functional and67BC Hydro, “Motion Sensors”; Wikipedia, “Motion Detector,” 31March 2008<>.BC Hydro, “Photocells”; The Free Dictionary by Farlex, “Photocell,”31 March 2008<http://encyclopedia.farlex.comlPhotocells>.30decorative lighting. The canals in the Versaillesgardens were illuminated in 1674 andthe buildings of Ghent were lit in the honor ofEmperor Charles VI in1717.69Beforethe nineteenth century, gas lamps, oil lamps,and bright electric arc lights had beenused for outdoor illumination.70 Around 1814,gas lighting had begun to appear inLondon with gas explosions and serious accidentscontinuing throughout the century.Through the 1860s and 1870s, the arc lampwas widely used for decorative purposes.In the 1880s, international exhibitionsshowcased the newest electric lightingdevelopments in arc lamps and incandescentlights. At the Paris World’s Fair in 1889,strings of incandescent bulbs adornedmajor buildings, and coloured arc lightswithmoveable filters allowed colour changes. TheEiffel Tower demonstrated all availablelighting types and technologies, gas lamps,incandescent bulbs, searchlights, and arotating lighthouse lamp with colour changes.71At the Chicago World’s Fair in1893,Luther Stieringer employed around 130,000incandescent bulbs for outlinelighting todemonstrate the urbanistic concept of a“White City.”72 Outdoor lighting designtheoryhas been developed with the evolution ofelectric lights, even if before the end of thenineteenth century few architects had thoughtabout how their buildings looked atnight.Nocturnal architectural concepts appeared withthe rise of modern architecture. In the1920s, architects who sought avant-gardetechnical and aesthetic solutions forcitiestook building façades at night ascentral concerns in their design practicesanddebates.73 In 1927, the term“light architecture” was used for the first time byJoachimTeichmuller in Germany.74 The newest typesof lighting, coloured floodlights,firstbecame popular at the 1929 World’sFair in Barcelona. After 1945, the differencesinNeumann 10.70Neumann 11.71Neumann 10.72Neumann 11.Marion Ackermann, “Introduction,” Luminous Buildinns: Architecture of the Night. eds. MarionAckermann and Dietrich Neumann, texts by MarionAckermann [et all (Ostfildern: Hatje Cantz, 2006)12.“Neumann 28.31nighttime lighting between the cities of the United States and thoseof Europe wereslight. Continued evolution is exemplified in NicolasSchoffer’s cybernetic illuminationof the 1970s.75 The energy crisis of 1973 temporarilyended the design developmentof all nocturnal illuminations after thenew enthusiasm of the fifties and sixties.76Nowadays, media façades, interactivezones, and changing surfaces have beendemonstrated on luminous buildings with all kinds oflighting technologies, blurring theboundaries of art, architecture, and science.772.2.2 Design ApproachesSeven approaches to lighting designhighlight its development: outline lighting,floodlighting, glass blocks, reflection, luminous advertising,“interactive building skins,”and responsive environments.At the beginning of the twentieth century, the Frenchinventor Georges Claudeproduced the first neon tube, for colourful illuminatedadvertisements and festive lights.At the same time, incandescent bulbs were used in anarrangement of dotted lines asoutline lighting. In 1928, Osswald designed a type ofcontour lighting for the TagblattTower.78Floodlighting forced designers to reckon with newconcepts of aesthetic perceptionand judgment; it was both a pragmatic and aphilosophic challenge to architecture.Harvey W. Corbett, in 1930, was the first designerto discover how to create a“floating” effect in buildings by only illuminating the topmostportions of them.79Marion Ackermann 13.76Lucy Bullivant, Responsive Environments: Architecture. Artand Design (London: V & A, 2006)26.Bullivant 978Simone Schimpf, “Outline Lighting,” LuminousBuildings: Architecture of the Night, eds. MarionAckermann and Dietrich Neumann, texts by Marion Ackermann[et al.] (Ostfildern: Hatje Cantz, 2006)70.Sanday Isenstadt, “Floodlight,” Luminous Buildings : Architectureof the Night, eds. MarionAckermann and Dietrich Neumann, texts by Marion Ackermann[et al.] (Ostfildern: Hatje Cantz, 2006)72.32Bruno Taut’s glass blocks, used in the expression of architectural utopias, datefrom1920, and changed traditional buildings into spotsof colourful light. The Tittot GlassMuseum (2004) with various colours of glass blocks attained aspecial effect, recallinga buoyant watercolour at night.8°The history of reflection began after modern architectural materials,such as glass andsteel started to dominate high-rise structures. In 1955, the ManufacturersTrustBuilding employed trans-illumination strategies, lighting the buildingfrom the insideout.81In 1870, The New York Times announced the first ever gas-litadvertisements in thecity; lit from behind multi-coloured glass screens, the styleintroduced luminousadvertising. In 1892, the first electric advertising in New Yorkwas seen at the sameintersection. By 1929, flashing, vanishing, moving, and reappearingelectric signswere so popular that they covered the whole building.82The term “Interactive building skins” is used to describe how architecture hasbeendesigned to respond to surroundings through building surfaces/facades.BuckminsterFuller’s Pavilion Dome for the U.S. at the 1967 Expoin Montreal was thought to be anearly programmable surface design, which followed thesun’s changes every 20minutes. Fuller’s lighting as a major expressivemedium was controlled by anelectronic operating system, wireless sensing, andcomputer programming to createbuilding façades that acted as mediating devices for a newsocial statement.Architects’ design interests now overlapped stronglywith those of designers,80Cara Schweitzer, “Glass Blocks,” Luminous Buildings : Architectureof the Night, eds. MarionAckermann and Dietrich Neumann, texts by MarionAckermann [et al.] (Ostfildern: Hatje Cantz, 2006)74.Margaret Maile Petty, “Reflection,” Luminous Buildings : Architectureof the Night, eds. MarionAckermann and Dietrich Neumann, texts by Marion Ackermann [et a!.](Ostfildern: Hatje Cantz, 2006)76.82Dietrich Neumann, “Luminous Advertising,” Luminous BuildingsArchitecture of the Night, eds.Marion Ackermann and Dietrich Neumann, texts by Marion Ackermann [et al.](Ostfildern: HatjeCantz, 2006) 80.33scientists, engineers, and artists. This shift in prioritiestranscended objects to reinventdesign as more of an event-based installationconcept. In 1992, Christian Moeller’s“Kinetic Light Sculpture” developed a light installationon the Zeil-galerie’s façade, totransform it like a chameleon with blur-yellow clustersof light.83Bullivant states “responsive environments — bydefinition spaces that interact with thepeople who use them, pass through themor by them — have in a very short timebecome ubiquitous.” Responsive and intelligentdesigners/artists are reacting to “theelectro-physical flux of the environments.”85They are mixing new technologies intodesign concepts to create environments in whichhuman beings become realizeddesign elements instead of just users offinal products. Bullivant explains: “Digitaltechnologies are fostering an experimental dissolutionof disciplinary forms; workingwith space is no longer the exclusivepreserve of designers, and designers no longerconfine themselves to traditional visual devicesand sources of inspiration.”86 Iunderstand this exposition to mean thatdesigners are creating open-ended projectsbecause they are using some dynamic and uncertainelements to showcase theflexibility and spontaneity of their design.My research in this realm suggests that outdoorlighting design theory is not thriving tothe same degree as architectural designgenerally. Therefore, well-known architecturalillumination examples are fewer thanfor well-known buildings. We have heardofgreen architecture, sustainable architecture,and zero-energy architecture as today’sfocus when we encounter the problemsof global warming, green house gas emissions,and energy shortages. But we have notheard about green illumination, sustainableillumination, and zero-energy illuminationyet.2.3 LEDs2.3.1 LED Development83Bullivant 19.Bullivant 8.85Bullivant 66.86Bullivant 9.341962 1972 1992Fig 2.8 LED Development.87The US Department of Energy (DOE) states that solid-state lighting is a pivotalemerging technology with much potential to save energy and enhance the quality ofour building environments. Solid-State Lights (SSLs) include LightEmitting DiodeLights (LEDs) and Organic Light Emitting Diode Lights (OLEDs).88 In 1962,NickHolonyak demonstrated the first use of LEDs with luminous efficaciesof only about0.1 lm/W (1/20 the efficacy of Edison’s first electric light bulb), while he was working atGeneral Electric. However, the efficiencies of red and yellow LEDs hadexceededthose of red-colour-filtered incandescent lamps by 1992. Bright blue andgreen LED5were produced by Shuji Nakamura working at the Nichia Corporation in late1993.During the past ten years, the efficiencies of all LEDs have been increasingconstantlyand dramatically.892.3.2 LEDs’ CharacteristicsLEDs are used in a wide range of applications with qualities such as low forwardDavid a Pelka and Kavita Patel, “An Overview of LED Applications for General Illumination,”Design of Efficient Illumination Systems, ed. R. John Koshel, sponsored by Society ofPhoto-opticalInstrumentation Engineers (SPIE) (Bellingham, Wash., USA: SPIE, 2003) 15.88“DOE Solid-State Lighting Portfolio,” BuildingTechnologies Program: Solid-State Lighting, USDepartment of Energy, 31 March 2008 <>.89Pelka and Pate 1 15; Protzman and Houser 121-42.RedLED0.1 ImJWYellowLED1993 2006 Oct. 2007 Sept. 2007 Nov.35voltage, exceptionally small size, thinness and flexibility, low heat generation, hightolerance/resistance, inherently directional light emission, good performance underlow temperatures, low glare on lit surfaces and on the human eye, and longer usefullife (50,000 to 100,000 hours) with little maintenance. LEDs are comparatively efficientfor colored light applications. Unlike incandescent, fluorescent and HID sources usingcoloured filters or lenses associated with 90% energy waste, LEDs arenear-monochromatic light sources for coloured lights. One of the most dramatic andconspicuous uses of LED light has been in dimming and colour-changing applications.LEDs do not cause pollution with mercury or other heavy metals, helping to preservethe environment not only during their operational life, but also during their landfilltime.9°2.3.3 Canada’s CN Tower illuminated by Coloured LEDsThe CN Tower, Canada’s national tower, at 553.33 metres (1,815 ff5 in), the World’stallest freestanding tower, is a symbol of Canadian building achievement recognizedaround the world. On June28th2007, the CN Tower was lighting demonstrated itstransformation from traditional lighting to vibrant, dynamic, and more energy-efficientLEDs, designed to use 60 percent less energy than in the 1990s. Each LED fixture canproduce 16.7 million colours controlled by an intelligent digital system; the“PhilipsColor Kinetics lighting system,”91 programmable from a single computer console.Intelligently and individually programmed, every LED fixture has its unique “address,”meaning an electric location that can receive data from a control system to achieve an°Feng Zhao and John Van Derlofske, “Side-Emitting Illuminators Using LEDSources,” Design ofEfficient Illumination Systems ed. R. John Koshel, sponsored by the Society of Photo-opticalInstrumentation Engineers (SPIE) (Bellingham, Wash.: SPIE, 2003) 33; “Solid-State LightingPortfolioStrategy,” Building Technologies Program: Solid-State Lighting, (US Department of Energy), 31March 2008 <http:f/>.91“Highlighting the CN Tower: Testing of Innovative Illumination Technology Begins Early June2007,” Toronto: CN Tower Website Release June 2007, 31 March 2008< 1577>.36infinite variety of lighting effects with “precisely directed illumination.”92Fig 2.10 Canada’s CN Tower Illuminated by Coloured LEDs, adopted.932.3.4 Toronto: LED CityOn July 11, 2007, The Toronto Association of BusinessImprovement Areas (TABIA)announced that Toronto would initiate a citywide installationof light-emitting diode(LED) lighting throughout its infrastructure. Torontowas the second city joining theLED City program, the first being launched in Februaryby City of Raleigh officialsand LED manufacturer Cree, Inc. Toronto’s commitment to theLED City initiativeshowed a willingness to increase its use of the technology inorder to support theCanadian legislative agenda focused on energy efficiency. Torontohas been a centerfor LED consumer education and an early adopterof LED Lighting. TABIA willevaluate, deploy and promote the use of LEDsacross multiple lighting applications.Other current and planned LED projects include solar-poweredLED lights in a parkand LED lighting in a public parking garage. TorontoMayor David Miller said: “We92“Core Technologies,” PhiIis Solid-State Lighting Solutions, PhilipsColor Kinetics, 31 March 2008<>.Photo “rainbowtower” by Sean Galbraith, blog to Flickr Pool contributor, 31 March2008<http://blogto.comlcity/2007/06/cn_towernow_in_strawberry_lemon_lime_and_grape/>.37expect that by deploying LEDsthroughout Toronto, including onour most famouslandmark, the CN Tower, we will be accomplishingthe goal of reducing energy use,costs and green house gas emission.”94LED City Toronto, n.pag.38Chapter 3:Vancouver393.1 Defining Vancouver’s Urban ContextTransformative lighting strategies depend upon Vancouver’s urban context. LanceBerelowitz’s Dream City95 delineates Vancouver’s historic transformation and itsunique urbanization called “Vancouverism.”96 Vancouver’s downtown developmentmodel is that people live in the downtown consuming infinite, astounding naturalenvironments, and drive out of downtown, or walk into it, or to their job locations.Forthe typical North American, a single-family house is the dream, but my understandingis that for Vancouverites, the vision encourages downtownliving as a sort oftransformative dream of “the single-family”, where the well-preserved StanleyPark isseen as the backyard for the whole downtown. Vancouver’s symbolic CoalHarbourwaterfront, symbolic because it is the site of the first European occupation,perfectlyconveys this concept of the “Dream City”95,so this site has become my researchcontext in my thesis on transformative lighting strategies.The investigated area ranges from Richards Street to Chilco Street, mainly in anortheast to southwest direction, and from Waterfront Road to Robson Street, mainlyin a southeast to northwest direction. The shape of the area conforms to thesignificantbuildings and the landscape visible from Burrard Inlet.Historically, within this areasignificant buildings and landscape features not only form Vancouver’s urban skyline,but also enrich Vancouver’s urbanization— “Vancouverism.” I understand“Vancouverism” is sort of high-density residential living different from the rulesofexpected North American urbanism. The chosen site symbolizes Vancouverdue to itshistorical significance with its successful transformation from theoriginal terminus ofCanada’s first trans-continental railroad to being a particular downtownhigh-densityLance Berelowitz, Dream City: Vancouver and the Global Imagination (Vancouver:Douglas &McIntyre) 2005.Julie Bogdanowicz, “Vancouverism,” Canadian Architect August 2006, 31 March 2008<http://www.canadianarchitect.comflssues/ISarticle.asp?id= 1 77934&story_id 164583 120907&issue08012006>.Trevor Boddy, “New Urbanism: The Vancouver Model,” Places 16.2, (Richard Shepard2004).eScholarship Repository: University of California, 31 March 2008< 1 52&context=cedlplaces>.40residential area. This site and its panorama inspired me, but also presented me withchallenges when I observed that its architecture and surroundings easily distinguishedduring the day became submerged during the night: only a few buildings with theirdecorative night lighting could still be recognized. Vancouver’s urban nightscape hasmuch potential for revitalization and transformation, to fulfill its role as a significantsegment of the downtown core, both functionally and perceptually.3.2 Urban Context Transformation HistoryIn terms of the lighting strategy of Vancouver’s urban context, the first thingthat Ineeded to do was to choose a particular site. In Dream City, I was informedthat as aresult of Expo 86, the Coal Harbour waterfront was transformed from a workingport toa high-density residential development, a significant contribution to “Vancouver’semerging new lifestyle myth.”98 From Canada Place facing west along the BurrardInlet to Stanley Park, a major development plan for the 32-ha (80-acre) site—l7ha(41acres) of land and 1 5ha (39 acres) of water—has become one of the most significantfactors in building Vancouver’s skyline. According to Berelowitz’s words: “The shapeand form of the new shoreline were cued off the existing one and scalloped to createaFig 3.1 Daytime and Nighttime Panorama of Vancouver’s SkylineBerelowitz 106.41series of focal points along the lengthof the site. The usual Vancouver waterfrontwalkway/bikeway is well integrated here, entrenchingan ever-present impulse to lookout at the setting rather than in towards thecity.”99Another important component of the chosen site is theBayshore Gardens, developedby the Aoki Corporation of Japan in responseto Marathon’s early construction in CoalHarbour. According to Berelowitz, the current BayshoreGardens is different from theoriginal plan, which was a kind of bland expansionof the “archaic” Western Hotelchain, 6.5 ha (16 acres). But theBayshore Gardens development hasbeentransformed into “several distressingly similar,unremarkable residential towersarrayed around a series of formal gardens”and a small public green space that formsthe roof of a central public parkade.10°Sowe can see that Vancouver, as a young city,has significant transformation history in itswaterfront.3.3 Introduction to Urban LightingRecently, sophisticated lighting conceptsfor cities have been showcased in Germany,Switzerland, the U.S.A., and Asia. Decisionsin terms of which parts of the city will beaccentuated and which areas shouldremain dark are being made accordingtophysical conditions, functional considerations, image,and historic significance.101 As Iknow, Shanghai has decided to light up its historicaland tourist buildings along theHuangpu River that became the centerof Shanghai’s foreign business establishmentand the symbol of Shanghai’s identity asa modern city. Although there are manyneeds for outdoor lighting, “obtrusivelighting”102 without proper considerationofnegative consequences, such as light trespass,glare, sky glow, and energy wasteaffecting our environment should be rejected.Generally speaking, those lightingBerelowitz 102.100Berelowitz 105.101Ackermann 13.102CELMA, CELMA Guide on Obtrusive Light 1st ed.June (2007)4, 31 March 2008<>.Obtrusivelight is that part from an installation that does not servethe purpose for which it was designed.42consequences are defined as light pollution.103 Butthey can also be effectivelycontrolled or eliminated by carefully considered attentionto design, installation, andoperation. The RVH has been clearly positionedin the downtown core in thewaterfront area next to the Burrard Inlet, which symbolizes Vancouver’sarchitecturaland historical significance. Through a seriesof investigations, the followingbackground analysis determines the fundamentalreasons that this segment ofVancouver’s urban context will benefitfrom the implementation of transformativeurban lighting strategies in support of importanttechnical, energy, economic,environmental, and social aspects of sustainability as well as sportssustainability interms of the hosting of the 2010 Winter OlympicGames.(See figure 3.2) Theperformance of transformative lighting strategies willcreate comprehensive anddiverse opportunities for employment and investmentin the Vancouver downtown andcontribute to its long term prosperity.Since 1997, the Kyoto Protocol hasbeen set to achieve the stabilization ofgreenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere toprevent aggravation of globalwarming. Greenhouse gases, especially carbondioxide, have been proven to beproduced from our energy systems basedon fossil fuels. Therefore, reducing energyconsumption will decrease greenhouse gas emissions.Global lighting energy use issignificant, totaling about $230 billion per year.104According to the statistics of the U.S.Department of Energy, lighting consumes about20 per cent of total electricity use.105103CELMA4.104Mills 1.105Dowling 4.43Transformative lightingstrategies andVancouver’s urban contextI___I’ I___ITechnical TEnergy Economic lEnvironmental SocialSportssustainability 1sustainability sustainability [ustainabilitYsustainability sustainabilityjr__ __ __I__LED 1)The Canadian [Vancouver’s 1)Vancouver’s 1)Safety andWinterTechnology Government’sfTourism Nightscape, Security, Olympic_____________Commitment,[2)Vancouvers 2)Aging Peoples Games2)Electricity Emerging Needs,Shortage of BC Actions, 3)SAD in B.C.,Hydro, 3) Outdoor 4)Vancouver’s3)Vancouver’s Activities EnjoyabilityEnergy-saving_____________ _________________ActionsFig 3.2 Transformative Lighting Strategies and Vancouver’sUrban ContextFor establishing an integrated impression, the followingsections will address thewhole relationship of Vancouver’s urban context andthe transformative urban lightingstrategies in terms of sustainability in technical,energy, economic, environmental,social, and sports aspects.3.3.1 Technical sustainabilityI have related technical sustainability to LEDtechnological applications to architecturallighting. Currently, LED technology is timelyand critical in electrical energy savingsand noise diminishment. First of all, LEDs arebeing widely adopted in colouredlighting applications, such as in signals,liquid crystal display (LCD) screens,decorative strings, and tiny electronic facilities. LEDmarket penetration will accelerateas higher efficiency LEDs with better colour renderingbecome available. Now and inthe next few years, with their qualities, LEDsshould dominate the lighting market.Efficiency and cost breakthroughs must be achieved toenable LEDs substantially toreplace conventional lighting. A need forreliable unbiased product performanceinformation for high-performance SSLproducts is the prerequisite to foster the44developing market.106These breakthroughs may require the utilization ofnanotechnology, resulting in the “ultimate winner in energy-efficient lighting.”107DCCLED technology continues to change and evolve very quickly. New generationsof LEDdevices become available approximately every 4 to 6 months. In the furtherLED lightssection, more detailed and precise discussions about LED5applications to buildingillumination will be brought up.3.3.2 Energy sustainabilityThe Canadian Government has committed itself to the battleagainst global warmingand green house gases. On April 25, 2007, the Honourable GaryLunn, Minister ofNatural Resources, joined by the Honourable John Baird, Ministerof the Environment,announced “Lighting the Way to a Greener Future: Canada’s New Governmentto BanInefficient Light Bulbs”: by 2012, all energy-inefficient lighting andbulbs will be bannedin Canada. The legislation aimed at implementing the ban over thefollowing threeyears was introduced in May, 2007. Mr. Lunn said: “The environmentalbenefits areclear. By banning inefficient lighting, we can reduce our greenhousegas emissions bymore than 6 million tonnes per year. More than that, thesenew standards will helpreduce the average household electricity bill by approximately $50a year.”108 Manyother jurisdictions around the world have recently movedtoward banning standardincandescent bulbs, which lose most of their energy as heat.Australia blazed the way,announcing in February 2007 that it was going to prohibitthe use of incandescentbulbs by 2010 in an effort to reduce greenhouse gasemissions. It is estimatedAustralia’s ban will result in an 800,000-tonne reductionin emissions within five106“DOE CALiPER Program,” Building Technologies Program:Solid-State Lighting, (US Departmentof Energy), 31 March 2008 <>.107“DOE Study Finds Commercial LED Lamps Fall Short ofClaims-December 20 2006,” EERENc,(US Department of Energy), 31 March 2008< 10471>.108“Lighting the Way to a Greener Future: Canada’s New Government to BanInefficient LightBulbs,” Eco Action: Using Less. Living Better, (Governmentof Canada, April 25, 2007), 31 March2008 <http://www.ecoaction.gc.calnews-nouvelles/20070425-eng.cfm>.45years.109On December 19, 2007 President George Bush signed the EnergyIndependence and Security Act of 2007, legislating moreefficient lighting solutionssuch as CFLs and LEDs.11°B.C. Hydro has announced a hydroelectricity shortage becauseof low water levels ascaused by global warming, and raised electricitydemands. B.C. Hydro owns andoperates 80 percent of BC’s 14,000 MW of dependable generating capacity.More than85% of the Vancouver region’s electricity is generated athydro dams in the interior ofthe province. During periods of below-average water inflowsinto BC hydroelectricreservoirs, BC imports electricity from Alberta and the United States to meet provincialneeds. The official estimate of importing requirementsis between 25% and 45% within20 years. Figure 3.3 shows BC Hydro in a net importposition since 2001. Residentsand industries are increasingly vulnerable to pricevolatility and supply risk. BC Hydroexpects to meet about a third of its future electricityneeds through conservation. BCHydro offers significant financial support for electrical reduction initiatives andfor yearsBC Hydro’s official website has been publishinginformation on incentives to useefficient lighting.111 On November 19, 2007, PremierGordon Campbell and BC Hydropresident and CEO Bob Elton announced that the provincialgovernment andBC Hydro have entered into a new “Public Sector EnergyConservation Agreement” toachieve significant reductions in electricity consumptionacross more than 6,500 publicsector buildings.112109“Lights to Go out on Inefficient Bulbs by 2012,” CBCnews, April (2007),31 March 2008<>.‘°“US energy legislation mandates $20 million prizefund,” LEDs Magazine, Jan. (2008), 31 March2008 <>.“BC Hydro Submits 2006 Integrated Electricity Plan andLong Term Acquisition Plan to the BCUtilities Commission.” BC Hydro for Generations (BC Hydro 29March 2006), 31 March 2008<http://www.bchydro.comlnews/2006/mar/release43489.html>; ScottSimpson, “Electricity Gap Threatto B.C. Energy Future: Hydro Options Include Coal-firedPower Generation Plant,” The VancouverSun 30 March (2006).112“Province & BC Hydro Target Conservation in Public Sector,” BC Hydrofor Generations (BCHydro 19 Nov. 2007), 31 March 2008 <http://www.bchydro.comlnews/2007/nov/release54144.html>.4690,00090,00080,000 We currently estimate that BC’s electricity demand1will grow between 25 and 45 percent70,000 - 70,000over the next 20 years.60,00063.003:‘. 50,000S0,0001 40,00040,00030,00030,0002000020,00010,00010,0001965 1970 20052010 2015 2020 2025FcaI Year‘ar rdinq Mct, 011Fig 3.3 BC’s Electricity Gap from 1965 to 2025Note: Burrard Thermal Generating Station is an aging plant and inefficient by today’s standards.BC113Hydro is planning to replace the energy and capacity at Burrard Thermal.In Vancouver, lots of energy-saving actions have beentaken to reduce the electricaldemand of public lighting systems. These actions haveproved that design methodsand criteria of increased visibility maximize safety andsecurity without causing higherlevels of light or wasted power consumption. For instance, public lighting haschangedfrom incandescent and mercury lamps to high intensity discharge and fluorescentlamps over the years, contributing to energy consumption reduction. Theelectricityused for street lighting decreased by 24% from 1990 to1999 due to the evolution inlighting system technologies. Using this historical rateof improvement in efficiency, theCity is forecasting a further 29% decrease between 1999and2010.h14Furtherdecrease in energy consumption is currently being researched throughthe use of113BC Hydro, Challenges and Choices: Planning for a Secure ElectricityFuture (BC Hydro March,2006), 31 March 2008 <http://www.bchydro.comJrx_files/info/info43492.pdf.114The Climate-friendly City—A Corporate Climate Change Action Plan for the City of VancouverFop reIcls pfieedlia,e oil of 9Fararde page 91j1975 980 1985 1990 1995 2000(City of Vancouver, Apr. 2004) 23-4, 31 March 2008<http://vancouver.calsustainability/documents/corp_climatechangeAP- 1 .pdf>.47induction lamps, pulse-start metal halide lamps, light emitting diodes (LED),energy-efficient luminaries, and electronic ballasts for high intensity discharge lamps.Additionally, the City continues to monitor the lighting industry to take advantage ofimprovements in lighting technologies. Improvements in new design areas can resultin reduction of the amount of power required to light any given area. The EngineeringServices’ Electrical Design branch is currently researching the potential of enhancednew achievements in technology to continue to reduce the electrical demands of ourStreet, lane, and park lighting systems.1153.3.3 Economic sustainabilityOne of the most important aspects of economic sustainability is enhancing the touristindustry of Vancouver. In 2005, Vancouver was ranked among the top ten bestcities tovisit in the world in surveys done by Condé Nast Traveller magazines.116 BC Statsuses room revenue as the statistic that provides detailed geographicalbreakdownsrelated to the tourism sector. In 2007, room revenue for Greater Vancouver (MetroVancouver) was $784 million — 39.83% of the total room revenue throughoutB.C.;room revenue for downtown Vancouver was $475 million making it themost popularspecific destination within theProvince.H7Tourists come to the city for its heritageresources, the image of the city, arts, culture, architecture, conferences, and specialevents)8 Urban night lighting could help the city to present a welcoming appearanceas an additional attraction. A vibrant nightscape could increase the number of tourists.For instance, Shanghai, well known as “the Oriental Paris,” has developed avividnightscape along the HuangPu River, considered as a magnet for increasingthenumbers of tourists since 1992. Nowadays, tourist destinations often promote “cluster115Corporate Climate Change Action Plan:2004 Annual Report (City of Vancouver, 15 March 2005),31 March 2008 < 1 a-annual.pdf>.116A Guide to the BC Economy and Labour Market (BC Ministry of Advanced Education and BCStats 2006) 131, 31 March 2008 <>.117British Columbia Tourism Room Revenue by Region—Annual 2007 (BC StatsJune 2008) 2-5, 31March 2008 <’busstatIbusind/tourism/trra2007.pdf’.ISMartin Selby, Understanding urban tourism: image. culture and experience,(London; New York:I.B. Tauris; New York: In the U.S. and Canada, distributed by Palgrave Macmillan, 2004)12-24.48segments,” which means a mix of attributes of touristpreferences.119 Urban tourismas part of cultural tourism has been promoted as an approach toreducing traffic needsand to re-use old buildings.’2°Vancouver needs topromote its urban tourism industry,not only for overseas tourists, but also for thosefrom Canada and the US who mayfind it an alternative to distant destinations. By these means,Vancouver will prosper inits tourist industry, and will keep this industry sustainableby promoting “UrbanTourism.” Urban tourism has been defined as part ofsustainable tourism.3.3.4 Environmental sustainabilityVancouver’s NightscapePorteous states that vividly identified, powerfullystructured, highly useful mentalimages of the environment can be facilitated by shape, color, orarrangement. Theseimages of the environment help orientation,movement, and awareness of thelocation.121 The socio-cultural ambiance of a city alsoarises from its highly imaginablephysical form, so nowadays with increasing touristsand new residents, we are facingmore needs for cityscapes, landscapes, streetscapes, andnightscapes to assist themwith way finding.Hanyu states that the appearance of a placesignificantly evokes emotions orinferences about the significance or friendlinessof the place. Consequently, spatialand emotional interaction affects physical behaviour. A placeevoking a positive feelingmay attract individuals just by looking, to approach,stay or live there, while a placeevoking a negative feeling may lead to escape and avoidance.Thus, in environmentalpsychology, aesthetic aspects of the city havebeen a central concern.122 TheKevin Meethan, Tourism in Global Society: Place, Culture.Consumption (Basingstoke, Hampshire[UK]; New York: Palgrave, 2001) 72.120Christopher M. Law, Urban Tourism: the Visitor Economy and theGrowth of Large Cities(London;New York: Continuum, 2002) 69.121Cyril B Paumier, Creating a Vibrant City Center: Urban Design andRegeneration Principles(Washington, D.C.: Urban Land Institute, 2004) 49-65.122Kazunori Hanyu, “Visual Properties and Affective Appraisalsin Residential Areas after Dark,”Journal of Environmental Psychology 17 (1997) 301-3 15.49nightscape becomes an important asset to build a city’s aesthetic forms.Vancouver’sspectacular setting, its intimate and apparently happy cohabitation of nature andbuiltfabric, the tightly packed gleaming new condo towers downtown, thepublic waterfront,and the enlivened city skyline during daytime benefit the city in everyaspect.123 Butcompared with its day-time image, Vancouver somehow lacks a vibrantnightscape,including city nightlife and nocturnal illumination.After detailed site surveys of existing night lighting, I have found that thetypicalapplication in Vancouver means turning the interior lights on for exterior luminance,installing interior-function lights in exterior environments, and installingexterior lightingoften in a disorderly way. Vancouver’s nightscape of almost monochromaticandyellowish lighting fails to create beauty in our urban landscape,and is not energyefficient. Most downtown towers’ interior fluorescent lights give out lighttoward theexterior environment. The luminance from windows is limited and notefficient forpeople on the street. The more interior artificiallights are turned on, the moreelectricity is wasted.Vancouver’s standard street lamp is High Pressure Sodium (HPS). MostHighPressure Sodium lamps produce a noticeably yellow light. Since thistype of lighting isextensively used on Vancouver’s streets, the phenomenon causessome negativeeffects on city nightscapes, such as dull streetscapes, yellowish night images,and alack of legibility.Vancouver’s Emerging ActionsThe city of Vancouver has the intention to re-establish its nocturnal civicidentity in asmart, sustainable, logical, and accentuated order. Hosting the 2010Winter OlympicSport Games is a turning point for Vancouver similar to Expo 86.After decades ofurbanization, Vancouver’s urban structure/form begins to take shape in its uniqueresponses to light, climate and context, and so city decision makers areconsideringthe vibrancy and attraction of Vancouver’s nightscape. In terms offormulating thenocturnal atmosphere of the urban stage, these questions are alwaysintriguing: who123Berelowitz 1.50is Vancouver and what do we mean when we discuss Vancouver’scivic identity? Whatshould be displayed city wide to discover historically originalmeanings or to breathenew life into the city as the initial strategy to organize its nocturnal vision?Figure 3.4demonstrates Vancouver’s lighting initiatives. Thefour working initiatives includebuildings, heritage buildings; street, Granville Street; premises,Chinatown; and place,Olympic Village, in varying stages and conditions. The OlympicVillage will be a newlybuilt area on the waterfront of False Creek so its large-scalelighting design has beenproposed with the master plan of the athlete village in theoriginal site context as aresponse to the former “ship yard.” Granville Street’s lighting concept reflectsthe effectof the “Great White Way,” with supplemental pedestrian lighting.Light fixtures and thearray were published in January, 2008, by the City of Vancouver. Theilluminationproposals for Chinatown, especially for the re-introduction of historic, large-scaleneonsignage and for special heritage buildings in Vancouver are alsoin the policyimplementation stage.124Vancouver’s Emerging Actionsin Nocturnal IlluminationFig 3.4 Vancouver’s Emerging Actions in Nocturnal IlluminationOutdoor ActivitiesAfter a century of the urban design system dominated byautomobiles, lessons havebeen learned regarding its consequences for public health andthe resource crisis.Recent urban planning theories have been adopted to createpedestrian-friendly and124Information adopted from Scot Hem, senior city planner at the City ofVancouver.51bikeable neighbourhoods. In Vancouver, the urban environment needspedestrian-oriented streets and architectural illumination toprovide comfort andpleasure for safe, healthful, and enjoyable walking, bicycling, andhuman associations.Children after school, seniors, and those with disabilities, or thosewith companions orfamily members, as well as office workers after working hours, couldenjoy theiroutdoor activities via street and building illumination.3.3.5 Social sustainabilitySafety and SecurityAccording to a digital photograph showing the light captured by satellitein 2001,Vancouver’s urban light emission is one seventh that of Calgary. Vancouverperformswell in the control of its city light emissions, but Vancouver’s city streetshave similarfixtures and qualities as those in other cities in Canada. Such comparisonsreveal thatLight Emissions - Cities in Western North AmericaCatgar .32,100 kWhlkm2Edmonton - 28.500 EdmontonbPodland .8,790Seatft. -7.310Vancouver - 4,630Victoija - 2.350VictoriaVancouverCalgary1,Seattlei. PortlandFig 3.5 Satellite Photograph of Light Emission — Cities in Western North America, adopted.’25Vancouver’s urban light emissions are conservative and well-controlled.We do nothear complaints about outdoor lighting or discussion ofour urban nocturnalappearance, but we notice that in the near future we will nothave enough outdoornight lighting for the safety and security of ourcitizens, given that Vancouver will have125A satellite photograph shows the light over western Canada andthe United States in 2001. Lightemission intensity measured in kilowatt-hours per square kilometre (kwhlkm2), 31March, 2008<!CCA/City+HalJ/Business+Units/Roads/Street+Lights/Envirosmart+Street+Light+Retrofit+Progranthtm>.52to discontinue inefficient light bulbs by 2012. Forthe third biggest city in Canada,better planning and design to employ efficient lights and fixtures before2012 areurgent issues.I have taken digital pictures of Vancouver’s waterfront asshown in Figure 3.6.Compared with Figure 3.7, a manipulated picture that eliminateslighting produced byinefficient light fixtures and approaches, Figure 3.7 only shows a few lightpatchescreated by efficient LED lights. In reality, the inefficient light fixtures capturedin 3.6 willbe replaced by efficient outdoor lights, so that themanipulated picture 3.7 will neverappear. Nevertheless, switching light bulbs on old fixtures is not efficient either,andmay cause more energy waste. Mark S. Rea and John D.Bullough suggest a newmeasure of efficacy for lighting applications based upon both the lamp andtheluminaire rather than, as is usually the case, lamp efficacy.’26 A simulation projectatthe RVH will retrofit its outdoor decorative lighting from18-watt CFLs to energy-savingLEDs.Aging people’s needsThe average 55-year old needs twice as much light to see as well as a 25-yearold. Aswe age, the thickening and yellowing of the eye’s lenses decrease theamount of light126Mark S. Rea and John D. Bullough, “Application Efficacy,” Journal of the IlluminatingEngineering Society Vol. 30 No. 2 Summer (2001): 73-96.Fig 3.6 Digital Photography of Vancouver’s NightscapeFig 3.7 A Treated Picture without Inefficient Lighting53going into the eye. Further, the thickeninglens scatters light within the eye, causingmore glare for older eyes and a reduction in the contrastof the retinal image. As thepopulation ages, demand for more light, good lighting,and coloured light will continueto increase.127 Robert G. Davis andAntonio Garza find that elders prefer highluminance levels and coloured lights. They aremore comfortable with a blackbackground instead of a white one and also generallyfind non-uniform conditions tobe favourable.128 In 2005, anothersimilar study showed that the most importantvariable for color discrimination and preference isilluminance.129In Canada, the oldest of the baby boomers,the generation born from 1946 to 1965,have started to turn 60 years of age.More than 400,000 Canadian boomers,almost 1,100 a day, have had their 60th birthday since2006.130One out of sevenVancouverites is 65 years or older. Almost 40 per centof Vancouverites are 45 yearsor older. Because Vancouver has very shortwinter daylight periods, the city not onlyneeds to provide enough city street lighting foraging people to see infrastructure,buildings, signs, and public areas in the city at nighttime,but also to provide a healthy,emotionally warm, and well-lit environment for itsaging residents. Therefore, morelighting is required, and needs to be well-designed to preventglare. As the populationages, demand for lighting will continue toincrease.127Lighting for Tomorrow 2007 Year Book 4; Darcie A O’Connor,and Robert G Davis, “Lighting forthe Elderly: The Effects of Light Source Spectrum andIlluminance on Color Discrimination andPreference,” LEUKOS Vol. 2 No. 2 October (2005): 123-132.128Robert G. Davis and Antonio Garza, “Task Lighting for theElderly,” Journal of the IlluminatingEngineering Society Vol. 31 No. 2 Winter (2002): 25.129O’Connor and Davis 123-132.130Statistics Canada, “Canada’s population by age and sex - as ofJuly 1, 2006,” The Daily Thursday,Oct. 26 (2006), 3lMarch, 2008 <>.54Tab 3.1 Age Characteristics ofthe Population in Vancouver and BritishColumbia by 2001 and 2006Census3’Vancouver, CityBritish ColumbiaAge Characteristics2001 to 20062001 to 2006of the Population 2001 2006 population 20012006populationchange (%)change (%)Total -All persons 545,670 578,0405.9 3,907,740 4,113,4855.3Age 45-64 128,040148,920 16.3 979,4551,169,270 19.4Age 65-84 60,96565,420 7.3 473,055523,755 10.7Age 85 and over 9,370 10,57012.8 60,030 76,04526.7Age 45 and over 198,375224,910 13.4 1,512,5401,769,070 17% of the population36.4 38.9 38.743ages_45_and overSAD in British ColumbiaInappropriate lighting at the wrongmoments can have a negativeeffect on our health,as does darkness.Lighting, including day lightingand night lighting has visual,biological, and emotional effectson human beings. Recent researchin photobiologyhas revealed linksbetween light and human health thatare likely to have a significanteffect on lightingpractice. Scientific studieshave found that maximumvisualsensitivity lies in the yellow-greenwavelength region, and themaximum biologicalsensitivity lies in the blue regionof the spectrum.132 It is widelyconsidered that lighttherapy is an effective treatmentfor the clinical condition known asseasonal affectivedisorder (SAD). Vancouver hasvery limited daylighthours from October to March.About 3% of British Columbians,120,000 people, sufferfrom clinical depression thatusually traps patients into a “dark,miserable vortex” in thefall and clears on its owneach spring. Dr. RaymondLam, director of the MoodDisorders Clinic at UBC,emphasizes that thehuman biological clock isstrongly affected by light, sleep,andactivity. Light therapy hasevolved over time into hand-held,cheaper, andenergy-saving LED “Lite books”providing blue light, a spectrumof light found to bemore therapeutically effective.For some, the strongest effectrequires exposure toartificial bright light for an hourduring the long winter.In addition, night time outdoor131Statistics Canada132Wont van Bommel, “Visual, Biological andEmotional Aspects of Lighting: RecentNew Findingsand their Meaning for Lighting Practice”LEUKOS Vol. 2 No. 1 July (2005):9.55activities are encouraged.133Tab 3.2 By Month, Vancouver’s Sunlight Hours, Daylight Hours and Extreme Daily’34Month Total Hours Days with % of possible ExtremeDatemeasureable (hours) daylight hours Daily (yyyy/dd)Jan 60.4 17.5 22.4 9.1 1996/30Feb 84.6 19.2 29.6 10.5 1996/29Mar 134.1 24.6 36.5 11.81998/28Apr 182.4 26.6 44.4 14.1 1989/30May 230.7 28.5 48.7 151993/24+Jun 229.1 27.8 47.3 15.7 1989/23Jul 294.5 29.3 60.2 15.4 1996/07Aug 267.9 29.4 60 14.7 1987/02Sep 199.1 27.5 52.5 13 1972/01Oct 124.8 23.6 37.2 10.5 1971/16+Nov 64.3 18.3 23.4 9.4 1995/0 1Dec 56.1 16.1 21.8 8.1 1972/07Vancouver’s EnjoyabilityFrom the annual reports of the Mercer Quality of Living Survey and TheEconomist’sWorld’s Most Livable Cities, Vancouver is announced as one of the most livablecitiesin the world. Promoting its livability and enhancing the social and environmentaladmiration of Vancouvers downtown by creating a livable, walkable,sustainableneighbourhood which contributes to the well being of residents andvisitors is a priority.Beyond livability, inhabitants search for enjoyable areas in the city for fun and foroutdoor/indoor activities. Vancouver is a relatively young city in the midst of urbandevelopment, so it may have unknown potential for more investment andenjoyability133Society for Light Treatment and Biological Rhythms, 31 March 2008 officialwebsite:<>.134Environment Canada’s World Wide Web Site, 31 March 2008<>.56of leisure activity. Vancouver’s nightscape needs to be organized in a more attractive,vibrant and energy-efficient way to celebrate its unique natural, social, and historicalcontexts. In the waterfront areas of the downtown core, enjoyability is not only whatpeople want and appreciate, but also a characteristic of new urbanism and modernism.I call the night urban enjoyment as “Night Vancouverism.”3.3.6 Sports sustainabilityWinter Olympic Games2010 will be a very important year for Vancouver, because it will host 17 days ofOlympic Games events from February 12th to 28th and 10 days of Paralympic GamesEvents from March 12th to 21st.135 Vancouver is preparing to welcome the world andthe world’s best winter athletes in 2010 and ready to deliver spectacular Gameswhenthe world arrives.136 Vancouver could learn from the previous host city of the 2006Winter Olympic Games, Torino, Italy.Torino opened its doors to athletes, journalists, and the public, showcasing its city’sappearance to the whole world and welcoming 800,000 foreign tourists. Saturday, 11February and Saturday, 26 February, 2006 were called “The White Nights”.137Hosting an international Game will bring Vancouver to the world stage. Not only thenatural beauties of Vancouver and Whistler, but also its appearance and tourist resortswill become eye-catching locations for the world. Most of Vancouver’s hospitalitybuildings are located in downtown area, especially, at the waterfront facing the BurrardInlet. Because of Vancouver’s short daytime hours during the Games, enrichednighttime activities and enjoyment for visitors and inhabitants, while achievingenvironmental sustainability, will be the challenge for Vancouverites preparingfor andhosting the Games.135Vancouver’s Olympic official Website, 31 March 2008<http://www.vancouver2olo.comlen>136Vancouver Organizing Committee, Vancouver 2010 Progress Report, Presented to theInternationalOlympic Committee 119th Session July 2007, Guatemala City: 2, 10 July 2008<http://www.vancouver20 1’s official Olympic Website, 31 March 2008 <>.57Chapter 4:The First Transformative Lighting Strategy584.1 Chosen Site - Renaissance Vancouver HotelThe Renaissance Vancouver Hotel (RVH), is a 3-star hotellocated in downtownVancouver. It has 19 stories, includes 429 rooms and 8 suites, and isover 30 years old.The RVH’s façades are composed of modern post-and-beamstructure infilled withrectangular glazed windows and glazed balconies. In1987, architect Bing Thomdesigned the exterior lighting for this building, then called the NewWorld Hotel. TheRVH has beige-coloured stucco wall finishing, while adjacentbuildings are black. Inorder to make the hotel stand out from its black background atnighttime, the architectused outdoor decorative lighting to give the hotel awelcoming attitude and attractivequalities. According to the statement of CarlCorrigan, Director of the EngineeringDepartment of the RVH, in summer the lightingoperation runs from 9:30 pm to 1:00am for a total of 3.5 hours in one night; in the winter, theoperation runs from 4:30 pmto 1:00 am for a total of 8.5 hours in one night.The RVH’s outdoor decorative lights were changedrecently from 60W incandescentlights to 18W CFLs giving out static warm yellowishlight. The building currently has astatic CFL lighting array of 194 18-watt bulbs on its façadesand 120 18-watt bulbs onits circular top structure. There are 110 CFLson the rear façade, and 84 CFL5 on thefront. This lighting array consumes approximately12364 KW hours of energy per yearat a cost of $556 per annum at B.C. Hydro’s current commercialrate, 4.5X per KWH,which is lower than most electricity rates in Canada and the United States)This 18Woutdoor CFL bulb with a capsule-style shapeis ideal for use in weather-protectedoutdoor fixtures.139 Strictly speaking, the building façadesand the rooftop of the RVHare not qualified as weather-protected becausethe light bulbs are exposed. Theseconditions will shorten CFLs useful lifetime considerably.Photocells and timers havebeen used to control this outdoor decorativelighting. The whole outdoor lighting has138Calculation by author based on data from the RVH’s engineeringdepartment.139Product specification of Philips Marathon’s 18W outdoor CFLbulb, refer to appendix I.59no festival functionand no colour or patternchange at differenttimes. The electricitycosts for the entirehotel operation are $20,000per month. The RVHis willing to takemore energy-savingactions in a doableand sustainable matter.14°The RVH directorprovided informationon the existing exteriorlighting, the lightingcontrol system, environmentalconcerns, and futureplans. This informationwas thenincorporated into AutoCADdrawings for illustrativeand project designpurposes.Through site surveysand Google Mapsof the RVH, I havefound that its flat rooftopcan be adaptedfor photovoltaic cellpanels to produceelectricity becausetherectangular rooftopgets very little shadeon a yearly basisand so the panelswouldcause the lowest degreeof disruption.Because I will beworking with threetransformative lightingstrategies, the RVHwill provide a platform forthe discussion ofthe feasibility ofthose strategies and therange of electricityreduction achievementsproposed.4.2 Lighting TransformationCase Study4.2.1 The Shaw TowerIn my chosenwaterfront site, the architecturewith the most “stunning”141andenergy-efficient LEDlighting is the ShawTower, a 40-storeyoffice/condominiumtowerdeveloped by WestbankProjects Corp. It isone of the tallest buildingsin Vancouver,located in the CoalHarbour district of downtown.The building,completed near theend of 2004, incorporatesamenities such asa fitness centre, daycare,and 5 levels ofunderground parking withseparate entrancesfor Shaw company employees,the140Date from Mr. CarlCorrigan, Director of the EngineeringDepartment of the RVH.141Trevor Boddy, a local architecturecritic, issued his seal ofapproval in the springof 2005, callingthe Shaw Tower “stunning,”cited from “LightingVancouver’s Newest Landmark,”The Globe & Mail— July 15 (2005), 31 March2008<http://www.jeffinacintyre.comlarchives/2005/07/diana_thater_globe_mail.htm>.60residential units, and public areas of the building.142 The building incorporatesanautomation control system for mechanical equipment as well as lighting systems, asdesigned by Nemetz (S/A) & Associates Ltd.143 The outstandingnight illumination ofthe Shaw Tower, a LED light-tube art installation extending alongthe entire height ofthe building, was designed by Los Angeles-based artist Diane Thater.144Her artisticworks and lighting-featured architecture have been showcased around theworld, butthe Shaw Tower is her first public art work.145The LED lighting of the Shaw Tower is a flagship design, apathbreaker for the wholeurban nightscape in Vancouver’s downtown waterfront core. Thelights are computerprogrammed to dissolve into a seamless spectrum — green tocyan to blue — up theface of the building, to the rooftop, which is crowned by a beaconof moonlight blue.146The innovative technology, 4896 LED lamps, called DestinyDL,147 requiring only 8kilowatts of power, is provided by Vancouver-based TIR Systems.There are 12 lampsper foot: 4 red, 4 green, and 4 blue. Via mixing intensities of thered, green, and blue(RGB) spectrum, 1.6 million colours can be availablefor any artistic creation.’48142“Shaw Tower,” Westbank official website, 31 March 2008< 9>.“Shaw Tower,” Project Files, Bridge Electric Corp. official website, 31March2008<>; “Shaw Tower,”Mixed Use Proiects,Nemetz (S/A) & Associates Ltd. 31 March 2008 <>.Diane Thater was born in 1962, in San Francisco, California, U.S.A., andnow living and workingin Los Angeles.Wikipedia, “Diana Thater,” 31 March 2008 <>.146Ian Chodikoff, “A Full Deck,” Canadian Architect Aug. (2006), 31 March2008< 77935&story_idl 646521 20909&issue0801 2006&PC=>.“TIR Systems’ Destiny DL, 31 March 2008<http://www.tirsys.comlproducts/architectural/destiny-dl.htm>; “Destiny DL”Philps Sense andSimplicity (Philips Lighting), 10 July 2008<>.148“Lighting Vancouver’s Newest Landmark,” The Globe & Mail — Seven — July15 (2005), 31 March2008 <http://www.jeffmacintyre.comlarchives/2005/07/dianajhaterglobe_mail.htm>.61Studying thechosen site and Shaw Tower’ssuccessful outdoor lightingapplications inVancouver’s urbancontext and lighting designtheories have helped meto formulatemy transformative projectin LED lighting design forVancouver’s waterfront.62Fig 4.1 The Shaw Tower’s Night Lighting634.2.2 CanadaPlaceLocated onthe waterfrontof the BurrardInlet, Canada Placeis one of the mostinteresting andunique architecturallandmarks inVancouver. CanadaPlaceCorporationhas reduced by40 percent theelectricity consumptionof its outdoorlighting (comparedwith the electricityfor lighting designedin the 1990s) byintroducinghigh performancecolour-changingLEDs with helpfrom IllumivisionInc., based inEdmonton, Alberta.Its featured products,called illumivisionLED Light WaveLX, havebeen speciallyembedded in glassballs. These glassballs have beentitted withstinging hair todiscourage seagulls.The LED lightsof the iconic sailsuse merely alittle more powerthan two hairdryers.This symbolic lightinggesture, combinedwith itsenergy conservation,will support andencourage energyconservation. Theinterestingthing is that thelighting designerof Canada Placeis the CanadaPlace Corporation,149because normallya professionaldesigner will behired for such aproject.4.3 The FirstTransformative LightingStrategy4.3.1 IntroductionThe decorativearrangementof existing lightingon the top roundstructure, front façade,and rear façadeof the RVH wasdesigned byVancouver’s BingTom architecturefirmin 1987.Recently, 18-wattoutdoor CFLshave replacedthe former 60wattincandescent lightbulbs for increasedenergy efficiencyand reducedmaintenance‘“Canada Place,”Illumivision (Edmonton:Illumivision Inc.),3 lMarch 2008<http ://www.illumivision.comlshowcase/Canada_Place>.150“Canada Place,” (IllumivisionInc.) n.pag.Fig 4.2 CanadaPlace’s Night Lighting,adapted by author(left 2) and includingpublished images (right3)15064costs. This study provides a further means of reducing energy and maintenancecoststhrough the replacement of the current CFL lighting system with updated LEDlightproducts providing either singular warm white light or RGB-mixed white light.TheRGB-mixed LEDs can provide both white colour, with full intensities of all colouredLED chips, and different colours. In this chapter, I adopt the former condition,RGB-mixed LEDs to provide white colour, for energy calculation purposes.4.3.2 LED Lighting Product SelectionWhat kinds of LEDs should be chosen for the RVH’s building illumination? Basically,the effects of the colour of the lighting, and the appearance of the fixtures, impactsonsurroundings, and energy usage should be taken into consideration.151In thisresearch, the selected lights are technically-proven, market-ready, and brandedproducts. CFLs branded “Marathon” and LEDs branded “Philips Color Kinetics”and“LightWild” will be used for standardization purposes of this study. MarathoninMexico and Philips Color Kinetics in the USA are both under the umbrella ofPhilipsLighting, an internationally-known electrical company with its lighting productssold andreadily available throughout the world. LightVvild is an Overland Park, Kansasmanufacturer producing software-controlled solid-state LED productsfor thearchitectural lighting market. The local exclusive BC distributor and representativeofPhilips Color Kinetics and LightWild is CDM2lightworks, a full service lightingcompany151The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CLBSE), “Environmental Considerationsfor Exterior Lighting.” Factfiles, Society of Light & Lighting. No.7 Nov.(1998, updated 2003) 1-2,31March 2008 <>.Fig 4.3 The RVH’s Night Lighting Fixtures and Effects65based in Vancouver. The following calculationsare based on the lightingmanufacturer’s specifications of the chosen lights andthe expert knowledge of a localexclusive supplier.1524.3.3 Retrofit of Lighting on the Rooftop of the RVHThis structure sitting atop the Renaissance VancouverHotel (RVH) is a round,glass-sided architectural crown functioning as a restaurantand bar that offerspanoramic views of Vancouver’s downtown waterfront.The diameter of this crown isabout 1050 feet and the perimeter is about 3,300inches. The length of each LEDstring is about 200 inches, so via calculation and adjustment,replacing the existing18-watt CFL5 will require 16 strands of linear LEDs.Table 4.1 lists basic features ofexisting CFL5, proposed white LEDs, and proposedRGB-mixed LEDs.Tab 4.1 Comparison of Features of the CFLs and LEDs on theRooftopLights Name Quantity Unit priceElectricity Lifespan($) (KWH)(Hours)Existing 18W CFLs 12012 0.018 10,000Yellowish CFLsProposed eW Flex SLX 16 7500.050* 50,000***WarmWhite LEDsProposed iColor Flex SLX 165500.050* 30,000***RGB-mixed LEDsMaximum Power Consumption, which means au LEDs composedof LED lamps are lit up in fullintensity.**:The lifespan of outdoor 1 8-watt CFLs is basedon product specifications in the market.***:Philips Color Kinetics rates product lifetimes using lumendepreciation to 50% of original lightoutput. When the LED manufacturers’ test data in terms of thelifetime it is in a range, thecalculation of this research is taken at the lowest one.152Kris Chemenkoff from Bernard & Associates.66From the table above, among all three lights, CFLs have the shortest lifespan with thecheapest cost, but more light bulbs would be needed to achieve the decorative lightingeffect on top of the RVH. White LED5 are the most expensive light product with thelongest lifespan. RGB-mixed LEDs are the intermediate products in price and lifespan.There are 120 CFL bulbs installed on the rooftop circular wall. According to the LEDlighting retrofit proposal, the total LED cost would be $12,000 ($750X16=$12,000)onwhite LED strands or $8,800 ($550x16=$8,800) on RGB-mixed LED strands. Ateachunit length of every CFL, white LED strands cost $100, while coloured LED strandscost $73.33. We see CFLs are more competitive than LEDs only from the unit costcolumn in Table 4.1. However, white LEDs will last 5 times longer than CFL5, andRGB-mixed LED5 will last 3 times as long. When LED5’ prices of each length unit aredivided by 5 or 3 (times of CFL lifetime), a white LED strand only costs $20 and anRGB-mixed LED strand costs $ 24.45 compared to each unit length of every CFL intheir first 10,000 hours, which is a CFL lifetime. From this analysis and calculation,wecan see that white LED5 at each unit length of every CFL cost only $8 more thaneveryCFL for the same time period of a CFL lifetime. However, if we use a whiteLED lamplifetime, 50,000 hours to calculate, CFLs will need replacement 4 times while a whiteLED lamp will not need it at all. Table 3.2 compares CFLs with LEDs in both electricityand total cost. The maintenance cost of CFLs has been calculated and demonstratedsince the long lifetime of LED lights is critical to their applications to buildingillumination.Fig 4.4 Proposed LED lights: eW Flex SLX and iColor Flex SLX from Philips Color Kinetics674.3.4 Total Cost of Lighting on theRooftop of the RVHThe total cost of lights is the totalamount of product cost, electricity cost,andmaintenance cost. In 50,000 hours,if using 18-watt outdoor CFLs, without anyincidentdamage, ideally and theoretically,and with these light bulbs lasting10,000 hours, thecost will be 5 times that of theinitial product purchase. Because lightson the rooftop ofthe RVH can be easily changed,the replacement for each light bulbwill cost$7153Atpresent, B.C.Hydro’s electricityrate for a commercial building is4.5 per KWHalthough B.C. Hydro has announcedthat the electricity rate will be raised25 per centin 3 years. LEDs with a 50,000 hourlifetime do not need replacement untilthe end oftheir life span. In the same manner,RGB-mixed LEDs with a 30,000hour lifetime willneed replacement at a rate of 5/3.Due to the complexity ofelectrical products and utilization,all electrical lights needpreliminary and regular maintenanceon a daily or weekly basis. Thereare so manyuncertain factors impacting themaintenance costs that this researchhas adopted themaintenance cost on the basis ofreplacing all lights when they haverun their ideallifetime, as claimed by manufacturers.Eighteen-watt outdoor CFLsneed 4replacements to reach the 50,000hour calculation time. White LEDs donot needreplacement to reach 50,000 hoursbecause of their long lifetime. Inthe same manner,coloured LEDs need one replacement tolast another 30,000 hours; for 50,000hours,the replacement cost is 2/3 of onefull cost. The cost of replacing existingCFLs in50,000 hours will be higherthan the cost of RGB-mixed LEDsand white LEDs. Thetotal cost of RGB-mixed LEDs over50,000 hours is the highest one followed bythat ofCFLs’ cost, and then thatof white LED5, while the existingCFL5 arrangementconsumes the largest amountof electricity, 108,000 KWH in 50,000hours.‘estimate by a local supplier, Kris Chemenkofffrom Bernard & Associates.68Tab 4.2 Electricity Consumption and Total Cost ofthe CFLs and LEDs on the RooftopNote: Electricity consumption and electricity cost are for 80,000hours.*:At 4.5 per KWH of B.C. Hydro current commercial rate**:Maintenance cost: Replacing a lamp at $7.00/bulb, replacing120replacing 16 LED strands costs $1124.3.5 Retrofit of Lighting on the Façades of the RVHThe experimental design of the RVH is to retrofit theexisting 18-watt CFLs with theproposed white LEDs and RGB-mixed LEDsin each mounting point of the existinglighting array. Table 3.3 lists basic features of existingCFLs, and the proposed whiteand RGB-mixed LEDs, LW-UP-18-1C and LW-UP-i9-iC from LightWild.Name Product Cost Electricity ElectricityMaintenance Total($) Consumption(KWH)Cost*($)Cost($)**Cost($)18WCFLs 1440x5=7200 1080004860 840x43360 15420eWF1exSLX 12000 40000 1800 013800iColor Flex SLX 8800x5/3=14667 40000 1800112x2/375 16542CFL5 costs $840 andTotal Cost•Product Cost•Electricity CostFig 4.5 The Total Cost of the CFLs and LEDs on the Rooftop69337525- —z//////I__j\//O3//f/‘:tt:Fig 4.6 Proposed LED lights: LW-UP- 18-IC and LW-UP-19-iC, adopted from LightWildTab 4.3 Comparison of Features of theCFLs and LEDs on the Façades of the RVHLights Name QuantityUnit Price Electricity Lifespan______________Rear/front ($) (KWH)(Hours)Existing18WCFLs 110/84 12 0.01810,000**Yellowish CFLsProposedLW-UP-18-1C 110/84 1050.002* 50,000***WarmWhite LEDsProposedLW-UP-19-1C 110/84 1050.002* 50,000***RGB-mixed LEDsMaximum Power Consumption, wflich meansall LEDs composed of the LED lamp are lit up.**:The lifespan of outdoor 18-watt CFLs isbased on product specifications in the market, seeAppendix I.***;LightWild rates product lifetimes using lumen depreciation to 50%of original light output. Whenthe LED manufacturers’ test data in termsof the lifetime it is in a range, the calculation ofthisresearch is taken at the lowest one.From the table above, among all threelights, CFLs have the shortest lifespan and thecheapest cost. The warm white andRGB-mixed LED5 from LightWild are moreexpensive but also more durable. Thefollowing compares CFL5 with LED5 in bothCircular HousingFNoLW-LJ-5-!C70electricity consumption and total cost. The calculation time of 50,000 hours conformsto the life time of chosen LEDs.4.3.6 Total Cost of Lighting on the Façades of the RVHThe total cost of lights on the building façades of the RVH in 50,000 hours, if using 18watt outdoor CFLs, without any incident damage, ideally and theoretically, with lightbulbs that last 10,000 hours, is $52,137, including the costs of four replacements,50,000 hour electricity consumption, and a total of 5 product purchases. Becauselights on the RVH’s façades cannot be easily changed, the replacement of lights willrequire a crew of two for 2 3 days with special equipment to replace the 110 CFL lightson the rear façade and the 84 CFL lights on the front façade. One time replacementofall 194 CFL lights will cost $8,160 over the CFL5’ lifetime, equivalent to 10,000 hours,which means more than 4.5 years at current operation time of the RVH’s nightlighting,2,196 hours per year. Theoritically, over their 50,000 hour lifetime, LEDs will not incurmaintenance costs. An assumption of this research is that the generalelectricalmaintenance for CFLs and LEDs is equal (even though CFLs require moremaintenance), so general maintenance will not count in the cost comparison. Actually,the cost of replacement in 10,000 hours, $8,160, is very low, if we considerthereplacement will only happen every 4.5 years.Tab 4.4 Electricity Consumption and Total Cost of the CFLs and LEDs on the RVH’s FaçadesNameProduct Cost Electricity Electricity Maintenance Total Cost($)Consumption (KWH)Cost*($)Cost($)**($)Electricity Consumption and Total Cost of the CFLs and LED5 on the Rear Façade18WCFLs 1320x5=6600 99000 4455 4080x416320 27375LW-UP-19-1C11550 11000 495 012045(WarmWhite)LW-UP-19-1C11550 11000 495 0 12045(RGB)Electricity Consumption and Total Cost of the CFLs and LEDs on the Front Façade18WCFLs1008x5=5040 75600 3402 4080x416320 24762LW-UP-19-1C8820 8400 378 0 9198(WarmWhite)LW-UP-19-1C8820 8400 378 0 9198(RGB)Note: Electricity consumption and electricity cost are for 50,000 hours.*:At 4.50 per KWH of B.C. Hydro’s current rate71**:Maintenance cost: the estimated time of replacing light fixtures on a façade of the RVHis 24hours and two electricians. An electrician costs at approximately $35.00/hour.The labour cost ofreplacement is equal to 2x35x24=$1680. Miscellaneous equipmentrental is about $800.00/day;therefore, the equipment rental of replacing light fixtures on a façadeof the RVH costs $2400.00(Equipment rental day based on 8 hours)30000I2500020000Total Cost150001000050000Fig 4.7 The Total Cost of the CFLs and LEDs on the FaçadesThe average replacement cost every year is about $1,800,which is $8,160 divided by4.5 years. The amount is much lower than theone-month salary for hiring anelectrician would be. However, in the long run, 50,000hours, LEDs do not needreplacement, but CFL5 need replacement 4 times on the building façade,which makeCFLs’ maintenance cost $32,640, 63 per cent of CFLs’total cost.The total cost of existing CFL5 for 50,000 operatinghours is the highest, 2.5 times ofthe total cost of proposed LEDs. The electricityconsumption of existing CFL5 in50,000 operation hours is 174,600 KWH, 9 times theelectricity consumption ofproposed LEDs.Tab 4.5 Electricity Consumption and Total Cost of the CFLs and LEDson the RVH’s FaçadesNameElectricity Consumption (KWH) Total Cost ($)18WCFLs174600 52137LW-UP-19-1C(WarmWhite)19400 21243LW-UP-19-1C(RGB)19400 2124318W CFLs Warm White LED5 Coloured LEDs•Product Cost ($) Electricity Cost•Maintenance Cost72Electricity Consumption (KV,1i)Total Cost ($)•18WCFLsLW—UP—18—1C— LWUP—19—1CFig 4.8 The Electricity Consumption and Total Cost ofthe CFLs and LEDs on the Façades4.4 Conclusion40353025Years20151050Fig 4.9 What 50,000 Hours Means in Practical TermsMost LED lights can provideat least 50,000 hours ofuseful lifetime before theygradually degrade below 70% of their initiallight output. This lifetime exceeds that ofmost conventional lamps. Asshown in Figure 4.9, LED5 can lasttwo decades,024 12 86 4Hours on Per Day73operating 6 hours per day, which is almost equal to the average operation timeof theRVH’s building illumination.In 50,000 hours, retrofit from 18W CFLs to white LEDs on the top and façadesof theRVH will save $32,514 on the total amount of light fixtures, electricity costsandmaintenance costs, which is 48 per cent of CFLs’ total cost. Furthermore, changingCFL electricity-saving bulbs to LEDs will save at least 223,200KW over 50,000 hours,which is equivalent to more than 79 per cent of the CFLs’ electricity consumption.Tab 4.6 Electricity Consumption and Total Cost of the CFLs and LEDson the Top and FaçadesLighting arrangementElectricity Consumption (KWH)Total Cost ($)Existing Yellowish CFLs282600 67557Proposed WarmWhite LEDs59400 35043Proposed RGB-mixed LEDs59400 37785Note: Electricity and total cost are for 50,000 hours.Fig 4.10RooftopThe Electricity Consumption and Total Cost of the CFLs and LEDs on the FaçadesandSuperficially, based on unit prices of LED lamps and CFL5, LEDproducts appear veryexpensive. Nowadays, consumers have expressedtheir reservations aboutpurchasing LEDs because of their high prices. Since LEDlights cannot be purchased0Electricity Consumption (KWH)Total Cost(S)— Existing Yellowish CFLs Proposed WarmWhite LED5 — Proposed RGB-mixed LEDs74from the general lighting market now, mostof their unit prices are not clear to endusers. Table 4.7 lists features of three similar RGB LEDfixtures. Two prices are fromcompanies in North America, and another price is fromZhongshan Margin Lighting Co.,Ltd. in China. The price of the Lightwild Pixel LW-UP-19-1Cis $105 and is 48 timeshigher than the price of the LED lamp ofthe Margin Lighting, and $33.75more than the price at SailorSams Company. However,Lightwild Pixel’s price is for thewhole fixture, including the 120 VACadapter. It seems that price difference comesfrom manufacturer countries, brand products, and sellingmethods.It is understandable that each product’s price consistsof advertisement, product cost,import duties, transportation expenses,manpower, and commercial profit. In thispresent-day lighting industry of LEDlighting, Cree155 and Osram156 are leadingmanufacturers in producing and inventinghigh-end and high-efficiency LED chips andmodules, and their products are sold in the internationalmarket. Consequently, localand international manufacturers aredesigning their light fixtures andassemble/customize LED chips to make differentLED lamps for marketing. CREE has154Data provided by Joe from Zhongshan Margin Lighting Co.,Ltd.155Cree Inc. is a Durham, North Carolina based, American corporationwhich manufacturessemiconductor materials and devices. It was formed in 1987,31 March, 2008 <>.156Osram is one of the two largest lighting manufacturers inthe world, founded in year 1906. Thisinternational company, with its headquarters in Munich, Germany,31 March, 2008<!>.75retrofitted its indoor and outdoor workplace to LED lamps and allLED light fixtureshave been provided by other light fixture manufacturers, evenwhen they use CREELED chips or modules.157 LED lighting is a new industry, so there is potential foritsbusinesses and products to develop. Therefore, before 2012,when the governmentbans inefficient lighting in Canada, local manufacturers need to beready to supplylocal LED lighting markets and applications, which can be consideredas one aspect ofsustainable development in terms of reducing transportationand developing localproducts.Tab 4.7 Comparison of Prices of Warm-white LED Light Fixture157Date from Cree’s Ledworkplace website, 31 March 2008 <>.76Chapter 5:The Second Transformative Lighting Strategy775.1 IntroductionMy first transformativelighting strategy, using LEDs toretrofit CFL5 of the RVH’sbuilding illumination, achieved79 per cent in electricitysavings and 48 per centofmonetary savings, accordingto my calculations. My secondtransformative lightingstrategy optimizesthe yearly programmingof the LED building illuminationon theRVH in accordance withseasonal or annual themes, inorder to save more energy,demonstrate architectural creativityvia versatile LED lightingpatterns, and to managesystematically the unstablegeneration of renewableenergy.Of the 52 weeks of theyear I set weekday nightsfrom Monday to Thursdayandweekend nights fromFriday to Sunday, or a totalof 208 weekday nights and156weekend nights. Since theRVH is in the hospitalityindustry, its operationaltime is7-days a week and24-hours a day. Consequently,the hospitality business seeks toattract more customers tospend holidays andweekends on its premisesin the interestof financial feasibility. TheRVH can strengthen its identityand attraction throughitsoutdoor, vibrant holidaynight lighting. In addition,every year, Vancouver hostssomespecial festivals and eventsto facilitate its touristindustry. Those nights occurringduring the periodof festivals and events will beoccasions for applyingfestivenocturnal illumination.For instance, in 2008, andwith special considerationfor the RVH, there willbe in myestimation 64 weekdaynights, 45 weekend nightsand 12 festival and eventnights inthe 4 months of winter;there will be 67 weekdaynights, 43 weekend nightsand 12festival and event nightsin the 4 months ofspring-fall; and there will be 66weekdaynights, 48 weekend nightsand 9 festival andevent nights in the 4 monthsof summer.The operating time for everysummer night will be 3.5hours, and for every winternight,8.5 hours based on theRVH’s current operatinghours; the operating timefor everyspring-fall night will be 6hours, an averageof the summer and winteroperating hours.78Tab 5.1 2008: Seasonal Time Frequency TableMonth Hours in Weekday Weekend Festival andRVH’s event Daysoperation nights nights event night nightsWmter Jan 85 hours 18 111 1 31Feb 15 12 1 1,29Nov 15 1.3 1 130Dee 16 9 42 31Spring-Fall Mar 6 hours 16 11 3 131Apr 17 10 1 2 30Sep 17 11 11 30Oct 17 11 21 31Summer May 3.5 hours 16 13 11 31Jun 17 11 2 30Jul 18 11 11 31Aug 15 13 12 31Total 197 136 17 1636664/67/66 45/43/48 7/7/35/5/65.2 The Second Transformative Lighting Strategy5.2.1 LEDs’ Maximum Electricity ConsumptionThe experimental LED lighting design of the RVH’sbuilding illumination adoptsLightwild’s Pixel LW-UP-19-1C on the buildingfaçades andPhilips Color Kinetics’iColor Flex SLX on the rooftop. According to the manufacture’sspecifications, themaximum power consumption of these two LEDlights is 2 watts and 50 wattsrespectively.Maximum power consumption for each summer nightis:(2Wx 110+ 2Wx84 ÷ 5OWx 16)x3.5H/1000 = 4.158KWHMaximum power consumption for each spring-fall night is:(2Wx 110+ 2Wx84 ÷ 5OWx 16)x6H/1000 7.128KWHMaximum power consumption for each winter night is:(2WxllO+2Wx84+50Wx16)x8.5H/1000=10.098 KWH795.2.2 LEDs’ Electricity Consumption on Weekend NightsFig 5.1 The LED Forms of Lightwild Pixel LW-UP-19-1C and Philips Color Kinetics’ iColor Flex SLXLightwild’s Pixel LW-UP-19-1C andPhilips ColorKinetics’ iColor Flex SLX arecomposed of red, green, and blue LED chips. Almost everycolour consumes 1/3 ofthe electricity at maximum power. On weekend nights, the LED lighting programmainly adopts colour changes from the blue to green spectrum.Even whenhomochromatic LEDs are at full intensity, the electricity consumptionis only 1/3 ofmaximum power consumption:1/3 of maximum power consumption for each summer night is:1/3x4.158 KWH = 1.386 KWH1/3 of maximum power consumption for each spring-fall night is:1/3x7.128KWH 2.376 KWH1/3 of maximum power consumption for each winter night is:1/3 x 1O.O98KWH = 3.366 KWH5.2.3 LEDs’ Electricity Consumption on Weekday Nights:In my experimental design, a dimming pattern on weekday nights hasbeen adopted tosave energy consumption without ever reducing the whole illumination effect.Theelectricity consumption on weekday nightsis 72.4 per cent of the electricityconsumption of weekend nights.80Tab 5.2 The Percentage of Dimmed Illuminance on RVH’s RearBuilding Façade1 2 3 4 5 6 7 81 0.80 0.85 0.9 0.9 0.95 1 112 0.80 0.80 0.85 0.9 0.9 0.95 113 0.75 0.80 0.80 0.85 0.9 0.9 0.9514 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.80 0.85 0.9 0.9 0.955 0.70 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.80 0.85 0.90.96 0.65 0.70 0.70 0.75 0.800.80 0.85 0.97 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.800.858 0.60 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.70 0.75 0.800.809 0.55 0.60 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.70 0.750.8010 0.5 0.55 0.60 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.700.7511 0.5 0.5 0.55 0.60 0.60 0.65 0.700.7012 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.55 0.60 0.60 0.65 0.7013 0.5 0.5 0.55 0.60 0.600.6514 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.55 0.60 0.6015 0.5 0.57.65 8 9.9 10.3 10.25 10.75 11.2 11.6How much percentage of normal illumination does the dimmingpattern consume?7.65+8+9.9+10.3+10.25+10.75+11.2+11.6=79.65/110=72.4%0. 80 0. 85 0. 90 0. 9() 0. ‘.36 1 110.8010.80I0.7510 700. 950. 700. 900.650.900.600.85o.6o0.800. 550. 80o. so0. 750. 500. 00.500.700. 50 0. 50 0.tISo.so0.650. 500. 50 0. 55 0. 60 0. 600. 50 0. 50Fig 5.2 The Dimming Pattern on RVH’s Rear Building Façadeat Nighttime81The electricity consumption on every summer weekday night is 72.4 per cent of thaton a weekend night, 72.4% x 1.386 KWH = 1.004 KWHThe electricity consumption on every spring-fall weekday’s night is 72.4 per cent ofthat on a weekend night, 72.4% x 2.376 KWH = 1.720 KWHThe electricity consumption on every winter weekday’s night is 72.4 per cent of that ona weekend night, 72.4% x 3.366 KWH = 2.437 KWH5.2.4 LEDs’ Electricity Consumption on Festival NightsThe light effect for festival and event nights will be a rainbow of colour changes. EveryLED node or fixture is composed of red, green, and blue LED chips. Lightwild’s PixelLW-UP-19-1C is composed of 7 red, 6 green, and 6 blue chips;Philips Color Kinetics’iColor Flex SLX is composed of 3 red, 2 green, and 2 blue LED chips. The RGB chipscan be justified to form 1.6 million colours. The table below adopted basic colours ofthe rainbow series for the calculation of average electricity consumption when in arainbow colour circuit.Tab 5.3 The Average Electricity Consumption of Basic Rainbow ColoursRed Green Blue LEDs Average Electricity ConsumptionLW-UP-19-lCs 7 6 6 19Red 7 0 0 7/19Violet 7 0 6 13/19Blue 0 0 6 6/199.2/1950%Aqua 0 6 6 12/19Green 0 6 0 6/19YellowGreen 4 6 0 10/19orange 7 3 0 10/19iColor Flex SLX 3 2 2 7Red 3 0 0 3/7Violet 3 0 2 5/7Blue 0 0 2 2/73.4/750%Aqua 0 2 2 4/7Green 0 2 0 2/7YellowGreen 2 2 0 4/7Orange 3 1 0 4/782From Table 5.3, we can see that it will take almost half of the maximum power of theRGB LED lights to form the colour changing circulation of the rainbow scheme.The electricity consumption on every summer festival night is half of the maximumpower consumption for each summer night,50% x4.158 KWH = 2.079 KWHThe electricity consumption on every spring-fall festival night is half of the maximumpower consumption for each summer night,50% x 7.128 KWH = 3.564 KWHThe electricity consumption on every winter festival night is half of the maximum powerconsumption for each winter night,50% x 10.O98KWH = 5.049 KWHFour months winter time, including 65 weekday nights, 45 weekend nights, and 12festival and event nights. The duration of operation every night is 8.5 hours.Four months spring-fall time, including 67 weekday nights, 43 weekend nights, and 12festival and event nights. The duration of operation every night is 6 hours.Four months summer time, including 66 weekday nights, 48 weekend nights, and 9festival and event nights. The duration of operation every night is 3.5 hours.Tab 5.4 Electricity Consumption of the Second Transformative Lighting StrategySeason Weekday nights Weekend nights Festival and eventnightsWinter Daily Electricity 2.437 3.366 5.049Consumption (KWH)Days 64 45 12Subtotal (KWH) 155.968 151.47 60.588Spring-Fall Daily Electricity 1.72 2.376 3.564Consumption (KWH)Days 67 43 12Subtotal (KWH) 115.24 102.168 42.768Summer Daily Electricity 1.004 1.386 2.079Consumption (KWH)Days 66 48 9Subtotal (KWH) 66.264 66.528 18.7 11Total 779.705780 KWH836043210——Summer nights Spring—Fallnights Winter nights•Weekday night Weekend night•Festival nightFig 5.3 Daily Electricity Consumptionof the RVH’s Building IlluminationThe calculation of the existingCFLs’ electricity consumptionper annum:Six summer months fromApril Ito September 30, total 183 days,from 9:30 pm to1:00 am, every night 3.5 hoursfor exterior lights-on,(110+84+1 20)xl 8W/i 000=5.652KWx3.5H=i9.782KWHx1 83day=3620. 1 KWHSix winter months fromOctober 1 to March 31, total 182/i 83days, every night from4:30 pm to 1:00 am, 8.5hours for exterior lights-on,(110+84+1 20)xi 8W/I000=5.652KWx8.5H=48.O42KWHx1 82day=8743.65KWHThe total electricity consumptionper annum of existing CFLs on the rooftopstructure,the front and rear façades ofthe RVH, is i2363.75KWHl2364KWHThe electricity consumptionfor my experimentallighting design of the secondtransformative lighting strategyper annum is 780 KWH, about 6.3per cent of theexisting CFLs’ electricity consumption.Conversely, from the architecturalstandpoint,the less electricity consumed,the more vibrant, dynamic,and attractive the lightingeffects that can be achieved.5.3 Design IssuesThis section identifies the designissues, as opposed tothe technical issues, raised bymy second transformativelighting strategy. Even though themain design goal is tosave energy and reduce maintenancein a sustainable manner, inthe architecturalresearch, functional, aesthetic,and budgetary issues havebeen integrated into thedesign process and have influencedthe design. Good estimationsof the efficiencies5.049a366 33I -- -2 O92,-37-€j. 4-37 - - -84of each system can be made based on existing constraints.The combination oflighting goals and system efficiencies has directed the design.As with any design,there are many different ways to best achieve thedesign goals. The sectionaddresses some essential issues that I have takeninto account in devising aprototype design best able to respond to the designissues discussed below.I have analyzed the differences in the appearance ofthe RVH as seen from variouspoints in the city. With these studies, andconsidering energy savings, myexperimental design proposal aims to demonstrate howartificial lighting can be usedwhen integrated with architecture to illuminate the urbannightscape. My experimentallighting design shows how a new illumination system can be developedon the existingmounting points; how the colours of different LED light fixtures can beintegrated into amulti-storey hotel to create a different ambience; and, atthe same time, how the costsof maintenance and energy consumptioncan be reduced. Lighting is instrumental inaccentuating these above characteristics,giving form and presence to spaces in thenight.5.3.1 Function, characteristics, and constraintsThe 19-storey RVH includes 429 roomsand 8 suites. As part of the hospitalitybusiness, it provides continuous service to its guests,although there is much slowtime, after 2am generally. The nocturnalillumination effects of a hospitality buildingshould establish its identity, attract more guests, and provideway-finding at night. TheRVH is a rather elegant modern building, a post-and-beamconcrete structure withfloor-to-ceiling glass walls. Theoriginal mounting points for CFL fixtures, thesquare-shaped depressions on the building façades,and the rooftop structure, as wellas the previously-employed 60watt incandescent light fixtures, were designed byVancouver architect Bing Thom in 1987. Therear and front building façades currentlyshow a static CFL lighting array of 194, 18-watt bulbsand 120, 18-watt bulbs on itscircular top structure, reflecting Thom’s original designconcept. The original mountsare inflexible constraints on new light settings becausethey disallow arrangementsdifferent from the existing mounting points and patterns.However, if we were toattempt new mounting points, they would be inconsistentwith the original design and it85would be hard to set up a new wiring system in the existing building. Therefore theexisting lighting array has been respected.5.3.2 Positioning of lighting fixturesI have taken the RVH’s modern building components, and the existing buildingconstraints, and turned the RVH into a ‘Stage of Light.” The benefits of improved LEDtechnology, which will replace the yellowish CFL lighting array with colour-changingRGB LEDs and an intelligent system as proposed in my experimental design areevident in renderings of the RVH. The rendering were produced by 3D software wherephotorealistic images highlight the difference between the proposed lighting designand its predecessor.5.3.3 Color and intensityThe prevailing colours of the proposed lighting design are a blue to aqua series, with asubtle colour-change (contrasted with a rainbow colour animation used occasionally tosignify weekend, local events or important dates) and mall reacting to the colour shiftsat nearby Canada Place. The Philips Color Kinetics intelligent system is proposed tocontrol LED colours in coordination with those of Canada Place, where the 5distinctive fabric sails are illuminated by 40 LED Light Wave LX fixtures. Thereasonfor the response to the colour of Canada Place is to respect the whole image of thewaterfront urban nightscape and to eliminate inharmonious lighting effects fromFig 5.4 The Existing CFLs and Mounting Points on the Façades86individual buildings withinthe waterfront skyline. The systemcan combine red, blue,and green LEDs to produce up to16.7 million colours, as well as sucheffects as fades,washes, and twinkling,with variations in speed and intensity,all of which playcontinuously and can be set by atimer. In addition, the rooftop rotundaof the buildingculminates in a crown ofLED fixtures, which change andharmonize with the effectson the façade. The intensityof LEDs can be adjusted periodicallyaccording to issuesraised by the community.“Light should be a material withwhich we build,” declaredJames Turrell, echoing a suggestionthat light designers haveformulated again andagain throughout the twentieth century.158According to the characteristicsof both their structural andvisual concepts, the samecolour scheme will beapplied to the rear and thefront façades. Slightly differenteffects will be observedon the two façades whenviewed from a short distance due totheir different architecturalappearance, orientation, andsurroundings. However,observers cannot seeboth sides at the same time;my design is focused on the rearbuilding façade which faces the harbour,although with some considerationfor thefront façade as well.5.3.4 Components and patternsFig 5.5 Blue to Aqua Colour Changes onthe Front and Rear Building Façades158Neumann (2002) 216.87The proposed LEDlighting components onthe rear façade includethe rooftop stripofLEDs, dotted LED5and decorativelinear LEDs on themajor wall area, andared-highlighted namesign. Every component’svariations can becontrolled by thePhilips Color Kineticsintelligent system independently,except the lightingof the“Renaissance Hotel”sign, which reflects theoriginal red colour ofthe signage. DottedRGB LEDs arethe major componentsof integrated lightingeffects, presenting avariety of different patternsin harmonizationwith other lighting components.5.3.5 DirectionThe building featuresfloor-to-ceiling glazingand glass balconyrailings. The rearbuilding façade overlooksBurrard Inlet and StanleyPark, so the directionof buildingillumination on therear façade facesout on the Inlet whereit is able to avoid lighttrespass andglare through glassinto the guest roomsand balconies. TheadoptedLED light fixtures allowbetter control of thedirectional quality oflight than do CFLFig 5.6 The ProposedBuilding Illumination’s Componentsof the Rear FaçadeFig 5.7 The ProposedBuilding Illumination’s Patternsof the Rear Façade88fixtures.159 (Please refer to the picture below demonstrating the lighting direction ofLED fixtures and CFL fixtures). Because every LED fixture is composed of lots of LEDchips, which have inherently small profiles, LED light fixtures produce more directionallight avoiding the light trespass associated with light pollution and doing so with lessenergy consumption. The illuminance of the existing CFLs is reduced by the fixture’sblunt oval shape, its omni-directional lighting, and its recessed installation. The18-watt outdoor CFL is a long cylinder of 2-3/8 inch diameter and 6-1/4 inch length. Itsfrosted circular surface illuminates out, which can be seen as dotted lighting fromWest Cordova Street from Thurlow Stree to Bute Stree and extending to the Inlet. Therear building façade has the recessed rectangular holes which partially obscure CFLbulbs, so most of the light from the side of the light bulb is wasted in being absorbedwithin the rectangular holes and by the rough stucco surface of the RVH’s façades.Compared with CFLs, LEDs have no such lighting wastage because they are veryprecise in their beam control and their profiles are quite short and contained withoutlight spilling in unwanted directions.159“LEDs emit light in a less diffuse pattern than conventional light sources. In contrast, standardfluorescent lamps emit light in all directions, and much of the light output is absorbed inside the fixtureor escapes in an unintended direction.” Cited from “FAQ5 on Market-Available LEDs” BuildingTechnologies Program: Solid-State Lighting (US Department of Energy), 31 March 2008<>.Fig 5.8 The Direction of LED Lighting and CFL Lighting895.3.6 Proportion andthe daytime effectsFig 5.9 The Linear AccentedLED Fixtures ConnectingDotted LEDsMy experimental LEDlighting design mainly respectsthe original lightingproportionsand positions whichallow for easy installationand limited maintenance.The adoptionof LED light fixtureswith sizes similar tothose of CFL fixtureswill help to retain thesame visual effectsof the building façadesin the daytime. Inaddition, LED lights canbe adjusted not only toon-and-off but also for avariety of illuminationarrays to createdifferent proportions,periodically controlled bycomputer programs.Six linearaccented LED fixturesconnecting 12 dottedLEDs’ positioned diagonallydecorate therear façade. This specialarrangement has beenintentionally used toenrich the lighteffects and to counterthe unvaried proportionof dotted LED lightson the rear façade.The six illuminatedlines are positioned fromthe lower left to the topright of the rearfaçade, representingan upward trend. Eventhough my simulationof a LED lightingdesign has not pursuedparticular, extravagant,and brilliantlight effects, itdemonstrates thepursuit of a harmonious,dynamic, andversatile waterfrontnightscape whichrespects the existinglighting design.5.3.7 Intelligentand programmable systemColour-changing LEDlamps, or nodes, arecomposed of red,green, and blue LEDchips. LED is a semiconductorwith positive (P) andnegative (N) sides. Differentchemicals inside the semiconductorproduce differentcolours. Different colouredLEDsrequire slightly differentcurrents to activateelectrons and producephotons, which90become visible light. The control system should change power, data, and currentintensity, so that the RGB LEDs will alter in colour, brightness and speed. Normally, thelighting industry calls this control system “intelligent,” because the colour change alsorefers to the varying temperatures that the energy supplier constantly reacts to andprovides. Individual light nodes need to be equipped with the intelligence to beautomatically addressed and controlled.16°My design makes use of a technology that is more sophisticated and versatile thanother colour-changing control systems. It is calledPhilips Color Kinetics “flagshiptechnology”, which “leverages a layer of digital intelligence to control LEDs, generatingmillions of colours and a myriad of lighting effects.”162The underlying technology,which is unprecedented in affording “a microprocessor, network address or userinterface to LED illumination devices”,162was recognized with national patents inmany countries. My power supply system, which is on-site photovoltaic electricitygeneration associated with battery storage, integrates a complete DC voltage powersolution with intelligent LED lighting systems: “It surpasses traditional power supplytechnology by streamlining multiple conversion and regulation stages into a single,flexible, and microprocessor-controlled power stage that rapidly, efficiently, andaccurately controls power output to LED-based systems”162directly from DC voltage,“eliminating the need for external power supplies.”162This system increases efficiency,lowers the overall cost, and eases installation of intelligent LED lighting systems. Theintelligent control system is “the brain of colour-changing LED lighting that makespossible a host of previously unimaginable applications” for both small and large-scaleinstallations.161160“Core Technologies,” Philips Solid-State Lighting Solutions (Philips & Color Kinetics officialwebsite), 31 March 2008 <>.“Core Technologies,” (Philips & Color Kinetics).91FE::— —r- :I’iI1 •iiii •11’IEI......._..__::L- -‘________\LD_ILj]Fig 5.10 The Intelligent System of LED Fixtures,adapted from Philips Color Kinetics92The second intelligent system that has been set out in my proposal isbuilding-responsive lighting. I envision the lighting effect of the RVH as a component ofthe waterfront skyline of Vancouver. It raises a new need for the development of afunctional aesthetic related to the proposal for an integrated urban nightscape bybalanced and well-accentuated lighting design which appears especially evident whenlooking at the city’s current grey nightscape.In order to achieve a balanced waterfront night image, a sensor reacting to all of thecolour changes and the illusion of movement at Canada Place, combined with thePhilips Color Kinetics system to adjust the RVH’s building illumination, would createinteresting effects for the Vancouver nightscape. The effect would not be too kinetic,but colourful, joyful, and courteous. Even when the rear façade of the RVH is staticwith a single ‘look,’ it can contribute to an enlarged and coherent waterfront imageassociated with its varying reflection. The façade of the building literally will become aperformance, and it can also glow, flash, and change from one colour to another, withLED5 to mirror Canada Place.5.4 DiscussionThe reason for choosing the rear building façade as the design focus, ratherthan theentrance façade that greets arriving guests, is that the rear façade holds an importantFig 5.11 The Relationship of Canada Place, the Shaw Tower, and the RVH93location facingthe waterfrontof downtown Vancouverand can be seenfrom longdistances. Despiteits low height,compared withsurrounding high-risetowers, it is anindivisible partof Vancouver’s cityskyline. TheRVH sits betweentwo neighbouringblack-colouredoffice towers.Since the neighbouringbuildings arevery close, lightingthe adjacentEast and West wallsof the RVH wouldcause glareand light trespassonthe neighbouringbuildings and wouldbe accompaniedby energywaste. The front(South) buildingfaçade has the sameexisting lightingfixtures, 18-wattCFLs, mountedon concave structuresof the building façade.Using LED RGBlight fixturesto retrofitthe existing CFLson the wholebuilding façadeof the RVH will encounterthe sametechnical and economicissues as thoseencountered onthe rear (North)waterfrontfaçade. In designterms, the frontbuilding façadeoverlooks residential,office, andcommercial buildingsand is viewedfrom about the distanceof a conventionalStreet,so lighting intensitywill need to be adjustedfor the comfort ofthe Surroundings.Therear building façadeoverlooks HarboursidePark, BurrardInlet, and StanleyPark. Thelighting effectcan be seenfrom different distances,so the lightapplication onthe rearfaçade of theRVH will havemore impact thanthat of the frontfaçade.Responsiveand intelligentlighting is designedto react to “theelectro-physicalflux ofurban environments.”162The emergingdigital technologiesand colour-changingLED5thereforehelp to buildmore vivid,dynamic, andlifelike environmentsincommunicatingwith humanbeings. Theidea of lightingdesign proposedin thisresearch is derivedfrom the illusionof the “kaleidoscope.”The programmableLEDlighting can be changedthrough acomputer programto reflectdifferent concepts.Actually, thecommunicationqualities of responsiveand intelligentlighting reflect thenew trendof uncertaintyor non-determinacyin the designfield, which meansdesigners givemore space tousers to think,to involve, orto design theirownenvironments.The 1986 “Towerof Winds” was alighting designedby architectToyo Ito appliedto acubic concretetower utilizedboth for ventilationand as awater tower. Hislightingdesign comprisedthirty floodlights,12 neon bandsand 1,200small lamps andwascommissionedfor the thirtieth anniversaryof the YokohamaWest busterminal. The162Bullivant 19.94lighting design broke the static light trends of that era by responding to both thedirection and speed of external wind and noise from the street. The tower wastransformed with all kinds of illumination transitions and variations at night while itmerely showed its perforated metal second surface during the day. Ito’s design soughtto respond to our physical environment by means of visible electronic media — lighting.However, the Tower of Winds has not (or only partially) been illuminated in recentyears due to high electricity bills and required maintenance.163 It seems that long-termelectricity consumption and maintenance are two substantial and influentialrequirements to sustain the life of a great architectural lighting design, even after initialinstallation.The RVH’s light design is facing more constraints due to the aesthetic considerationsof its location, its architectural and structural features, functions, and current conditionsin business operations, although energy-saving LED technology continues to revealbeneficial effects on building illumination two decades after the debut of the Tower ofWinds. My proposal for the RVH’s intelligent system has taken the whole waterfrontskyline of Vancouver into consideration, as the building illumination of the RVH is justone part of my design. The RVH looks out on the Burrard Inlet, the water and the north.While the illumination of the Tower of Winds interacted with wind and noise from theFig 5.12 Interactive Building Skins, “the Tower of Wind” adopted.1Neumann (2002) 203.64Bullivant 19.95physical environment, the illumination of the RVH is reflected by the water variouslyand randomly, and mirrors the lighting colour of Canada Place. The Tower ofWindswas intended as a specific celebration event; the illumination of the RVH is intendedtoadvertise the hotel itself, promote the legibility of Vancouver’s waterfront skyline,anddemonstrate the sustainability of the urban nightscape so as to help Vancouverpromote its tourist industry. In a simple lighting design, weneed to consider lighttechnology, architectural structure, initial cost, electricity requirements, maintenance,and design intentions.96Fig 5.13 The Illumination of the RVH Mirrors the Lighting Colours of Canada Place- —97Chapter 6:The Third Transformative Lighting Strategy986.1 IntroductionSince we all play a crucial part in putting the world onto sustainable developmentpaths, we should put our incremental efforts into developing alternativeenergy-renewable forms. My third transformative lighting strategy uses on-sitemicro-renewable energy generation to supply the electricity requirements of the RVH’sexterior illumination. Three reasons for introducing on-site micro-renewable energygeneration for illumination are to achieve zero-energy requirement from the grid; toanticipate and participate in the trend toward the use of LEDs; and to contribute to thenocturnal waterfront ambience.My objective is to achieve a zero-energy requirement from the grid system for thebuilding illumination, and to demonstrate an optimized light design and arrangementbased on different time settings appropriate to the instability of the singular renewableenergy resource.I expect that when LEDs’ technology and prices become more competitive than thoseof CFLs, and when the existing RVH’s interior lights are switched to LEDs, that today’slighting system, combined with on-site electricity generation, storage, and DC-DCconversion, will still be useful and sustainable.I also expect the nocturnal illumination of Vancouver’s waterfront will be more vibrant,attractive, and enjoyable once energy-saving LED technology with its zero energyconsumption and an on-site renewable energy network is composed encompassing ofall the buildings at Vancouver’s waterfront.I have chosen to explore on-site energy generation for transformative lighting.6.2 The Photovoltaic SystemI considered five micro-renewable energy resources: solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity,onshore wind turbines, kinetic energy, earth energy and wave/tidal energy. Amongthese five forms of renewable energy, solar energy and wind energy are more maturein practice and market availability because it is easy to purchase photovoltaic panels99and wind turbines. Considering application feasibility,durability, and the noise issuesof renewable energy generation, solar photovoltaicelectricity will be more suitable forthe RVH building because of constraints that the existing building and urban contextspresent, such as surrounding high-rise buildings, limited rebuilt space, and nearbyresidential and office buildings, eliminate the feasibility of using wind turbines.Solar photovoltaic electricity is the power produced from panels of light-sensitivecells.Photovoltaic cells can convert the energy of the sun into electricity without thermalprocesses. “Photovoltaic cells consist of two layers of silicon, each withdifferentelectromechanical characteristics, connected to an outside electric circuitthroughwhich the generated low-voltage electric direct current (DC)is transported.”165 PVcells can work any time the sun is shining, but when the sunlight is more intense andrays of sunlight are perpendicular to the PV cells, more electricity is produced.PVmodules, as a clean, renewable resource, produce electricity without noiseor airpollution. With today’s growing population and environmental problems, andwith theworld’s energy crisis, industry experts predict that solar photovoltaic will be thenextbreakthrough industry.166Photovoltaic cells come in many sizes, but most are 10 cm by10 cm and generateabout half a volt of electricity.’67 Cell assemblies,called solar panels or modules, areencapsulated in watertight modules for protection from moisture and impact. ThePVmodules are composed of glazing, encapsulant, silicon wafers and associatedwiring,and a protective back sheet.168 Solar modules and panelsare further linked tosystems with power controllers, inverters, and storagedevices. Even though PV165Santamouris 278.166The National Renewable Energy Laboratory, A Consumer’s Guide: Get Your Power fromthe SunWashington, DC: US Department of Energy, December (2003) DOE/GO-102003-1 844 2, 31 March2008 < Energy Society of Canada Inc., “Photovoltaic Solar Energy,” 31March 2008<>.168DuPont Company, “Photovoltaic Solutions: Science of Photovoltaic Energy,” 31 March 2008<>.100panels are not highly efficient, converting only 12to 15 per cent of the sunlight intoelectricity, PV modules are technically well proven, and have an expectedservice timeof 30 years.169 I understand that energy conversion is from one type of energy toanother. Wind turbine systems convert kinetic energy to electricity; photovoltaic panelsconvert photons (light) to electricity. No energy converting system can make a perfectconversion in energy because of material resistance and a system’s efficiency etc.Burning fossil fuel to get electricity is only at about 33% efficiencyin the US today,which has not been changed since1958.170Buildings with integrated photovoltaicenergy systems are of special interest for the electricity generated incities. Throughelectricity generation, solar cells do not cause any environmental pollution in termsofemissions and noise, and this efficiency is of extreme importancefor cities.Furthermore, modules have a long life span and they do not need alot of maintenance,as is the case with most construction elements of the building’senvelope.171 PVpanels are market-ready, with little maintenance for their25-30 years’ life span,compatible with the LED5’ lifetime because LED5 with a 50,000hour lifetime, operated2200 hours per year, will last about 23 years.6.3 The Third Transformative Lighting StrategyMy third transformative lighting strategy explores the potential of on-sitegeneration ofelectricity instead of purchase from BC Hydro. Photovoltaic panelswill generate theelectrical requirements of the RVH’s decorative exteriorLED lighting. Thistransformation will transfer daytime sun energy to electricity fornight outdoor buildingillumination; therefore, it will encourage outdoor activities inthe night time forVancouverites, as a means to compensate for the limiteddaytime hours inVancouver’s winter months.People question the viability of solar systems in Vancouver due to theclouds and rain.169Solar Energy Society of Canada Inc.170Sarah Lozanova, “Power Plant Efficiency Hasn’t Improved Since 1957”Clean Technica. Publishedon June 26th, 2008 in Energy Efficiency, Fossil Fuels, Politics, 11 July 2008171Mat Santamouris 278.101However, many cities in Germany receive less sunlightthan Vancouver, yet Germanyhas the largest installed solar electric base in the world,with 300 MW. Generally,Vancouver receives 1919 hours of sunlightannually compared with 1837 in Berlin,1680 in Munich and 1643 in Frankfurt.1721OOLêôi ,‘oooDC Loads (LEDs)_-Fig 6.1 Proposed Photovoltaic System of the RVHFrom the standpoint of electrical engineering, PVelectricity to support LED illuminationis a simple circuit without DC-AC conversion.Due to the fact that the electricity will beused at night, the system needs electric storage-batteries.The Figure 6.1 illustratesthe whole of the RVH’s third transformativesystem.In my experimental design, chosen LED lights are suppliedby 24 or 12 V DC based172SPEC, “Solar Technology Tours at SPEC,” SocietyPromoting Environmental Conservation(SPEC), 31 March 2008 <>.Solar IrradiariceSolar ArrayDCBatter21 V DC12 V DC21 V DC—12 V DCConverterConstant Voltage Regulator(CVR)I102on their product specifications.173 Coincidentally, the photovoltaic system producesDC power and the batteries can store 24VDC through constant voltage regulator(CVR) to 24VDC LEDs (LightWild LW-UP-19-1C), which can be converted to 12VDCbecause LEDs (Philips Color Kinetics IColor Flex SLX) request the same current.Hence my third transformative strategy will reduce the electricity loss from DC to AC,and then from AC to DC again. Thus, the considerable cost of the DC-AC inverter andthe AC-DC inverter will be saved. Compared with the DC-AC inverter, theDC-DCconverter is low-priced and effective in reducing electricity loss.Fig 6.2 Monthly Total Sunlight Hours in Vancouver Tested at Vancouver’s International Airport’74From the data provided in Figure 6.2 about Vancouver’s monthly sunlight hours, wecan easily see that December would be the most challenging month for usingphotovoltaic panels to supply the RVH’s outdoor decorative lighting because it has themost limited sunlight hours, 56.1 hours in a month, and the highest electricity173LightWild LW-UP-19-1C uses 24VDC and Color Kinetics IColor Flex SLX uses I2VDC.174Environment Canada, “Canadian Climate Normals 197 1-2000: Vancouver Int’L A, BritishColumbia,” (Environment Canada), 31 March 2008<>.35030025020015010050164.3 56.1EITotal Hours103requirements — the 6 day festival night arrangement with at least 8.5hours ofoperation every night. December will therefore be the month used to determinethefeasibility of the system, because it has the greatest demands.It is easy to find the most advantageous place to install photovoltaic panelson anexisting building to maximize sun capture and to avoidunnecessary maintenance ordamage. For instance, there is a 55.5ft x 54.5ft rectangular spaceideal for photovoltaicpanels on the rooftop of the RVH. A standard size of photovoltaic module— 80-wattpanel size — is about 47.3 x 21.2 x 1.8 inches. At least 176 80-watt solar panels canbeinstalled on the flat rooftop of the RVH and provide 14KW per hour under propersunlight. In December, every festival night requires 5.05KW of electricity to light theRVH’s outdoor LEDs for 8.5 hours, so every hour wouldrequire 0.6 KW continuoussupply. If we calculate the electricity loss in the circulationfrom the electricity source,storage and wiring to LED outlets, then we will need to increasethe required electricityamount and flux. If we use a sizeable battery to storegenerated electricity andsystematically supply it to LED decorative lighting, we can calculate the totalamount ofelectricity in December as a whole and subdivide by the total sunlighthours, sodetermining the number of 80-watt photovoltaic panels needed.104Fig 6.3: PV Panels on the RVH’s Rooftop. Map adoptedfrom Google Maps by the author.The total amount of electricity in December:16 Weekdays + 9 Weekends + 6 FestivalNights = December16 x 1.4552 + 9 x 1.819 + 6x 5.049 = 23.2832 + 16.371+ 30.294 = 69.94827OKWHDirectly, the number of photovoltaic panels can beobtained by the followingcalculation:7OKWHx1000/56H/80W 15.62516LH-I11I[W{H{.IH.H105According to my calculation, supplying outdoor LED lightswill require at least 1680-watt solar panels without any consideration ofthe electricity loss in its circulation. Ifwe estimate 30% electricity loss, then we will need 2380-watt solar panels, equal tothe volume of 1840 watts. BC-based EA Energy AlternativesLtd. supplies a full-timePV system compatible with the RVH’s LED lighting. Customizationof the PV systemnamed Primary Powerl with extra an 1140-wattsolar panels will fulfill therequirements.Tab 6.1 The Estimated Total Cost of the RVH’s PV SystemItem Unit Price QuantityCostPer watt/panel (Watt! panel)Solar panels $ 5.50/watt*1140 $6,270Primary Power 1 — $ 16,995 1 $16,995Outback 2.5 KW, 24VTotal $23,265Note: 1.*APV panels wholesale price in the North Americanmarket is about$5. 50/watt.2. The battery’s storage capacity will be 2OKWHat 24 VDC, suitable for 4 days ofillumination in December without recharging.3. Price from EA Energy AlternativesLtd. and its official website:www. energyalternatives. ca.6.4 BatteriesThere are some concerns about using batteriesto store electricity on site for therequirement of night lighting. “Batteries are onlyuseful to light up the building during apower outage.” And there are “quite a few disadvantages:such as low efficiency (lesspower), more cost, more maintenance, and pollutionfrom [battery] disposal.”175Currently, a power outage in Vancouver’sdowntown is highly unlikely, but it mayhappen more frequently if energy sourceslessen or an incident happens, so a localData from Hiltz Tanner, BEng, System DesignEngineer at EA Energy Alternatives Ltd, Victoria, BC. Itsofficial website: <>.106supplier of the PV system recommend connecting to the grid with a grid-tie inverter. Inthis way, BC Hydro would become an infiniteubafteryfor lots of micro-PV systems;therefore, in the winter time, electricity from the grid will be provided for operationrequirements even if less sunlight is available, and in the summer time whengenerated electricity exceeds requirements, the RVH can sell extra volume to BCHydro, at least theoretically.This system would not be very convincing, It is difficult and expensive to storeelectricity so that it must be produced when we need it with the quantities indemand.176 Electricity generated by renewable energy going back to BC Hydro’s gridsystem cannot reduce its load. When the grid has a blackout, batteries help thelighting system become independent from the grid. Unfortunately, while I wascompleting this thesis, downtown Vancouver had nearly three full days of an outragebecause of an underground circuit fire causing about $36 million losses by estimate.177A lighting system relying on an independent electricity system is more sustainable andconstructive in terms of dealing with a catastrophe. Batteries could have longer life ifproperly maintained. Sealed lead-acid batteries have often been used with a PVsystem as a better solution for rechargeable maintenance-free batteries. Lead-acidbattery recycling is one of the most successful recycling programs in the world, withover 97% of all battery lead recycled.178 Metro Vancouver has its own lead-acidbatteries recycling program.179176Monbiot 79.177CBC News, “Lights on, But Compensation off, as Vancouver Blackout Ends,” 17 July 2008, 17 July2008<http://www.cbc.caJcanada/british-columbiaJstory/2008/07/17/bc-vancouver-blackout-compensation.html>.178Gravita Exim Ltd., “Environmenal Friendly Battery Recycling,” (Gravita Exim Ltd. officialwebsite), 31 March 2008<http://www.gravitaexim.comlBattery-Recycling/environment-friendly-battery-recycling.html>.179Metro Vancouver, “Take-back Program,” (Metro Vancouve official website), 31 March2008<>.107Chapter 7:Conclusion1087.1 Conclusion7.1.1 General DiscussionThis research demonstrates that Vancouver’s urban context is able to achieve avibrant and enjoyable nocturnal illumination responsive to a coherent waterfront imageand reduce electricity consumption considerably via LED technology and via theintroduction of transformative lighting strategies. The first transformative lightingstrategy retrofitted existing CFLs on the RVH with LEDs. It reveals LED5’ advantagesin the reduction of total cost and maintenance labor for the building façades. Thisstrategy projected a saving, over 50,000 hours, of $32,514 on the total amount of lightfixtures, electricity costs, and maintenance costs of the RVH’s building illumination,which represented 48 per cent of CFLs’ total costs. Furthermore, changing CFLelectricity-saving bulbs to LED5 will save at least 223,200 KWH over 50,000 hours,more than 79 per cent of CFLs’ electricity consumption.The second transformative lighting strategy introduced to save more energydemonstrated architectural creativity via versatile LED lighting patterns, andsystematically managed the unstable generation of renewable energy by a yearlyoptimized programming of outdoor LED lighting in accordance with seasonal themes.Through this second transformative lighting strategy, yearly electricity consumptionwas reduced from CFL’s 12,364 KWH to coloured LED’s 783 KWH, which saves morethan 90 per cent of the electricity consumed by existing CFL bulbs. In 50,000 hours,the implementation of the second strategy can save 264,770 KWH, 94 per cent of theelectricity consumed by CFL5.The third transformative lighting strategy aimed to achieve zero energy consumptionby using an on-site PV system instead of purchasing from BC Hydro. Generally, BCHydro’s hydroelectricity is renewable energy, but, as discussed in chapter two, BCHydro has been in a net importing electricity situation since 2001 and will continue tobe so because of growing energy demands as the population increases and lowerwater inflows persist with global warming. Additionally, this transformation transfersdaytime solar energy to electricity for outdoor building night illumination; therefore, itcan encourage outdoor activities in the nighttime for Vancouverites, as a means to109compensate for the limited daytime hours in Vancouver’s winter months.A summary of the three transformative lighting strategies and their respectiveelectricity reductions is provided in Figure 7.1. This reduction may be met throughtechnological advances, but also through design interventions as addressed inchapters four and five.Tab 7.1 Electricity Consumption and ReductionExisting CFLs1stStrategy2ndStrategy3rdStrategyElectricity Consumption (KWH) 282600 59400 17830 0Electricity Reduction (KWH) 0 223,200 264,770 282600Reduction Percentage (100%) 0% 79% 94% 100%300000250000200000150000100000500000Fig 7.1 Electricity Consumption Comparison7.1.2 Lighting Circuit EfficiencyLEDs are inherently DC outlets, different from most conventional light bulbs, andalsoon-site solar panels produce DC electricity. However, BC Hydro’s grid system suppliesits users with 120/240 VAC. There are several problems in the conversion betweenAC and DC. AC-DC converters add extra costs and require more space; the wastematerials from the converter cause environmental pollution; and normally, 80%Electricity Consumption (KWH)Existing CFLs 1st Strategy 2nd Strategy 3rd Strategy•Electricity Consumption (KWH)110efficiency of the converter causes 20% electricity loss.180 Thisresearch involves adesign solution to reduce electric waste when converting between ACand DC byadopting DC for the whole circulation. The whole lightingsystem and PV systemshould remain DC instead of AC and DC. Since my proposed LED outdoorlighting ofthe RVH only needs less than 10% of the electricity requiredby existing CFLs,technically, adding more PV panels will supply all the electricity requirementsof theinterior and exterior LED lighting for the RVH. When LED technology as generallighting reaches the point where most people accept andcan afford it,micro-renewable energy will be able to supply all lights insideand outside of thisbuilding just by simple DC electricity with a closed circuit, safer andmore efficientcompared with the AC system.7.1.3 DesignGradually, more people start to replace their old light bulbs withLEDs, and also morelighting on building façades have being replaced by colour-changingLEDs. Borrowedfrom the world of theatre and entertainment lighting, dynamic lighteffects using bothmoving lights and shifting colours are now available on a large scale for usein exteriorlighting.181 From a design perspective, when colour-changing LEDs areapplied tooutdoor environments, especially to those landmarkhigh-rise buildings holdingsignificance for a city’s skyline, one of the most crucial concerns is to respectneighbouring architecture to achieve a harmoniousimage for the city’s panorama. Acity’s skyline is the historic accumulation of its culture, economy,and architecture. Ifowners or designers pursue the outstanding night visions of theirbuildings without awhole city picture in their minds, the whole image of a city will fall intogaudiness anddisorder. Therefore, serious consideration and design guidelinesshould be enacted toregulate building illumination design. Due to the RVH’s location and geometricform,my proposed intelligent lighting of the RVH proposes to mirror thecolour changes ofSeoul Semiconductor Press Release “Seoul Semi Acriche Attains Efficiency of 80 Im/W,”( - 2/11/2008), 31 March 2008 <>.uCarl Gardner and Raphael Molony, jjgt Crans-Pres-Celigny, Switzerland;Hove, East Sussex:RotoVision, (2001) 14.111Canada Place, to which LEDs have been applied since 2004. In Figure 7.2, we cansee the balanced image of Vancouver’s waterfront via the similar colour tones atCanada Place and the RVH.7.2 Limitation of ThesisThe chosen LED fixtures in this thesis are colour-changing RGB LEDs, which are ableto achieve white light and rainbow colour series. A colour-changing LED systemneeds other devices, such as a personal computer (PC), power/data supplies,controlpanels, and wiring. These facilities have not yet been accounted for in the comparisonof total costs via the first transformative strategy because this section only evaluatedLEDs producing white light, which require basic wiring as the existing CFLs do. In mystudy of the first transformative strategy, I just compared the price of lights and theirfixtures. The reasons have also been explained in my methodology section.My second transformative strategy presenting intelligent, dynamic andcolour-changing LED lighting effects exceeded the existing yellowish and dull CFLlighting effect. The cost of extra devices to achieve such LED lighting effects could beconsidered if the CFL lighting effects were colour-changing, which means extracontrol devices have been used. The costs of colour-changing LED systems and theircontrol systems are higher than those of monochromatic CFL, but are similar to thoseof colour-changing CFL systems. Currently, the prices of LEDs and their controlsystem are major challenges to massive applications of LED exterior lighting requiringFig 7.2 Proposed Vancouver’s Waterfront Panorama112dynamic, colour-changing, and intelligent effects in terms of the creativity andadvances of architectural or environmental design.Generally speaking, one of the benefits of applying LEDs is reducing electricityconsumption and maintenance costs. LED technology improvement is ongoing andvaried, so people might want to wait for LED5 products with prices competitive toconventional light bulbs, better qualities, and the convenience of purchasing at localstores. People are hesitant to apply them even if they could afford to buy them now.The LED products need to be introduced to potential users and be applied withdifferent design strategies and principles, while improving product quality and quantity.7.3 Further ResearchVancouver’s urban context as defined in the thesis includes a variety of architectureand landscapes. Due to the limitations of time, participants, and data collection, thethesis has been narrowed down to the RVH, a hospitality building. Extending researchto other types of architecture will implicate different design approaches and evaluationperspectives. Coloured LED5 on the RVH are for decorative illumination rather thanfunctional purposes. The comparison of lumens of the proposed LEDs and existingCFLs would require technical expertise in engineering and electrical equipmentbeyond the scope of this thesis. 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The EconomicsofTourism and Sustainable Development. Cheltenham, UK; Northampton, MA: E. Elgar,2005.119“LED Basics.” Building Technologies Program: Solid-State Lighting. USDepartment ofEnergy. 31 March 2008<http://www. htm>.“Light and Color Basics.” Building Technologies Program: Solid-State Lighting.USDepartment of Energy. 31 March 2008<http:I/www.>.“Lighting Canada’s National Tower: Spectacular Light Show Launches CN TowerIllumination — June 28,2007.” Toronto: CN Tower Website Release. June 2007. 31March 2008 <http:I/www. cntower. ca/portal/GetPage.aspx?at= 1579>.“Lighting the Way to a Greener Future: Canada’s New Government to BanInefficientLight Bulbs.” Eco Action: Using Less, Living Better. Government of Canada. April 25,2007. 31 March 2008<http:Ilwww. ecoaction . cfm>.“Lights to Go out on Inefficient Bulbs by 2012.” CBCnews.April 2007. 31 March 2008<http:Ilwww.cbc. ca/canada/story/2007/04/25/lunn-bul bs. html>.“Lighting Vancouver’s Newest Landmark,” The Globe & Mail — Seven— July 15, 2005.31 March 2008<http:/!>.Lozanova,Sarah. Power Plant Efficiency Hasn’t Improved Since 1957. CleanTechnica. Published on June26th2008 in Energy Efficiency, Fossil Fuels, Politics. 11July 2008<>.Mak, James. Tourism and The Economy: UnderstandingThe Economics of Tourism.Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2004.Meethan, Kevin. Tourism in Global Society: Place, Culture,Consumption. Basingstoke,120Hampshire [UK]; New York: Palgrave, 2001.Metro Vancouver. “Take-back Program.” 31 March 2008<http:Ilwww. metrovancouver. org/services/solidwaste/recycling/Pages/takeback.aspx>Mills, Evan. “The $230-billion Global Lighting Energy Bill.” Expanded from versionpublished in the Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Energy-EfficientLighting. Stockholm, 2002. 368-385. 31 March 2008<http://eetd. BS/PDF/Global_LightingEnergy.pdf>.Monbiot, George. Heat: How to Stop the Planet from Burning. Toronto: Doubleday,2006.Neumann, Dietrich. “Luminous Advertising.” Luminous Buildings : Architecture of theNight. eds. Ackermann, Marion and Neumann, Dietrich. texts by Ackermann,Marion[et al.]. Ostfildern: Hatje Cantz, 2006. 80-1Neumann, Dietrich. with essays by Swiler Champa, Kermit. ... [et al.]. Architecture ofthe Night: the Illuminated Building. New York: Prestel, 2002.O’Connor, Darcie A. and Davis, Robert G. “Lighting for the Elderly: The Effects of LightSource Spectrum and Illuminance on Color Discrimination and Preference.” LEUKOS.Vol. 2 No. 2 October 2005: 123-132Paumier, Cyril B. Creating a Vibrant City Center: Urban Design and RegenerationPrinciples. Washington, D.C.: Urban Land Institute, 2004.Pelka, David G. and Patel, Kavita. “An Overview of LED Applications for GeneralIllumination.” Design of Efficient Illumination Systems. ed. Koshel, R. John. sponsoredby Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE), Bellingham, Wash.,USA: SPIE, 2003 15-26.121Petty, Margaret Maile. “Reflections.” Luminous Buildings : Architecture of the Night.eds. Ackermann, Marion and Neumann, Dietrich. texts by Ackermann, Marion [et al.].Ostfildern: Hatje Cantz, 2006. 76-9Porteous, J. Douglas. Environmental Aesthetics: Ideas, Politics and Planning, London;New York: Routledge, 1996.Protzman, J. Brent and Houser, Kevin W. “LEDs for General Illumination: The State ofthe Science.” LEUKOS Vol. 3 No. 2 October (2006): 121-142.“Province & BC Hydro Target Conservation in Public Sector.” BC Hydro forGenerations 19 Nov. 2007. 31 March 2008<>.Rea, Mark S. and Bullough, John D. “Application Efficacy.” Journal of the IlluminatingEngineering Society. Vol. 30 No. 2 Summer 2001: 73-96.Santamouris, Mat. Environmental Design of Urban Buildings: an Integrated Approach.London: Sterling, VA: Earthscan, 2006.Schimpf, Simone. “Outline Lighting.” Luminous Buildings : Architecture of the Night.eds. Ackermann, Marion and Neumann, Dietrich. texts by Ackermann, Marion [et al.].Ostflldern: Hatje Cantz, 2006. 70-1Schweitzer, Cara. “Glass Blocks.” Luminous Buildings: Architecture of the Night. eds.Ackermann, Marion and Neumann, Dietrich. texts by Ackermann, Marion [et al.].Ostfildern: Hatje Cantz, 2006. 74-5Selby, Martin. Understanding urban tourism: image, culture and experience. London;New York: l.B. Tauris; New York: In the U.S. and Canada, distributed by PalgraveMacmillan, 2004.122Seoul Semiconductor Press Release. “Seoul Semi Acriche Attains Efficiency of 80lm/W.” - 2111/2008. 31 March 2008<http:/Iflashlightnews.orgfstoryl I 83.shtml>.Simpson, Scott. “Electricity Gap Threat to B.C. Energy Future: Hydro Options IncludeCoal-fired Power Generation Plant.” The Vancouver Sun 30 March 2006.“Shaw Tower,” Mixed Use Projects, Nemetz (S/A) & Associates Ltd. 31 March 2008<>.“Shaw Tower,” Project Files, Bridge Electric Corp. 31 March 2008<>.‘Shaw Tower.” Westbank Projects Corp. 31 March 2008<http://www.westbankcorp . corn/mixed .cfm?projectid= 19>.Solar Energy Society of Canada Inc., “Photovoltaic Solar Energy.” 31 March 2008<http://www. newenergy. org/sesci/publications/pamphlets/photovoltaic. html>.SPEC. “Solar Technology Tours at SPEC.” Society Promoting EnvironmentalConservation (SPEC). 31 March 2008<http:/! D=488>.Statistics Canada, “Canada’s population by age and sex - as of July 1,2006.”fl.Daily Thursday, Oct. 26 (2006). 31 March, 2008< 026/d061 026b. htm>.Steffy, Gary. Architectural Lighting Design. 2nd ed. New York: Wiley, 2002The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE),“EnvironmentalConsiderations for Exterior Lighting.” Factfiles, Society of Light & Lighting.No.7Nov.1998, updated 2003. 31 March 2008<>.123The Climate-friendly City—A Corporate Climate Change Action Plan for the City ofVancouver. City of Vancouver. Apr. 2004. 31 March 2008<>.The Free Dictionary by Farlex. “Photocell.” 31 March 2008. Accessible at<>.The National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A Consumer’s Guide: Get Your Powerfrom the Sun. Washington, DC: US Department of Energy, December (2003)DOE/GO-i 02003-1 844. 31 March 2008<http:Ilwww. pdf>.“Toronto Shifts to LED Lighting as Answer for Energy Efficiency.” LED City PressRoom. ii July 2007. 31 March 2008<http:Ilwww. ledcity. org/press-room/toronto-shifts-to-led-lighting. html>.“US energy legislation mandates $20 million prize fund.” LEDs Magazine. Jan. 2008.31 March 2008 <>.“Using LEDs to Their Best Advantage.” Building Technologies Program: Solid-StateLighting. US Department of Energy. 31 March 2008<http://www. netl Leds/app-series-advantage. htm>.Vancouver Organizing Committee,. Vancouver 2010 Progress Report. Presented tothe International Olympic Committee 119th Session July 2007, Guatemala City: 2. 10July, 2008< pdf>.Wikipedia. “Diana Thater.” 31 March 2008<>.Wikipedia. “Laser.” 31 March 2008 <>.124Wikipedia. “Laser Lighting Display.” 31 March 2008<>.Wikipedia. “Motion Detector.” 31 March 2008<>.Wikipedia. “Timer.” 31 March 2008 <>.Wilson, Reg. R. and Yang Shiguang. “City Lighting and Light Pollution.” Right Light 6.Shanghai 9-11 May 2005. 31 March, 2008< 8/City_Lighti ng_and_Light_Pollution/f098wilson.doc>.125Appendix I18 Watt CFL bulb manufactured by “Philips Marathon”18 Watt Outdoor Energy Saver Bulb$11.98 (Homedepot Canada)This 18W outdoor energy saver bulb is idealfor use in weather-protected outdoorfixtures. Save up to 75% in electricity costs.The 18-watt Marathon bulb provides2700Ksoft white light similar to a 75-wattincandescent bulb.Light output (Lumens) is 1,100. Lifespan is10,000 hours. Its Colour Render Index (CR1)is 82 and its operating temperature rangesfrom -25°C to +60°C.Assembled Length: 6-1/4 inchAssembled Weight: 0.3Lbs.Country of Origin: MexicoCSA Certified: YesCaution: Risk of electric shock. Do not use where directly exposed to water. Not foruse with dimmers.Assembled Diameter: 2-3/8 inch126Appendix IIRGB LED - Color Kinetics iColor Flex SLX31 March 2008 <>.127C’icsPHI LI PSiCOLOR FLEX SLXColorKinetics® Color®Flex SLX is a flexible LED string lighting solution that is brighter and larger thanthe iColor Flex SL. iColor Flex SLX is an excellent choice for use in the miliwork, signage, and amusement industries. Designed for accent or perimeter lighting or as a component of a custom fixture, iColorFlex SLX provides lighting professionals with a “building block for the design and creation of customapplications. Uses may include: curtain walls, lined building facades, and under- cabinet lighting.Depending on the iColor Flex SLX application selected, you can create custom color changing effects orcustom animation. iColor Flex SLX may be used as a traditional string light or can be custom mountedwith the optional mounting clips or mounting tracks.iColor Flex SLX is a strand of 50 individually-addressable LED nodes driven by Color Kinetics’Chromosic®technology. This dynamic integration of power, communication, and control gives thelighting designer extraordinary color flexibility. LEDs are addressed and powered through Chromasictechnology—aChromacore®embedded microchip on every node. Thus, each node can generate virtually any color at any specified time. Node lenses ore available in two models; flat and clear, or domedand translucent. Nodes are mounted in small plastic housings and are arrayed in 4 or 12-inch (0.1 or0.305 m) increments along a three-wire 16 AWG cable. An integral 50-foot (15.2 m) leader runs fromthe power/data supply to the first node. Standard colors for iColor Flex SIX are white or black. (Customnode spacing schemes and node color options are available by special order.)iColor Flex SIX receives power and data from a dedicated Color Kinetics 1 2V Chromasic power/datasupply—available with Ethernet control, DMX5 12 control, or preprogrammed effects. Each power/datasupply supports one 50-node strand. The compact size allows for discrete installation.iCOLOR FLEX SLX SPECIFICATIONSCOLOR RANGE 64 billion (36-bit) additive RGB colors; continuously variable intensitySOURCE 50 Nodes; each with 3 Red, 2 Green, 2 Blue LEDs— 350 LEDs totalAVAILABLE IN Clear flat lens or Translucent domed lensHOUSING Polycarbonate, approx.] .10” x 1.22” x .56”H (2.97 cm x 3.12 cm x 1.4 cm)usTls C-UL US, CECOMMUNICATION SPECIFICATIONSDATA INTERFACE Color Kinetics data interface systemCONTROL Ethernet, DMX5 12 or stand-aloneELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS (LIGHTS)sColer Flee SIX ITEM#101-000053-00(4” White. Tranelusont Demo)101-000053-01 (4° Whit.. Clear Flat)101-000054-00 (12” White, Tranelecent Dome)101-000054-01 (12” White, Clear Flat)101-000055-00 (4” Black, Translucent Dome)101-000055-01 (4” Black. Clear Flat)101-000056-00 (12” Block, Translucent Dome)101-000056-01 (12” Black, Clear Flat)This product is protected by ore or mere of the following potents:U.S. Potent No,. 6,016,038. 6.150.774 nod other poients listecf,,thttp://cnlorkivetics,com/petoets/. Other patents pending.e200s.200o Colon Kinetics lnco,pornted. All rights reserved.chromacore, Chromosic, Color Kinetic,, the Color Kineticslogo, ColorBiest, ColorBleze, Colorturst, Colo,Cest, ColorPlay,ColorSunpe, Direct Light, iColor, iColor Cove, Player, Optibin,Powetcore, QuickPloy, Saoce, the Seoce logo, end Smortiuice areregistered trede,norks end DiMand, EssentiulWhite, IntelliWitite, endlight Withoot Limits ore ttodernarks of Color Kinetics Incorporated.All other brend or product names are tredemorksor registered tredemerks of their respective owners.BR0165 Rev 02Speciticetions subject to ,honge withoet notice.Refer to s-e’v.vnInrkinetics.cor, For themost recent data shent versions.POWERED BY CHROMACORE’CHROMACQRE°BY COLOR KINETICSC H RO MASiccBY COLOR KINETICS0 P T I B I N’BY COLOR KINETICSDRYDAMP1OdWETPOWER REQUIREMENTPOWER CONSUMPTIONPOWER SUPPLY12VDCSOW Max. at full intensity (full RGB(, per 50 node strandColor Kinetics PDS-óOca 1 2V (Preprogrammed 109-000020-00,DMX 109-000020-01, and Ethernet 109-000020-02)ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS (POWER/DATA SUPPLY)POWER INPUT 1 OOVAC to 24OVAC auto ranging (5OHz—óOHz(C EPower factor correction (PFC(US POWER otm’w1 2VDCHEAT DISSIPATION 25 percent of total power outputHOUSING NEMA 4 indoor/outdoor rated enclosureCONNECTORS Data: RJ45 input/output connectors Power: 4-pin connectorENVIRONMENTAL SPECIFICATIONSTEMPERATURE RANGE -40°F to 1 22°F (-40°C to 50°C) operating temperature-4°F to 122°F (-20°C to 50°C) starting temperaturePROTECTION RATING 1P66LED SOURCE UFEIn traditional lamp sources, lifetime is defined as the point at which 50% of the lamps fail. This is also termed Moon TimeBetween Failure LMTBFJ. LEDs are semiconductor devices and have a much longer MTBF than conventional sources. However,MTBF is not the only consideration in determining useful life. Color Kinetics uses the concept of useful light output for ratingsoorce lifetimes. Like traditional sources, LED output degrades over time Ilumen depreciationl and this is the metric for SSLlifetime.LED lumen depreciation is affected by numerous environmental conditions such as ambient temperature, humidity, and ventilation. Lumen depreciation is also affected by means of control, thermal management, Current levels, and a host of otherelectrical design considerations. Color Kinetics systems are expertly engineered to optimize LED life when used under normaloperating conditions. Lumen depreciation information is based on LED manufacturers’ source life data as well as other thirdparty testing. Low temperatures and controlled effects have o beneficial effect on lumen depreciation. Overall system lifetimecould vary substantially based on usage and the environment in which the system is installed.Temperature and effects will affect lifetime. Color Kinetics rates product lifetime using lumen depreciation to 50% of originallight output. When the fixture is running at room temperature using a color wash effect, the range of lifetime is in the rangeof 30,000-50,000 hours. This is LED manufacturers’ test data. For more detailed information on source life, please SOLID-STATE LIGHTING SOLUTIONS • 3 BURLINGTON WOODS DRIVE • BURLINGTON, MA 01803 • USATEL 888 FULL 8GB • TEL 617 423 9999 • FAX 617 423 9998 • INFO@COLORKINE’TICSCOM • WWW.COLORKINETICS.COMAppendix IIIRGB LED - LightWild PixeIs - Part No. LW-UP-1931 March 2008<http:/Iwww. Iightwild .com/products/Iedcomponents_pixels.asp#>.129Product DataIJGHTWIID PIXELSPRODUCT CATALOOLightWild’s Ultimate Architectural Piuel is a versatile low profile cluster of LEDsdelivered with your choice of housings, leeses,aud cable leugrhs. ThePixel is used to wash bottles, objects, acrylics, fabrics,walls,and alcoves withwarm or cool white, blue or other single color, or controlled color-changinglighting. Powerful and bright, the Pivel is aluo effective in delivering animateddirect view lighting effects from walls and building and amna facades.Warm White Amber3000K Nomioal ColorO itg LEOn)1t8 LEDs)Cool White7300K Nominal Color’ItS LEDs)____________8 or 18 LfDs (see color list abovellEt files are at,water-tight connectorsPixels are available with a circular aluminam hoasing, square aluminamhousing, and custom channels and hoasings on a project basis.Housings include supports or ears for screw-mounting to most any surface.Cable Attachment: Cables enter the sides of housings unless otherwise specified.Diffuser: An integrated lens of clear, lightly frosted, or frosted acrylic is available with shecircular and square Pixel housings. Custom housings can also include anintegrated lens if specified.Listingu:LISTEDColor-controllable Pixels can be used in a DMX universe and controlled bythird party OMIt contmllers.White and single color Pixels can be used in a DMX universe, whem they canbe turned on and off and dimmed by third party DMX contmllers.A third parry DMX contmller can be used to initiate stored lighting routines inLightWild MonsterBraie Light Controller. This approach minimizes the numberof channels Pinels consume in a universe because each stored routinerepresents a single channel regardless the number of Piuels used in theinstallation.LightWild: LightWild can provide a complete, pre-programmed solution foryour Plodinstallation with its Monster8rain Light Controller and associated driver boardsand controllers.Power Only: White and single color Pixels can be delivered ready for installation intoon/off scenarios.24VDC (1 20/24OVAC is supplied to power unit 24VDC is delivered to Sutures.)2 watts Iper PioellUnder ideal environmental and electrical conditions operating normal effects,LightWild’s LEDs are expected to last approeimately 50,000 to 80,000 hoursaccording to LED manufacrurers,As with all light sources, users can eupect adepreciation in brightness during the course of this estimated lifetime. Adepreciation in brightness can be eopedited by a change in environmentalconditions, electrical uses, or the types of effects that am used on the Pixels.LightWild’s base Project Pixelis delivered with your choice ofhousings, lenses, and cable lengthsCircular HousingPart No. LW-UP-s 8-sCGENERAL INFORMATIONDescniption:Available LED colon:Source:Beam Angle:Connectors:Housings:Moonting Methodu:Rectangular HousingPart No. LW-UP-s g-s 8UL Listed 131(05, E3062641. suitable for wet locations. Wall, under cabinet,and cabinet mount Use only with Ughtwild supplied Class2 power unit-tOto t5OF(-25to65 ClDry,dump,and wet location use.ENVIRON MENTALTemperature Range:Locations:CONTROL OPTIONSDMX (Effects & Showsi:DMX lDimming & On/Off I:LightWild and DMx:CustomHousings andChannelsPart No. LW-UP-CUSTELECTRICALPower RequirementPower consumption:Life of Bulbs:‘LighshWd wlects 5mm an LEO bin wish, rwge of 27oeK-32eeK with a geal ef marrhing ancei< fur Cs warm white Pixel prodso and hem anLEI) bin wish a range na oitooe.eeeee with a goal vrwatrhing 73veK fur its reel whue tsael product.Pr 1913) 851-3000 • F: (9131 851-3008 B: W: http://wwm.lightwild.ComI. IG lIT WIlD13°Appendix IVData from an interview with Mr. Carl Corrigan,Director of EngineeringDepartment of the Renaissance Vancouver Hotel at10:00 am on December3, 2007, Monday.The Renaissance Vancouver Hotel (RVH), is a 3-starhotel located in downtownVancouver. It has 19 stories, includes 429 rooms and 8 suites,and is over 30 years old.The decorative arrangement of existing lighting on the topround structure, frontfaçade, and rear façade of the RVH was designed byVancouver’s Bing Tomarchitecture firm in 1987 for the same building named theNew World Hotel. The nextbuildings on both sides are black while the RVH has its beige-colouredstucco wallfinishing. In order to make the hotel outstand from theblack background, architectused outdoor decorative lighting to present hotel’s welcomingattitude and attractivequality. Recently, 18-watt outdoor CFLs, which give outwarm yellowish light, havereplaced the former 60 watt incandescent light bulbsfor increased energy efficiencyand reduced maintenance costs. Photocell andtimer have been used to control itsoutdoor decorative lighting. The RVH currently has a staticCFL lighting array of 12018-watt bulbs on its circular top structure and 194 18-wattbulbs on its façadesincluding 110 CFLs on the rear façade and 84 CFLs onthe front. In summer, theoperation time starts from 9:30pm to 1:00am; in the winter,the operation time startsfrom 4:30pm to 1:00am. The whole outdoor lightinghas no festival function and nocolour/pattern change at different times. The whole hotel pays $20,000per month onits electricity bill. The commercial rate of BC Hydro’selectricity bill is 4.5 cent per KWH,which is lower than most electricity rates in Canada and theUnited States. The RVHhas 3 Green Leaves due to its energy saving action.The RVH has flat roof forphotovoltaic cell panel to accumulate electricity.131Appendix VData from Local Electrical Suppliers, KrisChemenkoff from Bernard &Associates and Natasha Kennett from CDM2LightworksMaintenance cost:Replacing a light fixture on the rooftop of theRVH costs $7.00/eachThe estimated time of replacing light fixtures on a façadeof the RVH is 24 hours andtwo electricians. An electrician costs atapproximately $35.00/hour. The labour cost ofreplacement is equal to 2x35x24=$1680.Miscellaneous equipment rental is about$800.00/day; therefore the equipmentrental of replacing light fixtures on a façade ofthe RVH costs $2,400.00 (Equipmentrental day based on 8 hours)(Adopted from Kris Chemenkoff from Bernard & Associates)Fixture Cost:An eW Flex SLX costs $750.00 USDIunit. Itslifespan is expected to last approximately50,000-80,000 hoursAn iColor Flex SLX costs $550.00 USD/unit.Its lifespan is expected to lastapproximately 30,000-50,000 hours(Adopted from Kris Chemenkoff from Bernard & Associates)An LW-UP-i 8-iC costs $105.00 USD/unit.Its lifespan is expected to lastapproximately 50,000-80,000 hoursAn LW-UP-i 9-iC costs $105.00 USD/unit.Its lifespan is expected to lastapproximately 50,000-80,000 hours(Adopted from Natasha Kennett from CDM2Lightworks)132


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