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Concealed intelligence : a description of highly emotionally intelligent students with learning disabilities King, Clea Larissa 2008

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CONCEALED INTELLIGENCE: A DESCRIPTION OF HIGHLY EMOTIONALLY INTELLIGENT STUDENTS WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES by Clea Larissa King  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  (Special Education)  The University of British Columbia (Vancouver) October 2008  © Clea Larissa King, 2008  ABSTRACT This multiple case study describes students who are highly emotionally competent yet have learning disabilities. The study sheds light on how such students perceive their educational experience and begins to answer inter-related questions, such as how emotional strengths assist with learning disabilities. A multiple case study design was used. The participant group ranged from 11 to 16 years of age and came from two separate schools which actively work with students diagnosed with learning disabilities. The study was divided into two phases. In the first phase, the Mayer—Salovey—Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test-Youth Version (MSCEIT-YV) was given to students in the two participating classes. The two students from each class who achieved the highest scores on the MSCEIT-YV were then asked to participate in the second phase of the study. Here, the researcher conducted observations of the participants within the school environment. Additionally, the participants attended a semi-structured interview, with interview questions based on the MSCEIT-YV and school related scenarios. Themes that emerged were then analyzed and compared within and between cases as well as with emotional intelligence research. Case study descriptions emerged from this analysis and a brief follow up interview was conducted with one family member and the participating student as a means of sharing and verifying findings. Participants revealed varying ability with emotional intelligence. However, all students demonstrated strong abilities with the ‘Strategic Emotional Reasoning’ Skills associated with Mayer, Salovey and Caruso’s (2004) theory of emotional intelligence. Moreover, all students  showed a strong ability to use their emotional intelligence to improve academic functioning, with one student in particular displaying outstanding abilities and insights into emotional intelligence. The study contributes to our understanding of the complexity of ability and disability that can exist within students diagnosed with learning disabilities; this understanding, in turn, may be reflected in how these students are perceived and understood by researchers and teachers alike.  II  TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract  .  ii  Table of Contents  iii  List of Tables  iv  Acknowledgements  v  INTRODUCTION  2  I  1.1  Historical Context  1  1.2  Definition of Emotional Intelligence  5  1.3  Scientific Credibility for Emotional Intelligence  6  1.4  Rational for the Topic of Study  7  1.5  Statement of Problem  10  1.6  Bibliography  12  CONCEALED INTELLIGENCE: A DESCRiPTION OF HIGHLY EMOTIONALLY INTELLIGENT STUDENTS WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES  16  2.1  Introduction  16  2.2  Theoretical Models and Measures of Emotional Intelligence  17  2.2.1  Mixed Models  18  2.2.2  Ability Models  22  2.3  Summary of Competing Measures  27  2.4  Background  29  2.4.1 2.5  What Does Emotional Intelligence Look Like  Method and Analysis  29 30  2.5.1  Method  30  2.5.2  Participants  31  2.5.3  Measures and Procedures  31  2.5.2  Analysis  37  2.6  Findings  2.7  Discussion  —  Description of Each Case  46 66  111  2.8  2.7.1  Broad Themes and Their Relation to Research  67  2.7.2  Case Studies Isobel and Asam  69  2.7.3  Case Studies Joseph and Charlie  2.7.4  Emotional Intelligence and ADHD  71  2.7.5  Evidence for Emotional Giftedness  72  2.7.6  Additional Questions Asked In This Study  73  3  Commonalties —  Commonalties  Conclusions 2.8.1  2.7  —  74  Practical Applications  75  Bibliography  77  CONCLUDING CHAPTER 3.1  3.2  70  83  Discussion  83  3.1 .1  Themes and Their Relation to Research  84  3.1.2  Strengths and Weaknesses of This Study  85  3.2.3  Evaluation of Current Knowledge & Suggestions For Future Research  87  Bibliography  89  Appendices  85  Appendix A  Parent and Student Consent Forms  Appendix B  Letter of Consent from Multi-Health System  100  Appendix C  Sample Questions from the MSCEIT-YV  102  Appendix D  MSCEIT-YV Report  104  Appendix E  Parent and Student Consent Forms  Appendix F  Interview Script  Appendix G  Parent Consent Forms  Appendix H  Mind Map  Appendix I  Mind Map  Appendix J  Theme Interpretation Based on Research Literature & The MSCEIT-YV  130  Appendix K  Case Study Descriptions  138  Appendix L  Certificate of Approval  166  —  —  —  —  Phase One  Phase Two  90  107  117 Verifying Findings  —  120  Observations  124  Interviews  127  —  UBC BREB  iv  LIST OF TABLES Table 2.1  Patterns in the Three Areas of Emotional Competence Tested For... 38  Table 2.2  Word Count for Themes Seen in Individual Observations  39  Table 2.3  Word Count for Themes Seen in All Observations  40  Table 2.4  Word Count for Themes Seen in individual Interviews  42  Table 2.5 Table 2.6  Word Count Themes Relevant to Specific Students from Individual Interviews Word Count for Themes Seen in All Interviews  43 44  Table 2.7  Themes from Case Study Descriptions  45  V  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Many thanks to Dr. M. Porath for all her help and support. Many thanks to A.J.K & D.D.K.  vi  I INTRODUCTION 1.1 Historical Context The concept of emotional intelligence “which suggests a range of abilities in emotional functioning” (Lovecky, 2004, p. 251) has, in the past decade, become increasingly popularized and has been promoted as capable of solving most personal and social problems. Goleman’s two popular books, published in 1995 and 1998 respectively, ‘Emotional Intelligence’ and ‘Working with Emotional Intelligence’ brought the concept to the popular media and espoused emotional intelligence as an insightful, revolutionary new perspective on society’s ills and work success. Complementary to this ‘revolutionary’ perspective on intelligence, but far less populist, was Gardner’s (1983) theory of Multiple Intelligences, as published in his book, ‘Frames of Mind.’ Gardner argued that our notion of human intelligence remains limited and proposed eight different forms of intelligence, including inter- and intrapersonal intelligence. Both these authors helped to spark and add to the general interest in emotional intelligence as a viable, independent concept. Further studies established what researchers and many teachers have known for decades, that the concept of human intelligence remains remarkably narrow and ignores a range of abilities and skills which make the rich and varied forms of intelligence.  Despite the resurgent appeal and research, interest in this work can be found throughout the twentieth century. Historically it was commonly understood that intellect alone does not necessarily make for ‘greatness’. Yet, as far back as ancient Greece there was suspicion of emotions and their relevance. This suspicion, in turn, helped to set foundations for Western thought and research into human intellect and ability. The division of intellect and emotion, as compared with viewing intellect and emotion as a complex whole, laid the foundations for the research into emotion that took place in the twentieth century. Resonant of Heraclitus’s and Plato’s reasoning, one strain of Western research commonly described emotion as being simply chaotic responses to stimuli, leaving 1  researchers such as Sechenov, Skinner, Tolman and Woodworth focused primarily on the tangible and measurable aspects of intelligence and emotion (Weiner, 2003). Similarly, later research by Young (as cited in Leeper, 1948) summarized the general understanding of emotion as “a disruption or disorganization of behaviour. The purest emotions... are those in which there is the most complete loss of cerebral control” (p.6). Young concluded that “emotion [has] no conscious purpose” (p.6). It appears that science held little interest, or perhaps had little ability, to deal with the more intangible, fleeting aspects of the human psyche such as emotion and social competence. In the quest to make psychology a hard and fast science, emotion was relegated to the safe and secure position of being an extraneous, disordered response.  Inherent in the process of theory development, an opposing line of research into emotions matured. Almost as an intuitive response to the limited boundaries set for human intellect and ability, this alternate perspective began by recognizing emotions as evolutionarily adaptive and acted as a means of organizing emotion and making it productive. This stance of giving emotion an evolutionary purpose also provided it validity as a subject of tangible research. Traced back to Darwin, who published the first known work into the wider area of social/emotional intelligence, this alternate view examined the importance of emotional expression for survival and adaptation (Bar On, 2006). After Darwin, however, little research was done to pursue these ideas. However, from the I 920s through until the 1 940s numerous authors started to define and measure what was termed ‘social intelligence’. Some examples can be found in Moss and Hunt (1927) and Chapin (1942) who attempted to characterize and delineate socially competent behaviours. Just as now, some authors were attempting to c.evelop and refine a measure of social intelligence (Broom; Gilliland & Burke, as cited by Thorndike & Stein, 1937), with Doll (1935) designing a means of measuring socially intelligent behaviour in young children. Although it appears that both theoretically and as an assessment measure social intelligence was elusive, authors did express 2  confidence that a measure could be found. “Although any unitary trait corresponding to social intelligence remains to be demonstrated; with adjustment of testing measures a construct of social intelligence might become measurable” (Thorndike & Stein, 1937, p. 284). Thorndike (1940) does appear to have been one of the first theorists to take the examination of social intelligence further, concentrating his focus on the idea that there were adaptive social abilities, separate and yet equal to general intelligence. A paper entitled ‘Intelligence and its Uses’ defines the concept of ‘social intelligence’, with Thorndike (as cited in Bar-On) describing it simply as being social competence, relating emotions to the ability to understand and to act intelligently in human interactions. Similar to modern interpretations of emotional intelligence, Thorndike’s definition seems to imply an ability to perceive one’s own and other’s internal states.  An inability to distinguish a ‘unitary trait’, however, did not dampen research into emotional intelligence. Further papers throughout the 1940s discuss the limitations of intelligence theory and intelligence tests up to that date (Cattell, 1943; Garret, 1946; Thorndike, 1940; Wechsler, 1943) and researchers began to examine emotion as a means of explaining the inadequacies in intelligence theory. Leeper’s (1948) paper, ‘A Motivational Theory to Replace Emotions as Disorganized Response’, not only did away with the idea of emotions as superfluous and damaging to intelligence, but suggested that emotions had an intellectually motivational purpose. Describing them as processes which stimulate, maintain and direct activity, Leeper aligned emotion with the assessment of intelligence. More strongly, Wechsler (1940), famous developer of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales, pursued this concept of emotional intelligence through his paper ‘Nonintellective Factors in General Intelligence’, which, as the paper’s title suggests, proposed that intelligent behaviour is influenced by what he termed ‘non-intellective factors’. Significantly, he went much further in 1943, arguing that models of intelligence rem.am incomplete without the full understanding of the impact of social skills on general intelligence. “I have tried to show that in 3  addition to intellective there are also definite non-intellective factors that determine intelligent behaviour” (Wechsler, as cited in Cherniss, 2000, P. 3).  Research on the concept of social/emotional intelligence seems to have waned throughout the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s. Other topics in psychology, such as Cognitivism and Behaviourism, came of interest and held the focus of attention in the field of human intelligence and ability. The I 980s saw a revival in the publication of papers focusing on emotional intelligence research. Ford’s (1982) article, ‘Social Cognition and Social Competence in Adolescence’, again indicated that social intelligence could be differentiated from general academic abilities and Sternberg and Smith’s (1985) article (as cited in Mayer and Salovey, 1993) attempted to operationalize social intelligence. As already stated, the real focus back to social/emotional intelligence came, however, with Gardner’s (1983) introduction of the theory of Multiple Intelligences. Gardner’s now famous theory, which divided general intelligence into more specific abilities or intelligences (as was similarly done by earlier theorists such as Cattell in 1963 and Guilford in 1967), included a conceptualization of ‘personal intelligence’ which was founded on Interpersonal, or social intelligence, and Intrapersonal, or emotional intelligence. Through this theory Gardner created one of the most popular presentations of what is now called emotional intelligence, defining a separate, seemingly complex concept which eventually developed both popular and academic interest.  At present there appear to be two competing streams of research into emotional intelligence, represented by Reuven Bar-On (2006) and Mayer, Caruso and Salovey (2000), both of which have produced alternate definitions and measures for the construct. (Further detail on these two models is presented in chapter 2.)  4  1.2 Definition of Emotional Intelligence Naturally, as emotional intelligence remains a developing concept, today the pursuit of a precise, concrete and settled definition has taken multiple forms. The terms used to define emotional intelligence have been variable and subject to alternating views, understandings and premises. Whether emotional intelligence is part of a broader set of skills called social intelligence, or is in fact an intelligence in its own right are all issues which have shaped the terms and definitions used for this psychological construct. For the purpose of this paper, emotional intelligence or competence is seen as an intelligence in its own right. Moreover, the term emotional intelligence will be used, as it has been the most accepted and common definition for the past number of years.  The term ‘emotional intelligence’, which was in fact used earlier in a German paper by Leuner (1966), is frequently quoted as having been formalized by Mayer and Salovey (1990) (Cherniss, 2000; Ciarrochi, Caputi, & Chan, 2000; Lyusin, 2006; Pfeiffer, 2001; Schutte et al., 2001; Warwick & Nettlebeck, 2004) in their paper of the same name. Although the concept at the time was still considered a subset of social intelligence (Mayer & Salovey), these authors describe the concept as “the ability to monitor one’s own and other’s feelings, to discriminate amon them, and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and action” (Mayer & Salovey, p. 189).  Related more specifically to the competencies associated with theories of emotional intelligence however, Mayer, Caruso and Salovey (2004) detail specific skills in those who are highly emotionally competent, refining their definition to be: The capacity to reason about emotions and of emotions to enhance thinking includes the abilities to accurately perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively relegate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth (p. 197). 5  These authors, consequently, created a four-pronged, hierarchical model consisting of four related abilities. Of these four abilities, perceiving and using emotion (Experiential Emotional Intelligence) are considered the more fundamental, while understanding and managing emotions (Strategic Emotional Reasoning) are the more sophisticated and advanced of these emotional skills.  Despite variation in the interpretation and conceptualization of emotional intelligence, for the most part, definitions of emotional intelligence include at least one of the following elements: the ability to recognize and understand emotions, the ability to understand how others feel and to relate to them, the ability to manage emotions and the ability to generate positive emotions that are self-motivating (Bar-On, 2006).  1.3 Scientific Credibility of Emotional Intelligence Despite legitimate criticism and continued skepticism there are numerous studies (Waterhouse, 2006; Zeidner, Matthews & Roberts, 2001) which strongly indicate that the concept of emotional intelligence is a legitimate construct. It is supported by studies which associated it with key, interrelated behaviours and emotional states such as empathy (Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 1999).  In a report of seven independent studies, Schutte et al. (2001) were able to repeatedly demonstrate how key aspects of effective interpersonal relationships are associated with high levels of emotional intelligence. Correlations were found between emotional intelligence and various aspects of personality and lQ (Brackeft & Mayer, 2003; Palmer et al., 2005; Rosete &  Ciarrochi, 2005; Van Rooy et aL, as cited in Cherniss, Extien, Golernan, & Weissber, 2006). Additionally, a correlation was found between emotional intelligence and real-world success (Aberman & DeLorenzo, 2005; Backman et aL, 2002; Bar-On et aL, 2005; Boyatzis & Sala, 2004; Cavallo & Brienza, 2004; Leban, 2003; Lopes et aL, 2004, 2005; Luskin et al., 2005; Rosete &  Ciarrochi, 2005; Stone et aL, 2005; Van Rooy & Viswesvaran, as cited in Cherniss et al., 2006). 6  Given the construct’s assumed theoretical structure, correlates such as these are to be expected. More interestingly, however, are studies which indicate that, when confounding factors such as IQ and personality are controlled for, emotional intelligence demonstrates itself to be “a singular construct that accounts for unique variance” (Emmerling & Goleman, 2003, p. 10).  A true separation of one intelligence from any of the multiple human intelligences and skills is very difficult. Indeed, as the brain works as a complete unit no ability can truly be understood in isolation, Intelligence serves as an umbrella concept that includes dozens of related groups of mental abilities, with each of these mental abilities having differing levels of development and/or refinement (Alfonso, Flanagan, & Radwan, 2005; Jensen, 2006). It could be assumed, therefore, that there should be multiple combinations of strengths and weaknesses between these abilities. Clearly, individuals can be particularly strong in one area and weak in another. Consequently, research which indicates seemingly simplistic correlation, such as learning disabilities being necessarily associated with a lack of emotional intelligence, are perhaps a dangerously narrow perspective for researchers to take. Certainly, there could be broad groupings of ability and disability; however, trusting simplistic correlations between differing intellectual abilities does remove consideration of the remarkable combinations that possibly exist within and between human skills. This is made more evident when considering present research which seems to indicate that emotional intelligence is a “constellation of traits and abilities that are not fully accounted for by cognitive intelligence and traditional measures of personality” (Emmerling & Goleman, p. 11).  I .4 Rationale for the Topic of Study Within education, emotional intelligence is often touted as making the difference between student success or failure. High levels of academic success are often linked with high levels of emotional 7  intelligence (Goleman, 1996; Parker, Summerfeldt, Hogan & Majeski, 2004; Petrides, Frederickson & Furnham, 2002). In addition, some studies conducted to date have demonstrated a lack of emotional intelligence in children with learning disabilities (Bachara, 1977; O’Connor, 2001; Reiff, 2001). Certainly it is true that a good level of executive reasoning is required if one is to demonstrate any ability in the use of emotional intelligence. “People who are below average in intelligence will.., have difficulty with the thinking part of emotional competency” (Lovecky, 2004, p. 251). However, based on readings of emotional intelligence, Erikson’s stages of social/emotional development, multiple intelligence theory, and the duality of gifted students who are learning disabled, it is not impossible to theorize that there should be students who are both highly emotionally intelligent and yet have learning disabilities.  Supporting the above conclusion, theorists in the field of emotional intelligence hypothesize that not only does emotional intelligence exist but that some people are more skilled at understanding and using emotional intelligence than others (Bar-On, 2006; Ford, 1962; Goleman, 2005; Livingstone & Day, 2005; Lovecky, 2004; Mayer, Caruso, Salovey, & Sitarenios, 2003). This theory proposes that, like intellectual intelligence, some people have a natural propensity for more sophisticated social and emotional understanding and expression. Also, like intellectual intelligence some people develop emotional intelligence faster and more deeply than their peers (Mayer, Caruso & Salovey, 2004; Salovey & Grewal, 2005; Saxbe, 2004; Woitaszewski & Aalsma, 2004).  Broadly considering the processes of social/emotional development, as well as the development of social competence in children, it would be assumed that a child who is highly emotionally competent would have developed both socially and emotionaly at a faster rate. In considering Erikson’s (1968) stages of social/emotional development it would be assumed that these children would surpass their peers and could well be functioning at a level that would be reflective of an 8  emotionally developed adult. That is, they would have moved beyond the stages expected at their age and be at stages more or less associated with adult social/emotional development.  Additionally, Gardner’s (1983) theory of multiple intelligence states that “the current methods of assessing the intellect are not sufficiently well honed to allow assessment of an individual’s potential...” (p. 4). Gardner suggests that there exists persuasive evidence for “several relatively autonomous human intellectual competencies.. that can be fashioned and combined in a .  multiplicity of adaptive ways by individuals and cultures” (p. 9). Echoing the concept of emotional intelligence, Gardner goes on to state that individual ability in both these intelligences can vary. Both the theory of Emotional Intelligence and Gardner’s theory, therefore, support an autonomous emotional intelligence, in which people’s abilities can vary.  Further supporting the hypothesis that there should be students who are both highly emotionally intelligent and have learning disabilities, research has expanded to include the uneven progress of various aspects of intellectual and emotional development (Brody & Mills, 1997; Dole, 2000; Nielsen, 2002; Vaidya, 1993). This has led to an understanding that learners nay have dual exceptionalities (Baum & Owen, 2004; Webb et al., 2005), possessing both exceptional abilities as well as learning disabilities. Multiple research papers and books can be found which study complex combinations of abilities and disabilities (Baum & Owen, 2004; Gund erson, Maesch & Rees, 1987; Lovecky, 2004; Webb et al., 2005). Brody and Mills (1997) state that these individuals “possess an outstanding gift or talent and are capable of high performance, but also have a learning disability that makes some aspects of academic achievement difflcult” (p. 282).  Taking these four theories into consideration, it is not unreasonable to hypothesize that there should be multiple combinations of capacity and incapacity in various human skills, and that these 9  skills should develop at varying rates. Therefore, just as there may be a group of students who have high levels of emotional competence yet have learning disabilities, an opposing combination of strengths and abilities should also be true. We should find students who are highly skilled academically, but who lack in social/emotional understanding and ability. Neurological research seems to present evidence for this, indicating that processing emotional information is a relatively autonomous ability. Specifically, Damasio’s (1999) research shows that individuals with damage to the emotional areas of the pre-frontal cortex performed to a high level on language and intelligence tests, but showed a significant lack of ability with planning, judgement and social appropriateness. This research gives some neurological credence to individuals who may perform very well academically, but are unable to understand or respond to emotions and emotional input appropriately. Other researchers are also able to describe students who are highly intellectually skilled yet have social, emotional and behavioural issues (Dauber, 1990; Freeman, 1983; Lovecky, 2004).  Considering the theories of emotional intelligence and multiple intelligences, the recognition of Erikson’s developmental theory, and the duality of strengths and weaknesses that can be found in students, it can be assumed that there is a group of children who are highly developed emotionally and yet suffer from learning disabilities. Further, it can be suggested that high levels of emotional competence might play a role in assisting these students in ameliorating their learning disabilities. “Emotionally intelligent people often have the capacity to integrate emotions, intellect, and creativity against enormous odds” (Roeper, as cited in Woitaszewski & Aalsma, 2004, p.26).  1.5 Statement of Problem The resurgence of research into emotional intelligence is new and most research into exceptional children has emphasized the two opposing ends of the spectrum, focusing either on gifted children 10  or on those who, for various reasons, struggle with school. As a result it appears that the possibility of students who are highly emotionally intelligent and have learning disabilities has yet to be considered. 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Education, 113, 568. Warwick, J., & Nettlebeck, T. (2003). Emotional intelligence is.... Personality and Individual Differences, 37, 1091-1100.  Waterhouse, L. (2006). Inadequate evidence for multiple intelligences, Mozart effect and emotional intelligence theories. Educational Psychologist, 41, 247-255. Webb, J.T., Amend, E., Beijan, P., Goerss, J., Olenchak, E.R., & Webb, N.E. (2005). Misdiagnosis and dual diagnosis of gifted children and adults. Scottsdale, AZ: Great Potential Press.  Wechsler, D. (1940). Nonintellective factors in general intelligence. Psychology Bulletin, 37, 444445. Wechsler, D. (1943). Nonintellective factors in general intelligence. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 38(1), 101-103.  Woitaszewski, S. A. & Aalsma, M. C. (2004). The contribution of emotional intelligence to the social and academic success of gifted adolescents as measured by the multifactor emotional intelligence Scale Adolescent Version. Roeper Review, 27, 25-30. -  Zeidner, M., Matthews, G., & Roberts, R. D. (2001). Slow down, you move too fast: Emotional intelligence remains an ‘elusive’ intelligence. Emotion, 1, 265-275.  15  2 CONCEALED INTELLIGENCE: A DESCRIPTION OF HIGHLY EMOTIONALLY INTELLIGENT STUDENTS WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES.  2.1 Introduction “IM?y is it that they’re so stupid, yet get great grades?” -  Quote from a Student.  This quote came from a student who was struggling with school, yet displayed a depth of insight and understanding of social/emotional interactions that was well above his peer group. This student showed clear analytical ability when it came to social/emotional information, displayed a depth of understanding and insight into ethical and moral issues and, as such, was somewhat removed from his peer group. To a teacher’s eyes this student displayed all the signs of what could be interpreted as being highly emotionally intelligent, and yet, research has demonstrated a clear lack of emotional intelligence in children with learning disabilities (Bachara, 1977; O’Connor, 2001; Reiff, 2001). Moreover, high levels of emotional intelligence are more commonly linked to high levels of academic ability (Goleman, 1996; Parker, Summerfeldt, Hogan & Majeski, 2004; Petrides, Frederickson & Furnham, 2002). How is it then that this student was diagnosed as having learning disabilities, and yet displayed what appeared to be advanced abilities in emotional intelligence?  The past two or three decades have seen a watershed of interest and research into emotional intelligence. Despite the resurgent appeal and research, interest in this concept can be found from the 1920s through to the 1940s (Broom, as cited by Ford & Tisak, 1983; Chapin, 1942; Doll, 1935; Gilliland & Burke, as cited by Thorndike & Stein, 1937; Leeper, 1948; Moss & Hunt, 1927; Thorndike, 1940; Wechsler, 1943). However, as stated above, it was not until the I 980s that there was a true revival in the investigation of emotional intelligence (Ford, 1982; Gardner, 1983; Sternberg and Smith, as cited in Mayer and Salovey, 1993), with numerous researchers attempting 16  to define and measure the construct (Bar-On et al., 2006; Brackett & Mayer, 2003; Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 1999; Palmer et al., 2005; Schutte et aL, 2001; Van Rooy & Viswesvaran, as cited in Cherniss et aL, 2006; Waterhouse, 2006; Zeidner, Matthews & Roberts, 2001). Present research points to emotional intelligence being “a singular construct that accounts for unique variance” (Emmerling & Goleman, 2003, p. 10).  12 Theoretical Models and Measures of Emotional Intelligence. Due to the elusive and complex nature of the construct several theories have been advanced, with each attempting to better understand and explain the abilities, characteristics and skills that are associated with emotional intelligence. As the ultimate goal of the research is to identify and define a single theoretical framework, it could be argued that multiple theories for one concept demonstrate a fundamental weakness. This weakness, coupled with the surge in both academic and popular interest in emotional intelligence, led critics such as Conte (2005), Landy (2005), Locke, (2005) and Zeidner et al. (2001) to express concern over the volume of research which has been recently produced, research which is characterized by a lack of consensus of definition, an inevitable division of thinking about the construct of 1.1., as well as multiple forms of assessment. However, at this stage in the development of any psychological concept, these multiple theories serve to demonstrate not only the natural process of investigation, but act as a means by which the nature of emotional intelligence can be clarified, illustrating aspects of a complex construct. “Theory building proceeds through successive testable claims, resulting in more refined theories that are evidence based. El theory is in this hypothesis-testing stage” (Cherniss et aL, 2006, p. 239).  As mentioned, since the beginning of the conceptualization of emotional intelligence a number of different approaches have appeared in research, all of which have attempted to best define and 17  measure this emerging construct. Although there are multiple theorists, at present there appear to be two main competing streams of emotional intelligence; mixed and ability models. These models demonstrate an amount of overlap that is of relevance to this study. “Specifically, all of the models recognize that emotional intelligence involves two broad components: awareness and management of one’s own emotions and awareness and management of others’ emotions” (Cherniss et at., 2006, p. 240).  2.2.1 Mixed Models Mixed models of emotional intelligence derive their name from the development of a broader meaning of emotional intelligence, which mixes emotional and behavioural skills with personality traits.  ar-0n. The major author within this model is Reuven Bar-On (2006), who began writing at a time when there was an interest in using social ability as a means of achieving ‘success’ and, more importantly for Bar-On, general weilness. First referring to emotional intelligence as the ‘Emotional Quotient’ in 1988 (Emmerling & Goleman, 2003, p.13), Bar-On’s current model reflects a complex and interrelated balance of emotional and social traits and skills. It is these traits and skills that influence an individual’s ability to produce a level of social/emotional knowledge and behaviour, which in turn promotes psychological wellbeing. Bar-On defines emotional intelligence as consisting of five key components: a) The ability to recognize, understand and express emotions and feelings, b) the ability to understand how others feel and relate with them, c) the ability to manage and control emotions, d) the ability to manage change, adapt and solve problems of a personal and  18  interpersonal nature, and e) the ability to generate positive affect and be self-motivated. (Bar-On, p. 3) In addition, defined within this model is “a cross section of interrelated emotional and social competencies, skills and facilitators that determine how effectively we understand and express ourselves, understand others, relate with them and cope with daily demands” (Bar-On, 2006, p.3). Bar-On bases his definition fundamentally on intrapersonal ability and adds interpersonal abilities as a consequence to personal understanding. Bar-On’s (2004) model consists often competencies (Self-Regard, Emotional Self-Awareness, Assertiveness, Empathy, Interpersonal Relationships, Stress Tolerance, Impulse Control, Reality-Testing, Flexibility, Problem Solving) and five correlates and facilitators of emotionally and socially intelligent behaviour. (Independence, Social Responsibility, Self-Actualization, Optimism and Happiness). Clarifying his position, Bar-On (2006) states, “Ultimately, being emotionally and socially intelligent means to effectively manage personal, social and environmental change by realistically and flexibly coping with the immediate situation, solving problems and making decisions” (p.4).  EQ-i. Bar-On’s (2006) assessment measure of the above model, the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ i), is a self-report measure that was designed in 1997 and tests for the five main areas of his theory: intrapersonal skills, interpersonal skills, adaptability, stress management and general mood (Emmerling & Goleman, 2003). It is an assessment of emotional intelligence designed to specifically measure emotional and social behaviours as opposed to traditional personality traits or cognitive abilities (Bar-On, 2004). In addition, the EQ-i has a correction factor that is intended to reduce the possible distorting effects of response bias often found in self-report measures (Bar-On, 2006). The EQ-i is a 40-minute test that contains 133 items in the form of short sentences. “It employs a 5 point response scale with a textual response format ranging from “very seldom or not 19  true of me” to “very often true or true of me” (Bar-On, p. 118). The measure provides a total EQ score, as well as scores for Bar-On’s five composite scales (Intrapersonal Skill, Interpersonal Skill, Stress Management, Adaptability and General Mood) which comprise the fifteen sub scales. The measure is suitable for those 17 and older (Bar-On).  The reliability of the EQ-i has been examined and “a consensus of findings reveal that... the assessment model is consistent, stable and reliable”(Bar-On, as cited in Bar-On, 2006, p. 9), as is conceptualized by its theoretical underpinnings. Other researchers have reported similar findings in regards to the reliability of the EQ-i (Matthews et al., 2002; Newsome et al., 2000; Petrides & Furnham, as cited in Bar-On, 2004, 2006). In addition, many authors have recognized the EQ-i as a valid measure of emotionally and socially intelligent behaviour (Dawda & Hart, 2000; Derksen et al., 2002; Plake & lmpara, as cited in Bar-On, 2004). More specifically, the EQ-i’s construct validity is strong when comparing the EQ-i with other constructs such as cognitive intelligence, personality tests and other emotional/social intelligence tests. Bar-On (2006) showed that the EQ-i was found to have “the least amount of overlap with cognitive tests..., a greater degree of overlap with personality tests [and] the greatest degree of domain overlap exists between the EQ-i and other [emotional/social intelligence] ESI measures” (Bar-On, 2006, p. 9). Newsome, Caruso and Day’s (2000) research provided psychometric support for Bar-On’s claim that emotional intelligence “is a collection of non-cognitive abilities” (p. 1014) by showing that EQ-i and GPA scores were not correlated. Hemmati, Kroner and Mills (2004) also found a strong, negative correlation between high scores on the EQ-i and measures of psychopathology, depression and hopelessness. It is interesting to note that, contrary to Bar-On (2006), Hemmati et al. (2004) did not find a correlation between the EQ-i and age. This appears to contradict findings from Bar-On’s (2004) own research, as well as the idea that emotional and social behaviours would develop over time. Finally, Bar-On (2006) supported the predictive validity of the EQ-i by presenting 20 predictive validity studies that 20  show “its ability to predict performance in social interactions, at school and in the workplace as well as its impact on physical health, psychological health, self-actualization and subject well-being” (p. 12). The findings presented by Bar-On show the development of a model that has produced a valid concept and measure of emotional intelligence that is not strongly connected to cognitive abilities.  Criticisms of Bar-On’s Model. Despite his ability to demonstrate psychometrically sound measures, there are criticisms of some of Bar-On’s (2006) key conceptualizations. Authors such as Emmerling and Goleman (2003), Gohm (2004), Mayer et al. (2000) and Pfieffer (2001) all state a concern with Bar-On’s broad definition of emotional intelligence. “The Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (Bar-On, 1997) consists of 15 scales that measure self-actualization, independence, flexibility, stress tolerance, impulse control, optimism and happiness. It is almost certain that these 15 scales sample considerably more than the one psychological construct, El” (Pfieffer, p.142). In addition, Bar-On (2004) argues that all known emotional intelligence models and measures overlap with personality traits and cognitive intelligence to some degree. However, he “refuses to include any cognitive abilities... [and] if El is interpreted as a feature of personality alone, then the term ‘intelligence’ is no longer appropriate” (Lyusin, 2006, p.57). It could be argued that Bar-On’s definition seems to align with emotional intelligence being more a collection of skills and personality traits than an innate and developmentally based intelligence.  Despite the common use of self-report measures being standard practice in the study of personality (Emmerling & Goleman, 2003), there are also a number of critics who express various concerns over the credibility given to Bar-On’s (2006) assessment measure of emotional intelligence. The most obvious of these concerns is one which has consistently dogged self-report measures. Social desirability responding, or ‘faking good’, is defined as a responsive pattern in 21  which test takers deliberately represent themselves in the best possible light (Grubb & McDaniel, 2007). Naturally, this response can misrepresent the findings of any self-report measure and, as there are few techniques to prevent responding in socially desirable ways, the validity of the results of Bar-On’s assessment scale could be called into question. Adding credible evidence to this concern, Grubb and McDaniel deliberately set out to, observe the extent to which Bar-On’s EQ-i could be ‘faked’ and found that participants were readily able to do so. “The relative ease with which respondents can substantially raise their scores limited the value of the EQ-i” (Grubb & McDaniel, p. 43). In Bar-On’s defense, however, it should be noted that since the initial publication of the EQ-i it has also been published as a 360-degree measure (Emmerling & Goleman). This allows for the test participant as well as those who know the participant to provide behavioural information. It could be argued however, that the addition of a 360-degree measure produces a cumbersome extension to the simple acquisition of a score of emotional intelligence.  Compounding the issues with Bar-On’s measure is the general tendency for self-report scales to, in fact, test a person’s self-perception of their abilities, without a means of checking if that perception is in fact accurate. As the construct of emotional intelligence is, it could be argued, concerned with self-perception and understanding, this leaves open the possibility that people who are not highly emotionally intelligent may readily consider that they are competent, and answer as such. Again, this could potentially weaken any result derived from self-report measures for emotional intelligence.  22.2 AbilIty Models Mayer, CarusQ and Salovey. Unlike other models of emotional intelligence Mayer, Caruso and Salovey (2000) have narrowed emotional intelligence to a mental ability, rather than an amalgamation of various cognitive, 22  motivational and personality attributes (Mayer et al.). By keeping these traits separate, they reasoned, they would be able to analyze the degree to which these factors independently contributed to a person’s behaviour and general life competence (Mayer et aL).  Developed from the realization that traditional intelligence tests failed to measure emotionally related abilities such as perceiving and managing emotional information, the term emotional intelligence was used by these authors to refer to a cooperative combination of intelligence and emotion, defining it as “the capacity to reason about emotions to [enhance] thinking” (Mayer et aL, 2004, p.197). In 1990, Mayer and Salovey viewed emotional intelligence as a set of abilities hypothesized to contribute to the precise assessment and expression of emotion in oneself and others, the regulation of emotion in oneself and others, and the use of feelings to motivate, plan, and achieve in one’s life. By 2004, Mayer, Caruso and Salovey had outlined a developmental component to their theory and had taken into account that differing types. of intelligence are often distinguished according to the kinds of information on which they operate, with emotional intelligence being presumed to operate on emotional information. Producing one of the more formal definitions in 1990, Mayer and Salovey broke emotional intelligence down into four abilities. Mayer and Salovey (1997) conceptualized this four-branch model as being comprised of the perception of emotions, using emotions to facilitate thought, understanding emotions, and the ability to manage emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth. Reflective of the definition of general intelligence itself, these four branches are seen as forming a hierarchy, with emotional perception at the bottom and management at the top (Mayer, Caruso & Salovey, 2001). Additionally, this definition recognizes that “emotional intelligence has both an internal emotional and intellectual component, and an external emotional and social component” (Lovecky, 2004, p. 250). Intrinsic to the four-branch model is the idea that these skills cannot exist outside of the social context in which they operate (Salovey & Grewal, 2005). In other words, a person must be aware of what is 23  considered appropriate behaviour by the people around them. All these aspects of Mayer and Salovey’s conceptualization of emotional intelligence are taken into consideration in the operationalization of the Mayer, Caruso and Salovey (2003) measure of emotional intelligence.  Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Like Bar-On (2006), Mayer and Salovey’s work subsumes Gardner’s (1983) intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligences and in many ways is consistent with earlier research on social intelligence (Ford & Tisak, 1983). Mayer, Caruso and Salovey (1999) contend that it is not problematic to view emotional intelligence as a legitimate type of intelligence. More importantly, they affirm that emotional intelligence fits within the boundaries of conceptual definitions of intelligence such as those provided by Wechsler. As such, to be considered an intelligence, a concept must match certain standards. First, there must be a demonstration of an actual mental performance rather than a trait or pattern of behaviour. Second, there should be a demonstration of a set of related abilities that are distinct from established forms of intelligences. Finally, there should be evidence of developmental progression in the intelligence. Studies on the MSCEIT provide evidence to support each of these criteria, affirming the classification of emotional intelligence as a separate intelligence and bolstering Mayer and Salovey’s model (Emmerling & Goleman, 2003; Mayer et al., 2000; Mayer et al., 2004).  Arguing that emotional intelligence is the ability to use effective reasoning to take emotions into account (Mayer & Salovey, 1997; Mayer et. al., 2003), an assessment of emotional intelligence was devised which was objective and performance based. “Like other, [traditional] intelligences, emotional intelligence is defined by Mayer and Salovey as a group of mental abilities that is best measUred using a testing situation that is performance or ability based” (Emmerling & Goleman, 2003, p. 14). 24  Mayer et al.’s (1999) first measure of emotional problem solving ability, the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEtS), was intended to assess their original four-factor theory of emotional intelligence. However, the factor analysis of MEIS indicated only three factors: perception, understanding and management of emotion (Mayer et al.; Zeidner, Matthews & Roberts, 2001). This, together with the length of the MEIS, at 402 items, led to the development of the Mayer Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence tests (MSCEIT) (Mayer et aL, as cited in Warwick & Nettelback, 2004).  Still maintaining a view of emotional intelligence as a combination of abilities, Mayer, Caruso and Salovey developed the MSCEIT as an ability-based test designed to assess an individual’s performance on a set of items. (Mayer et al., as cited in Salovey & Grewal, 2005). The shorter MSCEIT is a 40-minute battery which tests a person’s abilities on each of the founding branches of emotional intelligence as defined by Mayer and Salovey, generating scores for each branch as well as an overall score, Incorporated into the test is the understanding, as mentioned above, that emotional intelligence is interlocked with social context. As a consequence, the MSCEIT “is scored in a consensus fashion, with higher scores indicating higher overlap between an individual’s answers and those provided by a worldwide sample” (Salovey & Grewal, p. 282). In addition, the MSCEIT can be scored by experts so that any overlap can be calculated between an “individual’s answers and those provided by a group of 21 emotion researchers” (Salovey & Grewal, p. 282). Both methods are reported to be reliable and give similar scores, indicating that both lay people and experts seem to share the same knowledge and understanding about emotions (Mayer et aL, as cited in Salovey & Grewal), The authors argue that these two qualifiers of the test allow for an assurance that the MSCEIT does in fact test for a separate intelligence. “For tests of El to be considered true tests of intelligence, they must have answers that can be evaluated as more or less correct” (Mayer at aL, 2004, p. 200). 25  Fashioning an assessment battery that accurately tests a construct as comprehensive as emotional intelligence is an ambitious project, but it appears that the MSCEIT is a possible entree. Strong psychometric results are demonstrated in multiple studies, presenting a solid test for emotional intelligence as an ability. Using the MSCEIT as a foundation, Mayer and Salovey went on to develop a youth version of the MSCEIT, designed for children ages 7-18. (Please refer to the methods section for further details on the MSCEIT and the MSCEIT-YV.)  Criticisms of the Mayer, Salovey and Caruso Model. Despite the careful assessment of the validity of Mayer and Salovey’s theory and measure there are, just as with Bar-On, critics who have sited issues with its credibility. One criticism of the MSCEIT is that it may, because of its use of a consensus-based assessnent, be rooted predominately in the judgment of white, western, well-educated males and therefore nay actually be measuring cultural conformity. Additionally, consensus scoring “excludes the identification of [very] difficult items on which  ..,  some of only the most able individuals pick the correct  answer”(Zeidner et al., 2001, p. 268). In regards to this criticism, it is worth noting that cognitive IQ tests have items that are ‘objectively scored’, [and] are scored by .consensus” (Mayer et al, 2001, p.236). Although the MSCEIT has been questioned (Matthews et aL, as cited in Mayer et aL, 2004), these “same [critics] go on elsewhere to recognize that the M SCEIT provides an overall assessment of El that has high internal consistency (reliability).” (Mahews et al., p. 201). Additionally, some of the criticisms of Mayer and Salovey’s work intermix their earlier assessment measure, the MEIS, with the later MSCEIT. In fact, the MEIS was an experimental measure used to operationalize emotional intelligence for the first time (Mayer et al., 2004).  26  23 Summary of Competing Measures Balancing the pros and cons of models from a still developing construct is somewhat difficult. Bar On’s (2006) model stems from a clear, though broad, definition of emotional intelligence as well as years of study in self-report assessment and his research is backed by credible psychometric results. However, it could be argued that models which lean towards a broader understanding open themselves up to potential difficulties which undermine any support for their validity and place emotional intelligence in the realm of “a cross-section of interrelated emotional and social competencies, skills and facilitators” (Bar-On, p. 3). Readers can not help but question results created from a model which presents such a range of components, particularly when Bar-On’s 15 factorial components are compounded by their connection to many aspects of personality, such as empathy and mood (Bar-On). Addressing many of these components separately allows for a more clear and distinct analysis of the effect that emotional intelligence could have on person’s behaviours (Brackett & Mayer, 2003). Consequently, as a mixed construct, the concept of emotional intelligence becomes somewhat ‘metaphoric’ and the term ‘Emotional Intelligence” becomes questionable as the term ‘intelligence’ can really no longer be attributed (Mayer et at., as cited in Lyusin, 2006) although, in Bar-On’s defense, the term has become standard usage.  This broader theoretical stance also introduces the concern of ‘fakeability and the reliance on “self perceiving reports of the respondent’s own emotional intelligence” (Gohm, 2004, p. 224). This leaves the reader of these studies wondering to what extent self-report is able to predict emotional intelligence. “Findings based on these measures must be tempered by concerns about the nature of the constructs they are tapping into and the possibility that self-report outcomes may be confounded by method variance” (Goldenberg et at., 2006, p. 43).  27  In addition, despite his terminology, Bar-On does not connect emotional intelligence with cognition, even though his research does indicate that there appears to be some correlation between high IQ and EQ-i scores. “There is a minimal overlap between the EQ-i and tests of cognitive intelligence” (Bar-On, 2004, p. 126). This seems surprising as, at least theoretically, it could be assumed that a certain level of reasoning would be needed to interpret, translate and act on many of Bar-On’s 15 key factorial components of emotional intelligence. Additionally, Bar-On (2006) agrees that there is a developmental element to emotional intelligence and cites research which indicates that there is some amount of increase in emotional and social competence with age. “Older individuals scored higher than younger individuals on most of the EQ-i scales scores” (Bar-On, p. 120). Arguably, as developmental changes in an ability are linked to learning and therefore cognitive maturity, these findings seem to imply that there are cognitive influences on emotional intelligence that Bar-On is not fully addressing. Numerous authors have reached the same conceptual and operational concerns in regarding mixed models (Brackett & Mayer, 2003; Brackett et aL, 2006; Goldenberg et al., 2006; MacCann et al., 2003).  In contrast, Mayer and Salovey’s (1997) definition presents a more tight and defined conceptualization and assessment. Through their careful and narrow definition of the construct, a solid basis from which to work and create an assessment measure has been formed. “It is noteworthy that Mayer’s thinking seems to provide a more focused and clearly demarcated conception of El and move[s]. .towards a view that conceptualized personality and intelligence as .  related, but are nonetheless distinct psychological entities” (Pfeiffer, 2001, p. 6). Consequently, the MSCEIT is more likely to test for the construct on which it is based. Although the test has been criticized for using consensus scoring, possible answers display a clear delineation between emotionally intelligent behaviours. Mayer and Salovey’s measure holds up psychometrically and their conception of emotional intelligence has been validated. As Sternberg (2002) commented: 28  “An impressive aspect of its work is Salovey, Mayer and their colleagues’ program of  careful validation to assess the construct validity of their theory and measures. In a relatively short period of time, they have developed measures and provided good evidence for both convergent and discriminant validity.” (Emmerling & Goleman, 2003, p. 15) As a result this study uses the theoretical position and measure posed by Mayer, Caruso and Salovey (2003).  2.4 Background 2.4.1 What Does Emotional Intelligence Look Like? This study attempts to describe the academic experiences of students who are emotionally intelligent and have learning disabilities. As such it seems reasonable to step away from the theoretical perspective of the construct and begin to consider the more tangible and practical  aspects of how emotionally intelligent individuals could begin to understand, think and learn about the world around them. This richer, more complete characterization allows researchers to better understar.d and recognize the abilities of these students. Summarizing research by Mayer and his colleagues, a person who is highly emotionally competent is characteristically described as being better able to perceive and manage emotions, using them in thought, and understand their depth and meaning with less cognitive effort. A highly emotionally competent person would tend to be more open than others, solve emotional problems more readily, communicate easily and discuss feelings with a level of complexity. They would tend to be somewhat higher in verb.al and sooial intelligence, less apt to engage in problem or self-destructive behaviours and override negative emotions to pursue goals. It is also assumed that an emotionally capable person would likely display a more in-depth understanding of particular aesthetic or ethical feelings and interactions  29  (Mayer et al., 2003; Mayer et al., 2004). More specifically, the model predicts that emotionally intelligent individuals are more likely to “a) Have grown up in biosocially adaptive households (i.e., have had emotionally sensitive parenting), b) be nondefensive, c) be able to reframe emotions effectively (i.e., be realistically optimistic and appreciative), d) choose good emotional role models, e) be able to communicate and discuss feelings, and f) develop expert knowledge in a particular emotional area such as aesthetics, moral or ethical feeling, social problem solving, leadership or spiritual feeling” (Mayer & Salovey, as cited by Mayer, Salovey & Caruso, 2000, p.400). The above description of emotional intelligence acts as the operational definition for this study.  2.5 Method and Analysis 2.5.1 Method The purpose of this multiple case study is to describe how students who are highly emotionally competent and have learning disunities experience school. Case study research is intended to “investigate a contemporary phenomenon within its real-life context” (Yin, 2003, p.13) and to “expand and generalize theories (analytic generalizations)” (Yin, p.10). As such, this study is rooted within the school experiences of this unstudied group as a means of expanding upon our understanding of dual exceptionalities and intelligences. Consequently, this study is a holistic, multiple case design, studying the global nature of high emotional intelligence and learning disabilities on the school experiences for this group of students (Yin, 2003). The examination of multiple cases gives robustness to the findings in relation to impacting present theory and understanding of students with learning disabilities (Harriott & Firestone as cited by Yin, 1994). For the sake of transparency, it was hoped that the data obtained cast some light on additional 30  questions such as: How does a child with these strengths and weaknesses use their emotional strengths in ameliorating their learning disabilities? And how do these particular students cope with the possible dissonance they experience with their peers? More broadly, it is hoped that this study will facilitate the recognition of these students by teachers and researchers.  2.52 Participants Participants for this study were chosen from two separate schools which work directly with students who have been diagnosed as having learning disabilities. Criteria for attending both schools include evidence of and/or a recent (within the past 2 years) psycho-educational assessment which indicates a learning disability in the skills of reading, writing, spelling or math. Additionally, both schools require that students have average to superior intelligence and no primary behavioral issues. More specifically, both schools do not admit children with sever behaviour disorders, however, they do accept students who have secondary behaviour problems due to their learning disabilities. One school had approximately 30% of its students show attention difficulties, ranging from inattentive issues to hyperactivity. The learning disabilities at this school varied from classic Dyslexia and Dysgraphia to Dyscalculia and Cognitive Efficiency Problems. The learning disabilities presented at the second school ranged from reading disorders, written output disorders, and less often dyscalculia. This school also had several co-morbid designations, including a diagnoses of ADHD.  31  Permission to conduct the study was obtained from both schools. Once this was obtained, the researcher visited one, upper level class in each school and explained to the students what the study was about and gave some details as to what would happen during the study. This explanation included a clarification that observations would take place; however, the researcher did not specify who would be observed. Each class was multi-aged and had students ranging in age from 11-16, with the mean age being 12.86 for both classes. This age group was chosen as it is often at this age where social/emotional disabilities have reached a critical point, were students are actively exploring the social world, the nature of social interaction, and their place in it. Additionally, at this age children’s social acumen is being refined and tested, and they have lived through enough experiences to begin to, if not consciously recognize any abilities with emotional competence, at least demonstrate some level of emotional competence.  2.5.3 Measures and Procedures The study was divided into two distinct phases. In the first phase, parents and students from both classes were asked to sign letters of consent and assent. (Appendix A) In addition, Multi-Health Systems, the test publisher, also requested that parents sign a letter of consent. (Appendix B) Those students who had parental consent, and who themselves assented to participation, were then tested using the MSCEIT-YV. For both classes students were tested in a controlled setting, at a specific time and date at their respective school. Prior to the test the researcher briefly explained again the purpose of the study, pointed out the test’s weaknesses, walked the participants through the test instructions and went over the possibly difficult vocabulary. It was emphasized to the test participants that they were at any time free to ask for help in interpreting and understanding the test questions, that there was no time limit to the test and that no answer was wrong. Students were asked to simply give what they thought would be the best response. With one school three students were tested separately, on another day, as they were absent on the official day of testing. 32  For these students the researcher set up the same testing conditions as those of the class.  Published in 2004, the MSCEIT-YV is a pen-and-paper or online test designed for children ages 10-18. Written at a fourth grade reading level, it is the only emotional intelligence test for youth that is based on ability (Appendix C). It provides subscores in Experiential and Strategic Emotional Reasoning, as well as a total score. A veridical-expert scoring system is used which is based on emotion research and literature in psychology, with the correct theoretical answers determined by experts in the field (MSCEIT-YV Interpretive Guide, 2005). The psychometrics of the MSCEIT-YV are still under review (J.D. Mayer and DR. Caruso personal communications, Nov 4, 2007). However, research on the older MSCEIT, on which the MESCEIT-YV is based, as well as some preliminary psychometric assessment, confirms the test’s validity as an effective measure of emotional intelligence (Brackett & Katulak, 2006; Denham, 2005; Rivers & Brakchett, 2007).  It should be pointed out that a specific segment of the test was not considered for analysis due to both developmental and cultural issues seen by the researcher. Although the MSCEIT-YV was written at a grade four level, test questions appear to vary in reading difficulty. With some questions ing at grade level and some being more difficult. Additionally, the segment of the MSCEIT-YV developed to test for the ability to ‘use’ emotion appears to pose questions which could be subject to cultural influence. Speciflcally, questions ask participants to rate the association between a particular emotion and a specific colcur. As colour is highly subject to cultural bias, it was felt that this portion of the test was not as viable a predictor of emotional intelligence as other portions (Madden, Hewett, & Roth, 2000).  Additionally, this researcher recognizes that this study is apparently susceptible to the Hawthorne Effect. (Chiesa & Hobbs, 2008; Merrett, 2006) It could be argued that students with learning 33  disabilities would be vulnerable to issues of social desirability, particularly when they have the opportunity to be noted for a specific ability. In addition, participants’ parents were asked to sign letters of consent, which clearly explained what the researcher was attempting to study. Undoubtedly, this information could have been passed onto participating students. It could be argued that this information may have impacted participant reactions and responses. In fact during observations, the researcher did note some behaviours that could have been ‘for the researcher’s benefit’. However, observations revealed a range of behaviours, those both reflective of emotional intelligence and those not reflective of emotional intelligence. Additionally, students quickly adapted to and forgot about the researcher’s presents. In regards to interviews, again the researcher did hear some responses that could be interpreted as being a search for the ‘right’ answer on the part of the students participating. However, as conversations continued, and as the researcher attempted to explore responses, the students’ ability to expand and demonstrate a depth of insight into emotion, thought and behaviour would demonstrate itself.  Test results were given to the participant’s approximately one week after testing. For each class the researcher went over, in general terms, the results of the test, and again pointed out the test’s weaknesses. The researcher was available for questions or concerns after results were handed out. Test results were presented to participants in the form of a brief report which explained, in general terms, each participant’s findings. (Appendix D) All test reports were sealed in individual envelopes and students were asked to open these results in private.  Test results from these two classes provided the case study participants for the second phase of the study, with the top two scorers from each class being asked to participate. This second phase, therefore, consisted of four students who met very specific criteria in that they were chosen from students who were diagnosed as having learning disabilities, demonstrated a high level of 34  emotional competence through the MSCEIT-W, and were between the ages of 11 and 16. Again, the parents as well as these four students were asked to sign letters of consent and assent before proceeding with the second phase of the study. (Appendix E)  Observations, Interviews and Case Study Descriptions. The second, larger phase of the study consisted of observations, an interview (Appendix F), case study descriptions, and a follow-up interview. Once the researcher received parental permission, observations of individual students were conducted. These observations took place at school and were carried out over a two to three day period for each individual student. Observations would take place both in class and on the school grounds during recess and lunch. Observational data consisted of behaviours, interactions and conversations associated with emotional intelligence that occurred both in class and during free time. The four branches of emotional intelligence tested for in the MSCEIT-YV acted as a guide to potential behaviours and interactions. As both schools are considered to be innovative, students are familiar with strangers observing teachers and classes. Consequently, all students appeared to quickly adapt to being observed. Additionally, both schools reflected the multicultural nature of the city in which the study was conducted. However, the four subjects used for the main part of this case study, for the most part, came from middle to upper middleclass, Caucasian families.  The settings of both schools were very different. One was a small, former public school. Here observations took place in a small classroom that consisted of approximately 10-12 students. This classroom was a straight grade seven class, housing the majority of what could be considered the more ‘rambunctious’ older students of the school. Observations also took place in a larger grade six/seven split class, consisting of 15-18 students. This classroom was well structured and run by an experienced older teacher. To maintain the anonymity of the participants and avoid influencing 35  the observations, the researcher would discretely observe for 30 to 40 minutes, taking a seat in the back of the class. The researcher would then leave the class during school breaks to write down what was observed. During recess and lunch the researcher would casually walk around the school grounds while keeping a watchful eye on the student being observed. Again, observations would last for approximately 30-40 minutes and then the researcher would discretely write down what was observed. At times observations also took place during extra curricular activities. At this school students were rehearsing for the end of the year assembly and graduation. In addition, the school was actively working to set up a program of peer mediators, and meetings for this peer mediator group were observed. These additional activities provided the opportunity for the researcher to expand upon the types of situations and environments in which to observe the two students at this school.  The second school is accommodated in an office block, which, to some extent, limited ‘out of class’ observations. Observations took place in one, large classroom which consisted of 20-25 students. As this school focuses on the cognitive skills associated with learning disabilities the majority of inclass observations took place during quiet, individual assignments which consist of a series of cognitive based, self-directed, extended activities. Two teachers worked in the classroom and were there to act as guides, assisting students with their individual work. Again, the researcher would discretely observe for 30 to 40 minutes, taking a seat in the back of the class, and then leave the class during school breaks to write down what was observed. As stated, ‘out of class’ observations at this school were challenging. As the school had no grounds or play area, during recess and lunch older students were allowed to roam the neighborhood around the school, going to the local coffee shops and eateries. This made discrete observations of individual students difficult. However, students did have a field, close to the school, where they would gather before class and on rainy days students remained in the halls of the school. In addition, this school also 36  had a number of extra curricular activities as well as a fieldtrip, which the researcher was able to attend. These extra curricular activities consisted of in-class games, dance classes and an interactive music class. The fieldtrip was to a local farm. Despite this, however, the researcher did stay on at this school for two extra days as a means of obtaining as much observational data as possible.  As observations were descriptive ‘portraits’ of the participant, the physical setting, particular events and activities as well as the researcher’s own reactions were documented (Creswell, 1998). Just after observations, when possible, participants were asked to consider to the best of their ability the thoughts and feelings that were ongoing during an event. However, this was done infrequently, as it appeared to encourage what could be seen as socially appropriate behaviours from the participants. AU observations were accompanied by reflective observations made by the researcher.  Once observations were corn pleted, they were analyzed. Analysis provided additional insights and questions which were taken up during the main interview. This interview was intended as an openended discussion and provided a means of examining obserations with the participant, exploring the topic of emotional intelligence as well as developing rapport with the participants. All interviews were conducted privately between the researcher and the student. Three of the interviews were completed at the participants’ homes and one was conducted at a café. This tape-recorded interview was intended to facliftate a truly insightful case study. “The more a [participant] assists.. .the more that their role may be considered one of an ‘informant’... .Key informants are often crucial to the success of a case study” (Yin, 1994, p.84). During the interview the researcher attempted to investigate the questions and incidents that were brought up by the observations and analyze how students understood and considered emotion. and thought. As an additional form of 37  data collection, during the interview participants were asked to respond to two, school related scenarios which had been created by the researcher. These scenarios attempted to tap into the four skills associated with emotional competence as seen in the MSCEIT-YV, as well as the theoretical literature. Through these scenarios the researcher attempted to probe the thinking patterns and reasoning behind the participants’ responses. The primary interview was then transcribed, taking what both the researcher and participant said verbatim.  Data from the interview were then analyzed and compared to the observational data. The results formed the basis of both a broad representation of the participants as a group, as well as individual case study descriptions. Case study descriptions acted as the foundation of a final, follow-up interview, which as conducted as a means of preventing researcher misinterpretation and bias. This follow-up interview also allowed for an exploration of additional, questions that occurred as a result of the analysis. Parents were asked to sign a letter of consent prior to this follow-up inter jew (Appendix G). Again, three of the follow-up interviews were conducted at participants’ homes, with one being conducted in a café. During each follow-up interview the researcher met privately with at least one parent of each student to verify findings and, if possible, add to the richness of the data already collected. The description was carefully read out to the parents and each parent was asked to comment on whether the description appeared to be an accurate representation of their child. Once the researcher had met with the parent, the researcher then met privately with the student as a means of verifying findings as well as acting as an informal debriefing. The description was once more read out to the student, but in a summarized form, and the student was asked to comment on whether the description appeared to be an accurate representation. The parent and the participant were interviewed separately as a means of maintaining the student’s privacy and as a means of obtaining an authentic verification of the findings on each child. As mentioned, data from the observations and the interview formed the basis for each case study description. The case study 38  descriptions were reportorial and acted as a means of defining and clarifying the knowledge presented in the case studies. The study attempted to present the most compelling data, as a means of displaying strong evidence (Yin, 1994).  25.4 Analysis As a means of creating a viable study, various sources of data and analytic techniques were used for this multiple case study. Evidence was considered fairly, to produce strong analytic conclusions and to rule out alternative interpretations (Yin, 1994). A systematic analysis of the collected data was done with the intention of moving through a process of analytic circles where the researcher “enters with data or text...and exits with an account or a narrative” (Creswell, 1998, p. 142). With the intention of establishing a level of reliability to the findings, as well as means of minimizing errors and bias in the study, the data analysis consisted of categorical aggregation, as well as establishing patterns within and between cases (Creswell). The intention was to layer data analysis as a means of creating a mainly descriptive study of students who are highly emotionally intelligent and have learning disabilities.  In the first phase, resufts of the MSCEIT-YV were analyzed. The four participant’s Strategic Emotional Reasoning’ skills (Understanding and Managing) received particular focus. (Table 2.1) Please note that pseudonyms have been used throughout this paper as a means of maintaining anonymity and that these pseudonyms are deliberately culturally varied as a means of maintaining a level of cultural anonymity.  39  Table 2.1  —  Patterns in the Three Areas of Emotional Competence Tested For  Any number above 70% was considered a high score. Any number above 90% was considered a very high score. School I Charlie Isobel  Perceiving  Understanding  Managing  21/32  20/23  13/18  =  67 %  Moderate  High  22/32  20/23  =  68 %  =  86 %  =  72 %  =  77%  High =  87 %  14/18  Moderate  High  High  Perceiving  Understanding  Managing  25/32  18/23  15.5/18  School_2 Joseph  =  78%  High Parker  21/32  =  78%  High =  65 %  Moderate  22123  =  86 %  High =  95 %  Very High  15.5/18  86 %  High  Patterns: All four students scored high to very high on Managing and Understanding Emotions. (Strategic Skills of Emotional Intelligence.) Only one scored high on Perceiving Emotions.  For the second phase of the study, observational analysis was conducted with the view to uncovering what, if any, behaviours were evident that could be reflective of those documented within the research literature on emotional intelligence. At first, observations were given a general review in which the researcher read the collected information to gain a sense of each individual case and the study as a whole. Findings were then used as an initial sorting-out process (Creswell, I 998). Particularly revealing words, metaphors and descriptions were considered and through this process outstanding categories or themes were developed as the data were reviewed and re reviewed. (Creswell). Through word count analysis, the researcher looked for six or seven key concepts and organizing ideas within each case. Once these key themes were defined they were  40  juxtaposed and compared to analyze and identity relationships between them. This was done within each individual case (Table 2.2) and between all cases. (Table 2.3)  Table 2.2 Word Count for Themes Seen in Individual Observations -  CategorylTheme  Times Seen Student: Charlie  Times Seen Student: Isobel  Times Seen  Times Seen  Student: Joseph  Student: Parker  Leadership  2  5  3  3  Understands and manages emotions to facilitate school.  2  0  7  2  Ideal Student: polite, hardworking, cooperative  5  3  3  3  Shows a sense of justice! what is right and will defend this despite risk.  4  0  5  1  Insight into the complexities of emotions I social dynamics  8  3  12  1  Anumberof friends  11  1  3  3  Shrug off boredom and distraction  5  4  4  4  41  Table 2.3 Word Count for Themes Seen in AU Observations -  (The table shows which themes students demonstrated. However, students varied in their ability with each theme.) Categories!Themes Times Seen in Areas of Emotional Intelligence All Case Studies Needed. Shrug Off Boredom and Distraction  Charlie, Isobel, Joseph,_Parker  Manage, Understand  Ideal Student: decent, polite, hardworking student  Charlie, Isobel, Joseph, Parker  Manage, Understand, Perceive  Depth of Understanding of Emotions! Social Dynamics  Charlie, Isobel, Joseph, Parker  Manage, Understand, Perceive  Leadership  Charlie, Isobel, Joseph, Parker  Manage, Understand, Use, Perceive  Lots of Friends  Charlie, Isobel, Joseph, Parker  Manage, Understand, Use, Perceive  A sense of right and wrong and/or a sense of justice.  Charlie, lsobel, Joseph, Parker  Manage, Understand.  Manages/Controls Emotions  Charlie, lsobel, Parker  Manage, Understand.  More Subtle Themes Seen  Times seen in All Case Studies  Areas of Emotional Intelligence  Social Manager  lsobel, Joseph  Manage, Understand, Use, Perceive  Charming/Charismatic/Personable  Joseph, Charlie  Manage, Understand, Use, Perceive  Charlie  Manage, Understand, Use, Perceive  Different from his/her peers, but part of group.  Next these main codes and themes were classified and interpreted based on the four key skills and concepts that come out of the MSCEIT-YV and research into emotional intelligence (Creswell). These key themes and concepts were compared throughout the analysis to those of the interview transcripts; the researcher looked for similarities and differences, as well as evidence which supports or refutes these key concepts within the research literature. Mind maps were also used as a means of visualizing the observational information and representing the information being uncovered in both individual cases and between cases (Creswell) (Appendix H). Finally, the observational data were incorporated into case study descriptions. The themes and concepts 42  derived from the observational analysis included the researcher’s reflective observations, which were made after the direct observations. Reflective notes included the researcher’s own “experiences, hunches and learnings” (Creswell, p.125). lntended as a possible avenue to refute the themes and concepts, the reflective observations in fact added to the richness of the data gathered in this study.  Interview data went through the same process as that of the observation data. Again, this included a general review and a word count analysis, which revealed six or seven key themes. These themes were then juxtaposed and compared to analyze and identify relationships within individual cases (Table 2.4) and between cases. (Table 2.5). It should be pointed out that the word count analysis for Charlie was somewhat different from that of the other participants. Due to his apparent ability with emotional intelligence the researcher was forced to expand some of the conceptual definitions of the word count themes. As a consequence, certain areas in tables 2.4 and 2.5 differ for this participant. Specifically, although Charlie demonstrated leadership ability, this leadership ability was more often directed towards the education of peers on moral issues. Additionally, Charlie demonstrated a particular tendency to spontaneously analyze and examine emotion, thought and human behaviour. This was not seen in any other participant.  43  Table 24  —  Word Count Themes Seen in  Individual Interviews  CategoryITheme  Times  Times  Times  Times  Seen  Seen  Seen  Seen  Charlie  Isobel  Joseph  Parker  Please refer to Table 2.5 for Charhe’s variation on this theme.  0  9  1  Understands and manages emotions to facilitate school.  13  1  12  4  Ideal student; hardworking, polite, able focus on work.  7  0  0  1  Shows a sense of justice/right and wrong.  8  3  2  1  Insight into the complexities of emotions/social dynamics.  14  7  5  4  Please refer  7  2  13  General Leadership Abilities.  Little self-insight into the use of emotional intelligencelLack of Life Experience,  to Table 2.5 for Charhe’s variation on this theme.  Examines/thinks about emotions and how they work and this improves general thinking.  32  0  4  3  Understands (reads) others emotions.  23  2  22  5  44  Table 25  —  Word Count Themes Relevant to Specific Students from Individual Interviews  (The table shows which themes students demonstrated. However, students varied in their ability with each theme.) CategorylTheme  Times  Times  Times  Times  Seen  Seen  Seen  Seen  Charlie  Isobel  Joseph  Parker 2  Self contained and quiet but shows E.l. Understand that emotions are related to sensations and can describe these sensations.  10  5  A Social Manage  4  Verbal Ability  10  2  Describes social interactions and social situations with considerable detail. (Paints a social picture.)  I  Recognizes the connection between own/others emotions and possible future behaviour.  1  General sense of empathy/caring for others.  3  Leader Particularly with the educating of -  9  peers on moral issues.  (Word Count Theme Changed for This Particular Student) Analysis of and insight into emotions, thought  &  behaviour despite a  lack  26  of life  experience.  (Word Count Theme Changed for This Particular Student)  Different from Peers as a result of El.  5  Maturity Well Past Age  22  Hypothesizes about Emotions/Human Behaviour  7  45  Table 2.6 Word Count for Themes in All Interviews -  (The table shows which themes students demonstrated. However, students varied in their ability with each theme.) CategorieslThemes Particular to All Students Times Seen in All Case Studies Insight into the complexities of social dynamics.  Charlie, Isobel, Joseph, Parker  Understands (reads) others and their intentions  Charlie, Isobel, Joseph, Parker  Ability to understand and manage emotions to facilitate school.  Charlie, lsobel, Joseph, Parker  Sense of right and wrong or a sense of justice and injustice.  Charlie, Isobel, Joseph, Parker  Leadership  Charlie, Joseph, Parker  Examines/thinks about emotions and how they work. (Strategic Emotional Reasoning)  Charlie, Joseph, Parker  Little self-insight I Lack of life experience.  lsobel, Joseph, Parker  A mind map was also used to represent the interview data (Appendix I). These main themes from the interview were then classified and interpreted based on the observations, the four key skills and concepts that came out of the MSCEIT-YV and literature on the theory of emotional intelligence (Creswell, 1998) (Appendix J).  A comparison table was also made by contrasting different cases in terms of the codes and themes (Table 2.6). In comparing the case studies, the researcher used categorical aggregation so that a collection of instances from the data are demonstrated (Creswell, 1998). Overall, themes were clearly duplicated throughout the study’s observations, interviews and case study descriptions.  46  Table  2.7  Themes  from  Case  Study  Categories/Themes  Descriptions  Particular to Students  Times  Seen  Case  in  All  Studies  Insight into the complexities of social dynamics.  Charlie, Isobel, Joseph, Parker  Understands (reads) others and their intentions.  Charlie, Isobel, Joseph, Parker  Ability to understand and manage emotions to facilitate school. .  Charlie, Isobel, Joseph, Parker  Leader  Charlie, Isabel, Joseph,_Parker  Examines/thinks about emotions and how they work. (Strategic Emotional Reasoning)  Charlie, Joseph, Parker  Little self-insight/Lack of life experience.  Isobel, Joseph, Parker  .  More Subtle Themes Seen in Individual Students  Understand that emotions are related to sensations and can describe these sensations.  Charlie, Joseph  Social Manager  lsobel, Joseph  General sense of empathy/caring for others  lsobel  Maturity Well Past Age  Charlie  Different from the peer group  Charlie  Finally, the researcher presented the data as case study descriptions (Appendix K). The intention of the case study descriptions is to present the most compelling evidence so that the reader may see completeness and reach an independent conclusion (Yin, 1997). Again, as a means of ensuring the reliability of the data, the case study descriptions were used as the foundation for a brief, follow up interview. Here findings were shared with the participating student as well as one close family member. The follow up interview allowed for the researcher and the interviewee to collaborate and verify the key themes as well as verify the overall description of each student, as presented by the researcher. At this final interview the researcher explored the experiences of these students further and clarified interpretations.  47  2.6 Findings  —  Description of Each Case  “It is like we are buried treasure.” —  Quote from a participating student.  Working through the analysis of the case studies, a general picture of these students began to form. In describing these participants, what became evident was that these were students who obviously struggled with school, but could be characterized as ‘ideal students’. As a group they were decent, polite, caring, diligent, and hardworking; they could also be described as being particularly charismatic and charming. These are remarkably determined and persistent students, despite academic obstacles, and appear to have a depth of understanding and control over emotions, which ameliorates academic difficulties. They can have considerable self-insight, both with emotions and behaviours and, as a consequence, may be able to advise the teacher on the best ways for them to learn and understand the information provided. These students can often be trusted and relied upon to act as an adult. In fact, teachers may find themselves interacting with these students as if they were an adult.  The case study participants were very socially adept. They often had a number of friends and/or had a small group of close friends. At times some of these students even appeared to be able to socially and/or emotionally manage their peers. (However, because these students think about and respond to social/emotional situations in ways that are different from peers some may also be subject to bullying.) These students tended to take on leadership roles either in pair/group work or in social situations and expressed or demonstrated social/emotional behaviours, insights or concerns that are above their age level. (For example, these students tended to demonstrate a sense of justice that is often understood at a level higher than peers.) It could be imagined that 48  over the course of a year, a teacher may note that students such as these, through their behaviour and ways of thinking, may help to develop the collective conscience of his/her social group or even the class’s conscience, particularly if supported by an aware teacher. It should be pointed out that the behaviours noted above are general behaviours that are very subtle and that the student may not behave in these ways everyday or consistently. However, over time, a strong, general pattern of behaviours that are reflective of emotional intelligence is often, though not always, noted by more than one adult.  Below are summaries of the descriptions of each of the participating students. As would be expected, each participant displayed varying abilities and insights into emotional intelligence. All four students, however, scored very well within the ‘Strategic Emotional Reasoning’ portion of the MSCIET-YV (understanding and managing emotions) and the case descriptions go on to uphold these test results.  Case Study One  —  Empathetic Social Manager: lsobel came from a middleclass, Caucasian  family. She was observed in a small class of no more than 12 students. Observations of Isobel took place both in-class, at recess and lunch and during extra curricular activities, which for Isobel consisted of practicing for the end of year assembly and graduation. This class consisted primarily of grade seven boys and was one of the more rambunctious classes in this school. This may have affected observations of Isobel as she was inclined to be pulled into social events. However, during both in and ‘out of class’ observations Isobel appeared to be somewhat better than her peers at pulling out of distracting behaviours and was able to regain her attention when needed, maintaining concentration in class. lsobel took the initiative to take on leadership roles if the opportunity presented itself and in one observation, during a group project, she refocused her partner, setting their team back to work and acting as the team’s ‘director’. Associated with lsobel’s tendency 49  toward leadership is her ability to be what the researcher calls a ‘Social Manager,’ meaning that this student is often able to use her social/emotional skills, such as knowing what to say and how to say it, as a means of gently pushing a social situation in a direction she wants or to gain a social advantage. A simple example of this was seen with lsobel’s ability to comfortably interact with every peer, regardless of his or her age, social status or gender. She often changed behaviour to match the personality of the person with whom she was interacting, as well as the nature of the relationship. It could be assumed that this ability requires many of the social/emotional skills associated with leadership, in addition to some skill with social/emotional input.  The interview with lsobel was conducted privately, in the living room of her home. Isobel appeared somewhat shy at first and had difficulty answering the questions, but as the interview continued she was able to warm up to the questions and appeared to enjoy the discussion. The interview enriched the observations and showed an ability to recognize the complexity of emotions and behaviour. Here Isobel clarified that, for her, reading other people’s emotions is dependent on the personality of the individual whose emotions you are trying to read, demonstrating that there are different factors which will determine the ability to read and accurately interpret another person’s emotions. The inter iew also appears to demonstrate that Isobel has a sense of right and wrong. During the interview she introduced a situation at school in which she took the initiative to stand up for another student. When asked, “What were you thinking or feeling during that situation?”, Isobel responded by stating not how she felt, but how the person she was standing up for could have been feeling. Isobel went on to spontaneously explain what the bystanders who were watching this event could also be thinking and feeling, This seems to display a relatively solid understanding of the multi-dImensionality of social situations. Particular to this case study, however, was lsobêl’s general sense of empathy and caring for others, which was demonstrated in both the observations and interview, In one of the school related scenarios which were incorporated into the interview a 50  group of students maliciously kick out a member of their group. Here Isobel showed a considerable amount of concern and depth of understanding of the emotions of the student who was been kicked out. Going further, she was able to hypothesize about how another might feel in the longterm as a consequence of this experience. “If I was her I’d be kind of sad and you know it would kind of scare me. Cause maybe... you’ll be a little.. nervous if someone wants to be your friend .  [again].” Empathy not only requires a depth of understanding of another person’s emotional state, but a depth of understanding of that person’s social/emotional position and perspective. This student clearly showed this ability during the interview.  The follow-up interview was again conducted in the living room at Isobel’s horne. Isobers mother was privately interviewed first and appreciated the case study description of her daughter and, as other parents n this study commented, was impressed with how accurately the researcher was able to represent their child in this document. Isobel was then privately shown her case study description. This time Isobel was more relaxed and seemed to enjoy having her case study description read to her and, like her mother, agreed with the findings.  case Study Two  —  The Resen.’ed Thinker: Parker came from an upper rn iddleclass, Caucasian  family. He was observed in a relatively large, mixed age class of approximate 20-25 students. Observations were conducted both in-class and out of class, although due to this school’s teaching methods in-class observations were somewhat restricted to individual work. However, break times and extracurricular actives provided additional opportunities for observation. Here the researcher was able to see other sides to Parker’s personality as well as his interactions with peers. However, Parker was the most quiet and ‘self-contained’ of the students who participated in this study. As a consequence the evidence presented may be subject to more errors and misinterpretations on the part of the researcher. Still, Parker’s more introverted nature presents a unique insight into 51  students who present behaviours characteristic of emotional intelligence. Parker seems to indicate that extroverted behaviour is not necessarily associated with emotional intelligence. This in turn could provide some indication that the construct is in fact different from personality and is a separate intelligence, as argued by Mayer, Salovey and Caruso (1999). More importantly, the level of diversity seen in this small study of students diagnosed with learning disabilities has allowed this group to go unnoticed in past research.  Just as with all the case studies, Parker appeared to be better than his peers at pulling out of distracting behaviours. Persistent and patient, he seems a bit better than his peers at maintaining a level of concentration and diligence, despite having to do long activities that require extensive concentration and individual work. It is not surprising, therefore, that Parker generally came across as an ‘ideal student’ from a teacher’s point of view. This is a hardworking, polite, self-contained student who gets on with work and doesn’t act out too much. As a whole this appears to be one of the patterns found with the students observed in this study. Observations appear to indicate an ability to control emotions, which in turn demands an ability to understand emotions. Just as with Isobel, Parker also demonstrates a tendency towards leadership at school, taking the initiative of becoming a leader if the opportunity presents itself. The researcher observed Parker quickly taking control of a peer group, getting the group focused, working and acting as the group’s ‘leader’. Effective leadership abilities require considerable depth of understanding of social dynamics, the ability to read and understand the emotions of others and their intentions within a social situation. In addition, it requires the ability to predict possible behaviours and emotional reactions of others. Despite Parker’s quiet nature he appears to have a small group of close friends, both at school and at home. Additionally, he appears to demonstrate a sense of right and wrong. In one observation Parker attempted to remove another’s student’s homemade weapon, stating, “You should not have that. No weapons at school”. It is interesting that Parker was willing to stand up for this even at the 2  potential risk of being ridiculed by peers. This, again, appears to be a pattern found with the students observed.  Parker’s quiet, analytic nature was very evident during the interview. Conducted outside on a sunny day, Parker also took some time to warm up to the questions being asked him. However, he did not appear to be shy in any way; in fact Parker generally has a calm personality, Instead it appeared that he was simply not used to being asked questions which demanded a level of reflection on emotion, thought and behaviour. Parker’s responses were, for the most part, short, though quite analytical. During the interview Parker seemed to show a good understanding of other people’s emotions and intentions. Additionally, he demonstrated a deeper and more insightful understanding of the complexities of social dynamics. In response to the question, “How good do you think you are at reading other people’s emotions?” Parker refined his answer to include a required period of time in which a repertoire of another person’s behaviour is developed. “Well it all depends on if you know the person or not. It is like. if I know someone really well then it is really easy. Like you get to know all their emotions. Ok! And all the ways they react. “This time is needed before you are able to ‘read’ the other person or accurately interpret what he/she could be feeling. The interview also revealed a general ability to understand and manage emotions in a way that facilitates thinking and school activities. This was seen in more subtle ways throughout the observations, and more overtly in the interview. For example, Parker was asked to expand on a scenario from the MSCEIT-YV that involved a student who was reluctant to study for a test. He was given a choice of three options and asked to choose the most appropriate to facilitate studying for the test. Parker responded by saying, “If you have a snack and watch a TV program it sort of relaxes you and lets you think better. Going to the shopping mall won’t really relax you and it takes a lot longer.” This seems to indicate that this student considered the activities from not only a practical perspective, but an emotional one as well. The response is indicative of how someone 53  who is emotionally intelligent could understand and manage emotions in a way that facilities school work.  Just as with the initial interview, the follow-up interview for Parker was conducted outside on the family’s porch. Again, the case study was read to Parker’s parents, who confirmed that the case study was a good representation of their son. Parker was then privately read his case study description. He also agreed that it was reflective of him and seemed very proud of its contents.  Case Study Three Leader of the Pack: Joseph came from a middleclass family. His mother is -  Caucasian and his father is Black. Joseph was also observed in a large mixed age class of approximately 20-25 students and again, due to this school’s teaching methods in-class observations were somewhat restricted to individual work. However, Joseph’s outgoing nature provided ample observational data regardless of where he was being observed. Joseph has been diagnosed with ADHD, which was evident throughout the study. Despite this, he demonstrated a very strong ability with emotional intelligence; specifically he appeared to be highly skilled with the more advanced ‘Strategic Emotional Reasoning’ Skills associated with emotional intelligence theory. Joseph was characterized as being remarkably charismatic, outgoing and socially gregarious. Strongly orientated towards the social world, Joseph described social interactions in a way which could include running dialogue and emotional detail. These social scenarios were entrenched with observations about others’ behaviours and included interpretation of these behaviours and actions, as well as his ideas and theories about these social interactions. This can be seen in the example below. Joseph: I kind of like, I knew that everybody didn’t want to do the work so when the teachers left that was like the best time to do it. I knew ‘Peter’ would be on board with it. So I told ‘Peter’ and Peter’ told someone and then everybody started jumping up and 54  were screwing around and then you know, ‘Mr. Reynolds’ came in with this look and we all quieted down. ‘Mr. Reynolds’ made a joke and I knew that meant we were not in trouble. Researcher: How did you know that everybody didn’t want to be working?  Joseph:  . .  .1 really... I can just tell. Cause I can see ‘Susan’ is just sitting there and... like,  ‘Ms. Hamilton’, she’s tells me, ‘I don’t think you should be sitting beside ‘Susan’. Um. .she likes to focus on her work.’ But I will sit beside her and give her a little poke. .  [Susan] will give me this fun look and I will keep looking at her and she will give me the biggest poke ever and [I will poke her back] ‘Susan’ doesn’t get mad at me. She will do this and be laughing. ‘Ms. Hamilton’ misinterprets the way I get people worked up. I don’t get people worked up in a way that I get people running around the class. I just get them worked up for them to have a laugh and then go back to their work.  Joseph was a strong conversationalist, with a solid vocabulary. Despit e his diagnosis of ADHD, Joseph clearly showed an ability to understand and control his own emotions and behaviour. Joseph’s present school formally recognized his social skills, and teache rs suggested this student as a potential candidate for this study. This is particularly unusual, as students with ADHD are not often noted for their social/emotional abilities.  Observing Joseph provided a number of occasions which seemed to help confirm his understanding of social/emotional dynamics. The interview went on to reveal an example when he was asked to think of a time at school where he had to control his emotio ns. Joseph went on to describe a situation with peers: ‘Lisa’ was always getting on my nerves. She was always talking about herself and she was really getting on my nerves and she was really making me want to snap and be like, 55  ‘look the world does not revolve around you.’ And I really wanted to say it and it was the perfect timing and everyone would have laughed. But I didn’t. This appears to show an ability to not only predict possible social responses and dynamics, but be able to manage his emotions so as not to hurt or embarrass another person. This was done despite the fact that making this statement could have been socially beneficial.  Associated with this rather corn plex understanding of the social/emotional dynamics between peers is Joseph’s ability to manage and control his own emotions, as well as the ability to shrug off boredom and distraction in the classroom. This appeared to be done as a means of maintaining a level of concentration. It should be remembered that this ability is coupled with. ADHD, which again makes this student’s depth of self-insight and understanding all the more remarkable. It is worthwhile here to recall Mayer, Salovey and Caruso’s (2004) definition of emotional intelHgence, namely that emotional intelligence is the ability to understand and manage emotions so as to improve thought. This student clearly demonstrates this ability in both observations and intervies. During the interview, when asked, “Can you give me an example at school where you were able to understand what you were thinking?” Joseph responded by saying, And I could not stop being annoyed. I knew I was going to be annoyed for the rest of the day, unless I could talk to my teachers about it. So this is what I usually do. I don’t like talking... I like ‘Ms. Hamilton’ and all but she does not understand me as well as ‘Mr. Reynolds’ does. I find that ‘Mr. Reynolds’ understands me a little more. This quote seems to demonstrate an ability to understand and manage his own emotions in a way that improves how Joseph deals with situations. During both the observations and the interview this student showed a consistent ability to read his emotions and manage them effectively. Joseph was also clearly able to understand that certain emotions are related to specific sensations. The understanding that sensations are associated with emotions gives 56  more weight to the appearance that Joseph is particularly good at understanding and interpreting his own emotions, as well as the emotions of others. This ability to understand his emotions was seen to be an advantage at school, particularly when coupled with ADHD.  Joseph appears to be a ‘Social Manager’ of his peers. In one particularly interesting incident Joseph came into class and instantly explained to the teacher that he was feeling ‘random’ and that this could affect his work. He then sat down to get on with schoolwork. However, instead of working, Joseph quickly got those around him to act up. This was done in a fun and playful way. Interestingly, he was well aware of what he was doing and the effect his behaviour was having. The researcher got the impression that Joseph could ‘turn’ this behaviour on in order to get the desired effect from peers. Moreover, Joseph appeared to be using his social/emotional skills to actively remove himself from schoolwork by getting those around him distracted, It should be emphasized here that Joseph was not doing the distracting, but was creating an environment in which other students were pulled out of their schoolwork to interact with each other. However, Joseph quickly realized that his peers were starting to act out too much, and so he promptly returned them to work. Not only does this incident, again, seem to display an ability to understand his own emotions, but it also appears to show an ability to act as a leader. Adding to this incident, Joseph turned to the researcher and said, “See, I can get other people going, just cause I am feeling random.” When asked to clarify the incident during the interview Joseph stated, “I know when to get people worked up and I know when not to... .you can have fun or you can go in there and get killed by your teachers.” This statement appears to show a recognition of his own social skills; Joseph not only acknowledged that he can manipulate others, he understands how to manipulate others and sees the social limitations to this behaviour. Moreover, Joseph appears to have the ability to not only ‘read’ the atmosphere of a class, but can use this understanding to manage the behaviour of others and to reason when, how, and to what extent and in what form to 57  manipulate the behaviour of others. It could be argued that this is a rather sophisticated use of emotional intelligence; being able to ‘read’ people, pick up on their ‘vibes’ and instantly read the ‘social/emotional landscape’ of the classroom seems to give this student a subtle advantage at school. It could be said that this skill provides Joseph with a leveraging point, giving him the ability to read and predict the intentions and behaviours of teachers and peers, and allowing him to subtly manage the behaviour of others. This ability partially contributes to his being a natural leader in his class. If and how these abilities may help academically, however, would be left up to future research to discern.  Again, just as with the other case studies, Joseph displayed a strong sense of right and wrong. This was done in small ways, as seen during one observation when he went out of his way to help another student, stating, “It was the right thing to do” This sense of right and wrong was also seen during the interview, which was conducted in the living room at his mother’s house. During the interview Joseph was his relaxed, outgoing, talkative self, although at tines he drifted away from the conversation, an.d clearly needed breaks in order to get through the interview process. During the interview Joseph was also presented with a scenario in which a group of students maliciously kick out a member of their group. The researcher then asked, “How would you feel if you were a member of this group and you were watching this happen?” Joseph responded by saying,  Joseph: Me! I would feel really bad and sad. And actually convince people not to do it. Cause I would be like, ude, why are you like playing around with her! Unless she did something. Researcher: She has not done anything. They are just doing it for.. .for the sake of it. Joseph: Then I would totally cut the group.  58  This response from Joseph appears to demonstrate a consistently strong sense of the injustice of the situation and appears to be particularly compelling given Joseph’s strong sense of loyalty to his friends and a group.  Joseph’s intrinsic ability to understand others’ emotional states and read their intentions appeared both in the observations and the interview and were supported by close family members. Additionally, Joseph appears to recognize this ability in himself. During the interview, when the researcher tried to clarify how it is that he understands how another person may be feeling, Joseph said, “His body language, the emotions on his face. It is weird, cause it is like I can see right through people some times.” This quote is particularly interesting as another participant, Charlie, who also appears to be very skilled at emotional intelligence, described this ability with very similar language. This ability to understand another’s emotional state was seen again in the interview. Here Joseph was asked, “Do you think that emotions can actually have different sensations, different colours and different feelings associated with them?” Joseph responded by stating: “Well, it really depends on how you look at them. It all depends..., cause everyone has their own opinions.  ...  like some people,... I don’t think they really can have colours, but sometimes they  can.” This. insight appears to demonstrate an ability to understand how others perceive and understand emotions differently. Additionally, it could be argued that Joseph has actually pointed out one of the weaknesses in the test of emotional intelligence used in this study. As people and different cultures perceive and understand emotions differently, it can be difficult to test for set types of sensations associated with each emotion.  Despite the abilities demonstrated above, it was clear during the interview that Joseph’s difficulty in focusing could override linear thinking. This appears to dampen the natural abilities Joseph has with emotional intelligence; however, it in no way diminishes them, The dual exceptionality of .  59  emotional intelligence and ADHD not only makes Joseph all the more remarkable, but his skill and aptitude with emotion and thought should encourage further research and exploration of the multiple abilities students with learning disabilities have.  The follow-up interview was again conducted in the living room of Joseph’s home. Joseph was privately presented with his case study description first. Again, Joseph was charming and talkative, but had a hard time concentrating on the explanation of the description, and again appreciated breaks during the process. Joseph agreed that the description of him was accurate. His mother was privately interviewed next and also agreed with Joseph’s case study description.  Case Study Four Old Head On Young Shoulders: Charlie comes from a middleclass, Caucasian -  home. He was observed in both a small class of no more than 12 students as well as a large, well structured grade six/seven split class consisting of 15-IS students. Observations of Charlie took  place in-class, at recess and lunch, during extra curricular activities, as well as during Peace Kids’ meetings. Charlie was the youngest of the students in this case study; however, he displayed a depth of insight into emotions that was well past his years. Diagnosed with a short-term memory issue, which was somewhat evident during the interview, and having struggled with reading, these learning disabilities in no way impeded Charlie’s abilities to express his thoughts and ideas. Again, this is a very charming and personable student who was a strong conversationalist and displayed considerable maturity as well as a remarkable understanding of emotion, thought and human behaviour. Despite Charlie’s young age, he clearly thinks about social/emotional behaviours and situations with a complexity and depth of understanding that other students in the study did not demonstrate. Charlie clearly enjoys talking about complex ideas associated with emotions and has started to devise a number of hypotheses or ‘rules of thumb’ about human nature and behaviour. It appears that it is now simply a case of life unfolding for him to test out his ‘theories’. Charlie 60  recognizes that he understands and thinks about the world in a way that is very different from many of his peers. At school, Charlie’s peers do not have the level of understanding of emotions and thought, are less able to understand and control their emotions and, most glaringly for Charlie, are considerably less sophisticated in their understanding of justice and fundamentals of right and wrong. Charlie’s recognition of his ‘emotional difference’ formed one of the most compelling moments of the interview when he asked how long it was going to be until his peers began to start understanding and behaving in a way that was more like his own. The researcher is not the only adult impressed by some of Charlie’s insights, understandings and behaviour. Teachers remarked on his outstanding character, natural empathy, quiet integrity and maturity. Although Charlie understands that he is different, what is particularly striking is his surprise at the recognition he receives for his apparent natural ability with emotional intelligence. The researcher suggests that this surprise at being recognized may be a consequence of the ‘hard knocks’ students with learning disabilities often are forced to take in mainstream schools.  As indicated above, Charlie presented ample evidence of what appears to be a very sophisticated ability with emotional intelligence. One striking observation was how different Charlie appeared to be from his peers. This is not to say that Charlie was in any way isolated from his peers or was in any way socially incompetent or unable to integrate. Instead, the general sense was that Charlie thought and behaved in a way that was more in line with an emotionally mature adult. An example of this rather subtle observation was found during an in class observation. Where other classmates were noisy and distracted, Charlie stood out because he was quiet, self-contained, hard working and avoided what teachers would describe as ‘disruptive classroom behaviour’, even when prompted by his peers to join in. During the interview, Charlie actually commented on his sense of feeling somewhat different from the majority of his peers, yet having good relationships with some, particularly those who also displayed emotionally intelligent behaviours. Again, this perceived 61  ‘difference’ does not mean that Charlie is without friends. In fact, Charlie appears to have a number of friends at school, including one or two close friends and confidants. This ‘difference’ from children his own age was again confirmed in the overall research results. ln fact, for the interview data, the researcher had to extend the number as well as content of key themes to accommodate Charlie’s in-depth and involved responses.  Depth of understanding of social/emotional dynamics was also seen in both the observations and the interview, As stated, Charlie appears to have a natural orientation towards analyzing and considering emotion, thought and human behaviour. This in turn often leads to the development of thought and consideration of social/emotional circumstances that are well above Charlie’s years. In one observation, where students were talking about bullying at school, Charlie commented that he thought that one of the reasons for the bullying was because of the school’s small size. We can’t get away from each other and so get on each other’s nerves. Small groups form and they fall out because of some small reason. Or small groups get angry with  each other. If we had other outlets we could make other friendships and that could help to smooth things over, This statement seems to show remarkable insight into human behaviour, cause and effect relationships within social situations as well as considerable maturity of thought and understanding. This maturity was presented again when Charlie, in the same conversation, remarked that although some students feel trapped at the small school, he thought it was a privilege to attend, despite the fact that the school is not perfect. T•his recognition of the school and its efforts to help his learning seems to show extremely good reasoning abilities when it comes to emotions and social dynamics. Charlie appears to be able to reason through group dynamics and social situations to draw conclusions, which improve thinking and behaviour. This, in turn, manifests itself as maturity well  62  above his years. Clearly, this is reflective of Mayer, Caruso and Salovey’s (2004) definition of emotional intelligence.  It is not surprising that, with comments like those above, adults at the school tended to relate to Charlie as an adult and consider him to be trustworthy. Charlie is a member of ‘The Peace Group’, a number of students selected and ‘trained’ to act as peer advisors and mediators for peer conflict. Duties include mediation and conflict resolution. During the observations Charlie was seen being relied upon by staff to work out student issues.  Observations of Charlie displayed other subtler, but perhaps more noteworthy behaviour. Charlie demonstrated a remarkable sense of justice and constantly demonstrated, both in the observations and the interviews, a strong tendency to be willing to uphold that sense of justice, even if it meant ridicule and abuse from peers. When talking with his peers about another group of grade sevens who were known to be the bullies of the school Charlie said, “I don’t always get along with them. I feel somewhat different from them. I tell them things that they do or say are not right, and they know I am right and they don’t like it.” When asked, Charlie confirmed that he was, at some level, dumbfounded and frustrated that the bullies at school were unable to understand the fundamentals of decent behaviour and respect for others. This attempt to uphold and teach ethical behaviour was seen in both the interview and through an anecdote where Charlie appears to be spontaneously using what could be seen as the rather sophisticated technique of ‘passive resistance’ as a means of altering the bully’s behaviour. Researcher...So urn, this person who was mean to people... but you were still nice to them, why were you still nice to them? Charlie: Cause I knew what they were doing. I knew why they were doing it. It didn’t bother me. I knew they.. .were doing it cause they have a low self-esteem, And there is 63  one thing that ticked them off that somebody said so they are going to go out and try to make everybody else [have] the same miserable [feeling].... So I just try to be nice to them and get right up... and say “Oh, no let me pull that chair out... for you” and if it was somebody I had just met I would never, never do that. Researcher: So this person was having a bad day, wanted to take everybody down with him and you were being nice to him as a way of stopping him from bringing everybody else down? Charlie: Yep, it was a little bit of an experiment and again to [also] say “Wow, why are you doing this!” And maybe get it into their heads why are, [they were] doing it. I am doing something obviously nice to you and you are being mean to me.  Researcher: Yes, so basically trying to change their behaviour really? Charlie: Trying! Trying. Researcher: And teach them something? Charlie: Yes! And then they say. “Why did [you] do that?”  The anecdote seems to go on to confirm Charlie’s’ attempts at upholding and subtly teaching ethical behaviour to his peers. In this incident, a number of students were waiting on the school bus to go home. However, the bus could not leave as the school had to verify if one of the students was intended to be sent home via the bus. As a result, some students on the bus were becoming angry and threatening to harass the student who was delaying them. Charlie, however, defused the situation by suggesting that everyone on the bus give the student who was delaying them a big cheer when he returned. As a consequence, Charlie received some of the anger that was intended for the child who had made the bus wait. When asked to elaborate on this story, Charlie stated that he knew that he would receive ridicule for making such a suggestion, but did not want this other student to be harassed again as he was often bullied. 64  Many of the themes found in the observations of Charlie were confirmed and elaborated upon during the interview. The interview as conducted privately with Charlie at a café. As has already been stated, Charlie is a very charming and friendly young man and he greeted the researcher with a warm ‘Hello’ when they met for the interview. Although Charlie seemed somewhat reserved at first, as the interview proceeded he clearly enjoy the opportunity to discuss and analyze emotion, thought and human behaviour. Again, during the interview, Charlie showed remarkable depth of analysis of emotions and how they work and did so in a way which improved his thinking and behaviour at school. During the interview Charlie was also presented with a scenario in which a group of children maliciously kick out a member of their group. Charlie was then asked to clarify what he could be feeling or thinking if he had been one of the bullying students. He responded by saying, It really depends. If the person is doing it once to get their fill of self-esteem, or if they’re doing it consciously cause there was something tragic that happened in their family and they need something to fill that space. So for some people, they could go from being someone’s friend and some friendships where they just need someone to fill that space. Whereas other people go to bullying  .. .  [just to] make people feel bad. They have an  empty space too; where their self-esteem used to be. And they gain confidence by making other people feel horrible. Not only did Charlie considerably expand the emotional understanding of the question with this response, but demonstrated an awareness of the complexity of emotions and behaviour as well as the variables that can affect this complexity. Coupled with Charlie’s ability to examine and think about emotions was a depth of insight into emotions, thought and behaviour despite his lack of life experience. During the interview the researcher was able to engage Charlie in a rather in-depth discussion about bullies and their various behavioural motivations. He was able to give a rather  65  detailed description of the possible thought processes and emotional states of bullies. In so doing Charlie again brings Mayer et aL’s (2004) definition of emotional intelligence to life. He doesn’t think [about] what will happen when he makes fun of this one kid. And when somebody, when a teacher comes up to him he will say ‘oh, I don’t care’. Something like that. And I am not specifically trying to poke fun at him, but there is a lot of people that I know that will say ‘I don’t care. Suspend me if you will, but I don’t care’. And um...that is a big thing. Where if they were emotionally.. .or not emotionally disabled. If they had emotional intelligence and [then people like this] would say ‘Oh, I am sorry, I will never do it again’ and mean it! And they will think [beforehand and] say ‘oh, is this a good choice’? It appears that this student has given some thought to multiple bullying scenarios and the emotional reasons why people behave the way they do. It could be imagined that this insight could provide for better peer interactions, particularly when it came to dealing with bullies at school.  Associated with the ability to effectively interact and understand peers is Charlie’s ability to understand (read) others and their intentions. It is interesting to note that this ability to ‘read’ other people was seen in Joseph, the other high scoring student participating in this study. ‘Like Joseph, Charlie also scored particularly well in the MSCEIT-YV, showed remarkable abilities with emotional intelligence in the observations and interview, and was also pointed out as a possible candidate by teachers. Both students have described this ability in much the same language; that of ‘reading’ people, or of ‘seeing through people’. Charlie explained it in this way. Charlie: You can figure people out and look at the way they tick and read them like the back of your hand. Researcher: So it is as if you can see a whole other level of what is going on [in a social situation]? 66  Charlie: You can see right through them! This ability to understand or ‘read’ other people’s emotions should be of benefit when dealing with both peers and teachers.  It is not surprising that, with such depth of understanding of emotions, Charlie, both in the observations and the interview, demonstrated a solid ability to control his emotions in a way that assists with school. This was clearly demonstrated during the interview when Charlie talked of a situation that happened during a social studies presentation. I was doing an oral speech that I had to do and someone made a poor comment. And I was going to go off topic and [wanted to] say, ‘Why would you say that? It is such an awful thing to say!’ and I could have let my emotions go so out of hand, where I could have jumped over the table and grabbed them by the scruff of the neck and say, ‘Why would you say that?’ But instead of doing that, which would have lowered my grade and I probably would have gotten me suspended from school, I urn.. .1 put it behind me and said, ‘Oh, well, that is not important. They are just doing that because they do not feel good about themselves.’ And I just put it behind me and kept on with my speech. Again, Charlie is using his ability to understand and manage emotions to improve his thinking. Despite Charlie’s obstacles it appears that his abilities with emotional intelligence help him to be resilient and optimistic, which in turn benefits his academic life.  Just as with Joseph, Charlie was able to provide additional information which broadened and strengthened the case for his ability with emotional intelligence. Charlie’s mother commented that many of her adult friends were often surprised at the depth of her son’s insights into human emotion, thought and behaviour. Also, Charlie’s father confirmed that this study’s observations of strong analytical and verbal abilities were also reported in his past psycho-educational reports. 67  The follow-up interview for Charlie’s case study description was conducted privately with Charlie’s mother at the same café at which Charlie’s interview had been held. Charlie’s mother strongly agreed with the case study description. Charlie was presented with his case study description at his home on a later date. Again, Charlie presented himself as a charming, mature young man who clearly enjoyed the opportunity to again discuss human behaviour and emotional intelligence theory. He, in fact, commented on how much he had enjoyed the first interview for just this reason. Charlie agreed that the case study description of him was accurate. However, Charlie did correct the researcher’s used of the term ‘learning disabilities’, commenting that the term learning differences was a more accurate description of students with similar academic issues. The depth of understanding and analysis of emotion, thought and behaviour presented by this particular student was noteworthy.  2.7 Discussion The consolidated findings from the four cases are reflective of research which defines and examines the behaviours and attributes associated with strong skills in emotional intelhgence. Just as is suggested by Lovecky (2004), this study revealed “a range of abilities in emotional functioning” (p. 251). Emotional intelligence varied from a display of subtle, though evident abilities with emotional intelligence to a remarkably high level of depth and insight into emotion, thought and behaviour. This range in ability divided the four students along two lines. Two students displayed behaviours and thought associated with a solid ability in emotional intelligence, but did not show insight into their abilities. The other two students not only displayed the behaviours and thought associated with high levels of emotional intelligence, but also demonstrated a depth of insight into their emotional intelligence, with one participant displaying a remarkably high level of ability. More importantly, however, all students in this case study displayed strong abilities with the ‘Strategic Emotional Reasoning’ Skills associated with Mayer, Salovey and Caruso’s (2004) theory 68  of emotional intelligence and did so in a way which enhanced emotional and intellectual growth. Moreover, all students showed a strong ability to use their emotional intelligence to improve academic functioning.  27.1 Broad Themes and Their Relation to Research Naturally, in making comparisons this study has focused attention on research which examines emotional intelligence in children and adolescents. However, as this particular emphasis on children is not prevalent in research literature some of the authors quoted below consider emotional intelligence in adult subjects, measuring participants within an office setting. If however,  emotional intelligence is, as this study has assumed, a separate intelligence, the examination of findings using adults is not without merit. Fully developed skills seen in emotionally intelligent adults should also be found in highly emotionally intelligent children.  Specific themes in this study are similar to.those which other researchers have defined and clarified as being evidence of emotional intelligence (Denharn et al., 2003; Liau, et al., 2003; Mayer, Roberts & Barsadé, 2008; Schutte, et aL, 2001). The findings indicated that students with high levels of emotional intelligence were better than their peers at managing and controlling their emotions, which in turn is related to understanding and managing emotions to facilitate both academic progress and social ability (B.racke & Mayer, 2003; Eisenberg et aL, 2000; lzard et at, 2001a; Mayer, Caruso & Salovey, 2004; Schultz et al., as cited by Mayer, Roberts, & Barsade, 2008). Additionally, Denham et al. (2005) found that a child’s skill at emotional regulation appeared to have a direct effect on their social wellbeing.  Further studies indicate a strong correlation between high levels of emotional intelligence and a depth of understanding of social/emotional dynamics. Izard et at, (2001 a), for example, found that 69  student EKT Emotional Knowledge scores positively predicted social skills in assertion, cooperation, and self-control (Mayer, Roberts, & Barsade, 2008). Moreover, Rosete and Ciarrochi (2005) found that MCEIT Total Perception and Understanding scores in adults correlated with the ability to promote constructive working relationships. Both studies examined skills which demand a solid understanding and ability with social dynamics (Mayer, Roberts, & Barsade). In regards to emotional dynamics, Dunn et al. (2007) showed that adults who scored high on the MSCEIT were better able to recognize that an emotional response to an event was related to both internal and external factors, not merely the event itself.  In adult studies, Mayer, Roberts and Barsade (2008) and Salovey and Mayer (1990) found that, as with the students in this study, a highly emotionally competent person tended to solve emotional problems more readily, communicated more easily and discussed feelings with a level of complexity (Mayer, Roberts & Barsade). “The skillful recognizance of others’ emotions and empathic responses to [emotions]” (Salovey & Mayer, p195) appears to have supplied the participants with both social and academic advantages, despite their learning disabilities. This finding is relevant in that research is able to draw a strong association between effective social/emotional skills and academic achievement (Austin & Draper, year; DeRoseler et aL, year; Murna, year; Wentzel, as cited in Wentzel & Coldwell, 1997); moreover, it is particularly important in light of research which correlates learning disabilities with social incompetence and a consequent increase in victimization and isolation by school peers (Baurneister, Storch & Geffken, 2008; Mishna, 2003).  These results are similarly found in numerous studies of emotional intelligence in children, all of which indicate a strong correlation between emotional intelligence and successful academic outcomes in children (Brackett & Mayer, year; Bracket & Salovey, 2004; Eisenberg et al., year; 70  Halberstadt & Hall, year; Izard et al, year; Mayer, Caruso & Salovey, 2004; Mestre et aL, year; Salovey & Mayer, 1990; Schultz et al., year; Trinidad & Johnson, as cited in Mayer, Roberts & Barsade, 2008). With ability to reason about emotions and emotional knowledge in a way which enhances thought and behaviour, it is not unreasonable to assume that the students in this study have an academic advantage. They should be able to use their skills with emotional intelligence to mitigate some of the issues and obstacles their learning disabilities present.  2.7.2 Case Studies lsobel and Parker  —  Commonalties  In examining the data numerous possible between case comparisons presented themselves. However, only those that appear to be the most relevant to emotional intelligence theory and its relation to these student’s experiences at school are considered.  As has been noted, the first two case studies presented in this study displayed a strong but varying ability with emotional intelligence, as was seen through the observations and interviews. Consistency between the themes noted for these participants during observations and interviews was somewhat lacking. In particular, for lsobel, leadership was noted during observations, but this theme was not demonstrated in the interview data. Additionally, as was expected from some of the students, both these students also presented evidence that they did not consciously recognize or consider their abilities with emotional intelligence. When the researcher attempted to more deeply examine the reasoning that was behind the behaviours and thought processes presented in the observations and interviews, for the most part, lsobel and Parker were unable to articulate a depth of insight or understanding of their own actions. Both students displayed seemingly contradictory behaviour and thought. For example, during the interview Isobel reverted from demonstrating a relatively complex understanding of emotions, thought and social dynamics to demonstrating only an elementary depth of insight. In another case, Parker was asked if he thought his ability to 71  understand and manage emotions helped with his learning disabilities. The student responded by saying, “Not really.” However, earlier in the interview, when asked how he is able to stay focused on extended cognitive activities, Parker explained how he understood and controlled his emotions as a means of staying focused. The researcher has reasoned that this dichotomy of thought and behaviour may be due to the fact that, to some extent, considering emotion, thought and behaviour is an inherently natural way of thinking for these students; there is no need to question what is, for them, a natural thought process. Additionally, the concept being examined in this study is not readily considered or talked about within North American culture. Talking about the association between emotion, thought and behaviour was new to these students, and this unfamiliarity may have contributed to limiting these students’ responses to interview questions. Finally, because these students have not had the life experience to begin to consider or reflect with any depth how emotions and thought are used, insight at this age could quite naturally be lacking.  2.7.3 Case Studies Joseph and Charlie  —  Commonalties  Cases three and four, however, displayed not only behaviours and thoughts associated with high levels of emotional intelligence, but demonstrated a depth of insight and understanding into their own emotional intelligence. Additionally, themes seen in observations were also seen in the interview data, giving more consistency and validity to findings of these cases and presenting evidence that these two students appear to be demonstrating a more robust ability with emotional intelligence. This finding can, in turn, be related to research into the potential hierarchical levels of emotional skill, which includes self-understanding and self-insight into emotional awareness and behaviour. Emotionally intelligent individuals are more likely to a) have grown up in biosocially adaptive households (i.e., have had emotionally sensitive parenting), b) be nondefensive, c) be able to reframe emotions effectively (i.e., be realistically optimistic 72  and appreciative), d) choose good emotional role models, e) be able to communicate and discuss feelings, and f) develop expert knowledge in a particular emotional area such as aesthetics, moral or ethical feeling, social problem solving, leadership or spiritual feeling. (Mayer & Salovey, as cited by Mayer, Salovey & Caruso, 2000, p. 400) As this quote predicts, both Joseph and Charlie come from households where effective and caring parenting appears to be emphasized. Both are very charming, personable and positive students who appreciated the specialized help they are receiving at school. Joseph and Charlie tended to associate with friends who seem to also display emotionally intelligent behaviour and both are strongly focused on the social world, actively talking about emotion, social dynamics, thought and behaviour. It is also interesting to note that these two students displayed very strong verbal abilities, which researchers have also associated with emotional intelligence (Mayer et al., 2003; Mayer et al., 2004). Finally, both students displayed ‘expertise’ with different forms of leadership among their peer group. Although the above quote is reflective of the behaviour found in all cases on which this study was based, it is remarkably reflective of Joseph and Charlie.  2.7.4 Emotional Intelligence and ADHD Again, Joseph was diagnosed with ADHD. Based on what was observed and the interview with Joseph, it could be assumed that students with attention issues would have a hard time  demonstrating abilities with emotional intelligence. Nonetheless, this does not mean that this ability is not necessarily there. However, in a large public school setting it would take a very astute and insightful teacher to be able to spot emotional intelligence in a student displaying behaviours associated with ADHD. What was of note, however, was that Joseph was able to, because of his  emotional skill, actively assist in his learning and it does not seem unreasonable to assume that other students with a similar combination of capability and learning difference would be able to do the same. If recognized, it could be assumed that students with this specific dual exceptionality 73  could be able to inform teachers of the extent to which they are able to concentrate on a day to day basis, what activities would help them to learn and when an activity should be changed. Such a student could actually be seen as a blessing in a busy classroom, as it is no longer solely up to the teacher to try to gauge what techniques to use with this student and how much this student will be able to learn that day. The teacher could use the student’s self-insight as a tool for him or her to gain increased control over behaviour and academics. Moreover, this may lead to techniques that could be used with other students. The dual exceptionality of emotional intelligence and ADHD not only makes Joseph all the more remarkable, but his skill and aptitude with emotion and thought  should encourage further research and exploration of the multiple abilities students with learning difference have.  2.7.5 Evidence for Emotional Giftedness Although both Joseph and Charlie displayed many similar characteristics, Charlie demonstrated a  remarkable ability and a depth of insight into emotional intelligence that clearly surpassed that of the other students in this study. As a consequence, he introduces the possibility that students with learning disabilities can potentially be ‘emotionally gifted’. With the recognition that ability with emotional intelligence varies, the term ‘highly emotionally intelligent’ has been used throughout this paper. Taking the concept to one of its theoretical conclusions, however, many researchers suggest that there should be such a phenomenon as ‘emotional giftedness’. Researchers (Dabrowski & Piechowski, as cited in Mayer, 2001; Lovecky, 2004;) use the term and there has been some research suggesting evidence of the construct. The highest level of awareness could perhaps be called ‘emotional expertise’ because it involves both expertknowledge about particular emotions and the degree and manner by which they can be regulated. Here are found people who consciously develop their emotions so as to respond with aesthetic, ethical or religious feelings. Regulators at this 74  reflective level tend to be self-observing and circumspect. (Mayer, & Salovey, 1995, p. 205) As already seen, not only did Charlie display remarkable insight into ethical and moral concepts, but repeatedly attempted to educate his peers about ethical behaviour, displaying a strong tendency to be willing to uphold that sense of justice even if it meant ridicule from peers. “Just as the material of knowledge is supplied through the senses, so the material of ethical knowledge is supplied by emotional responsiveness” (Dewey, as cited in Liau et aL, 2003, p. 63). Charlie’s depth of maturity and understanding of human nature made him stand out from his peers, leaving him at times isolated, but not socially awkward. Researchers indicate that people with exceptional abilities in emotional intelligence would “be able to reframe emotions effectively (i.e., be realistically  optimistic and appreciative)” (Mayer & Salovey, as cited in Mayer, Salovey & Caruso, 2000, p. 400). Other researchers have also found a correlation between individuals who scored well on the emotional management portion of the MSCEIT and their “intuitive understanding that wellbeing is [dependent] on how [external] events are construed, dealt with and shared with others” (Dunn et al., 2007, p.91). Again, Charlie demonstrated a far-reaching maturity and optimistic perspective into both his learning disabilities and the bullying he faced at school for being ‘different’. Additionally, Charlie demonstrated a particularly strong appreciation for the efforts that those around him put into helping his education, a perspective that was not always observed in peers at Charlie’s specialized school.  It is also interesting to note that Charlie displayed particularly strong analytic abilities when it came to discussing emotion, thought and behaviour. This is of relevance when researchers such as Mayer, Roberts and Barsade (2008) cite emotional intelligence as being “distinct in that it involves a primary focus on a specific area of problem solving” (p. 511).  75  At present, it is perhaps premature in the study of emotional intelligence to be using a term such as ‘emotional giftedness’. Tests of emotional intelligence, in comparison to IQ tests, are still very much at the preliminary stage and there is, as of yet, no recognized conceptual definition or numerical demarcation that could be used to identify ‘emotional giftedness’. However, Charlie does seem to provide tangible evidence for such a concept. Moreover, quotes from experts on ‘emotional expertise’ seem to describe Charlie perfectly (Mayer, & Salovey, 1995).  2.76 Additional Questions Asked In This Study  In regards to the two additional questions presented by this study, the first question (How does a child with these strength and weaknesses use their emotional strengths in ameliorating their learning disabilities?) can be answered with the recognition that each of these students is using their social/emotional skills as a means of overcoming their learning disabilities. All four students were very adept at remaining focused on schoolwork and were able to compensate for their learning ‘weaknesses’ with their social/emotional sicills. It appears that a high level of emotional intelligence provides for a resilience and optimism which can benefit academic life. Only one student, however, was able to begin to shed light on the secondary question (How do these particular students cope with the possible dissonance they experience with their peers?). H.ere, again, it is Charlie who was able to demonstrate a level of maturity and depth of t.. nderstanding that enabled him to see beyond the dissonance he felt with his peers. Both questions, however, deserve further research to be answered appropriately.  2.8 Conclusions Generalizing these findings to multiple theoretical positions, this study appears to be demonstrating that it is indeed possible to have student who are both highly emotionally skilled and have learning disabilities. Reflective of academically gifted students, the students in this study have excelled 76  beyond their developmental level when it comes to social/emotional understanding. For Charlie, this left him in a ‘social/emotional no-mans-land’. Unable to fully relate to the majority of his peers and yet not in an adult world, it will take a number of years before Charlie in particular is around peers that he can relate to. In the public system, this social isolation of someone who is in fact highly socially competent can be compounded when these students, because of their learning disabilities, are placed in special classes which often include students with varying degrees of social/emotional competence and even behavioural issues. An equivalent scenario would never be considered for a child seen as academically gifted. Although emotional intelligence makes these students resilient, it must be wearing to consistently interact with peers whose social/emotional behaviour and outlook is still developing. Just as with the academically gifted, students with particularly high abilities in emotional intelligence must wait until ‘the rest of the world catches up’ to them. Such students may become lost in a system that is unable to recognize a valuable ability which could be encouraged to flourish and utilized as a means of ameliorating their learning disabilities, giving a much needed boost to these students’ sense of self-esteem.  2.8.1 Practical Applications Recognizing the more practical applications of this research, is it unreasonable to ask an already  busy teacher to try to consider the abilities, skills and weaknesses of each individual student in a classroom? In fact, it could be argued that effective teachers already at least consider, if not recognize, the array of capabilities found in their classrooms. A teacher could recognize the more subtle talents of students who display ability with emotional intelligence through initiatives such as instating a system of classroom roles which include peer mediators. These students’ emotional expertise could be used in social responsibility classes and when discussing issues of ethics. Additionally, these students could lead anti-bullying campaigns within the class and/or school. Recognizing outstanding behaviour and ‘emotionally intelligent’ thought in students could also be 77  used as a platform to talk about and teach behaviours and ways of thinking. Assuming that just as emotion can be contagious, so could ethical behaviour and understanding, this process may even lead to an elevation of the ‘collective consciousness’ of a class, at least if a teacher were guiding this process. It should be emphasized here that studehts should be given these opportunities regardless of academic ability. All too often a student’s learning disabilities become all that a teacher or school is able to focus on, leaving the opportunity to explore a student’s full potential unfulfilled.  The message taken from this study is the recognition of the importance of teaching to the whole child and endorsing the levels of ability and diversity that exist within each classroom. As best as already busy teachers can, we should at least try to actively recognize this potential. Traditional classroom techniques, it could be argued, do not necessarily facilitate this recognition; as a result it is suggested here that alternative teaching methodologies be considered. The Reggio Emilia method, for example, can be adapted to multiple grade levels and allows for students’ interest and abilities to lead the subject area being taught (Salmon, 2008; Yu, 2008). This in turn leaves open the opportunity for a teacher to integrate and encourage students’ natural skills, while accommodating both curriculum and learning disabilities.  Examining the academic experiences of students who demonstrate high levels of emotional intelligence and have learning disabilities sheds light on the complexity of ability and disability that can exist within individuals. Research to the present has, in an attempt to remain focused and accurate, tended to simplify findings for both gifted students and those with learning difficulties. This has created broad categories in which to place and understand students, thereby simplifying the strengths and weaknesses of both groups. In turn, this has impacted teacher training, teaching techniques and how the schcol system tends to perceive and understand students with learning 78  disabilities. Recognition of the complexity within and between human intellectual ability would allow teachers and researchers to develop and facilitate better teaching techniques, instead of limiting our sights on simply the most ‘outstanding’ qualities of a student. 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In line with both the historic understanding of emotional intelligence and present research, the four students present and personify the definition of emotional intelligence used in this study, upholding Gardner’s (1983) argument that our notion of human intelligence remains limited. This argument is made more clear when, as was already stated, it is recognized that the brain includes dozens of interrelated groups of mental abilities, each of which may have differing levels of development and/or refinement.  Within education, researchers and teachers rely on an understanding that emotional intelligence is necessarily associated with academic skill. Certainly, as a general rule, it is anticipated that classes of gifted students are more likely to be populated by students who posses more refined social/emotional abilities. Indeed high levels of academic success are often linked with emotional intelligence (Goleman, 1996; Parker, Sum rnerfeldt, Hogan & Majeski, 2004; Petrides, Frederickson & Furnham, 2002). However, emotional intelligence theory, Erikson’s (1968) stages of social/emotional development, multiple intelligence theory, and the duality of gifted students who are learning disabled all work to create a foundation of research which challenges the compulsory combination of academic ability 86  and social/emotional ability. Further, Damasio’s (1999) work on the neurology of multiple intellectual skills and abilities goes on to emphasis the probability of dual exceptionality, and interestingly demonstrates the duality of high academic skill, with low social/emotional ability. In view of these theories, the examination of human abilities should consider that multiple combinations of capacity and incapacity should exist within and between various human skills, and that these skills should develop at varying rates. As a consequence, there should be, as this study seems to indicate, a group of students who are highly emotionally competent yet have learning disabilities. Further, it can be suggested that high levels of emotional competence may play a role in modifying learning disabilities. To argue that a lack of emotional intelligence is necessarily associated with learning disabilities does an injustice to the richness and capability of human intellect and thereby limits both research and teacher training.  3.1.1 Themes and Their Relation to Research Specific themes were apparent which other researchers have defined as being evidence of emotional intelligence. As a consequence, this study appears to indicate that students with high levels of emotional intelligence may be better than their peers at managing and controlling emotions, which in turn relates to the ability to understand and manage emotions to facilitate school adjustment and learning. Additionally, this study seems to indicate that students with high levels of emotional intelligence and learning disabilities can also use their social abilities to ameliorate the social issues generally associated with learning disabilities. This is particularly relevant in light of other research which correlates learning disabilities with an increase in victimization by peers (Baumeister, Storch & Geffken, 2008; Mishna, 2003). With the ability to accurately reason about and use emotions and emotional knowledge, it is not unreasonable to assume that students who have high levels of emotional intelligence and learning disabilities should be able to mitigate some of the issues and obstacles learning disabilities present. 87  3.1.2 Strengths and Weaknesses of This Study In an attempt to limit the possibility of creating an overly biased description of these students, the researcher considered alternative explanations for the conclusions drawn from the case studies. These alternative explanations and their counter arguments are noted below.  One obvious weakness with this study is the use of a test which is still very much in its preliminary stages of development. The researcher noted apparent theoretical, cultural and developmental weaknesses in the test and attempts were made to compensate for these issues. Despite these issues, as has been noted, there is evidence for the test’s psychometric validity. Additionally, the developmental soundness of the test was also questioned. Although its authors state that the test is written at a grade four reading level, some words used could be considered more difficult than this level. However, test takers were advised of difficult words and definitions were discussed prior to the test being taken. Additionally, students were told to ask if any word was not understood and the researcher was on hand to help during the test.  This study dismissed the use of self-report tests due to arguments against their reliability in assessing emotional competence, yet the interview processes could be perceived as a form of self report. However, as the study used. an ability based measure in the first phase, it had already been determined with some accuracy that the students chosen for the second phase of the study did indeed have a high level of emotional competence. Additionally, it can be argued that by interviewing, observing and assessing a number of participants over a period of time an accurate description of these students is demonstrated. Related to this argument is the issue of the length of this study. It could be suggested that the observations  interviews were not in-depth enough,  resulting in the researcher making interpretations and assumptions that are incorrect. However, the interpretations and assumptions derived from observations and interviews were verified through 88  test results, with the participant, with a close family member and often through the participating school.  As has already been mentioned, another weakness with this study is its seeming vulnerability to issues of social desirability. Students may have been trying to ‘behave in the correct way’ or ‘get the right answer’ as a means of impressing the researcher, potentially a particular issue for students who struggled with school and are now noted as being outstanding in a specific ability. Although the researcher did see  in both the observations and the interviews behaviours and  reactions that could have been ‘for the researcher’s benefit’, students quickly appeared to forget that the researcher was present and displayed an ability to expand and demonstrate a depth of insight into emotion, thought and behaviour. On the whole these students showed behaviours and ways of thinking that are noted in emotional intelligence research.  The families of participants tended to talk openly about emotions, thought and behaviour, partcularly those of the most outstanding students. It could be argued that, as a result, these students were merely  mimicking the behaviours and ways of thinking seen in their families.  Consequently, any display of emotionally intelligent behaviour was learnt. However, test results indicated a strong tendency towards emotional intelligence. Also, the students provided observations, responses an.d insights which in many ways provided strong examples of someone who understands emotional intelligence and its associated thoughts and behaviours. Therefore, it could be assumed that, even if the families have a tendency toward thought and behaviour associated with emotional intelligence, these students show a level of independent ability. Parents, when asked to verify case descriptions, were at times impressed by their children’s insights and abilities, with one mother commenting that her child was Well above her own understanding of emotional intelligence. Observations were conducted at school, not at home, so it could be 89  assumed that there would be less of a family influence. Additionally, interviews were conducted privately, away from the parent’s influence. Moreover, if emotional intelligence is a legitimate, separate intelligence, it could be assumed that there might be genetic tendency towards acting and behaving in ways that are reflective of social/emotional abilities. Therefore, the overall tendency of the participating families towards emotionally intelligent behaviour is actually to be expected.  3.13 Evaluation of Current Knowledge and Suggestions For Future Research The combination of emotional intelligence and learning disabilities has yet to be studied in any depth. This is partly due to the very recent reexamination of emotional intelligence as a separate construct and partly to the lack of research into the complexity of human intellect. As a consequence, these students and their abilities, for the most part, go unrecognized in the main school system. To a great extent the opening quote for this paper summarizes these students. “Why is it that they’re so stupid, yet get great grades?” Struggling with learning disabilities, these  students’ true intelligence goes unnoticed.  Future research could be used as a means of recognizing this particular dual exceptionality. The relevance of this duality, for example, may be demonstrated through a longer, more in depth series of case studies. Additionally, it would be interesting to exam me how many students who have learning disabilities could qualify as being emotionally intelligent and to what extent emotional intelligence impacts or ameliorates the learning disabilities in these students. As has been demonstrated in this paper, some assumptions can already be derived. This study shows that the participants could understand and manage their emotions as a means of improving schoolwork and could provide the teacher with insights into their learning. In addition, these students appear to have the emotional ability to see the ‘big picture’, understanding how their learning disabilities fit into their academic and social experiences. Taking a different perspective, it also would be 90  interesting to examine if and how emotional intelligence manifests itself in students with behavioural issues. Emotional intelligence is often associated with altruistic behaviour. But could it not also be associated with cruelty and the manipulation of others? More practically, however, as there still is a tendency to focus on the learning disabilities of students and to ignore more subtle strengths, future research should consider how these students’ particular abilities can be utilized and recognized in school.  Examining the academic experiences of students who demonstrate high levels of emotional intelligence and have learning disabilities sheds light on the complexity of abilities and disabilities that can exist within individuals. However, this complexity has, for the most part, gone unrecognized in both research and teach ing practice. This in turn has limited teacher training, teaching techniques and how the school system tends to perceive and understand students with learning disabilities.  91  3.3 Bibliography Baumeister, A.L., Storch, E.A., & Geffken, G.R., (2008) Peer victimization in children with learning disabilities. Child Adolescent Social Work Journal, 25, 11-23. Damasio, A. (1999). The feeling of what happens: Body, emotion and the making of consciousness. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Inc. Erikson, E. (1968). Identity, youth and crisis. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books. Goleman, D. (1996). Emotional Intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. Learning, 24, 49-50. Mayer, J.D., Caruso, D.R. & Salovey, P. (2004). Emotional intelligence: Theory, findings, and implications. Psychological lnquIiy, 15, 197-215. Mishna, F., (2003) Learning disabilities and bullying: Double jeopardy. Journal of Leaning Disabilities, 26, 336-347. Parker, J.D.A., Summerfeldt, l.J., Hogan, M.J., & Majeski, S.A. (2004). Emotional intelligence and academic success: Examining the transition from high school to university. Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 163-172. Petrides, K.V., Frederichson, N., & Furnham, A. (2002). The role of trait emotional intelligence in academic performance and deviant behaviour at school. Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 2 77-293.  92  APPENDICES Appendix A  Parent and Student Consent Forms  —  IHE  Phase One UH1VERSTY  OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  FacultyofEducation Parent Consent Form PARENT’S COPY PLEASE KEEP FOR YOUR RECORDS  Title of Study: Concealed Intelligence: A Multiple Case Study of the Academic Experience of Highly Emotionally Competent / Learning Disabled Students.  Principal Investigator: Dr. Marion Porath, UBC Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology, and Special Education, 604-822-6045. Co-Investigator: Clea King, UBC Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology, and Special Education, 604-This research is being done in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Special Education. As such, it will be made a public document. .  Purpose of Study: The intention of this case study is to gain some insight into the particular school related experiences of students who are highly emotionally competent, yet have learning disabilities. Emotional competence is associated with the ability to reason about emotions as a means of enhancing thinking. It is hoped that this study will help to demonstrate how a child who has this combination of strengths and weaknesses understands their educational experience. In addition, it is hoped that the study will demonstrate how emotional strengths assist or interact with learning disabilities. Your child is being invited to participate in the first phase of this study.  Study Procedures: Your child will complete a multiple-choice test that assesses the ability to perceive, use, understand and manage emotions. All students from your child’s class will write the test together, at the same time and date. The test takes approximately 40 minutes and will be scheduled in consultation with your child’s teacher. Additionally, Multi-Health Systems, the company that produces the test, requires that parents of all participating students sign the company’s consent form prior to testing. This means that two consent forms will be signed prior to your child’s participation. If you do not want your child to participate in the study they will be given other work assigned by their teacher. In the few weeks after testing the researcher will be making some general observations of the class. These observations will take place both inside the classroom and at recess and lunch. There will be five observations in total, each lasting 30 minutes. For participating students, a general, brief explanation of what the test results mean will be given as a class. This explanation will take approximately 15 minutes. It will happen in consultation with the class teacher and during school time. Actual test results will be given on an individual basis in the form of a brief report. Results are expected to be available approximately two weeks after students have been tested. Once this testing is completed the researcher will ask two students from the class to participate in a more indepth investigation into how students who are both highly emotionally competent and have learning disabilities understand their school experiences. If your child is asked to participate in this part of the study, they will be interviewed individually for about one hour. He/she will be asked some general questions about specific school related experiences as a highly emotionally competent student who has learning disabilities. Privacy will be maintained by conducting these interviews at the child’s home, or another place that 93  maintains privacy. The interviews will be tape-recorded and transcribed. In addition, the researcher will be making some observations of these participating children at school. These observations will take place both inside the classroom and during recess and lunch. There will be five observations, each lasting approximately 30 minutes. Finally, these children will participate in a concluding interview of approximately one hour, which will act as a means of sharing and verifying the findings. This interview will also be tape-recorded and then transcribed. Additionally, parents of these participating children will also be asked to attend an interview that will last for about one hour and will be held at home or another place that maintains the child’s anonymity. During this interview participating parents will be asked to act as an expert and verify if the researcher’s fmdings reflect the child’s behaviours and ways of thinking. This interview will be taperecorded and then transcribed. Participating children will be told that the information from this study will be shared with their parents. The infonnation will also eventually be shared with a wider, academic audience. You will receive separate consent letters if your child is asked to participate in the second part of the study. Potential Benefits: Participants may gain insight into their own emotional intelligence. Your child’s contribution will add to the understanding of emotional intelligence, and will help in the understanding of the combination of strengths and abilities found with students who have learning disabilities. If you would like a report of the findings, please include your name and mailing address at the end of the researcher’s copy of the consent form. Potential Risks: Some students could possibly experience some test anxiety. However, it will be made very clear that this is not an academic test. In fact, the activity is quite fun to do. If, however, any child does appear to be experiencing test anxiety the researcher will discretely give the student the option of stopping. It is assumed that the experience and the results will be interesting to both you and your child. Your child is free to withdraw from the study at any time without jeopardy to their class standing. This will be made very clear before the test. Confidentiality: Your child’s name will not be associated in any way with their test. Tests will be coded by number. Your and your child’s consent forms will be stored separately from the test. The only people who will have access to the test materials will be the principal investigator and co-investigator. You will have access to your child’s results. Remuneration: There is no remuneration for participating in this study. Participation is on a voluntary basis. Contact information for this Study: If you have any questions or desire further information with respect to this study, you may contact myself, Clea King or Dr. Marion Porath. Principal Investigator: Dr. Marion Porath Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology, and Special Education Scarfe 2314 2125 Main Mall UBC Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z2 Tel: 604-822-6045 E-mail: mporath21interchange.ubc.ca -  —  Co-Investigator: Clea King Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology, and Special Education Scarfe 2314 2125 Main Mall UBC Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z2 Tel: 604-E-mail: @yahoo.co.uk -  —  -  Contact Reardin Concerns about the Rights of Research Subjects: If you have any concerns about your child’s treatment or rights as a research subject, you may contact the Research Subject Information Line in the UBC Office of Research Services at 604-822-8598 or via E-mail at RSIL@ors.ubc.ca.  94  Consent: Your child’s participation in this study is entirely voluntary. Your child may refuse to participate or withdraw from the study at any time, without jeopardy to their class standing. The researcher must have signed copies of the parent’s consent form as well as the student’s signature on the student assent form before the student can participate.  In addition, the testing company also requests that their letter of consent be filled out and signed before your child can participate. Your signature below indicates that you have received a copy of this consent form for your own records. ‘I consent/I do not consent (circle one) to my child participating in this study.’  Parent or Guardian Signature  Date  Printed Name of Parent or Guardian signing above  Printed Name of Child  Please make sure to sign both your copi of the consent form and the researcher’s copy. Thank you! No student may participate in the study without the researcher receiving a si2ned copy of the consent form.  95  THE  UNIVESTY  OF  RITSH  COEUM8A  UBC  FacultyofEducation Parent Consent Form RESEARCHER’S COPY Title of Study: Concealed Intelligence: A Multiple Case Study of the Academic Experience of Highly Emotionally Competent I Learning Disabled Students. Principal Investigator: Dr. Marion Porath, UBC Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology, and Special Education, 604-822-6045.  Co-Investhator: Clea King, UBC Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology, and Special Education, 604--. This research is being done in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Special Education. As such, it will be made a public document. Purpose of Study: The intention of this case study is to gain some insight into the particular school related  experiences of students who are highly emotionally competent, yet have learning disabilities. Emotional competence is associated with the ability to reason about emotions as a means of enhancing thinking. It is hoped that this study will help to demonstrate how a child who has this combination of strengths and weaknesses understands their educational experience. In addition, it is hoped that the study will demonstrate how emotional strengths assist or interact with learning disabilities. Your child is being invited to participate in the first phase of this study.  Study Procedures: Your child will complete a multiple-choice test that assesses the ability to perceive, use,  understand and manage emotions. All students from your child’s class will write the test together, at the same time and date. The test takes approximately 40 minutes and will be scheduled in consultation with your child’s teacher. Additionally, Multi-Health Systems, the company that produces the test, requires that parents of all participating students sign the company’s consent form prior to testing. This means that two consent forms will be signed prior to your child’s participation. If you do not want your child to participate in the study they will be given other work assigned by their teacher. In the few weeks after testing the researcher will be making some general observations of the class. These observations will take place both inside the classroom and at recess and lunch. There will be five observations in total, each lasting 30 minutes. For participating students, a general, brief explanation of what the test results mean will be given as a class. This explanation will take approximately 15 minutes. It will happen in consultation with the class teacher and during school time. Actual test results will be given on an individual basis in the form of a brief report. Results are expected to be available approximately two weeks after students have been tested. Once this testing is completed the researcher will ask two students from the class to participate in a more indepth investigation into how students who are both highly emotionally competent and have learning disabilities understand their school experiences. If your child is asked to participate in this part of the study they will be interviewed individually for about one hour. He/she will be asked some general questions about specific school related experiences as a highly emotionally competent student who has learning disabilities. Privacy will be maintained by conducting these interviews at the child’s home, or another place that maintains privacy. The interviews will be tape-recorded and transcribed. In addition, the researcher will be making some observations of these participating children at school. These observations will take place both inside the classroom and during recess and lunch. There will be five observations, each lasting approximately 30 minutes. Finally, these children will participate in a concluding interview of approximately one hour, which will act as a means of sharing and verifying the findings. This interview will also be tape-recorded and 96  then transcribed. Additionally, parents of these participating children will also be asked to attend an interview that will last for about one hour and will be held at home or another place that maintains the child’s anonymity. During this interview participating parents will be asked to act as an expert and verify if the researcher’s findings reflect the child’s behaviours and ways of thinking. This interview will be taperecorded and then transcribed. Participating children will be told that the information from this study will be shared with their parents. The information will also eventually be shared with a wider, academic audience. You will receive separate consent letters if your child is asked to participate in the second part of the study. Potential Benefits: Participants may gain insight into their own emotional intelligence. Your child’s contribution will add to the understanding of emotional intelligence, and will help in the understanding of the combination of strengths and abilities found with students who have learning disabilities. If you would like a report of the findings, please include your name and mailing address at the end of the researcher’s copy of the consent form. Potential Risks: Some students could possibly experience some test anxiety. However, it will be made very clear that this is not an academic test. In fact, the activity is quite fun to do. If, however, any child does appear to be experiencing test anxiety the researcher will discretely give the student the option of stopping. It is assumed that the experience and the results will be interesting to both you and your child. Your child is free to withdraw from the study at any time without jeopardy to their class standing. This will be made very clear before the test. Confidentiality: Your child’s name will not be associated in any way with their test. Tests will be coded by number. Your and your child’s consent forms will be stored separately from the test. The only people who will have access to the test materials will be the principal investigator and co-investigator. You will have access to your child’s results. Remuneration: There is no remuneration for participating in this study. Participation is on a voluntary basis. Contact information for this Study: If you have any questions or desire further information with respect to this study, you may contact myself, Clea King or Dr. Marion Porath. Principal Investigator: Dr. Marion Porath Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology, and Special Education Scarfe23l4-2l25MainMall—UBC Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z2 Tel: 604-822-6045 E-mail: mporathinterchange.ubc.ca  Co-Investigator: Clea King Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology, and Special Education Scarfe23l4-2l25MainMall—UBC Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z2 Tel: 604E-mail: yahoo.co.uk —  Contact Repardiin Concerns about the Rights of Research Subjects: If you have any concerns about your child’s treatment or rights as a research subject, you may contact the Research Subject Information Line in the UBC Office of Research Services at 604-822-8598 or via E-mail at RSIL@ors.ubc.ca. Consent: Your child’s participation in this study is entirely voluntary. Your child may refuse to participate or withdraw from the study at any time, without jeopardy to their class standing. The researcher must have signed copies of the parent’s consent form as well as the student’s signature on the student assent form before the student can participate. In addition, the testing company also requests that their letter of consent be filled out and signed before your child can participate. 97  Your signature below indicates that you have received a copy of this consent form for your own records. ‘I consent/I do not consent (circle one) to my child participating in this study.’  Parent or Guardian Signature  Date  Printed Name of Parent or Guardian signing above  Printed Name of Child  MAILING ADDRESS REQUESTING A REPORT OF THE FINDiNGS FROM THE OVERALL STUDY (optional’):  98  THE  UNVERSTY  OF  BRITISH  COLUM8A  :IJBC,  FacultyofEducation Student Assent Form STUDENT COPY PLEASE KEEP AND GIVE TO YOUR PARENTS Title of Study: Concealed Intelligence: A Multiple Case Study of the Academic Experience of Highly Emotionally Competent I Learning Disabled Students. People Doing the Study: Dr. Marion Porath and Clea King, Graduate Student. Why Are We Doing the Study? Some people are really good at understanding and working with thefr own emotions and Other people’s emotions. I want to know what it is like if you are really good at understanding emotions, but have learning disabilities. What Are You Going To Do? You are going to write a test that may show how good you are at being emotionally intelligent. It is not like a test you would get in math class. There are no wrong answers. This test just helps to show how you think about emotions. It will take about 40 minutes to 1 hour and everyone in the class will write it together, at the same time. If you do not want to write the test your teacher will get you to do something else for that time. For a few weeks after the test I am going to be making some general observations of the class. You will get a brief report that will tell you what the test says about how you think about emotions. What Is Good About Doing the Test? The test is fun to do and I think you will find it interesting to see what it says about how you think about emotions. Doing the test also means that researchers will get more information about emotional competence, and could show that students who have learning disabilities are also really good at different things. This can let teachers and researchers help students with learning disabilities. What Is Bad About Doing the Test? Some student could feel a bit nervous because it will be like you are doing a school test, but this activity is actually quite fun and not really like a test you get at school. But, if at any time and for any reason you don’t want to participate any more you don’t have to. Confidentiality: A number, not your name, will be put on the test. The only people who will be able to look at the test results will be my supervisor, Dr. Marion Porath, and myself. Your parents will also have access to your test results. Do I Get Anything For Doing the Test? No. Sorry, you won’t get anything for doing the test. Consent: Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. You can refuse to participate or withdraw at any time. Refusing to participate or withdrawing from the study will not jeopardize your class standing in participate in the study. any way. If you do not sign this form you may  99  Your signature indicates that you agree to participate in this study.  Your Signature  Date  Print Your Name  Make sure you sign both your copy and my copy. Thanks! ©  1 QO  THE  UNIVERSITY  OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  1 I.JB  FacultyofEducation * Student Assent Form RESEARCHER’S COPY Title of Study: Concealed Intelligence: A Multiple Case Study of the Academic Experience of Highly Emotionally Competent / Learning Disabled Students. People Doing the Study: Dr. Marion Porath and Clea King, Graduate Student. Why Are We Doing the Study? Some people are really good at understanding and working with their own emotions and other people’s emotions. I want to know what it is like if you are really good at understanding emotions, but have learning disabilities. What Are You Going To Do? You are going to write a test that may show how good you are at being emotionally intelligent. It is not like a test you would get in math class. There are no wrong answers. This test just helps to show how you think about emotions. It will take about 40 minutes to 1 hour and everyone in the class will write it together, at the same time. If you do not want to write the test your teacher will get you to do something else for that time. For a few weeks after the test I am going to be making some general observations of the class. You will get a brief report that will tell you what the test says about how you think about emotions. What Is Good About Doing the Test? The test is fun to do and I think you will find it interesting to see what it says about how you think about emotions. Doing the test also means that researchers will get more information about emotional competence, and could show that students who have learning disabilities are also really good at different things. This can let teachers and researchers help students with learning disabilities. What Is Bad About Doing the Test? Some student could feel a bit nervous because it will be like you are doing a school test, but this activity is actually quite fun and not really like a test you get at school. But, if at any time and for any reason you don’t want to participate any more you don’t have to. Confidentiality: A number, not your name, will be put on the test. The only people who will be able to look at the test results will be my supervisor, Dr. Marion Porath, and myself. Your parents will also have access to your test results. Do I Get Anything For Doing the Test? No. Sorry, you won’t get anything for doing the test. Consent: Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. You can refuse to participate or withdraw at any time. Refusing to participate or withdrawing from the study will not jeopardize your class standing in participate in the study. any way. If you do not sign this form you may  101  Your signature indicates that you agree to participate in this study.  Your Signature  Print Your  Date  arne  Make sure you sian both your copy and my copy. Thanks! ©  102  Letter of Consent from Multi-Health System  Appendix B  S  PARENTAL CONSENT TO PARTICIrATE IN RiSEARCiI  • 58562  my consent for i ditkl I bcnii cinducted by Multi-I ki1h Slcni Inc  -_______  A. lLiHI’I)Sk I hne beri LiQrtn.1 thu the purpn’ie ifth research hjiw LJe..elc-pt’LI Iy tic i’ithhclicr. B. PROCFI)L!RL ihc research pp.’jct ssili hL c4irducLcd at intorim,Lion and rt’>orsd o 4nmc qLcstion  li  iart 1  Lp3tc  ir a data  collection  nnd  rese;inb wiija.ct  Vik’ri. [‘ark A’t., T funlo ()‘\. 1%421 I 35i( (the J’ubIisIitr, pn)jCct i to iom1 or  statemenk sIiicIi  Qt  aiithte tIi  questicinnaire4s  which  i4arc;  currently  My child wiI e rcquircdpriii.ii1eiciirngraphic m ira,iI.s ii) take apprcixiniatR-  PIi-.ASI- NI F THAT TIlE CI1(LlYX PAR !KIPAT[ON OR NON-rAR LiUli’AIION *111. NOT 1I..VE A rosi rIVL OR \h(iA I LVh I\1PACT ON TIIP. (liii 1) I- XCI— RF FOR POSSIBLE DISCOMI-OR I WHFN A\SWERThC SOME QI:FsnoN. NO OTTmR RISkS ARI. t-OREXEFN. arc s’hiiincd annmou51y tfTLt kepi in ctr1ctcs con1idrs:i. ,t;td thc rcsult it tiii procct will be cudud in such a iched ii’ an wa to the ILnul daht ihut arc ;r4kiucc. All data arc stored n a secure That ilic chi1d’ identity iI1 not b..di,cl’cd unle,s requred by Ij*s’. The Piih1ihcr retains r,on-LdcntiIiJt3!e aate diTii. wilh acecc restrict1ori and will noT  C. (ONflITIONS OF PARTICIPATION I undcr,tand lhi*t I ir my child may withdraw c’rseiii aid dic,ntinuc parneipation at anytrrie gillic’tit catvc cônncnce. I understand that thy cIiiId’ participation in this reearcIi project ic (OF[DLN T’LAL. understand tIiut nai id,.ntitiahlc data from this r ,gartli cci ma he p-tihlishcd I F[AVk (ARF-}(LL aEAD 11IE ABOVF AM) Ur’[M:I-s[ANu 11115 AGEFFMF’\T. I FRI:.I-:l.Y CONSLNI ANt) \01UN lARll.Y AGREL 10 IL-WE MY (‘Hill) PARlIUlt’Vf C 1N 11115 PROJI-Ci KY (OX4PI.I II’.G i ILL FOLLOWlN(NNSLRl.fENTSi.  II  you  hue any qnccrionc shout iiiis  • MSCEIT:’,V  MASC-R  c FRSS;Y  c BIMAS  D l’OSlS-U tace  research. pieasc contact s’our admmtstrator  -•c  PLEAsr Eli .1. OUT TH DEMOGRAPIITC 1NFORIATH) BtLOSS.  O Asian-Rsaifc Islander L3b L Africiri Ahikr insn African (‘anadim  Riokcai mc’thr -  i  —-  ‘  I  C LkI(h  —  -  ‘,ci-hioIosic,at mother  C  C N-hiIc,.-3! 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I Ii 21 -  104  Appendix C  Sample Questions from the MSCEIT-YV  Part A How much of each feeling below do you see in this face? Mark your answer on your Answer Sheet.  None at aN  A little feeling  A medium feeling  A strong feeling  A very strong feeling  1. Surprise  1  2  3  4  5  2.Sadness  1  2  3  4  5  3Fear  1  2  3  4  5  4. Happiness  1  2  3  4  5  Part B Imagine feeling surprised after getting an unexpected gift. How much is the feeling of being surprised like each of the following? Does not feel this way  Feels a little this way  Feels somewhat this way  Feels this way  Definitely feels this way  33.CoId  1  2  3  4  5  34. Energetic  1  2  3  4  5  35.Quick  1  2  3  4  5  36.YelIow  1  2  3  4  5  Part C 63. Not liking a person mainly because they have something that you really want is called. 1. dislike 2. envy 3. anger 4. hatred 5. guilt  105  Part 0 Someone who often says mean things approaches you and says a very insulting thing to you in front of others. You want to make him feel guilty and regret for his behaviour. How effective would each of these be in getting him tO feel guilt and regret? 86. Action: You ask him how he would feel if someone talked to him that way, and tell him he should be ashamed.  1. Not at all helpful  2. A little helpful  3. Somewhat helpful  4. Moderately helpful  5. Very helpful  87. Action: You say something back to him equally or more insulting and tell him if he doesn’t have anything nice to say he should keep it to himself. 1. Not at all helpful  2. A little helpful  3. Somewhat helpful  4. Moderately helpful  5. Very helpful  88. Action: You challenge him to a fight to make him back off. 1. Not at all helpful  2. A little helpful  3. Somewhat helpful  4. Moderately helpful  5. Very helpful  106  Appendix D  MSCEIT-YV Report  MSCEIT-YV Report Student’s Name:________ Age:  ‘What is Emotional Intelligence? From the early part of the twentieth century psychologists, evolutionary biologists, psychiatrists and others have recognized a number of human abilities involved in identifying and understanding emotions. These specific human abilities, which can be seen as processing emotional information, are found in numerous research articles and have fostered a growing popular interest in the possible importance of emotional competence. The MSCEIT-YV: Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test: Youth Version ) TM (MSCEIT:YV .1. D. Mayer, Ph.D., P. Salovey, Ph.D., & D. 1?. Caruso, Ph.D. MSCEIT:YVis a youth version of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). It is designed to assess emotional intelligence among pre-adolescents and adolescents. This ability-based scale measures how well people perform tasks and solve emotional problems. Guided by the Four-Branch Model of emotional intelligence, scores include the four areas of emotional intelligence. These include the ability to: (1) accurately perceive emotions, (2) use emotions to facilitate thinking, problem solving, and creativity, (3) understand emotions and (4) manage emotions for personal growth.  The Four Branches of Emotional Intelligence Perceiving Emotions: This is the ability to read emotions in others. This would facilitate a fuller, richer understanding of another’s emotions and intentions in social situations. The ability to anticipate and understand richer subtleties in a social interaction provides for easier communication and may grant an individual with an advantage in social situations. Reading others is an extremely subtle skill, however, and one that is not easily tested for with a pen and paper test. Using Emotions: This is the ability to use emotions to facilitate thinking, problem solving, and creativity. This allows for emotions to assist in prioritizing thinking, guide the cognitive system and promote certain kinds of thinking. For example, researchers have suggested that emotions are important for certain kinds of creativity to emerge. People who have ability in this area may have a system of emotional intelligence, which helps direct thinking toward matters that are truly important. Understanding Emotions: This is the ability to analyze social situations and to understand the complex emotions that are felt by yourself and others. Emotional states are very rarely simple. Anger, for example, could be a combination of frustration, disappointment and the dynamics of the situation that brought on the feeling. Being able to analyze and interpret what the emotional state is made up of and why you or another person is feeling this way is critical to social interactions. People with ability in this area are able to fully grasp the complexity of emotional states and quickly understand why they themselves or another person is feeling the way they do.  107  Managing Emotions: This is the ability to manage what is felt and to allow intellectual reasoning to interact in harmony with emotional states. This in turn can lead to better social interactions and understanding. The ability to recognize emotional states objectively is a key ability in managing one’s own and others’ emotions so as to promote personal and social objectives. Managing emotions is critical to multiple tasks that are considered to be high functioning. Determination in the face of adversity, consciously changing how you feel about a situation or changing your emotional state and behaviour to influence others are often keys to high level functioning both intellectually and in social situations. People with ability in this area may demonstrate these types of behaviours.  Limitations of the Test. It should be noted that it is very difflcuit to test for a concept that is both subtle and not yet fully understood. This process is made even harder when testing children for this form of intelligence The development of the emotional intelligence test used in this study is still m the mtroductory stages of being released for wider use As research continues this test will undoubtedly go through numerous changes and be further developed and perfected At this stage in the test’s development each time it is used mistakes are found and improvements are made. Consequently, it should be pointed out that results associated with this test are by no means final and definitive. Moreover, as different can understand test items diferently this may also influence any overall score. Finally, it should be pointed out that many of the abilities associated with emotional intelligence develop with age and, just as with academic abilities, a weakness in one area does not necessarily mean a lack of future success or future ability with this skill. The test and the concept it is testing for is still r.ew and there is, as of yet, no definitive numerical demarcation for differing abilities with emotional intelligence. Consequently, a range of ability, rather than a score, is being used this report.  108  Overall Range of Ability: High Ability  Average Ability  Low Ability  Areas of Most Favorable Response: This student scored well with Perceiving Emotions. This ability is critical to interpreting others, effective conimunication as well as negotiating complex social situations. This student scored extremely well with Understanding Emotions. This ability is critical to the complexity of emotions in oneself and others. It is considered to be one of the second most advanced of the four emotional skills that make up Emotional Intelligence and involves a complex mix of both analytical and emotional abilities. This student scored well with Managing Emotions. Managing emotions is considered the most advanced of the four emotional skills that make up Emotional Intelligence and is critical to both individual success as well as success in social and academic situations. -j  What This May Mean: It should be noted that the specific kind of boost that emotional intelligence gives the individual will be subtle, and as a consequence, requires some effort to identify. It will not be exhibited in all social situations. High Scorers: Broadly, high scorers on this test are often very effective in social interactions and solving emotional problems often requires less cognitive effort. The individual can be somewhat more open than others and is often drawn to occupations involving social interactions rather than to those involving clerical or administrative tasks. There appears to be a strong connection with verbal ability, particularly if the individual scored higher in the portion of the test which focused on understanding emotions. Moderate Scorers: Broadly, moderate scorers on this test are often quite effective in social interactions, though more complex social interactions may not run smoothly. Solving emotional problems may require some cognitive effort. These individuals are often drawn to occupations in which social interaction is not the primary focus or necessity. Low Scorers: Broadly, low scorers on this test may fmd some social interactions puzzling, particularly those that are complex. Additionally, many social interactions may not run smoothly. Social interactions maybe analyzed after the fact for ‘what went wrong’ and solving emotional problems often requires cognitive effort. The individual could be drawn to occupations that do not involve much social interaction.  109  Appendix E  Parent and Student Consent Forms  —  Phase Two  THE  UNIVERSTV  OF  BRIT5H  COLIIMBA  FacultyofEducation Case Study Consent Form  —  Parent  PARENT’S COPY PLEASE KEEP FOR YOUR RECORDS Title of Study: Concealed Intelligence: A Multiple Case Study of the Academic Experience of Highly Emotionally Competent / Learning Disabled Students.  Principal Investigator: Dr. Marion Porath, UBC Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology, and Special Education, 604-822-6045. Co-Investigator: Clea King, UBC Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology, and Special Education, 604--. This research is being done in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Special Education. As such, it will be made a public document.  Purpose of Study: The intention of these case studies is to gain some insight into the particular school related experiences of students who are highly emotionally competent, yet have learning disabilities. This study will also help us understand how such a child perceives his/her educational experience, and if these emotional strengths assist or interact with his/her learning disabilities. Because your child has received a high score on an assessment of emotional competence and has learning disabilities he/she is being invited to participate in the second phase of this study, acting as one of its main subjects. Study Procedures: Four students will be used to make up the case studies. Your child will be one of those four and will be interviewed individually for about one hour. He/she will be asked some general questions about specific school related experiences as a highly emotionally competent student who has learning disabilities. As a way of maintaining your child’s privacy it is hoped that these interviews will be held at your child’s home, or another place that maintains your child’s privacy. The interviews will be tape-recorded and transcribed. In addition, the researcher will be making some observations of your child at school. These observations will take place both inside the classroom and during recess and lunch. There will be five observations and each will last approximately 30 minutes each. Your child may be asked to briefly explain what they were thinking or feeling after these observations. Finally, there will be a concluding interview of approximately one hour, which will act as a means of sharing and verifying the findings with your child. This interview will also be tape-recorded and then transcribed. Additionally, you also will be asked to attend an interview that will last for about one hour and will be held at your home or another place that maintains your child’s anonymity. During this interview you will be asked to act as an expert and verify if the researcher’s findings reflect your child’s behaviours and ways of thinking. This interview will be tape-recorded and then transcribed. (Please see the Verifying Findings Consent Form included in this package.) Your child will be told that the information from this study will be shared with you. The information will also eventually be shared with a wider, academic audience. Potential Benefits: There are no direct benefits, apart from your child having the opportunity to speak about his/her own school experience. It is hoped that this research will shed some light on the profile of skills and weakness of children with learning disabilities. If you would like a report of the findings, please include your name and mailing address at the end of the researcher’s copy of the consent form. 110  Potential Risks: The interview may uncover some negative feelings associated with having learning disabilities or feeling different from peers. However, it is assumed that any bad feelings will be balanced by the knowledge that your child has a strong level of ability in emotional competence. However, if the researcher suspects that a participant is in need of counseling services the parents, teachers, and school administrators will be notified immediately. A list of counseling services will be provided. Confidentiality: Your child’s name will not be associated in any way with his/her interviews or observations. His/her consent form will be stored separately from the interview transcripts and recordings, and no identifying information will be included in the transcripts of interview recordings. The only people who will have access to any of the research data will be the principal investigator and co-investigator. However, portions of the transcripts and a summary of results will be made public. As part of the research process you also will have access to your child’s test results, as well as interview and observation data. Remuneration: There is no remuneration. Participation is on a voluntary basis. Contact Information For This Study: If you have any questions or desire further information with respect to this study, you may contact myself, Clea King or Dr. Marion Porath. Principal Investigator: Dr. Marion Porath Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology, and Special Education Scarfe 2314- 2125 Main Mall UBC Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z2 Tel: 604-822-6045 E-mail: mporathinterchange.ubc.ca —  Co-Investigator: Clea King Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology, and Special Education Scarfe 2314- 2125 Main Mall UBC Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z2 Te1:604-. E-mail: yahoo.co.uk —  Contact Reardin Concerns About the Rights of Research Subjects: If you have any concerns about your child’s treatment or rights as a research subject, you may contact the Research Subject Information Line in the UBC Office of Research Services at 604-822-8598 or via E-mail at RSIL@ors.ubc.ca.  Consent: Your child’s participation in this study is entirely voluntary. Your child may refuse to participate or withdraw from the study at any time, without jeopardy to their class standing. The researcher must have signed copies of the parent’s consent form as well as the student’s signature on the student assent form before the student can participate.  111  Your signature below indicates that you have received a copy of this consent form for your own records.  ‘I consent/I do not consent (circle one) to my child participating in this study.’  Parent or Guardian Signature  Date  Printed Name of Parent or Guardian signing above  Printed Name of Child  Please make sure to sian both your copy of the consent form and the researcher’s copy. Thank you! No student may participate in the study without the researcher receiving a sifned copy of  the consent form.  112  THE  UNvERSTV  OF  BRIUSH  COLUMBIA  IJBC  FacultyofEducation 9) Case Study Consent Form  —  Parent  RESEARCHER’S COPY Title of Study: Concealed Intelligence: A Multiple Case Study of the Academic Experience of Highly Emotionally Competent / Learning Disabled Students.  Principal Investuator: Dr. Marion Porath, UBC Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology, and Special Education, 604-822-6045. Co-Investigator: Clea King, UBC Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology, and Special Education, 604--. This research is being done in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Special Education. As such, it will be made a public document.  Purpose of Study: The intention of these case studies is to gain some insight into the particular school related experiences of students who are highly emotionally competent, yet have learning disabilities. This study will also help us understand how such a child perceives his/her educational experience, and if these emotional strengths assist or interact with his/her learning disabilities. Because your child has received a high score on an assessment of emotional competence and has learning disabilities he/she is being invited to participate in the second phase of this study, acting as one of its main subjects. Study Procedures: Four students will be used to make up the case studies. Your child will be one of those four and will be interviewed individually for about one hour. He/she will be asked some general questions about specific school related experiences as a highly emotionally competent student who has learning disabilities. As a way of maintaining your child’s privacy it is hoped that these interviews will be held at your child’s home, or another place that maintains your child’s privacy. The interviews will be tape-recorded and transcribed. In addition, the researcher will be making some observations of your child at school. These observations will take place both inside the classroom and during recess and lunch. There will be five observations and each will last approximately 30 minutes each. Your child may be asked to briefly explain what they were thinking or feeling after these observations. Finally, there will be a concluding interview of approximately one hour, which will act as a means of sharing and verifying the findings with your child. This interview will also be tape-recorded and then transcribed. Additionally, you also will be asked to attend an interview that will last for about one hour and will be held at your home or another place that maintains your child’s anonymity. During this interview you will be asked to act as an expert and verify if the researcher’s findings reflect your child’s behaviours and ways of thinking. This interview will be tape-recorded and then transcribed. (Please see the Verifying Findings Consent Form included in this package.) Your child will be told that the information from this study will be shared with you. The information will also eventually be shared with a wider, academic audience.  Potential Benefits: There are no direct benefits, apart from your child having the opportunity to speak about his/her own school experience. It is hoped that this research will shed some light on the profile of skills and weakness of children with learning disabilities. If you would like a report of the findings, please include your name and mailing address at the end of the researcher’s copy of the consent form. Potential Risks: The interview may uncover some negative feelings associated with having learning disabilities or feeling different from peers. However, it is assumed that any bad feelings will be balanced by the knowledge that your child has a strong level of ability in emotional competence. However, if the 113  researcher suspects that a participant is in need of counseling services the parents, teachers, and school administrators will be notified immediately. A list of counseling services will be provided. Confidentiality: Your child’s name will not be associated in any way with his/her interviews or observations. His/her consent form will be stored separately from the interview transcripts and recordings, and no identifying information will be included in the transcripts of interview recordings. The only people who will have access to any of the research data will be the principal investigator and co-investigator. However, portions of the transcripts and a summary of results will be made public. As part of the research process you also will have access to your child’s test results, as well as interview and observation data. Remuneration: There is no remuneration. Participation is on a voluntary basis. Contact Information For This Study: If you have any questions or desire further information with respect to this study, you may contact myself, Clea King or Dr. Marion Porath. Principal Investigator: Dr. Marion Porath Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology, and Special Education Scarfe 2314- 2125 Main Mall IJBC Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z2 Tel: 604-822-6045 E-mail: mporath(interchange.ubc.ca —  Co-Investigator: Clea King Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology, and Special Education Scarfe 2314 2125 Main Mall UBC Vancouver BC, V6T 1Z2 Tel:604E-mail: ythoo.co.uk -  —  —  Contact Reardinp Concerns About the Rights of Research Subjects: If you have any concerns about your child’s treatment or rights as a research subject, you may contact the Research Subject Information Line in the UBC Office of Research Services at 604-822-8598 or via E-mail at RSIL@ors.ubc.ca. Consent: Your child’s participation in this study is entirely voluntary. Your child may refuse to participate or withdraw from the study at any time, without jeopardy to their class standing. The researcher must have signed copies of the parent’s consent form as well as the student’s signature on the student assent form before the student can participate.  114  Your signature below indicates that you have received a copy of this consent form for your own records. ‘I consent/I do not consent (circle one) to my child participating in this study.’  Parent or Guardian Signature  Date  Printed Name of Parent or Guardian signing above  Printed Name of Child  MAILING ADDRESS REOUFSTINGAREPORT OFTEE  DGganafl:  115  THE  UHVER5TY  OF  BRTSH  COLUMBIA  FacultyofEducation \9) Case Study Assent Form  —  Student  STUDENT’S COPY PLEASE KEEPAND GIVETO YOUR PARENTS Title of Study: Concealed Intelligence: A Multiple Case Study of the Academic Experience of Highly Emotionally Competent I Learning Disabled Students. People Doing the Study: Dr. Marion Porath and Clea King, Graduate Student. Why Are We Doing the Study? Some people are really good at understanding and working with emotions. I want to know what it is like if you are really good at understanding emotions, but you have learning disabilities. You have been chosen for this study because your score on the test of emotional competence was high, so you seem to be the type of student that I am thinking about. What You Are Going To Do? You are going to be asked to attend an interview, and I am going to ask you to talk about what your experience is like at school. I would like to interview you at home, or at some place other than school, because I want you to have your privacy. The interview will take about one hour. It will be tape-recorded and I am going to write out some things that we say. As well as the interview, I am also going to come to the school and just watch you to see how you react to things and behave. I may ask you some questions some times, just to see what you were thinking. At the end we are going to meet one last time for about one hour. I am going to show you what I think your experiences mean, and you can tell me if I am correct or not. I am also going to show your parents what I think your experiences mean, and they are also going to say if they think I am correct or not. Eventually more people will see the information, but your name will not be connected to the information. No one will know it was you. What Is Good About Doing These Activities? These activities will give you a chance to talk about what it is like to be highly emotionally competent, while having learning disabilities. Hopefully, by talking you will be able to really see all your strengths and how they can help you with your learning disabilities. I also hope that this research will help teachers and researchers see that a child who has learning disabilities can also be really good at emotional competence. What Could Be Bad About Doing the Activities? People who have learning disabilities often feel bad about themselves, and if you are good at emotional competence you may also feel a bit different from your friends. Talking to me may make you have these feelings again. But I hope that you will feel really proud of the fact that you are good at emotional competence. It is something that a lot of people think is important. Confidentiality: Your name will not be associated in any way with the interviews or observations. The only people who will be able to look at the information from the interviews and observations will be my supervisor, Dr. Marion Porath, and myself. Your parents will also have access to the information from the interviews and the data. Do I Get Anything For Doing the Activities? No. Sorry, you won’t get anything for doing these activities. 116  Consent: Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. You can refuse to participate or withdraw at any time. Refusing to participate or withdrawing from the study will not jeopardize your class standing in any way. If you do not sign this form you may participate in the study.  Your signature indicates that you agree to participate in this study.  Your Signature  Date  Print Your Name Here  Make sure you sign both your copy and my copy. Thanks! ©  117  THE  JNVERTY  OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  FacultyofEducation Case Study Consent Form  —  Student  RESEARCHER’S COPY Title of Study: Concealed Intelligence: A Multiple Case Study of the Academic Experience of Highly Emotionally Competent / Learning Disabled Students. People Doing the Study: Dr. Marion Porath and Clea King, Graduate Student. Why Are We Doing the Study? Some people are really good at understanding and working with emotions. I want to know what it is like if you are really good at understanding emotions, but you have learning disabilities. You have been chosen for this study because your score on the test of emotional competence was high, so you seem to be the type of student that I am thinking about. What You Are Going To Do? You are going to be asked to attend an interview, and I am going to ask you to talk about what your experience is like at school. I would like to interview you at home, or at some place other than school, because I want you to have your privacy. The interview will take about one hour. It will be tape-recorded and I am going to write out some things that we say. As well as the interview, I am also going to come to the school and just watch you to see how you react to things and behave. I may ask you some questions some times, just to see what you were thinking. At the end we are going to meet one last time for about one hour. I am going to show you what I think your experiences mean, and you can tell me if I am correct or not. I am also going to show your parents what I think your experiences mean, and they are also going to say if they think I am correct or not. Eventually more people will see the information, but your name will not be connected to the information. No one will know it was you. What Is Good About Doing These Activities? These activities will give you a chance to talk about what it is like to be highly emotionally competent, while having learning disabilities. Hopefully, by talking you will be able to really see all your strengths and how they can help you with your learning disabilities. I also hope that this research will help teachers and researchers see that a child who has learning disabilities can also be really good at emotional competence. What Could Be Bad About Doing the Activities? People who have learning disabilities often feel bad about themselves, and if you are good at emotional competence you may also feel a bit different from your friends. Talking to me may make you have these feelings again. But I hope that you will feel really proud of the fact that you are good at emotional competence. It is something that a lot of people think is important. Confidentiality: Your name will not be associated in any way with the interviews or observations. The only people who will be able to look at the information from the interviews and observations will be my supervisor, Dr. Marion Porath, and myself. Your parents will also have access to the information from the interviews and the data. Do I Get Anything For Doing the Activities? No. Sorry, you won’t get anything for doing these activities. Consent: Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. You can refuse to participate or withdraw at any time. Refusing to participate or withdrawing from the study will not jeopardize your class standing in any way. If you do not sign this form you may participate in the study. 118  Your signature indicates that you agree to participate in this study.  Your Signature  Date  Print Your Name Here  Make sure you sign both your copy and my copy  119  Appendix F  Interview Script Interview Questions Date:  Interviewer: _C. King  Interviewee:  Part A Perceiving -  1. How good are you at reading your own emotions? Can you give me an example or situation at school that shows this? Can you remember what you were thinking / feeling as you went through that situation?  2. How good do you think you are at reading other people’s emotions? Can you give me an example or situation at school that shows this? Can you remember what you were thinking / feeling as you went through that situation?  Part B  —  Perceiving/ Using  3, Do you think that emotions may come with other sensations like feeling hot, cold, slow, and light? Can you give me an example of what other sensations could corn.e with an emotion? (Anger, Surprise, Fear, Excitement) Examnies: Happiness Warm ± Fast Sad = Slow + Heavy + Dark.  4. If emotions come with other sensations, does that help you recognize them in yourself and others. How? Can you give me a specific example at school?  120  5. Part C Understanding -  Story: Susan is part of a group of friends at school. Some of the people in Susan’s group make friends with another student who is not very popular and welcome her into the group. Not soon after, Susan’s group turns on this unpopular student and this student is told to leave the group. Susan tells the group that what they did was wrong. The group then tells Susan that she can leave as well, so Susan does. • What emotions do you think Susan would be feeling, both during and after the incident? Why do you think she would be feeling this way? How do you know? • What emotions do you think the student who was asked to leave would be feeling, both during and after the incident? Why do you think she would be feeling this way? How do you know? • What emotions do you think a group member who turned on the unpopular student would be feeling, both during and after the incident? Why do you think she would be feeling this way? How do you know? Susan During Unpopular Student During Group Member During -  —  Why?  Susan  —  Why?  Why?  —  Why?  After  Unpopular Student  Why?  —  After  Group Member After  Why?  6. Anger, Joy, Excitement. Are these emotions on their own or can these emotions be made up of other emotions?  121  7. Part D  —  Using I Managing Emotions  The test describes a story about Li. “Li is excited about being invited to a party next week that everyone wanted to go to. She is really excited about the party and she can’t wait until next week. Li has to study for a major exam she has in the morning.” The story then asked you consider three different things that Li could do to make her feel more interested in studying for the exam. • Li thinks about how important the grade in the class would be to her, how hard the subject is, and how she is responsible enough to put in the work needed if she starts now. • Li eats a snack while watching a TV program that she has seen several times before. • Li imagines herself going to the store with her parents and thinks about the shopping they need to do. Which response did you think was the most effective? Why did you choose that answer? What do you think Li would have been thinking and feeling if she had chosen that response?  8. Which was the least effective? Why did you choose that answer? What do you thInk Li would have been thinking and feeling if she had chosen that response?  9. Can you think of a situation at school in which you have had to manage your emotions? Tell me in detail what happened in the situation? What were you thinking / feeling? How did you respond? Why did you respond in that way? Additional Questions 10. Do you think that your ability to understand and use/manage your emotions has helped you with your learning disabilities, If so how? Tell me of a specific situation at school. Can you remember what you were thinking / feeling as you went through that situation?  11. Have you been around peers that seem to do better at school, but who seem socially, emotionally ‘slower’? Tell me of a specific situation t school. Can you remember what you were thinking I feeling as you went through that situation?  12. Have you felt you might be different emotionally from your peers? If so, how were you different? Tell me of a specific situation at school. Can you remember what you were thinking / feeling as you went through that situation?  122  Appendix G  Parent Consent Forms  —  Verifying Findings THE  UN1VERStTY  OF  BRiTISH  CO1UMBA  UBC  FacultyofEducation Verifying Findings Consent Form PARENT’S COPY PLEASE KEEP FOR YOUR RECORDS Title of Study: Concealed Intelligence: A Multiple Case Study of the Academic Experience of Highly Emotionally Competent / Learning Disabled Students. Principal Investigator: Dr. Marion Porath, UBC Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology, and Special Education, 604-822-6045. Co-Investigator: Clea King, UBC Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology, and Special Education, 604-. This research is being done in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Special Education. As such, it will be made a public document. Purpose of Study: The intention of these case studies is to gain some insight into the particular school related experiences of students who are highly emotionally competent, yet have learning disabilities. This study will also help us understand how such a child perceives his/her educational experience, and if these emotional strengths assist or interact with his/her learning disabilities. As your child received a high score on an assessment of emotional competence and has learning disabilities he/she has been invited to participate in the second phase of this study, acting as one of its main subjects. Study Procedures: As part of the research process you will be asked to act as an expert and verifi if the findings reflect your child’s behaviours and ways of thinking. This will take place during an interview where you will be shown the data collected from your child, as well as the conclusions drawn from this data. The interview should take no more than one hour. It will be tape-recorded and then transcribed. Your child will be told that the information from this study will be shared with you. The information will also, eventually, be shared with a wider, academic audience. Potential Benefits: There are two potential benefits. One is having the opportunity to speak about your child’s experience as a student who is both highly emotionally competent and learning disabled. The second is the opportunity to perhaps create a dialogue on this subject with your child. Apart from this there are no direct benefits. If you would like a report of the findings, please include your name and mailing address at the end of the researcher’s copy of the consent form. Potential Risks: No risks are perceived. Confidentiality: Your name will not be associated in any way with the interview. This consent form will be stored separately from the interview transcripts and recordings. No identifying information will be included in the transcript of the recording. No one will have access to any of the research data other than the principal investigator, co-investigator and yourself. However, portions of the transcripts and a summary of results will be made public. Remuneration: There is no remuneratiOn. Participation is on a voluntary basis.  123  Contact information for this Study: If you have any questions or desire further information with respect to this study, you may contact myself, Clea King or Dr. Marion Porath. Principal Investigator: Dr. Marion Porath Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology, and Special Education Scarfe23l4-2l25MainMall—UBC Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z2 Tel: 604-822-6045 E-mail: mi,orathinterehange.ubc.ca  Co-Investigator: Clea King Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology, and Special Education Scarfe23l4-2l25MainMall—UBC Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z2 Tel:604--. E-mail: yahoo.co.uk  Contact Regarding Concerns about the Rights of Research Subjects: If you have any concerns about your child’s treatment or rights as a research subject, you may contact the Research Subject Information Line in the UBC Office of Research Services at 604-822-8598 or via E-mail at RSIL@ors.ubc.ca. Consent: You and your child’s participation in this study are entirely voluntary. Your child may refuse to participate or withdraw from the study at any time, without jeopardy to his/her class standing. Both this consent form and the student assent form must be signed before your child can participate in the study.  Your signature below indicates that you have received a copy of this consent form for your own records. ‘I consent/I do not consent (circle one) to my participation in this study.’  Parent or Guardian Signature  Date  Printed Name of Parent or Guardian signing above  Printed Name of Child  Please make sure to sign both your copy of the consent form and the researcher’s copy. Thank you!  No student may participate in the study without the researcher receiving a signed copy of the consent form  124  Verifying Findings Consent Form RESEARCHER’S COPY Title of Study: Concealed Intelligence: A Multiple Case Study of the Academic Experience of Highly Emotionally Competent / Learning Disabled Students. Principal Investigator: Dr. Marion Porath, UBC Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology, and Special Education, 604-822-6045. Co-Investigator: Clea King, UBC Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology, and Special Education, 604-This research is being done in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Special Education. As such, it will be made a public document. Purpose of Study: The intention of these case studies is to gain some insight into the particular school related experiences of students who are highly emotionally competent, yet have learning disabilities. This study will also help us understand how such a child perceives his/her educational experience, and if these emotional strengths assist or interact with his/her learning disabilities. As your child received a high score on an assessment of emotional competence and has learning disabilities he/she has been invited to participate in the second phase of this study, acting as one of its main subjects. Study Procedures: As part of the research process you will be asked to act as an expert and verify if the findings reflect your child’s behaviours and ways of thinking. This will take place during an interview where you will be shown the data collected from your child, as well as the conclusions drawn from this data. The interview should take no more than one hour. It will be tape-recorded and then transcribed. Your child will be told that the information from this study will be shared with you. The information will also, eventually, be shared with a wider, academic audience. Potential Benefits: There are two potential benefits. One is having the opportunity to speak about your child’s experience as a student who is both highly emotionally competent and learning disabled. The second is the opportunity to perhaps create a dialogue on this subject with your child. Apart from this there are no direct benefits. If you would like a report of the findings, please include your name and mailing address at the end of the researcher’s copy of the consent form. Potential Risks: No risks are perceived. Confidentiality: Your name will not be associated in any way with the interview. This consent form will be stored separately from the interview transcripts and recordings. No identifying information will be included in the transcript of the recording. No one will have access to any of the research data other than the principal investigator, co-investigator and yourself. However, portions of the transcripts and a summary of results will be made public. Remuneration: There is no remuneration. Participation is on a voluntary basis. Contact information for this Study: If you have any questions or desire further information with respect to this study, you may contact myself, Clea King or Dr. Marion Porath.  125  Principal Investigator: Dr. Marion Porath Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology, and Special Education Scarfe 2314 2125 Main Mall UBC Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z2 Tel: 604-822-6045 E-mail: mporath(interchane.ubc.ca -  —  Co-Investigator: Clea King Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology, and Special Education Scarfe 2314 2125 Main Mall UBC Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z2 Tel:604E-mail: yahoo.co.uk -  —  Contact Reardinzz Concerns about the Ri&its of Research Subjects: If you have any concerns about your child’s treatment or rights as a research subject, you may contact the Research Subject Information Line in the U13C Office of Research Services at 604-822-8598 or via E-mail at RSIL@ors.ubc.ca. Consent: You and your child’s participation in this study are entirely voluntary. Your child may refuse to participate or withdraw from the study at any time, without jeopardy to his/her class standing. Both this consent form and the student assent form must be signed before your child can participate in the study.  Your signature below indicates that you have received a copy of this consent form for your own records. ‘I consent/I do not consent (circle one) to my participation in this study.’  Parent or Guardian Signature  Date  Printed Name of Parent or Guardian signing above  Printed Name of Child  MAILING ADDRESS REOUESTJNG JPORTQ THE JNDINGS (ontionall:  126  Appendix H  Mind Map  Participant:  —  Observations  Date of Observations:  03  May  Depth of understanding of emotions/social dynamics. (Word Count # 8)  th 29  & 30th. 2008  Different from his/her peers, but part of group. (Word Count # -10)  -  Themes from Observations  Ideal Student: decent, polite, hardworking student. (Word Count # 5)  Adults relate to student as equal. (Word Count # 5)  Shrugs off boredom & distraction. (Word Count # 5)  -  -  -  Please Note: Colours used in both mind maps are indicative of related themes.  Participant:  04  Date of Observations:  May 28  j  Shrugs off boredom & distraction. (Word Count # 4)  -  June 2, 2008  Social Manager (Word Count # -4)  -  Ideal Student: decent, polite, hardworking student. (Word Count # 3) -  Leader (Word Count5)  Depth of understanding of emotions/social dynamics (WOrd C0unt#-3)  127  Participant: _21  Date of Observations:  Leader (Word Count # 5)  June 4 & 5. 2008  Social Manager (Word Count # 5)  -  -  Depth of understanding of emotions/social dynamics. (Word Count # 12)  Manages/Controls Emotions (Word Count # 7)  -  -  Shrug off boredom & distraction. (Word Count # 4) -  Date of Observations:  G5  June 0405 2008  A number of friends. (Word Count #- 3)  Leader (Word Count # 3) -  Ideal Student: decent, polite, hardworking student. (Word Count # 3)  Persistent/Patient (Word Count# -3)  -  Shrug off boredom & distraction. Count # -4)  Lord  128  Mind Map  —  Observations  -  All Participants  Main Themes Ideal Student: decent, polite, hardworking student. (Word Count # 3)  -  --  PersistentiPatient (Word Count # 1) -  -  iZ lot of friends.  (Word Count # 1) -  Manages/Controls Emotions (Word Count # 2) -  Shrug off boredo;& Distraction. (Word Count # -4)  Categories from  Depth of understanding of irratioiNJ emotions/social dynamics. (Word Count # 3)  /  -  Socially Manager (Word Count # 2)  Leader (Word Count # 3)  -  -  Analysis: These students seem to show considerable skill with the strategic domains of the MSCEIT-YV (Management and Understanding) as well as what could be seen as considerable use of multiple areas of E.l. (Perceiving, Using, Understanding and Managing.)  Mind Map  —  Observations  -  All Participants  More Subtle Categories  Different from his/her peers, but part of group. (Word Count # 1) -  Justice: Will risk being bullied to uphold right and wrong. (Word Count # 1)  Adults relate to student as equal  -  goriesom [Observations  j 129  Appendix I  Mind Map Participant:  —  Interviews 05  Little self-insight / Lack of life experience. (Word Count # 13) This may be related to the student being quiet.  Date of Interview:  June 20. 2008  Understands others and their intentions. (Word Count # 5)  -  Themes from Interviews  -  Ability to control own emotions. (Word Count # 4) -  Examines/thinks about emotions and how they work and this improves thinking. (Word Count # 3)  [  -  Insight in to the complexities of social dynamics. (Word Count # 4) -  Parker was particularly quiet and although he seems to be using a number of what are considered to be high level abilities with E.l to a great extent there appears to be a general lack of awareness or self-insight into how E.l is affecting thought and behaviour. This may be due to the fact that this is a natural way of thinking for this student, because we as a culture do not openly talk about emotions/thought and because this student has not had the life experience to begin to consider or reflect on how he uses and considers emotions/thought.  Participant:  04  Date of Interview:  Little self-insight / lack of life experience. (Word Count # 7) -  Themes from Interviews  Sense of right and wrong, sense of justice and injustice. (Word Count # 3) -  General sense of empathy/caring for others. (Particular to this student.) (Word Count # 3)  June 18. 2008  V L  Insight into the complexities of social dynamics. (Word Count # 7) -  Recognizes how emotions can be complex. (Word Count # 10) -  -  lsobel appears to be using her ability to understand and manage emotions to analyze social interactions. There seems to be some indication that lsobel is considering emotions at a relatively high level and that this impacts general behaviour. This, however, does not necessarily translate into more effective thinking. There is some lack of self-insight into how E.l affects thought and behaviour. This may be due to the fact that this is a natural way of thinking for this student, because North American culture as a whole does not talk about emotions and thought, and because this student has not had the life experience to begin to consider or reflect on how he/she uses and considers emotion and thought.  130  Participant:  21  Understand that emotions are related to sensations and can describe these sensations. (Word Count # 5)  Date of Interview:  June 22. 2008  Leader (Word Count # 9) -  Themes from Interviews  -  Understands (reads) others and their intentions. (Reads the social/emotional landscape.) (Word Count # 22)  Insight into the complexities of social dynamics. (Word Count # 5)  -  Ability to understand and manage own emotions to facilitate school. This is done with ADHD. (Word Count # 12) -  -  Joseph has been diagnosed with ADHD and this was evident during the test, observations and interview. However, this student demonstrated a strong ability with E.l. Specifically, Joseph appears highly skilled with the Strategic Skills associated with El. theory. What stands out most with this student is his strong leadership abilities, his ability to understand other people’s emotional states (to read the emotional landscape of a social situation.), and his ability to understand and manage his own behaviour.  Participant:  03  Date of Interview:  Examines/thinks about emotions and how they work and this makes their thinking better. (Word Count # 32)  Maturity Well Past Age. (Word Count # 22 -  -  Insight into emotions, thought & behaviours despite a lack of life experience. (Word Count # 26) -  June 26. 2008  N Understands (reads) others and their intentions. (Reads the social/emotional landscape.) (Word Count # 23)  Insight into the complexities of social dynamics. (Word Count # 14) -  -  Charlie expanded the number and quality of the key themes found in the interview word count and displayed a remarkable depth of insight and understanding of emotions, thought and human behaviour. He stands out because of this uncommon depth of insight and ability with E.l. Charlie presents as a remarkably mature student, who is, because of his insights, different from his peers.  131  Mind Map  —  Interviews All Participants -  Main Themes  Insight into the complexities of social dynamics. (Word Count#-4)  Little self-insight I Lack of life experience. (Word Count # 2) (03 was t in this group.) -  Themes from Interviews Understands (reads) others and their intentions. (Reads the social/emotional landscape.) (Word Count # 3)  Sense of right and wrong, sense of justice and injustice. (Word Count # 1)  -  -  Examines/thinks about emotions and how they work and this makes their thinking better. (Strategic Skills) (Word Count # 3) -  Leadership (Word Count # 3)  Ability to understand and manage emotions to facilitate school. (Word Count#-2)  -  Analysis From Mind Map As a group, the students appear to use skills that indicate high level strategic skills associated with E.l. (Understanding and Managing). The majority of the time, E.l is spent understanding and analyzing the emotional information these students pick up and using it in ways that help at school, either for academic work or socially. Having said this there are differences in ability and use of E.l. skills between these students. Particularly with one participant who seems to display a remarkable ability with El.  132  Appendix J CategorieslThemes  -  Theme interpretation based on research literature & the MSCEIT-YV Present Research Findings, Which Relate to Themes Found in Study.  Leader -  -  -  -  -  -  Children: “Children’s skill at emotional regulation appears to influence their social wellbeing as well” (Denham et al., as cited by Mayer, Roberts & Barsade, 2008. P. 521).  -  Areas of EL Needed Based on Interpretation of MSCEIT-YV Manage, Understand, Use, Perceive  Adult: Others perceive high IE individuals as more pleasant to be around, more empathetic and more socially adroit than those low in El (Brackett et aL, 2006; Lopes et al., 2004; Lopes et al., 2005). Adult: Tend to be good at establishing positive social relations, tend to be more agreeable to others, less apt to engage in problem behaviours such as violent episodes, smoking, and drinking (Mayer, Caruso & Salovey, 2004). Adult: “A number of findings indicate that having high E.l. leads others to perceive an individual more positively” (Bracket et aL, 2006, Study 3 as cited by Mayer, Roberts & Barsade, 2008, p.522). Adult: In a study with adults “participants with high MSCEIT total scores received high organizationalcitizenship ratings form other group members” (Day & Carroll as cited by Mayer, Roberts, & Barsade, 2008, p. 523). Adult: Emotional Recognition Accuracy predicted a modest but significant and constant rise in workplace effectiveness (Elfenbien et al,, as cited by Mayer, Roberts_&_Barsade,_2008,_p._524). “  Interpretations: Leadership appears to be a very consistent trait in all of the students in this study; however, it does manifest itself in different ways. This is not necessarily surprising as effective leadership abilities require considerable depth of understanding of social dynamics, as well as the ability to read and understand the emotions of others and their intentions within a social situation. In addition, it requires the ability to predict possible behaviours and emotional reactions of others. It is interesting that this student’s perceived abilities to understand social dynamics with some complexity was seen a number of times during observations and during the interview.  133  Categories!Themes  -  -  -  -  Understands and manages emotions to facilitate school. Ideal Student: Decent, Polite, and Hardworking Student. Shows a sense of justice? what is right and will defend this despite risk.  Present Research Findings That Relate to Themes Found in Study.  -  -  -  Shrug off Boredom & Distraction -  -  -  -  -  -  ChildrenlAdolescents: Tend to be good at establishing positive social relations. Tend to be more agreeable to others, less apt to engage in problem behaviours such as violent episodes, smoking, and drinking (Mayer, Caruso & Salovey, 2004).  Areas of E.l. Needed Based on Interpretation of MSCEIT-YV Manage, Understand, Use, Perceive  Children: E.l. consistently predicts positive social and academic outcomes in children (Eisenberg et at., Schultz et at., as cited by Mayer, Roberts & Barsade, 2008). Children: Five-year old preschoolers’ emotional knowledge predicted third-grade teachers’ ratings in school skills (e.g. arithmetic skills, reading skills, the motivation to succeed)... .The correlation remained significant after controlling for verbal ability, sex, and socio-emotional traits (tzard et at, 2001a as cited by Mayer, Roberts, Barsade, 2008). Children: Some behaviours seen in children in other research include: assertion, cooperation and selfcontrol. “Findings held after verbal ability, sex and selected personality traits were controlled for (Izard et at., 2001a as cited by Mayer, Roberts & Barsade, 2008, p.523). Children: Total E.l. is negatively correlated with social deviance in children as indicated by getting into fights or vandalizing property (Brackett & Mayer, 2003). ChitdrenlAdolescents: Among children and adolescents El positively correlates with good social relations and negatively correlates with social deviance, measured both in and out of school as reported by children themselves, their family members and their teachers (Denham et at. (2003), Eisenberg et at. (2000), Fine et at. (2003), lzard et al. (2001). Adolescents: Trinidad & Johnson, 2002 found a higher MEtS score correlated with tower tobacco and alcohol use among adolescents (Mayer, Roberts & Barsade, 2008). Adolescents! Adults: El is correlated with higher academic achievement as reported by teachers, but generally not with higher grades once tQ is taken into account (Mayer, Roberts & Barsade, 2008). ChildrenlAdolescentsl Adults: Halberstadt and Hall (1980) reviewed 22 studies (5 of which included adult populations) of nonverbal sensitivity (Including emotional perception) and found a small but significantly positive relationship between the ability to identify nonverbal expressions and cognitive ability 134  assessed by standard test and school performance Mayer, Roberts & Barsade, 2008). -  Adolescents: “Mestre et al. (2006) found that MSCEIT Strategic (Understanding and Managing) E.I. correlated with teacher ratings of academic achievement among 15 —year-old Spanish boys above and beyond IQ and the Big Five Personality Traits” (Mayer, Roberts & Barsade, 2008, p.). —  -  -  -  -  -  Adult: “Accurate reasoning about emotions and the ability to use emotions and emotional knowledge to enhance thought (and therefore behaviour) El is distinct in that it involves a primary focus on a specific area of problem solving” (Mayer, Roberts & Barsade, 2007, p. 511). Adult: Generally a highly emotionally competent person would tend to be more open than others, solve emotional problems more readily, communicate easily and discuss feelings with a level of complexity. Are less apt to engage in problem or self-destructive behaviours and override negative emotions to pursue goals. It is also assumed that an emotionally capable person would likely display a more in-depth understanding of particular aesthetic or ethical feelings and interactions (Mayer et al., 2003; Mayer et al., 2004). Adult: “Using the MSCEIT total E.l correlated with company rank... peer and supervisor rated sociability, and related contribution to a positive work environment” (Lopes et al., as cited by Mayer, Roberts & Barsade, 2007, p. 524). Adult: “Using the MSCEIT total perception and understand scores correlated with “Cultivates productive working relationships and rated personal drive and integrity” (Rosete & Ciarrochi, as cited by Mayer, Roberts, & Barsade, 2008, p.524). Adult: Dunn found that “people who scored high on the Emotional Management domain of the MSCEIT realized that emotional responses are not simple functions of an event’s occurrence, instead they appreciated how emotions following an event can be mitigated or reinforced by both internal factors and external_factors”_(Dunn_et_al.,_2007,_p.91).  Interpretations: It is interesting to note that all students in this case study scored high on understanding and managing emotions. It could be assumed that students who have LD and El. have an advantage in that E.I. should be mitigating some of the issues and obstacles learning disabilities present.  135  CategorieslThemes  -  Depth of Understanding of ions ocia Dynamics  Present Research Findings, Which Relate to Themes Found in Study.  -  -  -  Adult: Dunn found that “people who scored high ct the Emotional Management domain of the MSCEIT realized that emotional responses are not simple functions of an event’s occurrence, instead they appreciated how emotions following an event can be mitigated or reinforced by both internal factors and external factors. In essence, high EM individuals have intuitive understanding that wellbeing depends less on the objective events one encounters than on how those events are construed dealt with and shared with others” (Dunn et al., 2007. P. 91).  -  Areas of E.l. Needed Based on Interpretation of MSCEIT-YV Manage, Understand, and Pei’i  Adult: “The creation of positive affect by people with higher E.l. may be especially important because it can spread amongst groups via emotional contagion” (Barsade, 2002; Hatfield et al., as cited by Mayer, Roberts, & Barsade, 2008, p. 524). Adult: Emotional Recognition Accuracy predicted a modest but significant and constant rise in overall workplace effectiveness (Elfenbien et al, as cited by Mayer, Roberts, & Barsade, 2008).  Interpretations: -  -  -  -  It is interesting to note that all students in this case study also scored high on managing emotions. The actions of these students appear to have a positive effect on other students in the class. The most outstanding students in this study used the same language to describe understanding people. They both seemed to read the underlying ‘emotional landscape’ of a social situation, and this gave them additional information. (As if they perceived extra emotional information that others may miss.) Both Isobel and ‘Joseph” were active ‘social managers.’ This term simply means that these two students are often able to use social/emotional skills, such as knowing what to say and how to say it, as a means of gently pushing a social situation in a direction they want or to gain a social advantage. A simple example of this was seen with these students’ ability to comfortably interact with every peer. lsobel In particular would often change her behaviour to match the personality of the person with whom she was interacting, as well as the nature of the relationship. Again, this requires many of the social/emotional skills associated with leadership in addition to some skill with social/emotional input.  136  CategorieslThemes  -  Present Research Findings, Which Relate to Themes Found in Study.  ALotof Friends  Children: Among children and adolescents El positively correlates with good social relations and negatively correlates with social deviance, measured both in and out of school as reported by children themselves, their family members and their teachers (Denham et al., 2003: Eisenberg et al., 2000: Fine et aL, 2003; Izard et aL, 2001). -  -  Areas of El. Needed Based on Interpretation of MSCEIT-YV Manage, Understand, Use, Perceive  Children: “Children’s skill at emotional regulation appears to influence their social wellbeing as well” (Denham et al., as cited by Mayer, Roberts, & Barsade, 2008, p. 521). Adult: Generally a highly emotionally competent person would tend to be more open than others, solve emotional problems more readily, communicate easily and discuss feelings with a level of complexity. Are less apt to engage in problem or self-destructive behaviours and override negative emotions to pursue goals. It is also assumed that an emotionally capable person would likely display a more in-depth understanding of particular aesthetic or ethical feelings and interactions (Mayer et aL, 2003; Mayer et al., 2004). Adult: “The creation of positive affect by people with higher E.l. may be especially important because it can spread amongst groups via emotional contagion” (Barsade, 2002; Hatfield at at., as cited by Mayer, Roberts, & Barsade, 2008, p. 524). Adult: Others perceive high IE individuals as more pleasant to be around, more empathetic and more socially adroit than those low in El (Brackett et al., 2006; Lopes et al., 2004; Lopes et aL, 2005).  lnterretations: -  -  All of the students in this study had a number of friends. However, some were ‘social butterflies’ while others had a select group of specific friends. Only one student was subject to bullying, however, this student was particularly outstanding in his ability with El. and as such was somewhat different from his peers.  137  More Subtle Themes  -  Present Research Findings Which Relate to Themes Found in Study.  Charming! Charismatic! Personable  -  Adult: Generally a highly emotionally competent person would tend to be more open than others, solve emotional problems more readily, communicate easily and discuss feelings with a level of complexity. Are less apt to engage in problem or self-destructive behaviours and override negative emotions to pursue goals. It is also assumed that an emotionally capable person would likely display a more in-depth understanding of particular aesthetic or ethical feelings and interactions (Mayer et al., 2003; Mayer et al., 2004).  Social Manager Different from his/her peers, but part of group. Adults relate to student as equal.  -  -  Areas of E.l. Needed Based on Interpretation of MSCEIT-YV Manage, Understand, Use, Perceive  Adult: Tend to be good at establishing positive social relations, tend to be more agreeable to others, less apt to engage in problem behaviours such as violent episodes, smoking, and drinking (Mayer, Caruso & Salovey, 2004). Adult: “The third theme, which corresponds to the highest level of awareness, could perhaps be called emotional expertise because it involves both expert knowledge about particular emotions and the degree and manner by which they can be regulated. Here are found people who consciously develop their emotions so as to respond with aesthetic, ethical or religious feelings. Regulators at this reflective level tend to be self-observing and circumspect” (Mayer, & Salovey, 1995, p. 205). “Just as the material of knowledge is supplied through the senses, so the material of ethical knowledge is supplied by emotional responsiveness” (Dewey, as cited by Liau, et al., 2003, p. 63).  Interpretations: -  -  -  Given the research, it could be assumed that the multiple, foundational skills associated with E.l. (social competence, self-control, reading and understanding others emotions accurately) would lead to more subtle observations in behaviour. It could be assumed that these more subtle behaviours would include a strong sense of justice, adults relating to a child as an equal, and being ‘different’ from peers. Of particular interest are the more subtle skills seen in one particular student. These skills seem to separate this student from the rest of the group, and may be indicative of behaviours seen in individuals who may be considered as being highly emotionally competent or emotionally gifted. Mayer (year) suggests that individuals with high emotional intelligence provide emotional ‘coaching’ services to others, and directly involve themselves in certain situation, and assist others. 138  Overall Interpretation. Research into the key behaviours associated with emotional intelligence in children, adolescents and adults are also seen in the students in this study. This helps to confirm that these participants do indeed have levels of emotional intelligence that appear to differ from peers. Additionally, these students may be using their emotional intelligence as a means of counterbalancing any learning disabilities.  139  References Brackeil, M.A., & Mayer, J.D. (2003). Convergent, discriminate, and incremental validity of competing measures of emotional intelligence. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 1-12. Brackett, MA, Lerner, N., Rivers, S.E., Salovey, P., & Shiffman, S. (2006). Relating emotional abilities to social functioning: A comparison of self-report and performance based measures of emotional intelligence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 780-795. Denham, S.A., Blair, KA, DeMulder, E., Levitas, J., Sawyer, K., Auerbach-Major, S., (2003) Preschool emotional competence: Pathway to social competence. Child Development, 74, 238256. Dunn, E.W., Brackett, M.A., Schniederman, E., (2007) On emotionally intelligent times travel: Individual differences in affective forecasting ability. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 85-93. Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R.A., Guthrie, l.K., Reiser, M., (2000) Dispositional emotionality and regulation: Their role in prediction quality of social functioning. Journal of Personal and Social Psychology, 78, 136-157. Fine, S.E., Izard, C.E., Mostow, A.J., Ackerman, B.P., (2003) First grade emotional knowledge as a predictor of fifth grade self-reported internalizing behaviours in children from economically disadvantaged families. Developmental Psychopathology, 15, 331-342. Izard, C.C. (2001). Emotional intelligence or adaptive emotions. Emotion, 1, 249-257. Liau, A.K., Liau, A.W., Teoh, G.B., Liau, M.T., (2003). The case for emotional literacy: The influence of emotional intelligence on problem behaviours in Malaysian secondary school students. Journal of Moral Education, 32, 5 1-66. Lopes, P.N., Bracket, M.A., Nezlek, J.B., Schutz, A., Sellin, I., Salovey, P., (2004) Emotional intelligence and social interaction. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 1018-1034. Lopes, P.N., Salovey, P, Cote, S. Beers, M., (2005) Emotional regulation abilities and the quality of social interaction, Emotion, 5, 113-118. Mayer, J.D., Caruso, D.R., Salovey, P., & Sitarenios, G. (2003). Measuring emotional intelligence with the MSCEITV2.0. Emotion, 3, 97-105. Mayer, J.D., Caruso, D.R. & Salovey, P. (2004). Emotional intelligence: Theory, findings, and implications. Psychological Inquiry, 15, 197-21 5. Mayer, J.D. & Salovey, P., (1995) Emotional intelligence and the construction and regulation of feeling. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 4, 197-208. Mayer, J.D., Caruso, D.R. & Salovey, P. (2004). Emotional intelligence: Theory, findings, and implications. Psychological Inquiry, 15, 197-215. Mayer, J.D., Roberts, R.D., & Barasade, S.G., (2008) Human ability: Emotional intelligence. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 507-536.  140  Appendix K  Case Study Descriptions  RESEARCH QUESTION: ‘How do students who are highly emotionally competent and have learning disabilities experience school?’ Case Study Number: Q4 Age: j3  General Description A child who struggles with school, but is one who could be characterized as an ideal student; he/she is decent, polite, caring, diligent, hardworking and is often described as being particularly charismatic and charming. This is a remarkably determined and persistent student, despite academic obstacles. He/she can have considerable self-insight, both with emotions and behaviours and, as a consequence, may be able to advise the teacher on the best ways for him/her to learn and understand the information provided. This student can often be trusted and relied upon to act as an adult. In fact, teachers may often find themselves interacting with this student as if he/she were an adult. Although this student may appear somewhat removed or different from the peer group, he/she still remains part of it. This student is very socially adept. He/she may have a number of friends and/or have a small group of close friends and may even at times appear to be able to socially and/or emotionally manage peers. However, because this student thinks about and responds to social/emotional situations in ways that are different from peers he/she may also be subject to bullying. It could be presumed that this student is likely to take on leadership roles either with schoolwork or in social situations. Additionally, at school this student may express or demonstrate social/emotional behaviours, insights or concerns that are well above his/her age level. (For example, this student tends to demonstrate a sense ofjustice that is often understood at a level higher than his/her peers.) It should be pointed out that these are general behaviours that are very subtle. Students may not behave in this way everyday, or consistently. However, over time a strong, general pattern of behaviours that are reflective of Emotional Intelligence is often, though not always, noted by more than one adult.  141  Description of This Student Test This student earned a score on the MSCEIT-YV that was among the top scores in the tested class. This test is based on Mayer, Salovey and Caruso’s theory of Emotional Intelligence and tests four separate areas considered to make up E.I.; Perceiving, Using, Understanding, and Managing emotions. These are graded skills, with the top two, Understanding and Managing, being called ‘Strategic Skills’. These are considered the more sophisticated and involved of the four skills. Consequently, it would be expected that those with high levels of Emotional Intelligence would display a particular ability in these two areas. This student did score extremely well with Understanding emotions and scored very well in Managing emotions. The observations and interviews go on to uphold these test results. School Related Observations This student was able, for the most part, to shrug off boredom and distraction in class. He/she appeared to be somewhat better than his/her peers at pulling out of distracting behaviours and was able to regain his/her attention when needed. This student showed a generally consistent ability to ignore peers and maintain concentration. This student appears to have a tendency towards leadership at school and/or will take the initiative of becoming a leader if the opportunity presents itself. In one observation this student quickly took control when working with a peer. Both students had become somewhat distracted; eventually the observed student focused his/her partner, set the team back to work and acted as the team’s ‘leader’. Effective leadership abilities require considerable depth of understanding of social dynamics, as well as the ability to read and understand the emotions of others and their intentions within a social situation. In addition, it requires the ability to predict possible behaviours and emotional reactions of others. It is interesting that this student’s perceived abilities to understand social dynamics with some complexity was seen a number of times during observations and during the interview. This student generally can present as an ‘ideal student’ from a teacher’s point of view. For the most part this is a polite student who gets on with work, doesn’t act out too much, and is able to pull him/herself back to work even when being distracted by peers. Despite this student’s strong ability to remain focused and work, there are times when peers distracted the observed student and it is interesting to note that this student did not score as highly on managing emotions as he/she did on understanding emotions. Perhaps leaving him/her somewhat prone to entertaining distractions in class.  Associated with this students leadership abilities is his/her ability to be what the researcher is calling a ‘Social Manager’. This term simply means that this student is often able to used social/emotional skills, such as knowing what to say and how to say it, as a means of gently pushing a social situation in a direction he/she wants or to gain a social advantage. A simple example of this was seen in this student’s ability to comfortably interact with every peer. The observed student often changes behaviour to match the personality of the person with whom he/she was interacting, as well as the nature of the relationship. Again, this requires many of the social/emotional skills associated with leadership in addition to some skill with social/emotional input. This general ability to understanding social/emotional dynamics has been seen quite consistently in both observations and the interview. In one observation the class was going over the answers to math problems as a group. One student was having difficulty with a math question. The observed student said, “You are thinking too hard about the problem. You are making it harder than it should be.” It could be argued that this statement appears to show a level of analysis regarding how another person may be thinking and feeling. It therefore appears to show more that a rudimentary ability with emotional skills, thought and the analysis of both. Interview During the interview this student seemed to show an ability to recognize the complexity of emotions. This was seen in this student’s response to the question, “How good do you think you are at reading other people’s emotions?” The student responded by clarifying that reading other people’s emotions is dependent on the personality of the person whose emotions you are trying to read. This student appears to understand that there are different factors that will determine the ability to read and accurately interpret another person’s emotions. In addition, when asked to consider a scenario in which a group of students maliciously kick out a fellow member this student responded by saying, “May be she kind of regrets it, but she could also be kind of happy that she got out of it and she is kind of realizing what bad people they were.” This seems to demonstrate a rather sophisticated understanding that contradictory emotions can exist simultaneously. It could be assumed that this student would be not involved in bullying activities. As a whole this appears to be one of the patterns found with the students being observed in this study. This student seems to display behaviours that can be related to the strategic skills of understanding and managing emotions. Although the test, observations and interview note that this student appears to be using a number of what are considered to be high level abilities with E.I. this student appears to be, to 143  a great. extent unaware of this. This was displayed during the interview when,this student would revert from demonstrating a relatively complex understanding of emotions, thought and social dynamics to demonstrating only an elementary depth of insight. This mix may be due to the fact that this is the, way this student understands and processes emotional thought, because we as a culture do not openly talk about emotions and thought, and because this student has not had the life experience to begin to consider or reflect on how he/she uses and considers emotions. However, this lack of insight was often coupled with some clear evidence that this student display’s the skills and behaviours associated with E.I. Moreover, this appears to be a pattern found with some students in this study. As has been demonstrated in the observations, this student appears to display some insight into the complexities of social dynamics as well as a sense of right and wrong. During the interview the student introduced a general situation that happened at school in which he/she took the initiative to stand up for another student. When asked “What were you thinking or feeling during that situation?” the student responded by stating  how they felt, but how the person he/she was standing up for could have been  feeling. The student went on to spontaneously explain what the bystanders could be thinking and feeling. This seems to display a relatively solid understanding of the multi-dimensionality of social situations. In addition the observed student was willing to stand up for this other student even at the potential risk of being ridiculed by peers. This sense of right and wrong was seen again during the interview. The student was given a scenario in which a group of students maliciously kicks out a member of their group. This participant’s first reaction was to state that this “is extremely wrong.” This sense of what is right and wrong, again, is another pattern found with the students in this study. Particular to this student has been a demonstration of a general sense of empathy and caring for others. This was demonstrated in the observations as well as during the interview. Again, the student was given a scenario in which a group of students kick out a member of their group. This student showed a considerable amount of concern and considerable depth of understanding of the emotions of the student who has been kicked out. This student was clearly able to put him/herself into another person’s shoes and hypothesize about how another might feel, and did so with some depth of understanding. “Cause she is kind of thinking, if I was her I’d be kind of sad and you know it would kind of scar me. Cause may be you are kind of... you’ll be a little.. .nervous if someone wants to be your friend.” Empathy is considered by many researchers to be an indicator of Emotional Intelligence as it requires not only a depth of understanding of another person’s emotional state, but a depth of understanding of that person’s social/emotional position and perspective. This student clearly showed this ability during the interview.  144  Case Study Descriptions RESEARCH QUESTION: ‘How do students who are highly emotionally competent and have learning disabilities experience school?’ Case Study Number: Q Age: j3. General Description A child who struggles with school, but is one who could be characterized as an ideal student; he/she is decent, polite, caring, diligent, hardworking and is often described as being particularly charismatic  and charming. This is a remarkably determined and persistent student, despite academic obstacles. He/she can have considerable self-insight, both with emotions and behaviours and, as a consequence, may be able to advise the teacher on the best ways for him/her to learn and understand the information provided. This student can often be trusted and relied upon to act as an adult. In fact, teachers may often find themselves interacting with this student as if he/she were an adult. Although this student may appear somewhat removed or different from the peer group, he/she still remains part of it. This student is very socially adept. He/she may have a number of friends and/or have a small group of close friends and may even at times appear to be able to socially and/or emotionally manage peers. However, because this student thinks about and responds to social/emotional situations in ways that are different from peers he/she may also be subject to bullying. It could be presumed that this student is likely to take on leadership roles either with schoolwork or in social situations. Additionally, at school this student may express or demonstrate social/emotional behaviours, insights or concerns that are well above his/her age level. (For example, this student tends to demonstrate a sense ofjustice that is often understood at a level higher than his/her peers.) It should be pointed out that these are general behaviours that are very subtle. Students may not behave in this way everyday, or perhaps consistently. However, over time a strong, general pattern of behaviours that are reflective of Emotional Intelligence is often, though not always, noted by more than one adult.  145  Description of This Student It should be noted that this student is naturally quiet. Consequently, the interview for this case may not be the best indicator of Emotional Intelligence.  This student was the most quiet and ‘self-contained’ of the students who participated in this study. As a consequence the evidence presented may be subject to more errors and misinterpretations on the part of the researcher. However, this student’s more introverted nature, presents a unique insight into students who present behaviours characteristic of Emotional Intelligence. If, as this student seems to indicate, extroverted behaviour is not necessarily associated with E.I this could give evidence to the possibility that E.I is in fact different from personality and is a separate intelligence, as is argued by Mayer, Salovey and Caruso (1997). More importantly, this diversity in students diagnosed with learning disabilities has allowed this group of students to go unnoticed in past research. Test  This student presented a score on the MSCEIT-YV that was among the top scores in the tested class. This test is based on Mayer, Salovey and Caruso’s theory of Emotional Intelligence and tests for three separate areas considered to make up E.I.; Perceiving, Using, Understanding, and Managing emotions. These are graded skills, with the top two, Understanding and Managing, being called ‘Strategic Skills’. These are considered the more sophisticated and involved of the four skills. Consequently, it would be expected that those with high levels of emotional intelligence would display a particular ability in these  two areas. This student did score extremely well in both Understanding and Managing emotions. The observations and interviews go on to uphold these test results. School Related Observations This student seems to display behaviours that can be seen as being related to the strategic skills of understanding and managing emotions. He/she was able to, quite consistently, shrug off boredom and distraction in class. He/she appeared to be better than his/her peers at pulling out of distracting behaviours and was able to regain his/her attention when needed. This student showed a consistent ability to ignore peers and maintain concentration. This student appears to be very persistent and patient. He/she is able to maintain a level of concentration and remain on school tasks despite having to do long activities that require extensive concentration and individual work. In fact, the observed student seems a bit better than his/her peers at 146  maintaining this level of concentration and diligence. Both these observations would appear to indicate an ability to control emotions, which in turn demands an ability to understand emotions. This student generally comes across as an ‘ideal student’ from a teacher’s point of view. This is a hardworking, polite, quiet, self-contained student who gets on with work, doesn’t act out too much, and is able to pull him/herself back to work even when being distracted by peers. As a whole this appears to be one of the patterns found with the students being observed in this study. This student appears to have a tendency towards leadership at school and/or will take the initiative of becoming a leader if the opportunity presents itself. In one observation this student quickly took control of a peer group, got the group focused, working and acted as the group’s ‘leader’. Effective leadership abilities require considerable depth of understanding of social dynamics, the ability to read and understand the emotions of others and their intentions within a social situation. In addition, it requires the ability to predict possible behaviours and emotional reactions of others. It is interesting that this student’s perceived abilities to understand social dynamics with some complexity was also seen during the interview. Despite this student’s quiet nature he/she appears to have a number of friends, both at school and at home. At school he/she is friendly with a lot of people, but appears to prefer to spend time with a select group of three to five friends.  Additional Observations There may be a tendency for this student to demonstrate a sense right and wrong. In one observation a student had created a ‘weapon’ out of tape and staples. The observed student had been bothered by this other student and his ‘weapon’ in the past. However, it was interesting to note that the observed student tried to make this student get rid of this homemade weapon and said, “You should not have that. No weapons at school” and tried to get the other student to toss out the weapon. This seems to indicate a general sense of ‘right and wrong.’ In addition, the observed student was willing to stand up for this even at the potential risk of being ridiculed and putdown by peers. This, again, appears to be a pattern found with the students being observed.  147  Interview This student seems to display behaviours that can be seen as being related to the strategic skills of understanding and managing emotions. However, the most glaring observation noted from the interview is that this student appears to be using a number of what are considered to be high level abilities with E.I. but is. to a great, extent unaware of this. This may be due to the fact that this is a natural way of thinking for this student, because we as a culture do not openly talk about emotions and thought, and because this student has not had the life experience to begin to consider or reflect on how he/she uses and considers emotions and thought. However, this lack of insight is often coupled with some clear evidence that this student display’s the skills and behaviours associated with E.I. During the interview, this was most clearly demonstrated when the researcher asked this student if he/she thought their ability to understand  and manage emotions helped with learning disabilities? The student responded by saying, “Not really.” However, earlier in the interview when asked how he/she is able to stay focused on extended cognitive activities this student explained how he/she will “just stop, not think about anything for a while and start again.” It could be argued that this student must have some ability to understand their feelings during these extended academic activities and know how to manage their emotions to stay focused and not become distracted or disruptive. This is in addition to the test results, overall observations and interview results which all show a tendency towards and ability to understand and manage emotions. During the interview this student seemed to show a good understanding of the emotions of others as well as their intentions and, as was seen in the observations, demonstrated a deeper and more insightful understanding of the complexities of social dynamics. This was seen in this student’s response to the question, “How good do you think you are at reading other people’s emotions?” The student responded, “It all depends on if I know the person or not. If I know someone really well, then it is really easy... Then I have some newer friends  ....  so I find it a bit harder to read their emotions.” This student appears  to understand that there is a period of time required in which you build up an understanding of another person. This time is needed before you are able to ‘read’ this other person or accurately interpret what they could be feeling. This ability to understand the emotions of others as well as the complexities of social dynamics was also seen when the researcher introduced a scenario during the interview. In this scenario a group of students maliciously kick out a member of their group. The student being interviewed was able to explain how varying members of the scenario could be feeling. When asked how the girl who was kicked out would feel this student said, “Because she would feel like she became somewhat popular and then she got dumped. Maybe she would be feeling like she is worthless and like garbage.” This was in fact a more in depth answer than the many of the responses given to the same 148  question by the other participating students. Also, it seems to show an understanding and of the fartherreaching emotional consequences of such actions on an individual. Finally, the student being interviewed, again, appears to have shown a sense of right and wrong. The same scenario includes one member of the group that tries to stand up for the girl being kicked out. When asked how this person could feel the student being interviewed included ‘mad’ as one of the emotions. When asked to explain why you could feel this way the students said, ‘Because... you are just trying to stand up for someone  and you sort of got hurt for it.” This seems to demonstrate an understanding that contradictory emotions can exist simultaneously. Therefore, it could be assumed that this student would not be involved in bullying activities and could be used by the teacher and school as a model of effective behaviour and thinking. Despite this student’s seeming lack of insight into emotions and thought there does seem to be a general ability to understand and manage emotions in a way that facilitates thinking and school activities. This can be seen in more subtle ways throughout the observations, and more overtly in the interview. For example, this student was asked to expand on a scenario from the test that involved a student who reluctantly had to study for a test. The student being interviewed was given a choice of three options and asked to choose the most appropriate action that would facilitate studying for the test. The student responded by saying, “If you have a snack and watch a TV program it sort of relaxes you and lets you think better. Going to the shopping mall won’t really relax you and it takes a lot longer.” This seems to indicate that this student considered the activities from not only a practical perspective, but an emotional one as well. The response is indicative of how someone who is emotionally intelligence could think. They are understanding and managing emotions in a way that facilities thought.  Anecdotal Information From Interview At this very young age this student’s mother remembered a time when this student was able to say how he/she was feeling. This student’s mother remarked that at the time she was surprised that such a young child could have that much insight.  References Mayer, J.D., & Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In P. Salovey & D. Sluter (Eds.) Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Educational implications. (pp. 3-32) New York: Basic Books.  149  Case Study Descriptions RESEARCH QUESTION. ‘How do students who are highly emotionally competent and have learning disabilities experience school?’ Case Study Number: Age: 13 j General Description A child who struggles with school, but is one who could be characterized as an ideal student; he/she is decent, polite, caring, diligent, hardworking and is often described as being particularly charismatic and charming. This is a remarkably determined and persistent student, despite academic obstacles. He/she can have considerable self-insight, both with emotions and behaviours and, as a consequence, may be able to advise the teacher on the best ways for him/her to learn and understand the information provided. This student can often be trusted and relied upon to act as an adult. In fact, teachers may often find themselves interacting with this student as if he/she were an adult. Although this student may appear somewhat removed or different from the peer group, he/she still remains part of it. This student is very socially adept. He/she may have a number of friends and/or have a small group of close friends and may even at times appear to be able to socially and/or emotionally manage peers. However, because this student thinks about and responds to social/emotional situations in ways that are different from peers he/she may also be subject to bullying. It could be presumed that this student is likely to take on leadership roles either with schoolwork or in social situations. Additionally, at school this student may express or demonstrate social/emotional behaviours, insights or concerns that are well above his/her age level. (For example, this student tends to demonstrate a sense ofjustice that is often understood at a level higher than his/her peers.) It should be pointed out that these are general behaviours that are very subtle. Students may not behave in this way everyday, or perhaps consistently. However, over time a strong, general pattern of behaviours that are reflective of Emotional Intelligence is often, though not always, noted by more than one adult.  150  Description of This Student This student has been diagnosed with ADHD and this was evident during the test, observations and interview. Despite this, the student demonstrates a very strong ability with E.I. Specifically, this student appears highly skilled with the more advanced ‘Strategic Skills’ associated with the theory of Ed. What stands out most with this student is his/her ability to read and understand other people’s emotional states (The ‘emotional landscape’ of a social situation.), his/her ability to understand and control his/her own behaviour and this student’s strong and innate leadership abilities. This student can be characterized as remarkably charismatic, outgoing and socially gregarious. During the interview this student talked about social interactions in a way that included running dialogue and emotional detail. This student presented social scenarios as if they were happening right in front of you. This dialogue was entrenched with observations about others’ behaviours and included interpretation of these behaviours and actions, as well as his/her ideas and theories about these social interactions. He/she is a strong conversationalist, who appears to hold a solid vocabulary. (This is interesting to note, as there is some evidence of an association between verbal abilities and E.L) This student’s present school has formally recognized his/her social skills, and teachers suggested this student as a potential candidate for the study. This appears to give even more credence to the study’s findings with this participant. Students with ADHD are often not noted for their abilities in understanding and managing emotions and behaviour. The dual exceptionality of E.I. and ADHD not only makes this student all the more remarkable, but his/her skill and aptitude with emotions and thought should encourage further research and exploration of the multiple abilities students with learning difference have. Based on what was seen in the observations and the interview with this student, it could be assumed that students with attention disabilities could have a hard time demonstrating their abilities with El, however, this does not mean that this ability is not there. However, it would take a very astute and insightful teacher to be able to spot this ability in a large public school setting. Because students with this specific dual exceptionality have particularly good insight and understanding into their emotions, it could be assumed that they are very able to express to their teachers how they are feeling. They could inform the teacher of the extent to which they are able to concentrate that day, and may be able to inform teachers as to what activities will help them to learn and when an activity should be changed. The teacher will be able to use the student’s insight into their own emotions as a tool for the student to gain increased control over behaviour and academics. Moreover, this may lead to techniques that can be used with other students. Such a student could actually be seen as a blessing in a busy classroom, as it is no longer solely up to the teacher to try to gauge how to teach this student and how much this student will be able to learn today. 151  Test This student presented a score on the MSCEIT-YV that was among the top two scores in the tested class. This test is based on Mayer, Salovey and Caruso’s theory of Emotional Intelligence and tests four separate areas considered to make up E.I.; Perceiving, Using, Understanding, and Managing emotions. These are graded skills, with the top two, Understanding and Managing, being called ‘Strategic Skills’. These are considered the more sophisticated and involved of the four skills. Consequently, it would be expected that those with high levels of Emotional Intelligence would display a particular ability in these two areas. This student did score extremely well with both Understanding and Managing emotions. The observations and interviews go on to uphold these test results. School Related Observations During testing, the observations and the interviews this student seemed to show a depth of understanding of social/emotional dynamics at school. The opportunity to test this student individually gave the researcher some added insight into how this student seems to think. The test itself brought up the topic of bullying and this student was able to give a number of insights into the social/emotional perspective of the bully. He/she stated, “it only makes it [so that] people [do] not like them, so the bully doesn’t like himself in the end.” This statement appears to show a depth of insight that peers of this student may not have yet come to understand. An incident found in the observations seems to help to confirm this understanding of social/emotional dynamics. At this student’s school a friend bumped into the observed student in the hail. Although, this was done partly because the observed student had been acting out, there also appeared to be some attempt to create a confrontation by this friend. The observed student was angrily asked by his friend, “Why are you being stupid” There was a long pause and the observed student said. “I am not going to respond to that question.” It appeared from this observation that this student was able to quickly read the social situation, was able to gauge his/her feelings and behaviour as well as that of his/her friend, and defuse the situation. This appears to demonstrate a rather complex understanding of the social/emotional dynamics between peers. This student shows a good ability at managing and controlling his/her own emotions as well as the ability to shrug off boredom and distraction in the classroom. This appears to be done as a means of maintaining a level of concentration, despite having to do long activities that require extensive concentration and individual work as is made more remarkable because this student has been diagnosed with ADHD. During the observations this student demonstrated that he/she does struggle with maintaining attention. (Particularly as the school day goes along.) However, this student appears to have ‘self 152  correcting’ mechanisms to forgo boredom and frustration. By taking pauses and breaks, and talking briefly  with friends, before refocusing. He/she was able to maintain focus despite his/her friend sitting beside him/her. This ability to independently develop self-correcting mechanisms is an asset for a classroom, as it takes a considerable amount of time and effort to teach children these mechanisms. In the observations this student appeared to be a ‘Social Manager’ of his/her peers. One particularly interesting incident was when this student came into class and instantly explained to the teacher that he/she  was feeling ‘random’ and that this could effect his/her work. The observed student then sat down to get on with schoolwork. However, instead of working the observed student quickly got those around him to act up. This was done in a fun and playful way. Interestingly, the observed student was well aware of what he/she was doing and the effect his/her behaviour was having. The researcher got the impression that the observed student could ‘turn’ this behaviour on in order to get the desired effect from peers. This student appeared to be actively removing him/herself from schoolwork by getting those around him distracted. However, the student quickly realized that his/her peers were starting to act out too much, and so he/she promptly returned the students to work. Not only does this incident seem to display an ability to understand his/her  own emotions, but it also appears to show an ability to be leader. Adding to this, during this incident, the observed student turned to researcher and said, “See, I can get other people going, just cause I am feeling random.” This seems to also show good self-insight, this student recognizes that he/she can manipulate others. Despite this ability to ‘manage’ others, this student also repeatedly displayed a sense of right and wrong. This was done in small ways, a when another student was unable to reach the class cubbyholes because he bad a bad foot and the observed student went out if his/her way to help this other student. When asked later on by the researcher, “Why did you help the student with the bad foot?” This student replied, “He is my friend and I look out for him” and “It was the right think to do.” This sense of right and wrong was also seen during the interview. The student was presented with a scenario in which a group of students maliciously kick out a member of their group. The researcher then asked, “How would you feel if you were a member of this group and you were watching this happen?” This student responded by saying, “Me! I would feel really bad and sad. And actually convince people not to do it.  . . .  Cause I  would be like, ‘Dude, why are you like playing around with her!” Unless she did something. [If she did not do anythingj then I would totally cut the group.” These three responses by the observed student consistently appear to demonstrate a strong sense of the injustice of the situation. In fact, that last statement, “Then I would totally cut the group”, is quite strong, given that this student also demonstrated a strong sense of loyalty to friends and his/her peer group. 153  Additional Observations Despite the abilities demonstrated above, it was clear during the observations that at times this students’ difficulty focusing can get the better of him/her. This appears to dampen the natural abilities this student has with E.I.; however, it appears to have in no way diminish them.  Interview This student’s intrinsic ability to understands others’ emotional states and read their intentions is an ability that appears to present itself both in the observations and in the interview and is supported by close family members. Additionally, this student appears to recognize this ability in him/herself. During the interview, when the researcher tried to clarifr how it is that this student understands how another person may be feeling, the student said, “His body language, the emotions on his face. It is weird, cause, it is like I can see right through people some times.” This quote is particularly interesting as another participant who appears to be very skilled at E.I. has described this ability in much the same way. This ability to understand the another’s emotional state was seen again during the interview when the student was asked, “Do you think that emotions can actually have different sensations, different colours and different feelings associated with them. The student responded by stating that, “Well, it really depends on how you look at them. It all depends on the like,  ...  everyone, cause  everyone has their own opinions. I don’t.., like some people, I don’t think they really can have colours, but sometimes they can.” This insight appears to be demonstrating an ability to understand at some depth how others perceive emotions. Additionally, it could be argued that this student has actually pointed out one of the weaknesses in the test of Emotional Intelligence used in this study. That as different people perceive and understand emotions differently it is difficult to test for a set type of sensations that could be associated with each emotion. The student went on to try to explain what reading a ‘social landscape’ is like. The student said, “Like in the classroom, like you know when I came in and got people all worked up. I know when to get people worked up and I know when not to. It is like, you go in there and you can have fun or you can go in there and get killed by your teachers.” This statement appears to show that this student not only can read the ‘atmosphere’ of a class, but can use this understanding to manage the behaviour of others and to reason when, how, and to what extent and form 154  to manipulate the behaviour of others. It could be argued that this is a rather sophisticated use of Ed. Being able to ‘read’ people, pickup on their ‘vibes’ and instantly read the social/emotional landscape of classroom seems to give this student a subtle advantage at school. In fact, it could be said that this skill provides the student with a leveraging point, giving him/her the ability to read and predict the intentions and behaviours of teachers and peers, and allowing him/her to subtly manage the behaviour of others. As was noted above, during observations the researcher noted that this student was able to pull other student out of work and just as easily refocus his/her peers. This ability is partially what contributes to this student being a natural leader in his/her class. This apparent ability to understand emotions and intentions is not limited to other people. This student also demonstrated a strong ability to understand and manage his/her own emotions to facilitate school. It should be remembered that this ability is coupled with ADHD, which again makes this student’s depth of self-insight and understanding all the more remarkable. It is worth while here to recall the Mayer, Salovey and Caruso’s defmition of E.I. here. That Emotional Intelligence is the ability to understand and manage emotions so as to improve thought. This student clearly demonstrated this ability in both observations and interviews. During the interview, when asked, “Can you give me an example at school where you were able to understand what you were thinking?” This student responded by saying, “...and I could not stop being annoyed. I knew I was going to be annoyed for the rest of the day, unless I could talk to my teachers about it. So this is what I usually do. I don’t like talking... I like Ms. does. I find that Mr.  and all but she does not understand me as well as Mr. understands me a little more.”  This quote seems to demonstrate an ability to understand and manage his/her own emotions in a way that improves how he/she dealt with the situation. During both the observations and the interview this student showed a consistent ability to read his/her emotions and manage them effectively. As has been already indicated this student appears to have innate leadership ability among his/her peers. and will take the initiative of becoming a leader if the opportunity presents itself. This leadership was confirmed again in the interview when the student said, “Well me and (another student) run the class a little bit. As you can tell it is me and (another student)...”. In one observation this student was on a playing field with some peers who were playing on unauthorized equipment. The observed student told them to get off and that it was not right for them to be on this equipment. Instantly the peers got off, without questioning the observed student. Effective leadership abilities require considerable depth of understanding of social dynamics, and the ability to read and understand the emotions of others and their intentions within a social situation. In addition, it requires the ability to predict possible behaviours and emotional reactions of others. 155  It is interesting that this student’s perceived abilities to understand complex social dynamics was seen throughout the interview and the observations. This student also showed a solid ability to understand the complexities of social dynamics at school. This was demonstrated during the interview when the student was asked to think of a time at school where he/she had to control his/her emotions. The student went on to describe a situation with peers. “(another student) was always getting on my nerves. She was always talking about herself and she was really getting on my nerves and she was really making me want to snap and be like, look the world does not revolve around you. And I really wanted to say it and it was the perfect  timing and everyone would have laughed. But I didn’t.” This appears to show an ability to not only predict possible social responses and dynamics, but be able to manage his/her emotions so as not to hurt or embarrass another person. This was done despite the fact that making this statement could have been socially beneficial. It could, therefore, be assumed that this student would be less involved in bullying and disruptive behaviours in class. This student had a clear understanding that emotions are related to sensations and he/she could describe these sensations well. An example of this was seen when the researcher asked the student to clariiy the feeling of being ‘random’. The student said, “You just feel kind ofjumpy and you just talk about the most stupid stuff ever.” This understanding that sensations and alternate perceptions are associated with emotions gives more weight to the appearance that this student is particularly good at understanding and interpreting his/her own emotions, as well as the emotions of others. This ability to understand his/her emotions was seen to be an advantage at school, particularly when coupled with ADHD.  Anecdotal Information From Interview This student does have some insight into the skills he/she is using. This student does recognize that he/she is very good at reading people and recognizes that he/she is a leader in class. Some anecdotal information from this student’s mother gave more confirmation of this student’s ability to understand or ‘read’ other people’s emotions. This student seems to show a foundation of ability. It is assumed that life experience will expand on the skills afready seen.  156  Case Study Descriptions RESEARCH QUESTION: ‘How do students who are highly emotionally competent and have learning disabilities experience school?’ Case Study Number: Age: j____ General Description A child who struggles with school, but is one who could be characterized as an ideal student; he/she is decent, polite, caring, diligent, hardworking and is often described as being particularly charismatic and charming. This is a remarkably determined and persistent student, despite academic obstacles. He/she can have considerable self-insight, both with emotions and behaviours and, as a consequence, may be able to advise the teacher on the best ways for him/her to learn and understand the information provided. This student can often be trusted and relied upon to act as an adult. In fact, teachers may often find themselves interacting with this student as if he/she were an adult. Although this student may appear somewhat removed or different from the peer group, he/she still remains part of it. This student is very socially adept. He/she may have a number of friends and/or have a small group of close friends and may even at times appear to be able to socially and/or emotionally manage peers. However, because this student thinks about and responds to social/emotional situations in ways that are different from peers he/she may also be subject to bullying. It could be presumed that this student is likely to take on leadership roles either with schoolwork or in social situations. Additionally, at school this student may express or demonstrate social/emotional behaviours, insights or concerns that are well above his/her age level. (For example, this student tends to demonstrate a sense ofjustice that is often understood at a level higher than his/her peers.) It should be pointed out that these are general behaviours that are very subtle. Students may not behave in this way everyday, or perhaps consistently. However, over time a strong, general pattern of behaviours that are reflective of Emotional Intelligence is often, though not always, noted by more than one adult. Additions to General Description Specific To This Participant’s Abilities. Where academically gifted students are recognized for their abilities, these students are not. So their skills are not used, pursued or encouraged to flourish. If a student has this specific combination of dual exceptionalities they, in fact, possess a great ability to understand emotion, thought and behaviour in a way that is ahead of their peers. This in turn makes it hard for these students to relate to their peer group. However, this is such a subtle ability that, for the most part, it will most likely go unrecognized at school. Socially in some ways these students are in a ‘no-mans-land’. They can not relate to the majority of their peers, but are not in the adult world and it will take a number of years before these students are around peers they can relate to. Although their Emotional Intelligence makes these students resilient it must be 157  wearing to consistently interact with peers whose social/emotional behaviour and outlook is still developing. Students with particularly high abilities with Emotional Intelligence must wait until the rest of their world catches up to them socially and emotionally Description of This Student This student has been diagnosed with a short-term memory issue. Although this was somewhat evident during the interview, it in no way impeded in this student’s abilities to express his/her thoughts and ideas. This is a very charming, charismatic and personable student. When observing and interviewing this student the researcher was particularly struck by the considerable depth of maturity and understanding of human behaviour and emotion that this student demonstrated. The best way to describe this student was as an ‘old head on young shoulders’. When talking to this student it was very easy to forget that he/she was only 12 years old; it felt as if the student was much older. This was particularly evident when discussing issues of emotion, thought and human behaviour. Despite this student’s young age, he/she clearly thinks about social/emotional behaviours and situations with a complexity and depth of understanding that other students in the study did not demonstrate. He/she clearly enjoys talking about complex ideas associated with emotions and has started to devise a number of hypotheses and ‘rules of thumb’ about human nature and behaviour. It appears that it is now simply a case of life unfolding for him/her to test out his/her ‘theories’. This student recognizes that he/she understands and thinks about the world in a way that is very different from many of his/her peers. At school, this student’s peers do not have the depth of understanding of emotions and thought, are less able to understand and control their emotions and, most glaringly for this student, are considerably less sophisticated in their understanding ofjustice and fundamentals of right and wrong. The student’s recognition of his ‘emotional difference’ formed one of the most compelling moments of the interview when he/she asked how long it was going to be until his/her peers began to start understanding and behaving in a way that was more like his/her own. The researcher has not been the only adult impressed by some of the insights, understandings and behaviour of this student. Many teachers have remarked on his/her outstanding character, natural empathy, quiet integrity and maturity. Although this student understands that he/she is different, what is particularly striking is his/her surprise at the recognition he/she receives for his/her apparent natural ability with Emotional Intelligence. The researcher suggests that this surprise at being recognized may be a consequence of the hard knocks students with learning disabilities often are forced to take in mainstream schools.  158  Academic Conclusions and Suggestions How can these students’ abilities be recognized in a classroom? A teacher can try to become aware of these more subtle talents and give these students roles; such as making them peer mediators on the playground, using their expertise in social responsibility classes and when discussing issues of ethics, and by letting them lead anti-bullying campaigns within the class and/or school. Additionally, recognizing outstanding behaviour and ‘emotionally intelligent’ thought in students could be used as a platform to talk about these behaviours and ways of thinking. This, in turn, could perhaps lead to the elevation of the ‘collective consciousness’ of the class. The key is to, as we all know, teach to the whole child and not focus on the learning disabilities. But in addition, the message out of this research is to remember the level of diversity and abilities that each student possesses and to try to actively recognize this potential, at least as best as a busy teacher can within a traditional classroom structure. Test This student presented a score on the MSCEIT-YV that was among the top scores in the tested class. This test is based on Mayer, Salovey and Caruso’s theory of Emotional Intelligence and tests four separate areas considered to make up E.I.; Perceiving, Using, Understanding, and Managing emotions. These are graded skills, with the top two, Understanding and Managing, being called ‘Strategic Skills’. These are considered the more sophisticated and involved of the four skills. Consequently, it would be expected that those with high levels of Emotional Intelligence would display a particular ability in these two areas. This student did score extremely well with Understanding emotions and scored very well in Managing emotions. The observations and interviews go on to uphold these test results. School Related Observations As was stated above, this student presented numerous evidence of what appears to be a very sophisticated ability with E.I. One of the first, and most striking observations made was how different this student appeared to be from his/her peers. This is not to say that this student was in any way isolated from his/her peers or was in any way socially incompetent or unable to integrate. Instead, the general sense was that this student thought and behaved in a way that was more inline with an adult. An example of this rather subtle observation was found during in class observations of this student. Where others classmates are noisy and distracted, this student stood out because he/she was quiet, self-contained, hard working and polite. The best way to describe him/her in class would be as an ideal student, rather than a typical grade seven student. Another observation made was this student’s tendency to avoid what teachers would describe as disruptive classroom behaviour. The observations were made in a small, private school for students diagnosed as 159  having learning disabilities and it was noted that, as a group, there was a tendency towards some disruption in class. Again, this student stood out because he/she did not, and would not, engage in this behaviour, even when prompted by his/her peers. During the interview, this student actually commented on this sense of feeling somewhat different from the majority of his/her peers, yet having good relationships with some. Particularly those who also displayed El. behaviours. Again, this perceived ‘difference’ does not mean that this student is without friends. In fact, this student appears to have a number of friends at school, including one or two close friends and confidants. This ‘difference’ from children his/her own age was again confirmed in the overall research results. In fact, for the interview, this researcher had to extend the key concept word count because this student’s responses were so in-depth and involved. A depth of understanding of social/emotional dynamics was also seen in both the observations and the interview. This student appears to have a natural orientation towards analyzing and considering emotion, thought and human behaviour. This in turn often leads to a maturity of thought and consideration of social/emotional circumstances that are well above this student’s years. In one observation a small group of students were commenting on incidents that had recently happened at school and this became a general ‘venting’ about one of the school staff by the students. The observed student, however, did not ‘vent’ but instead said, “It is really not fair to talk about  in this way. Not only does it spread gossip, it  makes gossip more likely to happen and also we do not know this person’s intentions, and why he/she responds in this way. A discussion with this person should be started, but this could be hard because of due to the person’s position in the hierarchy.” Not only does this demonstrate a remarkable maturity and verbal ability, but also a solid understanding of how a group can misinterpret one person’s behaviour and how this can, in turn, create more problems. An additional observation that also seems to demonstrate a considerable depth of insight into social/emotional dynamics was when these same students went on to discuss bullying at their school. Here students were talking about incidents and what they had done about them. The observed student commented that he/she thought .that one of the reasons for the bulling was because the school is too small. “We can’t get away from each other and so get on each others nerves. Small groups form and they fall out because of some small reason. Or small groups get angry with each other. If we had other outlets we could form other relationships and that could help to smooth things over.” Again, this shows a remarkable insight into human behaviour, cause and effect relationships within social situations as well as considerable maturity of thought and understanding. This maturity was  160  presented again when the observed student went on to mention in the same conversation that although some students feel trapped at the small school, he/she thought it was a privilege, despite the fact that the school is not perfect. He/she went on to say that, “The staff are good, most of the kids get the help they need.” This student seems to show extremely good reasoning abilities when it comes to emotions and social dynamics and this ability appears to be above and beyond those of Ms/her peers. Additionally, he/she seems to reason through group dynamics and social situations to draw conclusions and decide how best to behave. It is not surprising that, with comments like this, adults at the school tend to relate to this student as an equal. Thought not said directly, it appears that numerous members of the staff at this student’s school consider this child to be trust worthy and dependable. This student is a member of ‘The Peace Group’, a group of students who have been selected and trained to act as peer advisors and mediators for peer conflict. Duties include mediation, conflict resolution, and acting as a bridge between teachers and students. During the observations this student was seen being relied upon by staff to work out issues and act as a go between. This was demonstrated in one incident where the principle of the school had forbidden students to play a game that involved picking up grass and throwing it. The game was harmless for most students, but one had an allergic reaction in the recent past, and so the game was forbidden. This angered many students. The observed student was asked to act as a go between and help explain to the student body why this decision had been made. Given this student’s remarkable level of maturity it is not surprising that he/she could be described as an ideal student from a teacher’s perspective. This student demonstrated himlherself to be a decent, polite, and hardworking student. In one observation a teacher was reading a long story to the class. Where other students were becoming bored, distracted and disruptive. This student seemed to physically shrug off boredom and refocus. In another observation this student put his/her hand up to ask a question, the teacher, however, was being distracted by other students. The observed student simply, quietly persisted. It took nearly 4 minutes before the teacher was able to respond and the observed student was able to politely ask his/her question. It appeared as if he/she understood and respected that the teacher was tied up and had the maturity to patiently wait. Additional Observations This student displayed other more subtle behaviours that are worth noting. The researcher observed that this is a charismatic, charming person who is a great conversationalist. Perhaps more interesting however was that this student displayed a remarkable sense ofjustice and constantly demonstrated, both in the observations and the interviews, a strong tendency to be willing to uphold that sense ofjustice even if it  161  meant ridicule from his/her peers. In one observation this student was talking with his/her peers about another group of grade sevens who were known to be the bullies of the school. The observed student said, “I don’t always get along with them. I feel somewhat different from them. I tell them things that they do or say are not right and they know I am right and they don’t like it. During this observation the researcher got the sense that this student was dumbfounded and frustrated that he/she is unable to reason with the bullies at school. That he/she is, at some level, surprised that they do not understand fundamentally correct behaviour. As with one other participant, this student was pointed out by school staff as being a very probable candidate for the study. As a consequence the principle told the researcher an anecdotal story. Apparently there were a number of students waiting on the school bus to go home. However, the bus could not leave. The school had to verify if one of the students was suppose to be sent home via the school bus. Some students on the bus were becoming angry. They were threatening to harass the student who was delaying them when he/she returned to their seat to go home. This student was, apparently, oflen bullied at school. The observed student told everyone to give this student a big cheer when he/she got back on the bus. The observed student, therefore, defused the situation and took some of the anger that was intended for the child who had accidentally made the bus wait. Interview As was demonstrated throughout the observations this student examines/thinks about emotions and how they work in a way which improves thinking and behaviour at school. During the interview the student was presented with a scenario in which a group of children maliciously kick out a member of their group. The student was asked to clarify what he/she could be feeling or thinking if he/she had been one of the bullying students. The student responded by saying, “It really depends. If the person is doing it once to get their fill of self-esteem. Or if they doing it consciously cause there was something tragic that happened in their family and they need something to fill that space. So for some people, they could go from being someone’s friend and some friendships where they just need someone to fill that space. Where as other people go to bullying  . . .  [just to] make people feel bad. They have an empty space too; where their self  esteem used to be. And they gain confidence by making other people feel horrible.” Not only did this student considerably expand the emotional understanding and complexity with this response, but demonstrated an awareness of the complexity of emotions and the variables that can effect this complexity. Coupled with this student’s ability to examine and think about emotions is the depth of insight into emotions, thought & behaviour despite this student’s lack of life experience. During the 162  interview the researcher was able to engage this student in a rather in-depth discussion about bullies and their various behavioural motivations. This student was able to give a rather detailed description of the bullies thought processes and emotional state. “. .  .He doesn’t think about things when he says them. He doesn’t think [about] what will  happen when he makes fun of this one kid. And when somebody, when a teacher comes up to him/her he/she will say ‘oh, I don’t care’. Something like that. And I am not specifically trying to poke fun at him, but there is a lot of people that I know that will say ‘I don’t care. Suspend me if you will, but I don’t care’. And urn.. .that is a big thing. Where if they were emotionally, or not emotionally ‘disabled’. If they had Emotional Intelligence and [then people like this] would say ‘Oh, I am sorry, I will never do it again’ and mean it. And they will think [beforehand and] say ‘oh, is this a good choice’?” It appears that this student has given some thought to multiple bullying scenarios and the emotional reasons why people behave the way they do. It could be imagined that this insight would provide for better peer interactions, particularly when it came to dealing with bullies at school. This student would be ideally suited as a peer mediator and could even be used to help in an anti-bullying campaign in a school or class. Associated with the ability to effectively interact and understand peers is this student’s ability to understand (read) others and their intentions and, as has already been demonstrated, shows some clear insight into the complexities of social dynamics. It is interesting to note that this ability to ‘read’ other people has been noted by one other student participating in this study. This other student also scored particularly well in the test, showed remarkable abilities with E.I in the observations and interview, and was also pointed out as a possible candidate by teachers. Both students have described this ability in much the same language. That of ‘reading’ people, or of ‘seeing right through people’. This student explained it in this way. Student: You can figure people out and look at the way they tick and read them like the back of your hand. Researcher: So it is as if you can see a whole other level of what is going on? Student: You can see right through them! This ability to understand or ‘read’ other people’s emotions again, is a great benefit when dealing with peers both in and out of class. It also, it could be imagined, may in fact help in some way with this student’s learning disabilities. How these abilities may help, however, would be left up to future research to discern.  163  It is not surprising that with such depth of understanding of emotions that this student, both in the observations and the interview, demonstrated a solid ability to control his/her emotions in a way that assists with school. This was clearly demonstrated during the interview when the student talked of a situation that happened during a social studies presentation. “I was doing an oral speech that I had to do and someone made a poor comment. And I was going to go off topic and [wanted to] say, ‘Why would you say that? It is such and awful thing to say!’ and I could have let my emotions go so out of hand, where I could have jumped over the table and grabbed them by the scruff of the neck and say, ‘Why would you say that?’ But instead of doing that, which would have lowered my grade and I probably would have gotten me suspended from school, I urn.. .1 put it behind me and said, ‘Oh, well, that is not important. They are just doing that because they do not feel good about themselves.’ And I just put it behind me and kept on with my speech.” It could be argued that this one episode appears to provide the definition of E.I. The ability to use and manage emotions to improve how you think. In fact, throughout the observations and interview this participant constantly demonstrated an ability to use Emotional Intelligence to improve his/her thought and behaviour. Despite this student’s obstacles it appears that his/her abilities with E.I. help him/her to be resilient and optimistic. As the above observation demonstrates, this ability to control emotions appears to be coupled with a level of maturity that was well past this student’s age. This student commented a number of times how, despite such difficulties at school, there are people a lot worst off then he/she is. “[These people], they are not complaining. They are saying ‘oh well... at least I have family, with me.’ So really I can put this behind me and say, ‘Ya, I can be sad a little bit. But really my problem is not that big. I have to put it behind me and say, I am 12 years old, there is so much more to life then grade school.” Such depth of insight and the ability to think in the long term about social/emotional situations could be another higher level ability that could, if these students have high levels of E.I., give students with learning disabilities an edge both academically and socially. Additional Information From Interview As was stated from the observations, this student appears to display behaviours and ways of thinking that were subtly, yet vastly different from his/her peers as well as the other participants in this study. It 164  appears that what this student is doing could be attributed to very sophisticated skills associated with E.I. and are not naturally attributed to students of this age. The following observations provide a rich glimpse of school life from the perspective of a child who appears to be both highly emotionally competent and has learning disabilities. Behaving Differently From Peers As the researcher attempted to pursue this sense that this student was different from his/her peers, the following conversation followed. This conversation appears to show not only a high level of selfknowledge, but starts to demonstrate how this student feels different from his/her peers. Student: My whole life I have been told that I am way too mature and I have never met one kid that is exactly like me. Researcher: Ya, I would describe you as an old head on young shoulders. Student: I have been told a lot that I am an old soul. Researcher: Ya, can you give me. again I need examples from school. . .  Student: Oh, ya sure. I mentioned earlier that people say, that some people say “oh,  you  are way too mature. Stop, Stop it. Why do we need to listen to this. Shut up. Go sit in the corner and listen to your ipod. Don’t listen to us if you do not want to hear it.” That kind of thing. I guess I got that the whole year. Researcher: So you feel different from... Student: My whole life I have been told ‘you are too mature’ You are really mature. Researcher: In fact you are so mature you don’t really fit in with the rest of the gang? Student: Not all the time no! And I do have a few friends and they are exactly like me, where they have been told that they are really mature. Researcher: Yes, that is what I noticed. Student: I only have a few friends that are like that really, so  ...  that really makes me hit home and  say “oh, not everybody is like this. I am here and I have, I have to put two and two together and either I am different and I am weird and I am way too mature and I am never going to make friends or I am advanced and I am lucky to be this way and I have excellent friends because I am this way.” And so I have to put two and two together and say ‘oh, so I am not really like that, they are immature and that is why they are saying that. I would never say that to somebody. 165  Later on in the interview the researcher presented a metaphor to the student which attempted to describe this student’s separation from his/her peer group. The researcher described this difference as if this student was in a slightly different ‘orbit’ from the rest of his/her class. Everyone following the same trajectory, just a different orbit. This student fully understood the metaphor presented to him/her and was able to add to it by saying that at times he/she can join the ‘orbit’ of his/her classmates if he/she wants, but then will get back to his/her own, more natural ‘orbit’. Attempts to Teach Peers Ethical Behaviour Another remarkable perception made both during the interviews and the observations was this student’s tendency to try to educate his/her peers when it came to issues of right and wrong behaviour. This student described an incident where he/she was trying to prevent some bullying and, at the same time, educate the bully. This student appears to be spontaneously using the rather sophisticated technique of ‘passive resistance’ towards bullies. Student: Someone said something awful to me and  ...  I just laugh and I said it to him. I said “you  are just saying that because you know you have nothing else to say  . . .  and you know I am right.”  .And he said it again and again and I figured out the way he ticks. And it is not just me who has noticed that, so it is actually, so it is actually grown ups who noticed, adults who notice that. None of the other kids do, no way. Researcher: So you were able to pick up something that adults were picking up and the kids weren’t?. So urn, this person who was mean to people... but you were still nice to them, why were . .  you still nice to them? Student: Cause I knew what they were doing. I knew why they were doing it. It didn’t bother me. I knew they were doing it cause they have a low self-esteem. And there is one thing that ticked them off that somebody said so they are going to go out and trying to make everybody else [have] the same miserable [feeling].... So I just try to be nice to them and get right up... and say “oh, no let me pull that chair out... for you” and if it was somebody I had just met I would never, never do that. Researcher: So this person was having a bad day, wanted to take everybody down with them and you were being nice to them as a way of stopping them from bringing everybody else down with them? Student: Yep, it was a little bit of an experiment and again to [also] say “Wow, why are you doing this.” And may be get it into their heads why are [they were] doing it. I am doing something 166  obviously nice to you and [you are being mean to] me. Researcher: Yes, so basically trying to change their behaviour really? Student: Trying! Trying Researcher: And teach them something? Student: Yes! And then they say. “Why did [you] do that?” Hypothesizes About Emotions/Human Behaviour During the course of the interview it became evident that this student tended to hypothesize about human emotions, thought and behaviour. This student provided a much richer interview than other students participating in this study and demonstrated a considerable depth of insight and analysis about emotions and thought. One of this student’s ‘working hypotheses’ was that of the people you meet, on average about one out often are going to be unpleasant. Student:  . .  .“I can’t get myself down about people who do that sort of thing.” Because one out often  people urn are going to be that way. (Bullies) It is obvious. Researcher: So you have come up with a philosophy about how many people are going to be mean and how many people aren’t going to be mean? It is about one out often, about ten percent? Student: I think so. Researcher: Yes, that is my rule as well. About ten percent of the population. Student: And I can’t get down by one person. Researcher: Yes. So you have already considered. .um.. what that tells me is that you are thinking .  about how other people work and you have already come up with general rules about how people behave. Student: And yet again, I don’t know if it is true. If all of it is true. Researcher: Yes, you’ve got to be in life to test it out. Anecdotal Information From Interview -  It is interesting to note that when asked by the researcher what type of career this student hoped to have he/she said either a Psychologist or a Counselor. John Mayer notes on his website that people who score high on tests of E.I tend to gravitate towards such careers.  167  -  -  Student’s mother noted that most adults are impressed by 03. And that one of her friends calls him a ‘little prophet’. Student’s mother also noted that she herself was considered mature at a young age, but that this was not nurtured. She also stated that although she discusses emotions and thought with her child, 03’s abilities are so strong that they have nothing to do with her.  -  It is also interesting to note that the scores were much higher for this student in regards to the word count of themes found in the interview. Also, the themes had to been expanded and deepened for this student. Most notably the researcher had to change ‘demonstrated little self-insight / lack of life experience’ to ‘demonstrated great insight into emotions, thought & behaviour despite a lack of life experience’.  Follow Up Interview -  Further confirmation of this student’s abilities. Father mentioned that insights from this report were similar to those found in 03’s psychological reports. Great analytical skills and verbal abilities.  -  During the follow up interview 03 appeared, again, appeared to very much enjoy the opportunity to analysis and discuss emotion, thought and human behaviour. He/she gave the researcher another of his/her hypothesis about emotion, thought and human behaviour. Those extremely bad feelings have the same levels of ‘energy’ as good feelings. So this means that making a friend provides the same intensity of emotion as loosing a friend. It is the same ‘power’.  -  03 Recommended that teachers be at least exposed to the concept of students who have dual exceptionalities as well as being exposed to the concept of students who have high levels of emotional intelligence.  168  Appendix L  Certificate of Approval  —  UBC BREB  The Univs!rsily of &thsh Coiwnbia Office of Reseaich Sarvces Behavioural Rasureh Ethics Board Suite 102, 6190 Agronomy Road, Vencvuver, BC. V6T 1Z3  CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL FULL BOARD -  4STWJt1&4 DPARtMB4t. RJBCIEdb0n/E&cOflel & Counslbng s caon NSTITUTION(8 WHERE RESEARCH WILL BE CARED OUT: RINCIPAL R4VEST1GATQR: A a non J Porath  4lA  BREB NUMBER:  702677 L  N/A  )the Ioceboi,. iu the rNiifth w) be oondpcted Cenneth Goidon &chool 755 Meadow A’nue, Bwny, BC V3N 2V8 And Eaton Anmmi School Suite 204 6190 Agronomy Road, UBC Vancouver, BC  ISTlfl  O4NVESTIGAtOR($) IeaLK  PONSORING AGENCIES: I/A ROCTWLE: :cned Irelence: A Multiple Case Study  of the Academic Expetience of HIqly Emotionally Conetent1 Leanin Disabled Sbidents.  LFB MBFflIIG DAiE: ER11FICATE EXPIRY DATE: ebn4Y 2QQI ebnieri 14,2009 OCUMENTS INCLUDED IN 11* APPROVAL: àimmt e  -.  roposal ;on,e ft tiase Two Parent Consent ffi hese One Parent Consent form ‘hase One MHS Consent Form ‘hase Tw Parent Consent Form to Verifj Findin9s t Fonn ‘hese Two Student Assent Form These One Student Assent Form kiastlonnalri. Questlonnake Cover Latter. tub: p,t, ISCEIT-YV Sucnrnaiy sitter of hiU etter to Schools etter to Teachers -  -  -  -  -  -  PATE APPROVED: Ibrch2l.2008 J  Vwiác  1  o.  N/A  March 5, 2008  N/A N/A N/A N/A  March 20,2008 March 20. 2008 March 5, 2008 March 20, 2008  N/A N/A  March 20, 2008 March20, 2008  N/A N/A  March 5, 2008 MWCh 5,2006  N/A N/A  March 5, 2008 March 5, 2006  rhe plication for ethical review and the document(s) listed above have been re’iewed and the procedures were found to be acceptable on ithical rounds for research ir7VOh$9 human subjects. Appov.l Is Issid en behalf of the &twvlewal Research BOtlcs Band  snds1gn.dal.cofoltestng  •  Dr. M. Judith Lynam, ShE Dr. Ken Cr, Chair Dr. Jim Rupeit, AssociAte ShE Dr. Laiiie Ford, Assocdte Cba D Daniel SaHani, A,eodate Chair Or. Anita Ha, Associate ChE  169  

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