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Nanoindentation of peri-implant bone and dentin Tang, Allen 2008-10-14

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coee esc mos ow a iwe coma e escmos ow was gey gaaoiw e micoe wasweiiiE OCOESAAC ^E OCOES ^ iSOES ^ iiSOGUS ^ iSOAAO ^ iiACKWEMES ^ CE1 ICO ^ 1CE EW ^ 31 ^ Oc a aImas ^ 3 ^ Comsioa Suc o a i ^ 53 ^ ciques e CcooMissues ^ ^3 ^ ieao ^ 93 Iumeao oa iee ^ 13 sciooe ieaoocess ^ 13 ce ses oe ieaooMissues ^ 1^3 ^ Quai ckscaeEcoImagi ^ 13 ce ses oe qEi oMissues ^ 17^3^ uoscee  ^ 19CE3 SEASCO A OECS ^ iCEMAA A MEO ^ 1 ^ AmaS ^ ^1 ^ Ima eoa Assemy ^ ^1^ Sue ^ ^1 ^ AmaCa aeSue ^ ^1 ^ uoscee Ieco ^ ^1^ Same es ^  ^ Same Ases ^ ^1 ^ -Ima  Asis ^ 1 -Ima  Same eo ^ 1 uoscee Micsco a IeaocaoSeco ^ 1 Ieaoo-Ima  ^ 311 ^ SscaAsis ^ 3^^ ia w Asis ^ 31 ia w Same eo ^ 3uoscee Micsco a IeaocaoSeco ^ 353 Ieaooia w ^ 3Quai ckscaeEcoImagi ^ 31 E SigCaao ^ 39E SigSaio ^ 3 E Image a MiCoe Measume ^ E Image a me acoMeasume ^ 5 Asis oyi me ^ Asis ooscee es ^ 7 gssioa Coeo ^ CE5 SUS ^ 5^ Esc Mos o-Ima  ^ ^5 ^ Esc Mos ComsooGai a s i  ^ ^5 ^ Esc Mos ComsooIw ^ ^5^ Esc Mos Comsoos ^ 5^5 ^ Esc Mos ComsooIw a s ^ 55 ^ 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coeee comwi us oies 9Wi e eeciase io  eecy a imomes iaimasiis aiciae maeaimas wi se ie a Aiaima su  meccaa sucoies come wi eogimissuea su ao omo sa soeima o 19 sucaiaima ca sig e oies omissues muswe ueo is esis cuses oo asc  missues aima sysms1meccaoies o-ima a  meccaasucoies oo a w-1- ieaowas use ea e esc mos o-ima om a -ima amamo eous ses  swaca oaaai-ososis ugeaes w  ao 111315  eeec oe ug oe meccaoies oe w  is uw Iis esise esc mo oe -ima  wi a wioue esee oawe com Kwe om is s wi imo e uei oe eecoa oima o a cou ee e wiseaaiooimaswi caai-ososis ug  oSecoieaoa qua ckscaeecoimagi we uses e meccaoiescomsio a suc oia wAeuei oia w su  wi e imomes oaima sigCe2  ew2.Oc a aImasAiaima su  meccaa sucoies come wie ogimissuea su ao omo a sa soeimao 1a comsioo a iis cessa e euae osucaimaA ieew oese cs is oiis a e sueque secoois cea ke aceme suees a e moscommooc imasuees oeau e wo 17 e mo aceme ( was ice Si Cy oE ie eay 19ssie emaimomes  ema 1meic acecu a me a a meic moaa smCuemosacecu a moa a sms a ma oco-comium aoys oum aoysus am acecu a w i macusee meis ma ougmocuweig ey (UW 19e ke aceme ( was  a Guie 19 1  e cois oe comsa meic mocomameacoma a meic acom 9  Simi e  emeic coms oa a ma oco-comium aoys oum aoysae meacom is ma oUW 19Mo aimaogy was ie mi19s  Iamaa ysiciaom Goeu Swe    aImas a aiciaces aace e ogiooa oa es i aos oo aceme sucas moe osec us (usa oeoimas (cw a ies 7 Sie e eay 19se use oaimas scome a we-esisa eeeae meo ace missi eaimas oesigca aaages osieocoeioies causeey e e eess so e aace e e a ses oaimas aa iuse yose s oaimas ioa mus ame a sueosaao aimas a e moscommoaimas use e a maao oo imasa eacoem  e moui sigsuaceugess mocaocoasocomooa e  imo imao A o aima oks ke a sma cyeoscw a is usuay maoumAeaima is aceie wa mecoacaeaae isaac i e ae sees as a se a cw u oieCoageicuCoageac .Coagei3   iWC oa2.2 Comsioa Suc o a i is ima comseoama 7w mi w coageoi a 5 w wa Is a gy comesuc a ca scas 7 eca ooao    Aiusaooe ecasuc o is eseeigu 1MksucSu ^ ic ^ Suamass cgu 1 ecasuc o (i om   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ASEMmaiacugy e e  ca suaceScmac iusaooe is aaeia a eicu e  as(i om   wi issioom Auaew oMaaScieeiis ewi ie su us caeis aom e  e e oe o (gu 3 3ese is1  3 mic iame om e  ca  e e wi   i a sicasi wa e e (gu 3C  3iis e ooascesugue ei me oe o wcmakes ia  ssue(A ( (Cgu 3 Iusaeseaooa maemoa e micsuc oii Ae sagiasecooe emowi  iii e o scwa o a i umassueseme i cemeuma a esagiasecooe i Ce ae secooe i  a micscoc ewoe is (i   31 wi issioom Sie2.ciques e CcooMissuese ma oese y imas qui missue  gw om ae e-es sssues oo/io e suaces oaima  ca a soima o 3 is ima os a ciee oe seice  oaimawcmakes e missues aca is o imaoima ocos  a gmima siosuees a esesuees a aaioeoe aea saiCaaaca sysm A euei oe oies omissues cou a w imasig aimo ima oa ima comoies omissues ca iesgawi a mociquesIis esisieaoquai ckscaeecoimagia uoscee  ciques weuse- 8 -ieao quai ckscaeecoimagia uoscee a ciques a euseeei  iesga e oies omissues; we ey  eeei useicomowieacoe s missuesA sciooese ciquesa wice ses omissues w ese ciques a emoye a eseeiis a sueque seco ois ce2.ieaoe oe se casieao ao kwasiumeeieaososei ieao is a  w ciquemaas 33 ieaos coeioy euse s emeccaoies omecemicsa mes sie come si e meccaoies omissues cause oi a  smaaae suicsca 3 35 O oe mosoemeasuoies wiieaois e esc mosa measu oa maas sssosise esc ao335aAcaoceSissacemeSeo4iso Sameaame2.Iumeao oa ieeA gescmac iusaooa ieeis swigu  Aieesysms  a mea oei a mo e scime a mea ai a kwe  e ieesa a mea measu e suasaceme 337 A iesciooe ysicamecsms ia ieeisoiis secogu Scmac iusaooaiumeeieaosysm (ieom 37 wi issioom Se oei a mo oa scimeioes aoicaimagi sysma amoosgee useiay is a sec e sissis oei o images ugaoicamicscoe magcaooe oicamicsco ca 1 a 1  Aee ssis secois maesame is aumacay ae w e iee e moosgea s a oeae seccao 3Scic   Iee- 1-e mosmea e acaooe ioes aecomagccoimagassemyis assemy is aacae oe iees a ee imse wca  e iee is cy oio e cue asses uge coi e e oais 1 1 1wi a eocaasooo5 3 Iis ima   ae iee oo  is aima  oa iee Usuay ma oamocause oi gssa esc mose ociaumiieeis e moscommoieeuseesc mos measumes 33337A commoy usesaceme sei sysm ioes caci seocois oe caci as (ciusksaca u au e misecooe ieese o oui as a  e so aa ao aaows e iees  ss ug e ceea is e iees a is ee  mo icay eee o so aseicasaceme eee so a mo caci as is ioei e ee iage eeeme e osaceme is   5 um wi a eocasaceme soooss a  3 ce ieees om e suoui eiea ieesysmis usuay ace ooa aoisooea eese aiuca332.2 sciooe ieaoocess e coue oa ieaoocesse ieeis esseio esame a ewiaw  e ieewiawa oy e esc iooe saceme is coa is co aows e esc oies oa maa i A co oe oaoa aae e eicoue oe ieaoocess (a a uoaca oe ca a asaceme cueIoaoom e asaceme cue ca use caue esc mos oe same 333 37  gu 5 sws a caasacemecue 39sacemegu 5 A caasaceme o(ieom  35 wi issioomEeee esc mos oe ieesame ca ieeom e iauoa coacsss Se s oe iaiooe uoa cueomis ioao e cemosEca cau aiE =  ^ Equao1 3/w 13 is a co as oe geomey oe iee a A is e coacaa (e oc (3 =  13a A =  e w  e is e coac3379-  -Ee cemosaccous e caesc aooccu i e same a e iee om a same Ee esc mos oa same ca cau ( 2  +(  ; E^E ^ E Equaow E a a e esc mos a issos o e same a Ea  ae esc mos a issos o iee e amo ocieeE= 11 G a   =  33337e coious sss measume (CSMcique is a ce cique aoe a sigca imome iieaose CSMcique aows e cauoocoacsss (Scoious  aiaooy  e uoa ioae mamum ao e CSMcique is accomis imsi a suicie sma ami oc e ooe ima a ais e moooe iee(gu  35sacemegu Scmac oa caasaceme wi CSM a cyc (ieom 35 wi issioom Eee- 13 -e coesi saceme osciaoom e oc e is moa e coacsss ca cauom e ase ee eee e asaceme sig  ai =  ay  Equao3S +Ks aw is e ase ee eee e a saceme sigco is eequey oe aeeK s is e sss oe iees suoa m is emass oe coms 352.ce ses oe ieaooMissuesieaos euseeei osi e esc mos omissues 3   ea couca ieaos o-ima coecom aamasIe amasaciea acieum imas we suicay ieeio e muoSague-wy Scime we moaeweeks oa me ea u ae escmos o-ima  om e eimas we gaaom e uesame Oyeea ieeum aimas io e aeoe oSiimiswis a coucieaos oe w suoui e imaAea a me o7 moe imas we esa eieao e s u a cse e -ima ieace weesc mos a awas away - 1-Sawaiea couca  ieaos wi A omissuesom aio s wi  maow-osoascese s u acuu osoasces oumcomwi s eaeesc mosa ieaciase oe missuee s ao oeeae geomiooe ssues was gum as a cou ea co ce iaseesc mos Amo e  a ieao e s oiwas Meeeek ea w measue esc mos omai  19 GSie e somesea  useieao i e esc mos oi   O oe mosce ses was  Kisea Kisea useiumeemicieaooe sagiaa omaa caous weiiso aaesc mos sioacss e a was esis Augieaos euseeei  s e esc mos omissuesis ewi usesi -ima Iaio ses  keio coioe age oe w emissuesAioyieaoses oia as a aie asses o2.2 Quai ckscaeEcoImagiMicoe a si a ima c aco  e meccaoies omissues 3 Quai ckscaeecoimagi (qEiisa cique aca use quai e micoe omissues sucasi a caao  use quai i si (me aco 5" 1aaage oqEi is asames eous useieaoca useimagiis aows aeec coeoee gaeom qEi aieaoe ima cogy  e qEi cique is e Scai EcoMicsco (SEM 3551   ca aimagee SEM cuses a am ogeyeco(ii ecoamoo a same suacee s osig ageom e iecoeee ii ecoam a e same suacea e sig a ca ocesse ca e s oimagesO  osig geom is iecois ckscaeeco (Esig 35Ogi om e ii ecoameco a ecockscae e samee moeco om e ima am aa ckscae e ams ie same maais e iei oe E sig emockscaeeco is a ooe amic moe samemaaa e cosie E image is ca e e ieies coee E sigieimeasuigy  (- 5  ca use quai emicoe omissuessie gio wi a gage amic m- 1-(igmicoeaeaige(wegysca agio oweamic m(iwemicoe Aosie si aea as  gio oe imageE images caao  use quai si 3535552.2.ce ses oe qEi oMissuesAs eous meio o oe aaages iusi e qEi cique micoe a si quaicaois ae same sames eous useieaoca useqEi 3 Ioaogae qEi aieaoca use esiscoeo ee-meccaoiesmicoea me aco 5 57  5  59 is secowi ese some oeaie s  is c e micoe omissues ca quaiewi E imagese E sig e   caaa sai sceea acique is quaicaoose  usi caoa amim as emaa ckscaeecosiggy-caao a mia oa caium coeosaio 57 Wi is ociqueis seagucoucses acoeesc mos wi emicoe i    Oeicao ca u acoes escmos wi micoe i usi ieaoa qEi; weicao is coeogai ia as a aiescea useqEi a ieaoiaamic e micsco a usee caium coe a esc mos  coec couca acoeoasiseis 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co seewoeeueauosce micsco ue ea a  ocousi muie uocomeseuocomes we sequeiay iecio mice  a week o  sameswe essimo aee uocome ieco ue ea u ae uosce s cou  oee   Wi ese uosce se gw-19-es o we oee Ia se s  e same gu ue ea usesimisequeiauocome ieco  s e gw oi   osceaimaeus um io Ca ia aee uocomes s e sgy o-ima iwessames we oeeae -ima iw gw es iie Auguocomes  euseeei e sgicas omissuesis cique s euse  e age ow emissues wi meccaa sucoiesWi e comooieao quai ckscaeecoimagi a uocome ciquesmeccaa sucioaoomissues ca associawi e ecage ow emissuesCeseaSco a Oecse sco ois esis was  iesga e oies o-ima ia w usi sames esom aamasSes  swaca oa (aai-ososis ugeaes w  ao we e eece ug s oe esc mos oe iee mai ua Iis esise esc mo oe -ima wi a wioue esee oa we com e -ima sames we gaeom aamasIis esisieaowas usemeasu e esc mos oe -ima Iaio uocomes weuse ii e age ow emissuese a meus ses oe comsioa meccaoies owe ses oe comsioa meccaoies oia ecomsoeeia  a as a aieIis esisiaw esom aamas we iesgawi ieaoaquai 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SagiaaA scaeoesc mos us micoe ioe sagiaa is eseeigu 5- A agssioe coeooesc mosa micoe is eseeigu 5-980%0%^ 20%^ 40%^ 60%^ 80%^ 0%s oma(a220( 20 ^ ^ ,i,:    s.    ^  ^4i < 4^ ^ ^ ^ ^ i^ m 0 ^  44^ . ^  Kia^. ^ .  26  iCe  .   .__44 .... s.  iSagi2 Sag2 ^ 26%^ 2 ^ 28%^ 2w Caiumgu 8 Scaeoesc mos  micoe oioe sagiaa2200 0.^ a     oe    : 600 o  i   A:  we   .^ % WC o    Soe s^ ., ^ ^ s^0  :  %%IA. ^ y  -0 + 2 =  044i^ i^ i2% ^ 26% ^ 20% ^ 28% ^ 20%w Caiumgu 5-9 agssioe coeooesc mos a micoe oioe sagiaae coeocoeicie  (  e gssiooesc mos a micoe ioe sagiaa is  wi a e o1A scaeoesc mos us me acoioe sagiaa is eseegu 5-1 A agssioe coeooesc mosa me acois eseeigu 5-11^c   ::< S  ^^^  ^ ^   ^  ^ ^  ^ ^ e:^0  0 , ^,  ^ . .  ^ . ^ . 0^ >^ ^  ,, . ^ o      ^ ^ ^  ^  iSagi2 Sag22000 -0 0 000202080% . Si OS .  ^ oe .0  0 . ^   S S.   ^  o 4 oa 0    ^  ^ y  0- 02 0608 %me aco% 00%80%^ 8 ^ % ^ % ^ 0%me acogu 5-1Scaeoesc mos me acooioe sagiaagu 5-11 agssioe coeooesc mos a me acooiie sagiaa- 62 -e coeocoeicie e gssiooesc mos a me acoiie sagiaa is 75 wi a e o1 i weo micoe a me acoae aes a iee eec oe esc mos oiiesagiaaa muie agssiowas coucusi  aesecoeocoeicie is muie agssiowas 77 (  = 59 wi a e o12.2 Asis oioe ae ae esc mosmicoea me acosio oioe ae a a eseeiis seco Coeo eeesc mosmicoea me acooiie ae a a ao eseeiis seco2.2.Esc Mos, MiCoe, a me acosio oiie ae ae ose omoa e siooesc mosmicoea me aco e wi oe e we a usi e seeee aeogw o as  sea e sogw o as 1se (gu 9 is was quicause oe sg ao iwi eee e o samese esc mos oioe ae a was measu e escmos sioom e aeogw o was e sogw o iseseeigu 5-1220202^  ^ > ^ ^0ak.  ^ ^a o^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 0^ 0.^ ^ ^ ^  ^ ^ 0^ 0 0^ 0 0 o ^ o0^ 0^ 0o i0 aiai2 a 0%^ 20%^ 40%^ 60%^ 80%^ 0%Aeo so(agu 5-1Esc mos siooiom aeogw o  sogw o oe ae ae esc mos oioe ae a es eeama15 G a  GIge e esc mos is e weseeama a 5 se om e aeogw oE images we use quai e micoe oioe aeae micoe sioom e aeogw o was e sogw o is eseeigu 5-1328%224%o0 0o i0 aiai2 ao^  o o0  0  ooo o o .0    o  o0o      E0^ "      ^    , 0^ 20%^ 20%^ 40%^ 60%^ 80%^ 0%Aeo so(agu 5-13 Micoe siooioe ae ae micoe oioe ae a es eeama W Ca a  W CaIge e micoe is weseeama a se om e aeogw oE images we ao use quai e me acooieuioe ae ae me acosioom e aeogw owas e sogw o is eseeigu 5-1-6%%c, %%E88%86%^ ^ ^ o^^ ^ ^ ^ ^o^ 4c0^ ^ ^ ^ ^  o     0 ^ 0^ o 0  ^ ^ ^ 0^ 0 4 ^ 0 ^ 0  .^ ^ ^ ^ ^  ^   o00  0 ^ ^0^0^ 0 ^ I^ Io i0 a iai2 a84%0%^ 20%^ 40%^ 60%^ 80%^ 0%Aeo so(agu 5-1me acosiooieuioe ae ae me acooieuioe ae a es eeama a 95 Ige e esc mos is weseeama 3 a se om e aeogw o2.2.2 CoeoeeEsc Mos, MiCoe, ame acooiie ae aA scaeoesc mos us micoe iie aea is eseeigu 5-15A agssioe coeooesc mosa micoe is eseeigu 5-1  ^  ^ ^ ^ o ^ o^ o^ o   -  ^ a 9  5k ^ ^ oei ^ ^   ^ CO ^  ^o o ^ es^ ^ o a ^ ^ o^ ^8o i0 a iai2 a ^ 0^ oo  0I2220% 2 22% 2 24% 2 26% 2 28%w Caiumgu 5-15 Scaeoesc mos  micoe oiie aea1coa3-  19a02 117115S   ^ ^   ^  A  ^   . ^ s,y 1 + 97    %^      7 o  q  ^  ,..I ^   ^  , ,  ^  ^   w Caiumgu 5-1agssioe coeooesc mos a micoe oiie ae ae coeocoeicie e gssiooesc mos omicoeioe ae a is  wi a e o1A scaeoesc mos us me acoiie aea is eseeigu 5-17A agssioe coeooesc mosa me acowas caua eseeigu 5-1319117115 O.319117115 __ o 0 ^ ^ o_  o^  _^   o^  ^ ^  .2>0o, o.o ^  o^    ^o^ ^O^ o oo o  0co  0 i0 aia - ii2 a Ii ^  ^  ^ 9 ^ 9me aco9 ^ 9gu 5-17 Scaeoesc mos me acooioe aea I^ ^GIS i  ^  ^  ^  6 ^      ^  WWI^ MA    ^  ^   4   y = 59 - 339 = 51 ^  ^  ^ 9 ^ 9 ^ 9 ^ 9me acogu 5-1agssioe coeooesc mos a me acooiie ae a- 9 -e coeocoeicie e gssiooesc mos a me acoiie ae a is 71 wi a e o1 i weo micoe a me acoae aes a iee eec oe esc mos oiieae aa muie agssiowas coucusi  aesecoeocoeicie is muie agssiowas 73 (  = 5wi a e o12.Asis owe esc mos ow was measuusi ieao e escmos  ys o w was measu  9 1GA scaeoesc mos us micoe w is eseeigu 5-19A agssioe coeooesc mos a micoewas caua eseeigu 5-282624(2a.020.021^ ^ ^   ^ 00^0 8O.^  ^  ^ 0^ 0^ 0 ^ ^  ^ I ^0   ^ ^ ^ ^ 00^0  >0^  ^ ^ 0 ^ ^    0 <> ^ o i0 w iw i2 w^ ,24^ 2w Caiumgu    Scaeoesc mos . micoe  ow22^ 2 26^ 228262422o_00U-802 04   ^ .,s   _.__________,_.   :. , e    y 2+ 22 022%^ 2 ^ 24%^ 2 ^ 26%^ 2w Caiumgu 5- agssioe coeooesc mos a micoe owe coeocoeicie e gssiooesc mos a miw is  wi a e o1Ce6 scussio6.e Eec oSuace Coas oe Esc Mos oIma Ma ce icao  ee si eec ooa o ao 11773 775 ese s  u aa oa coa ooc imas caiase iw me a /ima coacsSes  ao u aese imomes ca amiewi e ca ososo (a is a  ososo aai-ososisug e scouge e aces oosocs ( soi cesweougi e aces oosoas ( i ces Aug gwimomes a  ima  e /ima o aecae  coiis e meccaoies oe coa/ug ieeIisse esc mo o15 ys o -ima  iee caium osacoas wi owioua we measua com e esc mos oIw om caium osa coa(-Ca imas we ama 3G gaIw om e co(ima samesa e eewas sscay sigcae esc mos oIw om caium osacoa wi a (-CaAimas we ao ama 3 G gae Iw  om e co(ima samesa e ee wasao sscay sigcae esc mos ee eee Iwom e o s ocaium osa coasames (-Caa -CaAwasmimaa sscay sigca- 73 - ea eae suace ugess oimas ae omeccaoies o ieg imasey eae esc mos o-ima  om um imas wi esuaces was 1  5 mes gaaoe uecosames   Sie e caium osa coa useiiss a ugsuace ae   coimas"e sus om os o ssie eoe ee iesc mos eeIw om  imas a e coaimasAessie eoca om a see mecsmose Cea 7 Iis we esisae esc mos o is cy i micoes (w Ca 577 e mecsm ose Css a ssoes io e suoui i soo   csis ecis ie coagemai 7 As a sue mio oe coesi  cou iee ee esc mos oe  wou ao  ieeom e sus gaeiis esisiis ies   ae aiooa sigca iase e esc mos oIwAi-ososis ugs sucas a a kw iase e mio o; 779 we e esc mos e eeIw om -Caa-CaA iis s was sscay iigcaA ssie eocaom e esc mos comso eeIw a seesc mos oIw om -Caimas a -CaA we -7sscay e om eisc s; ea ssie eoe mia eeccou  cause e Cacoa a iasee escmos oIw  i ogicamamum ae15 ys oa; useaiooa a mieecoe esc mos oIwom is esis s e ees eee esc mo os ome e ima gu we sscay iigcais sugges aeeec oe Caa CaA coas oe esc mos o-ima  asic e Iw oy6.2 Eec oMiCoe a si oe Esc Mos oie esc mos oioe sagiaa es om e cwwas eo A ssie eocou  ae me acooieuiaoiases iaeis e coess wi e esc mos  a eagssiosus ao suo is oeaois esise oies oiom e aeogw o oeae a ca comwi e oies oiaama 5 oe  oe sagiaasie ey a om ama e same seco(e aoe oWcom e mos oio asesus suggesae mos is ama 5  7 G goe ae aw micoe maicois ama    Ca wme aco-  -is ao iy coiswi a ee oama   eee o asA ssie eoe ee iesc mos is e cooe isOe sagiaae s a eicu e cooeieao (aea w oe ae a e s a amae e cooe ieaois ee is oeaomay a co ce esc mos eeagssiowas use i e oeeesc mosa micoea esc mos a me acoo e sagiaaae ase coeocoeicie (eoe oeeescmos a me acowas gae e oe oeeesc mos a micoeis oeaowas e same  coecom  asis may suggesame acois e mo ieiaaeIis ima  we ais oeaomay  e  e miCa w eii Ses o   swamicoe s e same iee imo aaome aco 51W e aes (micoe a me aco weae e agssiomoesc mosiwas u ae coeocoeicie (eimoama  is may omay suggesa oe aes  iee eec oe esc mos oi Simises o   swa micoe a me acoiee eec oe esc mos o 5-7Iaio e agssio eseeie sus seco gamicgssio was ao e scae  i e oeeescmos a micoea esc mos a me acoiosagiaa ae as (gu 1  gu 4om Uucc^1w 0 ^ 0      0    4A 1 y = - + 2 = 062 ^ 40 ^ 4 ^ 42 ^ 4 ^ 44 ^ 4 ^ 46g (w Caiumgu 1 gamic gssioe coeoeeesc mos a micoe oiie sagiaae coeocoeicie e gamic gssiooesc mos amicoe iie sagiaa is wi a e o14 om0y 22- 42 02 se^ iii  % 40  s   II   0 ge4 .. .0^ a ^  ^  ^  ^ 20g (me acogu gamic gssioe coeooesc mos a meacooiie sagiaa0e coeocoeicie e gamic gssiooesc mos ame acoiie sagiaa is 73 wi a e o1A muie gamic gssioeeesc mos a  aes (wCa a me aco yieea coeocoeicie o7(  = 571wi a e o14ca 0"3-a 02u 2cow 2y = 06 + 02 = 04       O.       e^   4  Oa  e            ^  ^  ^  ^ 40 ^ 4 ^ 42 ^ 4 ^ 44g (w Caiumgu 3 gamic gssioe coeooesc mos a micoe oioe ae ae coeocoeicie e gamic gssiooesc mos amicoe iie ae a is  wi a e o14Q0-a 02"2a:ii -ao 2y 2 - 422 0    0^ S.  ...  II^ ^ ^8   ^ .,%. 0 .0. ^ ..  :    ^  ^  ^  ^ g (me acogu gamic gssioe coeooesc mos a meacooioe ae ae coeocoeicie e gssiooesc mos a me acoioe ae a is 71 wi a e o1A muie gamic gssioeeesc mos a  aes (wCa a me aco yieea coeocoeicie o73 (  = 5wi a e o1Ses iesga e oies o  moaagamicgssio oesc mos a micoea oesc mos a meacoa emo agssio i e oee--ose oieswe e  a gssio om is esis s swemiees  ( e ee oeeaa gamic mo6.ee eeia wAesc mos us micoe scaeoo om wioe sagiaaa ioe ae ais eseeigu 5omoeao oe scae isugges aw s a gmos aioe same ageis oeaois suoe ses a u simisus oia  om e scies oama 3w s a sg wemicoe2826242220U82 1^ ^ ,> ^ ^  ^O ^<^ S0  ^ ^ o e_  ^ ^  . ><^ ^ ^  .., ^:oo,^  ^ ^ A,..^ . ^ 40.^ ,  ^ ^  . ^ $.... ^ .. ma ^ >40S8^ ^  00^    ^ 4 (>. ,6 00^ 4.^ 0.0^ 0,C 4% ......iaeo iSagia w o  ^ 4^00 ^ 0" %0020 22 24 26^ 28^ w Caiumgu 5 Esc mos  micoe scaeoo om wioe sagiaaa ioe ae a--CeCosio-ima i a w sames om i we iesga eowi a e maicosio awom e s1 e caium osa coaswi owiouaous amimas iasee esc mos o-ima Iw  ama(3 Gwcomwi Iw om uoaus amimase iase was sscay sigca e aiooa sigca iase e esc mos o-ima Iw we esc mos oe -ima Iwom e -Caa -CaA we com3 e eec ocaium osa coaswi owiouaoe escmos o-ima  we ca e esc mos oe sacu was sigca aec e caium osa coas e esc mos oiis so e oe si a  a sseee oe caium coeis was oeeo css secoas5We oies ow a ia com e esc mos ow was gey gaaoiw e micoe was we-  -Ce8 commeao  Wo esiskwe ie oies o-ima i aw e owi may  commee ses A e ieaoa quai ckscaeecoimagiciques  couca mo iiesgaoo-ima acoee esc mos wi e  micoe Sysmac s oe eec ocaium osa coas o-ima oe agesa i ia s a sigca eecoe escmos oima  oe ages A e ieaoa quai ckscaeecoimagiciques  coucaiesgaoooima   i acomsoo oe ages A mo is oe oies oiae css seco oeoI ases oe eec oageeec ooeao acoucoies mai acss e ei a oe oES WgMC Weii Gai i Eecy om MecaIeeio Sai  oOuomesEoMe 199 339 3-3 aIma a  G Mae  Aac$3 ioi1 ieo  Mecaws y/wwwecaewsyom/aics/33 Waegge A CeyMMS CoyCosEecss ooc iIoei EeyOsos I1 3- CaaI aIoao(CI   a Keacemes iCa5 W sc Eia sce GoeeK Kus  a GMicsuc a Meccaoies omaCwi Ca sI 31-157 A Gss oe a Ke i aceme Ee  7 M s  aImas iCaA Gwi OouOa9 37- aus um am ImasAIa wi ieo oseaCouiCa/www-ccca/gigs//  aum_imas-i_e 9  aImas  ace us a ies Wi Ima isyieo  asoues/wwweasouesom/aimas  K a soso-Coai Coas -ImasesisU iComa11io us amMcesisUoi Coma1 sse C MoaMaiiA e A oAeose  Sueesoso-Comeoa Imasoogy71 9-13 S MewCM e Woa Use oA i-Ima cgeo  oo 19997  151-15-  - MYosY OIueK MaukaM Smo se  Caiumosa-Coaa soso-Immoum Imasomaa(179-15 KawaYamaM YosGoS IyamaI AuMA Kikae soso mio oe Suace oum Smus  aoAu aImas iomaa(5-51 WaAsooc ac i oa Coi  Ma9- Oysso YA s y Cusm-sigOc Imas EaUsi  Eme Asis oe-Scic Commogy moCom Case SC Muscu s 91-1 ^ s oi acemeieoMa 1Ua KeCee /wwwikeom/s19 M Wiie Keum a Ke osesesiue M o omsee um imeci-7Sie   a  GuCMieoMa 1Ui oMasuisGas/wwwmaa/u/?s=gg& - - 392 e A s oomaae A ma Sce moomaa ScieeAico Maa iMeci19Acamic ess22 EosG E Ke aceme Muimea aEcaoYouacce Oi  Akso A Weeee ImcoOImas ss a 19- Ca Assoc 71(5 3a-  K  Gaa Si-o acemeie Ima-Suoeso Ca Assoc 5-2 Eosseous Imasieo  Ima Cosmec aCee/ma-imasom/eosseous_imas  WA Imas?ieo  Coa OCa IoaoCck-u& aoces/wwwoaom/a/Coa/US/OC/IoaoOeaasics/ Cckuoc/usAamas/Was2 S Wei  Wag e MaaSuc-MeccaooAu Ma Sci 199 1-- 8-"   o  Ku-SaousMeccaoies a e ecaSuc oMe E& ys 9 91   KieySMaGW Mae Meccaoies omai ACcaew a -Eaooe aCOoMe 113-3  Cueys Suc a MeccsieUi ess175-19331 ISess-Saio a Se Co AC MecSica (E Sees 15 1999355-33causes eaeme o gw io us imas  i Su( - 33   yGM aIumeeIeaosMaa O ASMIeao 33 Meo oIumeeIeaos (II Iee UsesMaa -335cique a i AcaoMaC 11-33& So I199 1-137co19-53 SiaieaiS a Quai ckscaeEcoImagi omaCoicaMcesisUoi Coma39  ieao ieoMa15 Wikia/ewikia/wiki/ieao  WC O GM aAImocique i ss a EscMos usi aa saceme Sei IeaoEemesMas7199 15-15  A sCsieai   eSie 39 - --    o ME y II uiGM aEsc oies oMicsucComs oma ssue as Measu ieao oomeMas1999-5   o uiGM aEsc oies omaCoicaa acumea Measu ieao oma 1 199713-133   CuyAMaKMa WeiieaoMai oeMeccaoies omaMoo Eme AOo1-1  QQi MSwai A Mic-Meccs MooiMeccaoies oma 51-5  AiCWaOgawaea Se Osseoiegugum s 5-5  MOye CC KoEmioocaao iscousEsca ascIeaoses ia MaSciMaMe 1 3-  SawaAi kamuOuyaY YaWA CouOgawaOsoas Ge e Sea Mo miosisMissueoum aosAssociaWi sssue Mi- aUsuc Mis51 A Kis U mamuyA AsuiEemeaSes oe  ooyGes ie maiomeMas5195Micsco Aac e Quaicaoo Misio ckscaeEcoImage Gy- Coe Caium Ka- IeiesScaMic9199575-51 A yE MacoaceSA i G iGMuyScai EcoMicsco i ogyew oMeoiaa AcaoScaEcMic 191537-1555  Gosi Scai EcoMicsco a y MicasisKweAcamic/em3  e -53  oeum SkeosEG aKcs Co i MiCoe ao i Usi ckscaeEcoImagi19975-5  Skeos oeumKcs ycee Mea oGy ickscaeEcoImages oomeMas1993-5-  -   yce oeumKcs Skeosocie Meo Caa e ckscaeEcoSigQuai Assessme oMiCoe iScaMic 199 591-3  Ake C ckosMSwaiKiaickQuai Asis oe MiCoe oSou a Caous ima i usi E ImagiAOo99-1  sce a Escee K Kus ooQuaickscaeEcoImagi e Measume oMii sioima oies199 319-3   Cueye Eecosi a MiCoe oe You Mos oEsci oComcomeccs19131-139  SS gaWE sMecsm oOsseoiego CcooSuoi wi Ieaos a ckscaeImagiO 1 1-17360  GuaS Scae W sc sce A c SceKKus a o e Coeo eeieaoMos aMiCoe ie -Caige IeaceSuco11316 M We Scesce K Kus a  caSss a Caium Coe  Comieaoa ckscaeEcoImagiMas Soc Symoc 62 Ake C ckosMSwaiKiaickCoe e Meccaoies e MiCoe oCaous i-a Com S Usi aU-micIeoSysm (UMISa SEM-E sigAOo3-376  EasM MMae sgic Asis o aYA KMai ok osgy Meo  a Caige375-39 ma ess64  C ueS g sc G We eS MiM Sceke A Kocome  o wi See uocomesEaiuocome scmio ScaImage Asis371-56 C uesc S g C ckeA   M Sceke AKow Aaes iuocome Sequeiai oe Usi See uocomes a ScaImage AsisA  117-166 Kosc I SoeK esiCaaScemeKM See Augous Osoas Ece Osseoiegoous umImasOs3-3- 88 -   ue MaicCui a Gi Meo -ssue sgyYA KMai ok osgy Meo  a Caigema ess3-   sse  GuoCE  KE MoSA Gosi Esc Mos a ssoCoicaa acu meae Measu ieaoie mamu oomec 3 199915-1  GYS CyWW A a KY Cu K k-meccs o a oac  Ceme Ieaces ia aa Moomaa19-1977 AK myMOye CC KoAsyA yEsc Mos a Mii oi a EmeiCaes sioM71 SA G imeoosscsMcGw- Mecaicaosio    e73-17 W SuckM yosmuocessi a oies ooa-seomaa use as  ssue aceme imasMas13199 911773  G WimaCoa oImas wi oa MaaCoeco ee a Me A E Ma 1199995-17 YCCM So Kee Caium a osa Sumeaoomos ce Mio Imicao oa (eae aoomeMas5 75  eCM G Mei ei K  Go yeOsoiegooomimec A Coa Aeoo e a us MeImas imu oGoaomeMas5-57 QC CWoWW KMC CuY oK kSeeMecsms o i  Csi oa ioma -577  CueyWis e i Se oComcE ogy 199995-7 W YaoCKKoes  Age M oc A amS CC ssee e ge o miois maiaiwi si iussosos iageesogecie  a is a so eco se79  Mie M GasA yMasCC sssue miois iaseowi 1 yeaeae wi gses ososos igs339-9  S Mam  GeS Gm wi uo  A MauCoeooacu Suc wi ageMiiaOsoc SsI Ses ie ssu Usi gsooMagcsoce Imagi Mis1 1997111-11  G ECueyW ieMicss a You mos icoica ei a wi e omime acoa i agueMaSciMaiMe 119 3e IC Coi oAmeCa  o  Co W.K. Mae" Ci.  , Mea. Mi Ca i Mecomai sim mom CacommaAEIEicaAAmaSa^ essay a( ase CoAMA CA CEICAO...4 M A042u GA O aes k ^ Waomo:  Mae EgisoC(.4 COUE E  Caium Soseioekeg ComsiCoasasis    Easeem ga e aeeosmaik i sia .  04.00uAaem   mmeI. iSAAA Wae  A ewe  commies oe omoees i me aosi  is geeeocoIsoc coue, a eWa I assue mes giii6iC40 o  owe i C accoae ami ocies  coIMOiCa o EemOgAma M Guam Ca, s s CaaC:Cu oMimM ce   we   a  yew om Um a Maoa aa  gCme O.0 e    ce ee eee ou au  ew 4    eC e  sa  wa  gammaciaouCO ue o    samausk Aow a a. iO  004  224M

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