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Accessing academic literacy for diverse learners : a case study of an elementary Social Studies classroom McMillan, Daphne Diana 2008

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ACCESSING ACADEMIC LITERACY FOR DIVERSE LEARNERS:A CASE STUDY OF AN ELEMENTARY SOCIAL STUDIES CLASSROOMbyDaphne Diana McMillanB.Ed., The University of British Columbia, 1973A THESIS SUBMITED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFMASTER OF ARTSinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES(LANGUAGE AND LITERACY EDUCATION)THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA(Vancouver)April 2008© Daphne Diana McMillanABSTRACTThis study explored one classroom teacher's attempt to bridge young learners' access tothe academic content of Social Studies in an elementary, multilingual, multicultural,mainstream classroom. To this end, it examined both the planning and enacting of a GradeFive/Six Social Studies unit: Immigration In Canada. The unit was designed to draw on theteacher's and learners' social and cultural identities as a resource and afford students multipleways to access and demonstrate understandings.In the complex, and dynamic environment of the mainstream classroom, the subject ofSocial Studies presents a linguistically demanding academic discipline for native Englishspeakers and often an even more formidable challenge for students who are in the process ofacquiring English as a second or an additional language Simultaneously, the subject matterof Social Studies can provide a useful venue to share experiences related to language, cultureand personal histories. This study provided a rich and holistic account of the everydayclassroom life of students' and their teacher's experiences over a three month time spanduring Social Studies lessons.Through qualitative research methods, data were drawn from reflective notes of planningsessions, field notes of classroom observations, audio-recorded interviews of the students,and an audio-recorded interview of the teacher, a survey and student work samples. Two, onehour after school planning sessions and seventeen (usually forty-five minute) classroomlessons were observed over a three-month period. The data was analyzed and systematizedaround my research questions in order to explore how the Social Studies unit was enacted ina mainstream setting.The qualitative analysis of the data suggested that there were positive connection betweenthe curriculum as planned and the curriculum as experienced in the classroom. The studydemonstrated that a Social Studies unit that encompassed a multiliterate pedagogy whereparticular attention was paid to drawing on students' social and cultural identities had verypositive outcomes. The study also highlighted that the teacher's own professional identityplayed a key factor in affirming student identity and promoting student engagement. Therewas a strong link between investment of the learner and the relationship between the teacherand the students. The students were more deeply invested in the lessons than they mightotherwise have been because the learning environment that the teacher constructed, valuedstudents as members of a learning community, each with a personal history that wasrespected. The findings also suggest that the narrative genre of storytelling was a preferredactivity for students and bridged a connection between both home and school environments.Within the Social Studies lessons the teacher continually emphasized and fore-grounded therole of relationship between student and teacher and student to student as means to aneffective learning environment.The study also highlighted the need for further research in diverse, elementarymainstream, classroom settings and the need to further examine literacy practices thatencompass a more linguistically and culturally responsive pedagogy.TABLE OF CONTENTSAbstract ^ iiTable of Contents ^ ivList of Tables viList of Figures ^ viiAcknowledgements viiiDedication^ ixChapter 1 INTRODUCTION ^ 11.1 Background 11.2 Statement of the Problem ^ 21.3 Purpose of the Study 51.4 Significance of the Study 81.5 Definition of Terms ^ 91.6 Organization of the Thesis 10Chapter 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ^ 122.1 Integration of Language and Content 132.1.1 Challenges of Social Studies Education ^ 172.2 Multimodal Literacy Practices ^ 202.3 Identity in the Classroom 22Chapter 3 METHODOLOGY ^ 283.1 Research Method 283.2 Site ^ 303.3 Participants 313.4 Data Collection Procedures ^ 323.4.1 Curriculum Planning Sessions ^ 333.4.2 Classroom Observations 343.4.3 Audio-recordings ^ 353.4.4 Classroom Artifacts 373.4.5 Survey^ 373.5 Data Analysis 373.5.1 Use of Computer Software: Atlas Ti^ 383.6 Trustworthiness of the Study ^ 38- iv -Chapter 4 FINDINGS ^ 414.1 Curriculum as Planned ^  424.1.1 Connecting to the Prescribed Curriculum ^ 434.1.2 Extending the Design 474.2 Curriculum as Experienced 514.3 Affirming Social and Cultural Identity 584.3.1 Artifact Lessons ^ 584.3.2 Why are We Here in Canada? Lessons 684.4 Multiple Literacies 714.4.1 Chinese Immigrant Photograph Lesson ^ 714.4.2 Tales From Gold Mountain Lessons 744.5 Creating Conditions 784.5.1 Significant Canadian Poster Presentation ^ 80Chapter 5 DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS ^  845.1 Limitations of the Study^ 1005.2 Implications for Pedagogy 1015.3 Directions for Future Research 1045.4 Conclusion^ 105References ^ 107Appendix A Student Assent Form ^Appendix BAppendix CAppendix DAppendix EAppendix FAppendix GAppendix HAppendix I114Parent/Guardian Consent Form ^  117Teacher Consent Form^  120Student Interview  123Classroom Teacher Interview^  125Coding Table ^  127Survey  128Transcriptions Conventions ^  130Certificate of Approval: Ethics Board ^ 131- v -LIST OF TABLESTable 4.1 Multiple Ways of Demonstrating Understanding ^ 48Table 4.2 Rubric ^ 50Table 4.3 Participant Student Home Languages ^ 53LIST OF FIGURESFigure 3.1Figure 4.1Figure 4.2Figure 4.3Figure 4.4Figure 4.5Figure 4.6Figure 4.7Figure 4.8Figure 4.9Figure 4.10Figure 4.11Figure 4.12Figure 5.1Figure 5.2Figure 5.3Figure 5.4Figure 5.5Figure 5.6Figure 5.7Timeline for Data Collection ^ 40Unit Planner^ 46Heterogeneous Seating Arrangement — Grade 5/6 ^ 55Chinese Jar ^ 60Philippine Lantern Artifact^ 62Pouch with Cross Artifact 63Tiger Tooth Artifact ^ 65Statue of a Carving Artifact 66Sample of Writing About Artifacts^ 67Illustration of Teachers Co-reading 75Country of Origin Map ^ 77Significant Canadian Immigrant^ 81Sample of Writing About a Significant Canadian Immigrant ^ 82Sample of Writing About an Imagined Name ^ 88Sample of Writing About Name Activity 91Illustration Based on Tales From Gold Mountain ^ 94Sample of a Significant Canadian Immigrant Poster 96Sample of a Significant Canadian Immigrant Poster^ 97Co-operative Grouping Arrangement Portable Classroom 99Literacy Model ^ 103- vii -ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSI would like to express my sincere appreciation to the members of my supervisorycommittee, Dr. Margaret Early, Dr. Lee Gunderson and Dr. Steven Talmy for their insightfuland ongoing support and guidance during this study. I am particularly grateful for theprivilege of working with my advisor, Dr. Margaret Early who encouraged me throughoutthe whole process.I am also thankful to my family and friends. My heartfelt gratitude goes to myhusband, Tom for his patience and advice, and my son, Will for his enthusiastic and cheerfulcomments.I wish to thank my school district for giving me permission to undertake this study. Iwould like to acknowledge the classroom teacher who generously agreed to participate in thisstudy. I am also indebted to the students in the class who warmly welcomed me throughoutmy research. The participant teacher and his students were truly a community of learners.unals pur 3Itjaliv ,  01,CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION1.1 BackgroundThis is an exploratory case study of a teacher's multiliterate pedagogy, in thecomplex, multilayered, social context of a classroom of diverse learners. The learners andteacher studied were situated in a multilingual, multicultural, elementary school setting in alocal, urbanized community.' Despite the growing cultural and linguistic diversity inCanada's urban communities, there is a lack of research in elementary, mainstreamclassrooms that focuses on teachers' efforts to draw on the "cultural, social, and intellectualcapital" (Early & Marshall-Smith, 2008, p. 1) students bring to the classroom setting.Research in this area is vital, particularly as Cummins, Brown, and Sayer (2007), suggest that"It is reasonable to hypothesize that pedagogical approaches that affirm the identities ofculturally and linguistically diverse students may promote greater academic engagement andachievement" (p. 222). Further, Cope and Kalantzis (2005); Kress (2003); The New LondonGroup (1996); and Stein (2003) have argued that educators in the twenty-first century need tobroaden their literacy practices to integrate a variety of representational modes to enablestudents to access information and demonstrate knowledge. This study provides a rich andholistic account of the everyday classroom life of students and their teacher's experiencesduring a three month social studies unit: Immigration In Canada.The dilemma of the "life-world" of the teacher, according to Aoki (1993), is living inthe zone between the "curriculum-as-plan" and the "curriculum-as-lived experiences" (p.1 The names of the students and teacher have been given pseudonyms to protect participants'confidentiality.- 1-261). Aoki (1991) also asserts that sometimes there is a "tensionality" that emerges "in part",from the teacher dwelling in the space between the "two curriculum worlds" (p. 159).This study documented a Grade Five/Six Social Studies unit designed to connectcultural experiences and afford learners' access to multiple modes of representation to make-meaning and the reality of the varying 'lived' experiences of the diverse learners and theirteacher. The aim of the study is to contribute to the knowledge of how participants negotiatethe linguistic and academic demands of mainstream elementary social studies lessons anddraw upon various aspects of the learners' and teacher's awareness of their own "personalhistories and multiple identities" (Morita & Kobayashi, 2008, p. 2809).In sum, this is a three-month long case study in which an experienced Gr. 5/6 teacherand I, a District specialist in ESL and Multiculturalism, collaborated in the design andimplementation of a social studies unit on the theme of immigration in Canada. The unit wasdesigned in terms of a multiliteracies approach, and with the needs of second languagelearners in mind. The study explored how the teacher accessed students prior knowledge andsimultaneously drew upon the social and cultural identities of the students. The findingsdemonstrate that a pedagogical approach designed to: affirm the linguistic and culturalidentities of the students; allow multiple access routes to demonstrate understanding; createconditions in which students are valued members of a community of learners, has thepotential to maximize student engagement, participation and academic success.1.2 Statement of the ProblemUnprecedented transnational migration and an overlapping trend of rapidtechnological change, has resulted in Canada's urban communities becoming increasinglydiverse. With this multiplicity, our elementary, secondary and post-secondary student2populations come from an ever-changing range of educational, linguistic and culturalbackgrounds. As a result, educators are faced with the significant challenge of addressing thelanguage and literacy needs of varied and often vulnerable student populations inenvironments where they encounter information in progressively complex and multiple forms(Early & Marshall-Smith, 2008; Mohan, Leung & Davison, 2001). The reality for thesestudents is that proficiency in English acts as a gatekeeper in accessing higher education, andultimately, students' future participation in the work place and community. According toEarly (2008):Future directions in second and foreign language education in Canada must considerways that the full range of linguistic and cultural competencies that students bring toschool can have greater instructional relevance, not only for individual student's wellbeing, but also for the collective Canadian good. (p. 207)In our educational contexts, many students are not only struggling with the challengesof learning English and acquiring academic content knowledge, but simultaneously,negotiating identities and membership as they attempt to become competent and legitimatestudents in their varying academic and community contexts (Davison, 2005; Duff, 2001;2002; Morita, 2004). Consequently, students may appear passive, reticent or even silent intheir classroom contexts and the teacher may appear overwhelmed. An interview excerptcited in Pon, Goldstein and Schecter (2003), provides a compelling example of theperspective of a Hong Kong-born Chinese student in an urban, mainstream Canadianclassroom:Silence is a signal for lack of trust. It also means insecurity, that I don't feel goodabout my English. I want to hide it, I don't want to hear it, I don't want to be pickedon. It requires a lot of courage for me to say something in a language in which I knowI have an accent, in which I know that I may not be able to use the right word. I use itwrong and people may laugh at me. I am not going to show you something that I amnot good at (p. 124).3By not addressing the needs of our linguistically and culturally diverse populations we aresentencing many students to "a lifelong under-use of human potential" (Ngo, 2007, p. 17).Duff (2002) suggests that the reasons for the perceived lack of student participationare much more complex than "the observed patterns and silence among English languagelearners are not well understood by both teachers and local students" (p. 10). Teachers arenot always aware that it often takes many years for second language learners to reach anadvanced level of English language proficiency and there is no guarantee that academicsuccess is certain (Cummins, 1992; Duff, 2001). Recent ethnographic studies by Duff (2001,2002) have focused on student participation during Social Studies lessons in an urban,Canadian secondary setting. In addition, Morita's (2004) qualitative, multiple case studyinvestigated student participation in academic discourse experiences in a Canadian universitysetting. Given the urgency and desire for greater academic engagement at all educationallevels, additional research is needed to compliment previous research by drawing oninformation accessed in a local, mainstream elementary setting. Further, Duff (2001)suggests "more research must be conducted on mainstreamed ESL students and their teachersexperiences, frustrations and strategies for dealing successfully with the challenges oflanguage and content integration" (p. 115). In addition, Duff and Uchida, 1997; and Moritaand Kobayashi (2008) argue for the need to examine instructors and teachers views as to howthey conceptualize their students' academic socialization as well as their own changingidentities over time.This study focused on the content area of Social Studies because it represents alinguistically challenging academic discipline for both Native Speakers (NSs) and Non-Native speakers (NNs) students, and it also provides a useful venue to share experiences4related to language, culture and personal histories (Weisman & Hansen, 2007). The de-contextualized concepts and abstract language found in Social Studies texts are oftenproblematic for ESL students, because their lack of second language proficiency may make itdifficult to read highly academic text and demonstrate understanding through writtenassignments (Brown, 2007; Case & Obenchain, 2006; Cummins, Brown & Sayers, 2007;Duff, 2001; Short, 1994; Weisman & Hansen, 2007). It is well understood that activating andbuilding prior knowledge provides a foundation for learning new information. Cummins etal. (2007) emphasize that incorporating family and cultural experiences of the student, willextend and enrich the meaning-making connections to the language and content of SocialStudies' text.In our mainstream settings, both English language learners and native Englishspeakers are "learning language for academic purposes and using language to learn"(Mohan et al., 2001, p. 218). This present study focused on the powerful potential of themainstream classroom teacher, as an active and collaborative participant in fosteringmaximum participation, by bridging the everyday language and experiences of students withthe academic demands of the school Social Studies' curriculum. This study is a qualitative,interpretive account of how this type of instructional approach is planned, carried out inpractice and reflected upon by the classroom teacher.1.3 Purpose of the StudyThe purpose in undertaking this study as an educator and a researcher, was toinvestigate a local elementary, classroom and deepen my understanding of how well-designed curriculum enfolds in the complex, challenging and dynamic environment of aclassroom of learners, many for whom English is a second or an additional language. Duff5(2001) suggests, "the challenging content, texts, language and activities associated withSocial Studies combined with sociocultural, educational, and linguistic differences amongmainstreamed students, make it a fertile subject area for future research" (p. 107). The studyresponds to the call in the literature, for research in diverse, mainstream classrooms andcontributes to the construction of knowledge building in this area for practitioners,researchers and policy makers. The study also explores the tensions and difficulties thatemerge as the teacher dwells in the zone "between two curriculum worlds" as plannedcurriculum comes to life in the context of daily life in the classroom (Aoki, 1991, p.159).Embedded in my investigation, is the belief that literacy learning is a social practice and thateach student and teacher has a complex social identity, and this awareness is at the heart ofthe quest for providing rich learning opportunities and ultimately the potential of academicengagement and success.It is generally acknowledged that in our local, multilingual contexts almost everymainstream classroom is an ESL classroom and that all teachers are language teachers. Thisunderstanding should encompass any teacher's pedagogy. Duff and Uchida (1997) citeGiroux's (1992) insight of teachers as "cultural workers" (p. 475) who help students to make"new intercultural, cognitive, social and affective connections" (p. 476). In addition, teacheridentities are a result of past experience and these identities are also subject to "constantnegotiation due to changing contextual elements" (Duff & Uchida, 1997, p. 460). Drawingon the work of Rowsell and Pahl (2007), student and teacher texts can be viewed as"historical and material artifacts with complex social histories" (p. 392). Furthermore, theteacher may not realize the extent that her/his choices (e.g. teaching artifacts, classarrangements, reading materials) have cultural, social and educational impact (Duff &6Uchida, 1997). This qualitative study highlighted, through the teacher's use of collaborativeinquiry, how aspects of the participants' cultural backgrounds and histories were drawn uponand used as a pedagogical tool.Further, by viewing cultural and linguistic diversity as an asset, this study is stronglyinfluenced by the work of the New London Group's (1996) multiliteracies approach. Withinthe study, the Social Studies unit was planned, to include and document teaching practicesthat enabled students multiple ways of accessing and representing knowledge. Ultimately, anapproach, in the twenty-first century, that enables students, to become "designers of theirown social futures" (Gutierrez, 2005, p. 27).The following research questions were refined and reformulated throughout theplanning, data collection, data analysis and writing of this study:How does the elementary teacher, in a multilingual classroom setting, bridge young learners'access to the academic content of the Grade 5/6 Social Studies curriculum?The guiding questions posed for the study were:1. How does the teacher facilitate learners' access to prior knowledge andsimultaneously draw upon participants' social and cultural identities in the unit ofwork as designed and enacted?2. How does a grade 5/6 Social Studies unit, with instructional approaches designed toafford second language learners' access to multiple modes of representation, manifestitself in a multilingual classroom.3. How does the teacher create conditions in the learning environment to facilitatelearners' engagement in making intertextual connections to the academic content of aGrade 5/6 Social Studies unit?71.4 Significance of the StudyConsidering the steadily increasing cultural and linguistic diversity in our localeducational contexts, and our responsibility to provide opportunities for success, it is criticalthat educators understand the realities and complexities of not only the linguistic but also themultilayered social and cultural dimensions of the learning environment. This studycontributes to the already rich and insightful literature on the integration of language andcontent, multimodal approaches, and the interrelationship between identity and classroompractice. This qualitative investigation, examined how an educator, in a local mainstreammultilingual classroom, approached the challenge of designing culturally responsivecurriculum that connects students to academic content. It also addressed gaps in the literatureexamining the daily conflicts and opportunities mainstream teachers face when designing andimplementing curriculum.This study specifically addressed the challenges educators face in multilingual,multicultural, elementary mainstream environment and shows the effectiveness of integratingmultimodal language and content approaches to maximize student participation and thepotential for academic success. The findings will provide both practical and theoreticalknowledge for classroom content teachers, ESL specialist teachers, teachers of Social Studiesand fellow researchers. The study took place over a three-month period, so it also presents anopportunity for fellow researchers to investigate Social Studies pedagogy that follows agroup of multilingual learners in a mainstream setting throughout a greater part of theacademic year.Finally, this study had implications for both the researcher and the participant teacher.The study provided the opportunity to explore and reflect upon our identities and personal8histories and better understand how past experiences shape our beliefs that influence ourpedagogical decisions when designing and implementing curriculum. The study alsodemonstrated the power of respectful, collaborative work within a classroom where twoteachers, each with their own areas of expertise, can learn from each other.1.5 Definition of TermsThe term ESL student is defined in the B.C. Ministry of Education Policy Framework 1999as:English as a Second Language students are those whose primary language(s), orlanguage(s) of the home, is/are other than English, and who may therefore requireadditional services in order to develop their individual potential within BritishColumbia's school system. Some students speak variations of English that differsignificantly from the English used in the broader Canadian society and in school;they may require ESL support. (p. 9)For the purpose of this study an ESL student meets the above-mentioned criteria of astudent who speaks another or an additional language in the home. Students who arereceiving additional services are referred to as Ministry designated ESL students.There are a number of terms that recur throughout the study. I have drawn many ofthe definitions from the work of Pahl and Rowsell (2005) for a straightforward but accurateexplanation of the terms1. Communities of Practice- "Groups of people with common beliefs, values, ways ofspeaking and being" (Pahl & Rowsell, 2005, p. 156).2. Cultural capital- As cited by Norton Pierce (1995) this is Bourdieu's term, "toreference the knowledge and modes of thought that characterize different classes andgroups in relation to specific sets of social forms. Some forms of cultural capital havea higher exchange value than others in a given social context" (Norton Peirce, 1995,p. 17).93. Funds of Knowledge- "The cultural resources that families bring to other settings"(Pahl & Rowsell, 2005, p. 154).4. Identity- "how people understand their relationship to the world, how the relationshipis constructed over time and space and how people understand possibilities for thefuture" (Norton, 1997, p.410).5. Intertextual- The gaining of meaning from different kinds and types of text (seedefinition of text that follows).6. Multiliteracies- The use of using a variety of literacy forms simultaneously.7. Multimodal literacy- "Literacy teaching and learning that takes into account of allmodes within texts" (Pahl & Rowsell, 2005, p. 156).8. Prescribed Learning Outcomes (PLO's)- British Columbia's content standards.Knowledge students are expected to acquire by the end of the course. (Ministry ofEducation, 2006)9. Text- visual, oral, written and electronic language forms. These varied forms areoften used in combination with one another.1.6 Organization of the ThesisThe structure of the thesis is as follows. The second chapter includes an overview ofthe literature useful in considering the research questions. The literature review consists oftheory and research in the areas of language and content, of multimodal literacy and theinterrelationship of identity and classroom practice. Further, it looks specifically at theliterature on the challenges of teaching Social Studies curriculum in our multilingual settings.The third chapter provides an outline of the methodology used in the study. It describes theresearch site, the participants, the process of data collection and the analysis drawing on the-10-triangulation and interpretation of multiple sources of data. The fourth chapter reports thefindings of the study in relation to the research questions. It synthesizes findings fromclassroom observations, audio-recorded interviews, work samples and classroom artifacts.The fifth chapter serves as a conclusion by discussing new pedagogical understandings andinsights into best practice. The chapter also addresses the limitations of the study andeducational implications for practice and future research.CHAPTER 2REVIEW OF THE LITERATUREIn what follows, I review theories and research relevant to the questions raised in thisstudy. The review of the literature took place over time throughout the study (Gay, Mills &Airasian, 2006). At the early stages of the research process I identified gaps in the literature,sought a clearer direction and refined my research questions. As the research evolved Iinterpreted information more deeply during my fieldwork and analysis. The chapterencompasses a review of the literature that I believe to be complementary and related areasfor the purpose of this study: the integration of language and content learning, multimodalliteracy approaches and the interrelationship between identity and classroom practice. Allareas presented are relevant for discussing the teaching of both native speakers of Englishand students acquiring English as a second or an additional language. First, I overviewliterature on the integration of language and content and more specifically, because of thenature of the study, I also discuss challenges and approaches to the teaching of the academicconcepts of Social Studies in the mainstream classroom. Second, I review concepts ofmultiliteracies pedagogy framework and multimodal approaches that have been inspired bythe transformation toward a twenty-first century need to broaden our literacy approaches duepartly to shifting world global economies, that affords students access to and demonstratingunderstanding through a variety of representations. Finally, I encompass in the literature thecomplex and changing role of identity and its' importance as an integral aspect ofimplementation of curriculum within a mainstream, classroom setting.-12-2.1 Integration of Language and ContentRegardless of the age or the diversity of the backgrounds of our learners (e.g. longtime residents, newcomer immigrant, international students) all students in varied learningenvironments are faced with the need to learn the content of school curriculum. Bothproficient English language speakers and students learning English as a second or additionallanguage are as argued by Mohan et al, 2001, "learning language for academic purposes andusing language to learn" (p. 218). Although a refreshing perspective, language and contentinstruction presents a formidable challenge for educators when attempting to createresponsive pedagogical approaches that enable students to become academically successfulin our changing, multilingual mainstream contexts. To learn language and contentsimultaneously requires thoughtful and intentional planning at the both curriculum designlevel and daily lesson level (Mohan, 1986).For the past three decades, as a result of shifting demographics, considerable attentionhas been paid to addressing the needs of diverse classroom populations by varyingapproaches to the integration of language and content in English speaking countries such asCanada, Australia, England and the United States (Chamot & O'Malley, 1992; Davison,2001; Early & Hooper, 2001; Early & Marshall-Smith, 2008; Mohan, 1986; Mohan et al.,2001; O'Malley & Chamot , 1990; Short, 1994; Stoller, 2008).Content instruction for newcomer students or students who were born in Canada butnot proficient in English cannot wait until the student has mastered English languageproficiency (Early & Marshall-Smith, 2008). Mohan (1986) criticized both the "laissez-faire"(p. 7) and previous, formalized approaches to second language acquisition. Mohan (1986)argued that instructional approaches needed to, "go beyond second language acquisition- 13 -research" (p. 11) toward an "integrative approach which relates language learning andcontent learning, considers language as a medium of learning and acknowledges the role ofcontext in communication" (p. 1). Mohan (1986) advocated for more explicit instructionthrough the use of the "Knowledge Framework" to simultaneously support English languagelearning and academic content.Mohan (2001) stresses that any multicultural setting needs to systematically addressculture and language learning. He suggests that underlying the integrative approach is alanguage socialization perspective that language and culture are learned simultaneously. Theindividual is socialized into the culture by participation in 'sociocultural activities' andstudent's participation in the discourse of these activities is a way of "acquiring language butalso of acquiring sociocultural knowledge" (Mohan, 2001, p. 112).Building on the work of Mohan (1986), Early and Hooper (2001) led two ambitiouslarge—scale projects by researchers and educators to implement an instructional approach thatfocused on the integration of language and content. The study involved school teamsincluding classroom teachers, ESL specialist teachers and administrators encompassing manyelementary and secondary schools in the Vancouver School District (Early & Hooper, 2001).The study highlighted the potential role of the teacher as a committed and creative "changeagents" (p.50) and simultaneously the importance of drawing on and connecting with the"perspectives and wisdom of the community...as a network of people who are resources" (p.50).Mohan's integrative approach continues to be valuable for learning a second or anadditional language and also for language education in general, including when secondlanguage learners and native speakers are working together in the mainstream classroom.-14-Cummins (1992) distinction of two levels of language proficiency: BasicInterpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) and Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency(CALP) have had significant relevance in the area of language and content instruction. Itserves as a useful conceptual tool for strengthening educators and parents understanding thatit takes a long- term commitment to support academic proficiency. Cummins (1992) madethe distinction as a means of explaining the difference in the time it takes for most immigrantstudents to acquire conversational fluency (one to two years) and academic proficiency (fiveto seven years). BICS refers to the survival English used in more context embedded,interpersonal, everyday situations and CALP refers to the more cognitively demanding,context reduced academic tasks. Conversational fluency uses many simple grammaticalstructures and high frequency vocabulary. BICS or survival English is important especiallyfor peer related aspects of the social life of the child more typically found in contexts outsideof the classroom. In classroom situations students are required to demonstrate understandingin a more complex manner such as written or oral modalities academic functions that requirea higher level through language (Cummins, 1992). Similarly, Gibbons (2003) makes thedistinction between "school language" and "playground language".The work of O'Malley and Chamot (1990) and Chamot and O'Malley's (1992) hascontributed to learning strategy research, grounded in cognitive psychology orientation, tosecond language acquisition theory. They developed the comprehensive Cognitive AcademicLanguage Learning Approach (CALLA) model to enable students, usually at the intermediatelevel of language proficiency, through the integration of language and content, to preparethem to enter mainstream classes. The CALLA model (Chamot & O'Malley1992) usesprocess oriented "learning- strategy instruction" (p. 50) through direct and explicit instruction- 15 -and practice. Strategies include: "metacognitive", "cognitive" and "social-affective" (Chamot& O'Malley p. 51). Of particular importance, is their reference to the social-affectivestrategies with the understanding that students working cooperatively with peer activitiesinvolved in activities such as modeling, and giving feedback during a task, enables studentsto use the language skills associated with an academic assignment. Although the CALLAmodel is targeted for ESL students in a content-ESL classroom O'Malley and Chamot (1990)suggest that learning strategy instruction can support non-ESL students as well, by teachingstudents to apply their understandings to content and language learning.Stoller (2008), presents a comprehensive overview of the history of major and notablecontributors to Content-based approaches. Stoller (2008) refers to her (2004) worksuggesting:Despite differences in emphasis, what most content-based approaches share is theassumption that content and language create a symbiotic relationship; that is, thelearning of content contributes to the learning of language and a mastery of languagegives learners easier access to content.According to Stoller (2008), Content-based instruction (CBI) has been influenced bycognitive psychology and second language acquisition research. Stoller (2008) makesreference to many linguists, who in the 1980's, for example, Mohan (1986), Brinton, Snowand Wesche (1989) and Chamot and O'Malley (1987) who in the 1980's made significantcontributions in various ways (p. 61). Since the 1980's the work of Short has made anoteworthy contribution to the supporting " the language of different disciplines" (p. 63).Research investigating the success of CBI programs suggests that besides students being ableto orchestrate writing reading and speaking tasks, they need "knowledge of pop culture","critical perspectives" and "confidence" (p. 64). One of the challenges, according to Stoller(2008) associated with CBI is the lack of expertise on the part of the content teacher and the- 16 -language specialist teacher. A familiar problem exists where the language specialist teacheris not knowledgeable about the content and the content teacher is not aware of the specialist.Stoller (2008) makes reference to Kaufmann and Crandall's (2005) suggestion there is a lackof research on language learners attempts "to master content knowledge and improvelanguage skills" within the discipline areas (p. 64). Stoller (2008) also suggests thatcollaboration "across disciplines" and amongst practitioners and researchers would havepositive outcomes (p. 68).2.1.1 Challenges of Social Studies EducationLearning the language and content of Social Studies, as a discipline poses manychallenges for our linguistically and culturally diverse student populations (Brown, 2007;Short, 1994; Weisman & Hansen, 2007). The language of the discipline of Social Studies asargued by Weisman and Hansen (2007) is often abstract, de-contextualized and cognitivelydemanding. Concepts according to Short (1994), are complex and not easily taught throughthe use of physical or visual cues and often require a high level of reading and writing toaccess and demonstrate understanding. Furthermore, if students have been attending schoolin another country, they will not necessarily be familiar with the background knowledgeassociated with foundations of the curriculum that have been previously taught. Otherscholars (e.g. Brown, 2007; Cummins et al., 2007; Short, 1994; Weisman & Hansen, 2007)suggest that understanding Social Studies concepts are difficult for native speakers of Englishand an even more formidable challenge for students who are English language learners.Short's (1994) research study, in an American Grade 6-9 setting, focused oninstructional strategies specifically related to elementary English language learners acquiringcontent area knowledge in social studies. The project incorporated conducting interviews,-17-observations, participant teachers documenting implementation processes and student worksamples. Some of the key findings in Short's research included "activating backgroundknowledge", explicit teaching of text structure, "using cooperative learning " and "exposingstudents to authentic materials" (p. 587). Students' comprehension of concepts was increasedby drawing examples from students' experiences and making connections through interactivehands-on engagement such as role-play. Short also claimed that the texts studied in theresearch did not address diversity. In addition, according to Short, it was observed quiteconsistently that teachers " made efforts to repeat, rephrase and extend student responses andcomments and responses" (p. 596). In the mainstream classes observed in the project,teachers paired non-native and native English speaking peers as partners and mentors. Short(1994) reported that the teaching strategies used in the study supported the students inunderstanding and using academic content language of Social Studies and in increasing thestudent's understanding of American history. Furthermore, she suggests that drawing onstudents' historical and cultural resources has much potential. The study highlighted thatstudents were able to draw on some critical aspects by having the students engage indiscussion of different viewpoints and perspectives. Although ESL students often lack thebackground knowledge of navigating social studies texts, many educators found that theunderlying narrative aspect of the structure of the textbooks appealing. For example, thenarrative genre of storytelling is a universal method students have usually had exposure to inboth home and school environments. Similarly in Duff's (2001), study students dwelt ontheir experiences as Chinese immigrant students in Canada and these experiences were inter-textually connected with aboriginal content of a film shown during a Social Studies class.Short (1994) and Weisman and Hansen (2007) also affirmed that connecting cultural-18-experience to the content can have promising results when instruction includes explicit andovert attention to practice and applying the content language Further, Case and Obenchain(2006) and Short (1994), both emphasized the importance of collaboration between the ESLlanguage specialist and the classroom content teacher when planning for instruction.Gibbons (2003) qualitative, interpretive study, although her research was not in thediscipline of Social Studies lessons, focused on the construct of mediation in spokeninteractions between the student and the content teacher in Science lessons in an elementaryESL classroom. She asserted that developing spoken language ultimately supportscompetence in the more formal academic demands of the curriculum. In her study, Gibbonsemphasized focusing on acquiring macro-analysis of data by building on evidenceaccumulated over time by observing a sequence of lessons. Her findings demonstrated thatthrough teacher mediation students' contributions to classroom discussion "progressivelytransformed" over time as the specialized language of Science developed (p. 257).The work of Schleppegrell (2001) and Schleppegrel, Achugar and Orteiza (2004)drawing from a functional linguistics perspective, has made a significant contribution tosupporting non native English speakers' linguistic needs. Schleppegrell (2001) suggests thereare tremendous linguistic demands for native speakers and even more so for non-nativeEnglish speakers in our academic settings and these demands are not being fully addressed.Much of Schleppergrell's (2001) work has focused on the grammatical features of academictexts of particular disciplines. Schleppergrell et al. (2004) longitudinal research took place inthe context of a high school History class in California. Their research suggests, " work withthe textbook is critically important in learning history" (p. 89). However, when selectingtexts teachers need to be very specific in their choices of text. They claim that it is not- 19 -enough to read the textbook students need to participate in activities where they are using"both everyday language and academic language" (p. 89). Importantly, this study commentsthat a focus on language is essential:Because language is inseparable from social contexts and always makes meaningsrelevant to particular situations and cultures, we are not integrating language andcontent. Language and content are already integrated. What is needed is a means ofhelping students see how linguistic choices construe content meanings. (p. 90)2.2 Multimodal Literacy PracticesLocally and globally students are growing up in contexts of increasingly salientcultural and linguistic diversity. Simultaneously, while students are immersed in diversesocial practices it is a time of rapid economic, social and cultural change. The world-wideweb has changed the way we view new information. Kress (2003) argues that we are goingthrough a "revolution in the landscape of communication" (p. 1).Multimodal approaches that have been inspired by the transformation toward atwenty-first century need to broaden our literacy approaches due partly to shifting worldglobal economies, that affords students access to and demonstrating understanding through avariety of representations. The New London Group (1996) presented a theoretical overviewof an approach referred to as "multiliteracies". Responsive teaching that addresses culturaland linguistic diversity, in the complex and changing reality of schools, as students encounterinformation in progressively complex and multiple forms in the twenty-first century. Theyemphasized that although there are strengths in some existing literacy practices, there is needto extend instructional approaches beyond reading and writing to include multiple modes ofrepresentation (e.g. linguistic, visual, audio, gestural). These modes differ depending on thecontext and the variety of text forms available in any given educational context. Studentsneed to gather information from multiple sources and analyze, synthesize, and critically-20-demonstrate and transform their understanding to new contexts. Cope and Kalantzis (2000)describe case studies from four different contexts and argue that all four aspects ofMultiliteracies pedagogy (i.e. situated practice, overt instruction, critical framing andtransformed practice) are necessary for good teaching. Cummins et al. (2007), suggests thatthe multiliteracies framework 'intersect' transmission, social constructivist andtransformative pedagogical orientations. Siegel (2006) emphasizes that we cannot ignore thevariety of modes of representation needed to negotiate our cultural, social and economicaspects of our lives.Duff (2001) cites Short's (1997) reference to a multimodal approach using "differentmodes of presentation and expression, in addition to academic expository texts, including:art, literature and hands on activities...and activities that promote discussion and debate" (p.114) as instructional practices that would support more strategically a diverse range ofstudent needs. Giving students choice in the mode of representation provides students with asense of control over their learning environment (Pon, Goldstein & Schecter, 2003).Gibbons (2003) also asserted that for second language learners, multi-modal textsprovided the duplication of information that is often needed to acquire and demonstrateunderstanding.Harklau's (2003) research suggested that in some school settings, "teachers tend tohold the floor" and have a deficit view of English language learners. This outlook canconstrain opportunities for active student participation and the opportunity to demonstratetheir linguistic strengths (p. 91). She refers to the work of the New London Group (1996) thatsuggests that as a result of increasing advancements in technology language learners, insteadof focusing on the acquisition of one language, need to learn how to navigate a multiplicity- 21 -of literacy forms (e.g. visual, textual) they encounter (p. 96). The significant point thatHarklau makes is that the "multilingualism" they bring to these complex and robustenvironments "is clearly a resource" not a problem (p. 96). In Harklau's study, she discussedthe enthusiasm a group of teachers had for students writing their immigration stories and thatstudent were often able to communicate more deeply their cultural histories because of thehybrid nature of their personal accounts. A multimodal approach provided second languagelearners with a larger repertoire of ways to understand concepts and also demonstrate theirunderstanding.Kress (2003) and Seigel (2006) argue that texts are multimodal. According to Siegel(2006), in her review of the literature on "multimodal transformations", suggests childrenhave always engaged in multimodal practices and bring a repetoire of knowledge to learningcontexts (p. 65). For example, children use talking, dramatizing, gesturing and drawing as anintegral part of the writing process. Research shows "when curriculum changes includemultimodality" students who have experienced learning difficulties may achieve greatersuccess (Siegel, 2006, p.'73).Kress (2003) argues two "distinct" and "related" factors: first, that the image hassubstituted the dominance of written text and that second, the screen has replaced the book asthe medium of communication (p. 1). Kress (2003) contends that this change is a"revolution" and has significantly effected the way we view what it means to be literate andtherefore to question the larger social, political and cultural impacts of that change.2.3 Identity in the ClassroomIn recent years more interest and recognition has focused on the social practice ofliteracy development and the socially situated nature of the learner (Rowsell & Pahl, 2007).- 22 -Researchers using a variety of methodologies and theoretical perspectives have informededucators' understanding of the interrelationship between social identity and classroompractice. In this study I use Norton's (1997) term of identity to refer to "how peopleunderstand their relationship to the world, how the relationship is constructed over time andspace and how people understand possibilities for the future" (p. 410).Norton Peirce (1995) proposes that the concept of motivation does not adequatelyaddress the complexity of the social relationships of "power, identity and language learning"(p. 17). She points out that the term investment rather than motivation conceptualizes themultiplicity of factors that influence learners' engagement. Consequently, the languagelearner, according to Norton Peirce (1995) and Norton (1997) is engaged in "identityconstruction" (p. 18) as they are "constantly organizing and reorganizing a sense of who theyare and how they relate to the social world" p. 410. For example, in her longitudinal study ofimmigrant women's experiences, Norton Peirce (1995) found that although all participantswere highly motivated to learn English (e.g. enrolling in English courses, a desire to haveconnections with English speaking Canadians), however, constraining social factors (e.g.hierarchical workplace conditions, lack of confidence in speaking English) inhibitedparticipants' engagement in speaking. Further, Martina illustrates the case of a languagelearner who had many multiple identities- "a mother", "a worker", and "a wife" and that herinvestment in her social identity as primary caregiver gave her reason to struggle for thewords to fight for the rights of her family.Duff's (2001) ethnographic study of one local mainstream, Grade 10 Social Studiesclass, addresses how to create opportunities for students to negotiate their identities andsubject matter knowledge in culturally respectful ways. The teacher in the study, attempted to- 23 -accommodate and integrate English as a Second Language (ESL) learners by drawing onstudent background knowledge and personal cultural experiences to connect to Canadianhistorical concepts. The qualitative, interpretive research consisted of audio and videointerviews of classroom participation, and discourse samples from interviews with students.Cummins et al. (2007) propose that for an "optimal learning environment, virtual or"real," requires that both cognitive engagement and identity investment be maximized" (p.214). Further, they suggest that, "it is reasonable to hypothesize that pedagogical approachesthat affirm the identities of culturally and linguistically diverse students may promote greateracademic engagement and achievement. " The interpersonal space that is created in thesestudent-teacher interactions are not only the result of teacher's techniques and strategies tosupport academic growth but the messages that the teacher communicates regarding her/hisview of the student's identity including the student's capabilities for the future. In an optimallearning environment the process of "reciprocal negotiation of identity and collaborativegeneration of knowledge take place within this knowledge construction zone" (Cummins etal., 2007, p. 216). However, Cummins et al. (2007) also suggest that this zone can also beconstricting if student identities are not being affirmed. Students are reluctant to investcognitively and academically if their perspective is that the learning environment does notvalue and encourage aspects of their linguistic and cultural heritage. This text builds onprevious books by Cummins (1996; 2000) where he argues for the importance of notions of`identity' in theory, research and practice in the education of bi/multilingual students.Morita's (2004) research also acknowledges the situated nature of learnerparticipation and that the " local classroom context- the social, cultural, historical, curricular,pedagogical, interactional, and interpersonal context- is inseparable from learners- 24 -participation" (p. 596). Morita also implies there is a connection or a "reciprocalrelationship" between participation and competence. For example, Rie's case (a Korean-born, international, graduate student from Japan) had "contrasting positionalities" in twodifferent university courses. In one course, despite her language limitations she was a"valued member" and stated "I could feel my own presence" (p. 592). In another course,although she had an interest in the subject matter, Rie had difficulty with the topics anddiscourses and felt "ignored" (p. 595). Finally, although students may appear passive andwithdrawn, in reality they are often "actively negotiating their multiple roles and identities"(Morita 2004, p. 587). For instance, in Morita's study Nanako (a female, international,Japanese graduate student) had different identities in each of her three university classes. InCourse E she felt "less experienced" and "less knowledgeable" and used her silence as a"face saving strategy". However, once her instructor acknowledged that her silence was not aproblem, her membership (through silence) was legitimized, and this recognition resulted inmore positive participation and socialization. The same instructor also prudentlyacknowledged that her "outsider" status could be viewed as a resource rather than a deficit. Itis apparent that students, although sometimes appearing reticent or passive, are often activelynegotiating their own identities and agency. So in the 'real' work of the classroom, amidunprecedented social, economic and technological change this is a complex, but crucialchallenge for educators to address.Pon et al. (2003), made reference to a teacher in a Grade 12 class acknowledging astudent's legitimacy within the class and giving a student the option of time to revisit theirresponse later: "It's okay to say if you don't know right now. You can think about it andwe'll come back and look at your response later" (p. 125).- 25 -There has been an emerging body of research exploring the connection betweenhome, school and community literacy practices (Barton & Hamilton,1998; Gutierrez,Baquedano-Lopez, Alverez, & Chui, 1999; Heath,1983; Moji, Ciechanowski, Kramer, Ellis,Carrillo & Collazo , 2004; Street, 2003). Moreover, these sites are areas of changing andsometimes contradictory identity formation (Norton Peirce, 1995). This study, investigateshow curriculum designed to capitalize on the home and community knowledge learnerspotentially bring to the classroom can connect to and bridge young learners' understandingsof academic content. In other words, how "academic" and "non-academic" activities can beinterdependent in the classroom (Wortham, 2006, p. 1).Rowsell and Pahl (2007), drawing on the work on everyday literacy practices ofHeath (1983) and Barton and Hamilton (1998), argue that children's texts are historical innature and shaped by multilayered identities. They emphasize the link between everydayliteracy practices and the "identity constructions" within the shaping of children's text(p. 391). Further, they make reference to a metaphor of "identities sedimenting into texts" (p.388) and suggest that multimodal text can be seen as an artifact and that "this artifact-likequality is linked to the identity of the meaning-maker" (p. 392). In addition, the teacher intheir data sampling, when making pedagogical decisions, drew on her "childhoodideologies". Roswell and Pahl refer to Bourdieu's concept of habitus which "describesways of being, doing and acting in the world across generations, time and space." In theirethnographic studies in homes they observed that children "draw upon intergenerationalways of doing and being to construct new meanings" (p. 394). Rowsell's ethnographic studyinvolving a Canadian teacher demonstrated how the teacher's personal history wasrepresented in many facets of her teaching, such as her unit plans and the layout of her- 26 -classroom design. Rowsell calls for further research studies and teaching practices thatinvestigate the social and historical nature within text. The present study seeks to contributeto this area of knowledge by examining social studies lessons that were planned to draw uponthe students' and teacher's personal histories in a Grade Five/Six elementary classroom.In addition, the contributions of Bransford, Brown and Cocking (cited in Cummins etal., 2007) closely relate to the findings of this present study. Their major synthesis of theevidence on "optimal conditions" for how learning occurs includes: "engaging priorunderstandings, integrating factual knowledge with conceptual frameworks and taking activecontrol over the learning process" (p. 42). As Cummins et al. point out the findings ofBransford and colleagues imply that "students from linguistically and culturally diversebackgrounds" learn best when the learning environment fosters these three conditions (p. 42).Cummins et al. also refer to Bransford et al.'s emphasis on "the support within a communityof learners" and Lave and Wenger's notion of "legitimate peripheral participation" asstudents are socialized into and supported by "dialogue, apprenticeship and mentoring" (p.44). The present study investigates all three of the above mentioned factors for optimumlearning in the context of a classroom where the teacher's professional practice is fore-grounded by the belief in a community of learners.CHAPTER 3METHODOLOGYThis chapter describes the methodology used in the research, the research design, thesite, the participants, data collection procedures, and data analysis procedures.3.1 Research MethodThe goal of this exploratory case study is to provide a holistic description of how awell-designed Social Studies unit is enacted in the complex, naturally occurring and dynamicenvironment of a classroom of learners, many for whom English is a second or an additionallanguage (Jacob, 1987; Stake, 1997). Central to the research is the question: How does theelementary teacher, in a multilingual classroom setting, bridge young learners' access to theacademic content of the Grade 5/6 Social Studies curriculum?The guiding questions posed for the study were:1. How does the teacher facilitate learners' access to prior knowledge andsimultaneously draw upon participants' social and cultural identities in the unit ofwork as designed and enacted?2. How does a grade 5/6 Social Studies unit, with instructional approaches designed toafford second language learners' access to multiple modes of representation, manifestitself in a multilingual classroom.3. How does the teacher create conditions in the learning environment to facilitatelearners' engagement in making intertextual connections to the academic content of aGrade 5/6 Social Studies unit?-28-Guided by the research questions identified, it also documents some of the curriculumdecisions made by the researcher and the participant teacher during the designing of theSocial Studies unit. The research is a case study of one Social Studies unit: Immigration InCanada, taught in one Grade Five/Six classroom, detailing the intricate complexitiesassociated in the lived experiences of the participants (Stake, 1997). In addition, the studycontains some characteristics of ethnographic research. As discussed in Chapter 1,justification for the choice of drawing from some ethnographic methods-was my intent togain a measure of deeper understanding, by immersing myself in a classroom context, inorder to generate, while acknowledging the limitations of the time frame, a "thickdescription" of the socio-cultural aspects of the learners in their natural setting (Davis, 1995,p. 434). Within the research, I have accessed both the etic (outsider's) perspectives of theresearcher and also encompassed the emic (insider's) perspectives of both the teacher and thestudents in their classroom setting (Davis, 1995). According to Davis (1995), an emicperspective "demands description that includes actors' interpretations and other social and/orcultural information" (p. 434). Ethnographic accounts, according to Davis (1995) and Gay etal. (2006) usually takes a full cycle of a calendar year, however, because of the timelimitations of both the researcher and the classroom teacher this research took place over athree-month time frame. Palys (2003) cites Weick's suggestion that as researchers, we lookat a phenomenon in both "intentional and unintentional ways" (p. 203) and the importance ofobserving multiple behaviours in context. As an educational researcher, I looked foremerging and shared patterns, and webs of relationships that developed and expanded overthe three-month period, in the context of Social Studies' lessons. This study is a qualitativeanalysis of what transpired when well-designed curriculum came alive in the everyday,-29-dynamic and cultural context of a multilingual classroom. The study took into account boththe documented perceptions and the beliefs of the teacher during the unit design process andthen later the 'lived' teacher and student experiences in the classroom setting.3.2 SiteThe research was conducted in an elementary school in an urban multilingual andmulticultural school district in British Columbia. Entry into the research site was negotiatedearly in the 2007-2008 academic school year. Many factors played a role in obtainingpermission, access and credibility to undertake the study. As an educator in the SchoolDistrict I have served in many different roles and capacities including: an elementaryclassroom teacher, a Learning Assistance teacher, an ESL Specialist Teacher, a DistrictResource Teacher and presently District Curriculum Coordinator: ESL and Multiculturalism.I had developed a professional and highly respectful relationship with the participant teacher,in a previous school setting where we co-taught a Primary class. I am professionallyacquainted with the school's Administrator, the ESL specialist teacher and some of theteaching and support staff. In addition, I was familiar with some of the recent ProfessionalDevelopment initiatives that had been a focus for the school. Furthermore, as a long timeteacher in the district, I was very familiar with the location of the school site, andcomfortable working collaboratively in a school setting.Davis (1995) referred to the importance of Erickson's ethical principles of informingthe participants of the activities and purposes as well as any risks or burdens that the studymight entail. As a teacher-researcher, I presented myself as a knowledgeable learner, whowould be vigilant in ensuring that these principles were built into the design of the study. Iclarified with District Administrative staff, the school Principal and the classroom teacher the-30-intent of my research and my desire to maintain participants' confidentiality and anonymity.The name of the school was kept confidential. Furthermore, I did not discuss the place ornature of the study with colleagues in my workplace.3.3 ParticipantsRegularly meeting the teacher and the learners in the classroom gave me theopportunity to develop a sense of complex relationships within the class. Of the 29 studentsin the class, 5 females were enrolled in Grade Six and 8 females and 16 males were enrolledin Grade Five. Informed student assent and parent consent forms were given to all students.Translated copies of the informed consent forms were made available to families. Of the 29students, 19 gave consent to participate in the study. For ethical considerations, pseudonymswere used for all research participants to protect their identity. Students who did not consentto participate continued with normally occurring class activities. Throughout the study, everyeffort was made to avoid disrupting the routine of the class.The class composition was a diverse group of students in terms of first language,educational experience and literacy proficiency. Six of the students were Ministry designatedESL students who received additional ESL support from a specialist ESL teacher. Three ofthe ESL students were Level 3 (Intermediate), Two were Level 4 (Advanced Intermediate)and one student was Level 5 (Proficient). The students in the study comprised a smallnumber of "newcomers" who had immigrated to Canada less than four years ago, foreignborn students who had immigrated from various parts of the world more than four yearspreviously, Canadian born students whose parents had immigrated from Hong Kong, andCanadian born first language English speakers. No one in the class was a beginner Englishspeaker. A majority of the class spoke another language than English in the home and that-31-other language was usually Cantonese or Mandarin. Among the 19 participating students,two were native English speakers (NSs) and seventeen were non—native speakers (NNSs).The non-native English (NNSs) speakers of were of varying levels of English proficiency.Nine of the participating students were female and ten of the students were male.The participant teacher in the study was an Anglo-Canadian male in his fifties. Hewas born and educated in Vancouver. Mr. McKay has been a teacher for twenty- nine yearsand for the past twenty years has been an intermediate teacher with a particular interest inphysical education. I have a positive, professional relationship with the teacher, previouslyestablished, when we had worked together twenty years ago. In the past, I found him to beprofessional, dedicated and creative in his approach to teaching. In the 1987-1988 academicyear the participant teacher and I co-taught in my Grade Two classroom. At that time, he hadthe role and responsibility of Resource Teacher supporting the integration of two studentswith identified special needs in my mainstream Grade Two setting. Among the students inthe school, Mr. McKay was well respected as a classroom teacher and also well known forsupporting extra curricular activities with the students.3.4 Data Collection ProceduresThe data was collected over one complete Grade 5/6 unit titled: Immigration InCanada consisting of a sequence of seventeen, forty-five minute lessons conducted from theend of November to early March. The lessons were aligned to British Columbia's Ministry ofEducation Grade 5 and Grade 6 English Language Arts and Social Studies curriculum. Datawere mainly collected from fieldwork experiences using multiple, qualitative methodsincluding: descriptive field notes, reflective observational field notes, audio-recordings ofsemi-structured interviews with students (see Figure 3.1), an audio-recorded interview with- 32 -some students (see Appendix D for the questions that were posed), an audio-recorded exitinterview with teacher (see Appendix E for the questions that were posed), a teacher responsejournal, work samples, class maps of seating arrangements, and classroom artifacts (e.g.,photographs of classroom charts and posters). Audio-recordings could be reviewedrepeatedly and both teacher and student interviews contained an opportunity for open-endedresponses. The audio recordings were transcribed for analysis. Please refer to Appendix Hfor transcription protocols. The study examined the participants in whole class teacherdirected lessons, group work and independent work.3.4.1 Curriculum Planning SessionsIn the fall of 2007, I met with the classroom teacher twice after school, tocollaboratively plan the Social Studies unit. The first planning session took place in theteacher's classroom and the second planning session took place in the school library. Eachplanning session was approximately one hour long. During this unit design phase the teacherand I viewed the Social Studies and the English Language Arts (Grade Five and Grade Six)curriculum guides in the planning. The teacher also indicated that the class had come up withan overall question for the year "Why are we here?" and that question would be referred tothroughout the year. Recently, the teacher had attended professional development on thetopic of Multiliteracies and handouts distributed at the workshop, were used as referencetools. Following the co-planning meetings, the classroom teacher had the opportunity to read,comment on and expand ideas written in the planning notes. Subsequent to our meetings, theteacher and I stayed in contact by telephone and email refining, developing and sourcingresources for the planned unit of work.-33-3.4.2 Classroom ObservationsThe week before the study began in the month of November 2007, the teacherintroduced me to the class as a participant observer. The teacher, Mr. McKay explained that,as part of my research, I would be visiting the class regularly during Social Studies lessons.Further, Mr. McKay informed the students that he would usually be teaching the lessons butthat sometimes I would co-teach the lessons and participate in discussions. Mr. McKay gaveme the opportunity to explain the purpose of my study and the students had the chance to askquestions. I assured the students that their participation was voluntary and handed out theinformed student and parent consent forms (see Appendix A and B).Throughout the study, I took on varying roles as a participant observer. For example,sometimes I was actively absorbed in the role of co-teacher as "active participant observer",and other times "privileged active observer" where, at the direction of the teacher, I had theopportunity to focus, mainly on data collection, as I observed the lesson (Gay et al., 2006, p.447).My classroom observations began in the last week of November 2007 and ended inthe second week of March 2008. At the beginning of the study, I observed during SocialStudies lessons at least twice at week. As time progressed, I observed lessons at least once aweek, during the school's 11:30-12:15 period. Social Studies lessons usually were scheduledtwice a week and some of the lessons carried on when I was not attending. The lessons that Iwas not able to observe usually took place in the computer lab. During the research process, Ihad the opportunity to visit with the class during other time blocks but the11:30 time blockwas the most consistently scheduled time, as it was the most desirable for the teacher'stimetabling commitments and I could do the observations during my lunch break.-34-Further, because not all parents granted permission for audio-recordings, and as aconsequence classroom work could not be digitally recorded, classroom observations werecritically important and provided along with samples and images of texts and artifactsproduced by the teacher and students a key means for ongoing descriptive data. My intentwas to comprehensively and accurately observe and document classroom events seen andheard, as they occurred. In total, I observed 17 Social Studies' lessons. Since 16 classobservations lasted 45 minutes and 1 class observation lasted one hour, a total of 13 hours ofclass time were observed. The teacher and students welcomed me and I felt very comfortablevisiting the class. The teacher was given the opportunity to review the field notes, check foraccuracy and give any feedback for example, where key information pertaining to aclassroom event may have been missing details. Where possible I copied down direct quotesfrom the teacher where instructions and explanations were repeated for the students.Interpretive, qualitative research design, according to Davis (1995), "is constantlyevolving" (p. 445). During my observations, copious field notes were taken regularly, torecord, the multifaceted, non-linear, changing nature of the Social Studies lesson as itemerged. The main focus for the field notes was the role of the teacher as I observed theinteractions between the teacher and learners in directed whole class lessons, group work andindependent work within the natural classroom setting. After each observation session, Iwould revisit my field-notes and compose descriptive and reflective insights.3.4.3 Audio-recordingsI decided interview data from digital audio-recorder would provide worthwhileinformation for the study. The audio-recordings provided a verbatim account of the interviewand prevented bias from subjective interpretation (Gay et al., 2006). The audio-recordings-35-also had the benefit of being able to be reviewed repeatedly, giving insights into non-writtenteacher and student perspectives. Further, because of a desire on the part of the classroomteacher and myself, not to interrupt the routine of the class, and because of schedulingconstraints, I kept the duration of the interviews short. I did not get parental consent fromsome parents to proceed with some student interviews so my audio- recorded sampling wassix students. Two of the students interviewed were native English speakers and four of thestudents were second language learners. Originally I planned on the interviews being of asemi- structured nature but in reality the interviews were more structured. The students hadthe opportunity for an open-ended response but they were not very forthcoming. Theinterview consisted of a set of fourteen questions with an opportunity at the end for open-ended discussion. During the audio-recorded interviews I also took notes throughout theinterview. In total, six audio-recorded interviews were conducted at the outset of the unit onNovember 29, 2007, in a private setting next to the computer lab, where the rest of the classwas working on assignments. There were no names on the recordings so confidentiality wasassured. The recordings were transcribed verbatim at a later date. Each transcription was thenreviewed to check for accuracy.Finally, with the use of a digital audio-recorder, I conducted an interview with theclassroom teacher near the end of the unit on February 27, 2008. I interviewed the teacherduring the lunch hour in a room that was part of the library. During the interview process Ialso took notes as the participant teacher responded to my questions. The interview gave methe opportunity to ask questions about his perceptions and viewpoints of the Social Studiesunit. The interview consisted of a number of questions with the opportunity for open-endeddiscussion. The audio-recording was transcribed at a later date.-36-3.4.4 Classroom ArtifactsClassroom artifacts also provided valuable and authentic data for the study-"writtenand visual sources of data that contribute to our understanding of what is happening inclassrooms and schools" (Gay et al., p.423). Throughout the study relevant artifacts werecollected these included: the unit outline, modes of representation planning sheet,worksheets, photo of a map, class posters and We Know/ We Wonder/ We Learned charts.The artifacts chosen all contributed insights to the understanding of the study.3.4.5 SurveyOn my last visit to the class a survey was distributed (see Appendix G). This surveywas intended to provide some additional data, as some of the parents of participating studentshad requested that their child not be audio-recorded. The survey gave the students theopportunity to reflect on the unit of study and their perception of what they had learned fromthe unit. Further, the students were asked to indicate what the teacher did that was mosthelpful for their learning. On the back of the survey the students were asked to draw a pictureof the lessons that they enjoyed the most in the unit. Only participant student surveys wereused for the data. The classroom teacher also used the results of the survey to reflect on thestudents' perceptions of the Social Studies unit and his role as their teacher.3.5 Data AnalysisData analysis, as is common in qualitative research, began at the start of the study andcontinued concurrently and following the data collection. The data from the field notes of thetwo planning sessions were reviewed and re-written following collaborative meetings.Planning notes, unit plans, and student handouts also constituted part of the data and werereviewed an updated throughout the unit. The teacher had the opportunity to add any-37-comments or suggestions throughout the three-month period of the study. As previouslystated, following each classroom visit, field notes from the observations were analyzed andreflected upon. In addition, student work samples were collected, sorted and collated andinterview data was analyzed iteratively to establish emerging themes.3.5.1 Use of Computer Software: Atlas tiThe data analysis and management of the data for the curriculum as lived componentof this study was supported by the use of qualitative data analysis software called Atlas ti.Making sense of the data through the use of computer software hastened the process ofcoding and retrieving the narrative text (classroom observations and interview data) of thestudy. For example, the computer software, instead of cutting and pasting by hand, allowedme to store text, codes, quotes and memos that I could then access as I went through theanalysis. First my observational notes, audio-recorded interview transcripts and surveyentries were entered into the software program. Then, I recursively went over the data toidentify patterns and organize themes. After the initial coding process, each of the narrativetexts was re-read and the coding was updated. I then refined and expanded my codes, throughthe query tool, to combine codes and also put codes into code families. To aid in the analysisof the coding system, I defined each of the codes as used in this study (see Appendix F). Theuse of the computer program facilitated the data analysis process by providing a morecomprehensive and systematic way to explore the data. In the data analysis process I foundthat my classroom observations were the richest source of inquiry.3.6 Trustworthiness of the StudyGay et al. (2006) suggest "qualitative researchers can establish the trustworthiness oftheir research by addressing credibility, transferability, and dependability" (p. 403),- 38 -First, in this present study several techniques were used to address the criteria ofcredibility. Palys (2003) suggests "validity requires intimacy" (p. 11) and valid data willcome from the relationship built up over time with close and extended contact in theclassroom setting with the participant teacher and students. Regular and repeated visits, usingsome ethnographic techniques, over a three-month period helped to ensure accuracy ofrecording participants' perspectives at the research site. In addition, throughout the studymaintaining meticulously clear and precise accounts of the context being observed supportedcredibility and trustworthiness in my relationship with participants. Throughout the research Idebriefed with the participant teacher, my husband, and my faculty advisor to assist in myreflection of the research process.Another technique to ensure credibility and reliability was a case study, multiplemethods approach using "triangulation" (Gay et al., 2006, p. 405). Many kinds of data werecollected, for example, field notes, interviews, student work samples and surveys tocontribute to more holistic understanding of the phenomenon being studied.Second, Gay et al. (2006) refer to Guba's definition of transferability as the"researcher's belief that everything is context bound" (p. 405). In this study, rich and detailedimages of the context of the classroom setting were described. Attention was paid to thedesign of the class, the seating arrangements of the students and events as they took place.Third, dependability was assured as I kept an organized and accessible "audit trail"throughout the study (Gay et al., 2006, p. 405). As mentioned previously, the participantteacher was able to review and comment on the data collected during and after the study.Additionally, I reviewed the data with another researcher and debriefed with my advisorthroughout the study.-39-Classroom ObservationsNovember 27 December 14Classroom ObservationsJanuary 15 March 7TERM 1November (2007)Unit PlanningSession 1Unit PlanningSession 2^E> December (2007)Collection of Work SamplesSemi-formalStudentInterviewsAudio-recordingWinter Break (December 21, 2007 — January 7, 2008)TERM 2January (2008) March (2008)Collection of Work SamplesSemi-formalTeacherInterviewAudio-recordingParticipant StudentSurveyCollection of TeacherResponse LogFigure 3.1: Timeline for Data Collection-40-CHAPTER 4FINDINGSThis chapter presents a summary of the findings of the key themes that emerged fromthis study. The findings are based on the qualitative analysis of data collected through: fieldnotes, audio-recorded interviews of students, an audio-recorded interview with the classroomteacher, student work samples, a student survey, a teacher response log, and classroomartifacts. The research question central to the study is- How does an elementary teacher, in amultilingual, mainstream classroom setting, bridge young learners' access to the academiccontent of the Grade 5/6 Social Studies curriculum? I systematized the data around myguiding questions in order to explore how the Social Studies unit was enacted in amainstream setting. The guiding questions posed for the study to support my inquiry were:1. How does the teacher facilitate learners' access to prior knowledge andsimultaneously draw upon participants' social and cultural identities in the unit ofwork as designed and enacted?2. How does a grade 5/6 Social Studies unit, with instructional approaches designed toafford second language learners' access to multiple modes of representation, manifestitself in a multilingual classroom.3. How does the teacher create conditions in the learning environment to facilitatelearners engagement in making intertextual connections to the academic content of aGrade5/6 Social Studies unit?I collected the data during two, one hour, after school planning sessions with theclassroom teacher plus ongoing correspondence by telephone and emails over a period ofthree months. In addition, as a participant observer in an elementary Grade 5/6 classroom-41 -setting, during 17 Social Studies lessons taught over a three-month period. The lessonsobserved were a Grade Five/Six unit: Immigration In Canada and were designed by theparticipant teacher in consultation with the researcher. Following Aoki's (1993) notion ofcurriculum as planned and curriculum as lived, I begin with an account, drawn from the dataof the unit planning process and then provide an examination of the lessons as they wereenacted in the classroom in order to explore how the learners accessed the content of theSocial Studies unit.4.1 Curriculum as PlannedIn this section, I describe the findings of two, one hour, after school planning sessionsthat focused on designing the Social Studies unit. The findings also acknowledge teachermade planning materials that were refined subsequent to our meetings, as we stayed incontact by telephone and by email. The findings are based on field notes, as well as materials(e.g. unit planners) that were created as an outcome of the planning process. In Chapter 3, Ibriefly described the planning of the unit, however, I felt the planning of the unit needed anexpanded accounting because one of the guiding research questions includes the designingphase of the Social Studies unit, this section reports on the outcomes of the curriculumplanning process. My research did not encompass the assessment of the students, so this isnot discussed in the findings. The unit was planned to draw on the everyday, personalexperiences and cultural resources of the students and provide multiple ways for a diversegroup of students to access and demonstrate understanding of the unit. What follows is abrief synthesis of the outcome of two planning sessions, plus subsequent conversations byemail and telephone that continued over the period of the study.- 42 -We co-planned together, and I was respectful of the fact that the teacher hadownership of the class. He was the key contributor, and our planning sessions were cordialand productive. The teacher had an understanding of the content of the Social Studies' unitand we were committed to creating a unit plan that would enable diverse learners, includingthose for whom English is a second language, to engage in the curriculum. The teacher hadrecently attended a Professional Development Day on the topic of Multiple Literacies, and hewas eager to use many of the ideas in the design of the unit. Our hopes for what we wantedstudents to accomplish in the unit were not contradictory. The teacher and I decided first andforemost, that activities that built on prior knowledge and connected new information withthe students' own personal histories would make the Social Studies lessons morecomprehensible and meaningful. The teacher and I had a co-operative, collegial andsupportive relationship and we acknowledged and appreciated each of our areas of expertise.4.1.1 Connecting to the Prescribed CurriculumThis section describes the process of meeting the Ministry's requirement of meetingPLO's for the Social Studies unit of study. In both sessions, British Columbia's, Ministry ofEducation's English Language Arts and Social Studies (K-7) Integrated Resource Packages(IRP's) were used as reference tools for the planning of the unit.First, the Prescribed Learning Outcomes (PLO's) of the Ministry's Social Studiescurriculum were reviewed. The content of the Grade 5/6 unit was the history of immigrationin Canada, with a focus on immigration to British Columbia. The following two outcomeswere identified to address the goals of the Grade 5 Social Studies unit: "Assess whyimmigrants came to Canada, the individual challenges they faced and their contributions toCanada" (p. 30) and " Describe the contributions of significant individuals to the- 43 -development of Canada's identity " (B.C. Ministry of Education. Social Studies IntegratedResource Package, 2006, p. 30).Since many of the students in the class were immigrants or were children ofimmigrants, the first above- mentioned PLO's, had the potential to naturally draw on the realimmigrant experiences of students and their families. The second PLO, also addressed thecontent of the unit and afforded students a variety of choices for expression and presentation.Once the PLO's were decided, available resources that would support the learningoutcomes were discussed. The teacher indicated that there were enough copies of the coursetextbook, Connections Canada (2000) for each of the students. We thought that a few pagesin the textbook would be useful as an instructional tool, because of their direct relation to thetopic, a good readability level, bold faced text features, as well as photographs that acted asvisual supports. The teacher indicated that opportunities for paying attention to, and talkingabout text and text features were important to address when using the textbook. In addition,the teacher expressed a desire to supplement the textbook with newspaper articles on currentevents, relevant passages from books, other printed materials, posters, and videos. One of thebooks that we viewed as having potential for discussion was Tales From Gold Mountain(Yee, 1989). These materials were all useful multimodal instructional materials that could beused as pedagogical resources to draw on the social and cultural identities of the students.These materials were already available, engaging for students and well matched to thecurricular expectations of the unit.In addition to examining the Social Studies PLO's, attention was paid to the EnglishLanguage Arts curriculum guide to find PLO's that would support not only the Social Studiesunit, but also more directly contribute to the learning of language. In other words the learning- 44 -of content and language would create "a symbiotic relationship; that is, the learning ofcontent contributes to the learning of language and a mastery of language gives learnerseasier access to content" Stoller (2008) p. 59. We discussed that in Language Arts IRP thedefinition of text included all forms of language: oral, written, visual and electronic and thatstudents should also be aware of the definition. During the process, the participant teachersurprisingly, could quote many of the Language Arts PLO's. He stated he could do thisbecause he had "been writing report cards and commenting on student learning outcomes".After some discussion, the following Language Arts' PLO's were decided upon:1. "Use speaking and listening to interact with others"(p. 309).2. "Select and use strategies before reading and viewing to develop understanding oftext" (p. 320).3. "Create meaningful, visual representations that communicate personal response,information and ideas relevant to the topic" (p. 329).4. "Use writing and responding to express personal responses and relevant opinionsabout experiences and texts" (p. 333).5. "Write a variety of clear, focused informational writing for a range of purposes andaudiences" (p. 327).At this phase of the planning the teacher knew the PLO's needed to address the unitobjectives and the resources available. The findings indicate that during the planning process,the mandated Ministry guides could be used as reference tools in clarifying outcomes at thebeginning of the design process.-45-Unit PlannerKey UnderstandingsClass- Big Question- September — June ongoing — Why Are We Here?Immigration has influenced our communities past, present and future.Cultural Diversity is a fundamental characteristic of the Canadian identity.^ is an ever-changing, multicultural, multilingual community.Social Studies-Identity, Society and CultureAssess why immigrants come to Canada, the individual challenges they face, and theircontributions to CanadaDescribe the contributions of significant individuals to the development of Canada'sidentity.Language ArtsUse speaking and listening to interact with and inform othersSelect and use strategies before reading and viewing to develop understanding of textCreate meaningful visual representation that communicate personal response, informationand ideas relevant to the topicUses writing and responding to express personal responses and relevant opinions aboutexperiences and textWrite a variety of clear, focused informational writing for a range of purposes andaudiencesKey QuestionsWhat is multiculturalism?How does language affect our relationships?How can we welcome newcomers to our community?What artifacts have significant meaning in the lives of students in the class?What are some immigrant experiences of students in the class?What do we know about our personal histories?Cumulative ProjectsChoose one significant individual who has contributed to Canada's identity. Use varietyof sources such as informational texts, photographs, oral histories, artifacts, web searchesand historical documents to find out information. Demonstrate your understandingthrough a written report or a poster. Information will be shared during an oralpresentation.Make a collage that represents the diversity in ^. The collage should include bothvisual and written text. Each student will contribute to the final product. First languagecan be used to represent meanings as needed.Figure 4.1: Unit Planner-46-4.1.2 Extending the DesignThe concept of immigration is very general and the teacher, as stated in the responselog, wanted to explore ways to make the concept "more personalized and concrete in their(students) minds". Simultaneously because of the diversity within the class, the teacherneeded to create lessons that were linguistically appropriate yet cognitively challenging. Thissection describes how the teacher designed the unit plan to capitalize on the familiar culturalexperiences of the students in order to link the academic demands of the Social Studies unit.The teacher used a unit planner template from the Multiple Literacies handout as areference tool. It was decided that the templates of the Unit Planner, the Multiple Ways ofDemonstrating Understanding and the Rubric would be adapted to meet the needs of theSocial Studies unit (see Figure 4.1, Table 4.1 and Table 4.2). The unit planner included theabove-mentioned PLO's but also "key understandings" core content statements, which, bythe end of the unit, students would be expected to understand (see Figure 4.1). Theunderstandings connected students not only to a general understanding of immigration, butalso to the reality of the context of the community in which the students lived. The teacherplanned on students gaining an understanding of the experiences and influences ofimmigrants, by connecting to and drawing on the background knowledge of students andtheir families within the local context of the class and the community. We also identified keyterms that were essential to the students understanding of the unit. The key vocabulary termsof "immigration", "multiculturalism", "multilingualism", "artifact", "diversity" would beexplicitly taught and also displayed visually in the classroom.The teacher included that the class' big question (inquiry question) "Why are we herein the unit plan. The big question, according to the teacher, had acted as a reference point for-47-class discussion since September. The inquiry question- Why are we here?- had beenintroduced in September. As students gained new knowledge the class would revisit thequestion. He indicated the immigration unit, "Could potentially act as a catalyst to supportthe students' inquiry into the big question". Later, in an interview, he discussed the idea ofthe "bigger question":the power of uh the multiple literacies. Being able to ah combine subject areas in to abigger picture. You know that's really neat. uh Some of the Social Studies conceptsare meaningful to the boys and girls, and uh being able to relate uh relate a subjectarea- to a bigger concept always makes something more meaningful. It certainly hasin this case, the uh immigration unit and thoughts related to our bigger question- Whyare we here? (February 27, 2008)The unit was designed with instructional approaches to afford learners access tomultiple modes of representation. Once again, we used the template from the MultipleLiteracies handout that was provided at the professional development session to planactivities that took into account multiple ways of accessing and demonstrating understanding(see Figure 4.2). Some of the planned learning activities included exploring the students', theteacher's and the participant researcher's: country of origin, language(s) spoken in the home,and history of their names. The teacher indicated that collaborative learning opportunities,"especially for our ESL learners" were important instructional components. When planningactivities, partner and TRIAD groupings were incorporated into much of the multimodaldesign. For example, students, through a process of active inquiry, would act as historians, toshare and question their personal artifacts, and explain through a variety of modes, how theartifact had significance in theirs and others lives. In summary, the intent was that theplanned activities of the unit would touch a chord, a personal connection, to the curriculum,within each student.-48-Multiple V 'ays of Demonstrating UnderstandingOPPORTUNITIES TO SPEAK & LISTEN1. Classroom group discussion while at desks- first language, name, artifacts, keyvocabulary2. Partner talk- Think Pair Share- discussion of names, challenges for newcomers3. TRIAD groupings — discussion about name, text, artifacts, challenges for immigrants4. Expert presentations- museum and teachers re- artifacts5.^Talking heads- sharing in TRIAD group- building the railway, challenges fornewcomersOPPORTUNITIES TO READ & VIEW1. Listening/visual to co-read aloud by teachers from Paul Yee's Tales from GoldMountain2. Textbook discussion/ photo Connections - Immigration-The Pacific Rim (pp. 41,42)3. Reading/ photo from Paul Yee's Struggle and Hope -Building The Railway (pp.16and 17)4. Websites/books/Newspapers/Magazines- name, cultural background, famousCanadian5.^Visuals — We know / We wonder / We learned chart, Country of origin map, firstlanguage bar graphOPPORTUNITIES TO WRITE & RESPOND1. Write/computer -a personal response about their name- To Say The Name Is ToBegin The Story2. Bring and write a paragraph about an everyday artifact- Compare and contrastartifacts3. Investigate text features and respond to information with key ideas and questions(e.g.Early immigration, reasons for immigration)4. Group collage- representing cultural diversity in Richmond/ own culturalbackground/first language5.^Informational report- significant Canadian of choice-written and oral report, poster,using visual and written informationTable 4.1: Multiple Ways of Demonstrating Understanding-48-Recognizing that students come to the learning environment with varying levels ofunderstanding, we co-constructed a rubric to give the teacher a reference tool when planningfor differentiating instruction. For example, a student who had reached a higher level ofproficiency, would be able to analyze reasons for immigration and the impact on the culturaldiversity of the community while another, less proficient student would be able to explainthat immigration has had an impact in his or her community (see Table 4.2). Our hope wasthat students would have the opportunity to question, interpret and analyze the everydayrealities immigrants face, and that all students would transcend their basic understanding ofthe concepts to reflect on, extend or broaden their thinking. For example, to compare andcontrast social justice issues related to immigration in the community past, present andfuture. With this in mind, the rubric was designed as a reference tool, for the teacher toconceptualize the varying levels of diversity within the class (see Table 4.2).Recognizes thatimmigration hasinfluenced theCanadian identityAssesses reasonswhy immigrationhas influencedthe CanadianidentityCommunicatesideas on topic andtakes turns inpartner, groupactivityCommunicatesusing supportingevidence andreflects onopinions of othersin groupWriting consistsof connectedideas with limiteddetailWriting is easy tofollow, withrelevant,descriptiveinformation andspecific examplesSubjects^Not Yet MeetingExpectationsMeetingExpectationsFully MeetingExpectationsExceedingExpectationsLanguageArtsUnderstands that is part ofCanadaUnderstands thatmany immigrantscome to CanadaCommunicatesideas and takesturns in partner,group activitywith teacherpromptingWriting is looselyconnected, briefand hard tofollowCompares andcontrasts thereasons forimmigration,challenges facedpast, present andfutureArgues reasonsfor immigration,challenges andhow this hasinfluencedCanadian identityCommunicatesusing strategies toinform, persuade,clarify, andcollaborate ingroup activityWriting is clear,varied andprecise withspecific examplesto support pointof viewExplains thatimmigration hashad an impact onthe culturaldiversity ofAnalyses reasonsfor immigrationand the impact onthe culturaldiversity ofSocialStudiesTable 4.2: RubricThe findings show that the teacher was able to plan a unit that he felt addressed themandated objectives of the curriculum, expanded the outcomes to a more personal andresponsive pedagogy, and provided many pathways to gaining and demonstratingunderstandings of the concepts of the Social Studies unit.4.2 Curriculum as ExperiencedThis section discusses the culture of the classroom. The first part will give an outlineof the culture of the classroom to give the reader a context into which they can situate thefindings. The findings are organized around the following themes that emerged from theanalysis of the curriculum as lived experiences: affirming student social and culturalidentities, multiple literacy practices and constructing conditions in the learning environment.The findings of this section are based on data gained during class activities and field notes.As mentioned in Chapter 3, the research was situated in a Grade Five/Six multilingual,elementary classroom having 29 students. Throughout my observations, I noted that therewas a very positive and welcoming environment during the course of my classroom visits.Often when I arrived in the classroom, it was the latter part of a Math lesson, and studentswould be working collaboratively on assigned tasks in small groupings at their desks or onthe floor. Generally there appeared to be lively, focused engagement of students and teacher.The teacher and the students always greeted me in a warm, cordial and respectful manner.Early in the study I asked the students to indicate their country of origin on a map(see Figure 4.11) and indicate on a bar graph, their first language. The students came from arange of cultural and linguistic backgrounds. The students were all in Grade Five or Six andtheir ages ranged from 10-12. Of the19 students who participated in the study all 4 studentsin Grade Six were female and the Grade Five participants were 6 females and 9 males. All- 51 -the students in the study lived in the catchment boundaries of the school. Of the participatingstudents, eleven of them were born in Canada, and of these, six were born in the schooldistrict. Six students had immigrated from East Asian counties, one came from EasternEurope and another came from the United States. When asked the first language spoken inthe home, a majority of the students indicated a language other than English. Chinese was themost predominant, as seven students indicated that they spoke Cantonese as their firstlanguage, and four students indicated that they spoke Mandarin as a first language. Theadditional languages other than English were: Albanian (1), Tagalog (1), and Vietnamese (1).The remaining five students indicated that English was the first language spoken at home(see Table 4.3). Of the eleven students who indicated that they were born in Canada, onlyone indicated that English was their first language. One child was not present during thehome language activity. An important consideration, is that most of the students in this study,speak another, or an additional language to English, at home and are learning throughEnglish instruction at school.Name Where were youborn?Language(s)spoken at homeLanguage(s)I can readLanguage(s)I can write1 B.C. Canada Cantonese English / Chinese Chinese /English2 B.C. Canada Cantonese, English,German, MandarinEnglish, Chinese, alittle GermanEnglish, Chinese,a little German3 B.C. Canada Cantonese, a littleEnglisha little Cantonese,EnglishEnglish, a littleCantonese4 Canada English, Mandarin Mandarin, English Mandarin,English5 Albania Albanian, English English English6 Taipei, Taiwan Mandarin, English,TaiwaneseEnglish, Mandarin English,Mandarin7 B.C. Canada Tagalog, English English, someTagalogEnglish8 Hong Kong English, Cantonese, alittle JapaneseEnglish English, Chinese9 Singapore English, a littleMandarin, French,JapaneseEnglish, a littleMandarin, French,JapaneseEnglish, a littleMandarin, French,Japanese10 Hong Kong English, Cantonese,French, MandarinEnglish, French,ChineseEnglish, French,Chinese11 Canada Mandarin, English English, a littleChineseEnglish, a littleChinese12 Washington, USA Mandarin, English Mandarin, English Mandarin,English13 Guang, Zhau,ChinaMandarin, Cantonese English, Chinese,Japanese, French,SpanishEnglish14 B.C. Canada Japanese, English,TagalogEnglish Japanese, English15 Hong Kong English Chinese, English Chinese, English16 Canada English English English17 B.C. Canada Vietnamese, English English, Vietnamese English,Vietnamese18 B.C. Canada Cantonese, English Cantonese, English Cantonese,EnglishTable 4.3: Participant Student Home Languages- 53 -The teacher, Mr. McKay described his class by stating " This is not a very ESLclass". What he meant, by this, was that the class had very few Ministry designated, Englishas a Second Language students. In fact, of the nineteen participating students three wereMinistry designated students receiving additional support. As is indicated by the above-mentioned data, the majority of students were English language learners. When the studentswere surveyed, as to their perception of their level of English language proficiency, tenstudents indicated that they were at an intermediate level. On another occasion when I askedthe students, what languages they could read and write, students indicated a number oflanguages. This data demonstrated that the class was very heterogeneous and that most of thestudents viewed themselves as bilingual or multilingual both inside and outside of school.The classroom was a portable classroom that was not attached to the rest of theschool. The design of Mr. McKay's classroom was welcoming, functional and orderly. Thephysical layout of the classroom was very conducive to supporting a positive learningenvironment (see Figure 4.2).D 0000DD DOOC)D D 000DD00001TeachersDemLIT Vc4a1A.PA Systembackpacks / shelfgIsmisxmv,„ruptwAtctcp,atar backpacks / shelfFigure 4.2: Heterogeneous Seating Arrangement — Grade 5/6- 55 -Throughout my observations, Mr. McKay changed the group seating arrangement anumber of times. The cloakroom had a place for coats and lunches and there was also a shelfthat the students could access with many different kinds of games. The classroom had atelevision, a DVD recorder, an overhead, a screen, a whiteboard, a blackboard and a largemap of the world. The teacher's desk was situated unobtrusively near a wall as you enteredthe classroom. A stool was at the centre of the room and the teacher often sat there duringclass discussions. On the walls were posters that stated Attitude is everything, have thecourage to be yourself, fill your brains with reading power. There were also designated binswhere students could hand in work. Bulletin boards were covered with student work. Therewas also a Celebration chart that the teacher used when the whole class was working welland supporting each other in the understanding of a particular lesson.The students' timetables indicated a full schedule academically and socially. Therewere many required subject classes throughout the day (e.g. Math, Science) and voluntaryactivities available at lunch and/or after school. Each day the students, under the supervisionof their teacher, filled out their agendas and made note of, for themselves and their parents,homework expectations, and upcoming events such as parent teacher conferences.Most of the instruction took place in the classroom setting. The students also hadscheduled periods in the computer lab and in the gym. According to the teacher, additionallanguage support was provided either in the ESL specialist's classroom or in the classroomcontext. The classroom teacher and the ESL specialist teacher would regularly meet, todecide the best approach for support, given time and scheduling constraints.As mentioned previously, the teacher has had many years of teaching experience andis at the latter part of his teaching career. He resided in a local community near the school-56-district. The teacher was born in Vancouver and spoke English and some French. Based onmy observations, he seemed to really know his students and was aware of their varyingstrengths and needs. When I asked the teacher how he made the classroom a welcomingplace for students and what he felt was important in designing and delivering curriculum, hestated, "The overriding factor is learning community-learning together". What we can seefrom this short, but powerful excerpt, is that the teacher forefronts the role of relationship inthe learning environment. Throughout my observations, the teacher continually invested inthe understanding of community and in the value of the cooperative group process within theclassroom.The teacher often mentioned that he was very busy with many responsibilities, suchas refereeing for sports activities, supervising lunch hour activities, writing report cards,preparing for conferences, and meetings with colleagues. In most instances, my classroomobservations were the period before lunch, and at the end of the period Mr. McKay often hadto rush off. A typical comment as noted in my field notes was, "Gotta go and ref a basketballgame". In the classroom context, however, the teacher was very calm and unrushed with hisstudents. In fact, in my data on a number of occasions, I indicated that the teacher did notrush the lesson and was very calm with the students.In this section, I have briefly described some of the aspects of this classroom'scontext that contributed to the culture of the classroom as described in field notes, surveyquestions, and classroom activities. Both the students and the teacher have multiple andchanging demands throughout their school day. From my observations, the classroom contextwas very conducive to supporting student learning and engagement during the Social Studieslessons in this complex and dynamic classroom environment.-57-4.3 Affirming Social and Cultural IdentityIn general, there was a successful connection between the curriculum planned and thecurriculum lived. As previously mentioned, the unit was planned to connect and draw uponstudents' social and cultural identities in a number of ways. This approach undeniablysupported links to the content of the immigration unit. Lessons were planned for the studentsto inquire and share information about their country of origin and first language, the historyof their name, a significant everyday cultural artifact in their home and family immigrationexperiences. From the data, I will describe two of the activities that aided to theunderstanding of the content of the Social Studies unit: the Artifact lessons and the Why arewe here- in Canada lessons. From the data I have included both students and teacher's quotesto demonstrate how they invested in the lessons. The data demonstrated that by drawing onsocial and cultural identity as a pedagogical tool, the students had a reason or an investmentto participate and engage in the learning. Analysis of this data also shows how therelationship, the emotional content of the interactions between students and students andteacher, in this classroom, forefronts the successful delivery of curriculum.4.3.1 Artifact LessonsThe unit was planned with activities that enabled the learners to connect to their ownhistories and also to better understand and acknowledge each member of the classroom'shistories collectively. In this section, I examine data collected during lessons that focused onthe concept of an artifact. These lessons enabled students to simultaneously learn the contentof the curriculum, focus on language and affirm their social identity. I present shortdescriptions of life in the classroom, focused on the cultural value of an artifact. From my-58-observations, many things happened simultaneously, that contributed to the success of theselessons.To begin the process of inquiry into the question, what are some artifacts that havesignificance in the lives of students in the class, the teacher had invited the curator of thelocal museum to be a guest speaker. The curator, as requested, brought in some of themuseum's everyday, cultural artifacts to show the class. The following excerpt from fieldnotes demonstrates some of the characteristics that made the lesson successful.(C= curator from museum, S. student, T.teacher)C:^Do you know what an artifact is?S :^Something someone used long ago.C:^Do you think your desk is an artifact?S: Yes ...We can learn about the past.C:^Right, history, culture, past- helps us to understand the present....C:^Everybody's object can give us a wealth of information.....Has your chairever been repaired? (Students got out of their seat to have a look)C:^^We found out a lot about our school culture, materials.... Artifacts help usto see similarities and differences in cultures.T: Remember all those things for active listening.T:^later prompt "Thanks for putting hand up" (more students then put handup)C:^I would like you guys to become curators.T:^(quietly) Boys and girls-get into your groups of three.The students went ahead and got into their groups without incident. Themuseum curator handed out artifacts and an artifact analysis sheet to eachgroup of 3. On a chart the teacher printed words 'artifact', 'culture', 'curator').(November 28, 2007)This excerpt shows that first, the visiting curator clearly and explicitly emphasizedkey vocabulary and simultaneously important concepts in the lesson. For example, thevocabulary consists of fairly sophisticated words (for example, "artifact", "culture" and"curators"), but in this case, the words were contextualized for the students. In addition, theteacher also visually displayed the words on a chart for student reference. Second, the-59-students were able to actively engage in the role of being a curator. The curator broughtgloves for the students so that they could touch and handle the artifacts. Third, throughout thelesson, the classroom teacher strategically monitored the students' participation andprompted students, as he deemed necessary. For example, the teacher's "active listening"prompt, reminded students that they were not passive listeners and that instead they neededto regulate their own learning and be ready to contribute. Also, the teacher, when directingthe students to assemble into their groups of three, used clear and direct speech that would beeasily understood.Later in the lesson, one student was able to express his identity through the use of hisfirst language. The curator held up a small jar with Chinese writing. The student statedproudly "I can read Chinese! " (see Figure 4.3). The curator and the student then togetherexplained the significance of the jar, the student interpreted the Chinese text written on thejar and the curator described its use. The student appeared to engage, invest and contribute inthe lesson because his first language was respected and valued. His cultural and linguisticbackground was recognized and affirmed.Figure 4.3: Chinese JarDuring this lesson the teacher, Mr. McKay demonstrated a close relationship with thestudents in a number of ways. In the latter part of this lesson, for example, the students gotinto their groups, the teacher chose to sit on the carpet and work with a group of students. Hequietly, handled and discussed the artifacts and worked with the group to collectively answerthe questions on the worksheet. During this task, one of the students stood up and droppedthe artifact he was holding. At that moment in time, it seemed as if the whole class gaspedand turned to stare at the student. Without missing a beat, the teacher quietly said "It's O.K."and the tension in the air immediately subsided as the groups carried on with their tasks.In a follow-up lesson, students were invited to bring in their own everyday artifact foran artifact party. Basically, the teacher asked all students to bring an object from their homethat was symbolic of the child's heritage and that was not valuable in a monetary way. Someof the artifacts the children brought included: a crab ornament, a paper doll, a coal oil lamp, aphoto, a book, a sweater, and a jade bracelet. Many of the artifacts were passed on fromgrandparents and great grandparents and originated from all parts of the world (e.g. China,Vietnam, Yugoslavia, Philippines, Canada). Mr. McKay acknowledged each artifact, holdingit up and stating something descriptive such as "that's special, it has cultural and personalsignificance." As the teacher walked from desk to desk, and discussed each of the students'artifacts he also provided opportunities for students to share opinions and ask questions. Onestudent showed a lantern that she said her Dad had made in the Philippines (see figure 4.4).Figure 4.4: Philippine Lantern ArtifactOne student confidently told the story how her mother had lost a cross and manyyears later her mother had gratefully found it. Inside this pouch is her mother's cross (seeFigure 4.5).Figure 4.5: Pouch with Cross ArtifactThe following is a reflective note that I wrote following my visit to the classroom.Mr. McKay took time with each student and was not at all rushed in his approach.The students all seemed to appreciate their classmates' contributions and thediscussion was respectful and enlightening. Many of the artifacts hadintergenerational significance and had been important in the lives of the students'ancestors and then had been passed on to their parents.The teacher planned this lesson so that they would gain knowledge from each other.The lesson did not focus on the individual but on the shared knowledge of the group.Through this process the teacher sent the message, that who they were, their social andcultural identity, was important. Further, the teacher, through the lesson gained a greaterunderstanding of his students', individual and collective personal lives.One problem that arose during this artifact lesson was that two students, who wereEnglish language learners, did not bring artifacts. Once this was recognized, the teacher satwith the two students, and discussed examples of artifacts in the home. In the end, thestudents agreed that one would bring a photo and the other would bring a favourite sweater- 63 -that was made by the child's grandmother. In his response log the teacher made the followingcomment, "There were a couple of ESL students who had not brought an artifact yet. Isuggested that even a picture of something would have meaning". On my next visit to theclass both students had brought in their artifact to show the class.The artifacts all had historical significance in the student's lives. For example, onenewcomer ESL student brought as his artifact, a picture of his previous home, taken in hisfamily's war torn homeland. This provided a concrete and compelling description of why thestudent's family would have chosen to immigrate to Canada. Mr. McKay made a point ofstating that the photo had "incredible significance". The students clapped after this student'spresentation. In the response log the teacher shared his emotional connection to the child'spresentation:When one of my ESL students got up and briefly shared a picture of where he used tolive in Albania, before they had to flee the war. His talk was short but when hefinished the class gave him spontaneous applause that brought tears to my eyes. Don'ttry to tell me this isn't a powerful theme unit!Later the same student wrote a short narrative uncovering his past experience. This studentwas a victim of war and had immigrated to his new country, Canada. Many of his artifactswere lost in his move to his new country. Bringing his photograph uncovered his pastexperience and gave him a way to share his identity and explain his choice of an artifact, in away that otherwise he may have been hesitant to express.I brought the picture because my cousin took a picture of are houses a couple ofmonths before the war started with Ygoslavia. We left after a couple months duringthe war. I was a baby when the war started and I stayed in the war about 5 monthswith my family.Alan, Age 10.- 64 -Interestingly, a number of the students' writing indicated that there was anintergenerational value to artifacts. Here is one example:This is my craft from China. My Grandmother brought it 30 years ago and brang ithere because it had maple leafs on it. So it's like Canada with maple leafs. Also it wasvery cheap in those days if the middle was sewn by hand. Now my grandmother gaveit to my mom so my grandmother passed it on. I wish my mom would pass it on tome.Rowena, Grade 6One student when showing his tiger tooth in class stated "It's from my greatgrandparents in the 1800's" Later in a written reflection the student expressed his identitythrough language as he explained his artifact (see Figure 4.6):,sFigure 4.6: Tiger Tooth ArtifactI'm going to tell you all I know about tiger tooth. The tiger tooth is from Tai Wan. Itwas from 100 years ago. Now 2 days you can't find it because it can't hunt for tigers!They can only be found in Tai Wan. This artifact is passed on from my grandfather. Itdoesn't cost that much but it means a lot to me. Well that's all I know about myartifact.Robert Age 10At the culmination of the unit, the same student reported that the artifact presentation was hismost meaningful part of the unit. Below is the student's writing entry approximately two- 65 -months later. The student expresses simply, his enjoyment of the lesson but also hisenjoyment of the collective group process of learning about "each others artifact".I think my favourite part for the whole social study unit would be the part where westudies each other's artifact. It was fun learning about my artifact. The social studiesunit surely encouraged me on working even harder.The student is writing text about his artifact, but also important, is that the text itself, thestudent's writing, can also be considered an artifact. As Rowsell and Pahl (2007) suggest"individuals embed fundamental aspects of their identities in texts" p. 396.Through the texts written about the artifacts students were able to express theirhistory through the artifact and both students and the teacher were able to find outinformation about the student's family not previously known, In refernce to Figure 4.7 andFigure 4.8 both artifacts have significant meaning in the student's lives. As Dana, a studentfrom the Philippines explains:Figure 4.7: Statue of a Carving Artifact- 66 -The Jesus statue is from the Philippines. It was carved in prison in jail. What they dois the prisoners carve stuff like Jessus statues, decorations ect. Then people sell thestuff that the prisoners make in the street. So what happened was my dad saw it andbrought it for my 2 big sisters when they were still like about my age. But they leftthe statue in the Philippines when they came here to Canada. Then when my Dadwent back to the Philippines for a special occasion, he decided to take the statue backwith him to Canada. So he asked my aunt Janice, who kept the statue for us if hecould take it back to Canada with him and she said yes. So the statue immigrated!The perfect thing to bring for the artifact day because of our unit on Social Studies.Dana Grade 5In the following text a student, Victoria a student whose first language isCantonese explains the importance of a set of Crystal objects:fr( ^ A r]e-I 9-/^(ire,ry-, Goke^Ict:-:;^clys../(11'2, 71164^rkreC)4 (Y ,h 0- Stol) 11'1^10110,j(xn4 cith ,H-H-Ter al4 -tilein -0 /77e^nt^Ri--(hc{qe^even 411 e^-OietrA5fri S'ince nekl /1 C^11C4-101 cha-f,^ seg,(e kit^lfro ,^od waT^u 'N),ei-non^4,0k 4w,Figure 4.8: Sample of Writing About ArtifactsArtifacts are powerful and filled with identity. At the end of the Social Studies unit,the students were asked to draw a picture of their most meaningful activity during the unit.Many student participants expressed, through drawings, that either the museum curatorbringing in the artifacts to observe and touch or the artifact lesson where students brought intheir own artifacts, was a preferred activity of the unit (see Figure 4.9). As shown by thedata, the artifact unit connected the students to their personal histories, raised cross-culturalawareness within the group and sparked conversations about immigration experiences ofstudents' families in the class.4.3.2 Why are We Here in Canada? LessonsThe teacher when delivering the lessons, often used the connection of his ownfamily's history, by the way he spoke to the student's through teacher talk, to engage thestudents. The concept of immigration as the teacher stated is very general and the teacherwanted to make it more "personalized" and "concrete". (In this study, I use teacher talk torefer to the manner in which the teacher verbally discussed ideas with the class.)"Why are we here in Canada?" The teacher referred (pointed) to the We Know chart"What do we know about immigration?" The teacher wrote on the chart thecomments made by the students. ..... The teacher engaged in a conversation about hisown history- his grandparents coming from Ireland. He explained that because of thepotato famine his grandparents were starving in Ireland. Mr. McKay also discussedhis wife's grandparents who had emigrated from the Ukraine to our city. Throughoutthe discussion a large map was on display.November 27, 2007In this excerpt, the teacher is using his parents history and his wife's family history to showthe students on a personal level, how immigration has affected both his and his wife's family.Once he fore-grounded the students with a personal connection, he then addressed thequestion, 'What is immigration?' This concept was challenging for the students in manyways. The following excerpt from my field notes demonstrates how the teacher rephrasedand prompted to support the student understanding of what immigration is and the reasonspeople immigrate while using a We Know chart as a reference. (T= teacher S= student)T: What do we know about immigration?S: Moving to somewhere far awayT: For example moving to White Rock or Vancouver?S: Moving to another country(The teacher put on chart)S: Parents move-68-T: Sometimes parents, sometimes grandparentsS: Sometimes part of a family movesT: Sometimes part of the family has moved. Sometimes part of the family stays back.(Teacher recorded on chart)T: Who, what, where, when....S: Something forces them to move(Teacher recorded on chart)S: Sometimes people immigrate to be with the rest of the familyThe teacher in his response log stated, " It took more prompting to get ideas when we had aclass-wide discussion about what we know about immigration- a general rather than apersonal topic".One week later, the teacher once again gave a personal disclosure by going beyondthe context of the classroom and demonstrated his wish to know more of the history of hisfamily. All the while, the students were involved in multimodal practices as they read thechart, listened to the teacher, and referred to the mapMr. McKay explained that artifacts and family names keep coming back to the classquestion -Why are we here?" Mr. McKay stated, "Most of us are Canadian. What is itthat makes us Canadian? Then Mr. McKay said that he had been listening to the CBCnews about the Ukrainian immigrants. Mr. McKay suggested that there are over 1million Canadians who have Ukrainian heritage. He then gave it a personal note "Iam interested in finding out more because my wife's background is Ukrainian". Mr.McKay then pointed to the map.This passage showed another example of the use of teacher talk in supportingunderstanding in connecting to social and cultural identity. I found that when grouping mycodes using Atlas ti in the social and cultural identity code family. Of 17 classroomobservations I made note that the teacher spoke directly to the class to support studentunderstanding as a component of the lesson 12 times.The data has demonstrated that within the design of this Grade 5/6 unit a commitmentto drawing on student's social and cultural identities had positive outcomes.- 69 -Through my observations the relationship of the teacher played a key role inaffirming student identity and promoting student engagement. The highest coincidencebetween codes in my data occurred between "relationship" and "investment". The studentswere more deeply invested in the lessons, because as they were constantly negotiating asense of who they are, the teacher's and the class' message was that they were valuedmembers of the group, each with a personal history that was respected. Within these lessonsdescribed the teacher continually emphasized and fore-grounded the role of relationshipbetween student and teacher and student to student as means to an effective learningenvironment.Furthermore, in coding my classroom observations, I found a high incidence of theteacher specifically nurturing the students' self image, through the manner in which he spoketo them, and drew on their personal histories and backgrounds. He invested in the value oftheir cooperative group process and understanding of community. In my research I found thatI created a specific code family that addressed social and cultural identity. These included,besides "relationship" and "investment": "teacher talk", "personal history", "artifacts", and"organization". These were the key components of affirming social and cultural identity inthe classroom. In the above-mentioned lessons the additional components of explicitattention to vocabulary, active involvement of the learner, and scaffolding priorunderstanding all contributed, simultaneously to the success of these lessons. I also foundthat these fundamental aspects of the classroom relationships were supported and enhancednot only the design and delivery of the lessons but also the layout of the classroom . Overallthis led to a successful connection between planned and lived curriculum.- 70 -I felt the drawbacks to a full realization of the planned unit were that the class periodof forty-five minutes was constraining. It often seemed that too soon, it was time to move onto another activity (e.g. computer, gym, lunch) before all that was planned was accomplished.The teacher also commented on the same dilemma " It always seemed we ran out of time andcouldn't get accomplished what we wanted to in the 45 minute block of time". One of myobservations was a one-hour time span and during that lesson I, as a participant observer, feltmore satisfied with what was accomplished.So far in this chapter I have illustrated some examples where the students wereinvested in the learning environment because social and cultural identities were affirmed.The following discussion shows how the teacher's multimodal approach contributed tostudent engagement and participation.4.4 Multiple LiteraciesIn the planning of the unit, the teacher designed multiple ways for the students toaccess and gain understanding. This approach contributed to the success of many of thelessons. I present examples from the lessons that demonstrate the teacher's use of multipleliteracies in the delivery of the Social Studies lessons. I will draw on two lessons where theuse of multiple modes including a photo and the use of a narrative story supported meaningmaking and connections to the content of the Social Studies curriculum in the classroom.4.4.1 Chinese Immigrant Photograph LessonIn this section I discuss the teacher's use of a photo in the textbook, along with otherrepresentational modes to support connections to the content of the unit. The photo in thetextbook was originally from British Columbia's archives and showed a group of Chineserailway workers who were involved in the dangerous work, of building the Trans Canada- 71 -railway. The following field notes show a number of factors happening simultaneously thatcontributed to the quality of the lesson.Mr. McKay said " I would like you to take out your Social Studies books and look atthe picture (Chinese immigrant workers) on page 43".... He wrote on the blackboardand also stated out loud what he was writing. (He had his questions prepared on asheet of paper for his reference.) "Who are they"? As the teacher wrote, he said "theyare people with a story to tell". He carried on asking questions:"Where did they come from?""Why are they all together?""How did they get there?""What are they doing?""What do they want to do?"(Students were quiet at their desks and individually looking at the picture.)He directed the students to "in your heads for a moment think about this"...."This is like reading and inferring... this is reading the picture. What are their hopesand dreams?" (December 6, 2007)In this scenario, the students were provided with a number of representational andcommunication modes interwoven in the delivery of the lesson. For example the photo, thewritten text, the text on the blackboard, Mr. McKay's gestures as he walks around the roomand Mr. McKay's teacher talk. The following excerpt shows how the lesson progressed froma lesson focused on independent learning to a collaborative grouping learning arrangement.In this situation, the students expressed their opinions with other group members andsimultaneously the group also had the support of the group to help them. This activitystimulated critical thinking skills as reflected in the field note:Mr. McKay told the students to take their textbooks and get into their TRIAD groupsand study the picture. Mr. McKay looked at the clock and said, " You don't havelong. When the big hand gets to 10. The groups had lively and robust conversation.While the students were engaged in conversation Mr. McKay said that he believed inthe "power of group work" and that group work "supercedes whether English is afirst, second, or third language". The teacher then prompted the students "Mickey'shand is on the 10. Back to your seats!" (In one minute all students were in their desks,focused on the teacher! (December 6, 2007)- 72 -This observation revealed that the photograph was successfully used as an example of a reallife event that had taken place in the past. My notes recorded the teacher's clear organization,for example: his questions were prepared in advance for reference, Social Studies books wereavailable for everyone and the pace of the lesson was monitored. In addition, the teacherscaffolded the students concept of time " You don't have long", "When the big hand gets to10" and " Mickey's hand is on the 10" and that he spoke the words as he was writing on theblackboard. In this activity, the students were using learning content and learning languageas they listened to the teacher, worked in their cooperative TRIAD groups to expresspersonal viewpoints regarding why the Chinese workers had immigrated to Canada and thechallenges these immigrants may have faced, all while using the photograph as a meaningmaking tool. The teacher reported in his response log, his pleasure at the students'participation during this lesson, "Since most of my students are Asian, the textbook photo ofthe Chinese railroad workers seemed most powerful and meaningful". Students' surveyresponses indicated an important understanding from this lesson:I learned that Chinese weren't treated fairly when they moved to Canada. Chinese hadearned less money than the English. I learned about how hard Immigration was.I learned that the Chinese had such a hard time when they first started immigrating.I have learned that it was really hard for the Chinese to come to Canada and evenwhen they came, they all had low paying jobs.I've learned that when Chinese people immigrated to Canada white people were racistto them even though the Chinese people worked hard building the railway.As mentioned in the previous section, one of the recurring constraints of many of thelessons was the lack of time to complete what was planned. My field notes document 8 of the17 lessons there was not enough time to cover all the material and that sometimes thedynamics of the lesson was interrupted because of timetable constraints. In the above-- 73 -mentioned lesson, after class discussion the teacher handed out sticky notes and studentswere instructed to individually write down two ideas and one question they had about thepicture. However, there was not enough time for the students to fill out the stickies. Theteacher instructed them to carefully put their books away in their desks for the next lesson.However according to my data, the lesson, although well intentioned, was never completed.4.4.2 Tales From Gold Mountain LessonsA recurring theme in the data was the popularity of the use of the narrative read aloudstory as a multimodal tool to strengthen student understanding. The teacher and I haddiscussed the use of story in our planning phase but did not realize it would be so popularwith the students. On most of the visits, Mr. McKay and I would finish the lesson by co-reading a reading a chapter from Paul Yee's book Tales From Gold Mountain. Showingstudents the powerful picture at the beginning of the chapter, gave the students theopportunity to predict the story structure.At the end of the book, Tales From Gold Mountain, the author Paul Yee describes thehistory behind his writing and this passage was read to the students when I first introducedthe book. The passage states:I invented the stories in this book. But they are all firmly rooted in real places andevents, in things such as the work world of the Chinese, the folk traditions theybrought from China, and the frontier society of this continent. Some of these things Irecalled from growing up in Chinatown, listening to the stories and overhearing adultconversations (Yee, 1989, p. 63)When reading the above passage, I felt, intuitively, that I struck a chord with the students.In my data, I noted that when arriving in the classroom, students would often ask if I wasgoing to read a story. Often there was only time to read half the story and it would befinished during the next classroom visit. My notes from this observation state:- 74 -I as co-participant, read to class the first half of the chapter Rider Chan and the NightRider from Tales from Gold Mountain. I showed the class the visual from the bookand asked the students to predict who some of the characters might be and what theythought the story might be about. The students then listened while I read and, in theend, left a "cliffhanger" to be continued. The students were genuinely interested inthe story and were disappointed that we had to stop for lunch. I told them we wouldfinish the story on my next visit. (January 18, 2008)The next visit some of the students asked if I would finish the story. I also found thatthey asked for the picture to support meaning. This is the entry in my observational notes onmy next visit:The participant teacher asked if I would read the rest of the story Rider Chan and theNight Rider from Tales From Gold Mountain. Before I read one of the students askedif I would show the picture at the beginning of the chapter and some other students inthe class nodded in agreement. (January 23, 2008)The data from the survey showed that 10 out of 19, of the participating students saw thisactivity as their most meaningful part of the unit. The students also appreciated that theteacher and I co-read the book together (see Figure 4.9)\o—C yewri^4:-LAT 4 _#7:icP-;11),)(105;Figure 4.9: Illustration of Teachers Co-readingBesides using the read aloud as an instructional tool, throughout the lesson the datareveals that the teacher often used the concept story to explain.The students were in their desks and looking and listening to the teacher.- 75 -The teacher stated, " Bringing back the idea of story. What do you remember aboutthe story of my family?"... Right, all four of my grandparents moved from Ireland.That was about 1910 almost 100 years ago. My wonder is how did they get here?What do you wonder? Don't answer think in your minds. Immigration- who, where,why? I want you to use your thinking. (November 28, 2007)The teacher had an everyday conversation with his students, recognizing and askingquestions about his grandparents. The teacher was expressing his identity through hisconversations with the class; through the social practice of talking the students are learningabout their teacher.Repeated classroom visits revealed that the Mr. McKay used a variety of visuals (e.g.overhead examples, vocabulary chart, posters, charts) in his instruction and also as referencetools for students when completing assignments. When coding my data my visual refers to"images that can be used and viewed to support understanding". Throughout any and everylesson the teacher used some form of visual representation to support meaning. Some of thevisuals were constant throughout the unit. For example, all students could easily view a largemap of the world where the students had using stickpins, indicated each students country oforigin (see Figure 4.10).Figure 4.10: Country of Origin MapAnother larger map of the world was often pulled down for viewing when discussing patternsof immigration. Vocabulary was also in view of the students throughout the lessons. Inaddition, charts that had been co-constructed were also on display for student reference suchas I Know, and I Wonder charts. The data strongly demonstrated in the survey that they feltpictures helped them learn. Seventeen of the nineteen students indicated that pictures helpthem to learn.Yes, because if I don't understand what the text might be talking about I can look forpictures to explain.Yes, looking at pictures can help you to understand a storyPictures are always an extra 'text feature' to help me understand more. They give mea good visual of what I am learning about.In my research using the Atlas ti program I found that I created a specific code familythat addressed multiple ways of accessing and demonstrating understanding. The codesincluded: "visuals", "computer", "story" and "text". These were key components of many of- 77 -the lessons. At the end of the unit when the teacher and I revisited all the ways we hadplanned on students demonstrating understanding we had accomplished all but the groupcollage (see Table 4.1).4.5 Creating ConditionsIn this section, I look more closely at the guiding question as to how the teacherfacilitated or created an environment that enabled students to make intertextual connectionsto the content of the unit. As mentioned previously the analysis of the data, using the Atlas ti,showed that "teacher talk", "relationship" and "investment" all played a vital role inengagement, success and social cohesion of the students. In order to understand therelationship of these factors I went back to my data. When reviewing the data the originalcode family: "relationship", "investment" and "teacher talk" was often followed"organization". The teacher's organization of the learning environment includingcollaborative groupings, contributed to student engagement.Much of the previous data has shown the strong organizational foundations within theclassrooms learning environment and this organization and was a positive factor in thedelivery of the lessons. The field notes below once again demonstrate the clear and explicitattention to organizing for learning:The teacher told the class to refer to page 54 in text. He quietly signaled to onestudent to focus. He prepared and organized them for the group activity ahead. First,he reminded the students " We are making sure that other people in the group aregetting meaning. We are thinking outside that self-thinking". Second, he remindedstudents of what they needed to take to their TRIAD groups "pencil, sheet of paperand their book". (January 15)And in a lesson two weeks later:When the teacher gave the signal to begin the activity the students stood up and knewto push chairs in, knew their group members and where to sit. The teacher did nothave to intervene- all students went to their places with the group. The students were-78-to put in a personal response (4, 3, 2 or 1) in terms of certain criteria and then have apeer write down a mark according to the criteria.(January 31).In my observations the teacher often began the lesson talking to the students.However, from my data the talk was not teacher-directed but teacher facilitated talk. Copeand Kalantzis (2000) suggest, "Overt instruction when linked to Situated Practice becomesmore like teacher scaffolding than teacher-centred transmission pedagogy" (p. 240).Interestingly, when students were surveyed as to what was the most helpful thingyour teacher does to help you learn a recurring theme is the word explains:The most helpful thing that Mr. McKay did was helping us find information to alot of things. He explains everything that me or someone else doesn't understand.The most helpful is when he explains how to do whatever task he gives you.The most helpful thing he does is show examples.He explains well and specifically.That he explains all of the assignments clear. He answers all our questionsPatiently.He explains facts in front of the whole class.The most helpful thing is that if we do not understand, He explains it every time.As we can see in the above excerpts, many students have used the word explain to describethe action on the part of the teacher that is most helpful. Examples from the data, suggest thatthe teacher-talk is not teacher to student transmission of facts, but instead, the teacherscaffolding understanding for the student.The teacher's response log indicated that "corporate" (collaborative) learningactivities "especially for ESL learners" were "worthwhile and beneficial". Of my seventeenclassroom visits twelve of the lessons involved the students working in TRIAD- 79 -(collaborative) groupings. At the culmination of the unit, participant students when asked in asurvey their preferred way to learn, thirteen of the nineteen participants indicated that theylearned best in TRIAD groupings. Previously, near the beginning of the unit, interviews ofthe six participating students when asked their preferred way to learn, four had indicatedpartner activities, one preferred group activities, and one preferred working alone.4.5.1 Significant Canadian Poster PresentationThis Significant Canadian project where students were requested to present theirinformation through an oral presentation was unquestionably linguistically difficult for manyof the students. Many of the ESL students had difficulty particularly with the vocabulary,when presenting to the class. The teacher had prompted the class "Everyone has somethingworthwhile to share. The audience has as much responsibility as the presenter... remembereveryone's supportive". Most projects were visually appealing and used a variety of modes tocommunicate ideas but when presenting the ideas in the poster to the class orally somestudents were not prepared, and in a few cases part of what they had written was too difficultto read aloud. The teacher also indicated that he thought this project was challenging. Hestates in his response log:It was interesting when students started sharing their Significant Canadian projects.While most did a great job, this kind of research project was very difficult especiallyfor the ESL students. They (ESL students) did complete some research but some wasplagiarized and didn't totally follow the specific criteria that we had set out for them.However many of the students were able to present their poster confidently and were at easein front of the group. This is an example of a the timeline piece of one student's poster (seeFigure 4.11):- 80 -) se4ek1 was born ;n Dnei Fro pe tro v k) Russia on erf&i,be;i q 0 F' ., Her .util-4 \ mmiv-,teei to 13to-rie , Ontario4qa.a.,:s1,e. i„,),241 the -Nst trophl c Grext War Vthatins ksseciat,on Truck liet ;CoosMaya -to Toronto; 61.04 La:rk a{ llat-ter5co Chocoloie fcclrorci codj«flut4-1)6r cc:n('1'1^, ASPorser8. Pits Athletic ClubOD: She ciefeu-tecl, the woricl, word iletcle In the tootrillit the wks struck lit a -Joni infectin, dill ,,a, rd Ai to amptiin+ 3rck eat nelAN nom The l),64-ctt ratest -feyrok athlete ii" It." k 4° LtSt trtj*iltS 3'ra rrt.J ((933 :tit Yetfinek to licdei abd N4-tholl otter re-arten .3 toil fotect It, oktstwthrl110c104^ro-■ M"I.:'3.1 q‘one^-41:4IATATto 1-ork+ts Glues Cart This k■kle4"-hewon^1: st11:4 cbsh 1 Ic'hi -01,, Lle'13  114S gepe.ltas ;rad forertte trap spins aRer a scand clitock of :et ihteamethe aye a ajks6, \„^oa. 4,4(^- 1,, N.,^pl,,N. A keo-rd 3.3-41 -pi VHF she kaoft la `not tit ootorro"Sprtsvar tor th< -rot.to Gads and H41../4,k-cPt ck3i ''''k 14Q, N,416' ''-°akt5 b'%43hlt b4; °u"'Ciell'I'il OW SI* LAS ,r,trxkucecl ..fito (co.d.A Sluts Ms A Tore Ca museum J'll' i* 1,,‘• l'ot .ham to a 0 Medal \n (e- ''zr."`Y‘k ) ',ion a VISiliz,A,clvckeri os"Cohil.'s t'enule Att A tite lica-Silvex vela ;:x 4e. \t yr) rake road run illibktom,a. rue ok IT, ch-e V-t the C-1.1*opi Nad bemuse of illnesseshad rot kralrek +31-.I^— -1 ..;^Mq: 1,e d^511zis -%irctlfc on klorember VI- at the^ re ate of— NS!' She tAloS civsen to the international 1E1..14 Sports Hal! of-4;..,.. i99b t Cord 3n Postol SS *P creoieci^3-tamp....,..,.....4 -'.^_f/ "7-!...------1---- --Figure 4.11: Significant Canadian ImmigrantThe teacher had provided opportunities for the students to practice their SignificantImmigrant Canadian oral presentations in their TRIAD groups practicing. During one of myobservations the teacher had prefaced the activity by saying, " We encourage each other, welearn from each other". As I circulated the students were supporting each other by, restatingvocabulary when necessary and offering positive and supportive comments. For example,one of the students said about his project, " Mine's too long". Another student in the groupsaid, "You need to change your pages from five to three. You also need to explain some ofthe big words like quantum and methane".A week later, during an observation, on a day when the students were going to orallypresent their Significant Canadian project, a student came up to Mr. McKay and said shewasn't feeling well. Her voice was raspy and she didn't look well. She asked the teacher if he(the teacher) would read her assignment for her. The teacher acknowledged that she wasn't-81-feeling well and suggested that she ask a partner to read half or if necessary, all of it for her"side by side". When it was the student's turn, the teacher prompted, "Try to do a little of thereport" and the two girls stood together and the student's friend read the first half and thestudent read the other half. The class clapped and the teacher's response was " That wasgreat! Good for you". Although the Significant Canadian was a challenging task for manystudents all the students completed the written part of the project and all presented to theclass.-ce_„'S nc.k.^Varlev)^. loArna.vwfeA^Qt,yy)^Ala; 11-.,±(1 Ik\E,^ti\^Car\.:44a• ^He.' l)Jas^bc\t-N^in 91...e \A)\13/C\ 1(^1 . \-4e-^%(=^In -Tomf-c-Vo Ir.^'Vl'-ie..^\ \\le :),^his^1a-->+^2^?_,.3c.^,r\ Tro±oaArs--41o1 kao scaies . Fce.Aei--N c^Was ..3 pa ‘ n4r r-4 (\^-`i-....^GrDuy-^,=..^5,...ev^Tr,^i°t-Lti )^-\c- 1-61,1e3 1()Vo,ecovvr, B.C. to +eac:A, a-V Vapc owei- Sd,,,,,x,\^D--r(5r-Al 1 ve aN4 A90. ke..4^Buj7, '6e... cVA1.i, (N--ic^•h,) ,,A( eAs^(IC^\ACNC.),SC ,es^t^-) us-k 1 0^yc ,-,1_-_,Figure 4.12: Sample of Writing About a Significant Canadian ImmigrantAccording to the teacher the Significant Posters were part of each student's portfolio duringparent teacher conferences. In my interview with the teacher he stated that during parentteacher conferences some of the ESL students had shown samples of their work explaining toparents in their first language:When the children are uh communicating their learning and what they have done inthe classroom during parent teacher interview times they are uh welcome andencouraged to talk to their parents in their first language if that will help to be able tocommunicate their learning at school to their parents.This chapter through the findings has attempted to show the complexity of enacting aplanned Social Studies unit in a multilingual, mainstream setting. Drawing on social and- 82 -fre_ ^‘cL \laciejcultural identities as a resource and enabling students multiple ways to show and demonstrateunderstandings were key components to bridging students access to academic content. Theresults also demonstrate that the teacher continually emphasized and fore-grounded the roleof relationship and the importance of connecting personal histories between student andteacher and student to student as means to an effective learning environment.As mentioned in Chapter 2, Cummins et al. (2007) cite Bransford, Brown andCocking's claim that the "optimum conditions" for learning to occur include:"engaging prior understandings, integrating factual knowledge with conceptual frameworksand taking active control over the learning process" (p. 42). The findings indicated that thisstudy is clearly a description of one teacher exemplifying an understanding about howstudents learn best. The major themes that emerged were: his attention to drawing onstudents prior knowledge and simultaneously affirming social and cultural identity, his use ofa multiliterate pedagogy that gave students access to multiple routes of representation and hisability to create a culturally responsive learning environment that values a community oflearners. In sum, an elementary class of diverse learners, many for whom English is a secondlanguage, were engaged and invested in the social studies lessons taught.The following chapter will present a discussion of the findings and implications fortheory and practice.CHAPTER 5DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONSThis case study explored a teacher's multiliterate pedagogy in the complex, socialcontext of a classroom of diverse learners during Social Studies lessons. Central to the studywas the research question: How does an elementary teacher, in a multilingual, mainstreamclassroom setting, bridge young learners access to the academic content of the Grade 5/6Social Studies curriculum? To answer the question I planned collaboratively with theparticipant teacher during the designing of the unit and observed many of the unit's lessonsas they were enacted in the classroom context. During the process I was guided by thefollowing questions to support my inquiry:1. How does the teacher facilitate learners' access to prior knowledge andsimultaneously draw upon participants' social and cultural identities in the unit ofwork as designed and enacted?2. How does a grade 5/6 Social Studies unit, with instructional approaches designed toafford second language learners' access to multiple modes of representation, manifestitself in a multilingual classroom.3. How does the teacher create conditions in the learning environment to facilitatelearners engagement in making intertextual connections to the academic content of aGrade5/6 Social Studies unit?This chapter synthesizes the findings of the study and attempts to provide answers tothe research questions. Pedagogical implications and areas for future research will also bediscussed and areas for future research.The teaching of the language and content presents a formidable challenge to any- 84 -teacher of Social Studies and the teacher in this study was no exception. The study revealedan example of how one teacher, through thoughtful and intentional planning created aresponsive pedagogy that enabled both proficient English speakers and students acquiringEnglish as a second or an additional language to successfully participate in a Social Studiesunit. The students in the study were "learning language for academic purposes and usinglanguage to learn" (Mohan et al. 2001, p. 218). As discussed in Chapter 2, much of theliterature suggests that pedagogical approaches that view cultural and linguistic diversity as aresource have the potential to result in greater engagement and positive achievement ofstudents (Cummins, Sayers & Brown, 2007; Short, 1994; Weisman & Hansen, 2007). Theliterature also calls for a need in the twenty-first century, to broaden literacy practices toincorporate and integrate a variety of representational modes to enable students to accessinformation and demonstrate knowledge in progressively complex and multiple forms. Thisstudy is in response to the vital need for research in our multilingual, multiculturalmainstream classrooms to address these areas. The analysis of the data strongly suggests thatin this study, the teacher's multiliterate pedagogy and in particular his view that the diversityin his class was an asset, were key components to bridging connections to the academiccontent of the Social Studies unit. Multiple data sources also strongly indicate that theteacher continually emphasized and fore-grounded the role of relationship between studentand teacher and student to student as means to an effective learning environment. Thisanalysis was also supported by the teacher's interview statement where he acknowledged:"The overriding factor is learning community". My observations of both the skillful planningof the unit, and the enacting of the Social Studies unit as it was delivered in the classroomsetting, demonstrated that these factors all contributed to a positive connection between the-85-unit that was planned and the unit as it was lived in the classroom context. It would beoversimplifying the study not to look more deeply at the complexity these factors and howthey contributed to successful engagement and participation of students and their teacherduring Social Studies lessons.The first guiding research question asked how the teacher facilitates learners' accessto prior knowledge and simultaneously draws upon participants' social and cultural identities.The participant teacher in this study understood the complex linguistic and cultural resourceshis students brought to the classroom collectively and individually and used thisunderstanding as a pedagogical tool in the shaping and delivering of the Social Studies unit.Data provided from observations of class activities and information afforded in studentinterviews demonstrated that this classroom was indeed a very diverse, multilingual, dynamiccommunity of learners. As discussed in Chapter 4, the students in the study had a variety ofcountries of origin, educational experiences, languages spoken in the home and theygenerally viewed themselves as multilingual. Although many of the students' first languageswere Cantonese or Mandarin and many were born in Canada, each student had his or herunique background experiences, multiple identities and personal histories. From thebeginning of the study, the teacher seemed aware of the range, complexity and the diversityof the class and as the lessons evolved his knowledge of the students' backgrounds expanded.This expansive knowledge contributed to an ongoing building of the student-teacherrelationship resulting in the successful participation of the students. There was a reciprocaleffect because over time, the students through the teacher's discussions of his personalhistories, grew to know their teacher more.Similarly, the two teachers in Duff's (2002) ethnographic study in a Social Studies 10- 86 -class, attempted to draw on the students' background knowledge and cultural experiences toconnect to Canadian historical concepts. However, in contrast Duff's (2002) studydemonstrated how despite the teacher's objective to "create a respectful, inclusive classroomculture" discussions in Social Studies 10 often resulted in silent, peripheral participation byESL students (p. 295). The ESL students in Duff's study were often reluctant to share theiraspects of their heritage with the class. An important consideration in Duff's study is that theESL students' perception was that their peers and teachers did not view the student as havinglegitimate membership and the students viewed themselves as 'outsider' participants in theclassroom community. In the case under study the students were a younger and more sociallycohesive group and generally embraced the idea of sharing personal histories. Duff (2002)also contends that although teachers are often expected to draw on students' cultural andbackground knowledge, this practice should to be examined very thoughtfully becausestudents may be reluctant to identify, at least publicly, with their background and culturalpractices during classroom discussions (p.305). Indeed Duff's remarks are worthy ofconsideration however, the students participation in Mr. McKay's Social Studies activitiesdemonstrated that in this particular classroom context, students were generally very proudand willing to share their cultural practices and histories. Although any mainstreamclassroom has its unique challenges and composition, a deep investigation by the teacher, ofthe diverse linguistic, educational and cultural backgrounds of its' students has the potentialto be used as a means to contribute to academic success.As discussed in Chapter 2, Moje et al. (2004) argue, " Teachers and curriculumdevelopers must develop deep understandings of the particular funds of knowledge anddiscourse that students have available outside of school" (p. 65). Norton Peirce (1995) also- 87 -suggests "language learners will develop their oral and literacy skills by collapsing theboundaries between their classrooms and their communities" (p. 26). The teacher affirmedthe students' cultural and social identities by drawing on the everyday and/or out of schoolknowledge from the students' families and home experiences. The data showed that theinstruction began by activating students prior knowledge by connecting to the personal livesof the students through, for example, the country of origin map activity, name activity andcultural artifact activities. Here is an example of how one student used her name to imaginea fairy tale.^4:!( ,e ai" 1 1.'14 GL(ZLYLe^tete Lt C;e-^kl.ce a-tete Wt---i3 a tctp-vt..c-7... diat- at-e^(4.Y.4.'45 a tae.:ty.,^eiveo)^^L ec11 iaq Ptev r-1474-1-1-e/^ C__.)t-ete /4)4'3^c.z.:.s 0.7 oeity,, aku.A:evut,^evety^ctoe31„,), t ce0-t/ 3. c-kteol-Le1.1 itet4 e4 "cc- P{.4 tit,e z.atpt-C-c-ev- X (...),(7/..77.7ea-t.6, aktzt^•(1414)- cZte9iceedy^eit^ee^-ti vi. A-1.4:gt^dt.ey, weetze at*t-.4^LG tc%t.e 1, 114;1' tt,'Figure 5.1: Sample of Writing About an Imagined NameThe teacher also revealed through his 'teacher talk' his genuine interest in talkingabout his family's backgrounds and experiences. During the early phase of the unit the-88-lessons did not include complex vocabulary and concepts taught through textbooks but ratherhands on activities that afforded students opportunities to express their own family historyand also acknowledge each student's history, all the while connecting to desired learningoutcomes of the Social Studies curriculum. The practice of bringing an artifact from homewas one of the preferred activities and also a means for active engagement in class discourseof the students. Interview data from the teacher also demonstrated that when parent teacherconferences were held the students were welcomed to use their first language to supporthome-school communication. This implies that when interpreting and shaping curriculumeducators need to build on the home practices in order to connect to school practices (Pahl &Rowsell, 2005).This study did not incorporate any parents participants, however, their input andperspectives would have provided useful data and this could be a consideration for futureresearch. For example, the parents of the students could have written about the artifacts fromtheir perspectives, and their narratives would have been interesting information for the class.In addition many of the learners' parents were immigrants and their reflections and storiesabout their immigration experience would have provided interesting material for discussion.The findings also suggest that the intention of the Social Studies lesson planned doesnot always unfold as planned. For example, even though the idea of bringing an everydayfamily artifact to school was designed to connect home and school literacy practices, twostudents, who in this case study, were English language learners, did not bring an artifact andneeded more explicit instruction to understand what was expected. This was resolved asindicated in field notes and the teacher's response log, by the teacher sitting with the studentsfor a few minutes, reviewing and clarifying the expectation and giving concrete examples.- 89 -This simple act made the difference between two students withdrawing and detaching fromthe activity to instead, full participation with the rest of the class.The study strongly suggests that the teacher's building of identity as an integral partof his planning and literacy practices resulted in the positive engagement and investment ofthe students. As mentioned in Chapter 2, Norton Peirce (1995) argues that the concept ofinvestment views "the language learner as having a complex social identity" and thatinvestment plays a key role in the students' willingness to participate (p.17). The results ofthe study show that there was a recurring pattern of the teacher affirming social identities,and the students being invested in the learning environment. The study also suggests thatstudents' identities shifted as the unit progressed and they were as Norton Peirce (1995)claims, constantly restructuring a sense of who they are. These students writing showexamples (see Figure 5.2) of the students shifts in their identity and a new realizations abouttheir names:Before I searched and found out about it, I really used to hate my name. I reallyhated it, because it was a girl's name. I told them to stop but they still call me thatname. But since I searched my name and I know what it meant, I began to actuallylike my name. I thought my mom didn't know what my name meant, but when Itold her what my name meant, she said, "See! That's why I gave you your name".History of my nameMy name is^my feelings about my name is good.When I was smaller I didn't like my name much becauseNo one ever heard it and they used to say where did you getthat name. But now I really like my name. Some thing thatI learned about my name is that my parents chose my namein the Kuran. I didn't know that till now. In the computerlab my name didn't have a meaning but it would have beenfun to know!.Figure 5.2: Sample of Writing About Name ActivityStudents in their academic settings are not only learning language and acquiring academiccontent knowledge, but simultaneously, negotiating identities and membership as theyattempt to become competent and legitimate students (Duff, 2001, 2002; Morita, 2004).The second guiding research question asks how does a grade 5/6 Social Studies unit,with instructional approaches designed to afford second language learners' access to multiplemodes of representation, manifest itself in a multilingual classroom. The data shows that theteacher in the planning and delivery of the unit was sensitive to the local and situated contextin which he taught or as Talmy (2004) describes as a "participatory pedagogy" (p. 20). Thelearning environment in the classroom studied, consisted of multiple ways for students toparticipate through whole class, partner and group discussion. In addition, the teacherthroughout the study integrated many language skills interchangeably throughout, forexample writing, reading, oral discussion, drawing, and web-based projects.Interestingly, although the participant teacher was not familiar with the- 91 -Multiliteracies Framework of the New London group (2000), much of the data demonstratesthat the four elements of the Multiliteracies pedagogy schema: situated practice, overtinstruction, critical framing and transformed practice, were a part of his literacy practices.First, the students in the classroom were immersed in situated practice in "meaningfulpractices within a community of learners" which considered sociocultural needs andidentities (p. 33). An example of this was when the students, after watching the curator hadthe opportunity to model being a curator with the museum artifacts. Later the students hadthe opportunity to bring their own artifacts and take on the curator role when explaining eachof their artifacts. The students then had the opportunity to write about their artifacts and talkto their parents about their artifacts. Second, as mentioned in the previous chapter, theteacher often scaffolded or intervened with overt instruction when clearer more "explicitinformation" and "conscious awareness" was needed for students (p. 33). In the study theteacher would often stop the class to clarify understanding. The students overwhelminglytalked about how the teacher explains. The teacher through his "teacher talk" often focusedon vocabulary, paid particular attention to text features, asked guiding questions and usedvisuals to support understanding. Third, the teacher incorporated in the design of many of thelessons and discussions a critical framing or "viewing it critically in relation to its context"(p. 34). The students discussed the challenges for immigrants past and future. Some of thestudents had the opportunity to reflect on their own or their family's experiences asimmigrants. The class as a whole discussed the many immigrants coming to their communityand ways they could support newcomers upon their arrival. The students through the use of aphoto, discussed the challenges of the Chinese immigrant railroad workers. Social justiceissues such as, inadequate living accommodations and the pay discrepancy between Chinese-92-workers Caucasian workers were talked about. One student's response was "when we werefocusing on the Chinese people and the Canadian/British people. I was really surprised whenI heard about the way people judge people on their race, the colour of their skin." Fourth, theteacher provided opportunities for the students to apply, revise, transfer and transform theirunderstandings in new and unfamiliar contexts. The artifact activity gave the students anopportunity to view an everyday object from the home in the context of a classroom setting.The students also had the opportunity to act as a historian and research a SignificantCanadian who was an immigrant describe the challenges faced, adversities that sometimeswere overcome and the contributions the person made. The data demonstrates that the teacherin the study was able to weave in and out of aspects of the Multiliteracies pedagogy withouthaving a term or a label for his approach.The findings also pointed out that the practice of reading aloud was a preferred andeffective classroom practice. In the study the teacher and researcher used the narrative storyas an instructional tool to connect to the understanding of challenges faced by immigrantChinese workers. Short (1994) also suggests the narrative genre of storytelling is a universalmethod students have usually had exposure to in both home and school environments. Datademonstrated from students written and pictoral responses the read aloud from the bookTales from Gold Mountain was one of the preferred activities of the unit (see Figure 5.3).Figure 5.3: Illustration Based on Tales From Gold MountainThis was a successful approach because it was also relevant subject matter,complemented by the use of a visually powerful picture. At the beginning of the lesson thestudents would have time to look at the visual, which graphically communicated a lot ofinformation about the story. On some occasions each student had a copy of the visual as thestory was being read and this was used as a reference point for discussion. When reading thestory to the class, either the teacher or myself would read slowly and stop for rephrasing orclarification of vocabulary as we perceived was necessary. The use of the narrative story hasits advantages because once selected it is ready as an instructional tool. There is no timeconsuming preparation of materials and when strategically and carefully chosen can havepowerful results as was indicated in the study.The study suggests that more time and attention should have been directed to- 94 -responding to the students written and visual work in order for students to be more fullyprepared for the oral presentation. As I mentioned in Chapter 4, some of the students foundthe oral presentations about their Significant Canadian challenging. All the studentssuccessfully met the criteria for making their poster, however, when it came to theirpresentation many English language learners, had difficulty with the pronunciation ofvocabulary and some of the students were difficulty making themselves heard. The studentswere encouraged to and had practiced their presentations with other group members,however, for some students more explicit attention needed to be paid during the projectprocess to prepare for the presentation. In retrospect, in the planning of the unit more timespent on discussion and response to each student individually, about their SignificantImmigrant Canadian project, and more opportunities to practice in their group arrangementswould potentially have a more positive outcome.The analysis of the samples of the posters strongly suggests that the students wereable to produce a multimodal representation using visual and written forms to communicatetheir understanding of their Significant Immigrant Canadian (see Figures 5.4 and 5.5). Thefirst example shows one aspect of a student's project on Phan Thi Kim Phuc who is knownbecause of the well-known photo of a young girl running down the street after a napalmattack during the Vietnam War (see Figure 5.4).0 0 0.PhoilThiKim Phik(5 bornTrang Bang,VfefJune SIci 42_Scuth VietncresePlanes drop anapiorn kvmbonto Trg eoKim Phuc iVG5 a speechal- -the UniVed Sta+c 5viavtarn vete-rans WM -Cfral On Veil-erahs Ray Kiln Phuc now lives in ttThe V'WarbeyPhucmovesiv Canada1g55Ajax, Ontario with herhusband and two children,Even though Phan Thi Kim Phuc wasn't a famous explorer,a famous prime minister, or an intelligent scientist-I chose 0her because to me, Kim Phuc is a hero. She survived anapalm three degree burn-and even though it still hurts-she has continued her life positively and peacefully.Kim Phuc forgived the Americans and the person who was( in charge of the napalm attack, while most peoplewouldn't have been able to do that.sarin000Figure 5.4: Sample of a Significant Canadian Immigrant Poster-96-Adrienne ClarksonIntroductionAdrienne was born in Hong Kong, China in 1939. She was 3years old when she moved to Canada. She moved to Ottawawith her parents. Her Grandfather moved to Australiabefore she was born.Contribution to CanadaShe was the first ever-Chinese woman as a GovernorGeneral. She was the 26th Gblerrorgeneral and the 2editA WA wast") Governor General in Canadask he was ^i44---13-i-VM7-ki-a-.1and French. She was sent France to work as one ofCanada's Governor Generals.Summary of LifeShe was born in Hong Kong, China and moved to Canada inWorld War 2.She was raised in Ottawa and went to manypublic schools. She went to Toronto Trinity College andearned her Governor General medal. She then went to aCollege in Paris, France called the Sorbonne. That is myFamous Canadian Hero Adrienne Clarkson.Sorbonne Paris, France^Toronto Trinity CollegeTimelineI^c03c4^it^VtlenAf..,C^:-.:1-,ctcful.^(qher, ,51,-*:^,...,,Q.0--tr,S VIC:. ,..00k)^ljner,^J.-it f Q,A - , i ' 0 f)(.. .., ,, w r ,,,,,^t.;..0“--,^'- i'-■e Imo- ,, c .., ecx -^_ - '',.` ,,;('^, '20.5.re +0Fr)ec4Figure 5.5: Sample of a Significant Canadian Immigrant PosterThe third research question asks how does the teacher create conditions in the- 97 -learning environment to facilitate learners' engagement in making intertextual connections tothe academic content of a Grade5/6 Social Studies unit? The study suggests that the teacher'sview of his class as a learning community served as a foundation for students' meaningfulclassroom engagement. Cummins et al. (2007) suggest that "cognitive engagement and deepunderstanding are more likely to be generated in contexts where instruction builds onstudent's prior knowledge and learning is supported by active collaboration within acommunity of learners" (p. 47). Simultaneously, within the structure of the learningcommunity, the teacher's organization of activities was a key contributor to a cohesive socialenvironment for academic learning to take place. The teacher organized his lessons for co-operative learning by using structured groups (TRIADS) to promote discussion of topics toshare and communicate information and build on each member's knowledge (see Figure 5.6).  Cwhiteboard blackboardtableX (standing)UU U U X XX X X (standing)3^XUUU^ 3X xX 0stolnnnD nnnn xxX x xT.VPA SystemI^I0000003co0_oa)30-2co0.0003 TeachersDeskX XX xX XXCi)CDcoats, backpacks / shelfcloakroom^X-r^ X XFigure 5.6: Co-operative Grouping Arrangement in a Portable ClassroomIn one of the lessons I observed, the teacher used the text-book photo of Chineseimmigrant workers as a reference tool, first for individual reflective inquiry and then in agroup setting to discuss questions such as: Who are they? Why are they all together? What dothey want to do? What are their hopes and dreams? The teacher stated, "This is like readingthe picture". In the lessons I observed when student were in their groups very little of theteacher's time was spent on behaviour management but rather the teacher going from groupto group to listen to and contribute to the group discussion. The students had anunderstanding of the respectful behaviour that was expected and their role as activeparticipants.As well, this study revealed that 'teacher talk' was an ongoing component of the waythe teacher organized the lessons. Cope and Kalantzis (2000) suggest, "overt instructionwhen linked to Situated Practice becomes more like teacher scaffolding than teacher-centredtransmission pedagogy" (p. 240). As discovered in Chapter 4 many of the students in thestudy expressed that the way the teacher explains was the most helpful. The teacher'songoing respectful, unhurried manner and ongoing message that each student is a valuedmember of the group all contributed to the learning environment.5.1 Limitations of the StudyThere are a number of limitations to this study. The data sample was small as therewere 19 student participants and one participant teacher. It was the study of one class, oneteacher and one subject. It was difficult to get recorded discourse samples because many ofthe parents did not give permission for audio recordings. Despite my desire to have manyopportunities for observation and other data collection methods over the three months,constraints such as timetabling and curriculum demands in other areas sometimes made- 100 -access to the site difficult. The forty-five minute teaching block was also constraining. Theinsights and conclusions are specific to the participants and context in which this study wasundertaken.5.2 Implications for PedagogyThis study has implications for pedagogy when addressing the teaching of SocialStudies in our diverse elementary, multilingual, multicultural mainstream classrooms.According to Weisman and Hanson (2007) "Successful learning [in Social Studies] dependsheavily on the knowledge of vocabulary, linguistic structures and background knowledge ofthe topic" (p. 181).The mainstream Social Studies teacher would benefit from building a profile of allthe learners in the class. Given the rapidly changing demographics of our local contexts, themainstream classroom teacher should assume that they are teaching English languagelearners of varying levels of proficiency. In order to plan for instruction, the teacher must beaware of the students' ESL levels and review the history of the ESL support that has beenprovided to the students. In addition, the teacher would gain useful information by findingout background information about all students in the class including, students who are nativeEnglish speakers. Inquiring into students' counties of origin, languages spoken in the home,years in Canada, traveling experiences would provide useful information that could be sharedwith the class as a whole. By doing so, teachers can tap into the students backgroundknowledge and bridge connections between home and school environments. Weisman andHanson (2007) suggest in order to access background knowledge, teachers should find out asmuch as possible about their students.- 101 -When planning for instruction, the Social Studies teacher should first acknowledgethe learning outcomes that are mandated requirements of both the Social Studies and theLanguage Arts curriculums of the teacher's particular grade level. The teacher can thenexpand the learning outcomes to incorporate the local and situated nature of the learningcontext. Wherever possible, activities that focus on investigating and exploring issuesrelevant to the community in which they reside are more meaningful for students. In thepresent study the findings suggest that the teacher was able to address the required Ministrylearning outcomes and then expand activities that involved looking at the history ofimmigration and issues within the community context.Understanding vocabulary is essential to success and needs explicit instruction as itarises during Social Studies lessons (Weisman & Hanson, 2007). Students' benefit fromvocabulary being systematically introduced, having visual supports and remaining accessiblefor students throughout a Social Studies unit. Learners can also be supported by strategiesthat promote the active involvement of the learners in working together in small groups tofind meanings of words. During discussions, as vocabulary arises it can be addressed throughclarification, rephrasing and repetition.According to Rowsell and Pahl (2007), "Classrooms are spaces that can be infusedwith our students' identities" p. 402. Teachers of Social Studies can draw on the students'social and cultural histories as a resource to connect to curriculum and bring an awarenessthat student's histories are embedded in their text. In this present study, the findings suggestthat the teacher viewed the students' social and cultural identities as a resource and he wasable to tap into this resource.-102-MULTILITERACIES Extending the scope of literacy practicesTHEORY• Role of teacherchanging:FacilitatorCo-researcheresignetas:Transforming meaning• Strategic instruction:Teacher directed0 ^centredGuided instructionInterpreting meaning and examining criticallyBuilding and scaffolding meaningLearning immersed in meaningful formal and informal settingsLinguistic and cultural diversity is a resourcePRACTICEGROUNDED IN RESEARCHMeaning making is an active dynamic processembedded in social and cultural practices• Develop knowledge ofModes of Meaning:LinguisticVisualAudioGesturalSpatial ,k.^Figure 5.7: Literacy Model-103--A model (Figure 5.7) can be used as a reference tool for a discussion of what literacypractices should encompass when planning curricula. Based on the New London Groups'(2000) Pedagogy of Multiliteracies, the model views meaning making as an active anddynamic process embedded in cultural and social practices. The model considers cultural andlinguistic diversity as a resource and access to multiple modes of representation asfundamental. Kalantzis and Cope (2000), when discussing The New London Groups' designelements of situated practice, overt instruction, critical framing and transformed practicemake the point:"These [elements] are not intended to be a rigid learning sequence. Nor are theyintended to displace existing practices of literacy teaching, or to imply that whatteachers have been doing is somehow wrong or ill conceived. Rather the aim is toprovide ideas and angles with which to supplement what teachers do p. 239"The model also demonstrates the varying role of the teacher and approaches to instructionare also included. In the present study this model was not used as a reference in designingthe curriculum plan but it could be a useful theoretical and practical tool for future planningand/or research.This study involved two teachers working respectfully together. We both came withour strengths and learned from each other. Our endeavor demonstrated the potential of thepower of professional conversations.5.3 Directions for Future ResearchThis present case study is exploratory so it has many possibilities for follow up. Thereis a need for further qualitative research that investigates the issues and challenges that facethe teacher practitioner in a naturally occurring classroom setting. A similar study could takeplace in different grade levels, subject areas and/or different ethnic populations. Larger,-104-longitudinal scale research that takes place over a period of an academic year could follow agroup of teachers and students. Future research that involves the collaboration of twoteachers, each with their own area of expertise is needed. For example a content areaspecialist teacher and an ESL specialist teacher could work together collaboratively tosupport students to improve language skills and master understanding of discipline specificcontent knowledge. Future research could look more specifically at different groupings oflearners: newcomer English language learners, students that were born in Canada but speakanother or an additional language in the home, foreign born students and native Englishspeaking students and their experiences in learning Social Studies content knowledge.5.4 ConclusionThis study reports on one classroom teacher's attempt to address the challenges ofteaching Social Studies in a diverse, elementary, multilingual, multicultural mainstreamclassroom. It has provided a rare glimpse of the real life, everyday experiences of a teacherand his students in the complex and dynamic context of a classroom environment. Short's(1994) research on effective strategies for teaching Social Studies included: "activatingbackground knowledge", "using cooperative learning" and "exposing students to authenticmaterials" (p. 587). These were all aspects of the participant teachers' repertoire of strategies.At the heart of this teacher's belief was the value of "learning community-learning together".The teacher continually invested in the understanding of community and in the value of thecooperative group process within the classroom. This teacher had a view that the cultural andsocial identities that the students brought to the classroom should be affirmed and used as aresource. This view was complemented by a pedagogy that provided all students, includingstudents acquiring English as a second language, opportunities for multiple ways to access- 105 -and demonstrate understanding. These factors all contributed to a successful and culturallyresponsive learning experience for his students. This study is an example of the collaborativework of a practitioner teacher and a teacher/researcher sharing their professional expertise toexplore a Social Studies unit during the design and implementation phases.REFERENCESAoki, T. T. (1991). Teaching as indwelling between two curriculum worlds. In W.Pinar & R. Irwin (Eds.), Curriculum in a new key: The collected works of Ted Aoki.(pp.159-166). Mahwah, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates.Aoki, T. T. (1993). Legitimating Lived Curriculum: Towards a Curricular Landscapeof Multiplicity. Journal of Curriculum and Supervision, 8 (4), 255-268.Barton, D., & Hamilton, M. (1998). Local literacies: Reading and writing in onecommunity. London: Routledge.Brown, C.L. (2007). Strategies for making social studies texts more comprehensible forEnglish-Language Learners. The Social Studies, 98 (5), 185-188.Case, R., & Obenchain, K. M. (2006). How to access language in the social studiesclassroom. The Social Studies, 97 (1), 41-48.Chamot, A.U., & O'Malley, J.M. (1992). The cognitive academic language learningapproach: A bridge to the mainstream. In P. Richard-Amato and M.A. Snow (Eds.),The multicultural classroom: Readings for content area teachers (pp.39-57). NewYork: Longman.Cope, B. & Kalantzis, M. (Eds.). (2000). Multiliteracies: Literacy learning and thedesign of social futures. New York: Routledge.Cummins, J. (1992). Language, proficiency, bilingualism, and academic achievement.In P. Richard-Amato and M.A. Snow (Eds.), The multicultural classroom: Readingsfor content area teachers (pp.16-26). New York: Longman.Cummins, J., Brown, K., & Sayers, D. (2007). 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Hornberger (Eds.), Second and foreign language education: Encyclopedia oflanguage and education (Vol. 4, pp. 197- 208). Philadelphia: Springer.Early, M., & Hooper, H. (2001). Implementation of the Vancouver School Board's ESLInitiatives. In B. Mohan, C. Leung, & C. Davison (Eds.). (2001). English as asecond language in the mainstream: Teaching, learning and identity. (pp. 138-150).New York: Longman/Pearson.Early, M., & Marshall-Smith, S. (2008). Adolescent ESL students' interpretation andappreciation of literary texts: A case for multimodality. Canadian Modern LanguageReview 64 (3), 377-397.ESL Policy Framework. (1999) B.C. Ministry of Education. Retrieved November, 2007,- 108 -http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/esl/policy/definition.htmFrancis, D. (2000). Connections Canada. Toronto: Oxford University Press.Gay L. R., Mills, G. E., & Airasian, P. (2006). Educational research: Competencies foranalysis and applications. NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall.Gibbons, P. (1993). Learning to learn in a second language. Newtown, Australia:Primary English Teaching Association.Gibbons, P. (2003). Mediating language learning: Teacher interactions with ESL studentsin a content based classroom. TESOL Quarterly, 37 (2), 247-272.Gunderson, L. (2000). Voices of teenage diasporas. Journal of Adolescent and AdultLiteracy, 43, 692-706.Gutierrez, K., Baquedano-Lopez, P., Alverez, H., & Chui, M (1999). A cultural historicalapproach to collaboration: Building a culture of collaboration through hybrid languagepractices. Theory Into Practice, 38 (2), 87-93.Gutierrez, K. (2005). Intersubjectivity and grammar in the third space. Annual meeting ofthe American Educational Research Association. Montreal: CA.Harklau, L. (2003). Representational practices and multi-modal communications in U.S.high schools: Implications for adolescent immigrants. In R. Bayley & S.R. Schecter(Eds.), Language Socialization in bilingual and multilingual societies (pp. 83-87).New York: Multilingual Matters.Heath, S.B. (1983). Ways with words: Language, life, and work in communities andclassrooms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Jacob, E. (1987). Qualitative research traditions review. Review of EducationalResearch, 57 (1), 1-50.- 109 -Johnson, D. M. (1992). Approaches to research in second language learning. NewYork: Longman.Kalantzis, M., & Cope, B. (2000). A multiliteracies pedagogy: A pedagogical supplement.In B. Cope & M. Kalantzis (Eds.), Multiliteracies : Literacy learning and the designof social futures (pp. 239-248). New York: Routledge.Katz, J. (2007, October). Multiple literacies. Handout presented at Focus Day Workshop,Richmond, B.C.Kress, G. (2003). Literacy in the new media age. London: Routledge.Ministry of Education, (2006). Social studies K-7 integrated resource package.British Columbia.Ministry of Education, (2006). English language arts K-7 integrated resource package.British Columbia.Mohan, B.A. (1986). Language and Content. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Mohan, B.A. (2001). The second language as a medium of learning. In B. Mohan, C.Leung, & C. Davison (Eds.), English as a second language in the mainstream:Teaching, learning and identity. (pp. 107-126). New York: Longman Pearson.Mohan, B., Leung, C., & Davison, C. (Eds.), (2001). English as a second language in themainstream: Teaching, learning and identity. New York: Longman Pearson.Moje, E., Ciechanowski K.M., Kramer, K., Ellis, L., Carrillo, R., & Collazo, T. (2004).Working toward third space in content area literacy: An examination of everydayfunds of knowledge and discourse. Reading Research Quarterly, 39 (1), 38-70.Morita, N. (2004). Negotiating participation and identity in second language academiccommunities. TESOL Quarterly, 38 (4), 573-603.- 110 -Morita, N., & Kobayashi, M. (2008). Academic discourse socialization in a secondlanguage. In P. Duff & N. Hornberger (Eds.), Language Socialization: Encyclopediaof Language and Education (Vol. 8, pp. 2805-2817). Springer: Boston.New London Group. (1996). A pedagogy of multiliteracies: Designing social futures.Harvard Educational Review, 66, (1), 60-92.New London Group. (2000). A pedagogy of Multiliteracies: Designing social futures. InB. Cope & M. Kalantziz (Eds.), Multiliteracies: Literacy learning and the design ofsocial futures (pp. 9-37). New York: Routledge.Norton, B. (1997). Language, identity, and the ownership of English. TESOL Quarterly,31 (3), 409-429.Norton Peirce, B. (1995). Social identity, investment and language learning. TESOLQuarterly, 29 (3), 9-31.Ngo, H.V. (2007). Toward quality education. TESL Canada Journal, 24(2), 1-20.O'Malley, J. M., & Chamot, A.U. (1990). Learning strategies in second languageacquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Pahl, K., & Rowsell, J. (2005). Literacy and Education. Understanding the new literacystudies in the classroom. London: Paul Chapman Publishing.Palys, T. (2003). Research decisions: Qualitative and quantitative perspectives.Toronto: Harcourt Canada.Pon, G., Goldstein, T., & Schecter, S., (2003). Interrupted by silences: Thecontemporary education of Hong Kong-born Chinese Canadians. In R. Bayley & S.Schecter (Eds.), Language Socialization in bilingual and multilingual societies (pp.114-127). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Rowsell, J., & Pahl, K. (2007). Sedimented ideas in texts: Instances of practice. ReadingResearch Quarterly, 42 (3), 388-404.Schleppegrell, M. (2001). Linguistic features of the language of schooling. Linguistics andEducation, 12 (4), 431-459.Schleppegrell, M., Achugar, M. & Oteiza., T. (2004). The grammar of history: Enhancingcontent-based instruction through a functional focus on language. TESOL Quarterly,38, (1) 67-93.Short, D.J. (1994). Expanding middle school horizons: Integrating language, culture, andsocial studies. TESOL Quarterly, 28 (3), 581-608.Siegel, M. (2006). Rereading the signs: Multimodal transformations in the field ofliteracy educations. Language Arts, 84, 65-77.Stake, R.E. (1997). Case study methods in educational research: Seeking sweet water.In R. M. Jaeger (Ed.), Complementary methods for research in education. (pp. 401-421). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.Stein, P. (2003). Representation, rights and resources: Multimodal pedagogies in thelanguage and literacy classroom. In K. Toohey & B. Norton (Eds.), CriticalPedagogies and Language Learning (pp. 95-115). Cambridge: Cambridge UniversityPress.Stoller, F. (2008). Content based instruction. In N.Van Deusen-Scholl & N. Hornberger(Eds.), Encyclopedia of language and Education (pp. 59-70). Philadelphia: Springer.Street, B. (2003). What's new in new literacies studies? Critical approaches to literacyand practice. Current Issues in Comparative Education, 5, 1-14.Talmy, S. (2004). Forever FOB: The cultural production of ESL in a high school.- 112 -Pragmatics, 14 (2/3), 149-172.Weisman, E.M., & Hansen L. E. (2007), Strategies for teaching social studies to Englishlanguage learners at the elementary level. The Social Studies. 98 (5) 180-184.Wortham, S. (2006). Learning identity: the joint emergence of social identification andacademic learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Yee, P. (1989). Tales from gold mountain. Stories of the Chinese in the new world.Toronto: Douglas & McIntyre.Appendix ASTUDENT ASSENT FORMAccessing Academic Literacy for Diverse Learners: BridgingEveryday Language and the Language of Social StudiesPrincipal Investigator: Dr. Margaret EarlyDepartment of Language and Literacy Education,UBCCo-Investigator:^Daphne McMillanGraduate Student in the Department of Languageand Literacy Education, UBCPurpose:The purpose of this study is to explore classroom activities that supportstudents' access to the understanding of Social Studies' concepts. Theresearch will be part of a thesis and is being undertaken by DaphneMcMillan, an M.A. Graduate student in the Department of Language andLiteracy Education at the University of British Columbia.Study Procedures:The intention of the researcher is to take notes primarily on the activities ofthe teacher as she/he supports student learning during one Social Studiesunit. If you agree to participate, you will be observed during your regularclass with your teacher during ten (10) forty minute Social Studies lessons.Every effort will be made not to change the usual routine of the class. Theresearcher will take direction from the teacher to ensure that class activitiesare not disrupted. Your participation or lack of participation will not affecthow classes are taught and will not affect your mark.If you agree to participate, you will also have a chance to explain how youlearn best during Social Studies lessons. Your audio-recorded interviews maybe conducted individually or in groups depending on what you and yourclassmates prefer. You will only be interviewed with your permission. You oryour parent(s)/guardian can review the audio-recordings at any time.Some of your social studies' classroom work may also be collected andreviewed. This may include creative or writing, illustrations or materials thatyou created using the computer. Your teacher will also be asked to talkabout his/her ideas about classroom strategies and activities.Confidentiality:- 114 -Your identity will be kept confidential. You and your school will not be namedin any reports. All documents will be identified only by a code number andkept in a locked filing cabinet.Duration:Classroom observations will take place during one Social Studies unit of study.The researcher will come to your class only while the Social Studies lesson arebeing taught. Consenting students will be given two audio-recordedinterviews that will last about ten (10) minutes. The interviews will be doneindividually or as a group, at the beginning of the unit and at the end of theunit. The interviews will take place out of regular instructional time (e,g. lunchhour) at a time that is convenient to the student. The audio-taped interviewwill not interfere with your studies.Refusals:You have the right not to participate at any time if you do not wish to beinterviewed or observed.Dissemination of Research:The results from the research may be shared at national and internationalconferences and published in professional and research journals. Reportsbased on these presentations and articles will be available to all participants.Potential Benefits:The information gained from the research will support a better understandingof best practices to support our diverse learners in their multilingual classroomsettings. Teacher professional development will also be enhanced.Contact for information about the study:If you have any questions or desire further information with respect to thisstudy, you may contact Dr. Margaret Early or Daphne McMillan.Contact for concerns about the rights of research subjects:Consent:Your participation in this study is entirely voluntary and you may refuse toparticipate or withdraw from the study at any time without jeopardy to yourclass standing.Your signature below indicates that you have received a copy of thisconsent form for your own records.Your signature indicates that you consent to participate in this study.Subject Signature^ Date- 115 -(or Parent or Guardian Signature)Printed Name of the Subject or Parent or Guardian signing aboveAppendix BPARENT/GUARDIAN CONSENT FORMAccessing Academic Literacy for Diverse Learners: BridgingEveryday Language and the Language of Social StudiesPrincipal Investigator: Dr. Margaret EarlyDepartment of Language and Literacy Education,U.B.C.Co-Investigator:^Daphne McMillanGraduate Student in the Department of Languageand Literacy Education, U.B.C.Purpose:The purpose of this study is to explore classroom activities that supportstudents' access to the understanding of Social Studies concepts in ourdiverse, multilingual, multicultural classrooms. The research will be part of athesis and is being undertaken by Daphne McMillan, an M.A. Graduatestudent in the Department of Language and Literacy Education at theUniversity of British Columbia.Study Procedures:If you agree to allow your child to participate in the research, he/she will beobserved while the teacher delivers regular lessons. The intention of theresearcher is to take notes, primarily on the teacher, during one unit of SocialStudies. The lessons that will be observed are a regular part of your child'seducation. Your child's classroom activities will be documented only withyour permission. Your child's participation will not affect how classes aretaught. Every effort will be made not to disrupt the regular routine of theclass. The researcher will take direction from the teacher to ensure that classactivities are not disruptedIf you agree to allow your child to participate, your child will be interviewedabout his/her choices in representing and demonstrating understanding ofconcepts during Social Studies lessons. The interviews may be conductedindividually or in a group and will be audio-recorded. An example of aquestion that may be asked is; "Do diagrams or illustrations help you toconnect to or communicate a Social Studies concept? Can you think of anexample when you used both writing and a diagram to show yourunderstanding of a concept?" Your child will only be interviewed with yourpermission. You or your child can listen to the interview tape at any time. Theteacher will also be asked for his/her ideas about activities that best supportunderstanding of Social Studies concepts.- 117 -Samples of your child's social studies classroom work may also be collected.This may include creative or academic writing, artwork or models, ormaterials your child creates using a computer.Confidentiality:Your child's identity will be kept strictly confidential. Your child and yourchild's school will not be named in any reports of the completed study.Group interviews may limit confidentiality within the group. Your child's worksample may be used as part of the Graduate Thesis or shared at aconference. However, all documents will be identified only by a codenumber and will be kept in a locked filing cabinet.Duration:Classroom observations will take place during one unit of study ofapproximately ten (10) forty minute lessons. The researcher will observe in theclass only while Social Studies lessons are being taught. The researcher willinterview consenting students for about ten (10) minutes at the beginning ofthe unit and at the end of the unit. The interview will not interfere with yourchild's studies and will be conducted out of regular instructional time (e.g.lunch hour).Refusals:You have the right the right to refuse to allow your child to participatewithout jeopardy of consequence to her/his class standing.Dissemination of Research:The results from the research may be shared at national and internationalconferences and published in professional and research journals. Reportsbased on these presentations and articles will be available to all participants.Potential Benefits:The information gained from the research will support a better understandingof best practices to support our diverse learners in their classroom setting.Teacher professional development will also be enhanced.Contact for information about the study:If you have any questions or desire further information with respect to thisstudy, you may contact Dr. Margaret Early or Daphne McMillan.Consent:Please complete the following and return it to your child's teacher.Your child's participation in this study is entirely voluntary and your child mayrefuse to participate or withdraw from the study at any time without jeopardyor consequence to their class standing.Your signature below indicates that you have read the information providedabove. You understand that your child's participation in this research is118 -voluntary, and that you willingly consented to allow your child to participatein this research project. Your signature also indicates that you have receiveda copy of this consent form for your own records. You may withdraw yourconsent at any time without consequences to your child.Please check the appropriate box for each line:You agree that your child:[ ] Can participate in this study[ ] Can be audio recorded in this study[ ] I do not give consent for my child to participate in this studySubject Signature^ Date(or Parent or Guardian Signature)Printed Name of the Subject or Parent or Guardian signing aboveAppendix CTEACHER CONSENT FORMAccessing Academic Literacy for Diverse Learners: BridgingEveryday Language and the Academic Discourse of SocialStudiesPrincipal Investigator: Dr. Margaret EarlyDepartment of Language and Literacy Education,UBCCo-Investigator:^Daphne McMillanGraduate Student in the Department of Language andLiteracy Education, UBCPurpose:The purpose of this study is to conduct an investigation of literacy practicesthat support students' access to the academic discourse of Social Studies inour multilingual, multicultural and multimodal classrooms. The hope is toidentify practices that enable students to better represent theirunderstandings in a variety of ways and use their own cultural and linguisticresources as a pedagogical tool. This study draws on previous studies (e.g.New London Group, 1996) that emphasize the need to broaden literacypractices in changing, economic, technological and socio-culturalconditions. The research will be part of a thesis and is being undertaken byDaphne McMillan, an M.A. Graduate student in the Department ofLanguage and Literacy Education, at the University of British Columbia.Study Procedures:You will be involved in data collection that focuses on one Social Studies unitin the first term of the Fall of 2007. You will work with the GraduateInvestigator to identify ways the elementary classroom teacher, at the unitdesign and student/teacher micro interaction levels, can enable learners, ina multilingual classroom setting, to make inter-textual connections to theacademic content of the Grade 5 Social Studies curriculum. Generally, datacollection will be in the form of field notes that will be taken during classobservations during 10 forty-minute Social Studies lessons. Every effort will bemade to avoid disrupting the regular routine of the class. The researcher willtake direction from the teacher in how to position herself to undertake theresearch to ensure that class activities are not disrupted. The focus of theresearch will be primarily on the activities of the consenting teacher. Studentswho give informed consent will also provide data for the study. The teacherwill be asked to share examples of work from children who have providedconsent. Part of the research will be an audio-recorded interview pre and- 120 -post the unit, regarding your ideas pertaining to literacy practices that bestsupport bridging and accessing diverse learners' acquisition of Social Studiesconcepts. In addition you will be asked to keep a log of your personalreflections during the unit of study.Confidentiality:The identity of you, your students and your school will be kept strictlyconfidential. Subjects will not be identified by name in any reports of thecompleted study. The researcher will distribute and collect the studentconsent forms. Every effort will be made to ensure that the teacher will notknow which of the students have given consent. Data will be made availableonly to the investigators.Duration:Classroom observations will take place during one unit of study. Theresearcher will observe the class only while Social Studies is being taught. Theresearcher will interview consenting students for about ten (10) minutes,individually or as a group, at the beginning of the unit and at the end of theunit out of regular instructional time (e,g. lunch hour) at a time that isconvenient to the student. The interview will not interfere with your students'studies. Interviews with the classroom teacher will be conducted by theGraduate investigator and will last about 15 minutes at a time that isconvenient.Refusals:Participation in this project is optional. You have the right to participate or towithdraw your consent to participate at any time.Dissemination of Research:The results from the research will be used as part of a graduate thesis andmay be shared at national and international conferences and published inprofessional and research journals. Reports based on these presentations andarticles will be available to all participants.Potential Benefits:The information gained from the research will support a better understandingof best practices to support diverse learners in their classroom setting.Teacher professional development will also be enhanced.Contact for information about the study:If you have any questions or desire further information with respect to thisstudy, you may contact Dr. Margaret Early or Daphne McMillanConsent:Your signature below indicates that you have read the information providedabove. You understand that your participation in this research is voluntary,and that you willingly consented to participate in this research project. Yoursignature also indicates that you have received a copy of this consent form- 121 -for your own records. You may withdraw your consent at any time withoutconsequences to your employment or professional standing.Please check the appropriate box for each line:[ ] I consent to participate in this study[ ] I consent to be audio recorded in this studySubject Signature^ DatePrinted Name of the SubjectAppendix DSTUDENT INTERVIEWAccessing Academic Literacy for Diverse Learners: BridgingEveryday Knowledge and the Academic Discourse of SocialStudiesPrincipal Investigator: Dr. Margaret EarlyDepartment of Language and Literacy Education, UBCCo-Investigator:^Daphne McMillanGraduate Student in the Department of Language andLiteracy Education, UBCThe questions I am going to ask you will provide us with information to better plan forclassroom activities that support student access to the Social Studies curriculum?You can choose not to answer any questions.There are no right or wrong answers.No one else, including your teacher, will know your answers.Were you born in Canada? If not where were you born?What languages do you speak in your home?Do you know why you were named your name?Do you have some special cultural objects in your home? (show an example of an oldscrapbook)Would you say you were at a beginner, intermediate or advanced level of English?What is your favorite subject in school?Do you enjoy Social Studies lessons?Do you enjoy working with a partner on your Social Studies assignments?What do you do to find words you need in the classroom?-123-Do pictures in your textbooks help you to understand Social Studies ideas? (show a picture)What are some of the class activities that help you to gain understanding of Social Studiesconcepts?What are some ways you like to show what you know about Social Studies concepts?Is there anything else you want to tell me about how you best learn Social Studies concepts?Thank youAppendix ECLASSROOM TEACHER INTERVIEWAccessing Academic Literacy for Diverse Language Learners:Bridging Everyday Knowledge and the Academic Discourse ofSocial StudiesPrincipal Investigator: Dr. Margaret EarlyDepartment of Language and Literacy Education, UBCCo-Investigator:^Daphne McMillanGraduate Student in the Department of Language andLiteracy Education, UBCThe purpose of this study is to conduct an investigation of literacy practices thatsupport ESL students' access to the academic discourse of the Social Studies in ourmultilingual, multicultural and multimodal classrooms. The intent is to investigateways the elementary classroom teacher and the ESL specialist teacher usestudents' social and cultural identities to enable second language learners to makeinter-textual connections to the academic content of the Grade 4 Social Studiescurriculum? The research is for a graduate degree, and will be part of a thesis.You do not have to answer any questions you do not wish to answer.How long have you been teaching?Were you born in Canada? If not where were you born?What scaffolds do you feel could be built at the unit design to facilitate students'understanding of their social and cultural identities?Do you have a teaching strategy that you frequently use with you students to promoteunderstanding of concepts?How do you facilitate your students' access to multiple modes of representation (e.g.linguistic, visual, use of dual language) to demonstrate their understanding of connectionsbetween their of social studies concepts?- 125 -In what ways do your students of varying levels of English proficiency (beginner,developing, advanced) demonstrate inter-textual connections of Social Studies contentknowledge? (e.g. labeling, access to key vocabulary, visual supports, models of genre)As an elementary classroom teacher what are the challenges you face in facilitating SocialStudies content knowledge in a multilingual setting?Is there anything else you want to tell me about teaching Social Studies concepts to ESLlearners?Thank youAppendix FCODING TABLECODE NAME^DEFINITION^ SAMPLE QUOTE"Why are wehere"BQ This is the question which guided the student'sinquiry throughout the year.Big question for the wholeclass was " Why are wehere?"Artefacts AR Definition given in class— a "cultural objectmade by a human", an everyday objectsymbolizing cultural heritage.Artifacts help us to seesimilarities and differencesin culture.ClassroomarrangementCA The physical configuration of desks and/orstudent groupingsStudents were workingTRIADSComputer CO The use of digital technology within thecontext of the unit of study.Students working hard atcomputers.Expectation EX The expected conduct and explicit protocols forstudent activities.There are no put downs here.Humour HU The teacher's use of language to joke or saysomething funny."Gino's pizza"Investment IN A reason given by the teacher to participate andengage in learning by valuing the student'sidentity as an individual and as a member ofthe group.idea that everyone isworking toward the samegoal.Organization OR The way the teacher orchestrates the learningenvironment, including structuring of lessonsand providing materials for learning.The teacher handed out usingmonitors) SS books andworksheetPeriod PD Issues related to the duration of the teachingblock.The time was up.PersonalhistoryPE Events in either students or teachers' past thathave shaped their lives and understanding ofself.It has cultural and personalsignificanceRelationship RL The emotional content of the interactionsbetween students, and student and teacher.He read in a relaxed andfriendly mannerRepresenting RE Demonstrating understanding of conceptsthrough any variety of modes—e.g. written,visual, digital, spoken or any combination.What are some of the waysyou like to show what youknow?Scaffolding SC Sequentially building on previous instructionor experience.reminded the class that thegoal forStory ST The use of narrative to explain personal historyor fictional events.an opportunity to tell part oftheir story.Teacher talk TT The manner in which the teacher verballydiscusses ideas with the class (whole or group)used everyday casuallanguage " Let's take a look"Text TE Any written or print material used in theclassroom.Yes bold print is a textfeature.Underlife UN Students non-conforming behaviours in theclassroom –obvious and subtle.I.... wondered around roomVisuals VI Images that can be used and viewed to supportunderstanding. (e.g. posters, maps, pictures),Chart was posted in theelass.Vocabulary VO Language support for content specific, morecomplex terminologyDo you know what we meanby peer?- 127 -Appendix GSURVEYName: ^1. In addition to English what other languages do you speak?2. What do you think is your level of proficiency in English?beginner^ intermediate   advanced3. Do you enjoy Social Studies?Yes^No4. How do you think you learn best? alone partner ^ TRIADS (groups)5. Do pictures help you to learn? How?6. Did you learn to enjoy Social Studies more after the immigration unit?^ yes   no7. What did you learn from the immigration unit?8.^Of all the things your teacher does to help you learn what is the most helpful?Appendix HTRANSCRIPTION CONVENTIONSThe following transcription conventions were used in decoding audio-recordings:word (underline) word stressword - (en-dash) abrupt sound stop(..)^(periods in parenthesis) pauses: (.) a short pause, (..) a longer pause, (...)longer[word] (brackets) onset of overlapping talk(inaudible) inaudible utterance(word) ( word in single parenthesis) best guess at a questionable transcription((word)) ((word in double parentheses)) participants physical movement, laughterAppendix ICERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL: ETHICS BOARDSee following page.The University of British ColumbiaOffice of Research ServicesBehavioural Research Ethics BoardSuite 102, 6190 Agronomy Road, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z3CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL - FULL BOARD) RINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:Margaret M. EarlyINSTITUTION / DEPARTMENT:UBC/Education/Language and LiteracyEducationUBC BREB NUMBER:H07-01797NSTITUTION(S) WHERE RESEARCH WILL BE CARRIED OUT:Institution^ I^ SiteVA^ N/Aether locations where the research will be conducted:;ichmond School District- 1 elementary school classroom:0 - INVESTIGATOR(S):I/A, PONSORING AGENCIES:I/AROJECT TITLE:ccessing academic literacy for diverse learners:Bridging everyday language and the academic discourse of SocialtudiesEB MEETING DATE:eptember 13, 2007CERTIFICATE EXPIRY DATE:September 13, 2008OCUMENTS INCLUDED IN THIS APPROVAL: DATE APPROVED:November 1, 2007ocument Name^ I^Version^I Date"OtOCOI:evised research proposal^ N/A^August 30, 2007onsent Forms:!visedparentconsent N/A^October 21, 2007visedteacherconsent^ N/A October 21, 2007,visedstudentconsent N/A^October 22, 2007uestionnaire, Questionnaire Cover Letter, Tests:evised student interview2^ N/A^August 31, 2007avised teacher interview2 N/A August 31, 2007ther Documents:otter of Support from Richmond School District^ N/A^October 22, 2007le application for ethical review and the document(s) listed above have been reviewed and the procedures were foundbe acceptable on ethical grounds for research involving human subjects.Approval is issued on behalf of the Behavioural Research Ethics Boardand signed electronically by one of the following:,^,^.^...^_,..^.^.......„^.„,^.^.....,^..^.Dr. M. Judith Lynam, ChairDr. Jim Rupert, Associate Chair^Dr. Laurie Ford, Associate Chair^ I132


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