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An assessment of historical changes in aquatic biota, water and sediment quality within a catchment at… Pappas, Sheena Charmaine 2008

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AN ASSESSMENT OF HISTORICAL CHANGES IN AQUATIC BIOTA, WATER AND SEDIMENT QUALITY WITHIN A CATCHMENT AT A DEVELOPING URBAN FRONT by SHEENA CHARMAINE PAPPAS B.Sc., McGill University, 2002 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Resource Management and Environmental Studies) THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January 2008 © Sheena Charmaine Pappas, 2008 Abstract Degradation of streams in urban-rural fringe regions occurs through complex interactions between hydrological, physical, chemical and biological mechanisms of the stream environment and surrounding landscape. Biological monitoring using macroinvertebrates may capture the complex and cumulative influences of land activity on the stream environment. The Salmon River catchment in the township of Langley, British Columbia, Canada straddles urban and rural environments in the Lower Fraser Valley. To date the Salmon River catchment has been subject to several environmental surveys. Following these earlier investigations, this study quantified relationships between the stream environment and changing land activity, across multiple scales, from 1975 to 2005, using macroinvertebrates as environmental integrators. Current and historical water, sediment, and macroinvertebrate information along with land use and land-cover evaluations were used to quantify relationships between the macroinvertebrate community and land activity in the catchment. Spatial and seasonal results for specific conductivity (a total dissolved ion indicator) and NO3"-N and PO4 3 (nutrient indicators) traced groundwater and overland inputs to the stream environment. Nitrate guideline exceedances occurred at groundwater-influenced sites. Elevated sediment trace metal concentrations and Zn guideline exceedances occurred mid-reach in the catchment. Peak total macroinvertebrate and sensitive taxa abundance occurred mid-reach in the catchment in 2005, while richness and proportional sensitive abundance peaks were seen at groundwater-influenced sites. The dominance of tolerant to moderately pollution tolerant taxa occurred throughout. Despite historical water quality concerns at groundwater-influenced sites, greater shifts in community composition occurred in headwaters regions. Patterns of land use and land cover changed in sensitive areas (i.e. above aquifer and in the headwaters). A greater number of correlations between land activity and macroinvertebrate measures occurred at streams sites with 100 m buffers. The abundance of sensitive taxa positively correlated with the amount of agricultural land use, while rarefaction declined. Several Macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups correlated positively to forest cover, while sensitive taxa abundance and Zn concentrations declined. Results suggest continued water quality and sediment trace metal concerns, while macroinvertebrate results point to nutrient enrichment and greater historical variability in headwaters regions. Agricultural activity appears to have a stronger influence on aspects of the stream environment despite the presence of urban-rural land activity. ii Table of Contents Abstract ^ ii Table of Contents^ iii List of Tables vii List of Figures ix List of Abbreviations and Symbols^ xi Acknowledgements^ xii Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION^ 1 1.1 Introduction^ 1 1.2 Context 2 Salmon River Catchment^ 2 1.3 Background^ 5 1.3.1 Land Activity Indicators and Non-point Source Pollution ^ 5 Land Activity Indicators^ 5 Non-point Source Pollution 6 Water Quality Variables^ 8 Sediment Quality Variables 9 1.3.2 Macroinvertebrates as Indicators of Stream Health^ 10 Methods of Macroinvertebrate Biological Assessment 11 Macroinvertebrates in Urban and Semi-urban Environments^ 12 Chapter 2 STUDY FRAMEWORK AND OBJECTIVES^ 14 2.1 Framework^ 14 2.2 Objectives 14 Chapter 3 METHODS^ 16 3.1 Climate Data and Land Activity Indices Evaluation^ 16 3.1.1 Meteorological and Hydrometric Data 16 3.1.2 Geographic Information System (GIS) Data^ 16 3.2 Sample Site Selection^ 1'7 iii 3.3 Field Sampling^ 18 3.3.1 Overview of Sampling Methodology^ 18 3.3.2 Water Quality Sampling^ 20 3.3.3 Sediment Sampling 20 3.3.4 Macroinvertebrate Sampling^ 21 3.4 Laboratory Analysis^ 21 3.4.1 Water Sample Analysis^ 21 3.4.2 Sediment Sample Analysis 22 Particle Size^ 22 Trace Metals 22 3.4.3 Macroinvertebrate Sample Analysis^ 23 3.5 Data Analysis^ 23 3.5.1 Quality Analysis and Quality Control^ 23 3.5.2 Water Quality Data Analysis^ 24 Water Quality Guidelines 25 3.5.3 Sediment Data Analysis^ 26 Sediment Quality Guidelines and Background Trace Metal Concentrations^27 3.5.4 Macroinvertebrate Data Analysis^ 28 3.5.5 Relationships Between Land Activity and Environmental Quality^ 30 Chapter 4 RESULTS^ 31 4.1 Climate Results 31 4.1.1 Meteorological and Hydrometric Data^ 31 4.2 Land Use and Land Cover Results^ 35 4.2.1 Current and Historical Land Use in the Salmon River Catchment^ 35 4.2.2 Current and Historical Land Cover in the Salmon River Catchment 39 4.2.3 Populations Change in the Township of Langley, B.C. ^ 41 4.3 Water Quality Results^ 42 4.3.1 Quality Analysis and Quality Control^ 42 4.3.2 Spatial and Seasonal Variation in Water Quality^ 42 Specific Conductivity: Spatial and Seasonal Trends 42 Nitrate (NO3"-N): Spatial and Seasonal Trends^ 44 Orthophosphate (PO43 -P): Spatial and Seasonal Trends^ 46 iv 4.3.3 Relationships Between Nitrate (NO3 --N), Total Coliforms, Fecal Coliforms, and Precipitation^ 48 4.3.4 Historical Variation in Water Quality (1974/75 to 2004/05)^ 51 Specific Conductivity: Historical Trends^ 51 Nitrate (NO3 --N) Historical Trends 51 Orthophosphate (PO4 -3-P) Historical Trends^  52 4.4 Sediment Results^ 54 4.4.1 Quality Analysis and Quality Control (QA/QC)^ 54 4.4.2 Particle Size Distribution^ 54 4.4.3 Trace Metals in Sediments 54 4.4.4 Relationships Between Trace Metal Concentrations in Sediments^ 62 4.4.5 Relationship Between Particle Size Distribution and Trace Metal Concentrations in Sediments^ 62 4.4.6 Long-Term Variation in Sediment Quality (1974/75 to 2004/05)^ 62 4.5 Macroinvertebrate Results^ 63 4.5.1 Quality Analysis and Quality Control (QA/QC)^ 63 4.5.2 Macroinvertebrate Total Abundance and Community Structure^ 64 Macroinvertebrate Order and Family Level Composition 67 Macroinvertebrate Taxa Characteristics^ 78 4.5.3 Historical Change in Macroinvertebrate Community Structure^ 81 4.6 Land Activity and Environmental Quality^ 90 4.6.1 Sediment Quality and the Macroinvertebrate Community^ 91 4.6.2 Land Use and Sediment Quality^ 91 4.6.3 Land Use and Macroinvertebrate Community Characteristics^ 92 4.6.4 Land Cover and Sediment Quality^ 93 4.6.5 Land Cover and Macroinvertebrate Community Characteristics^ 93 4.6.6 Historical Land Cover and Macroinvertebrate Community Characteristics ^ 94 Chapter 5 DISCUSSION^ 95 5.1 Climate and Land Activity in the Salmon River Catchment^ 95 5.1.1 Current Land Use in the Salmon River Catchment 95 5.1.2 Current Land Cover in the Salmon River Catchment^ 96 5.1.3 Historical Trends in Land Activity in the Salmon River Catchment^ 97 5.2 Water Quality in the Salmon River Catchment^ 97 5.2.1 Current Water Quality Conditions in the Salmon River Catchment^ 97 5.2.2 Historical Trends in Water Quality in the Salmon River Catchment 99 5.3 Sediment Quality in the Salmon River Catchment^ 100 5.3.1 Current Sediment Quality Conditions in the Salmon River Catchment^ 100 5.3.2 Historical Trends in Sediment Quality in the Salmon River Catchment^ 101 5.4 Macroinvertebrate Communities in the Salmon River Catchment^ 101 5.4.1 Current Macroinvertebrate Community Characteristics in the Salmon River Catchment^ 101 5.4.2 Historical Trends in Macroinvertebrate Community Characteristics in the Salmon River Catchment 105 5.5 Relationships between Land Activity and Environmental Variables in the Salmon River Catchment^ 106 5.5.1 Land Use and Environmental Variables^ 107 5.5.2 Land Cover and Environmental Variables 108 Chapter 6 SUMMARY^ 110 6.1 Land Activity 110 6.2 Water and Sediment Quality^ 111 6.3 Macroinvertebrate Community 112 6.4 Links between Land Activity and the Stream Environment^ 113 Chapter 7 RECOMMENDATIONS^ 115 LITERATURE CITED^ 117 APPENDICES^ 129 Appendix A: Summary of Historical Sampling in the Salmon River Catchment^ 129 Appendix B: Land Activity Results ^  132 Appendix C: Water Quality Results  144 Appendix D: Sediment Quality Results ^ 167 Appendix E: Macroinvertebrate Results  178 Appendix F: Land Activity and Environmental Quality Results^  194 Appendix G: Site Photos^ 213 vi List of Tables Table 3.1 Summary of sampling site location and historical site ID in the Salmon River catchment, by study^  19 Table 3.2 Water quality guidelines for selected physical, ion and nutrient variables.^ 26 Table 3.3 Sediment trace metal guidelines, uncontaminated lake sediment trace metal concentrations and surficial material trace metal concentrations in the Salmon River catchment.^ 28 Table 4.1 Seasonal total precipitation (mm), by sample period.^ 34 Table 4.2 2004 Land use classification for the Salmon River catchment.^ 36 Table 4.3 2004 Land use as percent coverage in a 30 m stream buffer, by site.^ 38 Table 4.4 2004 Land use as percent coverage in a 100 m stream buffer, by site. 38 Table 4.5 a-d Proportional impervious and forest cover in buffer widths, by site (1974, 1995 and 2004).^ 40 Table 4.6 Population of Langley City and the Township of Langley 1976-2005.^ 41 Table 4.7 Significant Mann-Whitney results for specific conductivity, by site (a = 0.05).^ 44 Table 4.8 Significant Mann-Whitney results for NO3 --N, by site (a = 0.05) 46 Table 4.9 Significant Mann-Whitney results for PO4 -3 -P, by site (a = 0.05)^ 48 Table 4.10 Significant Spearman rank correlation coefficients for precipitation intervals and selected water quality parameters (a = 0.1).^  50 Table 4.11 Summary of annual median specific conductivity from 1974/75-2004/05, by site^ 51 Table 4.12 Summary of annual median NO 3 --N concentrations from 1974/75-2004/05, by site..51 Table 4.13 Summary of annual median PO43-P concentrations from 1994/95-2004/05, by site. 52 Table 4.14 Annual median values of water quality parameters in the Salmon River catchment, 1974/75-2004/05^ 53 Table 4.15 Median and quartile results for seasonal sediment trace metal concentrations in the Salmon River catchment.^ 57 Table 4.16 Significant Mann-Whitney U test results for sediment trace metals concentrations, by stream region (a = 0.05). 57 Table 4.17 Significant Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results between trace metals (a = 0.1). ^  62 Table 4.18 Significant Mann-Whitney results for temporal sediment trace metal concentrations, (1991 versus 2005), by stream region (a = 0.05). ^ 63 Table 4.19 Summary statistics for macroinvertebrate total abundance at selected sites in the Salmon River catchment, 1975-2005. ^ 81 Table 4.20 Summary statistics for macroinvertebrate EPT abundances at selected sites in the Salmon River catchment,1975-2005. 84 Table 4.21 Summary of Pearson correlation coefficients (r) and principal components 1 and 2, for separate Principal Components Analyses (a = 0.1).^ 90 Table 4.22 Significant Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results between macroinvertebrate community characteristics and sediment quality characteristics (a = 0.1) ^ 91 Table 4.23 Significant Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results between sediment quality characteristics and land use type, in two buffer widths (a = 0.1).^ 91 vii Table 4.24 Significant Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results between sediment characteristics and general land use categories, in two buffer widths (a = 0.1).^ 92 Table 4.25 Significant Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results between macroinvertebrate community characteristics and land use by type, in two buffer widths (a = 0.1)^ 92 Table 4.26 Significant Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results between macroinvertebrate community characteristics and general land use, in two buffer widths (a = 0.1) 93 Table 4.27 Significant Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results between sediment quality characteristics and land cover, in two buffer widths (a = 0.1).^ 93 Table 4.28 Significant Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results between macroinvertebrate community characteristics and land cover, in two buffer widths (a = 0.1). ^  94 Table 5.1 Summary of water quality guideline exceedances in the Salmon River catchment. .... 99 Table 5.2 Summary of sediment trace metal guideline or threshold exceedances in the Salmon River catchment.^  101 viii List of Figures Figure 1.1 2004 Orthophotograph of the Salmon River catchment located in the Township of Langley, British Columbia^ 3 Figure 3.1 Sampling site locations in the Salmon River catchment^ 18 Figure 4.1 Total monthly precipitation, total monthly precipitation normals and mean daily flow for the Salmon River catchment, 1973-1975 sample period^ 33 Figure 4.2 Total monthly precipitation, total monthly precipitation normals and mean daily flow for the Salmon River catchment, 1993-1995 sample period 33 Figure 4.3 Total monthly precipitation, total monthly precipitation normals and mean daily flow for the Salmon River catchment, 2003-2005 sample period^ 34 Figure 4.4 Mean monthly flow and mean monthly flow normals for the Salmon River catchment, 1973-1975, 1993-1995, and 2003-2005 sample periods 35 Figure 4.5 Summary of land use change in the Salmon River catchment between 1974, 1994 and 2004, based on land use category descriptions^ 39 Figure 4.6 Specific conductivity (µS/cm) spatial and seasonal trends in the Salmon River catchment, by site^ 43 Figure 4.7 Specific conductivity (µS/cm) spatial and seasonal trends in the Salmon River catchment, at selected sites^ 43 Figure 4.8 Nitrate (mg/L) spatial and seasonal trends in the Salmon River catchment, by site ^45 Figure 4.9 Nitrate (mg/L) spatial and seasonal trends in the Salmon River catchment, at selected sites^ 45 Figure 4.10 Orthophosphate (mg/L) spatial and seasonal trends in the Salmon River catchment, by site 47 Figure 4.11 Orthophosphate (mg/L) spatial and seasonal trends in the Salmon River catchment, at selected sites^ 47 Figure 4.12 Dry season 24 hour total precipitation and NO3 --N concentrations at SAL 07^48 Figure 4.13 Wet season 24 hour total precipitation and total coliform counts at SAL 07^49 Figure 4.14 Dry season 48 hour total precipitation and fecal coliform counts at SAL 02 ^49 Figure 4.15 Spatial and temporal trends in Cr from sediments of the Salmon River catchment ^ 58 Figure 4.16 Spatial and temporal trends in Cu from sediments of the Salmon River catchment ^58 Figure 4.17 Spatial and temporal trends in Fe from sediments of the Salmon River catchment ^ 59 Figure 4.18 Spatial and temporal trends in Mg from sediments of the Salmon River catchment ^ 59 Figure 4.19 Spatial and seasonal trends in Mn from sediments of the Salmon River catchment ^ 60 Figure 4.20 Spatial and temporal trends in Ni from sediments of the Salmon River catchment ^ 60 Figure 4.21 Spatial and temporal trends in Zn from sediment of the Salmon River catchment ^61 Figure 4.22 2005 Total macroinvertebrate abundance in the Salmon River catchmnet^ 65 Figure 4.23 2005 Macroinvertebrate rarefied family richness in the Salmon River catchment^ 66 Figure 4.24 2005 EPT total abundance in the Salmon River catchment.^ 66 Figure 4.25 2005 EPT proportional abundance in the Salmon River catchment.^66 Figure 4.26 2005 EPT rarefied richness in the Salmon River catchment 67 Figure 4.27A-D 2005 Coleoptera and Diptera proportional abundance of total macroinvertebrates in the Salmon River catchment^ 70 Figure 4.27E-H 2005 Ephemeroptera and Oligochaeta proportional abundance of total macroinvertebrates in the Salmon River catchment.^ 71 ix Figure 4.27I-L. 2005 Plecoptera and Trichoptera proportional abundance of total macroinvertebrates in the Salmon River catchment.^ 72 Figure 4.28A-D. 2005 Baetidae and Emphemerellidae proportional abundance of Ephemeroptera taxa in the Salmon River catchment.^ 73 Figure 4.28E-H. 2005 Ephemerellidae and Leptophlebiidae proportional abundance of Ephemeroptera taxa in the Salmon River catchment^ 74 Figure 4.29A-D. 2005 Capniidae and Nemouridae proportional abundance of Plecoptera taxa in the Salmon River catchment.^ 75 Figure 4.29E-F. 2005 Perlidae proportional abundance of Plecoptera taxa in the Salmon River catchment.^ 76 Figure 4.30A-D. 2005 Glossosomatidae and Hydropsychidae proportional abundance of Trichoptera taxa in the Salmon River catchment.^ 77 Figure 4.31 2005 Proportional abundance of macroinvertebrate taxa according to functional feeding group in the Salmon River catchment. 79 Figure 4.32 2005 Proportional abundance macroinvertebrate taxa of according to tolerance in the Salmon River mainstem^ 80 Figure 4.33 2005 Proportional abundance macroinvertebrate taxa of according to tolerance in Salmon River tributary sites. 80 Figure 4.34 Total macroinvertebrate abundance (1975, 1995 and 2005) in the Salmon River mainstem^ 82 Figure 4.35 Total macroinvertebrate abundance (1975, 1995 and 2005) in Coghlan Creek^ 82 Figure 4.36 Rarefied family richness (1995 and 2005) in the Salmon River catchment^ 83 Figure 4.37 EPT total abundance (1975, 1995 and 2005) in the Salmon River mainstem.^ 85 Figure 4.38 EPT total abundance (1975, 1995 and 2005) in Coghlan Creek.^ 85 Figure 4.39 EPT proportional abundance (1975, 1995 and 2005) in the Salmon River mainstem ^ 86 Figure 4.40 EPT proportional abundance (1975, 1995 and 2005) in Coghlan Creek.^ 86 Figure 4.41 Rarefied EPT richness (1995 and 2005) in the Salmon River catchment. 87 Figure 4.42 Principal Component Analysis on relative abundance data, 1975, 1995 and 2005 ^ 88 Figure 4.43 Principal Component Analysis on relative abundance data, 1975 and 2005.^ 89 Figure 4.44 Principal Component Analysis on relative abundance data, 1995 and 2005.^ 89 List of Abbreviations and Symbols Al^Aluminum ALR Agricultural Land Reserve As^Arsenic Ba Barium BC CDC^British Columbia Centre for Disease Control Bo^Boron Cd Cadmium Cr^Chloride Co Cobalt Cr^Chromium Cu Copper CV^Coefficient of Variation EPT Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera Fe^Iron GIS Geographic Information System HDPE^High Density Polyethylene Hr Hours ICP-AES^Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometer m^metre mm millimetre Mg^Magnesium Mn Manganese Mo^Molybdenum micro siemens per centimeter N^Nitrogen NH4+-N^Ammonium as Nitrogen Ni^Nickel NO3"-N^Nitrate as Nitrogen NPS Non-Point Source ORCBC^Outdoor Recreation Council of British Columbia P^Phosphorus Pb Lead PO4 3-POrthophosphate Se^Selenium Sr Strontium U^Uranium !UM micro metre Zn^Zinc xi Acknowledgements I am grateful to following two agencies for providing research and financial support throughout the course of this study: the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) and the Canadian Water Network (CWN). There are also numerous people I would like to give thanks to for their support and would like them to know they played an important role in the completion this study and my stay at the University of British Columbia. To start my supervisor Dr. Hans Schreier for his continued commitment and advice, and my committee members Dr. John Richardson and Dr. Ken Hall for their guidance in the classroom and out in the field. I would also like to thank the following people for their patience, assistance and expertise in the lab: Pina Viola, Nancy Hofer, Carol Dyck, Gina Bestbier, Sandra Brown, and Les Lavkulich. Two additional people should not go unmentioned, field assistants extraordinaire: Trudy Naugler and Jonathan Ross to whom I am greatly indebted. Last but not least I am very grateful to my family, friends and recent colleagues for their unwavering support and encouragement and for helping me keep perspective throughout this process. xii Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction The expansion of urban areas and densification of populations in urban-rural fringe environments is a global phenomenon. In the Salmon River catchment, in the township of Langley, British Columbia such changes have come at the expense of the surrounding natural landscape by converting forest and wetland habitat into low density development and mixed high intensity land use (BC MOE, 2006). This is also associated with a variety of changes that impact the catchment environment such as increased impervious surfaces and non-point source pollution (NPS). An aerial view of the Lower Fraser Valley quickly reveals the eastward creep of urban sprawl from Vancouver. The Salmon River catchment straddles the boundary of urban and rural environments in the Fraser Valley. Like many other fringe environments, the Salmon River catchment is experiencing the pressures of development both from within its communities and from surrounding metropolitan areas. Ecologically important in terms of coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and other salmonid spawning habitat (Schreier per. comm., 2007 and BC MOE, 1996), the Salmon River area is also historically important as it is home to an early settlement in the province, Fort Langley (Cherrington, 1992). The degradation of streams in urban rural fringe regions occurs through complex interactions between the hydrological cycle, chemical and biological mechanisms of the stream environment. In turn the effects of urbanization are threefold, comprising physical, chemical and biological consequences to the stream environment (Paul and Myers, 2001). Physical changes include decreased riparian vegetation extent and quality (Coles et al., 2004 and Paul and Myers, 2001), changing temperature regimes (Hatt et al., 2004) and changing regimes of large woody debris (Larson et al., 2001). Shifts in impervious coverage, resulting from urbanization, can affect the physical stream environment through changing hydrology, including the magnitude and variability of both stream flow volume and velocity (Jennings and Jarnagin, 2002). From a chemistry standpoint both older (Benke et al., 1981) and newer catchment studies (Coles et al., 2004) have demonstrated that stream water and sediment quality may be altered by changing land activity. In terms of biological implications, in Washington State, biological indicators (both fish and aquatic insect indices) declined during the initial phase of urbanization (total impervious surface coverage of 5-10%) (May et al., 1997). Other authors (i.e. Fitzpatrick et al., 2004 and 1 Morse at al., 2003) have also noted that low levels of urbanization impact stream invertebrate communities. Traditional evaluation efforts have focused on water and sediment quality of the stream environment and, not surprisingly, the majority of data on urban streams is composed of these two types of information (Paul and Myers, 2001). Both critical features of the stream environment, water and sediment quality information offer little insight into another key aspect of streams: the biological community. Biological assessments have pointed out the inadequacy of water quality alone in accurately depicting the influence of land activity on the stream environment (Morse et al., 2005, Volez et al., 2005 and Duda et al., 1982). Furthermore, attempting to quantify all water and sediment characteristics necessary to truly measure land use impacts can prove both logistically and financially challenging (Duda et al., 1982). Due to the nature of macroinvertebrate communities, biological monitoring offers the opportunity to capture the complex and cumulative influences of land use on the stream environment (Reice and Wohlenberg, 1993). This thesis examines the cumulative spatial and temporal effects of land activity on the Salmon River using benthic macroinvertebrates as environmental integrators. Patterns in community response are further explored by examining historical trends in selected water quality and sediment variables over the similar time periods. 1.2 Context Salmon River Catchment Located in the Lower Fraser Valley of southwestern British Columbia, the Salmon River catchment is approximately 77 km2 in expanse, with the majority of the catchment situated in the township of Langley. Peak elevations in this lowland system approach 140 m. The headwaters of the river originate northeast of the city of Aldergrove (refer to Figure 1.1). From here the 33 km of the river's mainstem flows in a northwesterly direction, before turning more directly northward and joining the Fraser River along its south bank, west of Fort Langley (Township of Langley, 2007). Several smaller tributaries are also a part of the drainage network of this catchment, including Coghlan, Davidson, Otter and Union Creeks (Township of Langley, 2007). Two of these tributaries are of particular interest in this study, the Coghlan and Davidson creeks. 2 Figure 1.1 2004 Orthophotograph of the Salmon River catchment located in the Township of Langley, British Columbia. The headwaters of Coghlan Creek form along the border of the Township of Langley and the City of Abbotsford before meeting the Salmon River in Williams Park, at approximately the mainstem' s half way point. Davidson Creek, whose headwaters also occur along the border between Abbotsford and Langley, north of the origins of Coghlan Creek, joins the Salmon River south of Fort Langley. Additional important hydrological features of this catchment include the Aldergrove, Hopington and Fort Langley aquifers. The unconfined Hopington aquifer lies mid- reach in the catchment, influencing the both water quantity and quality of Coghlan Creek and the Salmon River mainstem, most prominently in the dry season (Schreier per. comm., 2007). 3 Surficial geology of the catchment is composed of a combination of glacio-fluvial, marine and river deposit materials. A detailed account of surficial geology, in terms of type and spatial extent is available in Beale (1976) and Cook (1994). Lowland and downstream portions of the catchment are characterized by podzol soils, while a mix of podzols and gleysols occur mid catchment and some brunisols are found in the upland regions. Typically, lowland areas are poorly to imperfectly drained, more readily drained soils occur in upland areas (Luttmerding, 1980). Further detailed explanations of soil characteristics of the Langley area are available in Luttmerding (1980). Like much of the Lower Fraser Valley the climate of the Salmon River catchment consists of cool wet winters followed by warm dry summers. Mean annual daily temperatures at the Langley climate station (Station ID: 1104555 (1957-1986), Latitude: 49° 3' N Longitude:,122° 34' W), range from 5°C to 13°C. Mean annual total precipitation is slightly less than 1500 mm on average, with the majority of precipitation occurring as rainfall. In terms of stream condition, peak flow generally occurs between November and February, while minimum flow conditions occur July through October (based on continuous data from 1969 and more intermittent records prior to this date) (WSC, 2007). According to Outdoor Recreation Council of British Columbia (ORCBC) (2007) the Salmon River is one of the few rivers in the Lower Fraser Valley to retain a natural course. Although the river does follow an unaltered course, it has not entirely escaped the influence of development as the banks and nearby riparian zones along many parts of the river are impacted by infrastructure associated with road crossings and drainage ditches. A further alteration to the Salmon River is a pump station near the mouth of the river, initially installed in 1949, which controls flooding from the Fraser River, typically between March and July each year (Cook, 1994). This pump was upgraded to a screw pump in spring 1999 to improve fish migration capacities (Jones, 1999). Based on the opinion of conservation and recreation groups, resource managers and river conservationists in British Columbia, the Salmon River tied for tenth position on the most endangered rivers list (ORCBC, 2007). This classification is based on concerns of nutrient loading, increased flow flashiness, and future concerns relating to dredging, headwater development and development above the three aquifers. Decreased low flow conditions, caused by excessive groundwater extraction, has also been identified as a concern by Golder and 4 Associates (2005). These concerns are particularly important in the context of the Salmon River catchment being considered a reference catchment for others in the Lower Fraser Valley (Richardson per. comm., 2006). 1.3 Background 1.3.1 Land Ativity Indicators and Non-point Source Pollution Land Activity Indicators Two types of land use prevalent in the Salmon River catchment, agriculture and urban land use, are potential sources of NPS pollution and influences to stream macroinvertebrate communities. Wernick et al. (1998) concluded that a combination of residential and agricultural activity contributed to elevated nitrate conditions in the Salmon River catchment. Both urban and agricultural activity are also associated with landscape alterations. Two such alterations, known to impact the stream environment, are used in this study as indicators associated with both land uses; changing extents of imperviousness and forest cover. The first land use indicator, imperviousness is primarily considered an indicator of urbanization (Arnold et al., 1996, Coles et al., 2004, May et al., 1997, Morse et al., 2002). As evident in any urban or semi urban area imperviousness or impervious surfaces include roadways, sidewalks, parking lots, various types of infrastructure and compacted soils (Jennings and Jarnagin, 2002). In the agricultural context, imperviousness may occur to a lesser degree but includes soil compaction, often a secondary consideration in terms of soil degradation (Pierzynski et al., 1994). Increased imperviousness can affect the stream environment through several mechanisms beginning with changing catchment hydrology. This often entails change in the delivery pathways and storage of water through decreased soil-water infiltration. Lack of or reduced soil- water infiltration decreases lag time between rain events and peak stream flow for water that is delivered to the stream via this pathway, while at the same time reducing soil and ground water recharge. Peak flows (normal and extreme) often occur more frequently and are larger due to a larger amount of water delivered to the stream via surface runoff (Jennings and Jarnagin, 2002, Arnold et al., 1996). Low or base flows are reduced due to decreased soil and ground water recharge caused by increasing imperviousness (Jennings and Jarnagin, 2002). Generally the relationship between precipitation and stream flow becomes more direct with increasing 5 imperviousness (Arnold et al., 1996). This relationship is further exacerbated by directly connecting land use to the stream environment via gutters, pipes and storm sewer outflows, referred to as effective impervious area. Drainage networks may be a bigger factor to stream water quality than impervious area (Hatt et al., 2004). Change in ambient flow characteristics and water quality in turn impacts the physical instream structure and function. For example, increased flow volume and velocity may lead to erosion, increased sediment transport and loss of biological habitat. Increased development is associated with increased generation potential of pollutants. The nature of pollutants generated depends on the land use (Paul and Myers, 2001). An increase in the extent of impervious surfaces can facilitate the rate of transport of such pollutants to the stream environment. The extent to which pollutants reach the stream is further exaggerated by the limited pollution and nutrient processing capabilities of soils under intensive land use. Typically, these phenomena increase with development (Arnold et al., 1996, Hatt et al. 2004). The second land use indicator considered is forest cover. According to Coles et al., (2004) forest cover across multiple catchments becomes increasingly fragmented with urbanization. Benke et al. (1981) suggest that maintaining as much forest cover as possible is important to the promotion of stream health in an urbanizing environment. Furthermore, the conversion of forested land to agriculture (which may precede later urbanization) can release trace elements and nutrients from soil into the stream environment (Pierzynski et al., 1994). Non-point Source Pollution Agricultural activity and urbanization can impact the stream environment via similar land use indicators and physical pathways. However, the ways these two land uses influence the stream water and sediment quality, can be distinct. One general impact of agriculture on water quality in the stream environment is nutrient enrichment, mainly as increased nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations. Nutrient enrichment leading to eutrophication can contribute to bacterial and algal growth, reducing dissolved oxygen, and increasing turbidity (Pierzynski et al., 1994b). Inorganic N based fertilizers (such as ammonium nitrate, ammonium phosphate, ammonium sulphate, and urea), anhydrous ammonia application to fields, N compound injection into livestock feed, and animal waste can be a sources of N compounds to the stream environment (CCME, 2003, CCME, 6 2000). Considering that N demand by agriculture has increased since the 1970s across Canada, N enrichment in aquatic environments is an increasing concern (CCME, 2003). Aside from fertilizer application, other significant sources of P include manure. Poultry manure has the highest nutrient content, while manure from swine and cattle (both dairy and beef cattle) may have the highest potential source of P. It is also noted that the availability of P may be partly dependent on the manure storage system. Generally, high density animal production is a source of P contamination to the stream environment (Kleinman et al., 2005). In terms of trace metal contamination, chicken, swine and cattle manure may be sources of calcium (Ca), copper (Cu) iron (Fe), aluminum (Al) and magnesium (Mg) (Kleinman et al., 2005, Nicholson et al., 1999). Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) have also been detected in manure as a result of feed supplements (McBride and Spears, 2001 and Nicholson et al., 1999). Furthermore McBride and Spiers (2001) point out that agricultural fertilizer can contribute to increased cadmium (Cd), uranium (U), arsenic (As) and molybdenum (Mo) concentrations. Urban land use is also associated with NPS pollution. Urban and urbanizing land use change specific conductivity (an indicator of ions in water) and temperature regimes in the stream environment while contributing to elevated total loads or concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, phosphorus compounds (e.g. total and filterable reactive phosphorus), nitrogen compounds (e.g. ammonium), and trace metals (e. g. Cu, chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), and Fe via increases in suspended sediments or total dissolved solids) (Choe et al, 2002, Grapentine et al., 2004, Lee and Bang, 2000, Sansalone and Christina 2004, Hatt et al., 2004). More specifically, roof top runoff, depending on the roofing material, may also contribute elevated trace metal concentrations including Cu, Pb and Zn. The corrosion of galvanized roofing and galvanized auto components is a source of Zn, while tar roofs and brake lining are potential sources of Cu (Schueler, 1994). Roadways and related transportation as well as other specific land use activity (i.e. residential or industrial land activity) may introduce a myriad of additional chemicals to the catchment (Maltby et al., 1995). Both base flow and storm flow may experience changes in the above constituents. Storm flow may do so episodically while base flows, may do so on an on-going basis (Hatt et al., 2004). The first flush concept refers to a disproportionately large amount (either in concentration (Choe et al., 2002, Lee and Bang, 2000) or mass (Sansalone and Christina, 2004) of constituent delivery during early portions of a precipitation-runoff event. This concept is particularly important in 7 terms of the delivery of suspended sediment and dissolved solids to the stream environment during storm events (Sansalone and Christina, 2004). Given the nature and type of pollutants generated from both urban and agricultural activity, several indicators of water and sediment quality will be used in this study with the intention of investigating the influence of mixed land activity in the Salmon River catchment. These include specific conductivity, CI, nutrients (forms of nitrogen such as ammonium (NI-14+- N), nitrate (NO 3 --N), and orthophosphate (PO4 -3-P) as a form of phosphorus), and two pathogen indicators, total and fecal coliforms. Sediment trace metal concentrations with also be investigated. Each variable considered in this study is naturally occurring; elevated levels may indicate human influence. Water Quality Variables Several water quality variables used in this study are described in further detail below, including there importance to the stream environment and both natural and anthropogenic sources. Less toxic than other forms of nitrogen, the nitrate ion (NO 3 -) can affect organisms through osmoregulation and respiratory problems (CCME, 2003). This inorganic soluble form of nitrogen has natural sources via precipitation and atmospheric deposition and may be elevated by anthropogenic activities. Point sources of nitrate include municipal wastewater and septic tanks, while non-point sources include agricultural (e.g. inorganic and organic fertilizer, irrigation water) and urban run-off. (CCME, 2003).Nitrate appears in groundwater in agricultural catchments with excess inputs of this nutrient and when exported occurs mainly as nitrate (Gundersen and Bashkin, 1992). Nitrogen may not necessarily enter the stream environment directly as NO3 --N, but may be converted from ammonia through nitrification processes (CCME, 2003). Concentrations of NO3 --N in water may also be combined with existing concentrations of nitrogen compounds in feed causing further concern for livestock health (Brown, 2006). A second nutrient, phosphorus in the PO4 -3-P form was used in this study. Orthophosphate is an inorganic form of phosphorus, is used directly by aquatic biota. Phosphorus is often the limiting nutrient in aquatic environment having both natural and anthropogenic sources (e.g. wastewater, fertilizers) (CCME, 2004). Nitrogen in combination with P can contribute to eutrophication processes in aquatic environments, reducing dissolved 8 oxygen concentrations and indirectly affecting aquatic life (Pierzynski et al., 1994 (Ch.4), Nordin et al., 2001). Sediment Quality Variables Sediments can act as a repository for contaminants, such as trace metals and concentrations beyond natural levels may indicate human influence (Grapentine et al., 2004, Lee, 2000). The sediment environment is an important habitat to many benthic species. These species can act as a vectors transferring contamination through the stream food web. The proportion of fine particles (i.e. clays) is an important component of sediment quality in that it is the critical fraction of sediments in which absorption and transport of contaminants may occur due to the greater surface area-to-volume ratios of clays, compared to larger particles (Stone and Droppo, 1994). Trace metal concentrations in fine material is also important as these deposits may become long-term reservoirs in the stream environment (CCME, 2001). The re-suspension of sediment particles associated with trace metals may affect water quality or be re-deposited elsewhere along the watercourse. Several sediment trace metals which occurred in measurable amounts in this study are described below in 'alphabetical order. Firstly is Cr, which in the aquatic environment results naturally from weathering processes (Gauglhofer and Bianchi, 1991). In aerobic water Cr exists in its dissolved form, Cr+6 and under anaerobic conditions Cr+3 prevails, with the former being more toxic and dependent on pH conditions (CCME, 1999b, Gauglhofer and Bianchi, 1991). The Cr+3 form absorbs to particles strongly and may be more persistent in the sediment fraction (CCME, 1999b). A second trace metal, Cu, enters the soil environment and eventually the aquatic environment through leaching and runoff processes. The amount and toxicity of Cu depends on weathering, soil formation, redox potential, pH, hardness, organic matter content, complexing compounds and drainage. Copper occurs in higher concentrations in the presence of finer sediment fractions with high organic matter content (Scheinberg, 1991, Singleton, 1987) and has an affinity for fractions of Fe and Mn oxides, with which it forms compounds (CCME, 1999c). One of the more abundant elements, Fe, like Cu, can also enter the soil environment and ultimately the aquatic environment through weathering processes (Helmut, 1991). Higher concentrations of Mg are often found in rocks and minerals compared to overlying soils due to losses during weathering processes. Like Cu and Fe, Mg is an essential 9 element and is involved in organism metabolism, growth and photosynthetic processes (Aikawa, 1991). Manganese occurs in rock, soil and minerals and is released through the dissolution of these materials (Riemer, 1999). Anthropogenic inputs to the streams include atmospheric deposition, sewage and wastewater. Iron and Mn oxides can carry both organic and inorganic pollutants and can be considered sources of such (Schiele, 1991). Manganese in its inorganic form is relatively non-toxic and plays an important role in cellular processes (Schiele, 1991) and toxicity of Mn has been shown to depend on hardness (Riemer, 1999). Nickel (Ni) also enters the environment through the dissolution of rocks and soil and contributions from biological cycles. Like many of the other trace metals its toxicity depends on form and pH (Sunderman and Oskarsson, 1991). Finally, Zn occurs as part of many minerals in the environment. Anthropogenic Zn sources include sewage and wastewater, particularly in the presence of galvanized pipes. Zinc is often bound to clay and precipitates with Fe and Mn oxides (Ohnsorge and Wilhelm, 1991). The toxicity of Zn is dependent on numerous factors including hardness, salinity, temperature and the presence of other contaminants and organic matter, also soluble species of Zn tend to be more toxic (Nagpal, 1999, CCME, 1999d). 1.3.2 Macroinvertebrates as Indicators of Stream Health Due to complex physical and biochemical interactions in aquatic ecosystems, changes in the stream environment are seldom isolated. Native aquatic organisms which have adapted to conditions in the stream environment serve as integrative indicators of change. One such biological indicator is macroinvertebrates. In this study the term macroinvertebrate refers to lotic freshwater, substrate-dwelling insect and non-insect taxa. More technically, macroinvertebrates are defined as taxa retained in mesh sized 200 pm to 500 gm (Rosenberg and Resh, 1993). According to Attrill (2002), macroinvertebrates are considered the most useful indicator for local community-level impact studies in lotic environments. Numerous characteristics of this community contribute to their value in stream monitoring, including their ubiquitous nature, the large number of species within the community, their relatively sedentary and long life cycles (generally 1 year, although instances of longer life histories exist for some taxa), they are taxonomically well known, and 10 environmental response relationships are well documented for a variety of effects. Furthermore sampling techniques and analysis are well developed (Rosenberg and Resh, 1993). Overall, the intimate relationship that macroinvertebrates have with their environment, in terms of mechanisms and duration of exposure, as well as their functional roles in the stream ecology, make this group invaluable in characterizing stream health (Reice and Wohlenberg, 1993, Rosenberg and Resh, 1993). Research examining macroinvertebrate community response to environmental conditions extends to specific single point source impacts such as sediment metal contamination from mine drainage (i.e. Afri-Mehennaoui et al., 2004, Clements 2004, Clements, 1994, Clements et al., 2000, Maret et al., 2003, Marques et al., 2003), to evaluations of the complexities of stream recovery from restoration efforts (i.e. Friberg et al., 1998, Gore, 1979, Gortz, 1998, Laasonen et al., 1998, Muotka et al., 2002, Tikkanen et al., 1994). Other types of environmental disturbances investigated include organic enrichment (which may lead to increased abundance and taxa dominance), changing pH (where lowered pH increases trace metal availability and is followed by a decline in overall species richness and productivity) and other trace metal contamination (which may contribute to reduced abundance and richness and taxa dominance) (Jackson et al., 1993). Macroinvertebrate research has further evolved to measure the complex and multiple affects of land use change, particularly urbanization. One conceptual, regional model proposed by May et al. (1997) relates attributes of instream habitat and aquatic biota to catchment and riparian characteristics. As catchment and riparian characteristics experience the impact of urbanization the stream characteristics are affected both directly and indirectly, ultimately contributing to declining biological integrity. Methods of Macroinvertebrate Biological Assessment Methods of biological assessment specific to stream macroinvertebrates are varied. They include single measures, such as total abundance, diversity, and richness, to complex community characterizations, such as taxa composition, functional feeding groups, presence of tolerant/intolerant taxa, and multivariate evaluations. Studies have investigated the ability of specific measures to capture response to disturbance gradients (Cao et al., 1996, Garcia-Criado, 11 1999, Mouillot and Lepretre, 1999), while Norris and Georges (1993) suggest a combination of two metrics; total abundance and richness, illustrates the state of the stream community. In this study, richness, defined as the number of different taxa at a given taxonomic level of identification, is used to compare macroinvertebrate communities spatially and temporally. One caveat in practice is, it is unlikely to enumerate every species in a community, particularly insect communities. It is also difficult to measure true richness when only a sample of the community is gathered. Furthermore, comparing different sized samples is complicated given that the number of species increases with sample size (Allan, 1995c, Krebs, 1999). Rarefied richness, also known as rarefaction, offers the opportunity to standardize richness across different sample sizes and addresses this issue. This statistical method estimates the number of species expected in random sample of individuals taken from a collection. Drawbacks of this technique include that comparisons be between taxonomically similar communities, similar habitats and similar sample methods (Krebs, 1999, Norris and Georges, 1993). Another assumption of rarefaction is that species are randomly dispersed within a community. In nature, specifically stream riffles, the clumping or grouping of species may occur and generate positive and negative correlations between species (Krebs, 1999, Norris and Georges, 1993). Computer simulation has suggested that the greater the degree of clumping in a community the greater the overestimate of the expected number of species using rarefaction. This may be countered by using larger sample sizes that more accurately represent a community (Krebs, 1999). Macroinvertebrates in Urban and Semi-urban Environments A limited number of urban stream biological assessments have occurred (Paul and Myers, 2001), however, macroinvertebrates are the most widely studied aquatic group in relation to the effects of urbanization on the stream environment. In the literature, tools used to characterize macroinvertebrate community structure subject to urban or urbanizing land uses, range from single measures such as Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT) richness (i.e. Freeman and Schorr, 2002), to complex multivariate analysis of relative abundance (i.e. Milner and Oswood, 2000), and regionally bound multimetric biotic indices (i.e. Morely and Karr, 2002, Roy et al., 2003). 12 Generally, research suggests that macroinvertebrate community structure tends towards declining community integrity at urban sites and with increasing gradients of urbanization (Volez et al., 2005, Fitzpatrick et al, 2004, Gage et al., 2004, Gray, 2004, Morley and Karr, 2002, Lenat and Crawford, 1994). Other studies take a more pointed approach, investigating specific factors related to urban land use including stream diversion (specifically reduced flow volumes) (McIntosh et al., 2002), storm water outflows (Robson et al., 2005), road construction (Fore et al., 1996), and organic pollution (Duda et al., 1982). The combination of high flow and sewage exposure in controlled lab experiments, which may mimic exposure in natural stream environments, demonstrated greater population loss than either parameter acting alone (Borchardt and Statzner, 1990). Similarly, studies conducted in two separate regions, both using total impervious area (%) as a single indicator of urban influence, demonstrated negative relationships with increasing impervious area and benthic index scores (i.e. May et al., 1997), and total and EPT taxa richness (i.e. Morse et al., 2002). Lenat and Crawford (1994) who investigated the influence of both agriculture and urban land use found agricultural land use associated with increased abundance and decreased richness of intolerant taxa. This was countered by increased richness of tolerant taxa. Urban land use was more closely associated with low abundance and richness of the macroinvertebrate community. Each of these studies further strengthens the assumption that increasing land use (both in terms of intensity and expanse) influences the stream environment in terms of shifts in macroinvertebrate community structure away from that found in less disturbed conditions. The two indices considered in this study, impervious and forest cover, are also investigated by other authors in terms of their influence on macroinvertebrate community richness measures (i.e. Coles et al., 2004, Freeman and Schorr, 2004, Black et al., 2004, Roy at al., 2003, USGS, 1998). The above studies generally demonstrate inverse relationships between richness and imperviousness, while positive relationships with forest cover occur. Decreased macroinvertebrate community integrity associated with an increase in human influence, such as urbanization, appears in the literature, some variance in terms of the strength of spatial relationships exists. For example Morely and Karr (2002) found stronger relationships between land activity and macroinvertebrates exist at the sub-basin scale (Morely and Karr, 2002) while the catchment scale proved more influential in work by Freeman and Schorr (2004). This will be an important consideration in the current study. 13 Chapter 2 STUDY FRAMEWORK AND OBJECTIVES 2.1 Framework The general framework of this study was to employ macroinvertebrate community characteristics as integrative stream monitoring tools in an urbanizing environment. In combination with water and sediment quality information, macroinvertebrate community measures are used to determine whether the environmental quality of the Salmon River has changed spatially or temporally as a result of land activity in the surrounding catchment. Additionally, this study investigates if change in the macroinvertebrate community reflects change in water and sediment quality characteristics. Data collection undertaken in this study is intended to follow-up and compliment macroinvertebrate research conducted by Hall (1975, unpublished) and Richardson (1995, unpublished), as well environmental surveys of the Salmon River catchment by Beale (1976), Cook (1994) and Wernick (1996). The latter three studies include evaluation of surface water quality (ions, nutrients and pathogens), trace metal concentrations in stream sediment, and land activity evaluation. Given the dates on which each of these studies was conducted (refer to Table 3.1), information can be grouped into three distinct time periods for comparison and analysis of longer-term environmental trends in response to temporal land activity gradients. These time periods are: mid-1970s: 1974-1975, early-mid 1990s: 1991, 1994-1995, and mid 2000s: 2004- 2005 Water and sediment analysis, macroinvertebrate community characteristics, land use and cover, geographic information systems (GIS) and statistical analysis are used to determine relationships between land activity, the aquatic environment and the benthic macroinvertebrate community. 2.2 Objectives The goal of this study is to quantify relationships between the macroinvertebrate community, water and sediment quality and change in land activity, both in the broader catchment and the local riparian environment , over a three decade period in the Salmon River catchment. In order to achieve this goal there are several key objectives of this study, including: a) to quantify current land use and land cover and evaluate historical change in land cover (in defined buffer regions); b) to compare current and historical water and sediment quality; 14 c) to compare current and historical macroinvertebrate community characteristics; d) to examine current and historical spatial and temporal (seasonal) relationships and possible cause and effects between land activity, water and sediment quality, and the macroinvertebrate community using land use indicators and statistical techniques. In meeting the above objectives this study also generates additional background information specific to the Salmon River catchment that can be employed in future management and assessments of catchment health. 15 Chapter 3 METHODS 3.1 Climate Data and Land Activity Indices Evaluation 3.1.1 Meteorological and Hydrometric Data To assist in comparison and evaluation of catchment data, both meteorological and hydrometric datasets, from the three distinct time periods (1973-1975, 1993-1995 and 2003- 2005), were examined. Precipitation data, particularly total monthly precipitation (mm) collected at the Abbotsford International Airport climate station (Station ID: 1100030, Latitude: 49° 1 'N, Longitude: 122°21'W), were gathered from Environment Canada's National Climate Archive (EC, 2006). Similarly, hydrometric data, mainly mean daily flow (m 3 /s) measured at 72" Avenue on the Salmon River (Station ID: 08MH090, Latitude: 49°8'2" N, Longitude: 122°35'40" W), were obtained from Water Survey of Canada, Archived Hydrometric Data (WSC, 2006 and unpublished data). The historical hydrometric and meteorological datasets were used to compare historical climate conditions in relation to 1970-1991 precipitation normals and 1960-2005 daily flow normals, and to spot climate anomalies for consideration in data interpretation. 3.1.2 Geographic Information System (GIS) Data The catchment boundary of the Salmon River, with the exception of a small headwaters portion (located in the Municipality of Abbotsford) was the main unit of focus in Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis. Spatial data, including both land use and land cover were analyzed using ArcMap, version 9.1 GIS (© ESRI, 2005). Contributing areas 500 m upstream of each sample site were delineated using a digitized contour map with a spatial resolution of 2 m. Thirty metre and 100 m buffer zones were subsequently applied to each contributing area. For the sake of this study buffer zones refer to a perimeter of land of a given width which runs parallel to the stream bank on either side. These buffers extended the respective widths on either side of the stream bank, 500 m upstream of the sample site. Land use information for 2004 was used to evaluate recent land use conditions in the catchment. A digitized 2004 land use survey based on parcel division was provided by the Township of Langley. Land use was calculated as a per m 2 and as a percent (%) area in each upstream contributing area at both buffer widths. Incompatibility of historical land use information with current GIS software limited spatial land use evaluations to 2004. 16 Land cover evaluation was conducted for impervious area (defined as paved areas and infrastructure) and forest cover within the described contributing areas, for all three time periods. The extent of both land covers in 1974 was estimated from hard copy aerial photos (scale 1:12, 000) taken by The Province of British Columbia (B.C.). These photos were scanned and later transformed to conform to reference points in the catchment using a rubber sheeting technique (ESRI, 2007). Imperviousness and forest cover were subsequently delineated and digitized. Information for 1995 and 2005 land cover was delineated from digital orthophotographs taken in the respective years. The 1995 forest cover information was interpreted and verified by Elliot (2003) and later clipped to the appropriate buffer widths. The remaining 1995 land cover layer (impervious area) and two layers for 1974 could not be verified due to their historical nature. Similarly to land use, land cover types were calculated as a per m 2 and as a percent area in each upstream contributing area at both buffer widths. Proportional land use and land cover was used in analysis to control for size differences between contributing areas at both buffer widths. 3.2 Sample Site Selection Sample locations were chosen based on locations sampled in the 1970s and 1990s environmental surveys conducted by Beale (1976), Cook (1994), and Wernick (1996), as well as earlier macroinvertebrate surveys by Hall (1975, unpublished) and Richardson (1995 unpublished). Several additional sites were considered to ensure greater spatial coverage of the watercourse (i.e. site SAL 03 and SAL 05) as well as the representation of regions of groundwater influence (SAL 06, SAL 07 and SAL 08) and non-groundwater influence above and below the aquifer. A summary of site location and historical ID is available in Table 3.1. The sampling of historic sites was an important consideration in this study as it facilitated temporal comparisons of water quality, sediment quality, and macroinvertebrate communities. As indicated in Appendix A, historical sampling for the parameters was not spatially or temporally consistent. The sites selected capture the entire watercourse of the Salmon River and its associated tributaries while remaining as consistent as possible with historical sample efforts (refer to Figure 3.1). 17 British Columbia SAL 06 Salmon 0^1.25^2.5^5 Kilometers I^I^I^,^I.^i 3.3 Field Sampling 3.3.1 Overview of Sampling Methodology The sampling program was three-fold in focus. Water, sediment and macroinvertebrate samples were collected to characterize current conditions and to facilitate historical comparisons in the catchment. When possible, samples were collected in the similar seasonal time frames and gathered and analyzed in a manner consistent with past studies in order to minimize variance between efforts. Figure 3.1 Sampling site locations in the Salmon River catchment. 18 Table 3.1 Summary of sampling site location and historical site ID in the Salmon River catchment, by study. Original Study ID Water Quality^Sediment Quality^Macroinvertebrate Beale (1976) Wernick (1996) Cook (1994) Beale (1976) Hall (1975)* Richardson (1995)* Site ID Description Sampling Dates 04/06/74-31/03/75 02/03/94-01/02/95 21/08/91, 10/12/91 04/06/74-31/03/75 18/06/1975 09/1995 - 10/1995 SAL 01 Salmon River @ 88th Avenue SAL 02 Salmon River @ Ralvlison Crescent 2 2 2 2 4 - SAL 03 Davidson Creek @ Ralvlison Crescent 14 14 14 14 - SAL 04 Salmon River @ Highway #10 3 3 3 3 - SAL 05 Salmon River @ 72nd Avenue 6 6 6 6 9 - SAL 06 Salmon River @ Williams Park 4 4 4 4 11 4 SAL 07 Coghlan Creek @ Williams Park 5 5 5 5 12 5 SAL 08 Coghlan Creek @ 248th Street 19 19 - 14 19 SAL 09 Coghlan Creek @ 64th Avenue 20 20 - - 20 SAL 10 Salmon River @ 55th Avenue 7 7 7 7 15 - SAL 11 Salmon River @ 248th Street 9 9 9 9 16 9 SAL 12 Salmon River @ 48th Avenue 17 17 - 18 *unpublished data. 3.3.2 Water Quality Sampling In terms of water sampling frequency, a program for measuring the annual cycle in water quality parameters was concentrated at sites SAL 02, SAL 07, SAL 06 and SAL 11 on a bi- weekly basis (for a total of 29 sample occasions between March and December 2005). A second sampling regime was carried out at all sites on four occasions, with two sampling events falling in each of the wet and dry hydrological seasons (for specific dates refer to Appendix C), Water sampling facilitated analysis of physical, ion, nutrient and pathogen water quality parameters. For these two initial water sampling regimes water samples were collected and analyzed for the following parameters; conductivity (µS/cm), chloride (CI), total ammonia as ammonium (NH4+-N), nitrate (NO3 --N), and orthophosphate (PO4 -3-P). All samples were collected in clean acid-washed 1L HDPE bottles, from stream flow after adequate rinsing of the sample bottle with stream water. Duplicate samples at site SAL 07 were taken for quality control purposes. Pathogen indicator sampling for total and fecal coliforms were analyzed at the BC Centre for Disease Control. In addition several In situ water quality measurements were taken during macroinvertebrate sampling events. Specific conductivity and temperature were measured using a YSI Environmental YSI 30 meter, and dissolved oxygen was measured using a YSI 95 meter (C) YSI, 2007). In situ measures of pH were conducted using a Hanna pHep4 Pocket p1-1 TesterTM (© Hanna Instruments, 2005 (accuracy: ±0.05pH/±0.5°C). Additionally, triplicate water samples were collected in clean acid-bather 200 mL HDP bottles for turbidity analysis. These were stored in a cooler for a later laboratory analysis. 3.3.3 Sediment Sampling Sediment samples were collected at sites on two occasions: September 6 th, 2005 and December 7 th, 2005 (with the exception of SAL 09 during the initial sediment survey). These dates occur during high and low sediment accumulation conditions in the catchment which coincide with post low and high flow conditions, respectively. A small stainless steel pot attached to pole was used to collect grab samples of the upper 5 cm of the substrate. Samples were placed in doubled plastic bags in a cooler for transportation to the laboratory. Samples were collected from depositional areas at each site. The coarse nature of the streambed limited sampling attempts outside these areas. To facilitate quality control duplicate and triplicate 20 samples were collected at randomly selected sites to calculate field sampling and spatial variability. 3.3.4 Macroinvertebrate Sampling In conjunction with benthic macroinvertebrate sampling, several environmental and water quality parameters were also measured to ensure comparability (in terms of environmental conditions) between biological samples. Protocol used for these procedures followed Environment Canada's Invertebrate Biomonitoring Methods (Sylvestre, 2004). These measured parameters included canopy coverage, macrophyte coverage and riparian zone estimates, flow depth, thalweg velocity, bankfull and wetted stream widths, and substrate particle size estimates (for results refer to Appendix E). Macroinvertebrate samples were collected at nine sites between September 19 th and 25 th , 2005 when similar flow and climatic conditions prevailed. These sites are SAL 01, SAL 05, SAL 6, SAL 10, and SAL 11 on the Salmon River mainstem, SAL 03 on Davidson Creek, and SAL 7, SAL 08, and SAL 09 on Coghlan Creek. This is typically the period in which taxa richness is greater and flows are low and stable in southwestern British Columbia. Sites selected for sampling were based on suitability for the sample method employed as well as accessibility and safety. At each site a Surber Sampler (>363 pm mesh, 0.1 m 2 frame) was used to collect five samples in the mid-line of five subsequent upstream riffles. The field procedure was completed by transferring each sample into a separate container, following the inspection and removal of larger rocks (length > 4 cm). The remaining sample was preserved in a solution of 70% buffered formalin 3.4 Laboratory Analysis 3.4.1 Water Sample Analysis In the laboratory a Radiometer Analytical CDM 2e Conductivity Meter (© APHA, 1976) was used to measure conductivity within two days of sample collection. Chemical parameters including CI, NH4+-N, NO3 --N and PO4 "3-P were analyzed within two days at the UBC Pedology Laboratory. Samples were initially filtered using Whatman #41 filter paper prior to analysis on a Lachat XYZ QuickChemAE autoanalyzer (C) LaChat Instruments, 1990). The following methods were employed for nutrient analysis 10-117-07-1-A for Cr (detection limit 21 6.00 mg/L), 10-107-06-2-A for NH4 +-N (detection limit 0.10 mg/L), 12-107-04-1-B for NO3 - -N (detection limit 0.10 mg/L), and 10-115-01-1-A for PO4 3-P(detection limit 0.02 mg/L). Blanks, replicates, and standards were used to verify the accuracy and precision of results. Bacterial samples were delivered to the British Columbia Centre for Disease Control (BC CDC) in Vancouver for distribution and later analysis of total and fecal coliforms. 3.4.2 Sediment Sample Analysis Particle Size In addition to trace metal analysis particle size determination was employed as a further step in sediment quality analysis. The Rapid Method proposed by Kettler et al. (2001) was used to do so. This method was designed using agricultural soils and was employed in this study using aquatic freshwater sediments given the existence of similar objectives. This simplified method, compared to traditional laboratory procedure uses a series of sieving and sedimentation steps to determine the percent sand (<2 mm), silt (<62 gm) and clay (<4 pm) in sediment samples. Trace Metals In the laboratory, sediment samples were wet sieved with distilled water using a sequence of 1.7 mm, 600 gm and 63 pm stainless steel sieves in order to obtain the <63 pm sediment fraction. This sediment fraction accounts for both silt (<62 pm) and clay (<4 gm) particles, a critical fraction for the absorption and transport of contaminants (Stone and Droppo, 1994). Following this, sieved sediments were transferred to separate acid-washed glass beakers and placed in drying ovens at approximately 70°C. Once constant mass was achieved samples were removed and cooled. Using a ceramic mortar and pestle dried samples were disaggregated. Samples were stored in sealed plastic containers until further processing. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency method 200.2 was used to prepare sediment samples for the determination of total recoverable metals This method employs a hot, dilute mineral acid refluxing technique to extract metals from the samples, known as aqua regia (Martin, et al., 1991). Trace metal concentration tested for include aluminum (Al), arsenic (As) barium (Ba), boron (Bo), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), strontium (Sr), and zinc (Zn). Blanks, replicates and a certified standard reference material, 22 Priority PollutnTTM/CLP Lot No. D035-540, were used to verify the accuracy of laboratory results. 3.4.3 Macroinvertebrate Sample Analysis From each set of five replicate riffle samples, three samples were randomly chosen for further, independent processing. Whole samples were rinsed of formalin solution with water using a <63 gm sieve. Samples were then transferred to a sequence of 4 mm, 1.75 mm, 500 pm and <63 gm sieves for further separation before sorting and identification. All sorting and identification of organisms present in the 500 gm and larger sieves were conducted under a dissecting microscope. Organisms were initially separated from mineral and organic debris before being identified and tallied. Each sample was independently doubled checked to ensure minimal numbers of lost organisms. Taxonomic identification of benthic insects larvae was done to genus where practical, with the exception of Diptera and Oligochaeta which were classified to sub-family and family, respectively. The following references were used in taxonomic identification: Merritt and Cummins (1996), Stewart and Stark (2002) mainly for Plecoptera taxa, Wiggins (1977) for Trichoptera taxa, and Thorp and Covich (1991) for selected non-insect taxa. The identification of benthic non-insects was less consistent, varying between Order and Genus levels (refer to Appendix E). Non-benthic macroinvertebrates, pupae and terrestrial species were excluded from further sample analysis and data processing. Identification of organisms was independently verified throughout the process by taxonomists (Pina Viola and Nancy Hofer). 3.5 Data Analysis 3.5.1 Quality Analysis and Quality Control The coefficient of variation (CV) was the primary statistical measure used to evaluate within site variability of each environmental parameter (measured as variability of replicate site samples). It was also used to determine broader spatial variability of sediment samples within a given sample reach. In addition to evaluating environmental variability, this measure was employed to assess error in laboratory analysis for water, sediment and macroinvertebrate data. During laboratory analysis a minimum of three randomly selected duplicates of water and sediment samples were used to evaluate variability caused in instrument analysis. Standards and 23 blanks were also run during analysis of both mediums to determine accuracy and possible contamination of samples during laboratory procedures and later analysis. 3.5.2 Water Quality Data Analysis Four sample sites were considered to represent the following regions of the watercourse for water quality sampling (listed from upstream to downstream direction): Salmon River Reach^Site ID^Sample Size Headwaters^SAL 11^(n = 32) Salmon River Mainstem^SAL 06^(n = 32) Coghlan Creek^SAL 07^(n = 18) Downstream SAL 02^(n = 18) Wet and dry season division of the water quality data was based on hydrometric characteristics (as defined in the Results section below). A total of 4 complete sample occasions occurred at all sites (2 wet season and 2 dry season), while 19 values characterized wet season conditions and 14 fell in the dry season for the bi-weekly water sample occasions. Median values were calculated for each parameter and each site based on these divisions of the bi-weekly data to determine seasonal trends and to examine variation between sites. Median values were used based on the choice of non-parametric statistical tests as explained below. Initial water data analysis of bi-weekly data consisted of generating graphs to visualize trends in the measured parameters from upstream to downstream regions. Data series presented in these graphs represent wet and dry season trends based on calculated medians at each site. Preliminary investigation of the data included graphing raw data, comparison to existing water quality guidelines, generating descriptive statistics, examining distribution, and normality testing using SPSS v. 15 (SPSS, 2007). Box plots displaying water quality parameters annually by site were created using Grapher v.6 (© Golden Software, 2004). Investigation into the character of the data suggested non-normal distribution of several parameters. Transformation using the commonly applied In (y+1) was attempted (Townsend, 2002). However, this failed to produce normal distribution across all variables. As a result, further statistical interpretation of the water quality data was performed on non-transformed values using non-parametric statistical tests. Given that only two sets of comparisons were of interest in this analysis (mainly, headwaters versus downstream and the Salmon River mainstem versus Coghlan Creek) 24 comparisons were tested directly rather than performing a preliminary multi-comparison test, such as the Kruskal-Wallis test. The Mann-Whitney U test (a = 0.05) was used to evaluate if differences existed between specific regions (represented by sites), either annually or seasonally. This test is the non-parametric equivalent to the unpaired t-test and an a = 0.05 was used as only two comparisons were of interest and no additional comparisons which would otherwise necessitate a Bonferroni adjustment (the Bonferroni adjustment divides the initial a level (a = 0.05) by the possible number of pair-wise comparisons for the resulting significance level) (Townsend, 2002). Longer-term trends in water quality in the Salmon River were evaluated in two ways. Firstly, annual data for each parameter was plotted as a scatter plot. Linear trend lines were then calculated between the three sets of data (1974/75, 1994/95 and 2004/05). Secondly, the Wilcoxon Sign Rank test, a nonparametric alternative to the paired t-test, was used to test for annual differences at individual sites. This test, which is appropriate for comparing populations linked physically (in this case similar sample sites over time) was used to determine if concentrations showed significant change in time (Townsend, 2002). Finally, correlation between water quality parameters was evaluated both seasonally and annually in the most recent dataset using the Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient. p a non- parametric alternative to the Pearson Correlation Coefficient. This was done to determine if any relationships existed between parameters and if such relationships changed between seasons or on an annual basis. Water Quality Guidelines Water quality guidelines for the selected variables are summarized in Table 3.2 These guidelines are a mix of federal and provincial benchmarks, reported as numerical limits for safe levels of a given water quality variable for a specific water use (Nagpal et al., 2001, CCME, 1999). Given the investigation of the macroinvertebrate community in the Salmon River catchment, water quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life are of primary interest. It should also be noted that these are often the most restrictive of water quality guidelines and therefore may provide protection for multiple uses. Agricultural water use guidelines, for irrigation and livestock watering are also referenced given the dominant land use of agriculture 25 in the catchment. Note that in Table 3.2 guidelines that provide the greatest level of protection for a given use are listed. As it is understood that water from the Salmon River is not used for human consumption drinking water quality guidelines are not discussed. Table 3.2 Water quality guidelines for selected physical, ion and nutrient variables (CCME, 2005 1 , CCME, 1999 2 , CCREM3, 1987, Nagpal et al., 2003 4, Nagpal et al., 2001, Nordin et al., 2001 5 , ON MOE, 19946, Warrington, 2001 7). Water Use^Guideline Physical Parameters Specific Conductivity^aquatic life n/a (uS/cm)^ irrigation"^ 700-5000 livestock watering"^1400-4200 Dissolved Ions Chloride (Cr)^aquatic life l^600 (mg/L)^ irrigation4 100 livestock watering4^600 Nutrients Nitrate (NO3 --N)^aquatic life (mg/L)^ irrigation livestock wateringa' 6 Total Ammonia (NH3+NH4+) aquatic life 1 . 6 2.93 n/a 100 pH and temperature dependent (mg/L) Total Phosphorus (mg/L) irrigation^ n/a livestock watering^ n/a aquatic life6^0.03 irrigation n/a livestock watering^ n/a Bacteriology Total Coliforms^aquatic life^ n/a (#/100mL) irrigation2 1000 livestock watering^ n/a Fecal Coliforms^aquatic life^ n/a (#/100mL) irrigationb'2•7 100 livestock watering^ 200 'general livestock use, bgeneral irrigation, soil and crop dependent, and dspecies dependent. 3.5.3 Sediment Data Analysis Mean particle size distribution of the <2 mm fraction of sediment is presented in table format across sample sites for the 2005 sample year. Secondly, a series of graphs were created to visualize recent trends in trace metal concentrations from upstream to downstream direction in the Salmon River mainstem, Coghlan and Davidson Creeks. These graphs include plotting trace metal results by sample site for both wet and dry seasons in 2005. Comparison to existing sediment quality guidelines, background sediment concentrations in the Salmon River catchment 26 and uncontaminated BC lakes for trace metals were also made. Descriptive statistics, box plots (annual concentrations by trace metal across all sample sites and stream reaches), and normality tests were created using SPSS v.15 (SPSS, 2007). Based on the non-normality of data distributions, even after transformation attempts using log transformation and the limited number of samples collected non-parametric statistical analyses, were employed. Given this, median values were used, which coincidentally reduce influence of erroneously high or outlying values. Due to the low annual sample size at each site (n = 2) and dependence among sample locations (as they occur in a downstream direction) only Mann-Whitney U-tests (a = 0.05) were used to make pair-wise comparisons of stream reaches. Sample sites were grouped to form four reaches as listed below: Salmon River Reach Site ID Sample Size Headwaters SAL 10, 11, 12 (n = 6) Salmon River Mainstem SAL 06, 10, 11 (n = 6) Coghlan Creek SAL 07, 08, 09 (n = 6) Downstream SAL 01, 02, 03 (n = 6) Spearman Rank correlations coefficients (a = 0.05) were also calculated for the 2005 sediment data, including dry and wet season, as well as mean annual concentrations to determine if relationships existed between trace metals and if such relationships change seasonally or annually. Seasonal and annual correlations between trace elements and percent clay were also run using this approach. To identify patterns in sediment trace metal concentrations between sample years the Wilcoxon Sign Rank Test (a = 0.05) was employed using the two sets of data organized by sample year (1991 and 2005). Due to different analytical techniques the earliest sediment survey (1974) was only considered on a qualitative basis. Only data from sites sampled consistently were compared using such analyses. Sediment Quality Guidelines and Background Trace Metal Concentrations Where possible, sediment trace metal concentrations in the Salmon River catchment sediments were compared to CCME interim sediment quality guidelines (ISQG) and probable effects levels (PEL) (CCME, 2001). In the absence of such criteria, concentrations are compared 27 to background concentrations found in surficial material of the Salmon River catchment (Cook, 1994). Finally, in the absence of this additional information, background concentrations found in uncontaminated British Columbian lake sediment were referenced (Rieberger, 1992). Sediment trace metal guidelines, background lake sediment concentrations and surficial material concentrations in the catchment are listed in Table 3.3 for trace metal which occurred in measurable quantities in this study. Table 3.3 Sediment trace metal guidelines, uncontaminated lake sediment trace metal concentrations and surficial material trace metal concentrations in the Salmon River catchment (CCME, 1999b 1 , CCME, 1999c2 , CCME, 1999d 3, Rieberger, 1992 4, Cook, 19943). trace metal Guideline' 2 ' 3 Background Surficial Material s ISQG PEL GlacialLake Sediment4 Outwash Glacial Marine Marine mg/kg Al n/a n/a 0.0198 72200 56700 60800 Ba n/a n/a 9.23E-05 Cr 37.3 90.0 0.0002 142 139 123 Cu 35.7 197.0 0.0006 100 57.9 70.2 Fe 21200.0 43766.0 0.2497 76800 51900 61800 Mg n/a n/a 0.0450 3610.00 5860.00 7540.00 Mn n/a n/a 0.0006 1720 643 920 Ni 16.0 75.0 1.27E-05 3.52 33.2 29.9 Sr n/a n/a 3.70E-05 Zn 123.0 315.0 8.87E-05 112.00 84.60 100.00 Note: Sediment guidelines for Sr, as well as surficial concentrations in the Salmon River catchment do not currently exist. 3.5.4 Macroinvertebrate Data Analysis As with the previous three datasets, initial analysis of 2005 macroinvertebrate information involved generating graphs to visualize trends in the biological data. Initial aspects of the benthic community (based on means generated from replicate site samples) examined in this process included total abundance (# of individuals/m2), rarefied family richness, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera (EPT) abundance (# of individuals/m 2), EPT proportional abundance and EPT rarefied family richness. The EPT grouping of taxa was chosen as this is often considered representative of the more sensitive macroinvertebrates. The proportion of taxa occurring at each site based on order and family level identification was an additional approach. Following this, taxa were organized according to functional feeding groups based on categorizations and descriptions in Merritt and Cummins (1996) and Adams and Vaughan (2003). Taxa tolerance was based on tolerance values from 28 Hilsenhoff (1988), which are largely based on taxa response to organic pollution. Tolerant, moderately tolerant and sensitive thresholds are similar to Hilsenhoff Index categories (Hilsenhoff, 1988). These additional methods, of data organization were chosen to investigate possible trends in the functional structure of benthic communities between sites. As a final step in the data analysis Spearman Rank correlations coefficients (p) (a = 0.10) were calculated to determine relationships between taxa at the family level. This series of measurements is by no means exhaustive, however it is hoped that it will adequately capture response, explain mechanisms of community response and allow for appropriate comparisons to other literature and to historic data gathered in the catchment. Prior to further analysis, descriptive statistics and tests of normality were performed for each site based on values for total abundance, relative richness and taxa characteristics using SPSS software v. 15.0 (SPSS, 2007). As expected variables were not normally distributed. Log and relative abundance transformation of data proved unsuccessful across all variables. Given the low resolution of historical taxonomic datasets, in particular the 1975 dataset, historical comparisons were limited to total abundance and EPT measures across the 30 year period. Further examination of historical data using rarefied family richness was limited to the 1995 and 2005 datasets. Any conclusions related to historical trends in the macroinvertebrate community based on information from the 1975 period will be considered in terms of different patterns between sites as the 1975 macroinvertebrate sampling took place in June 1975. Principal Components Analysis (PCA), an ordination method, was also used as an exploratory tool to investigate patterns of historical change in the macroinvertebrate community. Principal Component Analysis is a method for separating sites along axes based on variance associated with variables (Poulton et al., 2007), in this case the variables are order level taxa counts across stream sites. A successful PCA analysis may explain a large portion of the data variability in a reduced number of linear combinations known as principal components (Manly, 2002 and James and McCulloch, 1990). Prior to PCA analysis using a correlation matrix, data were converted to relative abundances to reduce the possible influence of outliers in the datasets. Principal Component Analysis was completed using JMP 7 (SAS, 2007). Due to the inconsistency in sampling effort between the three studies, three separate PCA were conducted in order to analyze all available macroinvertebrate data. These three analyses include a) sites sampled consistently in all three studies, b) sites sampled consistently between 29 the 1975 and 2005 studies, and c) sites sampled consistently between the 1995 and 2005 studies. 3.5.5 Relationships Between Land Activity and Environmental Quality In evaluating relationships between land activity and environmental quality in the Salmon River catchment surface water quality, sediment quality, and macroinvertebrate community metrics were used to represent environmental quality while land use and cover were considered surrogates of land activity. Both groups of indicators were linked statistically. According to Addah (2003), buffers are preferable to similar contributing areas in characterizing relationships between water quality and land use in agriculture catchments with low topography. This suggestion is made in specific reference to the Sumas River catchment which is close proximity to the Salmon River catchment. Thus it was felt that the use of buffers was also appropriate in the Salmon River given it is similarly subject to a high degree of agricultural activity and has low topography. Again, Spearman Rank correlation coefficients (p) (a = 0.10) were calculated to determine relationships between water quality, sediment quality, macroinvertebrate metrics and land use and land cover within the two buffer widths. These values were calculated for each site using annual data for the various parameters. 30 Chapter 4 RESULTS 4.1 Climate Results 4.1.1 Meteorological and Hydrometric Data Given that a key consideration of this study was to characterize current environmental and biological condition of the Salmon. River and its associated tributaries, it is necessary to ensure that the 2004-2005 sample events were conducted under relatively typical meteorological and hydrometric conditions. To achieve this, longer-term precipitation and flow data were obtained for examination. The time frame of data examination was also adopted under the consideration of generation time in benthic macroinvertebrate populations. The upper bound of this range can be approximately 2 years for some taxa (mainly semivoltine taxa, such as stoneflies) (Cushing and Allan, 2001). Hence, meteorological and hydrometric variables were examined, where possible, up to a two year time period in advance of the biological sample events. A second component of this study is the examination of historical environmental conditions in this catchment. In order to facilitate inter-annual comparability of sample periods (i.e., 1973-1975, 1993-1995, and 2003-2005), historical meteorological and hydrometric data were also examined to identify anomalies. Monthly precipitation totals and mean daily flow data from a nearby Environment Canada climate station and Water Survey of Canada hydrometric station are presented in Figures 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3 for the three sample periods. Climate data relevant to the 1973-1975 sample events is displayed in Figure 4.1. Wet seasons, as determined from hydrometric records for this period spanned October 1973 through May 1974 and November 1974 to March 1975. The dry season relevant to sample events spanned June to October 1974. Peak precipitation occurred in January, February and December 1974. Low flow and precipitation conditions prevailed through August and September 1974. Precipitation was above normal values in winter months and total precipitation in 1974 was 1555.7 mm, slightly above the 1971-1990 normal total of 1199.2 mm. For the 1993-1995 climatic period (see Figure 4.2) wet conditions prevailed between October 1993 through April 1994, September 1994 to May 1995, and initiated again in October 1995. Dry conditions were present from May 1994 through August 1994 and April 1995 through September that same year. Peak precipitation occurred in December 1993 and November 1994, while peak flow occurred in December 1994. Low flow and low precipitation occurred in 31 summer months. Again, precipitation was higher than the historical average in winter months. Total precipitation for 1974 was also above 1971-1990 normal values, with 1461.4 mm recorded. In the 2003 to 2005 period, wet conditions occurred from October 2003 through March 2004 and September 2004 through April 2005 (refer to Figure 4.3). Drier periods reigned from April to August 2004 and May 2005 through September that same year. Peak precipitation occurred in October 2003 and November 2004. In 2003 peak flow also occurred in October, while peak flow occurred later in January 2005 for the second wet period. As with the previous two time periods total precipitation (1557.9 mm) for 2004 was greater than the 1971-1990 normal. Greater total precipitation and higher peak precipitation with higher resultant stream discharges occurred in the 1973-75 and 2003-05 periods compared to 1993-95. Average flow values for the respective sample periods followed the pattern of 1960-2005 normals. Exceedances of the normals occurred in October through March with values generally slightly below averages in summer months (as presented in figure 4.4). Generally, wet seasons began in either September or October of the respective time periods with the exception of 1974 when the season began in November. Dry seasons also followed similar annual patterns beginning in April or May, however with 1974 again being an exception with a June start to the drier conditions. Further examination of historical climate information included consideration of total seasonal precipitation and El Nirio/La Nina climate events. For seasonal precipitation totals, the wettest wet season occurs in the 1973-1975 period, while the driest dry season occurs in the 1993-1995 period (refer to Table 4.1). El Nirio and La Nina events are important considerations in interpreting historical climate data as they may cause deviation from normal climate conditions. According to Meteorological Service of Canada information each sample period began under neutral conditions which then progressed to moderate La Nina (1974-1975) or weak El Nirio events (1994-1995, 2004-2005) (MSC, 2005). 32 300 250 E 200 E 0 100 3 0 50 J- J- A- S- 0- N- D- J- F- M- A- M- J- J- A- S- 0- N- D- J- F- M- A- M- J- 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 75 75 75 75 75 75 month Legend Gray bars represent total monthly precipitation, black circles represent mean daily flow and the line represents total monthly precipitation normals 1971-1990..E sediment sample; ♦ water quality sample;, ■ macroinvertebrate sample events. Figure 4.1 Total monthly precipitation, total monthly precipitation normals and mean daily flow for the Salmon River catchment, 1973-1975 sample period. 25 -^ 300 S- 0- N- D- J- F- M- A- M- J- J- A- S- 0- N- D- J- F- M- A- M- J- J- A- S- 0- 93 93 93 93 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 month Legend Symbols and lines as in Figure 4.1. Figure 4.2 Total monthly precipitation, total monthly precipitation normals and mean daily flow for the Salmon River catchment, 1993-1995 sample period. 33 E 200 E O 150 Q. C. 100 2 50 25 -^ 300 250 20 - ■ • 15 O = 10- 5 J- J- A- S- 0- N- ID- J- F- M- A- M- J- J- A- S- 0- N- Q J- F- M- A- M- J- J- A- S-0- N- D- 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 month Legend Symbols and lines as in Figure 4.1.1. Figure 4.3 Total monthly precipitation, total monthly precipitation normals and mean daily flow for the Salmon River catchment, 2003-2005 sample period. Note: Water quality sample events are not shown for the 2003-2005 sample period as they occurred on a bi-weekly basis. Table 4.1 Seasonal total precipitation (mm), by sample period. Sample Period 1973-1975 1993-1995 2003-2005 Total Precipitation (mm) wet season A wet season B dry season A dry season B 1545.20 928.00 1166.20 915.50 1362.90 1501.00 196.90 190.40 292.30 367.60 317.90 Note: The 1973-1975 dry season B is not available due to limited data. 34 10.00 9.00 8.00 7.00 (r) 6.00 5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 1.00 0.00 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec month Legend Black squares represent mean monthly flow normals 1960-2005; bars represent flow range over this same period. Gray circles represent mean monthly flow for the 1973-1975 sampling period, grey triangles represent mean monthly flow for the 1993-1995 sampling period; and gray squares represent mean monthly flow for the 2003-2005 sampling period. Figure 4.4 Mean monthly flow and mean monthly flow normals for the Salmon River catchment, 1973- 1975, 1993-1995, and 2003-2005 sample periods. 4.2 Land Use and Land Cover Results 4.2.1 Current and Historical Land Use in the Salmon River Catchment A summary of recent land use in the portion of the Salmon River catchment within the Township of Langley is presented in Table 4.2 more detailed presentation of this information, in terms of spatial distribution and extent in buffer widths, is found in Appendix B. The dominant land use in the catchment was agricultural activity, with agricultural land combining to a total 45.43% of the catchment. This is followed by residential land use at 29.18%, impervious surfaces (e.g. roads and railways) at roughly 9%, and residential, civic/institutional, commericial, and industrial land use at 36%. The final land uses may be associated with variable levels of imperviousness. Agricultural land use within buffer widths was greatest at sites SAL 01, SAL 08 and SAL 12 (see Tables 4.3 and 4.4). At these sites >60% coverage by agricultural land use existed 35 within both stream buffer widths. For the second dominant land use, residential land use, peaks occurred at numerous sites; SAL 03, SAL 05, SAL 07, SAL 09 and SAL 10, each with a greater than 60% extent. Site SAL 04 was the only site to have commercial/civic land use Table 4.2 2004 Land use classification for the Salmon River catchment. Percent Land Use Type 2004 Land Use Code Area^Area of (km')^Catchment (%) Grain and Forage Production 111 0.6 0.9 Vegetable Production 112 0.2 0.3 Fruit, Nut and Berry Production 113 4.9 6.6 Vacant/Unused Agriculture 160 3.2 4.3 Dairy 121 1.6 2.1 Beef 122 10.8 14.7 Poultry 123 0.4 0.6 Other Livestock 120 2.1 2.8 Other Agriculture 150 9.6 13.0 Residential 200 21.5 29.2 Civic/institutional 330 4.3 5.8 Commerical 310 0.5 0.6 Industrial 320 0.1 0.2 Transportation 400 6.9 9.3 Golf Courses 510 1.5 2.0 Parks and Playing Fields 520 0.2 0.3 Other Recreational 530 0.2 0.2 Vacant/Unused 610 4.6 6.3 Unclassified 0 0.5 0.7 Salmon River Watershed 73.6 100.0 Note: Land use information does not include the portion to the Salmon River catchment that lies within the municipality of Abbotsford, BC. occurring within the buffers, while according to the 2004 land use classification, no industrial or transportation land use occurred within the 30 m or 100 m buffered areas of any stream site. Coverage of vacant/unused area did not vary greatly between buffer widths and SAL 06 had the greatest coverage in both. Unclassified land use accounted for less than 20% coverage at all sites, in both buffer widths. Due to non-compatibility of software used in previous land use evaluations with recent GIS software, evaluation of historical land use change in the Salmon River catchment, as specific spatial extents, was not possible. Figure 4.5 offers a summary of historical land use change in the catchment based on descriptive information from Beale (1976), Wernick(1996) and the 2004 evaluation. Estimated percent area of land use categories by study, is available in Appendix B. As summarized in Figure 4.5, agricultural land use showed a slight decline in 36 extent from the mid 1970s to present. Contrary to this an increase in residential land use and to a lesser extent transportation, and institutional/commercial/industrial land use. Recreational land use increased while unclassified and/or vacant land declined over the three decades. 37 Table 4.3 2004 Land use as percent coverage in a 30m stream buffer, by site. 2004 Contributing Area Land Use (%) Site 2004 Land Use SAL 01 SAL 02 SAL 03 SAL 04 SAL 05 SAL 06 SAL 07 SAL 08 SAL 09 SAL 10 SAL 11 SAL 12 Category Agricultural 76.9 9.4 0.0 3.2 3.7 10.1 15.5 96.1 12.5 16.8 8.8 67.7 Residential 6.7 23.0 95.7 18.5 71.5 0.0 59.6 0.0 68.4 80.1 43.4 3.6 Commercial/Civic 0.0 0.0 0.0 63.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Industrial 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Transportation 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Recreation 3.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Vacant/Unused 0.0 41.9 1.2 0.0 24.7 88.2 21.4 0.0 10.3 0.0 46.7 17.8 Unclassified 2.8 19.0 3.1 14.7 0.1 1.7 3.4 1.9 8.8 3.1 1.1 11.0 Table 4.4 2004 Land use as percent coverage in a 100m stream buffer, by site. 2004 Contributing Area Land Use (%) Site 2004 Land Use SAL 01 SAL 02 SAL 03 SAL 04 SAL 05 SAL 06 SAL 07 SAL 08 SAL 09 SAL 10 SAL 11 SAL 12Code Agricultural 77.2 15.8 0.1 5.8 17.9 27.6 17.0 93.9 16.7 22.2 9.2 65.3 Residential 10.9 25.8 94.6 11.3 60.2 0.0 61.6 0.5 46.8 73.7 38.4 7.3 Commercial/Civic 0.0 0.0 0.0 68.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.3 Industrial 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Transportation 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Recreation 0.0 4.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Vacant/Unused 0.0 37.7 1.2 0.0 21.4 71.8 15.7 0.0 27.2 0.0 48.2 19.0 Unclassified 2.9 13.9 4.1 14.8 0.6 0.6 5.7 2.3 9.3 4.1 4.2 6.1 Note: Respective stream buffer widths extend 500m upstream of each site. 50 45 4.6. 40a) E 35 30to' 0 25 46 20as 15 ea 10 5 0 •`1). Jy ca land use category Legend (Black bars represent Beale (1976); gray bars represent Wernick (1996); and dashed bars represent results from recent land use evaluation). Figure 4.5 Summary of land use change in the Salmon River catchment between 1974, 1994 and 2004, based on land use category descriptions. 4.2.2 Current and Historical Land Cover in the Salmon River Catchment The extent of both impervious cover and forest cover is described below as percent cover at sample sites (refer to Table 4.5a through d). Spatial extent of land covers are listed in Appendix B. As indicated in Table 4.5a impervious cover increased at most sites within a 30 m buffer width over the 30 year period. Increases ranged from 0.2% (SAL 02) to 2.1% (SAL 08). It should be noted that no change was observed at sites SAL 01 and SAL 10 and while decreases ranged from 1.6% (SAL04) and 0.8% (SAL 11). In terms of forest cover within a 30 m buffer width (see Table 4.5b), all sites with the exception of SAL 06 and SAL 12 experienced overall decline, ranging from 2.9% (SAL 01) to 43.2% (SAL 08). At the 100 m buffer width impervious cover increased at all sites on the order of 0.02% (SAL 05) to a maximum of 4.4% (SAL 12) (refer to Table 4.5c). As summarized in Table 4.5d 39 forest cover declined at all sites with the exception of SAL 06 and SAL 12, which both experience a roughly 7% increase. Declines in forest cover in this larger buffer width range from 2.4% (SAL 04) to 44.5% (SAL 08). As expected, similar land covers between buffer widths are positively correlated, while inverse correlations exist between forest cover and impervious cover. Correlation values relevant to land use and land cover are summarized in Appendix B. Tables 4.5 a-d Proportional impervious and forest cover in buffer widths, by site (1974, 1995 and 2004). A Contributing Area Impervious Cover (%) B Contributing Area Forest Cover (%) 30m Buffer 30m Buffer Site 1974 1995 2004 Site 1974 1995 2004 SAL 01 0.2 0.2 0.2 SAL 01 37.8 35.5 34.9 SAL 02 4.4 4.4 4.6 SAL 02 32.1 32.7 17.6 SAL 03 1.2 1.9 2.8 SAL 03 79.8 75.6 73.1 SAL 04 6.2 4.4 4.7 SAL 04 45.0 50.2 39.0 SAL 05 0.1 0.1 0.2 SAL 05 91.2 87.7 78.9 SAL 06 1.5 0.7 1.5 SAL 06 63.0 69.3 70.0 SAL 07 5.4 6.0 5.6 SAL 07 85.8 71.2 63.0 SAL 08 0.0 0.9 2.1 SAL 08 86.0 45.1 42.7 SAL 09 0.7 1.6 2.4 SAL 09 90.6 88.4 82.4 SAL 10 0.0 0.0 0.0 SAL 10 95.0 85.8 79.4 SAL 11 2.3 2.2 1.5 SAL 11 94.1 20.8 71.1 SAL 12 6.5 8.6 8.5 SAL 12 25.5 29.0 28.1 C Contributing Area Impervious Cover (%) D Contributing Area Forest Cove r (%) 100m Buffer 100m Buffer Site 1974 1995 2004 Site 1974 1995 2004 SAL 01 0.4 1.3 1.5 SAL 01 39.8 37.9 35.4 SAL 02 6.7 6.9 7.9 SAL 02 37.4 37.7 27.3 SAL 03 1.6 2.5 4.1 SAL 03 65.7 64.3 60.7 SAL 04 9.9 9:5 10.4 SAL 04 30.9 33.2 28.5 SAL 05 2.8 2.8 2.8 SAL 05 69.7 70.2 66.1 SAL 06 0.4 0.4 0.4 SAL 06 74.1 81.5 81.1 SAL 07 7.0 9.4 9.8 SAL 07 81.8 58.6 52.9 SAL 08 0.3 2.5 3.4 SAL 08 75.1 33.2 30.5 SAL 09 0.6 2.5 4.6 SAL 09 65.0 67.9 58.5 SAL 10 3.6 7.3 7.5 SAL 10 72.4 66.0 63.4 SAL 11 7.3 8.6 8.5 SAL 11 70.1 12.6 60.5 SAL 12 6.4 10.5 10.7 SAL 12 18.7 26.7 25.9 40 4.2.3 Populations Change in the Township of Langley, B.C. Over the last 30 years (1976-2005) the population of the Township of Langley has increased dramatically from approximately 37,500 in 1976 to the 2005 estimate of 97,000 residents. This equates to a 260% population increase over the entire period. Similarly, nearby Langley City has also experienced a significant increase in residents from 10, 000 in 1976 to 25, 700 in 2005, or a 250% increase. Table 4.6 summarizes population change in both jurisdictions as reported by the Province of B.C. (2006). Table 4.6 Population of Langley City and the Township of Langley 1976-2005. Year 1976 1985 1995 2005 Municipal Jurisdiction Langley City # of individuals Population increase (# of individuals) % population increase % population increase (1976-2005) Township of Langley 10402 17044 23870 25716 6642 6826 1846 63.9 40.0^7.7 247.2 # of individuals Population increase (# of individuals) c)/0 population increase % population increase (1976-2005) 37555 53096 78909 97125 15541 25813 18216 41.4 48.6^23.1 258.6 It should be noted that a large portion of the Salmon River is in the Agricultural Land Reserve (ALR), which restricts development. There has also been a moratorium on development in existence over the Hopington Aquifer (relevant to sites SAL 06, SAL 07, SAL 08) since 1995. As a result the population growth in the catchment is not as rapid as indicated in Table 4.6 for the Township. An important aspect of population growth, which should be considered alongside the growth of both urban and rural areas, is how residential development occurs. According to 2001 British Columbia census results, approximately 70% of residential dwellings in the Township of Langley occur as single detached homes. Only 7% of all dwellings occur as high density developments, such as apartment buildings. Generally, development in the township tends to exceed provincial averages for low density dwellings including single detached homes, semi- detached homes and row houses, while high density development is well below the provincial average (B.C. Stats, 2005). 41 4.3 Water Quality Results 4.3.1 Quality Analysis and Quality Control The QA/QC results for water quality data were analyzed did not indicate any large deviations in duplicate field samples or triplicate lab analysis samples to necessitate omission of any water quality parameters from further analysis and interpretation. 4.3.2 Spatial and Seasonal Variation in Water Quality Data for the respective water quality parameters, along with tables, figures and box plots displaying annual trends in each parameter across sample sites are available in Appendix C. Results for parameters showing significant trends or patterns, mainly specific conductivity, NO3- -N and PO4 -3-P, are listed below. The less spatially significant results for Cl -, NH4+-N and pathogen indicators are available in Appendix C. Specific Conductivity: Spatial and Seasonal Trends Specific conductivity data from all sites is displayed in Figure 4.6, where water sampling took place on two occasions in each of the dry and wet seasons. Seasonal median conductivity from selected sites is summarized in Figure 4.7. Significant differences in specific conductivity between sites are summarized in Table 4.7. At the four sites sampled continuously specific conductivity ranged from 89 RS/cm (SAL 11, December 2004) to 213 µS/cm (SAL 02, August 2005), with an annual median value of 145 µS/cm. Highest median values of conductivity were found at site SAL 02 in both hydrological seasons, while • lowest median values of occurred at SAL 11 during the wet season. The continuous and seasonal sampling regimes presented similar patterns of specific conductivity in the catchment. Overall, higher values of conductivity were recorded during summer months at all sites. This time period also coincides with the lowest flows in the catchment and period of greatest groundwater influence. Conductivity generally increased in a downstream direction. Of note is a mid-reach increase in specific conductivity at SAL 07, which represents an area of groundwater influence. Specific conductivity values at SAL 07 are of similar magnitude to those measured downstream. No exceedances in the strictest specific conductivity guideline (for irrigation water use) occurred in the Salmon River catchment. 42 250 200 100 50 0 SAL01 SAL02 SAL03 SAL04 SAL05 SAL06 SAL07 SAL08 SAL09 SAL10 SAL11 SAL12 Downstream ^ site^ Headwaters Legend Open symbols represent wet season values and closed symbols represent dry season values, measured on separate occasions. The box indicates the region of groundwater influence. Figure 4.6 Specific conductivity (pS/cm) spatial and seasonal trends in the Salmon River catchment, by site. 250 ^ 200 150 Ec.) Cl) =- 100 50 ^ SAL 02^SAL 06^SAL 07^SAL 11 ^Downstream Headwaters Legend Open circles represent wet season medians and closed circles represent dry season median values. Bars represent 25 th and 75th quartiles. The box indicates the region of groundwater influence. Figure 4.7 Specific conductivity (pS/cm) spatial and seasonal trends in the Salmon River catchment, at selected sites. Note: Insufficient data available to calculate dry season median value for SAL 11. 43 6.00 5.00 4.00 a) E z 3.00 6' 2.00 1.00 0.00  SAL01 SAL02 SAL03 SAL04 SAL05 SAL06 SAL07 SAL08 SAL09 SAL10 SAL11 SAL12 site Downstream^ Headwaters Legend Symbols and line as in Figure 4.6. Figure 4.8 Nitrate (mg/L) spatial and seasonal trends in the Salmon River catchment, by site. E QM 12.00 10.00 8.00 6.00 4.00 • 2.00 _ • _L 1 0.00 T SAL 02 Downstream SAL 06^SAL 07^SAL 11 Headwaters Legend Symbols and lines as in Figure 4.7. Figure 4.9 Nitrate (mg/L) spatial and seasonal trends in the Salmon River catchment, at selected sites. Note: Insufficient data available to calculate dry season median value for SAL 11. 45 Table 4.7 Significant Mann-Whitney results for specific conductivity, by site (a  = 0.05). Conductivity Site^(pS/cm) ^ < or > ^In comparison to Probability annual Headwaters ^ Lower reach SAL 11 SAL 02 ^<0.0001 Salmon River Coghlan Creek SAL 06 ^ SAL 07 0.009 wet season Headwaters Lower reach SAL 11 ^ SAL 02 ^ 0.003 Nitrate (NO3 -N): Spatial and Seasonal Trends Nitrate data from all sites is displayed in Figure 4.8, where water sampling took place on two occasions in each of the dry and wet seasons. Seasonal median concentrations of NO 3 "-N from headwaters to downstream sites are displayed in Figure 4.9. Statistically significant differences in NO3 "-N median concentrations between sites are displayed in Table 4.8. The concentrations of NO3 -N at continuously sampled sites ranged from a low of 0.06 mg/L (SAL 11, October 2005) to a maximum of 5.62 mg/L (SAL 07, August 2005), with a median NO3 --N concentration of 2.93 mg/L. Similarly, highest median values of NO 3 "-N were recorded at SAL 07 during both seasons, while the lowest median NO3 --N value recorded occurred at SAL 11 during the wet season. Results from both sampling regimes were in agreement, with the seasonal sampling events illustrating regions of groundwater influence, via elevated NO3: -N concentrations in the catchment. Overall, higher concentration of NO 3: -N tended to occur in the summer months, followed by lower concentrations in the wet season. Nitrate concentrations at sites on the mainstem of the Salmon River followed similar seasonal patterns and magnitude. This was especially true in summer months when these sites all exhibited much lower concentrations of NO3 --N than those recorded at SAL 07 on Coghlan Creek which is influence by groundwater inputs. Nitrate concentrations frequently exceeded aquatic life guidelines in the Salmon River catchment. This is most notable on Coghlan Creek (SAL 07), followed by the nearby Salmon River site (SAL 06). Both SAL 02 and SAL 06 exceed guidelines in slightly above 40% of sample events, while on Coghlan Creek guideline exceedances occurred over 80% of the time. No exceedances were recorded at the headwaters site. 44 Table 4.8 Significant Mann-Whitney results for NO3-N, by site (a = 0.05). Nitrate NO3 --N Site^(mg/L) < or >^In comparison to Probability annual Headwaters^ Lower reach SAL 11 <^SAL 02^ 0.001 Salmon River Coghlan Creek SAL 06^<^SAL 07 0.009 wet season Headwaters Lower reach SAL 11 ^ SAL 02^ 0.008 Salmon River Coghlan Creek SAL 06 SAL 07 0.005 Orthophosphate (PO4 3-P): Spatial and Seasonal Trends Orthophosphate data from all sites is displayed in Figure 4.10, where water sampling took place on two occasions in each of the dry and wet seasons. Seasonal median concentrations of PO4 3-Pfrom the headwaters to downstream sites are displayed in Figure 4.11. Statistically significant differences in median PO4 -3-P concentration between sites are summarized in Table 4.9. Across the four continuously sampled sites the concentration of PO4 -3-P ranged from 0.003 mg/L (SAL 06, September 2005) to 0.383 mg/L (SAL 11, October 2005), with a median value of 0.015 mg/L. The lowest median PO4 -3 -P concentration occurred at SAL 02 during the dry season, while the highest median concentration occurred at SAL 11 during the wet season. As indicated by both sampling regimes generally lower concentrations of PO4 3-Pprevailed during the summer months, while a distinct rise was recorded in the fall of 2005 (refer to Appendix C). Results do not indicate a groundwater input of PO 4-3-P in the Salmon River due a lacking distinction between groundwater and non-groundwater-influenced sites. Peak values in the headwaters suggest that an overland source of PO4 -3-P is likely. It is recognized that the application of a total P guideline for PO4 -3 -P is conservative. Despite this, exceedances in the guideline were detected. 46 x0 12 0 1 0 08 0-^0.06 O a. 0.04 0.02 0 SAL01 SAL02 SAL63 SAL04 SAL05 SAL06 SAL07 SAL08 SAL09 SAL10 SAL11 SAL12 site Downstream ^ Headwaters Legend Symbols and lines as in Figure 4.6. Figure 4.10 Orthophosphate (mg/L) spatial and seasonal trends in the Salmon River catchment, by site. rn E or Ot 0.20 0.18 0.16 0.14 0.12 0.10 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 0.00 ^ SAL 02 ^ SAL 06 ^ SAL 07 ^ SAL 11 ^Downstream Headwaters Legend Symbols and lines as in Figure 4.7. Figure 4.11 Orthophosphate (mg/L) spatial and seasonal trends in the Salmon River catchment, at selected sites. Note: Insufficient data available to calculate dry season median value for SAL 11. 47 70 E E 60 0To 50 .5 04ED. 30 20 10 Table 4.9 Significant Mann-Whitney results for PO4-3-P, by site (a = 0.05). Orthophosphate Site^PO4-3-13 (mg/L) < or >^In comparison to Probability annual Headwaters^ Lower reach SAL 11 SAL 02 ^ 0.014 4.3.3 Relationships Between Nitrate (NO3--N), Total Coliforms, Fecal Coliforms, and Precipitation Correlations between the amount of precipitation (mm) occurring in a given time interval prior to sampling (i.e. same day, 24 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours and 96 hours) with annual and seasonal NO3 --N and coliforms were determined at selected sites, representative of stream regions. Due to low sample numbers this analysis was limited to data from SAL 07 and SAL 02. All significant correlations between total precipitation and NO 3 - -N concentrations were negative, while all significant correlations between coliform counts and total precipitation were positive. These results support a non-precipitation source of NO 3 --N, while coliform counts may be more closely related to the amount of precipitation and delivered to the stream environment via surface flows. Figures 4.12 through 4.14 and Table 4.10 display results for the strongest correlation with each variable. Complete correlation results are listed in Appendix D. 90 ^ 80 0^ p = -0.888 a = <0.0001 0 0 0 0000  0 n   ^Go ow o 0^1^2^3^4^5 NO3-N mg/L Figure 4.12 Dry season 24 hour total precipitation and NO3-N concentrations at SAL 07. O 48 10 9 8 7 6 3 3.2 2 1 0 0 p = 0.672 a = 0.0004 0 0 0 oo o ®O cRD 0 ^ 1000^2000^3000^4000^5000 total coliform #/100mL Figure 4.13 Wet season 24 hour total precipitation and total coliform counts at SAL 07. 70 60 0 E 50 E • 40 • 30 ;5. 0 p = 0.854 a - 0.0001 0 0 O C) 0 0 O 20 10 0 0^500^1000^1500^2000^2500^3000 fecal coliform #/100mL Figure 4.14 Dry season 48 hour total precipitation and fecal coliform counts at SAL 02. 49 Table 4.10 Significant Spearman rank correlation coefficients for precipitation intervals and selected water quality parameters (a = 0.1). site Nitrate NO3"-N (mg/kg) Total Coliforms (#/100 mL) Fecal Coliforms (#/100 mL) Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficients (p) precipitation (mm) same day 24 hr 48 hr 72 hr 96 hr^same day^24 hr^48 hr^72 hr^96 hr same day 24 hr 48 hr 72 hr 96 hr SAL 02 SAL 07 SAL 02 SAL 07 SAL 02 SAL 07 wet season -0.551 - -0.641 -0.803 -0.816 - -^- -0.848^0.484^0.672^0.638^0.598^0.640 0.683 0.534 - 0.472 0.525 0.506 dry season - -0.466 -0.888 -0.885 -0.788 0.641^0.624 -0.693^0.570^- - 0.537 - 0.788 0.648 0.854 0.593 0.819 0.563 0.832 0.740 annual -0.477 -0.496 -0.709 -0.755 -0.388 -0.760 ^ -0.381^0.444^0.503^0.390^0.454 -0.761^0.491^0.462^0.362^-^- 0.376 0.361 0.624 0.655 0.689 0.561 0.618 0.547 0.719 0.639 Note: The strongest correlation for each variable and precipitation in bold. 4.3.4 Historical Variation in Water Quality (1974/75 to 2004/05) Specific Conductivity: Historical Trends Median annual values of specific conductivity at the selected sites increased over the period of interest (1974-2005) (see Table 4.11). This increase is also true for the wet and dry season specific conductivity at the selected sites. The largest overall increase in specific conductivity occurred in the wet season data at sites SAL 06 and SAL 07. The largest dry season increase in specific conductivity also occurred at these two sites. Table 4.11 Summary of annual median specific conductivity from 1974/75-2004/05,  by site. Sample period 1974/75^1994/95^2004/05 Site  Specific conductivity (pS/cm) dry wet annual dry wet annual dry wet annual n=9 n=6 n=17 n=4 n=4 n=8 - ^ SAL 02^135.0 77.5 130.0 175.0 88.0 166.0 180.0 152.5 164.0 SAL 06^95.0 50.0^80.0 122.5 72.0 110.0 159.5 137.0 139.5 SAL 07^95.0 65.0^80.0 140.0 102.0 135.0 176.0 151.0 161.5 SAL 11^65.0 40.0^60.0^95.0 62.0^85.0^-^114.0 114.0 Note: Sampling frequency for the 2004/05 period is as follows: dry season - SAL 02 n=13, SAL 06 n=2, SAL 07 n=13, and SAL 11 n=8, wet season - SAL 02 n=18, SAL 06 n=14, SAL 07 n=19, and SAL 11 n=8. Nitrate (NO3-N): Historical Trends Median annual NO3"-N concentrations are summarized in Table 4.12. Results for NO3"-N across the selected sites were variable. Overall median NO3"-N concentrations decline at SAL 02 and SAL 06. Oppositely, an increase in median NO3 --N concentration is seen at SAL 07 and SAL 11. Site SAL 07 is the only site to have peak values occurring in the 1994/95 sample period. Increased median NO3 --N concentrations occur in the dry season at SAL 07 and SAL 11, while wet season NO3"-N concentrations only increase at SAL 07 over the 30 year period. Table 4.12 Summary of annual median NO3-N concentrations from 1974/75-2004/05, by site. Sample period 1974/75^1994/95^2004/05 Site^ NO3-N (mg/L) dry wet annual dry wet annual dry wet Annual n=9 N=6 n=17 n=4 n=4 n=8 - SAL 02 3.4 2.7 2.9 2.8 2.1 2.6 2.9 2.7 2.9 SAL 06 4.2 3.3 3.5 2.5 1.7 2.4 2.8 2.8 2.8 SAL 07 4.4 3.5 3.8 5.1 3.9 4.1 5.0 3.5 4.0 SAL 11 0.9 2.0 1.0 1.0 1.4 1.1 1.8 1.8 Note: Sampling frequency for the 2004/05 period is as follows: dry season SAL 02 n=13, SAL 06 n=2, SAL 07 n=13, and SAL 11 n=8, wet season - SAL 02 n=18, SAL 06 n=14, SAL 07 n=19, and SAL 11 n=8. 51 Orthophosphate (PO4 -3-P): Historical Trends Median annual PO4 -3-P concentrations declined over the two more recent water quality data sets at all sites (refer to Table 4.13). This decrease is most notably at SAL 02 in the wet season data and SAL 07 in the dry season data. Table 4.13 Summary of annual median PO4 -3-P concentrations from 1994/95-2004/05, by site. Sample period 1974/75^1994/95^2004/05 Site^ PO4 3-P(mg/L) dry^wet annual^dry wet annual dry wet annual n=9^N=6 n=17^n=4 n=4 n=8 - SAL 02 0.02 0.09 0.04 0.01 0.01 0.01 SAL 06 0.02 0.07 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.01 SAL 07 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.01 0.01 0.01 SAL 11 0.02 0.06 0.03 0.04 0.04 Note: Sampling frequency for the 2004/05 period is as follows: dry season - SAL 02 n=13, SAL 06 n=2, SAL 07 n=13, and SAL 11 n=8, wet season - SAL 02 n=18, SAL 06 n=14, SAL 07 n=19, and SAL 11 n=8. In considering historical water quality results summarized across the catchment (refer to Table 4.14), median annual specific conductivity and NO3 --N increase while a decline in median annual PO4- 3-Pconcentrations is noted. Despite this overall trend, and as discussed previously, site specific results are more variable. Similar spatial and seasonal patterns total phosphorus, and NO 3 - -N are seen in results from Cook (1994) indicating that current conclusions also correspond to 1991-1993 water quality data. 52 Table 4.14 Annual median values of water quality parameters in the Salmon River catchment, 1974/75-2004/05. Sample period 1974/75 1994/95 2004/05 Variable median 25th quartile 75th quartile median 25th quartile 75th quartile median 25th quartile 75th quartile Specific conductivity (pS/cm) Nitrate NO;-N (mg/L) Orthophosphate PO4 -4-P (mg/L) 79.00 2.10 55.00 0.00 95.75 4.65 100.00 2.20 0.04 72.00 1.51 0.03 134.25 2.88 0.07 148.00 2.93 0.02 131.50 2.34 0.01 178.50 3.61 0.02 4.4 Sediment Results 4.4.1 Quality Analysis and Quality Control (QA/QC) In each round of sediment laboratory trace metal analysis blank sample values were well below trace metal concentrations detected in actual sediment samples (see Appendix D). As illustrated in Appendix D, there were no noticeable concerns with results for analytical duplicates in both rounds of sediment analysis. Similarly, triplicate field samples produced results within the acceptable range of relative variance for each trace metal. Results for the standard reference material also run as part of the QA/QC process, yielded an acceptable range of results with the exception of two out of three replicates for Fe and Mg. Values for both of these trace metals were below the acceptable range of concentrations. Oppositely, all three replicates for Pb yielded results above the acceptable concentration range (see Appendix D). Field sample results for As, Bo, Cd, Mo, and Se were consistently below respective detection limits in both dry and wet season sediment analysis. Results for Co and Pb also yield results below detection limit at numerous sites. Due to this, these metals are not considered further. 4.4.2 Particle Size Distribution Particle size distribution results are summarized in Appendix D, including dry and wet season values for the < 2mm fraction of deposited bed sediment. Sand was the dominant sediment fraction in all samples during both seasons, with the exception of the wet season at SAL 12, where clay was the dominant fraction. Of the finer sediment fraction, SAL 02 and SAL 12 yield the highest proportions of clay annually. Silt content varied seasonally with the highest proportions occurring in headwaters and downstream sites. 4.4.3 Trace Metals in Sediments Trace metal concentrations including Al, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Sr, and Zn measured consistently above their respective detection limits and were considered for further analysis. Analysis of sediment trace metal concentrations included descriptive statistics as well as spatial, temporal and historical trends. Temporal and annual sediment trace metal data by site and stream region are available in Appendix D. Descriptive statistics of seasonal trace metal concentrations are listed below in Table 54 4.15. Significant spatial differences in annual sediment trace metal concentrations between stream regions are listed in Table 4.16. The downstream region of the Salmon River mainstem has a significantly larger concentration of Cr, Fe and Mg in deposited sediments than the headwaters region, while only Mn differs significantly between Coghlan Creek and the Salmon River mainstem region. Seasonal differences in trace metal concentrations are displayed in Figures 4.15 through 4.21, although not all were statistically significant. Trace metals, including Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, and Ni appear to increase in concentration towards the downstream extent of the Salmon River mainstem, while results for Mn, and Zn were more variable between the Salmon River mainstem and Coghlan Creek stream regions. Aluminum, Ba and Sr showed little variation either spatially or temporally and are not shown. For the most part, wet season trace metal concentrations were lower than their dry season counterparts, particularly in upper portions of the catchment. Exceptions to this include, SAL 02 where wet season values surpassed those measured in the dry season and SAL 01, SAL 07, and SAL 08 where wet season Cu concentrations were greater. On Davidson Creek wet season concentrations were lower with the exception of Cr and Fe. Higher mean annual concentrations of Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn occurred in the Coghlan Creek region. Peak values for Cr and Cu occurred in a similar region during the dry season, while for Zn the peak value was recorded during the wet season at SAL 09 and for Mn the peak value was recorded at SAL 02, also in the wet season. The remaining trace metals, Fe, Mg, and Ni had highest median annual concentrations occur in the Salmon River mainstem region, although peak values occurred at SAL 06 during the dry season. Guideline, surficial and background concentration exceedances were noted for some trace metal concentrations in the Salmon River catchment. Sediment concentrations of Cr did approach guideline values however, did not exceed guidelines or the thresholds of surficial concentrations found in the Salmon River catchment. The upper range of Cr concentrations found in surficial material in the catchment exceed current guidelines. One Cu guideline exceedance occurred over the sample period. This exceedance, although only slightly above the guideline, occurred at SAL 06 during the dry season. It should be noted that surficial background levels (in all materials) in the catchment exceed the ISQG. The Fe guideline was exceeded on several occasions, although exceedances were within the range of surficial concentrations. As 55 sediment guidelines do not exist for Mg, comparison to surficial concentrations were made. No exceedance of these levels was seen in Salmon River stream sediments, although Mg concentrations did exceed levels found in uncontaminated BC lakes. Manganese concentrations measured in Salmon River sediment generally fall within the range of concentrations measured in surficial materials. Nickel sediment concentrations measured in the Salmon River catchment exceeded both the ISQG and the highest surficial material concentration on two occasions, at sites SAL 04 and SAL 06 during the dry season. The final trace metal analyzed, Zn exceeded CCME interim guidelines on several occasions in both seasons. 56 Table 4.15 Median and quartile results for seasonal sediment trace metal concentrations in the Salmon River catchment. Trace Metal Concentration (mg/kg) Al Ba Cr Cu Fe^Mg Mn Ni Sr Zn dry season Median 12329.9 115.4 26.3 28.8 19463.0 5365.4 692.8 27.8 30.0 103.4 25th quartile 10690.2 107.9 22.6 24.4 17289.8 3970.0 462.2 20.9 24.9 79.5 75th quartile 14499.2 135.1 32.3 35.8 25010.3 7937.1 1197.5 39.7 39.6 131.7 wet season Median 10530.4 113.0 24.9 23.6 17068.8 4448.0 767.8 23.7 31.5 97.8 25th quartile 9878.9 107.0 21.9 21.3 15544.0 3588.4 536.5 20.4 27.5 77.7 75th quartile 12209.6 129.1 280 27.5 20478.2 5414.7 1083.4 26.8 34.8 123.1 Table 4.16 Significant Mann-Whitney U test results for sediment trace metals concentrations, by stream Region (a = 0.05). Stream Region Trace Metal (mg/kg) In comparison < or >^to Downstream Probability  Headwaters Cr Fe Mg Salmon River mainstem Mn Coghlan Creek 0.025 0.025 0.037 0.028 "": . JD■^ ■ ',. .... 45 40 35 30 cn zt.' 2cn 5 E6 20 15 10 5 0 Downstream^ Headwaters Legend Circles represent sites on the Salmon River mainstem, squares represent sites on Coghlan Creek and the triangle represents the Davidson Creek site. Closed symbols represent dry season concentrations and open symbols represent wet season concentrations. The box indicates the region of groundwater influence. Sites occur in the following order from headwaters (right) to downstream (left): Salmon River mainstem; SAL 12, SAL 11, SAL 10, SAL 06, SAL 05, SAL 04, SAL 02, and SAL 01 and Coghlan Creek; SAL 09, SAL08, and SAL07. Figure 4.15 Spatial and temporal trends in Cr from sediments of the Salmon River catchment. 45 40 35 30 a) 25cn E = 20 (..) 15 10 5 0 Downstream^ Headwaters Legend Symbols, lines and site order as in Figure 4.15 Figure 4.16 Spatial and temporal trends in Cu from sediments of the Salmon River catchment 58 30000 25000 20000 -NC Ea 1 50 0 0 a) LL 10000 5000 0 Downstream Headwaters Legend Symbols, lines and site order as in Figure 4.15. Figure 4.17 Spatial and temporal trends in Fe from sediments of the Salmon River catchment 12000 10000 8000 E 6000 a) 2 4000 2000 0 Downstream Legend Symbols, lines and site order as in Figure 4.15. Headwaters Figure 4.18 Spatial and temporal trends in Mg from sediments of the Salmon River catchment. 59 U ♦^ A 2500 2000 21500 rn E 2 1000 500 0 0 40.0. /fitLN \ •0 ..._ 6^_.....i.i. / 4,/1., /.. \ N ti a Downstream^ Headwaters Legend Symbols, lines and site order as in Figure 4.15. Figure 4.19 Spatial and seasonal trends in Mn from sediments of the Salmon River catchment. 50 45 40 35 2 30 13) 25 Z 20 15 10 5 0 Downstream^ Headwaters Legend Symbols, lines and site order as in Figure 4.15. Figure 4.20 Spatial and temporal trends in Ni from sediments of the Salmon River catchment. 60 180 160 140 = 120_Ne -8) 100 80 60 40 20 0 Ii^ ^• A Downstream^ Headwaters Legend Symbols, lines and site order as in Figure 4.15. Figure 4.21 Spatial and temporal trends in Zn from sediment of the Salmon River catchment. 61 4.4.4 Relationships Between Trace Metal Concentrations in Sediments As illustrated in Table 4.17 all significant correlations between trace metal concentrations were positive. Table 4.17 Significant Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results between trace metals (a = 0.1). Sediment Trace Correlation Sediment Trace Metal^ Meta I dry season Fe, Mg, Ni Fe Al Ni Sr • Cr and Cu • Mg, Si, Sr • Cu and Zn • Mg • Cr wet season Cu, Mg, Ni, Sr, Zn^+^Al, Ba, Cr Mg, Ni, Sr^+^Cu and Fe Fe and Mg +^Al and Cr Sr^ +^Mn, Ni, Zn Al +^Ba and Cr Fe +^Cu Ni^ +^Mg, Ba mean annual Al, Sr, Zn^+^Ba Cu, Fe +^Al and Cr Fe, Mn, Ni, Sr^+^Cu Mg, Mn, Sr +^Cr Ni, Sr^ +^Fe Ni, Zn +^Al Mg, Sr +^Ni 4.4.5 Relationship Between Particle Size Distribution and Trace Metal Concentrations in Sediments As summarized in Appendix D, no statistically significant Spearman Rank correlation coefficients (p) (a = 0.1) were identified between sediment trace metals and mean annual percent clay content in the Salmon River catchment. 4.4.6 Long-Term Variation in Sediment Quality (1974/75 to 2004/05) As shown in Table 4.18 annual concentrations of selected trace metals have decreased significantly from 1991 to 2005 in stream regions of the Salmon River catchment. Aluminum, Cr, Cu, and Zn have decreased in the catchment. Iron has decreased in downstream and mainstem regions, while Mn and Ni have decreased significantly in the headwaters region. 62 Table 4.18 Significant Mann-Whitney results for temporal sediment trace metal concentrations (1991 versus 2005), by stream region (a = 0.05). Stream Region Trace Metal (mg/kg) In < or > comparison to Probability Headwaters Headwaters 1991 Al > 2005 0.028 Cr > 0.028 Cu > 0.028 Fe > 0.028 Mn > 0.046 Ni < 0.028 Zn > 0.028 Downstream Downstream 1991 Al > 2005 0.028 Cr > 0.028 Cu > 0.028 Fe > 0.028 Zn > 0.046 Salmon River mainstem Salmon River mainstem 1991 Al > 2005 0.012 Cr > 0.012 Cu > 0.012 Fe > 0.017 Zn > 0.012 Coghlan Creek Coghlan Creek 1991 Al > 2005 0.043 Cr > 0.043 Cu > 0.043 Zn > 0.043 4.5 Macroinvertebrate Results 4.5.1 Quality Analysis and Quality Control (QA/QC) Relative variability of replicate riffle samples was evaluated using the coefficient of variation (CV). This measure calculated within site variation in total abundance at each site. The CV is indicative of the representativeness of randomly selected replicate samples or precision of sampling effort and subsequent community estimates (Krebs, 1998, Resh and McElravy, 1993). Relative variability of total abundance for September 2005 samples ranged from 0.132 at SAL 11 to a maximum value of 0.672 at SAL 05 (refer to Appendix E). 63 4.5.2 Macroinvertebrate Total Abundance and Community Structure A complete list of taxa, identified to genus where possible, is displayed in Appendix E. At the family level, taxa were further identified according to functional feeding groups and tolerance/intolerance according to Merritt and Cummins (1996), Adams and Vaughn (2003) and Hilsenhoff (1988). The family level was used in further analysis due to the taxonomic resolution consistently achieved in sample identification. The first community measure, total macroinvertebrate abundance, displayed in Figure 4.22, peaked in upper reaches of the Salmon River mainstem (SAL 10) and Coghlan Creek (SAL 08). Otherwise, total abundance generally declined moving downstream. Peak total abundance of 21786.67 individuals/m2 occurred at SAL 10, while the lowest total abundance was recorded in the lower reach on Davidson Creek (SAL 03). Mean total abundance across all sites was 8027.41 individuals/m2 . As noted above, total abundance of macroinvertebrates varied between sites. As a result of this rarified family richness was used to characterize the community given the different sample sizes (Krebs, 1998). Mean rarefied richness ranged from 23.72 expected families/m 2 (SAL 05) to 12.31 expected families/m2 (SAL 01), with a median value of 19.67 expected families/m2 for the catchment. As illustrated in Figure 4.23 rarefied richness peaked at SAL 07 in Coghlan Creek and SAL 05 on the Salmon River. Sites within the upper reach of the Salmon River mainstem and Coghlan Creek displayed similar patterns in the expected number of families. EPT total abundance, proportional abundance (proportion of total macroinvertebrate taxa as EPT taxa) and rarefied richness were used to further evaluate the benthic community (refer to Figures 4.24, 4.25 and 4.26, respectively). Overall, EPT total and proportional abundance displayed similar upstream to downstream patterns as total macroinvertebrate abundance. Exceptions include a less distinct peak value at SAL 10 and greater proportional abundance of EPT taxa in the Coghlan headwater sites. EPT rarefied richness showed less variation across sample sites than rarefied family richness, peak values occurred at SAL 07. Similar patterns in total macroinvertebrate and total EPT abundance are due to the large proportion of taxa at each site being EPT taxa. 64 40000 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 c4E C 0 ^A^ Downstream Headwaters Legend Circles represent Salmon River mainstem, squares represent Coghlan Creek and the triangle represents Davidson Creek. Bars represent 1 standard deviation (from site replicates). The box indicates the region of groundwater influence. Sites occur in the following order from headwaters (right) to downstream (left): Salmon River mainstem; SAL 11, SAL 10, SAL 06, SAL 05, and SAL 01 on the Salmon River mainstem; SAL 03 on Davidson Creek; and SAL SAL 09, SAL 08 and, SAL 07 on Coghlan Creek. Figure 4.22 2005 Total macroinvertebrate abundance in the Salmon River catchment. 30 25 E t 20E ra 15 B" 10 5 0 Downstream Legend Symbols, lines and site order as in Figure 4.22. A Headwaters Figure 4.23 2005 Macroinvertebrate rarefied family richness in the Salmon River catchment. 65 25000 20000 NE"rn 15000 CC 13 C 10000 5000 0 ,.., 13 .... ...,^ --.-- --. ,..... --.. , Downstream^ Meta/tat/M.44m Legend Symbols, lines and site order as in Figure 4.22 (SAL 03 absent). Figure 4.24 2005 EPT total abundance in the Salmon River catchment 1 0.9 0.8 E -au 0.7 0 0.4 t0 0.3 0 0' 0.2 0.1 0 Downstream^ Headwaters Legend Symbols, lines and site order as in Figure 4.22 (SAL 03 absent). Figure 4.25 2005 EPT proportional abundance in the Salmon River catchment. U- . — 66 14 12 Downstream^ Headwaters Legend Symbols and lines as in Figure 4.22. Sites occur in the following order from headwaters (right) to downstream (left): Salmon River mainstem; SAL 11, SAL 10, SAL 06, and SAL 05 on the Salmon River mainstem; and SAL SAL 09, SAL 08 and, SAL 07 on Coghlan Creek (SAL 01 and SAL 03 absent). Figure 4.26 2005 EPT rarefied richness in the Salmon River catchment. Macroinvertebrate Order and Family Level Composition Figures 4.27a through 1, display the proportional abundance of total macroinvertebrate taxa, according to order in the Salmon River catchment. Coleoptera taxa declined in a downstream direction at tributary sites, while results are more variable on the Salmon River mainstem. At sites not dominated by mayfly taxa (i.e. SAL 01 and SAL 03) Dipteran taxa predominated total macroinvertebrate abundance. Diptera increased downstream at tributary sites. With the exception of SAL 11, a similar pattern in Dipteran proportional abundance was seen on the Salmon River mainstem. Oligochaeta taxa abundance showed a similar downstream trend at tributary sites and less variation on the Salmon River mainstem. Overall, Ephemeroptera taxa had the greatest proportional abundance at upstream sites. Similar patterns in Plecoptera and Trichoptera proportional abundance were noted on both the Salmon River mainstem throughout. This includes a downstream decline in proportional abundance on the mainstem, while more variability was seen at tributary sites. A high proportional abundance of Trichopteran and 67 Ephemeroptera taxa occurred at SAL 10 and SAL 07. To further evaluate community structure, family composition within each order was examined. A total of 27 insect and 20 non-insect sub-families/familes were identified. Of the non-insects, five families were identified in the Oligochaeta class. As non-insect taxa composed less then 2% of the total abundance at the majority of sites, family level composition was not investigated within these groups. Exceptions to this lower presence of non-insect taxa include sites SAL 03 and SAL 01, where combined percent total abundance of such taxa was roughly 19% and 29%, respectively. The composition of the Coleopteran order was also not investigated, as only one family was identified. Discussion will focus on what are typically considered the more sensitive orders: Emphemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera. Where the proportional abundance of a given family within an order was low throughout sites, figures are available in Appendix E (i.e. for the Ameletidae, Capniidae, Leuctridae, Perlodidae, Philopotamidae and Rhyacophilidae families). Within the Ephemeropteran order, the proportional abundance of five families was examined. Baetidae proportional abundance increased in a downstream direction in the catchment. Ephemerellidae, the only sensitive taxa identified amongst mayflies, had the lowest proportional abundance of Emphemeroptera taxa at all sampling sites. The proportional abundance of Heptageniidae was somewhat stable in the upper reaches of the Salmon River and declined in a downstream direction on Coghlan Creek. Leptophlebiidae proportional abundance fluctuated on Coghlan Creek, and declined moving downstream in the Salmon River (refer to Figures 4.28a through h). For Plecopteran order, six families were identified and their proportional abundances within the order investigated. Generally, Nemouridae dominated the shredder population throughout with highest proportional abundance in the Salmon River headwaters and Coghlan Creek. Predatory Plecoptera, dominated by Chloroperlidae declined in a downstream direction. Overall, higher relative abundance of predatory stoneflies appeared to occur in Coghlan Creek (refer to Figures 4.29a through f). For Trichoptera, the proportional abundance of four families, within the order were examined. Hydropsychidae dominated the Trichopteran order throughout the catchment at or above 80% proportional abundance of Trichoptera. The lowest proportional abundance of this clinger/filterer taxa occurred at SAL 06, at slightly over 0.40 proportional abundance. The 68 examined. Hydropsychidae dominated the Trichopteran order throughout the catchment at or above 80% proportional abundance of Trichoptera. The lowest proportional abundance of this clinger/filterer taxa occurred at SAL 06, at slightly over 0.40 proportional abundance. The remaining Trichopteran taxa identified occurred in low proportional abundance of this order at each site (refer to Figures 4.30A through D). Nine families, the largest number of families identified in a group, were identified in the Dipteran order. Chironomidae proportional abundance of total Diptera was greatest downstream. SiMulidae also increased moving downstream with none identified in lower reach. This family was present to a lesser degree in Coghlan Creek. Tipulidae, another abundant Dipteran declined in Coghlan Creek, while peak values were seen at SAL 06 on the mainstem. The remaining five families occurred in minor abundances within the order in the upper catchment. Of the Oligochaeta, two families, Lumbriculidae and Naididae dominated throughout. The remaining four families occurred in minor abundances within this class. 69 0.15 0.12 0.09 0.06 0.03 0.00 SAL 07SAL 03 Downstream Davidson Creek Headwaters Coghlan Creek SAL 08 Downstream Headwaters SAL 01 SAL 05 SAL 06 SAL 10 SAL 11 Salmon River mainstem 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.00 0.15 .... E11 0.12 casGs -0 II cc 0.09 0. .0 o (V 7) roc 0.06 0 o a 0.03 20. 0.00 0.70 C., E 0.60 a)o 4=1 0.50 12La. m 0.40 1.D  fao. ^0.302i3 .0 t  0.20oo.o 0.10,..o. 0.00 Figure 4.27A-D 2005 Coleoptera and Diptera proportional abundance of total macroinvertebrates in the Salmon River catchment. o 0.25 0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00 __AIL in IL H SAL 03^SAL 07^SAL 08^SAL 09SAL 01 SAL 05 SAL 06 SAL 10 SAL 11 Downstream^ HeadwatersHeadwatersDownstream 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.00 N E cc te)I-^co 2 'g 0. 2 .o a) CC E -so. •  o E 720 w o.0 Q. 0.25 N E sed 0.20 co .c c.) -0 0.15 °07 c 0.10 " 0 0 •.E• 0.° 0.05 2 0.00 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.00 Salmon River mainstem ^ Davidson Creek^Coghlan Creek Figure 4.27E-H 2005 Ephemeroptera and Oligochaeta proportional abundance of total macroinvertebrates in the Salmon River catchment. 0.25 E -60 0.20 CO "0 O 0.15 CL o 6 ▪ 3 C.)W2 0.10 ta 0.05 2 0. 0.00  0.25 0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00 J 0.18 0.16 0.14 0.12 0.10 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0.00 SAL 01 SAL 05 SAL 06 SAL 10 SAL 11 Downstream ^ Headwaters Salmon River mainstem SAL 03^SAL 07^SAL 08^SAL 09 Downstream Headwaters Davidson Creek^Coghlan Creek 0. 0 0 F- N E C) ea 0 00. 2 0. 0.18 0.16 0.14 0.12 0.10 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0.00 Figure 4.271-L 2005 Plecoptera and Trichoptera proportional abundance of total macroinvertebrates in the Salmon River catchment. E 1 oc • 0.8 as-0 03°) g 0.6 -0 .0co°co 73 0.4 E 0.2 Q. 2 0. 0  1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 A ■ SAL 01 SAL 05 SAL 06 SAL 10 SAL 11 ^ SAL 03 ^ SAL 07 ^ SAL 08 ^ SAL 09 0.07 o 0.06 a) 0 0.05 g 0.04 E _̀° 0.03m a: C 0. 0 0.02 E f o.o 0.01 2^00. 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02■^0.01 0 C Downstream ^ Headwaters^Downstream ^ Headwaters Salmon River mainstem ^ Davidson Creek^Coghlan Creek Figure 4.28A-D 2005 Baetidae and Emphemerellidae proportional abundance of Emphemeroptera taxa in the Salmon River catchment. EI^I a7 Ird 0.6 a)^c 0.5 0.4 ' a) co 0. • rvi 0.3 0 0.2 a 0.1 a" • 0 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0  SAL 03 ^ SAL 07 ^ SAL 08 ^ SAL 09 ^ 0.7 ^ 0.6 ^ 0.5 ^ 0.4 ^ 0.3 ^ 0.2 ^ 0.1 0 SAL 03^SAL 07^SAL 08^SAL 09 " .0 7 -273 0.6 (1)^C M^CU 0.5 :0 ma za, „I 0.4 as.c0. To 0.3 o c Z. 0.2ZECD 0.° 0 . 1 2 0, 0 SAL 01 SAL 05 SAL 06 SAL 10 SAL 11 SAL 01 SAL 05 SAL 06 SAL 10 SAL 11 Downstream ^ Headwaters Downstream^ Headwaters Salmon River mainstem ^ Davidson Creek^Coghlan Creek Figure 4.28E-H 2005 Ephemerellidae and Leptophlebiidae proportional abundance of Emphemeroptera taxa in the Salmon River catchment. I. ■  ^I A SAL 01 SAL 05 SAL 06 SAL 10 SAL 11 SAL 01 SAL 05 SAL 06 SAL 10 SAL 11 SAL 03 ^ SAL 07 ^ SAL 08 ^ SAL 09 D , SAL 03^SAL 07^SAL 08^SAL 09 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 Downstream ^ Headwaters ^ Downstream^ Headwaters Salmon River mainstem ^ Davidson Creek Coghlan Creek E  0.7 -630^0.6 c co 0.504 :0 T.'. 3 0.442 0 co 12- 2 o .c  0.3 7°c 0 0.2 •.E ° a 0.1 2 o. 0 " 0.9 E-6- 0.8 0 c 0.7 ca i 0 • .6 Pc 2 0.5 O a o _ s  0.4 i i 0.3 Z E 0.2 c. 0.1 2 0. 0 Figure 4.29A-D. 2005 Capniidae and Nemouridae proportional abundance of Plecoptera taxa in the Salmon River catchment. E e. 0.25 0 • 0.2 M • 0.15M .15 _ • re 0.1a. c 0 E • 0.05 0.0 00. 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 SAL 01 SAL 05 SAL 06 SAL 10 SAL 11^SAL 03 ^ SAL 07 ^ SAL 08 ^ SAL 09 Downstream^ Headwaters^Downstream ^ Headwaters Salmon River mainstem ^ Davidson Creek^Coghlan Creek Figure 4.29E-F 2005 Perlidae proportional abundance of Plectoptera taxa in the Salmon River catchment. 0.4 0.35 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 SAL 07 SAL 08 Downstream Headwaters SAL 03 Downstream Davidson Creek SAL 09 Headwaters Coghlan CreekSalmon River mainstem SAL 01 SAL 05 SAL 06 SAL 10 SAL 11 0.4 0.35 - 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 A 1 Figure 4.30A-D 2005 Glossosomatidae and Hydropsychidae proportional abundance of Trichoptera taxa in the Salmon River catchment Macroinvertebrate Taxa Characteristics To evaluate community structural composition, relative abundance of functional feeding groups and tolerance were described. Four functional feeding groups were identified; mainly collectors, shredders, predators and predator/parasites. The organization of family level taxa into functional feeding groups is available in Appendix D. The collectors group, which in this discussion includes taxa exhibiting collector, gatherer, filterer and scraper behavior (due to an inability to make further taxonomic distinction), increased in proportional abundance in a downstream direction on the Salmon River mainstem and dominated throughout the catchment. Overall, in Coghlan Creek the proportion of collectors increased moving downstream with a peak value occurring at SAL 08. Shredder relative abundance was more variable with the greatest proportion occurring at upstream sites. Peak predator/parasite proportional abundance was low throughout (refer to Figure 4.31). 78  1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 ■ predator/parasite predator shredder ■ collector SAL 01 SAL 03 SAL 05 SAL 06 SAL 07 SAL 08 SAL 09 SAL 10 SAL 11 Downstream ^ Headwaters Figure 4.31 2005 Proportional abundance of total macroinvertebrate taxa according to functional feeding group in the Salmon River catchment. The proportional presence of tolerant taxa, generally increased from a headwater to downstream direction (refer to Figure 4.32) in the catchment, with higher initial values at SAL 11. The presence of moderately tolerant taxa also increased in a downstream direction throughout the catchment. Sensitive taxa proportional abundance declined moving downstream with peak values occurring at SAL 10. Similar results were seen at tributary sites with the exception of declining proportional abundance of moderately tolerant taxa at the most downstream site, SAL 03 (refer to Figure 4.33). 79 o• 0.40 CL 0 it 0.20 0.00 1.00 0.90 0.80 0.70 -0 • 0.60 -0, 0.50 'c 0.40 0 E 0.30 o.2 0.20 0. 0.10 0.00 SAL 01 SAL 05 SAL 06 site SAL 10 SAL 11 Downstream Headwaters Legend Black circles represent tolerant taxa, open circles represent moderately tolerant taxa and squares represent sensitive taxa. Bars represent 1 standard deviation (from site replicates). The box indicates the region of groundwater influence. Figure 4.32 2005 Proportional abundance of macroinvertebrate taxa according to tolerance in the Salmon River mainstem. 1.20 6.i 1.00 ^ SAL 03 ^ SAL 07 ^ SAL 08 ^ SAL 09 ^Downstream site ^ Headwaters Legend Symbols and lines as in Figure 4.32. SAL 03 represents Coghlan Creek and SAL 07, SAL 08, and SAL 09 represent Coghlan Creek. Figure 4.33 2005 Proportional abundance of macroinvertebrate taxa according to tolerance in Salmon River tributary sites. 80 4.5.3 Historical Change in Macroinvertebrate Community Structure Total abundance, EPT total and proportional abundance as well and rarefied family richness were examined in the historical data to measure change in the benthic community. Total and proportional abundance comparisons were made, while, due to the limited taxonomic resolution of the 1975 macroinvertebrate data, rarefied family richness comparisons were only made between the most recent sample periods (1995 and 2005). Between the three sampling periods mean total abundance across the catchment was greatest in 2005 at 1067.14 individuals/m 2 . Differences between 1975 and 1995 total abundances were negligible. Table 4.19 displays total abundance summary statistics for the three datasets at selected sites. Total abundance declined more consistently moving downstream in the historical datasets (see Figure 4.34 and 4.35). Similar patterns in rarefied family richness are noted between the 1995 and 2005 in the catchment. Higher expected numbers of families occurred in the 1995 dataset at all sites (refer to Figure 4.36). Table 4.19 Summary statistics for macroinvertebrate total abundance at selected sites in the Salmon River catchment, 1975-2005. Sample Period 1975 1995 2005 Site Total st.dev. Abundance Total Abundance st.dev. Total Abundance st.dev. (# individuals/m 2) (# individuals/m 2) (# individuals/m 2) SAL 05 5899.70^n/a - 5226.67 3513.64 SAL 06 5381.00^n/a 2666.67 193.30 7310.00 2458.68 SAL 10 7765.60^n/a 21786.67 11773.16 SAL 11 12998.70^n/a 7003.33 136.30 9253.33 1219.93 SAL 07 6630.00^n/a 3844.33 66.53 7930.00 2600.52 SAL 08 7755.20^n/a 8673.33 572.19 10983.33 6730.06 SAL 09 - 15551.00 2169.97 7980.00 4309.40 M ean Total Abundance 7738.37 2750.94 7547.73 5078.28 10067.14 5459.01 81 SAL 11SAL 05 SAL 10SAL 06 — — II_ — _ — — _ — • 40000 35000 30000 25000 33> 20000 C ot 15000 10000 5000 0 Downstream Headwaters Legend Squares represent 1975 values, diamonds represent 1995 values and circles represent 2005 values of total abundance. Bars represent 1 standard deviation (from site replicates). The box indicates the region of groundwater influence. Figure 4.34 Total macroinvertebrate abundance (1975, 1995 and 2005) in the Salmon River mainstem. 20000 ^ 18000 16000 14000 "E 1-0 12000 asc 10000:05 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 ^ SAL 07 Downstream SAL 08 SAL 09 Headwaters Legend Symbols and lines as in Figure 4.34. Figure 4.35 Total macroinvertebrate abundance (1975, 1995 and 2005) in Coghlan Creek. 82 ‘o. 30.00 25.00 E "a 20.00 • 15.00-a o.x 1 • 0.00 5.00 0.00 Downstream^ Headwaters Legend Open symbols represent 1995 values, closed symbols represent 2005 values of rarefied family richness, circles represent Salmon River mainstem, squares represent Coghlan Creek and the triangle represents Davidson Creek. The box indicates the region of groundwater influence. Sites occur in the following order from headwaters (right) to downstream (left): Salmon River mainstem; SAL 11, SAL 10, SAL 06, SAL 05, and SAL 01, and Coghlan Creek; SAL 09, SAL08, and SAL07. Figure 4.36 Rarefied family richness (1995 and 2005) in the Salmon River catchment. Generally historic patterns in EPT total abundance and proportional abundance of total macroinvertebrates were similar to those seen in total macroinvertebrate abundance in the catchment. Summary statistics for historical EPT total and proportional abundance is available in Table 4.20. For sites on the Salmon River mainstem highest proportional abundance was seen in 1995, while highest total abundance of EPT taxa occurred in 2005 (refer to Figures 4.37 and 4.39). Similar trends occurred at sites on Coghlan Creek with the exception of higher total abundance at SAL 11 in 1995 and higher proportional abundance at SAL 08 in 2005 (refer to Figures 4.38 and 4.40). Little variation was seen in EPT rarefied family richness between datasets and sites. Overall 1995 values were highest at each site where comparisons were possible (refer" to Figure 4.41). 83 Table 4.20 Summary statistics for macroinvertebrate EPT abundances at selected sites in the Salmon River catchment,1975-2005. Sample Period 1975 ^ 1995 ^ 2005 site ID EPT total abundance st. dev. EPT proportional abundance st. dev. EPT total abundance st. dev. EPT proportional abundance st. dev. EPT total abundance st.dev. EPT proportional abundance st. dev. individuals/m2 individuals/m2 individuals/m2 SAL 05 156.10 n/a 0.03 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 2970.00 256.64 0.57 0.11 SAL 06 2011.00 n/a 0.37 n/a 2330.00 195.00 0.87 0.12 5533.33 99.76 0.76 0.11 SAL 07 2066.20 n/a 0.31 n/a 2606.67 60.00 0.68 0.06 5210.00 334.35 0.66 0.06 SAL 08 1779.20 n/a 0.23 n/a 5220.00 443.36 0.60 0.16 8400.00 1060.17 0.76 0.05 SAL 09 12136.67 1744.80 0.78 0.07 5753.33 47.15 0.72 0.06 SAL 10 3544.50 n/a 0.46 n/a 19196.67 196.27 0.88 0.07 SAL 11 2297.90 n/a 0.18 n/a 4596.67 55.52 0.66 0.11 5630.00 512.42 0.61 0.04 mean total abundance 1975.82 1088.48 0.26 15.27 5378.00 3977.61 0.72 0.11 7527.62 5382.03 0.71 0.11 SAL 11SAL 06 SAL 10SAL 05 HeadwatersDownstream 20000 CNI 15000 :13 10000 5000 — 0 25000 Legend Squares represent 1975 values, diamonds represent 1995 values and circles represent 2005 values of total abundance. The box indicates the region of groundwater influence. Figure 4.37 Total EPT abundance (1975, 1995 and 2005) in the Salmon River mainstem. 14000 12000 10000 1-0^8000is .5^6000 4000 2000 0 SAL 07 Downstream SAL 08 SAL 09 Headwaters Legend Symbols and lines as in Figure 4.37. Figure 4.38 Total EPT abundance (1975, 1995 and 2005) in Coghlan Creek 85 •— ....   ^-- -- — ..,.. o' / ■ •••. \ .... / / / / / --. .... ... ■ N. / / U / I. 1.00 0.90 g 0.40 o. 0.30 2 0- 0.20 0.10 0.00 cs, 0.80 O 0.70 -0 • 0.60 3 -19 0.50 U ^ SAL 05 ^ SAL 06 ^ SAL 10 ^ SAL 11 ^Downstream Headwaters Legend Squares represent 1975 values, diamonds represent 1995 values and circles represent 2005 values of total abundance. The box indicates the region of groundwater influence. Figure 4.39 EPT proportional abundance (1975, 1995 and 2005) in the Salmon River mainstem. Cs1 1.00 0.90 0.80 E 0.70 0.60 3co 0.50 t clo 0.40 0.30 2 Q. 0.20 0.10 0.00 SAL 07 ^ SAL 08 ^ SAL 09 Downstream Headwaters Legend Symbols and lines as in Figure 4.39. Figure 4.40 EPT proportional abundance (1975, 1995 and 2005) in Coghlan Creek. 86 16.00 14.00 ^ N 12.00 E sin a' 10.00E co 8.00-0 0 6.00 o 4.00 4t 2.00 0.00 Downstream Headwaters Legend Open symbols represent 1995 values, black symbols represent 2005 values of rarefied family richness, circles represent Salmon River mainstem, squares represent Coghlan Creek and the triangle represents Davidson Creek. The box indicates the region of groundwater influence. Sites occur in the following order from headwaters (right) to downstream (left): Salmon River mainstem; SAL 11, SAL 10, SAL 06, SAL 05, and Coghlan Creek; SAL 09, SAL08, and SAL07 (SAL 03 and SAL 01 absent). Figure 4.41 Rarefied EPT richness (1995 and 2005) in the Salmon River catchment. In an attempt to further evaluate historical trends in macroinvertebrate data PCA was conducted. This analysis was used to take into account all taxa present at a given site and examine relative changes in community composition at sites over the 30 year period. Due to the inconsistent macroinvertebrate sampling at sites between the three sampling event, separate PCA analysis were run so that all available data could be employed in evaluating spatial relationships (i.e. 1975-1995-2005, 1975 to 2005 and 1995 to 2005). Figures 4.42 through 4.44 display PCA results and Table 4.21 displays significant Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients (r > 0.50, a = 0.1) between orders and principal components. Further information related to the PCA analysis is available in Appendix E. A total of 5 principal components were required to explain 75% of variation in the 1975-1995-2005 comparison, while 6 and 4 principal components were required for similar levels of variation in the 1975-2005 and 1995-2005 comparisons, respectively. Interestingly, similar patterns of site 87 grouping appear in all three analyses. As displayed in Figure 4.42 sites SAL 06 and SAL 07 show closer association over the three sample periods compared to upstream and headwater sites (SAL08 and SAL11, respectively). In the second analysis, using 1975 and 2005 sites, SAL 06 and SAL 07 show similar distance and directional patterns. Other sites also show similar spatial movement in terms of distance, although in different directions. Downstream (SAL 01) and upstream (SAL 11) show the greatest spatial distances over the two sample periods (refer to Figure 4.43). The final PCA analysis (refer to Figure 4.44) displays results for the 1995 and 2005 sample surveys. In this analysis, also the strongest of the three in terms of the amount of variability accounted for in two principal components, results resemble those seen in initial analysis with the addition of SAL 09 on Coghlan Creek. Overall a grouping of groundwater and non-groundwater-influenced sites appears. 6 - 5 - • SAL11 4 - 3 - 2 - .SAL11 1 O SAL08 SAL07 0 - OSAL08• SAL11 -1^- SAL06 • 041_07 :SA46 -2 - SALON^O SAL08 46AL06 -4^-2^0^2^4 ^ 8 Principal Component 1 (21.86%) Legend Squares represent 1975 order data, diamonds represent 1995 order data and circles represent 2005 order data. The dashed line represents the separation between groundwater and non- groundwater-influenced sites. Figure 4.42 Principal Component Analysis on relative abundance data, 1975, 1995 and 2005. 88 43 c** ti cc; 0 a. E 8 Taa 0 .r..=^-2 - a 2- 0- -1 - SAL11 3^ Legend Symbols and lines as in Figure 4.42. Figure 4.43 Principal Component Analysis on relative abundance data, 1975 and 2005. 5 OSAL08 0• SAL09 SAL08 AL11 S_09 6- 5- p.- 2- 4 3  c^SAL01 0 0. 1^• 0 0 0. 2.^-1 c °- -2- -3 • SAL11 SAL10 SAL05 • • SAL10 SAL05^•^• SAL11 SAL01 111^SALO•07 • SAL08^■ SAL08 -6^-4^-2^0^2^4 Principal Component 1 (20.09%) -4^-2^0^2^4^6^8 -4 Principal Component 1 (36.99%) Legend Symbols and lines as in Figure 4.42. Figure 4.44 Principal Component Analysis on relative abundance data, 1995 and 2005. 89 Table 4.21 Summary of Pearson correlation coefficients (r) and principal components 1 and 2 , for separate Principal Components Analyses (a = 0.1). 1975-1995-2005^1975-2005^1995-2005 Order PC 1 PC 2 PC 1 PC 2 PC 1 PC 2 COLEOPTERA 0.7884 0.1184 0.4554 -0.4585 0.4105 0.7975 DIPTERA 0.3405 0.7398 0.6496 0.4268 0.8076 -0.1566 EPHEMEROPTERA 0.8061 -0.2713 0.5833 -0.1526 0.8904 0.3196 HEMIPTERA -0.0821 -0.2429 n/a n/a 0.6658 -0.2813 HYMENOPTERA 0.8968 0.1669 n/a n/a 0.2184 0.7555 MEGALOPTERA n/a n/a n/a n/a 0.9103 -0.2253 ODONATA -0.2764 -0.3706 n/a n/a 0.8924 -0.2335 PLECOPTERA -0.0359 0.5965 0.8192 0.2298 0.8574 -0.3082 TRICHOPTERA 0.0532 0.2841 0.6757 0.1469 0.9306 -0.1595 HYDRACARI NA 0.7693 0.3749 0.2172 0.6282 0.5961 0.4153 AMPHIPODA 0.7598 -0.0200 -0.1642 -0.1303 0.7163 0.3496 MYSIDACEA 0.3842 -0.0168 -0.7602 0.1656 0.2803 0.1726 OSTRACODA n/a n/a -0.6285 0.2509 n/a n/a ISOPODA -0.2852 0.8110 0.1682 0.7338 -0.015 -0.5372 PISCICOLA 0.3493 -0.1504 n/a n/a -0.0652 0.3415 OLIGOCHAETA 0.7435 0.3330 -0.0947 -0.2496 0.6816 0.5036 TRICLADIDA -0.3950 0.6186 0.0792 0.7211 -0.2858 -0.5927 HYDRA 0.2841 -0.0524 -0.0759 0.1281 -0.1431 0.2394 GASTEROPODA -0.0590 0.7798 0.2313 0.7782 0.5313 -0.4735 VENEROIDA -0.1028 -0.1759 -0.5921 0.4943 0.354 -0.2531 NEMATODA -0.3346 0.8090 0.2337 0.3055 0.8623 -0.4174 COLLEMBOLA -0.2391 0.0359 -0.2747 0.2718 -0.3459 -0.2429 LEPIDOPTERA n/a n/a -0.1358 0.0121 n/a n/a NEUROPTERA 0.1776 -0.2763 -0.067 -0.3585 -0.1369 0.2234 Other -0.0821 0.0892 0.5166 -0.4687 n/a n/a Note: Values r > 0.50 are in bold. 4.6 Land Activity and Environmental Quality Land use indices used in analysis of relationships between land activity and environmental quality include proportional land use type and proportional land cover. These indices were compared to sediment trace metal annual median concentrations, sediment percent clay content, and macroinvertebrate community characteristics (total abundance, rarefied family richness, EPT abundances and rarefied richness, and proportional and total abundance of functional feeding groups). Water quality parameters were not included in these comparisons due to statistical limitations. 90 4.6.1 Sediment Quality and the Macroinvertebrate Community Only two sediment quality characteristics correlated with measures of the macroinvertebrate community across the sites in the Salmon River catchment, clay (%) and annual concentrations of Mn. All correlations are negative with the exception of the proportional abundance of collector taxa and Mn which was positive (refer to Table 4.22). Table 4.22 Significant Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results between macroinvertebrate community characteristics and sediment quality characteristics (a = 0.1). Macroinvertebrate^ Sediment Community Characteristic Correlation ^Quality Characteristic Total abundance^ Clay (%) Collectors (total) Clay (%) Shredders (total) Mn Predators (total)^ Clay (%) Predator/parasites (total)^ Mn Collectors (%) Mn Shredders (%)^ Mn Correlation coefficients between sediment quality characteristics and the macroinvertebrate community are available in Appendix F. 4.6.2 Land Use and Sediment Quality Land use type and sediment quality characteristics correlation results are listed below in Table 4.23. General land use and sediment quality characteristics correlation results are displayed in Table 4.24. Table 4.23 Significant Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results between sediment quality characteristics and land use type, in two buffer widths (a = 0.1). Land Use Type (% coverage) Sediment Quality^Correlation^30 m^100 m Characteristic -^residential^residential vacant/unused beef, vacant/unused residential^residential beef Cu ^ beef Al Ba Mg Mn Zn Clay (%)  other lifestock transportation residential other agriculture civic/institutional residential other agriculture 91 Table 4.24 Significant Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results between sediment characteristics and general land use categories, in two buffer widths (a = 0.1). General Land Use Category (% coverage) Sediment Quality Characteristic Correlation Land Use 30 m Land Use 100 m Al - + Residential Vacant/Unused Residential Vacant/Unused Ba - + Residential Agricultural Residential Agricultural Cr - Civic/Institutional/ Commercial Mg + Vacant/Unused Mn - Civic/Institutional/ Commercial Zn - Residential Residential Clay (%) + Civic/Institutional/ Commercial Correlation coefficients between land use and sediment quality characteristics are available in Appendix F. 4.6.3 Land Use and Macroinvertebrate Community Characteristics Correlation results between land use type and the macroinvertebrate community are displayed in Table 4.25. All significant correlations were positive, except for rarefaction. Multiple land uses correlated to macroinvertebrate community characteristics using the general land use categories over the specific land use types (refer to Table 4.26). Table 4.25 Significant Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results between macroinvertebrate community characteristics and land use by type, in two buffer widths (a = 0.1). Land Use Type (% coverage) Macroinvertebrate Correlation CornmunityCharacteristic 30 m 100 m Total abundance + other livestock Rarefaction other agriculture EPT abundance EPT abundance (%) Collectors (total) + + + other livestock, poultry other livestock, poultry other livestock Predators (total) + dairy Predators (%) + dairy Predator/parasites (%) + beef unclassified, dairy 92 Table 4.26 Significant Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results between macroinvertebrate community characteristics and general land use, in two buffer widths (a  = 0.1). General Land Use Category (% coverage) Macroinvertebrate CommunityCharacteristic Correlation Land Use 30 m Land Use 100 m EPT abundance + Agricultural EPT abundance (%) + Agricultural Agricultural Predators (total) + Transportation Predators/parasites (total) Transportation Predators (%) + Transportation Predator/parasites (%) Transportation Transportation Correlation coefficients between land use and macroinvertebrate community characteristics are available in Appendix F. 4.6.4 Land Cover and Sediment Quality For land cover and sediment quality characteristics, all significant correlations were negative. Only mean annual concentrations of Cu and Mn correlated to impervious cover in the 100m stream buffer across sites. In terms of the forest cover, Zn and clay content were the only sediment characteristics to show correlation in both buffer widths (refer to Table 4.27 below). Table 4.27 Significant Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results between sediment quality characteristics and land cover, in two buffer widths (a = 0.1). Sediment Quality Correlation^Land Cover Type (%) Cu^ Impervious (100 m) Mn Impervious (100 m) Zn Forest (30 m), Forest (100 m) Clay^ Forest (30 m), Forest (100 m) Correlation coefficients between land cover and sediment characteristics are available in Appendix F. 4.6.5 Land Cover and Macroinvertebrate Community Characteristics In reference to land cover and macroinvertebrate community characteristics, only relative abundance of shredders and predator/parasite taxa were positively correlated to the extent of forest cover (at the 100 m buffer width). EPT abundance correlated negatively to the % forest cover (in the 100 m buffer width) (refer to Table 4.28). 93 Table 4.28 Significant Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results between macroinvertebrate community characteristics and land cover, in two buffer widths (a = 0.1). Macroinvertebrate^ Land Cover Correlation Community Characteristic Type (%) EPT abundance^ Forest (100 m) Shredders (%) Forest (100 m) Predator/parasites (%)^ Forest (100 m) Correlation coefficients between land cover and macroinvertebrate community characteristics are available in Appendix F. 4.6.6 Historical Land Cover and Macroinvertebrate Community Characteristics Due to limited taxonomic resolution of historical macroinvertebrate data only several community measures were considered for correlation analysis with land cover. For the 30 year period the community measures available include total abundance, and EPT abundance and proportional abundance. Rarefied family richness and EPT richness are considered for the 1995 and 2005 datasets. Land use, water and sediment quality information was not used in evaluating historical correlation relationships due to data availability and discrepancies in analytical techniques. In the absence of such information it is hoped that characteristics of the macroinvertebrate community may adequately integrate some of this environmental information. Only EPT abundance and forest cover (100m buffer width) showed significant correlation results, mainly a negative correlation (refer to Appendix F). 94 Chapter 5 DISCUSSION 5.1 Climate and Land Activity in the Salmon River Catchment Both climate and land activity have the capacity to influence the stream environment. Examination of historical climate data, suggests no noticeably large or divergent trends expected to unusually influence stream conditions during the sampling periods in the Salmon River catchment. 5.1.1 Current Land Use in the Salmon River Catchment • In the context of land use in the catchment, several factors should be considered when interpreting results. Firstly, determination of a land use type was based on the land use occupying the majority of area in a given parcel. As a result a single land use was assigned to a parcel even if multiple uses were present. Following this approach, spatially inaccurate calculation of land use extents may have occurred, usually favoring an overestimated of extent. Evaluation of the two types of land cover in the catchment, from aerial or orthophotographs, is an alternative, and possible more spatially accurate description of land activity. Land cover may also be a useful land activity indicator as it integrates the effects on forest cover and imperviousness from multiple land uses. A second consideration is the inclusion of land use types associated with variable imperviousness in calculations of total imperviousness area, such as residential land use. Including such land use types causes the extent of impervious area to approach the extent of agricultural land use in the Salmon River catchment. This is likely an overestimation as the nature of residential activity occurs predominantly as low-density development in the catchment. This type of residential development may be associated with a lesser degree of imperviousness compared to more suburban residential development. Ground truthing and verification of historical land cover data would also strengthen related conclusions drawn in this study. The location of change in land activity can have a significant influence on the stream environment. This is particularly important given the unconfined nature of the Hopington aquifer and its know influence on water quality and quantity in the Salmon River catchment. Within stream buffer widths agriculture land use was highest downstream and at headwaters sites of both the Salmon River mainstem and Coghlan Creek in 2004. Residential land use was 95 distributed more broadly across sites, with somewhat higher extents occurring mid-reach in the catchment. The remaining land use types show less variation between sites. For the most land use extents were consistent between stream buffer widths. 5.1.2 Current Land Cover in the Salmon River Catchment In the absence of specific land use or land cover data, aerial photographs can provide historical record of urban coverage change, specifically impervious surfaces (Jennings and Jarnagin, 2002). Despite this, it is recognized that this may be a significant limitation in this study in terms of estimating actual aerial extents with little or no ground truthing. The compaction of soils is a further important characteristic of urban areas and may need greater consideration in evaluation land use impacts in the Salmon River catchment. Although not directly quantified in this study, the degree of effective impervious area or drainage connection may be an important variable in quantifying land use stream environment relationships. A reduction in drainage connection may minimize the impact of impervious areas to the stream environment (Hatt et al., 2004). It is recognized that percent imperviousness can be a blanket index in that it fails to address sources of impairment associated with urbanization in greater detail. Thresholds of imperviousness may be more useful in developing rather than developed areas where they have not been met and there is opportunity for flexibility in development plans. Other more specific indices may have stronger relationships to the stream environment and the spatial proximity of these stressors may also be an important factor to consider (Novotny et al., 2005). For example, drainage connection measured as percent effective impervious area (EIA) when compared to percent total impervious area better explained variation in dissolved organic carbon and conductivity resulting from urban NPS pollution (Hatt et al., 2004). For current land cover conditions impervious cover was greater in the Salmon River headwaters (SAL 12, SAL 11), lower Coghlan Creek (SAL 07) and lower Salmon River mainstem (SAL 04). Lower values are recorded upper to mid-reach on the Salmon River (SAL 10, SAL 06 and SAL 05) and downstream at SAL 01. Higher extents of forest cover occur on the Salmon River mid to upper-reach (SAL 06, SAL 09 and SAL 10) and just below the confluence of the Salmon River and Coghlan Creek (SAL 05). Lowest values for forest cover occur in the headwater and downstream sites of the Salmon River mainstem. 96 5.1.3 Historical Trends in Land Activity in the Salmon River Catchment General patterns in land activity over a 30 year period include a slight decline in agricultural land use and a more dramatic increase in residential land use (refer to Figure 4.2.2). The small change in agricultural extent is not surprising considering that much of the catchment is part of the Agricultural Land Reserve (ALR). The increase in residential land use follows the trend in urban land cover expansion in the province, which increased by 50% over a similar time period (Statistics Canada, 2005). With the exception of a few sites, impervious cover, measured as proportional area, increased in stream buffer widths, while forest cover generally declined. Patterns in land cover were more consistent across sites in the wider buffer. Notable patterns in land cover change for the 30 year period include the greatest increase in impervious cover (in the 30 m buffer) and decline in forest cover (in the 30 m and 100 m buffers) occurring at SAL 08. Higher increases in impervious cover were also noted at nearby headwaters sites at both buffer widths. In terms of forest cover, decreasing in extent was the general rule, with the exception of SAL 06 and SAL 12 where increases were seen at both buffer widths. Higher residential activity over the sensitive aquifer region was coupled with increasing impervious area and declining forest cover. Increased agricultural activity was also seen in the headwaters, however increased forest cover noted in this region may be tempered by an increase in impervious cover. The combination of these land activity trends in sensitive areas is a concern in terms of the potential to impact the stream environment. Overall, land cover was a useful indicator given the limitations in existing land use data. The integrative aspect of land cover gave additional insight into changing land activity in the catchment. 5.2 Water Quality in the Salmon River Catchment 5.2.1 Current Water Quality Conditions in the Salmon River Catchment An important consideration of a water quality study is the representativeness of sample sites in the context of the catchment. Based on recommendations from other research that investigated the variability of water quality in the Salmon River catchment exhaustively (i.e. Beale (1976) and Cook (1994)), the selected sites are considered appropriate in illustrating overall trends in water quality in stream regions. 97 A second important component of interpreting water quality information is the availability of natural background information. Due to the absence of reference sites in this study, it is not possible to make comparisons to natural water quality conditions in the catchment. Based on spatial and seasonal water quality results observed in this study a combination of specific conductivity (as a total dissolved indicator) and NO 3 .- -N and PO4 3-P(nutrient indicators) may track groundwater and overland inputs to the stream environment. Despite a similar annual pattern in specific conductivity noted at all sites, significant differences in median concentrations were noted between headwaters and the downstream site as well as annual differences between the mid-reach site on the Salmon River and Coghlan Creek. Highest median specific conductivity was measured in the downstream extent of the Salmon River (SAL 02) during the dry season, while the lowest median values were noted in wet season measurements in the headwaters (SAL 11). Similar results were noted for Cl - concentrations in the catchment. These results are typical given the dry season coincides with a period of low flow, lower dilution capacity and greater groundwater influence in the catchment. Higher specific conductivity values recorded at SAL 07 are expected to be related to groundwater inputs at this site, particularly in the dry season. In the nearby Sumas River catchment specific conductivity also exhibited seasonal trends, with higher values recorded in summer months (Smith, 2004). Given that the majority of NO3.--N guideline exceedances occurred in the dry season it is not surprising that the highest median values occurred at SAL 07 in the dry season and higher groundwater influence (refer to Table 5.1). Lowest median NO3. - -N concentrations occurred in the headwaters during wet season. These differences in NO3 --N median concentrations were significant. Evaluation of the amount of precipitation prior to sampling and NO3. - -N concentrations produced negative correlations also further supports a groundwater source of NO3 --.N in the Salmon River. Natural levels of NO3. --N rarely exceed 0.903 mg/L in natural waters (CCME, 2003). Higher peak dry season NO3. - -N values, greater than 9 mg/L were found in the Sumas River catchment (Smith, 2004). Unlike the above water quality variables PO43 -P exhibited higher median concentrations in the wet season in the catchment along with guideline exceedances (refer to Table 5.1). Significantly, higher median concentrations were recorded in the Salmon River headwaters (SAL 11) during the wet season, while the lowest median value occurred at the downstream site in the 98 dry season. Lower runoff during summer months as indicated combined with increased biological uptake of phosphorus during the dry season (the growing season for many aquatic plants) may explain this, at least in part. The pattern of elevated PO 4 3-Pfollowing initial fall runoff events was also noted in the Sumas River catchment (Smith, 2004). This may suggest a runoff process is operating in both catchments. Table 5.1 Summary of water quality guideline exceedances in the Salmon River catchment. Water Quality Variable NO3 --N -3PO4 -P # of exceedances^# of exceedances dry season wet season dry season wet season SAL 02^8^2 4 SAL 06 3 2^ 4 SAL 07^14^11 - SAL 11 5 Site 5.2.2 Historical Trends in Water Quality in the Salmon River Catchment When considering the Salmon River catchment as a whole, median values for the water quality parameters that permit historical comparison (i.e. specific conductivity, NO3 - -N, and PO4.-3 -P) increased, with the exception of median concentrations of PO4 .-3 -P. The increasing trend was largely supported by site-specific patterns, again with a single exception, NO 3 - -N. Median seasonal and annual specific conductivity concentrations increased overall and to the greatest degree occurred in the mid-reach of the Salmon River catchment. Historical trends in median NO 3 .- -N concentrations were less consistent. Results do support an increase in NO3. - - N at both groundwater and non-groundwater-influenced sites, however to a greater degree at groundwater sites. Declining PO4. -3-P median concentrations were noted. Overall two out of three water quality indicators (mainly NO 3 - -N and specific conductivity) show no historical improvement and are a continued concern particularly at groundwater-influenced sites. Beale (1976) noted exceedances in pH, water temperature and PO 4 3-P in the Salmon River catchment in the mid 1970s. Approximately 15 years later Cook (1994) noted specific conductance, Cl - , and NO3. - -N increased in a downstream direction with overall NO 3 .- -N and bacterial concerns in the catchment. Wernick (1996) expressed similar concerns. In recent sampling (2004/05) increases greater than 20% from upstream to the downstream sites were noted for specific conductivity, and NO 3 .- -N. Although no exceedances were noted in the former 99 variable NO 3 .--N exceedances did occur on numerous occasions, thus making it a continued concern. However this concern may also be expanded to include PO4: 3 -P, at least seasonally given exceedances of a conservative guideline. These results are not surprising given the known agricultural NPS pollution problem in the catchment (BC MOE, 1996). 5.3 Sediment Quality in the Salmon River Catchment 5.3.1 Current Sediment Quality Conditions in the Salmon River Catchment It should be recognized that discussion of trace metals is based on total extractable metals and does not necessarily indicate biologically availability, which is a separate, but important consideration. Furthermore, the occurrence of trace metals in isolation may not be realistic in the aquatic environment. It is more likely for metals to occur as compounds or in correlation with others. Further interaction effects between trace metals should also be considered (Ankley et al., 1996). Overall, the majority of sediment trace metal peak values occurred in the dry season with the exception of Mn and Zn. Instances where peak values were not recorded at SAL 06 (i.e. for Mn, Sr, and Zn), peak or secondary peak values were recorded on Coghlan Creek (at either SAL 08 or SAL 09). Significant differences, measured as declines in median annual sediment trace metal concentrations, were noted between headwater and downstream regions for Cr, Fe and Mg. Only Mn concentrations were significantly different between Salmon River headwaters region and Coghlan Creek with greater median concentrations occurring on Coghlan Creek. Guideline or threshold exceedances are summarized in Table 5.2 below. The greatest number of exceedances appeared mid-reach on the Salmon River mainstem and Coghlan Creek. Overall sediment trace metal concentration results (i.e. the occurrence of peak values, guideline or threshold exceedances along with highest median annual concentrations) point higher concentrations occurring mid-reach of the Salmon River catchment. Peak concentrations generally occurred at SAL 06 on the Salmon River mainstem, while guideline exceedances occurred at SAL 08 on Coghlan Creek. 100 Table 5.2 Summary of sediment trace metal guideline or threshold exceedances in the Salmon River catchment. trace metal threshold dry season wet season Cu^ISQG^SAL 06 background lake Fe concentration^SAL 06, SAL 08 SAL 02, SAL 08 background lake Mg^concentration continuous Ni suficial concentration^SAL 04, SAL 06^- SAL 02, SAL 08, Zn^ISQG^SAL 08^SAL 09 Higher Fe Mg, Ni sediment concentrations were recently found in Sumas River sediment, while Cu Mn Zn median concentrations measured in the Salmon River catchment fall within the range on concentrations measured recently in sediments of the Sumas River (Smith, 2004). 5.3.2 Historical Trends in Sediment Quality in the Salmon River catchment Due to advances in determination of sediment trace metal concentrations, statistical comparison of concentrations measured in the 1973 - 1975 period with more recent sediment trace metal results was not possible. A larger sediment size fraction used by Beale (1976) introduces further variability between comparisons. This is discussed in greater detail in Cook (1994). Loosely interpreting results from Beale (1976), it can be concluded that Al, Cr, and Ni concentrations were lower in 2005 compared to results from 1975. Given the above concerns current sediment trace metal concentration were only compared to sediment data from Cook (1994). Annual trace metal concentrations measured in this study have declined significantly from 1991 levels across stream regions in the Salmon River catchment. Only Ni concentrations in the headwaters exhibited a significant increase between the two time periods. Of the trace metals identified as of concern by Cook (1994) (i.e. Zn, Cr, Cu, Co, Ni and Mn) only Mn, Ni and Zn occurred in levels above background concentrations. Following conclusions in Cook (1994), Zn is also the greatest concern in this study given it exceeded the ISQG on several occasions. 5.4 Macroinvertebrate Communities in the Salmon River Catchment 5.4.1 Current Macroinvertebrate Community Characteristics in the Salmon River Catchment Biological monitoring is an important integrative measure of stream condition (Karr and (Karr and Chu, 2000, Karr, 1991). General measures of the macroinvertebrate community 101 used to characterize stream health in the Salmon River catchment included abundance (total, total EPT and proportional EPT) and rarefied family richness (all taxa and EPT taxa). A peak in total abundance appeared to occur in upper regions of the Salmon River catchment, on Coghlan Creek (SAL 08) and more notably at SAL 10 on the Salmon River mainstem. Both sites are upstream of known groundwater influence. Similar patterns in EPT total and proportional abundance were also noted, which is not unexpected as the majority of insects identified at sites were EPT taxa. In terms of family level rarefaction in the catchment the greatest expected number of families was found at sites closer to regions of known groundwater influence. For the Salmon River mainstem this occurred below the confluence at SAL 05, while for Coghlan Creek this occurred in its lower reach at SAL 07. The divergence patterns in total abundance and community richness suggest that an increase in macroinvertebrate numbers in the catchment is not necessarily followed by an increased number of families. This may point to fewer taxa dominating sites. Further investigation into community compositional structure revealed that Ephemeroptera taxa had the highest proportional abundance at most sites, with peak proportional abundance mid-reach on Coghlan Creek (SAL 08). In this order the dominance of a single family shifts moving downstream (from Heptageniidae and Leptophlebiidae in headwaters to Baetidae downstream). Alternatively both Plecopteran and Trichopteran orders were each dominated by a single family throughout (the Nemouridae and Hydropsychidae families, respectively). Peak proportional abundance of the latter two orders occurred at SAL 07 and SAL 10. The community structure at sites with peaks in total abundance was also noted; both SAL 08 and SAL 10 were dominated by three families; Nemouridae, Hydropsychidae and Heptageniidae. Functional feeding group composition can reveal the functional structure of a community and is expected to vary depending on food resource inputs to the stream environment (Allan, 1995b). Throughout sites in the Salmon River catchment collector taxa dominated the functional structure. Peak values occurred mid-reach on Coghlan Creek (SAL 08) and at SAL 06 on the Salmon River mainstem. Generally, proportional abundance of other functional feeding groups was low. Keeping this in mind, shredder taxa had higher proportional abundances in the Salmon River headwaters and mid-reach sites, while predator proportional abundance was higher in the Coghlan Creek headwaters. It should also be noted that the apparent dominance of the collector 102 functional feeding group observed throughout the catchment may be an artefact of the definition of group used in this study. More specifically, several functional feeding types (i.e. collector, gatherer, filterer and scraper behaviors) where placed into one category due to the taxonomic resolution achieved in identification. Taxa tolerance to organic pollution at the family levels was also considered as a means to investigate the macroinvertebrate community. Tolerant taxa increased in a downstream direction in the catchment. Throughout the sites both tolerant and moderately tolerant taxa dominated. Slightly higher proportional abundances of sensitive taxa appeared to occur on Coghlan Creek. A mid-reach rise in tolerant to moderately taxa is seen at SAL 07 and SAL 06, sites of known groundwater influence. At Missouri and Kansas urban stream sites, EPT abundance was weighted by the presence of tolerant Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera taxa. Hydropsychidae taxa also showed a particularly heavy presence at urban sites in these land use comparisons (Poulton et al., 2007). Similar dominance of these tolerant taxa were also noted in this current study. The measurement of environmental parameters can account for influences on community patterns (Attrill, 2002). However, across several other catchments influenced by urban and agricultural land use, minimal changes in water quality were measured in comparison to the moderate stress indicated in macroinvertebrate communities (i.e. Benke et al., 1981, Lenat and Crawford, 1994, Robson et al., 2005). From these results it appears that water quality alone was unable to capture the effects of land use. In this study water quality parameters also do not appear to account for all macroinvertebrate community patterns. In the Salmon River catchment nutrient and ion water quality indicators point to seasonal and spatial patterns in water quality with deteriorating water quality occurring at sites of groundwater influence. Eutrophication nutrient guideline exceedances indicate the potential for enriched water quality conditions. The additional exceedances of the NO3 --N toxicity guideline is a further concern for aquatic health. Results from the macroinvertebrate community suggest a rise in the expected number of families at groundwater-influenced sites where N guideline exceedances occur. However the patterns in peak total abundance at upstream sites and dominance of several taxa, a single functional feeding group and tolerant taxa throughout is not necessarily evident in water or sediment results based on spatial, seasonal and guideline analysis. Macroinvertebrate results point to possible additional regions of concern in the catchment. Elsewhere richness values detected organic pollution at 103 heavily polluted sites (Cao et al., 1996), while moderate organic enrichment can result in increased richness and abundance at effected sites (Reynoldson et al., 1997). The latter is suspected in the Salmon River catchment given on-going nutrient concerns. Sediment trace metal results also point to mid-reach concerns where elevated concentrations occur. In the 2005 data the macroinvertebrate community only showed correlation to two sediment characteristics; concentrations of Mn and the percent clay content (positive and negative correlations, respectively). As, percent clay content values were obtained from deposited sediment and not from the riffles where macroinvertebrate sampling occurred, it is difficult to interpret this correlation with great certainty. However sedimentation may decrease richness, abundance and biomass of macroinvertebrate taxa, depending on the duration of exposure. Sedimentation may also produce a dominance of more tolerant taxa including Oligochaeta and Diptera, such as some chironomids. This occurs through physical mechanisms including the obstruction of respiration, interference of feeding, and loss of preferred and/or stable habitat (Jackson et al., 1993). Interrupting the correlation relationship between macroinvertebrate and sediment Mn concentrations is equally difficult. As mentioned earlier Mn in its inorganic form is relatively non-toxic and plays an important role in cellular processes (Schiele, 1991). According to Afri- Mehennaoui et al. (2004) elevated concentrations of Mn from mining contamination was not expected to be influential on the macroinvertebrate community given it is a natural component of the sediment. In other instances stronger relationships between the macroinvertebrate community and sediment trace metal concentrations have been observed. In Atlanta streams, several macroinvertebrate community characteristics and multi-metric macroinvertebrate indices correlated with Cr, Cu and Ni trace metal concentrations in stream sediments (Fitzpatrick et al., 2004).Family richness of EPT taxa has been successful in detecting metal pollution according to Garcia-Criado et al. (1999), while additionally increased collector biomass and shift in collector type have been noted along metal pollution gradients (i.e. elevated stream water concentrations of Fe, Mn and Zn, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb) by Woodcock and Huryn (2005). A response in both abundance and diversity to sediment metal contamination was documented by Gray (2004), however, this finding may be more a factor of cumulative impacts of longer-term exposure and not an immediate response. 104 Weaker response to sediment trace metal concentrations have also been noted in streams and community resistance may be a factor where macroinvertebrate response to metal contamination is not strong (Grapentine et al., 2004, Clements, 1999). Behavioral traits (related to both habitat and feeding) may allow for avoidance or enhancement of exposure to trace metal concentration in sediment and the overlying water column (Landrum and Robbin, 1990, McNurney, 1975). 5.4.2 Historical Trends in Macroinvertebrate Community Characteristics in the Salmon River Catchment In this study order was the lowest common level of identification between the three sampling periods. Higher taxonomic resolution has proved useful in other studies, such as family level identification in characterising conditions in urban streams (Benke et al., 1981), and both genus and family level taxonomic resolution in distinguishing between extremes of impacted sites (Arscot et al., 2006). A higher level of taxonomic resolution could provide greater insight into the change in community composition that has occurred in the Salmon River catchment over the last three decades. Natural variability is another important consideration when trying to measure changes in the macroinvertebrate community over time. In comparing macroinvertebrate communities from two time periods and under undisturbed conditions, Townsend et al. (1987) found that community structure was most persistent in the presence of stable physical stream factors (i.e. temperature, pH and discharge). Similarly, climatic factors have also been found to influence the year-to-year, variability of stream communities by McElravy et al. (1989). Furthermore, it should be noted that a detectable difference in mean macroinvertebrate measures is noted 20- 30% of the time, due to natural annual variability (Resh and McElravy, 1993). Keeping in mind the above considerations, several historical trends appear in the macroinvertebrate community across sites. Total abundance is generally greatest in both the Salmon River and Coghlan Creek in 2005 (with the following exception of 1995 where higher total abundance was recorded in the Coghlan Creek headwaters).Similarly, 2005 EPT abundance was also highest. A slightly different pattern emerges with richness and proportional abundance of EPT taxa. Rarefied family and EPT richness were highest in 1995 at most sites. EPT proportional 105 abundance was also higher in 1995 compared to other years, with the exception of results for SAL 08. Overall an increase in total and EPT abundance has occurred with a more recent decline in community rarefied richness and the proportion of EPT taxa at sites. Different responses between total and proportional abundances of macroinvertebrate taxa have also been noted by Coles et al. (2004) in the context of catchment development. Principal Components Analysis was an additional measure used to examine historical change in the macroinvertebrate community. Given that PCA measures the difference between samples on a relative scale, such that results are dependent on the other sites included in the analysis separate PCA procedures were run to include sites not consistently samples during the three sample events (Cao et al., 1996). Patterns from PCA analysis suggest a closer association between sites of known groundwater influence over the 30 year period. Sites in upstream to headwaters regions exhibited a more dispersed pattern. Results from the two additional PCA (i.e. 1975-2005 and 1995-2005) support similar patterns in the macroinvertebrate community with additional spatial dispersion seen in downstream sites. Elsewhere the use of the relative abundance measure in PCA has proven successful in distinguishing heavily polluted urban and industrial sites with tolerant taxa (Thorne et al., 1999). Although heavy pollution is not suspected in the Salmon River catchment some distinction between sites appeared in PCA. In a study by Poulton et al. (2007) PCA using water and sediment chemistry information alongside macroinvertebrate multimetric site scores, grouped urban sites according to the presence or absence of wastewater discharges. Given the results from PCA in this study it appears that a combination of groundwater influence and land use trends (in specific regions of the catchment) may be important factors in explaining variation in macroinvertebrate communities. This may be due to elevated nutrient concentrations associated with both groundwater and land use practices in the catchment. 5.5 Relationships between Land Activity and Environmental Variables in the Salmon River Catchment In an attempt to relate the patterns seen in environmental variables and the macroinvertebrate community, to catchment land activity correlation analysis with land activity indicators were preformed. Overall a greater number of correlations between environmental parameters and land activity occurred in the 100 m stream buffer compared to the narrower 106 buffer width. Inconsistencies in terms of which spatial scale is most influential exists in the literature. In one instance macroinvertebrate community metrics were predicted with greater strength at the sub-basin versus local scale (Morley and Karr, 2002), while correlations between macroinvertebrate characteristics and urban land use were stronger at the catchment scale elsewhere (Freeman and Schorr, 2004). Roy et al. (2003) found the proportion of forest cover in a riparian buffer correlated to total and EPT richness better than forest cover in the larger catchment. Contradictory to both the above, Black et al. (2004) found little difference in the amount of variability of macroinvertebrate metrics explained by each spatial scale. 5.5.1 Land Use and Environmental Variables As water quality variables were only measured consistency at four sites, it was not possible to evaluate correlation relationships between these variables and land use. Water quality in agricultural catchments may be subject to higher nutrient concentration due to land use sources of N and P (Allan, 1995d). In the nearby Sumas River catchment levels of dissolved oxygen, ammonia and nitrate correlate to pig and chicken farms, as well as fertilizer applications, indicating potential sources of surplus nitrogen. These results were somewhat dependent on soil type and drainage (Berka et al., 2001). Similar relationships may be evaluated in the Salmon River catchment with expanded water quality sampling. Correlations between broader land use categories and sediment quality characteristics produced mixed results. Several metals showed negative correlation to land use (i.e. Al, Ba and Zn to residential land use and Cr and Mn to civic/institutional/commercial land use). Oppositely, positive correlation existed to vacant land use (Al and Mg), agricultural land use (Ba) and civic/institutional/commercial land use (percent clay). Additional land use-sediment trace metal relationships appeared in correlation analysis using specific land use types. This is mainly in reference to agricultural land uses (i.e. Al and Cu correlated positively to beef production, Zn to other agriculture, and Mg negatively to general livestock land use). Aside from agricultural related land use, a correlation between Mn and transportation was evident using these more specific land use types. Despite these results stream sediment concentrations of Cr, Cu and Ni have been found to correlate to increasing urban land cover (Fitzpatrick et al., 2004), while pollution loading has been found to occur to greater degrees in residential areas than in their industrial counterparts 107 (Choe et al., 2002). The mixed correlation relationship found above may be a result of using broad land use groups. Some characteristics of the macroinvertebrate community also showed correlation to land use. In considering general land use categories, only transportation and agricultural land use showed correlation to macroinvertebrate community characteristics (positive correlation between transportation and predator abundances, negative correlation between transportation and predator/parasite abundances and positive correlation between EPT measures and agricultural land use). As was the case with sediment characteristics, further correlations occurred between macroinvertebrate community characteristic and specific land use types. Total abundance, rarefied richness, total abundance of collectors, predators, predator/parasites correlated negatively to dairy livestock, other livestock and other agriculture, while EPT measures correlated positively to other agriculture and poultry. In the context of urban environments, total richness (Roy et al., 2003, Lenat and Crawford, 1994) and EPT richness have been documented to decline in relation to increasing urban land cover (Coles et al, 2004, Morse et al., 2003, Roy et al., 2003 and Freeman and Schorr, 2004). Similarly, total abundance, EPT abundance and overall community diversity have exhibited lower values related to urban land use (Robson et al., 2005, Freeman and Schorr, 2004, Gage et al, 2004, Gray, 2004). Loss of sensitive EPT taxa and declining overall community richness was noted by Throne et al. (1999) in response to mixed urban and industrial land use. Shifts from intolerant to tolerant taxa was also noted at urban sites, while both low abundance and low richness that occurred at urban sites was speculated to be caused by a shift in stream food sources resulting from the conversion of forested land (Lenat and Crawford, 1994). As part of the same study Lenat and Crawford (1994) also found that a decline in intolerant taxa richness was countered by an increase in tolerant taxa richness at agriculturally influenced sites. The authors also noted that at agricultural stream sites higher total abundance values was likely due to enrichment. 5.5.2 Land Cover and Environmental Variables Given the delineation of land use according to parcel division and the limitations, land cover was also used to characterize land activity in the Salmon River catchment. In terms of sediment trace metals concentrations, annual median concentrations of Cu and Mn had negative 108 correlation to impervious cover at the 100 m stream buffer width, while Zn and percent clay were negatively correlated to forest cover at both stream buffer widths. Only a couple of macroinvertebrate characteristics correlated with land cover indices. Both proportional shredder and predator/parasite abundance show positive correlation with percent forest cover at the 100 m stream buffer width, while EPT abundance was negatively correlation to forest cover in the larger buffer width. This last correlation relationship was also echoed in historical macroinvertebrate data and land cover. Despite the lack of correlation between macroinvertebrate characteristics and impervious cover seen in this study such correlation have occurred in other studies in the region. In the Lower Fraser Valley a benthic invertebrate index (mainly the Benthic Index of Biological Integrity (B-IBI)) and percent total impervious area (% TIA) showed a strong negative relationship (EVS, 1999). Benthic Index of Biological Integrity measures showed similar responses in studies by May et al. (1997) and Morely and Karr, (2002) found urban land cover to have a negative relationship to B-IBI scores. Along the same lines, the health of the macroinvertebrate community declined as imperviousness increased elsewhere (Homer et al., 1996). Under undisturbed conditions in the Pacific coastal region, forest cover is generally continuous along the stream length. These forested riparian zones are necessary for a healthy stream environment through light, temperature, food source and woody debris input processes (Naiman, 1992). A large scale study in New Jersey indicated that the forest cover and urban land cover are good predictors of unimpaired and impaired benthic communities, respectively (USGS, 1998). A positive relationship, albeit with questionable significance, existed between the number of families and percent wooded cover in Atlanta streams (Benke et al., 1981). Other relationships to forest cover include, increased sensitive taxa (Gage et al., 2004), increased total and EPT richness (Roy et al., 2003), and increased taxa abundance (Black et al., 2004). 109 Chapter 6 SUMMARY A well-balanced approach accounting for all aspects of the stream environment is needed to accurately depict stream health (Rosenberg and Resh, 1993). To date the Salmon River catchment has been the subject to several environmental surveys dating to the mid 1970s, whose focus was primarily physical and chemical aspects of the stream environment. Considering the above concept, this study attempted to relate changing land use to both physical and biological aspects of the stream environment, with a goal of quantifying relationships between the macroinvertebrate community and changes in both the reach and local riparian environment, over a three decade period. Land use and land cover information, along with water, sediment and macroinvertebrate samples were collected and analyzed, and relationships between these variables were investigated. Comparisons were made between this data set and historical data from similar sites in the catchment to determine if significant changes had occurred. Although goals were achieved with mixed success, it is hoped that the information gathered, as well as gaps in data identified, will assist in future environmental assessments of the Salmon River catchment. 6.1 Land Activity Not unlike other parts of British Columbia, the Township of Langley has experienced a dramatic population increase over a relatively short time period. The impact that expanding human populations have on the stream environment depends on existing environmental conditions as well as the rate and pathway in which development occurs in the catchment. A first objective of this study was to document and quantify current land use and land cover, and evaluate historical change in land cover (in defined buffer regions) of the Salmon River catchment. Currently, higher residential activity over the sensitive aquifer region is coupled with increasing impervious area and declining forest cover. Higher extents of agricultural activity are also seen in the headwaters and downstream sites. Although increased forest cover was noted in both these regions this may be tempered by an increase in impervious cover. The dominating land use in the catchment continues to be agricultural despite a recent slight decline in the spatial extent of this land use, followed by residential land use. Other changes in catchment land use seen in the last 30 years include an increase in residential land use and a 110 decrease in vacant land use. The extent of forest cover and impervious area showed opposite historical trends in stream buffer widths, mainly with the proportion of impervious cover increasing and proportion of forest cover decreasing. The combination of these land activity trends in sensitive areas is a concern in terms of the potential to impact the stream environment. Overall, land cover was a useful indicator given the limitations in existing land use data. The integrative aspect of land cover gave additional insight into changing land activity in the catchment. 6.2 Water and Sediment Quality Both water and sediment quality characteristics were analyzed in this study to depict current conditions and examine historical variability in these physical-chemical variables in the Salmon River and its associated tributaries. Evaluation of water quality conditions between stream regions and against aquatic life guidelines pointed to several patterns and reasons for concern in the catchment. Based on spatial and seasonal water quality results observed in this study a combination of specific conductivity (as a total dissolved indicator) and NO 3--N and PO4 -3-P (nutrient indicators) may track groundwater and overland inputs to the stream environment. Overall, median specific conductivity and Cl" results indicate higher concentrations in downstream regions during the dry season. Higher specific conductivity values recorded at SAL 07 are expected to be related to groundwater inputs at this site, particularly in the dry season. These results are typical given the dry season coincides with a period of low flow, lower dilution capacity and greater groundwater influence in the catchment. Nitrate concentrations are also a concern in the Coghlan Creek stream region during the dry season as this area experiences seasonal groundwater influence. Given that the majority of NO3 --N guideline exceedances occurred in the dry season it is not surprising that the highest median values occurred at SAL 07 in the dry season. Statistical analysis of NO3"-N concentrations in relation to precipitation support groundwater source of NO 3"-N concentrations in the stream environment. Concern may also be expanded to include PO4 -3-P, at least seasonally, given exceedances of a conservative guideline, particularly at the headwaters site. Both coliform variables proved less useful in water quality analysis in this study. These results reinforce existing water quality concern for the catchment with a particular emphasis on the Coghlan Creek region. Historically, median values 111 for the water quality parameters that permit historical comparison (i.e. specific conductivity, NO3"-N, and PO4 -3 -P) increased, with the exception of median concentrations of PO4 -3 -P. The increasing trend was largely supported by site-specific patterns, again with a single exception, NO3"-N. Median seasonal and annual specific conductivity concentrations increased overall and to the greatest degree mid-reach in the Salmon River catchment, while an increase in NO 3 --N at both groundwater and non-groundwater-influenced sites. Further work is needed to verify these trends statistically. As two out of three water quality indicators (mainly NO 3 --N and specific conductivity) show no historical improvement and are a continued concern, particularly at groundwater-influenced sites. For sediment, generally higher median trace metal concentration were recorded mid- reach in the catchment either at sites on the Salmon River mainstem or Coghlan Creek. Higher median concentrations of Cu, Al, Cr, Mn and Zn occurred on Coghlan Creek, while Fe and Ni median concentration were higher in the Salmon River mainstem region. Zinc concentrations are a continued sediment quality concern in the catchment given guideline exceedances. The significance of these exceedances are difficult to interpret given background surficial concentrations in the catchment. Concentrations of both Mn and Ni were also found above background concentrations. Historically, sediment trace metal concentrations generally declined across stream regions with the exception of Ni median concentrations in the headwaters which have increased over time. As found by Cook (1994), Zn is a continued concern in this study given ISQG exceedances on several occasions. 6.3 Macroinvertebrate Community An additional objectives of this study involved the investigation of biological conditions in the Salmon River catchment. Information on the state of the macroinvertebrate community, both past and present, was used as an integrative tool of environmental conditions as well as to compliment information on other environmental variables. Recently, peak macroinvertebrate abundance occurred in the upper stream regions of both Coghlan Creek and the Salmon River mainstem. Results for EPT taxa were similar and related to the dominance of EPT taxa at most sites. Peak rarefied richness values occurred slightly downstream closer to regions of groundwater influence. This suggests that as the number of individuals increases, community richness is not necessarily maintained. Functional 112 feeding group information along with proportional taxa composition within orders suggests the dominance of a few families and roles, (mainly collector-gatheres) within the macroinvertebrate community. Tolerant to moderately tolerant taxa also predominate the sites. These results combined with the dominant land uses and the water quality conditions measured in the Salmon River catchment, indicate that nutrient enrichment is probable. In comparison with historical data, total macroinvertebrate abundance and EPT abundance were greatest in the most recent dataset. Rarefied richness peaked in previous years. EPT proportional abundance also shows peaks in earlier datasets. Principal Components Analysis of historical data suggests closer association between groundwater-influenced sites in comparison to the headwaters region. Recent increased macroinvertebrate abundance and richness at selected sites may not be representative of improving stream conditions, however spatial references as well a better understanding of natural variability specific to this catchment is necessary. Despite these limitations, the use of multiple measures of the macroinvertebrate community has proven useful in deciphering how change has occurred both spatially and temporally in the Salmon River catchment. 6.4 Links between Land Activity and the Stream Environment Through the combined analysis of the above water, sediment and biological information it was possible to achieve the final objective of this study, to examine spatial and temporal relationships between land activity, environmental quality and macroinvertebrate community using land use indicators, significance tests, trends and correlations. Using stream buffer widths, relationships between land activity and the above environmental variables were explored. The 100 m stream buffer width appeared to have the greatest number of correlation relationships between land activity and environmental parameters, which buffer explains the most variability in environmental parameters is less apparent. Correlations between land use and environmental parameters were depended on the grouping of land uses, with more correlations appearing when specific land use type were used as opposed to general land use categories. Despite the increase in residential land use over the 30 year period current sediment and macroinvertebrate characteristics show correlation to agriculture. However, this is not that surprising given the dominance of agricultural land activity in the catchment. 113 Notable sediment trace metal correlations to agricultural land use include: Al and Cu correlated positively to beef production, Zn to other agriculture, and Mg negatively to general livestock land use. For the macroinvertebrate community total abundance, rarefied richness, and total abundance of selected functional feeding groups correlated negatively to dairy livestock, other livestock and other agriculture land uses, while EPT measures correlated to increasing agricultural and poultry land use. A positive correlation between EPT measures and agriculture was also seen in the broader general land use categories. In terms of land cover, both trace metal and macroinvertebrate parameters showed correlation relationships, although fewer than was the case with land use. In terms of sediment trace metals concentrations, annual median concentrations of Cu and Mn had negative correlation to impervious cover at the 100 m stream buffer width, while Zn and percent clay were negatively correlated to forest cover at both stream buffer widths. Only a couple of macroinvertebrate characteristics correlated with land cover indices. Both proportional shredder and predator/parasite abundance show positive correlation with percent forest cover at the 100 m stream buffer width, while EPT abundance declined with forest cover in the most recent and the historical data sets. With the combination of the initial objectives it is hoped that additional background information as well as integrity relationships specific to the Salmon River catchment have been established, and can be employed in future management and assessment of resource health. 114 Chapter 7 RECOMMENDATIONS To date the Salmon River catchment has been the subject of four extensive environmental surveys dating to as early as the mid 1970s. Information gathered in these surveys includes water quality, terrestrial and aquatic sediment quality, and land use information. In addition to these more traditional evaluations, this most recent study has included biological indicators, mainly macroinvertebrates, as an integrative tool in assessing stream health. The goal of each of these studies was to characterize environmental condition in the catchment and determine relationships between land activity and the stream environment. The general consensus amongst the studies is that non-point source pollution resulting from mixed land use, primarily agriculture, is influencing the stream environment. Each of these studies has also contributed to the longer-term monitoring of the catchment in providing important background information. This information is important in illustrating the capacity of a system to withstand stress based on physical, chemical, and biological properties (CCME, 1999). Continued environmental sampling of the stream environments through a multi-faceted approach is necessary to provide surveillance of development in the larger Salmon River catchment. This, paired with a managerial response mechanism to take action to minimize impacts in the event of environmental degradation, will help assure the health of the catchment on a long term basis. Given that generic guidelines have been used in this study and others (i.e. Beale (1976), Cook (1994) and Wernick (1996)) it is difficult to say with great certainty if environmental quality (i.e. water and sediment quality) is adequately protected in the catchment. Site-specific water quality guidelines, which are set for specific locations and or water bodies, may be a consideration given the background information available on the Salmon River catchment. Protocols for the development of guidelines are available both provincially (BC MOE, 1996b) and nationally (CCME, 1999). The development of such guidelines may set more restrictive or realistic thresholds for the Salmon River and its tributaries considering the natural characteristics of water and sediment quality in the catchment. However, it is recognized that this is a costly endeavour, both in terms of time and finances. Given the irreversible nature of imperviousness, which as found in this study, is approximately 9% of the catchment area, more manageable indices such as buffer width and percent forest cover should also be examined (Novotny et al., 2005). Appropriate levels of each may help maintain stable connections between stream components (both catchment and 115 instream) as well as natural spatial and temporal variability of such components required to maintain catchment health (Naiman, 1992). In the context of the Salmon River catchment this may include further expansion and/or enforcement of riparian buffers, which mitigate impacts to the stream environment (May et al., 1997). Another avenue regarding the use of buffers is the implementation of strategic buffer areas as suggested by Buttle (2002). 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Journal of the American Water Resources Association 34(3): 639-650. PERSONAL COMMUNICATION Hans Schreier John Richardson Professor Institute for Resources and the Environment The University of British Columbia Vancouver, British Columbia 2007 Professor Department of Forest Sciences The University of British Columbia Vancouver, British Columbia. 2006 128 APPENDICES APPENDIX A: Summary of Historical Sampling in the Salmon River Catchment Tables Table Al. Summary of water quality sampling in the Salmon River catchment, by study. Table A2. Summary of sediment sampling in the Salmon River catchment, by study. Table A3. Summary of macroinvertebrate sampling in the Salmon River catchment, by study. 129 og '-'^ R.eo. Elf *E^e 8 T'',)0 -pr^In ,-, E 2^E `±' i 2.'E . g *-< 0 Table Al. Summary of water quality sampling in the Salmon River catchment, by study. Water Quality Parameters Study^Sample Sites Sample Dates ^0'^a) -o C.)^i-^u) 4.0 vE^8^k5 mO x=^o.^a)^IF: o g o^i-c .81^.0 -0 L.^R co Ei mg/L NTU mg/L mg/L mq/L mg/L #/100mL #/103mL ^ X^X^X X X^X^X^X^X X X X^X^X^X^X^X 1 SAL 09 was not sampled 2 04/06/74, 18/06/74, 03/07/74, 18/07/74, 31/07/74, 13/08/74, 27/08/74, 01/10/74, 28/10/74, 11/11/74, 28/11/74, 30/12/74, 30/01/75, 01/03/75, 31/03/75 3 2/03/94, 09/05/94, 29/06/94, 26/07/94, 24/08/94, 03/10/94, 24/11/94,01/02/95 Note: Measurements of pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen where taken as part of the macroinvertebrate sampling protocol for this study. Table A2. Summary of sediment sampling in the Salmon River catchment, by study. Sediment Trace Metals Study^Al As B Ba Cd Co Cr Cu Fe Mg Mn Mo Ni Pb Se Sr Zn Beale (1976)^X^ X X^X X X^X^X Cook (1994) X X X X X X X^X X^X X Pappas (2007)^X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X pmho/mS °C Beale (1976)^SAL 02-07,10, 11 15 ocassions 2 X X X Wernick (1996) SAL 02-12 8 ocassions3 X X X Pappas (2007)^SAL 02, 06, 07,11 1 bWeekly4 X X X Table A3. Summary of macroinvertebrate sampling in the Salmon River catchment, by study. Sampling Sites Study^Sample Dates SAL 01 SAL 02 SAL 03 SAL 04 SAL 05 SAL 06 SAL 07 SAL 08 SAL 09 SAL 10 SAL 11 SAL 12 Hall (1975)^06/1975^ X^ X^X^X^X^X^X Richardson (1995) 09/1995-10/1995^ X^X^X^X X Pappas (2007)^09/2005^X^X^X^X^X^X^X^X^X APPENDIX B: Land Activity Results Tables Table Bl. 2004 Land use by type in the Salmon River catchment, within a 30m buffer. Table B2. 2004 Land use by type in the Salmon River catchment, within a 100m buffer. Table B3. Summary of land use change in the Salmon River catchment based on general land use. Table B4. Land use type (30m buffer width) Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Table B5. Land use type (100m buffer width) Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Table B6. Land cover Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Figures Figure Bl. 2004 Land use in the Salmon River catchment, based on parcel division. Figure B2. 2004 Land use within 30 and 100m buffer widths in the Salmon River catchment, based on parcel division (SAL 08 as an example). Figure B3. Land cover within 30 and 100m buffer widths in the Salmon River catchment (1995 SAL 08 as an example). 132 520 Parks and Playing Fields 1111 530 Other Recreation EU 610 Vacant/Unused III 200 Residential 310 Commercial •^; 320 Industrial 330 civic/Institutional 400 Transportation 510 Golf Course 120 Other Livestock - 121 Dairy 122 Beef 123 Poultry 150 Other Agriculture 160 Vacant/Unused Agriculture 0^Unclassified 111 Grain and Forage Production 112 Vegetable Production 113 Fruit, Nut and Berry Production Figure Bl. 2004 Land use in the Salmon River catchment, based on parcel division. 133 Legend Red (outer) line indicates 100m buffer width and orange (inner) line indicates 30m buffer width. Figure B2. 2004 Land use within 30 and 100m buffer widths in the Salmon River catchment, based on parcel division (SAL 08 as an example). 134 SET (oldwexa ue se 80 1VS 5664) luempleo JOAN UOWIeS^U! sillP!Aft -19101C! W001- PUB OC uNiortJaA00 puei -cs emBH Table B1. 2004 Land use type in the Salmon River catchment, within a 30m buffer.  2004 Land Use Code 30m Buffer 2004 Contributing Area Land Use (km`) siteLand Use Category SAL 01 SAL 02 SAL 03 SAL 04 SAL 05 SAL 06 SAL 07 SAL 08 SAL 09 SAL 10 SAL 11 SAL 12 Grain and Forage Production 111 11.54 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 5.87 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Vegetable Production 112 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Fruit, Nut and Berry Production 113 17.60 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.78 0.00 Vacant/Unused Agriculture Land 160 0.00 0.70 0.00 0.00 0.67 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 11.34 Dairy 121 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.82 0.00 0.00 0.00 Beef 122 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.58 2.95 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 5.32 Poultry 123 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Other Livestock 120 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 32.32 0.00 2.03 0.00 0.46 Other Agriculture 150 71.43 4.92 0.00 1.24 0.00 0.00 0.00 39.07 0.00 7.05 0.00 43.19 Residential 200 8.71 13.78 49.41 7.09 23.84 0.00 22.57 0.00 20.98 43.18 13.72 3.18 Civic/institutional 330 0.00 0.00 0.00 24.39 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Commerical 310 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Industrial 320 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Transportation 400 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.51 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Golf Courses 510 4.16 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Parks and Playing Fields 520 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Other Recreational 530 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Vacant/Unused Land 610 0.00 25.08 0.64 0.00 8.25 25.80 8.10 0.00 3.17 0.00 14.75 15.88 Unclassified 0 113.44 44.48 50.05 32.72 33.33 29.23 37.83 72.90 27.98 52.26 31.26 79.36 Contributing Area (km 2) 113.44 44.48 50.05 32.72 33.33 28.75 36.54 72.90 27.98 52.26 31.26 79.36 Table B2. 2004 Land use by type in the Salmon River catchment, within a 100m buffer. 100m Buffer Land Use Category 2004 Land Use Code SAL 01 SAL 02 SAL 03 SAL 04 SAL 05 SAL 06 SAL 07 SAL 08 SAL 09 SAL 10 SAL 11 SAL 12 2004 Contributing Area Land Use (km 2 ) site Grain and Forage Production 0 11.12 22.17 5.58 15.04 0.54 0.35 5.47 5.27 7.53 6.25 3.82 15.41 Vegetable Production 111 38.56 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 16.33 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Fruit, Nut and Berry Production 112 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Vacant/Unused Agriculture Land 113 53.65 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 8.41 0.00 Dairy 160 0.00 0.70 0.00 0.00 8.15 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 47.05 Beef 121 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 8.97 13.56 0.00 0.00 0.00 Poultry 122 0.00 6.86 0.00 0.00 8.62 16.62 0.00 93.31 0.00 0.00 0.00 13.67 Other Livestock 123 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Other Agriculture 120 0.00 0.36 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 12.00 0.00 -4.97 Residential 150 201.40 17.30 0.14 5.83 0.00 0.00 0.00 113.01 0.00 22.08 0.00 98.35 Civic/institutional 200 41.32 41.13 129.46 11.41 56.52 0.00 59.11 1.21 37.90 112.98 35.05 18.26 Commerical 330 0.00 0.00 0.00 69.13 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 5.75 Industrial 310 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Transportation 320 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Golf Courses 400 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 7.60 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Parks and Playing Fields 510 0.00 6.84 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Other Recreational 520 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 Vacant/Unused Land 530 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Unclassified 610 0.00 60.14 1.58 0.00 20.08 43.18 15.08 0.00 22.04 0.00 44.04 47.78 Contributing Area (km 2) 346.06 155.51 136.85 101.40 93.91 60.16 95.98 229.37 81.04 153.32 91.33 251.23 Table B3. Summary of land use change in the Salmon River catchment based on  general land use. Study Land Use Category Beale (1976)^Wernick (1996) Pappas (2007) % area of the watershed Agriculture 47.8 48.63 45.43 Residential 9.5 13.72 29.18 Transportation 1.1 2.37 9.31 Institutional/Commercial/Industrial 0.4 3.87 6.61 Recreation 0.5 3.87 2.53 No perceived use/vacant land 37.7 24.94 6.72 Table B4. Land use type (30m buffer width) Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Land Use Code 0 ^ 111 ^ 113 ^ 160 ^ 121 ^ 122 ^ 120 ^ 150 ^ 200 ^ 330 ^ 400 ^ 510 ^ 610 0 Corr. Coef. a (2-tailed) N 1.000 . 12 111 Corr. Coef. -0.054 1.000 a (2-tailed) 0.868 . N 12 12 113 Corr. Coef. -0.371 0.393 1.000 a (2-tailed) 0.235 0.207 N 12 12 12 160 Corr. Coef. 0.064 -0.254 -0.254 1.000 a (2-tailed) 0.843 0.426 0.426 . N 12 12 12 12 121 Corr. Coef. 0.131 -0.134 -0.134 -0.172 1.000 a (2-tailed) 0.685 0.677 0.677 0.593 . N 12 12 12 12 12 122 Corr. Coef. -0.340 -0.254 -0.254 0.542 -0.172 1.000 a (2-tailed) 0.280 0.426 0.426 0.069 0.593 N 12 12 12 12 12 12 120 Corr. Coef. 0.100 -0.307 -0.307 0.273 -0.208 -0.033 1.000 a (2-tailed) 0.758 0.332 0.332 0.391 0.517 0.919 . N 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 150 Corr. Coef. 0.108 0.123 0.221 0.137 -0.280 -0.147 0.675 1.000 a (2-tailed) 0.738 0.702 0.490 0.671 0.379 0.649 0.016 . N 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 200 Corr. Coef. 0.200 -0.043 -0.145 -0.055 0.219 -0.354 -0.248^-0.480 1.000 a (2-tailed) 0.534 0.894 0.652 0.865 0.495 0.259 0.437^0.114 . N 12 12 12 12 12 12 12^12 12 330 Corr. Coef. 0.306 -0.134 -0.134 -0.172 -0.091 -0.172 -0.208^0.047^-0.131 1.000 a (2-tailed) 0.334 0.677 0.677 0.593 0.779 0.593 0.517^0.886^0.684 . N 12 12 12 12 12 12 12^12^12_ 12 400 Corr. Coef. -0.218 -0.134 -0.134 -0.172 -0.091 -0.172 0.572^0.420^-0.437^-0.091 1.000 a (2-tailed) 0.495 0.677 0.677 0.593 0.779 0.593 0.052^0.175^0.155^0.779 . N 12 12 12 12 12 12 12^12^12^12 12 Table B4. continued. Land Use Code 0 111 113 160 121 122 120 150 200 330 400 510^610 510 Corr. Coef. -0.131 0.604 0.739 -0.172 -0.091 -0.172 -0.208 0.513 -0.219 -0.091 -0.091 1.000 a (2-tailed) 0.685 0.037 0.006 0.593 0.779 0.593 0.517 0.088 0.495 0.779 0.779 N 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 610 Corr. Coef. -0.288 -0.134 -0.014 0.336 -0.044 0.505 -0.318 -0.615 -0.066 -0.356 -0.356 -0.356 1.000 a (2-tailed) 0.363 0.678 0.966 0.285 0.891 0.094 0.314 0.033 0.839 0.257 0.257 0.257 N 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 Table B5. Land use type (100m buffer width) Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Land Use Code 0 ^ 111 ^ 113 ^ 160 ^ 121 ^ 122 ^ 120 ^ 150 ^ 200 ^ 330 ^ 400 ^ 510 ^ 520 ^ 610 111 Corr. Coef. a (2-tailed) N -0.043 0.894 12 1.000 . 12 113 Corr. Coef. -0.145 0.393 1.000 a (2-tailed) 0.653 0.207 . N 12 12 12 160 Corr. Coef. 0.064 -0.254 -0.254 1.000 a (2-tailed) 0.843 0.426 0.426 . N 12 12 12 12 121 Corr. Coef. 0.038 -0.198 -0.198 -0.254 1.000 a (2-tailed) 0.908 0.537 0.537 0.426 . N 12 12 12 12 12 122 Corr. Coef. -0.483 -0.360 -0.360 0.471 0.168 1.000' a (2-tailed) 0.111 0.251 0.251 0.122 0.602 . N 12 12 12 12 12 12 120 Corr. Coef. 0.312 -0.254 -0.254 0.482 -0.254 0.051 1.000 a (2-tailed) 0.323 0.426 0.426 0.113 0.426 0.874 . N 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 150 Corr. Coef. 0.029 0.084 0.184 0.105 0.022 0.113 0.438 1.000 a (2-tailed) 0.929 0.796 0.567 0.746 0.945 0.726 0.155 . N 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 200 Corr. Coef. 0.098 0.097 -0.145 -0.110 -0.161 -0.616 0.073 -0.348 1.000 a (2-tailed) 0.762 0.765 0.653 0:733 0.617 0.033 0.821 0.268 . N 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 330 Corr. Coef. 0.532 -0.198 -0.198 0.289 -0.198 -0.030 0.212 0.251^-0.312 1.000 a (2-tailed) 0.075 0.537 0.537 0.362 0.537 0.926 0.509 0.432^0.324 . N 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12^12 12 400 Corr. Coef. -0.3333 -0.1983 -0.1983 -0.254 0.39256 0.26375 -0.254 0.29542 0.01075^-0.1983 1 a (2-tailed) 0.28977 0.53659 0.53659 0.42564 0.20686 0.40748 0.42564 0.35121^0.97355 0.53659 . N 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12^12^12 12 510 Corr. Coef. 0.39304 -0.1343 -0.1343 0.40126 -0.1343 0.1461 0.40126 0.13585^-0.0437^-0.1343^-0.1343 1 a (2-tailed) 0.20626 0.67736 0.67736 0.19608 0.67736 0.65051 0.19608 0.67377^0.8928 0.67736 0.67736 . N 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12^12^12^12 12 Table B5. continued. Land Use Code 0 111 113 160 121 122 120 150 200 330 400 510 520^610 520 Corr. Coef. -0.0437 -0.1343 -0.1343 -0.172 -0.1343 -0.2435 0.631 0.22642 0.39304 -0.1343 -0.1343 -0.0909 - 1 a (2-tailed) 0.8928 0.67736 0.67736 0.59305 0.67736 0.44569 0.0279 0.47917 0.20626 0.67736 0.67736 0.77873 N 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 610 Corr. Coef. 0.00356 -0.2763 -0.0137 0.28031 -0.0629 0.25402 -0.0701 -0.675 -0.1281 -0.2545 -0.3748 0.31119 -0.3556 1 a (2-tailed) 0.99124 0.3846 0.96634 0.37752 0.84595 0.42563 0.82867 0.0159 0.69147 0.42481 0.22993 0.32484 0.25657 . N 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 Table B6. Land cover Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Forest Cover^Forest Cover Impervious Cover Impervious Cover (30m) (100m)^(30m)^(100m) Forest^Corr. Coef. Cover^a (2-tailed) (30m)^N 1.000 . 12 Forest^Corr. Coef.^0.790 1.000 Cover^a (2-tailed) 0.002 . (100m)^N 12 12 Impervious Corr. Coef.^-0.517^-0.706 1.000 Cover^a (2-tailed) 0.085 0.010 (30m)^N 12^12 12 Im pervious Corr. Coef.^-0.294 -0.601^0.720 1.000 Cover^a (2 -tailed) 0.354^0.039 0.008 . (100m)^N 12 12^12 12 143 APPENDIX C: Water Quality Results Tables Table Cl. Specific conductivity (µS/cm) results. Table C2. Chloride (mg/L) results. Table C3. Ammonium (mg/L) results. Table C4. Nitrate (mg/L) results. Table C5. Orthophoshate (mg/L) results. Table C6. Total coliform (#/100mL)results. Table C7. Fecal coliform (#/100mL) results. Table C8. Significant Mann-Whitney results for Cl", by site (a = 0.05). Table C9. SAL 02 dry season total coliform (#/100mL), fecal coliform (#/100mL), nitrate (mg/L) and precipitation (mm) Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Table C10. SAL 02 wet season total coliform (#/100mL), fecal coliform (#/100mL), nitrate (mg/L) and precipitation (mm) Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Table C 1 1. SAL 02 annual total coliform (#/100mL), fecal coliform (#/100mL), nitrate (mg/L) and precipitation (mm) Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Table C12. SAL 07 dry season total coliform (#/100mL), fecal coliform (#/100mL), nitrate (mg/L) and precipitation (mm) Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Table C13. SAL 07 wet season total coliform (#/100mL), fecal coliform (#/100mL), nitrate (mg/L) and precipitation (mm) Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Table C14. SAL 07 annual total coliform (#/100mL), fecal coliform (#/100mL), nitrate (mg/L) and precipitation (mm) Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Table C15. SAL 10 annual total coliform (#/100mL), fecal coliform (#/100mL), nitrate (mg/L) and precipitation (mm) Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Figures Figure Cl. Boxplots of specific conductivity (tts/S) results, by site. Figure C2. Boxplots of nitrate (mg/L) results, by site. Figure C3. Boxplots of chloride (mg/L) results, by site. Figure C4. Boxplots of ammonium (mg/L) results, by site. Figure C5. Boxplots of orthophosphate (mg/L) results, by site. Figure C6. Boxplots of total coliforms (#/100mL) results, by site. Figure C7. Boxplots of fecal coliforms (#/100mL) results, by site. Figure C8. Specific conductivity (p.S/m) results, by date. Figure C9. Chloride (mg/L) results, by date. Figure C 10. Nitrate (mg/L) results, by date. Figure C11. Ammonium (mg/L) results, by date. Figure C12. Orthophosphate (mg/L) results, by date. Figure C13. Total Coliform (#/100mL) results, by date. Figure C14. Fecal Coliform (#/100mL) results, by date. 144 Figure C 15. Chloride (mg/L) spatial and seasonal trends of in the Salmon River catchment, by site. Figure C16. Chloride (mg/L) median spatial and seasonal trends in the Salmon River catchment, by site. Figure C 17. Ammonium (mg/L) spatial and seasonal trends of in the Salmon River catchment, by site. Figure C 18 Ammonium (mg/L) median spatial and seasonal trends in the Salmon River catchment, by site. Figure C19. Total Coliform (#/100mL) spatial and seasonal trends of in the Salmon River catchment, by site. Figure C20. Total Coliform (#/100mL) median spatial and seasonal trends in the Salmon River catchment, by site. Figure C21. Fecal Coliform^00mL) spatial and seasonal trends of in the Salmon River catchment, by site. Figure C22. Fecal Coliform (#/100mL) median spatial and seasonal trends in the Salmon River catchment, by site. 145 Table C1. Specific conductivity (pS/cm) results. Specific Conductivity (pS/cm) Sampling Dates Site ID 13/12/04 15/02/05 01/03/05 15/03/05 29/03/05 12/04/05 26/04/05 10/05/05 24/05/05 06/06/05 20/06/05 SAL 02 SAL 06 SAL 07 SAL 11 121 140 118 89 - 135 157 151 - 164 162 96 106 - 97 - 105 145 - 145 151 - 142 160 - 172 149 - 142 - 184 - 180 Table Cl. continued. Specific Conductivity (pS/cm) Sampling Dates Site ID 05/07/05 19/07/05 02/08/05 09/08/05 16/08/05 23/08/05 30/08/05 6/09/05 13/09/05 20/09/05 27/09/05 SAL 02 SAL 06 SAL 07 SAL 11 180 174 196 186 180 179 190 187 195 158 182 213 161 193 199 176 188 145 178 178 142 165 182 135 181 182 139 168 Table C1. continued. Specific Conductivity (pS/cm) Sample Dates Site ID 04/10/05 06/10/05 17/10/05 18/10/05 31/10/05 01/11/05 16/11/05 29/11/05 30/11/05 13/12/05 SAL 02 198 193 145 136 120 131 125 148 143 180 SAL 06 144 171 142 132 110 112 103 121 135 SAL 07 162 161 140 134 110 132 137 152 150 179 SAL 11 128 131 118 110 95 102 - 128 Table C2. Chloride (mg/L) results. Chloride CI' (mg/L) Sampling Dates Site ID^13/12/04 15/02/05 01/03/05 15/03/05 29/03/05 12/04/05 26/04/05 10/05/05 24/05/05 06/06/05 20/06/05 SAL 02 9.59^14.39^16.66^17.22^9.49^9.34^14.26^15.64^11.23^18.03^17.03 SAL 06^9.38 SAL 07 8.37^11.30^12.06^12.07^8.99^9.07^10.94^11.09^18.12^12.64^12.88 SAL 11^6.05 Table C2. continued. Chloride Cl' (mg/L) Sampling Dates Site ID^05/07/05 19/07/05 02/08/05 09/08/05 16/08/05 23/08/05 30/08/05 6/09/05/ 13/09/05 20/09/05 27/09/05 SAL 02 16.97^17.99^17.25^17.29^17.02^17.81^18.45^17.94^17.32^17.69^17.69 SAL 06 - 11.82^11.31^-^11.38^11.33^11.71^11.33 SAL 07^11.47^11.43^11.47^11.56^11.54^11.24^11.05^11.21^11.11^-^11.20 SAL 11 Table C2. continued. Chloride CI' (mg/L) Sampling Dates Site ID^04/10/05 06/10/05 17/10/05 18/10/05 31/10/05 01/11/05 16/11/05 29/11/05 30/11/05 13/12/05 SAL 02 23.44^17.83^16.27^15.47^13.77^14.05^13.79^17.31^16.51^21.39 SAL 06^14.02^11.20^13.70^13.75^11.83^10.46^10.49^13.28^-^14.21 SAL 07 13.45^11.55^14.19^13.47^10.98^12.23^12.42^15.16^15.68^19.02 SAL 11 10.23^-^13.40^11.20^10.26^9.90^11.22 14.47 Table C3. Ammonium (mg/L) results. Ammonium NH4+-N (mg/L) Sampling Dates Site ID 13/12/04 15/02/05 01/03/05 15/03/05 29/03/05 12/04/05 26/04/05 10/05/05 24/05/05 06/06/05 20/06/05 SAL 02 SAL 06 SAL 07 SAL 11 0.075 0.130 0.080 0.078 0.084 0.035 0.096 0.097 0.121 0.107 0.101 0.144 0.476 0.394 0.166 0.180 0.093 0.081 0.072 0.162 0.236 0.391 0.192 0.147 Table C3. continued. Ammonium NH4+-N (mg/L) Sampling Dates Site ID 05/07/05 19/07/05 02/08/05 09/08/05 16/08/05 23/08/05 30/08/05 6/09/05/ 13/09/05 20/09/05 27/09/05 SAL 02 SAL 06 SAL 07 SAL 11 0.147 0.114 <0.010 <0.010 <0.010 <0.010 <0.010 <0.010 <0.010 <0.010 <0.010 0.086 0.060 0.062 0.096 0.055 0.086 0.052 0.057 <0.010 <0.010 <0.010 <0.010 <0.010 <0.010 <0.010 <0.010 <0.010 Table C3. continued. Ammonium NH4 +-N (mg/L) Sampling Dates Site ID 04/10/05 06/10/05 17/10/05 18/10/05 31/10/05 01/11/05 16/11/05 29/11/05 30/11/05 13/12/05 SAL 02 SAL 06 SAL 07 SAL 11 <0.010 0.037 <0.010 - 0.082 0.075 0.065 0.050 0.329 0.299 0.308 0.282 0.293 0.178 0.397 0.121 0.093 0.104 0.218 0.182 0.102 0.065 0.124 <0.010 <0.010 <0.010 <0.010 <0.010 <0.010 <0.010 <0.010 <0.002 <0.002 0.066 0.054 0.017 0.056 Table C4. Nitrate (mg/L) results. Nitrate NO 3 "-N (mg/L) Sampling Dates Site ID^13/12/04 15/02/05 01/03/05 15/03/05 29/03/05 12/04/05 26/04/05 10/05/05 24/05/05 06/06/05 20/06/05 SAL 02 2.75^2.55^2.86^2.34^1.59^1.33^2.52^2.88^4.18^2.86^2.97 SAL 06^3.29 SAL 07 2.93^2.78^3.86^4.00^2.25^1.93^3.81^4.13^2.32^4.63^5.05 SAL 11^2.03 Table C4. continued. Nitrate NO3"-N (mg/L) Sampling Dates Site ID^05/07/05 19/07/05 02/08/05 09/08/05 16/08/05 23/08/05 30/08/05 6/09/05/ 13/09/05 20/09/05 27/09/05 SAL 02 3.03^2.93^3.12^2.87^2.73^2.91^3.01^3.08^3.04^3.35^3.35 SAL 06 2.92^2.78 2.97^2.98^2.92^3.07 SAL 07^5.06^5.36^5.07^5.62^5.21^4.75^4.99^5.10^5.14^5.11^5.26 SAL 11 Table C4. continued. Nitrate NO3"-N (mg/L) Sampling Dates Site ID^04/10/05 06/10/05 17/10/05 18/10/05 31/10/05 01/11/05 16/11/05 29/11/05 30/11/05 13/12/05 SAL 02 2.40^3.13^2.83^3.01^2.07^2.42^2.06^2.13^2.13^2.80 SAL 06^2.26^5.48^2.14^3.01^1.76^2.34^2.30^2.08^-^2.69 SAL 07 4.20^3.82^3.18^3.28^2.38^2.83^3.25^3.45^3.54^3.91 SAL 11 0.06 2.92^2.05^2.24^1.55^1.08^-^1.67 Table C5. Orthophosphate (mg/L) results. Orthophosphate PO 4.3 -P (mg/L) Sampling Dates Site  ID^13/12/04 15/02/05 01/03/05 15/03/05 29/03/05 12/04/05 26/04/05 10/05/05 24/05/05 06/06/05 20/06/05 SAL 02^0.028^0.022^<0.009^0.020^0.021^0.021^0.029^<0.014^<0.017^<0.004^<0.004 SAL 06^<0.010 SAL 07^0.027^0.022^0.020^<0.008^<0.004 <0.0153^0.020^<0.016^0.022^<0.011^<0.009 SAL 11 0.040 Table C5. continued. Orthophosphate PO4 -3-P (mg/L) Sampling Dates Site ID^05/07/05 19/07/05 02/08/05 09/08/05 16/08/05 23/08/05 30/08/05 6/09/05/ 13/09/05 20/09/05 27/09/05 SAL 02^<0.005^<0.004^<0.007^<0.006^<0.007^<0.018^<0.018^<0.014^<0.006^<0.008^<0.008 SAL 06 <0.004^<0.019 0.023^<0.006^<0.003^<0.007 SAL 07^<0.005^<0.004^<0.008^<0.007^<0.007^<0.017^<0.017^<0.016^<0.008^<0.008^<0.008 SAL 11 Table C5. continued. Orthophosphate PO43-P (mg/L) Sampling Dates Site ID^04/10/05 06/10/05 17/10/05 18/10/05 31/10/05 01/11/05 16/11/05 29/11/05 30/11/05 13/12/05 SAL 02^<0.012^<0.015^0.067^0.091^0.090^0.101^<0.015^<0.015^<0.013^0.025 SAL 06^<0.007^<0.016^0.037^0.205^0.070^0.111^<0.014^<0.012 0.029 SAL 07^<0.007^<0.013^- -^- - SAL 11 <0.013 0.260^0.383^0.136^<0.017^<0.016^0.033 Table C6. Total coliform (#1100mL) results. Total Coliform (#/100m1) Sampling Dates Site ID^13/12/04 15/02/05 01/03/05 15/03/05 29/03/05 12/04/05 26/04/05 10/05/05 24/05/05 06/06/05 07/06/05 SAL 02 540^380^730^1500^6800^7700^3200^85000^1500^640 SAL 06^220 750 SAL 07 210^6300^4300^3800^2900^6900^1400^3000^3800^3000^930 SAL 11^1150 950 Table C6. continued. Total Coliform (#/100m1) Sampling Dates Site ID^20/06/05 05/07/05 19/07/05 02/08/05 09/08/05 16/08/05 23/08/05 30/08/05 6/09/05/ 13/09/05 20/09/05 SAL 02 5900^. 260^2000^370^2200^1220^2200^2300^2000^1400^1800 SAL 06 SAL 07^2500^2000^1300^800^1100^2040^2200^4000^2700^2600^4460 SAL 11 -^ - Table C6. continued. Total Coliform (#/100m1) Sampling Dates Site ID^ 2 7 / 0 9 / 0 5 04/10/05 11/10/05 17/10/05 18/10/05 31/10/05 01/11/05 16/11/05 29/11/05 SAL 02 1800^4700^3570^8920^11460^17200^12600^1300^2100 SAL 06 - -^- SAL 07^1600^3200^2000^13320^6200^17000^8500^1900^2100 SAL 11 - -^15680^11600^8100^1500^3620 Table C7. Fecal coliform (#/100mL) results. Fecal Coliform (#/100m1) Sampling Dates Site ID 13/12/04 15/02/05 01/03/05 15/03/05 29/03/05 12/04/05 26/04/05 10/05/05 24/05/05 06/06/05 07/06/05 SAL 02 SAL 06 SAL 07 SAL 11 91 49 71 51 57 27 19 119 20 25 700 1440 1000 - 300 39 35 - 72 183 9000 80 53 86 49 75 48 680 Table C7. continued. Fecal Coliform (#/100m1) Sampling Dates Site ID^20/06/05 05/07/05 19/07/05 02/08/05 09/08/05 16/08/05 23/08/05 30/08/05 6/09/05/ 13/09/05 20/09/05 SAL 02 71^47^76^133^136^73^84^218^58^48^138 SAL 06 SAL 07^45^34^75^151^42^57^74^105^125^150^77 SAL 11 - Table C7. continued. Fecal Coliform (#/100m1) Sampling Dates Site ID^27/09/05 04/10/05 11/10/05 17/10/05 18/10/05 31/10/05 01/11/05 16/11/05 29/11/05 SAL 02 19^210^93^2300^1800^2700^1700^48^126 SAL 06^- - -^-^- SAL 07 4^38^70^1070^700^3600^320^30^126 SAL 11 - -^7700^2300^1500 58 91 240 n= 31^n=16^n=32^n=8 200 E u) 160 120 80 SAL 02^SAL 06^SAL 07^SAL 11 Figure C1. Boxplots of specific conductivity (pS/cm) results, by site. 6 4 * n=32^n=16^n=32^n=8 0 SAL 02^SAL 06^SAL 07^SAL 11 Note: stars indicate outlier values. Figure C2. Boxplots of nitrate (mg/L) results, by site. 153 24 ^ 20 ^ 16 ^ Cf E 12 ^ 8 n= 32^n=16^n=31 n=8 4 SAL 02^SAL 06^SAL 07^SAL 11 Note: Stars indicate outlier values. Figure C3. Boxplots of chloride (mg/L) results, by site. 0.5 n= 32^n=16^n=32 n=8 0.4 0.3 a)is 0.2 0.1 0 SAL 02^SAL 06^SAL 07^SAL 11 Note: Stars indicate outlier values. Figure C4. Boxplots of ammonium (mg/L) results, by site. 154 0.4 0.3 Tth 0.2 E 0a. 0.1 0 n= 32 n=16^n=32 n=8 ** * A_ I SAL 02 SAL 06^SAL 07 SAL 11 Note: Stars indicate outlier values. Figure C5. Boxplots of orthophosphate (mg/L) results, by site. 20000 ^ 16000 12000 is O O 8000 4000 0 *^ * 31^n=2^n=31 n=7n= * * SAL 02 SAL 06 SAL 07^SAL 11 Note: Stars indicate outlier values. Figure C6. Boxplots of total coliforms (#1100mL) results, by site. 155 10000 8000 * 6000 J E 0 0 n= 30 n=2 n=31 n=7 4000 * * * 2000 * * * * * 0 SAL 02 SAL 06 SAL 07 SAL 11 Note: Stars indicate outlier values. Figure C7. Boxplots of fecal coliforms (#/100mL) results, by site. 250 200 E 150 U) 100 50 g LO LC) LO LO LO LO Lc) LO LO LO LO LO LC) 11) kr, LO LO LC) LO LOco 9 9 0 0 99 00 0009000 0000 99 9 9 0 9 ( • !.) U C c C 6) 6, 6_ 6_ >a) as co a) a) (0 as a 0_ co co^ 0^0 0 0 0o cno --)u-u-22<<2m -3 -3 -3^Q< CO u uzzzo Legend Black circles represent SAL 02, grey circles SAL 06, open grey circles SAL 11 and grey squares SAL 07. Figure C8. Specific conductivity (pS/cm) results, by date. 156 m g/ L O ^ U1 O O N O 3- -N  m g/ L O O O 41 , O CJ 1 O O O O O O O O D ec -0 4 ^ D ec -0 4 - Ja n- 05  - Ja n- 05  - Fe b- 05  - Fe b- 05  - M ar -0 5 - M ar -0 5 - Ap r-0 5 A pr -0 5 - M ay -0 5 - M ay -0 5 - M ay -0 5 - Ju n- 05  - Ju n- 05  - Ju l-0 5 - Ju l-0 5 - Au g- 05  - Au g- 05  - Se p- 05  - Se p- 05  - O ct -0 5 - O ct -0 5 - O ct -0 5 - N ov -0 5 - N ov -0 5 - D ec -0 5 - D ec -0 4 ^ D ec -0 4 - Ja n- 05  - Ja n- 05  - Fe b- 05  - Fe b- 05  - M ar -0 5 - M ar -0 5 - A pr -0 5 - A pr -0 5 - M ay -0 5 - M ay -0 5 - M ay -0 5 - Ju n- 05  - Ju n- 05  - Ju l-0 5 - Ju l-0 5 - A ug -0 5 - A ug -0 5 - S ep -0 5 - S ep -0 5 - O ct -0 5 - O ct -0 5 - O ct -0 5 - N ov -0 5 - N ov -0 5 - D ec -0 5 - 0LL 0 LL .o 13.) 1.0 to 0 0 0.500 0.450 0.400 0.350 0.300 a) 0.250 E 0.200 0.150 0.100 0.050 0.000 0 to0 0 C 1o11) 03a t^t^t U) to La U) to 9 9 9 9 ° 2^<^2a5 0 C 0 0^ 0 0 0 0 0 0 -3^< < LO to to^Lo in to to^to to in ma_ )(1 0 0 0 zi z° 0(1)6 0 a)a Legend Symbols as in Figure C8. Figure C11. Ammonium (mg/L) results, by date. 0.400 0.350 0.300 0.250 a) 0.200 E or 0.150 a. 0.100 0.050 0.000  '17 '1' V' 1.0 to 0 0 0 0 0 VUo 6 6 o o a^ CO 03 -) LainialaiaLouliniatolaia 9° .9 c c ^Q) ^al a a CO 03^7 7 ^ U- u_ < < 2 2 111 1.0 LC) 1.0^Ul 1.0^U) 9 ).„ z, 98 98 (3, 90 OzzzO O < <^co %-/ Legend Symbols as in Figure C8. Figure C12. Orthophosphate (mg/L) results, by date. 158 18000 - 16000 - 14000 - 12000 - -J E 10000 - 0 r. 8000 - 6000 - 4000 - 2000 - 0 T11111111^111111111 cr^1.0 u")^to^Ln^Lo Lc) to Lo Lo Lo^1.0 1.0^1.0^11^1.0 9 ° 9 a 9 9 ° 9 9 9 9 a ° a ° a 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 ° 9o^o^c _fa^" " s-^- - m o) a a ^>^>a) a) a) as co a) a) _co _c° _,,.°- 9- M 7 7 7 ^a) a) ^o o o ^ —)^u_ a a -4. -.L. 2 2 -1^-3^< < (1) 000 zzz Legend Symbols as in Figure C8. Figure C13. Total Coliform (#/100m1) results, by date. 4000 3500 3000 2500 Eg 2000 1500 1000 500 0 '7 '1' 47 LO^11)^ LO^LO 10^ Lf")^11) 1.0^1.0 14,^LOal °I 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 ° a 9 9 9 9 9 9  9 9 9 9 9 9 9000cc^" " " c c c^a) a) a, a. ti -r) > > >a) a) a) al ca a) a) m^9-^ca 3 0 0^0 0 o0 0 0- u_ u_^-+ Q. 2 2 -)^< < In woo zzz Legend Symbols as in Figure C8. Figure C14. Fecal Coliform (#/100mL) results, by date. 159 25.00 20.00 15.00 E 5 10.00 5.00 0.00  SAL01 SAL02 SAL03 SAL04 SAL05 SAL06 SAL07 SAL08 SAL09 SAL10 SAL11 SAL12 site Downstream ^ Headwaters Legend Open symbols represent wet season values and closed symbols represent dry season values. The box indicates the region of groundwater influence. Figure C15. Chloride (mg/L) spatial and seasonal trends of in the Salmon River catchment, by site. 40.00 35.00 30.00 25.00 is) E 20.00 15.00 10.00 5.00 0.00 ^ SAL 02 ^ SAL 06 ^ SAL 07 ^ SAL 11 ^Downstream Headwaters Legend Open circles represent wet season medians and closed circles represent dry season median values. Bars represent 25 th and 75th quartiles. Figure C16. Chloride (mg/L) median spatial and seasonal trends in the Salmon River catchment, by site. 0 0 ^o^0 160 Table C8. Significant Mann-Whitney results for Cl -, by site (a = 0.05). Chloride CI" Site ID^(mg/L) < or >^In comparison to Probability annual Headwaters^ Lower reach SAL 11 SAL 02 ^ 0.001 wet season Headwaters^ Lower reach SAL 11 SAL 02 ^ 0.002 SAL01 SAL02 SAL03 SAL04 SAL05 SAL06 SAL07 SAL08 SAL09 SAL10 SAL11 SAL12 site 0.18 0.16 0.14 0.12 a) E^0.1z +, 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 Downstream^ Headwaters Legend Symbols and lines as in Figure C15. Figure C17. Ammonium (mg/L) spatial and seasonal trends of in the Salmon River catchment, by site. 161 0.30 0.25 0.20 0.15Zs') E z^0.10 0.05 • 0^O 0 0.00 -0.05 -0.10 Downstream SAL 02^SAL 06^SAL 07^SAL 11 Headwaters Legend Symbols and lines as in Figure C16. Figure C18. Ammonium (mg/L) median spatial and seasonal trends in the Salmon River catchment by sample site. 9000 ^ 8000  7000 c, 6000O L 5000 I 4000(.) 3000 0 4t 2000 1000 0 SAL01 SAL02 SAL03 SAL04 SAL05 SAL06 SAL07 SAL08 SAL09 SAL10 SAL11 SAL12 site Downstream ^ Headwaters Legend Symbols and lines as in Figure C15. Figure C19. Total Coliform (#/100mL) spatial and seasonal trends of in the Salmon River catchment, by site. 162 22000.00 17000.00 E 0 0 io • 12000.00 .2 • 7000.00 13, 2000.00 -3000.00 SAL 02^SAL 06^SAL 07 ^ SAL 11 Downstream Headwaters Legend Symbols and lines as in Figure C16. Figure C20. Total Coliforms (#/100mL) median spatial and seasonal trends in the Salmon River catchment, by site. 4000 3500 _1 3000 0 2 2500 E `a 2000 O O 1500 co 4- 1000 4t 500 0 SAL01 SAL02 SAL03 SAL04 SAL05 SAL06 SAL07 SAL08 SAL09 SAL10 SAL11 SAL12 Downstream ^ site^ Headwaters Legend Symbols and lines as in Figure C15. Figure C21. Fecal Coliform (#/100mL) spatial and seasonal trends of in the Salmon River catchment, by site. 163 6000 5000 4000_4 cf) 3000 E^20008 1000 0 ••- -1000 -2000 -3000 SAL 02 SAL 06 SAL 07 SAL 11 Downstream^ Headwaters Legend Symbols and lines as in Figure C16. Figure C22. Fecal Coliforms (#/100mL) median spatial and seasonal trends in the Salmon River catchment, by site. Table C9. SAL 02 dry season total coliform (#/100mL), fecal coliform (#/100mL), nitrate (mg/L) and precipitation (mm) Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Precipitation (mm) prior to sampling same day 24 hrs 48hrs 72hrs 96hrs Total Corr. Coef. 0.4622 0.6409 0.6243 0.4649 0.4594 Coliform a (2-tailed) 0.1208 0.0183 0.0226 0.1094 0.1142 (#/100mL) N 13 13 13 13 13 Fecal Corr. Coef. 0.5372 0.7881 0.8543 0.8185 0.8317 Coliform a (2-tailed) 0.0476 0.0008 0.0001 0.0003 0.0002 (#/100mL) N 14 14 14 14 0 Nitrate Corr. Coef. -0.1560 0.2376 0.2321 -0.0413 0.8935 (mg/L) a (2-tailed)N 0.6108 13 0.4345 13 0.4455 13 0.8935 13 0.8935 13 Note: Significant correlations are in bold. 164 Table C10. SAL 02 wet season total coliform (#/100mL), fecal coliform (#/100mL), nitrate (mg/L) and precipitation (mm) Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Precipitation (mm) prior to sampling same day 24 hrs 48hrs 72hrs 96hrs Total^Corr. Coef. -0.1695 0.0825 0.2888 0.2279 0.3942 Coliform^a (2-tailed) 0.5459 0.7700 0.2966 0.4139 0.1631 (#/100mL) N 15 15 15 15 14 Fecal^Corr. Coef. -0.0366 0.3351 0.3727 0.2182 0.5245 Coliform^a (2-tailed) 0.8980 0.2221 0.1713 0.4346 0.0542 (#/100mL) N^• 15 15 15 15 14 Nitrate^Corr. Coef. 0.0483 0.1813 0.1375 0.1165 0.1880 (mg/L)^a (2-tailed) N 0.8642 15 0.518 15 0.625 15 0.6793 15 0.5198 14 Note: Significant correlations are in bold. Table C11. SAL 02 annual total coliform (#/100mL), fecal coliform (#/100mL), nitrate (mg/L) and precipitation (mm) Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Precipitation (mm) prior to sampling same day 24 hrs 48hrs 72hrs 96hrs Total Corr. Coef. 0.2689 0.4444 0.5026 0.3902 0.4535 Coliform a (2-tailed) 0.1665 0.0178 0.0064 0.0401 0.0175 (#/100mL) N 28 28 28 28 27 Fecal Corr. Coef. 0.3755 0.6235 0.6894 0.6183 0.7186 Coliform a (2-tailed) 0.0447 0.0003 <0.0001 0.0004 <0.0001 (#/100mL) N 29 29 29 •^29 28 Nitrate Corr. Coef. -0.4765 -0.2172 -0.2598 -0.3876 -0.3805 (mg/L) a (2-tailed) N 0.0104 28 0.267 28 0.1818 28 0.0416 28 0.0503 27 Note: Significant correlations are in bold. Table C12. SAL 07 dry season total coliform (#/100mL), fecal coliform (#/100mL), nitrate (mg/L) and precipitation (mm) Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Precipitation (mm) prior to sampling same day 24 hrs 48hrs 72hrs 96hrs Total Coliform (#/100mL) Corr. Coef. a (2-tailed) N 0.5697 0.0136 18 0.3012 0.2245 18 0.0261 0.9182 18 -0.1162 0.6460 18 -0.1308 0.6050 18 Fecal Corr. Coef. 0.3605 0.6480 0.5925 0.5634 0.7390 Coliform a (2-tailed) 0.1084 0.0015 0.0047 0.0078 0.0001 (#/100mL) N 21 21 21 21 21 Corr. Coef. -0.4660 -0.8881 -0.8848 -0.7880 -0.6932 Nitrate (mg/L) a (2-tailed) 0.0217 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.0002 N 24 24 24 24 24 Note: Significant correlations are in bold. 165 Table C13. SAL 07 wet season total coliform (#/100mL), fecal coliform (#/100mL), nitrate (mg/L) and precipitation (mm) Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Precipitation (mm) prior to sampling same day 24 hrs 48hrs 72hrs 96hrs Corr. Coef.Total Coliform^• a (2-tailed)(#1100mL) N 0.4840 0.0193 23 0.6718 0.0004 23 0.6377 0.0011 23 0.5983 0.0026 23 0.6402 0.0013 23 Fecal Corr. Coef. 0.3439 0.6826 0.5341 0.4718 0.5062 Coliform a (2-tailed) 0.1080 0.0003 0.0087 0.0230 0.0162 (#/100mL) N 23 23 23 23 23 Corr. Coef. -0.5506 -0.6410 -0.8027 -0.8163 -0.8476 Nitrate (mg/L) a (2-tailed) 0.0079 0.0013 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 N 22 22 22 22 21 Note: Significant correlations are in bold. Table C14. SAL 07 annual total coliform (#/100mL), fecal coliform (#/100mL), nitrate (mg/L) and precipitation (mm) Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Precipitation (mm) prior to sampling same day 24 hrs 48hrs 72hrs 96hrs Total. Coliform (#/100mL) Corr. Coef. a (2-tailed) N 0.4912 0.0011 41 0.4620 0.0024 41 0.3624 0.0199 41 0.2299 0.1481 41 0.1483 0.3613 41 Fecal Corr. Coef. 0.3605 0.6552 0.5609 0.5468 0.6392 Coliform a (2-tailed) 0.0162 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.0001 <0.0001 (#/100mL) N 44 44 44 44 43 Corr. Coef. -0.4960 -0.7085 -0.7553 -0.7602 -0.7612 Nitrate (mg/L) a (2-tailed) 0.0005 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 N 46 46 46 46 45 Note: Significant correlations are in bold. Table C15. SAL 10 annual total coliform (#/100mL), fecal coliform (#/100mL), nitrate (mg/L) and precipitation (mm) Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Precipitation (mm) prior to sampling same day 24 hrs 48hrs 72hrs 96hrs Total Coliform^•^•Corr. Coef. a (2-tailed)(#/100mL) N 0.1000 0.8729 5 0.8721 0.0539 5 0.8000 0.1041 5 0.8000 0.1041 5 0.9000 0.0374 5 Fecal Corr. Coef. 0.1000 0.8721 0.8000 0.8000 0.9000 Coliform a (2-tailed) 0.8729 0.0539 0.1041 0.1041 0.0374 (#/100mL) N 5 5 5 5 5 Corr. Coef. 0.4000 0.9747 1.0000 1.0000 0.9000 Nitrate (mg/L) a (2-tailed) 0.5046 0.0048 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.0374 N 5 5 5 5 5 Note: Significant correlations are in bold. 166 APPENDIX D: Sediment Quality Results Tables Table Dl. QA/QC results for dry season sediment trace metal samples. Table D2. QA/QC results for wet season sediment trace metal samples. Table D3. QA/QC results for Priority PollutnT tm/CLP Lot No, D035-540 reference sediment trace metal sample. Table D4. Sediment trace metal dry season results. Table D5. Sediment trace metal wet season results. Table D6. Sediment trace metal mean annual results. Table D7. Trace metal dry season Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Table D8. Trace metal wet season Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Table D9. Trace metal annual Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Table D10. Trace metal and % clay Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). 167 Table Dl. QA/QC results for dry season sediment trace metal samples. Trace Metal Al Ba Cr Cu Fe Mg Mn Ni Sr Zn 09/06/2005 mg/kg Salmon River SAL 01 SAL 01 (duplicate) mean St.Dev. CoV (%) 10618.90 10377.50 10498.20 170.70 1.63 114.09 116.71 115.40 1.85 1.60 24.56 23.96 24.26 0.42 1.74 23.82 24.44 24.13 0.44 1.83 19439.60 19349.70 19394.65 63.57 0.33 5463.18 5312.11 5387.65 106.82 1.98 890.47 905.08 897.78 10.33 1.15 905.06 923.60 914.33 13.12 1.43 30.00 30.45 30.23 0.32 1.06 104.63 105.56 105.10 0.66 0.63 Davidson Creek SAL 03 10710.30 93.62 27.69 22.73 19620.90 5190.54 1108.98 752.02 31.94 79.28 SAL 03 (duplicate) 9758.94 93.36 25.19 21.81 18447.30 4697.75 1104.87 732.06 31.24 75.83 mean 10234.62 93.49 26..44 22.27 19034.10 4944.15 1106.93 742.04 31.59 77.55 St.Dev. 672.71 0.18 1.77 0.64 829.86 348.46 2.91 14.11 0.49 2.44 CoV (%) 6.57 0.20 6.69 2.90 4.36 7.05 0.26 1.90 1.55 3.15 Coghlan Creek SAL 07 10656.70 96.08 25.31 24.06 16632.40. 4557.17 496.79 684.91 28.32 73.52 SAL 07 (duplicate) 12854.10 125.37 28.63 32.71 21725.00 7888.42 600.87 828.79 35.13 91.24 mean 11755.40 110.72 26.97 28.39 19178.70 6222.80 548.83 756.85 31.73 82.38 St.Dev. 1553.80 20.71 2.34 6.12 3601.01 2355.55 73.59 101.74 4.82 12.53 CoV (%) 13.22 18.70 8.68 21.54 18.78 37.85 13.41 13.44 15.18 15.21 Table D2. QA/QC results for wet season sediment trace metal samples. Trace Metal^Al Ba Cr Cu Fe Mg Mn Ni Sr Zn 12/07/2005 mg/kg Salmon River SAL 04^9479.25 109.67 21.63 22.71 18115.07 4124.79 692.79 1084.36 30.20 93.25 SAL 04 (duplicate)^10442.38 105.22 24.15 22.62 19637.70 4764.50 675.74 1044.12 29.03 94.61 mean 9960.82 107.45 22.89 22.66 18876.38 4444.64 684.26 1064.24 29.62 93.93 St.Dev.^681.03 3.15 1.78 0.06 1076.66 452.34 12.06 28.45 0.82 0.96 CoV (%) 6.84 2.93 7.77 0.27 5.70 10.18 1.76 2.67 2.78 1.02 Davidson Creek SAL 03^10901.24 102.06 28.39 24.41 20628.40 4380.59 455.84 781.17 26.04 68.08 SAL 03 (duplicate)^11298.78 94.04 29.35 19.38 20913.61 4735.41 434.49 730.60 24.26 67.23 mean 11100.01 98.05 28.87 21.89 20771.01 4558.00 445.16 755.88 25.15 67.65 St.Dev.^281.10 5.67 0.68 3.56 201.67 250.89 15.09 35.76 1.26 0.60 CoV (%) 2.53 5.78 2.36 16.24 0.97 5.50 3.39 4.73 5.02 0.88 Coghlan Creek SAL 07b^8915.04 103.77 24.59 23.60 15881.83 3423.41 775.15 851.62 30.78 80.98 SAL 07b (duplicate)^10463.43 120.01 27.00 27.71 19488.69 3847.87 820.98 944.95 33.46 93.33 mean 9689.23 111.89 25.79 25.65 17685.26 3635.64 798.07 898.29 32.12 87.16 St.Dev.^1094.88 11.48 1.70 2.90 2550.43 300.14 32.40 66.00 1.89 8.73 CoV (%) 11.30 10.26 6.59 11.31 14.42 8.26 4.06 7.35 5.90 10.02 Salmon River Headwaters SAL 11^11178.52 119.66 22.06 23.34 15175.31 4192.95 716.22 890.87 33.37 83.06 SAL 11 (duplicate)^12254.77 115.49 23.97 23.44 15678.72 4864.65 646.70 818.55 30.78 88.41 mean 11716.65 117.58 23.02 23.39 15427.01 4528.80 681.46 854.71 32.07 85.74 St.Dev.^761.02 2.95 1.35 0.07 355.96 474.96 49.16 51.14 1.83 3.78 CoV (%) 6.50 2.51 5.87 0.30 2.31 10.49 7.21 5.98 5.69 4.41 SAL 12b 7800.02 97.41 14.11 12.07 9475.97 2135.51 254.25 995.16 21.67 70.04 SAL 12b (duplicate)^9498.32 103.87 17.46 13.54 11658.53 2894.64 253.23 996.18 21.84 86.20 mean^8649.17 100.64 15.79 12.80 10567.25 2515.07 253.74 995.67 21.75 78.12 St.Dev. 1200.88 4.56 2.37 1.04 1543.30 536.79 0.73 0.72 0.12 11.43 CoV (%) 13.88 4.54 14.99 8.12 14.60 21.34 0.29 0.07 0.56 14.62 Table D2. continued. Trace Metal Al Ba Cr Cu Fe Mg Mn Ni Sr Zn mg/kg 12/07/2005 Salmon River SAL 06a 12151.10 122.57 27.33 34.16 21906.61 8214.66 586.14 33.46 34.78 84.27 SAL 06b 11276.76 117.29 25.79 29.88 20013.56 7465.38 586.48 29.56 34.16 82.76 SAL 06c 10833.50 117.25 24.87 28.08 18598.14 6456.97 627.25 26.45 32.44 84.93 mean 11420.45 119.04 26.00 30.70 20172.77 7379.00 599.96 29.82 33.79 83.99 St.Dev. 670.45 3.06 1.24 3.13 1659.97 882.02 23.64 3.51 1.21 1.11 CoV (%) 5.87 2.57 4.78 10.18 8.23 11.95 3.94 11.77 3.58 1.32 Coghlan Creek SAL 07a 8477.78 94.18 22.64 21.21 14110.87 3506.98 596.98 16.69 29.93 75.12 SAL 07b 9689.23 111.89 25.79 25.65 17685.26 3635.64 798.07 18.75 32.12 87.16 SAL 07c 10235.24 110.21 26.70 25.98 18697.51 3955.14 744.75 20.76 30.78 90.04 mean 9467.42 105.43 25.04 24.28 16831.21 3699.25 713.26 18.73 30.94 84.10 St.Dev. 899.48 9.77 2.13 2.66 2409.64 230.75 104.18 2.04 1.10 7.92 CoV (%) 9.50 9.27 8.51 10.97 14.32 6.24 14.61 10.87 3.57 9.41 Salmon River Headwaters SAL 12a 10494.82 116.48 18.32 15.52 13051.95 2758.40 658.43 11.71 27.05 91.44 SAL 12b 8649.17 100.64 15.79 12.80 10567.25 2515.07 253.74 11.51 21.75 78.12 SAL 12c 10039.55 113.68 16.92 15.11 14675.28 2492.35 556.54 11.17 21.54 83.02 mean 9727.85 110.26 17.01 14.48 12764.83 2588.61 489.57 11.47 23.45 84.20 St.Dev. 961.50 8.45 1.27 1.47 2069.01 147.48 210.49 0.27 3.12 6.74 CoV (%) 9.88 7.66 7.46 10.12 16.21 5.70 43.00 2.38 13.31 8.00 Table D3. QA/QC results for Priority PollutnT tm/CLP Lot No, D035-540 reference sediment trace metal sample. Trace Metal Certified Value Acceptable Range Standard a Standard b Standard c Mean mg/kg Al 6340 2760-9920 2270.82 2470.83 3569.25 2770.30 As 192 152-232 175.13 168.24 168.21 170.53 B 131 98.6-164 131.95 125.55 128.26 128.59 Ba 417 332-502 381.58 361.58 370.69 371.28 Ca 3370 2550-4190 3035.22 3078.26 2978.45 3030.64 Cd 125 101-149 127.57 121.29 121.70 123.52 Co 56.8 45-68.7 54.15 52.38 52.45 52.99 Cr 113 103-163 117.07 114.88 119.82 117.26 Cu 93.9 74.4-113 87.82 85.19 87.02 86.68 Fe 11600 5500-17700 4328.03 4857.44 7235.02 5473.50 K 1890 1200-2580 883.41 945.91 1400.39 1076.57 Mg 2000 1410-2590 1011.85 1114.94 1513.61 1213.47 Mn 320 242-398 264.88 270.60 278.13 271.20 Mo 62.9 47.6-78.1 57.70 53.33 57.07 56.03 Na 241 122-360 408.68 396.35 404.56 403.20 Ni 174 136-211 172.03 166.10 166.65 168.26 Pb 160 124-196 319.39 305.45 305.53 310.13 Se 97 69.6-124 86.36 84.94 89.55 86.95 Sr 178 132-224 151.19 145.42 148.74 148.45 Zn 246 189-303 227.92 221.24 228.16 225.77 Table D4. Sediment trace metal dry season results. site ID SAL 01 SAL 02 SAL 03 SAL 04 SAL 05 SAL 06^SAL 07 SAL 08 SAL 09 SAL 10 SAL 11 SAL 12 trace metal mg/kg Al 10498.20 11526.80 10234.62 11702.60 11791.70 15743.40^11755.40 13140.20 10980.10 12868.00 11936.20 Ba 115.40 115.33 93.49 101.82 108.75 133.71^110.72 141.55 116.30 114.48 113.10 Cr 24.26 23.12 26.44 25.79 25.79 36.12^26.97 28.60 21.60 26.83 20.36 Cu 24.13 26.71 22.27 24.46 32.44 39.57^28.39 29.50 21.45 28.19 18.87 Fe 19394.65 18069.50 19034.10 19660.90 18360.80 26761.20^19178.70 24782.90 14325.80 19531.40 17016.70 Mg 5387.65 5343.16 4944.15 5558.50 4977.03 9732.56^6222.80 4586.66 4395.02 5694.12 3313.91 Mn 897.78 688.65 1106.93 494.17 697.02 668.41^548.83 1502.47 488.17 524.99 572.42 Ni 24.17 23.11 24.29 37.77 28.09 47.56^27.67 27.53 20.78 31.22 16.51 Sr 30.23 29.71 31.59 29.25 25.17 38.61^31.73 42.95 28.49 26.88 21.43 Zn 105.10 84.88 77.55 95.67 84.34 103.25^82.38 152.48 77.18 103.48 106.06 Table D5. Sediment trace metal wet season results. site ID SAL 01 SAL 02 SAL 03 SAL 04 SAL 05 SAL 06 SAL 07 SAL 08 SAL 09 SAL 10 SAL 11 SAL 12 trace metal mg/kg Al 9913.17 15302.32 11100.01 9960.82 9702.69 11420.45 9467.42 12436.08 12869.25 8914.24 11716.65 9727.85 Ba 115.67 147.04 98.05 107.45 105.38 119.04 105.43 138.83 148.69 103.24 117.58 110.26 Cr 24.69 35.61 28.87 22.89 22.97 26.00 25.04 28.68 25.91 18.61 23.02 17.01 Cu 26.83 29.97 21.89 22.66 22.37 30.70 24.28 31.71 23.83 20.10 23.39 14.48 Fe 17306.48 26585.34 20771.01 18876.38 15940.53 20172.77 16831.21 21816.51 16247.34 13393.77 15427.01 12764.83 Mg 4730.70 7184.70 4558.00 4444.64 4068.84 7379.00 3699.25 3939.85 3728.44 3167.85 4528.80 2588.61 Mn 510.36 1930.14 445.16 684.26 751.70 599.96 713.26 1400.85 843.07 667.76 681.46 489.57 Ni 22.82 29.18 21.64 18.85 18.14 29.82 18.73 21.13 18.04 15.45 19.79 11.47 Sr 30.08 39.07 25.15 29.62 29.66 33.79 30.94 39.00 38.12 26.53 32.07 23.45 Zn 107.13 130.55 67.65 93.93 73.28 83.99 84.10 146.01 183.50 65.18 85.74 84.20 Table D6. Sediment trace metal mean annual results. site SAL 01 SAL 02 SAL 03 SAL 04 SAL 05 SAL 06^SAL 07 SAL 08 SAL 09 SAL 10 SAL 11 SAL 12 trace metal mq/kg Al 10205.68 13414.56 10667.32 10831.71 10747.20 13581.93^10611.41 12788.14 9947.17 12292.32 10832.02 Ba 115.54 131.18 95.77 104.63 107.06 126.37^108.07 140.19 109.77 116.03 111.68 Cr 24.48 29.36 27.66 24.34 24.38 31.06^26.01 28.64 20.11 24.92 18.68 Cu 25.48 28.34 22.08 23.56 27.41 35.14^26.34 30.60 20.78 25.79 16.68 Fe 18350.57 22327.42 19902.55 19268.64 17150.66 23466.98^18004.96 23299.71 13859.78 17479.21 14890.76 Mg 5059.17 6263.93 4751.07 5001.57 4522.93 8555.78^4961.02 4263.25 3781.43 5111.46 2951.26 Mn 704.07 1309.39 776.04 589.22 724.36 634.18^631.04 1451.66 577.96 603.23 530.99 Ni 23.49 26.14 22.96 28.31 23.11 38.69^23.20 24.33 18.12 25.51 13.99 Sr 30.16 34.39 28.37 29.43 27.42 36.20^31.34 40.98 27.51 29.48 22.44 Zn 106.11 107.72 72.60 94.80 78.81 93.62^83.24 149.25 71.18 94.61 95.13 Table D7. Trace metal dry season Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Trace metal Al Ba Cr Cu Fe Mg^Mn^Ni^Sr^Zn Al Corr. Coef. a (2-tailed) N 1.000 11 Ba Corr. Coef. 0.409 1.000 a (2-tailed) 0.212 N 11 11 Cr Corr. Coef. 0.518 0.164 1.000 a (2-tailed) 0.102 0.631 N 11 11 11 Cu Corr. Coef. 1 0.245 1 1.000 a (2-tailed) 0.035 0.467 0.755 N 11 11 11 11 Fe Corr. Coef. 0.509 0.245 0.845 0.627 1.000 a (2-tailed) 0.110 0.467 0.001 0.039 N 11 11 11 11 11 Mg Corr. Coef. 0.245 -0.027 0.627 0.600 0.636^1.000 a (2-tailed) 0.467 0.937 0.039 0.051 0.035. N 11 11 11 11 11 11 Mn Corr. Coef. -0.036 0.109 0.236 0.245 0.209 -0.20 1.000 a (2-tailed) 0.915 0.750 0.484 0.467 0.537 0.555 . N 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 Ni Corr. Coef. 0.482 -0.118 0.773 0.745 0.791 0.773^-0.100 1.000 a (2-tailed) 0.133 0.729 0.005 0.008 0.004 0.005^0.770 N 11 11 11 11 11 11^11 11 Sr Corr. Coef. 0.091 0.382 0.727 0.436 0.618 0.364^0.455^0.282 1.000 a (2-tailed) 0.790 0.247 0.011 0.180 0.043 0.272^0.160^0.401 N 11 11 11 11 11 11^11^11 11 Zn Corr. Coef. 0.564 0.427 0.136 0.127 0.473 -0.027^0.309^0.045^0.064 1.000 a (2-tailed) 0.071 0.190 0.689 0.709 0.142 0.937^0.355^0.894^0.853 . N 11 11 11 11 11 11^11^11^11 11 Note: Significant correlations are in bold. Table D8. Trace metal wet season Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Trace metal Al Ba Cr Cu Fe Mg^Mn^Ni^Sr^Zn Al Corr. Coef. a (2-tailed) N 1.000 11 Ba Corr. Coef. a (2-tailed) N 0.764 0.006 11 1.000 11 Cr Corr. Coef. a (2-tailed) N 0.673 0.023 11 0.400 0.223 11 1.000 11 Cu Corr. Coef. a (2-tailed) N 1 0.035 11 0.773 0.005 11 0.682 0.021 11 1.000 11 Fe Corr. Coef. a (2-tailed) N 0.718 0.013 11 0.445 0.170 11 0.882 0.000 11 0.700 0.016 11 1.000 11 Mg Corr. Coef. a (2-tailed) N 0.627 0.039 11 0.427 0.190 11 0.645 0.032 11 0.564 0.071 11 0.645 0.032 11 1.000' 11 Mn Corr. Coef. a (2-tailed) N 0.282 0.401 11 0.427 0.190 11 0.273 0.417 11 0.500 0.117 11 0.355 0.285 11 -0.018 0.958 11 1.000 11 Ni Corr. Coef. a (2-tailed) N 0.727 0.011 11 0.564 0.071 11 0.809 0.003 11 0.755 0.007 11 0.800 0.003 11 ^ 0.927^0.045 ^0. ^0.894 1 ^11 1.000 11 Sr Corr. Coef. a (2-tailed) N 0.664 0.026 11 0.809 0.003 11 0.645 0.032 11 0.918 0.000 11 0.591 0.056 11 ^0 5 ^0.682^0.645 . ^0.021^0.032 ^11^11 1.000 11 Zn Corr. Coef. a (2-tailed) N 0.636 0.035 11 0.800 0.003 11 0.300 0.370 11 0.636 0.035 11 0.455 0.160 11 0.218^0.464^0.373^0.591 ^0. 9^0.151^0.259^0.056 1 ^11^11^11 1.000 11 Note: Significant correlations are in bold. Table D9. Trace metal annual Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Trace metal Al Ba Cr Cu Fe Mg^Mn^Ni^Sr Al Corr. Coef. a (2-tailed) N 1.000 11 Ba Corr. Coef. 0.636 1.000 a (2-tailed) 0.035 N 11 11 Cr Corr. Coef. 0.582 0.500 1.000 a (2-tailed) 0.060 0.117 N 11 11 11 Cu Corr. Coef. 1 0.591 0.800 1.000 a (2-tailed) 0.039 0.056 0.003 N 11 11 11 11 Fe Corr. Coef. 0.618 0.409 0.864 0.682 1.000 a (2-tailed) 0.043 0.212 0.001 0.021 N 11 11 11 11 11 Mg Corr. Coef. 0.445 0.318 0..636 0.555 0.582 1.000 a (2-tailed) 0.170 0.340 0.035 0.077 0.060 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 Mn Corr. Coef. 0.300 0.318 0.736 0.655 0.673 0.255 1.000 a (2-tailed) 0.370 0.340 0.010 0.029 0.023 0.450 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 Ni Corr. Coef. 0.636 0.427 0.600 0.682 0.718 0.836^0.273 1.000 a (2-tailed) 0.035 0.190 0.051 0.021 0.013 0.001^0.417 N 11 11 11 11 11 11^11 11 Sr Corr. Coef. 0.500 0.682 0.836 0.791 0.809 0.591^0.564^0.718 1 .000- a (2-tailed) 0.117 0.021 0.001 0.004 0.003 0.056^0.071^0.013 N 11 11 11 11 11 11^11^11 11 Zn Corr. Coef. 0.527 0.682 0.236 0.327 0.436 0.209^0.318^0.418^0.509 1.000 a (2-tailed) 0.096 0.021 0.484 0.326 0.180 0.537^0.340^0.201^0.110 . N 11 11 11 11 11 11^11^11^11 11 Note: Significant correlations are in bold. Table D10.Trace metal and % clay Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Sediment Trace Metal dry season wet season 2005 mean Element % clay Al Corr. Coef. -0.245 0.291 0.355 a (2-tailed) 0.467 0.385 0.285 N 11 11 11 Ba Corr. Coef. -0.155 0.582 0.027 a (2-tailed) 0.650 0.060 . 0.937 N 11 11 11 Cr Corr. Coef. -0.536 -0.209 -0.064 a (2-tailed) 0.089 0.537 0.853 N 11 11 11 Cu Corr. Coef. -0.509 0.109 -0.218 a (2-tailed) 0.110 0.750 0.519 N 11 11 11 Fe Corr. Coef. -0.555 -0.018 0.200 a (2-tailed) 0.077 0.958 0.555 N 11 11 11 Mg Corr. Coef. -0.300 0.200 0.245 a (2-tailed) 0.370 0.555 0.467 N 11 11 11 Mn Corr. Coef. -0.209 0.064 -0.055 a (2-tailed) 0.537 0.853 0.873 N 11 11 11 Ni Corr. Coef. -0.427 0.109 0.173 a (2-tailed) 0.190 0.750 0.612 N 11 11 11 Sr Corr. Coef. -0.409 0.127 -0.145 a (2-tailed) 0.212 0.709 0.670 N 11 11 11 Zn Corr. Coef. -0.255 0.564 0.500 a (2-tailed) 0.450 0.071 0.117 N 11 12 11 Note: Significant correlations are in bold. 177 APPENDIX E: Macroinvertebrate Results Tables Table El. 2005 macroinvertebrate sample site descriptions. Table E2. 2005 macroinvertebrate sampling water quality conditions. Table E3. Relative variability of 2005 replicate macroinvertebrate samples in the Salmon River, by site. Table E4. Identification and enumeration of 2005 macroinvertebrate taxa in the Salmon River, by site. Table E5. Macroinvertebrate taxa characteristics. Table E6. 1995 and 2005 rarefaction results in the Salmon River catchment, by site. Table E7. 1995 and 2005 EPT rarefaction results in the Salmon River catchment, by site. Table E8. 1975, 1995 and 2005 Principal Components Analysis correlation matrix. Table E9. 1975, 1995 and 2005 Principal Components Analysis eigen value results. Table E10. 1975, 1995 and 2005 Principal Components Analysis eigen vector results. Table Ell. 1975, 1995 and 2005 Principal Components Analysis principal components. 178 Table El. 2005 macroinvertebrate sample site descriptions. Site ID Latitude Canopy Longitude^Elevation Coverage Average Water Depth Mean Thalweg Velocity Bankfull Width Wetted^dominant Width^substrate m % m m/s m m SAL 01 49°09'45.3" 122°35'46.8" 8 1-25 0.2920 0.1157 18.50 14.70^sand SAL 02 49°09'13.1" 122°33'55.1" 11 51-75 0.1300 0.2158 3.00 2.30^sand SAL 04 49°08'00.5" 122°35'47.1" 12 1-25 0.1880 0.2143 9.40 6.73^sand SAL 05 49°07'15.9" 122°34'05.4" 39 26-50 0.1280 0.4865 9.88 7.80^gravel SAL 06 49°07'17.8" 122°34'02.9" 11 26-50 0.1460 0.4707 7.67 5.03 gravel/cobble SAL 07 49°07'27.2" 122°3211.6" 89 51-75 0.0510 0.3383 5.47 2.97 gravel/cobble SAL 08 49°07'07.1" 122°31'37.6" 44 76-100 0.0660 0.1172 4.60 3.03 gravel/cobble SAL 09 49°06'0.63" 122°32'52.2" 73 1-25 0.0710 0.5064 5.50 2.76 gravel/cobble SAL 10 49°05'06.6" 122°32'11.6" 62 51-75 0.0460 0.1665 7.23 5.18 gravel/cobble Table E2. 2005 macroinvertebrate sampling water quality conditions. Site ID Air Temperature Water Temperature Specific Conductivity Dissolved Oxygen Dissolved Oxygen °C °C p.S/cm mg/L % sat. SAL 01 10.8 147.9 10.28 93.37 SAL 03 9.7 148.17 11.4 101.15 SAL 04 17.6 12.6 147.23 10.22 97.15 SAL 05 15.6 13 123.67 10.85 103.14 SAL 06 17.3 12.2 144.53 10.71 101.81 SAL 07 17.3 12.4 121.77 10.06 93.49 SAL 08 14 10.4 121.3 11.28 99.91 SAL 09 . 17.3 13.23 109 10.4 101.15 SAL 10 17.5 13.9 107.4 9.28 90.18 Table E3. Relative variability of 2005 replicate macroinvertebrate samples in the Salmon River, by site. site ID replicate a replicate b replicate c mean st. dev. CV (%) SAL 01 SAL 03 SAL 05 SAL 06 SAL 07^SAL 08 SAL 09 SAL 10 SAL 11 # individuals/m 2 780 950 2240 6370 5360 4270 6430 31730 8200 1170 490 4350 5460 7870 10950 12850 24900 10590 1460 480 9100 10100 10560 17730 4660 8800 8970 1136.67 640.00 5230.00 7310.00 7930.00 10983.33 7980.00 21810.00 9253.33 341.22 268.51 3513.64 2458.68 2600.52 6730.06 4309.40 11773.16 1219.93 0.3002 0.4196 0.6718 0.3363 0.3279 0.6128 0.5400 0.5398 0.1318 Table E4. 2005 identification and enumeration of macroinvertebrate taxa in the Salmon River, by site. Taxonomic Identification Site ID ORDER^Family Genus SAL 01 SAL 03 SAL 05 SAL 06 SAL 07 SAL 08 SAL 09 SAL 10 COLEOPTERA^Elimidae 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Heterlimnius 0.00 6.67 116.67 46.67 90.00 530.00 750.00 63.33 Lara 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.33 0.00 Narpus 0.00 0.00 6.67 6.67 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Zaitzevia 0.00 0.00 50.00 90.00 116.67 353.33 83.33 150.00 Elimidae - juv./dam. 3.33 16.67 370.00 183.33 160.00 263.33 213.33 103.33 COLEOPTERA - adult 0.00 6.67 53.33 46.67 33.33 116.67 3.33 23.33 DIPTERA^Ceratopogoniidae 0.00 0.00 6.67 16.67 30.00 36.67 10.00 66.67 Chironomidae Chironominae-Chironomini 326.67 16.67 0.00 40.00 70.00 10.00 3.33 6.67 Chironominae-Tanytarsini 316.67 76.67 30.00 113.33 890.00 63.33 46.67 223.33 Orthocladiinae 6.67 66.67 146.67 503.33 506.67 186.67 110.00 1070.00 Podonominae 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Tanypodiinae 0.00 33.33 23.33 13.33 13.33 13.33 0.00 80:00 Chironomidae pupae 10.00 40.00 16.67 113.33 213.33 36.67 23.33 250.00 Chironomidae - dam./juv. 3.33 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.67 0.00 0.00 3.33 Dixidae Dixa 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.33 10.00 3.33 0.00 Meringodixa 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Empididae 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Chelifera 0.00 0.00 13.33 6.67 20.00 13.33 10.00 3.33 Clinocera 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.33 0.00 0.00 Oreogeton 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.33 0.00 0.00 0.00 Psychodidae 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Ptychopteridae Ptychoptera 0.00 6.67 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Simuliidae Prosimulium 0.00 0.00 0.00 93.33 3.33 0.00 0.00 0.00 Simulium 0.00 0.00 283.33 0.00 26.67 43.33 0.00 10.00 Simuliidae - juv./dam. 0.00 0.00 313.33 100.00 56.67 70.00 6.67 23.33 Simuliidae - pupae 0.00 0.00 113.33 56.67 13.33 53.33 0.00 10.00 Stratyomidae 0.00 0.00 33.33 0.00 6.67 0.00 0.00 0.00 Tipulidae Antocha 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Dicranota 0.00 0.00 123.33 30.00 26.67 86.67 93.33 63.33 Hesperoconopa 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.33 3.33 0.00 3.33 Hexatoma 0.00 16.67 26.67 203.33 13.33 146.67 0.00 166.67 00 Table E4 continued. Taxonom is Identification Site ID ORDER Family^Genus SAL 01 SAL 03 SAL 05 SAL 06 SAL 07 SAL 08 SAL 09 SAL 10 Rhabdomastix 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.33 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Tipula 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.33 3.33 0.00 0.00 Tipulidae - juv./dam. 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.33 3.33 86.67 83.33 33.33 DIPTERA - juv./dam. 0.00 3.33 3.33 3.33 0.00 13.33 0.00 0.00 DIPTERA - pupae 0.00 3.33 3.33 0.00 0.00 3.33 0.00 0.00 EPHEMEROPTERA A me letidae^Ameletus 0.00 0.00 0.00 13.33 3.33 93.33 0.00 0.00 Baetidae Baetis 0.00 66.67 1076.67 836.67 1343.33 920.00 156.67 800.00 Procloeon 0.00 3.33 10.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Baetidae - juv./dam. 0.00 13.33 1283.33 1010.00 696.67 273.33 306.67 1450.00 Ephemrellidae 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.33 0.00 0.00 Ephemerella 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Ephemrellidae juv./dam. 0.00 3.33 16.67 36.67 120.00 170.00 150.00 710.00 Heptageniidae^Cinygma 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 40.00 76.67 10.00 Cinygmula 0.00 0.00 26.67 10.00 3.33 23.33 13.33 20.00 Epeorus 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Ironodes 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.33 3.33 36.67 3.33 160.00 Rithrogena 0.00 0.00 26.67 1103.33 476.67 53.33 0.00 1350.00 Heptageniidae - juv./dam. 0.00 0.00 23.33 666.67 243.33 2816.67 2480.00 1100.00 Leptophlebiidae^Paraleptophlebia 0.00 16.67 83.33 356.67 270.00 1886.67 680.00 4083.33 Paraleptophlebia - juv./dam. 0.00 0.00 6.67 83.33 176.67 463.33 83.33 2646.67 Leptophlebiidae - juv./dam 0.00 0.00 0.00 40.00 30.00 0.00 206.67 0.00 EPHEMEROPTERA - juv./dam. 0.00 0.00 10.00 56.67 140.00 136.67 63.33 53.33 HEMIPTERA Saldidae 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 HOMOPTERA 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 HYMENOPTERA 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 MEGLAOPTERA Sialidae 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Sialidae^Sialis 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 ODONA TA Cordulegastridae^Cordulegaster 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 PLECOPTERA Capniidae 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 A llocapnia 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Isocapnia 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 00 Table E4. continued. Taxonom ic Identification Site ID ORDER Family^Genus SAL 01 SAL 03 SAL 05 SAL 06 SAL 07 SAL 08 SAL 09 SAL 10 Paracapnia 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Capniidae - juv./dam. 0.00 0.00 66.67 13.33 16.67 0.00 0.00 0.00 Chloroperlidae^Kathroperla 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Suw allia 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Sw eltza 0.00 3.33 20.00 76.67 203.33 383.33 420.00 73.33 Chloroperlidae - other 0.00 0.00 3.33 16.67 3.33 33.33 93.33 3.33 Chloroperlidae - juv./dam. 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.67 36.67 10.00 40.00 10.00 Leuctridae^Despaxia 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Megaleuctra 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Moselia 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Perlomyla 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Leuctridae - juv./dam. 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 13.33 6.67 36.67 Nemouridae^Malenka 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Soyedina 0.00 0.00 106.67 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Visoka 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Zapada 0.00 16.67 0.00 656.67 550.00 116.67 136.67 2740.00 Nemouridae - juv. no gills 0.00 3.33 3.33 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 10.00 Nemouridae - juv./dam. 0.00 3.33 0.00 6.67 3.33 0.00 6.67 80.00 Perlodidae^Diploperla 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Isoperla 0.00 0.00 53.33 10.00 10.00 26.67 0.00 196.67 Skw ala 0.00 0.00 0.00 23.33 13.33 10.00 13.33 16.67 Perlodidae - juv./dam. 0.00 0.00 26.67 23.33 33.33 90.00 53.33 153.33 Perlidae^Calineuria 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.33 0.00 0.00 20.00 Doroneuria 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Perlidae - juv./dam. 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.33 PLECOPTERA - juv./dam. 0.00 10.00 56.67 13.33 40.00 33.33 36.67 26.67 TRICHOPTERA Brachycentridae^Micrasema 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.33 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Calamoceratidae^Heteroplectron 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Glossosomatidae^Glossosoma 0.00 0.00 6.67 166.67 33.33 3.33 33.33 43.33 Glossosomatidae - juv./dam. 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.67 0.00 .6.67 3.33 Hydroptilidae^Oxyethira 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Hydropsychidae^Cheumatopsyche 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Hydropsyche 0.00 0.00 46.67 153.33 326.67 546.67 583.33 2033.33 Parapsyche 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.67 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 00 Table E4. continued. Taxonom ic Identification Site ID ORDER^Family^Genus SAL 01 SAL 03 SAL 05 SAL 06 SAL 07 SAL 08 SAL 09 SAL 10 Hydrosychidae - juv./dam. 0.00 3.33 10.00 40.00 313.33 210.00 60.00 1000.00 Philopotamatidae^Wormaldia 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 30.00 0.00 0.00 16.67 Rhyacophilidae^Rhyacophila 0.00 0.00 3.33 0.00 10.00 0.00 30.00 20.00 TRICHOPTERA - juv./dam. 0.00 0.00 0.00 90.00 53.33 3.33 13.33 243.33 TRICHOPTERA - pupae 0.00 0.00 0.00 10.00 16.67 3.33 0.00 83.33 HY DRACARINA 6.67 6.67 43.33 70.00 43.33 13.33 3.33 153.33 Oribatida 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.33 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 AMPHIPODA 6.67 0.00 20.00 0.00 20.00 60.00 96.67 3.33 ISOPODA 0.00 0.00 3.33 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Assellidae^Caecidotea 0.00 0.00 3.33 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 MYSIDACEA^Mysidae 100.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 OSTRACODA 43.33 26.67 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 16.67 HIRUDINEA 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 PISCICOLA^Salmositica 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.33 0.00 TUBIFICIDA Enchytraeidae 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.67 26.67 0.00 Naididae 176.67 0.00 83.33 6.67 26.67 3.33 186.67 6.67 Lumbricidae 0.00 0.00 3.33 0.00 0.00 6.67 6.67 0.00 Tubificidae 20.00 0.00 10.00 0.00 0.00 3.33 3.33 0.00 LUMBRICULIDA^Lumbriculidae 23.33 10.00 313.33 3.33 273.33 323.33 373.33 30.00 OLIGOCHA ETA - unidentified 36.67 6.67 6.67 3.33 13.33 13.33 43.33 0.00 TRICLA DIDA Polycelis 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.33 6.67 0.00 0.00 0.00 HYDRA 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.67 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 GASTEROPODA 0.00 0.00 3.33 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.67 Ancylidae 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Lymnaeidae 0.00 0.00 3.33 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Physidae^Physa 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Planobidae 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 VENEROIDA^Sphaeriidae 46.67 150.00 6.67 0.00 3.33 3.33 30.00 16.67 NBV1A TODA 6.67 0.00 20.00 0.00 6.67 0.00 10.00 3.33 COLLEMBOLA 3.33 3.33 0.00 6.67 13.33 0.00 0.00 0.00 LEPIDOPTERA 0.00 0.00 6.67 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 NEUROPTERA^Sisyridae 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.33 0.00 0.00 Total Abundance (# of individuals/m 2 ) 1293.33 676.67 5276.67 7523.33 8410.00 11273.33 8186.67 23323.33 spraw ler/burrow erLE LO/LE burrow er collector/gatherer tolerant LO collector/gather/shredderburrow er LO clinger collector/filterer moderate shredder/collector/gatherer tolerant^ILEI Tipulidae burrow er I CeratopogoniidaeChironomidae Chironominae Orthocladiinae Podonominae Tanypodiinae Dixa Meringodixa Empididae Chelifera Clinocera Oreogeton Ptychopteridae^Ptychoptera Simuliidae Pros imulium Simulium DIPTERA I Dixidae Psychodidae tolerant collectors/gathers predator/collector/gatherer^tolerant^I moderate I predator sensitive spraw ler/sw inirner collector/predators collector/gatherer collector/gatherer/scraper predatorLE/LO LE/LO^sw immers/climbers LO^spraw ler/burrow er clinger predator LO^burrow er burrow er/clinger Table E5. Macroinvertebrate taxa characteristics. ^ORDER^Family ^COLEOPTERA^I Bimidae Genus^Lotic (LO)^Be havoir LE^clinger/climber Functional Feeding Group Tolerance collector/gatherer/scraper^moderate I Taxonomic Identification^Le ntic (LE)/ Habitat Related  Heterlimnius clinger Lara^ clinger/burrow er^shredder/detritivore Narpus clinger Zaitzevia clinger A ntocha^ clinger^collector/gatherer Dicranota spraw ler/burrow er^predator Hesperoconopa Hexatoma ^ burrow er/spraw ler/clingi predator Rhabdomastix shredder/detritivore/collector/ Tipula^ gatherer EPHEMEROPTERA I A meletidae^A nneletus^LO^sw irrmer/clinger^collector/gatherer^sensitive I Lentic (LE)/^Habitat Related Lotic (LO) Behavoir sw immersLO collector/gatherer Functional Feeding Group sw immer/climber/clinger collector/gather/scraper collector/gather/scraper LO collector/gathererclingerEphemrellidae cliner/sw irnmer collector/gatherer/scraper Taxonom is Identification ORDER^Family^Genus I Baetidae Baetis R-ocloeon Ephemerella Tolerance moderate I sensitive I Table E5. continued. Heptageniidae ^ LO^clinger^scraper/collector/gatherer moderate I Cinygma Cinygmula Epeorus Ironodes Rithrogena Leptophlebiidae ^ LO^sw immer/clinger^collector/gatherer^sensitive I Paraleptophlebia  sensitive IPLECOPTERA^J Capniidae LO^spraw ler/clinger shredder Allocapnia lsocapnia Paracapnia clinger I Chloroperlidae^ LO^clinger^predator^sensitive I Kathroperla^ collector/gatherer/scraper Suw allia Sw eltza Leuctridae^ LO^spraw ler/clinger^shredder^sensitive I Des pax ia Megaleuctra Moselia Perlomy la I Nemouridae LO clinger shredder sensitive I Malenka Soyedina Visoka Zapada spraw ler/chnger Perlodidae LO^clinger^predator^sensitive I Diploperla 1••■• 00'Cr■ Table E5. continued. Taxonomic Identification Lentic (LIE)/ Lotic (LO)ORDER Family Genus Isoperla Skw ala Perlidae LO Calineuria Doroneuria TRICHOPTERA I Glossosomatidae I Glossosonre Hydropsychidae Cheumatopsyche Hydropsyche Parapsyche Philopotamatidae Wormalde Rhyacophilidae Rhyacophila HYDRA CA RINA A MPHIPODA ISOPODA MYSIDACEA OSTRACODA PISCICOLA OLIGOCHA ETA TRICLADIDA HYDRA GASTEROPODA ^ clinger V ENEROIDA burrower NBvATODA burrow er LEPIDOPTERA ^ LO ^ clinger NEUROFTERA LO^climber/clinger/burrow er Functional Feeding Group collector/filterer collector/f itterer predator predator/scavenger collectro/gatherer collector/gatherer collector/gatherer gollector/gatherer scraper collector/filterer predator/parasite scraper predator/parasite Habitat Related Behavoir clinger clinger clinger sw inner/clinger clinter/sw inner spraw ler climber/sw inner burrow er Tolerance sensitive^I moderate tolerant moderate I moderate tolerant tolerant tolerant tolerant tolerant tolerant tolerant tolerant tolerant moderate clinger^predator clinger/climber^shredder/collector clinger^scraper Table E6. 1995 and 2005 rarefaction results in the Salmon River  catchment, by site. Site ID 2005 1995 rarefaction st. dev. rarefaction st. dev. SAL 01 12.31 0.74 SAL 03 15.97 0.17 SAL 05 23.72 1.69 SAL 06 18.45 1.54 19.60 1.35 SAL 07 23.21 1.70 26.27 1.73 SAL 08 19.67 1.46 23.27 1.61 SAL 09 21.33 1.56 23.50 2.12 SAL 10 17.80 1.74 SAL 11 22.18 1.68 23.37 1.67 19.41 3.71 23.20 0.28 Table E7. 1995 and 2005 EPT rarefaction results in the Salmon River catchment, by site. Site ID 2005 1995 rarefaction st. dev. rarefaction st. dev. SAL 01 n/a n/a SAL 03 n/a n/a SAL 05 10.05 0.72 SAL 06 10.66 0.79 11.86 0.35 SAL 07 11.96 0.91 13.64 0.85 SAL 08 9.73 0.63 12.31 0.88 SAL 09 10.34 0.57 11.05 1.03 SAL 10 10.47 1.11 SAL 11 10.74 0.74 12.11 1.02 10.56 0.71 12.19 0.94 188 Table E8. 1975, 1995 and 2005 Principal Compone nts Analysis correlation matrix. Coleoptera Diptera Ephemeroptera Hemiopters Hymenoptera Odonata Plecoptera Trichoptera Coleoptera 1 0.1708 0.7409 -0.1752 0.7419 -0.2534 -0.0336 0.0348 Diptera 0.1708 1 -0.0459 -0.2305 0.3303 -0.4887 0.8107 0.5715 Ephemeroptera 0.7409 -0.0459 1 -0.2448 0.6907 -0.2003 -0.2342 -0.1601 Hemiopters -0.1752 -0.2305 -0.2448 1 -0.0909 -0.0909 -0.3507 0.1339 Hymenoptera 0.7419 0.3303 0.6907 -0.0909 1 -0.0909 -0.1435 0.062 Odonata -0.2534 -0.4887 -0.2003 -0.0909 -0.0909 1 -0.3482 -0.0978 Plecoptera -0.0336 0.8107 -0.2342 -0.3507 -0.1435 -0.3482 1 0.5834 Trichoptera 0.0348 0.5715 -0.1601 0.1339 0,062 -0.0978 0.5834 1 Hydracarina 0.5517 0.4394 0.4777 -0.1883 0.9027 -0.1883 -0.0722 -0.0965 Amphipoda 0.5016 0.1665 0.5381 -0.021 0.5928 -0.2256 -0.1928 -0.1581 Mysidacea -0.0565 0.3892 0.1189 -0.0159 0.191 -0.1114 0.3174 -0.134 Isopoda -0.1547 0.3001 -0.4052 -0.0909 -0.0909 -0.0909 0.2699 -0.007 Piscicola -0.0903 0.2121 0.0252 0.4779 0.2011 -0.0757 0.0575 -0.0496 Oligochaeta 0.8 0.4572 0.4376 0.1522 0.7793 -0.302 0.0726 0.4101 Tricladida -0.3307 0.2168 -0.5311 -0.1655 -0.1655 -0.1655 0.0355 -0.214 Hydracarina -0.0123 0.1328 0.108 -0.1393 0.2667 -0.1528 -0.0464 -0.2869 Gasteropoda -0.0133 0.3376 -0.2844 0.148 0.148 -0.1423 0.1531 0.0379 Veneroida -0.2045 -0.1928 -0.2877 0.9952 -0.1083 -0.1083 -0.316 0.1206 Nematoda 0.0399 0.2634 -0.4007 -0.1676 -0.1676 -0.1676 0.3377 -0.056 Collembola -0.2782 -0.0021 -0.3012 -0.1267 -0.1267 -0.1267 -0.2054 -0.2665 Nueroptera 0.1847 -0.278 0.2626 -0.0909 -0.0909 -0.0909 -0.2179 -0.1625 Other 0.3749 0.1165 0.0432 -0.1684 -0.1684 -0.1684 0.4314 0.3273 Table E8. continued. Hydracarina Amphipoda Mysidacea Isopoda Piscicola Oligochaeta Tricladida Hydracarina Coleoptera 0.5517 0.5016 -0.0565 -0.1547 -0.0903 0.8 -0.3307 -0.0123 Diptera 0.4394 0.1665 0.3892 0.3001 0.2121 0.4572 0.2168 0.1328 Ephemeroptera 0.4777 0.5381 0.1189 -0.4052 0.0252 0.4376 -0.5311 0.108 Hemiopters -0.1883 -0.021 -0.0159 -0.0909 0.4779 0.1522 -0.1655 -0.1393 Hymenoptera 0.9027 0.5928 0.191 -0.0909 0.2011 0.7793 -0.1655 0.2667 Odonata -0.1883 -0.2256 -0.1114 -0.0909 -0.0757 -0.302 -0.1655 -0.1528 Plecoptera -0.0722 -0.1928 0.3174 0.2699 0.0575 0.0726 0.0355 -0.0464 Trichoptera -0.0965 -0.1581 -0.134 -0.007 -0.0496 0.4101 -0.214 -0.2869 Hydracarina 1 0.5791 0.2711 0.1443 0.205 0.6163 0.1762 0.5076 Amphipoda 0.5791 1 0.3497 -0.0839 0.3272 0.5386 -0.1012 0.1002 Mysidacea 0.2711 0.3497 1 -0.1273 0.8638 -0.0396 -0.2318 0.3595 Isopoda 0.1443 -0.0839 -0.1273 1 -0.1708 -0.0132 0.6288 -0.1596 Piscicola 0.205 0.3272 0.8638 -0.1708 1 0.0898 -0.311 0.2521 Oligochaeta 0.6163 0.5386 -0.0396 -0.0132 0.0898 1 -0.1291 -0.1164 Tricladida 0.1762 -0.1012 -0.2318 0.6288 -0.311 -0.1291 1 0.0741 Hydracarina 0.5076 0.1002 0.3595 -0.1596 0.2521 -0.1164 0.0741 1 Gasteropoda 0.3341 0.0774 -0.0369 0.9361 0.0457 0.2225 0.5262 -0.1105 Veneroida -0.1776 -0.0071 0.0157 -0.0074 0.4999 0.1393 -0.109 -0.1463 Nematoda 0.0113 -0.222 -0.2347 0.8657 -0.3149 0.0591 0.6144 -0.2941 Collem bola 0.0907 -0.0512 -0.1774 -0.1267 -0.238 -0.1524 0.6917 0.2427 Nueroptera -0.1249 0.6243 -0.1273 -0.0909 -0.1708 0.041 -0.1655 -0.1596 Other -0.3489 -0.4179 -0.2359 -0.1684 -0.3165 0.1624 -0.3066 -0.2956 Table E8. continued. Gasteropoda Veneroida Nematoda Collembola Nueroptera Other Coleoptera -0.0133 -0.2045 0.0399 -0.2782 0.1847 0.3749 Diptera 0.3376 -0.1928 0.2634 -0.0021 -0.278 0.1165 Ephemeroptera -0.2844 -0.2877 -0.4007 -0.3012 0.2626 0.0432 Hemiopters 0.148 0.9952 -0.1676 -0.1267 -0.0909 -0.1684 Hymenoptera 0.148 -0.1083 -0.1676 -0.1267 -0.0909 -0.1684 Odonata -0.1423 -0.1083 -0.1676 -0.1267 -0.0909 -0.1684 Plecoptera 0.1531 -0.316 0.3377 -0.2054 -0.2179 0.4314 Trichoptera 0.0379 0.1206 -0.056 -0.2665 -0.1625 0.3273 Hydracarina 0.3341 -0.1776 0.0113 0.0907 -0.1249 -0.3489 Amphipoda 0.0774 -0.0071 -0.222 -0.0512 0.6243 -0.4179 Mysidacea -0.0369 0.0157 -0.2347 -0.1774 -0.1273 -0.2359 Isopoda 0.9361 -0.0074 0.8657 -0.1267 -0.0909 -0.1684 Piscicola 0.0457 0.4999 -0.3149 -0.238 -0.1708 -0.3165 Oligochaeta 0.2225 0.1393 0.0591 -0.1524 0.041 0.1624 Tricladida 0.5262 -0.109 0.6144 0.6917 -0.1655 -0.3066 Hydracarina -0.1105 -0.1463 -0.2941 0.2427 -0.1596 -0.2956 Gasteropoda 1 0.2263 0.7591 -0.1982 -0.1423 -0.2636 Veneroida 0.2263 1 -0.0998 -0.1322 -0.0881 -0.2007 Nematoda 0.7591 -0.0998 1 -0.0202 -0.1676 0.2254 Collembola -0.1982 -0.1322 -0.0202 1 -0.1267 -0.2347 Nueroptera -0.1423 -0.0881 -0.1676 -0.1267 1 -0.1684 Other -0.2636 -0.2007 0.2254 -0.2347 -0.1684 1 Table E9. 1975, 1995 and 2005 Principal Components Analysis eigen value results. PC 1^PC 2 PC 3 PC 4 PC 5 PC 6 PC 7 PC 8 PC 9 PC 10 PC 11 Eigenvalue 4.8098 3.9927 3.0047 2.8178 2.3813 1.5605 1.3566 1.0147 0.629 0.394 0.0389 Percent 21.8629 18.1484 13.6578 12.8084 10.8242 7.0933 6.1662 4.6122 2.8591 1.7907 0.1766 Cummulative Percent 21.8629 40.0113 53.6691 66.4775 77.3017 84.395 90.5613 95.1735 98.0326 99.8234 100 Table E10. 1975, 1995 and 2005 Principal Components Analysis eigen vector results. PC 1 PC 2 PC 3 PC 4 PC 5 PC 6 PC 7 PC 8 PC 9 PC 10 PC 11 Coleoptera 0.3595 0.0592 -0.2266 -0.0506 0.2099 0.0506 -0.0659 -0.2291 0.1231 0.2353 -0.3019 Diptera 0.1552 0.3702 -0.0388 0.1826 -0.2670 0.0725 0.1494 0.1662 0.0139 -0.0659 0.0662 Ephemeropter 0.3676 -0.1358 -0.1586 -0.1183 0.0645 -0.0830 -0.0559 -0.1656 -0.1104 -0.5059 0.0957 Hemiopters -0.0374 -0.1216 0.3137 0.3488 0.2891 0.2229 0.0605 -0.1031 -0.0589 0.0551 -0.0384 Hymenoptera 0.4089 0.0836 0.0415 -0.0769 0.0654 0.1447 -0.2520 0.1156 0.0205 -0.0875 0.0640 Odonata -0.1260 -0.1855 0.0004 -0.0827 0.0428 -0.1595 -0.5323 0.4885 0.2649 0.3643 0.0184 Plecoptera -0.0164 0.2985 -0.2178 0.2595 -0.3208 -0.1362 0.1433 0.0459 -0.0278 0.0563 -0.3557 Trichoptera 0.0242 0.1422 -0.2113 0.3830 0.0020 0.1954 0.0762 0.5135 -0.2295 -0.0084 0.1435 Hydracarina 0.3508 0.1876 0.1649 -0.1875 -0.0477 0.1293 -0.1840 0.0590 -0.0812 0.0541 0.1277 Amphipoda 0.3465 -0.0100 0.1534 -0.1176 0.1102 -0.2153 0.3397 0.1657 0.1749 0.1285 0.1665 Mysidacea 0.1752 -0.0084 0.2300 0.1798 -0.4028 -0.3029 -0.0007 -0.1147 0.3059 0.0074 0.0867 Isopoda -0.1300 0.4059 0.1320 -0.0638 0.1646 -0.2579 -0.0962 -0.0087 -0.1494 -0.0387 0.2013 Piscicola 0.1593 -0.0753 0.3612 0.3189 -0.1922 -0.1476 -0.0321 -0.1044 0.2559 0.0537 0.0625 Oligochaeta 0.3390 0.1667 -0.0653 0.1142 0.2495 0.2391 0.0352 0.1162 0.1749 0.1844 -0.1879 Tricladida -0.1801 0.3096 0.1922 -0.2945 -0.0115 0.1917 0.1492 0.0366 0.1571 -0.0144 0.1671 Hydracarina 0.1295 -0.0262 0.1992 -0.1630 -0.3691 0.1508 -0.0924 -0.1960 -0.5849 0.4959 -0.0324 Gasteropoda -0.0269 0.3903 0.2334 0.0168 0.2368 -0.1735 -0.1427 -0.0118 -0.1444 -0.0459 0.2090 Veneroida -0.0469 -0.0881 0.3394 0:3484 0.2875 0.1831 0.0719 -0.1069 -0.0468 0.0543 -0.0139 Nematoda -0.1526 0.4049 -0.0298 -0.0649 0.1782 -0.1374 -0.0727 -0.2660 0.1899 0.1418 -0.3384 Collembola -0.1090 0.0180 0.1225 -0.3164 -0.1676 0.4841 0.2797 0.0548 0.3392 0.0177 0.0262 Nueroptera 0.0810 -0.1383 -0.0569 -0.1563 0.2232 -0.3780 0.5395 0.1456 -0.1556 0.3194 0.0678 Other -0.0375 0.0447 -0.4568 0.1943 0.0140 0.1143 -0.0413 -0.3863 0.1752 0.3259 0.6469 Table Ell. 1975, 1995 and 2005 Principal Components Analysis principal components. PC 1 PC 2 75SAL06 -0.6233 -1.1185 75SAL07 -0.6159 -0.8861 75SAL08 -0.1574 0.1933 75SAL11 -0.3005 1.5642 95SAL06 -1.9246 -2.3517 95SAL07 -0.5718 -1.5415 95SAL08 6.2454 1.0593 95SAL11 0.9467 -0.2259 05SAL06 -0.9137 -0.6619 05SAL07 -1.3357 0.5761 05SAL08 1.2368 -1.7529 05SAL11 -1.9860 5.1455 APPENDIX F: Land Activity and Environmental Quality Results Tables Table F 1. Annual sediment quality and land use by category (30m buffer width) Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Table F2. Annual sediment quality and general land use (30m buffer width) Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Table F3. Annual sediment quality and land use by type (100m buffer width) Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Table F4. Annual sediment quality and general land use (100m buffer width) Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Table F5 Annual sediment quality and land cover Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Table F6. Macroinvertebrate and annual sediment quality Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Table F7. Macroinvertebrate and land use by type (30m buffer width) Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Table F8. Macroinvertebrate and general land use (30m buffer width) Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Table F9. Macroinvertebrate and land use by type (100m buffer width) Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Table F 10. Macroinvertebrate and general land use (100m buffer width) Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Table F11. Macroinvertebrate and land cover Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Table F12. Macroinvertebrate and land cover Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1) (1974, 1994 and 2005). 194 Table Fl. Annual sediment quality and land use by type (30m buffer width) Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Land Use Code Trace Metal 0 111 113 160 122 120 150 200 330 400 510 610 Al Corr. Coef. -0.136 -0.512 -0.189 0.220 0.387 0.126 -0.133 -0.620 0.000 0.300 -0.400 0.586 a (2-tailed) 0.689 0.107 0.578 0.516 0.239 0.711 0.696 0.042 1.000 0.370 0.223 0.058 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 Ba Corr. Coef. -0.327 -0.094 0.216 0.017 0.069 0.474 0.400 -0.674 -0.400 0.500 0.100 0.265 a (2-tailed) 0.326 0.783 0.524 0.960 0.839 0.141 0.222 0.023 0.223 0.117 0.770 0.431 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 Cr Corr. Coef. -0.018 0.013 -0.081 -0.295 -0.046 -0.126 -0.286 -0.237 -0.300 0.300 -0.100 0.461 a (2-tailed) 0.958 0.969 0.813 0.379 0.893 0.711 0.394 0.483 0.370 0.370 0.770 0.154 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 Cu Corr. Coef. -0.455 0.013 -0.081 -0.092 0.162 -0.095 -0.229 -0.405 -0.200 0.400 -0.100 0.489 a (2-tailed) 0.160 0.969 0.813 0.787 0.634 0.782 0.499 0.216 0.555 0.223 0.770 0.127 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 Fe Corr. Coef. 0.145 -0.081 -0.135 -0.335 -0.035 -0.105 -0.057 -0.478 0.100 0.400 0.000 0.158 a (2-tailed) 0.670 0.813 0.693 0.313 0.919 0.758 0.867 0.137 0.770 0.223 1.000 0.642 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 Mg Corr. Coef. -0.082 0.135 0.364 -0.295 -0.046 -0.569 -0.343 -0.210 0.100 -0.300 0.200 0.558 a (2-tailed) 0.811 0.693 0.271 0.379 0.893 0.068 0.301 0.536 0.770 0.370 0.555 0.074 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 Mn Corr. Coef. -0.018 -0.013 -0.054 -0.040 -0.214 0.021 0.000 -0.050 -0.300 0.500 0.100 0.070 a (2-tailed) 0.958 0.969 0.875 0.906 0.528 0.951 1.000 0.884 0.370 0.117 0.770 0.838 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 Ni Corr. Coef. -0.155 -0.081 0.135 -0.347 -0.046 -0.316 -0.181 -0.483 0.400 0.100 0.000 0.340 a (2-tailed) 0.650 0.813 0.693 0.296 0.893 0.344 0.594 0.132 0.223 0.770 1.000 0.307 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 Sr Corr. Coef. -0.109 0.229 0.081 -0.474 -0.225 0.042 0.067 -0.515 -0.100 0.500 0.100 0.167 a (2-tailed) 0.750 0.498 0.813 0.141 0.505 0.902 0.845 0.105 0.770 0.117 0.770 0.623 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 Zn Corr. Coef. 0.055 0.040 0.243 0.168 -0.104 0.326 0.620 -0.765 0.100 0.500 0.300 -0.102 a (2-tailed) 0.873 0.906 0.472 0.622 0.761 0.327 0.042 0.006 0.770 0.117 0.370 0.765 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 Clay (%) Corr. Coef. 0.491 -0.189 0.094 0.457 0.214 -0.105 0.238 -0.351 0.300 -0.300 0.200 0.088 a (2-tailed) 0.125 0.578 0.783 0.158 0.528 0.758 0.480 0.290 0.370 0.370 0.555 0.796 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 Note: Significant correlations are in bold. Table F2. Annual sediment quality and general land use (30m buffer width) Spearman Rank correlation coefficient  (p) results (a = 0.1). General Land Use Trace Metal Transportation Agriculture^Residential Civic/Commercial/Industrial Vacant/U Recreation^nused Al Corr. Coef. 0.055 -0.055 -0.620 0.000 -0.400 0.586 a (2-tailed) 0.873 0.873 0.042 1.000 0.223 0.058 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 Ba Corr. Coef. -0.173 0.609 -0.674 -0.400 0.100 0.265 a (2-tailed) 0.612 0.047 0.023 0.223 0.770 0.431 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 Cr Corr. Coef. 0.100 -0.064 -0.237 -0.300 -0.100 0.461 a (2-tailed) 0.770 0.853 0.483 0.370 0.770 0.154 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 Cu Corr. Coef. -0.309 0.073 -0.405 -0.200 -0.100 0.489 a (2-tailed) 0.355 0.832 0.216 0.555 0.770 0.127 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 Fe Corr. Coef. 0.309 -0.064 -0.478 0.100 0.000 0.158 a (2-tailed) 0.355 0.853 0.137 0.770 1.000 0.642 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 Mg Corr. Coef. -0.145 -0.300 -0.210 0.100 0.200 0.558 a (2-tailed) 0.670 0.370 0.536 0.770 0.555 0.074 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 Mn Corr. Coef. 0.155 -0.036 -0.050 -0.300 0.100 0.070 a (2-tailed) 0.650 0.915 0.884 0.370 0.770 0.838 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 Ni Corr. Coef. -0.082 -0.191 -0.483 0.400 0.000 0.340 a (2-tailed) 0.811 0.574 0.132 0.223 1.000 0.307 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 Sr Corr. Coef. 0.027 0.300 -0.515 -0.100 0.100 0.167 a (2-tailed) 0.937 0.370 0.105 0.770 0.770 0.623 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 Zn Corr. Coef. 0.227 0.473 -0.765 0.100 0.300 -0.102 a (2-tailed) 0.502 0.142 0.006 0.770 0.370 0.765 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 Clay (%) Corr. Coef. 0.473 -0.173 -0.351 0.300 0.200 0.088 a (2-tailed) 0.142 0.612 0.290 0.370 0.555 0.796 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 ,- Note: Significant correlations are in bold. Table F3. Annual Sediment quality and land use by type (100m buffer width) Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Land Use Code Trace Metal 0 111 113 160 121 122 120 150 200 330 400 510 520 610 Al Corr. Coef. 0.009 -0.512 -0.189 0.220 0.300 0.674 -0.104 -0.181 -0.645 0.067 0.108 0.400 -0.500 0.623 a (2-tailed) 0.979 0.107 0.578 0.516 0.370 0.023 0.761 0.593 0.032 0.844 0.752 0.223 0.117 0.040 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 Ba Corr. Coef. -0.136 -0.094 0.216 0.017 0.500 0.540 0.133 0.298 -0.655 -0.324 0.067 0.400 -0.100 0.284 a (2-tailed) 0.689 0.783 0.524 0.960 0.117 0.086 0.697 0.374 0.029 0.332 0.844 0.223 0.770 0.398 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 Cr Corr. Coef. -0.282 0.013 -0.081 -0.295 0.300 0.352 -0.410 -0.261 -0.218 -0.580 0.378 0.400 -0.400 0.405 a (2-tailed) 0.401 0.969 0.813 0.379 0.370 0.289 0.210 0.439 0.519 0.062 0.252 0.223 0.223 0.217 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 Cu Corr. Coef. -0.436 0.013 -0.081 -0.092 0.400 0.610 -0.462 -0.316 -0.418 -0.499 0.121 0.300 -0.400 0.433 a (2-tailed) 0.180 0.969 0.813 0.787 0.223 0.046 0.152 0.343 0.201 0.118 0.722 0.370 0.223 0.184 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 Fe Corr. Coef. -0.164 -0.081 -0.135 -0.335 0.400 0.382 -0.474 -0.014 -0.464 -0.189 0.458 0.300 -0.500 0.130 a (2-tailed) 0.631 0.813 0.693 0.313 0.223 0.247 0.141 0.968 0.151 0.578 0.156 0.370 0.117 0.703 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 Mg Corr. Coef. 0.045 0.135 0.364 -0.295 -0.300 -0.094 -0.410 -0.381 -0.227 -0.256 -0.310 0.400 -0.400 0.512 a (2-tailed) 0.894 0.693 0.271 0.379 0.370 0.783 0.210 0.247 0.502 0.447 0.353 0.223 0.223 0.108 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 Mn Corr. Coef. -0.436 -0.013 -0.054 -0.040 0.500 0.397 -0.410 0.060 -0.055 -0.580 0.607 0.400 -0.400 0.033 a (2-tailed) 0.180 0.969 0.875 0.906 0.117 0.227 0.210 0.860 0.873 0.062 0.048 0.223 0.223 0.924 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 Ni Corr. Coef. 0.064 -0.081 0.135 -0.347 0.100 0.169 -0.462 -0.251 -0.491 -0.013 -0.121 0.300 -0.400 0.302 a (2-tailed) 0.853 0.813 0.693 0.296 0.770 0.620 0.152 0.456 0.125 0.969 0.722 0.370 0.223 0.366 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 Sr Corr. Coef. -0.136 0.229 0.081 -0.474 0.500 0.292 -0.387 0.019 -0.455 -0.418 0.270 0.300 -0.300 0.102 a (2-tailed) 0.689 0.498 0.813 0.141 0.117 0.383 0.239 0.957 0.160 0.201 0.423 0.370 0.370 0.765 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 Zn Corr. Coef. 0.227 0.040 0.243 0.168 0.500 0.372 -0.040 0.558 -0.727 0.216 0.135 0.400 -0.500 -0.065 a (2-tailed) 0.502 0.906 0.472 0.622 0.117 0.260 0.906 0.074 0.011 0.524 0.693 0.223 0.117 0.849 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 Clay (%) Corr. Coef. 0.464 -0.189 0.094 0.457 -0.300 0.030 0.150 0.284 -0.382 0.580 -0.175 0.400 -0.500 0.172 a (2-tailed) 0.151 0.578 0.783 0.158 0.370 0.931 0.659 0.398 0.247 0.062 0.606 0.223 0.117 0.613 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 Note: Significant correlations are in bold. Table F4. Annual sediment quality and general land use (100m buffer width) Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). General Land Use Trace Metal Transportation Agriculture Civic/Commercial/I Residential^ndustrial Vacant/U Recreation^nused Al Corr. Coef. 0.227 0.055 -0.645 0.067 -0.013 0.623 a (2-tailed) 0.502 0.873 0.032 0.844 0.969 0.040 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 Ba Corr. Coef. 0.036 0.573 -0.655 -0.324 0.256 0.284 a (2-tailed) 0.915 0.066 0.029 0.332 0.447 0.398 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 Cr Corr. Coef. -0.091 -0.045 -0.218 -0.580 0.054 0.405 a (2-tailed) 0.790 0.894 0.519 0.062 0.875 0.217 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 Cu Corr. Coef. -0.209 0.209 -0.418 -0.499 -0.027 0.433 a (2-tailed) 0.537 0.537 0.201 0.118 0.937 0.184 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 Fe Corr. Coef. 0.091 0.000 -0.464 -0.189 -0.094 0.130 a (2-tailed) 0.790 1.000 0.151 0.578 0.783 0.703 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 Mg Corr. Coef. -0.036 -0.291 -0.227 -0.256 0.054 0.512 a (2-tailed) 0.915 0.385 0.502 0.447 0.875 0.108 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 Corr. Coef. -0.173 0.055 -0.055 -0.580 0.054 0.033 a (2-tailed) 0.612 0.873 0.873 0.062 0.875 0.924 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 Ni Corr. Coef. 0.155 -0.145 -0.491 -0.013 -0.027 0.302 a (2-tailed) 0.650 0.670 0.125 0.969 0.937 0.366 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 Sr Corr. Coef. 0.091 0.227 -0.455 -0.418 0.040 0.102 a (2-tailed) 0.790 0.502 0.160 0.201 0.906 0.765 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 Zn Corr. Coef. 0.473 0.418 -0.727 0.216 -0.013 -0.065 a (2-tailed) 0.142 0.201 0.011 0.524 0.969 0.849 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 Clay (%) Corr. Coef. 0.436 -0.136 -0.382 0.580 -0.013 0.172 a (2-tailed) 0.180 0.689 0.247 0.062 0.969 0.613 N 11 11 11 11 11 11 Note: Significant correlations are in bold. VD '00 Table F5. Annual sediment quality and land cover Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Land Cover Trace Metal Forest Cover Forest Cover Impervious Impervious Al Corr. Coef. -0.373 -0.173 0.255 -0.055 a (2-tailed) 0.259 0.612 0.450 0.873 N 11 11 11 11 Ba Corr. Coef. -0.409 -0.209 -0.100 -0.264 a (2-tailed) 0.212 0.537 0.770 0.433 N 11 11 11 11 Cr Corr. Coef. -0.100 0.200 0.009 -0.482 a (2-tailed) 0.770 0.555 0.979 0.133 N 11 11 11 11 Cu Corr. Coef. -0.073 0.245 -0.173 -0.536 a (2-tailed) 0.832 0.467 0.612 0.089 N 11 11 11 11 Fe Corr. Coef. -0.318 -0.027 0.145 -0.418 a (2-tailed) 0.340 0.937 0.670 0.201 N 11 11 11 11 Mg Corr. Coef. -0.227 0.145 -0.055 -0.282 a (2-tailed) 0.502 0.670 0.873 0.401 N 11 11 11 11 Mn Corr. Coef. -0.082 0.064 -0.145 -0.573 a (2-tailed) 0.811 0.853 0.670 0.066 N 11 11 11 11 Ni Corr. Coef. -0.291 0.000 0.018 -0.209 a (2-tailed) 0.385 1.000 0.958 0.537 N 11 11 11 11 Sr Corr. Coef. -0.309 -0.036 0.036 -0.364 a (2 -tailed) 0.355 0.915 0.915 0.272 N 11 11 11 11 Zn Corr. Coef. -0.855 -0.745 0.355 0.073 a (2-tailed) 0.001 0.008 0.285 0.832 N 11 11 11 11 Clay Corr. Coef. -0.736 -0.618 0.500 0.273 a (2-tailed) 0.010 0.043 0.117 0.417 N 11 11 11 11 ,-- Note: Significant correlations are in bold. ■g) Table F6. Macroinvertebrate and annual sediment quality Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Trace Metal Macroinvertebrate Al Ba Cr Cu Fe Mg Mn Ni Sr Zn Clay (%) Rarefaction Corr. Coef. 0.357 -0.048 -0.048 0.524 -0.310 -0.048 -0.071 0.143 0.048 0.000 -0.524 a (2-tailed) 0.385 0.911 0.911 0.183 0.456 0.911 0.867 0.736 0.911 1.000 0.183 N 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 Total^Corr. Coef. 0.024 0.524 -0.143 0.048 -0.310 -0.381 -0.476 0.071 0.071 0.071 -0.810 Abundance a (2-tailed) 0.955 0.183 0.736 0.911 0.456 0.352 0.233 0.867 0.867 0.867 0.015 N 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 collectors^Corr. Coef. -0.048 0.405 -0.286 0.000 -0.452 -0.500 -0.429 -0.048 -0.048 0.024 -0.857 (total)^a (2-tailed) 0.911 0.320 0.493 1.000 0.260 0.207 0.289 0.911 0.911 0.955 0.007 N 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 shredders^Corr. Coef. 0.048 0.190 -0.214 -0.024 -0.452 0.000 -0.810 0.048 -0.262 -0.357 -0.619 (total)^a (2-tailed) 0.911 0.651 0.610 0.955 0.260 1.000 0.015 0.911 0.531 0.385 0.102 N 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 predators^Corr. Coef. 0.214 0.524 0.071 0.167 -0.143 -0.405 -0.262 0.119 0.190 0.119 -0.786 (total)^a (2-tailed) 0.610 0.183 0.867 0.693 0.736 0.320 0.531 0.779 0.651 0.779 0.021 N 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 predators/^Corr. Coef. 0.048 0.262 -0.357 0.024 -0.524 0.000 -0.786 0.095 -0.310 -0.262 -0.548 parasites^a (2-tailed) 0.911 0.531 0.385 0.955 0.183 1.000 0.021 0.823 0.456 0.531 0.160 (total)^N 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 collectors^Corr. Coef. -0.214 -0.381 0.024 -0.071 0.286 -0.119 0.738 -0.262 0.048 0.119 0.548 (%)^a (2-tailed) 0.610 0.352 0.955 0.867 0.493 0.779 0.037 0.531 0.911 0.779 0.160 N 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 shredders^Corr. Coef. 0.071 0.048 -0.071 -0.167 -0.333 0.214 -0.786 0.071 -0.286 -0.405 -0.357 (%)^a (2-tailed) 0.867 0.911 0.867 0.693 0.420 0.610 0.021 0.867 0.493 0.320 0.385 N 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 predators^Corr. Coef. 0.476 0.548 0.429 0.524 0.167 -0.048 -0.095 0.429 0.571 0.357 -0.619 (%)^a (2-tailed) 0.233 0.160 0.289 0.183 0.693 0.911 0.823 0.289 0.139 0.385 0.102 N 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 predators/^Corr. Coef. 0.262 -0.048 -0.048 0.238 0.071 0.595 -0.071 0.310 -0.167 -0.048 0.595 parasites^a (2-tailed) 0.531 0.911 0.911 0.570 0.867 0.120 0.867 0.456 0.693 0.911 0.120 (%)^N 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 t■.) O '0 Table F6. continued. Trace Metal Macorinvertebrate Al Ba Cr Cu Fe Mg Mn Ni Sr Zn Clay (%) EPT Total Corr. Coef. 0.036 0.750 -0.179 -0.071 -0.179 -0.357 -0.429 0.107 0.286 0.250 -0.607 Abundance a (2-tailed) 0.939 0.052 0.702 0.879 0.702 0.432 0.337 0.819 0.535 0.589 0.148 N 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 EPT Corr. Coef. 0.000 0.714 0.000 0.107 0.000 -0.357 -0.321 0.071 0.393 0.143 -0.679 (%) a (2-tailed) 1.000 0.071 1.000 0.819 1.000 0.432 0.482 0.879 0.383 0.760 0.094 N 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 EPT Rarefaction Corr. Coef. -0.200 -0.257 0.086 -0.314 0.086 0.600 -0.600 0.257 -0.029 -0.086 0.086 a (2-tailed) 0.704 0.623 0.872 0.544 0.872 0.208 0.208 0.623 0.957 0.872 0.872 N 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 Note: Significant correlations are in bold. Table F7. Macroinvertebrate and land use by type (30m buffer width) Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Land Use Code Macroinvertebrate 0 111 113 160 121 122 120 150 200 400 510 610 Rarefaction Corr. Coef. -0.417 -0.023 -0.274 0.548 0.137 0.251 -0.183 -0.574 0.008 0.000 -0.548 0.576 a (2-tailed) 0.265 0.954 0.476 0.127 0.725 0.515 0.638 0.106 0.983 1.000 0.127 0.104 N 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 Total Corr. Coef. -0.133 -0.274 -0.160 -0.274 0.137 -0.297 0.707 0.218 -0.167 0.411 -0.411 -0.170 Abundance a (2-tailed) 0.732 0.476 0.681 0.476 0.725 0.438 0.033 0.573 0.667 0.272 0.272 0.663 N 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 collectors Corr. Coef. -0.300 -0.160 -0.160 0.000 -0.137 -0.228 0.707 0.218 -0.075 0.411 -0.411 -0.153 (total) a (2-tailed) 0.433 0.681 0.681 1.000 0.725 0.555 0.033 0.573 0.847 0.272 0.272 0.695 N 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 shredders Corr. Coef. -0.333 -0.251 -0.183 0.000 -0.137 0.228 0.137 -0.337 0.067 -0.274 -0.548 0.458 (total) a (2-tailed) 0.381 0.515 0.638 1.000 0.725 0.555 0.725 0.376 0.864 0.476 0.127 0.215 N 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 predators Corr. Coef. 0.100 -0.365 -0.365 -0.274 0.548 -0.297 0.525 -0.030 -0.100 0.411 -0.548 -0.085 (total) a (2-tailed) 0.798 0.334 0.334 0.476 0.127 0.438 0.147 0.940 0.797 0.272 0.127 0.828 N 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 Corr. Coef. -0.536 -0.275 -0.069 0.138 -0.206 0.321 0.195 -0.184 -0.038 -0.206 -0.413 0.417 predators/ parasites a (2-tailed) 0.137 0.474 0.860 0.724 0.594 0.400 0.615 0.636 0.923 0.594 0.270 0.264 (total) N 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 collectors Corr. Coef. 0.217 0.365 0.091 0.274 -0.137 -0.046 -0.160 0.317 0.092 0.137 0.548 -0.424 (%) a (2-tailed) 0.576 0.334 0.815 0.476 0.725 0.907 0.681 0.406 0.814 0.725 0.127 0.256 N 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 shredders Corr. Coef. -0.167 -0.251 -0.091 -0.137 -0.274 0.137 -0.068 -0.495 0.209 -0.411 -0.548 0.525 (%) a (2-tailed) 0.668 0.515 0.815 0.725 0.476 0.725 0.861 0.175 0.589 0.272 0.127 0.146 N 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 predators Corr. Coef. 0.083 -0.137 -0.365 -0.274 0.548 -0.183 0.251 -0.238 -0.310 0.411 -0.548 0.170 (%) a (2-tailed) 0.831 0.725 0.334 0.476 0.127 0.638 0.515 0.538 0.417 0.272 0.127 0.663 N 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 Corr. Coef. -0.550 -0.046 0.320 0.411 -0.411 0.730 -0.548 -0.208 -0.084 -0.548 0.274 0.542 predators/ parasites a (2-tailed) 0.125 0.907 0.402 0.272 0.272 0.025 0.127 0.591 0.831 0.127 0.476 0.131 (%) N 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 t■.)O Table F7. continued. Land Use Code Macorinvertebrate 0 111 113 160 121 122 120 150 200 400 520 610 EPT Total Corr. Coef. -0.048 -0.247 0.082 -0.412 0.247 -0.343 0.733 0.733 -0.299 0.412 -0.443 Abundance a (2-tailed) 0.911 0.555 0.846 0.31 0.555 0.406 0.039 0.039 0.471 0.31 0.272 N 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 EPT Corr. Coef. -0.024 -0.082 -0.247 -0.412 0.082 -0.062 0.733 0.733 -0.395 0.412 -0.371 (%) a (2-tailed) 0.955 0.846 0.555 0.31 0.846 0.883 0.039 0.039 0.333 0.31 0.365 N 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 EPT Rarefaction Corr. Coef. 0.143 0.612 0.408 -0.408 -0.204 -0.089 -0.535 -0.535 -0.072 -0.612 0.487 a (2-tailed) 0.76 0.144 0.363 0.363 0.661 0.849 0.216 0.216 0.878 0.144 0.268 N 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 Note: Significant correlations are in bold. Table F8. Macroinvertebrate and general land use (30m buffer width) Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Land Cover Macroinvertebrate Agriculture Residential^Transportation^Recreation Vacant/U Rarefaction Corr. Coef. -0.267 0.008 -0.367 -0.548 0.576 a (2-tailed) 0.488 0.983 0.332 0.127 0.104 N 9 9 9 9 9 Total Corr. Coef. 0.500 -0.167 0.000 -0.411 -0.170 Abundance a (2-tailed) 0.170 0.667 1.000 0.272 0.663 N 9 9 9 9 9 collectors Corr. Coef. 0.433 -0.075 -0.183 -0.411 -0.153 (total) a (2-tailed) 0.244 0.847 0.637 0.272 0.695 N 9 9 9 9 9 shredders Corr. Coef. -0.117 0.067 -0.450 -0.548 0.458 (total) a (2-tailed) 0.765 0.864 0.224 0.127 0.215 N 9 9 9 9 9 predators Corr. Coef. 0.350 -0.100 0.283 -0.548 -0.085 (total) a (2-tailed) 0.356 0.797 0.460 0.127 0.828 N 9 9 9 9 9 Corr. Coef. -0.033 -0.038 -0.628 -0.413 0.417 predators/ parasites a (2-tailed) 0.932 0.923 0.070 0.270 0.264 (total) N 9 9 9 9 9 collectors Corr. Coef. 0.033 0.092 0.250 0.548 -0.424 (%) a (2-tailed) 0.932 0.814 0.516 0.127 0.256 N 9 9 9 9 9 shredders Corr. Coef. -0.400 0.209 -0.317 -0.548 0.525 (%) a (2-tailed) 0.286 0.589 0.406 0.127 0.146 N 9 9 9 9 9 predators Corr. Coef. 0.267 -0.310 0.283 -0.548 0.170 (%) a (2-tailed) 0.488 0.417 0.460 0.127 0.663 N 9 9 9 9 9 Corr. Coef. -0.483 -0.084 -0.733 0.274 0.542 predators/ parasites a (2-tailed) 0.187 0.831 0.025 0.476 0.131 (%) N 9 9 9 9 9 O Table F8. continued. General Land Use Macroinvertebrate Agriculture Residential^Transportation Recreation Vacant/ EPT Total Corr. Coef. 0.810 -0.299 0.024 -0.443 Abundance a (2-tailed) 0.015 0.471 0.955 0.272 N 8 8 8 8 EPT Corr. Coef. 0.881 -0.395 0.024 -0.371 (%) a (2-tailed) 0.004 0.333 0.955 0.365 N 8 8 8 8 EPT Rarefaction Corr. Coef. -0.179 -0.072 -0.179 0.487 a (2-tailed) 0.702 0.878 0.702 0.268 N 7 7 7 7 Note: Significant correlations are in bold. Table F9. Macroinvertebrate and land use by type (100m buffer width) Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Land Use Code Macroinvertebrate 0 111 113 160 121 122 120 150 200 400 510 610 Rarefaction Corr. Coef. 0.100 -0.023 -0.274 0.548 0.114 0.188 -0.274 -0.749 0.033 -0.274 -0.274 0.492 a (2-tailed) 0.798 0.954 0.476 0.127 0.770 0.628 0.476 0.020 0.932 0.476 0.476 0.179 N 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 Total Corr. Coef. 0.333 -0.274 -0.160 -0.274 0.388 0.099 0.548 0.018 -0.117 -0.023 0.548 -0.102 Abundance a (2-tailed) 0.381 0.476 0.681 0.476 0.302 0.800 0.127 0.963 0.765 0.954 0.127 0.795 N 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 collectors Corr. Coef. 0.167 -0.160 -0.160 0.000 0.160 0.149 0.548 0.018 0.017 -0.023 0.548 -0.203 (total) a (2-tailed) 0.668 0.681 0.681 1.000 0.681 0.703 0.127 0.963 0.966 0.954 0.127 0.600 N 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 shredders Corr. Coef. 0.183 -0.251 -0.183 0.000 -0.297 -0.040 0.548 -0.493 0.083 -0.502 0.548 0.407 (total) a (2-tailed) 0.637 0.515 0.638 1.000 0.438 0.919 0.127 0.178 0.831 0.168 0.127 0.277 N 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 predators Corr. Coef. 0.483 -0.365 -0.365 -0.274 0.730 0.099 0.274 -0.183 -0.100 0.068 0.274 0.085 (total) a (2-tailed) 0.187 0.334 0.334 0.476 0.025 0.800 0.476 0.638 0.798 0.861 0.476 0.828 N 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 Corr. Coef. 0.000 -0.275 -0.069 0.138 -0.309 0.085 0.550 -0.394 -0.059 -0.539 0.550 0.349 predators/ parasites a (2-tailed) 1.000 0.474 0.860 0.724 0.418 0.829 0.125 0.294 0.881 0.135 0.125 0.357 (total) N 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 collectors Corr. Coef. -0.383 0.365 0.091 0.274 -0.023 0.069 -0.411 0.475 0.100 0.388 -0.411 -0.492 (%) a (2-tailed) 0.308 0.334 0.815 0.476 0.954 0.859 0.272 0.197 0.798 0.302 0.272 0.179 N 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 shredders Corr. Coef. 0.233 -0.251 -0.091 -0.137 -0.502 -0.218 0.411 -0.493 0.250 -0.342 0.411 0.458 (%) a (2-tailed) 0.546 0.515 0.815 0.725 0.168 0.573 0.272 0.178 0.516 0.367 0.272 0.215 N 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 predators Corr. Coef. 0.483 -0.137 -0.365 -0.274 0.730 0.188 -0.137 -0.402 -0.250 0.068 -0.137 0.305 (%) a (2-tailed) 0.187 0.725 0.334 0.476 0.025 0.628 0.725 0.284 0.516 0.861 0.725 0.425 N 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 Corr. Coef. -0.583 -0.046 0.320 0.411 -0.707 0.129 -0.137 -0.219 -0.217 -0.456 -0.137 0.424 predators/ parasites a (2-tailed) 0.099 0.907 0.402 0.272 0.033 0.741 0.725 0.571 0.576 0.217 0.725 0.256 (%) N 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 Table F9. continued. Land Use Code Macorinvertebrate 0 111 113 160 121 122 120 150 200 400 520 610 EPT Total Corr. Coef. 0.286 -0.247 0.082 -0.412 0.483 0.082 0.577 0.436 -0.31 -0.031 0.577 -0.275 Abundance a (2-tailed) 0.493 0.555 0.846 0.31 0.225 0.847 0.134 0.28 0.456 0.942 0.134 0.509 N 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 EPT Corr. Coef. 0.071 -0.082 -0.247 -0.412 0.343 0.3 0.577 0.436 -0.357 -0.031 0.577 -0.275 (%) a (2-tailed) 0.867 0.846 0.555 0.31 0.406 0.47 0.134 0.28 0.385 0.942 0.134 0.509 N 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 EPT Rarefaction Corr. Coef. 0.429 0.612 0.408 -0.408 -0.579 -0.591 0 -0.535 0.179 -0.612 0 0.378 a (2-tailed) 0.337 0.144 0.363 0.363 0.173 0.162 1 0.216 0.702 0.144 1 0.403 N 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 Note: Significant correlations are in bold. Table F10. Macroinvertebrate and general land use (100m buffer width) Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). General Land Use Macroinvertebrate Agriculture Residential^Transportation^Recreation Vacant/U Rarefaction Corr. Coef. -0.250 0.033 0.200 -0.274 0.492 a (2-tailed) 0.516 0.932 0.606 0.476 0.179 N 9 9 9 9 9 Total Corr. Coef. 0.217 -0.117 0.417 0.548 -0.102 Abundance a (2-tailed) 0.576 0.765 0.265 0.127 0.795 N 9 9 9 9 9 collectors Corr. Coef. 0.233 0.017 0.250 0.548 -0.203 (total) a (2-tailed) 0.546 0.966 0.516 0.127 0.600 N 9 9 9 9 9 shredders Corr. Coef. -0.133 0.083 -0.067 0.548 0.407 (total) a (2-tailed) 0.732 0.831 0.865 0.127 0.277 N 9 9 9 9 9 predators Corr. Coef. 0.017 -0.100 0.667 0.274 0.085 (total) a (2-tailed) 0.966 0.798 0.050 0.476 0.828 N 9 9 9 9 9 Corr. Coef. 0.050 -0.059 -0.234 0.550 0.349 predators/ parasites a (2-tailed) 0.898 0.881 0.544 0.125 0.357 (total) N 9 9 9 9 9 collectors Corr. Coef. 0.183 0.100 -0.217 -0.411 -0.492 (%) a (2-tailed) 0.637 0.798 0.576 0.272 0.179 N 9 9 9 9 9 shredders Corr. Coef. -0.433 0.250 -0.067 0.411 0.458 (%) a (2-tailed) 0.244 0.516 0.865 0.272 0.215 N 9 9 9 9 9 predators Corr. Coef. -0.033 -0.250 0.767 -0.137 0.305 (%) a (2-tailed) 0.932 0.516 0.016 0.725 0.425 N 9 9 9 9 9 Corr. Coef. 0.033 -0.217 -0.867 -0.137 0.424 predators/ parasites a (2-tailed) 0.932 0.576 0.002 0.725 0.256 (%) N 9 9 9 9 9 O Table F10. continued. General Land Use Macroinvertebrate Agriculture Residential Transportation^Recreation Vacant/ EPT Total Corr. Coef. 0.500 -0.310 0.286 0.577 -0.275 Abundance a (2-tailed) 0.207 0.456 0.493 0.134 0.509 N 8 8 8 8 8 EPT Corr. Coef. 0.762 -0.357 0.119 0.577 -0.275 (%) a (2-tailed) 0.028 0.385 0.779 0.134 0.509 N 8 8 8 8 8 EPT Rarefaction Corr. Coef. -0.500 0.179 0.143 0.000 0.378 a (2-tailed) 0.253 0.702 0.760 1.000 0.403 N 7 7 7 7 7 Note: Significant correlations are in bold. Figure F11. Macroinvertebrate and land cover Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (p) results (a = 0.1). Land Cover Macroinvertebrate Forest Forest Impervious Impervious Rarefaction Corr. Coef. 0.233 0.100 0.167 0.383 a (2-tailed) 0.546 0.798 0.668 0.308 N 9 9 9 9 Total Corr. Coef. 0.200 -0.167 -0.167 0.483 Abundance a (2-tailed) 0.606 0.668 0.668 0.187 N 9 9 9 9 collectors Corr. Coef. 0.117 -0.133 -0.250 0.517 (total) a (2-tailed) 0.765 0.732 0.516 0.154 N 9 9 9 9 shredders Corr. Coef. 0.383 0.533 -0.317 0.433 (total) a (2-tailed) 0.308 0.139 0.406 0.244 N 9 9 9 9 predators Corr. Coef. 0.383 -0.217 0.150 0.467 (total) a (2-tailed) 0.308 0.576 0.700 0.205 N 9 9 9 9 Corr. Coef. 0.310 0.527 -0.527 0.268 predators/ parasites a (2-tailed) 0.417 0.145 0.145 0.486 (total) N 9 9 9 9 collectors Corr. Coef. -0.383 -0.333 0.133 -0.467 (%) a (2-tailed) 0.308 0.381 0.732 0.205 N 9 9 9 9 shredders Corr. Coef. 0.333 0.583 -0.100 0.483 (%) a (2-tailed) 0.381 0.099 0.798 0.187 N 9 9 9 9 predators Corr. Coef. 0.150 -0.317 0.467 0.433 (%) a (2-tailed) 0.700 0.406 0.205 0.244 N 9 9 9 9 Corr. Coef. -0.083 0.667 -0.517 -0.567 predators/ parasites a (2-tailed) 0.831 0.050 0.154 0.112(%) N 9 9 9 9 Table F11. continued. Land Cover Macroinvertebrate Forest Forest Impervious Impervious EPT Total Corr. Coef. -0.251 -0.536 0.102 0.281 Abundance a (2-tailed) 0.316 0.022 0.686 0.259 N 18 18 18 18 EPT Corr. Coef. -0.391 -0.282 0.102 0.102 (%) a (2-tailed) 0.108 0.257 0.686 0.687 N 18 18 18 18 EPT Rarefaction Corr. Coef. -0.301 -0.182 0.350 0.245 a (2-tailed) 0.342 0.572 0.265 0.443 N 12 12 12 12 Note: Significant correlations are in bold. Table F12. Macroinvertebrate and land cover Spearman Rank correlation coefficient  (p) results (a = 0.1) (1974, 1994 and 2005). Land Cover Macroinvertebrate Forest Forest Impervious Impervious Total Corr. Coef. 0.160 -0.356 0.005 0.223 Abundance a (2-tailed) 0.526 0.147 0.984 0.374 N 18 18 18 18 Rarefaction Corr. Coef. 0.077 -0.238 0.399 0.322 a (2-tailed) 0.812 0.457 0.199 0.308 N 12 12 12 12 EPT Total Corr. Coef. -0.251 -0.536 0.102 0.281 Abundance a (2-tailed) 0.316 0.022 0.686 0.259 N 18 18 18 18 EPT Corr. Coef. -0.391 -0.282 0.102 0.102 (%) a (2-tailed) 0.108 0.257 0.686 0.687 N 18 18 18 18 EPT Rarefaction Corr. Coef. -0.301 -0.182 0.350 0.245 a (2-tailed) 0:342 0.572 0.265 0.443 N 12 12 12 12 Note: Significant correlations are in bold. Appendix G: Site Photos Figures Figure G1. Upstream view, below site SAL 05 on the Salmon River mainstem. Figure G2. Upstream view of site SAL 06 on the Salmon River mainstem, William's Park. Figure G3. Downstream view below site SAL 10 on the Salmon River mainstem. Figure G4. Site SAL 11 on the Salmon River mainstem. Figure G5. Downstream view below site SAL 07 on Coghlan Creek, William's Park. Figure G6. Upstream view of site SAL 08 on Coghlan Creek. Figure G7. Downstream view below site SAL 09 on Coghlan Creek. 213 Figure 01. Upstream view, below site SAL 05 on the Salmon River mainstem. Figure G2. Upstream view of site SAL 06 on the Salmon River mainstem, William's Park. 214 11 cs3 5, 4 a 0 cu 3 . 0 CD 0 at. (n 0 0 CD 3 0 3 3' CD 3 Figure G5. Downstream view below site SAL 07 on Coghlan Creek, William's Park. Figure G6. Upstream view of site SAL 08 on Coghlan Creek. 216 .NaaJo uelq6o0 uo 60 ivs eps moiaq mayx weagsumoa .LO amBIA LIZ

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