UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model for single and multiple dowel-type wood connections Hong, Jung-Pyo 2007-12-31

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E-MEIOIA EMEMOSI A MUIE WEWOOCOECO-O Sc SeouoUi199Mc SeouoUi1999A ESIS SUIEIIAIE OE QUIMES E GE OCOISOYiE CUY OGA SES(syE UI OISCOMAcem-o  AACA w e-meio soeme (3mowe woocoeco was usi e coe oa am oa iawoouaowcasses e ica woocs ouuee coecia we coecoIoe imeme e coe owoouaowi soemesa 3woouaomowas wiia escuao suoui ewe seoasooc asci maaeoe maamoeuao was usi eec uaomaacos aweom weeme sw 3 si icoecomo we aiooe woouaomo e 3woouaomowas sea usiweeme s wi a e oweameom a 5-mm i a-mm e coecomo osuccesssus isimu eccscs oasouawe eemeay oeeseoe success oe si icoecomoseacao oe3 coecomo we iesgai sscawoomaamoecoecomo a a muie icoecomo ugueacaosesscussiooe  a mio oe w moaacusi e 3 woouaoa esee Ao aas os a oseioe imo e 3 we woocoeco moiiE OCOESAAC ^ iiE OCOES ^ iiiSOES ^ iSOGUS ^ iiACKWEMES ^ iiCEIICO ^ 11 Mooa sme ooem ^  11 Oec a Sco ^ CE  EW ^ 51 Co moowoo ^ 51 Esci-semo ^ 1 asci-semo ^  eme mo owe woocoeco  ^  91 e-meio eme mo owe woocoeco1o-meio eme mo owe woocoeco CE3E-MEIOMAAMOWOO^ 13 Es-ascae isooc maamowoo ^  13 ioowoomaame ^  13 Mos oesci a e yie sess ^ 3 Esc samos a sayie sai ^ 3 issos o ^ 3 A seaeoge a co owoomaamo ^ CE COMESSIOSA MOO ^ 1 Comessios ^ 1 Scimeeo ^ 1 smeo ^ iii1 e gicomessio ^ 1 eicu gicomessio ^ 1 o ocomessi MOE a yie sess ^ 31 sus a scussio Maacos ougs- ^ 31oo maamo ^ 31 Woomaamo ^ 3Gesciooe 3 mowoocomessio ^ 353 Simuooe 1   e gicomessio ^ 3Simuooe 1  eicu gicomessio ^ 5 Simuooe eicu gicomessio ^ 3 Cosio e woomaamo ^ 5CE5WOOUAOMO ^ 55 oem iicao ^ 55 e oe woouaomo ^ 555 o ^ 555 o ouaomos a uaoyie i ^ 575 miuaooies ^ 575 Eec uaomaacos ^ 595 ooe woouaomo ^ 5 weeme s ^ 5 Geooe woouaomo ^ 5 Moe ^ 5 Woouaoa caaoc ^ 5 Moe weeme s ^ 75 Simuosus ^ 75 Simuoo3-mm ieme s ^ 775 Simuooe 3 3-mm ieme sie -ge gico ^ 5 Mocaousi sc eoiamo ^ 5 Simuoo eme s ^ 5 Moacao oescies ^ 95 Moscio ^ 95 Simuosus ^ 95 Caaoc ieea sis owoouao ^ 15 Moscio ^ 15 Simuosus ^ 15 aieooocaaoc a si owoouao ^ 1iCE E-MEIO EME MOOICOECO ^ 11 sise soe si icoeco ^  1e oe si icoecomo ^  111 Moscio ^ 11Semaamoa meccaoies oe ia sea1 Meccaoies oi ^ 117Meccaoies oe Csea ^ 13 ssus a moo ^  13 Eemeaoeao asouoe icoeco13 Simusus a moo ^ 13 Simuao ^ 13 aaoo ^ 13 Eecoiyie sess oe 3 coecomo ^ 13asi s oe ssca3 maamo ^  131 Amaoo95  a 5  ei uaomaamo ^ 13Simuooe   ei sise oe si icoeco ^ 1CE7E-MEIO EME MOOECOECO ^ 17 emi kwe ^  17 Moscio ^  17 Simuooe  1/ coiguo - - eme ^ 157 e scy a simi oe - a - eme s1517 ess oe  eme mo ^ 1537 Simuoecoeco  1/5  a  1/7 ^  157 es oecoeco ^ 157 aaoo ^ 17 S owooa  isaiey oe coeco ^ 1CE MUIE ICOECOSE CI ^ 11 se Cicoecomo ^  11 Eemeae wo a moscio ^ 11 Squa uaomes ^ 17Simuosus i oe a scmes ^  11 ess oe Ccoecomo ^ 11 Eecoa meo ^ 11 aooia Ccoec ^ 1aaocue oe Ccoeco ^ 13 Iee oe e-auoiie omoeco ^ 193 Mocaooe mo ^ 193 Simuosus oe moemo ^ 19commeao e imome oe 3 Ci mo ^195CE9COSIO A COMMEAO ^ 199 Summa osea ^  199 Scieic coooe sea ^  1979  sea ^  1979 Comessi eicu giMOE ^ 199  ecoecomo ^ 199 i asis ^ 1999 e-meio asis woosuc ^ 199IOGY ^ AEIA ^ 5AEI ^ 9AEIC ^ SOESe 3 oces i e maacos oe 3 mowooa woouao ^ e 1 sic meccaoies ougs-m ^ Comessi MOEs a yie sesses om e 5 mm (1  isa e coeiosa 55 15mm (ieicu gisugs-  ^ 33Maacos o3 maamougs- ^ 35Summa oscimeeoe weeme s  ^ miuaooies accoi  weame ^ Gecaaoc e escuao ^ 7e 5 Maacos e gewoouaomo ougs- ^ 71e 5 Iiacaaoc e 1o amewoouaomo ^ 9e 5 Maaoies aesc ooc woomaa ^ 97e 5 Maacos owoouaomoSugiYeow CeaWes mck ^ 9a ^ 117Semaaco iu 3A o ii ^ 119sises oe si icoeco ^ 1Comsooe sise oicoeco ^ 13e e 3e 5e 5e 5e 5 Oimicaaoc oieea woouao a 17-mm  wi ugs-  ^  1e 1 Maascicao oe si icoeco ^  11e Maascicaoa e meccaoies oia see 3e e 5e ei a 95  ei uaomaamo3-mmameicoecowi ugs-  ^  1iSOGUSgu 1gu 1gu 3gu 3gu 3gu 1gu gu 3gu gu 5gu gu 7gu gu 9gu 1gu 11e-meiomicsuc owoo ^ as  moa a e e  oe we(a a a e  oe we(g  ^  13e iico a seco iwoo ^ 1aasess-saio ie asooc asci mo^  19Aeme oa asess-saicue i  aeemeacue;e yie i su  ae eak i ^ ugs-scime e  5 1 mm (1   icomessiosii aa eiaco(om  ^ Comessiossee  5 1 mm (1  iismacscime ^ e coeioAS 1 eicu gicomessios  ^ 31e-meio moe 1   comessios ^ 37e-meio moe   comessioeicugis ^ 3Simuaaocues oe gicomessio ^ 39Simuiasc saicoouoe 1   e gicomessiousi e WOO1 mo ^ Simuiasc saicoouoe 1   e gicomessiousi e WOOmo e ueseock was omie^ Comessi i oe 1 1  e giscime sieessi awas ao ae e iscime ^ Simuaaocues oe 1   eicu gicomessio ^ Simuiasc saicoouoe 1   eicugicomessioamm-saceme ausi e WOO1mo ^ iigu 1Simuiasc saicoouoe 1 eicugicomessioamm-saceme ausi e WOOmo ^ gu 13 ogss oiasc saicoouuee eicugicomessio simuusi e WOO1 maamo ^ gu 1Acaess oe 1 ascimea e 1 1 eiascimeooa ^ gu 15 Simuaaocues oe eicu gicomessio ^ gu 1Cssuace oe   eicu gicomessioscime^ gu 17 SimuY-cosess coouoe   eicu gicomessiosa5mm-saceme-ausi e WOO1mo gu 1SimuY-cosess coouoe   eicu gicomessiosa5mm-saceme-ausi e WOOmo gu 19 E sii oe   eicu gicomessioscime^ 5e-meio eme asis a e giieme io ugs-ockY-cosess ^ 5Comsooeemeaa ecaeme cues seoe WOO1 maamo ^ 5A aeme cue ca coee a asess-saicueioe oaie maacos e woouaomo5Key is ia aau-eme oom eweeme s ^ 5sscimea see ieme s  ^ sscimea see -eme s ^ oeee miuaomos a e weameie e gico ^ oeee miuaomos a e weameie eicu gico ^ gu 5gu 5gu 5gu 5gu 5gu 5gu 5gu 5igu 5 oeee miuaoyie saia e weameie e gico ^ gu 5oeee miuaoyie saia e weameie eicu gico ^ gu 51 e-meio eme moe ieme s(us oe woouao= 5 ^ 7gu 5e-meio eme moe -eme s(us oe woouao= 1 ^ 75gu 53 Simue giaeme cue o3-mm ieme iugs- ^ 79gu 5Simueicu giaeme cue o3-mm ieme iugs- ^ 79gu 55 SimuY-coasc saicoouo3-mm ieme iugs-ie e gico  oe wooemes asw gu 5SimuY-coasc saicoouo3-mm ieme iugs-ie eicu gico  oe wooemes a sw ^ gu 57 SimuY-coasc saicoouo3-mm ieme iugs-ie e gicousi e WOO11 mooy oe wooemes oy a swgu 5Gia o-ge eme scime ^ gu 59 Scmac uaeuaoi-ge gia eme s^  gu 5SimuY-coasc saicoouo-ge  gieme; e e-coecase (swee eeme oe icom e u eme oe saceme-coecase (g  ^ gu 51 Simu-ge  giaeme cue o3-mm ieme iugs- e-coemeosweeeco ^ gu 5Simue giaeme cue osc ieme iugs-  ^  gu 53 Simueicu giaeme cue osc ieme iugs-  ^ gu 5SimuY-cosaicoou ieme iugs-wi 5-1- a mm i ieeicu gico mo a sw ^ gu 55 Simue giaeme cue o17-mm eme iugs-  ^ 91gu 5Simueicu giaeme cue o17-mm eme iugs-  ^ 91gu 57 Simue giaeme cue o19-mm eme iugs-  ^ 9gu 5Simueicu giaeme cue o19-mm eme iugs-  ^ 9gu 59 Simue giaeme cue o-mm eme iugs-  ^ 93gu 5Simueicu giaeme cue o-mm eme iugs-  ^ 93gu 51 SimuY-coasc saicoou  eme iugs-wi 17-19- a -mm s ieeicugico ^ 9gu 5Comsoowoocs s -mm  e gieme s e simuY-coasc saicoouis sw(om  ^ 95gu 53 Simue giaeme cue o3-mm ieme iSugi^  1gu 5Simueicu giaeme cue o3-mm ieme iSugi^  1gu 55 Simue giaeme cue o3-mm ieme iYeow Ce  ^  1gu 5Simueicu giaeme cue o3-mm ieme iYeow Ce ^  1gu 57 Simue giaeme cue o3-mm ieme iWes mck ^ 1gu 5Simueicu giaeme cue o3-mm ieme iWes mck ^ 1gu 59 SimuY-coasc saicoou 17-mm  (  eme iugs-ieeicu gicousie ieea siwoouao ^  1gu 5Comsooe e giaeme cuesecusie ieea siwoouao ^  1gu 51 Comsooe eicu giaeme cuesece ieea siwoouao ^ 1gu 5Assumeao eee us muiiea ecaaoc ^  1gu 1 Scicaoose Ccoec(umm ^ 111gu sise sosi icoecoie gicoa e coesi e-meio mo(umm ^ 11gu 3 sise soe si icoecoie eicugicoa e coesi e-meio mo(umm 113gu Secosi icoeco mo ^  115gu 5 Suace--suace coacemes oe si icoecomo ^ 115gu e-i ii sse( a simui o iwi e yie sess o517 M (om ^ 1gu 7 aecocue oe-i  ii a ace o3asis e yie sess ^  1gu cawoocs i ie e gico ioeeiasuace-( a ioe asuace-(g ^ 1gu 9 cawoocs i ie eicu gico ioe eiasuace-( a ioe asuace-(g  ^  1gu 1Souie e gico eeme ( simuo(ome  s  ^  1gu 11 Simuaooe icoecowas sumseoe so image om e aao(e scime ^ 1igu 1SimuY-coasc saicoouoe sea ie  sWoo-sea coacsuace ew i a iemes  1gu 13 Simuwoocs ssY-coasc saicoouo; simuo( simuo(om ^  1gu 1Simuaaocue oe si icoecoiee gico ^  131gu 15 Simuaaocue oe si icoecoieeicu gico ^  131gu 1Comsooe simuiscue  e age s aiea oe 1 mm se e giicoecos(s ^  133gu 17 Comsooe simuiscue  e age s aiea oe 1 mm se eicu giicoecos( s ^  133gu 1aoogss aeaciease e gicoecos Y-coasc sai( simuo ^  13gu 19 aoogss aeaciease eicu gicoecos Y-coasc sai( simuo ^  135gu  ogss ocoasc saie  coecomowi aiyie sess oa 31M ^ 13gu  ogss ocoasc saie  coecomowi aiyie sess o31M ^ 137gu  o-meic Wei sio e e gimiuaomos ^  1gu  aoeee e giuaomimos a e eicu gimiuaomos ^  1gu  aoeee e gimiuaomos a e e gimiyie sai ^  1gu  aoeee eicu gimiuaomos a e eicumiyie sai ^  1gu  Amao oe 5 ei mia e 95 ei cues ie e gisise oe si icoeco ^  1gu  Amao oe 5 ei mia e 95 ei cues ie eicu gisise oe si icoeco 1gu 7 Coiguoa me oe comessioaecoecosagous  e - eme s e  1/ e/7  a  w/coiguois sw 1gu 7 -secoecoecomowi a wioue woouaoe  1/7 e/7 a w/coiguois sw ^ 15gu 7 Comsooe simuaeme cues eee -A a e o Ausi e woouaosemoe=    e/=  7 coiguo  ^  15gu 7 Comsooe simuaeme cues eee -A a e o Ausi e coeiomo(woomaaoy e  =   e/=  7 coiguo   15gu 7 ogss oe coasc saicooue  1/ e/7  - eme s e woouaosemo( a ecoeiomo(om ^ 15gu 7 ogss oe coasc saicooue  1/ e/7  - eme s e woouaosemo( a ecoeiomo(om ^  155gu 7 Comsooe aa ess oe  1/5 ecoecoe woouaosemo(a e woomaamooy(g  ^  15gu 7 ogss oe coasc saicooue  1/5e/7  ecoeco e woouaosemo( a e coeiomo(om  ^ 159gu 7 ogss oe coasc saicooue  1/7 e/7 ecoeco e woouaosemo( a e coeiomo(om  ^  1gu 7sioocoacessu oe woo- ieace aaaoo5 mm e  1/5 ecoeco e woouaosemo( a e coeiomo(om Coaceme-COA17 ^ 1gu 71 sioocoacessu oe woo- ieace aaaoo5 mm e  1/7 ecoeco e woouaosemo( a e coeiomo(om Coaceme-COA17 ^ 1gu 7Comsooe ecaaocues o17-mm ecoecowi ascos o =   5 a 7a e ec-aeme cue oai e woouaosemosimuo ^ 1gu 73 Comsooe ecaaocues o17-mm ecoecowi ascos o =   5 a 7a e ec-aeme cue oai e coeiomosimuo  1gu 7Ce omaas ie saiey e  1/ coeco^  1gu 75 Ce omaas ie saiey e  1/5  coeco^  1gu 7Ces omaas ie saiey e  1/7coeco ^  1gu 1 e e sse Sscu (a e coesi 3Ccoecomo(umm ^ 17gu A eCcoecoueawas e i a(o Sscu  ^  173gu 3 i mo; eicu giiosii (o  Sscu ^  173gu i mos; i-ou(a Ccoecisa(g(o  Sscu   ^  17gu 5 Iusaooe mesmooe se Ci ^  175gu Squa woouaomooae(coio ^  177gu 7 WoouaomoSqua uaomo(a cycauaomo(g ^  17gu gu 9Comsooe simue giaeme cueseee squa uaoa cycauaomo3-mmameiiugs- ^  179Comsooe simueicu giaeme cueseee squa uaoa cycauaomo3-mmameiougs-  ^  179gu 1o oe coacemes a e coeicies oico ^  1gu 11 Simuao  e o e a scmesia(ia  is saceme measume ^ 1gu 1e Y-coasc saicooue isaceme-coea ( a e-coea (om ^ 1gu 13 e Y-coasc saicooue Ccoecsaceme-coea ( a e-coea (om^ 1gu 1ogss oe simuao e saceme-coea scmeSecoews ^ 1gu 15 ogss oe simuao e e-coeascmeSecoews ^ 1gu 1Simuaaocue oe saceme-coeameo sumseoSscu eemeacues ^  1gu 17 Simuaaocue oe e (essucoeameo sumseoSscu eemeacues ^  1gu 1cai s oe e i a e  ieesii (oie si i a ie-auie ce i  ^  191gu 19 Simues oe e icoeco ie  emocou oce e ee woosii a e ie-au^  191gu  esoe Cmomoewi e iaee sioe si icoeco ^  19gu  Simuaaocue oe moeCmo ^ 19iACKWEMESI wis ess my eaciao my suiso  eoy s ougguieeougeme a iasuoao swi me a goomooscy gI wou ke  a my aiso commiee memsa m a cao scs eiias  my sea a gi me aesuggesoWiouemmy us aue success oe seawou  ee Iee I ogiy oug e e oa 3 icoecomowas ouoe queso Ais iI ao a ecommiee mem uG io s eougeme imy seaosa AoI eesciaas    e s eougemeMy as a eee my coeagues a ow ga ss eiassise a a e aces I eoyewi emI wou ke  ess my esg  my wiyoumy so Sea amy uge Sooa you is gisciaas a osuo aueiAoI a my s-iw eieougeme a suoIcsiI ca is esis  my sSook a w  gime eiess eougeme a suoiiCE1ICOCE1ICO1 Mooa sme ooemwe woocoeco a wi useimcouco iscoecooea  ema i e  uce iss acaoccuie ccasess aees ie coecois oy esma e  easooc se oies owoo is aays ea cee sig ii e ccasess a e mo oiCuee maimeomimi is casoic i is  a sigscicao aesc mimum ee see secoecsci amemsi ie coeco ese emcasigscicao  eesismosy ugeemeaiesgao iuaaa swe sie ouuom uaaa s eses a gaaoseese s  o e ameakwe esess-saiasis owoocoecousis eoseae woocoecosu  a i e e-meiosess-saiou is ema aems  ema  u e e-meioeme (3meoiasis owoocoecoIc oy 3 asiscaoce e ei sess-saise e coecowe as swigu 1e asoocus a c maaccscs owoomakesiicu  couca woomaamoais suie e 3 coecomo(oMao 199 Moses 1CE1ICOgu 1 e-meiomicsuc owooe gasicuy isimu wooouicoeco is e  cawoocs i aa coacaa eee wooa coec e csoucao simu simy usi gemaameccs seosa uaaa ssemaaoies aese macscoccomessioouowoo 1Wa wecoac  woosuace uecomessioe iecoae coacsuace is goe e wooe ouea e gss wooouIis casee ee oe i eeeaywooa woois aoieiaie woocs oui oe cooaisei w e Euayie coecomoas weemi ses1Iis se sa uaassemaaoies maiy  emos oesci a yie sessas iwi e AS sa smeoCE1ICOeae sa mos oesci owoocomessioses ecoecosig e ee eee woocomessi ouigecomessioa iweemi is a macee ie e oa 3 co mowooe coeio3 mo aacwoos e use e oocmaamowi e sa uaaa sseesc cosWeiaouowoois coi e iasess-saio e 3 maamo eusi aomuiamo(oMao 199 Moses  we e  e ccscs owooeme ou e coeio3 mo iesga   osuccesssimuo oe ouoa e owe coecoGeye scy eee eca acaoucomes eas e ameoa wecasese  iasi sess coeoisei w ma ses usi so emes  cuseoy oecoeco wi a  e ame Wasa soeme mooa smawecoeco sucas a icoeco  eaeme augmao- oo-meio eme mo  ee cee iis s wasee e oa woomaamoais ae  accou weeme ou ioe moa wewoocoecooySie is cee was e maioc  usi e 3meoas a geasis owe woocoecois s wasia e goaooomi is oc a maki e 3 meoa guosi e ouocoeco useimsucs3CE1ICO1 Oec a Scoe maioec ois s was e e oa e-meioia eme (3moec e ouowe woocoecoi ia ecoecouesc aGeye success oa 3 mois goe e maamo ee maieos iis s we ca a woomaamoawasae  ese e cawoocs ouoe woosuoui a wecoeco  is ee owi suoecs we sea e oa e-meioasci-seemcamowoo e oa meo moe cawoocs ouie meioc e oia3 mo owe woocoeco wiwesis i om i  s Acao oe 3 mosecwoocoecoCE  EWCE  EWAuge  eme meos ecogas e mosweumecaoisucasisis seom euseasis owoocoecoe  e ck oaacceae woomaamoaaquaeses e 3ouowoo e  ses owe coeco i we maiy mi ecoeco aee oy a w sesusi 3 mo  eeIis ce e   is ewewi a cus omio aoems eoueie  mo owoocoeco1 Co moowoo ooc maaeo s ewi useas e smaemacascioowoooa 3macscoc (g ea 19ooe e ooc mois e assumioawoois a coiumgass oe ees eeeaywooa woo e sia iescoiiessucas k a ye ooc mooy coi eee osess-saio accoi  e i aa eiacoe co o ie e co ca iusie sa uaaa sSome aia s a giie ASSas (AS e aesc ooc mos eo wo oy  asiswoowwoos wiiaesc ewe woomaaeiiaou ieiea eicu gicomessio5CE  EWaugwooueioosas ia mo ay i mae ecomessi iaoumus coiwmo wecoeco asw gy iaaaoou e mosieiacom ois ia comes om e weeme io e wooiea/oeicu gicomessioImoseous sese woomaacos oe ooc moeiom uaacomessi sess-saiousseoe assumiooe oocia mo asc mocou  ma ioo iasess-saioIs oe co mowoo e iasess-saicue cou  eseeas a a aomuiacue mo Aoio ey coeao esci-semoa asci-semo cou  coi1 Esci-semoIe 3 mo owoo e simesmoewas e aescae isooc moiwce assumiooa symmey was aee ooc mo wooouwiie oiomi is mooces acceae suso(199 usee ae isooc mowoo s e oaeoous moise a is usi a 3 mo Sie e maioec oss was  oimi e geomey oe moise a is uga 3meic ssimusus wiie aesc e oe coeco wesuiciewe  coiooe cs ouwoo-wooCE  EWcoacsueie ecoosesus awe oeeie eemeasusGuaa  ( a a 3 moa ow wecoecoigemimawas cay ioe ieewoo(W Iis coeco e aooe mmemcou assume maiwiie esc ecause e mmemwas sawiceee W ioemes a a - wecoecwas use iucee i ae coecie ia c mae is s swea ia gicoecoioe o muccaiacomessioiuse oeaooc esc mowoomay  suie a 3 coecomoa gewe coeco we e iaouoe woosu  keio accou ec e  aaoseesecasesoMao (199 osea 3 iamaamowooseoe esc ooc mo i-aco o we ee gicomessi sess-saicues a sasess-saicueswcwe iooio e ae isooc esc maamomoecoecoe mascomi ois i-amowas aieaocess i e cous maamei issos o a eakis ie i-acuesIe me we oygasss coeicies cou occuoe agos oe sss mai ca aoem isoocoeeewe iis aies mo cause iwas e3 soeme iamaamowoocoeco7CE  EWIoe ace e iasess-saiomo accuosemeowe se eaecewise aomeos-Soea (199 iesgaa o-meioimeai seca sssaac ei ea (eaeis aac a 3iaooc eme maamowoo Usi weo oa o eeimeai sessesey a mo ua e ce imos oesci ioe ack e ia oe sess-saicuee moswegoosimuo oe uaaaaocues isaa comessio causee iame oe weowe iom e eemeasaa comessio e giscieswe wi is mo  aemswe ma  ece ouoa woocoeco wcusuay is a comesess sAoiis quesoe weis mowas ee om eoccuee oga sss coeicies awe eeee oMaosicaye esci-semois miiaicaoy eciesaie sus oe esci-semo caoy  sewiie escse oe woo we iae iase owoocomes maiyom e a aoowooeswcis a coea a -e eme e oome e miooe esc mo ee oa asci eo-semowas ia1 asci-semoe mosausie asc eo acae a 3woomaamois easooc asc eoUsi is asc maamo Moses (oceoMao 3 mo oe ecoecoe maamoassumeCE  EWasess-saio ocomessio ioa saiaeisooe associa ow  a wo e we ao assume is aea  e asci-see-meiomaamowoo Ku(a o-meiomo simi e Moses mo ecooe ouoecoecoese maamo use yie co eocayis yie coca moe accou ees iyie se iioa comessiowe Moses eacoi ese ees ma iicu  sase quimes oe yie co esciay gy ooc maakewoo(see seco3 us sei ioequa comessioie sess-saio oy e comessioseasc mos eimemeeiemo oMoses a KuAiaasci-semowoosu accou e ees oyiese a sss iioa comessio we cuesuca maaeo s yeee e e oa w maaeo woowas coiiis s eme mo owe woocoeco eme mo owe woocoeco ca cagoio o-o- a e-meiomoIs oe mo ocesse aaco-meiomo is qui e om oeo cause e o-meiomoes cessa eaiee ocess oco mo ewooieas su  seio- a e-meiomoaisia o-meiomo wooouuea weis gey sc a a9CE  EWweeme equao w io- a e-meiomoe woomaamoie su  cae oec e wooouuea we a moo-meiomo  eose e sae aweeme equao ca u isc eoiamo(sc 197Mcis gamic mo(Mci19a i sess-eme mo(i1991 we is o-meioequaoaacis suie isioie soeme mooe coeco cause a soeme quis i ow3maamo e ew o mo oe coeco wase wie cus owoomaamoaacs1 e-meio eme mo owe woocoecoUsi  ick emes a a i-amaamo oMao (199a 3 moosi ecoeco wi a 17 mm (5 iamee coecogeomeies seascos  (=  memickss/ame o 5 a 7a e se os  (e/  e se/ ame o a 7e coiguooe swas acay mo ke a - -eme seaa si ecoecos e moi e souom e si memcause ese mem we coi Isc ecome omois moa sime aaw a aecy ae e oe eme we ae e wooeme a coacemesOis ioMao mowas iuicie   gaeas a 3coecomo we e asis ga iy gooageme eee1CE  EWmeasua ecaaocuesauge ecaaocues we aays seae eemeacuesseoe oMao ecoecomo Moses (-ae same ecoeco usi aasooc asci maamowooMosesmosweimome ie ecooe aaocue ie sesc gioe mo ooMao a Moses aea  e oy 3 mo woocoecousi a ia3 maamoe woo we iwasu aese coecomo cou  usegeacao a oacss oeowecoecoe woomaamowcey coucwi e sa uaaa ssemaaoieswo smawecoeco ioi gy cacs i(emeiu ie socess oa icoecoIs oa o3 moas ey emo osi memeeecoese osi mem oe sus cou  assesse Aoeiases oe eco e aaocues we seoascesseiecao we e om e oeeao ie ase ee was ae ecessweasc i oe  ie  =  ecoeco wcsu occuie coecowi e o o =  as oeeie oMaoeemeas(mo i ois a giiseco7A  3 coecomoi e si mem cou  u imacomsi micoecomo (Guaea  a ees ea 11CE  EWMcCa ea  A  3 mowoocoecowe es aea  eyeGuaa  ow-wecoecomo(Guaea  a isowoomem ieiW ioecomsi misiscoecowas a sciacase 3 moiae aesc oocmowoesuccessycause e coooe woomem  e aooe coecowas  smae sciaas oiscoecosigwe aW sismosoe weemi aa ae wewas owe iase c oe coecoom is sie e oa  3ia eme moa we woocoecowas s egeacaoIicu easis oicoeco usi a  3 mo s maiusiee coeioaac woomaamo ewewo e 3icoecomo( a e ae maasois wasae ecsss ouwas o ge weemi ouMo eo is a oie owi seco wcews  coecomoo - meio eme mo owe -  woocoecoe a o e aacs  o-meio eme mo owe woocoecoi oe a coee(gu 1 O omouses a a e e  oe we is mosu eces e sise a e wiawaouie coecoeousmosmeccs-semo a  mo we woo1CE  EWcoeco we ma iis aw e oua e a wasige oeaacis  a moia a a e  oe wewi e assumioou sess acss e ickss owoomemweie io ick woomem cas gc weiis mos euse ece aaoou e eec oa e-iee sess sioau a we a weemi ou(umo ea 19ssa ea 1995KuCea  Mosoemo iis a we asis oe ecoecoagu 1 as  moa a e e  oe we(a a a e  oe we(ge a-e mio e mo was ae ecouoe seca i a iees om e se ie oeais ei w e 3 mois ee we coeco Oy e3mocaoome is mio13CE  EWicoecoe  mos eoy ia a eweMosoe  icoecomo emoyeo-meioeme amao wi e assumiooa am oiauao(sc197 Ei 1991 1997  sicayese mo we iasi-semoA    mo wcwou use a emes a aeciymaamo s yeeicoecoe    mos oy eseecoeco ia a a weCea (a a sess asis a 1mm-amewewoocoeco wi owiouss ioemeis  mouseo-meioi- emes a a aesc moe woo euquess oe mowas aey icea so  e -emi aaioe accou cawoocs ou e so  was mo ci e ogiesc mo owoo a co5Augmeiooe so  a e coco5 we cay ei e geaacok io accou weeme ouie  moUsi simimogeomeya   mowi a asci-sewoomaamowas  Ku( is moca gaeas a o-meioiooMoses3 mowi e assumioou sess ae memicksse maccism ois mois aiga aucceaygiasss e aaocuee gsss ecowasa e sa uaaa ssemos oesci (MOEowoo wcwas usemo e weemi giow e mooCea usee 5MOE e so 1CE  EWi  e 3 mo ooMao a Mosese ecaaocue swe gooageme wcomwi Kus  moecoauge 3 mo usee same sa uaaa sseMOE ese asois may  u iueasc i ie 3 moEoous ey ssioe  ueasc i comae woocs ouuee we eco  e ma oe eca oeeaaocueswe Kus   mo coiwoocs ou as Cea ( Coequeiis oious aa osc  moowecoeco su ke io accou cawoocs ouuee we15CE3E-MEIOMAAMOWOOCE3E-MEIOMAAMOWOOe  eme mocseis s uses soemes  couceacas oa we woocoeco e key cee iimemei emowas e e oaaia woomaamo ese ecomeiasess-saiouowooie giosuoui a we coecSie e was  gey accee3 maamoascecome iaouowoo e ima cus ois s was  a  e sui oa woomaamoacou  use eceouowe coecoA"asooc asci maamo was cse a e sui oeeous mo a eeie  was scusse3 Es-ascae isooc maamowoo accoui a aoa ey ssio e asoocasci maamos o  eec i3 mo owoomaa(Moses asess-saio we assumeie e ogoco ocomessio ioa sascseoeaccocomessi co o e same asess-saio weassumeiio(oMao 199 Moses KuCea 1CE3E-MEIOMAAMOWOOAugici e e yie sesses iiois eocay ssieiis usuay aocause icauses a gce oi o ca; ecoisy equaoa e cseyie suace quimeEquao[3] s ecoisy equaooe asooc asci moamus sase e  equime oasc iomessie yie ses musao  sase ioe maiaie eiicacsssecooe yie suaceEquao[3] os e coiowaeiicayiesuace is (AYSI i oe asooc asci moaeiis s a eseeiAeiAsicaye uaayie ses a iee ese e o ameiocaieois mea aa eemeayie ses a guaeemoacao Iayioe a e asooc asci eo wooe i a comessi yie sesses ie e iico su iusi uaaa smossucm esciaygyooc scies sucas mckicao assumeaese w eemeayie ses wi aays meee ca ugue a s oome is sico ae isoo was assumea comessi-sesess-saio we ae ioa comessio eseassumio ce e moiume om si o yie sesses ee iicois assumioao oaccais oe coso eemea17a(eia(CE3E-MEIOMAAMOWOO +1  -1     +  -  +  +3   -3  = +1 -1 ^   - ^ 3  - 3[3]+ A+A3 3  A   A    + A    A 33  A   A 33   ^ [3]A =   K     (i=  1 3 ^ [3] +1  1W +1 a  =  yie sesses iio(+a comessio(- scK = maame3 ioowoomaamegu 3 s e co a seco iwooaa use sc wooas aooc maa A aasess-saicue a e  maacos ie e iico a swigu 3i(Ygu 3 e iico a seco iwoo1ia^yie ii E eEComessi E eComessiyie iCE3E - MEIOMAAMOWOOgu 3 aasess-saio ie asooc asci moA ge3 asooc asci maamowi asess-saio quis e owi  maacos Esc mo iY- a co i e mo iY- a co Comessi e mo iY- a co i yie sesses iY- a co Comessi yie sesses iY- a co Saesc mo i-Y a -co e samo i-Y a -co Sayie sesses i-Y a -co issos os i-Y a -co19CE3E-MEIOMAAMOWOOIe woomaamoe assumio oae isooa comessi-sesess-saio cee momaacos om   1 e age es oe eiaa amaacos we use ese e eicu gimaacoseiomaacos we seequa e comessi cose samaacos we ieocay usi e o oe eaeicu gimaacosiaousi  eemeaese e mo ocomessioa sawe cau ai e muiieo  e esc mos  i wo-e ouEuayis ocess i e maacos quiuiee maacose e issos ose umaacos we e esc MOE a yie sess i e ea eicugicoscMo i oe oces i eacmaaco a eseeie owi seco a summaie 3CE3E-MEIOMAAMOWOOe 3 oces i e maacos oe 3 mowooa woouao quisi co ^ co ^ MeooioEsc mosEsc samosissos oi yie sessi e mosComessi yie sessComessi e mosSayie sessSae mos YY Y  Y Y Y YComessiosoweeme sCoueaco mo Age es om e WoookEqua comessi oiesEqua comessi oiesComessiosoweeme s esc mosCoueaco mo  esc samos1 Caues  eocao wi e amaacossee seco3 i3 Mos oesci a e yie sesse coecomoiis s emoyeo e se owoomaacos; o ogiwooa e oea woouaoaaccous woocs ouuea we Accoio e smeo we qui  e MOEs e coesi maamoe ogiwoomaamo AS 1 ea eicugicomessios we use i e coeioMOEs a eassociayie sessese mo woouaomaawe iom weeme s acooe AS 57 ieaeicu gico s oaao(emecuesIoe i e mos a e yie sessacue i wasCE3E-MEIOMAAMOWOOeae e eemeasess-saicueswcwas coeeom e aao(emecue (gu 3e e mos was keas  mes e iamosa e eak ioe acue was cseas a yie ie assumioo amose mos may  asoe ieicu gicosie eacae mos was usuay ga amos (see gu 15we iwas u emcay ae use oe same acooiamos e e a eicu gie mos ogoosoocoeee yo e esc ou Oeisee ce ooai asooiaimeascame  w535( 3a_17;  -1515e MOE=sc MOEYie i ^ ^  11Esc MOE^ Comessios- - - - acue - - - - esc MOEeak i ^ ^  ^  ^  ^  ^ sai(mm/mmgu 3 Aeme oa asess-saicue i  aeemeacue;e yie i su  ae eak iCE3E-MEIOMAAMOWOO3 Esc samos a sayie saiSaks ea (a eocamo esma e asasess-saicue usi kwaamaaoiesis mocaeasi imemeei eme acaoIe cue sis eocaesmaoosacos was usei e esc samos a e sayie saie wooa woouaomaamoIcooe eocasacos  e woouaomaamowas cessa sie e was  meo ea ewoouaosacos uee weeme sseoSaksea wo ( e owi equao we emoye cau e eocasacosCE3E-MEIOMAAMOWOOIasamosG G  =AI E E  [3]   (1+  ii    E ^EG  =(1 +  / 77  ^ (1+  7 [3]Sasai EG[3]  (  o (Yy   5 (   = (E   (E  (  y  77 = ( CO -  (E  (E   1W=  (suce gico(oi=  (suceicu gico(oaeE = Iamos; comessi MOE ouaomos [M]E = e mos (   E [M]G = samos [M]= issos o y =  sayie saiiasasess-saicue [mm/mm] = sess iee iaasess-saicue [M]E G[3]CE3E-MEIOMAAMOWOO3 issos oOwi  e assumiooae isooo iee issos os(   a    a o cauissos o (    we quie woomaamo e iee os   a    ageae a wekeom e Woook (soc  1999Usi e kw   e issos o o   was iusi Equao[3]ioe meee symmey quime e sss mai e same issosos we usee woouaomo ese os we assume maicogass oe asc se  = (E/  E^ [3]3A seaeoge a co owoomaamoWi e siiee woomaacos oMOEs (  E  E  yie sesses( ( y  ^ (c y  a issos os (    a    a oee maacos cou  oaiusi e oces swie 3Ioe ci eooe co oe  maamoa owasusi aEE  seae  ceiuseiue siiee cose seaewas ogmme cck e o ca(Equao [3] a [3]u 5 asc saiae ge e ecosye AYS maaiuco was ocee AYS iue ieace oe seaeis swiAeiCE COMESSIOSA MOOCE COMESSIOSA MOOComessios we couc oaicomessi MOE a comessi yiesess e emcawoomaamoiis sis cescs e eemeacomessios a e mosuiEmasis wasaceoe eecoe smeo oe iooe maacosa oe cice oe aia maacos e sueque  mo1 Comessios1 Scimeeoe eces o1 mm (wi 1 mm (  mm (y ugs- (euuga meiesii wi age mois coe o15%we useas esoue comessiosscime (e 1 ese mscime wecay sec  agw s awe e o oe ces oescime masami oesogmsi e ieme sa esi icoecos e same mocomessiosscime we cuom eacmscime e ms oeacsame ece we masaoesogmsA cacui e is iusaiAeiCAS 1 os ima a secoa meo i comessioe gise oiese scimee secoa meoemeio o 5  mm (1   i was e scimee imaCE COMESSIOSA MOOmeowas 55mm (iIis susi e secoa meo e5 mm (1   icomessioscime we eiaa eiacos (gu 1 i is scimewas cae"1  " scimeeicu gicomessio coeioAS 155mm(isscime (cae" scime we ao e(gu 3e summa osscime is eseeie e 1 sic meccaoies ougs-mmsamemMois coe[%]Scic G[^]i MOE[G]1 1 1 15 13 53 133 15 5 17Mea 1 535 1Measu e  mois me Measu e Meigua3 E ae aosysmCE COMESSIOSA MOOgu 1 ugs-scime e  5  mm (1 icomessiosii aa eiaco(om 1 smeo1 e gicomessioAS 1 e giuaacomessios we coucwi e 5 1 mm (1   iismac scime aomeasumes we mausi a g wi a ccue eiaae((gu aowas measuoa gauge  o5mmA SIECssysmwas use a coious comessioa ae  omm/mi oa css secooe scime so aiiuceu comessi sess oescimeCE COMESSIOSA MOOgu Comessiossee  5 1 mm (1   iismacscime1 eicu gicomessioeicu gicomessios we coucusi a  5 1 mm(1   iscimeiaa eiacoe coeioAS   1eicu gicomessioswas ao coucoa 515mm ( iscimee coeioeicu gicomessios e awas aeuga 5mm (wi  mm ( 5mm (ig(5 isea ockwcoa a coacaa o55mm(i aceaece oe scime(gu 3 e sg oai aoia coec o eicuas iec wi acke ooosiCE COMESSIOSA MOOsis oe sea ockAe e oo oeses asa si  wasuse oaiage comessioaoA SIECssysm aee aaa  omm/mi Isu  ae coeioeicu gicomessiosusea iacoaca aawccauseu sess ie scimea a comcsa sai ae ees oe sea ock1 o ocomessi MOE a yie sesse aaocue oaiom e eeme was coee a sess-saicue oai e MOE a yie sesse sess a saiwe cauaccoi  Equao[1] a Equao[scA acue was e e sess-saicuee ias oe acue was keas ecomessi MOEa e sess ae eaki i oe acue wassigas a yie i (see gu 3 Sess = aea/ a coacaa ^ [1]  saceme a Sai ^ [ogi(gauge a e cee oa3CE COMESSIOSA MOOgu 3 e coeioAS 1 eicu gicomessios1 sus a scussio Maacos ougs -  ee summas e MOE es a yie sesses oaiom ecomessios e ugs-scimee gimaacose age MOE o19 M a age yie sess o M we oaiom e 1 1  comessiosComwi e 1   eiacomessiosuse coeioeicu gicomessios(s sus swesigca gMOE a yie sesse yie sess oe  scime(13 Mwas 11gaaoe 1   scime( M I comso ages oe 1 1  s a  sese e comessios usi  5   1 mmscimea 55mm scime sc31CE COMESSIOSA MOOaa eia om e 1   comessios we useas eeicu gimaacose o e smeo ma ee iMOE (age M e 1  eicu giMOE us5 M e eicu giMOE we e was s a eee ie yie sessi oe smeo(age  M e1   eicu giyie sess us 13 M e eicu giyie sessCuee is  scic AS oce i MOE a yiesess ie eicu gico e coeioAS 1eicu gicomessioswas ogiy seisaicomessiose eamaaoiessucas MOE ayie sesse  ois smeoi maaoies seeceee  e u sess sioiuce iacoaca (Ko199 icesea 199 Maeass ea  e maee eee o smeo ases cause oe cacs a sai ae ees oe aa ockwcaays e icomessioswi a iaa coacaaie se MOE a yie sess iom e  1  u sessesscime ocemo woomaacoswe  om ecoeioAS eicu gissawcs a isoy aesmeosu simu iseice use as cse as ssiemay  mo eecaccaacaoIis ima   ae eous iawoo3CE COMESSIOSA MOOmaamo  oe (oMao 199 Moses Kuusee scime eicu gicomessio e maaoies eimocomsooseso maamo wooaemoyee oe comessioeicu gis se we useiis soses we ecouc ioe assess e iee oe cice omaaoies oecaaooue Comessi MOEs a yie sesses om e  5 1 mm (1   isa e coeiosa 55mm ( ieicu gisugs-sogmmeiooscime[mm]aco oComessiMOE(coy[M]Yiesess(co[M]WoookMOE/Se[M]egicomessio5 ia  19(11% (11% 19/59 5 a (% (%7 eicu gi5 eia  (% (% 3comessio mea   /(% (%5 135515 eia 1(39% (31%ee5 mm sames a u5515mm sames eacmscime33CE COMESSIOSA MOOoo maamoe-meio eme mo e comessios we usi e  eme asis (Asowa ckageAYS  ecomessi ouowoooeeie s was simuusi e woomaamocoai e maaoies ie eemeaogm1 WoomaamoUsi o se oe eicu gimaacos om e 1   sa e  so woomaamocae"WOO1" a "WOOscwe coAYS maamoiu 3 e 3 sws emaacos e o woomaamowcwe esisugeocess ie 3 ae comsacos a e comissoso a su ao  ceaccoi  e eicu giMOE sec3 WOO11 oies we om e 1   scimeoyweWOOoies ie  eicu gicomessios3CE COMESSIOSA MOOe 3 Maacos o3 maamougs-Maaco WOO1 WOOEsc MOE[M] 19 19Esc MOE/ [M] /  5 / 5Esc samos /  [M] 1 / 1 15/ 15Esc samos [M] 3 3issos o  3issos o 37 37issos o 3 3Comessii yie sess/ / [M] 5 /  /  5 13  /  /  13Comessii e mos/ /  3 / 1 / 3 / 1 / [M]Sayie sess /  /  [M] 3 / 3 / 1 7 / 7 / 3Sae mos /  /  [M] 17 / 17 / 3 15 / 15 / 3 i  aa  eiaGesciooe 3 mowoocomessioSO5 (om AYSI is a e-meioeig- quaiisomeic ick eme as e ges oeem aeac; aeseemes we useca e ismac wooscimemoa e sea ock mo e s ousee soeme is giiEquao[3]s o= (1  1  71  ^ [3]Wi =  m 1 a 7 7a  = cooi35CE COMESSIOSA MOOIoe simu ascoio as cse as ssiee woocomessiomoia sea ocka e saceme-coea wasae suace (gu  gu 5 is aacwas cseiesga e ca oe mo simu e cacs i ae se-woocoacusa e coacsuaces eee seock a wooscimewe mowi suace--suace coacemes (COA17aE17om AYSIe coeicie oicoe coacieace wasassiga e o7wcwas gey e imemeaoiwooacao (Smi 19e semaamo esc-ecy asc ouwas assumewi aMOE oGyie sess oM a issos o o3Mescoeeewas iiea e comessiomo  ccki e coeee oesimuaaocues uge ocess omeseice (oe  me ocess(eiewicea 1991e s oe om suace oe mowe e ua coioIaye sai oe s eaeoy ie a co(Y-cowe icauseooe ei mo us-sacemes i a co we ao sescic se aiosai iee e sus( a iY-a co a e cooisoe gcooi sysmcoucooe simuaaocuee Y-coacoae ua s was summe ae aowas oaiom e scieY-cosacemee 1   scimemo e o s ae3suaces oe sea ock ia cooyYACoacieaceomsuace s ia coCE COMESSIOSA MOOes oe 5mm gauge we sec cau e cocowiie gaugee scimemo e saceme oe ce  oe suace oe wooscimewas cseaoasissaceme-coea oe suace oe sea ockgu e-meio moe 1 1  comessios37CE COMESSIOSA MOOsaceme-coea oe suace oe sea ocksuaces oe sea ock ia cooy11k%I111%%%A%+ %%1 11111% 1111+1%111111+Coacieace %111111q  % %1111 1 1111kik% 11 11111111 11%1 1 111111%IA 1 ISa a 11111-(%111"1omsuace s ia cogu 5 e-meio moe   comessioeicu gis3 Simuooe  1 e gicomessioe e gicomessi aaocue maamoswe gooageme wi e eemeaage acue (gu we as eec e simucues sweacu esc-asc aiocom e mo gaeemeaaio As  as e assumiooaasess-saiowas ae e acu aiowas ieOe es oe moagewi e oeeaogu 7 a gu sw e u asc saicoou ieico i s wi aoeaoo ges om e mi3Eemewacue --eOO1-3AWOO3ACE COMESSIOSA MOOoe scime is is a e icause iagewe wi e camosoe sscime iwi a -ge i  (gu 9Is omoae ua coiouseiis simuowas "as-is"iae isiooe sea ocks oe aa coioewoocom oe mo e issue oe a coios ecoiacause e asis sus  i oe assumeua coio ia 3 imemeao(umo ea 19Cea  e as-is coiouse emis is ki oissue35-3- oco _1a co9co 15Eo 15 ^  ^ 1 ^ 15 ^  ^  ^ 3 ^ 35ao(mmgu Simuaaocues oe gicomessio39EME SOOS1SU=5ME=E ^ (AYS=weicsECE1=35SM=-1737-1737-15-1351-115-1-7II -791-1-93I II^ II II 1I IEME SOOS1SU =3ME=3E ^ (AYS=UweicsECE1=5SM =-179-179-15-137-117-5--3-9-9CE COMESSIOSA MOOgu 7 Simuiasc saicoouoe 1 e gicomessiousi e WOO11 mogu Simuiasc saicoouoe 1 e gicomessiousi e WOOmo e ueseock was omieCE COMESSIOSA MOOgu 9 Comessi i oe 1   e giscimesieessi awas ao ae e iscimeSimuooe  1  eicu gicomessioe simuaaocue usi e WOO11 maaoies swegooageme wi e eicu gieemea (gu 1emowi e WOOmaaoies ga gooageme oy ie iasss see simuyie ausi WOOwas o g( com eeemeayie a(95e e iuoe eicu giyiesess WOO11 a WOO(5 M a 13 Mscwas cyecie ee oe simuyie ae ee oe yie sess ieee aoeAs swigu 11 a gu 1 com e WOOaoommeWOO1 aoase cocoa a sg e ie mi oeCE COMESSIOSA MOOscime e aoseoe WOOmaaoies e ckeae ou Ic e coouoe WOOcaseswigu 1cou ao  u ie WOO1 coouwe WOO1 scimewas iayasciaa w saceme-asus gu 13 sws e ogss oeasc coouoe mousi e WOO1 maaoiese gyie sess iuWOOcae ey e scimecke WOOaoseeme age wi e emegicaaooe ascime sie mosoe sscime swee ckouiusaigu 1 we iwas oug ae ck was e a cokegiie asscime wcwas coiie moscime e eiasscimeesciaye ck cowas gui e a oe gia e  oe scime is ck ouaoei w e eemeacues oe 1 1  eicu gicomessiosweiois i ie sesc giowi ga (gu 1Iee e eecoe gis s eo oe icuies ie macscoc mo owooAssumi a iaye giie ascimewas saige WOO11aowou  a mo asc e ae WOOao causee y asc ouie mi oe scimecooe a  ocswooceswcis usuay oeeiwooueu comessioieeicu gico7 as(1  3E 1EemeAacue OO1-3AOO3A_ 5 1 1 ^ CE COMESSIOSA MOOUse oe WOOmaaoies was aoisueque sescause e gyie sess iueou  iaie simueicu giaaocue (gu 1ao(mmgu 1Simuaaocues oe 1 eicu gicomessioEME SOOS1SU=3ME=3E (AYS=weicsECE1=SM=-3M--3-55399-I^ I-5I^ I-3E]-7I^ I-775I^ I-13I^ I-9CE COMESSIOSA MOOEME SOOS1SU=3ME=3E^ (AYS=weicsECE1=597SM=- 33-3III -3-337I I -9-1-19113I^ 1 -13I^ I -55-77I^ I^gu 11 Simuiasc saicoouoe 1   eicugicomessioamm-saceme ausi e WOO11 mogu 1Simuiasc saicoouoe 1  eicugicomessioamm-saceme ausi e WOOmoAIWA11I I  I  kg^iiWA%  MAW^WM I  - m  ikI Aa ^ 1   k AMI  a  C^117  M1 MI  I CS  I  WeMak ^I  MA 1+ WII1  I^    AAI ^ iMI  M  IMAI OMIi ^e ^71  15/IIAIAMM ^Ismim  MIMIMAWk  AiIMY/M iAI  Agi  A mAi W7117 MaAA %%I M  I  I I  11  WI  g A IA%   ^ 1 MI1 CO 9 ^g  k  I   1^111 MI WaI CI II I 11 MI   I  K1  1" k 1111111C II MIE  "%SW    kI  11 A   I 1111kIEW   Ia  m11 Am   ^ imwww^1 A  MI   ^ -I iYII  ^ MaiIMMISMIOaI  ^ A  AoaI  M Oaiiiie  ^ "  SAW11     W IM^"   Mi^    es^m  SIo miM/kWagam ^  A   WW11kgmmmmImimmIM iii  eowiiii Oa a ca  my Mme^  AYAW^ 11111%^1  a^wwww+ M  11131111111WWIII ^  CE COMESSIOSA MOOO(IUOa ( I1a (17 7i - cc ci-OCI"W^mEmeE o;Wa ^ooiu"^imaokaga571   /  i AIKI71717^AWAI Meauemommymwmimmeemmw     eumewaoswwwwwwwwwww "- yakA  w  w  s  171 I1M1  I   I aI [7 1 I   M I   1  OM  eA117111 ^ s e  -11 mew i  Iiawaa  kA +   ^ %I +^Ma k  A  iMIS  WO^ IIMIIMAII ^A  MY5 ^MO^II WI AgeiIGIIIIMMIMIWAIIMIMMW ^  m  AMWEI ^SAMAIMI  ow ^151111MWMEMIMMIIII ^Oi  M1AIII  ^   IIMEMIAMMIIMIAWIE ^AI  AMI17CE COMESSIOSA MOOgu 1Acaess oe 1  ascimeae 1 1  eiascimeooa5 Simuooe eicu gicomessioe key cus ois simuowas  moe cacs i ae ee oe sea ockUouas swgu 15 maamo gi sie aaoecoe simuiasss wassg gae soe WOO1 a WOO mo oceweyie is awe wea g scae age ayiei om e eemeaAuge simuaaocue oWOO1 cou  eacceaee accucy oe simuocamemucss acceae wcomwi e cases oe 1   1  comessioswcemoyeu sess aIis oug ao oe causes e osus may  a e ioe e cs a sai ocess ae ees oe sea ockCE COMESSIOSA MOOAoe sageme ie yie i cou  cay ei Iwas assumeae coecyie sess is simuosu  eee5 M (useWOO1 iu a 13 M (useWOOiueiwascoa yie sess iu e maamo we aia simuo w woowas suec cs (oae  iaa oe woosuaceIs eeae aa eicu gia se iasesas e  oe coacee oe a ock oe wooscimeiases(Maeass ea  e  mo oe wecoeco isse mus ueoa soe cause e souoe wecoecoaays is is ki ocacs iese WOO1 simuoswequi acceae susswi a so iicaooe e siawas oeeia w sscime(gu 1 gu 17 a gu 19 As ie case oe 1   eicugicomessio e sess coouoWOOigu 1sweoy eeous coouae WOO1 eeeeaa w saceme-asus3 ^ 1 ^ ao(mm5- 3as_i1EemeAacue ---- WOO1-3A-- "--  WOO3ACE COMESSIOSA MOOgu 15 Simuaaocues oe eicu gicomessiogu 1Cssuace oe eicu gicomessioscimeEME SOOS1SU=3ME=3SY^ (AYS=weicsECE1=37SM =-SM=1133--5--77-39--1-731133ECE COMESSIOSA MOOgu 17 SimuY-cosess coouoe eicu gicomessiosa5mm-saceme-ausi e WOO1 moEME SOOS1SU=3ME=3SY^(AYS=weicsECE1=33SM=-93SM=13- 9-7--51-9-77-1759-535193gu 1SimuY-cosess coouoe eicu gicomessiosa5mm-saceme-ausi e WOOmoCE COMESSIOSA MOOgu 19 E sii oe   eicu gicomessioscime3 Cosio e woomaamoA asci-secomessi woomaamoso emes wassea  e oce w e co oe maamouseemimum iee momaacosComso oe o caimo aae maacos su  i a u sess-ses sucas e 1 1  comessios e AS 1 eicu gicomessioswas aia iooe yie iugs-  eicu gicomessios oceaosesame MOEusw oy aesc ouis coeea e yie sessesa uecessa s o acceae susIcases w woowas5CE COMESSIOSA MOOsuec a a aoa iasuaceiwas u ae woomaamo cou oy simu e cacs ouCoequeis maia macee ae  soeioeaae e 3 asis owe woocoeco51CE5WOOUAOMOCE5WOOUAOMOsus ie scesweae e-meiowoomaamoemoyi e AS sa comessiossemaacos (WOO 1 aWOO successy simu e cacs ouowooueaiaa a mo a we woocoeco is miomusoome cause aooe coecois aays accome cawoocs au e weIis ce a woouaomois iceaasses e cacs au e wecoec is woouaomowas a usecique  a e-meio eme moowecoeco ais acae a oae ocoecom i  se moe sewi a icoeco e  i imae isucacao a e comees oi aaoou e swas eeee e 3 asis oecoeco a oeacao5 oem iicaoma sig owe coece weeme se is accaccsc goi e coecosig eia 3 moe coecoouis   success aacceae maamomus ae simu weemewe as iie eous ce ewoomaamowi e sa ssemaacos es  ea  moe caa ou5CE5WOOUAOMOIoe s e eecoe maamooe ecemea 3 asis oieme e giouwas iusa As swigu 5a 3 mooe acaieme swas (mo ioe moe a giiseco5 e scoisoa  mm-3 mm-amewi ia a 5mm (ig5mm (wi 3mm(ugs-scimee WOO11 maamowas use ece aaosee ecse osmae eemeaaeme sus iis s (gu 5 is imies ae WOO11 maamowas o sa e oecoca a e cae maamowas aia ie giosuoui e wecoec(scussiois giiseco5  ass ese ioisiesa moemaamowasemoyeausemaacos om e we-wooieco issciawoomaamois caee "woouao(maa mo53AYS EME SOOO1SU=5ME=5SY^ (AYS=weicsECE1=5aw =-75SM =3-75-^  -353-99-73-1-13-3977773 1I^ II IICE5WOOUAOMOgu 5 e-meio eme asis a e giieme io ugs-ockY-cosess15-o  15              EemeWOO1-3A             ^ 5 ^ 1 ^ 1 ^ Eme (mmgu 5 Comsooeemeaa ecaeme cues seoe WOO11 maamo5CE5WOOUAOMO5 e oe woouaomo5 o moe asouoicoecosc (197 eaewoouee ias a iauao e aaose oewoowas esse aeoiao(Equao[5] eemeaawas om ieme ssicaye eoiaocoai e ck oa ao(gu 5 is imies a ie ck aeme o ie eco a coee e coesi asess-saioamaamoaccoui e eme ouca usi emaamooies oie 3e a  au e is ca as e 3woouao is aacaows e  au e s  moas a awoouaomaamo A e-meiocoeuaiusaoe woouaomois swigu 5 aiis aac a meowas sei e quisi maacos e woouaomo i e uaomos a uaoyiei55CE5WOOUAOMO-Kw(+  w 1e  ^ [5]gu 5 A aeme cue ca coee a asess-saicueioe oaie maacos e woouaomoEs-ecy asc moWoouaomaamoWoomaamos iom suacea ia cogu 5Coeuaiusaoe woouaomoie 3 ieme mo5CE5WOOUAOMO5 o ouaomos a uaoyie i5 miuaooiese uaomos a uaoyie i we seoe aeme cue om weeme sye aeme owascoee a aau-eme cue (gu 5 om iscueaias a eak i eeo agio we iie emiuaomos a miyie i we ecauusiEquao [5][5] a [5]e equaoe miyie sess (Equao[5]is iica e cauooweeme se iAS 57e miyie sai e u oe yie aosu  coeemeioess ue ameoe we wcwas esume  e mosima maacgoi e cawoocs ou(Equao[5] was cse a e meio oaes ioeOe e yie sess a yie saiwe  e miuaomoscou  oai(Equao[5] e ese mioies su  caa e eec uaomaacosi oa escme oeuao57CE5WOOUAOMO^WY^ Eme (mmgu 5 Key is ia aau-eme oom e weeme s miyie sess owoouao a y(y I  1^Y  =^ miyie saiowoouao  eyWY ^Y  =^ (m I mi miuaomos SS = K= ^ =--  (MW Y E YW  ameoe is=   oe wooock=  aeaae eaki i ie aeme cuey =  = yie aie au-eme cuew = yie aoie au-eme cuee = yie saioe woouao[5][5][5]5CE5WOOUAOMO5 Eec uaomaacose caauaooies a caee "eec uaomaacos" coe e miuaooies  e eec uaomaacosmeioess caaoc we iceio e mimos a miyie sai as swiEquao [5] a [5]c   a(i =  e gi //oeicu gi Iwe usecaa e mimos ie e gia eicu gicoscAecaa e miuaomoa c ^ was iceas a ca  e eec yie i  caaooe miyie saiieacco ese c cou  i e si a s oe uaomusesc me a iaa eomeo we use i e aiasi a s oe uao seoe escuao e c wei i  oe weeme  simuoSi wi e miuaomaacos as seeiue woouaomaamo(c  a a  /3 we seequa o auacique was useie simuooe aeme cues uie eccue agewi e age aeemeacues ie giaeicu gico simuaouse oimic oce isocess we secas e caaoc59CE5WOOUAOMO Eec uaomos (S(S   a K Eec uaoyie sai  (E  1 ((^(wY   = ^ =^ Y13 1Wi  = e gico(//oeicu gi(1coa=  caaoce uaomos13= caaoce uaoyie sai5 ooe woouaomoOgiye woouaomowas icoecoIoe ge e uaomo e 3 weeme mowas aee eme s wi a wi e owesisA se oe eme swi e e owesis was ca com w s wi eseemea keom e is ma issie   e moa e oweame om 5 mm (1 iamei   mm (1 iamesseoeme s wi ugs- (euuga meiesiiw  iis esis was om weeme s couc3mm (13 iamei a 17 mm (5i 19 mm (75 ia  mm(1iamese es  we keom sc (1977 e seao coai s oesciesi Sugi  (Comea ca  YeowCe (Cmaecys oais a Wes mck  (uga ya[5][5]CE5WOOUAOMO e U WooMeccs Gu(m ea  e 3eme mo ese scies we ao s5 weeme sAs swigu 5e wooocks e ieme s we ei aa eiaco usi scime cuom e msciseco1Aioywooeme ocks wi a -ge oeaowe e iesga e mos a oecoia iico Eeio e -eme squiaiom Aece omwi simioies (scic g (SG= 5 i MOE =1G a mois coe (MC= 17% e e eces eous usewasseca cuio e scime e -eme si oe sscimea sie 5e AS 57 - eme smeowas sec cause e - smeois aia i e  e gkeooiiAecy i - was iee ioe asuace oe wooockioe mo a iees oe-sesses amay  eoce asmae-e we we aceoe wooockse sse a swigu 5 a gu 5se ameoe   was 1 mm (1/1ieae ame accoi  AS 57e awas aeuga seaock  e scimewi e a  o1 mm/secusi a SIECssysmCE5WOOUAOMOe 5 Summa oscimeeoe weeme s weame[mm]Scies o[eeicu Si owooock[W (mm3-i ugs-1115(15(-ge553(  5333 (-ge17-19--ugs-ugs-ugs-11511/1131313= i = aa = eia W = wiig CE5WOOUAOMOgu 5 sscimea see ieme sCE5WOOUAOMOgu 5 sscimea see -eme sCE5WOOUAOMO5 Geooe woouaomo iesga o eeweamea e uaomaaoiesa se weeme io ugs-was weame i om 5 mm   mme weeme sus iom sc (1977(e 5 e goawas  ge e uaomaamo esis o eee weamea e uaomaaoiese miuaomosa aowi e amewasu ie e gico(gu 5 Ie eicu gico e uaomos was ke  a co o15Mgass oe weame(gu 5 e uaomo swea cois e wi e weame sugges ae caaomos c  (a  may co oe e oe wesie o eee miyie saia e amewe iai cowe e oie e gicowas assume  asie i ia is mi (gu 5 Ie eicu gico iwas u ae miyie saicame aosco wiame omm a e(gu 5Ic e eicu gieme cueiwas    a yie icause e aemese sweso mucia ia c maeae a iecue was ocu(see weeme eemeacues iseco5 seois iesgao e ssi geooe woouaomowasassu Iis coieie  secoCE5WOOUAOMOe 5 miuaooies accoi  weameSame[mm]miuaomos (//[M]miuaomos (1[M]miuaoyie sai(//[mm/mm]miuaoyiesai(1[mm/mm]soue5 39 1 1 1 sc3  1  13 s1  15 1 117 sc 5 15 5 5 sc17 5 1 3 1 s19 77 1  9 s 99 1 1 1 s// = e gico 1= eicu gicoCE5WOOUAOMO1-1--y = 95+ 3 = 9   mm   19 mm -- 17 mm   sc  sgssio     - i          ^ 5^ 1 ^ 15^ ^ ^ 3ameowe[mm]gu 5 oeee miuaomos ae weameie e gico = -75+ 1599 = 57  me_^ ----___- -15-15- sc  sgssio ^ ^ 5 ^ 1 ^ 15 ^  3ameowe[mm]gu 5 oeee miuaomos ae weameie eicu gicoCE5WOOUAOMO11-  y =   -  71+ 17E  = 93E 1-E sc -I --  sgssio -  -E  ^ 5 ^ 1 ^ 15^  ^  ^ 3ameowe[mm]gu 5 oeee miuaoyie saiae weameie e gico1 y = 19 -3511   = 911 sc s    gssio ^ 5 ^ 1 ^ 15^  ^  ^ 3ameowe[igu 5oeee miuaoyie saiae weameie eicu gicoCE5WOOUAOMO5 Moe5 Woouaoa caaoce geomey oe woouaowas as a -cyea e oa we e us oe -cyewas cseas a muie oe weame ( Iis se muiie we secemcay   5 ia 1 s aouaos eug accommo e cawoocs i au a we e coesi caaoc weiusi e i meoiceiseco5 cau e eec uaooies a ai e oces ie 3e  seoe maacos e woouaomowasesise ieme s e oy  aie was e 3 mm-ameieusi e 5   uao e caaoc we iieasa =1 a1 =9 1 =a  A  =3-mm ieme iugs- Iwas ecoie wi simuo aese c we aia e 5-1-a mm iemee c 17-19-a -mm ame-eme s weiiiaye ages oe se oe c we useas egec e 1 woouaomo Isuei a  =1a1 =73 13 =1a A sciseco5e 5 sws e soe gecie escme oe uaoCE5WOOUAOMOe 5 Gecaaoc e escuaoCaaoc co i[5 i s[1]uaomos e gi  a 1 1c  ai eicu gi  a1 9 73uaoyiesaic /3e gi  eicu gi  1137O"COOsCE5WOOUAOMO e 5 (11  C C  O  CC1^  C71- ^ I ^ oo  (^  ^ McooS1-   ^ 1 S - c  71- e ^    ^ CI  ^ i ^ O ^   ^  S ^ M  k  co  MCk O - SkO  O^ c^ 1-  ^  o 5  C   cM  O  i i 71 CM  -   71"7   71- S1-- 1/;O1 S1 - 1 ICS_Oa-^ 5^ -^ +ca a7 1^ 7 ^ -o co=^ ^ C ^ 1a^ a ^ ca^ Ea+   ci 7 a  ^ - ^ ^  "  7 ^ ^ - _7 ^  ^  ci   ^ =   ^s-- E-1^ II  yIICIII^  II ^ ^     ^  ^= 71CE5WOOUAOMO5 Moe weeme scicaye cao ua coioa asis meooe 3weeme moowee same oce as usee woocomessiomo(see secoee e isiooe woouao ick eme(SO5was use ca e wea e wooockSuace coacemes(COA17a E17 wi e coeicie oicoo7 (Smi19weusee woo-wecoacieacee us oe woouao was a muie oe weame gu51 a gu 5sw e weeme mo wi e woouaogeomeye woouaomaamowas assig e soemeswiie uao e WOO11 maamoa e semaamo(MOE= Ga y = M a = 3we usee wooa weemesscsc 5- a 1-mm ieme iwas assumeaemeio oe wooock we 5mm (wi 5mm (ig3mm (cause e ecmeio oe wooock we aiee mm ieme a 7mm (wi 7mm (ig3mm ( wooock wasassume so ae ock was ae  accommo e 5 uaogeomey(sueie  cyeameo57 mm Geyie si oe wooock eee e mimum quimes asseiAS 57iis assumeae si oe ock es aece sus oe weeme s eassumesi oe ock moiis s mee mimum quimes7CE5WOOUAOMOe -eme mo e geomey oe asscimewas usewie 1  uaoioo Ic e asocosi e muiieo1was  accommo e uaomowiie si oe -eme wooockUsi meic moa  mo we -caom a o mo(3-mm ieme mo  ci e si me oe wea ewooock geomey73CE5WOOUAOMO5-mm i 3 3-mm i3-mm i -ge  gi1-mm i mm igu 51 e-meio eme moe ieme s(us oe woouao= 57CE5WOOUAOMO17-mm 19 1-mm -mm gu 5e-meio eme moe -eme s(us oe woouao= 175CE5WOOUAOMO5 Simuosuse-meio eme simuo secweemeoua eseeie owi sequeee simuaemecues sumseoe eemeacues a e e-meioess wi  iusaweeme iugs-a 3-mm amei(eeicu gi 3-mm amei(-ge- gic 5-1- a mm ameiusi sc eoiamo(eeicu gi 17-mm ame (eeicu gie 19-mm ame (eeicu gi -mm ame (eeicu giieme ioSugi (se Ce a Yeow Ceg 3-mm ameioSugi (eeicu gi 3-mm ameioYeow Ce(eeicu gii3-mm ameioWes mck (eeicu gi7CE5WOOUAOMO5 Simuoo3-mm ieme s3-mm ieme simuo gooma oe eemeaasimucues ie e gia eicu gico wasaici cause e ocess i e caaoc was seoma ese cues as cse as ssie (gu 53 a gu 5ese ssc eoiamo(sc ea 1977was usecomsoe eme me oe eoiamocoesi  3-mm iiugs-we oai ieooeee me e5- a 1-mm ias iuciei Equao [5] a [5] oeeoiamo 3-mm ieme ougs-ie e gia eicu gicoe eoiacues we sumseoeeemeacuesGooageme eee sc moa e 3 moimieae same o oe sc ismo(sc ea 1977 wcusee eoiamowoouao was e e-meio eme mooe we coecoSimuess ao swegoosus ie e giaeicu gicoe ase ieaooe woo e3-mm ameiwas sceae i coAs swigu 55a gu 5 e mo ao ecasc saicoouoy wiia smagioe asc saicoousimu a mowioue woouao(oyWOO1 maamowas ae w wooemesis eseecomsooses igu 57e aa coouswe sigca77CE5WOOUAOMOee om aoe mowi woouao  iga aiaaeme cue (see gu 5 is see use oe woouaomoimo owoocs ouuea wesc eoiamo 3-mm ieme iugs-(=  3-9II5we gi( [153(1  e  1531    ^ [5]-155Iweicu gi( [(371w(1  37 1   ^ [5]7^EemeAacuesc mo1-3A1 1 7531CE5WOOUAOMOEme (mmgu 53 Simue giaeme cue o3-mm ieme iugs- -7    ^EemeAacu ^ sc moA 531 ^ 5 ^ 1^ 1^ Eme (mmgu 5Simueicu giaeme cue o3-mm ieme iugs-79CE5WOOUAOMOAYS EME SOOS1SU=3ME=3E ^ (AASYS=weicsECE1 =5SM -SM=3--9-5-3-9-793-539-1-3533gu 55 SimuY-coasc saicoouo3 3-mm ieme iugs-ie e gico  oe wooemes a swAYS EME SOOS1SU=3ME=3E ^ (AASYS=weicsECE1=995SM =-5SM =97-5-917-I^ I -3I^ I -5-91-3319I^ I --75I^ I^97gu 5SimuY-coasc saicoouo3-mm ieme iugs-ie eicu gico  oe wooemes a sw((7AYS EME SOOS1SU=5ME=5E ^ (AASYS=weicsECE1 =5SM =-535UM% =9-535--3737-1-91-1-9-95E  19I II^ ICE5WOOUAOMOgu 57 SimuY-coasc saicoouo3 3-mm ieme iugs-ie e gicousi e WOO1 mooy oe wooemes oy a sw5 Simuooe 3-mm ieme sie -ge  gicoe e coa gia ie -ge eme-sscimeaswigu 5 e gia o ges  e emi coioeauaewoouaosuoe  e coees iwoose oiesas swigu 59is uaesuo causee ieme  ogss ia i mae( igu 5Ie as asecaa ie cssawas use accommo e i ouuse sscimeiwas oeeawoocs i ae wee oe eiwas aays mo se aae geis i oucou  simucoecy  a saceme-coea meo cause iemoyeu imeasaceme a e iOCE5WOOUAOMOsIoe moe i ouoya mouee(essucoea was qui gu 5sws e ee ieess eee e-coea moa e saceme-coemo Oy e e-coemoocee i ouoye simuaeme cues e o a meowe weaosiica(gu 51 e e-coecasee saceme  wascoec agi e o sacemes ae ees ie wooemese saceme-coecasee ce  ie woocoace is was sec i e saceme e ecaeme cues we eacceaeaugo sss oe cues wassg gaaoe age aeemeacuegu 5Gia o-ge eme scimecoCE5WOOUAOMOsaceme-aoessu-agu 59 Scmac uaeuaoi-ge gia eme sA^ Agu 5SimuY-coasc saicoouo-ge  gieme; e e-coecase (swee eeme oe icom e u eme oe saceme-coecase (g-co  1515 5 ^ 1^ 1Eme (mm353               ^Eemeacue A 3-saceme co3-aco   CE5WOOUAOMOgu 51 Simu-ge  giaeme cue o3-mm ieme iugs- e-coemeosweeeco5 Mocaousi sc eoiamosc eoiamo (1977ieme iugs-weoceusi e 3 ieme mo As swie 5e maacos aee 3 mocou  om e eme meoe eoiamois e eoiamo 5-1- a mmieme iugs-a eseeiEquao [5]  [5e 3 aeme cues sumseoe eoiacues swegooageme e e gicomo (gu 5eeicu gico e 3 moswegooageme ie iassswe e syie sss oe eoiamowas aays gaose oe 3 mo(gu 53CE5WOOUAOMOe eoiaeicu gimoe oecsyieeme ou Iis gey oug ae uima se oe egieme is mucgaaoe eicu giemewe e eoiamoocesimiuima ses i coemee 1-mm ameieme eoiamooceuimases aa mm eme (-ameemeo1 mm ie e gicoa 17mmie eicu gicoe eicu gieme cues om e 3 mo 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i19-mm i-mm igu 51 SimuY-coasc saicoou  emeiugs-wi 17-19- a -mm sieeicu gico9AYS mo-111571 11111" 111CE5WOOUAOMOgu 5Comsoowoocs s -mm  e gieme s e simuY-coasc saicoouis sw(om95CE5WOOUAOMO5 Moacao oesciese acaooe ieme smo oescies was iesgausi e gecaaoce s 3-mm ameieme oSugiYeow Cea Wes mck we secsimuo(m ea 5 Moscioe soce a e 5mm (wi 5mm (ig3mm ( wooock wi a   we same as ose useie s  m ea (we ey usea 3-mm amewcis smaeae 3-mm iameiis see eemeaaeme cue coaieeec oiasesses e  e smaee 3 eme mo eeecoe smae was coi e mowas ca  a ecie sciese maacos we y aieesciay yiesessuse aesc moe woowas assume Iee iis saecauseas u iseco5asc aooui e woouaooccueie ieme mosic maaoies Sugi a issos os oYeow Cewe aieAeasie Wes Ce(SG = 3 s simimeccaoies  Sugi (SG = 3 ow e meccaoies oWes Ceom e Woook we usee woomaamo issos osoWes Cewe assumeose oYeow Ce Maaoies e aesc mo oYeow Cea Wes mck we oaiom e9CE5WOOUAOMOWoooke maacos usee woomaamoa woouaomaamoa summaie 5 a e 5scEe iame e gecaaoc e 5  uaoas we as e same mogeomeyusee eous mowe aeesesimuo ae gecaaoc we om e weeme s ugs-e 5 Maaoies aesc ooc woomaa Sugi Yeow Ce WmckMOE[M] 9 1 13MOE[M] 57 59 55Samos = [M] 1 17 15Samos  [M]   19issos o   issos o 3 3 issos o   Commos aieoies oWes Cewe useaea97CE5WOOUAOMOe 5 Maacos owoouaomoSugiYeow CeaWes mckSugi Yeow Ce Wmckuaomos[M] 5  uaomos= [M]  1 Samos= [M] 7 97 Samos [M]   31issos o   issos o 3 3 issos o   Co  yie sess(= ^[M] 5 5 5 ^ [M] 13 113 19Com  e mos(= [M]  1  ^ [M]   9Sayie sess (=[M] 9 3 7 ^ [M] 15  15Sae mos (=[M] 7 97  ^ [M]   35 SimuosusSimuaeme cues sumseoe eemeacues  aeseeigu 53  gu 5 Auge simucues usi egecaaoc seemeacceae oiwas oug asciccaaoc oimiiiascies may imo e susIesgaooe scic caaoc eacscies was couc9CE5WOOUAOMOSugie iaa syie ss oe eicu gicue wesimusg g is may  e  e cae uaomos ca   o9 a e yie saic  1 omay  o gSugiOa scies emiiis seco e moasis swesee gisyie ss ae eemeasse ees eee eemeaa simucues may  a e iiass oecaaoc e sciesa  e cae aeme sie eecoe iay sessewooau a i  3mo icoecoe 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1 5  ^5 ^ 1^ 1^  ^ 5Eme (mmgu 5Comsooe e giaeme cuesecusi e ieea siwoouaoEme (mmgu 51 Comsooe eicu giaeme cuesece ieea siwoouao1 1 5=  M +177a =1M +11a   91 + CE5WOOUAOMO5 aieooocaaoc a si owoouaoUsi e es ie 5e iiacaaoc  (a  a 1   11 a  A we oewi e amemuiie  (A e o eee iiacaaoc a e muiie sweaosa A agssiomoeaccaaocis oigu 55= 7 +7E  CaCOC 3aiqcc 1 1 ^  ^ 3 ^  ^ 5 ^ Muiieus ocycawoouao  Mgu 5Assumeao eee us muiiea ecaaocUea cycawoouao e gssiomo imy ae sss owoouaoiases a e yie saicases ia amaewiiases ie us oe woouaoComwi e caaoc oimii wi a 5   woouao e caaoc oimie  wi e 5   woo1CE5WOOUAOMOuaosweees (i ai  =  1  a = 9    =  a /3 1 = ae 17-mm  a  =  15 a =   AI = 3a  / ^1Auge use oe caaoc oimii oceacceae sus e-eme simuowi a 5   woouao e accucy oe suscame ss awi e use oe c oimie is coieei iseco5 ae caaoc we iee e si oweameoaeei eemes a simuo we couc i eo amo e caaoce amesi oe wea e si owoouao mo ieg geooe caaoc cou ace is may  a gooaa 1CE E-MEIO EME MOOICOECOCE E-MEIO EMEMOOICOECOe sise ouoa si icoecowi a sesi a wassimuusi e 3 moioo e woouaocoee aoe  mo simu e asccscs oe coecowas e com e simusus  e eemeais moa emoccscsa s was ao couc assess e a oe moece sscaaooe as icoeco1 sise soe si icoecomoo sisise s oa si icoecowi a sea we coucie gia eicu gia coi oe a co e sscimewas as  e e gicoa  e eicu gico e scime awe swi i iio e asuace ( a e eiasuace (Suis o" a "  euse  e e casese sscimecoisoa gaawi i-iio a 1 mm(wi  mm ( mm (ugs-ock wi a mm-ick sseae iusewas e se sa  i a e ssea was e sa se seia wi e-iscaea Ccoec gu 1 sws i oe ae Ccoecwi  i ii e aose sa am sa coecoScicao oe maa usea summaie 11CE E-MEIO EME MOOICOECOe coiguo oe sise s a iusaigu agu 3 eacco a si icoeco o siwas iioe wooscimeuga e- caae om ce oecoecaioe  e coec e moae cssa  i wei woosce uge ue e-se wooscewe use sioe saa oe coeco e ce  oe cssae seoa was se 1 mm/seca o  (ccue eiaae was ieoe iice e measume oaoe 1 Maascicao oe si icoecoCom ^ MaascicaoWoomeumy ugs-Scic g 535meio1 mm (wi 1 mm ( mm (se sa   mmi^ S ame3 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mogu 5 Suace--suace coacemes oe si icoecomo115CE E-MEIO EME MOOICOECOSemaamoa meccaoies oe ia seaAes-ecy asc maamowas usee semaawcie ia seaAs e asouoe coecoaayscagy asc i aoie i accu meccaoieswe cessa e semaamoi e meccaoies i yie sess (c y a You mos(MOEsu  iuga i s(sc ea 1977Ci ea 199e maaoies oaiom a e-i ii swou  eoouse  u sess sio smac aoa iayiei ie ciucss secooe i(Ci ea 199Geye ii swou  coucwi w sewiwcos suicie gUoua i se  icou  couc cause e  oe i( mmwas o s  o aquagi we ca ioiAeae meccaoies oe ia e sea cou esma seoe maascicao a es es iwee esmaoe yie sess oe iwas comica e ca ome  oa wi e oyie sesseswca sie  Aoe  aie om e macwe gescicao omi sewi(S G 353 SWM-Sie e scicaocou  eu gi aaccu yie sess oe  i a meo i e yie sess usi 311CE E-MEIO EME MOOICOECO asis (Aii was se iooe seoies isiie  secoe Maascicaoa e meccaoies oia seaMaa ^  soue^ Maascicao -Mac KasCo (i ^ -3 mm-ame-coa(gaaKascom w caosewi i-S G 353 SWM-- Commoisc ea1977 ^ame[mm] ^ MOE [G] ^ Gy  [M] sc   ^3 ^ ^ M i ^  ^^ MCommosewi iame[mm] ^ MOE [G] ^ ay  [M]^7 ^ 19^ Ci ea199 ^ 37 ^ 19^ 7^39 ^ 193^ 711^ ^ 193^   Age ^ 193^ 7 -Mac KasCo (i-mm-ick -coasese-S G 33SG-7 -3 mm-ick sea se sa amcoec-MOE = 197 G- ay  =MSeaCaKascomkei 19991 Meccaoies oie yie sess oe  iwas iusi 3 asis e-iiiAs swigu  ee i we saccoi  AS1575a smeoi i yie se ie eage aecocue om e i swas oaicomsowie 3 asise 3 sws e sosome cai maacos use117CE E-MEIO EME MOOICOECOsimuooe-i  iiAMOE oG was aee asiscomso a e yie ao3 was use wcwas e aaeeaki i oe age acue e e eemeacuesA yiesess o517 M was iieas e yie sess aocee s ee yie agu 7 sws a e simuaecocues usi e cai yiesess iuIsu  aas Ci ea (199 meio macaocausescy oe iassse  e e saceme-measumes oaiom e cssaa acease a wascoeoy  e aceey coecis scyeiecoecowas ao ae e i siwas assumeae eemeaiai sss wou mae simusssyseois io e es-ecy asc maamoe iwas coucwi a yie sess o517 MMOE oG aissos o o3Aoioe iesga e eecoyie sess iueimaamo simuo wi e yie sess o31M we couc11CE E-MEIO EME MOOICOECOe 3 Semaaco iu 3A o ii iuA ^ eci EemeaYie sess /MOE ^ yie a ^ yie asc  (Esmae (sc ea  (1977Ci ea  (199M / G517 M / GM / G7 M / G1 3 513 119EME SOO ^ AYS S1SU=1ME=1E (A}YS= =3S =-1SM13U1-1 ^ - ^-1 ^  ^ 9-3^ - ^  ^ 191 ^ 13CE E-MEIO EME MOOICOECOgu e-i ii sse( a simui o iwi e yie sess o517 M (om1 ^  ^  ^  ^ 1^ 1eco(mme  ^ yie a m -AYO/smacao__I     5-31Eeme- 7 M-3Ae -3A517M-3A- -3ACE E-MEIO EME MOOICOECOgu 7 aecocue oe-i  ii a ace o3 asis e yie sess Meccaoies oe C seae Ca was ma oe-coasesecommouse (SG 33SG-7 e sesemaaa yie sess oM a aMOEoG (Sea   Aokeis (1999i cousese sa am coec(e maascicao we uw aayie sess oM a MOE o197 Guse Ccoecwas assume a yie sess oMMOE oG a issos o o31CE E-MEIO EME MOOICOECO3 ssus a moo3 Eemeaoeao asouoe icoecoA sise s oe si icoecoeiaau i iasaoe uima sise ma a e sa ma a summaie o images ocawoocs i uee ia eseeigua gu 9e cs e uee ie i oe suaceawas a ceaye souoe scimeswea soey e i cswooa a yeoeaywoo is emesueia  c i (gu 1 a  w uima sise(age   a=  359a mm age    a =   a11 mme Ccoec   a aowas oeeaue ie mm ickss oe sea was suicie  sao e iaia s wiouse a aooieese eemeaoeao we useas comsois   e  mo1CE E-MEIO EME MOOICOECOe sises oe si icoecoa ii Scime Uima sise Sa maco suace m a[ [mi1 3 11A 37 1eia 3  9Age  11egi 1 3 33A 3 19a3 5 11Age 359 age 3 11  375 E 3 9eia3  9eicu Age  11 gi1 37 19E 395 19a3 7 9Age  15age 5 131CE E-MEIO EME MOOICOECOgu cawoocs i ie e gico ioeeiasuace-( a ioe asuace-(ggu 9 cawoocs i ie eicu gico ioe eiasuace-( a ioe asuace-(g1CE E-MEIO EME MOOICOECO3 Simusus a moo3 SimuaoAuge macscoc  mocou simu e ie csisesciay ose iee eaywoo e o simuaooe icoecoswegooageme wi e eemeaoeao(gu1Igu 11e simues oe iwas sumseoa oimage oe secowooscime Auge iasao was ec e asci-se mo e simues oe iewe  e oeeemewooe moswe  a aoau e i oe seae eca aooe sea is esee e asccoouoigu 1Simuooe a wooaoau e iis swigu13Com e aouswigu a gu 9iwas uae moece wooe isis oasc aooewoouao1CE E-MEIO EME MOOICOECOgu 1Souie e gicoeeme ( simuo(ome  s1EME SOOS1SU=9ME=E ^ (AYS=weicsECE1=mo = - 1SM =575-1M -955 -75-5737-399-191^E-13O 35751^ 1II II ICE E-MEIO EME MOOICOECOgu 11 Simuaooe icoecowas sumseoe so image om e aao(e scimegu 1SimuY-coasc saicoouoe sea ie  sWoo-sea coacsuace ew i a iemes1EMES1SU=9ME= E ^ (AYS=weicsECE1=5SM=-SM=1--133^  -11^  -195^  -79^ - 57^  -3^  35^  99^  1EME SOOS1SU=75ME=33E ^ (AYS=weicsECE1 =3SM =-17SM=133-17-11^  -573   -39^  -3^  55   5^  5^  77133CE E-MEIO EME MOOICOECOgu 13 Simuwoocs ssY-coasc saicoouo; simuo( simuo(omCE E-MEIO EME MOOICOECO3 aaooe simuaaocues wi e iyie sess o517 M ecoecoa sumseoe eemeacues igu 1a gu 15e simuowi e iyie sess o31M was ao i e simucues swegooageme wi e age eemeacue o co oaauga e aooeemeacues was oeeIc e age maacos-semocou ecoy o ageaaocueecois aoocues cou  eecom o maamo we iwas suggesaia sscaaacwasae e maamoe aowou   simu(a asis osscamaamo is eseeisecoe moswemi  e  oe ecs Oese mieessi siooceaiick emes was assume cause iooeasiswe e ecaaocues we suie asis osigosese 5 sws a comsooe simusise  e ageeemeasus ae sieao1 mmIwas iee  e mosca simu e socessUsi e  ie 5e sise-so we oe as swigu 1a gu 17Ieeay sges os e simusises agewe wi e eemea i coe e cues came mo oss 1 gae eemesau e so3 mme ogss oe es ieaccoisiusaigu 1a gu 191CE E-MEIO EME MOOICOECO3 Eecoiyie sess oe 3 coecomoAi a iyie sess o31M cee coecosiseesimuosus coieae iyie sess a sigca eecoecoecosisee simuaaocues wi e iyie sess o31M ae ak a as 35aa so7 mm e  case a 3 aa so7mm e  casee cues ese ow Iee iwas quiies   a as swigu  a gu eessi asceaooe iemes occueae saais was a  case a eioeasesIwas assumeaa s ouoaiasc ow wasoccuia e asc ow ie yieeemes was sis a escsai (Cea 19 is was a iaiicaoiasaoCom e eemeacuese simuo usi e yie sess o31M sweema iyiei i coIsee i aeyie sess oe  isu  o31Mwcs egey usease commoyie sess omi semecaasis13^Eeme-- - - - Eeme-e^ 3A (wi 313A5^ Eeme-- - - - Eeme-3A (wi 313A  -a cou 3-1^15S(mm 5  CE E-MEIO EME MOOICOECO^ 5^ 1^ 15^  ^  ^ 3^ 35^ S(mmgu 1Simuaaocue oe si icoecoie e gicogu 15 Simuaaocue oe si icoecoie eicu gico131CE E-MEIO EME MOOICOECOe 5 Comsooe sise oicoecoaa sieao1 mmsscime S(mm5 ^ 1^ 3 ^ 5 ^  ^ 7 ^ 9sage 131  ^ 3^ 3^ 3 ^ 373(^ 3A ^151  35 33995(o ^ ^1^ 9 ^ 93 ^ 9 ^ 91 ^ 9sage ^ 5^ 1 ^ ^ 5^ 319^ 3^ 37(^ 3A ^791 333(o ^ 11^ 97 ^ 99 ^ 93 ^  ^  ^ 91Iasicome o= sage/3 A13CE E-MEIO EME MOOICOECO 3531515      aa(77aca   e  sage3A  1 3 5 7 9 1S(mmgu 1Comsooe simuiscue  e age s aiea oe 1 mm se e giicoecos( sa353a11a 7a 1515 sage3A 1 3 5 7 9 1S(mmgu 17 Comsooe simuiscue  e age s aiea oe 1 mm se eicu giicoecos( s133E-EEom CE E-MEIO EME MOOICOECO13CE E-MEIO EME MOOICOECOq E135Ec111111111111111111111111111111IMO111111111111111111W111111111111111111e11  -ma  Om111  ww ImuuammmikiuoMmimummommisimmoIMMO1111111111111111111111IMMO1111111111111M111111111111111111111MMEE1111111111111II111111/11111i11111/111QUM11111111U111111111W /Mi  w  mmi^ mou ^MMMEmammo1/1/1111[m1 umimI 11111111111111111111111/111/11iiuWa a I  wIOW/ / 1 1-  ------11111111 ei111mmii111 1111mmsi EOEO5CE E-MEIO EME MOOICOECO13EOoi1111111111 ;Aiooai11111111111111111IAIUMIOM II1 ^- EO EO OE137CE E-MEIO EME MOOICOECOCE E-MEIO EME MOOICOECOasi s oe ssca3 maamoGeye maacos usee 3 icoecomoa emac i e simuoseIe maacos we eaas om aese om aoie sise oe icoecocou  ecusi e 3 icoecomo e meoocoeom ae geocou  use ece aooe maaoies ai is meo i e iee maacosi MOE a yie sessa om 3woomaamooa om 3uaomaamocou  couc is meoqui we a me  e 3 mo ae oaisscasus oa commoocom Ia usi ao amo e iee aesaasi s oe sscaasis sise oe icoecowascouc1 Amaoo95   a 5   ei uaomaamoUsi a agssiomeo ao amo e uaomoa e yie sesses we esisom e ieme se sec e    ei e gimos om e Wei sioe quie maacos we iusi e aoa e secmosyusi e oces cau e maacos (e 3 e    ei uaomaamowas esis13CE E-MEIO EME MOOICOECOUsi is agssiomaamo e 5   a 95   ei sises oe si icoecowe esmauge 3 icoecomoA meWei siowas e e s e mie giuaomos (gu  om is sio e 5   a 95 ei mimo we iieas M a 9 Mscee agssiomo(Equao[1] e e gimiuaomos a e eicu gimiuaomos wasuse i e coesi eicu gimiuaomos(gu e comeicu gimiuaomo iwe M e 5   ei a M e 95   eimiyie sai ieaccowe ao esma e agssiomo esiseee miuaomos a e miyie sai e gi Ey  5 =1 a  E y 95  =   Equao[; aeicu gi E y 5  =  1a  E y 95  = 1  Equao[3]ese ao a swigu a gu 139CE E-MEIO EME MOOICOECO= 35 S [1]E^ = 3 S +15 [Ey = 3 S 1  + 1 [3]WS miuaomos [M]Ey  miyie saii  = e gi(//oeicu gi( 1 Ai e gecaaoc oe 3-mm amei ese umimaacose eec uaocos we i ee coesi woouaomaamowas  e oces oe 3e  seocos e 5   a 95   ei maamo issummaie 1CE E-MEIO EME MOOICOECO197-Q 5ais 3U1    Sca5s15           Eeme^  Wei  95          ^  ^  ^  ^ mie giuaomos [M]gu  o-meic Wei sio e e gimiuaomosm  a3  CIUa15 aco    c_Ec 15 y = 35 = 3179^  ^  ^  ^  ^ 1mie giuaomos [M]gu  aoeee e giuaomimosa e eicu gimiuaomos111111^ ^ y = -+ 15^ ^  = 75EE""E-U--E - E EE15U- 1  ^^ y = -+ 1 = 33  ^    CE E-MEIO EME MOOICOECO  ^^ 1 ^  ^ 3 ^  ^ 5^  ^ 7 ^ miuaomos [M]gu  aoeee e gimiuaomos a e e gimiyie sai^ 1 ^  ^ 3^ miuaomos [M]gu  aoeee eicu gimiuaomos a e eicumiyie sai1CE E-MEIO EME MOOICOECOe ei a 95   ei uaomaamo3-mm ameicoecowi ugs-Maaco 5 eiuaomo 95 eiuaomoEsc mos[M] 395 1Esc mos= [M] 7 197Esc samos =  [M] 7 19Esc samos [M]  71issos o 9 9issos o 37 37issos o 3 3Comessii yie sess 3 5(= [M] 13  ^ [M]Comessii e mos 73 1(= [M] 35 15 ^ [M]Sayie sess 1  (=[M] 19 5 ^ [M]Sae mos 73 1 (=[M]  71 ^ [M]Simuooe    ei sise oe si icoecoseoe 3 icoecomoiseco1e agecos-seuaomaamowas ace e    ei uaomaamo e woomaamo e WOO11 mowas usewiouacese e icoecomowas ecu oaie 5   a 95 ei sises oicoeco1CE E-MEIO EME MOOICOECOe simuei ascues a sumseoe eemeacues igu  a gu  Auge simuoe 5   eisise oe  was iaa aoomme ei cuescou ece e oe aoasoy we ieaccoe agssiouaomaamoe scomi a sie iioeoy e aooe e gimiuaomosao ooemaacossucas e eicu gimos a eyie saicou  ecaccu io e maamo we eeco usi e agssiomooqui acceae suse asi s coa ie quisi sscaeseao oes we oa e e maacos we ge a mosoiscacique ioi coeo amose muie aese e oaooe sise oe icoecomay  oai1 1^ 15S(mm5  ^ Eeme-- - - - Eeme-95% A-- ^ 5% ACE E-MEIO EME MOOICOECO5_ "1       ^Eeme-- - - - Eeme---95% A--5% A          ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 1^ 1^ 1^ 1S(mmgu  Amao oe 5 ei mia e 95 ei cuesie e gisise oe si icoecogu  Amao oe 5 ei mia e 95 ei cuesie eicu gisise oe si icoeco1CE7E-MEIO EME MOOECOECOCE7E-MEIO EMEMOOECOECOecoecoma ses seo mo  ecouc e3 ses  oMao (199 a Moses (we coie mos  is s; eese mo we useas es ee a caooe ecoecomo wcs ecawi e woouaomoiis woe ecoeiomo useoy e sa uaaa ssewoomaaoies e 3 woomaamo Iis ce esimuse oecoeco om e woouaosemoacoeiomo a coma scusse7 emi kweoMao (199 a 3 ecoecomo ea eiecooe coecoe se (e se/ ame  e/  a e asco (ickss/ ame    wi a 17-mm (5 iame iugs-e oogeomeic me a e coiguooe ecoecosa oceigu 7 Moses (eeeoMao ecoecomo ici aasooc asci maamo e Mosesmosweaaosiicaaaoeco oMaosus wi imome ie ecsyie ouoMao simieecoecosaagous coiguooe sa smeo- weeme se giie E31CE7E-MEIO EME MOOECOECO(EuaSasoAS   57-97a - smeo ese sa smeo sci e meio oe wooockso ae i aooe wesu  mimi e soMao scoiguowi  =  a  e/=  7 coese e - eme s ee ewio3   (w/=  3 e  =  a  e/=  7 s s ea sigcaa i oe was oee a e aaocue om eiocomessioaecoecoswas sg seae cueom e - eme sis sg ee eee - a - s was ao oee ea (1995 w come  emi ses oaiom e E3 - sa e AS - s 1mm ( iame eme oEuaWwooooa Ikoey ee - soceae giemi se awas aage o gaaoaiom e AS - sIe cue seseoe 17-mm  - eme s (see seco5 e a oe mo ese e ee ieemi ses e o e soces was useas e maicoe ooe ecoecomoe geomeies oe 17-mm  - eme mo wi  =   5 a7 a a co o o e/=  7 we seusi e woouaomo aecoesi  =  - eme mowas ca Aioya mowioue woouao wcwas agous  e coeioe1ickss    WiwA A ameE seeame IICE7E-MEIO EME MOOECOECOcoecomoaemoyeoy e sa ssemaaoieswasiiis s comsoosesgu 7 Coiguoa me oe comessioaecoecosagous  e - eme se  1/ e/7  a w/ -- coiguois sw1CE7E-MEIO EME MOOECOECO7 MoscioAs swigu 7o e 3 mo - eme oecoecowe ca e mowioue woouaowas ecoeiomoaemoyeoy a woomaamoWOO1 (oMao 199 Moses KuIoe accommo e 1 escwoouao e wioewooock (Wwas seas  is was e same wias e  ea (1995scime e  oe ou  om e woomemwas se 9 mm(375 i accoi  e emoe - amewas 1 mm (1/1ieae  ame e saceme-coecomessioa wasaeo e suaces oe A s oe om e suace oe woowe e WOO11 maamoa e woouaomaamoemoyeie 17-mm weeme s we use e  maa aes-ecy asc mowas assumewi e yie sess o31M ( ksia MOEoG (  i as giie emoe suace--suacecoaceme was as e woo- ieace wi e coeicie oicoo31CE7E-MEIO EME MOOECOECOWoomaamooy ^ Woouaosemogu 7 -secoecoecomowi a wioue woouaoe  1/7 e/7  a w/coiguois sw7 Simuooe  1/c1=emeAccoi  e is   ea (1995a oMao (199e 3moe  1/=  a  e/=  7 coiguomusese  sigca asc ie  a e simi oaeme cues om e -/- socesSimuooa 17-mm  - eme ia -mm (1 iick ugs-scimega e mamum aemi ase ommCom mm om e 3mm (1 iick age eemeaa15CE7E-MEIO EME MOOECOECOemi se (seco5 e simucue e  mm-ickemi swas assume  e e cue comso oe  = coiguo7 e scy a simi oe - a - emesAs swigu 7e woouaosemosuccessy eseee scy a simi oe - a - eme sIsweaa5 mm ao e simu- emi se (11  was gae e - emi se (1A secue wasao iieie - simuo ese simusus agewe wi eouoee  ea (1995a oMao (199e coeiomo(woomaamooy we ese eoeeou Com e e cuea simucues 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eemeaaaocues may sw gooagemeSuccess3 asis musaccome caooe es153EECOCOOECoUOO-oECE7E-MEIO EME MOOECOECOoUOoaCOco_o- 15U 111 11 7gs11- I 11111UII OM  11  MIu111MIa1111 11MACMis SaMmm  iioi1111ie  IIIIMEMI_Mu  I WIIMMO  11  IMO11111MI11" iIIIIIIIIIII %  Aim111111 ^i11  1111MMEA 1111111111 7Aiii 111UCE7E-MEIO EME MOOECOECOCCoaCoE155Ea=COCCE7E-MEIO EME MOOECOECO7 Simuoecoeco 115 a  I=77 es oecoecoecoeco wi  1/5  a 7 mo aasc eao ae ce oe  a asc aoie woouaoaee suos owoo as swigu 7 a gu 7is aooucoos  oMao eemeaoeaoAuge aa ess oe o e mo okesimi asswigu 7e asc saicoouo ae ees ieao Iwas u ae coeiomo ocea egaaemi oe coacieace eewooa e   ie  =7 coeco e ee ie gaaowas oiouse ee ie gaaowas a e ee isss oewoouee A  oa s woouaowas suec i eaagu 7a gu 71 sw comso ocoacessu oe woo- coacieacee sio oe coacessu aae oe s uaoie coeiomoeke a simy suoeamEsciay e  1/7  coeco(gu 71 eae sma aoo5mme coeiomoswe coacessu ie mi giooe is mea ae simuao e coeiomowas goemaiy  e  asc iyiwas coae woooe coeiomowas o s;ee asc aooe  mie aooe15CE7E-MEIO EME MOOECOECOcoeco a e coooe woo e aowas smaiscosiois coieimo iie owi secousi comso oe aaoses a saiey asis157CE7E-MEIO EME MOOECOECOa1 ^   " -^ ^ gkiiIIkim ;I i 1 o11   7  mmu111IIiIEE11111111;111111ewmi   Miismoummm aimii1=im mig mmiI IEI   IIIIII1  IMIIIIIIIIMA  111 I I ME=igi I MIME i isae1111111111111a smemui1 UM a=eiwiwimeisesaawmmEkamiegeaiimiawm ea i ---1 osi --1 1 Mi i 111 1   I I I I I I I -  I I kMiaai M  II ^ ^ aEM "O O^ Ake 11C^I  II11111111 11111M11EOM111mi11====aas =7111Mai  11111111111111111111111111111111111111IIIMEIMEIIIII giiMe    _^     ----1 -i^_15ICE7E-MEIO EME MOOECOECOCI-E-- (13aE-o159o-oCCCcua1   CE7E-MEIO EME MOOECOECOOCOEEOaUMW WMIIIIIIMM111111111111iEIIIIEMMO=  WIWII-I11111111111111111111111111111111io mw11111a1111----OMM111111usioamssiiiiissIIIIMMIIIIIIIIkiMIIIIMMIIMICE1111111111111111111Ma iIoIIIIww- -  oi aim111111IIIIIIIIMISIIIIIOMIIIMIMIWI111111111M111111111111 111111MI1111111111111IIIE111111111a - 11(11111I ^ mmIIMMia  1 11-1  mwsg1 395 ^ 7 ^ 5311  ^ 35 ^ 17 ^ 913EME SOOS1SU=75ME=75/EAECOES (AYS==7SM=53CE7E-MEIO EME MOOECOECOEME SOOS1SU=7ME=7/EAECOES (AYS==5SM=95-- ^ -11111111153 ^ 1 ^ 15 97^ 9 ^ 7 9^ 1331 ^ 1 ^  95gu 7sioocoacessu oe woo- ieace aaaoo5 mm e //5 ecoeco e woouaosemo( a e coeiomo(om Coaceme-COA 171EME SOO A S1SU=17ME=151/EAECOES (AYS==733SM=1773 9 7 9 1 95711 335 9 55 9 77 177EME SOOS1SU=17ME=17/EAECOES (AYS==1SM=3317ACE7E-MEIO EME MOOECOECOIMMEMEMIIMMI^ 7371^1 ^ 11 ^ 9 3  ^ 117 ^ 19 ^  ^ 3317gu 71 sioocoacessu oe woo- ieace aaaoo5 mm e  1/7 ecoeco e woouaosemo( a e coeiomo(om Coaceme-COA 171CE7E-MEIO EME MOOECOECO7 aaooe ecaaocues oe ecoeco wi ascos o=   5 a 7 a e ec- eme cue a oeigu 7a gu 73e coeiomooceaose same aaocuesgass oe asco; wase woouaosemoga asy e aaocue e  =  coecoIs oe Euayie mo(EYM auge was  si memuee woouaosemo e yie mo oe  =  coecocoese Mo I yie goe cs owooes ie maimeme yiei ie  =  5 a 7 coecoMo Iyie goe aooo asc es ie  aeacsaa cou  assume cause eyie moMo Iis aec 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ecoeco(mmWoouaosemo-- Woomaamooygu 7Ces omaas ie saiey e  1/7coeco1CE MUIE ICOECOSE CICE MUIE ICOECOSE CIis seawas ogiy mo e e 3 soememo ose sa am coecosucas e Cicoecowe we seaocwas ia iwas u aa soememo icoeco  ese augma icoecomo  eusi  eme oces e 3 si icoecomo e oe 3mo se sa am coeco was ae  seou e sco oissewas mi e oa moe se Ciioe iesga e aca oe si icoecomo a muiecoeco mo moo e s Sscu (ae Ui oisComa we useIis ce seoe is om e mose mio oeasci-semoa commeao imo e Ccoecomoa scusse1 se Cicoecomo1 Eemeae wo a moscioe se Ccoecois a sa coecoaac a s a amiaose sa am couco sicayicois oa Cse1CE MUIE ICOECOSE CIa coec(see gu 1wi  iOe a moise a i iscomwi e Ca  seee iseoe si icoecomo a 3 moeCcoecowi moise a i was ca e meio oecoecoa e ua coio cooe e e wo oSscu(gu 1 sws e coiguooSscu Ccoecosa ecoesi 3 coecomo Sie iwas a mo a iee omose og woo-woocoacie moise a i was coiiis se Ca was ieoo siwcis a cacoecoi ecoecowas a i a seuge s As eiSscu esisis ma e coecoeccec  a; a euaye coecowas ewa e a sie  e isam 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CcoecoSimuaaocues a sumseoSscu eemeacues igu 1a gu 17Mosacemes we measuae oe isas swigu 11cooi  e eemeasacemea isA simucues swegsss a gacayi caci com e eemeacuesIsu  ae woouaomousewasseougs-wi a scic g o5 was SG =  e Wesmck s e simucues oe saceme-coea meo ee iaoeee measume is was oee isimies ae was  is ie sa amas we as  eaoae ig oe s usis simucue may  gaeas aiaaaocue awas iee a geomey oe ese simucues oe e-coea meoigu 17 sw aeme oe is eecoe aaocue auge osaceme measumes oe e-coemomay  eeoous (seee equaa igu 11 a e i  Ccue igu 17Ico eae Cmocoais awe o ia ese e ascoio we e oecooe aaocue cou  a e ueasc coais oye maicause oeoaaoecomay  u ie i oe mo ecacsIe  seco e iees oe-auoiie omoecoa ei11 -1111^ Eemei(Ai CA 5saceme (mm11-1-^ Eemei CA  i (?ACE MUIE ICOECOSE CI^ 1^  ^ 3^  ^ 5saceme (mmgu 1Simuaaocue oe saceme-coeameo sumseoSscu eemeacuesgu 17 Simuaaocue oe e (essucoeameo sumseoSscu eemeacues1CE MUIE ICOECOSE CI3 Iee oe e-auoiie omoecoIe Cie e mi i ouoe  i ie om siaio e  e cai  oi a io e 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  (19"asci suceie" Sieagw Yo IC W a Sae A (19"Co equao eie maa; Iesci a mo"  Wiy SoICiY a C(199 "Sess-saioocommowi i ueecycc a" uaos a Eao (5 5s-So a ica   (199 "ecoeco iwoouei/ioa" uaoSucEie11999-13ooe M("m I  a ouseco eo E Se yais GuIOGYEiMA(1991"Moi e asouomis wi meccas" CaauaoCiEie1-kei G(1999"Eauake sis coeco sa-am mcouco e seame oWooScieee UioisComaou Casoc  (1999"Woook-Wooas aeie maaGecicaG-113sc  (197 "asCcscs oi" WooSciee7(1-7sc  a c (1977"asccscs coeco wicommoi" WooSciee9(3111sc  (1977"Asis owooagms a usses IIuss-acoeco" CaauaoCiEie3353-3sc  a wo  (1975"Asis a sigogam icoeco" uaoe Sucsio ASCE71(1537-55sc  ("Mo e sc se omeccacoeco woosucs" ocees oWoCoee imEieWse CaGua  Wa   ("A e-meio eme mocay ioemis ma wi ow wes" CaauaoCiEie(-797Gua  Wa   ("W-caioeme mis"uaoSucEie1(99M("mecamo oe-meiog wooameiis" sseao me oWooScieee Ui oisComaou Ca (19"e Maemacaeo oasci" Oo Ui esswYoi (1991"Ases oe sises o is a i-is imII-mecaases ai e eo oa am oaescuao Mokui Gakkais37(1117-15 (ise  a e  (a"Emcawoomaamoemeio eme asis oa ii" 9   WoCoee omEieO USA1IOGY  a e  ( "e-meio eme asis oicoeco" 9   WoCoee omEieOUSAKu  ("sesc ouoecoeco iwoo sseao me oCiEie a AeMeccsMcGiUiMoa QCCaKo U(199 "micomessioeicu gi ocees oeCIW-1 -1s ugam a Ya  ("Comsoo"iwe ee coassciesa com scies i e seame oWooScieee Ui oisComaou Caices  m a eie  (199 "a se omams" ocees oe CIW-1 31-5Saiaassa  a Skie MM(1995"o-meiomo ocomsiei i" uaoComsi Maa(51-7Mae  ("oomcoeco" meie  AiCouou CaMcCaCMcCaMA w   a SeyW (a"e-meio eme asis osi-si-comsi eis I-moe a o Comsi Sucs71(-15McCaC a McCaMA( "e-meio emeasis osi-si-comsi eis II-eec o- cae" Comsi Sucs71(59-175Mci  Ea aamS(19"ewooi yie mo uaoSucEie1(15Miiscu (199 "Aiesgaooe oae omoise a isusi e  eme meo  sseao ckims CesUiMiiscu a cs (1999"oems eoueisig a eme moomoise a is" Coee  ICWS9MisseeAeyEMoses M("Co a acamo succomsi mwi acao  ecoeco"  sseao me oCiEiee Ui oisComaou CaIOGYMoses Ma io  G ("Asooc asci a e woosaock" socua 53-5C(1997"ouoimis ueecycc a sseao cuy osy a Eiea e ui owuwickeco CaoMaoM Cme SM Smi Wa ica  (1997a"iamaamo asis oewoocoeco" uaoSucEie1(3-1oMaoM ica  a Smi W(1997 "Mo ecoeco iwoo ew" uaoSucEie1(1  a o   (1995"Eme s sA comsooeEuaa Amecaoces" uaoe I oWooSciee13(-571  a ie A M("goae we is msucs" ogss isuceie a maa5(7-99SaksEUak  a kyay ("amoi oceusicooc iamaa" uao a Sciee(1-1S Ca e (197 "es iasooc asci"uaoEie Maa a cogy193Sea  sio("meio oies ok-cem"Sea  is miSscuM("sise oaose sa-am amesuemoc a cycc a coio" Masesisme oWooScieee Ui oisComaou CaSmiI(19"Coeicie oicoe acae  coacsuaces eemi secoec sucas s a y Euaw woo uaoeI oWooSciee9(59-SmiI ke  a y  (19"Aiegaac mo asoomis wi we s" ocees oe 19IeaoCoee omEieSeaWAUSASois A a Ka Wiio   (19"a se oemis" uaoSucEie119-53IOGYeiAa Wu ("e-meioiaooc  ememaamowoo Comsi Sucs5-1eesKIkos a Keas ("A e-meioogssimage moeis icomsi mis suec ia" gue ac oEie Maa Sucs(1-5umoYa Wio  (19"Es-asc i asis ocomsi eis" uaoComsi Maa(3iaa S oau a eIK(197 "aasis asoocmaa"IeaouamecaMeo iEie13597-Wgge ("Comocoacmeccs"  Wiey So  WesSusse Eeiewic  Ca y   (1991a"e  eme meoueome 1 sic uoa aoem" McGw- ok Coeiewic  Ca y   (1991 "e  eme meoueome soa uimeccs mics a a" McGw-ok CoAEIAAEIAGeAsooc  iaeoe woomaamoiis s usee geasooc iaeo (AYSI is is a moe asooc ascieo (19 Sa e (197wcaccous ees iyieses iioa comessio Iis eo aassociaow  is assumea e yie cois ua e wo e mo iaaea (197ee yie suace s aiay secyeisesssce as swigu A-1 1gu A-1 Yie suace oe geasooc  iaeo5AEIAe eocascioois asci-semois as owse eec sess o ee mois iEquao[A-1]^c =  3 1 iAa} -- 3 {a}  ^ [A-1]W{o}= e coe cue sess s{a} = a caaccous aooe yie suace[A] = a maiascs e s oe yie suacee ici a maame  K e yie co    is as iEquao[A-e o    eses a we eec sess is equa  Ke maais assume yie^= {o - } [A] {a -} {a}K =  ^ [A-Wees iyie ses iioa comessioa coi {a}os e ias oe ogioe yie suacee ce is oeyie suace is causeoe imes oasc wo ugue soae mai[A] scs e s oe yie suace a s e  as Equao[A-3]AEIAA11 A A13   A A A   [A] = A13 A A33 A   [A-3]    A55      Ae agos o[A] a iEquao[A- a ca iieea e yie coiEquao[A- a e ssie uaasesscoioA= ^ K   (i = 1  i i[A-W ; a a_i = e i a comessi yie ses icoi (ecooi sysmi =  Y Y  e sayiesc +is seequa mieA = K^ K^ K^ CY^a  [A-5]K is  a [A] auA1 1eK =  + ^ [A-e c{a}sc e aooe yie suaces e  swiEquao[A-7]ka  a   ^ [A-7]W ^ = Ac+  1 ^ ( i  1 3 ^ [A-Assumi asc iomessi oe maasus iEquao [A-9] a [A-1 7AEIAA1 i+A+A i3=A+A+A= ^ [A-9]A13+ A+A33 =aai+aa3= ^ [A-1ee o-agos o[A] a giiEquao[A-11]A = -  1 -A33A13= -  1 1 1 -A+A33 ^ [A-11]A= -  1 -A 1 1+A  A33Usi Equao [A-[A- a [A-1e coisy equaois asswiEquao[A-1 +1 -   -1   +  + -     + 3-   = ^ [A-1 +1 -1 - ^ 33e  e quime oasc iomessi Equao[A-1 is a coamus saseugua  oasc saiAoe yie sesses mus a csesuaceIcss secoe csesuace sws as eiica Ioe aeiicayie suacee cooiqua [A-13] mus meA1 + A+ A_  A 11 A  + A   A33 + A 11 A33  ^ [A-13]Equao [A-1 a [A-13] imy ae yie sesses su  ieioe meee cais mea aa eemea a guaeemoacao eas swie 3-1 e emcaoces i maacos ca usee acaoaSm Se;^ ^ WoouaoMaaMo(uu a I1 C1 11 51 C 1 iUE 111^_ ui117 11a ^1373 ^ 11 y  1 ^19^ y   9 ^ Y ^  ^ S  ie_15eoi_Coai 11171351375 375113 Mg^13 ^ C1 ^ 1^1    sk-^ ^11 ^ Cowao /osai ^ ^9 ^ Gomm o 1 ^ ^13^ WMOE  11 1^1 ^ W 1E  1 ^1^3 ^ Y11 ^ 1/^11^ YIsa 1 1 ^33 ^ Yia ^  ^ ^ 9_S  Ce-  ^  ^ 1 ^ S1EG SAmyOISSO -  ^ 9 7 ^ EI YIE SESS  ^  ^ EI E MO ^   ^ OMESSI E ^ A ^ 5 ^ OMESSI E  G ^ AYIE SIS  A91A E MO 1^E^ 1 ^ 1^E^ 35 ^ ^E^ GO CY ^ /^ ^ 11 ^G ^ O1 ^   157^ ^ -1 ^ 77^^ 1 ^ ^^ 371 ^ 71^ ^ 3 ^ ^ ^ 7^11E ^ ^ ^GO ^ 1 ^ ^ ^ 7SeSo 1^ 111Eaka ^ 991733 315135 ^  ^  ^ skei OAEIAEIoces oWoouaosee-meio Eme AsisS1 Iuiee aese woomaamoWoocomessi MOE (eeicu giWooyie sai(eeicu giAge wooissos o ( a S  Coisy cckS3 Co s maaco  AYS iu- S a mowi 3soeme- Assigmaaas (wooouao9AEICa11C-11-A-1- 1- a -  - WOO- I-ECOa^  Co I-OS

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