Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Drying of red spring wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L.) by various methods and investigation of its.. Lam, Melanie 2007-12-31

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
ubc_2008_spring_lam_melanie.pdf [ 22.72MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 1.0066592.json
JSON-LD: 1.0066592+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0066592.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0066592+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0066592+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0066592+rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 1.0066592 +original-record.json
Full Text
1.0066592.txt
Citation
1.0066592.ris

Full Text

YI OSI WASEEIS  (ICUMAESM   OUS MEO AIESGAOOI E AMMOAASES IA IO  OIGESOMEE MSc(ocmisy a MocuogyUi oisComaou A ESIS SUIEIIAIME OE QUIMES E GE OMASOSCIEEiE CUY OGA  SES(oScieeE UI OISCOMAcemMee mAaceea a mia a ausomacessi io eo oe mesm aa cause muo ie e ose gee  e siey oe ese e eaea eaes a i see ammoa-ase ( is o oe iae sumes eseesis a we-sea eyme wceaks we io  trciamic acia ammoa (Camm a we1973 Iis u ie cyasm oe aces a is y eau a ce was wcmay ociagaie acic eie ie gasoiesac Iesumay gs iese acius ie iesme Iis ssi waseeis  (   u coaigac y we iesgaas a iaaea oeScicaye oecs we (1 ea e yi meo ogecoea ieeoowaseeis coai g oac; ( emi e iooac oe mo osge ueous sgecoio; (3 i e s oac isimumagesocoio esisis ousi a soue eyme   v is waaeee-yi (was u  ie mosac (% co y wsiscom aiyi (A a cuum-micwa yi (  aa siaseeosamese-ee oassues a-1   sigca iegsac com e-ee a- -35 a -  ( Oe mo osge- % oac was coiaa  % wascoisiaseeossues aesge a- Ae  vr oigeso 3% a  % oac was coiesaa ossues sc; we ssues we u   susceie  oases a acic eie a  ac wasiicoaee u o  vr oigeso goae quicomagy (asis oe siae ae  vr oigesocoieaesssues sigca gcoeiooe aao ssuesgeeese sus suggesasi waseeis may  iaas a e sumeeec es w s  eae ac ia eo isquiiiie oCoesAac ^ iie oCoes ^ isoes ^ iisogus ^ soAao ^ iAckwemes ^ iicao ^ I ICO ^ 1II SEAESES A OECS ^ III EW ^ 7III EEA ^ 7IIIe ose ^ 7IIIe e ^ IIIAea ees ^ 9III E AMMOA-ASE ^ 11IIISucs ^  11IIIo ^   11IIIAcao  ^  13IIIIOES OSI WASEEIS ^ 1IIIaoWaSou ^  1M YI MEO ^ 1IIIAiyi ^  1IIIee yi ^  17IIIcuum Micwa yi ^  19iIII CKAGI A S S ^ IIIWaAc a Mois Coe ^ IIISge m ^ IIIckage Maa a Coio ^ III MAOIGESO ^ IIICeac ase ^ IIIGasic ase ^ IIIIesase ^ III In tr geso ^ I MAA A MEO ^ 37IA CMICA ^ 37I  SAME EO ^ 37I1GeiooSi WaSeeis ^ 37I eooieSames ^ 3I3eooee-ieSames S S io ^ 3ICASES ^ 39ICWaAc (a m ^ 39ICEcooe-Ammoa-ase iSi WaSeeis ^  39ICoiCoeoAssay ^ ICGeEcoosis a Wes oAsis ^  ICgoae quiComagy Asis osiae ae  vroigeso ^ I  IUOOSI WASEEIS AOUS COIO  I1Iuoa i e Ammoa-ase Ac ^  I   vr S oe Ammoa-ase  geso ^ I3e Coeio Iuoa  ^ I e Coeio   vr oigeso ^ IE SSCAASIS ^  SUS A SCUSSIO ^ A AOA S S OE AMMOA-ASEAC ISI WASEEIS ^ AEec oGw Coio oe Ammoa-ase Ac oesssues ^ AaooWaSeeis ^ AEec oe yi Meo oe Ammoa-ase Ac ^ AAae oe Ammoa-ase-is ^ AEec oee ms oe Ammoa-ase Ac oee-iessues ^ 5AS s oe Ammoa-ase ac oee-iessuesueous sge coio ^  51  S A AC OE AMMOA-ASE ISI WASEEIS UEOUS IUOCOIO ^ 51S oe Ammoa-ase Ac  Iuoaous Coio ^ 55 S oe Ammoa-ase Ac iWaSeeis IuoaOima ^ 53iooe Ammoa-ase Ac ae  vr oigeso^ 57 Amou oe ges   vr oigesoQuaiegoae quiComagy (asis ^  59 COSIO ^  S IS ^   SES ^ I ES ^ IIAEICES ^ 97II SAME CAUO ^ 97IIAc iy Weig sis (umo y w ^ 97IIAc ioisis (umog oi ^  9II AMI ACICOMSIOO7-Y O SI WASEEIS^II SA CUES GUS ^ 1IIa-Ciamic AciSa Cue CmicaAsis oac  ^1IIA Assay Sa Cue oiCoeoio ^  1IIK 3 UCSCICAO ^ 1II SA CUE OE    ASIS ^ 1II E ASE    COMAGM OEA SA^4isoese 1 ee oe ose ciey i   Ec Gue   commeaooooe As eec es e 3 Summa oe Mo oe Ammoa-ase Aisaoome Soues eae oeea ^ 3e   Scies a  oe Ammoa-ase Sequee (UoKwese ^ 31e 5 Eymac aco OeeioMoSyc Mea as a ooWaAc ^ 3e   Eymes Ioeiges Sysm ^ 33e 7 In tr gesoMeo omages Sysm ^ 3e   Soes a Ges o Asis ^ e 9 e Ammoa-ase Ac cauoa y Weig sis iesassues uee Gw Coio ^ e 1  Mois Coe a WaAc oesa ieWaSeei ssues  ^ e 11 Mois CoeWaAc a e co oe Ammoa-ase Ac iee-ieSeei ssue Suec ous e-ee ms e 1  e Eec oSge o Sge m a ckage Coiooe Ammoa-ase Ac io e s oee-ieaSames^ e 13 e Eec oSge o Sge m a ckage Coiooe Ammoa-ase Ac oee-ieosiaSeeSames ^ 71iie 1  e co oe Ammoa-ase Ac iesaaosiaseeSames Iuaous  ^ 73e 15 e Ammoa-ase Ac iesaa ossues aeeu Iuoa a37  wi owioue Aioooase Ii ^  7e 1  Coeiooe aeo u Iuowi esaa ossues a a37  ^ 77e 17 Coeiooe aee u   vr oigesowi Gua gu esa ee-ieassues ^  7e 1  Coeiooe aee u   vr oigesowi Gua gu esa ee-ieossues ^  79isogusgu 1 e iooe Ammoa-ase Ac aeaoa Oe Mo oSge ^ 5gu   e Ammoa-ase S a Ac ueous Coio ^  gu 3 a eiMec way Ias  e Ammoa-aseAeom  ea ( ^  35gu   Iee oWaAc oe S oo; aeom eaa y( ^ 3gu 5 e co oe Ammoa-ase Ac iaWaSeei ssues (aa osiaseeaa osiaseesames wesuec ai (Acuum micwa- (a ee-yi (wi e-ee a-1e co was cauoa y weig sis   essamesWiie same ssue sameeaes  e e a sigca e  (p <  ^  gu   Wes oAsis ooi Ecom aWaSeei ssuesAows i  ise is we ciassues (17k e 7k i was cie siaseeossueses ie A aiie ee-ie  cuum-micwa ie ^ gu 7 MaiEecooe Ammoa-ase Ac iee-ieaSames wi sc Sge o(weeks Sge m ( ckageCoio ica as oSames a s ^  gu   e co oe Ammoa-ase Ac iee-ieaSames ae1Weeks oSge aous Sge ms a ckage Coioasames o1 a we suec 1weeks osge a a - icuum ck a cuum cke co was cauoa y weig sis  ee-ieasames assayewii3 uWiie same  eaes e e a sigca e  (p <  ^  gu 9 MaiEecooe Ammoa-ase Ac iee-ieosiaseeSames wi sc Sge o(weeks Sge m( ckage Coio ica as oSames a s ^  7gu 1  e co oe Ammoa-ase Ac iee-ieosiaseeSames ae1Weeks oSge aous Sge ms ackage Coioosiaseesames we suec 1weeks osge aa - uecuum-ckea cuum-cke e co was cauoa y weig sis   ee-ieosiaseesames assayewii3 ueaes  e e a sigca e  (p <  ^  7gu 11 e co oe Ammoa-ase Ac iesa ee-ieassues o3 u o  vr geso esa  assues we suec 1 uic gesoa u ac geso( oessames  weiges ese e meaoio + sa ao agssio weeoe gesoiea iesasames (e co oac = -37(oogeso + 11;   = 1 a oe 3 gesoiea i asames (e co oac = -97(oogeso + 97;   =99  ^  75gu 1  e co oe Ammoa-ase Ac iesossueso3 u o  vr geso esossues we suec 1 uic gesoa u ac geso( oessames  weig es ese e meaoio sa ao agssiowas eoe 3gesoiea iesosames (e co oac = -(oogeso + 99;   = 99 ^  7isoAaoA^ aiyia^ waac ^ -e-5-aooeA ^  sem aumiE ^ ey ace ^ ee-yiG ^ geamo ^ s ammoa-ase^ gi eyA ^ mia ^ goae quicomagy ^ w i eyMIO^ 3-o-5-mey--imioAA ^ uae ami aci^ e ose ^ e ammoa-asee^ eU^ eea ^ o ^ sC ^ co ^ ooA ^ icoacec aciA ^ iuacec aci ^ cuum-micwa yiiAckwemesI wou ke  ess my ea sie g  my suiso Cis Scamawi kwe a commes  eogae meueieougi a oguie  suoeme ugumy sI wis ess sie as  my commiee mem m eAisoKeo a Euce -C w ga me ima guieae commes asuggesoeiias a coes  a maae iee omy seaI wa a o AiseSkuKae Ces  a so Yagaee eiae aice a ie WiouyouI wou  ae  wo smoougumy yea is woI  coawi ma coeagues wm  I  gagaAa Goso Imea CuMoca amau-MiC As SamayakaEam ssei si a A as accomi me ia e syys gs a weekesI owe my  as  my  momsis a oew aays e imesas k s eougeme a ueiiwou  eimssie me  sis wo wiouyousuoa you  aIn    CiIIcoeea (Ua U-mia (Aa ausomacessi io eo oe mesm aa cause muo iee ose ( gee come oacome ciey oe ac sus ieoooooe a accumuooeesI ua es ugicasoewcis esume  a coequeeoe c eec oe ami acioaie (Cae a Wuma 19e eae was icei1953 a mai e maie U/Aeses musmaiaia  sicea iesa syc e sumecomseoa e-ee ami acimiua a soue omi a mie  e siey oe e ma es a om e ee oiooes wi e coeoa e commeewas ss a3 oseyoueaage1yea aos% ose age15 yea ooe(Waeeaeaea euc meo ea e coioa i iesgaOeyme e wi e ammoa-ase ( icomowi acow oies esuggesas a ausie aea  e cue e oU (Scea19 cas e o amiooe  yiea-ciamic acia ammoaa-ciamic aciis coee oic aciay eiu as u (ski ea19 is a we-seeyme ais wi siiassome iyeas a ca (UoKwese Iquis  coc ie gooe a is se uea wi me (Camm a we1973 I oc a-ciama is e ecuoomeuseicomus ge secoa mesm iasi1acyaaigcoumaa isoaiya (a ea19; ws ea199 e a Segui  As is e maeyme ie emecsm oasicaao  so iuce eeaysica ogica acmicasmus (Ses ea19; Socka a Kacka1995; Kim ea; ea Segui ; Kea; Se ea; ea Sc; Cua Ae sge oa ee essiooao es eeagesssues a oa (i a ucke197 Camm a we1973; aeaUa19; Iskawa eaooocoe oe eicacy ooe s eesisusi Umu mouse mo Saissiaea i1999e meo oassi is oem eiesgasucas immooisemieae miccaus oeeisi oi(uea C19; Iue ea19 immooiessioces (Saissiaea1999 oe use ocom (Saissiaea1999;u ea we aimmu se s eeaeasuuousiecooa e eicacy ois mi i suscei  iesoases(Gie a ck19; Saissiaea1999 e cosocom as a isume es  eea coiooe as weee cuecees ousi as a sume i  a meoooc e eymeom ooc gow s aowi e eymes access  eom eouswoamo a e a soues awe scewi acsi waseei was u   o oe ssoues oe eyme (Gosoea e useoseeis os a soue oais waea aiea ca easimage e a wae soue oseeis ae oimasges is a saaage ooesoue o Iis s7-y o si waseeis(   wi gac we iesgaas e iasume U/A ese iooaeaoa o3 mo osge weea Iaio simumaoigesoa ous iuocoiowe oe esma e s o e sus om is wo o iigs  e a eoowaseeis as e e sume U/Aes   mucoeie e3IIseaeses a OecsIis se ssi ousi si wa (   as aaea oe U a A es was ueiesgao e eauoowiia ces mig  ae  ocwiie gasoiesgeso us icou g e acius ie iesme eis aacmig  u iase e e a oie a cou  some oe eoe U e e eses ois s we1 ac isi waseeis ca iaeyi a oemo osge; ac isi waseeis is se ueacic a sic eiesa ooc osis ia  vr oigesogu 1 a o ow-agm oiew oe scmac eemeasigAs suce eses we emi e owi oecs1  ge coea ieeoowaseeis coai goac usi e meo (cuum-micwa-yiee-yi aaiyi  emi e iooac oe mo osge ueoussge coio;3  ea e s oac ueacic a sic eies;  simu e coio omaoigesoa  i e s oac as we as e coeiooe    vr oigesoS  1eeks; C / -; cuum / cuumckeSi WaSeeis gei7 ysIrosiaseeyi Meoa  ^Ac Assay /oiCoeoAssay /Wes oAsis^ Agu 1 e iooe Ammoa-ase Ac aeaoa Oe Mo oSge5Si WaSeeis Gei7 ysesa/ o a/ oIuoa 5 / / 9Wi oWiouoase IiIn tr oigesoIn tr oigeso+ e (1mgacoie AioooaseIisca acoSooAc Assayacoii 1Misoo Asis siaegu   e Ammoa-ase S a Ac ueous CoioIII ewMeeaCssicaeea (U; MIM 1 was agse Asoi i193w ce esee oees ie u oes (Ceeaa Ceea19 U a U-mia (Aa ausomacessi io eo oami acimesm aa cause come oacomeciey ie ose ( EC 111acI ua e oe cause ugicasoewca esume  a coequee oe ceec oe ami acioaie (Cae a Wuma 19 e oiie oU a A es eeec gu as swie 1Oe s7yeae sease s ewi seoi ge a muoe eyme suc aoas we as w sce a eaesIIIe oseo ie a coes e io si usi co-caooe(As oAugus531 muo oeiie(MuoAsis Cooium se/mcgia/ e oisuc ois ama 1 o i a macomseoe mai wi momec su (ey a Woo19; Kim ea e maA agme o(comosomacus1-qcoai au se iwi aoaame o153 se i eo ami acie co sequee sws aeami acicomsiooe mage is 9% coeewi aoe  e7mu mouse sai wi A is wi useiseases (GUea19;Saissiaea1997ac is use cssi e us ocieye cssicaoscme was ose Gu ea (199aoooe ias is 515o(Ca a Wae  Wioua sice cssicaU es  ssa1 % oaca oo oe cay mg/ (mo wioy 35mg oe e e y; mo U es  1-3 % oac wi 35mg oe e e y; mi U es  o3 % oaca ooe omg/ ( o wi mg oe ee y (e ea19; Gu ea199 ey Mi A es ooe coeo wea1mg/ ( o oa aeae ses  commeeaey  ee eae ( ea1971IIIe eUaU es  moaimiaie wi symomsi micceaeyse meaao a ouoems (Wiiamsoea19 e  e eiciey oe w sce a eaeese symoms ca eec ee e eae was ice ckei1953 a Woo i195 es musmaiaia gy sicw oiea iesa syc esume wi e-ee ami acimiumi a mi (Woo ea1955; 1999 e sume is oei ioua s; a cause oe siey oe eemoosess iese mies is oeg(1999 Iis caae e eaesu  iaas sooas ssie ae we  coeus coei e oe esu  maiai(Mi a Sc  Ses  aascoiaooe eau yea oage es aow oimagw imeaaesa sueiwescos omeasus oieigee quoeaeioa acome (Wiiamsoea19; ey Some as wi U w scoieee eae au 1yea oage  ycaic icuies iessio aiesociawiawa uc ou a oeoas (Wiiamsoea19; weoa  ; ey Aooeicuies aaeca sucas coiaeios sw ioaoocessi aesa sw moacome a sco(Mi a Sc  we e coues ous commeao oe ooe coeo  wcas su ae (eIge ees sw ae e wi U su maiaia  sice eioe maiaie ooe coeowiie commeeae(weoa  IIIAea eese  e icuies iae  e eeaema es a om ee guiswcsus ieess e coeo ioo e oiooes wi e coeo a e commeewas ss a3 oseyoueaage1yea aos% ose age15 yea ooe(Waeeaea moaems a ooi   oeeaes moes USomacge e uses a com a-associas ccoai e mu cAwcis io e oU mice a si iaoiiieco ( ea;  ea Aee uses e uaami aci (AA eeeas a e sume  com wi e e AA aeae ooaiie(Kaag ea; Maea; Maea e eyme9aceme e usi e ammoa-ase is aeaacais i wise e 3 summas e mases oieae oUe  isuscei  gasoiesoaseseiee soowas y okew gasoiesoases (i ea197eses  eeoe use oe eauomeo sucas ge causi oiaiciacea ceuse a mema  ocagaiooc aacks(eea197 ski ea19; Gie a ck19; uea C19;Iue ea19; -Moi a meo Wieea (1979 eao ,  co aac meoey gco was ae sisooc gesoaugia iuceai ao o Saissiaea (1999moae use ocom  ptd  esseiE. l  oaisaoa iaieco Oecom  ome soues a wi mocao  ao eea(u ea; Gameea we w scic ac was commoy u iese eauacom com  (Kim ea  e cos ocomas a i sume es  eea coiooe (Saissiaea1999 Oese aacs  swsome case oooe iamamo wi U wi ceaimioese is suggesa wi seamay gee eoe gy siceU es a eimiesaao e e ysiogicaa ycgicaicuies asome es eeee1III e Ammoa-aseIIISucse ammoa-ase ( EC3was sco KoukoaCo (19 Is ewi sea isoom o a souesyeas ai (UoKwese/wwwiuoo/  (e s ao euisome ca wcusuay   a s ammoa-ase ( EC3aces (a a Moo; Moi ea Coeaoosequee is gamo scieswi o9% coeaoioisequee a au7 ami acii (UoKwese Ias a e yeas ptd,  eeyme es as a amewi su cay o77- k a aaa  oimum o9 (Camm a we1973; Caese eacases e amiooe  yie a-ciamic aciaammoae cssuc isoom  ptd  s moasimisuc a mecsm wi (Ai ea; Caese ea a  qui egeus cocey  oe 3-o-5-mey--imio (MIOcocwcis eaucacay om cycoaaooA-SeG (Sce ea1999; Caese ea Ige e om iais aaio5 sies cai e ia C-igio (Mac a CuaIIIois e key eyme aos a ie eeima mesm a eeiways osecoa mesmI oc a-ciama is e11ecuoomeus comus sucas coumacaea a sima as swigu 3 (Seea Cock197 Eis1997 ese comus a sysia oas gmes (acya Uocs (ai sucme(g aimicacomus (couma isoaiya a caeic acis(a ea19; ws ea199 e a Segui ;  ea As is e maeyme ie e mecsm oasica soiuce eeasmus ke ysica ogica a cmicaagesseases u ais iuceise  ogec aack (a Cnn,c a csa (Kea; Se ea Ua ceaisie giaao(sce ea19; e a Segui  ssue woui (Ses ea19w m (Socka a Kacka1995 u-socao e (Cuaami aci (Kim ea ow  ooge osaoi(ea Sc ac  ese smus ugiaseeessioa aciooi ge(a ea19 Is eeaiioomA acio  trciamic acico e wguooe eiway (O ea1993ac is ii i e oc a-ciamic acia i s  (phrn a o-cociama a comus (ooa a oa(O ea1993 e coumao-cso a cso ao eu ii(O ea1993; Ai eae oac is coe e age a ea is oassue-scic iasMamaac is u  ewi e age oe sciesemeac s aea  gsi7-y o geiwaas comao5-y o s(i a ucke197 Camm a we1973 Ie skiogsac is g eay ey cases eae1(aea Ua19; uka ea Iaio e a ssueseige ao iacOa esweig siso ossw g oaco oosi sus  eu i Gln lt  (ia ucke197 Iskawa ea iies a ase ma oiscie ski (Sa ea19; aea Ua19IIIAcaoe  e ca egeus cocis quieymac aco iimae isecoa mesma i aae iokaos a eukaosisi usewi iiusies a seasesA maacaooiiusy is oce e as e ecuooasame (Mac a Cua eoow e e (eacaseiosasU es s esuggesas we(Mac a Cua Ie ese seaaas eseeei i ia eak weess amous oe iU eswcsescussea summaisecoIIIAs oseiis sas mig  agoosoue oe eae oU13IIIioes oSi WaSeeisAs swie eaie e eyme osi wais u iecyasm a cois o7 ami aci i wi mocuweig o753(UoKwese o cse e gy mogous ges  ao eisoom a wagemic a a soue oasis iicas e esee oamuie ge mi oiwa( a ao sis e eymesiwaseeis coaima oeiesIIIaoWaSouSouige  a gai e icomso see e  a equa ooi a eoai oesseiami a ace emesa a gcoe ouay aci iy weig sis (u-e ea19;sceea1997 Is ao eeae aio ac owagiso iases  e geioocess (Cauo ea Aiase omiC coe s eu  geiow  miC was u iy wagi(Ya ea miE a 13-ca coes  esw gay iase geioa aceiak oy (Ya ea Ses  esisae coeooaiosmia soues omi iwagi isiase e geioocessa is e oe  ogeio acmamum es aeauseys (Ya ea; Cauo eaOeae a meioawasou a a sigca soue oe e as wee e is e saccs a gie eaa ges e eogeus seco oe mages ac(Seea e119 Waseei s  e guogiceous mocowc a ce waais comseoau57% miceuse (gca aa miage(3-gca1% c 1% oi(eeia gcooi a 15 % ceuse (Cai19 e ce was o meccasuo a oce a ces om oasms aaoc sesses (Oea oas a e come ioe ce wasimo aie iesacoma sucas e coo eaicusease a ei coccae asgassiie we(e 19 ecoi oa e e  owasou wi w iice  as we as eigac ocwiie e eswaseeismay ese aeee osoue U es15M yi Meoaois e oesmeoooeseaouse maiIis a ocess iwcwais mo  osw we gw osige micoasmsas we ase occuee ocmicaacoIiees e s  e  e wewaac (gu e yi ocess usuay okes a ce oe ysica cmica aogicaoiesa moes e ccscs ooocIis sousyi meo we use y waseeise aaages a saaages oeacmeoa scusseas owsIIIAiyiAiyi (A is commoy use y sscesa some uie a amoe coeioaiie sucas caie eie coeyoieie uiie eumac ie a  ie ese ie a i e oses sucas ous quaies a quaes oo aaa aiciesIe aoocessiis  coecoae mois oe maa is caieaway om e yi suace  e aiseam; w e acue coious a emois  e suace  couco(ea  e wausisiageoies a e esee oce was eamo oa ese c aecemome owawiie so (Kaas ea199 ea  As yioceee  owaeooe suace may come sae  ousio e suace a usuay sus icase e a coae oe us suc(ea  Coae ia us suc cases e a oies oiac1suesgases a quiwcaec e aocaci a ao(Kaas ea199Ces ius suc ao aece u oe ocsisAis  ueaaose ooge wccis ooacosucas e  oowow is causeima  e oooecs eymac ac oeose (Kaea eose is wisiiui a geesIAoc a oesueiuauecouces (Kki ea  coiies a  comusiy occu  A  comus a a ies wcasei  aa ogea se   eosu  ms a oge Aocess (Yousiea; Cui ea OoeasuyiAis e mosiei ocess  o iaec e ucou au a ioe oe oc eeiIIIee yiee yi (was useie 195 a iis w wi seaie cmisyocogyaaceuca as we as oiusiesIis coie saomeo oci e oc ogsqua comwi oeaomeoe yi ioes a emi ee oe oc owe yi ueceessu wi a suicie asu  suima icee iaaooccu aw ma wioua e osese ocm ses  omm; e amage  e oc is mima(Oeea sey Ios ieoc ous suc a esees mosoe iaw maasysicaa cmicaoies sucas saeaescou au a u(Kki ea; Ssaa ea; Oeea sey ogicaac17a gaocaci ooc ca ias we (maea19; Oeea sey Wi e aioocoocseymes ac oosouckisec ogeseasgisea aa osase acoae (maea19; Caeeea1993;  a wso 1993 aa i(199 ao ea case3-gacsise a c ogeseac was iagcoeo ae ie aee ooc ageswe e a some mio aa  e  meo cause  isgey coucaao essus ow 1 aucoms (maiy comusa e s e ocess (i1975  oc a oesei sge coio sucas m oogeaose e  e ous sucs(a a i 199 Oeea sey iss oe ieoc quisaioca   a sgeAuga weee m is ayeeas smaeice cs a ewcwou   ysicamage  e ces gee s may cause sesses asu isii occki oe ssues(i a i199; ows   cooe aooeceuice a e coeoosos occumo y ae esmosis ocewa wce sus ie cyasm comi suooa mage eiceuice (Ackea McGa; Mcga a a197essiiscomica i e oimae-ee m eacoc e ooo is mucsweaAa wcsigca iases e o cosa ecacos oe igea cuum m Augiis cia use  meoe come oe ocess a e equie quis aicicia  o; ao ego a maiee cos mii acao  gaee oc1IIIcuum Micwa yiMicwa a is w commoy use uses a iusiesemecsm omicwa a is  e iecoeemicwa ey a ecicmaa sucas oe eiooecic maa ssis as a eacaooecomagc micwa ey (Kaeuea; Scamaa e e ey as io e ieooe oa os a a ocess(Scamaa e cuum yi is ay usesei maa aca mageagm; e yi kes ace acei is ia w-essu cm(Ki ea19 I19caau ue comooemicwa a a cuum yi geea esise ocess ocuum-micwa yi ( (caau19 aows yi aw m a smass acoee cuum; e ceessu may ao iioooeoce  i gey ocesss esuccessy emoyeiousacao sucas o agcuu a aaceucaoc (Yousiea1999;Kaeuea; Cui ea; eea sse ea (u ae eymac s ose uewas gaaouecoeioeaae caiioocaosces a coy ioocas ues ao sw   cse  ose ie  a muceaose ie A(Cui ea aows sooeces   iemo yaoeaomeo (Scamaa e Geyis ssecomicaaAcause iocesses ueceessu; iis coiy moecomicaa e   e-ee quia seaoo19(Owusuaa 1991  summamay  cia y ooc wisie qua aa wecosaIIIckagi a S Sckagi ays aima  io e oimum oc oies  keee ocigoocoioi aicis waysckagi sees as aesseiamae sagyIis  comica cose e aia ckage wi eoimaieoies e icuocas e oc  e ysicasi esa sei  oge m a mois (i a i199  sige g ckagi e oc  s seous c sucaswaac a mois coesge mckage coio a e ckagemaa    coi Eacoese c is scussewIIIWaAc a Mois CoeWcoi e s oaoce waac is mo cciaae mois coeWaac measus e amou omois ais aie suo micagw a cmicaacAs swigu  ese c aso e oe waac  Ige e  ooois mimumie a w e -; e  oeymac ow is gsie a w e -camous a yeaswi gw w e ae 79(ao 19Oe oeeymac aco a ao aima cause ooooey oeco  e uesie ow a ces iu a auesswaac cessa e iaooeymac aco is e amoeymesEymac aces oe commoeymes  esas a oowaac as summaie 5Isummawaac s    gso aeymes a suas  suicie soes e occuee ocac acowe eymes ioe ioo cause e suas a gscoceimo wi  aec e amou owa w a w s is oeu ieseeymes e iaooeymac acoIIISge mw m sge is usuay acce ee e s  ooc esei ucou au a ie coeIe ose mocumomemicagwcmicaa eymac aco usuay sw woes(o a a  Iusesige a ee a gey use swwe gooo  ocmicasige a  ce gw oca ai (Giso  Sei oc aeao ke iw m sgecaesee e quaes o comus a eymac acemewieooc a oy ckagea s ey  s s ou yeais wi  ce 3-mo a37  (i a i199 Ses oe eecoe sge m a ccia  e oimaqua oieocIIIckage Maa a CoioWa oocis a mois is mo us sucs a ea ocmicacoms a mo coe As a sue aocaaos waom e suouis a ca mo susceie  o ces (Eice19 Mices immoisa ogecae aece quaeaoc su  ieckageia cuum oi gas  keeoumois u aia g (i a i199; eaa y e a omaa aa cue useckagi sucas w i ey ( gi ey ( o ( co (C s (ey ace come (E  eEacoese s i owccscswcoe aaages a saaageseme ca eioe ss wi w ea  waugea  oac uogea esseiaoi;  is mo giis mo cosy a;  s eeegase sise; C s googas ieoies a gase sise a is a moie mois u  s gi se is a oie mois uE s gwaua gas sise a sess ccki siseiao s a gimcse aw ms;  s gi se a is ee oa wim e (Eice 19 Aia ckagi maa ca sec eseequa ie scic seies a e es ow mois o  waua ogeuake a kw(Eice 19 m sise is aecas  coicause some ckagi s acome i weose wms a suie ckagi ooc com a ese ceacocsu  i owscicao osge mckagi meo amaaa e oimamois coe/waac  ee i s IM maoigesoe mages sysm is ma uoe ocae esoaguse smacom a e sma iesgesooois caieou e eogeus secooeymes a is coe ous a oei a ii mecsms(Magee a ey19 e a e ases oeymac seco(ceac asegasic asea iesasewcse io a coious ocess  geso(wke 19;  ea19 e summas e maeymes ioeigesoIIICeac aseSa is sec ica e o make swaowi easyIao coai amysea a ace ose gesooses (Magee a iy19  e ceacasecoioes esis se  sig a sme io ea iucesecoogasic ice ieoe e ooio e smac( ea19Gasic ice is sec3mis wi e  oama 5mu( ea19IIIGasic asee gasic ase kes ace ie smacw sao a gasic ices ami  a semi-socme (ao ea e meccaessu oeoagaie mucosa causes e secooacia i e gasic mucosa cois oe s oceseacscia sysi a sec mucusige Iiic coe o gasi((wke 19; Magee a iy19 Mucus is eica wcs  keemucosa mugue gasoiesacw 1 s maiaie w  eie ie smac  s o e gasic  isau1   e gasic  ses m   3-7 uea a mea  gasicemyie gasic  gay cs uie ss  eie s e-esis(ao ea a1 secois 1-5 mmou sa 5- mmou smuo(wke 19 e aci oe smaciaous acs igea  we iis ica es a (Magee a ey19 iis moseicie ica s ioi e amacami acieyoaa si a cos 1 % ooigeso(wke 19IIIIesaseowi e gasic asee cme ee e om a is miges a aoeie ome e ocme io e om iasoses a ous es wcaecgasic secoa gasic mo(wke 19 ac icewccoai cao ua e aciomsmac ecosa eymes ges a e mas omacies sucasoi  a caoasis secio e om (ao ea ecomsiooac ice is wa caocosoumssiumcaium a magsiumoases (yige cmoyige ocaoise A a uci amiiseesseiseogoise sesamysesegcoamysecsesucsecases (caseocaseaaosase osose A a  a csesse (wke 19;  ea19 is ao secie om om e gaaewe is ie mea Souma ssium sas o aci a cougawi u a gci   ucc agcocc aciie o o1 (ao ea  acis  emui ee ics oe oio sma ics so as   ges e ses; iai ie a a aoooe ges a uge iesmucosamemaIe omasma iess  coeo a ie eo1-5 mM (1-3 g/cmea iase 7-15 mM (5-1g/cmeaeea(ao eaIge oigesois eme eicie; u 99 % oiesoiisaoeas ami aci (Magee a iy19 Eekise acs yigeca ae si-isouci age cse  e ie oe yimocu(wke 19 e acyius acs oeyigemocusaoases sucas cmoyi esse a caoiseyicas i seiay aami aci a si cegusucas si a ai;cmoyicas i s eiay aamac ami aci sucas siyoa a e w caoise cas ami aci ae caoegesois come eymes caie useoe sma iesi amiise a ise wcsie mai is io si oioami aciAmi acisma amou ois a iis a aoeieiesmucosaces  scic mema a sysms (wke 19III In tr gesoIn vr gesomois a commoy usemeo gaeioaoooai oies (Gae ea aee (Asooea199  eaoac is ( a -C  as we as coamis (Oomeea;ao ea Com amamoiis mucmo sime sa aiei  cay ou we ies ese e comicageso  v  Mos vr gesomeo ioe o asesgasic gesoase  simu e smaca a sueque iesgesoaseSe  vr gesomoiey ouiie 7 eis Ige ia ococ acia use mimic egasic ase; a a  sasgeewi soum o a soum caoa use mimic e iesgesoase wi iuoa37  wi skiesus oaiom   vr gesomocao ioao eueie oai oe comus oiesa ai   v amases iee 1 ee oe ose ciey i   Ec GuEc Gu ^ ciey i  ^ Cios ^ 1/ ^ (O ea19Is^ 1/3 ^ (eyCaucasia^ 1/1 ^ (Sca Kaua EasAsia ^ 1/1 ^ (Sca Kaua se^ 1/1 ^ (Aoki a Wa19is ^ 1/15 ^ (eye   commeaooooe As eec esCou Coeooooe img/ (oCa 1(1-USs (UKim 11 (7Gea (1ae 1 (13Summaom ey (e 3 Summa oe Mo oe Ammoa-ase Aisaoome Soues eae oeeaSoue o ^ Mo oAisao ^ eptdom micasouecomptdessei E. lcom tr pessei  lt  cescomptdee gcoessei E. lAoeie was oow esa co u  e ieaosma  eee-ieaswckeio ge causcoaiwiieacesSemieae miccausEeisi oiOaisaoa iaiecoMiceauiceuse amemaquieooaisaoIaieco(eea197(ski ea19(Gie a ck19(uea C19(Iue ea19(Saissiaea1999(-Moi ameo(u ea(Gameea3e   Scies a  oe Ammoa-ase Sequee (UoKweseScies ^  oSequeeYeasSaccmyces cesiae (ke yeasosum is (Yeaso a (Yeas   57171713iUsgo mays (Smuus ^ 7Asius migas (Saoa miga ^ 7Asius ge ^ 7us cssa ^ 7Cemium gsum (Soius ^ 7a SouesAis aa (Mouse-eacss ^ 71797 as (Sugae ^ 719omaa aysoa (O ^ 7Cameia siis (a ^ 71Ciceaem (Ccka(Gaao ^ 71Cius mo(mo ^ 7Cucumis me (Muskme ^ 9ucus ca (Cao ^ 7as caoyus (Caao (C  ^ gis  ( ^ 713Gci ma(Soya ^ 713as auus (Commosuwe ^ 7eum a (ey ^ 57597Imoea s (Swee ^ 7osum ei ^ 717Mecago sa (Aaa ^ 7coa cum (Commocco ^ 71715O sa su iica (ce ^ 713O sa su ca (ce ^ 71371ea ameca (Aca ^ osem csm (y(osem ee ^ 7171aseos as (Kiey a (ea ^ 71 71s e (oy  ^ 75sum sam (Gaea ^ 7s ami su iccaa ^ 715s ckii ( oGia ^ 711s kikamieis (As ^ 71s sieii s gia ^ 715s emuis (Quaki as ^ 7111us aum (Cy ^ 717s ieus (sey ^ 73Som coicum (ma ^ 7Som sum ( ^ 597Ssas mis (we s ^ 715ium sueaum (Sueaac ^ 7icum aesm (Wa ^ 7a mays (mai^ 7 31O c  c17(ai i;S=1k  I  (___o  -- -- 0 k k 71- ff ., (-  c   A    c c  Ak   k  i    c c M e  c c M 1cO7a ^  ^v ^  ^v ^ c^ c(^   ^ C c^ Q ^ cu^ CI^ c^ ;^ ^  ^  ^ C/^ Q^ cA^ CI^v  ^^e ^ c^ cu^  ^  a 7-1^ S^ ki E     E ; o e^  E--1 a a   E aa^ E"aU ^ c ea ^ 7%  o ^ 171   c^ c^ -    Q  -5e ^ co^ 3e  Eymes Ioeiges SysmEyme ^  ^ osMou  a-amyse 5 Sogosaccs7Smac i ^ 1 oiisse ^ 3^ igces ^ gces a y aci(emuicaooSma iesa-amysea-segcoamysecseSucsese A ososecaseocaseAa osaseCsesseEekiseyiCmoyiEsseCaoiseOgoiseiseAmiise7 S- ogosaccs5^ Ogosaccs gcoseMaoiose/maose/isomaose gcosecse gcose + gacseSucse ucse + gcoseigces mogces/gces/ee yaci/gceoso y aciA ogocos cosA ogoocos ocosmooosa guioi/cos/aaiSess+ y aciyigeyiOgois/oie isOgois/oie isOgois/oie isOgois/e is sma is  & ami aciSma is/iis/is ami aciSma is isOgois/sma is ami aciSummaom wke(19a  ea1933e 7 In tr gesoMeo omages Sysms Comu Eyme/cmica  Mi meSe(mSoicoami Sa(a a a-amyseuc aci muci KC1C1O5 55 5 misGasic asei muci 1C1KC117 55 uIesaseCaC1 a seC11O37 55 uCai  Gasic ase1i i  95 1 uIesaseO3O  eca7 95 uoaee Gasic asei C1 1 A 1 miIesaseK a 7 A 1 mi(Oomeea a; Gae ea ; Asooea1993Ia-O- oO 0COECCcCCCCCC o_co"UCCOCC 0COEaOw0CC( IOCaO ^ QO% ^ 0E<OO CCc0COC- CCC(O>CCC":CCCOCWaacgu   Iee oWaAc oe S oo; aeom eaa y(3I Maa a MeoIACmicaEymesaiesa suas we seom Sigma CmicaCouessoeise scie A cmica we oage gI Same eoI1GeiooSi WaSeeise gs osi waseeseom o e sue (WesoasSee; C Ca a Qua See Wes C Cao3 yea we ea Seewe soakei5 % soum co (5 ( co eac soo15 misewi s iowa a geiaom m (- 7 ysSeeis we geiiswe (SecoA a iesi AumacSou (isCo mo; CaiaUSAwcoieie aowi sewae 15 mis (SecoSecoAsee we geiie  wi a wiouguao Ae7 ys ogeio assues weseom siaseeossues asessiaseeis as es eosaucaa seecoaOy aa ossues we useasis iSeco37I eooieSamesug oa ssue we useeacyi ocessee yi ( waseeis we ke a- -35 -  o-1 oig a we ieueceessu (7 k ucuum-micwa yi ( was oewi aye(Ea IWsmo9 W; C Ca aW a k3mis asames a  mis siaseeosamesAiyi (A wascaieoua  usi a  5  uiye(SooScieic ;CamieUKimwi owea(3mees/seco uAeyia maawas sisicca a assayeac wii3 ue co oac iiesames was cauwi sc e essames om e same I3eooee - ieSames S S ioee-ieaa siaseeossues we e-oa-1 oig aee-ie u ueceessu (7 k Aeyisames we sisicca a assayeac wii3 u ockeuecuum a/ocuum ie k 3uc( mi/ miE; WesCoasoak Sysm ;C Ca ckesames we sa a/o-  a assayeacaes    a 1weeksee-iesames assayewii3 u aeaowe euseas e co cau e e co oac3ICAsesICWaAc (a wa Mois Coe ioe waac (aoa esa iesames was iusi e Aqua(MyeSeice Su  Mo39; OaoCa Mois coe osames wasiusi a cuum aioa7 a 1kA waac as amois coe asis we  iica eacsameICEcooe - Ammoa - ase iSi WaSeeiseswaseeis we assayeoe y oes aeyi  ousmeoa aeiu aous coioe  siooac ie assiaseeo a o oe waseei was ioy 7 owiaosee  geiocoioa sames (esa iesameswe mogeiecoe(5mMis-1  1 mM EA1mM meaoeaa 5 % (w/ o-o (ia 1 o (same esweig e  gi wi moaaseAemogeo sames we ke a 1 u a ecegea g (Soa  5usMaeScieic Co; OaoCa15 mis aAquo osua we saeusi a -1com(GE aa; QuecCa Aeeuge -1com  oe same  (oiowauseas a awas ae  oacoe(1 mM is-1 a 1 sua ( mM e1 mM is-1  a iua37  15 misAaquoo  % icoacec aci(A; w/ was aeaeiuo i e aco a sames we cegea13 g 1539mis (Mik icge Gea Aoae a was usei e amou oa-ciamic acioce cauusi a sa cue(Ucam Us scome CamieUKimSeco1ecoewas aus  5 a 9a mogewi a sames as meioaa sames we cuio -cm s asueeiecoeaus  5 wi  ia 1 oAe1 uiuo sames we a aus  egu wi a moaa seeco oac wi  ause was cauwi sc sames wiouauseICoiCoeo Assayoicoeoosames was iusi e ao meo A sacue was couc e  sem aumi(Aae o iom 9 mg/m o-oiassay e age coe (Sigma; 5-waswi iowai1 osAaquoo5 me age was miwi 511 osame  oA oisasAoae oa sas a sameswe measua595  usi a scoome(Ucam Us Scome CamieUKimICGeEcoosis a Wes oAsisSoum cysu acmi geecoosis was oeaccoi emm (197 usi 1% acmi soi ge a ge   esioie (M71eas s we awi 1 g oi oi we siwi Coomassie iia ue  Wes o we caieouusi a oceusemema si  musi a semi-y ecooe e owas ockewi 1m5 % mi wiosa esa ee (S 1 uoagy ske Iwas eowi iai-acaies (1i1 m3 % mi wiSe3 ue owas wasusi 3 1mSewass o mis eac a eiu1 u(1oiS wi goaai-iIgG-aa osase couga (Sigma; A 37 Eesssecoa ai was mowi 1moS mis owe a 1mi waswi osa esa (Se Aa osase ac wascoe ousi o-ue aum co a 5-omo-co-3-ioosa iaa osa e(1 mM is1 mM C15 mM MgC1  9ICgoae quiComagy Asis osiae ae vr oigesoe amou oe mai aeiuowas i e ase goae quicomagy (-usi a moemeooQi ea ( Aw cka  sysm wi aau samea a o aay Us cwas usewi a e-ase aSC 1com(mm 15mm; 5 M ic si ow was 1 mmi wi comm a e Ucwas se moeee a waAaquoo111 oe sames was iecaomme 1 sws e eomeo A sa cue was couca eamou oe ie sames was cauaccoiI IuooSi WaSeeis aous CoioI1Iuoa i e Ammoa-aseAcug oesaa osiaseesames we cuio -cm sse a iuwi  mwaaus  usi 1 O3 u a37 iuwi ski a1 m (Io w uwick Scieic; w eyUSA Isome samesoase iiSa EAwe ae ace coeo o5 mM a 5 mM scWaseei ssues we moome iuosooa assayeace co oac aeiuowas cauwi sc essames om e same wiouiuoI   vr S oe Ammoa - ase  gesoug oesaoa  aosames (comamois ss iweigwe cuio -cm s a iuse wi  mo% i(w/weyme/esweig sis; 5 1u/m (Sigma; 7 5 u/mgoi aus  5 wi 1 1 1 ua37  wi ski a1 me was eise 5 wi 1 M O3 a ise  7 wi 1 Oa(% w/weyme/esweig sis(Sigma; 9  Uaacoiascicaowas aea iuuAeac-uiea sames wemoa acowas i isi e   7 ie 1 u(gasic aseo aioo(amieyesuouo (AE Sigma; A-5 a EA ace coeo o1 mM a 1 mMscWaseei ssues wemoom e acosooa suec ac assaye co oac aeis   vr oigesowas cauwi sc essameswiougesoom e same I3e Coeio Iuoa ug oesaa osames we cuio -cm s ogu wi amoaa se  moge wi  mowaaus  usi 1 Ou a37  iuwi ski a1 mAeac-uiea sames wemoa acowas i i 1misSames we ecegea13 g 1mis (Mik icge Gea Suas osames we  mes a eug  euA a cowasoewioue aioowasames a a same cowas oewiouiuue amou oe  ae  vr oigesowas measu asise amou oe i ges waseeis was cauee wi sc e same coI e Coeio   vr oigesoug oeso aa osamesgu wi a moaa se oiacwe suec   vr oigeso Oe oeug oesaa osames we gu wi ecoeia 1 o ia moaa see ceuui oese sames we coec aus  mwi seiowaa  5 wi 1 1a suec   vr oigeso e   vr oigesoisscisecoIwi sg mocaoO mg oe(equi  mMwas ae   vr oigeso Aeac-uieasames we moa suec i 1mis   a e oi aeymesSames we ecegea13 g 1mis (Mik icge Gea Suas osames we  mes a eugmiceuA a cowas oewioue aioowasames a asame cowas oewiouiu3 ue siae aee   vr oigesowas measu  asise amou oe coee waseeis was cau ee ie e wisc e same coIESscaAsisscoomeic asis oaca eemes we  aasicewi ica samesa iica as oaiom eacsame asisa eemes we  aasice wi ica sames uess oeise sMisscasowa (io1 was usesscaasisO-wayasis oae was use com meakey sigca ee swas useiise comsoomeaagssiomowas use esiscoeoeee aesSigcae oee was a p < e   Soes a Ges o AsisSoes/Gesme (mi Soe AMea Soe     A 1 91 1 99 35% %9 5 51 5 51 75% % 75% %3 1% 35 1%  sus a scussioAaoa S S oe Ammoa-aseAc iSi WaSeeisAEec oGw Coio oe Ammoa-ase Ac oesssuese gs osi wasee seom o e sue o3 yeawe useiis s sigca ee ( ie ac was oeeeeese samesSimiywo om McCaum a Wae(199 s ao ea ee was u iac oe cui isi wa Oa yweig sisac oaa osiaseesames geiwi guaoie g 11+  mog a  19 mogscIsesuggesa aa osiaseeoce coumag a gwca om e ac o was aiocois ascic(Oco a goski e e ee iac eeas aosiaseesames mig coes  e ocooaiiasamesaoiessiooac owaseeis was oeewi egeiocoioSwasee we geiie  oeose g 7 ys wi owiouao e eec og eosu a aooessiowe u as swie 9e macee gei ie wiouaowas e esee omo a geiseeWi e eosu osuigegeas a mo o we icomso ose gwieac was u   giasames wi g eosuac wassw  smua iuce suig imai ge ssues a uce see aswe (is a Mic19; Siea1999 Iaio e ai owawasu   a ccac aecacWaseeis gwowe ie wiouwa we sigca weiac a mois coeOa yweig sisassue was gsiac owe oa osiaseeseoese suswaseeis eemes we geiwi geosu wi guaoa useyi osames usi ous meo;  vr oigesoa s-s ioowaseeisaumac souwcoieie aowi sewae 15 mis we usemaiaigessioa mo-ee waseeisAaooWaSeeisous aomeo owaseeis we ea coe a-eauac a  oce a se oc o commomeo oao  a A a e  cique owe oe e 1sws e mois coe a waac o esa ieseei sameseiamois coe oe as a osiaseessues o7-y-o waseeiswas  % (w a 71 % (wscAuge mois coe oesassues was gaaoe osiaseessues  % (we waac e osiaseessue was sg g sugges amo wai comuswe ese ie asAeao ous meoe waac oasames case s-se  (a w = 3  (ck a uc 19 emois coe oa osames was simi we e mois coe oasamesawe suec was sigca gae  oAasamesAEec oe yi Meo oe Ammoa-aseAce meooaoa sigca eecoiooac (gu5  was oimai ac ia seei ssueswi 1 % a 913% oac coiaa osiaseessues scac wassigca caseowi Aoassue; osiaseessue ia simioiooac owi Aa eaesAcioise ac see  gsie as a wesie o owaseeis wimamum ooc ac oeeagm (5(i ea1975eiis ssie aiassue suegaoosis  e eeeaiyi mecom aie oAwas caieouaom mcausegms (35-75 useiemi wo suei w co oac ( swOeses  cay swae iooeymes ooeoaccoms oa ssues suec is ieea eeau wi Aa eaes (ea199 Cui ea Sec caco  isem oe sames  e ma oe ocess is was ey amaiaiai i owaae ceessu oe cm(-3 ak Iis woe m oasames suec was maiaiaama  w e m oosiaseesames was ama   ugue ao Aois a ocessa iis caseaowas comewii3-  miscom  u quiaiyiAs wee ocessoccu ue w ogeessuii g ooacoAAae oe Ammoa-ase-isIsi waseeise is (7  a 1 kwec Wes oasis (gu Se asis oe aa e siaseeooseeis aae as coaia e is w eosiaseessue coaioy e 7k i ea (197 s ee 75 k a  k is se ecoosis ogy ewaese o s may coes  e smaes aiis woAs meioeousges oeeieiaes oaccumuoise eieasmu a ae sge oe (e ea19; Gow ea1991; Iskawa ea Is ao eeasu oca suecooc ocessi (e ea19; ia  199ee eis iie Wes oasis may ase om e oiocessi sucas egcosyo ooc ocessioosooA e is maiae a 1 ki was u    weak i IAasameoy e  ki was ceis sugges ae was ss goo a e i aae coewe wi e giooac owi Iosiaseesamese we  ees ie aae oe 7ki wi e e yi meoAEec oee ms oe Ammoa-ase Acoee-iessuese  ocess was iesga suec sames  ous e-eems o-1- -35  a -  (e 11 Aeao e moiscoe a waac we sigca e amo e samesac iasames was mo sei  e-ee ms aosiaseesamese-ee oas a-1 sueie siooe ac; sigca ee was oeewi e e ms e osiaseesamese oiooeyme ac ias a su oa gie-meae may   e si oice cs e ee (ows ysicamage su occu ces suec weee msas smaeicecs  quick wii ces a ieeusces; we  gee smay cause meiosesses a  e siegoosei oc (i ai199; ows  cooe aooeceuice a ecoeoosos occumo y ae esmosis oce wa wcesus ie cyasm comi suooa mage iceuice (AckeaMcGa; Mcga a a197e meous us  ( frn sao eu   sei  e-ee m (Sua a Aoya1999Mamum aooy was oaiwi a w ee  (ama 1 /mi(Sua a Aoya1999 asames mig  mo sei  e e-eem; e a sweee  a-1 may  eee ces om eemageAs a sue-ee a-1 sueie gsco oac iasames5AS s oe Ammoa-ase ac oee-iessues ueous sge coioWo om es a s (199 s esisass oac icoewis weose e waac oa 5 e co a co agggaooeymeIaio wassues mig   ea coume e es oa i sis; ee s s oaeo mus keio coio As scusseiA was u   esmeo iac i aa osiaseessues sames weecseasis oe s s oueous sge coioe c we easge m ( a -  ckage coio(cuum ckea cuum ckea sge o(weekweekweek a1week e e co oac ae weeks was cauwi sc  sames assayewii3 u (me ac oaa osiaseesames was u  ow e es wi sc ese cgu 7moae eec oeaccoac oassueSigca eeswe u eesge o ssge ma ckage coiowi iecoamo cSie 1 a asames we sigca ea c we ase a summaie 1 ac owassigca gaao1 wcmig  e  aoiwasouAuga assues we geiie same coio ees may s  uwiie same e  ao ieaciee waseeiOweekweekweek a 1weekac iassues was oee ieue- sge aIe ose mocumomea cmicaa eymacaco sw w(o a a  e mo oeooases was mie ac was ie sge aC asge a51cuum-ckeus cuum-ckesw a sigca imcoacio sugges ae ac ois ss aec e oooami aci ame ac oe  assues assayewii3 u aeaowas 73 5mog y wi1 a   [og y wi gu swee e co oac iasames iweek 1wi sc sames ame  I sassues sa-  uecuum-ckeseseeac owe -  uecuum-cke w sigca weac was ia wi owioucuum-cke eiassueswas mo sei  sge m ackage coioUike asames osiaseesames we sigca e eesge msge o a ckage coioeesGemaieeco oeaccwe sayeigu 9Simi asamesaciosiaseesames was mo sei  sge m ae ckagecoio Ao osiaseesames sw ieco amo c emieaccieekey swas oeoweekweekweek a 1weeksames aeaccomooe ckage coioa sge m c (e 13Ia usecsge oac was siue-  a cuum-ckeeae owe -  a cuum-ckeeaeSge oosiaseesame a sigca casei ac as eay as week Augac seeme  aiase oe mo osge sigcaee was u eesge oia ugu (aeaccomoosgem a ckage coioe ac ame o osiaseessues was 79 37 og yw gu 1sws e e co oac iosiaseesames iweek1wi sc  sames ame  e sus  moaaac i5aa osiaseessues we aec sge m ss e ockage coio osiaseessues eise ac ome w assue ac was u  case o1weeks osgeIsummacoi ae c aac was sia-  oe mo i aaosiaseessues53 S a Ac oe Ammoa-ase iSiWaSeeis ueous IuoCoioIis wo  asis a scoomeic meowe use ie s a ac oisi waseeis ueous iuocoioe  asis aacwas e om e scoomeic asis oac asis measue amou osiae aegeso w escoomeic asis oac measue amou oa-ciamic acioce e amou oa-ciamic aciwas measuusi  meocause e e uiuoie soo oeeymes mig coe a-ciamicaciio oeeicomuse scoomeic asis uses ie oa c ec assay e amou oa-ciamic aciocei15 mis oacome a37 e summa e o meoscoomeic asisoac measue ac oiaegeso w e  asismeasue coeiooe   e iuo e  e me cieacacameo iis suie  com e sus om ese o meoesus oaiom  asis sweaw ss e was coee   vrgeso ss eymac ac was iae  vr oigesousiscoomeic asisis suggesae iooe eyme aegesocoesewi e coeiooe  geso ee e oe sus ome o acameo agewi eacoe51S oe Ammoa-ase Ac  Iuoaous  CoioIe mages sysme gasic ase o a 1 3 a iesase o a 7 5 (e a 199is wi  e may  oe cooaoa ac o  ea e eecooases oace swas  emi e s oac ueacic a sic  coioac assay was sg moe i e eecoCo we seuiu gu sames wi ecoe a ia 1 o o uSames sa 9 a 5 we   iu gu sames wi ecoe asc  o u Aemiooe -ee oac owa McCaum a Wae(199 s suggesas aoimumau  9Iacic eie mig  a g imcoi ace e  5 iuo some sames we ke ugu  moeocooce was oiacic coio e  oa sames we ce egu aeo uiuoa suec e aassay a Iuoae  aecac o aa siaseeosames (e 1siaseeosames we mo sei   cesGuosiaseesames iua 5 a  9 we sigca e om eco we  ee amo co gu sames iua 9a gu sames a 5 was oeeiasames aa siaseeosamese e co ogu sames iua 5 we sigca weaaogu samesis suggesace was owaseeis caocom aacic eie55 S oe Ammoa-ase Ac iWaSeeis IuoaOimae sus scusseiseco1 moaaac iguwaseeis is se aeiuoa 5 a  9; e eemeswe iesga ea iuoaoima oe oogesooa37 Iwas eawaseeis coaioases wca esse eeay sge ogie (i ea1975; miuea Ce199Aoeeoooc ac ic waaec is  se oa wi m e(i ea1975 eiwas esseia ea e eecoeooases am oe u oiuoo  aa osames we iua a37  e u wi owioue aioose-oase ii(Sa meooase-ii(EA Soo we moom e aa ossuesaeiuo a sames we esuec e aac assayac osames iue u was comwi aoe essameswiouiuoe sus aae u oiuoa37  owaseeis  asigca imcoac (e 15 Auge iuowas  ae oima o e ac i esaa ossues case 31% a  %scossues aea  eessi sei  e iuo wcmig e  e caossues  e gsscic oase ac oa esweig sis(i ea1975 miuea Ce (199  eaeooases iwaeci7% eaa successy ii S EA a A aM ey ao moaase oases a emi ie eay sge ogiewe iis se aioooase ii imo eiooecei ac iasamesee mig 5miaccessi oSa EA  e seeis e  e ocooe ce waswcockeeiii eec3iooe Ammoa-ase Ac ae  vr oigesoIis ima  s e s oisi waseeis ae vr oigesosucai s  e ooc aacks ie gasic ase aiesase cou  oee  iesga e s i aa ossues   vr oigeso aa ossues we iuwi ia 5 o ua aa 7 o uA-uiea sames we moa acowas i isi e   7 e gasic ase o ai oaseii sucas (amieyeuouo (AE a EA eiesaseAs swigu 11 a 1 esaa osames eisimiesee co oac iesaa osames caseoe u oiuo A sigca case ie co oac was seeie 1uoiuo Oy  % iassues a 59  % iossues wecoae1 uiuo  ssuese case oac sae uiuoie ac aseI e was a 35 % a  % oiac oe uogesoigasic ase a  % a 9 % ooe uogesoiac ase iesaa ossues scis cou ei e cae oima ois ie e o 9 (Camm awe1973 ee acic eie mig  ue asomig  occue ossues we a  mo susceie  gasic57gesoaac geso is su agewi seco1 aosames wemo sei  w  aasamesAe e oe u   vr oigeso 3% a  % oacwas coiaa ossues scwcis equi  3 mog y wa 3 [og y w As u iseco  % a 31 % oac wecoaee u iuoaoima iaa ossues scac ieswaseeis was ae  ocagaie ooc aacks om   vroigesosoo iwas mo susceie  eoooc aacksI A ois s was u   e smeo iac;we  assues aea   sei  e gasic geso O5% oac caseie  uosimugasic gesoa aos acwas coae3 u ogeso  ossues sw a co aeuosimugasic geso( swe ees ico eeesa  sames mig  ei e owi asoee-yi usuay sa us suc ie sames (owswcaowee eyme   mosusceie  e ges eymesomo easi s e soo Iaio camagc soe ses oee-iema a ssue aaee-yimeos soyemema ieg a causece wa coae (s a migeau1997Gie a ck (19 eaiyeas   wascome ic oice ae3mis e  i suscei cmoyi suisia yi Coi aesaa osames iis s iama 3% a  % oac sc aee u ogeso e gi oce was iesssues mus aeecoeau a5oc iagaie aci a oases was  sames i ie ace  ss oce wa ieg  aoocess Amou oe ges   vr oigesoQuaie goae quiComagy (asisIis ccia ea e ac owaseeis    vr gesowe iis ssie   e ocooa-ciamic aci scoomeicasis e  e mio oe scoomeic meo Ia e ase was useasisa-ciama is e ecuoomeus comus sucas coumacaea a sima (Seea Cock197 Eis1997 Eae amou oa-ciamic acioce   vr gesowou  e smeocause imay  okewio oeoc a su iauesmaooace siae aegesowas quaieia ugms oeso waseeis (cauoa esweig siswe iuwiia 5 o ua aa 7 o u geewi e aioo1 mg ee   vr oigesoacowas ia-uiea i 1mis   a e oi a eymese siae aeeac-uieawas i seoa e sa cue (AeiE e coeiooe  waseeis was cau eeGu a gu aa ossues we suec o u iuoa a37   i e coeiooe  aoimaSigcaees we u amo eaes  ee was u amo me iea(e 1e coeiooe igu ssues was sigca ss agussuesSimisus we oaiom seco1gu sames iua 559sigca weac co aaoe gu samesgieooases a wiie cyasm mig   aseio e sooCoequewou  mo susceie  eooases a i e gu a gu esa ee-ieaa ossues we iesgaie   vr oigeso Coeiooe  geso esaossueswi/wiougi we swie 17 a 1 a samesee ie coeiooe was u amo e me ieasugges aeeymac acowas maiy ac ie  uoe iuo Iesgu a gu sames i aa ossues sw a sigcaeee asois mai uw O may eiae gi ocessaseoi om e a ces io e acosoo e gasoiesoases aeooases eiay oseese oi awe mo aa a ae oa oc eec Ceuuiaseom gi aaossues iecoewe ao suec geso Aee u ogesooy 3 mg a 1 mg oe we coee aa ossuesscCom gu aa ossues (13 a 13 mg oe coeiosc ec  w e coeio ice ec oee ce was a some oeoi ese ia cesCoequeeyme was mo susceie  oaseswioue ce was a oi acou  useas e oc eec s mus caieou cosiocou  awSimi e sus om seco3coeiooe   sames wassigca ss aessamese sus coiea sames we mosei  e ges eiesis may  e  e ck oocoom e gice was sui igs oeyme ico  a scoomeic ases moaae was sigcawee coeioa a-ciamic aciocoi samesowe esossues a esassues accoiIaio e aco we oeemaiy aegii oe geso e mass oac was ao u ie gasic ase scoomeic asise amou oe was sw  keuie uogesousi  asis oe sus suggesae coeiooeok ace ae eay sge oe ges ocesse 9 e Ammoa-ase Ac cauoa y Weig sis iesassues uee Gw CoioAwa Mois coe(% w aac(mo/g y w a97 51 1 31 993 1   19199 77 3  19Y9 9 1 1973 9   11973 91 99 131Gw coiosoa siasee / waoa siasee / wi waoa siaseeg / wi waa / wi waag / wi waog / wi wa"  Wiie same ssueeaes  e e a sigca e  (p <aes ese e meao io sa aoe 1  Mois Coe a WaAc oesa ieWaSeei ssuesSame aomeo Waac (a w Mois coe (%w esa 973 9  Aa 3 7 7 3   a  5 9  a 379 1esosiasee 99 77 3Aosiasee 35 3 osiasee  11 3osiasee 3  15 1"es sames a e meao3-5 io sa ao  Wiie same ssueeaes  e e a sigca e  (p <yi MeoaA0%0%< 80%(7-  60%> +0U  - 40%C- 20%00%asame "+; osiaseesame ^ cgu 5 e co oe Ammoa-ase Ac iaWaSeei ssues (aa osiaseeaa osiaseesames wesuec ai (Acuum micwa- (a ee-yi (wi e-ee a-1e co was cauoa y weig sis   essamesWiie same ssue sameeaes  e e a sigca e  (p <s A s EA00040 osiaseegu   Wes oAsis ooi Ecom aWa Seei ssuesAows i  ise is we  ciassues (17k e 7k i was cie sia seeossueses ie A aiie ee-ie  cuum-micwa iee 11 Mois CoeWaAc a e co oe Ammoa-ase Ac iee-ieSeei ssue Suec ous e-ee msSame ^ e-ee Waac Mois coe ac (%m( ^ (aw^ (% w ^frh l  aa^-1 ^ 3 ^ 5 9 ^ 1- ^ 5 ^1 ^  1-35^ 5  ^ 7 1 ^ 7 -^ 9 1 ^ 1 ^ 75 Y ^osiasee-1 ^ ^ 11 3 ^913- ^3 ^ 3 1 ^  1-35^ 7^5 ^ 95 9^- ^ 1  ^ ^  ee co oac was cauwi sc ac iessames (yweig sises ese e meao3  1io sa aoWiie same sameeaes  e e a sigca e  (p <iM ^4u4%ICIw_ ---Sge o Sge m ckageiI^ I^ I^ 1^ -cuum cuumica 11 I3^ i5 ^ 1 gu 7 MaiEecooe Ammoa-ase Ac iee-ieaSames wi sc Sge o(weeks Sge m ( ckageCoio ica as oSames a se 1  e Eec oSge o Sge m a ckage Coiooe Ammoa-ase Ac io e s oee-ieaSamesac Oimog y wckage coio ^ cuum-cke ^ cuum-ckeSgem ^  ^ -  ^  ^ - Sge o1Week Week Week Week 13+ 7 17  1 a5 c31 1 c35 57 7 53 5 55 5 53 5 c19    c1+ 31 517 a595 a319a  aWeek Week Week Week 1173757 a799 37  119 175 139 55 a  a111311   9 1 1757 1 a113 1 a79 aaes ese e meaoio sa eaoe same wiie same weekeaes  e e a sigcae  (p < 1 - Is 1 ^ o    - a  -  -  -  C  n - v -  I  n - v ^ C  v ^ -  f cuumSge m/ckage Coiogu   e co oe Ammoa-ase Ac iee-ieaSames ae1Weeks oSge aous Sge ms a ckage Coioasames o1 a we suec 1weeks osge a a - icuum ck a cuum cke co was cauoa y weig sis  ee-ieasames assayewii3 uWiie same  eaes e e a sigca e  (p < Sge o Sge m ckage^ ^ ^ 1^ - ^ cuum ^ cuumica  --i1^ ^ 3^ ^ 5^I1^ 533gu 9 MaiEecooe Ammoa-ase Ac iee-ieosiaseeSames wi sc Sge o(weeks Sge m( ckage Coio ica as oSames a s7e 13 e Eec oSge o Sge m a ckage Coiooe Ammoa-ase Ac oee-ieosiaSeeSamesac (umog y wckage coio ^ cuum-cke ^ cuum-ckeSgemSge o  -    - Week  19 +  c 53   71  c 3 7 aWeek  7 31 c 3   5  1 a   aWeek  15 1 c 5 7  13 19 c  59 aWeek 1 91    1 a 13  c 59 9 aaes ese e meaoio sa aoe same wiie same weekeaes  e e a sigcae  (p < 711 - 1 aO-  - -C  - C   cuum -   cuum C  I cuum -cuumSge mackage Coiogu 1 e co oe Ammoa-ase Ac iee-ieosiaseeSames ae1Weeks oSge aous Sge ms ackage Coioosiaseesames we suec 1weeks osge aa - uecuum-ckea cuum-cke e co was cauoa y weig sis   ee-ieosiaseesames assayewii3 ueaes  e e a sigca e  (p <  7e 1  e co oe Ammoa-ase Ac iesaaosiaseeSames Iuaous ac (% coessameeae(s a oCo 1 5 a 99 + 1 eIuo gu 5 5   gIuo gu 5 91 17 a  1 eIuo gu 9 1 3 a  19 gee co oac was cauwi sc ac iessamesiua (y weig sisYes ese e meao io sa aoiie same ssueeaes  e e a sigca e  (p <73e 15 e Ammoa-ase Ac iesaa ossues aeeu Iuoa a37  wi owioue Aioooase Iiac (% essame"eae(s a oCo 1 3 q 1 13 eIuo 3 s a 37   5  31 3 Iuo 3 s a 37 wi oase ii  9 c31 3 ee co oac was cauwi sc ac iessames (yweig sisaes ese e meaoio sa aoiie same ssueeaes  e e a sigca e  (p <oco esaa osames we assayeusi e ac assay meoicoeo o5mM Sa 5mM oEA we aegeewi e sames iuo71 ^sa i     a  same1%-C%% -%(0 %C 5%C-15%AAoogeso(u5 ^ 1 ^ 5^ 3gu 11 e co oe Ammoa-ase Ac iesa ee-ieassues o3 u o  vr geso esa  assues we suec  1 uic gesoa u ac geso( oessames  weiges ese e meaoio sa ao agssio weeoe gesoiea iesasames (e co oac = -37(oogeso + 11;   = 1 a oe 3 gesoiea i asames (e co oac = -97(oogeso + 97;   =997540%4120%0%0^ 0^ 0 ^  ^ 2^ 2^ 0rn  n (hrgu 1  e co oe Ammoa-ase Ac iesossueso3 u o  vr geso esossues we suec 1 uic gesoa u ac geso( oessames  weig es ese e meaoio sa ao agssiowas eoe 3gesoiea iesosames (e co oac = -(oogeso + 99;   = 997e 1  Coeiooe aeo u Iuowi esaa ossues a a37 Coeiooe (mga ^ oooiuo(Gu gu Gu gus5 (1 11 7 17 (11 ( 13 1 11 (31 5 (1 15 (3 11 17( 7 (1  11 (1 11(1aes ese e mea(eoioes wioue we siioCoeiooe  ugms ossues cauiesweigsisa e e ee eegu a gu sames ieacssue77e 17 Coeiooe aee u   vr oigesowi Gua gu esa ee-ieassuesCoeiooe (mgesa ee-ieaoogeso(Gu a gus Gu" gu"5 11 3 17 1 7 1 (11 11 7 13  5 3 (11 11  19 3 7 3 (1 15 3 17 3 55 11 7 15  13 13  1  7 (3oeiooe  ugms ossues cauiesweig sisaes ese e meao3 io sa aoaes ese e mea(eioes wioue we siioae e ee eee eaes7e 1  Coeiooe aee u   vr oigesowi Gua gu esa ee-ieossuesCoeiooe (mg 3eso ee-ieooogeso(Gu gus Gu gu5 9  5 7  1 5 5 3 3 31 5 9  9 1 7 15  5  5 5 95 17  11 7 5 3 13  13 1 3 5 1 ICoeiooe  ugms ossues cauiesweig sisaes ese e meao3 io sa ao3/ ese si ioae e ee eee eaes79CosioS isis s s swasi wa (   seeis  eia  useas aaea oe U a A ese scoio oaigessioisi wasee was geioie g wiguao7 yse is (7  a 1 kieseeis we c Wes oasisSe asis oe aa e siaseeooseeis aae as coaia e is w eosiaseessues coaioy e 7k ie e ismay ase om e oiocessi sucas egcosyo oococessi oosoo gac iassue mig coes  e oe is u iosiaseessueCoea ieeoowaseeis coai g oac was successy geusie meo sucas A a Amo e e yi meo was oimai acwi 1% a 9 oac coiaaosiaseessues scassues mig  sei  e ee  ae si oice cs ao eeee e-ee m io  eae swea sigca eecoassuese-ee oas a-1sueie siooe acac i waseeis was seoe mo osge a-  e s oac was iesgaueous iuocoio sucas acic a aa  eies a   vrgeso Augac o sames was successy iaeaoao3 mo osgeiwas we iuge   vr oigeso O5% oac caseie  uosimugasic gesoa  acwe coae3 u ogesoo  aa ossuesWcomesa  seeise  asis osiae ae  vr gesomoaa% a 5 % oe coeiou i aa ossues aesssuesscIcos ac iessi waseeis was se ueous iuocoioIwas iaeiuoaacic a aaeies o uAee u o  vr oigeso 3 a % oac was coiesaa ossues scAs e Giea ck (19 iyeas   was come ic oice ae3mis e  i suscei  oasesCom yeas iesseeis s some ocoagaiacic eies a ooc aacksssiy e comesucs oe gice wasOis s s esise success oa c si waseeis  iac; we ac i seeis es susie acic eie a ueooc osisessessi waseeis moaawas ssiy oce ce was ia  vr oigeso is wo s oe sis iesgaoousi si waseeis as e e sume U a Aes SesIis woe eoooc ac iessi waseeis coe mass oacAugac iesseeis is sis  gesoosis as comwi aoe yeas e eoooc aacks g wiie a ssueseo maoc  oome ie  is  suss eeoooc ac ie seeisEooases ie gi o e sgemaa  geio o e iaies seeis gw (miuea Ce199ey a mo aa ie gei ase a case eeaase (miuea Ce199om eous woac wasu  case ae1ys osgei gw osi waseeis(Gosoea we ac  e eaase oseeis wasi eiis ima  emi e ac  eaaseoseeis wcmay  weeoooc acOe oeisooaiesgaooe ac oeaci oisi waseeis woue iuei e ccsc oeaci a i s ueecoio ca iuce eeasmus ke ysica ogica acmicaagese smuo su  s eae ac osi waseeis ooea souesIoe y ue e ac oc si waseeiso-ee su  iooi se ewi isoc ogeaC-3s euse s e mecsm oac (o ea19 Iis use moe  geiooseeis sucae ces oac ca cseiesga e gwsis usi o-eee coeiooe ae gii oe gesoca moecise    v a   vrAuge   vr coio useiis s  ese e agesoomagasoiessysmios e sis    v s sucas amases a ccaia wcqui mo memoy a oeeeiseIac iessi waseeis ca eae eeasmuo wciase e coeiooe ia  vr oigeso   v amas usimu U mouse mosu  caieou emi e eicacy ousi waseeisas e e sumes esAs scusseeaie ge imais 9%coeewi aoe (Guea19 e mu mouse sai wi A awi useii e aea ees ieaes oU/A (Saissiaea1999;  ea essi waseeis ca useas e sumeasoue ie ee mu mouse  ea e eiciey owasou iweooe Isummae sus ois esis s o e uaoowc seiesgaooe aisaooy eauisi waseeis as aaea oe U a A esee success oisaaccou  u iase e oie a  some oe e oe U eIesAckeMcGa   (oc eecoiceuice  ee?Coogy  197-Ai SCicia Ao GOa  (Mecsms oiiooeammoa-ase  eii a egci syisc iiAsoocmisy a oysics    17175Aoki KWaY  (19Ouome oe es c w sce i Aceaica ca  3  9-Asooacc   (199 S ooaee  geso  vr ocogy  1  19-13i Eucke M  (197 siooe ammoa-ase ieoaiaasseeisaa  93 -7e M (199 Gasoiesseco In iies oysiogyEeMos-Yeaok I S uis 9 - aeSMUa C (19a ey coe  maooagoecious asycmisy   11-13  eeeSWao  (19e ges SysmE1s Wiy Sow Yoe G  CmeC SccWmC   (19eammoa-ase om  lr  ccoa eiaiucoomuie s om ecieace-susiocuusEuauaoocmisy  11-9ue C S (19 e ammoa-ase immoisemieaemiccaus eyme aceme ieea e  1 5-weo  (ois oacoeus e coeesmeeeasce a magemeOc11 aics1979ea (Eoa ao  In ea e oocessi okWiy- Weieim -1ea y  (ckagi In ea e oocessi okWiy- Weieim 1-35Cae  Wuma   (19Cooasma e  In WumaeWaeEe e e a aio use s 3-1Caese aooo ASaas Sei  (Cssuc oe ammoa asemuie s imicaicasisocmisy   113-11Cauo IMai  Giaesc G (Sysis oaios iwasouuaoAgcuua oCmisy  5  51-5Camm Ewe G  (1973e ammoa-aseycmisy  1  9-973Caeeeseki S Akawa  (1993Seooee-iucea yi-iuceoooioi usi sess-scic soeyme-ac a cameic sesAs oocmisy a oysics  3Cai  (19e cmicasuc oe ce was ogas In Kky ie CAeoe e Cmisy ysiogya aEecem essw Yo 15-3Ceea W CeeaSA  (19eea (i seasee s oiscouaoe s oMeci a AieSciees ICa MWae  (Assessme oa eeaAa oCcaocmisy  3  Cui   SYSu  (aoogaic sces  commicwa-cuuma aiyiyi cogy   1173-11Cui   SYSu  (Eecomicwa-cuum yi oe caiioocaosces a coy ioocse c asyicogy   5-575Mes Mic SC  (19guooe ammoa-ase igeiuce see  (S Cg - eec oacisic-acia wasessici esiogie  11  -7Cua G (Eice oe ammoa ase ac o  yeasEyme a Micacogy  3  5caau   (19Micwas ie oocessi iusyE1s Acamic essOao  Geoie o  (Aisaou a geeiee -euc coecooeea (Uia mouse mo coma-associas eucmeage a Ge e  135-593 i COo  (S-oe-a  oU ge eMocuGecs a Mesm   3-miue Ce   (199 Ccooe eooases aea  wagiea ysiogy  11  11-17ao (19Moes oeyme aces iw mois mea In Maui Meockagi a eseaoeo a acceE1s EeeAeScieeisE 1-19eM  (19e coe oe   In ok oe AAeAac Maekke w Yo 1-17EiceK  (19e iee owacoe a waac ocmicaces io ow mois coe ueckagi asc In Maui Me ockagi a eseaoeo a acceEeeAeSciee isE -9Eis   (1997Mesm oe a commucao  In is i y e a MesmE maE1-1eGMcMi WAMMagee A  (Micwa-cuum yi kics oaaceucawyi cogy   31-ows  (oocessi cogyiies a acceWooeaCamieEi   (1975ocess Coio ImoaQua oee-ieouaoAgcuua oCmisy   19-1 AWwso  (1993e eecocaoa ais ie ee-yi oaa-osaseuaoaacy a aacogy   -93i Guce i M (1975siooacioise ac iwaseeisa a Ce ysiogy  1  15-11i i A CW  (197 e ammoa-ase - iucoacaoom yeasa cae imammauaoogicaCmisy  1-5 Ao U os C  (ges ooaee a eec oiisimugasic uia simuiesui- a com suaoAgcuua oCmisy  5  71571GameASaissiaC Wa  Kim WSauMMGC Sieke Sick  moOei CScC S   (eogys ocom  ptd  e ammoa-ase e eae ocssicaeeaMocue  11 9-9GameAWa  SaissiaC We ick  moScCS   (Suc-see a Gyosis mai oe ammoa-ase eyme suoeae oeeaMocuGecs a Mesm  91 3-33Gae ia M Sama   (Esmaoocaioai om essiegees usi aio gesocaco-ce cuu mo uaoioocmisy  11 575Gie ck GW  (19e eecooises oe ammoa-ase ome yeas Gl.  ocmicaua 199 715-7GosoAm MScamaC Cme SKeo A  (Sce oeammoa ase ia ssuesa iooac  ao uaoe Sciee ooa AgcuuGow Gi   (1991Sess ses iaaa  (MS  sequee-asis oe ammoa-ase ( cA cs a aeae oacs iecieace-cuus a  asa Mocuogy  17 5-9GisoA  (saes a eooo ocessi In eae oocessi okE1s Wiy- Weieim 1-3Gu  y  ccke  ma  aois  Mice  UcKmaG a  Sci  Me C Eaa Io Ay  Gu(199 A Euamuicees oe ose cieyCssicaoo1 muo a a gesysm ge-seecoomec eAmecauaomaGecs   71-79Gii kyASWooS  (19Mocugecs oUeagsis acaieco ge asis In cke WaceUe Ieseases oAmi AciMesmGeo ieme agw Yo 13-Moi Smeo A (Eaoossie aso e w eammoa ase ac iceuse a mema miccausIeaouaoaaceucs  5 1-19ey W (A eeaAmecauaoMeci  117 59595u-e AgAEKoema Ue   (19e iee ogeiooe ioe owa mu a a cckasm Ue c1 3-393wke (19ok oMecaysiogyGasoieswi asc oeio E1s C sw YomaKMieCammack KA  (19e eecoee-yi oe quaasuc oasgise om Eia-Caocmica Eoysica Ac7 133-1s migeau  (1997ses oces isueuwacommeaoima a ssue  yi a eeIeaouaooSciee a cogy  3  51-uka SO  Kawai YKu  I Wa  (Eyme ac ces acyasysis imag iesScieia icuue  9  5-ski  ck GWa is Wg ECS S  (19Eymaccooe iake ieeae 1 3939ski y S Geay AM  (19e mesm ociamic aci aa eec as - a kic-somecaMass Scomey  11 3ws Sewa  i Ei Y mC  (199Ossiooe ammoa-ase iagec cco as acois uio eiosysisa ysiogy  11  17-1Iue SMauga YIwa  Somu Mse  (19Ee oeammoa-ase isi oiocoom ooc aackocmicaaoysicaseaCommucao  1 1-17Iskawa AKimu YOki YWa M  (e ses osoa ocuus o Gln lt   yeasec uaoMecis   337a SiS (199 Eecoocess coio oco ooiac aeee a ee-yiEuauaoaaceucs a oaaceucs  9-7i   (199 Sess ses iaaa  (MS  caocco a iucooe ammoa-ase isos om eicieace-susiocuusa ysiogy  9  7-5KaeuWCma SWowises S  (Eemeas oyi oci iacommicwa-cuum- um ye yi cogy   -79Kaag Ai KKSekaya  MoemsAMikkeeIGu u Gu (oueec oe-ee ami aciesumeaoiieecay saeas wi uaeeaAceaica  9  11KaIu AASOu  (Eecoaiyi a suyi ocoes a -ca coe oaico ( n  oSciee a cogy   753-75Kaas Kaous ssios   (199 e ous suc aiyi oagcuua ocuaooEie   1-1KWii Smi   (Csaa cogome iase eammoa-ase a si ammoa-ase aces isoyaasuaoaysiogy  1 9-3Kim S KEis   (Iucooe ammoa-ase ac yoai U.  ycmisy  5  9-7Kim SW OKim  e KSe  CKimm KKoo SK SC(Suca oases omuo oe maeose geCca Cmica Ac  3 9-7Kim WEase SuSS GameAMic-MaK SKMa (es ieyme e eeaMocue  1Ki    (19Coew-m cuum ao- aw aacw-m a w-essu oyiuaooSciee  5  1573-1593Kouko CoEE  (19Mesm oamac comus igasIcaoa oies oe amise o rd vr  uaoogicaCmisy    99Kki MKMaus Sacos G (e eecoe meooyi oecouoaocIeaouaooSciee a cogy  353-59emm UK  (197 Cage osucoi  assemy oaocoage-  7 5ey Woo S  (19C a essiooe mae osege In cke WaceUe Ieseases oAmi AciMesmGeoieme agw Yo 37-5e  SeguiA  (Iucie essiooe gous  omoom aiw   (n r agec cesee ysiogy   5-  SKaew  eWACa Cass  Kee Macca(1971is mi mia iuas - osc swE uaoMeci  5 99  (1999eeao seasew aac eaeocees oeoAcamy oSciees oe USs oAmeca  9 11-13  ao YC  (Isooa ccooo cse eeammoa-ase ges om wa Yi Cae o  3  9-91a oMCmeC mC (19eiaguooe ammoa-ase ges  a e a  eieacuesuaoogicaCmisy    1-19e ScamaC (199 Ccoocuum micwaaiaee iecaoscesoseaIeao 31 111-117sce c  Mose ge ei  MaoGGossW  (1997Uake oous ace emes  geioowa ckwaa quiaa o maio 5  3-7u a a  a   Wou Y  (S oa sagy eae oeeaAiciaCes ooSus a Immooocogy  3  3-7 WMY-CECY  (AioiI coei eyme ii is om io iagesoosoy oi uaoAgcuua oCmisy  53 33-337sce igeSco ock K  (19Eec og a   fl osysis a ac oe ammoa-ase iasaysiogy   5Mac M Cua G (A mo ew oe ammoa aseocmisy a Ce ogy-ocmie Eogie Ceui   3-Magee  iy A (19gesoa e Suc a ooe Gu E KaeOmaMa Mic-MaKaa Gi A i A aga Co Gioi MGc Eko G   SKGuE  (ue i ace coiaoe uaami aci ieae oUEecoooeuaoIeMec sease  3  153-1591Ma Mic-MaKaa GGc Eko Mc G  SKGu (e uaami aci ie eae oeea (U uaoIeMec sease   7373Mccaum Wae (199 ec osysis  gie iwa-ces ie ammoa-ase ac a soe ec coeuaoCeaSciee  11 35-Mcga a  (197 Suiossue-cuu ces o a soce  -19ges C wai  a coeoomeysuoCoogy  139-3Mi  Sc C (e ose ciey In GeiwsSeaMoi MCuie G wmaMEe  eMoo   (sco oocyacae ammoa aseskic a succcoocmisy   11  MoueCa M ca  (197 Some ysico-cmicaoies oe ammoa-ase owaseeis e   O a ACSce  (mic ces ice wa saccs waseei eycmisy   3-OeeGsey  (ee-yiE Wiy- ickOco goski   (se owiewa coocooec comus a e ammoa ase acAeocmisya Micogy   3OomeAGme CuiMAe Com K Si AM(e oaio gesomoesma e oaccessi osoicoamisAs oEieaCoamioa cogy   1-7O Eas    (1993Sess ses iaaa  (MS  ces ie  oeiway ieeas io guooe ammoa-ase iecieace-susiocuusaysiogy  1 7-9OwusuaaY (1991Aaes imicwa yi oo a oiesCaaI ooSciee a cogy uaua ICaeSciee Ecogie Ameais   1-1O ICosku CeyMkoSO Eem Gki Gus kaa Y  (19Iie oeea a mia iasame oe isw o uaoIeMec sease  9 7-9i  i   (199iea mois sei o In A ok oockagiE ackie Acamic ossio Gsgow 31i  i   (199oo In A ok oockagiE ackieAcamic ossio Gsgow i  i   (199Ico ckagi In A ok oockagiE ackie Acamic ossio Gsgow 1-3o  aK  (ee In ea e oocessi okWiy-Weieim 1-1e a CAmus CM  (197 eooimmoeammoa-ase i eooeseaCommucao iCmicaogy a aacogy   559-5Qi WWSaas    (Meo e ocoosiciamic acia -ociamic aci  In Wo/o SMoo Kwe G  (19gooamac ami aci  i caoa oies oe ammoa-ase om  Uhd.Caauaoocmisy   13-1es s   (199 S oe ammoa-ase iaqueous sooaas e sos iaia oac soesEyme a Micacogy  19 sse  ma Sgoy M sso (S imome oimmoCai aaca se iaoac meum uemicwa ao Oaca omocuCmisy    11993e Sc GE  (Sucsis e ee io e eimesm ca e ammoa-asea Ce  1  33ck  uc  (19Meccs a iee owai owaac InWaAceo a Acao  o w Yo a se  1 - Sa GMMais ck   (19cooe ammoa-ase ieskiouey a cey uiuaooSciee  5  155-15SaissiaC So  ai e  Su  eMAScC (1997Eecooe ammoa ase ( oasma e  ia gecmouse ogue oUAmecauaomaGecs   A35-A35SaissiaC So ai e  Su   C SScC(1999A e aac eae oeeae gowi com e ammoa aseocees oe oAcamy oSciees oe USs oAmeca  9  39-ScamaCe   (ComMicwa cuum yi In SueEmei cogies ioocessiAcamic essEee oSce y  Sc GE  (1999Cssuc os ammoa-ase aa i mocaoas e cac ecoiocmisy  3  5355-53ScCKauaSWoo S  (19e Mec sis oIeseaseMcGw-w YoScC KauaS  (e mias In ScC auA SSWe  Cs  KiKWgei e e Mec a Mocuses oIeseaseE McGw-w YoC 77See e A (19e cmisy a oies oa ce was a e  In Kky  ie CAeoe e Cmisyysiogya aEecem essw Yo 1-15Se G Wesy S KoK C mC  (eicomus a sease sise iagec cco wi aeessiooe ammoa-aseycmisy   153-19Ses SEWia mC (19acooe ammoa-aseocoa mo i occiamic aci Euauaoocmisy1 3-395Ssaa  Makou i C  (ee-yi ccscs osawiesyi cogy   131-1SiASei M Sa  (1999Suig-iuceacyagmeaoimaige ssuesuaoEemea  5  19-15Socka  Kacka A  (1995e ammoa-ase ac ias owieoiee as as aec accmaooas  w-maysiogy a ocmisy  33 5-591SeeCock W  (197 Secoa a oc In a MesmEamoess w Yo 1-1Sua SKAoya A  (1999ee-yi ge myceum o  frn ai sueque geo ocogy ciques  13 1-5e  Sci  mKMae MMas  c G  (19eiaagsis a sigcae oous mia In cke WaceUeIeseases oAmi AciMesmGeo ieme agw Yo -1ao C KamEme C  (e a aca oaio gesomoiassessi e oaccessi ocoamis om o31  ao COomeAG KamEme CSi AM  (Aca oa  vr gesomoiassessi e oaccessi omyco om o oa Cmicacogy   31-WaeW  SKMac Ae GAais SG Sci MiA  (w accaa commeao e coieea? e 3 WieK k s  s   (1979Some oies oey gcoe ammoa-ase aucuaoogicaCmisy    79-95WiiamsoMKoc ieaEG  (19eio maicoeeU ca eiU siis In cke WaceUe IeseasesoAmi AciMesmGeo ieme agw Yo 151-1Woo Gis  Moe A  (1955eae oeea wi a ew ieisMecaua 1 57-a Moo   (ocmicaccooa okaoc eammoa aseuaocogy  1 -Ya  su Ooiku (Ses ogeiocoio a aiocoes owagi IeaouaooSciees a io 5  319-33YousiA e ScamaC Gi  (ace s a ysicaccscs ocuum-micwaai a ee-ieoga  (pp bldrS  uaooSciee   9-93YousiA ScamaC e Gi  (1999as a ysicaoies ocuum-micwa- a aiiesweesi (Ob  uaoAgcuua oCmisy   77- Gu   GoaCugS i  (acomeces ie eiway ogci maise   dr ieco c a ogy   -9IIAeicesII Same CauoIIAc iy Weig sisAoae a gm o15mi(mo y wiuo= 9= 357= 9 357 = = g= 9 (w= g (1-39 = 7gAoae 9m osame 1Aoae ocoCoecaoaey weig osame 1esweig osame 1Mois coe osame 1y weig osame 1y weig osame 1 ae= 7g/ecoeae suec -com/  coecom e-1com ae assay= 7g/5351A= om a-Ciamic AciSa Cue (gu 1Aoae 9m = 59(uM o-CA oce + 7e isame 1Coeca = = 59 (1M o-CA oce + 7iM oCA oce= 1MAc iy weig sis mo y w= 1M/1 (15mi iuome (y wa= 5 Io y w97IIAc ioisis (og oioiCoeoiSame 1Aoae 95 ^ = 3om e A Assay Sa CueAoae 95 ^ 5971 (oicomg/m  + 31e3 ^ 5971 (oico + 31oicoosame 1= 1 mg/mOgioicoosame 1 = 5 mg/mooi ec= 75mg/mm(ecoeae(3 m5m= g oiAmou ooiwi sc y weig osame 1= 7g (y w / g oi= g (y w/mg oiAc ioisis (og oi= ac iy wsis mg oi= 5 gmo y wg y wmg oi= 1 g oi9IIAmi AciComsioo7-y o Si WaSeeisAmi AcisCoeooami aci(g y wIcSou a oe 597  3 3 5 1Asiac aci 5337 59 1 31Gmic aci  3 99 33 755Se 7733 911 13 1Gci 1 17 33 3 s 339 1  571 5Ai 1 15 11o  1 15 17si 1331 79 135 31 3 971  1 957 1 1Meio  317 35 Cysi 35 57 35  35 Isouci 3 1 99 5 5uci 17 55 15 15 971 9si 1 1 991 1 537 5999IISa Cues gusII.C. Cn  AciSa Cue CmicaAsis oac11g 10a 1=  59+ 7 = 99 ^  ^  ^  ^ ^ 1^ 1a-ciamic acicoeo(uM1IIA Assay Sa Cue oiCoeoio1IK 3ucScicaoIeeuse u 15(Comsio mimiE come OIES ^ U ^ CAESickss ^ Mic ^ 75Mi^ 3i SeM^ s/sqi ^ sqcm ^  ^ s/sqi ^ sqcm ^ EaoM^ %^  ^ %^  ^ s ^ ieo ^ ^ 11eck 9 cycs ^ oos ^ Ogeamissio u ^ cc/sqm ^ 5 y ^ cc/1 sqi ^ 3Mois amissio u ^ g/sqm ^ 37 9  mi ^ g/1 sqi ^ 5(o WesCoasoak Sysm 1IMESa Cue oe  Asis0000<202000E0o00y 88682 - 20 00 2 000000^ 02 ^ 04 ^ 06 ^ 08 ^ 0amou oe (mg1e ase  Comagm oea SaAe ase  o oe sae ak (Awas cam a mis1

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
United States 31 0
China 13 23
Canada 11 0
India 6 0
Pakistan 5 0
Russia 5 0
France 5 2
Nigeria 4 1
Colombia 3 3
Vietnam 3 0
Latvia 3 0
United Kingdom 2 0
Algeria 2 0
City Views Downloads
Unknown 25 5
Shenzhen 8 22
Washington 7 0
Vancouver 6 0
Columbus 5 0
Islamabad 5 0
Mountain View 5 0
Ashburn 4 0
University Park 3 0
Beijing 3 0
Hanoi 3 0
Valledupar 3 3
Bangalore 3 0

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}
Download Stats

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.24.1-0066592/manifest

Comment

Related Items