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Hate crime law & social contention : a comparison of nongovernmental knowledge practices in Canada &.. 2008

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 HATE CRIME LAW & SOCIAL CONTENTION:  A COMPARISON OF NONGOVERNMENTAL KNOWLEDGE PRACTICES IN CANADA & THE UNITED STATES   by  Bernard P. Haggerty  B.S., Iowa State University, 1988  J.D., cum laude, Howard University School of Law, 1992  LL.M., University of Utah, 2001     A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF   DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY  in  The Faculty of Graduate Studies  (Law)   THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver)  August 2008      © Bernard P. Haggerty, 2008  ii  ABSTRACT   Hate crime laws in both Canada and the United States purport to promote equality using the language of antidiscrimination law.  National criminal codes in both countries authorize enhanced punishment for crimes motivated by “sexual orientation” but not “gender identity” or “gender expression.”  Cities and states in the United States have also adopted hate crime laws, some of which denounce both homophobic and trans-phobic crimes.  Hate crime penalty enhancement laws have been applied by courts in both Canada and the United States to establish a growing jurisprudence.  In both countries, moreover, other hate crime laws contribute to official legal knowledge by regulating hate speech, hate crime statistics, and conduct equivalent to hate crimes in schools, workplaces, and elsewhere. Yet, despite the proliferation of hate crime laws and jurisprudence, governmental officials do not control all legal knowledge about hate crimes.  Sociological “others” attend criminal sentencing proceedings and provide support to hate crime victims during prosecutions, but they also frame their own unofficial inquiries and announce their own classification decisions for hate-related events.  In both Canada and the United States, nongovernmental groups contend both inside and outside official governmental channels to establish legal knowledge about homophobic and trans-phobic hate crimes. In two comparable Canadian and American cities, similar groups monitor and classify homophobic and trans-phobic attacks using a variety of information practices.  Interviews with representatives of these groups reveal a relationship between the practices of each group and hate crime laws at each site. The results support one principal conclusion.  The availability of local legislative power and a local mechanism for public review are key determinants of the sites and styles of  iii nongovernmental contention about hate crimes.  Where police gather and publish official hate crime statistics, the official classification system serves as both a site for mobilization, and a constraint on the styles of contention used by nongovernmental groups.  Where police do not gather or publish hate crime statistics, nongovernmental groups are deprived of the resource represented by a local site for social contention, but their styles of contention are liberated from the subtle influences of an official hate crime classification system. Table of Contents  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT................................................................................................................................... ii TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................................ iv LIST OF TABLES ...................................................................................................................... vii LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................................... viii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ........................................................................................................ ix DEDICATION............................................................................................................................... x 1 Introduction........................................................................................................................... 1 1.1.  Statement of the Problem................................................................................................. 1 1.2  Analytical Frame................................................................................................................ 5 1.2.1  The Comparative Method .......................................................................................... 6 1.2.2  The Analytical Legal Comparison............................................................................. 7 1.2.2  The Concept of Social Contention ............................................................................. 9 1.3  Contribution to Existing Literature ............................................................................... 12 1.4  Research Goals & Questions Posed................................................................................ 15 1.5  Research Methods............................................................................................................ 16 1.5.1.  Site Selection............................................................................................................. 16 1.6  Conclusion—A Roadmap for the Thesis........................................................................ 19 2 Hate Crimes, Social Contention & Legal Knowledge...................................................... 30 2.1  Matthew Shepard—a Case of Hate Crime Law & Social Contention........................ 30 2.2  Hate Crimes & Social Contention— Historical Challenges to Intolerance................ 32 2.2.1  Dante, the Sowers of Discord & De Scandalis Magnatum  (ca. 1310) .................. 35 2.2.2  Augustine’s Sermon on Lynching (ca. 390) ............................................................ 38 2.2.3  Patrick’s Letter to the Soldiers of Coroticus (ca. 420) .......................................... 41 2.3  Legal Inquiry & the Sites & Styles of Social Contention ............................................. 44 2.4  Legal Knowledge & the Silencing of Social Contention............................................... 46 3 Hate Crime Law & Equality in Canada & the U.S.:  An Analytical Comparison ....... 51 3.1  Introduction...................................................................................................................... 51 3.2  Analytical Legal Comparison ......................................................................................... 53 3.2.1  Governmental Powers .............................................................................................. 58 3.2.1.1  Division of Legislative Powers .......................................................................... 58 3.2.1.1.1  Canada ......................................................................................................... 58 3.2.1.1.2  United States................................................................................................ 60 3.2.1.1.3  Analysis ........................................................................................................ 62 3.2.1.2  Judicial Review................................................................................................... 64 3.2.2  Equality Rights.......................................................................................................... 65 3.2.2.1  Equality Rights Texts ........................................................................................ 66 3.2.2.1.1  Canada ......................................................................................................... 67 3.2.2.1.2  United States................................................................................................ 72 3.2.2.1.3  Analysis ........................................................................................................ 76 3.2.2.2  Free Expression Constraints on Equality ........................................................ 83 3.2.2.2.1  Canada ......................................................................................................... 83 3.2.2.2.2  United States................................................................................................ 86 3.2.2.2.3  Analysis ........................................................................................................ 87 3.2.3  Enhanced Penalties for Homophobic & Trans-phobic Hate Crimes ................... 90 3.2.3.1  Hate Crime Penalty Enhancement Laws ......................................................... 93 Table of Contents  v 3.2.3.1.1  Canada ......................................................................................................... 97 3.2.3.1.2  United States................................................................................................ 98 3.2.3.1.3  Analysis ...................................................................................................... 101 3.2.3.2  Antidiscrimination Terminology in Hate Crime Sentencing ....................... 101 3.2.3.2.1  Canada ....................................................................................................... 102 3.2.3.2.2  United States.............................................................................................. 103 3.2.3.2.3  Analysis ...................................................................................................... 104 3.2.3.3  Standard of Proof............................................................................................. 110 3.2.3.3.1  Canada ....................................................................................................... 110 3.2.3.3.2  United States.............................................................................................. 112 3.2.3.3.3  Analysis ...................................................................................................... 113 3.2.3.4  Mixed Motives & Causation ........................................................................... 115 3.2.3.4.1  Canada ....................................................................................................... 115 3.2.3.4.2  United States.............................................................................................. 118 3.2.3.4.3  Analysis ...................................................................................................... 120 3.2.3.5  Provocation & Self-Defense ............................................................................ 121 3.2.3.6  Hate Crimes in Youth or Juvenile Proceedings ............................................ 122 3.2.3.7  The Effect of Hate Crime Laws—A Trend Analysis .................................... 123 3.2.3.7.1  Early Cases ................................................................................................ 126 3.2.3.7.2  Pre-Hate Crime Cases .............................................................................. 129 3.2.3.7.3  Post-Hate Crime Cases ............................................................................. 141 3.2.3.7.4  Recent Cases .............................................................................................. 148 3.2.3.7.5  Analysis ...................................................................................................... 157 3.2.4  Other Hate Crime Laws ......................................................................................... 159 3.2.4.1  Hate Speech & Propaganda Laws .................................................................. 160 3.2.4.2 Hate Crime Statistics Laws .............................................................................. 162 3.2.4.2.1  Constitutional Authority for Statistics.................................................... 165 3.2.4.2.2  National Hate Crime Statistics Laws ...................................................... 165 3.2.4.2.3  Hate Crimes & Campus Crime Statistics ............................................... 167 3.2.4.3  Civil Rights & Human Rights Laws............................................................... 168 3.2.4.4  School Harassment & Bullying Laws............................................................. 169 3.2.4.5  Other Laws ....................................................................................................... 173 3.2.4.6  Analysis—The Role of Other Hate Crime Laws in Canada & the U.S. ..... 178 3.2.5  Summary.................................................................................................................. 179 4 Case Comparison .............................................................................................................. 187 4.1  Introduction.................................................................................................................... 187 4.2  A Canadian Case—Aaron Webster ............................................................................. 188 4.2.1  The Youths—‘J.S.’ & ‘A.C.’ .................................................................................. 188 4.2.2  The Adult—Cran .................................................................................................... 196 4.3  An American Case—Micah Painter............................................................................. 200 4.4  Analysis—Comparing Cases......................................................................................... 206 4.5  Conclusion ...................................................................................................................... 210 5 Hate Crimes & Social Contention in Canada & the United States .............................. 212 5.1  Introduction.................................................................................................................... 212 5.2  Community Anti-Violence Projects.............................................................................. 220 5.2.1  Anti-Violence Pilot Project—Vancouver .............................................................. 221 5.2.2  Hate Crime Awareness Project—Seattle .............................................................. 230 5.2.3  Comparison ............................................................................................................. 246 5.3  Ad Hoc Anti-Violence Groups....................................................................................... 249 Table of Contents  vi 5.3.1  West Enders Against Violence Everywhere (WEAVE)—Vancouver................ 250 5.3.2  Action Northwest Bias Crime Forum—Seattle .................................................... 255 5.3.3  Comparison ............................................................................................................. 258 5.4  School Safety & Education Groups.............................................................................. 260 5.4.1  Safe Schools Coalition—Seattle ............................................................................. 260 5.4.2  Gay and Lesbian Educators BC (GALE-BC)—Vancouver................................ 266 5.4.3  Comparison ............................................................................................................. 274 5.5  Family Support Groups (PFLAG) ............................................................................... 275 5.5.1  PFLAG—Seattle ..................................................................................................... 275 5.5.2  PFLAG—Vancouver .............................................................................................. 277 5.5.3  Comparison ............................................................................................................. 279 5.6  Transgender Rights Groups.......................................................................................... 279 5.6.1  Ingersoll Gender Center—Seattle ......................................................................... 279 5.6.2  Trans Alliance Society—Vancouver ......................................................