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The role of adventure therapy in promoting inclusion for people with disabilities Lai, Karen Elizabeith Ka-Yee 2008-12-31

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THE ROLE OF ADVENTURE THERAPY IN PROMOTINGINCLUSION FOR PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIESbyKaren Elizabeth Ka-Yee LaiB.T.R.M, Malaspina University-College, 2003A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFMASTER OF ARTSinThe Faculty of Graduate Studies(Human Kinetics)THE UNIVERSITY BRITISH COLUMBIAJanuary 2008? Karen Elizabeth Ka-Yee Lai, 2008AbstractPeople with disabilities have been marginalized and excluded from the mainstream of life,including leisure contexts (Datillo, 2002, Lord & Hutchinson, 1979, Schleien et al., 1997). As aresult, this causes major barriers to social inclusion (Bedini, 2000Devine, 2004). While inclusion may be appealing on theoretical and policy levels, it remains aconfusing, complicated, and fragmented term (Shakir, 2005).The purpose of this study was to conduct a case study of an adventure therapy organizationthat delivers outdoor programs for people with disabilitieskayaking program offered to people with disabilities and interviewed or conducted focus groupswith clients, staff, and volunteers (n=30)experiences of inclusion as well as the inclusion strategies employed by the organizationexamined what contributes to the constraints to inclusion and ideas for improvement. Theinterviews were augmented by document analysis and participant observations.The meanings of inclusion that were voiced includedwithout disabilities, treating people uniquely, participating in activities that able bodied peopledo, being with others like me, and inclusion is mutually understoodwith inclusion encompassedfrom participating in the outdoors, and challenging oneself. The constraints that were evidentwere feeling belittled when receiving help, dealing with the limitations of disability, notincluding clients in decision making , over protectiveness from family, and liability in theoutdoors. The strategies identified as fostering inclusion includedof adaptations, encouraging clients to take responsibility, and convenient facilitiesthe adventure therapy program better, create additional choices for clients, and increasingopportunities for them to take responsibilities were identified as desired improvements.Exploring the various understandings of inclusion through the voices of people with disabilitieswithin a recreation program is rare and contributes to the literature by identifying what the termmeans to them and how it can be implemented to increase the benefits derivedimplications of the findings and recommendations for future research are providedTable of ContentsAbstract iiTable of ContentsList of Tables vAcknowledgements viCHAPTER 1.0.: Introduction  11.1. Rationale  11.2. Inclusion of people with disabilities  51.3. People with disabilities and recreation  71.4. Case study organization  1 01.5. Research questions 1 1CHAPTER2.0.: Literature Review  122.1. Definitions of inclusion and exclusion  122.2. Disability and citizenship 1 72.3. Definitions of social inclusion  1 82.4. Constraints of social inclusion  242.5. Strategies of social inclusion  262.6. Recreation inclusion  282.7. Adventure therapy as an inclusion strategy  31CHAPTER 3 .: Methodology 373.1. The case study rationale  373.2. The research site  383.3. Role of the researcher 403.4. Sample and recruitment  423.5. Data collection  433.5.1. Document analysis  433.5.2. Participant observations  443.5.2.a. Day kayaking trip 443.5.2.b. Overnight kayaking trip  463.5.3. Focus groups  473.5.4. Interviews 5 13.6. Limitations  543.7. Data analysis 553.8. Ethical guidelines  5 5CHAPTER 4 .: Findings and Discussions  574.1. Study participants 574.2. Meanings of inclusion 604.2.1. The integration of people with and without disabilities  614.2.2. Treating people uniquely  634.2.3. Participating in activities that able-bodied people do  664.2.4. Being with others like me  684.2.5. Inclusion is mutually understood  704.3. Experiences of social inclusion  724.3.1. Enjoying friendships with others  734.3.2. Experiencing barriers  764.3.3. Opportunities for outdoor activities  784.3.4. Challenging yourself  804.4. Constraints of social inclusion 83.........................................................4.4.1. People with disabilities feeling belittled when receiving help 834.4.2. Limitations of disability 864.4.3. Not giving the clients the decision making power  884.4.4. Over protectiveness from family 914.4.5. Liability in the outdoors 934.5. Strategies of social inclusion  954.5.1. The use of the outdoors 964.5.2. The use of adaptations 984.5.3. Taking responsibility 1014.5.4. The convenient facilities 1044.6. Improvements of social inclusion 1064.6.1. The promotion of the program 1074.6.2. Create additional choices 1084.6.3. Increase the responsibilities from clients 110CHAPTER 5 .: Recommendations and Conclusions 1135.1. A summary of findings  1135.2. Fostering social inclusion within this organization 1155.3. Implications for adventure therapy organizations 1185.4. Future research  1215.5. In closing 121References 123Appendices 129Appendix A   129Appendix B1   130Appendix B2: Introductory letter (study participants - 18 & over)  131Appendix B3   132Appendix B4   133Appendix C   134Appendix Dl   136Appendix D2   137Appendix E   138Appendix F   140Appendix G   142Appendix H   143ivList of TablesTable 3.1. Documents analyzed 43Table 4 . Brief descriptions of the study participants (at the time of the study)  57Table 4 . Meanings of social inclusion  61Table 4 . Experiences of social inclusion  73Table 4 . Constraints of social inclusion  83Table 4 . Strategies of social inclusion  96Table 4 . Improvements of social inclusion  107vAcknowledgementsThe experience of writing my thesis has been a process of self-discoveryparticular stand out. The first is the realization that the art of writing includes enjoying the flowand not setting too high expectations of myself in meeting the deadlinesgrowing awareness of the complexity of the meaning of inclusionmany months, I can conclude that it is a difficult concept to achieve.I would like to express my appreciation to Power To Be Adventure Therapy Society (PTB) forthe case study I used for this research projectused as a case study and being so open with the information I requestedto all the staff ? Sarah C ., Andrew, Tim, Michael, and JamesBarbara, Henry, Monika, Kiki, Shelley, Rhena, Jane, Danielle, and SnehaRyan, Scott, Laura, John, Jordan, Simon, Alanna, Blake, Wendy, Moon-Hee, Tamaki, Kevin,Rebecca, Mark, and Christianstudy."Well, Wendy, I never thought I would do it!" Dran incredible support for me and I am forever gratefuland patience is unsurpassablewith disabilities, a subject about which I am deeply passionate, and now I look at this topic verydifferently! I am grateful to Dr . Paul Kershaw for participating on mycommittee. Your helpful feedback has continually challenged me to broaden my thinking aboutthe issue of social inclusion. Thank you.I have been deeply blessed with a community of amazing friends, supporters, colleagues, andfamily. Each of you has witnessed the trials and tribulations I have endured during my writingand there are no words to describe my appreciationSpecial mention is expressed to Caroline, Meredith, and Stephanie, who have helped me withspecific stages of developing this piece of writingand my brother-in-law, Ken, for believing in me and reminding me to take my time in writing.Last, but not least, my greatest support was my motherat hand and without her . Mom, I love you withall my heart, and thank you for giving me the strength and perseverance to continue on thisjourney of discoveryviCHAPTER ONE (1 .0)Introduction"You know when it occurs when you don't think about it anymoreWhen you don't have to think, how can we include this? Or, how can we adaptto this? I think it happens when you and everybody is just doing and everybodyis on an equal level and feels comfortable and feels the same about what's easyand what's hard and stuff like that "(Treena, staff).1.1. RationaleThe above is a quotation I received during data collection in response to the question, "howdo you know if inclusion has occurred?" I have highlighted it because I feel it adds a newdimension to the definition of inclusionbeen achieved when it becomes a mutually understood way of thinking when deliveringrecreation opportunities to people with disabilitiesthere are still many limitations and barriers faced that makes it difficult for inclusion to bemutually understood.My professional experience of working in the field of delivering recreation to people withdisabilities has been guided by such practical documents as "Moving to Inclusion" by theActive Living Alliance for Canadians with a Disability (1994) and "Opening Doors, Keys toInclusive Recreation Policy for Persons with a Disability" by the Canadian Parks andRecreation Association (1992)participate in community if they choose to do so, and no one is excluded" (Canadian Parks andRecreation Association, 1992, p . Due to this, I was led to believe that segregated programsfor only people with disabilities, such as the one explored in this study, works in contradictionto the words "everyone" and "community" in the definition above1calling myself an advocate for inclusion because these programs symbolized exclusion as theyare not integrated with able bodied persons. However, the more involved I became in the field,the more I questioned the segregated/ integrated dichotomy and the meanings of inclusionto clarify my thinking and to contribute to the field, I decided to explore this area further.The purpose of this study is to examine the meanings, strategies, and experiences of socialinclusion through a case study of a non-profit organization delivering adventure therapyprograms designed to "enhance the health and quality of life for youth and their families"(mission statement, 2006)the perspectives of clients, volunteers, and staff in this organization and to identify strategies aswell as ideas for improvement to promote inclusion for people with disabilities.This study is of importance as there is a significant increase in the number of individuals inthe population considered to have a disabilityActivity Limitation Survey (PALS), 12having a disability, and this rate will increase as the population agesare becoming more visible within their communities (Anderson, Schleien, McAvoy, Lais, &Seligmann, 2000), which brings attention to their needs of feeling a sense of belonging andacceptance in their neighborhoods (Frazee, 2005)defines people with disabilities as people who:indicated difficulties with daily living activities or who indicated that a physical,mental condition or health problem reduced the kind or amount of activitiesthey could do (Participation and Activity Limitation Survey, 2001).WHO further explains that disabilities vary and are dependent on "the relationship betweenbody structures and functions, daily activities and social participation, while recognizing the roleof environmental factors (Participation and Activity Limitation Survey, 2001).2The extant literature suggests that people with disabilities have been viewed as second-class citizens and experience exclusion, marginalization, and isolation from society (Datillo,2002; Green, 2003)to be `unworthy' members of society (Schleien, Ray, & Green, 1997)reveals the experience of living with a disability:Teaching others that I am not a charity case to pity or to have sympathy for is ajob I must do it all the time . There are some benefits to being disabled, yet Iwould gladly give it up tomorrow if I could. It's easy to feel sorry for myself,but I can't do that much if I want to get somewhere in life . As a handicappedperson, you have to work twice as hard to prove yourself. I have to learn howdeal with my own disability before I can expect others to deal with it . Mydisability does limit mecreative imagination and some adaptation (cited in Robinson & Skinner, 1985,p. 83-84).Viewing themselves in society's social mirror, people with disabilities may perceive themselvesto have a lower social status than people without disabilities (Devine & Wilhite, 2000). Devineand Datillo (2001) claim that some able bodied people create a prescribed set of standards thatrank those with disabilities according to their independence, functional abilities, and socialreciprocity. Individuals who do not meet these standards are perceived as not being able tofunction independently, accomplishing as much, or having relationships that are reciprocal tothe same extent as people without disabilities (Devine & Datillo, 2001)people may begin to internalize a lower social status by devaluing of themselves as positivecontributors to society . 47) describes this phenomenon as "internalizedoppression". In addition to the negative images created by society, some are faced withcontinual challenges of dealing with their disability, their self acceptance, and overcomingsocietal and other barriers (Devine & Wilhite, 2000).The feelings of exclusion are rooted in history, where those with disabilities were treatedpoorly and cruelly (Schleien et al . Throughout history, some were even eliminated as3they were considered as imperfect, or were used as fools or court jesters (Schleien et al1997). People with disabilities are still sometimes considered to be unattractive, incapable,and dependent (Devine & Wilhite, 2000)negative remarks, or even fear of them.One of the most powerful obstacles they face is the negative attitudes from peoplewithout disabilities.Let's face it : for people with disabilities, the biggest obstacles aren't theirown limitations, but the roadblocks set up by society ? attitudes that equatedisable with unable (Dattilo, 2002, pOthers openly admire people with disabilities who they see as being entitled to the `goodthings in life' (Schleien et alimproving the lives of people who they perceive to suffer or as less fortunate thanthemselves (Schleien et al . However well intentioned, these attitudes can becondescending and can contribute to exclusion by keeping them socially distant (Schleien etal., 1997)save people with disabilities to further their own feelings of self-worth and importance.Ironically, the act of helping may also contribute to feelings of marginalization andexclusion because it may add to the stigmas of people with disabilities as being weak,incompetent, or being unable to complete tasks (Goodwin, 2001)suggests that they are often seen as the victims of oppression and are often on the marginsof society. However, the issue of receiving help is also dependent on how those withdisabilities perceive themselves - whether they embrace their disability or view it as ahindrance to their well-being (Robinson & Skinner, 1985).The terminology of how we refer to people with disabilities may also contribute toexclusion. The word `normal' is frequently used to describe people without disabilities which4mean that people with disabilities are `not normal' (Datillo, 2002). This is demeaning, as itcreates a binary between the disabled and nondisabled that assumes all people live and actsimilar to one another within these groupings in all aspects of their lives.Although I employ this binary discourse in this study, it is not my intention to recreate thiscategorical way of thinking and imply that there are only two categoriestwo categories merely simplifies matters to assist me in communicating who I am referring to.Hill (1998) and the Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women (CRIAW,2006, p. 8) caution us not to put people into categories such as race, class, gender, sexualities,abilities, citizenship, and Aboriginality among others because identities operate relationally andthese categories do not stand on their owndangerous to categorize people with disabilities in particularcategories perpetuates stereotypes and judgments about thembetween and focus on people with disabilities and people without disabilities, it is important toacknowledge that there are many factors that influence participation in adventure therapyincluding gender, ethnicity, and socio-economic background.1.2. Inclusion of people with disabilitiesMore and more people with disabilities are participating in the workforce, education, leisureactivities, and volunteering in their communities (Nisbet & Hagner, 2000)clear how they interpret the attempts by others to include themnot simply mean removing the mechanical challenges of entering into buildings or otherfacilities (Frazee, 2005)being known, a sense of being liked, and a sense of being accepted (Datillo, 2002)inclusion is about more than access to participation in mainstream activitiesof acceptance, belonging, respect, selfhood, and human community (Frazee, 2005)5"I want to be included!" This simple statement is being spoken, signed, key-boarded, whispered, and shouted by people of all ages, shapes, sizes, colors andcultures. Many are making the request for themselves while others are askingfor their friends or aging relatives . It is a simple request and the answer isequally easy . 24)Inclusion is a desired goal of many several different organizations, yet it remains a problematicconcept because both it and exclusion have norms and values attached to them, where it isgood to be `within' and bad to be on the `outside' (Shakir, 2005). Questions as to how peoplebecome excluded in the first place define inclusion as a service being done `for people', sincethose who are excluded often cannot change their circumstances, so it is up to the others tomake them feel welcomed and help them to participate (Shakir, 2005)differential with one group doing something for the other group`excluded' may not develop a sense of ownership over their experiencesthat excluded persons need to have opportunities to recognize their own identities, haverelationships with one another, and be a part of the community just like those who are trying towelcome them in (van de Ven et alDatillo (2002, precognize[mg] that we are one even though we are not the same . Indusionallows people to value differences in each other by recognizing that each personhas an important contribution to make to our society.Some people with disabilities have the desire to become full and active members of thecommunity. Inclusion calls for respect, having a sense of oneself as a whole person, and anidentity as a valued contributor who is a bearer of rights, knowledge, and power (Frazee, 2005).At the same time, inclusion may also mean involving those who are sometimes renderedvoiceless and powerless in shaping policies that affect their lives (Shookner, 2002)inclusion may mean having people involved in decision making, and program development andpolicy making6both broader social circumstances, but who can also exert agency by deciding whether theywant to be included or not and how.However, the subjective feelings and encouraging them to be involved in the decisionmaking is only one part of the equation in the implementation of inclusion(2004) point out that these aspects can be prevented by the institutional barriers, along with thenegative attitudes held by some staff and management of the organizationprocess of inclusion challenging and complex . (2005, pnotion of "it takes two to tango" where the individual need to take responsibility so they canjoin in activities, but at the same time, the organizational policies and practices need to be inplace to facilitate this.1.3. People with disabilities and recreationParticipating in recreational activities is an important aspect of many people's lives becauseit can promote opportunities for health, new relationships, and new skills (Schleien et 1997).Robinson and Skinner (1985) state that a holistic perspective on recreation is concerned withthe whole person: mental, physical, emotional, social and spiritualwhat individuals with disabilities can not do, and emphasizes their strengths and positivequalities (Robinson & Skinner, 1985)components which are: i) people perceiving themselves to be freely choosing the activity, andii) engaging in the activity purely because doing so is meaningful and enjoyablefor social interaction and social acceptance can be created in leisure time, as it is usuallyunstructured and provides satisfaction (Robinson & Skinner, 1985).However, Donnelly and Coakley (2002) contend that although there are possible benefits toparticipation in recreation, there can be disadvantages especially for children and youth.7The participants can be exploited, abused, bullied, or dominated in many waysin organized activity programmes ; they can be taught `poor' values, andinappropriate or dangerous (i.e. injury producing) skills; they can be made tofeel alienated, isolated, humiliated (Donnelly & Coakley, 2002, pYet, it is conceivable that identifiable or excluded populations may indeed benefit from socialcontrol initiatives like recreation because of the empowerment and the self-determination theymay experience (Donnelly & Coakley, 2002).This study introduces a form of recreation, known as adventure therapy (AT), as an avenueto promote the inclusion of excluded populationsUnited States in 1901 when there was overcrowding at a New York City Hospitalspread to New Zealand and into Canada (Gibsons, 1979Adventure therapy utilizes the components of the adventure and the outdoors to encourageparticipation in experiential and risk-taking activities that are both emotionally and physicallychallenging for participants (Ewert, McCormick, & Voight, 2001)programs, the group or individuals who participates, the locations, and program goals(Bandoroff & Newes, 2004)therapeutic techniques by using the outdoors as a medium to assist in personal growth(Bandoroff & Newes, 2004). It is believed that participating in the outdoors provides newperspectives on life, as it brings people into a whole new environment (Ewert et alIt was not until recently that adventure therapy expanded to include people with disabilitiesas it was thought that this population could benefit greatly from itincreasingly being used as a therapeutic setting, with many organizations and programs nowincorporating a variety of programs in and out of wilderness experiences (Ewen et alAdventure therapy, also known as wilderness-based adventure recreation, has grown rapidly inthe last three decades as a method of therapy or rehabilitation (Anderson, Schleien, McAvoy,Lais, & Seligmann, 1997)8However, some people challenge the term adventure therapy as an avenue for promotingsocial inclusionmedicine was understood to be a cure for patients by fixing their conditions, as a way ofrestoring afflicted individuals (Mitten, 2004)disabilities need to be fixed because of their impairment in order to function in mainstreamsociety. It also contradicts social inclusion approaches designed to embrace disability as onecomponent of diversity (Datillo, 2001)can be part of complementary alternative medicine (CAM), similar to other methods such asacupuncture, aromatherapy, massage, or healing therapypromote healing by providing people with a sense of well-being, task completion, and socialconnection (Mitten, 2004).Adventure therapy claims that it creates a sense of empowerment when people withdisabilities conquer their adventures (Terry, 1995), which may be a metaphor for conqueringother life challenges and barriersnecessarily in the athletic sense, but by engaging participants fully in activities that are outsidetheir comfort zones (Terry, 1995)of adventure is thought to give them a way to address and conquer those feelings of insecurityby discovering their own abilities (Terry, 1995)of belonging since the outdoors or nature cannot readily be changed or manipulatedwhich is often difficult to achieve due to the constantly changing and extremely fast-paceddeveloped world (Ewert et al . Thus, the natural setting may help to recapture a sense ofself by being connected to nature (Ewert et al .91.4. Case study organizationIt is through a case study approach that I examine adventure therapy, meanings ofinclusion, and the strategies of promoting it for people with disabilities. The non profitadventure therapy organization selected as the case study site was founded in 1998 due to adesire to offer wilderness trips incorporating adventure therapy for cancer survivors from achildren's hospital. Today, it delivers programs, primarily sea kayaking, rock climbing, or winteractivities to people who are considered to be marginalized. The clients that the organizationworks with are people with disabilities, people on low income, or people who have experiencedabuse. It currently has nine staff, complemented by approximately 30 volunteers, who deliver itsday-to-day operations. This study will focus on one of its programs, specifically the adaptiverecreation program in the Lower Mainland that provides kayaking programs in the summer.The aim is to examine and explore social inclusion of people with disabilities through thevehicle of adventure therapy programs. This will contribute to social inclusion theory byconsidering the perspectives of both the organizers and the intended beneficiaries of theprogram in an adventure therapy context. I was employed with the organization at the time ofthe study, as the coordinator of the adaptive kayaking program. I was hired because of mybackground in recreation and my extensive knowledge of working with people with disabilities.This gave me an insider position which has several advantages and disadvantages that arementioned in Chapter 3. I had to identify myself as a researcher and carefully consider mylocation as a researcher and as a staff person. Having an insider position gave me access toinformation and may have created a sense of comfort for the participants to voice theirfeedback (Lincoln & Denzin, 2005). However, study participants may have felt uneasy talkingto me about this topic given my dual roles. Despite these cautions, I am hopeful that I am10contributing to the field of adventure therapy by obtaining further insights into how to facilitatethe social inclusion of people with disabilities.1.5. Research questionsUsing the non profit adventure therapy organization as the case study, the researchquestions are:1. What are the meanings of inclusion for participants with disabilities, volunteers, andstaff?2. What contributes to the constraints or experiences of social inclusion for people withdisabilities when participating in adventure therapy?3. What are the inclusion strategies used by staff, participants, and volunteers and do theyhave suggestions improving them?My research builds on the inclusion strategies outlined by Donnelly and Coakley (2002) and theminimal literature about adventure therapyprovided. In Chapter 3, I outline the methodology that I employed to address my researchquestions, along with the complexities I experienced as a researcher because I was working withthe organization. In Chapter 4, I discuss and analyze the findings uncovered through myresearch processrecommendations and ideas for future research11CHAPTER TWO (2 .0)Literature ReviewIt is said that one of the most powerful obstacles people with disabilities may face isnegative attitudes by others when attempting to be included in community leisure programs(Schleien et . This section will provide a literature review related to disability andsocial inclusion, recreation, followed by further information on adventure therapy.2.1. Definitions of inclusion and exclusionShookner (2002) points out several dimensions of inclusion and exclusion which includethe cultural, economic, functional, participatory, physical, political, structural, and the relational.These dimensions create differences which people are fearful aboutmarginalization are derived leading to barriers and the denial of human rights (Shookner, 2002).As defined by Galabuzi (2002, pinability of certain groups or individuals to participate fully in life due tostructural inequalities in access to social, economic, political, and culturalresources. These inequalities arise out of oppression related to race, class,gender, disability, sexuality orientation, immigrant status, and religion.In order to fully understand social inclusion, it is helpful to explore the concept of exclusion.Shakir (2005) views inclusion on a continuum, where exclusion is the problem and inclusion isthe solution. Yet, questions arise as to how people become excluded in the first place, as Shakir(2005, pthere is no structural analysis of marginality or exclusion and the concept is,once again, familiarly linear, social inclusion becomes a paternalistic policyoption rather than one that challenges historical and existing power imbalancesin our society in order to create real change.This is tied to the intersectionalities of people such as race, class, culture, gender orientation,and so on because we live in a world where people identify themselves and are treated12according to categories that reflect cultural ideologies and discourses (Kivel, 2000). Kymlicka(1989, p.162) further explains how such categories are generated in the following quotation:that the members of minority cultural communities may face particular kinds ofdisadvantages with respect to the good of cultural membership, disadvantageswhose rectification requires and justifies the provision of minority rights. Thatis, we need to show that membership in a cultural community may be a relevantcriterion for distributing the benefits and burdens which are the concern of aliberal theory of justice.Due to these identities, how "we can understand and come to know ourselves and otherscannot be separated from how we are represented and imagine others" (Kivel, 2000, p. 80). Weoften use these markers of identities with some certainty. For example, it is assumed thateveryone knows the general categories of what it means to be a woman, man, a person who hasa disability, or a person who is gay, because we rarely question the social categories themselves(Kivel, 2000). These categories create simplicity and quite often, it is within their specific groupthat people feel a sense of identity, a sense of self-worth, and value as an individual. However,putting people within these social categories of identities can be quite dangerous, as it elicits asense of oppression for marginalized groups since the identities of individuals are much morecomplex (Kivel, 2000).The Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women (CRIAW) recentlypublished an intersectional feminist framework, which cautions us not to prioritize one identityor one relation to power to the exclusion of others, as this misrepresents the full diversity ofwomen's lived realities (CRIAW, 2006). They further state that:CRIAW sees gender as only one relationship to power. Using IFFs,[intersectional feminist framework] social categories as race, class, gender,sexualities, abilities, citizenship, and Aboriginality among others, operaterelationally; these categories do not stand on their own, but rather gain meaningand power by reinforcing and referencing each other (CRIAW, 2006, p. 8).The idea of possessing `whiteness' and `ablebodiediness' becomes an automatic symbol forthe norm, unquestioned and unremarked (Galvin, 2003). Similar to how Collins (2000) uses the13concept of `othering' when she describes the oppression, exclusion and the marginalization ofblack people, Hughes (2002) uses othering in relation to people with disabilities. Yet, theyrepresent a range of a group of people which may include women and men, disabled people,people with little or no money, and those from minority ethnic groups who face daily structuraland attitudinal discrimination in their lives because of who they are in relation to others who areconsidered to be normal (Tregaskis, 2004). Hill (1998) discusses how this leads to stereotyping.Also dividing people into categories of those who want to learn how to supportpeople with disabilities and those who have a disability that need support tolearn social skills only serve to perpetuate stereotypes associated with peoplewith disabilities (Hill, 1998, pReferring to those with and without disabilities emphasizes the `invisible wall' of exclusionbetween the two categories, and the wall becomes more pronounced depending on the severityof the disability (Schleien et al . As such, they become known as the `others,' and aremore likely to be the recipients of oppression, exclusion and marginalization (Hughes, 2002).Tregaskis (2004) argues that disabled people do not have ownership over being oppressed, butdo have ownership of the particular label of `disablism.' Disability is a marginalized status in oursociety, a society that assigns people who are different enough from the majority to be judgedas abnormal or defective in mind or body (McAvoy, Schatz, Schleien, & Lais, 1989).The word `disabled' describes the minority experience of disempowerment, disrespect, ordisregard that accentuates negative value judgments by some people towards disabled people(Tregaskis, 2004). In breaking the word `disabled' down, the `able' part means having sufficientpower or the ability to have success and accomplish tasks involved. However, if we put `dis' asa prefix for `able,' there is a reduction or deprivation of the skill or power, giving the impressionthat people with disabilities are `imperfect' (Datillo, 2002). Collins and Kay (2003, p. 141)concur that disabled people are:14treated as members of a deviant minority groupdisabled persons have been relegated to a position outside the mainstream.Minority status has meant that disabled persons as a stereotyped andstigmatized category or group have been accorded degraded status, little power,and few opportunities for economic advancement or success.For those with physical or mental impairments, they are automatically assigned a `marginalized'status, which excludes them from accessing privileges and in doing so, they are identified asbeing different (Galvin, 2003)this can be quite demeaning (Datillo, 2002)used to describe people who do not possess an apparent disability, it implies that a disability isthe one distinguishing factor that differentiates between normal and disableddesire to recognize people for their abilities and similarities (Schleien et alPeople with disabilities face barriers, places and spaces where they cannot go, and theirdifferentness comes to the forefront (Hughes, 2002)disabilities are often marginalized from the labor force and denied access to opportunities forsocial interaction and advancement due to stereotyping and discriminationdisabilities are often viewed as having `differences' because of not meeting the standards basedon independence, functional abilities, and social reciprocity that some people withoutdisabilities have.Differences are seen as the manifestations of exclusion (Shakir, 2005)should not be seen as problematic simply because they lack uniformity and similarity (Shakir,2005)well as one's well being and development (Datillo, 2002)small organization such as the one examined in this case study cannot overcome these broadsocial forces of social exclusionon a more micro level for at least a short period of time15The exclusion of people with disabilities can lead to paternalistic attitudes of pity andcharity, and their entrance into the mainstream has been conditional upon the emulation ofable-bodied norms (Frazee, 2005)context, which is characterized as an area of unstructured learning environment (Devine, 2004).Frisby (2005) states that the negative aspects of sports and recreation are the exclusion ofwomen and minorities in positions of power and the discrimination faced because of race,disability, sexuality, and other markers of difference.In an ideal world, even though we know ideals can never be fully achieved, each personshould be recognized and valued for their uniquenessthe following quotation about respecting the differences in people.To unravel the emancipatory potential of contingency-as-destiny, it would notbe suffice to avoid humiliating the othersrespect them precisely in their otherness, in the preferences they have made, intheir right to make preferencesthe strangeness in the stranger, remembering.. that the `unique is universal',that is being different that makes us resemble each other and that I cannotrespect my own difference but by respecting the difference of the other(Hughes, 2002, pIt was not until recently that there has been a shift in the social construction of disability, in thehopes of dismantling exclusionary forces. The traditional view of disability was generated by themedical profession, where they were focused on finding a cure for impairments (Dowse, 2004).This assumes that finding a cure means that something is wrong with a personcontemporary social movement related to disability encourages people "to challengeoppression" (Dowse, 2004, p . This social movement challenges the traditional medicalmodel, as many people with disabilities have a desire to be like anyone else in societyto be full citizens and to be treated with respect and equality (van de Ven et . Dowse(2004) elaborates by stating that16This movement from the traditional to the social model of disability bringsabout the cultural shifts to ensure that disabled people can take their places inthe broad landscape of the social life endowed with the same possibilities andsupported by the same rights as their non-disabled contemporaries (Dowse,2004, p. 123).As mentioned, people with disabilities are often viewed as symbols of tragedy and as remindersof the frailty of existence (Hughes, 2002)society to celebrate frailty and imperfections, in order for us to embrace people with disabilities,thus moving towards the promise of social inclusion (Shakir, 2005).2.2. Disability and citizenshipFrazee (2005) recognizes how the equality status of their citizenship may be jeopardized byentrenched patterns of social exclusion. She further explains that unequal treatment in thecontext of disability most often takes the form of denial of opportunities for inclusiveparticipation (Frazee, 2005)considered citizens need to demonstrate some responsibilities to achieve full citizenshipis an assumption that in order to implement social inclusion, it is done `for' people, since thosepeople who are excluded presumably cannot change their circumstances so others must makethem feel wanted and help them to participatechallenge this way of thinking by presenting the idea that all people should participate in whatJenson (1997a) calls a "citizenship regime" (p.631). This term should not only be used withinthe political structures, such as the institutional arrangements and rules that guide state policy,but also in the concepts and assumptions that influence our political-cultural thinking, andunderstandings of the citizenship (Kershaw, 2005)the recent convergence in recent political thought, which treats fulfillment ofsocial obligations as a condition for social entitlement, actually needs to beadvanced further to integrate care as a constitutive responsibility and right ofsocial citizenship that binds men as much as women (Kershaw, 2005, p.17Kershaw (2005) argues that assumptions about caregiving duties need to be challenged as itshould not only be the responsibility of women, but also the responsibility of men if they wishto be considered as citizensbetween citizenship and responsibility. In relation to this study, it might be assumed that it isthe responsibility of people without an identifiable disability to encourage the `other'involvementdisabilities may buy into this thinking that they are unable to participate without help and maythereby deny themselves various opportunities (Datillo, 2002)their limitations rather than making adaptations that may be necessary to ensure involvementwithin society.No longer can we be thinking about doing things `for' people to ensure their participation(Shakir, 2005)themselves in opportunities, if they desire to be viewed as full citizens (van de Ven et alvan de Ven et al . 324) claim that "it takes two to tango" where each person plays arole in inclusion is usefulresponsibility for their own lives and realize their potentialorganizations must take action, whether this means adjusting attitudes, management systems, orpolicies to ensure this is possible. For this to happen, both parties should work together bydefining what is expected of each other in achieving social inclusion.2.3. Definitions of social inclusionSocial inclusion is a messy, fragmented, and complex termaccount for this are: 1) the various definitions used in the literature reviewed and in practice, 2)the different levels of analysis referred to, such as societal, policy, organizational, or individual/personal, and 3) inclusion is described as a process, right of citizenship, and an outcome18the purposes of this case study, I focus on the interrelationships between two of these levels ofanalysisprocess. At the same time, it is important to conceptualize the study by considering broaderdefinitions of social inclusion.Shakir (2005) brings to the forefront power in relation to social inclusion as she questionshow and why people become excluded in the first placebecome a paternalistic policy rather than challenging historical and existing power imbalances inorder to create real change because of the lack of structural analysis. It is because of thesepower imbalances that differences exist. Shakir (2005) describes differences as manifestations ofexclusion as it:is constructed by entrenched power structures to define and execute policies ofmarginalization because it uncritically positions itself to be the given norm fromwhich access to levels and degrees of power and privilege flow (ibid .203).Social inclusion is not only about having political rights normally seen as markers of equalityin society, but more importantly is about "having a relationship with one's community and theresources necessary to exercise one's citizenship" (Shakir, 2005, 207)recognize that our collective heritage is not commonality but our shared experiences ofcomplex and differing lived realities based on our various intersectionalities of history, culture,race, class, gender, language, and relations of unequal power.Having a disability is seen as a difference that is evident in the following quotation from ayoung person with a disability who participated in Frazee's (2005) study.We all have our differencesunderstanding things like weird poetry or stories . Whatever the case, we allstruggle with different things ? some more than others, but that is no reason tosingle them out from everyone elseby their hair color, or whether they wore glasses or not, so why should kids likemy friend Aaron be any different? Some people may call it specialized learning,but I call it prejudice (Frazee, 205, p .19It is in an ideal world, we could forget about the disability and perhaps view it merely as adifference when interacting with one another (van de Ven et. al, 2005). Even though fullinclusion is an ideal cannot be fully achieved, it is important to recognize that social inclusioncan be worked towards by breaking down the "invisible wall of exclusion" (Schleien et alp. 62).Shookner (2002. p. 16) presents a more holistic approach, as he describes four possibleinterpretations of inclusion and recommends that "readers are encouraged to use the definitionthat works best for them"included and to be able to participate fully within our families, our communities, and oursociety" (Shookner, 2002, p . A second dimension talks about inclusion at an individuallevel as a feeling that all people should live comfortably, feel valued and feel like respectedmembers of their communitywillingness of our society to keep all groups within reach of what we expect as a society(Shookner, 2002)included in processes of shaping policies that affect their daily lives.It reflects the need to address poverty and exclusion by including the voicelessand powerless in shaping the policies that affect their livesindividuals and groups into their planning, decision-making and policy-development processes in their communitythe opportunities, resources and support they need to participate (Shookner,2002, p. 16)One problem with his approach is that he describes excluded people as being voiceless andpowerless which is not always the case and some may find this generalization insulting.Donnelly and Coakley (2002, p. 2) define social inclusion in a broader organizationalcontext such as in the field of recreation as it relates to children which is:the social process through which the skills, talents, and capacities of children aredeveloped and enhanced so that all are given the opportunity to realize their fullpotential, and to fully participate in the social and economic mainstream.20They contend that recreation programs are often created with a paternalistic manner which mayemphasize the social control between those that facilitate community development andinvolvement. Through this, it creates the recognition of power dimension between thetraditional traps of programme provision, such as top-down organization, and it brings thequestion as to "who has to shift?" (Donnelly & Coakley, 2002, p. 2). This links to otherliterature that ties the notion of social inclusion and systematic features of organizations tobasic rights of citizenship, including social, economic, and individual human rights (Donnelly &Coakley, 2002). It is these institutional barriers coupled with the negative attitudes andstereotypes held by some management and staff that may help foster the marginalization of theparticipants (Allison & Hibbler, 2004).The Social Planning and Research Council of BC (SPARC BC) and the BC Recreation andParks Association (BCRPA) recently developed a program planning manual and defined socialinclusion as the following:.. . a feeling of belonging, acceptance, and recognition and is intertwined withissues of diversity, equality, opportunity, and democratic participation.Inclusiveness is linked with social health and quality of life, and this in turn isclosely linked with economic prosperity (SPARC BC & BCRPA, 2006, p. 4).SPARC BC and BCRPA (2006) mention that there are many different approaches toincorporating social inclusion and for it to be successful, it must be integrated intoorganizational and decision making structures.Another definition of inclusion was presented in the document, "Opening Doors: Keys toInclusive Recreation Policy for Persons with a Disability" (CPRA, 1992). This documentacknowledges that inclusion may never be completely understood or fully achieved, butrecognizes it as a process because it:o is all-encompassing, meaning that everyone can participate in communityactivities if they choose to do so;21o is about developing mainstream equitable opportunities for all membersregardless of ability;o is about changing attitudes and beliefs;o is a process of continual change which requires time, commitment, andleadership, and the combined efforts of all partners, working collectivelyand individuallyo requires developing environments that accept the principle and practice offair and equitable allocation of resources (Canadian Parks and RecreationAssociation, 1992, pMost definitions of inclusion also refer to the individual/ personal dimension as illustratedby Datillo (2002, p . He says it is about:recognizing that we are one even though we are not the same. Inclusion allowspeople to value differences in each other by recognizing that each person has animportant contribution to make to our society.He (2002) argues further that people with disabilities should feel welcomed and accepted intheir communities. As a result, social inclusion is also tied to notions of acceptancecharacterized by an ease and enjoyment of social interaction between people, a sense ofbelonging to a group, and the opportunity to create relationships of equal status (Devine, 2004).Social acceptance is a key ingredient to creating a climate of inclusion that goes beyondproviding physical accessibility (Devine, 2004).Inclusion is about a personal connection and personal understanding that it is specific andto each individual, as outlined in the following quotation.To become the basis of daily thought and action, inclusion, like any value, mustbe personal and relevant for each individual. Instead of providing a definition ofinclusion, we must now ask people to define inclusion for themselves...Through this dialogue, a more personal connection and understanding is madeabout what inclusion really means and, hopefully, how essential it is for all of us(Schleien et al . 1).Not only is social inclusion discussed on multiple levels of analysis, but Frazee (2005) sees itas both a process and an outcome. As a process, social inclusion invokes and cultivatesinvolvement, self-expression and self-discovery, so that participation will be welcomed, choiceswill be supported, contributions will be valued, and integrity will be safeguarded (Frazee, 2005).22It can also be an outcome when inclusion occurs within a range of meaningful and respectfulopportunities, and when involvement, expression and discovery consistently prompts "being"and "becoming" as well as "doing" and "acting" (Frazee, 2005, p . It can also be seen as anexperience for growth and discovery that is both socially and personally rewarding (Frazee,2005). To support her definition, Frazee (2005) interviewed several youth with disabilities, andone with autism said the following:Inclusion is being able to be with kids my own age and do things they do andgo where they go. Inclusion is being with them. Inclusion helps people see thatthere is a lot more to me than autism. It helps them see that I am just a regularteenager. Inclusion is important because it allows me to be who I am and to bewith my friends and do what they do (p. 11).This falls in line with Schleien et al. (1997), where inclusion is about making personalconnections. Along with this, Frazee (2005) contends that inclusion is about the sense ofbelonging, `being with them,' and `being with my friends and do what they do.' It is more thanthe mechanical challenge of entry into buildings; it is the access to one's citizenship andcommunity and about feeling secure and worthy (Frazee, 2005).While the various ways that social inclusion is described is confusing, multiple meaningsand levels of analysis open our minds to new ways of thinking about the concept to developnew solutions for old problems (Shookner, 2002). van de Ven et al (2005, p. 324) provides ahelpful metaphor for the purposes of this case study when he says that inclusion "takes two totango", where both people with disabilities and the organizations need to work together forinclusion to be achieved .262), the power rests in thehands of the dominant hierarchy who "in the public sphere, set the parameters of interaction inour major societal institutions." They further say that the "experiences of those in the non-dominant groups are muted or "made invisible by the persuasiveness of the dominant culture"(Allison & Hibbler, p.262). Thus, while it is important to encourage people with disabilities to23enhance the personal connections, it cannot be left solely up to them to ensure their owninclusion. The organization needs to take some responsibilities in ensuring that theirorganizational policies and structures are appropriate for inclusion to occur.2.4. Constraints of social inclusionAs mentioned, Shakir (2005) states that there is an assumption that social inclusion is done"for" people, meaning that others must make them feel wanted and help them participate.Through this, the `wall of exclusion' continues to build, as it perpetuates the norm that somepeople need help and do not meet a prescribed set of standards (Schleien et al., 1997). Schleienet al. (1997) argue that some able bodied people feel the need to take on the responsibility ofimproving the lives of others, who they view as less fortunate than themselves. This results inpeople with disabilities being positioned as passive recipients of services (Miller, Schleien, Rider,Hall, Roche, & Worsley, 2002).These assumed roles prompt the issue of `help' as the prevalent source of power thatunderlies the general interaction between those with and without disabilities. However, help canbe a mixed blessing because giving it may decrease opportunities for full inclusion. AsGoodwin (2001) states, some perceive help as drastically reducing control over their own livesby being reminded of their limitations in comparison to others. This feeds into thedifferentiation between the `givers' and the `recipients' of the services (Miller et al., 2002) andcontributes to the social constructions of people with disabilities as being `sick' and `dependent'on people without disabilities (Schleien et alDue to the label `disabled', a self-fulfilling prophecy may occur if some people withdisabilities self-identify as being `different', instilling a belief that they are not quite human(Datillo, 2002). He (2002) further explains how this can result in "internalized oppression,"24where some people with disabilities begin to believe in these labels and become dependent onothers for tasks they might be able to do for themselves.The various supports for people with disabilities, especially from their own families, canplay instrumental roles in how they take part within their communities and lifestyles, and attimes this can be a negative factor. Families of children with disabilities often take on moreresponsibility for raising their children, because they quite often feel a sense of guilt or evenblame for their child's disability (Green, 2003; Keller & Sterling Honig, 2004). This may causethem to take on a more protective role in the upbringing of their child by trying to minimize theimpact of marginalization. Parents and relatives can become involved in every aspect of theirchild's life to act as a buffer, to ensure they do not experience isolation, loneliness, and unfairtreatment. This is often associated with a fear that their child is at greater risk being hurt,physically, mentally or attitudinally.Another constraint that may pose a threat to inclusion is the physical accessibility of thefacilities. Although Frazee (2005) states that inclusion goes beyond the mechanical challenge ofbuilding entry, physical accessibility still needs to be addressed. Datillo (2002) uses the term`universal design' to ensure that all products and the environments are accessible to people.Universal design is making products and environments to be useable by allpeople, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation orspecialized design. The idea of universal design is to simplify life for everyoneby making products, communications, and the built environment more useableby as many people as possible at little or no extra cost. We could see thatuniversal design benefits people of all ages and abilities (Datillo, 2002, p. 173).Accessibility or usability of a facility is the degree to which people can enter and use a buildingor surrounding area, a key factor in making recreation experiences possible (Datillo, 2002). He(2002) further explains that a universal design is the ultimate goal as it creates a broadlyinclusive environment that blends a variety of design concepts into a range of meaningfuloptions for people.252.5. Strategies of social inclusionThe complexity of the definitions of social inclusion leads to a confusing process forconsidering strategies that will foster. There is limited literature concentrating on specificinclusion strategies, especially as it relates to adventure therapy. However, Donnelly andCoakley (2002) identify several inclusion strategies in a broader recreation context, as theybelieve that play and recreation is fundamental to health, well-being, and social and physicaldevelopment. They outline a social inclusion framework with six specific strategies (Donnelly &Coakley, 2002).One strategy is the building of a safe environment where programmes emphasize aphilosophy of nonviolence and participants can express themselves freely (Donnelly & Coakley,2002). In this way, participants can openly experience new opportunities without being judgedor stereotyped. Secondly, Donnelly and Coakley (2002) contend that opportunities are neededto develop and display competence where the participants gain self-esteem in an athletic orrecreational environment and a sense of moral worth in the community at large. Thirdly, socialnetworks are important for programmes to facilitate connections with peers, because nurturingsupportive friendships promote communication and conflict resolution skills (Donnelly &Coakley, 2002). The fourth strategy is providing individuals with moral and economic supportto provide guidance as they make moral and economic decisions in their everyday lives(Donnelly & Coakley, 2002). Ensuring autonomy and control in the structures in whichprogrammes occur provides opportunities for participants to be involved in decision-makingand exposes them to a variety of programmes so that they can look for appropriate resourcesand deal successfully with challenges in their lives (Donnelly & Coakley, 2002). The last strategyis where there is hope for the future, where programmes expose participants to futurepossibilities for their lives (Donnelly & Coakley, 2002).26While these six strategies tend to be ambiguous, they provide a starting place for howprofessionals can facilitate inclusion in the realm of recreation. Shookner (2002) points outinclusion strategies are important as they begin to raise awareness and identify steps to movetowards policies, programs, practices that will be more inclusive. He (2002) proposes that theelements necessary for inclusion are valuing contributions of the diversity of the population,ensuring adequate income for participation, and providing opportunities and the freedom to beinvolved in every aspect of an organization. Making sure that the environment is healthy andsupportive to provide ease of access to public places and community resources, and enablingindividuals to fulfill their human rights and entitlements so that the feeling a sense of belonging,respect, recognition, family support, or solidarity gets achieved are additional elements ofinclusion (Shookner, 2002).Inclusion can happen either physically or socially, where people value each other anddemystify their differences, thus allowing each person can feel a sense of belonging andacceptance (Sable, 1995). Our relationships with one another can become supportive networks,allowing individuals to grow through programs that promote their own decision making andindependence.Schleien et al. (1997) point out that it is one thing to open up the programs for people withdisabilities; but it is another thing to go further to actively recruit and encourage theirparticipation by providing a range of inclusion strategies that meets a diversity of needs. It iscommon for programs to market themselves as inclusive, but there is a difference betweenbeing physically inclusive and socially inclusive. Achieving physical inclusion means enhancingaccessibility with ramps, elevators, adapted equipment, or automatic doors. Being sociallyinclusive is also about providing opportunities for making one's way into full citizenship byfeeling secure and worthy (Frazee, 2005).27Inclusion strategies should increase opportunities to interact socially with others, developfriendships, and experience a sense of belonging (Anderson & Heyne, 2000)emphasizes the priority of developing friendships as this correlates with the development ofchildhood resilience and the ability to cope with external stresses associated with living with adisability. In addition, friendships may help contribute to the sense of security, integration, andpurposefulness (Frazee, 2005). Sciberras and Hutchinson (2003/2004) agree that when peoplewith disabilities have friends, their world is opened up because they have access to a broaderrange of opportunities. As well, gaining friendships is a sign of social acceptance and may be animportant component of social satisfaction (Devine & Datillo, 2001).Along with the development of friendships, inclusion strategies emphasize people withdisabilities being in the workforce, and participating in various leisure opportunities. Theabilities of people with disabilities are being recognized through various sporting events such asParalympics and the Special Olympics. I will now turn the focus to discussing inclusionspecifically in the recreation context.2.6. Recreation inclusionSchleien et. al (1997) contend that participating in leisure is an important aspect of life as itpromotes health, conditioning, and provides opportunities for people to develop socialrelationships and new skills. However, recreation for people with disabilities has often been alow priority, because the emphasis has been on planning residential, vocational or educationalopportunities, rather than leisure experiences (Lord & Hutchinson, 1979). This idea ofrecreation not being important to people with disabilities has been recognized by Stebbins(1998, p. 101) when he argues that leisure:has not been recognized as a realm in which people with disabilities can exploreor discover who they are and who they might become . There has been littlerecognition that supporting and allowing people with disabilities to experiencethe full range of leisure expressions is important to their meaning and creatingbalance in their lives.Opportunities for social interaction and social acceptance can be created in leisure, as it is oftena time where it is unstructured allowing people to freely enjoy themselves by mutuallyparticipating in meaningful, enjoyable, and satisfying experiences (Datillo, 2002; Robinson &Skinner, 1985).Sable (1995) recognizes people with disabilities are becoming more physically involvedwithin the community, but claims that social acceptance is still lacking as mention in thefollowing quotation:These negative attitudes are the most powerful barriers to full inclusion andacceptance of individuals with disabilities into the fabric of community life. Aswe work toward inclusionary practices in schools, employment, and leisureservices, we are reminded that true social integration appears most difficult toachieve than the normalization concept of availability of patterns andconditions of everyday life (Sable, 1995, p. 207).Attitudes toward people with disabilities are evolving from the traditional to the social model asmuch of society is seeing their abilities, rather than their disabilities. Dowse (2001) elicits thenotion that there is a shift for people with disabilities to take their places in the world, so thatthey can have the same opportunities as others. The idea that needs to be emphasized is that allpeople, regardless of disabilities or not, have strengths and weaknesses (Hutchinson & Lord,1979). There has been a shift within the leisure realm from segregation to integrated recreation,as there is a movement towards embracing people with disabilities to be included in programs,community and in the society (Datillo, 2002).Despite this shift from segregation to integration, there is often a controversy as to whetherpartaking in programs in an integrated program consisting of people with and withoutdisabilities is appropriate. The term segregation describes `disabled-only' programs and is basedon the belief that people who with similar labels can be best served in a separate environment29(Datillo, 2002). These programs may help to create trust, a sense of belonging, and a sense thatthey are not alone (Goodwin & Staples, 2005). Staples and Goodwin (2005) argue that some"disabled-only" programs are appropriate at times because they provide:the process of self-categorization that accompanies the feelings of sense ofbelonging to a socially-relevant group come differential treatment to those theyidentify with the group. The more a person identifies with another, the easier itbecomes to empathize with other members of the same group (Staples &Goodwin, 2005, p. 162).Perhaps in `disabled-only' programs, people learn to express their fears, anger, frustrations,loneliness, or guilt and come to realize that they are not alone in their feelings (Goodwin &Staples, 2005).There is little research that explores the preferences of people with disabilities in relation tospecific recreational contexts, but some confirm that people with disabilities often preferparticipating with others like them (Ashton-Shaeffer, Gibson, Autry, & Hanson, 2001). Thismay be because participating alongside people without disabilities emphasizes their limitationsin terms of uneven sport skill levels (Ashton-Shaeffer et al., 2001). Yet, it is evident thatrecreational activities are a rich area for people with and without disabilities to get to know eachother and to alleviate fear and ignorance (Anderson et al., 1997).The support for people with disabilities has increased allowing people to make choices, tolive normal lives, and to become active participants in the community (Pedlar, Haworth,Hutchinson, Taylor, & Dunn, 1999). Such support may include accessible facilities andincreases in community programs, funding, advocacy groups, or in technological advances toassist people with their day to day tasks. As mentioned previously, I introduced the concept of`universal design' (Datillo, 2002) where it allows people to access freely or to obtain what theydesign. Hence, until this is achieved, many leisure professionals provide adaptations to ensureparticipation. There are adaptations to materials, activities, the environment, and instructional30strategies, which can make a difference between people being excluded or included inrecreation (Datillo, 2002). Such adaptations could include sailing with a mouth stick,implementation of extra floatation devices for kayaks to be more stable, or altering instructionsfor an activity without changing the purpose of it. It is adaptations such as these that canencourage some people with disabilities to more fully participate in leisure experiences.Datillo (2002) states that the value of leisure experience in enhancing the quality of life forpeople with disabilities should not be underestimated. Leisure is important for the well-being ofpeople as it provides the opportunity to make personal choices, the opportunity to interact withothers, and the emotional value of enjoyment. Robinson and Skinner (1985) agree thatrecreation cannot be thought of a privilege, but should be considered to be a basic human right.The chance to independently choose activities in which to become involved, or even to decidewhether or not to participate, can be an empowering and significant learning experience(Shookner, 2002).Recreation can also provide people with disabilities the opportunity to interact with theenvironment and to establish a more fulfilling way of life (Schleien et. al, 1997). Robinson andSkinner (1985) encourage us to look at larger relationships, underlying connections and systemsto connect the different dimensions of one's life: family, social, political, cultural, and spiritual.It is through this approach that people with disabilities are seen in terms of what they can do,emphasizing their strengths and positive qualities (Robinson & Skinner, 1985).2.7. Adventure therapy as an inclusion strategyAdventure Therapy (commonly referred to as AT) is often used interchangeably with theterms wilderness therapy, wilderness-adventure therapy, therapeutic adventure, therapeuticwilderness, wilderness adventure therapy, adventure-based therapy or adventure-basedcounseling (Bandoroff & Newes, 2004). For the purposes of this study, I will use AT.31AT is designed to bridge the gap between inpatient programs and outpatient services and itimmerses participants into outdoor environments that include group living with peers,individual/ group therapy sessions, and an application of living skills (Bandoroff & Newes,2004)concepts, personalities, individual behaviors and social functioning (Warren, Sakofs, and Hunt,1995)foundation for using it as an inclusion strategy for people with disabilities.A group atmosphere is a vital component as it allows for feedback, support, andinterpersonal connections among the groupeach other to talk about creative problem-solving or implementing new strategies (Bandoroff &Newes 2004)each individual the empowerment to design an adventure program right for them. This issimilar to one of the strategies of inclusion outlined by Donnelly and Coakley (2002) where theparticipants have an opportunity to be involved in the decision-making processescomponent to AT programs is when a large amount of time is spent processing the outdoorexperience so they can transfer the learning into other aspects of their livesimplement these experiences in new environments which include a certain level of riskchallenge is achieved in the outdoors, it may increase people's abilities to conquer otheropportunities and challenges (Miles, 1995).The third key element of AT is challenge by choice, which gives individuals the ability tochoose not to participate in the activity by empowering the individual to make their ownchoices (Bandoroff & Newes, 2004)is established through group decision making, thus encouraging people that have the desire tomake decisions to be involved (Bandoroff & Newes, 2004)32The word `adventure' is associated with adrenaline-fueled feats of daring, risk-taking andtechnical skills (Bandoroff & Newes, 2004). Programs may include kayaking, rock climbing,skiing, camping, or mountain biking. However, AT alone is not assumed to be sufficient tofacilitate deep-level therapeutic growth and change. Instead, it is the processing of the actualexperience with the participant in the outdoors which can be used as a metaphor for their dailylife that promotes the therapeutic process (Bandoroff & Newes, 2004).AT aims to create new dynamics and relationships between people because in the outdoorspeople face new challenges, opportunities, and fears. Mitten (2004) claims that AT uses thetherapeutic modality in the outdoor environment as a way of increasing an individual's state ofhealth or well-being, or what Robinson and Skinner (1985) calls the holistic perspective.Adventure therapy uses the term `therapy,' which is controversial terminology because it impliesan imperative term to `correct' people with disabilities. As Shivers (1977, p.4) says, "Therapy isa specific treatment directly intervening in any physical or mental pathology which is designedto effect a cure, ameliorate the condition or restore the afflicted individual." As emphasized inthe quotation, the word `therapy' can be overused and resisted.They call everything I do therapy. Why can't they call what I do what it actuallyis? Next thing you know, there'll be waking-up therapy, bathroom therapy,eating therapy, talking therapy, and sleeping therapy. Anymore of this jazz, we'llhave to get some `firing therapy' going (to get rid of some of these therapizers)(Hutchinson & Lord, 1979, p. 19).The word therapy emphasizes the medical model where the aim is to discover symptoms inpatients which can somehow be cured through recreation or activity therapy (Hutchinson &Lord, 1979). Therapy involves professionals who have accepted the medical model which hasnegatively influenced the involvement of people with disabilities (Hutchinson & Lord, 1979).Therefore, the concept of therapy often perpetuates the idea that people who have been`excluded' have to be `fixed' in order to be included in society.33Adventure therapy aims to use a therapeutic model which is less constraining and restrictivethan the traditional models of therapy. Williams (2004, p. 202) says that therapeutic is defined"as causing someone to feel happier and more relaxed or to be healthier", whereas therapydescribes a treatment which helps someone feels better, grow stronger, especially after anillness. Individuals participating in AT programs do not need to have a medical diagnosis, as itconcentrates on designing interventions that enhance well-being (Williams, 2004).Adventure therapy is considered to be a form of alternative therapy, along side acupuncture,aromatherapy, herbal medicine, prayer/ prayer healing, or tai-chi and yoga (Mitten, 2004).Mitten (2004, p. 250) explain the role of AT as follows:adventure therapists help participants see themselves not as victims, but assurvivors, seeing the courage in being vulnerable . Many adventure therapyprograms take place outside and participants are exposed to the beauty and aweof being part of the natural world, witnessing its mystery and feeling its wonder.There is a certain connection between the outdoors and inclusionimproved self-esteem, change in personal identity, and improved communication skills, whichAllen-Newman and Fleming (2004) say cannot be easily measuredtend to forget the constraints they face in their daily lives and create opportunities to exploreand discover new things (Terry, 1995)people are able to establish their own identities in a non-threatening environmentpurpose of the therapeutic model is to work with the participants to derive a common goal,whether it is to improve the well-being, help change, restore, treat, remediate, or rehabilitate theindividual (Williams, 2004).Ewert et al. (2001) say that these programs can be used to improve functioning or for thoseseeking greater physical and/or psychological challenges regardless of the presence of amedically-diagnosed problemthemselves, providing a sense of security and self-worth so that more barriers will be removed.34Adventure therapists strive to offer fresh and exciting possibilities for change in the lives of theparticipant such as improved self-esteem, change in personal identity, improved communicationskills or progression in personal challenges such as substance abuse, illness or disability (Allen-Newman & Fleming, 2004).Having fun is a basic human need (Martin, 1974) and adventure usually involves the entirebody, engaging participants fully in activities which are meant to be fun and outside theirroutine. Most people have the desire to grow, whether it is physically, emotionally, or mentally,and to improve themselves. Thus, AT provides the opportunities which are therapeutic andinstigate the process of change.AT has been rapidly growing in the last three decades as witness in the following quotation:The growing sense of enjoyment is likely to be a reflection of the decreasedneed to force oneself to attend . There is the discovery, in other words, that inaddition to be comfortable and exciting it is also quite safe to attend to whatone feels like attending to in the wilderness environment (Warren et. al., 1995,p. 47).Many of the programs in the wilderness provide opportunities for healing that assume theenvironment contributes to people's achievements and removes exclusionary barriers (Warrenet. al., 1995). This is because the wilderness is generally an unfamiliar and captivating space,placing people at the same starting point and engaging their senses to increase their success inexperiencing new challenges (Warren et. al, 1995).The outdoors also presents itself in a very physical, straightforward way. Thereare mountains to climb, rivers to run, bogs to wade through. As an adolescentdelinquent whose principal mode of expression is an action-oriented one andwhose thinking process is mostly concrete, the possible activities in theoutdoors fulfill his [her] developmental capability. He [she] just stands a betterchance of excelling here (Warren et. al., 1995, p. 51).In the wilderness, people can experience an increase in self-confidence and a feeling oftranquility. It is within wilderness that people find themselves dealing with challenges giving a35satisfying experience for those who may be struggling with marginatization from the `normal'world (Warren et ., 1995).It was not until recently that adventure therapists decided to open up the wildernessprograms to include people with disabilities (Sugarman, 1998)need to protect and keep them safe because there are perceptions that AT programs are highrisk. Yet, it is people without disabilities who often make decisions for people with disabilities,saying that "they can't do it," "they may get hurt," or "it's too hard so they won't like itanyways" (Sugarman, 1998)making their own decisions, living an independent life, doing difficult things, and allowing themto live with dignity and respect (Sugarman, 1998)within the context of the outdoors, many barriers are removed and people are able toexperience their freedom when they are not confined within the perceptions of society.In the next chapter, I discuss the methodology I undertook in order to address my researchquestions.36CHAPTER THREE (3 .0)MethodologyIn this section, I will explain how I conducted my research by describing the case study site,my role as the researcher, and the methodology employed.3.1. The case study rationaleThe rationale for the case study methodology is that it draws our attention to the questionof what specifically can be learned by a single example of a phenomenon of interest whichcontributes to a deeper understanding of all similar sites (Stake, 2005)a case study as a detailed investigation, often with data collected over a period of time withinthe same contextof the social and organizational processes as they relate to theory (Cassell & Symon, 2004). Thisstudy focuses on one particular organization in order to address my research questions with thegoal of understanding the social and organizational processes of social inclusioncan employ many strategies of data collection including participant observation, interviews,focus groups, and field notes.I focused on retrieving information using four methodsand focus groups with as many people involved in the organization as possible, including staff,volunteers and clients . Theinformation gathered through these various avenues achieved an increased understanding ofhow the organization attempts to achieve its missionbecause it outlines the purpose and programs of the case study site and why it is an applicablelocation.373.2. The research siteThe non-profit adventure therapy organization is based on the Island and its mission andmandate is the following:We are a registered charity that enhances the health and quality of life for youthand familiesactivities and experiential education, providing opportunities for discovery,change, and connections (Annual Report, 2006).The organization started in 1998 with the aim of organizing a wilderness trip for four teensbeing treated for cancer at a children's hospitalthe outdoors with people with disabilities, were asked to work closely in consultation with thehospital oncology staff to determine an appropriate trip outline and destinationplaced a special focus on specific health needs, a risk management plan, staff needs and aparticipant selection processcampaign were instrumental in making the first trip a realitywith various community agencies, the organization has expanded to deliver programs to youthand families of a variety of backgrounds.Today, the non profit adventure therapy organization has evolved to deliver two programsknown as wilderness-based and adaptive recreation. The programs cater to youth (13-18 years)and adults (19-65 years), along with their families if they also choose to participateparticipants are considered to be "challenged" in some way, such as having a mental or physicalimpairment, eating disorders, mental health issues, cancer, abuse, or any other characteristics.For the purposes of day-to-day operations for the organization, there are 10 staff and 45volunteers who assist with the administration and the operations of both programsvaries from full time, to part time, to those who are on contractual basis, and the positionsinclude an Executive Director, Executive Assistant, Administrative Assistant, OperationsManager, Program Managers, Lead Kayak Guides, Kayak Guides and Risk Management38staff is required to attend a staff training session, which includes a trip in the Gulf Islands andto ensure that trips meet the mandate of the organization and to build team cohesion beforebeginning summer programs. I held the position of a program manager of the adaptiverecreation program when the study was conducted, but I no longer work for the organizationwas the only staff who identifies as having a disability.The adaptive recreation program is based out of Vancouver Island, serving both the Islandand the Lower Mainlandbranch. This program provides activities including alpine skiing, sea kayaking and rockclimbing, for people who have physical, mental, or cognitive disabilities. The Lower Mainlandbranch focuses on kayaking through the months of June, July, and August, delivering about 80day tripsdisabilities including cognitive impairments, multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, autism, spinalcord injury, and acquired brain injurythe ethnicity of participants' ranges from asian, african american, with the majority (24) beingcaucasianbeing between 13 to 28.Each 2-hour day program costs $35 and the overnight kayaking trip is $225The organization attempts to relieve financial barriers by offering a bursary and clients canapply for it by contacting the officewould this bursary assist you in pursuing our programs?" and "explain why you are in need ofthis bursary?" Two of the clients expressed an interest in and received this bursary.In addition to myself and a lead kayak guide, the adaptive recreation program has 20volunteers, none of whom have identified as having a physical or mental disabilityvolunteers are strongly encouraged to attend a training session held at the beginning of the39season which includes disability awareness training, instruction on the use of adaptiveequipment, and it outlines their roles and duties as volunteers. The organization has the abilityto adapt equipment to meet individual's needs by offering outriggers on kayaks, one-armpaddles, spinal boards, or hand gripsto meet their goals, which are determined by conversing with them or their support networks.3.3. Role of researcherIt was important is to consider my position as a researcher who was employed in theorganization at the time of the case study.I have been affiliated with this organization for the past seven years and was hired as theprogram coordinator for the adaptive recreation program more than two years agoto provide sea kayaking experiences to people who have a disability, organize volunteers,develop community partners and sponsors, and evaluate the program. As I am employed thereat the time of the study, I am considered to have insider status due to my existing relationshipwith the staff, volunteers, and clients.A major influence that has led me this topic of study is that I am a `person with a disabilityI am diagnosed with cerebral palsy, which affects my coordination, motor dexterity, speech, andbalance. I am a 31 year old female of asian background, born and raised in Canadafortunate to be raised in a well-educated family who was able to provide me with supports suchas rehabilitation treatments and many leisure opportunitiesproviding leisure for people with disabilities for ten years, either in a work or volunteer capacity,including skiing, sailing, and hiking programs.With respect to my leisure experiences, it was always been a dilemma for my parentswhether to enroll me in `disabled-only' or `able-bodied' settings, as my disability does notrestrict my life activities immensely40them because it is often too slow for me, too easy, or too much time is spent dealing with otherpeople's needs. However, when I participated in `able-bodied programs' (and quite often I wasthe only one with a visible disability), my disability was more visible in comparison to the otherparticipantschallenged and comfortable with the other people.At times, I have been labeled as `amazing', as an `inspiration' or as `brave' by able-bodiedpeople I participate with, which frustrates me, as I do not see any difference between them andmyself. However, this leads me to think that maybe they believe it is more difficult for me tolive a fulfilled life and they admire my attempt at doing so, which I believe is the wrong way ofthinking. In addition, I have been at the receiving end of negative attitudes from several of mypeers, family, and people I have come across in my lifethat I am in need of help that I am unable to be employed, that I am mentally challenged, orhard of hearing and need everything to be slowed downwork as bathers, and through the support of my immediate friends and family, I am still able toaccomplish my goalswith disabilities can feel a sense of inclusion.It is no doubt that my positions, both professionally and personally, has a significant impacton this study. Hammersley and Atkinson (1995, p ... theorientations of researchers that will be shaped by their socio-historical locations, including thevalues and interests that these locations confer upon themhighly committed staff member and a person with a disability who loves the outdoorsan impact on my own thoughts, feelings, and emotions which does influence the researchprocess.41In the paragraphs below, I will outline the process I implemented to recruit the participantsfor this study.3.4. Sample and recruitmentUpon receiving agency approval (Appendix A), I was able to obtain contact information forstaff (9), volunteers (20), and clients (34) within the Lower Mainland branch of the adaptiverecreation program. I sent out an email to all of them outlining the purpose of my study, theimportance of their involvement, and an indication that they would be receiving a further letterof explanation, along with a consent formintroductory letter (Appendix B1, B2, B3, & B4), information sheet (Appendix C), a consentform (Appendix D1 & D2), and a pre-paid, pre-addressed envelope (to increase the likelihoodof it being returned)included six staff, nine volunteers, and fourteen clients.I was pleased with the breakdown of the study participants, as I really wanted to ensure thatthere was a representation from the three groups (staff, volunteers, and clients), with themajority of voices belonging to the clientsin that they were partaking in the research by me as a UBC graduate student, not as a staffmember of the organizationfeedback in relation to my studyinfluential role. I asked all the study participants to complete a biographical questionnaire(Appendix G) and to ensure confidentialityData collection started during the last week of August 2006 at the tail end of the kayakingprogram. Once the program was over, I was able to make arrangements to hold interviews andfocus groups at a location and time convenient to each of the study participants423.5. Data collectionThe next sections describe the different data collection methods utilized.3.5.1. Document analysisDocument analysis is a relatively easy, informative, and unobtrusive research method whichcan serve as an important tool for several reasons (Marshall & Rossman, 1995). Firstly,documents are written formal records of organizational activities and how they communicate tothe public that may or may not reflect how it operates on a daily basisadd to the details from the other data collection sources and may generate questions about thecommunications and the strategies used by the organization (Yin, 2003)can be conducted without disturbing the setting in any way (Marshall & Rossman, 1995)access to all of the existing documents which included annual reports, meeting minutes,pamphlets, media articles, and the websiteanalyzed.Table 3.1. Documents analyzedDocument DateStrategic Plan December2007Website 2007Brochure 2007Media Article July 2006Fundraising Package 2006Staff Manual May 2005Marketing Communications FebruaryPlan 2005Annual Report 2005Media Articles 2000-2006SummaryVision and task items for the program toaccomplish for the coming yearThe content of the website in relation to the studySummarizes the programs, and the organization interms of its mission, vision, and its successesPromotion for an event within the adaptivekayaking programHow the organization portrays itself to requestfinancial supportIncludes welcome and introduction, programplanning, policies, and proceduresThe purpose and scope of the organization, alongwith its profile and situational analysisExplains the history, values, development, andprograms of the non-profit adventure therapyorganizationPromotion of the non-profit adventure therapyorganization43In analyzing these existing documents, I took into account the target audience, as well as thecontent, in order to uncover the strategies and the meanings that the organization says it uses tofacilitate inclusion for clients with disabilities within their programs.3.5.2. Participant observationAnother method of data collection I used for this case study was participant observationwhich involves:social interaction between the researcher and informants in the milieu of thelatter, the idea being to allow the observer to study first hand the day to dayexperiences and behaviors of subjects in particular situations, and, if necessary,to talk to them about their feelings and interpretation (Waddington, 2004,p.154).It is through immersion in the case study where the researcher hears, sees, and begins toexperience what the actual program does to facilitate inclusion strategies by spending aconsiderable amount of time learning about the participant's daily lives (Marshall & Rossman,1995).I observed two different kayaks trips over the course of two months, August to September2006. The first trip was a two kayaking hour trip on August 25`kayaking overnight trip from September 23` h.3.5.2.a. Dav kayaking tripThree clients with disabilities, along with three volunteers, participated in the first day trip.Treena was the lead kayak guide. Due to my insider status, there were no objections with mecoming to observe the strategies that the volunteers, clients, and staff used in relation toinclusion. I felt inclined to converse with the people as I have a relationship with each person inthe program.The three volunteers were Namrit, Claire, and Sue and the clients were Wayne, Nathan, andChristine. The clients had come on a weekly basis throughout the summer, and came together44The three volunteers were Namrit, Claire, and Sue and the clients were Wayne, Nathan, andChristine. The clients had come on a weekly basis throughout the summer, and came togetheras friends. All of them knew each other through their community living organization, whichfacilitates their daily activities including their leisure experiences, volunteer or workopportunities, and soc.al activities. As well, this organization provides care workers to provideadditional assistance. All of them lived with their respective families but required 24 hour carefrom several different care workersvisual impairments which led them to be reliant on a team of support to facilitate their leisureopportunities. Wayne had severe autism which caused him to be non-verbal and dependant ona one-on-one care workerwere not given oneof communication that they enjoyed sitting in the kayak experiencing the movement, the water,and the marine life.On the water, there were three double kayaks, one single for Treena, and another singlekayak for mereasons because it is much easier for the big boats on the water to see a group of kayaks, ratherseparate ones. However, all of the kayaks were spread out, with Nathan and Namrit behind therest of the group by quite a distancethe clients had paddles . In themeantime, Treena continued to kayak, and at points was kayaking well ahead of the group.There was no group management on the water and minimal conversations between the clients,volunteers, and Treenaabout whether inclusion strategies can be implemented when there is no group management45and when safety is a concernhighlighting what kind of inclusion strategies were or were not implemented.3.5.2.b. Overnight kayaking tripThe other opportunity for observation was a multi-day kayak trip from September 23-25kayak guides, and me along with Sandra as my research assistantso that I could complete my data collection to the best of my abilitywas a bit fearful I would be always trying to catch up to the rest of the group, which may havedistorted my observations. Hence, the solution was to invite my friend Sandra to help me induties, such as setting up my tent or getting my personal gear in order, which allowed me not toworry so I could concentrate on data collectionmany years of guiding (more years than Daniel and Treena combined), but had not been on atrip with our organization.It took approximately five to six hours to kayak to the destination, which included lunchand breaks. There were four doubles and two single kayakswas simple to gain access to a kayak to be able to observe the tripwas a kayak guide so she was familiar with the clients, the volunteers, and the areayoung and experienced kayak guide as he has worked for several years with the kayak companythat sponsors this organizationasked to work with Treena on this trip only three days before the overnight departure day. Thetwo volunteers, Fraiser and Sue, have been volunteering with the program for the past threeyears and have been dedicating their time and energy on a weekly basis.I observed how each person interacted with each other, with attention to theimplementation of inclusion strategies during the trip46on maintaining a polite and non-threatening image, as well as showing care for people's views,while avoiding trying to help the participants as recommended by Waddington (2004). I wentinto their territory and showed respect by not interrupting their flow within the programadvantageous being an insider as I was aware of the operations of the programwanted to ensure that I was well-recognized as a researcher, and I therefore reminded them ofmy purpose for attending this tripthoughts about the strategies of inclusion that the staff, volunteers, and clients wereimplementing and the research process I was employing.3.5.3. Focus groupsAccording to Amis (2005), the purpose of focus groups is to "learn through discussionabout conscious, semiconscious and unconscious psychological and sociocultural characteristicsand processes" (p. 109)discuss their experiences which may help them to overcome the potential intimidation of one-on-one individual interviews and to build on each other's ideas (Morgan, 1998)choosing focus groups was because it provided an opportunity to ask focused questions toencourage discussion, while encouraging the expression of differing opinions and points ofview (Marshall & Rossman, 1995)and understanding how people think or feel about a particular issue (Krueger & Casey, 2000).This method allows the people to challenge each other, develop positions of consensus, or topresent and consider their own views in relation to othersvalidity, are low-cost, and can be done much quicker than one on one interviews (Marshall &Rossman, 1995)analyze individual content in a group discussion, and there might be logistical problems insetting them up (Marshall & Rossman, 1995)47In this study, I conducted a total of four focus groups with two to four participants in eachone. In the first focus group, there were two clients, plus a mother; the second included threeclients; the third was with four volunteers; and the fourth focus group was with two volunteers.The size of focus groups was appropriate as it was easy to facilitate discussions, so theparticipants had opportunities to share their insights and opinions (Krueger & Casey, 2000).Each focus group lasted from 1The focus groups were facilitated by a question guide (see Appendix E & F)different focus group guides ? one for staff and volunteers; and the other one for the clients.There were approximately 8-10 questions that were asked about inclusion strategiesimplemented by the staff, clients and volunteers, the meanings of adventure therapy, and theirexperiences of social inclusionrecorder recording the comments offered by the participantsnot to make any judgments about the responses by controlling my body language that mightcommunicate approval or disapproval (Krueger & Casey, 2000).In the opening of the focus groups, I explained what this study was about, andacknowledged that while I was a staff, for the purposes of this study I was a researchermentioned this because in alignment with Lincoln and Denzin (2005) recommendations, Iwanted them to state their critical thoughts, without worrying that I would be biased because ofmy relationship with the organizationthat I would facilitate in such a way to ensure that everybody had an opportunity to speakAntis (2005) contends, this is important because I did not want any one person to dominatewell, I mentioned that if they should not feel pressured to answer and they should feel free toask for clarification at any time48In the focus group guide for the clients, I mentioned that I am a person with a disabilitybecause I felt that this would help them relate to me because I can empathize with thembecause I confront barriers daily as welldisability was an advantage as it helped with breaking down the barriers when two or morepeople meet. I took some time to write field notes shortly after the conclusion of the focusgroups in order to capture my immediate thoughts through the processsuch thoughts as how I was feeling while facilitating the discussions, the dynamics of the group,the feelings I sensed from each person as they answered the questions, the interactions betweenclients and me.The focus groups took place in a variety of locations of the participants' choice in the hopesof enhancing a comfortable environment, which is recommended by Krueger and Casey (2000).The first focus group was held on Saturday August 26that the adaptive kayaking programlocation. We were fortunate that it was a sunny day and we found a quiet spot in an open field.The focus group consisted of two people with disabilities, Trevor and Billacquired a brain injury, resulting in the loss of speech and memory and he is in the midst ofrehabilitation. He is able to comprehend simple language but his mom was able to join us toassist him with his answersand he was then able to answer with a "yes" or "no," after which time he turned it over to hismother for further elaborationnot with his mother. While this did facilitate his inclusion in the research, I question whetherTrevor's mom answers could truly reflect Trevor's thoughtsof Trevor's difficulty in speaking, that he may have agreed with his mom because he could notexplain his thoughts and feelings49resulting in heat sensitivityfield so that we were in the shade.The second focus group was on Sunday August 27thand consisted of three people, two withcerebral palsy, Cindy and Scott . Again, it was heldsitting outside on the grass field around the program location and all three were in their pre-teen and teenager yearswalked with the assistance of a walkerwell as other programs, so there was a sense of comfort among them. Due to the focus of thisstudy on inclusion specifically related to people with disabilities, I did not think that Sean wouldhave much to contribute. But, I was proved wrong by his answers as he enthusiastically talkedabout his experiences with exclusion and inclusion, despite having no identifiable disabilitytalked about his experience with exclusion in relation to his trip to an amusement park becausehe was too short to enjoy all the ridesneeded assistance, so I helped her to do the writing as she dictated the information to me.The third focus group took place in the afternoon of Sunday August 27`volunteers and was located at a residence of a volunteer who was not involved in this focusgroup. Three volunteers, Fraiser, Sue, and Elsie had been involved since the inception of theadaptive recreation program three years ago, and Lucy was a new volunteerrespectful of each other when they were speakingwere not contributing as much, and then there was no hesitationthe first one to answer the questions, and he was a bit domineeringof others, giving them opportunities to speak, sometimes agreeing with others, but he had a lotof things to say. Others did not seem to mind it as he pointed out some valuable insights thatmatched with their thoughts50questions associated with the operations of the organization. She had been involved since thebeginning of this program, so she is well aware of its development but she did not see enoughchange in the programs . However, Elsie who hasbeen with the program from the beginning too, contradicted her by saying that things aregetting better. This created some discussion and Sue continued to express her disappointmentin the lack of adaptive equipment for this programbe pursued by the organization.The last focus group session was held on September 9with two new volunteers, Kathyand Michelle . Together, we struggledto find a quiet location which ended up being a local coffee shop in the areaalthough the background was quite noisywould overpower both Kathy's and Michelle's voices on the tape recorder, causing difficulty intranscribingthough Kathy did ask if we wanted to move, and I said not to botherdid the transcribing did not have any problems in the transcription of this focus group. Similarto the other focus groups, both Kathy and Michelle respected each other, allowing each otherto speak and voice their concernsonly one time through the summer, so she had some difficulty answering some of thequestions. She often agreed with Kathy, which leads to the question of whether she was reallyin agreement or whether she agreed because of her lack of experience.3.5.4. InterviewsI decided to conduct 8-10 interviews throughout the months of August, September andOctober for those who were unable to participate in focus groupsprograms were over and since the interviews were mostly with the staff51more time. I conducted five interviews with staff, one interview with a volunteer; and fourinterviews with clients. This method was mainly targeted to staff because in an interview eachstaff member could speak openly and not feel intimidated by one another especially when thequestions are about the organization (Amis, 2005). King (2004, p.11) says the purpose of aninterview is "to gather descriptions of the life-world of the interviewee with respect tointerpretation of the meaning of the described phenomena". Amis (2005) describes interviewingas the most common form of data collection in the social science area, which consists of asingle interviewer asking an individual a range of questions related to particular issues. King(2004) suggests that the goal of interview is to see the research topic from the perspective ofthe interviewee and to understand how and why they come from this particular perspective.There are many advantages of interviews according to King (2004) including that it canaddress focused or open ended questions about organizational life, or it may be used toexamine broader issues. A disadvantage is that it is more time-consuming than focus groups.Due to geographical and time constraints, I conducted four telephone interviews because itmet some interviewee's needs, which included three staff and one volunteer. Obviously, it ismore preferable to have interviews face-to-face to build rapport and gather non-verbal data, butdue to a variety of issues, one-to-one interviews might have to be conducted by telephone orelectronic mail, or even electronic messaging (Arms, 2005). Three of the telephone interviewswere with staff because they work mainly in the head office on the Island and because of mywork commitments, it was not possible for me to travel there. The other telephone interviewwas with a volunteer, Mary, as she was busy and the most efficient time to do the datacollecting was over the telephone. Each interview lasted approximately 30 minutes to an hourand each interview was guided by an interview guide (Appendix E & F). The interview guidehad the same preamble as the focus group guide for the volunteers. The interviewee completed52a biographical questionnaire (Appendix G) following the interview via email or in personused interviews with four of the clients, as the timing of the focus groups did not work out withtheir schedule or the one on one interaction worked better for them due to their disability.Face to face interviews were held in different locations such as at the participant's home, inthe head office of the organization, in Queen Elizabeth Park, at UBC, or at my homesituate the interviews at the most convenient time and location for the intervieweethat the participants were more than willing to make the effort to travel to meet me, but thisvaried between the different staff, volunteers, and clientsPeter who is diagnosed with autismmay help him answer the questions because of the quiet and familiar surroundingsadapt my interview questions to meet his abilitiesthink inclusion means to you?" I would change the question to be "do you enjoy being withyour friends or not?" followed by the question, "when you are not with your friends, how doesthat make you feel?" Through these simplified questions, I was fearful that I would be puttingwords or thoughts into his mind; however, this was the best it could be facilitated so he couldunderstand the questions. I had to be careful not to shape questions to get answers I desired forthis study. Midway through the interview, I could sense that he was getting tired and was losingconcentration, so we went on a few tangents, to assist him to get back his excitement andconcentration. This strategy worked well as he went on to answer the remaining questions.Another interview that posed some challenges was with Danacerebrallum ataxia which affects speech, coordination, mobility, cognitive function, anddexterity. Dana came to join a focus group as stated in the introductory letter that offered a fewdifferent options of time and dateThe Friday did not work for all of the other participants as no one had replied with that date,53except Dana. I neglected to telephone her to say this date would not workprofusely and I was lucky that she was in a good mood as she did not mind, but I still felt verybadly. We re-scheduled the interview and I went over to her place to conduct the interview. Itlasted more than an hour because she had difficulty getting her thoughts out and formulating itinto sentences. At times, I had to structure the questions differently to assist her inunderstanding what I was asking.3.6. LimitationsOne of the limitations of this study is the fact that I am considered to be an insider becauseI am a staff person of the organizationrelationship with all the clients, volunteers, and staff, which may have caused them to be fearfulof saying anything negative about the organization However, an insider status can also be anadvantage because the relationships I had with the study participants caused some of them totrust me and open up to me by talking more critically about the program.Another limitation is the timing of the study as the summer months was a busy time for theclients, volunteers, and staff which may why some people did not participate in the study. Themajority who did not participate mentioned that the timing did not work out for them.The next limitation occurred because of my dual roles as staff and researcherparticipation observations, I often had to switch between my roles as a staff person and aresearcher as there were duties that I needed to attend topossible to ensure the safety and enjoyment of this trip, and to make sure that the tasks gotcompleted appropriately543.7. Data analysisAll of the data from the focus groups and interviews were audio-recorded, for which Ireceived consent forms (Appendix D1 & D2) from the individuals or their parentswere subsequently transcribed verbatim using Word processing files.Atlas.Ti is a qualitative data analysis program that allows researchers to search forquotations under the study themes (Hammersley & Atkinson, 1995)Rossman (1995), data analysis is designed to bring order, structure, and meaning to the datacollected .Ti and used the code-and-retrieve function toassign codes to data segments (Hardy & Bryman, 2004). From the codes, I used the software tosearch for themes relating to the meanings and strategies of inclusion.According to the recommendations by Marshall and Rossman (1995), when I analyzed thedata gathered I followed five steps which were ; (2) generatingcategories, themes and patterns ; (4) searchingfor alternative explanations of the data . This assisted me in drawingout the relationships of how inclusion is interpreted and practiced in the context of adventuretherapy.3.8. Ethical guidelinesBefore the data collection phase, I obtained agency approval and the consent forms from allthe clients, volunteers, and staff. To maintain the confidentiality and the anonymity of theparticipants, their names are identified using pseudonymsnot been revealed in order to protect privacyposition as a researcher who is employed by the organization and a person with a disability whohas certain perspectives shaping my experiencesresearcher to comfort participants by reminding them that everything stated would be kept55confidential and anonymousidentities as a researcher staff member as distinct, this was impossible for me to achieve. Aswell, I assumed that the participants could not ignore that I was on staff as this was referred toin several of the interviews and focus groupscontributions would be used with the aim of improving the program delivery of the non profitadventure therapy organization and to contribute to the academic literature on social inclusionand adventure therapy.All participation in the study was voluntary and involvement was assured not to jeopardizestaff, volunteers, and participants in any wayparticipants who had cognitive disabilities and could not voluntarily agree to participate wereexcluded from the study.The transcripts have been stored in the project office, Auditorium Annex 156A, and theconsent forms are in a separate officeonce I have defended my thesisparticipants involved in this study56CHAPTER 4 (4 .0)Findings and DiscussionIn this chapter, I will critically analyze my findings in light of the literature and haveorganized the results into five key themes that relate to my research questionsthe meanings, experiences, constraints, strategies of inclusion along with the improvementsneeded to promote inclusion within an adventure therapy context.4.1. Study participantsI provide brief descriptions of study participants in the following table based on theinformation provided in the biographical questionnaire (Appendix G)according to whether they are staff, volunteers, or clients and the table also identifies their typeof involvement in the study.Table 4.1. Brief descriptions of the study participants (at the time of the study)Pseudonym Participation inthe studyDescriptionMamie(stafInterview Marnie is 35 years old, able bodied and has identified herself asManx, Scottish, French, and English femaleof Operations for the past 2 years.Brad(staff)Interview Brad is 33 years old, able bodied, and self identified as a maleof Dutch-British descentManagement and the founding member of the organization.Treena(summer staff)Interview &Participant-ObservationTreena is 26 years old, able bodied, and has self-identified heras a Caucasian female the lead kayak guideadaptive recreation programthe Human Resources Development summer program.Daniel(contractual staff)ParticipantObservationDaniel is 23 years old, able bodied, and identified himself as aCaucasian maleas the schools director, which has worked in partnership withthe Adaptive Recreation program for the past 3 yearsknowledgeable of our programs, facilitated some of thevolunteer training sessions, but does not participate in thekayaking trips.Matthew(staff)Interview Matthew is 39 years old, able bodied and identified as aWestern European malestaff member for all the programs.57Thomas(de Interview Thomas is 37 years, able bodied and identified as an English/Scottish male. He is the Executive Director of the organizationincluding the founding member.Sandra(researcherassistant)ParticipantObservationSandra is 33 years old, able bodied, and identified as aCaucasian female. She is a friend of mine and assisted me in theresearch process. Sandra has knowledge of the organizationthrough our friendship but has never been on one of theorganization's kayak trips. She has been a kayak guide for thepast 10 years.Mary(volunteer)Interview Mary is 59 years old, able bodied, and identified as a German-born Caucasian female. She has been volunteering for theAdaptive Recreation program for the past 2 years. She has notcompletely participated in a full volunteer training before thestart of the program.Fraiser(volunteer)Focus Group &ParticipantObservationFraiser is 45 years old, able bodied and identified him as an"average white guy". He has been volunteering for theAdaptive Recreation program for the past 3 years. He hasalways participated in the full volunteer training before the startof the program.Lucy(volunteer)Focus Group &ParticipantObservationLucy is 35 years old, able bodied and identified as a Caucasianfemale. She has been volunteering for the Adaptive Recreationprogram for one summer. She participated in the full volunteertraining before the start of the program.Namrit(volunteer)ParticipantObservationNamrit is 21 years old, able bodied and identified as an EastIndian femaleRecreation program for one summer. She has participated in avolunteer training before the start of the program but missedthe disability awareness section.Claire(volunteer)ParticipantObservationSue is 35 years old, able bodied and has identified as aCaucasian female. She has been volunteering for the AdaptiveRecreation program for the past 3 years. She has participated inthe full volunteer training before the start of the program.Sue(volunteer)Focus Group &ParticipantObservationSue is 40 years old, able bodied and identified as a Caucasianfemale. She has been volunteering for the Adaptive Recreationprogram for the past 3 years. She has always participated in thefull volunteer training before the start of the program.Elsie(volunteer)Focus Group Elsie is 52 years old, able bodied and identified as a Caucasianfemale. She has been volunteering for the Adaptive Recreationprogram for the past 3 years. She has always participated in thefull volunteer training before the start of the program.Kathy(volunteer)Focus Group &ParticipantObservationKathy is 41 years old, able bodied, and identified as a Caucasianfemale. She has been volunteering for the Adaptive Recreationprogram for one summervolunteer training before the start of the program.Michelle(volunteer)Focus Group Michelle is 33 years old, able bodied, and identified as aCaucasian female. She has been volunteering for the AdaptiveRecreation program for one summer. She has participated inthe full volunteer training before the start of the program. Dueto other commitments, she only managed to volunteer onetime58Dana(client)Interview Dana is 33 years old with spina cerebrallum ataxiaidentified herself as a Japanese female. This is the first summerin which she experienced kayaking once.Trevor(client)Focus Group Trevor is 30 years old with a traumatic brain injury thathappened eight months agoCaucasian maleexperienced kayaking twice. He was partaking in the focusgroup with his mother, Diane, as Trevor has the ability to say"yes" or "no", so Diane helped him expand his answers.Bill(client)Focus Group &ParticipantObservationBill is 50 years old with multiple sclerosisas a Caucasian malefor the past 3 years and comes regularly to kayak every weekthrough the months of June to Septemberthe overnight kayaking trip.Oliver(client)ParticipantObservationOliver is 11 years old with autismblack malesummerparticipated in the overnight kayaking trip.Sean(client)Focus Group Sean is 9 years old and is able-bodiedCaucasian malethe past 3 years and comes regularly to kayak through themonths of June to September with his sister, Cindy, who has adisability.Cindy(client)Focus Group Cindy is 11 years old with cerebral palsyWelch-Caucasian femaleprogram for the past 3 years and comes regularly to kayakthrough the months of June to September with her brother,Sean, who is able bodied.Phillip(client)ParticipantObservationPhillip is 27 years old with a hearing impairmenthimself as an Asian maleprogram for the past 3 years. He comes regularly to kayakthrough the months of June to September and he participatedin the overnight kayaking trip.Scott(client)Focus Group Scott is 15 years old with cerebral palsyCaucasian malethe past3 years and comes regularly to kayak through themonths of June to September.Hing-Mei(client)Interview Hing-Mei is 44 years old with a brain injury and arthritisidentified herself as an Asian female. She has been involvedwith the program for one summer and came regularly to kayakthrough the months of June to September.Wendy(client)Interview Wendy is 28 years old with a spinal cord injuryherself as a Caucasian femaleprogram for the past 2 years and comes regularly to kayakthrough the months of June to September.Nathan(client)ParticipantObservationNathan is 22 years old and is deaf, blind, and cognitivelyimpaired . He hasbeen involved with the program for one summer and comesregularly to kayak through the months of June to September.He is from a group home.59Christine(client)ParticipantObservationChristine is 22 years old and is deaf and cognitively impaired.She identified herself as a Caucasian female. She has beeninvolved with the program for one summer and comesregularly to kayak through the months of June to September.She is also from a group home.Wayne(client)ParticipantObservationWayne is 21 years old with severe autismas a Caucasian malefor one summer and comes regularly to kayak through themonths of June to September.Peter(client)Interview Peter is 14 years old with autismCaucasian male. He has been involved with the program forthe past 3 years and comes regularly to kayak through themonths of June to SeptemberDue to the large number of participants, it is impossible to present all their different pointsof views so, I will highlight illustrative quotationsquotations because either a large number of study participants mentioned them or even if apoint was only raised by a few, I felt it provided important insights.Under each section, I have used a table to summarize the various themes along with thenumber of responses from the study participants. In the below section, I highlight variousthemes that were evident when exploring the meanings of inclusion.4.2. Meanings of inclusionAs mentioned in previous chapters, inclusion remains to be a problematic, and complex,fragmented term. Yet it continues to be a relevant concept for promoting social justiceto the multitude of meanings outlined in Chapter 2, the meanings of inclusion varied amongstthe study participantssometimes had difficulties with thisfactors such as their stage of life, other experiences, ethnicity, disability, gender, or knowledgeof kayakingpeople with and without disabilities', `treating people uniquely', `participating in activities thatable bodied people do', `being with others like me', and `inclusion is mutually understood'60Table 4 .2. Meanings of social inclusionNumber of studyparticipants observed (n= 13)Number of studyparticipants in interviews& focus groups (n=19)Meanings Integration of people with 10 (4 clients, 5 16 (6 clients, 5 volunteers,of Inclusion and without disabilities volunteers, 1 staff) 5 staff)Treating people uniquely 11 (5 clients, 5volunteers, 1 staff)15 (7 clients, 4 volunteers,4 staff)Participating in activities thatable bodied people do6 (6 clients) 8 (8 clients)Being with others like me 3 (3 clients) 3 (3 clients)Inclusion is mutuallyunderstood13 (6 clients, 6volunteers,1 staff)12 (3 clients, 5 volunteers,4 staff)The themes, `participating in activities that able bodied people do' and `being with otherslikes me' were key responses that were mostly highlighted by the clientsand staff are able bodied, it is not surprising that they did not refer to this point as having adisability is not really a factor for themunderstood' was unique and different from what I have reviewed in the literature, as it is bringsup the idea of normalizing inclusion for people with disabilitieson the key themes regarding the meanings of inclusion.4.2.1. The integration of people with and without disabilitiesThe integration of people with and without disabilities was identified as the most criticalmeaning of inclusion by the majority of the study participantsabout having people all together, regardless of their backgrounds, their ethnicity, or theireconomic statusnecessary because they could just register for their kayaking lessons through the main centrelike able bodied people dobodied, along with their friends and family, it symbolizes this meaning of inclusion for theclients.61Wendy, a spinal cord injured client, really enjoyed this aspect of the program as she isconstantly exploring activities that she and her boyfriend, who is able-bodied, to do together.She expressed that "it is finally something that [boyfriend] and I could both do together. So itwas nice to be able to include my boyfriend as well." She further explains that she tends not todo a lot of disability activities because many of her friends are able bodied and she does notreally hang out with people with disabilities very much. Thus, "it was really good that I was stillable to do these activities with people I was close too." Similar to Wendy, Cindy, who lives withcerebral palsy, always comes with her brother Sean, who is able bodied, and they both said thatthey enjoy the marine life and having water fights together while kayaking. Cindy furtherexclaimed that, "it is something we both can do together." For these two people, inclusionenables them to participate with their partners or siblings that have no identifiable disability.Perhaps, this way of thinking is guided by the training of the leisure service providers whowork with people with disabilities. Documents such as "Moving to Inclusion" provided byActive Living Alliance for Canadians with a Disability (1994) and "Opening Doors, Keys toInclusive Recreation Policy for Persons with a Disability" by Canadian Parks and RecreationAssociation (1992) emphasize the idea that "everyone can participate in community if theychoose to do so, and no one is excluded." It is within this framework, that many of the clientsmay think being integrated with able bodied symbolizes inclusion within the program.When I asked Michelle, a volunteer, what she believes inclusion to be, she replied it is"seeing all kinds of people, of all religions, of all races into a sport, into an outdoor activity" andshe saw this as "the beauty of inclusion" (Michelle, volunteer). Sue, another volunteer of thepast three years, responded in the same way as she appreciates the integration of people withand without disabilities within the program: "... it is not just people with disabilities out. It isnot capped. But it is mixed. We are not separate. It is not just for people with disabilities" (Sue,62volunteer)adaptive kayaking program.A few years ago Thomas, who is the founder and the executive director of the organizationwas interviewed for a local newspaper, and he quoted as saying:[Thomas'] vision is a wilderness centre that would be accessible to wheelchairsas well as the able-bodied, something that does not exist in Canada, althoughthere is a significant push for adventure therapy programs throughout the world(Media Article, April 2003).During the interview, he stated that he "desired to see both people with and without disabilitiescoming together from the beginning, which will be a benefit to both groupshe loves working in the outdoors when he says, "people will challenge their own potential, theirown perceptions, and their abilities." This falls in line with Anderson et al., (1997) where theybelieve that the integration may help both people with and without disabilities increaseacceptance of one another, grow personally, and reflect on themselves and their liveswith the outdoor environment, Thomas integrates people with and without disabilities together,which may be one of the understandings to inclusion.4.2.2. Treating people uniquelyAnother major response that was voiced be many of the study participants was the idea of`treating people uniquely'. When I asked Wendy, a client with spinal cord injury, what inclusionmeans she stated, "to not have to worry about the details of my disability and to be treated likea person." Trevor, who had assistance from his mom Diane, said "they asked me what Ineeded to kayak and they quickly adapted to my ability level by putting on pontoons and theone-arm paddle." It is interesting that Trevor pointed out that "they asked me" meaning thatthe staff and volunteers did not assume that he needed pontoons and the one-arm paddle. This63points out that it important to communicate to the clients to facilitate their kayaking whichmeans treating people uniquely.Another client, Dana who lives with spina cerebellum ataxia, expressed how welcomed shefelt coming kayaking for the first time because "I did not feel rushed when I made my way tothe kayak since it is very difficult for me to walk on uneven surfacesand the volunteers were patient and worked with her according to her abilities.These examples highlight the idea of adapting to the clients' needs, which may beinterpreted as being treated uniquely through "personal connection and understanding"(Schleien et al . 1) or "recognizing that we are one, even though we are not the same"(Dattilo, 2002, p . Most of the participants explained how they felt accepted for who theywere by being accommodatedweaknesses just like people without disabilitiesof the organization which outlines several values it strives to achievewhich the organization linked to this theme because it:has always taken considerable pride in our ability to treat people uniquely ratherthan equally, with the understanding that the more we personalize our workwith the people we serve, the more varied approaches we apply, the moreeffective we will be. [The organization] is committed to an extensive outdoorprogram, which is accessible to all members of the communities we serve (2005Annual Report, p. 3).The above quotation assists in understanding how the organization interprets inclusion,where they believe in treating people uniquely rather than equally or the sameforefront how they work toward achieving the understanding of their clients individually byoffering different approaches to meet their needs, instead of using the same approach with allthe same clients which gives the sense of treating people equally64Schleien et al . 1), who emphasize that "inclusion, like any value, must be personal andrelevant for each individual".I had the opportunity to observe the overnight kayaking trip and it was observed thateveryone, the staff, volunteers, and clients treated each other uniquelywith various levels of disabilities, which included two people with autism, one with hearingimpairment, and one with multiple sclerosis. Along with them were two volunteers and twostaff. From my observations, there was a sense of camaraderie within the group and it seemedthat every person was enjoying the company of one anotherkayaking, there were several conversations and laughter.I observed that Bill, who was an older client with multiple sclerosis, appeared to appreciatethe trip because he enjoyed being around people, he joined in the conversations, and waswilling to discuss the day's events and other current issuescausing him to be non-verbal, sat during meals very contentedlyhas a hearing impairment and who can read lips to communicate with people seemed to happilyconverse in this different way.Thus, in alignment with the organization's stated values, the adaptive kayaking program wasattempting to make efforts to strive towards indusivity by treating people uniquely, rather thanequallytalk to each one verballytheir individual's uniquenesswhen three clients, three volunteers, along with the lead kayak guide were out on the waterof the clients (Nathan, Christine, and Wayne) went kayaking with their respective volunteers.Under some societal perceptions, the three clients would be recognized as dependent andincapable Devine and Wilhite (2000), as all of them lived with their families but had a full time65caregiver because of the severity of their disabilities. Another perspective was that providingsome assistance makes inclusion possible.Christine, Nathan and Wayne frequently kayaked so they were quite familiar with theroutine of wearing their personal floatation device (PFD) and getting in and out of the kayaks.However, the kayak guide, Treena and the volunteers knew that none of them had used apaddle previously because of their disabilitieswith a volunteerpaddling skills because he expressed a sense of restlessness. Hence, she and Claire worked withhim while the other clients paddled around them with their respective volunteersanother example of how Treena and Claire worked with Wayne uniquely using variedapproaches and may be achieving his needs`equally' since each person's goals of kayaking could be very differentTreena does not group the clients into a homogenous category by treating them the same orequallyHowever, it should be noted that this program may not suit the needs of people who do notenjoy the water, kayaking, or even being in the outdoors, so a range of recreationalopportunities is needed.4.2.3. Participating in activities that able-bodied people doAnother meaning of inclusion was `participating in activities that able-bodied people do'which was emphasized by all of the clients in the interviews or focus groupsonly mentioned by clients suggests their disability plays a major role in excluding them fromintegrated recreationOkay, included in terms of activity literally means that being involved whereother disabled or able-bodied people are able to participate. Such as when wecome down to the water here, you know there 's a hundred odd of the kayaks66out, so we're not the only ones that are shoving off in the water . There arealways a large number of people that are doing it at the same time (Bill, client).It appears that Bill feels he is one of the many kayakers down at the beach, preparing to enjoythe experience, like able bodied people doclients intermingling with able-bodied people even though they rarely participate in the specificprograms offered by adventure therapy organization. The program is located just down thestreet from where Bill lives, so it is convenient for him and symbolizes his active participationin the community. As well, the location of the program is well known to people who like tokayak or other water activities because of the calm waters and stunning scenery combining toprovide a spectacular wilderness escape just minutes from the citycome to this location to enjoy their water activities, but this means that they must havesufficient resources to pay for transportation and program fees, which acknowledges that socialclass is tied to inclusionfor participation in society" (pSimilar to Bill, Wendy enjoys the fact that the program is located where others kayakbecause "I was like everyone elsementioned that even the staff at the canoe and kayak centre that are able-bodied, greeted herand talked about kayaking with herthe program and at the centre, which supports Pegg and Compton's (2003/2004) argument thatcommunity life is enhanced for persons who are disabled when they are not segregatedmere existence of the kayaking program in the community fosters the inclusion that Wendy andBill are feeling, as they feel like other kayakers, regardless of a disability or not.Cindy, who lives with cerebral palsy, expressed her happiness towards the program as shefeels that "no one really knows I am disabled once I am in a kayakAshton-Shaeffer et al67spectacles when participating in able-bodied activitieskayak, "I am on an equal-level playing field as able-bodieshow she feels when she is not on the water, which will be revealed later on in this study.Another client, Trevor, who lives with an acquired brain injury resulting in paralysis of oneside of the body and speech aphasia, expresses his joy in kayakingrequires the use of some adaptive equipment, such as the one arm paddle and outriggers(stabilizers which are extensions of the kayak)others on the water, he communicated through his mom that "he enjoys seeing other peoplehere and being able to do an activity everyone can dohis days are consumed by rehabilitation due to his recent injury, so being with other people,able bodies or those with disabilities, "makes him feel normal." Schleien et althat recreational activities should provide opportunities for developing social relationships andnew skills and Trevor has found that kayaking provides an opportunity where he can meetpeople and do what able-bodies do.4.2.4. Being with others like meAnother possible meaning of inclusion that challenges the notion of integration with ablebodies was `being with others like mefeel this is important because it brings forward the idea of `disabled-only' programsas evident in the literature by Lord and Hutchinson (1979), people with disabilities were usuallyfound segregated together for organized leisure experiences, but for some time there has been amovement in which they and their advocates are calling for entitlements to integrated leisureservices (Schleien et . However, there are still some people who enjoy being within thecongregated or segregated settingothers like her makes her feel included.68It's very nice as a disabled person, be with other disabled persons. So I just feelI belong to some group . Like, disabled persons. It's like a secure, it's a littlesafety. So its still a lot comfortable (Hing-Mei, client).Devine (2003/2004) argues that being with other people with disabilities illuminates a senseof `freeing' and being away from the pressures of mainstream leisure opportunitiesbecause of factors like uneven skill levels, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors that make it morecomfortable to be with others with disabilities (Ashton-Shaeffer et al . Anotherparticipant, Dana, who has spina cerebrallum ataxia, agrees with Hing-Mei because she findsthe environment and people more accepting of her disabilityspite of the difficulties walking on the beach and requires assistance. As well, she enjoyedmeeting the other people, staff, volunteers, and clients who made her feel "normal"Hing-Mei may feel a sense of security and acceptance knowing they are in a program thatspecializes in people with disabilitiesthings in common with the other clients as they all have to deal with their disabilitiesfalls in line with some "disabled-only" programs provide people with "the process of self-categorization that accompanies the feelings of a sense of belonging to a socially-relevant groupcomes differential treatment to those they identify with the group" (Goodwin & Staples, p.162).Although Wendy, the client, appreciated the program because it involved doing somethingwith her boyfriend and she tends not to do many disability related programs as expressed in4.2.1., she contradicted herselfwhen I was trying something new for the first time, I didn't feel comfortable going tosomething that was strictly able-bodieddisabilities" (Wendy, client)"likes to be able to do programs outside of the adaptive program so I could access it in other69areas" (Wendy, client)confidence or her knowledge about the activity before she explores opportunities with able-bodied people. This may be interpreted as a transitional link between inclusion in a specificprogram and social inclusion, where the program leads to other forms of participation.Another factor that may contribute to them feeling included is that the volunteers and staffmay purposely be associated with this program because they desire to work with people withdisabilitiessafety when participating in potentially risky activities (Devine, 2004)who manages the risk management segment for the organization, explains this quite nicelywhen he said, "I always adapt my recreation. Every group, every person has individual strengthsand weaknesses . It was evidentthat some enjoy being involved in a segregated program as they have attention to their needsand achieve a sense of belonging and safetyFrazee (2005, pstrong, and you can"offering programs on a continuum from segregated to integrateddisabilities may find that being in a disabled-only program is a stepping stone to help gettinginvolved with able-bodied people, which adds a new spin to the segregation and integrationliterature because these terms are often described as an "either or" dualism.4.2.5. Inclusion is mutually understoodThe last meaning of inclusion which intrigued me was when it became mutually understoodby the parties involvedI think ? you know when it occurs when you don 't think about it, anymore.You know? When you don't have to think, how can we include this? Or, howcan we adapt to this? I think it happens when you and everybody else is just70doing and everybody is on an equal level and feels comfortable and feels thesame about whats easy and whats hard and stuff like that (Treena, staff).I have not come across this idea in the literature and I think it expands our thinking aboutinclusion. Treena feels that the idea of inclusion should be mutually understood becauseadaptations are often necessary depending on the client groupinclusion should be the natural, the automatic way of thinking of `how can we include this'.Mary who has been volunteering for the past two years mentioned that:we are people are not gonna to stare or be put off by their disability. They areaware that we already are. you know, already have a heads up on theirdisability and we are perfectly comfortable with it (Mary, volunteer).Fraiser, a volunteer who has been with the program for the past three years points out that:they are just ordinary people . I mean, we all haveour disabilities . Some of us can't addand some of us can't readvolunteer)Wendy, the client with spinal cord injury, expressed how her nervousness of doing anotheractivity quickly subsided when she approached the program and how this lessened even furtherwhen adaptations were made without making a fuss.Everybody was so laid back and nothing was a big deal and they were totallywilling to adapt anything to whatever you needed it to be and nothing felt like itwas a chore for them to do that. It was just part of, oh, well, this is what we doand this easy and it's no problem (Wendy, client).Bill talked about a similar experience when he came on his first dayhow people will react to my scooter and disabilitywas an everyday occurrence for you".There is much literature that talks about people with disabilities as being dependent andrequiring services that separate them from society (Bedini, 2000 ; Devine &Wilhite, 2000 ., 1997)71and as a result, they may be seen as brave, amazing or a spectacle which may be demeaning tothem (Ashton-Shaeffer et al . This attitude may be adopted by those who feel it is theirresponsibility to improve the quality of life of the `less fortunate' (Schleien et al., 1997).Ultimately, this normalizing of inclusion comes down to citizenship and equalityquestion Treena's use of "everybody on an equal level" as being idealistic because as soon as aperson has a difference in relation to ablebodiediness, their status as normal gets challenged(Galvin, 2003)equality in terms of citizenship (Frazee, 2005) as they lack uniformity and similarity (Shakir,2005). I would argue that a new dimension of inclusion is that it should be as mutuallyunderstood as possible between the staff, volunteers, and the clients, so that the kayakingexperience is well facilitated.Meanings of inclusion for staff, volunteers, and clients emphasized integration as well assegregation, indicating that variety in program configurations is needed to capture a wide rangeof interests and needsto the various disabilitiesthey emphasized `being with others like them' and `participating with able bodies'was important to the clients how the staff and volunteers facilitated their kayaking experiencesin relation to their individual disabilities. The majority of the clients appreciated theattentiveness of staff and volunteers to adaptations required and how this was became to beseen as a normal activity.4.3. Experiences of social inclusionI asked clients what their experiences of social inclusion were in terms of the adaptivekayaking program. Because the focus of this study is looking at whether or not the clients are72included in the program, I only highlight the responses of the clients in this section. Similar tothe meanings of inclusion, I received a multitude of responses (Table 4Table 4 . Experiences of social inclusionNumber of clients inparticipantobservations (n=6)Number of clients infocus groups orinterviews (n= 14)Experiences Enjoying friendships with other 6 14of Social clientsInclusion Experiencing barriers 6 14Opportunities for outdoor 6 14activitiesChallenging yourself 2 4As you can see, all of the clients spoke positively about their experience of social inclusionwithin the adaptive kayaking program.4.3.1. Enjoying friendships with othersIt is evident that developing friendships is an important factor in promoting inclusionwhich supports existing research by Sciberras and Hutchinson (2003/2004). All of the clientstalked about the friendships they have gained through the program and Peter provided anillustration of this:Karen: And do you like kayaking in a double?Peter: Yes, as well.Karen: Why?Peter: Because being with someone keeps me company.Karen: So you like to be with friends?Peter: Yeah, being with friends is nice.I had a one-on-one interview with Peter as his father said this would work better for him ratherthan a focus group so he would be able to concentrate on the questions without distractions.Peter is diagnosed with mild autism which makes it difficult for him to focus on lengthy73questions. As mentioned in the methodology section, I simplified the questions so he couldbetter understand them.When Peter compared the experience of a single and a double kayak, he stated that themost distinguishing element was that "I got to develop friends when I was in a double kayak".He schedules his kayaking with Bill, another client, because for the past few years they haveenjoyed it togetherPeter replied, "Well, he makes noises ? that's kind of funny"making noises encourages him to paddle.In another example where developing friendships was pertinent was in the interview withWendy. She stated the following in regards to her first experience kayaking with the program:So it was great, even just when you're waiting to get in and out of the boat, tojust be chatting with people, learning more about their lives, learning moreabout the area, like, what else is available here, what else is going onagain, out on the water, kind of chatting (Wendy, client).She also said that "it is easy to spark up a conversation as this activity brings up a commontopic for all of us to talk about". Wendy appreciates meeting people as it enhances theenjoyment of her doing activities(Wendy, client), which may be helping her to feel included in the broader context of her life.Similar to Wendy, Bill enjoys the social aspects of the programattendance, he is familiar with many of the clients, volunteers, and staffthe water and also over a cup of coffee after kayaking"exceeds the actual kayaking as the conversations continue beyond it, which may be interpretedas inclusion within his communitysuch as Peter, Bill, and Wendy, desire to interact socially with others, develop friendships, and74experience a sense of belonging (Anderson et al ; Robinson & Skinner, 1985; and Wilhite,Devine & Goldenberg, 1999).While it may seem that some clients have experienced the development of friendshipsthrough the social interactions of the program, it may not have been as much of a priority forOliver during the overnight kayaking tripthat Oliver would enjoy the company of the clientsbe non-verbal and reliant on assistance for his daily living skills such as eating, going to thewashroom, and communicating with other peoplePicture Exchange Communication System (PECS) which is a binder filled with pictures that hecan point to. His mother said the system does not always work as it is dependent on his moodand surroundingssurroundings.On this particular overnight trip, when we were at the campsite, Oliver appeared to enjoyspending time at the water, making ripple effects by throwing rocks into the waterto other clients, Oliver was not socially interactive with the other campers during the trip.However, it was observed that Oliver may have felt a sense of inclusion among the group in hisown waynearby. According to Wilhite, Devine and Goldenberg (1999), friendships may be developedthrough interactions with one another symbolizing a sense of belongingduring the overnight trip where Oliver would catch the group's attention through his laughteras he was holding his bookgoing through his mind which resulted in much of the group laughing with him and trying topersuade him to share the joke with themSciberras and Hutchinson (2003/2004), suggests that friends can enjoy each other's company75when they have a similar interestobservations, many of the clients may gain a sense of inclusion through friendships, whether itis through verbal or non verbal social interaction.Sciberras and Hutchinson, (2003/2004) recommend encouraging friendships through opencommunication, but Oliver or Peter have limited communication skills to develop friendshipsin this way. So in addition to the literature, the results illustrate that friendships can bedeveloped through many different types of interaction, not necessarily verbal.4.3.2. Experiencing barriersAll of the clients confirmed that they experience many barriers due to their disability. Forexample, Hing-Mei talks about overcoming barriers compared to a `normal person':When persons try some new activities, they have some peerdisabled person, have lots of barriers physically, emotionally, so support fromother people, it's a big, big difference (Hing-Mei, client).This past summer was Hing-Mei's first summer trying kayaking and she liked the supportfrom other people, especially since she faces physical and emotional barrierspeople with disabilities do not always work, have an income and may need patience to "wakeup" in the morning, and this is the "real life as a disabled person"talking from personal experience as she lives with an acquired brain injury and arthritisare several researchers who point out the emotional and physical barriers faced by people withdisabilities (Bedini, 2000 ; Devine & Datillo, 2001Schleien et al . For example, Dana lives with spina cerebellum ataxia which affects hercoordination, mobility, speech, and balancecommunication problems because of my walking and difficulty in speech"explains that it takes a lot of energy walking and some of the buses are not accessible76all people with disabilities face the same barriers as one another. Also, Hing-Mei talked aboutthe emotional barriers and the need for support from others.In other examples, Christine, Nathan, and Wayne experience significant barriers because ofthe severity of their disabilities. As mentioned, they are all dependent on their individualcaregiver to assist with their basic needs, such as speech, walking, or dressing. Through myobservations on the day kayaking trip, the caregivers are needed to assist them with everything,from eating their lunch on the beach, helping them to sit down, or going to the washroom. Itwas observed that they lack some independence due to their disability and this can lead to lackthe social acceptance (Devine & Datillo, 2001). At the same time, having caregivers to assistthem might decrease some barriers and results in opportunities to experience leisure activitiessuch as kayaking. Datillo (2002) agrees that once we recognize that people have their differentlevels of disabilities, we can "dispose of the notion that a person must earn his or her way into aprogram by being like everyone else" (p. 29).Bill, who lives with multiple sclerosis, is dealing with different bathers as his condition getsprogressively worse. He commented that "I wouldn't be able to physically do much at all"because of constant changes in his condition. This is another example of how the bathersintensify as one's disability progressively gets worse. He explains how he was independent atfirst because his symptoms were very minor but as years goes by, he has become reliant on ahome care nurse, accessible facilities for his scooter, and other people who are understandingand patient with him. Another significant bather that he experiences is the "heat so I can notkayak in the afternoon because to me, the heat does not help my MS". To reduce this problem,Bill kayaks in the morning.During one of the focus groups, Sean, who does not have an identifiable disability,presented a good point regarding how he faces barriers when he goes to the roller coaster77because of his height. He is nine years old and participates in this program because of his sister,Cindy, who has a disability. He states that when he was very little, he could not ride on thewooden roller coaster because "I was not tall enough". This presents the idea that all peopleencounter barriers from time to time. Although, Sean does not face as many barriers as aperson with a more severe disability, this point out the complexity of delivering the programsdesigned to be "accessible to all members of the communities we serve" (Annual Report, 2005).The barriers expressed by the clients fall in line with what the website of the organizationstates which say the following:These youth are often faced with a variety of challenges that include socialisolation, cognitive impairments, physical limitations, and emotional distress.These barriers are often aggravated by the misconceived attitudes associatedwith their disabilities and the limited funding available for adequate supportservice (Website, 2007).However, this is a general statement that does not account for the level of disability of eachindividual. It is clear from the responses of the clients that there are barriers that they face butthe degrees of the barriers are dependent on the individual and their disability. However,barriers may also be presented because of the structures and policies of the organization andwithin the community.4.3.3. Opportunities for outdoor activitiesAll of the clients talked about the positive aspects of being in the outdoors, but since I onlycollected responses from clients within the program, I spoke to those who self-selected into theactivity. The use of the outdoors has increased in popularity as a method of therapy orrehabilitation, personal growth, and production of social benefits (Anderson et al., 1997; Ewertet al., 2001). This point was supported by the several of responses collected and the documentsI analyzed.78Scott, who lives with cerebral palsy, loves the program because it gives him "a sense ofindependence and freedom". Similarly another client, Trevor, through his mother Diane, saidthat he enjoyed kayaking because it is in the outdoors and "gives him back the control". Trevoris currently going through intensive rehabilitation due to his recent injury, and is learning hisdaily living activities and to speak again. He was introduced to kayaking through hisrehabilitation and it had positive physical and mental effects evident though his frequentbookings in the program and in the below:And I think that 's why he likes going kayaking because it was a really plus forhim to be able to handle it himself . But it was a lake and he wasn't going anygreat distance. My thought is that would be sometimes to work towards andhe's not there yet. It feels good because I see strength coming back. I see someindependence coming back . And you know having him start to think forhimself again ? you know, like when is it? What are we gonna do? What 'shappening? (Diane, Trevor's mother)As mentioned previously, Trevor's mother Diane, spoke for him due to his limited speakingabilities, so it must be questioned whether this accurately expressed his thoughts even thoughhe confirmed by saying "yes" or "no". In response to the above quotation, he agreed with hismother. Diane further explained the complementary aspect kayaking serves alongside Trevor'srehabilitation, such as meeting new people or being in the outdoors. Ewert et al. (2001) explainsthat adventure therapy is often recommended by rehabilitation professionals because it tends toimprove functioning or provide greater physical and/or psychological challenges. This wasevident through Hing-Mei's description of her experience of kayaking as "calming","refreshing," "relaxing," and "[the canoe & kayak centre] is a mountainside, where there is anocean." In addition to this, Peter, Wendy, and Bill mention a different aspect when they bringup aspects of health. Peter, who is diagnosed with autism, agrees with Trevor because kayakingis "good exercise." To further explain his sentiment, he moved his arms to illustrate due to hislimited vocabulary. Peter mentioned that he did not like physical education in school, so I79assume that kayaking may perhaps be one of his only forms of exercise. Wendy, with a spinalcord injury, describes kayaking as being about, "doing something active", "gaining strength inupper body", or "getting outside".The health benefits gained coincide with the desired outcomes of the programs whichincludes:o to provide a healing experience that promotes health, independence and autonomyfor each participant;o to help participants discover their abilities, strengths and increase their self-confidence;o to improve life skills and accelerate recovery regimens;o to promote respect for diversity within communities by providing meaningfulconnections to people of differing cultural, economic and health backgrounds;o to support community integration and inspire a greater sense of belonging(Annual Report, 2005).Ewert et albecause it cannot be readily changed or manipulated so that the clients can achieve a sense ofbelonging which is often difficult to achieve in this fast-paced worldwhy the clients responded quite positively to the outdoors, because it may serve as a refuge forthem to forget the barriers and the negative perceptions of living with a disability (Miles, 1995).4.3.4. Challenging yourselfChallenging oneself was the last experience of social inclusion that was mentioned by a fewclientstrying to kayak a single on their ownto give a single a try on the advice of Treena, the kayak guide:But that's part of what I liked about being in the single ? was it pushed memore. And because I'm stubborn and I 'm so competitive, I didn't want peoplegetting much further ahead. I didn 't want to slow people down, so I pushedmyself that much harder to keep up, catch up (Wendy, client)80One of the reasons she enjoyed kayaking a single is that it pushed her beyond her perceivedpotential as she was somewhat forced to keep up with the speed of the group. Ewert et al.(2001) contends that activities should be emotionally and physically challenging for personalgrowth. She elaborated on her experience of steering the kayak and paddling with her arms.Due to her disability, she could not control the rudder (a steering device that helps direct thekayak) using her legs (there are pedals inside where you sit to press if you want to go left orright), so she had to use her upper body to both do the paddling and the steering. AlthoughWendy identifies herself as having good upper body strength, she found it was challenging inthe kayaking session, but she enjoyed the sense of personal growth.Wendy admitted that it was her choice that she decided to push herself to stay with thegroup, as she said she is quite competitive and stubborn. She does not enjoy being the reasonwhy the group slows down or acts differently. Ashton-Schaffer et al. (2001) contend that manydisabled participants do not want to be a spectacle when participating or to be referred to asbrave or admirable because of their disability. Perhaps this is due to the fact that Wendy'sfriends are people without disabilities and whenever they do something together, she isembarrassed if she needs accommodations. This raises the question of whether it is the role ofthe staff or the volunteers to ask whether she desires them to slow down or not. Wendy is fullycapable of speaking up to adjust the pace, but it was not clear whether she feels comfortabledoing this or not.Peter was another client with autism who was given the opportunity to ride a single aftertwo years with the program. Treena, volunteers and the other clients such as Bill have beenencouraging Peter to paddle when in a double. However when he was given the chance to ridethe single, he understood the concept of "if you do not paddle, you do not move", thus, hestated in the interview that, "I had to paddle more". Peter felt challenged to increase his81paddling skills to make it back to the shore. Although being in a double may be similar toproviding adaptations to encourage a positive impact on individuals' leisure participation(Datillo, 2002), it may also work in opposition to what the program is trying to achieve - to helpparticipants discover their abilities, strengths and increase their self-confidence (Annual Report,2005). However, being in a double may not encourage this, but in a single, some clients feelchallenged to paddle by themselves rather that relying on others for assistance.At other times, clients had opportunities to further their kayaking skills in a single kayak,but turned it down because they were tired. Bill explained that he would have liked to ride asingle kayak, but because of the fluctuations of his disability, he is not confident in his abilities.One of the elements the organization adopts from the field of adventure therapy is challenge bychoice, which is defined by Bandoroff and Newes (2004) as the ability to choose to participatein an activity or not. The volunteers and staff just accepted their decision, but I wonder whetherthey could have encouraged Bill to challenge himself more. Perhaps the staff and the volunteerswere afraid to encourage him because they do not know the ramifications of his disability.However, the experience of challenging yourself may not simply be related to theopportunity to be in a single kayak. I had the opportunity to observe Christine, Nathan, andWayne being launched into their respective double kayaks. Three of them are assisted in theircockpits (this is the place where they sit, which is basically like a hole in the kayak) while thekayaks are fully on the land. Once they are in, the volunteers pushes the kayaks out on to thewater, and then loads them in their cockpits (which is behind from where the clients sits) whenthe kayaks are just past the shoreline of the beach. This is done so that the bottoms of thekayaks do not get too scratched when launching off the beach. On this particular day, Iobserved that Wayne was shaky and nervous as we pushed his kayak out to allow for thevolunteer to get in. He said, "I'm going to tip, get in" as when we pushed the kayak out, it82swayed left and right a bit, which caused him to be nervous. The volunteer Claire calmed himdown and then she quickly entered into the kayakbe associated with fear as well as personal growth.In the next section, I outline the constraints to fostering social inclusion within theadventure therapy context as voiced by many of the study participants.4.4. Constraints of social inclusionDespite the stated desire of the organization to foster inclusion, the clients, volunteers, andstaff identified constraints making it difficult to do so .4. outline the degree to whichnot giving the clients the decision making power, limitations of the disability, overprotectiveness from the family, people with disabilities feeling belittled when receiving help, andliability resonated for the participants.Table 4.4. Constraints of social inclusionNumber of studyparticipants observed (n =13)Number of study participantsin interviews & focus groups(n=19)Constraints People with disabilities 7 (2 clients, 4 volunteers, 1 12 (8 clients, 3 volunteers, 1of Social feeling belittled when staff) staff)Inclusion receiving helpLimitations of disability 13 (6 clients, 6 volunteers, 1staff)11 (9 clients, 1 volunteer, 1staff)Not giving the clientsthe decision making5 (1 client, 4 volunteers) 12 (3 clients, 6 volunteers, 3staff)powerOver protectivenessfrom family5 (3 volunteers, 2 clients) 10 (5 volunteers, 5 staff)Liability in the outdoors 5 (5 staff)4.4.1. People with disabilities feeling belittled when receiving helpThe first theme was feelings of being belittled when people with disabilities are beinghelped. The majority of the responses came from the clients because they are in the bestposition to comment on how this affects them. The process of giving help is a balancing actbecause sometimes people can be too helpful which emphasizes the limitations of people with83disabilities (Goodwin, 2001)and the volunteers being too overbearing with the clients, which I observed on the day kayakingtrip. It occurred when two volunteers, one staff member and two caregivers were crowdingaround Nathan when he was entering the kayak. He is diagnosed with a multitude of disabilitiesdue to a rare genetic disorder with the primary issues being that he is cognitively, hearing, andmobility impairedwalker for mobility and necessitates assistance into the kayakcan only assume that he appreciated the helping hand from his caregiver and one othervolunteer. However, it was made clear to us later that all the other volunteers and Nathan'sfamily members were crowding him in, as he became agitated, making it difficult for him toenter the kayakhim to concentrate on the task at handattention, which Ashston-Schaffer et al . 96) refers to "as being some sort ofspectacle"volunteers and the staff that they give him a minute to calm down so they subsequently walkedaway. Nathan was eventually able to get in smoothly and successfully with the help of hiscaregiver and one other volunteer.In the interview I had with Wendy, she explains how there tends to be an "overbearingamount of help", when people see her coming in a wheelchair as "people often just want to doeverything for me". She has been in a wheelchair for the past 13 years, so she knows when toask for help, but "people often want to try and jump in before that time"says it is important to wait and to be asked for help because inclusion can be fostered byencouraging independence as illustrated in this comment:They didn't get disabled yesterday and dont know how to deal with it. They'vebeen dealing with it for the last 20, 30 years84awkward. If they need help, they'll let you know . Sometimes they may notknow, but you can see when they need help . Sometimes it may take them 5minutes to get out of the kayak, that . That's the inclusion where you don'ttry and overcome. Help them too much . Let me be . Let me get out of thekayak. We don't need 6 people mobbing one person. So as soon as I see that, Itend to back off a little bitpeople do that . And if they need help, then I 'll jump in . Because you canovercompensate or overdo it and then you almost treat them as a special person(Fraiser, volunteer).Fraiser expresses frustration when seeing too many volunteers helping a client, as he feels thismay unnecessarily center them out. This is the very feeling that some of the clients are trying toescape from because most want to be recognized for their desire to learn about kayaking, nottheir physical limitations. Cindy explains how much she enjoys kayaking because she is treated"like everybody else" as compared to other situations in her daily life. She provided the exampleof being at school where sometimes "classmates or my teachers try to help me too much withcarrying my bags or opening the doors". She said they do not know the things she can do orhave the patience to wait when she is opening a door with her walker.Sue, who has been volunteering with the program for the past three years, voiced anexample of how too much help can be belittling to her friend who is living with cerebral palsy.This happened outside the program, when her friend was participating in an adaptive skiingprogram. Her friend felt that the volunteers were overly enthusiastic and supportive while shewas skiing and as a result, she did not enjoy it. Sue furthered explained that "it's too much. Thecheering, clapping at the end was just too much for her and she didn't like it. It wasn't a goodexperience". Although this example was not part of the kayaking program, it points out thatstaff and volunteers may go overboard in providing positive experiences for people withdisabilities, which may turn into a negative experience for them.People with disabilities are sometimes seen as `second-class citizens' and the overburden ofhelp may add to them being seen as `objects of pity' (Lord & Hutchinson, 1979, p. 16). Some85feel the need to help because they feel responsible for contributing to the quality of life ofpeople who are less fortunate (Schleien et al . However, Fraiser and Wendy counter thatthey have coped with and adapted to their challenges throughout their life and if they requirehelp, they will let others know. Too much help may work in contradiction too what theprogram is trying to achieve ? a persons sense of self-worth, self-confidence, and self-identity(Website, 2005)differently depending on the individual and their disability. It is also possible that with no help,some clients would not be able to experience outdoor adventure activities.4.4.2. Limitations of disabilityAnother constraint to social inclusion is the physical and social ramifications of having adisabilityplayed a major role in determining whether they were included or excludedgrade seven student, explains the implications of having a disability within her schoolenvironment with her able bodied peers, especially during her physical education class.Well, sometimes it takes me a while longer to get changed for my gym strip andso I kind of miss half the lesson. And sometimes it takes me away from thingsbecause they think Im not fast enough and it doesn't make me feel really good.Can you just stay down? Can I just stay down one more minute, just to play?Because often I don't. If I'm in PE, often my schedule is go up two levels forFrench or whatever and so I have to leave early from things I really enjoy(Cindy, client).Cindy's limitations due to cerebral palsy are highlighted by not being able to run fast, alwaysgetting hit by the ball, or having to leave early for her to have enough time to change inpreparation for the following classconveyed her frustrations with having a disabilityrealizing that she is `different' and struggling with self-acceptance, as mentioned by her motherfollowing the focus group86Cindy believes she is not good enough and feels her disability is the limiting factor (Datillo,2002).The limitations of disability are also highlighted for Hing-Mei when she joined the SeaKayak Association of BC as she feels that it is very hard to belong because they are veryphysically active . Normal person, theyimprove their skill . She continues by saying "only I can belong tothe seniors . There is nochoice. I always belong to the seniors' group (laugh). Disabled person's mobility limits them".Scott, another teenager with cerebral palsy, expresses his dislikes when he participates insports with his school because of his "inability to jump" and because "I always get hit with theball". He further explains that "most of them require running around and I'm not that fastmy reflexes aren't as good"people without disabilities they become frustrated because their skills and abilities do not meetthe norm (Devine & Wilhite, 2000).During the overnight kayaking trip, I had the opportunity to observe the interactions of thegroup. It was evident that Oliver required more one-to-one attention due to his lack ofcommunication, and skills such as using the washroom, eating, or going to washroompromoted much discussion among the staff and volunteers about whether Oliver should havecome on the trip or not because he occupied a lot of their timepeople with disabilities in mindovernight was questioned.Scott mentioned the limitations of his disability in the focus group, and then contradictedhimself later when he said he does not think his disability plays a role as he feels like he is like"everyone else". He explains that he is unable to do the odd things, like "I can't ride a 2-87wheeled bike or I can't run as fast. But I just learn to live with it. And it does not really botherme that much". This is an exact contradiction to what Scott said about his challenges, and asDavis and Salkin (2005) suggested, perhaps this is one of his coping strategies. Alternatively,there may be a difference in how Scott is dealing with his disability depending on the situationhe is in. This also coincides with a point about individual and team activities as pointed out byMichelle.People have included themselves in the activity . And then if you look at itdeeper, the activity of skiing, they're going into the run and they're skiing. Andfor individual sports like this, such as skiing or kayaking or hiking, I think it'smaybe easier for anybody to include themselves because it's open to anyindividual. But, to include someone into a team ? soccer team, baseball team,wherever you meant ? that's a different, that's another, there's a different aspectof inclusion, I think because what is a disabled person who walks into agymnasium where a basketball team is training, well, might have a totallydifferent life, a totally different perception from the others . And for thedisabled person (Michelle, volunteer).This reveals the complexities of achieving inclusion during a team sport or group activity. Itmay also be dependent on the setting or the members of the group as witnessed on theovernight trip. It may be that in an individual sport, some people with disabilities may feel moreincluded as they do not have anyone to compare themselves to.4.43. Not giving the clients the decision making powerOne of Shookner's (2002) goals of social inclusion is that people who are `voiceless' or`powerless' need to be involved in the shaping of decision-making and policy-developmentprocesses in their community. As you can see in Table 4.3, many responses related to thistheme came from the staff and volunteers, not from the clients. The may be because of howthe program is structured where clients pay for the service of participating in kayaking. Due tothis, the clients assume the roles of the recipients of the service, while the volunteers and the88staff are the providers of the services (Miller et al . Thus, clients may not feel that it istheir role to participate in the decision making process.This structure is reinforced by an organization document which indicates that decisions aremade by the staff:Resources will be given to the right people at whatever level. These people arebrought together in teams and given decision-making power to get on with thetasks at hand. Important programming decisions are discussed and made notonly by the management team but will include staff members who are close tothe issue (Strategic Review, 2007).There was confusion about how the organization makes decisions, as their brochure states thatthey use a collaborative approach which equips the kayakers with the self-confidence they needto discover and develop their competencies (Brochure, 2006). While the brochure suggestscollaborative decision-making, the Strategic Review (2007) point out that decision making isdone by staff. Not including the clients in the decisions emphasizes the `wall of exclusion' asdescribed by Schleien et al. (1997), and it gives the impression that clients are passive `recipientsof services' (Miller et al., 2002, p. 248). This finding is in opposition to the ideas of inclusionoutlined by Datillo (2002) in the valuing of each person as a worthwhile member withresponsibilities including decision making.Despite this, some of the staff did include clients in decision making and some clients tooksteps to include themselves. For example, Brad was talking about the pontoons (an adaptivegear that goes on the back of the kayaks providing extra stability) and whose decision it is to putthem on the kayak. Brad was saying that the "experience of kayaking is all about the clients, sothey should be the ones to make the decision whether to use the pontoons or not". Likewise,Wendy appreciated the day when she made the decision not to kayak in a single and changedher booking to ride in a double kayak. She said "and that was great that I was able to do that, Istill wanted to participate as much as I could, but I knew there was no way I could have done89the single". When she made the decision to change kayaks, it symbolized empowerment, whichis another goal of Shookner's (2002) framework of social inclusion.Matthew, another staff member expressed how clients can be more in the decision makingprocess rather than treated solely as clients when he said, "more people with disabilities shouldbe on the committees, the board, or as staff so they can participate in the implementation of theprograms". He argues that the programs are for people with disabilities, so they are in the bestposition to design ones that they would enjoy. Similarly, Lucy, who is a new volunteer to theprogram, made a revealing comment when she said she would "like to see our clients becomevolunteers". She indicates this would mean that "true inclusion occurred for me" because thepeople with disabilities would be a part of the decision-making process in the delivery of theprograms. This is similar to how Miller et al. (2002) discusses inclusive volunteering in thatpeople with disabilities can be the providers, and not just the recipients of the services.Interestingly, I observed opportunities for clients to be involved in the decision making inthe overnight kayaking trip. Involving everyone was attempted at the beginning of the planningprocess. An email was sent from me to all the clients and volunteers as confirmation for theirparticipation, and the staff attached a proposed plan of the kayak route. The staff asked forparticipant's input and what kind of meals and snacks they wanted during breaks. The staff triedto incorporate their requests into the meal plan and make changes to the route plan. Thiscorresponds well with one of the inclusion strategies outlined by Donnelly and Coakley (2002)that by involving everyone in the planning and decision making process, a sense of ownershipcan be fostered to ensure that recreation programs work for them.The opportunity to become part of decision-making and the planning was not extensivelytaken advantage of by the clients. This may be due to the fact that some simply wanted toparticipate in an overnight trip. As well, the clients might be just happy to participate in the trip90as `clients' as it was enough of a challenge to prepare for it. They may have assumed that it waswell prepared by the staff since they have the experience and the qualifications in kayaking, andsafety is an essential component. With the minimal campsites available around the route that aresuitably accessible, it made the choice of kayaking routes easy to determine.Having only the staff involved in important decision making highlights the hierarchy withinthe organization and suggests that assumptions are being made about the willingness andabilities of clients. This can lead to a lack of social acceptance, with some people beingcategorized as `powerless' or the `voiceless' (Shookner, 2002). Frazee (2005) ties this to theconcept of equality because participation is deeply entrenched by the context of disability and inthe patterns of social exclusion. By not including the clients in the decision making, it bringsforward their unequal status.4.4.4. Over protectiveness from familyAnother constraint to inclusion which was voiced by the majority of the staff andvolunteers was the role of families of the client. None of clients talked about this, and incontrast, they talked about their families in a positive or supportive light. This may because themajority of the clients interviewed believe their families play a major role in their development.Staff and volunteers presented this constraint perhaps because of their experience interactingwith a multitude of families who are viewed as being overly protective.As Keller and Sterling-Honig (2004, pand finally, adjustment when faced with having a child with a disability." This leads to somefamilies feeling more responsible for the safety of their son or daughter. They may also feel asense of blame, especially if their son or daughter acquires a disability later in life due to anaccident, as parents sometimes feel they should have been able to prevent it. This sense ofprotectiveness became apparent through the comment below made by Thomas, the executive91director, who has been working with people with disabilities, alongside their families for thepast 15 years:I think families do. I think they can also be very judgmental. I think families canbe very supportive for their kids that they want them to do well . But I thinkalso they can be very, you know, families and friends can be veryoverprotective. When theyre overprotective, they may not be willing to let theirchild make a choice, or push them to do something where they really mightbenefit from it (Thomas, staff).Admittedly, there is an increased amount of caregiving responsibility when there is a familymember with a disability due to their rehabilitation, medical treatments and adapted activities(Green, 2003). Some feel their child already experiences enough stress, challenges, andhardships to fit in with the mainstream. Thus, they may want to manage their son's ordaughter's life so that they can minimize the negative experience they face. Hence, this maycause families to be over protective because they do not want them to get hurt, either physicallyor mentally.Marnie, who is the director of operations for the organization, said "I think families, too, Ithink sometimes with the best intentions, even still some families impose limitations on theirchildren, without realizing it". Hence, families may work in opposition to inclusion, byproviding too much help or assistance which may limit their child's independence.I witnessed this during the focus group with Bill and Trevor, along with his mother, Diane.As mentioned, Diane did the majority of the talking because of Trevor's lack of speech whichcould perhaps be a sign of her being overprotective. I observed that she was quick to volunteerresponses, maybe not allowing Trevor enough time to respond. She did tell me that he hasdifficulty in speaking due to a limited vocabulary. However, I wonder if I had facilitated in away that gave him more time to speak if he would have voiced more of his own responses.However, when I gave him the chance, he answered `yes' or`no' and then he pointed to his92mom. On the other hand, Trevor may agree with his mom's responses or may appreciate herassistance to allow him to participate in the focus grouptook on the protective role as I do not know how well Trevor is adapting to his life after hisrecent injury. Her assistance may be viewed as over protectiveness, but it could be viewed aspromoting inclusion as she is helping him feel a part of the program and this research project.Another staff member named Matthew said it is a fine balance maintaining the happiness ofboth the child and the parents in the field of outdoor activities, especially if the child is underthe age of 16. Matthew is part of the risk management team and he says it may be difficult toremove that `protective shield' that parents have in relation to kayaking, because they may notbe into adventure themselves, and thus may interpret the activity as being too risky for theirchildren. To combat this, Lucy, a volunteer suggests that the kayaking program should provideopportunities for families to join in. She expressed that maybe "it's something that the able-bodied members of the family and the disabled members of the family can all do together"which is a form of integration (Datillo, 2002). Yet, this would not give the child the opportunityto be away from their parents, so they should be consulted to determine if there are situationswhen familial integration would be appropriate.4.4.5. Liability in the outdoorsAnother constraint to inclusion which most of the staff referred to was the riskmanagement dimension of outdoor activities. The staff mainly responded which may bebecause they are responsible for programs and they may be legally liable if an accident occurs.Sugarman (1998) stated that it was not until recently that people with disabilities have beenincluded in outdoor activities, because adventure education assumed that people withdisabilities might get injured. This idea corresponds to a quotation by Brad, who has been93working in the outdoor field for more than ten years and who currently works with theorganization as the director of risk management. He said:The risk in insurance these days is also something that 's constraining. Thetendency to sue if any one little thing goes wrong, creates a very hyper-tenseenvironment of the out of doors . So safety and priority can sometimes beextreme for certain measures. So when you begin to pair an outdoor industry upwith people who have disabilities, then the likelihood is increased that there maybe someone capsizing or hurting themselves . Then it does create this hypersense of risk. And often the ability for operators to say,"go ahead and try it" ismore difficult (Brad, staff).Brad talks about the outdoors being risky and there is a tendency to sue if any thing goeswrong. When we put people with disabilities into the mix, it decreases the likelihood thatorganizations will encourage them to try it. There is very little research that talks specificallyabout risk management and people with disabilities, but Ewert et al. (2001) mentions that thereneeds to be an increase in qualifications in outdoor technical skills, emergency response, riskmanagement, and medical training. The paradox of duty of protection from the adventureeducators and allowing the dignity of reasonable risk may deny or protect people withdisabilities from making their own decisions and from doing exciting activities (Sugarman,1998).Another staff member, Matthew, who also works in the risk management area, emphasizesthe concept of the dignity of risk. He believes that everybody has the right to engage in riskybehavior and that there are different definitions of risk.In the outdoor industry, most people interpret risk as a negative consequence.When you say risk management, it's all about managing the potential negativeoutcomes. And I think we're missing another dimension to risk . I mean, riskdoes carry with it potential for harm, I get that . But with risk, also comes thepotential for reward, right? So that's very important. When you work with anygroup, is to sort of allow for a certain amount of risk. And I would argue, whenit comes to risk management, instead of constantly focusing on the negative,negative, negative, I think we should also plan the positive. We should also planfor a reward . And I think in particular, in adaptive recreation, in adventuretherapy, historically ? and this is changing over the last 4, 5 years ? but94historically it's been all about removing risks, removing risks, removing risks,making it completely safe (Matthew, staff).Matthew points out that in the outdoor field, risk is unfortunately often considered to be anegative consequence. Thus there are quite often misinformed perceptions about people withdisabilities participating in adventure activities due to inaccurately exaggerated perceptions ofriskiness (Kelley, 1993). But Matthew points out the potential positive sides of taking risks,something which Thomas, the executive director agrees with, when he says "risks also signifypersonal growth". He added that it is important to manage risks appropriately, while creatingthe safest and most rewarding experience possible for the clients because there are aspects thatare out of our control, such as weather or other boaters. Thus he feels that risks needs to belooked upon as being managed properly, such as by putting on the adaptive gear like pontoonsthat provide extra balance.The staff and volunteers go through training at the beginning of every season on theadaptive equipment such as pontoons, one arm paddle for those people that are hemiplegics orlimited strength, and the spinal board for those lacking abdominal muscles. One of thestrategies outlined by Donnelly and Coakley (2002) is to provide the clients with a supportiveenvironment to develop and display their competence. The organization uses much adaptiveequipment so they are able to manage the risks appropriately while striving to achieve itsinclusion goals.The next section outlines strategies study participants referred to in the hopes of achieving amore inclusive environment.4.5. Strategies of social inclusionThere is very little research on the strategies of social inclusion within a recreation context,especially relating to people with disabilities. Donnelly and Coakley (2002) mention seven95different strategies, but focus on youth in general and the benefits of socially inclusive sport andrecreation programs, not adventure recreation for persons with disabilities. I discoveredadditional strategies through the data collection process including the use of the outdoors, theuse of adaptations, encouraging people with disabilities to take responsibility, and theconvenience of facilities. A summary of the various responses is provided in the table.Table 4Number of studyparticipants observed(n = 13)Number of studyparticipants in interviews& focus groups (n=19)StrategiesThe use of the outdoors 13 (6 clients, 6 19 (9 clients, 5of Socialvolunteers, 1 staff) volunteers, 5 staff)InclusionThe use of adaptations 13 (6 clients, 6 19 (9 clients, 5volunteers, 1 staff) volunteers, 5 staff)Taking responsibility 10 (6 clients, 4volunteers)13 (5 clients, 5volunteers, 3 staff)The convenient facilities8 (3 clients, 4volunteers, 1 staff)11 (6 clients, 4volunteers, 1 staff)4.5.1. The use of the outdoorsThe AT organization claims that "the outdoors is a source of inspiration, regardless of aperson's circumstances" (Website, 2007). Warren et al. (1995) agrees that the wildernessprovides an opportunity for engaging people in holistic healing. In addition, Ewert et al. (2001)argue that the outdoors provide opportunities for reflection and personal growth without thedistractions of modem technology. This was emphasized in the recent annual report whichstatesOur adaptive recreation program provides opportunities for people withdisabilities to access outdoor activities . The vehicle of accessible recreationremoves barriers and increases a person's sense or self-worth, self-confidence,and self-identity . As a result, our adaptive recreation program assistsparticipants in discovering their potential and purpose as individuals in theircommunity (Annual report, 2005).Schleien et al. (1997) agree that the interaction with the environment gives people who areisolated a more fulfilling way of life. This was evident when I asked Dana the question about96strategies used to promote inclusion when she said "the outdoors because I feel so free". Shesaid her difficulties in mobility, coordination, and dexterity are lessened once she gets in a kayakbecause she is overwhelmed with the serenity of the nature: "it feels like there is nothingstopping me because I don't have my walker".This was also evident during my observations on the day kayaking trip. Christine wasscreaming which was her way of expressing her love for the outdoors according to hercaregiver. Nathan was splashing water at people with a big smile on his face, which I assumedmeant he was happy. Although he was a bit agitated at first, Wayne settled down to enjoy themotion of the kayak.Bill comes quite frequently to the program as he says he feels "incredible" and "free" whenkayaking. Since his condition debilitates over time, he feels he is losing some independence ashe needs more and more assistance for daily tasks. He really enjoys being in the outdoors,especially when it is sunny, but he says he pays the price as he then needs to sleep and be in hisair-conditioned condominium. Still, he remarked: "that reinforces even more why being able tobe outside and being able to do things outside is something I'm always looking for. You know,I'm always testing the limits". Even though he schedules his kayaking activity in the earlymorning and finds it refreshing being in the outdoors, it is difficult to maintain his otheractivities on the days he kayaks. However, he feels it is all worth it. According to Warren et al.(1995) the wilderness is generally an unfamiliar and captivating space, engaging the peoples'senses and experiencing new challenges. Bill uses the outdoors to challenge his limits of hiscondition.Being in the outdoors also provides a space where people can enjoy the scenery or the sealife. Some of the clients the program caters to live in group homes, and although it is notknown what they do on a daily basis, Treena, the lead kayak guide, says the following:97I think being outdoors is definitely a benefit, too. Like a lot of the people thatcame this summer are in care homes and you don't know how much time theyspend outdoors. If they get to be out there and enjoy themselves and just be outwith all the scenery and nature and all that . . . It's taken for granted by somepeople. But by others, it's kind of like a privilege to be outside. Which I thinkit's good that we're doing and we're outside and we're completely based outside(Treena, staff).In this quotation, Treena agrees with the clients that the outdoors is a benefitpoints out that the outdoors can be taken for granted and we need to think of it as a privilege.The literature suggests that changing the outdoors to ensure physical accessibility couldadversely affect the sustainability of the environment (Murphy & Datillo, 1989)staff member who expresses her love for the outdoors when she says:the best thing for me to do is go away and camp somewhere or go kayaking, sothat I have peace within myself and I just learn lessons about myself that Iwouldn't necessary learn elsewhere (Mamie, staff).In addition, Kathy, one of the volunteers, enjoys kayaking "as it is serene and providessolidarity"because they retreat there to rejuvenate themselvesthem to use the outdoors because they do not have a disability and the many barriers that comewith it such as what the clients have to deal withaspects of the outdoors can be considered to be an obstacle for people with mobility, visual, orsensory disabilitiesthe clients enjoyed the outdoors and it is a strategy that included them.4.5.2. The use of adaptationsAnother strategy which was talked about by the majority of the study participants was theuse of the adaptationsadaptations serve as a sense of comfort that can relieve nervousnessacquired a brain injury, he is still getting used to his limitations and what he can do98I think having that adaptive equipment on is key and letting the person knowit's available, because I saw all kinds of nervousness the first time we were herebecause we had done it only once before at Trout Lake and when he looked outhere, he didn't see any of the pontoons and the one-armed bandit . . So I thinkhaving those things give them back their independence. And I think was whatwas neat about it ? that was he could row and could do his own thing andcontrol it. It gives you back control (Diane, mom of Trevor, client).She remembers the first time she and Trevor came to kayak as he was extremely nervousand panicking that there would be the adaptive equipment he needed. However, when hearrived and he saw the equipment, Diane noticed a sense of comfort and excitement in him.While on the water, Trevor was expressing his happiness and joy through his non verbalcommunications by putting his thumbs up while his mother explained being close to the waterwas his territory because he grew up on a lakeDonnelly and Coakley (2002) is about allowing opportunities for people to display and developtheir competencies resulting in enhanced self-esteem and a sense of moral worth, they do nottalk about people with disabilities and the use of adaptations.In a similar context, Wendy said "when you guys were open to any kind of adaptations thatneeded to be done". She further explained how important it was for her knowing thatadaptations could be made to facilitate her learning of the new activityher be more involved with her family as she expressed in regards to another program, adaptivesailing.And I sailed before I started using a wheelchair with my Dad. I sailed a lot withmy dad. Sailing to me was fun to be able to get involved because at home, oursailboat wasn't adapted and I wasn't able to sail with Dadstarted sailing with the adaptive program, my dad and I had something incommon and we could talk more about things(Wendy, client).While relating this to the adapted sailing program, it brings the point forward that these adaptedprograms assist Wendy to build the connections with her family. Although referring to children99in a recreation context, Donnelly and Coakley (2002) claim that it is in recreation that childrengain the skills, talents, and capacities to realize "their full potential, and to fully participate in thesocial and economic mainstream" (p . Despite Wendy talking about the adaptive sailingprogram, I would assume that the adapted kayaking does the same thing in building her skills,talents, and capacities, so she can function as much as possible in the mainstream of society.Adaptations do not only help Wendy with her kayakingabilities in the broader context.Likewise, Scott, a client with cerebral palsy, talked about his appreciation for theadaptations too, especially when he tried a single kayak. He said that the volunteers were opento "put on pontoons to ensure the stability of the kayak, and this gave me way more comfortknowing that I can just concentrate on paddling without worrying about balancing"in alignment with Datillo (2002) who says that adaptations to physical equipment are vital tofostering inclusion for people with disabilities.This was also clearly evident when Dana said "the adaptations because it allowed me to trysomething new. I don't think without this program and the adaptations, I would even try".From my experience, kayaking is a complex activity that requires multi tasks at one time suchas, balancing and paddling or pressing the rudder (a steering control at the back of the kayaksthat are pressed with your feet) : "help me so I canconcentrate on one thing at a time"I guess more challenging things are we've got pontoons to help with stability ofthe kayaks. So I think those help deal with the . . . . most people who gokayaking are scared that they're going to capsize, so mentally that helps peoplefeel more comfortable and also, if you ever had somebody in a kayak and theyhad seizures or something, it's going to provide a much better piece of adaptiveequipment that is more suitable to their needs (Mamie, staff).100Like all the clients mentioned above, Marnie talks about the pontoons as a comforting device.However, she also points to the safety aspect of having adaptations using a scenario of a personhaving seizuresOne of the documents I analyzed was promoting an upcoming event called `Have a Go atKayaking' which was an opportunity for new people with disabilities to try kayaking(Community Newspaper, July 2006)various amounts of equipment to promote independence, rather than restricting a sense ofplayfulness which is essential in recreationsuch as velcro gloves to help paddlers to grip, and spinal boards to help support those lackingabdominal muscles (Community Newspaper, July 2006)that assist clients to participate in the activity so that inclusion can be achieved (Datillo, 2002).Donnelly and Coakley (2002) mention that there must be autonomy and control in thestructures in which recreation experiences occur and I would say that the process of deciding touse the pontoons between the clients, staff, and volunteers, enhances the autonomy and controlof clients.4.5.3. Taking responsibilityAnother inclusion strategy that was suggested by many of the participants is the idea ofcreating conditions where clients who wish to take on more responsibility can do soagrees with this when she says:...but you know, like as a participant when they come to the program, theyhave to understand that you getting your chair to the boat and there has to be ahappy medium as to how you're gonna do it . So if you'program and be like there's no friggin' I'm getting lifted down to my chair, thenwe all have to come up with some sort of compromise as to how that 's gonnahappen if they want to participate. So I think it works on both ends . Like, yeswe have to respect the individual, but they also have to realize that some thingshave to be done in order for you to partake in this activity (Treena, staff)101This relates back to ven de Van et al.'s (2005) concept of how it takes "two to tango": wheresome people with disabilities need to be aware of their limitations and be willing to accept help;while staff and volunteers need to respect their wishes. This ties back to the theme of clientsfeeling belittled when they receive too much help. Bedini (2002) argues that clients shouldembrace their identity as a person with a disability thus, knowing when to apply some controland when to let go. This suggests it is at the discretion of the clients, as they know their abilitiesand limitations the best, to speak up about when they need or do not need assistance. Forexample, Wendy appreciated it when volunteers step back: "even if I was struggling to liftmyself up from the kayak, they're like, are you ok, and I'm like, yep, and they'd let me keeptrying. And that was important for me too". At the other end, the organization needs to havethe structures and policies in place to allow for the clients to be involved in the process, such ashaving the adapted equipment or encouraging them to input their decisions in the programs. Itis evident this works when clients are verbal and know when help is needed, but this idea of`two to tango' (van de Ven et al., 2005) becomes difficult and tricky when the clients havecognitive and physical disabilities. How do we know how much to help if one is unable tocommunicate their wishes or if they are unaware of the risks involved?During the over night kayaking trip, it was observed that there were opportunities clients totake responsibility for their own inclusion. For example, the staff and volunteers gaveresponsibilities to Phillip to be in a double kayak with Oliver due to his kayaking abilities.However, this responsibility was not furthered by the staff or the volunteers by asking him toassist with the moving of the kayaks away from the water because of the tides or with helpingaround the campsite. In addition, he did not offer to assist throughout the trip. During myobservations, I stepped out of my role as a researcher and asked him if he could help out andhe subsequently did. A crucial aspect that Shookner (2002) discusses in his inclusion framework102is encouraging clients to participate as fully as possible. However I would argue that eachperson might have had different expectations about everyone's roles throughout the trip andthus, it might not have been on Phillip's mind to help out unless it was suggested to himovernight trip was the first camping and long distance kayaking experience for Phillip, so hemay have been hesitant about doing thishelping out with the equipment may not have contributed to a sense of inclusion for him. Hisidea of inclusion may be making connections with the other people or doing other activities inthe outdoors.In addition Elsie, a volunteer brought up another good point by saying that "clients pay forthe lessons and the overnight trip so clients may expect us to serve them"assume that serving clients reinforces the impression that people with disabilities are passiverecipients of the services provided by the able bodied (Miller et al . This feeds into theassumption that inclusion means that it is often done "for" people (Shakir, 2005)(2005) brings in the discussion of the right of social citizenship as it relates to caregiving whenhe says that it:treats the fulfillment of social obligations as a condition for social entitlement,actually needs to be advanced further to integrate care as a constitutiveresponsibility and right of social citizenship that binds men as much as women(Kershaw, 2005, p. 4).Although he is talking about caregiving, he brings to the forefront the ideas of the `right ofsocial citizenship' and the `constitutive responsibility'be seen as full citizens and to be treated with respect and equally (van de Ven et alclients should have opportunities to participate as fully as possible.However, Fraiser and Mary, who are both volunteers, take on a different approachargue that since the kayaking sessions are only two hours long, volunteers and staff need to be103quick in getting the gear down to the beachfront and getting the clients into the kayak. Fraiserexplains thatbecause it is all there . This may be because thewhole idea of this program is to give people with disabilities kayaking experience, so it is thegoal for the volunteers and staff to maximize people's time out on the waterfollowing up on the quotation that Treena mentioned earlier, she believes clients need to takesome responsibility even though "it's 2 hours ? well, whatever. If we get an hour out there, atleast you're not making them feel like there's something that they need help with when theydon't need it". The issue of responsibilities may refer to many things and it does not necessarilymean the physical act of helping move kayaks or to setting them up so they are ready for theprogram. It could, for example, mean that a client takes responsibility for initiatingconversations with other people.4.5.4 The convenient facilitiesThe last strategy that was pointed out by just over half of the participants was the locationof where the kayaking was taking placeclients and the volunteers who work with the kayaking program on a continual basis.The canoe and kayak that the adventure therapy organization operates from explains ontheir website (2006) that it is located "on the shores of beautiful [location], it is a paddler'sparadise". Kathy said the location is an ideal place to learn how to kayak as "it is perfect herebecause it is calm. And it is a perfect, sheltered area"day rentals of ocean kayaks, canoes and surf skis are offeredschool with lessons ranging from introductory kayakingnavigation courses is offered (website of the canoe and kayak centre website, 2006)104From my observations, the beach front is busy with people renting from the centre orpeople bringing their own their canoes or kayaks. I have watched this beachfront for the pastthree years, due to my involvement with the organizationas they are many people kayaking or canoeing giving the feeling of `being one of the crowd'.This falls in line with how Wendy, describes the locationpeople that enjoys kayaking here""mountain side or there is an ocean" and said that she "loves coming out heredifferent feeling"so clean and it is so breathtaking" kayak,the city, but when "when I come out here, it feels like I am in the total outdoors"location is quite attractive.The meeting point for the program is just below a ramp, which makes it physicallyaccessible for people with mobility issueswith rocks and little twigs which is challenging for people with mobility aidscan get down the ramp, but then I need to rely on two people to hold me when I walk down tothe kayaks"on my wheelchair just spins in the rocks"conducive to people with disabilities, especially those with mobility challenges because of therugged physical characteristics of the terrain (Murphy & Datillo, 1989).Lord and Hutchinson (1979) and others state that people with disabilities are often plaguedwith transportation and architectural barriersget to by public transit depending on where the client is coming from"it takes a lot of effort for me to get to [the location]" because of the transportation and the105length of time to get there. She further explained that by the time she makes the trek for thekayak session, "I am tired".Similarly, Wendy expresses her frustrations with parking as follows:The parking sucks, but that 's not your fault . (laugh) Well, there's only onehandicapped parking spot and then the other ones are quite far away, up a hugehill, so they' . There are two or three up the hill and if youuse a wheelchair, its almost impossible to get all the way up that hill to accessthem. Because I am in a wheelchair, II need to have enough space to get my wheelchair out of the driver's side. So Iended up being a parking vulture half the timejust kind of hover until something became available (Wendy, client).There is limited disabled parking in the area and there are a couple of spots up a steep hill,which presents a challenge for those in a manual wheelchairoutlined by Donnelly and Coakley (2002) is having a safe environment so that people do nothave to withdraw from their social networks because of threats, whether they are physical ormental. Thus, a convenient location is an inclusion strategy for the program, but theenvironment and its surroundings may not always be conducive to the strategy.4.6. Improvements for social inclusionBecause the program is still in its infancy I asked: "what ideas for improvements do youhave in terms of inclusion strategies". There was clear evidence that the marketing orpromotion of the program was the main theme because it was voiced by the majority ofparticipants. This was followed by the two more improvements, creating additional choices, andincreasing opportunities for clients to take more responsibilitythree themes and the degree to which each of these elements resonated for study participants.106Table 4.6. Improvements of social inclusionNumber of studyparticipants observedNumber of study participants ininterviews & focus groups(n=13) (n=19)Improvements The promotion of 15 (8 clients, 5 volunteers, 2of Social the program staff)Inclusion Create additional 12 (6 clients, 4 volunteers,choices volunteers, 2 staff)Increase client 11 (6 clients, 3 volunteers, 2responsibility staff)4.6.1. The promotion of the programThe response "increase promotion" was made by the majority of the participants.You know, I continue to see a lot of improvements for the program every year,but maybe more marketing is neededhas it benefited me. I always try to encourage my friends with MS to come tryit. That will be the perfect place to promote the program ... I could invite youto come and speak .. . and I'll bet that you'll get a whack load of clients (Bill,client).Over the years, Bill has been telling me that about his MS support group and how he is tryingto encourage his friends to come to try kayakingsupport group and she said that "maybe coming to speak to my brain injured group would helpto get more people". She said she did not know about the program until the last month becauseit was not advertised within her support groupinvolve clients in marketing to other groups they are associated with, instead of relying on thestaff. Datillo (2002) suggests that people are more willing to participate in something thatfriends have recommended.Treena who was the only staff that was present on a daily basis mentions another aspectthat would promote the program:we were quite busy most of the time, but I just think we need to be more visiblewhen we're down there . So I know some people were talking about a bannerand this and that . So doing that . Also, just getting ourselves out there evenmore (Treena, staff)107While I was employed with the organization, the program existed out of my home and out atthe kayak and canoe centre. It is situated in the corner of the beach front with no sign orbanners to symbolize that we are a specific groupto be more visible" (volunteer)be wearing hats or t-shirts with the name of the organization on it". She contends that theorganization's name does not explain to the public what the program does and additionalpromotions would create curiosity and conversations if the people come up to ask for furtherinformation. This could also help "people to overcome their stereotypes of people withdisabilities through finding more information how they participate in activities" (Sue,volunteer)ignorance (Anderson et alAnother volunteer, Kathy mentions another good point about more promotion because "italso helps the new clients to figure out where the program is"example of how the banner would help when she revealed a client was "walking around andaround to locate us. And by the time he found us he was tired". She was referring to a newclient who had a stroke which resulted in mobility difficulties.4.6.2. Create additional choicesAnother suggestion for improvement was the creation of additional choices which wasmentioned by many of the participants, mainly the clientsbecause his sister, stated that he "likes kayaking and with that the out trip can have longer timeon the water". When I asked Sean to explain further, he said thatfull day program or something like that"who said: "it can take a lot of effort for Trevor to get in an out of the kayak, and he enjoysbeing on the water, so maybe the excursions should be a little longer"108comment, I looked at Trevor to see if he agreed with his mom or not and he agreed with a"yes".This was also echoed by Bill who said he wished there was a choice to do kayaking "half aday, full day or even during the weekdays"current structure of the program. It is opened three months of the year, June, July, and August,on three specific days, Fridays, Saturdays, and Sundaysthese three days that allow for two hour excursions that the clients can bookpeople can kayak at one time (including the staff and volunteers) because of the kayakingstandards, which require one kayak guide to six people unless one of them has theircertificationthe client to choose when or even where to kayak, as the program is set in its times, days, andplace. Donnelly and Coakley (2002) argue that there should be the freedom to make choices ina supportive environmentclassroom promoting recreation to youth.There are a multitude of factors to take into account when allowing the clients to choosetheir kayaking activities, including avoiding risks by meeting the standards of the kayakingindustry. Matthew, who works in risk management, said the following about creating morechoices for the clients.Creating secondary and tertiary options for those people that are highlymotivated. So we talked about offering day programs, and then maybeovernight programs. I also think that another dimension to that should becreating opportunities for people who come through this door into kayaking tobe included in other sea kayaking, or kayaking experiences (Matthew, staff).He suggests offering opportunities for clients, such as a day paddle, to maintain the motivationof the clients"about ensuring choices, having support, having connections and being valued" (p .109Matthew had ideas for managing program growth when he saidservices, then we should work with the wider paddling community to ensure that this ishappening". In essence, he is talking about potentially partnering with different organizations tocreate additional opportunities for clients.Even though the program structure may not allow for clients to make many choices, Wendyappreciated that she could call up and say she was "booked for a single, but I am not feeling allthat great, is it possible to do the double? And that was great that I was able to do that". Shesaid having this choice alleviated the pressure of being in a single kayak when she was feelingfatiguedare central to theories of inclusion by Donnelly and Coakley (2002).Sue made a related point about her frustration with the lack of equipment the programowns when she said itkayak with pontoons" : "this clientwanted to ride a single with a one-arm adaptation, but we only have a double kayak with thisadaptation".4.6.3. Increase the responsibilities from clientsThe last suggestion for improvement was brought forward by more than half of theparticipants, especially the clientswould liked to be asked to assist others.I think they should offer the option of helping to some kids . I mean, I alwayshelp but [Cindy] said she would like to help . So they should give them thatoption. But other than that, I can 't really see any other way the program couldimprove in that aspect (Scott, client).Cindy also talked about wanting to take on more responsibility when she saidlifejackets on my walker or I can hang something over or whatever" : "I110can help with cleaning up the boats or something"and Coakley (2002) about the importance of having autonomy and control in the structures inwhich recreation experiences occur. In addition, invoking more responsibilities on clients, itworks towards increasing their role as being citizens (Kershaw, 2005).Presently, the program is set up so that the volunteers and the staff come half an hourbefore the actual kayaking time to allow for set up and transporting the kayaks from the storagewhich is a five minute walk away from the beachfrontthe clients to help as they arrive . Inaddition, by having the storage site so removed from the program does not promote the clientsto be involved in helping with the setup because it may take a while for them to go to the site.Hence, the program structure and the setting do not help with the inclusive practices theorganization is trying to foster.As mentioned in the discussions on the constraints to inclusion, the issue of help is a trickyone, especially when it comes to helping people with disabilities as some people with disabilitiesmay regard it as a reminder of their limitation (Goodwin, 2005)to learn and help more in regards to my kayaking sessions, such as getting the gear and setting itup". She admits she can not bring the kayak down because her hands will be busy wheelingherself down to the water but "at least I can help with the gear and going to the storage"important to her to learn about all aspects of kayaking because she wants to go on a trip withher friends around the West coastclients more if they can learn how to prepare the kayaksshe can not carry the kayaks "because of my arthritis, but I want to help with the gear"relates to Goodwin (2005), when she talks about help as symbolism for independence and anincreased self-control over the environment111Lucy agrees with the clients when she states thatbecome volunteers"the volunteer training at the beginning of the summer season, setting and preparing for thekayak session, or participating in other volunteer events such as the volunteer improvementnights (nights where volunteers have opportunities to improve their own skills)suggests thathow to interact with them through the program"responsibility and might help minimize the gap between the program `givers' and the `recipients'(Miller et alMatthew had other ideas about how clients can be more involved: "there should be morepeople like you, people with disabilities, working for the organization, either at the staff, board,or advisory level"wants to see more because he feels that since the program is "for clients with disabilities, thendecisions and the operations should be by people with disabilities" . 16)would agree that those who are sometimes voiceless and powerless in the "planning, decision-making, and policy-development processes"increased recognition towards others in similar situations, but I would argue that there shouldnot be an automatic assumption of `instant empathy' (Andrews, 2005).The fostering of inclusion for this organization is an ongoing processvoiced various improvements including increased promotion, the creation of additional choices,and having increased responsibilitiesis a difficult task, but this presents some suggestions the organization may wish to considerfurther.112CHAPTER 5 (5 .0)Conclusions and RecommendationsThat is a hard question for me to answer, because I do not know wheninclusion has occurred because I am not the person whose . . . I feel includedbecause for whatever reason . It would be up to theclient . And I think I might be surprised thatwe think we are providing a good experience, but I don't know . But whetherthat person felt included, or whether that was. I don't know (Sue, volunteer).5.1. A summary of findingsThe above quotation voiced by Sue highlights the complexities of inclusionacknowledges the difficulty of responding to the question, "what does inclusion mean to you?"because it comes down to the person, their experiences, along with the management systems ofthe organization. This was clearly evident by the wide range of responses I received as peoplefelt included or not depending on the environment, the situation, the people, the severity oftheir disability and their willingness to get more involved.These findings begin to fill a gap in the literature by providing the perspectives of peoplewith disabilities along with the staff and volunteers who work with them in an adventuretherapy context. The literature often emphasizes the benefits or the negatives of integratingpeople with disabilities or explores the segregation of the disabled-only programsrecognized that one's disability plays a major role in inclusion or exclusion, so the idea of`treating people uniquely' was a resounding theme expressed by the majority of the staff,volunteers, and clientsresponded in ways that were specific to their experiences, to their needs, and to their feelings ofinclusion. They appreciated that they were not grouped as a homogeneous group, such as to begiven all the same adaptive equipmentfacilitate their kayak experience by the staff and the volunteers113way communication between the staff/ volunteers and the clients ensuring their involvement indecision making and empowerment.It is pointed out that some people presented contradictory views as some times theymentioned their appreciation for segregated programs, but at other times they advocated forintegration with able bodied peopleon the situation, the individual and their disability, rather than on programming for eitherintegration or segregationidentities and situations of individuals and how their needs are met during the kayakingexperiencetheir kayaking experiences, and explore their abilities and desires for increased responsibilityis more likely they would feel includedthat they have the structures and policies in place to ensure that the clients can participate in theprograms to their full potential.My learning throughout the research process was facilitated by my overlapping roles asresearcher and as an employee in the organizationthe staff; and my experiences working in the field of promoting leisure for people withdisabilitiesto Inclusion" (Active Living Alliance for Canadians with a Disability, 1994), and "OpeningDoors, Keys to Inclusive Recreation Policy for Persons with a Disability" (Canadian Parks andRecreation Association, 1992), which emphasize the idea that everyone can participate incommunity if they choose to do so and no one should be excludedthe existence of disabled-only programs should be eliminated to ensure people with disabilitiesare participating more fully in the communitynew meanings of inclusion that challenged my thinking because one approach does not fit all.114The critical analysis of the data collected in this case study has led me to severalconclusions, recommendations, and possible suggestions for future researchmicro level study of one organization at one point in time, these conclusions are notgeneralizable solutions for how organizations should foster social inclusionfindings illustrate the importance of obtaining a variety of perspectives to more fully understandthe concept and the possibilities for its implementation.5.2. Fostering social inclusion within this organizationThe following paragraphs summarize what I have discovered through my findings inrelation my research questions.The first research question relates to examining the different meanings of social inclusion.As we know from the literature review, meanings of inclusion are complex and fragmented.Due to the various responses and the themes, the meaning of inclusion is more confusing thanI believed it to be, as it is clearly dependent on individuals, the severity of their disability, theenvironment and the people involveduniquely' due to the various disabilitiesstaff and volunteers facilitated their kayaking experiences in relation to their individualdisabilities and how it became their natural way of thinking.My second research question was directed only at the clients and their experiences duringthe program. It was apparent that their disability was their focal point as they talked about thebarriers they face and how this makes them feel different (Anderson et al, 2002Datillo, 2002 ; Green, 2003; Hughes, 2002 . At thesame time, all of the clients expressed an appreciation for being in the outdoors, meeting newpeople, enhancing their social life with friends, and challenging themselves through new115activities. It is through this program that some of the clients expressed increased confidence intheir skills, talents, and capacities to make it possible for them to consider participating more inthe broader social mainstreamto ensure that products, programs and environments are accessible to more people.The third research question was asked to uncover various constraints to the implementationof inclusion. It was observed that perceptions of people with disabilities themselves, theirfamilies, and the liability were the most vivid constraintslimitation as they quite often compared themselves to able bodied people in their lives, whetherit is within the school setting or other recreation activitiesof disabilities and the intensity level are important factors in determining how it impactsopportunities for social inclusion.Another constraint appears when family, volunteers, and staff feel the need to over protectclients, potentially because they feel the desire to help the less fortunate (Schleien et alThe image of the clients being the `recipients' and the volunteers along with the staff being the`givers' of the recreation program (Miller et alorganization which emphasize that decisions should be made by the staffnot help clients feel part of the program, should they wish to participate in decision makingaddition, there was a perception that there was an increase in liability in the outdoors wheninteracting with people with disabilities which constrained program flexibility.My fourth research question was to examine the different inclusion strategies implementedby the staff, clients, and volunteers by van de Ven (2005) where "ittakes two to tango" emphasizes that clients and service providers need to work together ifinclusion is to be achievedand independence were important to the clients and many desire opportunities to challenge116themselves. At the same time, the organization must create structures and policies to facilitatethe involvement of the clients in the program. These values are assumed to be encouragedthrough the use of adaptive equipment, but some clients found this to confining.Another strategy to foster social inclusion is the use of the outdoorschallenges, the adaptive kayaking program allows clients to challenge themselves and gain asense of belonging to natural settingclients, volunteers, and staff while connecting with nature. As well, it can be facilitated throughthe use of adaptations.The last research question focused on improvements that need to be implemented in orderfor the organization to enhance social inclusion within of clientsparticipants felt that more promotion is needed such as talking to support groups and havingbanners or signs visible enough for people to see at the program locationthe need for more independence and empowerment through decision making which includedcarrying the gear and the kayaks or preparing them for tripsneeded, such as offering day-long or half-day kayaking trips, rather than only offering the two-hour program. This falls in line with the majority of findings, as the clients desired to developthe competencies needed to participate more fully in the community, and it is within theadaptive program that each of them found support and encouragement that fosters socialinclusion.I became increasing aware that fostering social inclusion is not simply the integration ofpeople with disabilities with those without disabilities or the creation of this adaptive kayakingprogram. It is about treating people uniquely in whatever scenario they choose to be involvedin. To come to further conclusions, further research needs to be performedno doubt that fostering inclusion is a complex task to implement as it is dependent on the117individual and their situations. It is clear that providing opportunities for greater involvementand decision making are important.5.3. Implications for adventure therapy organizationsOffering recommendations for this and other organizations within the adventure therapycontext is exciting for me, because I am closely connected with the organization. It is importantto state that these are not solutions but are instead suggestions that the staff may want toconsider, critique, and revisit. These recommendations are not necessarily goal-orientated, butare rather process orientated. It is hoped that they might provide ideas for re-thinking andcontinually questioning how the facilitation of social inclusion within the organization can beimproved.Due to my involvement in the adaptive kayaking program over the years, I can see thegrowth in equipment, clients, and programming of the different activitiesof this program presents more opportunities for people with disabilities to participate morefully in the outdoors which symbolizes inclusionsome recommendations so this organization can continue to offer positive kayaking experiencesfor its clients.The first recommendation is that the organization should continue to offer disabilityawareness training within the volunteer training and extend it to outdoor adventurers moregenerallydifferent, but the initial training will relieve the fears that may still exist todayencourage the clients to be involved in the preparation of this training and encourage them be apart of it, as people may learn best about interacting with people with disabilities first handaddition, volunteers could increase their opportunities to interact with the clients in a different118context, other than kayaking such as participating at the administration or decision makinglevel ., 2000; Bedini, 20002002; Schleien et aldisabilities, the further the reduction of fear of differences. In addition, this will give the clientsthe opportunity to be a part of the planning process in a supportive environment, andencourage them to take responsibility for how they would like to be treated when participating(Shookner, 2002).Another recommendation is to continue to offer the adaptive kayaking program within alocation where similar activities are taking place by those without disabilitieslocation is an excellent one, as it is central to the community and provides peaceful terrainmere existence of this program where the clients have opportunities to explore outdooractivities while interacting with people of similar interests promotes inclusionthe "existence of the program challenges the beliefs that many people may have towards peoplewith disabilities, so it may breakdown stereotypes" (Lucy, volunteer).In order for this organization to meet with its stated collaborative approach (Brochure,2006), it is necessary to involve clients within the decision making process moreShookner (2002) states, clients should be welcomed into planning and decision-makingprocesses within this organization. This program symbolizes a safe environment (Donnelly &Coakley, 2002), so this should be used to its advantage where some of the participants canexpress their thoughts, feelings, and opinions, if they desire.Another recommendation is to take the opportunity to implement several interactiveintroductory activities, whether pursuing a day or overnight kayaking tripmaintain open communications and identify the roles each person could play within the kayaktrips. Such activities could include some interactive games such as introducing one another119establishing each person's roles within the tripchallenges . These activities could helpestablish a sense of group cohesion and a safe environment where relationships can be built.As well, before the overnight trip, perhaps incorporating three preparation days beforehandwould assist the clients, volunteers and the staff to work together towards a common goal.During this, people will be more accustomed with the protocols of camping and developrelationships with one anotherand activities of camping would not be so foreign to people who are unfamiliar with theprocess. Activities could include washing dishes, setting up the tent, or taking care of the dailyliving activitiescamping activitiesresponsibility after establishing comfort levels.Another recommendation is to encourage clients to take a participatory position withincommunity for developing universal accessible locationsparticipating in the outdoors because of the lack of physical accessibility, such as the rocks onthe beach or accessible parking spacescommunity activities or facilities, they could then voice their concernssuggestion outlined by Shookner (2002) in involving them in decision-making and policydevelopment processespreparation of the kayak program, thereby possibly increasing their independence andempowerment.The last recommendation is to allow clients greater choice in kayaking activitiesthe program only offers the two-hour kayaking excursion which limits the choices available forthem.1205.4. Future researchThere is much that can be done to further explore the meanings and strategies for socialinclusion. Future research could examine inclusion processes for people with disabilities outsideof the adaptive kayaking contextwere wide spread, so it makes me wonder what the responses would be like if the studyparticipants are not into these kinds of adventure therapy activities.Another aspect for future study would be to determine the responses to this adaptivekayaking program from the kayaking community and the canoe and kayak facilityreveal whether the mere existence of the program is changing attitudes in the community.Through this, we could examine the roles of people with disabilities within the community,their social acceptance, or the experiences of both people with and without disabilities.Another possibility for future research is to expand the duration of the studythe researcher could examine how experiences with inclusion change over timeenhanced responsibilities are taken on by the clients, does inclusion increase? This would assistwith the understanding of the inclusion strategies on a deeper level.5.5. In closingThrough this case study, the term `social inclusion' could not be clearly defined, as we knowit is a messy, complicated, and fragmented termstart of this chapter, inclusion is difficult to examine unless we know how a person feelsoverlying theme of this study is the idea of `treating people uniquely' where we connect withone another to discover what would facilitate their positive kayaking experiencesbecame apparent because there are so many factors that determine whether a person is includedor not. 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Thousand Oaks, CalifSage Publications.128AppendicesAppendix A: Agency Approval/ Consent Form & Information SheetI understand that my participation in the study entitled The Role of Adventure Therapy inPromoting Inclusion for People with Disabilities is entirely voluntary and that I may refuse toparticipate or withdraw from the study at any time.I have received information about the purpose and nature of this research project and myinvolvement in it as per the Letter of Initial Contact that I received in the mail from theresearcherIf I have any questions or desire further information about this study, please contact thegraduate student Karen Lai (karen .net) at 604.224-0720 or Wendy Frisby, AssociateProfessor/ Faculty Advisor, at 604 .ubc.caI have read the information sheet.I have received a copy of this consent form for my own records.I consent for the agency to participate in this study.Participant Signature Printed Name Date129Appendix B1: Introductory letter (study participants ages 13-18)Dear [Parent or Legal Guardian ofyouth aged 13-18]The Role of Adventure Therapy in Promoting Inclusion for People with DisabilitiesThis letter asks you to allow your son or daughter to participate in a focus group we arerunning through a non profit adventure therapy organizationand a half on three of the following four times:Friday August 25, 2006 11:30 ? 1a75 Saturday August 26, 2006 2:30 ? 4a75 Sunday August 27, 2006 11:30 ? 1a75 Saturday September 2" 9:30 am ? 11Please pick all of the dates that will work for you and I will confirm the date of yourfocus group. This date and consent form needs to be returned to me (either inperson or with the enclosed envelope) by Friday August 25 , 2006.All focus groups will take place at the Deep Cove Canoe & Kayak Centre so pleasedress appropriately (it will be on the grass area or under a covered area near the park)child has been identified as someone who is participating in the adaptive kayaking program andthus will be asked for his/her opinions related to the meaning of what is it like to be includedand his/her experiences of inclusion with the program.This will help us develop an understanding of the meanings of inclusion and the role ofadventure therapy as an inclusion strategyvolunteers, and participants to shape the development of the programs and will also helpexpand the knowledge of the role of adventure therapy in inclusion.An Information Sheetand ConsentForm are attached. Pleasetakea minute to readthemover. If you are willing to have your teenager participate in the focus group session, please signthe consent form and have him/her bring it to the organization.Sincerely,Karen Lai Wendy FrisbyGraduate Student Principal Investigator(604) 224-0720 School of Human Kinetics (604) 822-3018130Appendix B2: Introductory letter (study participants -18 & over)Dear [Participant (over 18years of age)),The Role of Adventure Therapy in Promoting Inclusion for People with DisabilitiesThis letter requests your participation in a focus group we are running through a nonprofit adventure therapy organizationscheduled on three of the four following dates:a75 Friday August 25 , 2006 11:30 ? 1:30 pma75 Saturday August 26, 2006 2:30 ? 4a75 Sunday August 27, 2006 11:30 ? 1a75 Saturday September 2" 9:30 am ? 11Please pick all of the dates that will work for you and I will confirm the date of yourfocus group. This date and consent form needs to be returned to me (either inperson or with the enclosed envelope) by Friday August 25 , 2006.We would like to ask you for your opinions related to the meaning of what is it like tobe included, and your experiences of inclusion with the programplace at the [location of the adaptive kayaking program] so please dress appropriately (it will beon the grass area or under a covered area near the park).This will help us develop an understanding of the meanings of inclusion and the role ofadventure therapy as an inclusion strategyvolunteers, and participants to shape the development of the programs and will also helpexpand the knowledge of the role of adventure therapy in inclusion.An Information Sheetand Consent Form are attached. Please take a minute to read themover. If you are willing to participate in the focus group session, please sign the consent formand bring it to the organization.Sincerely,Karen Lai Wendy FrisbyGraduate Student Principal Investigator(604) 224-0720 School of Human Kinetics (604) 822-3018131Appendix B3: Introductory letter (study participants ? volunteers)Dear [Volunteer],This letter requests your participation in one-on-one interviews we are running througha non profit adventure therapy organizationthree of the following four times:a75Saturday August 26` :00 am ? 12:00 pma75Sunday August 27, 2006 3 :00 pm ? 5a75Saturday September 2"d, 2006 2 :30 pm ? 4:30 pma75Saturday September 9, 2006 9 :30 am ? 11:30 amPlease pick all of the dates that will work for you and I will confirm the date of yourfocus group. This date and consent form needs to be returned to me (either in person orwith the enclosed envelope) by Friday August 25thAll focus groups will take place at the [location of the adaptive kayaking program] soplease dress appropriately (it will be on the grass area or under a covered area near the park).We would like to ask you for your opinions related to the meanings of inclusion, the inclusionstrategies you implement within the adventure therapy programs.This will help us develop an understanding of the meanings of inclusion and the role ofadventure therapy as an inclusion strategyvolunteers, and participants to shape the development of the programs and will also helpexpand the knowledge of the role of adventure therapy in inclusion.An Information Sheet Consent Form . Please take a minute to read themover. If you are willing to participate in the sessions, please sign the consent form and bring itto the office.Sincerely,Karen Lai Wendy FrisbyGraduate Student Principal Investigator(604) 224-0720 School of Human Kinetics (604) 822-3018132Appendix B4: Introductory letter (study participants ? staff)Dear [Sta~j,This letter requests your participation in one-on-one interviews we are running througha non profit adventure therapy organizationhour with each one of youand I will confirm the date of your interviewplease suggest a time and date that works for you (within the month of September):0 Monday September 11th, 2006El 11 :00 pmOTuesday September 12tha75 8:30 -10 :00 am10 10 :00 pma75 1:00 pm ? 2a75 3:00 pm ? 4a75[]2:00 pm ? 34:00 pm ? 50 Monday September 18th, 2006a7511:30am?1:OOpma752:00pm?3:30pmOTuesday September 19t`, 2006a758:30?10a7510:30?12:00 pma75 4:00 pm ? 5 a75 1:00 pm ? 2El 3 :30 pmAll interviews will take place at the [non profit outdoor adventure therapy organization]office (2240 Harbour Road in Sidney)the meanings of inclusion, the inclusion strategies you implement within the adventure therapyprograms.  This date and consent form needs to be returned to me (either by phone orwith the enclosed envelope) by Friday August 25t`, 2006.This will help us develop an understanding of the meanings of inclusion and the role ofadventure therapy as an inclusion strategyvolunteers, and participants to shape the development of the programs and will also helpexpand the knowledge of the role of adventure therapy in inclusion.An Information Sheet and Consent Formare attachedPleasetakea minute to read themover. If you are willing to participate in the interviews, please sign the consent form and bring itto the office.Sincerely,Karen Lai Wendy FrisbyGraduate Student Principal Investigator(604) 224-0720 School of Human Kinetics (604) 822-3018133Appendix C: Information Sheet for Clients, Volunteers & StaffThe Role of Adventure Therapy in Promoting Inclusion for People with DisabilitiesINFORMATION SHEET FORFOCUS GROUPS, INTERVIEWS, AND PARTICIPANT OBSERVATIONSResearchers:Wendy Frisby, Ph . Karen LaiPrincipal Investigator Graduate Student(604) 822-3018 (604) 224-0720School of Human Kinetics ? University of British Columbia (UBC)Whatis the study for?This research asks participants (which are youths aged 11 ? 18 and adults), volunteers, and stafffor their experiences and strategies of inclusion with the programs of a non profit adventuretherapy organizationpeople with disabilities in their programs through the role of adventure therapy.What do the participants do?The participants will meet in groups of 4-5 members to discuss their role in the organization,determine their meanings of inclusion, explore their experiences within the programs, anddiscover the inclusion strategies usedtrips to develop a deeper understanding of the topic.When is it?The group session will occur at a time convenient with the participants and will be organizedthrough the non-profit adventure therapy organizationyou in the near future.Who is running it?Karen Lai, a graduate student is running the study.What about privacy?All information resulting from the focus group will be kept strictly confidentialwill be audio taped and transcribed, and the tapes and transcripts will be assigned codes andkept in a locked filematerials in a sealed envelope and locked fileregulations, the audiotapes, the transcripts, and the consent forms will be stored for five years,and then destroyed by shredding (paper), or erasure (tapes)stored for ten years and then erased and Wendy Frisby will be the only people thatwill have access to the files.What will the results be used for?The results will be published in Karen's master's thesis and may be used in conferencepresentations and publications134Is participation voluntary?Participation in the study is completely voluntary and you may refuse to participate or withdrawat any time without prejudice.Further information, questions, concerns?If you have further questions or desire to speak further about this research, please contact thegraduate student Karen Lai (karen .net) at 604 . Wendy Frisby,Associate Professor/ Faculty Advisor, at 604 .ubc.ca)135Appendix Dl : Consent form for study participants (13-18)The Role of Adventure Therapy in Promoting Inclusionfor People with DisabilitiesIn order for youth to participate in a focus group, 1) prior permission must be provided on thisform by a parent or legal guardian, and 2) the youth must also sign this form.1)Parental/ Legal Guardian ConsentI have read the attached Sheetand understand the nature of the study as described inthe Information Sheet,I have read the enclosed and have a copy of the for my own records.I consent/ I do not consent (circle one) to allow  to participate in this study.(please print youth's name)2) Youth ConsentI have read the attachedInformation Sheetand understand the nature of the study as described inthe Information Sheet,I understand that my participation in this study is entirely voluntary and that I may refuse toparticipate or withdraw from the study at any time without prejudice.I hereby agree to the above conditions, and consent to participate in this study.Signed:  Date: Name (printed):136Appendix D2: Consent form for study participants (18 & over)The Role of Adventure Therapy in Promoting Inclusionfor People with DisabilitiesI have read the attached Sheetand understand the nature of the study as described inthe Information Sheet,I have a copy of theInformation Sheet for my own records.I understand thatPromoting Inclusion for People with Disabilities") is entirely voluntary and that I may refuse toparticipate or withdraw from the study at any time without jeopardy to my involvement withinthis non profit adventure therapy organizationinformation sheet, and a copy of this consent form for my own records.I consent to participate in this study and for the focus group to be audio taped.Signed: Date: Name (printed):Signature of Witness Date:Name (printed)137Appendix E: Focus group questions/interview guide - clientsThank you for attending this session ? I very much appreciate itwith the completion of my masters study under the department of Human Kinetics at UBCstudy is "The Role of Adventure Therapy in Promoting Social Inclusion for People withDisabilities" as I have decided to use the participants, volunteers, and staff of [organization] asmy study sample. This study is important as I hope to improve the programs at [organization],contribute to the field of adventure therapy and the feelings about being included.As all of you know, I am a staff person of [organization]on who wants to critically examine the adventure therapy programs, in particular, the kayakingprogram. Thus, please be open about your thoughts and opinions as your answers will be keptanonymous and confidentialwill be kept within this group ? is that good?You know I am a person with a disability too and I have experienced times where I have beenexcluded or includedbeing included, the strategies of what contributes of being included and what is so special beinginvolved in these adventure therapy programs.This session will be approximately 1 hour and and the entire session will be taped for mynote taking. Please do your best in answering the questions, and don't feel you have to answerall the questionslimited I may facilitate the session so that every one gets that opportunity.Are there any other questions before we begin?Thank you again and help yourselves to doughnuts and drinks.1. How did you end up getting involved in this adaptive kayaking program?2. Do you enjoy about the adventure therapy program? Why or why not?3. How does being included make you feel?4. a) Are there times when you feel included in this program?b) Can you give me an example?c)What contributes to that?d) How does this compare to daily life?5. a) Are there times when you do not feel included?b) What contributes to this?c) Can you give me an example?d) How does this compare to daily life?1386. Are there things that staff, volunteers and your fellow participants do to make you feelincluded? Have you got any suggestions for me, as a staff person?7. Is there anything you don't like about this program? Why or why not?8. What could [organization], do to include you more? What can you do to feel moreincluded?Thank you for your time and opinions . If there isanything you think of after the session, please don't hesitate to call me at my home, 6040720. So I will be transcribing these results, putting together a thesis and I would be mosthappy to give you a copy^- a biographical sheet so I can know you a bit more.Thank you once again139Appendix F: Focus group questions/interview guide ? staff& volunteersThank you for attending this session ? I very much appreciate it. As you know, this will assistwith the completion of my masters study under the depaitnient of Human Kinetics at UBCstudy is "The Role of Adventure Therapy in Promoting Social Inclusion for People withDisabilities" as I have decided to use the participants, volunteers, and staff of [organization] asmy study sample. This study is important as I hope to improve the programs at [organization],contribute to the field of adventure therapy and social inclusion.As all of you know, I am a staff person of [organization]on who wants to critically examine the adventure therapy programs, in particular, the kayakingprogram. Thus, please be open about your thoughts and opinions as your answers will be keptanonymous and confidentialwill be kept within this group ? is that good?This study is getting at this very idea as it is exploring the meanings of being included, thestrategies of what contributes of being included and what is so special being involved in theseadventure therapy programs.This session will be approximately 1 hour and and the entire session will be taped for mynote taking. Please do your best in answering the questions, and don't feel you have to answerall the questionslimited I may facilitate the session so that every one gets that opportunity.Are there any other questions before we begin?Thank you again and help yourselves to doughnuts and drinks.1. What inspires you to work with this organization and why?2. What role do you think adventure therapy play in the inclusion of people withdisabilities?3. a) What strategies do you use to promote the inclusion in the kayakingprogram? Do these strategies work better for some participants thanothers?Are you concerned about the risk/ danger element in terms of kayaking?b) Is there anything constraining the implementation of these strategies?Can you provide examples?3. Do participants play a role in promoting inclusion for themselves and others in theadaptive kayaking program? What about their families or parents?4. a) How do you think you will know when inclusion has occurred?b) How might this vary for the different participants involved?140c) What ideas for improvement do you have in terms of inclusion strategies and whatwould be required to make this happen? Do you think you have a role to play in this?5. Do you have anything else to add about [organization)'s role in promoting inclusion?Thank you for your time and opinions . If there isanything you think of after the session, please don't hesitate to call me at my home, 6040720. So I will be transcribing these results, putting together a thesis and I would be mosthappy to give you a copy. Just to close up, I have one final sheet I would love you to complete? a biographical sheet so I can know you a bit more.Thank you once again141Appendix G: Biographical questionnaire for clients, staff & volunteersStudy Title: The Role of Adventure Therapy in Promoting Social Inclusion for People withDisabilitiesInstructions: The following questions are intended to obtain some background informationabout you. Answer all questions as accurately as you can. If it is unclear what is being asked,please ask for help or clarification from the researcher.1. What role do you play within [the organization]?a75Volunteer a75Staff a75Client2. Age: (years)3. Sex: Female Male 4. How do you describe your ethnicity?5. What is your education level? (Check all that are appropriate.)Some high school Some collegeFinished high school College diplomaSome university University degreeOther (please specify)6. Please describe the nature of your disability (if applicable).7. Please identify your occupation, if you are employeda75 Currently employed full-time a75 Highschool Studenta75 Currently employed part-time a75 Elementary Studenta75 Currently unemployed a75 Other:a75 Student (university/ college)8. How long have you been with/ involved with [the organization]?9. How did you find out about [the organization]?142UBC The University of British ColumbiaOffice of Research Services and AdministrationBehavioural Research Ethics BoardCertificate of ApprovalPRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORFrisby, W.DEPARTMENTHuman KineticsNUMBERB06-0555INSTITUTION(S) WHERE RESEARCH WILL BE CARRIED OUTUBC Campus ,CO-INVESTIGATORSLai, Karen E., Human KineticsSPONSORING AGENCIESTITLEThe Role of Adventure Therapy in Promoting Inclusion for People withDisabilitiesAPPROVAL DATEFEB 1 bTERM (YEARS)1DOCUMENTS INCLUDED IN THIS APPROVALJuly 2006, Contact letters / Consent forms / Cover letter/ June 2006, QuestionnairesCERTIFICATIONThe application for ethical review of the above-named project has been reviewed andthe procedures were found to be acceptable on ethical grounds for research involvinghuman subjects.L. LApproved on behalf of the Behavioural Research Ethics Boardby one of the following:Dr. Peter Suedfeld, Chair,Dr. Jim Rupert, Associate ChairDr. Arminee Kazanjian, Associate ChairDr. M. Judith Lynam, Associate ChairThis Certificate of Approval is valid for the above term provided there is no change inthe experimental procedures143

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