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College students with learning disabilities: a developmental perspective on conceptions of learning,.. Pacheva, Daniela Jivkova 2007-02-15

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COEGE SS WI AI SAES: A EAC OCOEIO OAI, AI SA,A OE IAIE O CA M Ui oSoa19M Ui oisComa199A ESIS SUIEIIAIME OEQUIMES E GE OCOISOYiE CUY OGA SES(SciaEcaoE UI OISCOMAcemE O CAACA ca e sigoogms cuseoe e ose-awass skiseas e e oseaa acce osecoa ss wi aisaes ( Ima coms ose-awass a ssaaeuei oaia e sociacoe (eiuccssmasocoege aiis s es ss wi  coeuauei oai a  sia iwiieaeocaamewos a e  a coeoa asoee ma a  ma coege-ss wi  iciio-uieiewsSsii auoe was e aski icis asoaue oieioes a ai oe cc io sceosc cammas ce ss wi Sscoeuauei oai a  was eci mea ooeequeso owe omsSsses we scoocog come a cocoeuacoeOe ss asoaacy auai a  aa ocome eecom coege-age o ey moawe-uei ooeeeco a moo esciay as ey   e emesose-iicao seeki accommooa uei oSscoeio oai a  eseequa e ao omaiemesese ao ee iase icome a we associawi eeee(moyea oecaoe o uei oai as acquikwe aioom uei ai as aeea gisk  ai asaiea oe ocesse commouei o as a eeiiaioom a ee  aeeaa aimsecoaimea o"ee" as a sciaaaasse a a soue oiiese sus iica a ssie ogssioie eooe coes oai a  ugue coege caeoss wi e aac iscoeuacoe a i sciocaio a see as si is iee oogms ase coeuauei oaia esociacoe oe ecaoeeseas a way oii ese ssse-awass skisiiiE OCOESAbrt  ^ bl Ctt ^   bl   ^ v  r  ^ Anlnt ^ xdn  ^ xCht On ^ Intrtn  ^ Geoem  ^ 1 sea ^ 7eocaamewo a ose  ^ eocaamewo  ^ ose  ^ 1Oiew oSueque Ce  ^ 1Cht  ^ tv ^ Ico ^ 13oEsmogy sea ^ 13eaMo ooEsmogy ^ 15Imicao ooEsmogysea ^ 1Coeio oai sea ^ 19Imicao oCoeio oaisea ^ o-ageaeoes oCog escs a Case Mo  ^ Oeie  ^ a a ways ie  ^ Ieg  mo  ^ 35Imicao seawi coege sswi ai saes  ^ 37iUei oe Coe oai sa  ^ Summa a seaQueso  ^ Cht r ^ Mh  ^ 4Ico ^ icis  ^ Measus  ^ 51GeMeic Cssii CogCome  ^ 5Ieg Cog Come wiCoeuaCoe  ^ 5CoeuaSuo  ^ 55 oaAes  ^ 5scio oe S Coeuasks  ^ 57GeIeiew a ^ 57GeSco ocess  ^ Coe Asis  ^ S  ^ Uei Oe ie Coegeai Coe  ^ Coeio oai  ^ Coeio oai sa  ^ oce  ^ Esis Coac ^ Ieiew Sessio ^ 7Measus Eu C oe is ^ 7Cht  ^ lt ^ Ico ^ 7Uei Oe  ^ 75Cog Come  ^ 75CoeuaCoe  ^ 7Coeio oai  ^ Cog Come  ^ CoeuaCoe  ^ 9Coeio oai sa  ^ 97Cog Come  ^ 97CoeuaCoe  ^ 1Come acss sks  ^ 1Cht v^   ^ 0Summa oose a seaAac ^ 11Summa ois  ^ 11Cog Come  ^ 11CoeuaCoe  ^ 115Uei Oe  ^ 115Coeio oai  ^ 11Coeio oai sa ^ 117C oe is  ^ 119mio  ^ 1Samemogics  ^ 1SameOooo ^ 1Se-seco ^ 1co  sea ^ 1eaSes  ^ 1cus oSe as ae ^ 1Imicao acce  ^ 1Cosio ^ 1f ^ Appd  ^ AeiA ^ eoIaCoac ^ 1Aei ^ S eoIaCoac ^ 1AeiC ^ ckgu IoaoQuesoai  ^ 1Aei ^Uei oOe-e o agsc sk  ^ 151Aei ^ Uei oOe-Coege Sceos  ^ 15AeiE ^ Coeio oai  ^ 1Aei ^ Coeio oai sa   ^ 1AeiG1 ^ GeSco Meic  ^ 1AeiG ^ AioSco Guis  ^ 17Aei ^ IoeCoe   ^ 17AeiI^ U ECeica oa ^ 175iSOESe 1 ^ scs eseaoa Aacoea Suges oSki Suc e  ^ 3e  ^ icisGee Ageagsis a Aas oWeaksses ^ 5e 3 ^ icisGee Ageca eaIQ eYea oEcaoa ogm oSes   ^ 51e ^ Summa oS Measus  ^ 5e 5 ^ A Summa oe emes IieiSsses e e 7e "Uei Oe" sk ^A Summa oe emes iSsses  e"Coeiooai" sk ^A Summa oe emes iSsses  e"Coeiooai sa" sk ^Iiaa gusscsAgeyea oecaoacome  oe e sks ^799311iiSOGUSgu 1gu gu 3gu gu 5gu Iiaoae oe "uei oe" sk iew- suo a gsuo coio  ecao ^ 77Iiaoae oe "uei oe" sk iew- suo a gsuo coio  age  ^ 7Iiaoae oe "coeio oai" sk ie w- suo a gsuo coio  age  ^Iiaoae oe "coeio oai" sk ie w- suo a gsuo coio  ecao ^ Iiaoae oe "coeio oaisa" sk ie w- suo a gsuo coio age  ^ 9Iiaoae oe "coeio oaisa" sk ie w- suo a gsuo coio ecao ^ 9iACKWMESe w oa sseao w aiiauiwcca aeausa iso eeeeis yeaaccomise ma ssie cause oe sigcacoo a suo omeus oeMy sie g goes  Maomy sseaosuiso - meoa oeoii iumimy ga ses mo a1yeais sseaos kema yea a s ma aaoa I amg uai ee  gui me ie g co Sme a ey  a waea  couss as ois wocoie imy aes a sei coueis wI e keeme goiwe ocaea  imssie  come eiwIcou accomis wi co ai a ss eos  mo me smyse-us eme smy cge a is oc e mem omy seacommieeea mieso I wouke  a eco eougeme  acyo easi accessiemi; me  aa w suggeso imome oe si omy woWioues eackiwou  eimssie  maiaiesa oscais sseaoqui Equay iaae was eguie a suo I ceiom mieso e comeooe sseaoii ese  wou  eacewioumiesos ougsuggeso a io i aucomeissuesmiesos kisswisma esiasm emy owmoo come is oc My meaemi a wse assise was iisae iimo e qua ois oc I wou ke  ackwe geus ass come a memomy emi commieea wiiss  scoie me  o ae eack sae wse semiseaiai eaeo  e sosc as ie coeuaoomy owsea Iwas a  as aeeaemi My ui emim Aeoa y yeiwiiss ici oe emiocommieeeicomeoug oki quesoa ecommeao e secoa sa aiso w ok e me  aeise is ocaciicis e s e secoa ss w iciie sA sciaa a you a e s a e couge  s  a ai eeees wi meYouices a e a a souois sseao M mesaoS e augs Coeges suo aueieougeme a emeous eamesw mameus aaemes imy wo scsuoee comeoois ocaowi me susime a cus My moe w ieime e io seggoa a e coie ace emMy sisiwmy oea s mi e ime ao mosuo om away My auw-gwugei my ceea is oeimoesi mucme away om em woi oa cge a is sseaoey aays eI wou sis wo o yewI  As eyoweeiowways ug a  gwio woeumaisey  eme  my owa ieacee sas my sGeoe yea s emy emooaugoy e gaes oga sco ao ugmy s immeeeeuoio a saccema a ois ssie my yea iga sco ok omosoe eous si oo ioeaow me  s weeksmo a yea come ga ses a woi ois oc s ua oimismueemooa ieecasuo emy gui g yeaa cause ois I ca is wo  mCAO my  s Geoe a my uge w ma a ois ssieeiess eougeme a ee e memo omy ew emasie imae oecao  woise a osacces iCEOIntrtnG lIwas sau e 19s we ai saes (e  aiaca asces iieas ai saegw ouoei(Gee  I19e oi Commiee o (Ciia  oe ooe oa cou isio e a yeaai saes is a ge a  a geous guosoe mas sigca icuies ie acquisioa use ossakiawasoomaemacaaesese soe aiic  e iia esume  e  ceous sysm soa may occuacss e  s (as ciimmi199  77Ackwi e ise o io e a yeae C (19aoissuea "Ca  Aco wcemasie emo seawi as wi Sie e 19se sea oas a esciay e  ocoegess wi  s iaseye iase iseacus osecoa ss wi  was ao ome e eme oiase ie moss wi  eoi isecoa io e 199ma gscogas wi  eeee wi sciaecaoseices (ikeoMcGui& Sw gscoss wi  we ae  ke suicie acamic coue woaowi em coema a seek secoa oouese imemeao oe gaueiis oe Ameca wi saes Ac(A Seco5 oeoAc e 1997 auoooe Iia wi saes EcaoAc(IAwi i cus oaioai asces wi saesaiCae Ceogs a eems woe eae e iegooiiawi saes ia asc osociei secoa ecaoa comemoyme (ikeo ea; Wie& Siege 199As a sumo a moiia se-ii as ai saea seek sa suo seices isecoa ecaoa emoyme seisAccoi  e AmecaCouioEcaos soue Cee( i199oa me-me coege ss wi saes se-iieas sswi yea i19s15ma sucse-scsuIse  eseessecoa io ga oecomei sa suoseicesCueo1camses ie USs a Ca oesuoseices  ss wi  (ikeo ea; Wie& Siege 199Comei sscs oss wi  eoeisecoa ioiCa a icu  oaicause secoa io  seem  imemea o sysmac way ogae ioaooese ssmogicsacamic oaea gaoa aoss is iiCaasscsaoiew oiiaCaacoegessa seices i suggesae is a sa iase ie m oss wi emea ew oe isComa (Misy oAaeEcaos icao oe saos oss aei  ic coeges sws aom 199 e moss wi a aagsis oai sa iase 7e icaosugges ais guoss is e ssgwi guoa ss wisaes aei  coeges (isComa Misy oAaeEcao[MAE]sea  cessi ke ce wi ese es ie secoaecaosysmCueseaeomsses a oae ocs sucasssccscs a eiicaoa egi issueseos oiiacoeges a uies  o aqua suo seicese  osaseices is oaccommoo a suo ogmsa ais ocuy ass gai acamic accommoo(a ewsee MuSii & Ae Iis secoa ss  a scas i ask emoooems w se-esem a icuy aus  acamic  (Co19; Mea &  199 SacogMie & Wisky19; Sge & Mie199S& a199ace ss is ogs a  a goouaeiea moa sigca ci isic acamic skis mas eiscoage yea (ckse & Scmake 1993; Sge & Mie; geu& Aa 1993 sea easecoa ss wi sugg wi amasi a ws  cski accu sai iguagesme mageme a s skis(ewssee Aa&ge 199 e  Ss wi  coie  eeee cog ocessioems (Aa& ge 199we oeses  u ama sswi  iio ogecaoa we ausacamicay a sociay(GeaumGm& Scas199 e Ma- & Gu; ;ge& Aa 199is ioisy iis uecos e gei ois guossgea coeagues ec a simioeao ii ouaieisesey cois  suiaie a i-iiaees (cAa& ge 199Augese ses o a cogas aima siaai oukwe aue ccscs ois guosssome auo aoca e3acaooa  saac si a uei e cees sswi  ce isecoa seis (ice & o  Gee(199 sugges ae s oas wi  mus"ema om aa-eac" ( W e  oe oems ce ss wi  ieiyou may coiewey acao e  oe mas aceuem ces wi ageIa  saacis ae sc a ossio caoook e esseiaca a essee ae easges a a aecmae a gwa e easks iwce ois eage(ice & o gecaoaaie is a eask amas e aioomascee  e mas oe a wo secoa eiesw aoimo oeem agscoeieseecmo a-ke ois oiee aicisiomakia ccaiiSuccess isecoa seis quis mo se-awassse-co a se-eao esequimes ca icuy cei ss wi A maasoiscee sms om e ees iseice  igscoa gecaoese ees a mo acosmec (Me & Ga 1997; Se Ss wi  ga om gscomo om a oc eieiwcscooea gay sie iii a o aiaseices aeie iwce osiooseices is  ssociceIis e si oe ss  se-ii as ai sae oacumeaooai sa a scuss a ose ae oio accommo e uque e scic  eisa (Io & m A cessa coiosuccessy mee ese w quimes  sswi  is e ami oo coeuao secoa sswi ai saes mus acce ai as a eask a aw uei a awass oai mo "cica asc a ocesscoaiswcsm om e micao oe scic saSecosecoa ss wi ai saes e  aaia w uei oeiai sa a i coequees e ocess oaia ao ioois coeuaoieiii ia suc wayAawass owo ai saes ay meamay  a ccacigoa e mas osecoa ecao(eSae & Sw; i Ieiew oe  coei e ycsociaissues oasces aas wi ai saesss a ice (199 coae imae osa se-kwe cao uesmacause sucse-awass a se-acceae a cca iiaIis ugsuciigs a asces a as scoe o  ace a sasca  a a  iecsuccessy wi oe ieieie( Ia s emi successcaoouomes oas wi Gee ia Gi (199 iiee ocess oami  as o oe c co assuccessami  was associawi  aawassacceaea uei oo cause oe imae oii se-awass skise  ecoeeeos ie   oeaacs   iia wi aisaes gase-awass skissome owc  coege ss(e i; ma og& Wea-Ge 199Iacceaugema osa suo seice o age ase-awassse-aocacyaieee a a ima skis coege ss   (e Cue Sw&McGui199  McCoac McGui& is weo acay5imeme e aacs suggesie  (i Mo ouiweis e esi emasis oi ouw iiass ck e skis  a gecaoquimesWe s    uei ow ss wi ue a i aueiowe icoegea w ey goa egecaoeeseA w qua ses o iigs io e eeee ocoege ss wie cus oese ses is ow ss mage eiai sa a eimcoe oeiii a emooo (e i 1999; Sce Iaio w ss ue eiai saes a e iee ois uei oo oseiis ao ima  ue w ey makesee oe secoa eieSe-uei a se-awass  ia cuumWe caoue e ocess  wcese ss eaemsees wiouuei e ways iwcey make mea oemsees ie sociacoe ocoege ai a w ey i auemsees a oe wiwm ey iecie ai coeMoo iwe we  a a -saac e s o icoegewe e gaia esee oe "w" a"w oe oese ss icoegeIsummae iase imosecoa ss wi aisaes ses w cees  seice osioa cessis e siooeemises owcseice-osiois se O aceme ois siois ecogooe e essioa imae oai saes ais weasgeas we as e e mas aceoss wi  iecoege sysmCcamee ese mas is e ami  ss oeiuei oai a ai saom a seaciis ima kw w ss wi  coeua ai a ai sa ais sge oeia w ese coeuao lt seawi gecoege ss moas aas ss eegecao ey a cewi aacs  a cs okwe a aiaa e aose ey eeeeigsco(& c 1997secoa ai quis eco ccaii a gs samous okweugeiieco wi e "wo ocoegess   makemea a see ois w agecaoekes queso sucas wis e okwew  I kw I kww  I ew am I as a aeakwe wis uoesmogy sea(eMagoa199 yCGoe & 19; mme& Ey; Ki & Ki 199Ki& Ki19 wccuses osse aukwe (i ocouco eao emoas assicuse oe a iasaukwe ay a su yeuquius  is ssai aaceme icoege a uiois seasws aese eueo amac qua ces as ss mo ugeiacamic secoacaeSs ac coucw ueis ugeiieco wi ewoosecoa ecaoas eicue ueis a cee e weeeesis ac couco couewi e e oiasi mocomeaacougis ao ieowi e ocess ose a iie (eMagoa199 yes & C 199 KiKi Woo &so 19 Coege yea a scas e me wss   seeask oesis o co se seiascee (e 19997 asces a you as a oescas yi oous s aiies uiey  o a (e& Moou 199As ss y oe ocoege/ui s e meey come au si e "o"se as a aea   a w ew ose as a aea se ese s aims  ee e s oseasca  e s ocoege ss wi ai saese s is seoe emise acoegess wi  aes  ue eiai osi oeisesue oeco e mas osecoa ecao a seek suo oeicoeuaaes  aw iigs aue ai eese a emicao oeisa (ssous & Ga 1991r d rpr Iaemi  s sscoeuaueiiseems i  siae seawiieocamo oe oa oug a aco Cogeaeo is eweas o oe o we cause  gaiauei oe ecaoocess ( & sc 199 ia & sc 199Ecaois aoasociaeeaioi cog eemooesociaiecoa a e ocuucAuei oai saesso igecaocao ce a o oese cYecoge is a ce oecao cog eaeo caocciaiigs io w ss i ausecoa aiIcasee as acoeuaie (ia & sc  &  ca suo ogmsake ssii as eisi iSsueis a eageiis waywey ae su ss is a mo meaacamiceeee a oimiacamic a sociaause ( & Ias om o wi seaa so-ageamo ocoge a ieg o e eocaamewo oe s -- Case(199 eo oe ocecoeuasucs a scs (19; sc&199 mic ski eoese mo a icuy sui e emise oissO oe maaims oe o mo is  a e eaogssiooe  ooug ugue  s e mo siaiia accouca i kwe a uei oe wo is coucoisiee maoa eeeee  ooug   e suc ocog come oiiaiiese sucs a as cecoeuasucs iCase eo a skis iscs eoICase eocecoeuasucs a e "ueis" ooeueis ie maiey  e coeuacee wca wi eoscic coes a  usey a e sis e aoow coesa/oaocecoeuauei  a wi aay osks wiia gimai Cecoeuasucs a maiscic;  seas cuseom asa a sociasucsE cecoeuasuc sssemaic coe  ese sysmse ceuiscs eo is e skiA ski   a cog "cosuc goi a scic css oaco aa ocao iscic coe"( & sc 199  17 E ski is a oc oe coe a e osacscs mois simi Case is oe maiscici oskis ocoeuaueis (e mecysociaoa semes Case oocecoeuasuc9 mo siae  oiiaii comes iasicomeia skwe-ii ocessCase (199 a sc(19scis come is oqua e  osges oeauge eoes eie ma ccscs oese e mo ieg eo cssicacoies aucog eme e as oceeisges a e as a coious ocesse ooeaosge is mo oa caaaiaomo oe (e Iee&age 195e mo emasi e s acoeeosu a eeee wicoes a sksiuco iiaoemoo a mooay is iiaeUess ie acss e coesmai a coes ia iiais e e eeio(Case199 CaseOkamo& eo 1993; ;  & Samue; sc& a 19e mo coe aaea esciay a ae micay ioae as a oocoeuasuo summae mo oecoeuaa meogicao caue mic  a a u ieIis seeey a icuysuie coege ss wi  coeuaiie moias omaiscici a eaogssioocog sucsa e ocoe icau cog come oii a ieg o eeocaueiis oe cue srpe ose oe s is  sc a iee  a coe ossii auai a ai saaiwe is ie socia(u 19; goky19a iis iee om sociaa cuuacessociaieco a ees (goky eiis ima  ue w1ss wi  sioemsees ie sociacoe ocoege ai a w eyi auoe wi wm ey iecie ai coeIkee wi eo sci a e goaoe saaem wi  ma  measus osociauei  e eciscio a o oai aai saICase a scs mouei ooe s ecoi a cumeeas a  ocs a ascessociaueiocesociasuc (Case199 Ma& Case199 Mascosc & imeye 1999;sc& Kee1997 Augcoeio oai a coeio oaisa  eemieei wiiis sea(seeaeeio as  ckeo(199 ocoeio oai iis aueaese coeio aao  osssociaueiis aume sms om cue scouecusi oe ocess omea maki ie  e (i& e isscoue cees sc ie e  i some oe ameaassumioa acces ie  eO sucassumiois e coeuaooaisa as a cisi wiie ae w e  accommo  e "aways oaie aeaoseiese scussioemasis euei osa as a sociacoucoIoe ue e oosa imaieam cuuwe mussee eways acuu "ac oas ways oe   sae (Mco199313 is sioeces goky (19ia ae saec eeee issia  scic way i oe icucoe osociaees iwce c e   goky sa as a ogicaimie  ycgicacoequeesas a socio-cuuemesaes a issoe wi sociay acceesas ooae a o11a us sa is suec eias a"aoa" oy wa iiisoug io e "maieam" sociacoeWiie coe oese iassome sc ie e suggesaac asea e make seous eos  ue w e maieam cuu couca s ai a ai eesa w e iecoeecuu/socie a ai sio o wi ai saes (e see i&e e coe oai saes is ae ce oe cue s ascussio ie  eA key i ie cue s is e ia ass wi uei oeiai saes is coucie iecowi oea uge uage aie wiieisociacoe (i& e essuei oe coes oai a ai sa ieaces wi oy ioao ieeoueiOvv St ChtIwows seais om ses ie gecoege sec cusi oissues   e ose oe sme eeaogssioissias aukwe a aia eweis is owe eooCase a scs moa a ew oses   e s osewi aemasis oseaosociacogoImicao oe mocoes a meogicaoa is om seswiie moamewos seawi coege ss wi ai saesa eseeis eseaois owe a ew oe ese seao ssuei oai sae cecos wi a summa oe ewe a a uooe s seaquesoe sciooe meo i icismeasus a oce ows ie  ceCeueses a summa oe sus owe e scussio1CEOtvIntrtnis ceews sea coeio oai a aisaIao ouis aacs  uei oe ao e eameogicaame  ie iscause oe eaamewo aueis e se  ew cuses ima ois  eayaoamo scicay coege o aas  gecoege sse a esee e cus is ooesmogy acoeio oai csAugoesmogy es scicaycus ossias auaiiis coia ccamaiisscog ea us os e cog coe wiiwcias auai a ea esse A aooCase a scs coeuaameogicao   e ese s is eseeis om ses osociacogowiie moamewos gig e u oe mo awe e s seaquesoese ses a coec  osssociaoa ses  uei oai saAsumma oseais a uooe s seaqueso cose cern EptOe scoue ocasemcaiesgao ooesmogy ee cus oseaogms wi e messucas esmogicae (gso & Aeo 1993; Qia& Aea1995; Scee19;Scmme 199 199ec me (Ki & Ki 199 Ki& Ki1319 esmogicaeco(eMagoa199esmogicaeoes (&c 1997 a "ways okwi" (yCGoe & 19ese seaogmsauguiigyaim aiesgao oiiaii a e aue  okwe (& cey ai e  meio aca csio o ceaase  nl  (wo es kwe isa e  n pr  (w ocomes  kw( Augcoeio oai a e maicus ooesmogysea seaosscoeio oai is maay simi oesmogy seaii scio oe oaoossews as eyogss ugeisecoa caecause ese o s osea imo aeio e  ogecaois gesmogicae a aiey  come somewisoom e maieam oycgicaseao scog e s cayeaassumio asia em ie aoocog eIisasoe  assume ae wi  e ie e osscoeiookwe a sscoeio oaiwci wou esscog eAiesgaooese e s esuisas aima aa o sea(e  ; ScmmeAiki Ic ae eeio oesmogy seas ee mooecme (Ki & Ki 199wcs esom a -scoge cMo scicaye  oec mes  eu  ma we oo scs sges/ ocog come iao(Ki ; Ki  sc & Woo 19931As e e eecoeio okwe a coeio oaie  seacaoy o s wcsis assumio is s uagscosscoeio oai a esmogicae ceasey ogsseugsco a e we coeco eee ocoeio/ee mosaaecago oe meioooaicoese a simioesmogicaii (Ca & Caee-Ewa e ese sas aeoosscoeio oai om a o-ageacis ioe is iese s osea Was eis om oesmogy seasuggesimicao is oeeaces a ogssio isscoeioe is om seaoai coeio o a gui aieooeicoeuacoeusese is o e ckoagaiwce eaa ecoe oe age-gu sscoeio oai ca com Aew oese o asc ows wvnt M rn EptMoscue mo ooesmogy  cay cuseoee ois couc ascee a eay ao a mo scicayocoege sse is some ageme aue  oe  isoIge eamo ooesmogy (e eMagoa199 Ki & Ki 199 suggesaiia a ke  oa eieaukwe a kwi ia easequeeIeacoese moiia mo uga sciesequee ieicoeio okwe akwi om a asc oaosccc a g-a-w15ack-a-w ew okwea e eau ca kwwi ceaiy e sgew kwe is eias couc coiea coeua akwi is cooiwi scao a eeas( &  A mo ackwe some coecowi Wiiam y (197 s ocoegessieecaewci aime ee ages eo ocs cog ey cuseocouc auaieiews wi isames oass ie  195 a eay 19swc e oa scme oieecae  e coege yeaAasis ossses oyea ocoege aea suggesa ogssi oaooe aue okwe a e ocess oaiy scme iicas awss eecoegeey ew e woiack-ow s a e akwe issimeceai a ew auougeosu  e oowaysoii a i ismosss gi ackwe ueaiy a come e akwe is come oaiuga ocess oasoa mayioe amguies a coc use eisoue okwe ss as weom auo as aiokwe  se as a makeomea (& c1997y scio oe ooi oaoomea maki s mucwi e eaogssio as scio-ageamoe sioese a ki osequee oiegsucs omeaSimi e moce is oug auugcog sequiium ie coe oiiaiec wi eieiea  si  w eeee eieassimi  eies cog amewo oaccommo e amewo ie1Augy suggesaa ss ow aiaa  oeaia eeai o-agea e oiy eo s eccias i cuseowoi mauecss ss aei e coegesa as missi ima issues iwomesesucas sieiceew ose a o auo (yCGoe & 19 Is oese ccismsy was  suggesasscoeio okwe ogssia aey a iee ssecaoeeeesy was ao  ackwe aw ssewekwe ieeeiaacs  ai icoege sesseack ocoee eee ews aue  okwe oe ss a eiiuc we sie ai icuiesicuy w ss sawkwe as simeceaia auo-se w e iuc sesseamguia coc use is om a ese sesi ysweaw coegess ace ue oegsges oec meeme eiieima iaaega ssAeaeiy ogiswcis oeuseas a "e cc yeacoegess as asc iee coioosic asm was " (as cii &  Scmme(199 ccie eac ooesmogyas a umeiosciooesgeswc iewmieuei ow e imcssaiScmmeosea ew wccoissesmogicae as a esysm ais "comseosemo oss iee meio" ( ii ia muimeioaacsc eacmeioas a coiumom ss soisca mo soisca o17w sse may ieaccoi  e mo uoiscaae e a(ae a  a is ia; ( kwe is sc aumguous; (cai is quick oaa; a ( kwe is ceai(Scmme199 ScmmeAiki Soiscaae e a(ae a  a ca imo ( kwe is comea ueai (cai kes meScmmeaueaeaeoes simi e come oesmogicaei  seswc swae a emeio  oesmogy s aueasscog gwa e e meio may omay ia sequeemea assmay  soiscaisome e a s  i ioeeScmmes woeesea  eciy ii e ieeo eeesmogicaea aiis wo u aias aukwe a associawi weec ss ocess ioao iekwea moeiaiSs w a mo esmogicay soiscaa mo ke asssoiscass  use sagies aa gacamic acemeOeoesmogy seais cois ii is aoesmogy issae ia moacamic eeees ( Iln rn Epte ese s aims aeei e oesmogy seascicay cusi osscoeio oaiAs aueaeaeoes ooesmogy gig e oasscoeio cesysmacay  ssacamic cae e is some ee acoeio oai a coeio okwe ow a simi oeoe is ee a oesmogicaii coes   ocog coeuaeeaesmogicamoas cci1Scmme  euuccessiaccoui iiaees iii (wie e eeiooe ec me mo sia e s wiio-ageamoa coe wiiwca (uessmuie waysaoe(e sge/ ie ocoeio oai ca accoue(sc Kg& s1993; sc e& ock1993is o ecoeiooai seawcemis coege sscoeio oaiao ios e sis wo caeice s is oo aie coe e coe osscoeio oaiCptn ne Goeu seaguiae coeiooai seaie 197 (Sao1979 is gucoie  emegy (om e Gekwos ime a eiwcmeaaeae a sciocoeewi e scioois as ey aea use coeio oai seaauea aoyseaio maai is coucom a "oec Emasis is aceoe seas sciooaiias aio e coeiooai seaias cuseows ee as a  ndrd pt (Mao 19 Aeiois cso mucaaas iismo ae ous ieo oe  oie ieiascaieou Sao (1979 ioeieiews wias w e  oecao Aea sees oqueso   eiacaeeeesey we askee mo gequeso "W you meaeai" acs oe ses we summaio  cagoes oscioaee maiees iieamo e sesSuequeeiwe ua eee si Mao a a a (199319e sicoeio oai we oeia eae ugwciwas assumess wou (osumo  eime auiesiqua e ways ass we e coeua e ia oai we (si ae wes(1quai iasi o kwe(memo a oci(3ai( uei(5seei somei iae waya ( ci as a o (ewssee Mao& o1997;Mao& Sao1997 e e oese coeio  escasco a oc osuace coeiooaie ee a seeese a eocoucsew oai (Mai& ms 19ese qua e ways oewi ai a see ueio sicaacs  aiquaimemo a acqui coes aueie asuace aac a quaaac meauei a a as a oaueie a eaac Ss w  a suace ai aaceacoe su  memo yi aeio scic i so aicou  oceaa sgeOe oess w  a eaac aie aim was  coucmea (a mo eei asisseeEwise & o  coeio a aacs we see  e e way iwcess eie coe oaiaisia s eamemoowas wae ee s wou cose a suace aac ai a siye eeme o"coeio" "aac a "eioocoe" wesee  e e "ouomes oai"e suace aacas a  oouomes a eaacs  si os (Mao a& a1993Iln Cptn nIsummaseaosscoeio oai a aacs  aios scio osscoeio oaiwccasee as a gui eci e coe ocoeio oai ocoege ss wi Wiiis osea we e is  ecicim aue ueyi suc ossiiMo scicaye ocess  wcss make coeco amo eiews oaiaacs a ai ouomescao sceeossea igwe (1999suggesacoeio oaiaacs aouomes a seeas se eies iseae oses oasisa"eysu  coi  simuaous ese ie s awass ea"iee co (as ciiggis 91  e saosecas sie e c ieio e imicao oe moigecaowe  sueia ocess ogaicao "eaacs  ai"comes "eai a ss w  ese ias come "eage (Kam&Ya as ciiggis 91  e a queso wcs maiuwe Queso maiaue ssi oma e oeecoeioaacs a ouomes/gsas ma ses coie  ass a maiy sis  aems  ce e way ey aaceiaiemea moses  eaiase isuace aacs ie yeaoui (see ggs19; s Aems  a is c  oecuucoes  yieesuswcaea cocsome oe assumio aue " meioocoeio oaiMemo is eias a wecoeioiee ocoeiossociawi  aiwcis e ck ouei suace aac aia as a  oouomesIseswi Cse sswe gace ss aea coeua a usememo iways a ace ueiwc ie coeio oai cis associawi a eaac aiMaoa igwe(eis i e "Cse  (as ciiggis 93 a e ew aems  ce e ueyi iies oe causaamoocoeio-aacs-ouomese moseems  scou e iee ocuucoes oe oem wi e coeio oai c s  emeogy iemoysW e c iay useeei ieiews wisscue mosoe iumes usea sueys a quesoaiseiumes  eccias i sociay sie ses amoimai sscoeiowss say ise  aquesoai imsAs ggis (is ou ese quesoais a samissai o  e ssai imessiooeses seem  emasi e ia omea iaiwcis ieas iaqua coeco wiia suecaa (see ggis Mea is oe sis ogecaosas aue ways okwi a aia mo scicay e iucw acs a mas e assiges wiia suecaais is a scic ki omeawcmay  cessa eieaie ooymea e sse ooomea is coai suecaacuusa assessme ciquesom a eaceiess a cae osoiscaii auaieiee e oeessiooese coeiooca coai a icusueccoea sasai-saesscs oeieeees ogoaese sas a scae ie a gie ga c ieie  aueioae icoegea seaagea aimi aaeooeiii auai igecaois woAs e esmogicaseasuggescoeio okwe  emeio asimiycoeio oai a ke muimeiocoes amay i oy ias aue  oai ao ias aue ocess oaiSs ca e ews oai simuaous ai oeigoacaassige meas  e coe oaiIe ese sese couc ouia (e ews oaiaacsoca egeeie sigoe ieiew queso iui ausscoeio oai a meogy wccacau  ssosoiscaoiii a e mea e ss assig coesmay o uiuigai aeuei ow ss i auaiIsume ese s sias om oesmogy a coeio oai seageeioeemi e  a coe o sscoeio oaiis iegoisssie  sia e s wiiCase a scs o-ageamo ocoge  n r Cnvnt: h d CMAs scie ico e ooeais mo oiCase a scs mo aie aomo oee mo aceaemasis oe s acoeeosu a eeee wi coes a sksiuco iiaoesemoo a mooay is iiaeUess ie acss e coesmai a coes ia iiais e  eae eeio(sc& a 19 Ae samemee mo ao aow cau e oea coisy iaW  mo caaccou  oea a ieeye emasis oemCase osio   esis e oeacoisy iewas scs coeuao aow caua a e ways ie (CaseOkamo& eo 1993;sc& 11199Ord  vnt.  Accoi  Case (199 199e e ocoeuauei ocee uguimea oaia iegsges si iay  ascee a eay ao Seomo(1moo(1-5 yea meio(5-11a Aacmeiooca(11-19 ayo Eacmasge s a uasequee oe suges acomeiasi comewi sc e ma oaooemes ey eseaio acss sges occusysmacay a scic maia ocesses eas eiao iegoa coooocoeuasucsIis ocess oecaiego cecoeuasucs awe couc a eoussge ce  a oie gsgeCase caeis "cyccacuio"wcsuos e oa"ie coucooa uei aa oee is a ogssiougecy e same sequee osucs asaeous sges" (Case19 779Cyccacuiomea awiia a  o sgeey mussia oa aa mo come e  sgee is ogssioie e oii uge same mosma sucs aeacmasge oa ese smaes emee ie same sequee wiieacmasgeo ae   ue a masiiacoes  ey cacouca ue o eecoesIoewose  oii is ges e maiscic coe ioas; ee oocecoeuasucAccoi  Case (Case & Okamo199e coeuaeme icecoeuasucs   e semaic  oe o meas aiia assig coesCecoeuasucs a ceie asc1ey a assume  e "cee ocs a asuei oa oaaay osiao " wiia acss cuuy sciis ocoe aas"(Case & Okamo;  ey  e co emes ouowcmo esucs a couca 3ey a a ococeocessi; augecoe ey see  oa is maiscice sucs ec"a seoiiesa coais aa sysm-wi iei a ace wi age ia eceso (Case & Okamo5 uscecoeuasucs a simii; is cu acss scic mai  wcey aemewiia sgeececoeuasucs auei oe ysicawoa aueioe sociawo e same  i maia e (maiscicie cagoes io wce ysicaa sociawoa e(Ma & Case199e coucocecoeuasuc s esia mosesemeckeos (199 s ocs coeio oai cois eesee oa cecoeuasuc iica e o cuse  make see ocoes  e sociawo(e cs coeio omoes  Cseo ce om es  eeaes  iasi comees ieass a ieio gay oe coue oeIaio e ocs uei is ocome a e emes (ssioasces as weeme5-  yeao ca ae  eia acooi a oe wi o meas (umeiosusge  e ageso7 a yeaca ae  eia a cooi o meass  aoe (meiosusge a  e ages o9  11 yeacsuei is mo ea coo eiuei is ieioa iscc aiegooieaa eeass ia mo comesois ocoeuauei is ecooiwi a mo aacsociacoe ie suge oe  masgewcis e caoAacmeiosgeIckeos s (199eigy c ey siiagegu (  1a 1we aske  wai mea  emwwase wey we aia w ai was comi omia semi-sucieiewe youescs ii auai was mi eooacoa eeaes a scis oeico eeeesEig-yeaos equaai wi oeo 1yea oagee sociaimicao is osociay acceesas a e imae oai seemee ics sesAugcais sge geawass oai as a meaace acacoeiooe mi as ac coai mai"a" (ckeo    1yea oageai was iaacsa cueoe mi ac  iai; ai wasequawi ueie sociacog suc ais sge is "ie" acoess  aooii icssicaageaeois sge mas eiauei oaacowcocee uge same mosugesas ae eous masgeas moaia s  Ma a Case (199Ma a Case (199 moae esee oa cecoeuasuc ia s oascesuei oysicaa sociacoesey seousuo e ia aascesuei oe sociawoe same  ocome as eiuei oe ysicawo Case eoke mosoe oeo-ageaeoesos a meic cssii oo is oeicome (com e moemes wcmakes e css-maicomsossieWiie aa ouei oe ysicawo Case moec acae e oe meiosge (9-11aea  ae  cus oo quai meio (e weig a se ie oooa e ama  ue ae eecoo cacoma e eecoe oe sey caocom e o ueise eis aaceme oe susge oe casge (ages 11-13 A simisequee is moawiie aaosociaueiCase moec a gii aage 1 ca ae aaca geaiiei a ec maaco;  age 13  15eca  aaca geaicomes mo comew ccaaaco ai a  em  a os acoAe ssuge oe casgeii su come mo ieaaca come Asces su  ae cooi mo ao aacs iie oe oA e-am sk a a o agsis sk (icis we askeecses oa maiccoa swceewi a mmaeseee gico-maemacaa sociamaisce sus coieeecoae caci aacaso emeeaue age o11 a 1imaie ois caci was coai e moemese asces cou com a cooi ae same mea is caci wasiee oe coe oe sksememosoe s asces 13 15/1yea oage (75oe  ss iieacage gu sseoeecsequee i sksA simieage (7oe 15/1 19-yeaogusse3 oe ecsequee i e ysicaa sociasksusesus sweaeacsk yieeaoieasequee a e ogssiouge sk sequees ok ace aama e same gekegee ese sus coiee esisyo ie  oascesii auysicaa sociacoese s comeosk useiMa a Case (199 s  measu sociacogosugges a way  aace uei ooe a e sociacoe oai oss wi  ie ese sA s aua s wi ioie a aiuca seoa mma coei accommoowou aea ese ss a wou ecias aca cocog comee esee oa cecoeuasuc iasii is iusaias  McKeoug me a Ma (1995 e auo seou e w-cy a  ascoeuauei io maia (comsioa caa sociauei is oie oeoeso esame coisoa guo asey siacss o guw-cya  ase ca isiooiia ie w-cy guwe aage  gage oo oe Simies suesoe WecAIeigee Sca-se(WAIS- (Wec 19a a a sco oG 3oss oe Cssom a Ieo (Sia19 A w-cy icisaeecy ogms a e  as aeeocoegee meaage oe same was 33 yeae auo ecaw-cy ase  eimieeee wi e  ocomesuc oe a usuay aeiscowou moa a we(ieiosucocoeuauei iemaioaOe oee auo ecaw-cy ascause oeime eeee osociaiecowou  com ie ooe aco a o aaage-aia oiie s u aw-cy asaso was ieio sociauei a asksis i cois e esee oa cecoeuasuc ueie sociawoie mai (e a a sociauei  eis suo e oose Case ags oasoke ieiia cuu-scic a qui aai e  eicoeuaaaacWas e  as coeuaes wiie e w-cy asaso seme"" ycgyO sksey eoeioeeees  eie aso e aco oe cckegee ese ses moa ae ueyi suc ocsa asuei aue sociawois a suc w e o eee eeawoa ieass comes gay mo come causay ciocaa ycgicaiWe kw  aue e oas wi aisaesuei aue sociawo  ai e oocecoeuasuca euei oeicoeuao aue sociawoca ace e oocecoeuasuc aows a meacomsoouei acss e sociacoesrbd ph  dnt.  scs (sc 19; sc&199 sc & sse19ski eo coeuas e as aocess ocouc ogssi mo comeski sucssciougeuasge-ke ecaski sucswc io ueesseomo eseaoa aacoWiieace aio om osuc  aeoccuug "aao ocesses (mecsms oe suo eiao s-ocuscomui aieooio e e wiieaceocee ugusugesSimi Case mo eacsuge wiia comes a uooug ie suge oe  goueie suges oe eseao aaaco ewi e ama age e oemeeea eseeie 1bl h rrtnd rtntr d b  lrtdntSki e Susgescio Ama ageoemeee(Oimaeseao1 1 Si co eseao eseao  Maiwo coeseao ca cooi3-5eseao3 3 eseaosysm-Seasc oo co eseaoca cooi7eseao=Aac11 o eseaosysms - cacouc Same as a siaaco11Aac  Aacmaiwo aacoca cooiwi eacoe11Aac3 3 Aacsysmeasc oo aaco ca cooi19-AacA iie  Sysms oaacsysms cacouc Same as a si iie-Aeom sc & sse193E w ski is acquiugcooi eous masskisAccoi  sc e ski is a ocoe coe a e os acoae is eec  acss sksmaicoes a cuusMa skseke e oaeoae oem es ao scicskisks iacoes e  cay aioe ca assessme sksacaecia emi  oo sk asis eca use ie suc oaooe ii  i Iski eoa skis a is ose (emesua o eeose seA sk asis musscie se a o e oe  co o e o emeue e coe ocouc ccisma oe   ae coue e muie asc oeacaaco(a se usucas sa kiss ue e muie acao oese se coes iecoesa e ae  cooi (ese muie asc a acao io agoeaacosucas couc ccism (mo emessee msc & 199Usuay is a es aea  ascee(m ea e mea ois  oasis a sigoassessme sksscs mos esia moses a acss e coes iao eseses coiea ecuasge-ke e oski sucs (199sc ocke& ya1993; sc & sse19; Ki sc & Woo 1993; Masco& sc ; Mascosc &imeye 1999; Ya& sc Ae e eaoe  is s (aeage 1scsmoec aasces su  ae  cooi o omo aaccoes ia si ski  (rt pp.  Asces caueemew31muiicaois simi aiowioucousi e o ooIses iesociamai ese w aes a moaiascesuei omuies oeiowii a muie sociase a  eia a coes sucas ieioa si (see sc & sse19ugmo eeee a mao(e iasi woi memocaci asces come cae oieoec a coo ese oeeaaccoes (scs iecooioa comui mecsms isi a  e e oa w ski suc  (rt ,  wcemees ie eay sYou as a w ae  i aumuie asc omuie (moaoaaccoesey a ae  ue e comees oaaco emeey a ae  eie geo oses oieioasi ke ceia ueio ue ese s oieio aoe  ue o s osi (e a wi a aw iocca coe e oeese sysmac ces iii ao eu ioemaiemeais age o oe caue okwe (Ki & Ki 19; y197e acca oesociamai(ck & ssecs19 a sociacoc(Sea 19 Si aama  yea oageiia cagi ieg aacsysms io goecog skis  (nrt prpl  ioeiuei scieiceoes sucas is asis oeo(G 19 as ciisc e& ock1993 Isummae e oskis ec scs mos ecoieacss sesceasok (omo ee eeceasequee oskis ia s ocs a ascoeiooecao3Augscoe a uasge-ke e oski sucss moao aows aeooiiaeesSimi oemic mo oe (e Maas & Moa 199 Ge 1991 scs mosi agw a e oscic o a aio  ua sa moc iase oesw suiaai sssaausa oSes wiie mic Ski Mo(scea1997; sc& Kee1997; sc Kg& s1993; sc& 19; sc e&ock1993; Ka& sc ; Ki  sc & Woo 1993;msc & 199 u ae ss oeao scic o a mai  sysmacay uee assessme coioe mosuiss "o a "oima icoeuaueiois e awcmosoe o wioucoeuasuo oacceOimamas e uemioe os coeuacaciscas coeagues i ouaaassessme oouesmas iaoae (a ewsee Ki  Kiea suggesaas wcacies ieay ao e is some cuio we ooaeosksey cimeaoe e i a i skis omeesciay wcoewi w coe a w skse u osig e assessme coio was sia s oeaces iec mes (Kiea e mic Ski Mo(sc 19amo scicayscs ia oassessi e  ocoe (wi ask a o ocoesciay sige saowecau oaoima oec mee  suggesaassesseesmogica33was a ccsc oe o e iia eia e oscosi ue coee coe a e amou osuo a acce goaee same oei e  ooae ueeassessme coioOe oee s sweaiia  e caci e gs oec ii uieieay   sIoeese ss oacae  occu we ac eageme ie ocess oski coucois cessa; a eies suo g aaciiIaio cau ees ioae wiiaiia scs(19i wiisge sciooe suc ocoeuauei aowsscei oy e  (comeoiiao sc e coeocoeuaueiese scio caae  oiiaeeeiases is iiaways ieIis ways meoaows aassessme oe coe oe skis comisi e waysi easeoeicomeiesca coeagues (Caeeysc&Ayou 199 se esis aycogy asi om seaase ioesgskis aia  a os ageWi es (e& Maou 199 Se-i o ieiewey assessee eaose-scio iesocias wi 9essegis ee1a 1yea oagey-seoe giseeeeyea oseaa ysicaase a gc a oy  oe gis  s omaaeEacgi was aske sc ws was ke ("e ame"ie cse o (giiemoe e maic ie eacoese gis  asc si oga e a imae  e ese-ase sus sweae asegis sayeea ise-uei simi eiasee s eiycogya3asis oe coe oe oaooeias aima eeseseao ose a oe ceeoga eao easiegis ke se ose emoo aiae wou  ieg emew mosous caieg si a ga ieco wi sas w  emaamay siga a sia keeese eeeesse as way oemoose-eseaooe (Caeey ea199eesee ose auma a essioassociawi ase s iee wie e oage aia skis ose-ueiis amewo oasis ca us gaiiig io e ii oss wi aueiowiiaeeees oAs Caeey ea (199 s suggess ways ooaooose caase om s iiaeeeiasesai sa is ce o o oseWiiisguossiiaeeeiaees  cois eieous sea scs (19moaows cau e aso eseeesIntrbh d  e ew sugges ae is a gaaooaeeCase (199 a scs (19moe coieis osimisequees ocog sucs ie o mo aow "commucao eeemoCommo  mo is aecaoocui ogss ugwccog come iases wi eeee a maAugscsmecsms (e iecooio a mo -giaCasee is a ee mecsms sc Case (e ecooioCoeuaue oe sociawo wcis oe  is sseemimo eei wiiCase moawiiscsSimi35age Case was a coucsw sea eees ias om cueaaemes ie coucsao  coeuacs a associao as emeie sociaeies ias we ioe e socio-cuua socio-coucsaacswcsuo e ew a sui iaiasi comea sociawo c   as coucsacoiay ie a couc mea om sociaeeee (e u199Mo scicaye cog a  ue maacoa ieio see as e a mo ooug (u 19; 199 199Icosgico-scieic ogmac oug (oug ais coeewi ysicaa aa wi issues ogicasis a u a oug is coeewiycgicaesmaeeees  iea (meassemooieio a oug eomsses e a  simuaous cou es ake ace ie ysicawo(i sca oaco a ose ake ace iemea oe cc (i e sca ocociousss(u 19As e om e ew oe ses wiiCase amewoe is aiasi oeocome ics uei oe "sca oaco ae "sca ocociousss As cauei oese o"as ey coecem iaiasi comewaye cog sucsc sociacogoiascee s ee"Ie" (McKeoug&Geu   asceee is a ameas iii aue"sca ocociousss" om aieiouei is oimmeaesieioa ougs  aie uei is oseycgicaaiI asceee aes  ke "a me-sioomaeeee" (McKeoug& Geu  5s  emeeai a goecoesoaacoa iwe a scs sis me-siosugges a3 ascee is a owe aes  ieg muie asc oaaco ia mo muisos  emeeCase eco ausociacogo ee yo asceecauseoe simioocui ogss eca e mowe iis ssie ece e osociacog sucs uge suges scsc(e aacmaiaacsysmsaaciie Aeaowie gic omecsms oe sc Caseaesge ca ae seasequeeus ieg e o moe oosca ocociousss as e ycsociacoe oaaco ca ae scs mo Iis wayaasis o e  a coe oyou associauei aii ca meay scIlnf  th ClSttth nbWe kw   au coege sssociauei iacamiceiesOe  osecoa ss  scs ess as i ask emoooems a icuy aus  acamic (Co 19; Mea &  199 SacogMie & Wisky19; Sge &Mie199 S& a199ese icuies seem  ee sociaicuies iieie  oas wi Ses u aas wi  oue aus  emoyme eiesmaiai a esis iee  (Aa& ge 199 skiGoggi& a 1999 As wi  eaey misociaieco a oue maki iesey suggwi essio ga se-coe a se-esema eeeeg osess a aieusaoaes oi a ssss (Aa& ge Ssse& i1999 Simie  o ca ascese  oas wi  s aeme37  oue ueyi aso e iiesociaicuies eeee aswi seaoca asces is ouaci isociacogomea oemac sociao(Kas sus suggesa emee icuies iace sociaacceae amo ss wi  may  accoue e sscie ieoosociaa emoocues isociasiao (Kas Geyses u a ca asces eia uqueoem ie eo osociaioaoa eia sse cisioe ieiey  seciom soo  sociasiao (Kas Simiyseaoas wi  u aas wi  oems isociaeioa ia aa sociacues (Aa& ge 199Aesame mewe coc sus  eu i es ossugges e wiiguaea ca asces sociaicuiesSome cai sociaskis a kwe aucom sociasoo (Kas e is gwi ee ass wi  a amogeous guwi sc eisociacogo(Maa& AYago 199Sec  eoe accou is aesucas ioeeeeaec a mooaessociaioaoocessi scics as e suys oa comoi wi oesoe (e A essio(a ewsee Kasseaoas wi  s ao u iiaees i associao is oeiaao e mas oa Ses u aese oe  oci iacamic skis ayea mima iecsuccessaao(Gee Gi& i199 Wee Waeye&Cy199e success was associawi ieacisio a eeamaso oiiaui  ke cooeisIeacisio we3 ami e ga  eeee  a si o a sei a oacowa ac oy sie goaOsuccessas wi  maseeeicie se-aocacy skisa goocoma a co skis ii suoi sociaeiesa imoi oo  meeeieamas (Gee Gi& i; Gee& i1991; Weeea Iis ima  i ae is om is seaomee sa seiceo isecoa io  ackwe e imae oo suo ss wi  i se-awass a se-aocacy skisseaoas wi as we as seaosecoa ss wi s i aeio we scicay  gai auei ow eseiia iee comees oeisociaeieWe cao a euei oe ocess  wcese ss ea emsees wiouuei e ways iwcey make mea oemsees ie sociacoe ocoege ai a w ey i auemsees a oe wi wm ey iecie ai coeAs Case (199 aue ca asioe osuccessy iaiasi comesociawo    as coucsacoiay ie a couc mea om sociaeeeeg ocog come iuei maoa ieio  ee ai sociaoa com sociaoem soi (msc& 199ois om ses wiiscs amewo (eCaeeysc & Ayou 199 scea1997i  e imae ogai aeuei oe comeieco amo e  ocome ocogskis a e scics ooeeeiasesAs e s  Caeey eamoasco  e sa assumioaycogy sms omeaimmamaagis agsewi ycogy 39a s waysese ways we mae aeacome oii s aec-cog oao ese gisiaoi eay gsse we eay eUndd thCpt  nbIig io w ss ue wimea   a ai sacame ssie wi e e oa ascae Se-eiooaisa Sca (S (yma 199e Sis a se- quesoai sigss om g 3  wc e aaswess see eisa asmiog weey eeisa is moae oa; a ege  wcey eeisa is sgmaSes u acw gscos oe sca gse-esemgaceme scos a eio ogaoa scsc comesociaacceae a suo (ymama& Cos 1995 A mo ce s wi gscoss (Cos Eioe& Keme 1999come sca wi oeequeso auwimea   a ae ooese ses  se-esem scoseuei o was  wese-esemese sc sus weeiwi e e ose-esemiewi e e ocoeuaueiyou cs g oy si se-esem isaccome wese-awass oees om oec As awass oe cwi  iaseseise-esem may caseaasmIwasscuawi ascee a iasecoeuacomee cwou eae  see emsees om muie cs a  eieg eisesa weakssesaccei eisaes (Cos ow & Eio  Iasse-uei comes a oc cassociawi gse-esemSesiica aassociaoeesuccess a gase-awass ias wi (skiGoggi& a 1999; Sckma Go& a 199Isu  ae ses sca cois cumeeayouess o gue a geawe   e queso ie scaa oeequesoAuge sca is aima siiui io ssuei oai saies make a casoeesscoeuauei a eies osgmao easeaocs coeio oissemesws aioe ue wcay "kw aieiew is mo aia aquesoaisiseaseaseems  coi e scuo  Cosea (auaeaogssioiuei oai saCs coeio oiss a oug  ogss eaye es icogo(ce & Wa 19 You c  ue iss iga cicways (ac& o 19 emeey  eia eeesymoms a causes oissa ew isses as amie"magicay" (i&Gei19 You coeei iss ia mosc so as iiis cause miso(Kis& eo 19 Wi aaes icog maomcougasceeyou mo aaecoeio oisseygi coeua iss is oscic symomscausesa ogsis a acia e ycgica aeca sociaasc oissuscs isscoes aea sysmacay a ecycois wi sociacogoasscicog eaeoe is some suo a sysmac e ocoeio oiss iecoege yea as weA eas  Oeek a Maae (1997emie cog aso ia wi iss a ycgicacoes aeeees wi ysicaiss a ycgicaicuies wi 1 coege sseous ses  cs a ascesuei oiss aycgicacoes oe amewo e cog-eascioocoege ssuei oese coesis amewo was seoageseo a i sges oe - eoo co oo a aoo oasoe coege ss we ieiewewi a ciqueioi sucqueso a coieos  iu ass ga as mucioaoas ssiee queso cuseoiicao causeeae aeiooiss a ycgicaoemse auo usesiecayoacog-easco cagoescoesi  cog  iages eo co ses  iss a ycgicaquesoOagee ssaso au iss a ycgicacoeswas iaioom co  aooe sscog-eaaso  e we acss iss a ycgicamaia acss some coes wiieacmai e aso  iss coes weu   sigca mo aaeae aso  ycgicacoesma ssaso scos ycgicacoes we sigcagaose oma ssIaio e auo aauge ssusesoiscaca ieiseso sweaey  a ouguei oe mea oe s ey use e imicao weae ss mig ue e comeeo aue causeeaeoeiooiss a ycgicaoems aaa aco aeca gi emAuge s s some mioies suggesae coeiooisscoies  ie coege yeae maimios  e ieiewia Auge was o ioe iwas  ccao osssesa moske esssaous ueiOe oee sus suo scs oaa eies suo g aacasoa acce a eeee wi coes is cessa  o aa goasois easeaacss e ages sugges ao caeecaeaogssioissuei oe coe oai sacause oe eaamewo oe sis casee as a gui sigieiew queso a sco cagoesAugsig queso auaisa seoseaoiss coeio seem  ioe e mecamooai saiis wo  gawcoeio mi ssueiseoe easea wcgigs e meio oecoe oisse queso aue coe o cus ossuei osig o a eiessio(symoms causes a micao o (emooycgicaa sociac ioomi sa (ogsis as we ascoeco amo ese meioowi goky a ugssiiwe caue w e sa seice sysm a i uage sio ss wia is uei cagui measysm cesAe same meeieiew su aow e ss  ess eiowo oe ieiewassessme coio ioo ese o asce ese s wi aem cau is uei a ea e ueyi coeuacome oe sis oa semi-sucieiew i e meio (e causesoaisa uee assessme coio scie  ceSrd  QnW ssecoa ecaois a icu oa ssiis esciaycei ss wi ai saesese ss cea wiquimes iee ai a cisiomakia w seice-osiosysma eiee ai sa  is ouaaawass owoai saes ay meamay  a ccacigoa e mas oesecoa eieIss wi  a  access a ici a o isecoa ecao ey mus oy skieiea e mas osecoa ai eieseiowai os a e acamicaccommoo ey may quie  cuseoe e ocoege ss igesws aw ss make see oe  okwe a ai emees as a ccaaaie sse  e secoa yeaSes ooesmogy o e cog coe wiiwcae "a e ai ocessa coue coeio auaiSs ac coucw ueisugeiieco wi e woosecoa ecaoas eicueueis a cee w eeeesSscoeuao okwe a ai ueo qua oaoas ey ogss ugeiacamic caeese coeio a sae ieiacamic eeees a ieeeiacamic ocause ai occu ia sociacoess coiay iea co-coucmea om eisociaeeees (u 199ey y  make see oeiiuca ow sssaco a ieioA iaw ssassigmea  e coes okwe a aiemsees a oe ieai eese s oe e oeicoeuaaesw  coegess wi ai saes  iis ocess omea maki? We kw  aueie a ii  eiyea igecao e s iase ieome oss wi  icamses acss Amecaiisima  gaia euei ow ese ss coeua e maiskaces em ai -- ia w sociacoegie coais imse eiai sause cus ois s is oss wi  coeio oaisaa uei ooe ie ai coeIoe emi  sscoeuaueie s is siaiCase (199 a scs (19o-ageamo ocog eWiie mocoeuaaes  aw iigs auaiai saaoe ioe oug ie sociamai e eweeocamomeogicao aow aeooe quesoowee is syo ie oese coes wiie sociamai W e mo couwioesmogy seaiackwi e  oeeee ieey ao a qua e  ouei ae age ois om ses wiie mogeewi seaocoeio oaia easeaose a ai saioee sk asis ieese se o goaois s is  sc e  a coe oe iioss wi  auaiai saa uei ooe ieai coe osecoa ecao e imae ois goais ie cacog ea iicussiiays a ceieio igecao  usi cog eaeowe cagaicciaiig io w ss wi  i ausecoa ai acasee as aima coe e sigoogms cuseooimi esessse-awass skisAs aie  ewima coms ooimase-awass seem   ssaaeueis ocoes sucasaiai saa oe ie ai coeii ois om  eaa  sea geewi ecoes a meo oCase a scs moe owi seaqueso ai  is goa e queso a oae  cause oe saem  u io aaa e uie  eQnplthf nptl dd1 Wis e cog come gai (1ai( ai saa (3oe ie ai coe ss wi ai saes? Wis e sayecog come oe e coeuasks uew-(o a gsuo (oima coio?  ss moa e ocome ueese o coio? Isowa e ees?3 Wis e ocome acss coes? Is e  ossasosimiacss coes? I w es e  eacss coes? w es sayeocome   age a yea oecao(eeeeQnplthntt  nptl dd1 Wmaicagoes emee issuei o(1ai( aisaa (3oe ie ai coe ss wi ai saes? w  e maicagoes aemee issuei oai wie cagoes oai as scie ?3 w  e maicagoes   e ocome ossueiuew- (o a gsuo (oima coio? w  e maicagoes   age a yea oecao(eeeeCEEMhIntrtnIis ce e s icis a sc A secooe smeasus ows is scio Wiiis seco aoiew oCase (199 ascs (19meogy is i A suecocuseoaoiew oegeieiew aa gesco ocessae a skseces esciooe iiaskse sks a scie coe oa scouc  e sk ocoe cecos wi a sciooes ocertticis we ci coac sa seice cee asecommu coeges ie gaougio e coeges  simiogmsa s oe c osa seices we coaca gia e(see AeiAsc e s oseoce a measus eucoiiaey we aske soeieas oweis e eos iacoac(see AeiA coeee same oee womea mew eiage om 1  age ici ie se eamo aame e s coi ae is a eaogssioiascoeuaueiwcuos ia sequee os oeasgesIayioe cau e easequeeaaeme  ma  i equam oiiaesei aequamomas a mas ae ages eomssi aage e oseaies(csc& 199e we uay   oe iie oai saesassociawi age a geewiie secoa  s o ecie sagy was  aacmacommu coeges ie gaougio a ii ss wi  giswi e coegessa cee ici ie se ose oassi e s quesoe icis e meee owi ca1 ey   1yea a oe e guo17 icis a meaage oyea (S= 73e117 Age was cauas a ee eeoieiew (yeamoya  o(yeamoy wi ys uemoa eue yea ey   comeaaso  semesocoege ses3 ey   see e sa cee aeiioIoe  seess  se-ii a suicumeao(e ycecaoamee e isComa Misy oAaeEcaoguis (moioao see MAEagsis oa ai sae guisow e M-I (Aagsc caA agsis oaisa is ma we iias aceme is suiay w aeecagesco ooieigee seoiiay aissaimeasus iamaemacs a/oweessio Suiayw is as a o-sa aoscy eeaceme a IQsa sscosA smaescy (ee1 a sa aoisaissie icases oco-moi o wi oesai coioeagsis o is ma seoesee o as e emi sa cause oe amas oe sksicis wi aasage oaes we iie siciskwe aueiowai sa a aas oaiweakssesa wi ioaoaueigsmoyea oaecaoogm osec ckgu a yea oi iieagseas wascoec mea oa ckgu ioaoquesoai (see AeiCe icis we oee oiooo coes oeicumeao A icis agea ocoes oeimoscueycecaos (cueaccoi  e MAEis as a  wiie s5 yea Auge s ecoiy iaa coe oeassessme a eaccee e sa ceea eiwasassumeaey mee MAE guise  oicisagses wecois wi icisse-eaas oai icuiese oses oe s soues o we summa  e icis oseicis summa os a eseeie  Mosoe ss eiiewi a a w soeA summa oe icisckgu ioaois eseeie 3Ass we oCaucasiackgu iCaIoe  cois wieous easeaso acomso cou  maoy e yea oaecao(ie ea as comeyea ogscoa coege oui ogmswsokwe caueaciia Ae me oe ieiewiss iicaaey some gscoaioqueso we askeauways ey comeeigscoequiyemeo s w e GeEcaoe (GEs e oess u couesYea oaecaowe giesemes ou couese acamic yeaicoege s e mosemesemeia s was ieieweiMa a is was s/seco semesicoegeumo we ae s/eous yea oecao Ie s come3 semes ocoege ses is was coueas o yeaoaecaoe age moyea oaecaowas 13 (S= 15 yeae133 153bl2. rtt nd,  d, d  nGee Age agsis   & WC WE Si Memo&  19- a & W + + + + + 19- a & W + + + 19- WeEssio + + + + + - a & W - Se  + + + + +a & W -9 a & W + + + + -11 a & W + + + + + -11 Se  + + + - a soe + + + + +(sa -1  oeisescie+ + + + + - a & W + + + + - a & Memo + +M 1 a + +M 13 a soe + + + +(saM - a soeoWe+ + + +EssioM -  oeisescie+ + +M 33-  oeisescie+=a comeio ea se(uey =sic a; =co wos; WC=Wecomsio WE=Weessio5bl rtt nd,  vr, vb IQ r, n, d prr  Gee Age ca aIQ Yea oEcao ogm 19- Age Age Eay Co1 Ecao 19- Age Age 13  19- Age Age 13 USciee - A Age Age 1 GeSes - Age Age C a You Ca13 Couei -9 Age Age Cssom a1 Commu Suo -11 Age Age C a You Ca13 Couei -11 Age Age 1 GeSes - Age Age 1 GeSes -1 Suo Age Ui15 aAs - Age Age 1  - Age Age C a You Ca13 CoueiM 1 Suo Age 1 M 13 A Age A Age 1 EieaSesM - Age Age Cssom a1 Commu SuoM - A Age Age Cssom a1 Commu SuoM 33- A Age Age 15 AssisMre e measus e s we comia ckage aisioieiew sessio e ckage ie ckgu ioaoquesoai aieiew ocose wcaccomee aisaooe ieieweieiew sessiowas io seco cusi ossueis oeaccoeese seco we as coeuasks (Case199 sc 19 eo aoese sks semee cssicaccaieiew ause age(Iee& age 195 a ses wiiscs a Case amewos51G Mr f ClfnCnCplA ceuoassessme a asis iis s is e cog come oiiaii a ieo oe mea oe coesCase (199a sc(19scis come is oqua e  osges oeGie age oe icise ima cus was oe use oaacougAccoi  e moaacoug ss  iasceea coies  iao Asces a as  mosa oeiaacskis a a moske  aw uese  sc e mea oecoesAaco ece a  coiaie coes aca geacss coesa aaco a i ue iegooeaieeseao(sc omeio(Caseskism eseao ocoes comeeiaa iegio sucy mo comeeseaosysms ay io si aacoI asceeasces come ae  ieoeca coo osucas simicausa ooosioamo aaccoes (Ka& sc is i a  e e oa w ski suc  (rt ,wcemees ie eay sYou as a w ae  i aumuie asc omuie (mo aoaaccoesey a ae  ue e comemuie o amo aacoSi aama  yea oageiiacagi ieg aacsysms io goecog skis  (nrtprpl.5sis ese ge oski e (mac e sc(19ia seoaaos  eie s  wca ski wiiosge ogsses wa e  (mic e sucas w e ski ousi o aacoas io a ski  o aacoscoseeiao suo s-ocuscomui a iecooioocoeuaskise e s ioe sc iiaaes  a aaiooug oaec e  eiieo oa eicoeuaskis o e emes oe mea oa coea skis occui ae sameea Comui is e siwco ski y coois ose skis ia mo comeway ae same ski  scoseacomui quis eiao suo a s-ocus  icaoccuIecooiooccu wo y eiaskis ae same comeiegio a mo comeski aca  geeoiegueo wocoeiaooug ae  ea ese s/s a simi eos ose Case osee s omic e -- eiaoiegoa coooocoeuasucsuse eee moca maIsumscs mooe a meic aca use assess e come oaaciie meic os a sco sysm aca use cssi oeses accoi  a come wiia sge ie eaogssioe maiaaage ois meic is aicacau cog come iee oscic coeaeca use cssi uei oe coes53IntrCnCplth Cptl CttW scs (19meic os ioaoaue  ooaeocoeuasks is oecacomeimakes  ce  iscic coeuacoeWocome is assessewi e meiccoeuacoe ca assesseieea eiegwi e comeioao is assessme ocess is iCase (199 moie maiosociaueiAs eweie eous ce Case moscscoeuauei oe sociawo wcis oe  e coes e e scause oe simioocui ogss commo Case ascs moiis ssie  assess e e osociacog sucsuge suges sc sc(e aacmaiaacsysmsaaciie a  a eiscic sociaa ycgicacoeMo scicayses wiiCase mo(e McKeoug& Geu ose ae coe isociacoeuauei s  e a mo ooug (u 199a oug eomsses e a  simuaous cou es ake ace ie ysicawo(i sca oaco a ose ake ace ie mea oecc (i e sca ocociousss(u 19 e coeuacoe osociacogoiascee s ee"Ie" (McKeoug& Geu  asceee is a ameas iii aue "sca ocociousss" om aieiouei is oimmea esieioa ougs  aie uei is ose ycgicaaiIasceee aes  ke "a me-sioomaeeee" (McKeoug&Geu  5s  emeee ese s as McKeougs (McKeougme & Ma1995aac a e coe oe ss5ieo oa e coeuasksaecoe comsoacsscoes ca maCttl SptAs scie  ewsc(19aueaaiiascome wou  i oe coio uewciis assesse e ge wceieac (sucas omsaccea e  oe sksuogoae is a ima i ooeeaoie e oscosIscs se is a eae ioaemi e osaous oae wiousuo (o a e oae aaiiacacois o w/s is giooues suo aacce (oimasca coeagues (e msc & 199 aueamoseameasus ocoeuauei measu w a oo oa y--y sis wiouacce osuo; usey uesmaiaoae (Ka& sc ; m ea scs mooe ameogy aaows suis e "o a "oima icoeuauei  sig w a gsuo assessme coioesuo is as a coeuasuo aioes omi oa skie w agcoeuasuo coio a sig eie amou oieeosuo ae ieieweos e ieiewee si mo comeyIis sowi scs (sc& Ka guise ge osuo was e mea oo quesooosos we coeiasmea oc e aeiooe ieiewee  e key emes (e wos/sesos/saous ses ie w suo coio e ieieweeguie ici  cooi a use ose emesoms aski e ss gi emes om eicoege eeees we aiomea  wce ss55we assisicoeyi eiesuei oa coeIsome sescoeuasuo was o e ieiewemoa/mo emes ogoae a  gi e ieiewee ooues acce (em ea199Ie ese se ge osuo was e coucos aio oe sks ("Uei Oe"  mo aeme ogueil rb AbAemiooe eameasusesciay wemoyewioeicisis ama a gui e coe oses ea eueyi easuc oses (sc& Ka  Ieieweesmay s aacwos (sucas scmio aaea eccomeuei aiceca e ca amasks a sucy ss maueiusiiaaes as ie ca osmaseoeiaaesGi(199 suggesai oe ses su  seoe " s" oe sesS a " s" se as o amee"e ca e ssuc ia mimay aicu" ( yimimaaeio e suace uage sucs sucas e  ogmmacasyaccaa ca soiscao a  mo aeio e o sucoe mea caaccomisisIwas eu  mea oGis " s"aac assses we osmaseosoiscauageuseA saimeasu oca was imemeeie s cause ossie eassessmesUsuaycoege ss wi  qui seuaassessmes ugueiecaocae A assessme may iee ieoosus (e ssie gssio e meawe e ss5ocoes oeiswccoaiioaoaueica a aIQ (see e 3 Iis wiseaa acceae ccaacce  use aaes as aieoieecaiacause oeiimae sco Coegess wi  ese a s guoas wi Coeges sescicaissioca is ogsesciay iEsuageCuemosoecoeges qui a   iEs   as a coio eome icoege ogmsa usiwas eecaie ss we aieio coege ogms ey wou eseage askiswcwas coieieiassessme srtn thStCptl G Intvrte ose oawe e s seaquesocoeuaskieiews comisi queso aeom oeses a queso scicaysige s we use ecie ii ocoege ss wi  auecoes oaiai saesa uei oe ie coege coeA coeuasks we aisuew a gsuo coioA summaoe s sksi ioaoaue ses wse measus guie sksig is eseeie 57bl4. Sr Coeio oai ^ Coeio oai ^ Uei OesaAea -sigseoo-ageases(ckeo 199 McKeoug& Geu ;McKeoug me &Ma1995acoeio oaiseasige s seoissues ce seaAeMa (199"o agsc sk("o coege sceossige sowi e o suce queso ie w suo coiowe gey oe a"Wes^ mea you?" sig eciy--yuucses auemea ocoese ss we eouge say as mucas ey e ioe eia mea oa coee queso ie gsuo coiowe sigisuca way a1eyimece ici  key emes is/w-suo sea  eyeougee ss  eia o ey eieeewos/ses/coesAee imiuos aimeaassessi  ocogcome we gi ese os we m1 3a  coes  eea iscs easequeeO equaea si ski (eaacoug u; = o skis maeio eacoe 3 = e omoskis ieeio o oug usysm; o usysms ieeio ogoeiiee e os we io os"come5(skia" a "come(ski" wccooe aaos/s wiiaeao "a" ie io w ss we ae  eiaemee aaco su o aacoaeos cus om oaaco aeae same ea " ecomui oaaco awe yey iecooia iegae sameeaOe os we aimeasuoi e ss  moa eioimaaes   aacoemeo "1 a" askee ss  e wo/s a o "" askeaacaooeiueie ss weome gi emes seoao o "" coese aacmai a e aao wiiis  e ss we askeasoauo osimioosioocause eeo aacso"" askee ss  asoaue o eeaacoess we ao ome gi emes om eicoege eeees acousc e o eeaacoo "3a" coese e aacsysm e ss we aske  i oaaco imo come muieo a "3" simi e oe" osomessa  a eiuei (see e iiasksieiew oco iAei ugAeie was oy o o (i wiou"a" o"cause scee e easequee s easeasws acog e is  ea se ae yea oage (e Ki ea1959GeSco ocessAuge cus oe s is oao e sco is e ssugeocoiaio ascee a aosges (see AeiG1 Isuc e ieiews gsuo os  is eawegi Iwas assumeamosoe coege ss wi  ii wou eccaes aaee  cosugeMcKeoug me aMa (1995uwe aw- as (eis oo seeme e oooomoaieioasowcis ca coA mis assig eacsiscs (19ski sequee (see Aei ese m we useie sco oe sssesA sks wescoaccoi  is gemeiceacske o es ossoae we e e o gs aaiwe coi e scoeseee seco gsscoo scosga w suo scoswe eiices ocog comeCtt AnAccoi scs a Case (199 moseaw sco e ieiewoco eicome  su  aisi scos oe icucoeuacoeWas sco come ioes  rdthr  e coe  e emes oa succoe co ioes  rd thntt  (wsok e ose oe coe co is   ouw meas ce acsscome  o wiieae seaemis e meaowis i saieaw iis sai(suc(wsokIai e coe asisI owee aaccommee eeamo ami e sAccoi  wsok ( e sicoe asis is  ii oaemac sas aoa coesecoeuamaiueiesgaois is s Ie mais eiesgaeous isea emi emac sas a geseoeous seaiscause e ieiew queso a os we aeomseaocoeio oai a ai saese queso amee oaemac sas e asisAe same meemac sas caemee om was ses  aua coeuamaie asis oe ieiew acs was  ie owi sequee os1Eacieiew oco aei eio coeuasks a scoocomewas io seco coesi  e oaemac sasai ese we o goa oaia aac aiaisae sas we oa sig Aea a -a eocoaiosas we ge ese we "s oai "e ae"a "omes;" 3eacsa mea oa a -a eocoses we ge ese cs/ias wcwe  coa eagai ae-ae cs we soeio commoemes a emes ocommoemesis iuc oce sueia seoemes a ceaicoeuaska ea A coue oqueso guiis ocewcwe aoaeom wsok ( (aWwas commoacss e seoemes aaicueaa ( Wwas uque aue seoemes aiswcom e seoemes ae immea w is e iiasks a scw as emeie coe oa se sksieiew oco a ias aeiceses  e scaeices a ma ugue e oeoe eseaoows e oeoe ais oe skswcis eiie "oce" secol StA s was ueakewi e coege ss agsewi asaeso mas a o maages a 33 sce goa oewe  ie oimame cessa  come e ieiewe oimamoos awou cau oimaoaee ecogica oecoege sceose accessi oe uage oe sksa e u oe scoA e ss comeaaso semesicoegee ss weeoeacacommu coeges; o was gisia coege ogmo ieases ou couesa e i ias oma couesWi ae sse  ieiew ocowas oweas ae e sus om e s a e cisio  se some s oe ieiew sks a scusseueeaccoeuask wsco a skso  assiga sco accoi  emeicI was e mai I  aeei ckgu isa measumeiaio eei ai a eeee iais ycecaoassessmes I  acqui oe coue omy mas a cogmskwe a eeise ie eoes omaeI am cueemoyeas a cooiosa seices ao oe commu coeges ieouaaIe s7 yeaI  eei eeee woi wi coegess wi  oe ss w iciie s we giswi e sa ceeI wo a e ia e s was  ouomy y--yeeee woi wi ese sse seco was aiucwi a  iycgy w was  miawi o-ageasea e was i  eose oe ssssagegeea ecao e s was ao use aie iai e sco meic e  ioisies iesco we  a we soeugaioaiis omeeaioomo guis scoey we aeom wsok (acus oueyi gic oe ese guis a summaiAeiGAee s was is a I scoom secieiew acse ieaa eom   wcis cois wi e aesu ioeses  wiiCase a scs moUnddh thlllrnntt.  is was e oy sk wcoeuasuo was o e ieiewemoa/mo aeme ogoae a  gi e ieiewee ooues acceAoiaosaous sesicis we aske ieses ie wsuo coiooe "Uei Oe ie Coege ai Coe" skeses om e o agsis sk (Ma & Case199 we useAccoi  Ma a Case (199e cog aes eieo agsis sk we1e a  ieaacssioai ieioa es a  e a  a a s oem a ecaogoss moske se/o e geaoe sk iammaa ecooe s maiccs oa a mooae eeacse we queso  ec e maiccs ses e mmaAs scie ewe o agsis sk was ca se esee oa cecoeuasuc acss e mai (ysicaa sociaiasceea us  e cog come sequee wiiis sge oeIMa a Case seacs was suc coes  asc suge iCase (199 eoasceeese suges weeca uca caa iegca coesi  e moai aca  cooi a ieg   cssieas ssi 1icis  make a coecoeea ccs ssio(aias aie  oe sesa e way e ccwou soe e mma eseeae e oe s  cssieas ssi  icis  ke io accouo ai oasc ie ccs oa  soe e mma seoeiieooe ccs aiA3e icis  make e o ai a  e iay mooae e iie ses io eicooe mmae we eig ses ie ogisko eacsugeSiseswe iie e ese scoesi  e se suges (seea wcscicay eaes   aaco (ai IMa a Case(199 seacicis o es osses a is wecoi e o gsscos we keio accoua a sco coesi e seco gssco was awae e se ss ueoe sk wea oses coesi  eiee -caoiegcasugesusie iesocasi ieiew meoy o ses ( a 3 coesi  e-caa iegcasuges we gi e s ieiews (seeAei1 e ssses we scousi e s sco meice  hh ppt ndn,  aea s sie e sesIaskem/ eie aso s/sesI ew ssaeio eiscio oe sesmaiccs aiI ao moa gse cusi oeo a eco oe s maicco isose aiI ao imee ss  i em we goaoe  sk(ie cacoege sceoswou  a  awi simies eeeses a e coege sceosI aisee ss  ow a simiway osi weseewi e queso iie coege sceo skAea e ss s e o sceos sigis se sceos we we eccacoege siaoIe ewse-awassse-aocacya ieee we as ima skis coege ss   igoa e mas osecoa ecao Iis esi oe ss  se-ii as ai sae o acumeaooai sa a scuss a ose ae oio accommo e uque e scic  eisa (Io & m  Aawass oo ai saes is a ccaciaccessi acamicaccommooe moseque quesacamic accommoowcseasws gay ss wi a  ki a eeeme oems (; MuSii & Ae  eu e ecogica oe sceoso sceoso  -ki a o  em accommoowe we owi e sk gea eacsceo ia mma a quieco oe maiccoQueso aski e ss  ece maiccacoaicogo a emoo we sig e sceosicos e skwewe ss suca mo oee misce ooc- sksesceos we sige ici  ii wi e maicc ai oe icisgee ma/ma mes we use e emise was ais sk awou om e ss   e sceos  eisocoege eeees (see Aei Ie  w si  e queso e sceosa oe ss saous coece sceos  eiowocoege eeeee ss ie eause-iicaoseeki suosgmaacamic accommooe  a sies oes wi e sies oe iuc eese we a issues wceio o oe s goa --gai a euei ow ss wi make mea oemsees ie sociacoe ocoege ai a w ey iauemsees a oe wi wm ey iecie ai coee ses  e sceos we scoio s ssooae was aa scocome accoi  eia  ieccoieio a emooIe seco s e ses weeio se smesa suie a emac asisusi aiucaac i e maemes omea iuei ooeCptn  lrn  is sii oo-ageasea a ig oe ose oe s  sc ssaes   a i wiaacoe queso a uia gesee (see AeiE "Wesai mea you? w wou youiyouowwos ai?" Iis wayssaes  ke "a me-sio (McKeoug& Geu oeeeee oai cou  ecie  l ppt ndn,  e ss we eouge say as mucas eye ioe eie coe oaie  hh ppt ndn,  ewe queso a os sig suo e ss  ess eiesueiAs oesmogy seasuggesssews aukwe a comea muimeio Simiyiwas aueaemeio oai we simuaous ese is awassesemeioas aie sscoeio oai sea we ssgeews oaieiews aue ocess (aac ai goa aouomes oai(e scic queso a ossee AeiE e  is  oe ieiew oqui cumome o oess w was  a e isiooa oe oms  o emes meaco ieuio osese w ieiew ok mo ae aeu-a-a-A e ss saous oemes  suo eismeswcma e isiooe oms gi emes emewe ss we aske "Wis ike   a goake is o? W you i is goais ima?" ey saous ga emes om eis acoege eeeeswcma e oms aIe swo eieiew ocowas esee e oms we giwe ss saous  eicoege eeeese sco oe ssses om  coio was  owi egemeic scae ses ie gsuo coio a emaccoe asis was oe ci sueque comsoeeis semi cagoes osscoeio oai a e coeio scie coeio oai seaCptn  lrnd  e sigoqueso is sk wasioe seawi ss wi ai saes cuseossuei oeiowagsis oSimi e coeio oai skequeso au we u ass e muimeio oe coee meio iicoeio oai sa wemeasymomscausescoequees (e "We wo s a ai sa?"aogsis (e "Cayou a ?" ese queso we aime cau wea  twee e ss ieae mecamooai saes eie maieam cuu (e see i& e Iwas ao ima  gaiaeuei ow e ss ai sa emsees a eways eio we simi oe om e maieam oess we gui ccay ecoeieeees oi iieas sae aski em e queso"W ow you a is e ?" " you age wi eways  is  socie?" (see Aeie  l ppt ndn,  a oe queso owee geieiewaouiaIe  hh ppt ndn,  e queso came mo coio ways  ecie succome ossougs; a secoaow eoocoe iaio succome smuss  ecoeicoege eeees oai wi a a meio(e sigcauseswe oiis coio Ie  e ss gogyioeiis  oe ieiew as iey u a m w eiices cou a (wcwas o oe oses oe ocas scie eoiacoacey eaueioweeeeswceau cs sucas eaco ooe was ss wi ai saes a eiowosaese ai eeeesey ao saous ga suggeso e imomeosa suo seices a ogms  acse-aocacy skiseies ieiewsoy os   mea a maki coeco wei a mo emasis was oomi e ss  ecoeioweeees oi coege ss wi  (see AeiSimi e sco oe oecoeuaskse sso oaeueeaccoiowas a Usi e sco meice o gsscos wea e sco was e seco gsscoIe gsuo coiosssmes we ao suie emac asisElhCttIe eoias coac(Aeiwcwas soe coegesa ceeweis a/oeasiaio smes aueose a oces oe secismes aue amou ome ici ie s a assues ow e ii oe ss wou ocwe i e ss w icii e a e scoace sea ois waye sa seice o kww oe ss age(age ici ie se o coacwasao use scee ss is oeiaaescause oe seco(e coege ss susia e ss oaes wcwe emesuicie  aow eiicioie sA muay coee mee ieiew sessiowas se a oe ieiewsI a e coeges we ss we eoe e ss aae ugeicacoege aesokis os oms w e ieiews ok aceIntvSe s ioeo ieiew sessio e icis we ieieweiiayOageeacieiew ok u-a-a-  comee ss queseakse ieiew sessiowas io e owi sIntrtn tthn:  is  iesis oici es a seeki ioecoee s ieiew ocess semecse esa seices ceeiake ocessIoe cei seicesai saess   se-ii a aace cee  quesseicese ceeusuay  iiaiake ieiews wi e ss  scuss eie acessa acamic accommoouse s ieiew aose was miae sso oe ss w iciie s kw me ommy wo as a sa cooi a  oem woe cse wi me ies Iis seee s caiea mimask oi  e ssess we gie ioecoe  a I ai em (see AeiIecoe  e ss we assuaiey wa  awea queso eywe ee   so wioua oy  cei sa suoAemeasu  eu mimask was gi e icis as ocoue ocoueAe gii oe ieiewe icis we  aisome asoe queso caa ga emooeeeeey wou cei aasocoue icase ey wae seek ocoue aee s wass Aee sig oe ioecoee ss we gie ckguquesoaiI eougeem  ke eime  aia  ask queso isome oe queso we uaCptl ttv:  e soe ieiew sessiocoisoe ecoeuasks giie oewe oeoe sks was aea7scs (19wo oguis suc e oeoe coeuaskse ssy--y eeee ii aucoes sucas ai a aisa was moske mi e  "ai" is  oe commouageaac oiuc oeassume ae mea oe wo is oious a ieoscussiowi e ssSimiye use oe "ai sa auga  ossey is  scussecoeuay; iis usuay "kege" scis ouaiia qui suo is oii coeuaskisesciay wey a coewi w coes a w sksIwas assumea moskeese coeuasks wou  a w eeee e ssa usey wou qui suo iii auei owe ose oe skswasIwas eiae oeoe sks su s wi coe awas cse ssey eeeea wi aeme oweecoae oesks su ok keuse ieiew sessiosewi e "Uei oe"coeuaske  sk was e "ai" coeioske eecowas aaee sk e ss wou  a eawass oe goa oe sIee e ai coeiosk oaeeee wi e geaoequeso a osIa waye sk imee ss  e key emes   keio accou wa eicoeuaueie sessioswi ecoe oai sa skA sks we aisi1w suo coio a  gsuocoiooe(see Aeices  uge o aisaocoioe w suo coiowas ae was  imi okey comse ieieweuseas w suoi oms as ssieI sequeso a waiseswe I ieuea s  aski aioqueso we was a eeciaiomea ie se seemeuaose ss e71ue aey  o cuseses a e  oa oAee icis seeme  eauseise  a queso I coieaski aioquesoOe oeI ie cue icis o ey  ke ey we e ieiews we giy coe e ss we  acause oeeei aioao  coecie ieiewe coi was cessaey we  aey cou se coiask queso oci  wiaw ome ieiew aa me wiouoy  cei seicesey we  aeaccoi wou  gia co ma a eume ss e cice ocosi eioweumsey we  aoy e seaa suisowou  access  e s; aoe e s we acamey wou oo sks a ke ia ckeca A i maa wou  coa ke ia cke caas weAs a keeiicioie se ss ceio moe sses$1eac ey we  aeiey cse  wiaw aa me  eieiewey wou s cei moe ssesMr f EnrCr thndIoe eu e  oe isseca we imemee 1e ieiew aaowee ss  ess eiii ae es Auge we os I ma su  iee ssawe so ae ses wou ec ossowii I euae acs ece ieemea  e ieiewsI soug sseack coiaye ieiew awi os oe  "Wes is mea" aowea coiacck oe ssieemeaAee emes eaccoeuask we ge I coace oe icis w scoae aacsysms   seek eiiuaue7cagoomi a e sci coe oe emesIwas asoy assumeaese ss cou o eack oy aue emes ae aacsysmao aue emes u ae we ocog come73CEUltIntrtne ases a aimeaaeooe o gu oseaquesoo e  osscoeuaueia o  e coeeis a oa coeuaskse eseaooe sus ows e oeoe aisaooe sks e is  e  osscoeuauei ooe a summa owe e is uei oaia ye is  uei oaisaUeeaccoeuaskioe maiaia gicaow a ease oeseao  ssscosiiay a as a gu uew a gsuoa esee Secoaee is  e  ossasoecoeuacoe eaccoe is sc e cecos wi a comsooe  oe ocog come ossii acss a ecoescause ie gsuo coioe ss we aske e oemes (wosey useieisaous sese cus oe asis oecoeuacoe oe ieiews is oe sssmes ie gsuocoio Ie w suo coio e gsosssaous seswas coe Ie gsuo coio e ous  oski oce e oquesogeewi e emes e ss use suo eismessueiao smewcwas scoocome accoi  e scocaIaio a smes we ae esee omaiemes aemi e coe aa icu e eseaoocoeuacoe is7oa coeuaskse ( a emesA summa oe aso aeaceis eseewi maiemes ia e a a eeie Iis smaieme is as e eseaooe moseque occui osimismes acss ieiews scoaa icuea  mea oa a -a e ocoses we ge ese cs/ias wcwe  coa eagai ae-ae cs we soea giauooa maiemeAee summaee (wioue come osom e ieiews a esee Wssie e sssmes a quoywi eimaiemes a suoi aumeseo a emesUnddOthCnCplSco oe ieiews come sayeie "Uei Oe"sk yieescos om 7  1e w suo coio(M=59S1aeea 1(M=11 S13e gsuo coio usi w agsuo coioe  ossaso es om aacmai  aacsysms  Ie w suo coio e aacmai oiiis cc e a  iee sesmaiccois oaaso aacoe icis we ae  iee s cc  aiscioemooa ieioa we ae  use ese o  ecs cc acoe ees iscos eeaacmai aaacsysm e ie ueyi gic ossieoW aeaacmai e gic o aaco was somewaa aiae aacsysm iwas ecaa mui Ss we ae  comue ccscs io o mo geo aiwcsuumes eoeoosi aia we ae  ecccoom muie is o75ewiess sco acomeaacmai caeiaamo o omo si geai  ieooi em io a mogeos scio as ie owi ieoos 3AS (Cayis somewgeus cause s was i a ie s ao seems ki omai cause s maeskas  se a e easi usacause s s wea a es was a ae o (a sco o9 (Wasae aacsysm  e a  ieooi e ai ioa mo gequa is eIsous ke s (Cayis a  o we iseems as is kee oi s mi S is goi ouoway   oeews is s i s gemeS is wai is yi  ce say s s e isSo ia sw swou acwou oy  we s s-ske (a sco o11 (CWIe gsuo coio a oe ss cois iaseeiscosii oe imi a oou  scuss a acce wi e ses ie wsuo coio ie gsuo coio e ss we ae  i eiskis icooi e o ai  a mo aac Comso oe meascos  mea oa sames s iicaae ee ie scos wassscay sigca1 = 191Wicis we qui iee iies a aco oecoege sceosmaicc (ogos cssma a iucwcameimmea aa was e ey  emasi a coecccieioeso aiW you i Ma cssma  W?e cssma oy  e iuc eougs eskw we ciumses aaMa was iei  co e cWki oa ois Ma cssma?A kw-iaII ca i w su someo ee  ae ? S oy s w se-esemcause s e   auoeoe  make e egooWwas Ma cssma ii? W?oy as (Mais i aa as is eaki e sSayi"II ca iw su s?"Wwas Ma ii? W?I imagi aMacause s esseem ke a a o s oeaaemes wie osso I am su s wou agaisay"I sue om ki sI aemi  ke70  Spt   Spt"UnddOth  t..EE 0 8. 6. 4  . . . 1               e sas we as coiI coi  ei smy owousecauseI  a  me ki sWwas Ma e? W?S oy  ae may a  ue cause e oes is ki oe  osicay i moe eougs eskw wis goi o I wou imagi swou eae saoie a may as wou wa  co e c wcause s is woe woeoe mig  iiS mig sueowgs s eio we oeoe we ii(CWis  ose was commomosssAs a gue ssoeaeieaacmai oaacsysms Oy e coeoeeyea oaecao(agea e ieiew coio we sscaysigca3e w suo coio a 1e gsuo coio gus 1 a iusa e ees a e o aioe esee c oe eseao  age a yea oecaoaes aeseeas oiaes ie gusgass oees ie iea eeicisage oyea oecaor Indl pfn  th"UnddOth t thlppt d hhpt ndnb n.rtt(d b n77"UnddOth    Suo   gSuo  4rtt d br2. Indl pfn  th"UnddOth t thlppt d hhpt ndnbCptl Ctte sceos oke simiemeswcequa oee  ocome saye sse emes wcemeeaeaacmai  ok oa e qua ae aacsysm  W ess w scoae aacmai seememo coi soie e coege sceose ss w scoae aacsysm weyo e sceos  o a sysmic ew oissues ke se-iicao sgma oga so associawi i e om oess iaaem  seekacamic accommooa aco om iuc a cssmas  ss wi seeki accommooAaaesumma oe emes aemeeomssses is eseeie 57bl A  thth td  t rpt"UnddOth tComee(Maiemes (emeAacMai(7emeAacSysms(1Se-iicao(17 Ai  se-iicause oaoi easseeki sciaeae7 Ai  se-iicause oaoi easseeki sciaeaeEiaso  se-iicao you coegess wi   wa  eieSeeki seices(77 Wou  oa cauooo ecaogoa; e cagoae ge ssi oseeki seices cause oeaoaseices/accommoo acca o success icoegeUse oe ""(77 Iey se-iiaaiaeuse oe wou associawi a gaso o i equawi sck ouei/miscoeioo(177 Oe   kweauawass ow is1 Oe   kweauawass ow isEie isa icawass cou  ea iia wi ck ouei e sysmoaccommoo as  ee eagiaaagesIuc ck aueioa eiey   aueiey  iia eiaco oeiuc(177 Iuc e aace; Iucso is a ci cie cice ocoues1 ioaiasswi  iuc aaceo a sucac sSuo sysm gscocoege( 5 gscoos a moo-oo suo; mooe acoege suoomoss sco ais moss maieme acss me moss eme wii79Ae  rt pp  e issue ose-iicaoemeeas a commoeme acss a oaes ais  A emi sme was ass sucas e os scie sceos ia se-iicaocause oaoi e oe a aoi eias ss w seek sciaeaew icis ma es  eioweeees cai aaoi ewas a ci ciiii emsees  eiiucI i moscay oe w  ai saes  e same ccscs as Maey a siimi eigew easiey ki osick a ie ey woaaccause ey a o scaaoe e em(I  i  aaca aca eask  a o ee geas a oem omiI i  go u a aca may ey kw me cause oe css sieykw my ce  a mea ey  geem  gi me aaaageowey see asaaaage a e eeA e ei em yousiao a eiis aosas iyou a yi  gai om em(Wie a cssma o e ss iis guesseeeae ma ooe wiouai saes ck auei oo miscoeio auai saesS (cssmaesues is is a  oca; someo ee is  aaaageII ok my s cckeigsco oe oug I was ca a iwas uaiIcou use i Esciay ie acieiou I a ma ac w sai "See w mucquickeiis   e ems is usi a cau" A w e w ei css is macause Igo use a caua ey ey  gewey kw I was oe u asso ey oug iwas uaiau ss ge use a Uess ey  a aisa emseesokw someo w s a ai saey wou ue( ooe say  me"You  a ai sa - oyou s sagiis acay oy saEcyisomeo says"I  a ai sa""soyou  sa"we "we eyou  a ai sa A ooe kw e s auai saw iis ssew ow you geiomoayoua y eoe ask me iiis coagiousA you kii me? (is eme caieo ssieo oiuco ieo sceosW e icis ackwee imae oe sies oe ss ie sceos is ose-iicaoa aaeai imees eey ao emasie imae oiuco iaccommo ss wi ai saesi  eiseeeesess coie o oe iuc as a ci cieicice ocouese y I go io e acI usuay  emwe i oe csseswI icuies i i ow ey ki oac aow ey aacme aua ow ey a wii  awi mewi  ow I e emIi iis is goi  a suie acme cause some omy ac Ie  I go u em a  emIe suggs w  a sa ask iey  wii   me owi  wii me imaki su aI ca isSome oe ac a ske"you a oyouow You a icoege wYou su  ae  w is g awayis ke weiyou awii  wo wi me eI am wii  eie I ok iey a ey mucwii  me ia way ey cassiySeue me iI ei ogo oa coue ois aIueo-se someiogi me mo scic iuco aey wou gi oess cause iey gi me o oaoa c I ki os (A eme aemeeais  wcwas ese ae aacsysms was e comsoosuo eegscoa coegeAasis oeicisckgu s sweaa ss w scoais we seeie gscosciaecaosysme iciscommes emasie caigscoey ceia mo suo aicoegee i is  oe ke me a ock igsco go ge a  wo oisWyou go  coege e is iyou kw w  sYou gea ma ais i Iis ayI meaI wa  sayyou  geemo oss a e way ugscoe was aays someo e   you ake wyou go  see is o we wi you make aaoimeeImakes you mo coi cause mosoe w ai saes a s aui We ke  aeise i Coege is sca a guo ee Is so esomeo wi a ai sa iis 1mes mo oiYouac ay ge kw you as wewe some  ke ie my cssese is o acI  e ee is o acI   a e meais eo as me oua  WI was igscoyou kw e aca e ackw youI ue coege is goi   eiis a g m (You  so mucsuo igsco a a oa sueyou  ke as sooas I waeiomy ac kw aumacay w  acmew   meey acay we ouoeiway   me succee Icoege ey Iis aosas iyou   se acyoue(SMe emes ose-iicao oeuei oai saaiuco we eae  rt l.  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a1iiaways oee eaamewos useiis saows aemioo oea a ieis  oseacou o a ame oe ogm e a seice  iseesca ses eiage a geewou  ae  seee susom e ese e se isiooa comsoguwou make ecosioaue esee oeaogssioiss wi coeuauei ca SfnAeomisi e sea wcca coeuay iewi eese sis a s cusi oaemioocoege ss wi  se-as-aecoeuaoIis aueae ma oee coege a uiss a s ege wcoue  aus  a ai eie eom aigsco a occuewi o oe ima sks o ascee--ecooooa cosi se (e& Moou 199is ioes e aooscic mes oo a iicumaie e oegai e  e oeacmai a e oo oae imaiao ems ima (e 1999  asces a you as a oescas yi oous s a iies uiey  o a (e&MoouAs ss y oe  ocoege/ui s e meeycome au si e "o" se as a aea   a w ew oseas a aea sseomes oscsc come a e  oieigee a a wiia w ai coe a acss e acamic couesIlnf tCuea ca e sigoogms cuseoe e o se-uei a se-awass skis eas e e oseaa acce o1secoa ss wi e eese ogms is seoe assumioass wi ee e a osecoa ecao wou ce mocees aeisaeeAuge a ioisies wi gas is cim ie e emi image oa secoa s wi  is ooa s w somewai  e gecoege s iuei emas osecoa ecao  seaoas wi  emasis auei a accei o  is associawi successa oi coege comeoa ase-awass sees as a oc c icause iaows e iia oac coma sagies ace iscoa emoyme (Aa& ge 199 Skmaea199seaocoege ss wi  ao emasis ese is; e e esuo ieaa oiasi ssse-awass a se-ueiMo imawe is e camosoe ogms seem  cus oao me coue os- ieeio aimeaac ss w  ueeiagses iycecaosIs oieeiosagieseogms seem  ioe iucoiauei ossos as sc ycgis iycecaos oia sosagies wcss asuose a acss e siaoIis e coeioois s asucsuo ogms a siga imemeewe e gaia eueiow ss wi  make see oe secoa ecaoeeseSe-awass skis a ouomes (oossueis oeimaisk oai icoegeusogms y  ca e coequees iaocooe aso ese coequeesme sscoeuauei1e ese seaiui is ueie a moogogy aseesss as ie (u 199  &  is mokes sscoeuaueis oaicuicum a e sociacuucoe oeecaoeese as cessa si is iuco( & secoa io a iuc ce e cee oca ecaoeies wcwi s ai a ieeea wi ao essi ose wi ai saes meee w a eimas oa  a wo ia "ai socie" emasi euei aacaookwe (Kea & a 1999as cii &  Iasimii iis aueasa seice osimi iucoui oe cssomce e cee oca acamicemooa sociasuos aogms wcwi sa euei oai as  ose as aewi a ai sa a  oe ie ai mieue s a sugges aaacai is coeuauei usi meo simi is sieiew aa suo coioa ogm ac se-ueiuei oo sa a e coege-ai eie ca sig iswayss cai eaow meauei oaaccoesese ieiy--y s  coma sagies a  success iscoa emoyme eamowcamee ese s a  oeseice o a eca woi wi ss wi  e mo oo uei e e ocog cacies omeSecoeyo aeoow aiias se ucas acss sks acoesiey o aeoow ss may eeee icuies i1uei aaccoesis i is ima ss wi  w ei w skis  make coeco eeeiw uei oe coequeeso secoa ecaoa eio uei oeiowIisima secoa ogms  ass  eieacsucas sociasuo a accessi ocuya e e ooskis a aisucasieee a ise  success coege ss wi ai saese  a see oemsees as iia w a ae  i a ue "egame ocoege a camake cisio auima mae ieisCne s gae c ao a euei oecees coege ss wi  ceMosoe ss w we ieieweiiss kw ecy weises a weaksses we a we ae  ca oe eocoma e eas siao mae om es wiicoegeis aosic soueess a iocomwi se-ueiSuo seice o su aw osssoueess a coeuaueisa oices su ioo suo gu io e ogms oess wi A suo guwou aow ss ke e ss ie s meoa acoess wi  w  yeese s oskis ose-uei a comao  a ey es iacce ogms ss wi   cus aeioa eos oss emseesom ssses ie ese siaea aeos cou  cuseooe as weCuee ima mea  eu equaaccess  iucocoege ss wiai saes s e o accommoosa seices o amea ees a cuye cue seice sysm es ss wi1saes  scse eisa semesaesemes  sci eisaes amio a ques"scia eae (i asoe accommoo Augaccess  accommoo is guaeeuee wiis oeaemassisgmaa ui ocess as iwas aie ssieiewsese samess commeeow oy cuy ue ai saese ssw asoaaae ouei (i aacsysmsseeme usoo  acamic accommoo we aaoeimeeiiieces e cue aaemes ie  osa seicesemecuee ia oUasigIucois omoas e mosaia aacacamic accommooIis aaac ac acois oe oac siga use oisi iucosagies aa oae oae iss wi saes (McGuiSco & Sw Ios a amewo coege cuy  use wsig osi iuco  si  es ae a  mimi e e"scia accommoo a oeces  e ai eieUasigIucoos oeemise ae ai a  oiucoas we as e eaooai caioo isi as aemace i iae wioucomomisiacamic sas (McGuiSco & Swese a a iies aseeme ea ssuei ooeai a ai sae ss ie s ai sa as asa as a ee iai a ey iaiuc as e os wemacei iaiMosoae ss wae  eias aea mos w eai as a oea eas iiaw eaccommoo1ESAa  & ge SA(199As wi ai saesI Y Wo(E  nt lrnd (e7-7 oAcamicessAmecaCouioEcao(  Clfrhn th d A bnnlt pr  iecem1 om/wwweawuisoues_mAmecaycaic Associao(  nt d Stt Ml  Mtrd M  ( sioWas AuoeMagoaM (199Kwi a aso icoegeGeees issieecaeSaaiscossey-ssyMC M Goe  &  M(19  W    w Yosic oksckS & ssecsMA(19 accaii a sc esmogyeioia eIM Commo  Sio Acs& CAo(E Adt dnt  ( 195-11w Yoaegece& Wa M(19 e ocs coes oiss dtr66,2  ckeo G (1993  Chdr pptn thlrnpr  Uuismass esisUi oisComaou& sc KW(199Cog e iecaocoesImicao oski eoIAmeiouMSye & AEs (E n thr dnt: Ilnd plnfn  (9-3o uee1ggs  (19  Stt pr tlrnd n  MeoueAusaaCouiEcaoseayesMC & C M(199Cog eesmic ua iiaoiascee n  Yth d Adn, 2  7-3ikeoMcGui& SwS(E (  ndn dtrtn f tth lrnd (e Aus o-EisComa Misy oAaeEcao(Augussa Seices GieAugus3 om/wwwgoa/ascia/weomeisComa Misy oAaeEcao( ai sa assessmecaoa guis assesso ieAugus3 om/wwgoa/sseices/s/iu  S(1975 e oogesis osecac n  Chd n 2,  1-19u  S(19 a a gmac mos oougIEEis(End tth   (97-115 Ccagoe oSocie e S oEcaou  S(19  Al nd pblrld  CamieMAa Uiessu  S(199 A   CamieMAa Ui essac  & o  (19 Cs coes oysicaissA ew acque oe cog-ea th h   3-3 E &   K( oesmogy a eo omicieyou cs e aukwe a kwi Id h 20,199-1e  ( As wi ai saesI Y Wo (E  ntlrnd (3 e5-59w YoAcamic essCa& Caee-Ewa M( Aiegasis osecoa sscoeio a e auai En n  hEdn, ,  1-1Case (19 o-ageaeoosca osc  Intnn n h 22,  773-79Case (199 nd r: Explthnptl dpn dr tht d l.  swe EumCase (199coeua e  ocs coeuasucs a eie imi co I Case & YOkamo (Ee  ocecoeuasucs ie e ocs oug MrhthStf   Chd vnt,  (1-1-Case (199e e ocoeuasucsIWmo&  e(E ndb d p l2: Cnn, pptn, dl (5 e7-w YoWiyCaseOkamoY & eo  (1993 Iiaa a coisy icog ew ee e ese ocecoeuasucsI Case & WEi(E n rt dnt: rd rr  dl ph  (71-1 se SKaeAGCo  (19 ai saes a asceeeacoioIMSuga AEsma  eyAScae& ASosky (E Adntptr vnt d   ( 1 177-19CcagoeUi oCcago ess1Cos M ow C & EioK( e ose-uei a se-esem ica as wi ai saesI Y Wo & Me (E  d lrnd E h n n  (33-51 Maa we EumCos MEioK eS & Keme E(1999 Se-uei a se-esemicwi ai saes nbQrtl 22,  9-Cue  SwS& McGui M(199acosuo ose-aocacyamo coege ss wi ai saesA comsooacces aais n  ndEdn d b (2  15wsok  ( "A gooecaois e e oeaoug acss e -s  G, Sl, d G hMrh0,  11wso  sc KW & Si  ( coi qua a quaiseaaacsA cog eac Idh 24,  9-9Eise  & o E( Coeio oai a kwe igecao o wi s oa iees oaieies Intnn n  Edn , 4  7-Ewise & ms  (19  Unddt lrn  o ComeSSae M & SwS ( Se-io A key  success isecoa ecaoss wi ai saes dl d SplEdn, 24,  339-35 (  Whnd hn dn rdd h th lrn: A n lrrd  waIeaoa Associao13& SamueS (  Inrd Intt d tn   hht tt  waIeaoa Associao  (199cy e isuccessmea womewi saAnn , 48,  311-3sc KW(19 A eo ocog ee coa coucooees oskis h v 8  7-531sc KWAyou C Si I amG MagaA & ya (1997ycogy as ai e a s ways vntd hh   7-7sc KW &  (199mic e oycgicasucs iacoa ougIWmo&  e(E ndb d pl r d h dnt  (5 e7-5 wYoWiysc KW & a M (19 Geo augeo w a eo oski e ei  ge a scici Intnn n h 22,  3-sc KW  & sseS (19 e e oaaco iascee a ao IMSCommo Acs & CAo(End fl n tnt d t dnt  (-73 w Yoaegesc KW & Kee  (1997 o a e ma ss oee case ose-io iKoaIEAmse& KAie(E Ch d dnt: I thr th, dpln  (117-15Maa we Eum131sc KW KgCC & sM(1993 A i ieawaysMeo a coesI Case & WEi(En rt dnt: rd rr  dlph,  (33-5se SKaeAGsc KW & S (19 ocesses ocog eOimaaski acquisio I  S (E  Mh  dnt  (- w YoW eemasc KW & seS (199mic e ocooioocomsiaia o A amewo eo a sea IGwso& Ksc(E n br d thdbrn  (3- w YoGuiosc KW eE& ock  (1993 e mics ocomew coe cos cy  skiI  Woiak & KWsc(Evnt  ntt: Ad thn  vnt (93-117swe EumGee   (199sea as wi ai saes om aa-eac n  nb 2  1Gee   ( ai saesA  saac I  a&  KKeog(E  d  pt  lrnd (1-1 Maa we EumGee  Gi& i  (199Iii aee es iemoyme success gy successas wi ai saes n nb 2  5-7Gee  & i  (1991  Spnf thlv: Ethnrh tv thtth lrnd  Aim Ao MIe Ui oMicgaess13Gee  i & Gi (199ami e ai saeseeee n  nb 2  91GeaumGmS & ScasW(1995 As wi ai saesEcaoa sociaeeees  coege Exptn Chdr, 6  Gi S(199 You cs awass oeiiewo A o-sucasisoe e oioieigeeI Case (E  ndr: Explthnptl dpn  dr tht dl  (1-swe Eumggis ( Couc images oouees? A ccaiesgaoio"Aacs  ai" seaigecao  h Edn n, 2  -1mme  M& EyA( Oe  ooesmogyI K&  c(E rn t p bftl d  (1-19Maa we Eummmi  (199O ai saesAemei coeus n nb 2  7e S(1999  nrtn  thlf: A dnt pt  w YoGuioe S & Moou A(199eaasis ococcause oosias ie asce se-i  vnt h 28,  1-ima & Ka  ( Co eeees amo ss igecaoEdn St ,  1-5yma W (199e se-eiooai sa a i oacamic se-coe a se-esem n  nb 2  5133ckM se & Scmake  (1993 ai sagy iucoask aai-saeas tSl  (, .  K( oesmogy as a ycgicaa ecaocouc Aico I K&   c(E rn t p bft l d  (3-1Maa we Eum  K( Esmogicauei as a mecog ocessiiau oi sea Edn ht, (,  -57  K & c   (1997 e e oesmogicaeoeseaukwe a kwi a eio ai v Edn, 6  -1yC GggWiseake Sigis amS KiM & MoC(1997essioa aie io gu oas wi ai saes nbQrtl 20,  Iee  & age  (195 th  l thn  o ueeIoM & m  ( e e ose-ioa se-aocacyskisEsseiakeys ss wi saesI h thdf  ptn  ptndn d plnt.ocees ooCaci ii I a e oCeeeS osecoa EcaoSuos ( - Ogo (ECcume ocoSeice E79gso S & Aeo C(1993 Sco a ssesmogicae auai CtpEdn h ,-3513s C( Sseio oai iyea iecomics acommee cuy  Edn  d vnt, 20,  1-1Ka M& sc KW( A easequee iascesieuuei n  Appld vnt h 2  9-Ki M & Ki KS(199 vrltjt: Undddprtltl th d  thn ntd t  Saaiscossey-ssKi M Ki KS Woo  K& so M (19 oacsseamaiA is oieeca moa egoeIM Commo  Sio Acs& CAo(EAdt dnt  ( 157-7w YoaegeKis M& eo C(19 Cs coeio oe causes oissUei coagioa e use oimma sce Chd vnt, ,9-Ki KS( Skissksa oscies ie uei a oe e o esmogy Id h 20,  3-3Ki KS & Ki M(19 ec meCoes oscaoaeio age a ecao  n  Appld vnth 2,  -11Ki KS  Csc KW & Woo  K(1993 eaeoec mee eecocoeuasuo a acce oeasge vnt h 2  9135mSsc KW & S(199Couc ccism a sociaesAeasequee uei s a kiss isociaieco vnt h  3 5-5e Ma- & GuG( as osuccessai saess iui ExptnEdn C  15(1 9-C( ai om e ae( acamic cies aai saes icoege n  Adnt & Adt t  59Maa M & AYago M(199ai sa suyss acssom ause nbQrtl ,  7-31Ma& Case (199e e oaacaso aue ysicaasociawo  Chd vnt, 6  1-159Mai E& ms  (19 ai skisoski iai? IEicsoMWEysek&  W(E Stt lrn (155-1 MioKeysEOUi essMao  (19 emegysc coeio oe woau usInrtn S, ,  177-Mao & oS(1997  nd   Maa we EumMao aG& aE(1993 Coeio oai Intnnn  Edn , ,  7-3Mao&  Sao (1997 Aacs  aiI  Mao   ue&  Ewise (E pn  lrn (e39-5EuScoisAcamic essMascoMsc KW & imeye  A(1999 e mic coe oieiosea sociaoI ae&  Me(E13An d lfnt: rd rr thr thl  (133-1 ousa OaksCASage icaoMascoM & sc K( ways  eeeeeesuosio a e e oacamic a aec skis iecaocoesIMa (E  r  ll thr n  (113-1Maa we EumMco (1993 e acquisiooa c  a ai saISCik&  (E Unddprt  td ntt.  CamieCamie Ui essMcGuiScoS & SwS( Uasiga i acaoiecaoeies dl d Spl Edn, 2 71-175McKeoug A & Geu  ( aaoia oug asceee suc a coe os comsio n  Ednh ,  537-55McKeoug A me & MaA(1995 Coeuace iakweycgicaueis ow-cy a  as n rrd f  5(1 -Mea&   S(199Sociacomies as a way  successaio nbQrtl ,  1-1Me & Ga A(1997 A ew oe  ose-aocacy comsiaioogms ss wi ai saes n  tnhn, 8,  3-1MuC Sii  & Ae S( secoa ecaoss wiai saesA sysis oe  Exptn Chdr, 68,  97-11137oi Commiee oai saes (19 As wi ai saesA ca  aco  nbQrtl   1-1ss& ice (199Mee e ycsociae oasces a as wiai saes Intvtn  Sl d Cl, 26,  1Oeek S & Maae  (1997 Coege s aso auiss aycgicacoes n  Ar Clth, 46 (,  1ia& sc KW(199e accause oski eo icssomsIS & WWiiams (E Intl, rtn, d nt: rtprt (95-11Maa we EumscaaE & i (1991  llftt nd d tfr tnt rr.  Saaiscossey-ssi E& Gei S(19 e a moiyouyCs uei oiss dtr 6  1-9yWG(197 r  tltl d h dnt  thll Ah  w Yoia & Wii SM(1999  tthlrndl: Sfptn lrndltllt  Uuiscsseao Ui oMassacsesAmM &  ( Uuisseaosa e Ui oisComaM( You gissociaueiEmee ieeoeeise AbSt ,  113-1ice& o   ( A w wooe Coec a eaeo ai saes dl d Spl Edn, 24,  3-3313Qia G & Aea (1995  oesmogicae a aessssisecoa scossai sciee coes om  n Edn h  skiMGo ggiE& a K (1999 es ocea ec osuccess iiia wi ai saessus om aey-yeais nb & t   (135-i  K & eW( e scui acce oai saImicaoiucoa -scoo n  nb ,  1i  ( ami e ai saes eeee  nb d t ,  1-19ma Aog E & Wea-Ge  M(199i you asue eiai saes n  nb 2  3-9ma & Cos M(1995 e oeese-eiooa aisa a acemese-coea sociasuo nbQrtl ,  3-  M McCoac  McGui M & isSM( e eiaimcoacamic se-gu meo oacamic aceme amoui ss wi a wiouai saes n  nb ,  7Sao (1979 ai auai  Edn, 8,  3-1SacogMie  & W,  , M(19 e ause oss wiai saes  ui a i o se-esem a se-eicacyn  nb 22,  5959139Sce   (  lrndl llt: Expnnthhdrr.  Uuiscsseao Aws UiSceeA (19 yo e  cogesysmssociacogo amecogo as i es iieecaoae CnS, 3-3Scmme M(199Eec oe aue  okwe ocomeion  Edn h 82,  5Scmme M (199e iee oage a sco oesmogicae hn  Edn h  551-5ScmmeAikiM( Aei eocaamewo aesmogicaesysmI  K&   c(E rn t p bft l d (pp.  -11Maa we EumScmmeAikiM( Ei e esmogicaesysmIci eemesysmic moa cooiseaaac  Ednht, (,  19Sea   (19  th  tpn dd vnt d .  w YoAcamic essSia  (19  Clrdvt  queIOWCowSii & aA (199A asces wi ai saes successycssi e ie  a ?  nbQrtl ,  97-111Sckma Go & a K (199ai saecgwu A seac  success ie you a yea nb d t   1-171SgeK & Mie  (199Iisie sc n   Edn, 6  5Se  A( secoa ecaosuos ss wi saesAew a seI h th df  ptn ptndn d plnt.  ocees ooCaciii I a e oCeee S osecoa EcaoSuos ( - Ogo (EC cume ocoSeice E79Kas ( Sociacogoiai saesI Y Wo & Me (E  d lrnd E h n n  (11-31 Maa we EumMaas& Moa  (199A casoe eocaaac sgewisecog e h v ,  395-7Gee   (1991 A mic sysms moocog a uage gwh v ,  3-53ge SA & Aa  (199e success ocoege ss wi aisaesc  ecaoaaie n  nb 2  1ge SA u & Aa   (1993 Ecaoa ycgicacisuccessa uuccesscoege ss wi ai saes nb d t 8(,  35-goky S (19  Sr . O dt  (  .  [CoecWose amea ocgy ( 5Moskowgogy isi1goky S(197 Md   dnt  hh p pr(MCo -Si SSce & ESoua E& aCamieMAa Ui essWec  (19  Ml f thWh Adt Intl Slv.  SaAooycgicaCoWee C WaeyeM & CyC(199Ai ooas ayou as wi ai saes nbQrtl ,  5Wie & Siege  (199A Caac oai saes n nb 2  3-35Ya & sc K( Aays uecouco mic ao iacog mic e n vnt, 4  1-1ssous& Ga  (1991 Aueic assessmeyo e wo a ioe cssom (-71 I o (E  Expdt nt.AaAssociaoSuisioa Cuicum e1AEIAEOIACOACSttlClSttth nb vnt rt Cptnn nb d UnddOth np Invt:  Maoosso me oEcaoa Coueycgy a SciaEcao Ui oisComaCoaco m (-CInvt:  e ccGa Sme oEcaoaCoue ycgy a SciaEcao Ui oisComaCoaco m (-3 CrdAdvrnSplt:My me is e cI am a cs ie me oEcaoa Coue ycgy a SciaEcaoae Ui oisComaI am woi uee suisiooMaoossoie samemeis s is i comeas iaime oe quimes oacoisoy iSciaEcao I am w you  ice my seasa  ask yousuo aac ss wi ai saes giswiyouoicerp thWe a iesisi w coege ss wi ai saes iaue ocess oai a eiai eeees a ew ey  emsees e ai oems ey eoue a wieiewsoecoegess a iuc i a eauaiIis wayis seas gis coege ss wi ai saes aice so ey caess eiougs a es aueicoege ai eeeeCoege yea a ima yea io a esciay coege ss wiai saesiis aima  eIasisa seice oa coege iuc ei iima  ke io accou ai saesscs iimo sa suo seices a ica meaaieeees ss w  eeioai e ici iis se ss wi  maki aima coo e e oai saes aswe as  e way ose wi ai saes w  ye ae coegeis is a uque oou eioo a eeee   a1Whld pt the s ioes o ieiew sessio Ie ss age  ici iesI wi meewi em i  couce ieiewe ieiew wi keama 3 ue wi  eaks as ques e icisWe a iesiieiewi ss wi ai saes w1  some eeee ai isecoa seiusss w aaas ieiseco s semes  se-iieas a s wi ai sa a suiecumeaooa ai sa cog e Misy oAaeEcao3 a 1yea o a oe a eiema oma5a wi aasage oskisCftlIe ss age  ici ie seimes oa oeioaoawou ii em cy wi  scseia weoacommucaoCptn:As a keeisuo a me s ie se ss wi cei sses mous aye moe eaEiey cose  wiaw aa me e ieiewey wi s cei moe ssesltrtn:icioie s wi  ei aIey  cose  ke  ie sey wi  e g  wiaw aame  e ieiewey  eg  se  awea oe queso a/ose ieiew aa meey caquesaio oe ieiew  sossemi Ie ss cose ici oiey ci  wiaweisi ae coege a/oeisa suo seices wi    aecia waytt  Inl Ctt:Aac is ea coes oe ossiacoac I wou ke ask you  se e oyouwei oea/sI wou ao ke  ask you io ss wi ai saes giswi youce aue s a eace w ey caai scioa  my coacioaoCtt n d ltlrn rt thIyou  a queso osi ioaowi sc is syoucacoacme a3I am aie  scuss e s ose a oces wi e aoSSeices iqui you aace ssI wou ke  a you iaae yousuo1AEIS EOIACOACSttlClSttth nb vnt rt Cptnn nb d UnddOth np Invt:  Maoosso me oEcaoa Coueycgy a SciaEcao Ui oisComaCoaco m (-CInvt:  e ccGa Sme oEcaoaCoue ycgy a SciaEcao Ui oisComaCoaco m (-3 Stt:My me is e cI am a cs ie me oEcaoa Coue ycgy a SciaEcaoae Ui oisComaI am woi uee suisiooMaoossoie samemeis s is i comeas iaime oe quimes oacoisoy iSciaEcaorp thWe iesisi w coege ss wi ai saes i aue ocess oai a eiai eeees a ew ey  emsees e ai oems ey eoue a wieiewsoecoegess a iuc i a eauaiIis wayis seas gis coege ss wi ai saes aice so ey caess eiougs a es aueicoege ai eeeeCoege yea a ima yea io a esciay coege ss wiai saesiis aima  eIasisa seice oa coege iuc ei iima  ke io accou ai saesscs iimo sa suo seices a ica meaaieeees ss w  eeioai e ici iis syou wi  maki aima coo e e oai saes as we as e way ose wi ai saes w  ye ae coegeis is auque oou youoo   a a you  s youougs aeeeeWh ll bvv?1e s ioes o ieiew sessio Iyou age  ici ie sec wi meewi you i  couce ieiewe ieiew wi keama 3 ue wi  eaks as ques e icise owi s a iie ieiew1 Ae gii oe ieiewI wi ask you ckgu queso sucas agesemesa ogm osesa scic agsis oa ai sa Aecome e ckgu ioao you wi  eseewi ses awi  aske sc e maicco a o Aea Iwi a1 sceo sc cacoege cssom siaoa wi ask you ece maicco a  sc we cc aii a e3Aee sceoI wi ii you  scuss youias auaiaisa a se as a ae You wi  aske sciyouowwos wyou uei a eauese coesCftlIyou  age  ici ie syoume oa oeioaoawou ii you cy wi  scseia weoacommucaoCptn:As a keyousuo a me s ie syou wi cei sses mous aye moe eaEiyou cose  wiaw aa me  eieiewyou wi s cei moe ssesltrtn: Youicioie s wi  ei aIyou  cose  ke  ie syou  e g  wiaw aame e ieiewYou  e g  se  awea oe queso a/oseieiew aa meYou caquesaio oe ieiew  sossemi Iyou cose  ici oiyou ci  wiawyousi ae coege a/oyousa suo seices wi    aecia wayCtt n d ltlrn rt thIyou  a queso osi ioaowi sc is syoumay coace c a3Ctt n d ltpt thIyou cose  ici ie sease coace c a(-31AEICCKGU IOAOInrtne ioaow is i coecioe e e iee oec oai saecoege sso icoegeYou cacose o youme ia gi a eumy me(oio o(MM//YYCoegeCamsCo Im(seas used:  ease ke a mome  awee queso wMa youawe wi a"Yougee ^ Wckgu  you coiyoue ? Ma^ (emeCaucasia Asia Aica ma ^ eEdn1Wis yougsoecao  Wis youaa/ogm oses? comi  is coege? Some gscosgcome gscoga/yea Some coege/msemesaee Coege oma/sci Coege ceica/sci Some ui/ msemesaee Ui ga/yea 1AEICCKGU IOAO(Ct.Edn3Cue yeaicoege? yea(seco semes Seco yea Mo ayeanbn Wyou we iieas a ^ 5Wyou we assessewe you wyouaa oai sa was?ai saes? ^ Y Iyesease iica wcese aas we Emea sco ^ (Ma mo ao icessa Mi sco gSco ^ r d rd Coege ^ se sic a a co wos Seca uage skis Wecomsio Weessio Si w Ma cauoskis Ma oem soi Memo o SusiAeio ocessi se S skis Oaoskis -ki skis me mageme ski skis oIme Co Oeease sc1AEICCKGU IOAO(Ct.nbn  you a suequeassessmes aee assessme? Yes Iyesw ma mes a wwe youassesse7Wwe you assessesuequewe you  wyouaa oaisa was? Yes Iyesease iica wcis/ese aa/swas/we?You cause e sa  w weaas1AEICCKGU IOAO(Ct.nbn Wis youcue agsis oai sa (emeasa9Wwou you sc as aas oai icuies ae ese me?15AEIUEI OOESptE O AGSIS SK A. MAv IUCOOeacoe owi ges you wi  a sYou musci we ccie s wou  a waugsome ses mig aeasimi eaco iseeaseaeacs cay a awe e soyoua woy aumeIiis easieyouI caae ses  youme (oeum/CoGee o151AEI(Ct.UEI OOESptv lAO e as  was wai  y cke e swaeoiegeaao   e oas ke oe gei ie  aaoa askee o moe  yw aiasco s we  s csse s u aaoes keoks a was usi emW you i  W?15AEI(Ct.UEI OOESptv sa waea w ess a eS a aua -ice sa aa casso s ci goAe sasa u a ce ess a ie  ooewai   see e case sa ie ess oe couea w s wascoui moy aecusmegee essAs e oeowas cckie esssa  e saaeoows aimesa u aa okegae o a was usi emW you i sa W?153AEI(Ct.UEI OOESptv 2AW was si e comi  came  iesio oesmoW wai  geioaooe say mo  ceaseoe esee m  e sasmaa ewai someme a wou ke   see aaeoo as  was ee esco  saw a s cayi a e caa  oems o e o oes assise  o e oso ae s cou gei  ewe  s css a u aaoes was sii is seaW you i  W?15AEI(Ct.UEI OOESptv 2Sco aaaeiseme ie aua sa ocyc s eaw seos s cycso  we io e s  y emW  was couis moy  see i eug someo gee sios a ieeyAs e oeowe  y e s Sco  e sOs way  wo aaeooSco saw a o oems si s ca  oe  a eoaccee WSco aiawo  u aaeokesome os o a was usi emW you i Sco W?155AEI(Ct.UEI OOESptv Cay was wai i  geskas sea sas  came uey aoueae swas csiCay  e oe ae sas ewai a  me a s waeskas se ey csee s Aeska s we o see ies ie aeoos memas   me cause s we comiso s eusee a se a wie aske is aassigeCay ee wi mewo a e meOway s sea i sWs goo e s a oaacaski coW you i Cay W?15AEI(Ct.UEI OOESptv is wae geioaooa w so sysmso  we  e s see w cou Ae s  waiae coue  seee sasmawas sei oeoeeose w came aemis  e s wiougei s ioao Os way  scoaaeoo mema i s oc cssso  we ck me  gei W aiame soeaskes  i e ca is em e caa  scoSie  was s  ge scoome  se s s  gosco ieeaki s ocakem ma u owo  sW aiicss  u aa s w  eugmoy  yogicasues was usi s maawiouaski issioW you i is W?157AEIUEI OOEClSn Spt"w you wi  e oou  a e is we scusse I wi ayousceos sc cacoege siaoa wi ask you queso aue maicco ieio a esAwe e soyouaease eee  ask a queso you may  aue sceos"is is Ma (ckseco semesicoegeMa (ckse semesoy cause s (a icu me ki goos icssIis semes o oMa (ckcoues is ogy 1Aegii oe semese ogy iucioee css aiwas susuacy  aow ss   co s csy is Ma(ckmosima css e y e iucwi  ewi emaa wcwi  cooe  emMa (cksee e/mse e css  ki ouos ckck a coe a aci ioe skAs s/ was aci e  coeoeskMa (ckcaug e suseok oo os cssmasS aea e iuceee cssomMa (cksaw e cssma awas e iuc"W you i e? W?W you i Ma (ckcssma  W?Wki oa ois Ma (ckcssma? W?15Wwas Ma (ckcssma ii? W?Wwas Ma (ckii? W?Wwas Ma (cke? W?159AEI(Ct.UEI OOEClSn Spt"Wia (e is i(sseco semesao oe ci commucoegesS/ is eoeia ycgy 1 css is semes ssemes Wia oy oemsS/ a  me s e ems wiie meaoe e iucAe gii oe ycgy csse iucaoueae wou  e ems  e semes eaccois omuieciceessay a s awequesoe iucao  e css ae emswou  mea ss we eec sem wiie aocameAee oe cssWia (e ae o oe cssom w e wasaea a -uoss wai    e iuc As Wia waiaes ia s ie -u w was s WiaWWia camee iuc a was gei  a mee a  ecssomW you i e? W?WWia (e ? W?Wwas Wia ii? W?Wwas Wia ai   e iuc W?w was Wia e? W?W you i e iuc W?W oa ois e iuc W?1AEIECOEIO OAI IEIEWSpte ieiew gi  ici e icis  e sk oii aueai coe"I am ies kw w coege ss ue ais e aI  a e wo ai e me imy a I wa  kw wimeaI am goi  ask you queso awi ask you  y   me eiyou caauai   me eue wai meaWes ai mea you? w wou youiyouowwosai?Wis e wo is ai? w es o kw /s saesomei? Spte ieiew gi  ici e icis  e sk oo sescic awe aue ai coe"I wou ke  ask you w mo scic queso auaiWyouaweeacoe quesoI wou ke you  summa oseyouaweio wos oses asc youuei auaiemeiaogi aaweke "O aays kw /s aesomei w/s camemi " you may wa  say"ai is mem y  me as ma wos oses (aasu as you caasc youii aue queso aske I wi w e wos you  me oese seo wc e es weoem (sw ges ese es akey wos om e queso I am goi  ask youe ieiewesws ese wi as "oew oai "aac" "goa tWa wos oses asc wai is?Wa wos oses asc e goa oai?Wa wos oses asc w o goes auai?1AEIECOEIO OAI IEIEW(Ct. f l leacoe ose ieieweis  wo/s ose/s weoeseSAbrtn(1a-oai you say aai is ^Wes is mea(1a-ogoa you say aa goaoai is ^W you mea a(-aes ogoaWis ike   a goake is o? W  youi is goais ima? omGi me aeme om youcoegeeeee sc wis ike   a goake is o (e ieieweis  same wo a says iouu(-oaac  you say ais is ^ (wo/seascs w o goes auace ai goa? Wes is wo meaW is is ima? (e ieieweis a says ouua wo om ese"aac(-aes oaac Wis ike  y  ace ai iis way?omy  i auaeme om youeeee icoegeAbrt ppe ieieweis  o oe wos/ses a eask e queso( Cayou see a way iwca oese wos/ses a simi eocause eacoee ieieweis /mes o oewos/ses a eask e queso(  you see w a oeo oese wos a  w a ey w is (ie a wo ^  ^ (ie a woomy  i aua siao aeme om youcoege aieeee wese o wos we somew 1AEIECOEIO OAI IEIEW(Ct.Abrt e ieiewesec e i owos om  a  a asks e ici asoaua wos/sco(3a  you see w a oe wos ia  eacoeomsYou may wa  i aua siao aeme om youaieeee icoege w a oese cou  eisome way meaeme acomes  mi ow ese a we (3  you see w a oe sco a  eacoe Iwway? mew ey a iis way? om me aeme acomes mi ow ese a a iis wayAbrt pl( Iyou y   a e wos(i  e wos scusseiAacSysms aa  a guem a gi em a si scio wwou isscio? Is e a commo acoec a oese wos isome way?1AEICOEIO OAI SASpt"So youe  me auyouias auaiIis  oe ieiewI wouke  ask you  i auai wo s a ai saWe eauwai mea; w I wou ke you  i auwai sa mea awe wo s a ai saw wou youiyouowwos ai sa? Wes aisa mea you?Wa e sig oai sa?Wis e wo s a ai sa?W  you i a ai sa comes om?Cayou a ai sa? (AioosIyesw? I  ppt"I wou ke  ask you w mo scic queso auai saWyou aweeacoe owi quesoI wou ke you  summa oseyouawe io wos oses asc youuei auaisay   me as ma wos oses as you caasc youii aue queso I ask youI wi w e wos you  me oese se o(sw ges" tWa wos oses asc wai sa mea  you?Wa wos oses asc e sig oai sa?Wa wos oses asc wis e wo s a aisa?Wa wos oses asc e causes oai sa?1AEICOEIO OAI SA(Ct.Awe om e ieiew  is i wi  use ask icis  asoaueo amo e ies ey scacss quesoe ieieweaces ese io oe icise ieiewecoses o wos om e awe eacquesoa asks e queso w f l leacoe ose ieieweis  wo/s ose/s weoe seSAbrtn(-oai sa you say aai sais^ W you mea a(-ioocauses you say ae cause ai sais^ W you mea a(-oosig you say ao oe sig oai sais^ Wes is mea(-aes o Gi me aeme om youcoege eeee scwis ike   a ai sa?W ow you a is e ? you age wi e ways  is  socie?Abrt ppe ieieweis  a o oe wos/ses a eask e queso(  you see w a o oese wos/ses a  w aey e ieieweis  o oewos/ses a eask e queso(  you see w a oeo oese wos a  w a ey w is (ie a wo ^  ^ (ie a woomy  i aua siao aeme om youcoege aieeee wese o wos we somew 1AEICOEIO OAI SA(Ct.Abrt e ieiewesec e i owos om  a a asks e ici asoaua wos/sco(3a  you see w a oe wos iese o i a  eacoeomYou may wa  i aua siao aeme om youaieeee icoege w a oese cou  eisome way meaeme acomes  mi ow ese a we (3  you see w a oe sco a  eacoe Iwway? mew ey a iis way? om me aeme acomes mi ow ese a a iis wayAbrt pl( Iyou y   a e wos(i  e wos scussei3a a 3 aguem a gi em a si scio wwou is scio? Ise a commo acoec a oese wos isome way? W esewos  you au1AEIGGESCO MEIC Sco Ski Suc Ca ase ssCogCome  1Ca a se ssSociaCoe  3 1 eseaoSysmsAe  cooia iegseysicaooco emesio a guAe  sc mycgicass ey ae aco/ co sociao/co sociaaesokwe/ gkes askes/uieiaai Come3a S ocuseeomo3seias eesem ss caoem3 Come3 Comui omo 3ss a iegs mycgicass e ois a (cause icoise uei iscooyeA  SiAacoAe  cooia ieg aas o ysicaoococcscs iasi aacCooom eoussuge ueiAe sc a ieg aasom ycgicass oco sociaaco ocosociaaes ouieiaai io a si eugeycgicas oemooocogoogesociaai ogesociaa oeiaococ o ai5 ComeA Suoosocus eeoai mo wioucao amo aoemeias eegeycgicass/emoo/ sociaai/ gesociaa/aicaoem/caa aiomycgicass1eom Kaa sc( Aeom McKeoug& Geu ;McKeoug me & Ma1995ge=eseao; A = aaco 1 = si ski (e aacoug u; = o skismaeio eacoe 3 = e omo skis ieeio o oug usysm; a =aaososu o ski aeosi cus om o ski  aeae sameea = aaosocomui yey iecooi muie skisae same ea1AEIGGESCO MEIC(Ct. Sco SkiSucCa a sessCog ComeCa a se ssSociaCoe   ComeAComui A 1 s mo As  cagoeiegoos a iegs geycgicasse ois a (cause icois cooyeA 7 AacMaisAe   aas Cooiegoeeo si eugeoe e oca eiecausa(Acauses  ooosimi (A a aakecause  aies ooycgicass/emoo/cogo/sociaais/sociaaes/ oeiaococo ai  eacoeos ecieo"e w" oowcis oosiom wcis ^ io a si aac ComeASuoos ocus eeomoaacoeias eeomosi geycgicass/ emoo/ sociaai/gesociaa/aia ae a is uei9 ComeAComui e  3 omoaaco yo omais a iegs 3 omogeycgicass/emoo/cogo/sociaais/sociaaes/ oeiaococo aie ois a (cause icoiscooye1eom Kaa sc( Aeom McKeoug& Geu ;McKeoug me & Ma1995ge=eseao; A = aaco 1 = si ski (e aacoug u; = o skismaeio eacoe 3 = e omo skis ieeio o oug usysm; a =aaososu o ski aeosi cus om o ski  aeae sameea = aaosocomui yey iecooi muie skisae same ea1AEIGGESCO MEIC(Ct. Sco Ski Suc Ca ase ssCogCome Ca a se ssSociaCoe  2A3 1 AacSysmsAe  cooigu oCooiegoo3 omo geycgicaaaco a ss/emoo/cogo/sociaais/sociaaes/ oeiaococo aii em iocomeowi eacoe ComeA3a Suoosocus eeomo A3seias eeomogu o3 omo geycgicass/emoo/cogo/sociaais/sociaaes/ oeiaococo ai1 ComeA3 Comui e  3 omos a iegs 3 omogu ogeycgicass/emoo/cogo/sociaais/sociaaes/ oeiaococo ai e iegois aA3s iegoyeA 13 iies ( Ae   o o Cooiegoo3 omo aac mo gu ogesysms gee ycgicass/emoo/cogo/sociaais/sociaaes/ oeiaococo ai iies1eom Kaa sc( Aeom McKeoug& Geu ;McKeoug me & Ma1995ge=eseao; A = aaco 1 = si ski (e aacoug u; = o skismaeio eacoe 3 = e omo skis ieeio o oug usysm; a =aaososu o ski aeosi cus om o ski  aeae sameea = aaosocomui yey iecooi muie skisae same ea1AEIG2AIOSCO GUISSki Suc EmesSiAaco O oaacaes sucas mesacesacacsss ese aes  a socaquaos ke asome somemesaays osomeeo "Some ac a mea mosy ey a ce" Cs oas & ai "Meaoe ye" Cacouci o ge cause & eec "You oug  go  sco eougiyou  ke icause e was  gea goo Uses gussos "A goos ses s  ackes csses" uooaosms "e mo you ae smaeyouwi "Aac  Aes aacaes coecwi ie ieesMais a causasimioosiowi si aes oeiusi; "Iyou   youacke a o s wi ge kwyoua wi make mo iesiyouac w aiesiyou a mo  a om Aumes suoewi emcaogicaee "gei kw my ss s me gu ouwey e a Se-iis comseocs oai osocies "I y   a goos a ask a oquesoI am sa  aaioi emasse a amakes i o-goecause oeio" mes ouo you wi iiyou  s" Sime s su gee"Ie acmakes e suecieseyou wi eke siYou a moAeom wsok (17AEIG2AIOSCO GUIS(CoSki Suc EmesAacSysms  Wos ke gasysmsociee ecaosysm es aea Aumes a coucwi sysms oo eoamo o amo aes Couc muia sysms cooi mo aes asiu" "Ss  e ai ss a ies Oascoa gooacs  is  a as musas s caauss so s caiia iuco eage ass" Es a ias a siaiecoe "A gooecaoissauai osuccess oyoumi iisaueacous co  socie" Se is comseosysms osuoes " isome ways Iam a e oas a acaI am as a sAs as I am mo iucwi my owamoAs a acIam mo iucwi e ki owoI wa  ca oiegsysm oeies a o"Ss a ogoo E s s a comooses a weakssesWe e eises a em oome eiweaksses ioe e em  isocie Cooi acausa ia e "WI i augooecaoI ask myse om wi oew seac e socie? I i I ay   ok iom e sociec cause aeomsses e iesoeoiies  Muigicme-ac wos aeacois sysmiome sysmiommeue; comsoosysms acs occu isysmac way " A gooecaosysmis se oe e oiia wiisocie a oee oe socie ieOuoies a siesa commeuesciay iwe ke a eaew ec osysms; aa icacausao "e se sysm a e sociasysm a cse o aeey a ieeee ese a we i oo ise oe ese a we i oe oe Wwey gsisewe cago aui wki oecaosysm we wa  io ace cus osimiesa ees; causaoAeom wsok (171AEIIOECOE SttlClSttth nb vnt rt Cptnn nb d UnddOth np Invt:  Maoosso me oEcaoa Coue ycgy a SciaEcao Ui oisComaCoaco m (-CInvt:  e ccGa Sme oEcaoa Coue ycgy a SciaEcao Ui oisComaCoaco m (-3 Stt:My me is e cI am a cs ie me oEcaoa Coue ycgy a SciaEcaoae Ui oisComaI am woi uee suisiooMaoossoie samemeis s is i comeas iaime oe quimes oacoisoy iSciaEcaorp thWe a iesisi w coege ss wi ai saes iaue ocess oai a eiai eeees a ew ey  emsees e ai oems ey eoue a wieiewsoecoegess a iuc i a eauaiIis wayis seas gis coege ss wi ai saes aice so ey caess eiougs a es aueicoege ai eeeeCoege yea a ima yea io a esciay coege ss wiai saesiis aima  eIasisa seice oa coege iuc ei iima  ke io accou coege ss wiai saescs iimo sa suo seices a icameaai eeee ss w  eeioai ee s ioes o ieiew sessio Iyou age  ici ie se c wi meewi you i  couce ieiewe ieiew wike ama 3 ue wi  eaks as ques e icise owi s a iie ieiew171 Ae gii oe ieiewI wi ask you ckgu queso sucas agesemesa ogm osesa scic agsis oa ai sa Aea you wi  eseewi ses sc e siao ie scoseisa wi  aske sc e maicco a o Aea I wi asceos sc cacoegecssom siaoa wi ask you  ece maicco a sc we cc a ii a e3Aee sceosI wi ii you  scuss youias auai a aisaYou wi  aske sciyouowwoswyou uei a eauese coesAa me  e ieiewyou a weome  ask ccaoiyou ue e queso oe sksskse a  seeae sks iki  ie swe isome asoyou e ae queso make you/ma you euomae osesse you wi ae  coaca coueocoueAac is coe is a somes ocoue om e coege coue meCftlIyou cose  iciyouawe wi  auo  Wss say ie ieiew is imaa I  wa  miss s owey saySo I wi eco i Iyou cose  iciwyou  me wi  seeyou a meYoumay ask  scoi aa i  e ieiewOa oe s om isieiew iace oyou me a eum wi  we You cagi me youoweumYoume wi ao  cowi a m m eames wi useie ases oe sesIyou  age  ici ie syoume oa oeioaoawou ii you cy wi  scseiaweoacommucao  wi  access oy  e cosesA cois wi  acamEaccoi wi  gia com e acs wi  gia co ma wi  eeoa oi com e access  e s wi  oc a sswoA s ai maa wi  coa ke ia cke ca yeaOy  a I wi  access  e caCptn:As a keyousuo a me s ie syou wi cei sses mous aye moe eaEiyou cose  wiaw aa me  eieiewyou wi s cei moe ssesltrtn:  Youicioie s is ei aIyou cose  ke  ie syou  e g  wiaw aame  eieiewYou  e g  se  awea oe queso a/oseieiew aa meYou caquesaio oe ieiew  sossemi Iyou cose  ici oiyou ci  wiawyousi ae coege a/oyousa suo seices wi    aecia way173n  StltIoaoom e ieiewiaio e sseaosea may ssemiugicao sucas uaaics ooksougcoeeeseaoAs  youme oa oeioaoawou ii you cywi  scseia oese s os e sus om e seumseames wi  useCtt n  d ltlrn rf t thIyou  a queso osi ioaowi sc is syoumay coac oe c a3Ctt  hnrnt  rht rr ptt:Iyou  a coes auyoueae ogs as a seaiciyoumay coace seaSuecIoao ie U Oice oseaSeicesa9Cnt:Yousig w iicas ayou  ceia co ois coe a coes oa aacmaa youowcosYousig iicas ayou coe  ici iis sici Sig ^ i me17AEIIseuais/ciASGI Q1 E97 .Unt h CbOff  Svh  EthdSt2, 60 A, n, C. CEICA OA MIMASK WAIIIESGAMn  rhME:Udnd hSp EdU EMf08IOSW SEAWI  CAIEOUAOth lnthrr ll bndt:ACOESGASnlSO AGEIES:AOCE:ClSttth nb vnt rt Cptn nb Sf d Oth nEI  OIS A brr 2008A:  brr 200Annl n f Sthbn rd d thpr rfnd tbptl h ndf rr vvh bjtAppr IId  bf  thh  Ethdd  trlb thfl. t Sdld, Chr. pt, AtChr. Arn Kjn, AtChr. M. dh n. AtChrIm se ^4A8G2 2QS.r M :  11 

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