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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Autoignition and emission characteristics of gaseous fuel direct-injection compression-ignition combustion Wu, Ning 2007

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AUIGOA EMISSIOCCSCSOGASEOUS ECIECOCOMESSIOIGOCOMSO WUSc ia UiMc ia UiA ESIS SUIEIIAIME OE QUIMES E GE OCOISOYiE CUY OGA SES(MeccaEieE UI OISCOMAcem WuAaca- gas eis oeaiuoa ey i we cue mogeous-ce a eis sueom imieicieya guueeemissiogas ciecoeis oee iaoeseke eicieiesqui sea  imo uei oeauigoa emissioccscs ogas ciecocomessioigocomso e eec okey o me (i iecoessuiecoo a e-comsoma gaseous ecomsio(i e eec oeaogea ogeaio we seAeemeaiesgaowas caieouoa sck  ciIgoyigokeecao a emissio we measu e sus iicaaeaiooea  e esueia case iigoy a a sigcaiase iemissioe aioooge e esueia case iigoy a a sigca case iemissio e ewi ogesueiaiase iigoy a a sigca case iemissioIasi e-comsom sueia sigca coiigoya a sigca iase iemissioMosiase iiecoessu cee igoy; iasi iecoessu sueigemissioeeec oeaoge a ogeaiooe igoy omea weao successy ec ameMassimuoOcasioie ame was suau aseIuceuoscee (ISi-sOIimages ae scsc  oeauigoocess oemimea Emiooe coeee oeeeme-ageOIimages sweaiasi e moaeemes was e moseec way  ace a mo coeesuA comsomo wciooe CoioSoue- Esmao(CSEmeoe csu oe cmicasoue  a e ac Gew-meioMa (Mmeoe cooicmisywasae ece Osioia coms emimea  emoi ece Osioas iica e eeme-ageOIimagessie icaoaccou ucao ieieue ocmisye oCoesAac ^ iie oCoes ^   iiisoes ^ sogus ^  iime a Acms  ^ iAckwemes ^ Ce1 Ico ^ 11 Ico ^ 11 Oecs ^ 11 esis Suc ^ Ceckgu Ioao ^ 1 Ico ^ EemeaMeo e S oAuigo ^ 1 seac ^ 5Coious ow ac ^ 3 ComessioMac ^ 7Co me sse ^ 5 Sck  ^ 93 Gas Comso ^ 13 IgoSes oMea ^ 13 IgoCmisy oMea ^ 13 IgoSes oGas ^ 173 IgoCmisy oGas ^ 3 IgoSes oMea wi oge ^ 3 IgoCmisy oMea wi oge ^ emiGaseous Comso ^ 1 ComsoSuc ^ Emissio ^ 5 seIuceuoscee ^ 5 iie oseIuceuoscee ^ 5 Caao ^ 31u ac ow Moi  ^ 31 miameMo ^ 3CoioMome Csu ^ 33 CoioSoue- Esmao ^ cooiCmisy ^ 7 Summa ^ Ce3 IgoMeasumes o oMea wi Ais ^ 3 Ico ^ 3 eous Wo ^ 3 Mea/Ea Comso ^ 3 ogeEicMea Comso ^ 3 eowi oge ^ 3 EemeaMeo ^ 513 Sck  Se ^ 513 ame misi Imagi ^ 533 Emissio Measume ^ 553 EemeaCoio ^ 553 sus ^ 53 Mea/Ea sus ^ 53 Mea/ogesus ^ 3 Mea/ogesus ^ 733 Cosio ^ CeCmicaKic Eec oIgoo oMea wi Ais ^1 Ico ^ sus ^ 1 eComsio^ IaAim ^ 93 Scassio ^ 93 Cosio ^ 93Ce5 eomic a Gas mic Eec oIgoo oMeawi Ais ^ 955 Ico ^ 955 sus ^ 955 Igoy ^ 955 IgoKeecao ^ 15 Emissio ^  1115 Cosio ^ 11Ce OsioiIg u Mea  ^ 1191 Ico ^ 119EemeaMeo ^ 11 OISe ^ 1Image socessi oces ^ 13 EemeaCoio ^ 13 sus a scussio ^ 1-  i-3 Oe Eo ^ 13 Oesee o Imagi ^ 13 Coeee oEeme-ageOIImages ^ 13Cosio ^ 1Ce7 CSE -M ComsoMoo ^ 17  Ico ^ 17 ComsoMouo ^ 17 C Mouo ^ 17 ComsoMouo ^ 17 sus a scussio ^ 17 Cosio ^ 15CeCosio a  Wo ^ 1531 Summa osusa Cosio ^ 15 Wo ^ 159es ^ 1AeiA ^ IecCco ^ 17Aei ^ EemeaUeaiy Asis  ^ 1AeiC ^ Iecoy  ^ 1Aei ^ Mea Eemea ^ 1AeiE ^ Mea/Ea Eemea ^ 1Aei ^ Mea/ogeEemea ^ 1AeiG ^ Mea/ogeEemea ^ 191Aei ^ OIEemea ^ 193soese 1 Eemeacoio a emcacoeicies mea igo ^ 13e Mecsms mea comsoie  ^ 1e 3 O coio mea a mea/ea eemes ^ 55e 3 moeemes couceace ^ 55e 3 a iigoy mea a mea/ea ^ 5e 3 A sus igoy ea aioee ^ 57e 3 a i/  mea a mea/ea ^ 59e 3 A sus /  ea aioee ^ 59e 3 a i   mea a mea/ea ^ e 3 A sus    ea aioee ^ e 3 a iaemissio mea a mea/ea ^ e 3A sus aemissio ea aioee ^ e 31 a iigoy mea a mea/oge ^ e 3A sus igoy ogeaioee ^ e 33 a i/  mea a mea/oge ^ e 3A sus /  ogeaioee ^ e 35 a i   mea a mea/oge ^ e 3A sus    ogeaioee ^ e 37 a iaemissio mea a mea/oge ^71e 3A sus aemissio ogeaioee 71e 39 a iigoy mea a mea/oge ^ 73e 3A sus igoy ogeaioee ^ 73e 31 a i k/ mea a mea/oge ^ 75e 3A sus  k/ ogeaioee ^ 75e 33 a i   mea a mea/oge ^ 7e 3A sus    ogeaioee ^ 7e 35 a iaemissio mea a mea/oge ^ 79e 3A sus aemissio ogeaioee ^ 79e 1  s e mea/ea es ^ e  s e mea/ogees ^ e 3  s e mea/ogees ^ e 5 assquas i sus  _  a  o ^ 9-  -e 5 assquas i sus  _ig a  ^ 99e 5 assquas i sus  g a /  ^ 1e 5 assquas i sus  k/ a  ^ 1e 5 assquas i sus    a  o ^ 1e 5 assquas i sus   a  o ^ 1e 5 assquas i sus    a  o ^ 1e 5 assquas i sus  k/ a  ^ 1e 5 assquas i sus    a  ^ 1e 5assquas i sus /  a / o ^ 1e 51 assquas i sus   a / ^ 1e 5assquas i sus    a / ^  11e 53 assquas i sus aemissio a  o ^ 11e 5assquas i sus aemissio a  ^ 113e 55 Aac ame ms e e (  =3 K o=13 K3^ 11e 5assquas i sus aemissio a  ug ^  115e 57 assquas i sus aemissio a /  ^ 11e 5assquas i sus aemissio a   ^ 117e 1 O coio OIeemes ^ 1e a iigoy mea ^ 13e 3 a iigoy e  (1 ms ^ 139e A O coio iecccoeemes ^ 177e A Summa oiecoys ^ 17e 1 Eemeacoioueaiy ^ 1e Igoy eoe 3 a 3 iec(ms ^ 1e C Iecoys 3 a 3 iec(ms ^ 1e 1 Mea eemea ^ 1e E Mea/ea eemea ^ 1e 1 Mea/ogeeemea ^ 1e G Mea/ogeeemea  ^ 191e 1 OIeemea ^ 193sogusgu 1 Scmac oa seac[17] ^ 5gu Scmac oa coious ow ac[17]  ^ gu 3 Scmac oa comessiomac [17]  ^ 7gu Scmac oa co me sse[17] ^ gu 5 Sck  woi iie [] ^  11gu Maiacos  igoia sicomeic mea/aimiu a[] ^ 15gu 7 Maiaco omea oo e iucoowi eesee omiea a o ai [] ^ gu Maioo  e iucooC / miu [55] ^ gu 9 Scmac agm oo-mooiuceuoscee ^ gu 1Cooi aaoimiamemo ^ 35gu 3 Scmacs oe sck  a aacequie ^ 51gu 3 caCMOS came image oigokee ^ 5gu 3   _  aowi  o mea a mea/ea ^ 57gu 3 _i g aowi  mea a mea/ea ^ 5gu 3  go aowi mea a mea/ea ^ 59gu 3 /  aowi  o mea a mea/ea ^ gu 3    aowi  o mea a mea/ea ^ gu 3 /  aowi  i ^ gu 3    aowi  mea a mea/ea ^ gu 3 k/ aowi  mea a mea/ea ^ gu 31    aowi  ; o mea a mea/ea ^ gu 3aemissio aowi  o mea a mea/ea^ gu 33 aemissio aowi  mea a mea/ea^ gu 3aemissio aowi   mea amea/ea ^ gu 35 _ ig aowi  o mea a mea/oge ^ gu 3 _igo aowi  mea a mea/oge ^ gu 37  k/ aowi  o mea a mea/oge ^ gu 3   aowi    mea a mea/oge ^ 7- ii -gu 39  k/ aowi  ;/o mea a mea/ogegu 3   aowi  ;/o mea a mea/oge ^gu ^31 ^ a ^  ^ emissio ^ ao ^ wi ^ o^mea/oge ^gu ^ 3 ^ a ^  ^emissio ^ ao ^ wi^ / o^meamea771a7amea/oge ^ 7gu 33   cu g aowi  o mea a mea/oge 7gu 3_ g aowi  mea a mea/oge ^ 7gu 35  cugo  aowi / o mea a mea/oge ^ 75gu 3/  aowi  o mea a mea/oge 7gu 37    aowi  o mea a mea/oge ^ 77gu 3/  aowi  mea a mea/oge ^ 77gu 39    aowi  mea a mea/oge ^ 7gu 3/  aowi / o mea a mea/oge ^ 7gu 31    aowi   mea a mea/oge 79gu ^ 3 ^ a ^  ^ emissio ^ ao ^wi ^ o  mea amea/oge ^ gu ^ 33 ^ a ^  ^ emissio ^ ao ^ wi^    mea amea/oge ^ gu 3aemissio aowi  mea a mea/oge^ gu 1 e eecoea aioo _ig (=3 K o=13 K3 1 ^ gu C 3 O a   mass acos a s mea/ea es(=3 K o=13 K3 1 ^ gu 3 e eecoogeaioo cugo ( =3 K o=13 K3 1gu C 3 O a   mass acos a s mea/ogees(=3 K o=13 K3 1 ^ gu 5 e eecoogeaioo_ g(=3 K o=13 K3 1 ^gu C 3 O a   mass acos a s mea/ogees(=3 K o=13 K3 1 ^ gu 7 aC 3 ai mass acos a s e e ( =3 Ko=13 K3 1 ^ 9gu aOa   mass acos a s e e ( =3 Ko=13 K3 1 ^ 91gu 9  cug aowi  o (=3 K3 1 ^ 9gu 1 _ig aowi scassio ( =3 K o=13 K3  ^ 93gu 5  go aowi   ^ 9gu 5 ^ aowi  ^ 99gu 5  _  aowi  ; o ^ 1gu 5  k/ aowi  ^ 1gu 5    aowi  o ^ 1gu 5   aowi  ^ 1gu 5    aowi   ^ 1gu 5  k/ aowi  ^ 1gu 5    aowi  ^ 1gu 5 k/ aowi / ^ 1gu 51   aowi  ; o ^ 1gu 5   aowi  ; o ^  11gu 53 Esma  as oome seosca mo( =3 K o=13 K o= ^  111gu 5aemissio aowi  o ^ 11gu 55 aemissio aowi  / ^  113gu 5aemissio aowi  _ig ^   115gu 57 aemissio aowi  k/^ 11gu 5aemissio aowi   ^ 117gu 1 OIeeme se ^ 1gu Si-sOIimages oaiaao wa o a oi wa o3 ^ 1gu 3 ckgu-coec3-a uoscee image ^ 1gu Age seiei os oe ceseco ^ 1gu 5 Si-sOIimages (9 ms ^ 1gu Si-sOIimages (1 ms ^ 1gu 7 Si-sOIimages (1 ms ^ 1gu Eeme-ageOIimages ae sges ocomso ^ 13gu 9 esee o images ae sges ocomso ^ 131gu 1Mimumagea mamum ao ces i ag ^ 133gu 11 Mimumagea mamum es e s es  ^ 13gu 1Eeme-ageOIimages wi e same sis (1 ms^ 135gu 13 e eecosame si oe ao ce i a  (1 ms ^ 13gu 1e eecosame si oe es (1 ms ^ 137gu 15 Assige oOIimages io e  seosscasio ^ 13- -gu 1Eeme-ageOIimages e  (1 ms ^ 1gu 17 Ao ce ie age iei e  (1 ms^ 1gu 1e eecoigoy oe ao ce iiei eacoe ame gio(1 ms ^ 1gu 7 Suc oCSE-M meoie simuo ^ 1gu 7 Comogie simuo ^ 1gu 7 os oOmass acoae sges ocomso ^ 1gu 7 Eeme-ageOIimages ae sges ocomso ^ 15gu 7 Iusaooucaoscues = e(- aw a is Gaussiasiom ae; socue is meaoao oa ^ 15gu 1 Summa oeec oecomsioo    / a emissio(=3  =13 K=1  =1 mseemeameasumes ^ 155gu Summa oeec oecomsioo ug simu ameMas(=3 K o=13 K3 1 ^ 15gu 3 Summa oeec oecomsioo-a ( =3=13 K=1  1 ms ^ 15gu A Scieimagi sysm se ^ 177gu A Scieimages oeoime (3 iec  a=3 K o=3 K; = =1 ms ^ 17gu A Sca mo3 iec ^ 179gu A Sca mo3 iec ^ 179me a Acms^ Scassiossio ou kic eyaomEquie o^ iIgoy me ome o^ Iec ame ^ aiec ame^ usiE^ Acoey^ Scic eyk^ u kic ey^ essu^ Iecoessu ^ e-comsoessu ock essu^ Uagas co_ig^ Igoy me^ me ieaom e s oiecoi^iecoo^ m ^ Aac ame m^ Iaemo^e-comsom oiaaimY^ Mass aco(Y I =  77 Coioage oY wi coio =^ Miu acos^ Sicomeic miu aco( ^ Meaomiu aco(  ^ ae omiu aco^ Igokeecao ^ aigokeecao^ wigooccuA ^ Asis oaeA^ Aia uCO^ Coeicie oao(sa ao/ meaCMC^ Coiomome csuCSE^ Coiosoue- esmaoSI ^ ciecos-igoS^ cmecasimuoEG^ Eausgas ciuo^ ucoecaCI ^ mogeous ce comessioigoIM^ Iicaw meiomaS^ e ey simuoI^ seiuceiaescee ^ Os ooge ^ cycc amac ocao ^ o i oI ^ aseiuceuoscee ^ icu mae^ ys-ageeSkesSOI S oiecoM ^ ac gew-meiomaAckwemes I wou ke  a my suisoMai a Keaseiui suoeea aice  my s aUI ao wa ee sciacogo S gaks suo a co myseaogmis seawou  essie wioue  om WesoIoosis eemeawae  I  goom eis isemeousI wa  esciay ackwe e assise oCie oiaickMa sa SaeeMuic Oueeea iie seeeme iis wo was caieouugcoaowi e AaeScosco a Imagi sea(SI ae meoCmisy oUI ao ke  say a sciaa-you  SaeiKama a SeoseaAssocia aSI i me seue sesysma o mewi  oae aice a suggesoI ao wa  ackwe a e eee ga ss wi wm I eu wo; iicu as  a a GooMcgga-Cowaaesi  MiceYeuey Mikawo  Kowsaa Ea Cy I wa  a my mia esciay my seiooisuo omy ecaouisya mosima my wi aoCyouuoio a suo oe syeaI  I caoyou wi e same suo ayou  gime  yous ie aCe1Ico1 Icoaoeseeis oema aaages ia- acaoao sueom  g ogua ueguemissioeseeis a ae a s o gue aw sea a as mucasmo eicie aequi gaso-eeeis [1]As a su oeigeicieygeouse gas emissio a w comwi oeiuse aaomo wesoueswe emissio osciesi us sucas icu mae ( a os ooge(as we as aics sucasea sigca ggas-eeieacomsoeis  eiasi secause oeiiaeieaa ecomic  [9]ce cogicaes ee ciecoogas io eseeis [9]iscogy os a accasooeseeis  meeiasi sieemissioguo w maiai eigeaeiciey [5-9]a ciecogas eikwe oe igoa comsoocesses occuiii e comsocmis ccaoimi ei siga eccosagiesAugsigca ogss s ema ce iis ga eemeay [1 a ugcomsimuoses [13-15]coiewo mai  esisameao eeo me aei oae a emissio is css oeis1 Oecsis seaocwas maiy eemeay-seusi a sck  ci iesga ous asc oe ciecocomessioigogaseous eueei- coioi mo ms 1 135Kaeessus (1 Mea mecasimuo we ao u ace a euei oe eemeasuse scic oecs oeocwe 1 Ue e iee okey o me oauigoaemissioao ie-comsoaimiecoo aiecoessu we use iesga is eec E e iee ocmicacomsiooe eoauigoaemissioe seimeamea/eamea/ogea mea/oge3Iesga e caoa  oe acos oaie acmea is was ace sua e Osioie ameu aseIuceuoscee (I mee ese oecsa euei oe auigoau aooemigaseous ewas   ace scicay ueei- o coioom isimay  ssie  ii imoo mos  oimi e comsoocesswi e goaomami eieiciey w mimi emissio1 esis SucO s eisseomea a mea/ea suseseeiCe 3Mea/ogea mea/ogesus iCe3a OIsus iCea cue ieosuissioe esis coe is iouas owse cue ceos a geckgu a e mooe sea Ceos a iew oous eemeameo oauigosesa e cue s okwegai igoses ogas a icmicakic mecsms gas comso e comsosuc oemigaseous comsoa aomecsms a co e sic iies oseiuceuoscee a ice e cecos wi aico ous csumeo e cmicasoue  iu comsomoi a amaemacamoe cooicmisyCe3 eseseemeasus oigomeasumes o omea wi aisCeeses mecasimuosus oa emicoueow usioame omea eewi e amou oeaoge oogea aiEemeasus oe eomic a gas mic eec oigoo omea wi ais om Ce3 is sia aiCe5Ceeses e OIsus aie ac mea e Osioiaemimea ame ec mecasimuois eseeiCe7ya summa oe maicosio om e esis a suggeso wo a oiCe es a msequeiay om e giioe esis a a caaeCe Aeices o ioaooeeemeaaasocesa mo i gai e eemeasusCeckgu Ioao1 Icogas (commeiag mea e is e casssiey soueaie ie quaies oea[1Oaey sise comsoogas ases sigca weus assie sucas coa eseagaso [1cause oe ge ecomic a eiea associawiusi gas iace oese mo aoea e moses iesgae comsoogas ious accaa  sysmsIe scaswi e e ogicomcogymecasimuoa asis icouowi eemeaiesgao eiasi useas sa aacs iese sesEemeaMeo e S oAuigoEemeases oauigoiwe-coe ces oyo ameaioaogai e ccscs oe s e aoge ae ses  a  iacomecsmsocomecomsomoA commoa o se comsos is ae iaa ua coio oe ac sysm a we-esiswcgay cis e acaa mecawo aowsAs owe-coeac sysms aa oemeasua eie  ie igoy me a scies coeoosSes oigoy me may  coucusi a e oeeemeameosucas seaccoious ow accomessiomacsco me ssea sck sgy eeicmiusiwcigoa  aau iase iessue igome may accu measuom e essu ace awe   miusoemicomso sucas is e case ie ese se se iessuae me oigois  ga wces auquicaiooeigome measu e igoy mes ogy  smius oemicomsoese me-s ocmimiscee (misiom eiee CoOca is oeemoye ii e s oigo e aces oai ese agscs sw a mucmo au se ae me igo  e essu aceus aowi a mo ecise iooe igome1 seacA scmac oa seacis swigu 1A seacisusuay a cemic ca io wca gseoea aiis ieca a smae ea aia cay emiio ee e ac a quiea oewi a e-a emi occuImeme agaie acwa causes a gous mi a ciuooe gases asusi ecomsoocess a cas a ay mogeous acoe igome ia seacis i iasi e aca (i eaimass ow uie ame is owou wcmay  ieeom e sueoiacme ooe igome is seoe acsie meEaus ^- Cemic acemiea Aigu 1 Scmac oa  - seac[17]i -sSeco(eces ^ aEeeIecAiowCoioCoious ow acA scmac oa coious ow ce is swigu  Ia coiousow cee aiis ea(usuay  ecicaa a gm acoeaa co essuUsi a we-sigiec gaseous eis iecio e owi aiseam a us s a mogeus comse miuquiemay eie  ey a iecio e aiseamoscias aemoye y ami a  e quieuieco e mimie eecoysicaocesses oe measuigoyAs e miu ows ae e miu igs asome se weam oe eiecocaoaeaiucoo(igoy mee^ EausAiem           gu Scmac oa coious ow ac[17]Ia coious ow cee occuee oauigois i ae omea (e Ua sie g emissio oa iase im ae ame o cao  a sees oseo o aus e ow  ooeoome oe aiseam uie ame o is sae seocao e igoy ca cauom e kwse eeeeiecoi a e ame o caoa e meaee-seam ow ciCoious ow ac aow ame me measu a gu ma oe ima aes sucas messuow  (ow seosieme equie oea ecomsio we e meois miw ms cay e  mio oe aGeye moswi usea icoious ow acigoy ses a ecicasie a-CamAiGuComessioa sComessioCmOicaa e uem miis aaoeo13 Ke aaages oa coiousow ce i esimuo ogas i coiocoeee ooocoio(sucas m a essucoa easy iegooecomsiosimuo3 ComessioMacA comessiomacswigu 3is a si-s scyecomessiocee comessiocmis iay ce a escessu wi a gaseous eogee smiue comsiooe e wcis cay a miu ocaooao a/oogeis e gue e-ocomessiom a essuComesseaiacas a gseaigu wcis coec a s camWe aiguis  e cam is eai aaoi sio e comessiocm is comessiooe smiu causes aau se ie m a essu oe sgasgu 3 Scmac oa comessiomac [17]e igome ia comessiomac is as e me ieaeee e oe comessiosoke a e me oigo Igois usuayieeom eiea essu aceoe me-s oaieea scies (eC Owcis measua oicas ie comessiocm e  e me quicomessio(cay -  a comessiomac is usuayuiw-m (Kseswce igome is  com e comessiome-7eocoueeIecCo me sseA co me sse swigu  uses eieaecicaa ocomsooa aemimiu  ca e sim a essuAgessu  eiec a eio e co me sse Wsquiee  is oesig y ami e e e iasi e ooa mi as iis iecio e co me sse wesimi e coious ow acmeo ese ysicaocesses wi s co e o igoya us mus coiwie igomeAows quiee may  a suiaoie ma essu ii e sseas e eswcmakes iicu  ecisei e coio e eeme eessuacegu Scmac oa co me sse[17]e igome ia co me sseis oeas e me ieaeee iecooe ea e iase iessu asus om comsooe e Ecicay-aco me sse a cay mi wm (Kigome ses cause oe miooecicaaco me sse usi comsooa aemimiucacoio oa eseei aaceeca ace e e ao s goocooe coio awceis iec e cmicacomsiooe gas ie sysm is mi e meouse aaiessu a mscomsogases om e iaemie maiie cmasueque come  oe comsoocess-5 Sck A scmac oe sck  a i woi iie is swis gu 5Asck  is a ce iwca gessu igas a a w-essu igasa se o oo agmsWe agms  a sck wa isge e sck wawcis a gey comessiowa wi i caMacmgaoa weam io e igas causi a essua m macss e sck oA coacsuace ases e igas om e igas ows e ii sck wa a a aa wese Ae same mea cocomseoa sees oeaiowas  ouio eueam igase sck wauecoom e e wa oe sck iec wi e igas se mo  e ii sck a is i a s esc gm a gessu seoige e ecsckwa ca a useses oous osesUeiacoio [1eessu a m ie eemeaaa ca ke co uie aioe eccoIe emicaseigome is as e me ieaeesckai wcis iom a essu acea e oeocomso wcisusuay ieeom eiea essu ace oe me-s oaieea scies(e C Oe aaages oa sck  i1 Iguaees asuace eec wi co  e ocess sie (1egas is a suaces a ( e "e" me is o s mocus  use  oom e co wa Iis easie couca sck  aa gm ace a isa mucwio e is oms a essusOe oee scomis oa sck  i1Measume ueaiiesA sck  is a si-siumecoec  aee sck isuca s o iis imssie  usesigagi meoIao quis sse iumes-9 -aoGai[19] ieoua"e oy cogcoo  e -ao is ie maeoagm u suggesae scaecause agm-eaki aomay  Gaussiaa wou e cause e scae3 e iaes isck  oucause e aooaua yea i ieco ca seous coequees ieieooeemeasusis comes w eo ie acomsSie  cos icmicaaco a usuayeoiay e oacomse is e ssi oe eo Ueaiy ao ases om gas mic eec isck sis eecsu  ss ae m caaoc[]miucoesiagas mic eec a mossei  sck ame acoessus a e use osck s5 Sck   is ss accu awems (K wma[]esmaaiccucies imeasusck cies casu i K a5K ueaiies ims  ii a ecwassc Aeameaoem osck  ses igoy mes ise ioisy oe ooe igoy me ieemeasesSome iesga  usee me  e iase iessu oaoas c e sei ce iicaooigo someoe usee me  ak es oessu og emissioo someaia acooe ak es7 emicomsosesioe geeee mi  ie miu io e sck sea usuay mie ea aia me aw ms e auois uwa oa seaws ae ssie eec oe-igoaco aowe iseeemi me oe sueque measuigoy- 1coUIi  sck o Coacsuace  u ^ I  3(aIase gessu igas is seom e w-essu igas e agm(  Aii sck wa s g aee  oe agmecsckecco = (ce sck wa ec om e e oe iseco( e sck wa sses uge coacsuacegu 5 Sck  woi iie []Isu  emasiacause e auigois aao oyoe miu oe a igoy  mus iecay  coiw e eemeameouieacs may aece measuigomeemei oe meo wce ea oa mi ysicaocesses (i mio amio may  a sigca eecoemeasuigomeocause e ooe igome is uqueses au simieemeaaas may cessa emoy esame oe igomeemeisome ses e oeoigoisieeom a essu acew ioe is ois seoe me-s oaieea scies (e Cuse es may  oaiamo sesa u e same ca  quai e igome3 Gas Comso3 IgoSes oMeaemiSesmosocaoei meae measuigoy me isoecoewi iacoio usi aAus- meic u gi= A e E  1[ ][CI-1 ]Y (1w is e igoy me E  is e gacoey  is e uagas co a   is me es o A E  a  y  a oai ie eemea usi gssiomeoe 1 s some oe coeiciees eie  a wi eieemeacoioe gacoey E  iicas e sei oigoy wisc ci mIca seeom e 1 aa gme eemeay oaie  E  is au 5kcamo w ices sigca  ss a kcamoams w 13 Ke coie acoey wi ci m imies ae aco wca-mi imea sysm a e ae msIao gigs emiooe a emcacoeicieswcsu  useyo eeemeaes wiiwcey we oai-1e 1 Eemeacoio a emcacoeicies mea igoSoue (a (K(K  Y A(s(cm3/moY E(kcamo[] 1- 13-19  -1 751 51[] 1 15-5 33 -13 311 [] 3 1 3 -1 51  -15 53[] 1-3 1  -1 19 1 [] 1- 15 33 -13   -15 53[] - 3 - -1 11 1 37[] - 3 -3 -11 991 19[] 1 113 A A A 1[] 1 11-1 A A A 13[] 1 1 A A A 1W mosoe eaieses cuseoigoagm a wessuigoy  aeessus a mo ms come mo aie ie  ce [-3e ea  [ coucsck  eemes oigoomea/aia mea/ogeaomius aessus om   a a ms om 1 15 Ke oec oeis was  ue e mea igomecsm m-oioacao so aey coe equie os ( ie ea ( =  aec(3gio a  ea  [] esck  igosus uimea/aimius aessus om 1  a ms om 1 135Ke equie os eom sg a(   = 7 sg c( =1 wcis e e ogaiesieacomsoei acaoIe a o sesiwas u ae igoouomea is mo comeamo m aaagme measuigoycao we coeusi a si emcaue oeegacoey cases iay wi ci ms  iase as em o w 11 Kis e is icuy omi ie sicomeica cmius - emiSese auigoocess oemiu mea ueeseei-eie s ese Sui ea  [31 ia sck  cime iesgaie-comsoaim (1151K eiecoce ame(1 a 5 mm eiecoessu (-15a-13-eiecoo(1-3 ms eisus sweaigoy s-sa ao coio is gwi coeicie oao(CO ie  3 eWi e sma oce igocao a acew 1Kwas wi e e oce igois cois acea115Key ao uaigoy cases sigca wi iasi iecoessu o a isiei  iecoo3 IgoCmisy oMeaggia Wiiams [33] iesgae igooa amea/ogeaomiu  e ecsck usi a 1smecsme sus om eieocamoageasoy we wi eieemeaSee a wma[] a1sacomecsmwcwas use smea/ogeaoigouems om 135 19 K a essusom 1  amius wi equie os ee5 a  e agemeeeeieemeaa mecasus is wii3Ice yeamocomeacomecsms  ea useie ses omeaigo as summaie e Mecsms mea comsoie Soue moScies moacoggia Wiiams [33] 1 1See a wma[] 11 1eca si [3 3 1 a Wiiams [35]  177gs  ea  [3 37 351e ea  [37]  7G-Mec1 [3 3 177G-Mec11 [39]  9G-Mec3 [] 53 3a  ea  [] 3 19gu sws e maiacos omea  e iucooasose a  ea  []is mecsm was scicay caei- coioaisiaessus a 1ams w1Ka equie os om 7  1eisus sweasicomeicmea/aimius a a a 1Ke oois maiy -miaco coumi C 3 caee casciese   eomiec iis esis-1OC CO OO111^  C113C  ^CMCCOCCOO E^  CC CCI1C 111 3MC113CO11MCO COO11Mgu Maiacos  igoia sicomeic mea/aimiu a[]e iucooomea ca io e ases [3Ieiaoasemea comses io C 3 a ca a acoC +M C 3 + + ^ (e cais y coumeie cia aco   ^ ( + C  O+ C 3^(e o Oca eiis ocess acce e comsioomeaugO+ C =C3 +   ^ (Ie e a Oca ca ao geug  + C  C3 +   ^(   +M O+ O+ M ^ (Scci a Coe[] ieouaaco is mo ima igow15 Kw mo   ca a geuge acoeecaa  aco +      s a ga acoeyus e cooo-15-  comes mo sigca awemSimi e eecocaeac  cacoume o Oca a geie iaoaseismakes Oa macaie aco omea  e iucooe seco ase oigois cc e comoeeo C 3ooacoC3+   C3  + ^ (C 3+  C 3+ O ^ (a a ciioacoC3+C 3 C ^(is is e esase ie iucooa e igoy me is sei  e s okey aco iis ase [3Iis ao e ase  wce mossigca ees eee ga w m igomecsms occu  e  oaooC 3 iases ms w13 K []wco ae oo C 3 caC3+  C 3^(C 3 +C3   3O^ (1i  ea  [] ieouae coeioom C 3O  C 3O caao oceeugC  +C3    3   (C 3 -11  C 3 11 +  (3C 3O  C 3  O (e si sigcae oC 3O cmisy a w ms is ao iica oemoi ses [7]is mecsm ei e oeecoiegacoey wi ci me sei oe igoy me e aooea iaco is gisicomeic a cmiuscom aiamius e  e gmeycoeo Coequee eecoC 3 cmisy is mo omi ie sicomeic a cgiow a gacooe acoey s eoee[9]- 1-Aewems (1 K e coie s okey Ogeoaco sucas  a  a eooe Oca wccomes aw -mi mecsm []e acoey ces om casi iasi wi e swiie seioaco auge ao C3 mai ge ^ i ^ ase ^ oigo ^ is^ cc ^  ^ a^  ^ iase ^ ocacoeo accomi so eaeackse au-cac oo[3ocee ugCO+MC O+M (5C   OO +  (O+M 1+CO+M (7O  +    + CO (aco 7 a s e coeooac ca (i    eseo aco a ao gy eeicwcmakes em  eec iii esysm  igo3 IgoSes oGasemiSesWgaas (eaoe a ae meaeigoccscs ce sigcaImoscasesa s cooigoy was oeewi e esee omigaas [3-]ggia Wiiams [33] oeea cooigoy  a coe w1(meo was ae mea (aaequie o o5essueea 3  a m ee1a  K e coiases  a cow1  was aeScci a Coe[] ewesus om  sck  ses wi simeocaoeoi a sees osck  eemes  i e igoy mes mius omea wi eao oa a cagas e e eemes we sig iso e cmicaauigoyme om a eec a e eomi ocessesIgoyeemes we coucaequie os o-15 ms 13--17- K a essus 3-15 ae com we use gecoeo ec e igoys o mea/ocaomius amuicom gas mius is om a e iaeaogecoeogase igoy was coe e emcaessio=17  1 - 1 [ ]- 1 [C  ]   [] -  39 (iwcis e mcoeo a esseimocus cuc cm ae [] ceses e mocoeooa mea ocaoO oe mio ois equaois aiis acae   mea causeoe ga eo o[] e a  [] see igoy omea/ogeaomiuseic a sma acooo a ogeusi e ecsck ciqueey suggesae igoomo eecomiais ca accoueusi a sime eaeowcea e se ea ai as kicaycoue ey ae coiigoy me  e iase om cause e mo oooe aiCssy  ea  []emie eaeo wi sck  eemes imea/ogeaomius wi aioosegaas (eaoiso-ams om 1  Key u sigca ees eeeecigoy usi e eaeo a aom e measumes ueceaieemeacoioicuy wi a  e acoogaasey coae cmicacoui oe ooaco eee seea e ai is aima ciei e ceigoy me ea  [] iesgae igoomea/aimius wi 1 eao a  aioe sus sweaese gaas asimiy eec aci e igoy me omeaA s coucEu e a  [] igoia 1mea/99aimiu eicwi CCaas sweae eec oe ocao a cumuey suggesaeacaa ai su  coi cc e igooe emiuGis  ea  [] couca comsos oe igom oousmea-see usi a secaac ey u ae ce oigom is mossei  a ocaoaiow 1  meyois aco e imeasei cases-1e eecogaa oe igoy omea ueei-coio s ese a  ea  [] ms om 9  1K aessus om 1   e sus sw comeeec oea/o oeigoomeaa commoe oeewi  ocao is aiaseomooeecms w 11 K - emiSes ue e  ouoaie comso ase ea  []oeeemes wi emiusi mea/eaiecio a e-a essuco-me cycasse e igoy ieseeemes was iom ame misi a sseessu measumesOa wi e oessus om 5  55 a ms om  17 Key u a so moc case ie emiauigoy wiiasi m a oy a weak ey oessuAoe igoyme cases sg we ea coeois iaseowi a  ea  [5 oeeemes ia simi eeemeaci  iesga e eec ogas comsiooigoyoa m e o9  1K a aa sseessu o  uees we iesga  meaa caci-weigemeagasa gea-coe gasa a gas wi aeo caoak scoioey u ae igoys a e mea a comeogssi seas ea a o coeo a iase ey eeeemeasus  aemcaooe (3w C coess  e me ke  iec5oe eio e sseus eseoy meis e ssema A a   a cosIa sueque seas ea  [51] eeeeioeao mo asc gas comsio a a wie oeomic sseisus sweaams ss a1Ke igoy ogasueesecoio s a ee om ais Aus icca a ee oessu ais cse  oe gas comsioesce e  oe a eies es aece mag oeigoye measuigoys a es mea a come-19-ogssi seas ea a o coeo iaseAgamems (3 K e eemeaigoys aaca mi e aiscois wi ysicays associawi e iecosysm3 IgoCmisy oGasmea igowi gaase coiigoy me iscause e eay geoocao  e mo ac ocaoais[53]igoimea/ea miusWesok [53] ieouaaaco oea a e sueque comsiooe sui eyca amo eicie ioci ogeca amea a mey Agmse e ogeca a a quick ciiaoa aco  a wcaccous e sigo eca si [3 seeigoy i9mea/19oge71aomius eicwi 19 1o usi a 1 sacomecsmey ae igoomoeecss oo  i comsioas sc aco 9 a C3  C3 + C 5 (9C 115C   + (Ae cais geiis ocess aa  iuocao ieeay ase oigoW e kic iecoeegaas a mea  igois we esisms a 1Kiis ss ueoamo  w msAs iceae seioaco ie mea sysm ce wi ci mSimiye w-mmecsm omea/ocaosysms is ke   sigca e om aagms iesga a a  ea  [] semea/ea a mea/oooaessus om 1  a ms om 9  1K usiecsck ciquegu 7 sws e maiaco e igoocessas oseieise "  " eses aco  eaoa comsiooC SOC SO C 37a C 37caeiasis sweae aiooea/o es ce e maiaco oe mea sysmA e omoooigois augaccee iaoase ie iucoo--  CI-1O CoC ^CC ^ MC C ^OC COC3^O o^ OCO1 C O OICO7^C1  + ii^ CC^   c3 ^ C31   COgu 7 Maiaco omea oo e iucoowi eesee omiea a o ai []3 IgoSes oMea wi  ogeemiSesSck  ses ogm igoimea/ogeogemius  ee   ea  [] as we as  C a Oeeim[5I casese acs we wi 9e ao e  o  ea  [] measuaa essu o1  a coms om 11KA easeomooeo was ose accou e eec oogeaio C a Oeeim [5 couceemes msom   K a essus om 1  3 aey coee igoy o mea ogea eimius wi e u(1-e ^ e  (w  s  is e mo acooogeie ea   c  a    a e igoy mes o mea a  ogeuee same coioa  ea  [ 55 ] measue igoy me oo sicomeicmea/ogeaimius ia sck  ci aessus om 1  a ams om 1 13 KIwas oeeae omo eecoogecases wi casi me ee ee mea a-  -mea/ogemius is ao mo omi a1a aaa aA wacooogeaiosws oy weak eec oe igoy omeauee coio e - emiSesc  ea  [5 iesgae igoy oogeeicmea aaiusi a coueow ac ey iiee igogimes i oe mo aco ooge Mea igowas u  om ogeaiomaiy e  e kic ieco eee o ee moi ssweae omo eecis eae e saseooe aa ios sui om e gusi oamic a mocuogee auigooaie u oge s eiesga ea  [57] ia co-me comsosseuesimuciecoeseei coioe sus sweae igoy ooges aso Aus ee om; we e ee oe oeme emiis smagas ies caoace ieseeisigoys oss a1 ms a oaigas ms gaa11 K wi ogecoeo as w as 5( me3 IgoCmisy oMea wi ogea  ea  [55] see igooogeeicmea ueei- coiousi e ecsck ciquee acoocess was mousi a 195 sacomecsm coai  sciesgu sws e maioo  e iucooe ogemea miu as oseieiseisus sw ae eecoogeomea igois ima e geoa coumioocaAgmse oooogemocus ugO      (1  +  (a maiy sie e soeigoomo eec e s o 1 acase y wi casi mAwemsacoee   a C 3 accou a weak eecoogeomea igoe e ocooe ca--OCOCoC -----  eOIIaOC 11-1OCOC3 5- 3C^ ^CCOO^ -M  ^IOC 1  C OOCCCOC  CCC2gu Maioo  e iucooC / miu [55]emiGaseous ComsoComwi e auigooa emicee auigooa emiame ia u ow is mo come sie ies e ameaiecoeecmicaacomocua eausio a uaous mecaciques  eae eci i oe emiauigoocess ieecmecasimuo(Soeos [5]coiomome csu (CMCa  k  moi oau []a muie esea iec ame( moi oau []Some ies commoas aa oeeiese sesi(1igosis a cais aa cc a scic e oe miu aco(coesi  e mamum e oac ie miuwao  e wese ie maioe scassio (wcmimise asses ( e mosac miu acooccu oe asi oesicomeic comsioe  e ciaeecoe gom;(3igosis a cay caa e sis oa eie sg amiueee ea aigio ( auigoy mes ie u ows aeae igoy mes osg mogeous miusese mecasimuo  iseima queso aue ca oe auigoocesswe w cse ese sus a  emiu gaseous mai aoqueso--1 ComsoSucOe gaseous eis iecio e o e gas is ecaieaway ome eiec i owmomeum a Oueee []  osesca wssuc oaie asymmeic gas is e was seomeioasis oe ao ( as a ooe emomeum u (M i ae  e ( a   ame i  ( a   eci (   a  ame (  o o we i owee a ame gas ies a equao a  ma use oa meioesscoe aom e o equaa e iessca ocew = ^ (5 i    /    / I = ( a  ese sus may  soeacay io assumes a aie oee[] eis moea e aie as a aie e io oasa-s  a icouowi e we-kwmass eie sus ocoua Si [] ca use  acaequao e e a smomeumSu e aomequao io ese momeumequao yies aacaaomsoo[]Aioysie e momeumia ao ime a eemeay measueeaommay ao  cauom eemeae momeum oe iecuios e iiims e ogao Momeum a e aom e iases e si oe aa e coesi ameoe  as ieesio igo owi mi io e  wi a gesioom ay  eae co oe  asa weakemiu ae me u mi wi su isaamui ie miu acoau e  e mass ie -  -(  i  ea eio aa giweam se   isgi []m( = oK   (7w   o is e mass  oiece  I C  is a co (3 a   is e ameoe owi ieco e gaseous emay  ia auigoo aigosoue sucas a ames ugosuaceImmea owiigo e emieae e is coumeie  oaee ame[]Aease comsoocess ses io e  oa usioameeom e co ois coms euses  e e a oom esuouis uses io e co; use comsoocess wi occuia aco suoui e  w e caaieo is asicomeic [] aae  e a gcasai is iuce e g ci eee oa iece ei eom ig a coms iis giocause oise ame may  oee ce om e iec [] aaea"eImmea weam ois egio comsooccu ie oa ie ame (eaa usioame A ie ame is a cemiame (e aieie ie eseco ie ceeoe ais immeasuoue a usioame a suoue a aemiame oeoui []weam ois ie ame giois w e maiusiocomsooccuAe e oieco as e iecee csese  awceis aea i coesi momeum a  e miss yEecesew ac as a u[]Mi oe ie oe wi osus icomsosea au e ecu wccoies  mia  asi momeum caies iaway om e e comsoocess wi e weiee is iuicie e susie acoiuicie oowem oe acs is weeug(e  e aioe cowaae ssecoie case osck ae aco a  ese-susiEmissioemissio a e maiu emissio om e comsoocessSe eieaa aissues ca cause aeoieaoseemissio a ccacoms oocmicasmogey cacause mage  e mecsms aoce mas aca iase aos suscei a e se o s ieco a asma-eosu  g ocacause coc  seasecause ieacomsoeis a gas is a a sigca soue oemissiosieguo  eimse gome ageies woi  coemissio om ese cesCoequee aooa i cocome a mai  a macus ocomsoses  sea om iusy a acamia a   a e maiogeos geiieacomsoeise mecsms  wca ea we ueo[771]e imamecsm  aois e ea(oc mecsm [71]wcis gye om e  e gacoey oi -mi s eeamecsm is ao swsucaoy gmsa sie me aose ms is qui acequiiuMe  e umi eeegases a coouuece wccay occu ieseeise eamecsm es ay acequiium coioweiis s e mi aomecsm uemoscoioOe aomecsms i e om a ous o us [71]e om mecsm sus ie immea aoo wiie ame uike e eamecsm wc e  i w iaes cosigca  ame-o is om mecsm ioes e acooe Ccawi a ogemocu   a sees oieea scies wcmayeuay  e coi cois acois e Cca wcis gyac a is cay u oy wiie ame gio e ous o ( Ouioes e acoo   wi aogecaa a i     ( + M  -  + M   e  O wi eacwi aeogeam   o mocusis acois mi e ogecacoeo cayiisoy sigca ee1a  Kw e is a ggie quai ow e eamecsm  is  sw-  -A usoue o ais scusseie  [71] is e eu uis mecsm is mossigca e w sigca quaies oamicogea cmicay u ie e sucas coaoammoaAuggasmay coaisigca quaies ooge iis cay as mocuogeae icis ie  i aco simiy  e ogeie oa e  oceie comsowi  emie as some wi comseie ocessO osemecsm is is a acowi e CO cawcac wi    a CO  [7Ia emiamee COcais ese isigca quaies wiie ame Some oe  ieegases wi  mowe egases ss uge acoagai Aeu ose comsioieseeis is e e oeeaa om mecsms [73Iee owcmecsm is miasma sigca quai oe  coaiie owi  comseiecomsoacowusi ciueausgases [73w mucoescies eie comsioecom    is ua5 seIuceuosceeseiuceuoscee ( is a we-esiscique c eoies omocuoamic scies iscic quaum ssIcomsoacao is ioaoca use i  quaies sucas mo acoima ci [75-77]is e saous isooc g emissioomocus a esec ioo aeiecoc s  seeio(oicam e eigu se uoscee weis ecyoio e eis ouge Eiio coeicie  Asaous emissio Iac meacoisio a cmicaaco caao  eisse eio a e sueque emissioiuce ese ocesses a mucweaose iuce semAoooe seo  mocus is cy sie eooe eis ie seesis o saousemissioouoscee a  A  oeoocesses sucas smuemissio coisioqueey a oessociao (ag  Q iasimieo-scmaa com ioeie ieco e mics oe oamus cay emi oaie coeoo-  -iesgascies ie eis as a ooi gcoeo eiisma ssie   agcoeoom e measuiei oe seiuceuoscee emissioowi gs wi emasi e sime gimes wce uosceeemissiois cay oio e seiaae a  e mocuoiiwese caaooces may  use i e oiocoeicie ioe  ao coeo om measuuosceeiei5 iie oseIuceuosceeIaeocawo ouoscee was caieou eeie[7 sc e mocumics ouoscee eemes oamic scies seeio aamesis was acewi a  equaoasis oaiao sysm  assumi ae o oese  aca sa seowi seco a a ieaccou oe  equaoasisIe o-moouosceeo coi oy o mocuquaumss aa cy ougiecowi e segaoey sui ie ooigou quaum ss is gce ey aio a e amecsms aa coiiis moasummaigu 9Ue      lA        A   I I Q                   wegu 9 Scmac agm oo-mooiuceuosceeIIis mo eacmecsm is esee a  (s -1 a a co es osmuemissioa aoooo sui om seiecoasig  13 a / /3  scw  I is e sescaiei[(cm s  a    a  1 a e Eii coeicies e aio(cm  /Saous g emissioom e ueey is sc e Eii Acoeicie  A  (S -1  a e coisioque  om e ue weis e   Q  (S -1  e sescawiis assume  eae mocuaoowiso ae is a come oa e e ioe aoos ieIsaosoi e mmics oeeioocessaage iei ca useI 1 I  w   is e see o Icaame eiese ues meis oe oeo1 -9 s was e seois au1 - sa iis case o caao use age oies 1 I  ( (9Smuemissioom mocus aio om e ue e wessesses e same momeum a ase as e ii seaoSaous emissio we s om momeum a ase a is emieiosa (a se Iis ioois aoais coeca cos euoscee sig e uoscee sigca sc e equaoS =i    A   (1w    is e eiciey oe coecooicswccoeco uga soa S;   eses e mi omocus ie ues e  seeio a   is e coecome imageoo o c e coecome is  e ickss oe sesemuiie e aa oe seimageoo a si (e  equaosc e oie ues may  weas   13   (I   + Q  + A^ (11e  oe g eses e  ooaom e wes e ues e  smuaoo a e mai s ese mecsms; smuemissio coisioquea saousemissio scIsiao w e ooe see is  comwi e que me ocoisio imay  assumeae sysm acs a sas; us Equao11 comes I / 13 =   (I  + Q  + A^ (1Iames w e m seom eee 3Ke ueey s is iay emye sa s o esas e coai 1 w  1  is e iaoie wesSu Equao1ioEquao13 a ici e su io Equao1a A  ^^ ^/i   A ^ 1^1  1 + + Q+ (1e iaooe weis  e mi   1e scies i o e a aco   so aEquao1comesI  I31A S =1-1   ^ --^I 1+  Q   A(15is is e sic uoscee equao wcmay  use  e measuuoscee sig e mi   1  A icuy sime  is oaiweak eio(i w/  (1 +   Q  + A    Iis miS =1 - I 1A-/-^ Q   A(1Sie e que is muceae saous emissioo (Q    A  SI A^S^       1E(17w  I  is ace  E  e sescauee [cm  e o-moas eseea is qui aea cause iis sime;we ies accou ma ysicaocesses aa iay ima iseiuceuoscee measumesIicu e mogc e eseeooemocuey  amay ay a  ie ey aocessesisascis scieoes ake io accou ey aeeei cy  e seeioa ay oa aoey Ueceaieemeacoio ese aio musi esciay we seiei is gaa e weak eiomiis e5 CaaoIe gime oaseeio e quasi-sa s uoscee sigisoio sewea  e caooiesgamocu ie sese iis ao iee oio e ca oecoc que wcs   kwas a ooe coisious caao a qui iesga e caiee ois que oe coeomeasumeeque  ca cauious ames usi aie  e scicque css seco a weigi  e camo aco oese ecoisio [79Aeaacis  o ciooe caeec que  iw essu emiames  measu e cay  oe me soeuoscee sigwe ia mo accawaya caaoosigis usuay oeuewe-kwcoio iwe-scames ke e McKea e w eao coeooe iesgamocu ca cau[] ocameasu aecique sucas  osig aooscosco []u ac ow MoiO ameaissue iu ac ow moi is  oy esee eecou ucao ocmicaacosmosaccauow oemscmecasimuo (Say soe e smaesuscas a s yo e acoe cue comosouesIacceemeaoees oe ow e a oeoai soi e ys-ageosay-eeSkes equao as iys-AgeeSkes (mo a e Ey Simuo(S e eecouesoeucao oe meaow e is oeaccoueugu scosi moa u ac owe meae oe cmicasoue  is quicse e coeaoequaowe as iusa Waa [1]e agecmicaaco is so aec e i oe ucao ie ow ea us cao comom e meaes cyaisia u acowe((( co(  (1w w is e meaaco  is essu  is m Y  is e massacoosciesO ameaaac ass e csu oem iecmicasoue  is  cau e meae om a sscasciooeac sysm usi e o i o(Ie oe uow e is kw e meaaco ca iegom e coioacos weige eicai-   y     Y (19w  is a ccsc me sca oueis e ci c a  is eo i o e o i ois cay assume  ai ociu equeya eo-cmicacomsio[]A moa equaois soe cay  a giaic meo  oaieiaous e oe i []e meomeois ae eecou coecooacmicaacois cauecye meos esuccessy ae moous u coms ows [5ssas imie Equao19e a equaois a gmeioequao mecaaacs use soe e i  sucas Moe-- 3-Cao meo oimeoa  me-coumi esysms wi a sma moscies [1]A sigca simicaooe a equaoca aceieis assume ke oe  oa gec o(ea  /3 ooa ceGaussiawcis y i a mimomesucas e meaa aeIacasee ca coucseoa coeescawse meaa ae ca oai soi a equaoIaysucacoeescasu  some ysicamea ais  e ucaoie acosemioiay emicomsooemsemiu aco ( is oeuseas suca sca O oomiu acois= ^ 1Yi ^ Yi(w Ys e mass acooeme  i  ie miu; Y o s e massacoo i  iseam 1;  Y s e mass acoo i  iseam  Miu acoisa measu oe eme mass aco wcogis om e e(oo seamIa e scies a assume  e same usie mi ocess caccusi e miu acoaeacmiu acowi giioessue is a equiium s suec e ua coioIassumio a ma ae eausi is iica e sciesusi (u wis m a e cmicame sca is sigca seaeysicame sca (scmisy a e scaaes ia u comsooem come a kwoomiu aco[1]Uoue  e e seoocmicame scase scmisy assumiois ima comsosysmsous - ucomsomo  e ass e equiium eecIeowi secoe miamemo CoioMome Csua eCoioSoue- Esmaomeoa ice A e mo a seoe o-meeseaooe omiu acousi i meaa eaeSuequee ac Gew-meioMa meoe cooicmisy icomsomoi wi ao  scusse1 miameMoe ameaassumiooe miamemois ae acieace oa emiu ame ca eweas aeeme ocaymiusioamee mouowas ay ice  []w oea Ccco- cooi aao e coeaoequao oscies a ey usi e owi sa a aa= -- ^ (aaaaa a  aa  a a^ (a^ a a a=^ +    (i=  3^ (a a ; i aw   s me;     3  e sacoois;   s a wcooi a e sicomeic suace oe mi e;  i  (i = 3 a e ooecoms oe aesacoois;   is e aemecooi gi  =A scmac oe ogia aesacoois is giigu1 e oois aaois  mo e coois om aEuaame a giaame aac e ame oe aecoeaoequaoa weasay =   aaa  + (Ya  a  a; a "a^ a a a ^ coa =  ^ a a i =((w   is e mass/eausi (assumi aa e scies  e sameusi a e wis mis u   i is e mass oco oscies  i ; iis e ey oscies  i ; a c  is e miu-agescic a e aoa essu ucaos ie ey equao eomie e oY  a    coaie s oY a   wi sc   a  3 ;  ey a- 3-Sicomeicsuace iusioamecoias i oweoecomwi e  oe S oEquao a a a gcie  oe ameequao []giay^  a  a +a = ^ a a^ a = ^ a a    ^  a^ aae  a^C =1(( (ae suacegu 1Cooi aaoimiamemoe a aaoa assumio yie a o-meioameequaowcis a e sicomeic suacee iaous scassiowcis =   a aaa (scs e equiium eeciusioamesA ge o  a  amo mooscies a aom e ame; aa ceaiccaew e cmicaacocaosusie ass e  u miaque oe ame occuIu ame cauoiis ee  esee o o  wi a si me owi w a C [] []oseusi e scassioae sicomeic suacei s= (as eesea me Assumi ame oe mi-ye a emi iu usioames cse  use e coueow geomey  sc e ee oe oom e acasoo ica swa =  c {-ec ( ^(Iw  ec -1  is e iee oe comemea eoo e oee o   o sca om Equao =  (I  ^ (3w    is e eoia iEquaoI ue moemeae oscassioca  u ucao ug[9]= c^  ^ (31w e is e e (oi-weige agessio ou kiceyass7 - /  k is e e ageu kic ey;    is ee ae oe miu acow  =  ; c is a sca coeicie wi asa e o[]e esea me  s iEquao3is oe-3equa i e-agewcca cauom e iegi/( ^ I1 = o  (3Oe e   o ie ow e is soe e meae oa scies mass acoca comom e i o  a  ^=  Yi (    ^ (33simicaoca acei  a   a assume  sscayieeIacaseEquao33 is ce= o o Yi (    (3Ie moscimemeaooe miamemo e sa-sameequao wi ous os oe scassioa soemecayesoo a e  a amea wi   a   as e emeioe meamass aco cae oai soi e coeaoequao oous momes o  a   a su e sui acoioacos om e e-comamea io Equao3e sa-s amemos e scmisy assumiosigcawe eemeaa eocases  swae ame caosiaous  ces iscassio[99esa-s ame asuie moi ocesses w e cmicame sca is come  oeae ow me sca ass is issueous ua amemo ea swi e  osuccessCoeo a  [93] sea mea/aiusioame usi aEuaic amemo e ua cauo we oeie socessi sge  ai uiics aace e meooescassio a soe e ua ameequaowi e i ee sus sweaimome ie ecscies coeoocomwi e sa-s mo A simiaac caee eseaiec amemo( ose   ea  [9soes e uaameequao iec wi e soooe ow eis meos e- 37 -imemeeisimu comsoa u aoieseeis [997]w e aie ocess miso a a [9 osea amemesca mo wcas wecomocoscomwi e mo emois seoa oeeaiooe sa-s amesoo A cmicame sca iom e coamaiis use com e  oce oscies mass acoom e sa-s sooAuge miamemoa i ous s a i useeei imoi u comso iis ima  a eiiemioe ueyi assumiooamemo is ae u ame is aeeme omiameis assumio   e suc oe ameo musmaicay mi Ioewose ickss oe ame mus ieae smaes sca oue e Koogo scaIis wgey acceeae ameassumiois oy ie giooe umkOem  a  wcis 1 Ia =  1 I(35w   is e macscoc me sca oe ow e;    is e ccsc me scaoe miame; /    is e esu ey  sca;  is e ueiei ;   is e miame ickssa   is e mii ciWe ysicame sca aacs e cmicame scaoe e o a is smae sui oe ameassumiocomes quesoe [99]CoioMome CsuCoiomome csu (CMC wcwas oseiee Kmeo [1] a e[1]is sciiia i ew [1]Auge s oe CMC equao a ue e maemacameo a moassumio ae Kmeo a eieio a qui eKmeo ses oom e a equaooa o-meioi  Ya(1 71 ---- Y  17y  77Y  I 77 (77 a (37 =  A(Y 177+ a(Y I 77 (39(   I   + ( y ^ (((Y  Y ^ (3aas ^I y1w  y is e same sce ae Y ;  W is e cmicasoue ; eessio (a 1 c is s  (a 1 wcis e coioeecoo acoiooe ae   i equa  c Equao3is muiie  y  aiegoa  y   ge a(11 11111 + (7 9  17Y  Ia (37w y=  17W  11a+  7   77 is e same sce ae   Csu oe s oe S tlwcis e acoscauicoeescascewas aceugausioamaowi e   A  a   a e i coeicie a usiou coeicie sciscsu assumioa  e  oe sic CMC equaowcgos eeooe coioes oacosca;a(Y 177 + (77 Y  77+ 1 3 I  17 a^ 7-(q   (7171ag(w  ( I 77- 39 -e ucaooscies mass aco e ysicamea oe seco a is oe S oEquao a e coecooe coioe oeacosca e  oe S eses e eecou usiooecoioeeco e  oe S is e coiosoue Ies ooe CMC equao[1]e coioe oeacoscais comseio i meaa ucao wca suio ea equao Aeki e coioagee equaocomes ^(  7 a(171 11 ^ 17Yi  17(I /7   1 (171 11^a ^ ^ a=( 17W1 7 eQ +eY(wieQ (Y 177 +   a(7 1g577ey  ( aa  +   Y"  Y"77((e ys me e o ec is sma a ca gc euoioage oe y ca cauom e iegequao y 7777 = (I77Y" I 77(777 ^ (Csu e use e y is auge assumioey7777 = i(177 YI77(777 ^ (wca  e same CMC equaoas Equaoe csu oe coiosoue  ie CMC equaois usuay ace gc e eecoecoioucaoi(wi(Y ^ ((Y 17 ( 77^ (A cse emiooEquao sws ae coioeecooe acscais aeia umeioscee sacoois a ocoioae (ie miu acous e comocossoi eCMC equaoa comeow is ke   suia--A simicaooEquao ca oai assumimogeous ue wi u a co iIacasee sicequaoces 7  71^ ^ a^i  7(  171 ag^= ( W 117 (Iis ies   ais  oe CMC equaocse semes e uaameequaoscusseie eous seco we e su eeeee o mo mus emasi e ameaassumiooe amemocoai i acaoie amegimew e moassumiooCMCis mo ge Iis ao ssie  ace csu usi gmomes wi CMCus e meos e ia sc ames wi sigca coioucao (sucas occu que a igo wi gaccucye CMC assumio aucoiomea a cois wi eeemea [1]e CMC mos eaewi coie success iec ac sca (scies mass acoa miaacames[1-1]eames [1] a u- ames [11111]Iwas ao useiecsooaoia u mea/aiac [11Mo ceseco-oecsu meo  ea imemee imo e oae oCMC iec ames [113]esciay gio wi sigca caeioaigo[113 CoioSoue- Esmaoe CoioSoue- Esmao(CSEmeo[115] seeks csu oecmicasoue  usi e coioage oe acosca ia maewcis esseiay iica e oeCMCe coioeswe aoai soi a a equaosucas aiEquaoseoe  aio  kwe om S cauo ae coioages osca  y isces a Si[115] osea meo oaie coioages oe ac sca ugiei aiegequaousi euoioages oaeeme osc is ia comomaiMaemacaye uoiomeaaa sacao  a me  is(Y(   = o 771 7 (177 ^ (-  -a secsaeeme o  ise CSE meoassumes aecoioage is u wiie eeme(1"1 ( 7177= (Y 117A^ (w e suc   is e i ie eemea e suc  A s eeemeis a  a sc seo ieg(I(    Y i ^ (5Equao5ca amausi a mecaquaa wi  M  quaais  (M   Ai1/" (IY  I m A gqm ^ (51m=w  = 1   e assquas soooe coioages oiessca ca com iei Equao51e CSE meowas iay imemeeia e ey simuooa mea/aiusioame wi eougi success iec e eemeameasumes [ 11 e coe oCSE was sicouowi eua miamemo iwce coioages oacosca acauusi a acomooamesoo [117]e aia weigic e amesoo a i iei e iegequaooeuoiomeam ee meowas euseie coe oa mo s u mea igowi some success [11119]Ioe ass e issue oi-seess iEquao51as we as  omcoii ie soo Gu ea/ [119] osea guomeoe iei ocesse moeequaosysm soi coiosca ismi -(Y  II  ( Y II + II  1 17 (Y  I 17  II}^ (5w S -is e ogicoeicie maie sc iegequao; esucs   a   Aa e mes awce sca a ea  A is aweigi coeicie scie e mo IGus [119] imemeao  Awascse a seug a io  ioao oce a we-soo eguo   II  I  Y  I  II mi e ce ocoioage--eeo coecu me s a ac  s e sooa  ea  [1] imoe guomeo i sacoii e coioscaeIs imemeao e imeamiII (Y^ (Y i AE  II iEquao5was ace II  (Y 177 (Y ^11  w (Y was cauom(y o (y1 oA ^aui  17y   -A (53Sie  eemes a simuo  swasaasymmeic amese css-seam ao ocoiomea a sigca [115]e coecooe coiomea iEquao53 was oy coiie aacooe  e coiomeaci ae aacao (u  wasama css-seam agi a e isoes(u(  (q;  (u  "= ;(5w   s e us oe A maiaaage oe CSE meois ae comocosis suiayweaaoCMCMeaies ioe coai assumio sucasose emoye e miamemo a is us acae  a wi e ou emiamescooiCmisyComsosimuo ioo icmicakic mecsms ai iasi useisi ac ow oemsA icmicakicmecsm a comsoocess cay ioes  oe oacsca wi  oousas ocmicaacoeacwi eioweme scaswcgi se  sss ie goi oi eiaequao(Os  soe suca s sysm oOs is  me-coumi sie e smaesme sca mus soee mecasoo  se [1]ee is cay a e ce e meio a e sss ie icmisy  ce e comome comsosimuoMa meo ci icmisy a seoe seoocmicame scas associawi e acoscaIe me sca seo--is e eug socesses wi s me scas aaca quasi-sa sy; ese ca coueom sw ocesses  ce e meio oe ac sysme mai w-meioma ca use amae icmisy wi a gge oaccucya o-meiomaemee iaous s oacosca  Y ca oaiom e mausi e u  aY (u au ay (u a ^ au  a a a (55w  u a a ogss aes use me e maMaas a [ 1 ] osea maemacamocom e Iic w-meioMa (IM mimi e acococio e ssucewcis  eigeec associawi e ga eigeaes oe coamai e ma ge is meois somewoimagy; we eimemeaooe meois  ioe simi e coucooe ma a Maas [1] oseeac Gew-meioMa (Mmeo iwce mais gea acoacese ua e e iass oeaceswcis caee ma ge ca oaiusi e eme-e-omascies meo[1]  ace a mamum oaeee Ma IMa  ea  [1] moee M meo sugges aaces  iausi a coaiequiium comsioa e uaesoe ae scee meooe M ca ausi e aac a e iacao oe ac wi sc some ewe icao w e acoaces  e oc maiwcma euaoom ysicasce  e ma sce comes ay siu  aiis oemo acoscasucas  Yc  a Y  ca useas ogssaes e ma wioumeo e ocM ieY   Y  a cae iauusi e uy meo[1]   auucmes e ieoi seaa ieoooe ma suace cae imemeeseoe iaous e oY e  a Y   [1]7 Summais ces eweeemeaa kic ses ogascomso e eecogaas a ogeomea igos escusse e eae eemea oemigascomsoueei- coio s eesis e maisuc oemigaseous comsoa aomecsms iocaoames escusse e sic iie oseiuceuoscee s eice ye meo csi e cmicasoue  iucomsomoi usi o-meeseaooe oac scaa a maemacamoci icmisy  escusseCe3IgoMeasumes o oMea wi Ais3 Icoa- ei mac a  aaeicyea seausaeae ces  eu aeseeis meesie w emissiosaswe ci e icyeaooese sciesas we as aaem  ce caoo (CO emissiois mi e ameaoiesoe quiesee aci e ewi gas oe e ia acesuiau emissiocow maki use oa wi-aie acom iceaea e Moscue iuse gas eeeis useemice s-igocogywcsue om ceeiciey a gemissio ouuemeaw cogies aie eseei cieco comessioigocomsoocess a ueeweuei oe amea oe gessuuemigas comsoocess is qui oimi e comsosysmO oe ie ci wi-seause ogas iaaoacao is ao ie ecomsio  oa ocao (eaoe a oes  wi e esoueme oyea a e quimesoe gas sue Uoeiogasessucas syc gasmay coaisuiay equaies oese scies [1]e aioosome scies  eemay ao  useieai igooci aooceaius3 eous Wo3 Mea/Ea ComsoEa is a mamea aa oeese igasIcomsosesea geewi o is oeae mea  ese cagas [1]e aooea coeoigas casigcace e igoccscs oe se e wcis icuy   eoae omogeous ce comessioigo(CIeis [13131] aswe as  eigogas eis a gas is ie see ocoiauigo[13133]-  -eous sea  couca e moeemeaamecases  ue e igooimea/ea miu [7353313we mosoese sesicuy e eemeaoswe cuseoemicomso Oukwe ogas igoia uemiame uecoio   accacomsoces (sucasieacomsoeis ogas isis s iuicieIaeo  s e auigoocess oemiu gaseous ueeseei-eieas we as e iee okey o me oemissioSui ea  [31 coucsck  eemes wi  meaa 91mea/9ea e aei- coioe auigoacomsoocess we coe a gseCMOS cameeisus swea meae aigokeecao  e equioce ameis ie e o  a iis sigca iee eieiecoessu o oiecoo e weam caooe igokee  e aose is cay ie e o  emissioa  iei  iecoessu o a iecoo Wi 9eaaio e mea e e aigokeecao  eequi oce amecases auoagea emissio iase a coau g-a iauigoa emissio wasoee eIsu  ae ma oe sus e Sui ea  [31 e auigoo mea e Eemes wi a mea/ea e oy a misueoese susSigcae mea/ea eemeswe coucuee same eemeacoio as was e case e meausiis cawee eees iowe causeea aio oe o coio3 ogeEicMea Comso gas a oge  a awcks as mo ceIaieacomsoeigas os eee ai-kckoiessue om w ame ogaos a gau-igomsoges w igoey sus ia soeey  kckcom gasmi e comessioo (a e mamum eocaeicieymogeous-ce ogeeisWae e aiueam o--e iake oges w meic ey i ao ces e ey coeoa gime oiucce [137]we ogees  a gameseagasa iis easie igis sugges aa comooeseo e cou  a suoc eaeieiiayW ogeocoa ooa sge a issues a ye  oomea  smaamou ooge iay om wae soues a eewicomessegascou o suia wi  mocao aei sysm gas eiA sigca amou oseas ecouciesgamea/ogee comso we w ses we iiewciesga e emicomsoomea/ogeesameaemises  iicaae eiausiooogeia u comsoe sus ia game ogaoewe miame seis co [13e ame gasise  sesus iwecaeioesci CO a ocao(C[139]eesee oogeie aemiame was u  iase e coeoo O a ca [139]Is esuggesae esee omo Omayco  e mo oooe meaa ausi ogeimea caiase ak Ocacoeo  as mucas [1]emicomsoomea/ogees s eseaseeiIa w-essuw-m co-ow eeemeKaasi aWie [1] u aame s is eae ogeaio eiee eoe o is was a game se a imomiees ieseam i wi ogeaiowe u   secoa [1]e gusi oe ogewas u  iase ame ickss ueiay-emicoio [1]Iiusiagas is a iogeaiowas u  eae om  ao(e  ga Ocacoeow ame s was imo[1]Ia emicoueow mea/aaieemee coeooogeie mea was u  iee eigomecsmAcoeo w 3  memea igois e  eae e esee ocae ocess is s esseiay meaigo A 3ogeigomie ocesswi igoysiee oe  mea/ogecoeo[1]-  -e coe ousi ogeas aai  imo e comso is-igoeis was suggescoeiogaso ei [1]Semo ce ses  iesgae eec oei gas aogeuse imogeus ces-igoeis [1-15ese sus swi si a ga suse mosima iee oogeaiois ueaemicoiow e amiis suiayeee[15153]is s ea aeaecomso aseigoy [15155]a giaieo (i  sicomeic aaooemissio a gwi ogeaio e  e gamemw CO a  emissio a ce[15153]ese eec comemo sigca as e amiis aac we cause ooges a ee e ami weemissio a ace i aaaieoswi ogeaio[153]ame s ie esee oEGis ao imoaaaieos [15e eec oogeaiooeiciey aea  oo coio wi some ses iica imoeiciey [15a oei ceeiciey [15e acooogeie e(cay eoa me eageeeee e sescayes o15-we u  acesuiaimomes wiouimi kck sise [1515A 3suiaco ie ce ey icouewi giakckwe u   suiaica wi  iemissio os [15eweey i oe gaseous ce ca oome ugociwe is iases e ce okck agogecoeo [151]3 eowi oge e ewi ai scies su ce e comsome ci e ao o uge ea(oc mecsmis is a cique simi e use oeausgas ciuo(EGwcs esw ace  w  emissioae eee oceeiciey a gemissio oCOa  [157]e eeco a gaseous ewi oges eiesgaiouscoesa gas emice eiea uucs [15 ea ai u 1 ogeie e kck sise is imoeiciey isimiaa co eaisicomeyCokes  ea  [159] esimisus-  -a suggesae eec a esseiay iica iasi e EGaco esame eey coe ia emice sysm e eoe os esseiay e same eecosaci ogeom e ceemicomso e eec oeocou  suiayom ose ooo Oos eseeeieieuge use oEGougogeooe ce [1]eoseas eei iesga ese a s [1] eae is someee aiiusiai (w essu emiu comsoeoces  emissio mo eec aes oo is isa eaemi s a cesie me ie egases mi ques e  acoe s sugges ae acocmisy is iei  e soue oe eis s ao iicaa eo ieess o iame sooaois  esceaee use oogeas a e iameaemicomsosesis  commo ima as a cique  ce ecoeoa emiooseow usioame [1] sigca eec a oeeuieeseam coai  oge( me A oge e mquiigoiasese  e iaseacaci oe e is isgey simi e iees oiaseey ssiouggusaisGui ea  [1] eaia co-ow miame e soomeacois ceoioy wi e coimea coeo e auoais cy  eo ey ii a eecoe ogeosooaooookicsese sus iica ae iiiee oogeaiomas ie  ci e ey i oe e e is ee oceec oe acokicsea gogecoeoO oe iieec oogeaio e gaseous is ci eey i oe iecgassui ia eiecoo o esame amou oaie cmicaeya aie  iasi e iecmass sigca iases e kic ey a e comsocmgasesCi e i oe iecewi ao iee e aosea u mi oe gaseous  we  ses ie  we uaaem  ea e iee oogecoe oa gessu u emi- 5-Iece OicaSeco3 EemeaMeoA sck  ci was cseis s iee  a seaei ioe iso e iee oceaio me a  ee e cmeasume o-a iigoys a emissio waaow e ieco a ua geomey associawi acaei ooa aiiis seso akey o me may  isooa s-ssisEeiooe sck  sus  a scic woi ei quis somese  is ami as wi gey  acae  mocomewoi eies3 Sck  SeA scmac oe sck  useiis s is swigu 3esiess sesck  is 7m wi a 31 m isecoa a 79 m iseco a aii ameo5 cme oicasecocoai e 1 cm cm quaoicawiowsuusmoueeocs 1111 micessu ace a use measu e ii sck ciAAuacuum seois usee igas comsio a measu iaigas essua aEce gessu seois usemeasu e igasessuessu ace AcquisioSysmgu 3 Scmacs oe sck  a aacequie- 51 -A ue-agm cique was use guaee e u oagms ae siessu oio eaceememeic essu was coea e isecogas essu acewas caausi a  a scaaocoesi  cuum a aosec essu ia iseco oe sck  we sueque ecuaa wi e  coece eiec iecci soi a maas ee isecowas ewi ai(aimecag e siiaessu a e isecogas comsioemameicay wi a miu oum (ai99a ai(aimecag e  acquisiosysm (1ecWaok/51was ae e iecoy a owe seugWeso WCusowaa e y eee soiai e ieea cmessu ieue agm sysm a e iecci soiwas se yeieea cmessu was e ia e u oe agmsage e siii sck wae  acquisiosysm a e iecwe igge e si ee oe ii sck wa as issee eecicessu acecses e sck  eaIoe eu a quiesceco essu gio e ecsckwae scic ao oe igas was cay  is was oeei aia   yie a iieace eee ia igases usck ecoom e eaA iieace is o w e essu oeiesi oe coacsuace is equaaee ecsck sses uge ieace(om i igas eu ae coacsuace mai so amami e eemeameIe sck ci acss e ieace is equae igas essu wi  gaae igas essuoce aaeeecsck sses uge ieacea e ieace is sai  ueiooi scAueiieace causes e sessu  sesa as e coacsuace eacs io e isecogasw aoiieace causes e eemeaessu  case e  e coacsuacemo away om e eemeaseco  cases a uesiea us ae e comsio( aco oe igasi scic ao is i e seosou acss e coacsuace a us eu ae essuee acss e ieace is Iis sugcai eec me o5 ms was acewi ay co secsck essu am coio io comso-5Ii sck cies we cauom e essu aces om eacoeumomic essu ace  measu e me ieaeesi ees as e sck sseeacsuccessi acecao Usi emeasuii sck ci a iaigas oiese m aessu immea  e ecsck we i soi 1-coeaoequao massmomeuma ey acss e sck a assumiecgas ow aowi m e acacieseueaiy ie m a essu cauiis way was esma au1- [] a 3- []sce seimea (997 9 mea/1 eamea/19oge a mea/oge eemeswi meamea/eaa mea/oge aecocay coeo iec(3ogiy a ciecoei acaoWeso Ioo was use Sie e magsic maaiis iecis come wi oge a moeiooe iec(3wi a eecicacawas usee mea/ogeeemes iec s e sameiec wi o ce o5 mm ame Ie eemee iecwasmoueae ceeoe sck  eais eee iecoogaseousewe ceei oe sck e iecomi a owecoeusi a cusmicoe mi was syo s iecoee1 a ms 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om  mea  31e mea/ogeee 33 a i   mea a mea/ogeMi Ma Mea S  CO oge 1 5 3  oge 17   13 31e 3A sus    ogeaioeeSoue oao SS  MS  eeeGu 97 1 97 793 1WiiGu 95 3 11 533315 39e igokeecao  e  es ce wiiasi  oas swigu 3  so oee   a  o is oeeeie as swigu 371 -esea Eo ^7 ^ 75 ^  ^ 1 o (1/K ogeogegu 3/  aowi  o mea a mea/oge  o ^  1---II   o Qo    o o^oo ^  ^ ^ ^ coesea Eo ^7^ 75  ^ 1 (1/K oge ^ ogegu 37    aowi   o mea a mea/ogesus igus 3a 39 suggesae aigokeecaois aec iecoo-esea Eo5^ 1^ 1^  (ms5^ 3 ogeogegu 3 k/ aowi  mea a mea/oge-77-0Oesea Eo1^esea Eo1^ 1^  ^ 5 ^ 3 (mso  oge ^ogegu 39    aowi  mea a mea/ogegus 3a 31 sw e aoo/  a    wi  ; oscSimiy  e ea casee aigokeecaoes sw soee oiecoessu o1 ^51^ ^ 3^  / o  ogeoge5^ gu 3/  aowi ^ mea a mea/oge-7 ^   -K oesea Eo^1^ ^ 3^ ^ 5^  /  oo  ogeogegu 31    aowi  ;/o mea a mea/ogeEmissioe 35 summas e measuemissio om Sees I se o a a e mass omea iec ogeaiosus iasigca case iemissiowi a case ie meaeisee is sscay sigca as sw e A sus ie 3e 35 a iaemissio mea a 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me we ak is aceacee a e sus a summaigus 7 a Wi ea oogeaio e C 3 O a   mass acoeese imeW wi ogeaio e acues aosoaeacoe is is ee ae esee oea oogeces e igocmisy omeaw ogeaea  oy a eamass  e ea isioeicmicaaco ge ac ca5 1-5  oge^ 1 ogec  ^oge 3u_I CI ^  ^  ^ me (ms 1  -oge^5^^ 1 oge^% oge ^  1ca1-5^ me (ms ^ ^ me (ms ^  ^  ^  ^  ^ me (ms1 -  oge ^^ 1 oge^%  oge u_g   oge1 ogec  ^oge1 MMe 3  s e mea/ogees oge 1 oge oge 5 5 7gu C 3 O a   mass acos a s mea/ogees(=3 K o=13 K3 1 Ea1 Ea^ Ea13u_CO 55^ 1ame1  -1 51 1  - ^oge^ 1 oge^ oge5ame1 1 -5oge^ 1 ogec  ^oge3u_CCo 55 oge1 ogeoge  1 - 1-1 Ea^ 1 EaEaE-u_ -5 ^ 1ame1-(  1yoge^ 1 oge 1^1^^ oge1-^ 1CcuI 55 ^ 1^ 1ame5ame^ 1^ 1^ 5 ^ 1amegu 7 aC 3 a   mass acos a s e e(=3 K =13 K3 1131 15oge^5 ^ 1 ogeg   oge1 couco^ I1O515 ^ 1ame1  1-oge^51^ 1 ogeogeu_co  3"I 15 ^ 1ame1  ^Eu_cog O  ----- 5 ^ 1ame oge1 ogeoge1  -1  oge^ 1 oge c  ^oge- UUu_CO OI i -5ame1111 -Ea5  ^ 1 Ea^ Ea1 u_cocOOo15 ^ 1^ 1ame1 -   Ea^ 1 Eag a^Ea"c9U-m 5 ^ 1amegu aOa   mass acos a se 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oa (mm (mm SE( (mm Mea 95 59 11 11 Ea 15 7973 1131 1739oge 1 33 1917 7oge 7979 333 19 19 co is scussiooaoa igokeecao isu a  wi  a  some ee oe i oe iece eaiooea ooge mea iases e i oe eeiasi e aooe  w e aiooogeces e ia casi e ao we e ces iaose e e i ces oe e a smagu 53 sws e ecaoe ue uecoioiis wo cauusi e sca mooa Oueee [] 5 1me (ms1  -EE  - -esea EoMea ^ 1 Ea 1-- oge-ogegu 53 Esma  as oome seosca mo(=3 K o=13  K o=5 Emissiogu 5sws aemissio aowi  o iis gua eaEmissio = a + 1/  o ^ (5e i sus a summaie 53A e ss eie 53 a ga a e sa eo oess a  wiica ae is a commoe oiasi emissio wi iasi  o gass oecomsioa(oge1esea EoA 40o^ o-+Qo^ 0 7^ 75   -c^  -^ 1  (1/K - - - -o Meaa(Mea 1 Ea ^ oge ^ % ogegu 5aemissio aowi  oe 53 assquas i sus aemissio a  oa (K SE( (K Mea  -13 35 1 Ea 333 -35  75oge  - 33 oge 1 - 93 59gu 55 sws e aooaemissio wi iecoessu o a oe ees uecoio agssioisuse e  iis gu wi e aEmissio = a +  1   (51e i sus a summaie 5 A e ss ie e a si ae sa eo oe ss a  wsugges e is a commoe oiasi emissio wi iasi essu o; is may  e  eaemeoe ue agessu os wc iomos a mo eecaase- 11-/ -----------  - -I-111-1 esea Eo Ewa--------------- ^   r11^ ^ 3^ ^ 5^ i / oo Mea ^  1 Ea ^oge ^ % ogea(Mea ^ a(1 Ea- a(oge ^  a(ogegu 55 aemissio aowi / oe 5assquas i sus aemissio a / oa  SE( Mea    1 Ea  77  39oge -  9  oge   1 A e a oe sus eseeigus 5a 55 a as eeous iCe3e aiooea  e mea eiases e emissioo w coeee aiooogeoogeis see ce emissioA sime eomic asis sugges aces iame mwi eaio ueacoio may  e ima causeAs swie 55ueacoio aa mocuai-eo o mos e aac ame m ( a oe mea/ea e is 1 Kgaa mea e  cos uee same coio eaac ame m oe mea/ogee is 1 K weaa mea e ogeooy cy ces e aac amemao s  ce e coeoomea oe esi oe- 113 -emiamesui ia amiu aequi amou omiiscomosus ia sigca coiaac ame mas swie 55e 55 Aac ame ms e e( =3 K =13 K3Aie1(momo Aie (momo (K  (KMea 95   1 Ea 1 97 51 5oge    95oge 7 5 3 y iis seco e a ie sus is coi IaeaiesSui ea  [31 eae a iemissio was wecoewi igoy a  meawi we ug sui igemissiogus 5 57a 5sw aemissio aowi  ig 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mecasimuo ocy iecgas a eseeia o-soke comessioigoeiSAE cica9[15] G Oueee  miescuS a G Oimios oiggas ciecoieseeisSAE cica 1999--355[ 1] Auaey ouook  wi oco  3 Ey IoaoAisao E/EIA- ( /wwwiaoe/gooiaaeo[17] iC A s oe gm auigoa eacomsiooocaoesisme oMeccaEieSo Ui[1 AGay  I ee sck  igm cmicaysicsCaa   19[19] GaiWC  "Sck Was"oc1   ISym Sck Was-w YoSieag[] a W A Sck  ciques icmicakicsAu ysCm  (199 559-99[] wma CAeemeaa acaiesgaooe gmoomecsms oocaoeComsoSciee a cogy (1971-17[] aEemeasck  s oigoomoomea ueei  coioMasesisme oMeccaEieUi oisComa[]  SeeC wma Aeemeaa acas omea oo sck waComsoa ame 1(197 37-[] AkSce Aa GSkie Sck- iesgaooigoimea-ogeaomiusComsoa ame 1(1971311-3[]  uiGWag mogeous eaooomea iecsck wasocees oe ComsoI 15 (197 3[] ACKa OeeimAuigoimea-ogemius- 1 -Comsoa ame 5(191-139[] AGoMWSckSck  s oigoy mes imea-ogeogeaomiusComsoa ame  (197 377-3[] Ee  o Ko Kics moi osck-iuceigoiw-oC /  mius agessus a ieea msComsoa ame 117 (1999[]  aGWsSMuSck- s omea igoueei- coioeemes a moiComsoa ame 13(-[3 Ee  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(1997193[59] ee Auigoou mimes iesgausi cmecasimuo Comsoa ame 1 (-37[] Im G C  wCK Igooogeaimi yeiuowsey-SeSymsium (Ieao oComso e ComsoIs (199 17-1[] KimS KY ase  A mecaecooe auigoy iaeseke eie  e coiomome csu mo SAE cica --[] KimS YuY AKimY mecaiesgaooe auigoou gaseous  ia gessu eie usi e muie-mo e (375-3[] C a Oueeeaie u gaseous e eseeisuaoui eie 1 (199993-1[] e  S e si ume iuasuouisuaouiMeccs13 (19353[] coua SiMeasumes oeie  asymmeicau uaouiMeccs 11 (193[] SaoA a AGome ogaooee ames icoueowmi yeeemes a eoocees oe ComsoI  (39-[] Gssma IComso(E SaegoCAAcamic essI 19[] AmaiG  aMSmookea AGome Comoa eemeas osi mea ee ames ie o-meioasymmeic coueow- 1 -geomeyComsoa ame 1 (133-1[] essi oe a  Aeemeaa mecas oamiie ameComsoa ame 115 (199 335-353[7 ywoo  IeaComsoEi amea McGw-w Yo19[ 71 ] WaaUMaasa WComso ysicaa CmicaameaMoi a Simuo Eemesu ao ESieagi 1999[7 sokaM YKooa  keouokey aco o aoimea-aiames ieaosymsium ocomso e ComsoI (199 39-[73] EasyWa AMeo  comsioieseeisSAE cica 1999--35[7 Aa  a SeeAcaooame m coeo  emissioom a ciecoeseeiSAE cica 137[ 75 ] o  K aseiuceuoscee imagiuaoQuai Scosco & a a (193-3[7 ueaua M GosmiEComsooocoeoos usi  seiuceuoscee meo ia asuosec-essuogeogeaoameComsoSciee a cogy  (19139-15[77] EckeACseagscs Comsom a SciesEo (19959[ 7] eeie Eeo osesaamic soe uosceeScocmica Ac  Amic Scosco (197 1-3[79] iuW SmiGgo Csy Coisioque o AE +oaemsuaoCmicaysics 79 (191795-17[] Koe-eiusKaaseciques e quai cooac ieeas icomsosysmsogss iEy a ComsoSciee  (199 3-9[] ow S  W C  Y c Eecomkoeemosuequiium ocacoeoiu miamesComsoa ame  (199 5-1[] e Ma ; Csyo-meioimagi oocaseiuceuoscee ia ameOics e 7 (193-3- 1 -[  ] Smeo u ac owogss iEy aComsoSciee 11 (19119-19[] AMasScauo ou miames omeaComsoa ame  (199 13-[] A isSMoi oeioiu usioames  eci-ssiocomsiomeo Comsoa ame 1 (199 1-[]  SaScauoomaa miscies ia uameey-SeSymsium (I oComso e ComsoI (199 11-1[] miusioamemo iemiu comsoogss iEy a ComsoSciee 1(193-399[  ] CwSa-s usioame suc wi wis maoComsoSciee a cogy  (191-1[] WsWCauomeo ac u owsA 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mea igoacomsoueei- coio usi coiosoue- esmaowiicmisyComsoeo a Moi 11 ([1] SSe We Ko aMCoeescameasumes iu-usioames  a maa yigoImagimeo Comsoa ame 99 (199 3-35[1] YC MMaou Measumes oscassioiu ogeusioames a some imicao ocomsomoiComsoSciee acogy 1 (19971-313[1] KKKuoiies ocomso  Wiy a So w Yo[1]  WaaUMaasW Comso Eo SieagwYo1999[ 1 ] UMaasSSimii cmicakicsIic w meiomas icomsiosceComsoa ame  (199 9-[ 1 ] SUMaasSimii cmicakicsac-gew-meiomasA 93-11[ 1] aAom 751ickA coaio-meiouyiauockageACM aaco oMaemacaSowa  (199 1-- 1 -[1] csG MMcMiia SGemme Wge a SCuyIssuesw-emissio eee wesysmsogss iEy a ComsoSciee (1-1[1] Aie AEaka uweA Meue Eemeas oa wessu sicomeic emimeamea/eamea/ea/o asyc gas amese (933-9[13    Agama Mauss so MCise mogeous cecomessioigooowi gasecomsioimicaouaoEie Gas i a weaacooASME 1 (7-[131]  oweSAcesCWesok Smiicmicakicsimuoogas CI comso Gas comsioeec a iesgaoocosagiesuaoEie Gas i a weaacooASME1 (3-9[13 MMwaEMuiiMoi e eec ogas comsiooaecomsoueco-me coiouaoe I oEy 7(9[133] EK GKamA kic 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oaisi us esi e aio Comsoa ame 113 (199 -7[1] cC GKu a CwIgoocoueowi mea usaaiuecea eessusComsoa ame 1 (1997[1] Gui Eec oogeosooaoimeaoa usioamesComsoa ame 1 (19953-31[1] su MA Mai G CoiE c EeccoKA Mea aoia ciecogas eiSAEcica 91[1]  c amemasa C++ comogm Ocomsoa 1miame cauoaie om /wwwo/ic[1] Agwa A S oauigoogas ieseeies usicomouimics wi icmicakicsComsoa ame 113(199 9-3[1] e Ma Csyuoscee imagi ame cmisyoceesoe IeaoCoee ose   1KCoo  Sui a WSaeye(SMca  19[1] Ae Ma o K giimagi oscies coeoes isay-17amesey-Symsium (I oComso e ComsoI(191755-17[1] Sc W maa M a KeeyC Oa C  coeomeasumes ia eu-usioameey-i Symsium (I oComso e ComsoI(199 9-[17 Ae M wea o K giimagi oaco s iocaoaiames usi aseiuceuoscee oCa C Oicse 11 (191-1[171] u  a cE Imagi oacos iocaoaiames usiaseiuceuoscee oC Oics e 19 (199 991[ 17] KyckoG weo Ka Mce  C Quaisuaoocomsoscies ia aAeOics  (1935-37[ 173 ] Siema M Oi A u a o K Imagi accooosucs ia u miameey-iSymsium (I oComso e ComsoI (199 7-[17 moC a sGW Ooosoo oca ysCm 71 (19593-597[175] Ae MG McMasKa Soe  Ma u  aseiuceuoscee imagi ooa ocaoeagmes igessusay-ame comso AeOics 3(1995-[17 Sao  a SmyKC e ooosooa caoiocaousioamesComsoa ame 97 (199 1-1[177] EsyC cE ie Aa SaaccaA Quai eucoeoimagi ia   eseei usi aseiuceyigscaeSAE aaco 1 (199 11-11[17 c  Sweey W a ueau M sesauosceemeasumes oOiaosec essu C / / ames uesoo a soo coioComsoSciee a cogy  (199-1[179] o G MasseS a Woo Iao-meioseiuceuoscee measumes oOca iaieacomsoeiSAE cica 13[1] Su cke Mousea Womo-meiosuaooe ame o iaieacomsoei  seiuceuoscee oocaAeysics  (197-3[ 1 ] SeeO  a Acke W Si-e aseiuceuoscee imagi oocaia s igoeiSAE cica- 173 -93[1] ka a  M ameasumes ooca iaSI ei seoseiuceuosceeSAE cica 97[1] cEa CoyE Ocaimagi ia  eseei a e suc oe eay usioameSAE cica 91[1] cEa Key-o e eec oiecomi a e aioo-comsosooouia  eseei seosimuaous imagi oOa soo SAE cica --3[1] cEa eeusioame/wa ieco ia a-  eseeiSAE cica --15[1] MascusMEec oe icyeeie ousioame -o ia eseeiSAE cica --7[1] SaE ame Aa Game suc suaoosaecomsoia SI ei a I SAE cica --39[1] Kasa  C  a iuaA s ocomsosuc aimicao osoouemogeous a saeooia SIeiSAE cica --1[1] ce M EsaeA Ae M qs Aa so eiee oce iomogei oe CI comsoocessSAE cica--[19 Kasa  cquie  a uau G Miu eoa comsoa Ea ocomsoca ia cieco CI eseeiSAEcica --[ 191 ] Kasa  aaois a gimagi oauigoacomsoia ciecoeseeeCI eiSAE cica --3739[19 cCoyE Ocaimagi ia  eseei a e suc oeeay usioameSAE cica 91[193] GmaiC sioS C a oge Asis meoe sayccscs oa G sysm wi gessu moo SAE cica --13[19 S Aimagi-seasis oea e macscoc sayao oa ciecogaso iec oc15 ISS-AmecasMaso WI[195] Eue  SiMaemacamooueAcamic ess- 17-197[19 miusioamemo iemiu comsoogss iEy a ComsoSciee 1(193-399[197]   okucoeca ISS-a uia aomawosuaoComoysics 11 (19733[19 isqueA Scakeeaa sWK ecooaoie igoy me omea/aiwi a scsc ic mo Comsoeo a Moi 1(1-[199] Gai CW ok oScsc Meo ysicsCmisya eScieesSieagw Yo (199 131[ a aocos mmasEi ComsoIumeaoa agscsSocie oAumo EieIWaea[1] Ae AAoMcke  Sick WomWsc K Scisi m measumes  e comessioase oa  eseeiSAE cica 95[ Wss CSc e esKo Sagies seiuceuoscee cooic o igessu amesIComsooA-SagiesAeOics - (-3[3]  Aame   Giooame-o equie o saecomso SAE cica --AeiA IecCco coecy iee sck  eemeasuse iec useieeemes we cc me seiiecoy a ao W iecoy is esseia  i e igoy iesck  eemesaocao ioaoaue caooe igokee  e  eA ScieImagi Sysme imi seaie a  iecowas iesgawi a Scieimagi sysmis aas (iusaigu Acomiseoo 3m (1i amesecamio eacwi a  m (caag oce a eg am eeemA W meu a mwascuseoo a 5 mm ameo  oce a i soue og a aceae cai oo oe coa miosg o-as  aiiee wi a oe eg amAe cai oe oesecamio ao sgo-asa ciuau ee cuseimageyiei a Scieimage (eaa swg oc ioo e cameA ciuau was use ee imagesas oose a coeioSciesysm usi a k eecause e au aows soi saiges ia aco eaoy sua ose ges aaeicu e k eeAoicaessu cmwas aceie mi oese o secamioe essu cms uciuoicawiows wi a ameo1mm ( ie iecwas moueay ao si oe cm iase e i eeum was use essu e cma ogewas useas su gas  e iecImages we cauwi a sioseaaom  CMOS-secameequiewi a 5mm 1 koe came was oaa ame  o7ames/seco wi aeec iegome o amee came wasowi aasco o11 11e ieca e came wesyoo igge  wi a oIume I- mecouecaa a iew ogm-17giCameCoei SecaMio SecaMiooA mI^ I essu Cmgu A Scieimagi sysm seAuA EemeaCoioe A summas e eemeacoio a maime ieseeemesaeemes we couceaco coio e3 a 3 iece A O coio iecccoeemes (  (  (ms3  1 53 9 1 53 1 1 53 15 1 5A Eemeasusgu A sws secsay-suaoimages kewi Sciemeoom a sequee asea come iecoee mw eacimageame is e me aee iecoiggesigis issue e i ese imagesiusa w e s oiecoa  we  easi om esequee oimages as a coequee oe e i ges eee ogea suoui s umsis iegues ae ee oe causeue ucao wcis eec  oious asymmey a e ceei oeis oee- 177 -O ms^ 5 ms ^ 1 ms ^ 1 ms ^ 357 ms995 ms ^ 33ms ^ ms ^ 9 ms ^ 5 msgu A Scieimages oeoime(3 iec  a =3 K o=3 K/  = i=1 msA Iecoyiiecoy   iec a aie iAeiCees ie C  esoeom w  g  ai Cus cosome ous  is (sces ie ewe ckeua emi eA summas e iecoys e  e 3 a 3 iecsce A Summa oiecoys(a3 iec  Mi(ms Ma(ms Mea(ms S (ms CO 3 1 37  3 3 9 3  3 37 7 397 7 75 3  39 7 ( 3 iec Mi(ms Ma(ms Mea(ms S (ms CO  3 7  13 1 3 7  1 3 319 311  15 3 3 33 5 - 17-U_c CC3 15ao 1a esea Eo= 9 111/1"a=  ^ a^ esea Eoa i = 1 esea Eo ^ ^  ^  ^ ame (s I  1 ms 1 ms oOms 5 ms ^ ^ ame (s 11 1 ms 1 ms ms 5 ms-_c   -CC15  --1 -a   -E i = 1501esea EoQ-  CC3 15a-1 is0 : ,     .80 cesea EoA aoIgus A a Ae a  owi Equaoisoeagaie squa oome 3 a 3 iec scA aoeea a ame is cay swieseguswcos e sca mo^  ^  ^  ^ ^ ^  ^  ^  ^ ame (s 11^ ame  (s11 0   1 ms  ms  ms 1 ms 1 ms ms 5 msgu A Sca mo3 iec- -C- 1 157 1a""cis E^  ^  ^  ^ ame (s 11  9o 1 o 15gu A Sca mo3 iec- 179 -AeiEemeaUeaiy AsisEemeacoioueaiy iis s is summaie 1e 1 Eemeacoioueaiye-comsom 1-e-comsoessu 3-Aosec m 1 KAosec essu 1 Iecoessu 1 Iecoo  mse igoy eowas a e ueaiy iiecoy a eme eeCMOS came ames (1ms iecoy co 3msigocosc e sws e mamum ssie aoieigoy e 3 a 3 iec sce Igoy eoe 3 a 3 iec(ms/ 3 3 -9 +3 -5 +33 - + - + -3 +1 -3 +5 - +1 - +7e cique useiis wo  esma e ueaiy iiecoessuoaigokeecaoa aemissio is seoe cause  i a kwooa sees oaes  (   eacwi a coesi ao ueaiy (  eaequaooe = ( i  e ueaiy W ca causeo     1/ ( aaW=               e u ca usea ow e ueyi oa ueaiiesa kwAeme ousi is cique  cau e ueaiy iiecoessuo is giw1e u useis iie /3 I  =i  e ias oe ua cau a( 1 3^a1=^ I  =a(    a( ^ 3 Ii e ueaiies W=1  W=   e ueaiy is cauW/   =  ii ^ 1 Wo  ^1(^ ^   W  ^ iIe ueaiy caua s is ueaiy s ioemeasuese ueyi ueaiies ieacoese measu es ca oaia e same ocea eiooio e eemeaueaiyAeiC Iecoy e C Iecoys 3 a 3 iec(ms(a3 ieci/ =  / = 3  =  o = 53 3 37 33 373 37 373 373 373 3733 37 37 373 375 375 373 375 37 373 37 37 373 377 37 3793 377 37 37937 37 37 337 3 379 337 3 3 3371 3 3 3371 3 3 337 3 3 3373 3 3 3373 3 3 3373 3 3 3373 3 3 3373 3 3 337 3 3 337 3 3 3375 3 3 3375 3 3 3375 3 391 39375 3 391 39137 3 39 3937 3 39 3937 3 39 39337 3  39377 3  39377 3 1 39379 3  1379 3  3 3 9 33 1 1 339   1 9       7 1-1-e C Iecoys 3 a 3 iecco (ms( 3 iec  =  /  = 3 / =  / = 59 1 3 3 1 3 39 1 3 3 1 3 3 1 3 3  3 31  3 31  3 31  3 31  3 31  3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 33  3 33  3 33  3 33  3 33  3 33  3 33  3 33  3 33  3 33 5 3 33 5 3 3 5 3 3 5 3 3 5 3 3 5 3 35 5 31 35 5 31 35  31 3  31 3  31 3  31 3  31 3  31 3e C Iecoys 3 a 3 iecco (ms( 3 iec  =  / = 3 / =  / = 57 7 31 37 7 311 37 7 311 37 7 311 337  311 337  311 33  311 33  31 339  31 3319  31 3319  31 339  31 333  31 333  313 333 9 313 3333 9 313 3333 9 313 3333 9 313 333 9 31 333 3 31 333 3 31 333 3 31 333 3 31 333 3 31 333 3 31 333 3 315 3353 3 315 3353 3 315 3353 3 315 333 3 315 333 3 31 333 3 31 3373 3 31 3373 3 31 3373 3 317 3373 3 317 333 3 31 333 3 31 3393 3 31 3393 3 319 3AeiMea Eemeae 1 Mea eemeame((K_ig(ms(mm(mm(mg(mgeMCK1  13  1 35   75MCK  11  1 3   51MCK3 31 13 7  33 1 1 5MCK  15 5 11  3 5 5MCK5  11 5 17 3  1 5MCK 3 13  1 33 1  1MCK7  1 7 1 33  7 51MCK  19  19 33   5MCK9  13 7 13 33   MCK 3 13   33 1 5 3MCK1 3 19  17 33  1 MCK  1  9 39  5 MCK3  1 5  39 3  MCK  19 7  3  9 35MCK5  1 77  39   MCK  13 73 15 35   9MCK7  1  15 35   3MCK  1 7  3   71MCK9  13  1 37  5 77MCK  1 7 19 33   3MC1  1 193 1 37   MC  1 9 1 31 3  13MC3  1 1 15 3 3  39MCO  17 73 1 3  1 3MC  1 1 1 39 5 1 MC  1 919 19 37  3 3MC  19 3 1 33 3  5MCO  19 7  39 3  3MC1  11  19  7 15 99MC  1 71  37 7 159 7MC  1 9   7 15 7MC  1 5 1 31 5 157 e 1 Mea eemea come((K_ig(ms(mm(mm(mg(mgWeMCKQ  1 95   5 1 5MCKQ  17 1  39 3  37MCKQ  13 919 3  5 15 MCKQ  1 77 1 3 3 137 51MCKS  1  1 35  17 71MCKS  1 3 15 37 5 5 MCKS 3 13  15 37  1 77MCKSO  1 735 1 35  1 91MCK1  17 795 1 37  9 99MCK  17   35 5 19 77MCK3  1 9    339 13MCK  1  19 39  335 135MAK1  11 1   3 3 3MAK3  1193 1  5  7 MAK5  1195 1  5 3  1MAK  1179 15  5   MAK7  11 13     13M  15    3  M7  19 5   3 1 39M  11  1 3 5 111 5M9  19   3   5M  133   33 3 111 M9  1331 5 15 33  1 73M  133  1 35   5M1  13  15   135 7M  13  1 31 5 1 M7  1379  13   1 9M  13   37 5 133 73M9  139 5 17 31  151 AeiE Mea/Ea Eemeae E Mea/ea eemeame((K_ig(ms(mm(mm(mg(mg  -ieMECK1  17  1  5 1 7MECK 3 19    5 133 79MECK3  19 53  37 7 1 51MECK  1   35 5 13 7MECK5 3 13 717  31 3 117 17MECK  19 7  35 3 131 95MECK7  1 7 19 35 3 13 79MECK  19 755  37  13 99MECK9  1 7  37  1 7MECK  1 1  35 3 115 MECK1  1 3 1 33  5 5MECK  1 7  37   MECK3  11 715  31 5 3 5MECK  15 13 19   113 59MECK5  1 1   5 115 MECK  1 7 1 3  1 MECK7  15  13 33 5 1 MECK 3 13 55  31  7 53MECK9 31 13 53 1 37 5 1 5MECK 3 13   35  1 39MECO  1  15 3   3MEC  1 3 1 37  9 MEC  11 3 17 33  1 5MEC  1 9 1 37   3MEC  1 7  35   3MEC  11 7 1 33 3 1 77MEC  1 1  33  1 MECO  1 3 1 33  9 7MEC 3 13 79 1 35  3 MEC 3 13 7    1 99MEC 3 13 917   5 1 MEC  1 7    1 5MECO  17 77 1  5 15 1e E Mea/ea eemea come( _(Kug(ms(mm(mm(mg(mgeM ECKQ  19  19 33   MECKQ  1 75 1 39  1 55MECKQ  11   35  15 11MECKQ  19 797  3 5 199 7M ECKS  1 7 1   9 MECKS 3 19 111 11   3 MECKS  1 771 1 37  17 5MECKSO  19     17 55MECK  1 1   7 7 7MECK3 31 13  1  9  MECK  13  15 33 5 7 MECK5  1 7 17 39 9 3 MEAK1  119  17 39 3 7 13MEAK3 3 1 19     MEAK 3 1199 1     MEAK5  119 1 1    31ME1  1 1 31   5 ME  1 933   7 9 3ME3  15 9 19  3 9 31ME  1 1   3 5 3ME1  13  1   1 59ME 33 1357 397 1  5 1 ME3 3 135 1    5 5ME  13 7 13 3  11 1ME1 3 1  17   1 7ME 3 1  17 31 5 1 79ME3  1395  13   1 97ME  139 7  3  15 AeiMea/ogeEemeae 1 Mea/ogeeemeame((K_ig(ms(mm(mm(mg(mgeMK1 3 13 7  33 3  1MK  15  1 31   MK3  15 51   5  99MK  1 1 1   5 MK5  11 5  31 3 3 MK  17 717 15 33 3 3 MK7  1 5 11   3 MK  11 7 17 33   MK9  17 779  3   3MK  13 717  33   53MK1  13 3 1 31  7 39MK  15 7 1 35 3  15MK3  1 7 13 37 5  MK 35 1311 71 1 3   MK5  15   31  9 15MK  15   31 1  MK7  17 71 11 33 3 3 93MK  1 73 1 33  5 33MK9 3 13 5 1   9 15MK  1 1  39  7 17M 3 13 1 5 31  3 MO 33 13 1 7 3  5 77M  15 997   3 3 M  1 735 5  3 9 1M  1 1  35   91M 3 13 3 1 31 3  79M  13 59 9  5 5 1MO 3 13 13 7 3   1M  1 9 11  3  37M  1 7 1 3  3 3M 33 13 753 1 35  5 37MO  1 715 15 3   3e 1 Mea/ogeeemea come((K_ig(ms(mm(mm(mg(mgeMK  11  11    1MK3  11 11 19 35 1 7 3MK  11 97   1 5 1MK1 31 13   39 1 7 MK  1 17 17 31   13MK3 31 1 1    3 1MK 3 1 9 1  1 1 1MK1 31 135  3 39 1  3MK 31 135 1 19   1 37MK 31 1351 77 1 31 3 3 3MK5 3 1355 59 1 39 7 1 3MK1 3 1  1   7 MK 31 1 9  3 3  51MK3 31 1 57 15  5  31AeiG Mea/ogeEemeae G Mea/ogeeemeame((K_ig(ms(mm(mm(mg(mgMeaMCK1  19 91 31  1 9 1MCK 3 13 7 19 37  9 MCK3  17 3   3 9 71MCK 3 131 5 1 31  5 3MCK5 3 13 17     MCK 3 13 971 1   3 9MCK  1 13 3  3  MCK9 3 13 3     17MCK 3 13 75 9 37 3 7 5MCK1 3 13 1  35   MCK 3 13 3 15 31 1  1MCK3 33 13 3  37 3  57MCK 33 13 3 1 35 3  15MCK5 3 13 1   1  59MCK 33 13 9     19MCK7 33 13 9   1  MCK9 3 13 7  3 3 9 1MCK 3 13  1 39 3  39MCK1 3 13 1  37 1 1 MCK 3 19 15 13    15MC 35 131 191 11  1 5 9MC 3 13 1  33   1MCO 3 19  1 33 1 3 MC  17 1    5 MC 31 13  17 35 1 5 19MC 3 19  1 35 1  13MC 33 13 593 1 3 1  53MC 33 13  19 3  9 5MC 3 131 151 33 53   5MC  1 991 1  3  7MC 3 13 7 31  3  9e G Mea/ogeeemea come((K_ig(ms(mm(mm3(mg1(mg1Mea57MCKQ 3 19 75 3 37 1 1 59MCKQ 3 13 73  37   MCKS  1 57  35   MCKS 31 13 9 1 39  1 31MCKSO 33 13 7  3 3 1 35MCK 33 13 713 15 33 3  37MCK3 31 13 75  37   1MCK 31 13   33 3  MAK1 3 1199 17  55 1 5 3MAK  1193 19  57   1MAK3  1193 1   1  MAK 31 1 1  51 1 3 M1  1 9   1  39M  1 1 3  1 5 3M 3 17 7  35 1  7M3 3 1355 5  33 3  55M 3 1359 553  3  7 31M5 3 1355 7  3 3 1 M1 3 11  1 37  3 31M 3 19 7 19 35  3 M 3 1 7  35   33AeiOIEemeae 1 OIeemea me semi (ms  (  (K  ici(ms se(mM171 1  15 17 1M17 1 35 17 75 9M173 1 35 1 17 7M17 1  1  M175 1 3 15 91 5M17 1 3 1 79 M177 1 31 1  7M179 1  11 711 3M17 1  13  3M171 1 31 11 5 1M17 1 31 13 7 M173 1  1 1 9M17 1  13 3 5M175 1  13  9M17 1 35 11 3 1M177 1  13 1 1M17 1 3 1 9 1M17 1 3 11 719 1M171 1  11 51 M17 1  1 7 3M173 1 33 13 1 1M17 1  1  M175 1  13 3 M177 1  1 7 M17 1  15 7 1M179 1 33 15  1M17 1  13 5 1M171 1  1 95 M17 1  13 9 M173 1  1  9M17 1  1311  M175 1 3 13 1 3M17 1 31 1 5 5M177 1  11  1M17 1  13  7M179 1  17  9M17 1  1 51 M171 1  1  9M17 1 3 13  9M173 1  1 135 7e 1 OIeemea co me semi (ms  (  (K  a (ms ase (mM17 1  1 9 1M175 1  1 9 1M17 1  13 7 1M177 1 3 13 735 1M17 1  13 7 1M179 1  1  1M17 1 35 13 75 M171 1  13  M17 1  17 9 5M173 1 3 1  M17 1 3 19 7 5M175 1 3 1 77 1M17 1 3 1 7 M177 1  15  7M17 1  1311 79 M179 1 3 1  1M17 1 35 11 7 1M171 1  1 173 1M17 1 3 1 3 M173 1 3 131 791 M17 1  1 79 3M175 1 33 1311 7 1M17 1 33 17  M177 1  131  M17 1 3 13 173 M179 1  15 9 1M17 1  13 9 M171 1  1 71 9M17 1  1  3M173 1 3 13  M17 1  15 711 1M175 1  19 7 1M17 1  11 713 1M177 1  13 593 M17 1 3 11 717 1M179 1 33 1311  1M17 1 33 17 5 7M171 1  11 7 M17 1 33 1 933 5M173 1  13 7 1e 1 OIeemea co me semi (ms  (  (K  o(ms ase (mM17 1  11  1M175 1  17 7 M17 1  13  M177 1 3 1 93 1M17 1 3 131 5 M179 1 31 13 3 M17 1 3 1  1M171 1  13 71 M17 1 31 19 7 M173 1 3 13 71 M17 1  13 7 1M175 1  19 9 M17 1  131 797 M177 1  1 9 1M17 1  13 9 M179 1  13 1 1M17 1  13 7 1M17 1  1 799 1M17 1 35 1 9 1M17 1  1311 3 M151 1 33 13 3 1M15 1  11 5 7M153 1 33 13  3M15 1  1 5 9M155 1 3 11  9M15 1  1 9 1M15 1 3 131 133 M159 1 31 131 51 1M15 1  13  3M151 1  1 7 5M15 1 3 13  9M153 1  131 1 1M15 1 3 13 3 9M155 1  13 1 9M15 1 33 1 77 5M157 1  13  M15 1  1 7 1M159 1 33 13 7 1M15 1  19  M151 1  13 55 9e 1 OIeemea co me semi (ms  (  (K   i  (ms ase(mM13 9 31 13 5 M133 9  1 9 M13 9  1  1M135 9  1  M13 9  1 759 M137 9  131  M13 9  1 79 1M139 9  13  9M13 9  19 777 M131 9  1 7 3M13 9 3 1313 5 1M133 9  13 7 5M13 9  19 7 9M135 9 33 13 9 9M13 9 3 1 5 M137 9  13 739 1M139 9  17 3 5M13 9  15 751 M131 9  11 711 1M13 9 3 13 7 9

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