UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Banding in nickel-base superalloys and steels Li, Ting 2007

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
[if-you-see-this-DO-NOT-CLICK]
ubc_2008_spring_li_ting.pdf [ 22.38MB ]
[if-you-see-this-DO-NOT-CLICK]
Metadata
JSON: 1.0066242.json
JSON-LD: 1.0066242+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0066242.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0066242+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0066242+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0066242+rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 1.0066242 +original-record.json
Full Text
1.0066242.txt
Citation
1.0066242.ris

Full Text

I ICKESE SUOYS ASE  E Ui oSciee a cogyiA ESIS SUIEIIAIME OE QUIMES E GE OMASOAESCIEEie cuy oGa Ses(Maa EieE UI OISCOMAcem Abrtocess iegues imei ace oo aimcoe iosocaosuc wcs oe caeacoio a e aoycoee Iis woa  iesgaoio e sucs sui omieuio isogw is eseeioe ue e cause a eecoeee socaoieuioa ie susmoa e e osucseggaoa ecioces wcaeeee a e oaoys i Io71 moc AWasy aM5 Ie case oaoys wc ima ecise ieuiooissw gi se  suc cesSeggao a u e  e ieuioWe ao comme oe ees oeeeeiusiaemes oi a e  sames wcmay  e  e aee oquimome ie eciqueIis coae ieuioisocaocoio a coy socaoie caoce i ugieec oe mogy oecisiibl CttAbrt  ^ bl Ctt ^ ii  bl ^   r ^ vAnlnt ^ ii Intrtn ^ 2. tv ^ 1 eoes oi ao ^ 5e Iee oi oMeccaoies ^ 113 ESa Iusiaocesses ^ 133 ES ^ 133  ^ 153 SocaoCoio  ^ 1 Objt d Sp ^ 24. Mld Expt  ^ 221 Maa  ^ 1 Io71 ^ 1 moc A ^ 1 Wasy ^ 1 M5 ^ /Q ace ^ 3 ciques Cco ^ 33 E ^ 33 OicaMicsco ^ 33 SEME a E ^ 3 lt ^ 5 Io71 ^ 35 IusiaIoCoai i ^ 35  Simuooi ^ 335 moc A a Wasy ^ 35 IusiaIoCoai i ^ 35  Simuooi ^ 375 M5Se ^ 36.  ^ 401 i iIusiaIo ^ i ie  Simuo ^ 3 ComsooIusiaa simui ^  Cn ^ 4bl ^ r ^ 60blh ^ i  ble 1micomsiooogimaa  ^ 5e  Maases a aco iIo71 ^ 5e 3Seggaocoeicies oous emes iIo71   ^ 3e  Age seggaocoeicies oous emes ickese suoys^ 3e 5Socaosequee oMse ,    ^e  Seggaocoeicies oe masegga emes i ose ^5e 7Ageacasus oe emes coe ie cais iM5 ^ 5e  Ieuio e  eeme a aoccui oco ^ 55e 9sigo useous sequees ^ 5e 1 Es use scimeeo ^ 5e 5Coeooiie segga emes wiia oui e egioiiusiaIo71 ^ 57e 5Scmes useie   simu i  ^ 7e 5e comsioos ase u iIo71E scime ^  e 5Measucoeooe segga emes coe wiia ouie egioiusiaWasy  ^ 5e 5e age segga eme coe wiia oui e egioiusiaWasy ^ 59e 5 e segga eme coes ie us oWasy-E scime59  rgu 1ecs i aoeo    ^ gu  sciooESocess  ^ 1gu 3aow iESocess  3 ^  gu  scioosysm   ^ gu 5aow  sysm  35  ^  gu  Mea cue iecooe suace oe o e  ois ause a a e g ois a coica  ^  5gu 7uici a m e aoy Io71 ^ gu  m sio a accaocess - aoy  ^ gu 9aooima  a sci wi coo   ^ gu 1 Mogies ocoy soeckesesuoys  ^ gu 1s ase a cais oa cosoeIo71same     ^ 7gu  Cais ia cosoea queIo71same   ^ 7gu 3Ieec quiseggaoiIo71 5^ 71gu  e equiium socaooMse 5 ^ 7gu 5Ieec quii iMse 5 ^ 73gu  Aas oe Q ace a i aia  ^  7gu 7A scmac awi oe /Q ace ^ 7gu 5ee s ie iusiaIo71io ^ 75gu 5s ase a a ase comoie iusiaIo71 ^ 75gu 5s ase a ase comoiiusiaIo71 ^ 7gu 5A scai ecomicg oIo71 scime ^ gu 5 oeeiIo71E same  ^ 77gu 5 suc iagw giooIo71E  ^ 7gu 5 suc iieuegiooIo71E  ^ 7gu 5 suc ie ieuegiooIo71E  ^  gu 5A gmagcaooicamicg o 1  ^ 9gu 5 A gmagcaooicamicg o  ^ 79gu 51A gmagcaooicamicg o 3  ^ gu 5 Scmac sciooIo71quescime ^ gu 53Aoicamicg o oIo71EQ  ^ gu 5 Aoicamicg o oIo71EWQ  ^ gu 55  comsioasis oIo71E same  ^ gu 5 Io71E aeasame  ^  gu 57i ie iusiaWasy io ^ gu 5 e ecis ii e egioie iusiaWasy ^ gu 59Oui oe egioie iusiaWasy same ^ gu 5 moc A-Emogy oagw gio( 1 ^ gu 51moc A-Emogy oieuegio(  ^ 5gu 5 moc A-Emogy oieuegio( 3 ^ 5gu 53Wasy-Emogy oagw gio( 1 ^ gu 5 Wasy- Emogy oieuegio(   ^ gu 55Wasy-Emogy oieuegio( 3 ^ gu 5   comsioasis omoc A-E ^ gu 57Scmac sciooe s oM5E scime ^ gu 5 Cai Mogy oM5Eagw gio(om ^ gu 59Cai mogy oM5Eieuegw  ^ gu 5 Cai mogy oM5Eagw gio(  ^ gu 51 um comsioasis oM5E ^ gu 1ow es  e ESocess MMC io ^ 91gu  ow e  e ESocess ceio ^  gu 3Scmac Summa oSi-ase SocaoMogies  59 ^ 3gu  ecmicsucs  seeme-ck wi aisoes    9iAnlnte auowou ke  a icuy suiso AMisguie ugis McA sciaa su go  e auos co-suisoS Cockc siumee aice  is woe auois  a AAkas assise a iaae suougue oois woA e suo s ie me oMe & Maa Eie aUwas ao mos Intrtniao caeee sis a coama oeeisea oeaoy oc iwcaea s oe sucs  eseees ca a aea sucs oa mic omac scae emeacomsioa isome casessgis  1emes eseeei cause icasu ia oooe meccaoiesomacause  suace eaeae sio ocoosiosiseco ccki a oimcsise    Iaio ee- sucs a oiescause ey  eassociawi e occuee ooeioc  3   e i sucsoeeeque ia ESio  esimua emiieese woEos  emi e i cie io  moge aa gm o  imaccaiusiay  5  e m13  iewcis e mo e associaseggaougusioiaasoe me ois g is gm casu isucmageug"oea" igiua quio A wemmogeowou qui i io eme  mesemeo weekswcwou  coseec iacceeoe i1aea ie iooc iis commoiusiaacce  ce iooeiocoai e s eaocess e ei ioSocaoi ca aea sucs oases wcmosy e e S/o   7  ose sucs a caeieaiSucesucs a oeeisecc sysmsKu       saieay is  e  aco ae soquiieaceeyiesgae ogioie ees ow ci ccsocaoas we as gci equiium socao a coai is oceaa w ieace ci e  e caooaease ae gwi ieace  e esise oa sa s gwcoio e uque socaoocess oe cc sysm ays a  ieocesse sosooase y is eciuga acoeeequiase( a e gm ase SOscia aaoaea eea y cagi se  a esuc e e S/ieaceequiium esucs  ao eoeeaggw sAose gs ogwe so cause eicieis  oesuc s e  e ss ocaequiium ae ieace a is sic a scic  oase agme emicsuc is oug  e aoscia ee oo e socaogwmogiesis a a oKu     6 oeea aioaaccagw a wce sa-s gw oe comsga se  aoscia i oe soquiieaceese osciaocae g a  s wca ama e e S/ieaceAugi may  cause e ieai wce socaoas iusaaeeaiegues e ocoocess caao oce ee- sucs aiusiamei ocesssucas oES iis icu  maiaia semei/ee ss ugue ei oco wcwou amosoeis qui e osiooa ececo (as oose o coai easucc sucas isioa si e maiee oaco ae is a ca ooqui ccacisio oe  oe ogai cose a cice oo meeocess ies caeasi occua cause e aooee s iio   I ESa ocessesi ie iosus om ies eieie ie socaoocess ocause a sioie ocessimee is  occa emiiiie  coeccoucoe ocessess iis ima  ue  e mecsmsa e succoequees oe eec Wi akweimay ao ssie  aee ocess me so as  mo e socaocoio3wa coio aa couci  gas ae soqui(S/ieaceCaye es a ea euei oe mecsm omecsms sie e aooee se cus oe ese wois  emi iias ese iiusiaio coai sasg oe mecsms sie eiaougcouc eemes uecoecoio osocao2. tv2.r ndrtne is  uay acceeooi cause ousmic/mac sucs a as cagi se  is  osucMooe a cay a e omecsms  wcey cawe e eseaems  e is eme i is coi Kuss  I   a micsuccoioiwcaea s oemicsucs iaoy ocIis usuay a giocoisocomsiwce coe oso emes is e om e aImay ao coaiequiagiSawa      oeeee- es coiso"w sis" oa mac-esuace oa secokeom a ioey ao iicaas a comseo equiacsiwcecoes oe so emes a weaie aace "a maaeoes  ao eaesie eay ie eie ceu  eie mecsm sie e aooe esucse eayeoes iokee coe oa acoki ace ie "Isio a"osous"  9-11 i was oug   cause e usiooisiooosous ie aoywe ogss imeuicaocessess eese scio oscaiesoyey  esseiay e  e ese wo ee  emasi e cai s ea5iusiaoem a  meMo ce ses  oeiigk     1 see i emeiAISI se oe 13 a 51 a iicaacmicagei oces siei ugi eecocaoa gw oi a ai omausIoewose ima cause oi ise is e eecoaoyseggaoocaoccao Ieiasiscai i  emesemeCe iase e caocoeoieici wasemes ke ckewc a e caosoe case caocoeoieiciee ge ocaoseggaoa ecaooga w caoaas  oy oe amou a siooe aoyi emesImui-aoyeseese suaecoio ue iee oe ous s oaoyi emeseiamous asio se 13 coaise eaceme wcmai isosooa oces a saceme oe A m (iAuscomsiomcagi se  a esucemeiism is we e soeoeucii cas ieso agio Oeiseiis m is ise e eeuciicas ie so cgio Ieiecasecaoams a com eoeuciius oci caocgio oauswceuaya  aiIaio  iesgae eecocoo  oeaeae oesuca iwas u aiasi e coo  icaoa w-aoy se oe eucc  sueie egio6saeaKiay     1 siga sees oeemes e ose oi ouwceok  1 oses  13  is coec e sus sweae mi eecioci micsuci is e cooeec oaoyi emes isi A 3 s as ose se omoa we  15 iesgae eecoaus gisi as we as e coo oe oi micsuc i ia w-aoy se a u aei saeawe aus gisi was 3 mes eaei waIaio e micsuci aas we s esewe aus gisi was coiy ss ae i waAscoo iwas oseae iei oge omicsuci iases as coo  casesea s  5 iesgaeomicgs a micogs oi iAS  G 1G 13 G3 a G se a caue m qui mo iey coaa gm eae ie e o1135 coumo iIa e cases ey iesga e gms wou aosu ioea oe se As eaie aeae as a meoomo i cao coioaccaies seoa sisoiaoocomsio ey ao cimeaseyea wou qui mo e seggas aa  wemsucas 5 Kuss  Iieec micseggao Augseggaowas u   aosaaysese iesc oe aoose micsucmaso o7i eoaus gisi a coo coio acoauscomsio oeasese owi eoes  eose eimacscoc i icas a mei ocessesSawa    8 coiae ogioee-suc is e aeoosocaocoiocause e ce omagcsi ieiey oeea  equiaasuc wiie ee-s iwce esee oeucc cais cou  c Iwas oseais seggaois e socaoki ace eaieaie cissiy e  eiee caooequiaacs osiooagmesos ia iyeae socaoo uee ce oe siieickso 1 osea moe aooe caocoeos  e "weoosequee oa mei ocesso ocessaies we emi i e weoa i e weo Ie aiee socao wou gay iase as e quiosisom e sa s oWwesu is eck o e me  oe eco wou  gai equiium esui ia equimeooye sysm wou y    i equiiumwcquis e iase oe socao ie ceegiooe ioIasesocao wou e e eec siocoeicie (Kecaoie sysm  aacuAs e e oKe iasesecoeoocaoie somewou  iase e     4 iesga8e esuc ockesesuoy Io71 Ieiscioi is oeeas sis oequiagi ieui a emicomc sucey sais suc s e  a aiecause ocess uaoae socaoooey coagi ii e ee- mus e a caomecsm wcoccu e  e uaoie eaa soe aaoe musIwas suggesais uaocou  cause eiea coie coec ow so ass acou  sue e quia ouga aoe ow cayi cooquiom e ce oe ioae o oe commus A i mecsm coiausie was ace ie ow co sucae so-cquiis ace e quiom e oEcomagc si oe aoo icoious cas s eiesgaeei  17-  ieSa Moo  19 seiiesocaomogy a "w " aoicoious casseey ae comequiaaio e coec uiowSocoec uicacs oe mus  e  usioo aosimy eak o  e c ics may eacasci e aooequiacsio Si caaese comcsioa omo e aooa  a comequiaAowe si weis o g a  oga seggaowi aeaae9mioe comcsIwas suggesae s oga seggaoa oce e so-eicquii swe away om e socaoo  e eecoe si mooa e aes oe comsocaooAes oe aooe  seggao eecomagc si oa sa-casses e  ie a ge    ey sci as a w  wi ga seggaocoesi e siooe socaoo  siowi woi oemaacoai e w s caacas aoc  e cusmeacceaeoe oc Cauo  moaae oeeseggaocouase as a su oces ie ci oe quis o ae s a e osiese ci ces a causeima  a ce ieacoio ae quis sui ia swi wa sueque se uoe isoeSome so es we oeewamim o aoyswe iay meea e uea co m geec seis emea e cosio ma we summaas swigu 1 e case ces may  eseeas i(a Omeie quis isoe wi easae sos ie sem ge ( A i(cAs mei ceases a e ace sse m ge cases ( i(cis causes e ces  gw ioe quia mei occu io e ce o a  aiase ieaa quius soIaio so wi use was e  quica a coeosiowiie ieec qui as swi(Soa so usioom eee ces wou cause e ia wia come so e e   a   ae ogioee-aoiioAccoi  eioeao iis  ke aeiee suesi oe me oe ecomagc ucao is e cause oiIe ecasee gquici ca e si coisweaway e  cquia a egio Ie ecaseie way cue ueoes oc ucaoee ucao ie sasio o e cou a ucao ie caiei ocooow ie o Giae quis isoe ci is iee e m a comsiooe quiowi se  ces ie uici o wiie ocou easi a comsioi2.2 Infln  nd Mh tMeccaoies a iee e gei cause ie imcoi es amo e s oaoysScaa  iesgae meccaoies oa  w cao 17 w maasesewceise maase ie ae meccaoies oe  maaimougmaase mogeowcmois ao Woi oa a e3 caose k   1  we coamogeocauses  aeoiimeccaoiesa oy sgcommeiay iigcaimomes i11e ae c a imcseOwe   26 come oow-caosewi ea mogemicsucs a u ee iimcoies w e c  i aiomwe ie s m e c ac iaae ey aoo we gimogescimeGe  coa micsuci a eaisio causeasoo imeccaoies iwug ( wC a 1 wM seEmiooi was eec ici asoo sueioy sgimome oasoo ie secoai ma eaisioisea e    u ae c a imcsise asoo iesewas coe e mio wcoccue isiomaiieace seoie meccay emaa Wmiooccua e gw co ey a cia  iasi e ac eya cwey occuie gw coa oe ac aey a imea o    see iee oi oe imca gueoies oa gse SAE sea coae emiooioug auaiase iimcse a gue oiesa is was mooueawems aagmse eue miwas ao ise  e mooickso 1 u aiAISI g siess sei cois oi cs wi e i ics gcoeoocomium a wecoeoockeacoe e s coai19 e iwcis gae scie1e o5  7 eCcks ogia e i cesuc iSue    3amous omaasecomiuma moem we u ie ieecgious causi e seggasi s oscimeoeeies ae cooe a swew c a a e aoii saii oe coii oe s as we as e esee oe eci ics wiie sCck iaoi  seiceis s eace maeic o seggaos oui oe suace    I is kwaogeuses  e si oisio wcesie mac-seggagio causi casoic iseice is2.ESd Indtrl Sie i iESa io is e cus oe ese woaoiew oese o mei ocesses is eseew2.ESEcosg mei (ES is gaeas a meoo me usi amoesg ais ecicay a i sise  31aaage oi ae  co e comsioa e micsuc oeio13IaESocesse me  is usuay ie  oaecowcis e ocoa mo coeioocesse wee oaeco issueeia  omoesg coaiia wacoomouA scmacagm oe ocess is swigu  e quiais ge eecic cue owi eee eco a e couc sea owce mou ssAs e sg m ses a e mei m oeme e oe eco mes a us coec io oei ac wi e sg  i ugia i coecia oiemou ma oe me   e coo coio ca esis oce e simicsuce o ae iESocess s eiusa meuswoegu 3 iusas e  oaa 3  Caye aow isqui comica Auo i oe ey iu e sysm is useimei e me 31  e sueaoe su e ma oe aaeio amoom e iois maiy a e mou wasa e aacoeicie ais si is gay e oe ee  wcacocogas aeaeee ioa e mouI occu  oco e a o maiocauses oeiioisy ie mome oe sg a i  coesiooe ecoe iecooo es i e a oyayeces so as e eco/sg coacesA ces ieocess oowi immea iee socaoa su iquaoems ie io 33  e seco cause oe ime e cooeco sio may  coie mag oe ieaciasise e  e coacoe eco oe sg is e ocuei a so ices as e coacaa es wi meIis asoe aici aia accasysm use coe eco sucai-comeca ioecy use causi e eco sio  oaucceae eIis ce is suicie see ioeaowi  a us a  seggaocI oem may ao occue  a ce ie ame aoseSome iusiaESmei ocessesa caieouueaoiaoaiioe mimi oo e eseeoaoss a aoie coacaa eee eco ae sg suacea  w se oe eco momee  as ce ie ioeagime3 cuum a mei ( is e ii secoa mei ocess useoce io ockeseaoys a ogqua se    e aim ois oce aioais ee omacseggao sisiage caesoa oec sueom socao coeiocasIe ocessa cyes aoy eco (usuay e coeiocasis aio e wacoo coeccie oa acee ace isecua a a ccue a is suck eee eco (caoa somesi maaa e eco  euay mei As e eco ismeeawaymoemei o i a me o e socaoo isswscmacay igu  4 .e geiie oe ocess is simi aiES wi maees ii ca o gi gcoo s ie ioa e  o ss seggaoaes ES 3  e geaaisswscmacay igu 5 is ocess5oe aiuismo e mou coo wa 35  Wioue iu eecoe sg skiagaie mo wae ios a gcoo  aES a gey soweo ae same mei s a e  oc wccoai ss seggao 3  Aaioa ois a (gmay iecio e gawc eee mo wa a e coacsoi io e aiocoucoeeco iases ioass aiases e iom ges us eai e ey ceseggaoe ocess is ie ue  33 A ce  e cueeme e momea ieuiooima weiu aecicaesucas g sswi au ce e o mi es (ioyay1e a ecomagc ewccoe ow eus gi se  ace iooIgee o sysm mai successiei a sigca euio om e ieeoowe ieme a ioecy csei caoccu I sus om eeco coai cckscaes osg wcau ce e a oe sysm may  ae  s suicie quick so as  e aauce ie ioaeAoe ce oa ocaiee eage a cueus ci e ecomagc e oe ioosui ia ce oe ae ae quisIaio e ecomome may mae mei  a so ie a   eeeae is ece ecaey coeoaa si iwcss e ac s wccoai a essiooe "si a a sow giooe "co" siis eecs emo e  24 . gu sws e me  a e cue acss e us oe ios oe iowi  ueo a ee/me sequeewcmay aseggaoce coica coiois ao eque associawie esee oeco caesa e wi e aooe w scie io e a ao oeas  ocess wccagise  ii oe io maiaicoacwi sea e  ecoo a coc oe ios weseco e use oum wcisiecio e mo/iogaas a coo is aec172.Sn Cdne mo oe mei ocess is ogaiese  e ima oese ocesses ayeisea aoy-maki iusyseoekwe oe aaa uiow meioeaie a mocom mo  3  eu ai e mecaaacameoay  39 aeaimici ee ciqueoems ioee soooo-meioiaeiaequao suec scieiaa ua coioA mo comei comomoeecooe oae oe ESocess was esee Kea   a/  asymmeicsa s coiousi a Comouimics(Caaca mo e sg simuaous wi e io e aseees eee o mo meioaO ee es ieisoo e quiocoucIe  ee mo c ayioe accou e quimomeaequiocouc s   assumewcis ue iaOe oeKeas mocoms e eec couc usi a ue mo wcis mo accuAeee eeese o mo is e coiooe aow ie sgay assumioom sioacsse oe ioes  ai   wi e m a aowwiie sgKeas mois mo accu cause icaus e ea1o oe sg iaomaki aassumioaui Is oe aaagesoKeas mooaye sus oe moa  egu 7    a gu    sw e m sioacquiie ES(Io71 a (-io scKeas moeuseie como oe o os meioaMo a eemes ao e ece ima  a sci as we as eaioom o mogy  aee socaos am gese sus eie  a sw igu 9  a gu 1 4 . e mei ocesse sueweieuiocacause ece osocaocoio ckso 1 iesgae aaaeaooa ESio  weo mos cosioissummawe a umaiaas aec e ss oaiucause e weieuio ey aquimesg skiieacequisg/sg skiieacequisg/aose ieace a quimequisgieacee ee sus sw ae  oass om eseieaces o o  y a aey s iaous  e"weocoio e aaacss e sg/meieace is eoe e oe aacoeicie e  e sma m geacss e ieaceis asu wou ce e ee oe socaoie meo e ocess y sueia ee- suc as meioeaie Objt d Spe oec ois wo is  eae e uei oe cause aeecoeee socaoieuioa iIoeace is oeco iusiasames as we as se-ocesames we iesga Iusiasames i aas-casIo71samea a eWasy same ese sames coaii ieisucse -ocesames we ma as a  ois iesgao Cassusi umaai e ckese suoys ( Io71 mocA a Wasya o ose( M5 we oceuea e osocaocoioe sco oe ese wo is is micsuciesgao a comsioasesIesgao we oeusioicamicsco a scai ecomicsco4. Mld Expt 4.MlSames oe iusiaio ceias we as e scime eie we ma oe ckesesuoys (Io71 moc Aa Wasya a se(M5eimicomsio a swie 1e iusiascime we ma oIo71a Wasye cice oose ucomsio was ma seoeisocaoccscsIo71s a seggaieec quiwcis aeae qui Wasy a moc Awe e segga quiwou geae  qui Ie is sigca ow oe ieec qui aieuioisocao e aoys su sw coesioeae ees ie  comsio e cice oM5was ma oesis aisws a wigaees a suoysIaioM5ecis ous cais uee coo coiowcmakes issie  ue e socaomecsm ugoeao ma oe ocai e Aoiew oeacoe uaoys wi emasis oisocaoccscs ows224.Inn 8Suoys  eioe meee ma oiasi gm acao e quioies ois sciascies a ese a coosiosise agmIo71( Iois agisama oSciaMe GuoComessigas U771 eses e moswi useaoy i s a scs iae-ei acao wi woi ms u 7    Io71is a ecioseeckeise suoyeaco occui ucoo a e ases geas a su a summaie    e ocess osee is ima aceugeeciooy" wi a secoa e ki ace uge eciooy    Aesee asee  5 asees gigw ugi ecioe giuaes     e oious aaages ois aoy eiais goosecoosiosise a cgooweaawi  me s wiie woi m e a s oy a wccaaoyi emesWi e imome ocas ciqueecoms oIo71 ema coseec wcs omoi usage  e mei e oIo71is 133C  1e socaooIo71ss wi e oeucc y acoaau133"Cowe eecioo(C ii e s a1e (y + s aseeucc acooccu aau1175 a e ase ecioe aau11 e ya y" eciooccu a1 "C e socaosuc a e associaecis eoueiemicsuc ois aoy a swigu 1 a gu    eseggaoes iis aoy mai a g issue is oocoaacao e seggaocoeicies (k=/w  a   a e moaco oso ie sos a quiiequiium aa gimoe maiaoyi emes iIo71a sie 3  5  eieec seggaocoeicies oe maemes  socao ecom Aui as swigu 3oum is e mosseggaeme iis maaa i coeoiieec quiiases as e socaooceee eice ois a eme susiaiasi e oieec quiiom 75 g/cm 3 a133 7g/cm 3 a1  5 as ases  a u oAw e A amsa oeas iamogoamooa suca e ams aa au e A amsIe case oIo71 e u is(eio i4.2 n 80Amoc A ( moc is e gisama oy Wiggi&Com sigas U 7 is a ckese ecioesuoyIis o oe aoys usewug i asIce yeae s ea sigca iase ie use omoc A isam-wege ae comsioa e aeae oe aoy  eesoas  oaiiasi gses aemsis aoy caage-e e coeeciooigsumicscoc ywccos  cesise  ac as a ie scaomome51e mei e ois aoy is 1379   1313 e ous asesese ie micsuc ay e masee aseigoccu ima caisis ocaois [ M(C wM is usuay ]a as we as C cgiua cais oe M 7C3 aMC s  51    oseggaocoeicies oeaceme moc Aa aiewe aage seggaocoeicies ockesesuoys a swie  5  Amim a um a e maseggaemes  socaoa eiseggao io ieecgiowou su ia geieec quiae 4.WpWasy (sigas U 71is a ckeseage eesuoy wi eee gm se a goocoosiosiseIs goosise  ooaseice ms u 5  cca acaoa u  oess mai acaoegm se ois aoy is om i sosooseeemesmoemco a comiuma i age e emesamim a umI se a s es a gaosecay aie Io71 5  IWasye yase o as ee ase   .e mei e oWasy is 13   133I socaoaeciosequee is(1oeucc y aau13 ( (y+ MCeucc aau1(3eciooyaau15  C 53 Simiwi mocAamim a um a e masegga emeseeseggaooese o emes io e ieec gioao sus ia geieec qui4.4 MM5(AISI sigo is om a guogsesewismo Is a gss aema weasise wigoougesse seis wi useiaesce acaoI woi26m es ee15 a 3 e aoyi emes use ecicais wciase e meccaoies  e secoae s 5 55e micsuc oM5s eiesgaougy ie see aie ioaooa simiseMis summaemei e oMseis 1  11  e socaosequee issie 5e seggaoos as we as e aooeieec quii oMa swigu a gu 5  5Cais M a MC a u ie equiium sucwi M C aea aw (casocaomees  5  e esee oM is coiuesieIiases e cai si aeaeaewca  goae iseiceea w is sie iis aoy iew osussi e aooM Ica seeom gu 5 aeiee quii aays iases as e socaooceeecse e e oe socao e i cases cause e quiis eicai i a emes (Mo a W e seggaocoeicies oMaaieyee  ia ose ca useas a e ( e   5e socaosequee oM5is simi aoMse augeaioms a sg eAeima ee eeese o se es iaM5es coais e  e ese oaoyi emes MoC iM5se ous cais ca eeciemicsucse comsiooe cais is sie 7  554.2 SQ rne equie use simu e ieuesocaoocess imei is caecoSocaoa Que (Qacegusws a og oe aasA comco e  omooe same om e  coai e aoy same a a scmaceseaooe ocess is swigu 7e moesame  a sma ameas comwi i  wasecaa coewiawa om e aceWi is aaemeucosocaowas aceas e socaoo mouasia csee ami e ace coai a cycagigi susceo wcis a a gequey iucoceAisequey ( e iucemagc e mai coi e gisusceo esi oe moemaaes ke ace wi eycuesAogas (9 ows uge ace cm mei awiawaoe scime Que is a ii a ass  ewi waw e susceois sa-s cique osocaocaa e cooem ge oe quio G as we as e ci oe gw o eese me ca seioe simu e accaeacoio Iaio e equie aows e soi scime  quewcmakes issie  oee e e o micsuc aso seggaoScime we mac a ameomm a a  oau mmso as  ii e ami coaie s (ou mm Caaooeace m ge was  wi a -(s3 e a s eeocoueA moem scime wi e eocoue ieeiiwas ke ie  oe gi susceo e m ge wasmeasuas /mm ae mei me coo  was au5/miaa wiawa omm/mie scimewas  so ie ace  o uaam a i mei m ioe esiseaequiiumWiawaom e  was ma uge esism geusi a e-secAieuioa e-scieme oa a ecoa wiawawas aceusi comogmsemeeowi sequee was useie ogm "S" a e sui samewas as "E"e same was we(icoy soe aa seomm/mi5 mie cooaes (i-meae samese3secss3secse-esiscosocaoamm/mi e "e" a "" simu e coioaweis eckoaea suewesw e coesi ocess ie aocois eiie  Oe wc euse sig e samesa "-EQ""EWQ""" a "Q" a e coesi ocesses a sie 94.nf ChtnA scime emiuee oicamicsco a e scai ecomicsco we sw 1 micoa amo 4.Ete maa a e coesi es a sie 14.2 Opt MrpAoicamicsco was use a e   sucs as we ase sma ecise OicaMicsco usewas koEo3 wiCIeMEsio   34.SEM, E d EA c S-3 scai ecomicsco (SEMwas use oeee micsucs usi aacce age o k Ey si3Scosco (Eusi secoa ys was usea wi e SEM a comsioWusi sas we as aa E scaiaswe ke1 secsckscaeScai Eco(Ewas emoyeeae image cose  ees iamic m oe emes31 ltInn 8Indtrl Int CtnndAiusiaIo71same wciee- sucs wasemi gu 5 sws e aeae oe iusiai (as ceiom Au & Cos Aisaemacee s aeicu coms a aeageae egioas iicaie macgUea gmagcao e sg escimesweas ase a a ase como (gu 5aoey sia e sas swigu 5Ioe a ecomsio oe ea egiooy g e was use eaaa co a meioo(1i O measume oeacgiowas mae egioco ose uecis (A igu5 e egioco e aa eeo aace ee s (igu 5 e acqui a mie sus ie 5 sw assiy e is a ee o coe eea egioa e gioieee se eo aea ie  a e sscacauoeo a ey casw w ae e sus a32 bSn  ndgu 5 sws e mogy oe cais a s ase iacoy soeIo71scime Sike cais a y sases a siiis micsucIaaem  oce e ee- suc ie a moscmes we sigsimu e ieuiooe socaoocessose scmes a sie 5A  osucee was oeeiIo71E scimeas swigu 5e oescmes ocea e is aoious ee ie e se oe micsucswiie ieuegio wcca oeeigu 5e is  sigoe aooequiaagi  e ieuegio augis sucis somemes u iaiusiaiouss we oee ey a mae1 ugigu 5 1 a  coes  agww s a 3 ese eieuesocao e micsucs o 1a 3 as seeueasomewgmagcaoa swigus 55 a 5 sce micsuc i was simi ai 1Ica seeaecoy soe suc es ce  e ieuio e33 sciwcs emeasu mai simiieacwi ae oama 1 gmE asis is use ii e ecis ae s ase comsiois sie 5e micsucs oeacuea yegmagcaoa swigu 5  gu 51eoeaoois same ces e eooe ecis  eieuecosocao Ie micg oe agw gioima a secoa s a see(gu 5 e ieec scecoai e ima cais a e eucc cais as we as s ase(gu 5 A cseemioo aae ima sci maiesseiay ue we e secoa as came aosei ssoe e s oecis u ie gioeee imas maiue we e mogy oese ecis cee micsucs seeuea yegmagcaoa swigus5  51om e micgs iis seeae age amou oecis i (gu 5 is ss ai 1 (gu 5 e s ase a ecai ecis ssoe Semi-quai ases  e coui e quaies oe ecis uee same magcao I3e we mo ecis a ey we eaa e quice esi os ase es i 3 was u   ggeai 1Iaio e  oioos ase  e cais was gi 3as comwi ai 13Ioe ue e mecsm sie e aooeecis  e i ocessque eemes we coucoIo71 e micgs  ekeie  oe quescime as swscmacay igu 5 e sui micsucs aswigus 53 a 5 e micgs swigu 53 a gu5we keoscime  ueo EQ eae (cosoe e a que a EWQ eae (cosoee a que sc (e 9 Sucs a i cais a saseIis caae cais a s ase maiy eciom e quice wcesiis gio e sc-ke cais ie same  a o(gu 53a ea gaiquai aoe scimewioui (gu 5Comsioasis s e oe Io71E scimeusi Ecique  a aas a e socaoco Eacscai aaa si o( i  (swigu 5wcco e wioaase sO measume was ma aeaccao gu 55 is e ooe   coe us se a e scimeas sigcaces ie comsiooe ima eme wcseggas (caoee35Imay  aase ecis we oeeie micsuc oe iusiaIo71scime(gu 5 we sucecis we oeeie e oe Io71E (gus 5  51 Ioesee iS ase ca eciuga eeosu  a wemaeae was gi e Io71E scimea  sescimewas cooie ai e micsuc oe aeascimeisswigu 5 ecio oe ase occu as a su ie eeosu  e wemis micsuc is simi aoeeoe iusiaIo71scimecoai e ee s (gu 52 n 80A d Wpsus oaiusiaWasy a eseew iusiamocA iowas a2.Indtrl Int Ctnndgu 57 sws e iusiai oWasy (e as ceiomMius e cai ecis wca siwiie egioa swigu 5 gu 59 is e image oe giooui e swi  g ecise comsioasis was  ia way simia e iusiaIo71scime e ogi a sie5e mecaages oe ogi a sie 5e susws  sigca ee ie eme coes (esciay eeea egio2.2 bSn  nde micsucses omoc A a Wasy  e ieuiowe u   simi ee sus a eseegee eieuio ( ecosoe we ma ia maeiicaaoIo71Egus 5 5sw e micsucs as oeeomoc A-E scime Micsucs seeoe Wasy-E scimeaswigus 53  55e ima  sci as measuisama 1 moc A-E same sw a i  uewe Wasy-E swea sma  ueAs micsucke Io71Esimigemicsucaeowasoeeie ieuegio we ees we u ieaeae oecisas scie owiIgu 5 gu 5 a ce ie suc oe ecis(gamma imeis see seoese eesis same s eioe si 1 (agw  coesi   iIo71Ew e casesi oecis is oee a  3(eeoaecis a oeee gamma ime ase aeaas smaee-ke ecis ie agw gio( 1 W ie ieue37gio e si oe gamma ime came esmaei  Eaaagecis we oeeie ieeic ce i 3Simioeao we ma wi e micsuc oWasy (gu 53  55e E asis was ao  moc A-ESimi e asis oIo71E measume was ma aeaccao Agai e comsioasis (gu 5 es iica a oious ce ie coeooe iieme segga io e qui socao e sus oe  comsioasis oWasy-E a sie 5sigca ce was oeeM StlAiusiaiowas aieOy e sus oaiie a eseeIeuiooe socaosequee ie  was simi acaieouIo71E  was oeeomac-ewe aemiooe micsucs a e  oe scimesweees as iusaigu 57om E asisMC a M C weiieas e maicais eie  socaoocess aeimogies a swigu 5 M5E same is io e3s accoi  e  oiooMC/M C as swigus 55 Is eu a 1 is mi MC wi a sma amou oM Cw i  mo M cais sw u Ie se amou oM Ccase aue same ee as i 1e  comsioasis wi aaa o(15 111 is swigu 51O measume was ma aeaccao Iiicas aecomsiooum ewi  a e coosocaoom   ge  comsioasis se e om  e oe same M5Ee  e equiom ee oM5  suoys eaie e E asis quico a gase a e scimeasSi om e om oe scime ecomsiooum cases somewue io e ieuegioe case oum comsiomai uiiacs au1mmAe mm e um coeois s aoe  maa ssiy agiowcs a gum coeoaaoe  maaesee1mm a  mm( iica e aow igu 5A coeoaoicaomay ao es we caocoeocou measuwi E396. 6.nd Indtrl IntEmiooe iusiaIo71iocaieouie ese wosws ae ecis eswiie s (gu 5 Moo acomsioee was u eeea egio isco coe (e 5 is eeaugsmais sigca om aiusiac coes gaa5 we mogeoeae e emi s ase is asiee measucomsioee cou su om e quimemome cause ecomagc a oyay es ie ioquioMomeum aeee  quia e mus  wou ecauseseggaqui ow uge  o a coeciemesae ogiieec scesA cay g coee ismecsm s ese iasge oeck ao 57  e isgeageme ie  ae a mecsm eses e iaosge oeck aoiis  oaoy is oe camosimuo oe mei ocesses cois sw  o quiciuoae quis O eme osucwo ae e ESocess is swigus 1 a gu  5 Iis seeom e gus ae ci oe uiow io oe quis  acs iica e aee ouiow ais cao we ie ese wo aacaee icacomsios emeasu(e 5 Iis icu  accou is oeao aoemecsm ae a a so iis suggesaiiusiaIo71uiow io oe quis  mus keacee oeaoma ie ese wo is e cois wi e ecooe moIis  ae mo assume aasymmeic sa s coioe owcomo O asoe scy a cou  ai ie ocess m ue e assumeasymmeic e sioa ecou ge a caow ecie sa sOeaooe a-ase eie aeaIo71Escime(gu 5wcs a simieas  e iusia71io(gu 5 sugges ae w coo  oe iusia"as-cas Io71same is sie e oeemicsucee eeese casesa e as-cas samesis ie w coo  oa e ious oces a  oaeae ewe micoiois "as-casUike iusia71 e iusiaWasy ioswe comsioee eeea egio (e 5 Ica coom is oeaoae comsioee es cessa esia esuc a e ese ois ee is i e aoy a e ocess meA ee imicsucs eee ea egiowas u ie iusiaWasy scime e caiecis wcwe u wiie egio(gu 5 esoui e  (gu 59 is i ages wi e sus acquiom e-oceWasy-E scime( comsiocee ceoecis6.2 nd thbSnsuoysseoe  oe m a coo   eESa ocesses (gu 7 a gu we simue socaooe mius giooa caiusiaio Accoi  e eemeaa mo sus swigu 9 a gu 1 ou coioa m ge o/mm a a coo  o5/mi wou su ia com suc (gu 1 wi a ima  sci oama 1 m( gu 9 is was u   e case ie simuo(Seco5Accoi  Kus  59 agm osi ase socaomogies asswigu 3oueemeacoio wou su iequias(sig e aow wcis e om e sus accoi iugs mogy agm igu 1    As iugs agmec e asocaomogy is comeKusagm is ae eug esma e socaomogyAccoi  e ese sus om eacmaa( Io71 moc AWasyM5iis u ae ee eee eaa a eeaa ie  simuoes ie aeae oeciscoesi  e socaocoioe aois ase sie  e ieuioisocao(Io71Egus 5  51caeias owse ieuioga e soesucs i (gu5e oee was come soe mei occue e ieuio is gioueo meiwas maiaiaagm ie sosagm eosu sueiamocaooe suc iwce s ase ecis came smaeisiIcos  3 (gu 51was  soe e mei okacee we ocoo   socaoga iaseseggaoaseec us gi e s ase esucas C eugme coeccayAs iSeco5 e iaseoioos ase  cais i 3 is cois wi is eo e gaamouocais iIo71EQ (gu 53aIo71EWQ (gu 5iicas ae i oeaes e caoa gw ocaisesame esis ca ae eie aooyase imoc A-Eas we as iWasy-EIe case oM5se e ce oe o oMC/M (gus 5a 59occue e ieuesocao wi awee oMC/M ie ieuegio is eecis  e  emeoocoui e M ics meogicayMC ecis aa gm aes M  5 a MC is eciaa quiacooaasee ieueocess es suiay aece quai osisiooMCIe asocaogio mosM C is oa sma si(sma e  e meie secoa as ssoeus eeucc me came ea agweM Cecis came meus a eaie agw giousi  case e measuMC/M C o seoic coui comsioee eeagw a ieuegiowe oeeie e suoys emiie ese wo (gu 55gu 5a e 5  is i is   eecie case oIo71cause e i oe seggaquiiis maais aeaie quie  e seggaooe socao e ieecquiwou maiie ieec gious causi eosocoecoowwe ie case omoc A a Wasye  eseggaooamim a ume ieec quisu come geae  qui Ie acceeeck aoeo  57e caooaquioa wei w aoa aequiwou seueosocoecoe  e i eeIe coiguouseie eseeemese  o is eia icacoa so ie wassigca ua ow oieec qui e ieuio e aoysu  swcoesi oeae ees i comsiowe same was aie icacoia e same asSucaee was oee seoe sus om comsioasis omoc A (gu 5iis sae asoe aee osucow ases ie  sma ieec sciAccoi  Wa    wooeck aomecsm omoc Aeck occu aa ee o /sa3 /se coo  sus ia ima sci oaue seco is 11e ima  sci iouseais ie e o1 I wcis suicie  ie uiowaccoi  e eocause oe e okAI a k  5 (9  e maisegga emes imoc A a Wasy wou cause seseggaoee ow wou easi ie a o aoysM5se e um comsioae oe same (a1mmecomsioakis gaie ieuegio(gu 51 wcsugges  coecoow om e soi gioi e weie  um seggaooe ieuegio e cooumom e ieuegioao sus imo M cais (oi a ssMC cais (ci iis gioA mos eose Ya  ea    simu e aooesay gi  e si cscas oa ckese aoye me-ckocess  wce say gi a oeu isi cscass issimi e ieuesocaoocess as escusseie cuesea e ecmicsuc  e me-ck oa si csseeuea coiooaisoes is swigu  Aiasa-smicsuc was oce simu  s aa co i cieme-ck ocess was esimu mo e isoes wa  mmisi e m au e  oe imaes a eiquiseseewas e ais m 1sec me-cke scua oe sms w e secoaes a aac e imaes mes e secoaes emsees em o om e imaesA ecos oimaes a e s mee me ck a o secoa asa eisueque oe  e cauiow aee csogicoeao sui ie om say giAs e mo wiawagiagai e imaes a o secoaes a gwis simuogi Ya ei e asoe ese osay gi  eme-ck ocess a cou ssiy ao accou e equiagi equeu ie i oiusiaioIaiusiaocesse uiow wcis cause ecomagc ea oyay e s o eec icauses ucao ie eaeis ucaosus ie suoo ae socaoo us eaie ssi oe occuee oequiagiMoo is ow eougese eak-o osecoa ase okeas  ueo a ce ioeaoas a su oe ow come sis e caooequiagiIe simuoma ie ese wo equiagi we oeeis i s o ssie eoO ssi is ae eae e eeme was se e  e aee ouiowcause oesma si oe same a e aee omagc siiis uike aeuiow wi es e ucosocao Aeeomay ae secoa s we come mee e ieuiousi ue  o e caosi6.Cp  Indtrl d b nde -oceesucs a e om ose ieiusiaioO oe ees es ie comsioaooe maisegga emes wcwas u ie iusiaIo71ieocescimeAeee es ie ecis wca emaiccsc use ii esucsIe oceeIo 71sameoy e mogy ce os ase ca oee(Io71Egus 5  51 we ie iusiaIo71samee g s ase ecis we ese wiie  ae oui e (gu 5 oceWasye ce ie mogy oegamma ime ase is e maia  ii e egio(gus 53 55 Wasiusiasamee ese ocai ecis was uwiie  oui e  (gu 5 gu 59 is i4iicas e owi ise comsioeeioewosseggaoes cessa esie esucIa emicsuc aoiecis is e esseiaa oe iee ccscs oe esucs eee iusiaa eocesames is oy e  e mo comicaocessi a aeae  e aiusiaoco  Cne a secosio wcca ma seoe ese seawo  e1 e comsioao oeeie egiooe iusiaiooIo71we oeeie ieuegiooa oecosoesames emi Iis   coaese as aseie iusiaioe  e momeum aom e  qui eieec   e e wcoces e i e comsioao measuie iusiaiooIo71iica mome oe ieec qui  coeco oseggaquiwccasueque  e iaoi eck ao e mei osecoa s wcwas oeeie ieuegiooe  ssiyces e ea oe  mes3e se oIo71 ieuesocaosws ima ie mogy a siooima ecise ima cais aeaea sie e eucc osi is iase e eucc cais a sase ics a ao eae e  mooe secoa  aseeucc gio a eaie ima socaoco ese eec a  aicie  e i me ie gm gio Simieec  ose sca we u imoc A a iWasyIese aoyse aececis a ima gamma imewc aea ce sueque isiwca agie samemaeas asca5 M5sesws some e ccscs  e suoyseaoium comsioiis seoe ese oieecuiow  e ieuio us sui ie aooe MC/M o e ieuioisocaocoio a coy socaoie caoce ie comsioee is cessa qui e esucIa e micsuc aoiecis is eesseiaa oe ie e ccscs oe esucseee iusiaa e ocesames is oy e  e mocomicaocessi a aeae  e aiusiaoco7 e eecoieuesocaoomeccaois yo esco ois wowe iis caae ces sca wouiee e maa oies ie ieuegioe ee  wce5oies wou  aecis cay e oe se oe ieuioa oe aoy g51ble 1 micomsiooogimaa (wAoy/eme C C Co Mo  A   M   Io71  15 - 3 5 5 9 - - - 15 moc A  19 1 - - 1  - - - 1 Wasy  19 13 3 - 1 3   5 - Seeme C C Co Cu M Mo   Si S W  M5    1 35 5 15 5  5  1 e Maases a aco iIo71   m( aco ase u133  -y Aus mai1 --+MC (C1175 y-s ase (eioi11  31 Y" 31 7 3A13(A1i5e 3 Seggaocoeicies oous emes iIo71 5Eme A Co C  Mo  k 1 15 1 1 99  59e Age seggaocoeicies oous emes ickesesuoys  5Eme C Co A  k 1 17 9  1e 5 Socaosequee oMse 55aaom ( aco1 qui i1 quiiaus1 quiC1 qui-us + M1 qui-us + M53e e seggaocoeicie oe masegga emes iose Aoy C M  Wk  1  7e 7 Ageacasus oe emes coe ie cais iM5(a Cai/eme  C Mo M 35 7 5 M 3 13  15MC 1   535a1 4So amm/mie amm/miS3secsiSo amm/mie Ieuio e  eeme a aoccui oco Meeweoweo                    Ieaeeoa o                     Aeweocoio      ss coSocaoe 1Es use scimeeoMag CuSO  m1 mOMaa Io71 moc A Wasy M5E Ma Ma Ma e 9 sigo useous sequees ocessE amm/mi5 mie(3secss3secs(same seEQ  amm/mi5 miee(3secs  s3secsQueEWQ  amm/mi5 mie(3secsQue  amm/miQ  amm/miQue g O 1g KM  m Oe 5 Coeooiie segga emes wiia oui eegioiiusiaIo71(wAa/eme A  C Mo  egio5 1713 1799  99 53e 7 1773 1719 31 7 59e 5 Scmes useie   simu isigooscimesciooogmIo71A mm/mi  e eIo71mm/micms1 mi mm/mi e eIo71Cmm/micme amm/mi3secsmm/mi e eIo71mm/micmiase  1mm/mi e eIo71Emm/micme amm/mi3secss3secsmm/mi ee57e 5 e comsioos ase u iIo71E scime(aEme A Si  C   Coe +1 115 111 1+ 17 9+ 95e 5 Measucoeooe segga emes wiia oui eegioiusiaWasy( wgioeme A  C Co Moegio1 91+ 1915 13+1 31+9 9 191+15 137+1 3egio9 9 1915 137+1 35+9 93+ 195+15 139+1 39 97+ 1915 137+1 3e 5 e age segga eme coe wiia oui e egioiusiaWasy(wAa/eme A  C Co Moegio97 9 1915 131 3egio97 9 1915 137 37e  siis e a e mecaage oe  ie 5e 5 e segga eme coes ie us oWasy-Escime(w/eme A  C Co Mo 1 197 939 1917 1319 3  197 3 1917 1319 3 3 1 3 197 1919 399  1 319 1937 1319 359eucc 1^ ieeuqui^ (aC EcoeocomE I(c==== _2:=2 .E= ^ ==.^ .......===z4 22=__w  aessao(iaoIeea sge ^ (rgu 1 ecs i aoeo(C E is eucc coeoCo is aoy comsio  is eucc m  is quis m60gu sciooESocess6EcoQIAQQ QISg QQIMouSoeQ7^ iogu 3 aow iESocess  3QIA aqui me e ecoQI  aqui sueae quimeoQ  as aoom e sg suace  mo coo wa gases aecoQs mou coo waacss e sg Q aaeacss sg/meieace as seie aoe i meoQ aaeacss sg/meieace  coec aaQ5ass  mou coo waacss e quimeoQ ass  mou coo waacss e soeioQ7as se a coo waQ seie ai e soeioQ5  1Q^ QQ=Q+ QquimeEtrr  rnrr umrdn,CuCcie r COO E r"4 Ou[(  I l I   r^  ^ 1 1SI Gr2 rtn    4.6Soeiogu 5 aow  ocess  35Q i  wesueamei oecoQ as aoom eco mouQ3aaee  e i meoeQ asue a  sueae quimeoeQ asue a  ecoQ asue a  ioQ ass om e a  e mouQ5  aa io eco Q as e mou acss quimeoQ7as e mou acss e soeioQ7IM I. ^ I,,h r, I^ I IClt rd rrt04 ^ ^ 0  t0 (II gui ciMO:00600002000_60co- ^ gu 7 uici a m e aoy Io71(Sg ig=1mmco ame339mmIoamemcue=13kAm AC equey=owe3KWMe =75kg/mi66        (gu m sio a accaocess - aoy(Ioame7mmEco amem1 ^ 1 ^ 1^ 1^ 1Coog  ^  Isgu 9 aooima  a sci wi coo (Assk sws e sioie ese  eeme681 1 ^ QM GE K  gu 1Mogies ocoy soeckesesuoys(Assk sws e sioie ese  eeme9gu 1 s ase a cais oa cosoeIo71same  gu Cais ia cosoea queIo71same  O, a1 ^17 _11_15113111 1o 9^  $  = 1C^IIa^ I^     = 133C^  ^  70531 -  =2e=g""e"aw.Ii1 ^1 ^ 13 ^ 13 ^ 13 thz( o A 7A  o Co  Co Cu   Mogu 3 Ieec quiseggaoiIo71 20 ^  ^  ^ t^ 4tnp.  C17 ^ 1 ^ 11gu e equiium socaooMse5 (gm 86644200  ^ 00 ^  ^ 00 ^ --awC(gu 5 Ieec quii iMse( 9 C 573Susceo -1 "aceCmWiawagu Aas oe Q ace a i aiagu 7 A scmac awi oe /Q ace7gu 5 ee s ie iusiaIo71io(SEM imagegu 5 s ase a a ase comoie iusiaIo71ioSE image75gu 5 s ase a ase comoiiusiaIo71 Wcues  e ee s sucs(SE imagegu 5 Io71 (cosoe scime(SE image0000000SE W4 20.0 x ^ 2gu 5  oeeiIo71E same ( coess  acomoo a  3; e cuss e scai aagu 5  suc iagw gio(igu 3- oIo71E (oicamicggu 5  suc iieuegio(igu 3- oIo71E ( oicamicggu 5  suc ie ieuegio(3 igu 3- oIo71E( oicamicg"0 umgu 5 Micsucs i 1Ic71E (oicamicggu 5Micsuc i  Io71E (oicamicgSoque( 11S que( quiquegu 51 Micsuc i 3Io71E (oicamicgAcooSocaogu 5Scmac sciooIo71quescime Aow Aiicas e caow gus 53 a 5we ke80gu 53 Micsuc i oIo71EQ (oicamicggu 5Micsuc i oIo71EWQ (oicamicg8I-i i ^ ^  I II-I^ ii^ I^Ii I-I-I^ ^ i   3--1---1-1  ise a coosocaomm- 1^^ 1^ ^ 3^ ^ 555  gu 55   comsioasis oIo71E same ( oeas is e gii o  e eo s e eo comi om eE asisgu 5Io71E aeasame (E imagegu 57 i ie iusiaWasy iogu 5e ecis ii e egioie iusiaWasy (SEimagegu 59 Oui oe egioie iusiaWasy same (SEimagegu 5moc AscimeEmogy oagw gio( 1SE imagegu 51 moc AscimeEmogy oieuegio( SE imagegu 5moc AscimeEmogy oieuegio( 3SEimage8gu 53 WasyscimeE mogy oagw gio( 1SEimagegu 5WasyscimeEmogy oieuegio(   SEimage2. 0^  ^ 2.2.2.i^ 2.  31 ^ 1 se a coosocaomm mm gu 55 WasyscimeEmogy oieuegio( 3SEimagegu 5  coeoaase moc A-E scime(as iicas e gii o  e eo s e eo comiom e E aysis8agwgC/M C( 1IeuegwweMC/M( agwgMC/MC^ qui+ Soieuiocoosocaogu 57 Scmac scio oe s oM5E scimegu 5Cai Mogy oM5Eagw gio(omEimagegu 59 Cai mogy oM5Eieuegw (E imagegu 5 Cai mogy oM5Eagw gio( E image8-1^ ^ 1^  ^ 3se a coosocaommgii ^oiasi11  4 .EEE. :,f ^     III^ I^ i-If  : iEI1 9 1 1gu 51  um coeooM5E wi se ( a eas iicas e gii o  e eo s e eo comiom e E aysis9ow a m es ^ ow a quime acoes0^ 00.2^ quis ^ 0.4m ( K0.2^ 0.4^ 0.6^ 0.8(mquiaco 0. 0  08 0 0. 0.6 08 0 046 0. 0.4 02 02 0 0.00.4^ 0.6^ 0.8m0.6E.824822066006428880.6E824ESocess MMC IoEco a. = . Ioa. = ., Cue = 6.4kAMe  = 0.06gec, Sg Skiickss = 0.mmgu 1 ow es  e ESocess MMC ioow a m es ^ ow a quime acoesm  (0", S0406220i.42III ^ I 1111111111/00.20.4quis0.6E24quiaco 0 0 0 0. 0 06 08 0 046 0 04 02 0 2 0 000.20.40.6E240.2^ 0.4^ 0.6^ 0.8^ 0.2^ 0.4^ 0.6^ 0.8^r ( ^  (mESocess ceIoEco a. =6, Ioa. =26, Cue =0kAMe  =0.gec, Sg Skiickss =0.mmgu ow e  e ESocess ceioI^ I a^ 1  ^ 1G [Kim]gu 3 Scmac Summa oSi-ase SocaoMogies  59(Assk sws e sioie ese  eemes93ISA w^ 1wgaiCgu ecmicsucs  seeme-ck wi aisoes(asee ( me-cka (ca s a  s aewiawase 9blh1GKussMe Maa  3 7179   Cais ACesIa Se 19 511-5173  omoa  WiowsSI19311 151-15   MWaM co a   eMe Maa A33 1795-15   ea WsSI191 117 WKu a  iMe Maa A199 A 5-17  iMe Maa A1995A 15-159 SSawaSSyaSKiaocees IGSeco 197 1-139  ESa SI191 97  7-51  eaeyW ieAac SI191 97  3-11  WSI19113 3-1 E k  Gii a ESwa ASM195 9-313 Gse SI19571 1-11  Kiay sa a  igmCaaMeuicaQuaey191 1115Somoa  weMaSci c 199   777-71   cksoMcesisU19717G aG a  Y Qiao a YYGaoasUMaSci199 15 31 MMuasMkuso a Akusaseaoe oem osi ie coious cas ose icke 5 1-3 7-119 A S  MoIa SeakeOc19 31-3 CMce Mu a Ee mecasimuoosocaoicoious cas ous  CaseyMac-e oCoious casse Micsco Socie oAmeca M ieG geMe a  1915  5-5  ec uaoCsGw19 3-39  e  Wiiamso  Emaocees o 13-19  Scaa ASM195  5- WOwe  WoMCoa  Aac e Wei uaseaSume1957 5-51  AGeMe a1971  7-  Aisea WeSI19719 975-9 G oE e a  AC Suace a Coas cogy19951 111173 ACSue  AKossa   Mckia Me Maa A35A 1317-1331 GyEcosg ocesses iies a acce9AeScieeis3 S sesisU 197133 AMiocess me iESa as ae suoymeiuuis3 AMiMaaSciee a Eie A3-  1135 Ay  a  Ae Iaki a Seaki199 193 A  quiMe ocessi a Cas  5-337 AMi a SsMe aaco1973  1-3  aeMos a AMiIa Seaki9993-39 ASayesisU197 KMKea S a AMi Kau kaKSukiComomo oe cuuA mei ocess useeocooIo oum Aoys KMKea Comoasis oecosg mei a ccum amei ocess usee ocoogoae aoyseseaoaIo sea  Aui esisU199MMca coy SoeMaa gm Seice19e Me Socieo97 M ce a S ceSuoys-A cicaGuiASM ASM ok1 AeiAEasso AMi a  eiksso gmmaa a ocesses 9- MAeaouiCSmauaoAoys a Comus37- YseesMu is a  auSuoys 199 S1-1  Aosoa  eiksso Me Mas  3 -95  Aui Mc esisU199551 Wee a  s e moc aoys197 Cssak &Com5 SciaMe Cooo 53 YMuMMoga Yukawa Ogawa a MKaocee oecic m IeaoCoee oAaeMaa199 9-5 Cega-Maassou cau  ssais a GCio ys Ma19979 31-55  cau Cega-Maassou a GCio uaoAoys aComus1995 5 ASay a AMiocee oSocaoa Cas oMe1977Me Socie 3-37957  Aui  WaS Cockca AMiMe Maa 31 1-15 KMKea  MokS aa AMiComoMoioEcosg mei ocessys   1-59 WKua   s amea oSocao 19a cicao  WaMc esisU  Ya  e a  SouuaoMaa57-

Cite

Citation Scheme:

    

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
China 35 20
United States 33 9
Canada 7 0
Iran 5 2
Germany 5 0
Russia 3 1
Taiwan 2 7
France 2 1
Australia 1 0
Japan 1 1
Spain 1 0
United Kingdom 1 1
India 1 0
City Views Downloads
Unknown 27 21
Beijing 25 0
Shenzhen 8 20
New Kensington 7 4
Indianapolis 5 0
Ashburn 3 0
Winter Springs 2 0
Seattle 2 0
Toronto 2 0
Kirkland Lake 2 0
Newington 1 0
Cleveland 1 0
Hebron 1 0

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}
Download Stats

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.24.1-0066242/manifest

Comment

Related Items