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Nitrogen removal from wastewater through partial nitrification/ Anammox process Kosari, Fatemeh 2011

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NITROGEN REMOVAL FROM WASTEWATER THROUGH PARTIAL NITRIFICATION / ANAMMOX PROCESS by Fatemeh Kosari B.Sc. Iran University of Science and Technology 2005  A THESIS SUBMITED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE in The Faculty of Graduate Studies (Civil Engineering)  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver)  August 2011  © Fatemeh Kosari,2011  Abstract Nitrogen removal from wastewater through partial nitrification/Anammox was investigated. The objectives of the research were divided to three distinctive and related areas: Partial Nitrification (PN) process, Anammox reaction and green house gases emission from partial nitrification and Anammox reactor.  In the PN process, research objectives were to determine: 1) the effect Dissolved Oxygen concentration, alkalinity on the PN reaction 2) evaluation of continuous moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for partial nitrification process. The main goals of the Anammox process study was to investigate: 1) parameters, which affect the Anammox process 2) evaluation of continuous moving bed biofilm reactor, hybrid reactor and up-flow fixed-bed reactor for the Anammox process. In the last stage, N2O and NO emissions from both partial nitrification and Anammox reactor under various operating conditions were determined.  Partial nitrification in the sequencing batch reactor was more efficient, compared to continuous moving bed biofilm reactor. Alkalinity was investigated as a limiting factor for oxidizing more ammonium to nitrite in the PN reactor. The effluent of the MBBR contained 59.7% ammonium, 31.7 % nitrite and 8.5 % nitrate and gaseous products, such as nitrous oxide and nitrogen as initial nitrogen load. Whereas, the SBR could convert more than 45% of the ammonium to nitrite; in fact, the effluent of the SBR reactor contained 45.1% ammonium, 45.1% nitrite and 1.9% nitrate, as initial nitrogen load.  Subsequent Anammox treatment, after the MBBR, resulted in 38.8% additional ammonium removal and nitrite removal of 83.1 %. As a result, total ammonia removal in the combined system reached 79.1% and total nitrogen removal was 56.8 %.  ii  The Hybrid Anammox reactor removed an average of 55.8% of NH4-N, versus 48.3% NH4-N removal in the up-flow fixed-bed reactor. Nitrite removal in the hybrid and up-flow fixed-bed Anammox reactor was 80.8% and 62.5%, respectively.  This research indicates that nitrous oxide and nitric oxide emission from partial nitrification at DO being controlled at 2 mg/L were 2.6±0.2% and 0.6±0.3% as nitrogen load, respectively. Relatively low N2O of 0.15±0.02% was observed from the Anammox reactor, compared to partial nitrification and NO emissions was none detected.  iii  Table of contents Abstract ..................................................................................................................................... ii Table of contents ....................................................................................................................... iv List of tables ............................................................................................................................. vi List of figures ........................................................................................................................... vii Acknowledgements .....................................................................................................................x 1.  Introduction .........................................................................................................................1 1.1  Background...................................................................................................................1  1.2  Objective of the study ...................................................................................................4  1.3  Literature review ...........................................................................................................4  1.3.1 Conventional nitrification-denitrification .....................................................................4 1.3.2 De-Ammonification.....................................................................................................6 1.3.3 Anammox ...................................................................................................................6 2.  Materials and methods ....................................................................................................... 17 2.1  Feed ............................................................................................................................ 17  2.2  Apparatuses ................................................................................................................ 17  2.3  Sample analysis .......................................................................................................... 21  3. Partial nitrification followed by Anammox in continuous moving-bed biofilm reactors (MBBR) .................................................................................................................................... 23 3.1  Summary .................................................................................................................... 23  3.2  Introduction ................................................................................................................ 23  3.2.1 Objective of this stage of research ............................................................................. 24 3.3  Materials and methods ................................................................................................ 25  3.3.1 Feed .......................................................................................................................... 25 3.3.2 Experiment design ..................................................................................................... 25 3.3.3 Chemical analysis ...................................................................................................... 27 3.4  Results and discussion.................................................................................................28  3.4.1 Performance of the partial nitrification in the continuous moving bed biofilm reactor 28 4.  Partial nitrification in sequencing batch reactor followed by Anammox ............................. 32 4.1  Summary .................................................................................................................... 32  4.2  Introduction ................................................................................................................ 32 iv  4.2.1 Objective of this study ............................................................................................... 34 4.3  Materials and methods ................................................................................................ 35  4.3.1 Feed .......................................................................................................................... 35 4.3.2 Experimental design .................................................................................................. 35 4.3.3 Chemical analysis ...................................................................................................... 38 4.4  Results and discussion.................................................................................................39  4.4.1 Performance of the partial nitrification/Anammox process......................................... 39 4.4.2 Partial nitrification in the sequencing batch reactor .................................................... 39 4.4.3 Anammox in hybrid reactor and up-flow fixed-bed reactor ........................................ 52 5. Greenhouse gases (nitrous oxide and nitric oxide) emission from partial nitrification and Anammox system...................................................................................................................... 59 5.1  Summary .................................................................................................................... 59  5.2  Introduction ................................................................................................................ 59  5.2.1 Objective of this study ............................................................................................... 60 5.3  Material and methods .................................................................................................. 61  5.3.1 Feed .......................................................................................................................... 61 5.3.2 Experiment design ..................................................................................................... 61 5.3.3 Chemical analyses ..................................................................................................... 63 5.4  Results and discussion.................................................................................................64  5.4.1 Performance of the partial nitrification/Anammox process......................................... 64 5.4.2 N2O and NO emissions .............................................................................................. 65 6.  Conclusions ....................................................................................................................... 73 6.1  Recommendation for the future research ..................................................................... 76  References ................................................................................................................................ 77 Appendix 1. Raw data of the partial nitrification followed by Anammox in the continuous moving-bed biofilm reactors (MBBR) ....................................................................................... 88 Appendix 2.Raw data of partial nitrification in the sequencing batch reactor ........................... 108 Appendix 3. Data of the hybrid and the up-flow fixed-bed Anammox reactors ........................ 121  v  List of tables Table 1. N2O and NO emissions from partial nitrification in different conditions ...................... 71  vi  List of figures Figure 1. Anammox bacteria enriched on nonwoven fabric media at environmental lab (University of British Columbia) , the color of the enriched cubes have turned to red after 6 months ........................................................................................................................................8 Figure 2.Anammox reaction ...................................................................................................... 13 Figure 3. Partial nitrification reactor on the right side, Anammox reactor on the left side .......... 18 Figure 4. Dissolved oxygen controller ....................................................................................... 18 Figure 5. Sequencing batch reactor ............................................................................................ 19 Figure 6. On the right side the Anammox process in a hybrid reactor, on the left side the Anammox process in an up-flow fixed-bed biofilm reactor ....................................................... 20 Figure 7.pH, Temperature and ORP monitor ............................................................................. 20 Figure 8. Aquarium heater ......................................................................................................... 21 Figure 9. Schematic of bench scale partial nitrification /Anammox in continuous moving bed biofilm reactors ......................................................................................................................... 26 Figure 10. Ammonium, nitrate and nitrite test kits (UBC Environmental Lab) ........................... 27 Figure 11. Ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, nitric oxide and nitrogen gas in the PN reactor .............. 28 Figure 12. Schematic of bench scale partial nitrification in sequencing batch reactor followed by Anammox in two reactors ......................................................................................................... 37 Figure 13.Nitrogen species in the partial nitrification reactor over an 8-hour Cycle under base line conditions ........................................................................................................................... 40 Figure 14. pH measurement in the partial nitrification reactor over an 8 hour cycle under base line conditions ........................................................................................................................... 41 Figure 15. Nitrogen species in the partial nitrification reactor over an 8-hour cycle, level of dissolved oxygen controlled between 0.3 and 0.7 mg/L ............................................................. 42 Figure 16. Nitrogen species in the partial nitrification reactor over an 8-hour cycle, level of dissolved oxygen controlled between 3.5 and 4.5 mg/L ............................................................. 43 Figure 17. Nitrogen species in the partial nitrification reactor over an 8-hour cycle; pH controlled at 7.2 by additional sodium hydroxide ....................................................................................... 45 vii  Figure 18. Nitrogen species in the partial nitrification reactor over an 8-hour cycle; pH controlled at 6.6 by additional hydrochloric acid ........................................................................................ 46 Figure 19. Nitrogen species in the partial nitrification reactor over an 8-hour cycle; pH controlled at 6 by additional hydrochloric acid ........................................................................................... 47 Figure 20. Nitrogen species in the partial nitrification reactor over an 8-hour cycle; the SBR was fed slowly at the rate of 25 ml/min in 100 minutes .................................................................... 48 Figure 21. Nitrogen species in the partial nitrification reactor over an 8-hour cycle; the SBR was fed fast at the rate of 250 ml/min for 3 minutes, then centrate was pumped slowly at the rate of 25 ml/min for 70 minutes .......................................................................................................... 49 Figure 22. Nitrogen species in the partial nitrification reactor over an 8-hour cycle; the SBR was fed fast at the rate of 250 ml/min for 6 minutes, then centrate was pumped slowly at the rate of 25 ml/min for 40 minutes (how come nitrate and nitrate and nitrite are fluctuating ) ................. 50 Figure 23. Nitrogen species in the partial nitrification reactor over an 8-hour cycle; the SBR was fed fast at the rate of 250 ml/min for 10 minutes........................................................................ 51 Figure 24. Average of ammonium removals in the hybrid Anammox reactor in 5 different nitrite to ammonium ratios .................................................................................................................. 53 Figure 25. Average of nitrite removals in the hybrid Anammox reactor in 5 different nitrite to ammonium ratios ...................................................................................................................... 54 Figure 26. Average of total nitrogen removals in the hybrid Anammox reactor in 5 different nitrite to ammonium ratios ........................................................................................................ 55 Figure 27. Average of ammonium removals in the up-flow fixed-bed Anammox reactor in 5 different nitrite to ammonium ratios .......................................................................................... 56 Figure 28. Average of nitrite Removals in the up-flow fixed-bed Anammox reactor in 5 different nitrite to ammonium ratios ........................................................................................................ 57 Figure 29. Average of total nitrogen removals in the up-flow fixed-bed Anammox reactor in 5 different nitrite to ammonium ratios .......................................................................................... 58 Figure 30. Schematic of bench scale partial nitrification/Anammox process .............................. 62 Figure 31. Nitrogen species in the partial nitrification reactor under base line conditions ........... 66 Figure 32. pH measurement in the partial nitrification reactor .................................................. 67 Figure 33.N2O emission from partial nitrification reactor under base line conditions ................. 68  viii  Figure 34.NO emission from partial nitrification reactor under base line conditions .................. 69  ix  Acknowledgements I would like to thank my Research Supervisors, Prof. Victor Lo and Prof. Donald Mavinic, Department of Civil Engineering, under whose diligent supervision and guidance this research and thesis have been successfully completed. I would also like to thank Dr. Babak Rezania, Research Fellow, Department of Civil Engineering, for his contributions, advice and discussions which were essential in the structuring of experiments and analysis of data. I sincerely appreciate My thanks go to Paula Parkinson and Tim Ma, Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, whose support contributed to the completion of laboratory analysis. I also would like to thank my colleagues, Ali Abedini, Ryan Thoren, Selina Yawson, Isabel Londono, Chad Novotny, and Kerry Black for their support during my time in Civil Engineering Department. Finally, I want to express my gratitude to my friends Minoo Jalali and Ali Bakhoda, my family and Seyed Mahdi Beheshtian for their support and encouragements.  x  Dedication To God, for his countless blessings; To my Mother for her support, encouragement, and constant love have sustained me throughout my life.  xi  1. Introduction 1.1 Background  Nitrogen and phosphorus are fundamental elements for the microorganism, plants, animals and human beings growth. The characteristics of global nitrogen cycle can be identified by the perpetuation of a small pool of fixed or combined, nitrogen in continuous exchange with the huge reservoir of atmospheric dinitrogen (N2). The conversion of N2 to fixed nitrogen occurs through microbial nitrogen fixation and industrial nitrogen fixation process; whereas, the only effective process that regenerates Nitrogen is bacterial denitrification (Thamdrup & Dalsgaard, 2002). During the last decade, researchers have figured out that their knowledge of microbial nitrogen cycle and its major participants is far from complete (Jetten, 2008). The global reservoir of fixed nitrogen is controlled by the balance between these sources and sink terms. Methods and practices which affect the availability of fixed nitrogen are substantial director of ecosystem function and global biochemistry because of the fundamental role of nitrogen as a limiting nutrient for primary growth. (Schlesinger, 1997; Codispoti, 1995). The dominant sink for nitrogen and most nitrification occurs in the seafloor, as current aquatic nitrogen resources (Christensen et al, 1994; 140 Galloway et al, 1995; Middelburg et al, 1996).  Nitrogen is vital component in the synthesis of protein and it is required in the process of wastewater treatment (Metcalf & Eddy, 2003).In wastewater, ammonia(NH3), ammonium (NH4+), nitrogen gas, nitrite ion (NO2-) and nitrate ion (NO3-)are the most common and significant forms of nitrogen. The nitrogen in fresh wastewater originates from proteinaceous matter and urea. Organic form of nitrogen is changed to Ammonia through breakdown process by bacteria named ammonification. While sewage is traveling through pipes, organic nitrogen converted to ammonia through a process called hydrolysis. During ammonification more ammonium is generated than ammonia; however, the ratio of ammonium to ammonia generation depends on pH and temperature of wastewater. The age of wastewater can be indicated by the amount of ammonia present in the specific wastewater (Metcalf & Eddy, 2003).  1  On the other hand, nitrogen compounds in wastewater play a fundamental role in eutrophication and nitrite enrichment (Wuhrmann, K. 1964). Eutrophication reflects a rise in chemical nutrients (compounds containing nitrogen or phosphorus) in an ecosystem. It results in increase of aquatic plants and algae, dissolved oxygen depletion, increase in blooms of zooplankton, loss of desirable fish species, increases incidences of fish kills, decreases in water transparency, taste, and odour. It can happen in land or in water; nevertheless, the term is usually used to illustrate the increase in the ecosystem’s primary productivity which results in redundant plan growth, decay. Subsequently, impacts such as lack of oxygen and severe reduction in water quality, fish and other animal populations can occur in the ecosystem.  Furthermore, high demand for nitrogen in agriculture and industry illustrates that human beings continue to transform the global N-cycle at a high rate (Galloway et al., 2008). Enormous amounts of anthropogenic nitrogen are lost to the environment and cause problems such as rise in fresh water nitrate levels and increase in nitrous oxide production, all of which contribute to global climate change (Duce et al., 2008).  The mean concentration of ammonia, which is one of the fixed nitrogen compounds in sewage, for example, is about 40 mg/L NH 4- N and about 20 mg/L org. N. During biological degradation the organic nitrogen is transformed to ammonia. In industrial effluents ,the ammonia concentration is often much higher (Wiesmann, U. 1994) .Furthermore, a big contributor of nitrogen load to the main stream of wastewater treatment plants is an ammonia rich, side stream wastewater that is generated during dewatering of digested sludge (usually referred to as centrate). The centrate contains high concentrations of ammonia as high as 1500 mg/L and accounts for 15-20 % of total nitrogen loaded to the wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, nitrogen needs to be removed from both streams. In effort to reduce water body impairment, more stringent regulations regarding nutrient compounds, are being applied for point source discharges.  2  There  are  various  methods  for  nitrogen  removal,  including  conventional  nitrification/denitrification process, land disposal, pond treatment and biological oxidation in trickling filters or with activated sludge (Wuhrmann, K. 1964). New processes and configurations to remove nitrogen from wastewater have been recently considered. Advanced processes such as Ammonia stripping, breakpoint chlorination, ion exchange, Anammox, deammonification, OLAND and nitrification-denitrification by methanotrophs are being developed (Verstraete & Philips, 1998; Metcalf & Eddy, 2003). The development of advance tools to examine and use nitrifiers have appeared in the domain of water and wastewater treatment. 16S rRNA-probes, nitrifier pheromones and online biosensors for ammonium and nitrate are examples of new tools. Moreover, it has been proved that nitrifiers can degraded certain chemicals by means of their radical generating potential which can be used to bring about indirect bio-catalysis. There are a number of bio-supplements which are documented and available in practice, to advance or protecting nitrifiers (Verstraete & Philips, 1998). Significant discoveries such as Anammox, ammonium oxidation by Crenarchaea (AOA) (Könneke et al., 2005; Francis et al., 2007), the interaction between these groups (Lam et al., 2007), nitrite oxidizing phototrophs (Griffin et al.,2007), nitrate reduction to dinitrogen gas by foraminifera (Risgaard-Petersen et al., 2006) and genome sequencing of several N-cycle organisms (Chain et al., 2003; Starkenburg et al., 2006; Strous et al., 2006; Arp et al., 2007; Stein et al., 2007) provide evidencethat there is a vast biodiversity and metabolic proficiency of nitrogen conversions conceal in the microbial world (Jetten, 2008). Knowledge of microbes involved in nitrogen transformations needs to be improved, to understand and eventually mitigate the negative effects of nitrogen pollution.  Based on this background, this research focuses on one of the above mentioned recent discovered processes of the nitrogen cycle: the Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox). Elaboration of the Anammox process, from an unexplored part of biological nitrogen cycle, to text book such as Metcalf & Eddy has occurred since Anammox’s discovery in 1995. It is clear, now, that Anammox bacteria are one of the main role players in the global nitrogen cycle.  3  1.2 Objective of the study This research studied the partial nitrification and Anammox process. The application of the Partial Nitrification and Anammox process was investigated under two different methods for treating municipal dewatered digested sludge liquor (centrate):    In Chapter 3, the performance of partial nitrification in a continuous moving bed reactor, followed by Anammox in a hybrid reactor, was studied.    In Chapter 4, the performance of partial nitrification in a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) followed by a fixed bed Anammox reactor and hybrid Anammox reactor was studied. The effect of Alkalinity on Partial Nitrification and Anammox process was found in this stage of experiments.    In Chapter 5, experiments were conducted to determine the greenhouse gas emission from Partial Nitrification/ Anammox. In this chapter, operational strategy to decrease green house gases was discussed.  1.3 Literature review 1.3.1 Conventional nitrification-denitrification Nitrification processes were special industrial interest until the end of the 19th century, where the process assesses the production of nitrate to make gun powder (Vandenabeele and Verstraete, 1989). Nitrification then has become a fundamental part of soil fertility and a valuable asset for environmental technology. In the early period of development, the main consideration of N-cycle microbiology was to learn and develop fertilizer efficiently in agriculture. The potential of nitrifiers and denitrifiers for nutrient removal from wastewater had not been recognized until the 1960s (Jetten et al. 2009).In the 1980s, the harmful contribution of nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere to destruction of the ozone layer and global warming was recognized. Therefore, the  4  role of nitrification and denitrification in the generation of these substances has become the focus of environmental researchers.  The common practice for nitrogen removal is through conventional nitrification and denitrification, where denitrification is achieved by the addition of a carbon source. Nitrification is a two-step biological process, in which ammonia (NH4-N) is oxidized to nitrite (NO2-N) by ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) or Nitrosomonas; then, nitrite is oxidized to nitrate (NO3-N) by nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) or Nitrobacter (Metcalf & Eddy, Inc., 2003).Both Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter are autotrophic bacteria which use CO2 as a carbon source for biosynthesis and oxidation of nitrogen compounds as the energy source, in order to convert ammonia to nitrate in present of oxygen( Equation1). Nitrifiers are strict aerobes, which means they need free dissolved oxygen to oxidize ammonia. Nitrification requires minimum of 1 mg/L of free dissolved oxygen; thus, under less than 0.5 mg/L, the growth rate is minimal.  Nitrifiers, maximum specific growth rate also depends on temperature and pH (Anthonisen, AC 1976). According to previous studies by Downing et al, (1964); Hall, IR Loveless and Painter (1968 and 1983), at a pH in the range of 7-8.2, optimal nitrification rate is achievable. Low activity or no activity blow pH= 6.5 and above pH=10 was reported by Downlng et al, (1964.) and Knowles et al, (1965) indicated that an increase in temperature of 10 °C cause about 3 times the rise in the growth rate.  In denitrification, heterotrophic organisms oxidize nitrate to nitric oxide, nitrous oxide, and nitrogen gas in present of organic carbon as an energy source (Equation 2). NH3 + CO2 + 1.5 O2 + Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria→ NO2- + H2O + H+  (1)  NO2- + CO2 + 0.5 O2 + Nitrite Oxidizing Bacteria → NO35 CH3COOH + 8 NO3− → 4 N2+ 10CO2+6H20+8OH-  (2)  Biological nitrogen removal involved both nitrification and denitrification. Alkalinity concentration is an important wastewater characteristic that affect the performance of biological nitrification processes. Alkalinity is needed to achieve complete nitrification (Metcalf & Eddy, 5  Inc., 2003). Although, nitrogen removal via conventional nitrification/denitrification has been practiced in industry for a long time, processes involve the addition of an external organic carbon source for denitrification. Carbon dioxide release a during the process and sensitive bacteria involving in nitrification/ denitrification, are the other downsides tothis process.  Centrate treatment through conventional nitrification and denitrification with methanol is not sustainable, as it is costly and releases a high amount of CO2 (greenhouse gas). The new approach for nitrogen removal from centrate is through a new process called anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) (Strous et al., 1998). Anammox not only offers a cost effective solution for centrate treatment compared with conventional nitrification /denitrification, but it also relies on a different type of bacteria to drive the process. Anammox is a short cut to conventional nitrification/denitrification, where a mixture of ammonia and nitrite is converted to nitrogen gas without the need for organic carbon.  1.3.2 De-Ammonification De-ammonification is the process of ammonium conversion to nitrogen gas without the stochiometric need for the electron donor. In the so called aerobic de-ammonification process, the oxygen supply needs to be controlled carefully. Under very low oxygen pressure (1 kPa or ca. 0.2% O2 in the gas phase) autotrophic nitrifying sludge can produce nitrogen gas (Muller et al. 1995). Hippen et al in (1996) have described de-ammonification process for highly nitrogenous wastewater at the University of Hannover. The maximum rate of ammonia oxidation monitored was 58% at 0.3 kPa dissolved oxygen. However, a practical stable process design was not obtained (Verstraete & Philips 1998) for De-Ammonification.  1.3.3 Anammox  1.3.3.1. Anammox background The general opinion used to suppose that ammonium was an inert molecule under anoxic conditions until the end of 20th century; thus, oxygen was assumed a necessary substance to 6  activate ammonium metabolism as known for nitrifying bacteria (Jetten et al., 2009). However, Broda (1977) predicted the existence of microorganisms which are able to oxidize ammonium with nitrite and nitrate as the electron accepter, based on thermodynamic calculations. Before that, unexpected loss as of ammonium under anoxic conditions was reported by Richards (1965), in studies of a nitrogen balance under anoxic condition. After about thirty years, the Kluyver Laboratory of Biotechnology of Delft (1990) reported a new reaction in which ammonium is converted to nitrogen gas, under anoxic conditions, where nitrate serving as the electron acceptor (van de Graaf et al., 1990). However, it has been discovered later that nitrite is the key electron acceptor (Strous et al., 1997). In 1999,Strous et al. described Anammox bacteria for the first time by physically purifying Anammox cells from a laboratory enrichment culture. He illustrated that Anammox cells convert mixture of ammonium and nitrite into nitrogen gas in the absence of oxygen; Anammox cellular carbon is fixed from only carbon dioxide. “Brocadia anammoxidans” was the name of first Anammox bacterium, and it was given the status of “Candidatus”,because it was not pure according to classical microbiological standards. Anammox cells demonstrate complex cell architecture with a central compartment, similar to other members of the Planctomycetes. Anammox bacteria are phylogenetically related to Planctomycetes (Jetten et al., 2009). Five Anammox species have been indentified so far, with 16S rRNA gene sequence identities of the species ranging between 87% and 99% (Jetten et al., 2009). Four “Candidatus” Anammox species have been confirmed from activated sludge:   “Kuenenia” (Schmid et al., 2000; Strous et al., 2006),    Brocadia” (Strous et al., 1999; Kuenen and Jetten, 2001;Kartal et al., 2008),    “Anammoxoglobus” (Kartal et al., 2007) and “Jettenia” (Quan et al., 2008),    “Candidatus Scalindua” (Kuypers et al.,2003; Schmid et al., 2003; van de Vossenberg et al., 2008),  The fifth Anammox genus has often found in natural habitats, especially in the sea floor and marine sediments, under oxygen minimum zones. (Dalsgaard et al., 2005; Penton et al., 2006; Schmid et al., 2007; Woebken et al., 2008).  Graaf et al. (1996) demonstrated that the dominant micro-organism of the enrichment culture in Fluidized Bed Reactor (FBR) was Gram-negative, with an unusual and irregular morphology.  7  The cells were single cells or in pair with possibility of dividing latter. They have also observed the color of red for the Anammox culture.  Figure 1. Anammox bacteria enriched on nonwoven fabric media at environmental lab (University of British Columbia), the color of the enriched cubes have turned out to red after 6 months  The existence of Anammox bacteria has been established in many oxygen limited marine and freshwater systems, worldwide. In the marine ecosystem including oceans, seas, estuaries, marshes, rivers and large lakes over 50% of the N2 gas production may occur by Anammox bacteria( Jetten et al. 2009). As a case in point, in the Black sea, which is one of the largest anoxic basin in the world, hydrogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences illustrates that Anammox microorganism are related to members of the order Planctomycetales. The consumption of ammonium diffusing upwards from the anoxic deep water occurs due to the Anammox process below the oxic zone (Kuypers, et al. 2003). With reference to hylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences, nutrient profiles, fluorescently labelled RNA probes,15N tracer experiments and the distribution of specific ‘ladderane’ membrane lipids for the first time, Anammox bacteria have been determined and directly linked to the removal of nitrite, nitrate and ammonium (fixed inorganic nitrogen) in the Black Sea ecosystem by Kuypers et al. ( 2003). The importance of Anammox in the oceanic nitrogen cycle was clarified due to the widespread occurrence of ammonium consumption in suboxic marine. Although the Black Sea is 8  characterized by a high Ammonium concentration in deep waters (up to 100µM), only traces of fixed inorganic nitrogen exist in the suboxic (Kuypers et al. 2003). The phenomenon of apparent ammonium sink in the suboxic zone indicates the anaerobic process of oxidizing ammonium that occurs in presence of the Anammox (Thamdrup & Dalsgaard. 2002). This so-called “Anammox” bacteria (belonging to the order Planctomycetales) directly oxidizes ammonia to N2 with nitrite as the electron acceptor (Kuypers et al.2003). Oxygen absences blow 80m in the water body in the Black Sea; therefore, aerobic nitrification cannot account for the ammonium consumption.  1.3.3.2. Growth and metabolism of Anammox bacteria Fundamental knowledge of Anammox metabolism and gene explanation is highly recommended to optimize and improve the application of Anammox bacteria in the future. Anammox is slow growing bacteria, with a doubling time of 11-20 days (Jetten et al., 2009). According to Strous et al. (1997) Anammox bacteria are strict anaerobes and their metabolism inhibited above 2 µM oxygen. Anammox bacteria obtain their energy for growth from chemolithotrophic conversion of ammonium and nitrite to N2; whereas, bicarbonate plays the role of a sole carbon source for synthesis of cell biomass, which constitute the microorganism autographs.  Based on  stochiometric calculations and formation of biomass and nitrate in an SBR reactor observed by Strous et al. (1998), it was hypothized that the reducing equivalents for the decrease in CO2 caused by the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. The low growth rate of Anammox bacteria can be explained by relatively low metabolic activity (15–80 µmol of N2 formed per g dry weight of cells per min) (Jetten et al., 2009). The Anammox are chemolithoautotrophic bacteria; however, recent research has disclosed that Anammox bacteria might not be strict chemolithoautrophic specialists, and they could have a more flexible lifestyle. Next to ammonium, the microorganisms are able to use ferrous (Fe2+) and a variety of organic compounds such as carboxylic acids (formate, acetate, propionate, methylamines), as electron donors (Strous et al., 2006; Kartal et al., 2007b; 2008). Aside from nitrite, Fe3+, manganese oxides and nitrate are employed by Anammox bacteria as electron acceptors in their metabolism (Strous et al., 2006). The consumption of nitrate is very interesting, since the same compound in classical denitrification converted into N2 gas but through a different route. First nitrate reduces to nitrite  9  and then in presence of ammonium, alters to N2 by the Anammox mechanism (Kartal et al., 2007a). Therefore, Anammox bacteria are capable of disguising themselves as denitrifiers.  1.3.3.3 Ecology and environmental importance of Anammox bacteria 1.3.3.3.1 Detection of Anammox bacteria in the environment There are suitable available methods for the detection of Anammox bacteria and their activity in natural and man-made environments (Risgaard-Petersen et al., 2003; Schmid et al., 2005). One of the methods which is PCR amplification with general 16S rRNA gene-targeted primers and subsequent phylogenetic analysis of the product used to detect undescribed  organisms.  Nevertheless, Anammox bacteria might be inadequately represented in general 16S rRNA gene clone libraries because of several mismatches caused by the widely used universal primer set for 16S rRNA gene (Jetten et al., 2009). More specific primer such as Pla46F (a Planctomycetespecific forward primer) or amx386F (an Anammox specific primer) together with a general eubacterial reverse primer or a specific Anammox reverse primer (i.e. amx820R) can increase the amounts of Planctomycete or Anammox 16S rRNA gene sequences relatively (Schmid et al., 2000; 2007; Penton et al., 2006).  There is a more functional application of PCR in which primers amplifying Anammox genes used to encode hydroxylamine/hydrazine oxidoreductase (HAO/HZO) proteins. This method illustrates that these genes are suitable targets for molecular ecological studies, on both aerobic and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (Quan et al., 2008; Schmid et al., 2008). Furthermore, rRNA and non-rRNA methods and combination of them are necessary  for the  purpose of evaluation of the contribution of the Anammox process to nitrogen cycling in any ecosystem. Another excellent apparatus to collect both quantitative and qualitative data of Anammox bacteria is Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Moreover, FISH can be utilized to approve the findings of colon libraries. As more validated Anammox sequences become applicable, probe designs will advance. Two other enhanced probing techniques which provide the measurement tools to evaluate Anammox activity and growth at single cell level ,are FISHMAR and ISR probe (Schmid et al., 2001). Raman microscopy (CRM) which is a non-invasive technique used to indentify Anammox bacteria without pretreating the sample. Pätzold et al. 10  (2008) used the resonance Raman effect of cytochrome to report the microbial distribution of nitrifiers and Anammox bacteria in microbial aggregates obtained from biological wastewater treatment.  The unique ladderane lipids of Anammox can be utilized as a biomarker (Sinninghe Damsté et al., 2002; Boumann et al., 2006; Rattray et al., 2008). According to Schouten et al. (2004), lipids from Anammox bacteria are distinguished by substantially lower content 13 C than their carbon source. Consequently, the isotopic composition of Anammox lipids in environmental samples can be an additional confirmation of their origin. While the 13C content of Anammox ladderanes is about 45% depleted, compared to a carbon source, lipids from other autotrophic organisms generally are 20 to 30‰ depleted (Rattray et al., 2008). Moreover, the ladderane lipids method was used by Jaeschke et al. (2008) to identify past Anammox activity. Ladderane lipids analyses on fossil form Arabian Sea fossil suggested that the Anammox process complement a fundamental sink for fixed inorganic nitrogen over last glacial cycle (Jetten et al., 2009).  1.3.3.3.2 Anammox application in wastewater treatment The applications of Anammox bacteria, in combination with partial nitrification by aerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria, proposes an attractive alternative to current wastewater treatment system for the removal of fixed nitrogen compounds from wastewater (Jetten et al., 1997; 2001; 2002, Schmidt et al., 2003; Ahn, 2006; Op den Camp et al., 2006). There are several advantages to using Anammox, as opposed to conventional nitrification/ denitrification. 1- The cost of aeration will be much lower for partial nitrification and less sludge will be produced.  2-  Denitrification, using Anammox, is carried out by autotrophic bacteria and does not require organic carbon (methanol) for denitrification. 3- Anammox is more environmentally friendly, as the bacteria consume carbon dioxide as carbon source, compared with conventional denitrification, which releases carbon dioxide (greenhouse gas) to the atmosphere. Despite of the fact that Anammox is an attractive option for the nitrogen removal, there are obstacles in the way of industrializing Anammox process. First of all, Anammox has a long doubling time of 11 to 20 days (Strous et al., 1998). Anammox bacteria are also sensitive to pH, temperature and the ratio of nitrite to ammonia which make the operation of the sytem for operators much more difficult. 11  Moreover, Anammox bacteria are washing out from the system; thus, support materials are needed.  Anammox bacteria need nitrite as an electron acceptor for oxidizing ammonium anaerobicly. The purpose of design one-reactor and two-reactor systems is providing nitrite, the compound rarely found in wastewater, for Anammox bacteria. There are various reactor systems such as the CANON “completely autotrophic removal of nitrogen over nitrite”, the DEMON pH controlled “deammonification”, and OLAND “oxygen limited autotrophic nitrification-denitrification” processes (Kuai and Verstraete, 1998; Third et al., 2001; 2005; Pynaert et al., 2004; Wett, 2006; Vlaeminck et al., 2007; 2008).  The Anammox is a two step process and must be combined with a partial nitrification process, where ammonia is partially oxidized to nitrite. Partial nitrification produces a mixture of ammonia and nitrite which serve as the feed to bacteria responsible for the Anammox process. Partial nitrification involves a series of reactions: (1) from NH4+ to NH2OH (hydroxylamine), (2) from NH2OH to N2O, (3) from N2O to NO, and (4) NO to NO2-. The overall reaction of partial nitrification can be expressed by Equation 3: 1 NH4+ + 1 HCO3– + 0.75 O2  → 0.5 NH4+ + 0.5 NO2– + 1 CO2 + 1.5 H2O  (3)  Anammox reaction can be expressed as Equation 4: 1 NH4+ + 1.32 NO2- + 0.066 HCO3- + 0.13 H+ O0.5N0.15 + 2.03 H2O  →  1.02 N2 + 0.26 NO3- + 0.066 CH2 (4)  In the Anammox process, ammonium is used as electron donor for denitrification and nitrite could also serve as a suitable electron acceptor for the Anammox process, as illustrated in Figure 2, (Graaf et al. 1995). Anammox is an anoxic process in which oxygen causes complete inhibition of the anaerobic ammonium conversion (Strous et al.1997, Graaf et al. 1996). Because of the low growth rate of Anammox bacteria (.001 h-1), support material to attach biomass such  12  as biofilm or media is required; therefore, once there is sufficient amount of biomass accumulating in the system, complete conversion of ammonium occurs (Graaf et al. 1996).  Figure 2.Anammox reaction  Application of marine Anammox bacteria to remove nitrogen from high stream strength and salty wastewater and different reactor options are currently being studied (Windey et al., 2005; Kartal et al., 2006).Both highly enriched Anammox biomass and an OLAND type mixed AOBAnammox culture can be adapted to high salt concentrations (up to 3% salt), with a gradual rise of salt content of the influent wastewater (Jetten et al., 2009). Furthermore, up-flow fixed-bed biofilm column reactors, with nonwoven fabric as a media to carry Anammox bacteria were designed to develop high rate Anammox biofilm reactors (Tsushima et al., 2007b). These are explained in Chapters 3 and 5. In an industrial scale, the first Anammox reactor in the world was started with volume of 75 m3 in Rottedam (NL, Abma et al., 2007; van der Star et al., 2007). The reactor which indicates stable performance at 750 kg-N d  -1  was scaled up directly from  laboratory to full-scale. This stability seems to be a result of the formation of Anammox granules with high densities and high settling velocities. 13  Theoretically, a favourable ratio of nitrite to ammonia is 1.32 for the Anammox reaction. There are several methods to oxidize adequate amounts of ammonia to nitrite, and avoid the formation of nitrate and reach partial nitrification: 1) Increasing free ammonia concentration and free nitric (Anthonisen et al. 1976 & Yamamoto, T. 2008) 2) Decreasing the dissolved oxygen (Wiesmann, 1994), 3) Operating the reactor at temperatures above 25ºC (Vazquez-Padin, J 2009).  Once free ammonia rises in the reactor, the growth of Nitrite Oxidizing Bacteria (NOB) is limited because of their higher sensitivity to free ammonia inhibition than Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria (AOB)( Anthonisen et al. 1976). NOB illustrated evidence of inhibition above 0.1 mg/L of free ammonia concentration observed by Anthonisen et al. (1976); they also reported that all nitrifying bacteria indicated inhibition above 0.2 mg/L of free nitric acid concentration. Vadivelu et al. (2006, 2007) investigated that the anabolism of the AOB and the NOB were inhibited completely at 1.3 mg/L and 0.1 mg/L of free ammonia and nitric acid concentrations, respectively. Moreover, the catabolism of the AOB was decreased to 50% at 1.3–2.1 mg/L of free nitric acid. However, Turk and Mavinic’s (1989) study demonstrated that NOB can acclimate to inhibition of free ammonia and free nitric acid was suggested as the most potent, long- term inhibitor of NOB by Vadivelu et al. (2007)  According to the literature, during pre-treatment of centrate for Anammox process named partial nitrification, the conversion of nitrite to nitrate should be prohibit and the amount of ammonia conversion should be limited to approximately 60%. To reach the ideal point, controlling dissolved oxygen at lower rate can be practiced, since NOB have a lower affinity for oxygen than AOB which cause nitrite accumulation in the reactor under low dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions (Garrido et al., 1997; Ruiz et al., 2003).Moreover, AOB grow faster than NOB above a temperature of 25 °C; as a result, under a low sludge retention time, for example SRT= 1 day, NOB are washed from the system. Nevertheless, once DO control was used for partial nitrification, a significant amount of nitrate was produced since some AOB may be washed out under extremely short SRT. This causes a decrease in nitrite production rate (Yamamoto, T, et al 2008). Therefore, Yamamoto et al (2008) suggested a method of partial nitrification utilizing  14  inhibition of free ammonia and free nitric acid. He also reported (2006) stable partial nitrification in a swim-bed reactor by the inhibition of free nitric acid, in temperatures of 15 °C and 30 °C. Yamamoto et al. (2008) achieved the conversion efficiencies of NH4–N to NO2–N and to NO3–N at about 58% and <5%, respectively, in partial nitrification using inhibition of free ammonia; free nitric acid was applied to swine wastewater digester liquor, and stable treatment was maintained for 120 days. The effectiveness of this process for treatment of the centrate has been illustrated by Yamamoto, T. (2008); Gut et al.,( 2006); Fux et al., (2002); and van Dongen et al., (2001).  The mixture of nitrite and ammonia which is partial nitrification effluent can be converted to nitrogen gas by Anammox bacteria (Egli, 2003).  The slow growth rate of the Anammox bacteria requires new criteria for reactors to develop and maintain the Anammox culture (Gut, L.et al 2006). Several strategies have been implemented for cultivation of Anammox bacteria, such as Biofilm systems (moving-bed reactor, fixed bed reactor, fluidised bed reactor, gas-lift reactor) or sequential batch reactors (SBR)(Strous et al., 1997; Siegrist et al., 1998; Dapena-Mora et al., 2004).  The partial nitrification/ Anammox moving bed biofilm system for partial nitrification was investigated and evaluated in Sweden at two pilot plants: laboratory-scale pilot plant at the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (supplied with supernatant from Bromma WWTP) and a semi-industrial scale pilot plant at Himmerfja¨rden WWTP, supplied directly with the supernatant from dewatering of digested sludge (Płaza et al., 2002; Szatkowska, 2004; Trela et al., 2004; Gut, 2006). Anammox bacterial cultures were developed on Kaldnes rings, in pilot plants.  Vazquez-Padin, J et al (2009) observed that the presence of organic matter up to 50 mg TOC/L  activated the ammonia oxidation and allowed the achievement of an effluent with a composition containing nitrite to ammonia molar ratios higher than the stochiometric one. However, they reported that the capacity of ammonia oxidation decreased by higher concentration of organic matter, which lead to lower system efficiency at 1000mg TOC/L of organic matter. The 15  phenomena of the decrease of the ammonia-oxidation capacity was explained by the presence of the crowded cells of heterotrophs, which consumed transported oxygen from liquid bulk to the Anammox reactor and hindered their activities. According to Hanaki et al. (1990) ammonium oxidation efficiency dropped at higher COD concentration for the same SRT but once the COD concentration was controlled at constant levels in the feed, efficiency was returned by increasing the SRT.  16  2. Materials and methods 2.1 Feed Dewatering sludge liquor (centrate) from Lulu Island WWTP in Richmond, B.C., Canada was used for feeding the combined partial nitrification/Anammox process. The anaerobic digester at Lulu digests the combination of primary sludge and waste activated sludge at 38 °C and operates at retention time of approximately 32 days. Centrate contained ammonia ranged from 900~1,000 mg N/L, total organic carbon (TOC) of 150 mg/L and ortho-phosphate of 70 mg P/L. The alkalinity and pH of centrate were 2500 mg/L (as CaCO3) and 7.8 respectively.  2.2 Apparatuses The Partial Nitrification (PN) continuous moving bed reactor: 8-liter plastic cylinder (25 cm I.D. & 17 cm height) filled 2.9 liters of plastic and non-woven fabric moving bed carriers as shown in Figure 3. (See Chapter 3)  DO controller: Dissolved oxygen was controlled by a DO controller fabricated at UBC machine shop, as indicated in Figure 4.  17  Figure 3. Partial nitrification reactor on the right side, Anammox reactor on the left side  Figure 4. Dissolved oxygen controller  18  The partial nitrification (PN) reactor in the sequencing batch reactor: a 5-liter cylindrical (10 cm I.D. & 60 cm height) (SBR) with the volumetric exchange ratio of 50 %as it shown in Figure 5 (See Chapter 3).  Figure 5. Sequencing batch reactor  The Anammox process in continuous moving bed biofilm reactor: 11-liter plastic cylinder (25 cm I.D. & 30 height) filled with 4 liters of plastic moving bed carriers (Kaldnes K1) as illustrated in Figure 6 (See Chapter 2).  The Anammox process in Hybrid reactor followed by a clarifier: 11-liter plastic cylinder (25 cm I.D. & 30 height) filled with 4 liters of plastic moving bed carriers (Kaldnes K1) as illustrated in Figure 6 (See Chapter 3).  The Anammox process in up flow fixed bed biofilm reactor: 3.5-liter plastic cylinder fixed bed reactor (5 cm I.D. & 40cm height) filled with 1.5 liters of non-woven fabric Media as indicated in Figure 6 (See Chapter 3).  19  Figure 6. On the right side the Anammox process in a hybrid reactor, on the left side the Anammox process in an up-flow fixed-bed biofilm reactor  PH, Temperature and ORP Monitor: pH, temperature and ORP had been monitored by Oakton pH11 pH/mV/°C meter as it shown in Figure 7.  Figure 7.pH, Temperature and ORP monitor  Long standing Aquarium Heater: In continuous moving biofilm reactors (Anammox and Partial Nitrification) and fixed bed Anammox reactor heater used to keep temperature at 30 to 35 ºC as shown in Figure 8.  20  Figure 8. Aquarium heater  2.3 Sample analysis Following the reactor treatment samples were preserved 2-3 times a week for the following analyses. For all initial untreated samples and treated samples after feeding to reactors, a portion of the total fraction was used for Biochemical Oxygen Demand  (BOD5), Total Chemical  Oxygen demand(TCOD) , Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), Ammonium (NH4-N), Nitrite (NO2N), Nitrate (NO3-N), TSS. Second portions of the samples were centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 10 mins in a Thermo IEC CL30 rotor and the supernatant filtered using 4.5 µm fiberglass filter to separate the liquid from the solid. The filtrate was analyzed for soluble organic carbon (SOC). The remaining samples were diluted 5 times for alkalinity analysis.  All analyses were conducted at the Environmental Engineering Laboratory of the Department of Civil Engineering, UBC using flow injection analysis (Lachat QuikChem 8000 Automated Ion Analyzer). The TS content was determined after a 24-h drying period at 105◦C. COD was determined colorimetrically, using a Hach DR/2000 direct reading spectrophotometer at 600nm.  21  NH3/NH4-N, NO2-N and NO3-N were determined by flow  injection analysis of  spectrophotometry (Quikchem 8000, Lachat). Total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) were measured by a TOC/TN analyzer (IL TOC-TN, Lachat). Alkalinity and TSS were determined according to Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater (Clescerl et al., 2005, Section 2540).  N2O off-gas from partial nitrification reactor was monitored by an infrared N2O Monitor (Bacharach, N2O monitor 3010). GC ECD was used for detecting N2O emission from the Anammox reactor. N2 gas was the stripping gas for the reactor. Nitric oxide was measured by a NO analyzer (NOA, Sievers 280i, GE), which applied the technology of ozonechemiluminescence. Samples were taken by plastic gas-tight syringe from the head space of the reactors, for detection.  22  3. Partial nitrification followed by Anammox in continuous moving-bed biofilm reactors (MBBR) 3.1 Summary This chapter provides partial analytical data to understand whatwas necessary to have stable partial nitrification and Anammox reactions. The process was used to remove ammonia from centrate obtained from a full scale wastewater treatment plant. The partial nitrification was carried out in a continuous, moving-bed, biofilm reactor. The partial nitrification reactor successfully converted approximately 31.7% of ammonia to nitrite. The reasons for the low conversion of ammonium to nitrite were lack of alkalinity in the centrate, low nitrifiers growth rate, and low sludge retention time. Partially nitrified centrate was further fed to a continuous moving bed biofilm Anammox reactor, where the mixture of ammonia and nitrite was converted mainly to nitrogen gas. Subsequent Anammox treatment, after the partial nitrification, resulted in 38.8% additional ammonium removal and nitrite removal of 83.1%. As a result, total ammonia removal in the combined system reached to 79.1% and total nitrogen removal was 56.8 %. The study illustrated alkalinity was found neither controlling nor limiting factor in Anammox reaction.  3.2 Introduction Reject water has a high concentration of ammonium. The level of organic carbon in this type of the wastewater is low; therefore, rejected water is only slightly treated by biodegradation. (Zhang,Li et al., 2010)  Partial nitrification/ Anammox process has been considered as an alternative nitrogen removal to conventional nitrification/denitrification in which the reaction does not require addition of H doner such as methanol(Zhang,Li et al., 2010; Fujii et al., 2002; Fux et al., 2002; Schmidt et al. 2003; van Dongen et al., 2001). As a result, the combination of Partial Nitrification and the Anammox process provides a promising method for nitrogen removal from wastewater with low carbon to nitrogen ratio, and a large quantity of ammonium ( Loosdrecht et al., 1998).  23  Stable PN in one aerobic reactor can be combined with anaerobic ammonium oxidation in another tank, to ensure total nitrogen removal through an autotrophic process 1) As a pretreatment to the Anammox process, about 50% of the influent ammonium can be oxidized to nitrite through the PN process, reducing the amount of oxygen required by almost half 2)Additionally, because Anammox bacteria are autotrophic bacteria, the deammonification process may happen in two steps: the aerobic partial nitrification process and the Anammox process (Gut, L et al. 2006).  To maintain a stable partial nitrification, it is necessary to enrich the ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and limit, inhibit and wash out the nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) (Blackburne et al., 2008a; Peng and Zhu, 2006). Several operational parameters such as dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, temperature, sludge retention time (SRT), substrate concentration, aeration duration and inhibitors have been proven to ban or washout NOB (Aslan et al., 2009; Peng and Zhu, 2006; Yuan et al., 2008).  Current microbiological techniques are not designed to deal with slow growing nitrifiers and Anammox bacteria; however, utilizing biofilm to prevent bacteria washing out from the systems is one the best methods recently introduced.  3.2.1 Objective of this stage of research In this stage of the research, the Partial Nitrification (PN) and Anammox process in moving bed biofilm reactors were studied. The most important goal of this part of research was to understand the metabolic capacities of nitrifiers and Anammox bacteria. The effect of the following parameters on the performance of PN and Anammox were investigated:    Dissolved Oxygen in the PN reactor    Alkalinity in the PN and Anammox reactors    Nitrite to Ammonium ration in the Anammox reactor  24  3.3 Materials and methods 3.3.1 Feed Dewatering sludge liquor (centrate) from Lulu Island WWTP in Richmond, B.C., Canada was used for feeding the combined partial nitrification/Anammox process. The anaerobic digester at Lulu digests the combination of primary sludge and waste activated sludge at 38 °C and operates at retention time of approximately 32 days. Centrate contained ammonia ranged from 900~1,000 mg N/L, total organic carbon (TOC) of 150 mg/L and ortho-phosphate of 70 mg P/L. The alkalinity and pH of centrate were 2500 mg/L (as CaCO3) and 7.8, respectively. Alum was added to centrate for the purpose of sludge precipitation before it was feed to the Partial Nitrification reactor. The effluent from PN (MBBR) was pumped to the Anammox reactor.  3.3.2 Experiment design Figure 9 illustrates the process schematic of the two stage, partial nitrification followed by Anammox, in continuous moving bed biofilm reactors. The partial nitrification (PN) reactor was composed of an 8-liter plastic cylinder (25 cm I.D. & 17 cm height) filled with 2.9 liters of plastic and non-woven fabric moving bed carriers as shown in Figure 3. The Anammox reactor was made of 11-liter plastic cylinder (25 cm I.D. & 30 height) filled with 4 liters of plastic moving bed carriers (Kaldnes K1). The centrate was first partially nitrified in the PN, and the effluent was fed to the Anammox reactor.  In the partial nitrification (MBBR) system aeration was provided by a fine diffuser and mixing by an electrical mechanical stirrer. A dissolved oxygen (DO) was controlled by DO controller to keep oxygen level between 1 to 2 mg/L. The temperature was maintained at 30°C to 35 °C. Nitrifiers sludge seed was obtained from enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) Pilot plant located at the University of British Columbia, BC, Canada.  The Anammox reactor contained suspended solids in the liquid and also biomass on the biofilm. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) was changed according to the Anammox performance to  25  prevent nitrite toxicity in the reactor. Temperature was maintained at 30 °C to 35 °C. The sludge seed was originally obtained from the University of Winnipeg’s laboratory and enriched in the reactor at environmental lab at UBC.  Figure 9. Schematic of bench scale partial nitrification /Anammox in continuous moving bed biofilm reactors  During 8 months period of experiment, the concentration of ammonium in the partial nitrification influent was increased gradually. In fact, the centrate had been diluted before it was fed to the PN reactor. The concentration of ammonium, nitrite, nitrate and alkalinity in the influent and effluent of the PN reactor had been measured for at least 2 times a week. pH, Temperature, DO and ORP had been monitored daily (See Appendix 1).  The effluent of the PN reactor was pumped to Anammox reactor after it partially treated in the PN.  The flow rate to the Anammox had been monitored and adjusted according to the  performance of the Anammox bacteria. The level of nitrite in the Anammox reactor was measured and monitored almost every day to prevent nitrite toxicity in the Anammox reactor. Samples for ammonium, nitrite, nitrate and alkalinity in the influent and effluent of the  26  Anammox reactor had been taken for at least 2 times a week. PH, Temperature, and ORP had been monitored daily (See Appendix 1). Once the Nitrifiers and Anammox bacteria’s performance reached steady state, the effect of Alkalinity on both PN and Anammox reaction and pH on the Anammox process were studied. Furthermore, the effect of nitrite to ammonium ratio in PN effluent on the Anammox reactor was investigated. To control the pH at desired levels, sulphuric acidwas used.  3.3.3 Chemical analysis NH3/NH4+, NO2- and NO3- were determined by flow injection analysis of spectrophotometry (Quikchem 8000, Lachat). Total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) were measured by a TOC/TN analyzer (IL TOC-TN, Lachat). Alkalinity, MLSS and TS were determined according to Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater (Clescerl et al., 2005, Section 2540).  For the purpose of daily monitoring of nitrite, nitrate and ammonium to prevent nitrite toxicity in the Anammox reactor quick test kits were utilized, as shown in Figure 10.  Figure 10. Ammonium, nitrate and nitrite test kits (UBC Environmental Lab)  27  3.4 Results and discussion As mentioned before, understanding the metabolic capacities of the nitrifiers and Anammox bacteria, to find design criteria and tune the operational conditions was the main purpose of this stage of research. This stage was the beginning of the understanding of what is necessary to design a stable, Anammox reactor system.  3.4.1 Performance of the partial nitrification in the continuous moving bed biofilm reactor The PN reactor converted more than 31% of ammonia in the centrate to nitrite. The effluent of PN reactor, shown in Figure 11, contained 59.7% ammonium, 31.7 % nitrite and 8.5 % nitrate and gaseous products such as nitrous oxide and nitrogen, as initial nitrogen load. The Ratio of Nitrite to Ammonium in the PN effluent was equal to 0.53.  8.5% Ammonium Concentration% 31.7% 59.7%  Nitrite Concentration% Nitrate,Nitrous Oxide, Nitric Oxide & Nitrogen Gas Emission  Figure 11. Ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, nitric oxide and nitrogen gas in the PN reactor  28  3.4.1.1The effect of dissolved oxygen on the performance of the partial nitrification reactor Achieving higher pollutant removal, with less energy consumption, has always been considered by wastewater treatment plant designers.  There are various biological technologies and  processes which have been developed for nitrogen removal from wastewater. Meanwhile, partial nitrification has been considered as one of the most cost effective and sustainable pre-treatment for the Anammox process. Compared with conventional nitrification/ denitrification, partial nitrification combined with Anammox process not only consumes 25% less oxygen in aeration step, but also decreases 40% of the carbon source cost in denitrification step (Turk and Mavinic, 1987; Turk and Mavinic, 1989).  DO concentration and aeration duration are feasible control parameters (See Chapter 3) to have stable and more cost effective partial nitrification. As a result, in this stage of research, a DO controller (Figures 7) had been designed by electricians at UBC to control the level of DO less than 2 mg/L. DO concentration is also one of the important parameters which can inhibit and wash out NOB microorganism in the PN. In the PN reactor DO less than 2 mg/L perfectly controlled the growth of NOB since the production of nitrite was limited to less than 9 % of total ammonium load (Figure 11).  Theoretically, the reaction of Anammox requires 1 mole of NH4+ and 1.32 mole of NO2according to Equation 4. The goal of partial nitrification was to convert sufficient ammonium to nitrite to reach nitrite to ammonium ratio of 1.32, favourable for Anammox reaction. However, the partial nitrification was achieved with nitrite to ammonium ratio of 0.53 in this stage of the research. The low conversion of ammonium to nitrite can be explained by different parameters in general such as lack of alkalinity in the centrate, low nitrifiers growth rate, and low sludge retention time. Low nitrifiers growth rate in moving bed biofilm reactor was the reason for the results of PN in this research; this led the researcher to conduct a short term of the experiments to find the best method for the PN. The results of these experiments illustrated that the nitrifying sludge in the reactor is the most efficient and cost effective methods for the PN. Another reason could be the polymeric organic coagulant that remained in the water phase attached to the 29  nitrifiers’ biofilm, causing the decrease innitrifiers activity .Therefore, this preliminary research suggested that suspended solids should be removed physically, without the addition of chemicals. It was also shown in this research that energy savings, by low DO in PN would be technically feasible.  The consumption of alkalinity had been monitored in PN reactor (See Appendix 1), and as expected, alkalinity had been consumed in the PN reactor.  3.4.2 Performance of the Anammox process in the continuous moving bed biofilm reactor During the 8 months of Anammox enrichment, the reactor content gradually turned red. The moving bed reactor enrichment cultures resulted in the growth of Anammox bacteria as biofilm aggregates. As such, nitrogen gas bubbles were observed between biofilms in the reactor, which was an indication of proper Anammox reaction.  Subsequent Anammox treatment, after Partial Nitrification, resulted in 38.8% additional ammonium removal and nitrite removal of 83.1 %. As a result, total ammonia removal in the combined system reached 79.1% and total nitrogen removal was 56.8 %. As mentioned before, the reaction of Anammox requires 1 mole of NH4+ and 1.32 mole of NO2according to Equation 4. Once PN reactor produced the adequate feed for Anammox reaction, the Anammox reactor performed more effectively. (See Appendix 1) Experimental work illustrated that once the Anammox reaction was working properly ,the pH of the reactor had increased. However, perfect pH for the Anammox reaction is 7 to 7.5. As a result, a pH controller which connected to both Anammox reactor and a bottle of .1 N sulphuric acid was designed to maintain the pH between to 7 to 7.5.  30  Alkalinity was monitored through 8 months experiments in the influent and effluent of the Anammox reactor. This showed that the Anammox reaction consumed a very little amount of alkalinity which matches perfectly with the Anammox reaction formula (Equation 4).  This stage of the research provided the beginning of our understanding of what is necessary to have stable partial nitrification, in order to achieve perfect Anammox reaction.  31  4. Partial nitrification in sequencing batch reactor followed by Anammox 4.1 Summary This chapter presents the operational strategy for nitrogen removal in a two-stage, partial nitrification coupled with anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process. The process was used to remove ammonia from centrate obtained from a full scale, wastewater treatment plant. The partial nitrification was carried out in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) .The partial nitrification reactor successfully converted approximately 49.5±1.0% of ammonia to nitrite. Alkalinity was investigated as a limiting factor to convert more ammonia to nitrite in partial nitrification. Moreover, under higher dissolved oxygen required cycle time for partial nitrification reaction reduces for centrate treatment. In fact, for the same volume shorter time was needed for partial nitrification process once the SBR was operated under higher dissolved oxygen. Partially nitrified centrate was further treated in two Anammox reactors, where the mixture of ammonia and nitrite was converted mainly to nitrogen gas. Anammox treatment was carried out in two different Anammox reactors: a moving bed Hybrid reactor and Up Flow Fixed-Bed biofilm reactor. The Hybrid Anammox reactor removed an average of 55.8% of NH4N, versus 48.3% NH4-N removal in the Up Flow Fixed-Bed reactor. Nitrite removal in the Hybrid and Fixed-Bed Anammox reactors averaged 80.8% and 62.5%, respectively. The study illustrated that, in both Anammox reactors, the best Ammonia removal happens in Nitrite to Ammonium ratio between 1.35 and 1.45. As such, alkalinity was found to neither control nor limit the Anammox reaction.  4.2 Introduction New technologies have been developed to deal with high nitrogen loads; most of the enhanced technologies are based on the Anammox process. The First step of the process is producing adequate influent for the Anammox reaction. Theoretically, a favourable ratio of nitrite to ammonium for the Anammox process is 1: 1. 32; therefore, ammonium has to be partially oxidized to nitrite in the first step. An economic proven way for treatment of nitrogen rich effluent is partial nitrification which reduces the dissolved oxygen and external organic carbon requirements, compared to the conventional nitrification / denitrification process (Pambrun et al  32  2006). To maintain a long-term stable partial nitrification, nitrite accumulation is one of the most serious issues.  The common method for the partial nitritation is the SHARON process which is based on a chemostat operating at a high temperature (35 ◦C) without biomass retention (Ganigue et al., 2007). In SHARON, by controlling sludge retention time and hydraulic retention time at equal values, to 1.5 days, nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) are washed out of the system to prohibit nitrate production (Ganigu et al., 2007). Nonetheless, sequencing batch reactors or biofilm airlift reactors can be an alternative technology, where nitrite oxidizing bacteria are out competed from the process by limitation of dissolved oxygen or inhibition by free ammonia and/or free nitrous acid. (Garrido et al., 1997; Ruiz et al., 2003; Ganigue et al., 2007). According to Ganigue´ et al (2007) sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is shown a feasible technology to achieve adequate influent for the Anammox reactor, since SBR technology is more flexible and controllable. In addition, sludge retention time (SRT) ranging from 3 to 10 days may enhanced process performance and make the system more resistant to possible loading shocks.(Ganigue et al., 2007).  There are different strategies to operate sequencing batch reactors: 1) Short feeding event at the beginning of the cycle, which is one of the simplest cycle designs and it is efficient for low to medium nitrogen loads treatments (Galí et al,. 2007; Pambrun et al.,2006).2) Step-feed strategy, based on different feeding event which is suitable in systems which have various reaction phases or once dealing with higher nitrogen concentration in the batch reactor( Fux et al., 2003) . 3) Fed-batch strategy, where the influent is supplied through the entire cycle used in full-scale SBR plants treating high nitrogen loads (Fux, C. 2006). However, an efficient cycle definition depends on three important parameters, first, wastewater characteristics, second, the goal of the process and third, the technical requirements/ limitations.  One of the main goals of this step of the research was evaluating SBR process with short feeding event at the beginning of the cycle for partial nitrification, treating high-ammonium content centrate from the Lulu Island waste treatment plant.  33  A second step to complete nitrogen removal is the Anammox process. Anammox has many advantages, such as minimal green house gases production, saving energy and high efficiency compared with the conventional biological nitrogen removal; however, slow growth rate of the Anammox bacteria is a challenging issue to be solved. The application of Anammox bacteria in bioreactor requires strictly controlled environments, nitrite to ammonia ratio and reactor configuration (Zhang, L et al., 2010). In order to address the issue of long doubling time, approximately 11 day (Strous et al., 1998), a long cultivation to generate a sufficient amount of Anammox sludge is required. Therefore, many researchers have started to define suitable design criteria for the Anammox sludge.  The use of biomass carrier for the attachment of slow growing Anammox sludge, to prevent the bacteria being washed out from the system,seems a promising option to many researchers. The feasibility of non woven fabric carrier and plastic biofilm to cultivate Anammox sludge was investigated, using up-flow fixed-bed and hybrid reactors.  4.2.1 Objective of this study In this study, the Partial Nitrification (PN) was carried out in the Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) which followed by the Anammox process in two Hybrid and Up Flow Fixed-Bed reactors. The following objectives are summarized:    Evaluate SBR process with short feeding event at the beginning of the cycle for Partial Nitrification    Study the feasibility of the Anammox application in the Hybrid and Up Flow Fixed Bed reactor  The effect of following parameters on the Partial Nitrification and Anammox reactors were investigated:    The Level of dissolved oxygen concentration in the PN reactor    pH and Alkalinity in the PN reactor    Feeding Pattern in the PN process    The ratio of Nitrite to Ammonium on the Anammox process 34    Alkalinity in the Anammox reactors  4.3 Materials and methods 4.3.1 Feed Dewatering sludge liquor (centrate) from Lulu Island WWTP in Richmond, B.C., Canada was used for feeding the combined partial nitrification/Anammox process. The anaerobic digester at Lulu digests the combination of primary sludge and waste activated sludge at 38 °C and operates at a retention time of approximately 32 days. Centrate contained ammonia ranged from 900~1,000 mg N/L, total organic carbon (TOC) of 150 mg/L and ortho-phosphate of 70 mg P/L. The alkalinity and pH of centrate were 2500 mg/L (as CaCO3) and 7.8, respectively. Alum was added to the centrate for the purpose of sludge precipitation, before it was feed to the Partial Nitrification reactor. The effluent from PN (SBR) was diluted and pumped the Anammox reactors.  4.3.2 Experimental design Figure 12 illustrates the process schematic of two stage partial nitrification in the SBR followed by Anammox in two reactors: 1) Hybrid reactor, 2) Up-Flow Fixed Bed reactor. The partial nitrification (PN) reactor was composed of a 5-liter cylindrical (10 cm I.D. & 60 cm height) sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with the volumetric exchange ratio of 50 % (Figure 5). The hybrid Anammox reactor was made of 11-liter plastic cylinder (25 cm I.D. & 30 height) filled with 4 liters of plastic moving bed carriers (Kaldnes K1). The Up-Flow Fixed-Bed Anammox reactor was composed of 3.5-liter plastic cylinder fixed bed reactor (5 cm I.D. & 40cm height) filled with 1.5 liters of non-woven fabric media, as indicated in Figure 6. The centrate was first partially nitrified in the PN, and the effluent was transferred to a transfer tank and then diluted and fed to the Anammox reactor.  In the SBR, aeration was provided by a fine air diffuser, and mixing of the liquor was by an electrical/mechanical stirrer. A laptop computer loaded with LabView software was used to  35  control and monitor the system. The SBR was operated at a cycle of 8 hr: 10 min of feeding, 7 hr and 10 min aeration, 30 min settling and 10 min decant. The dissolved oxygen (DO) and temperature were maintained at 2 mg/L and 20±2 °C, respectively. The sludge retention time (SRT) was kept at 10 days, to maintain mixed-liquor suspended solids (MLSS) at a concentration of 1,650 mg/L. Sludge seed was obtained from the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) pilot plant, located at the University of British Columbia (UBC), BC, and Canada.  The hybrid Anammox reactor contained 1,300 mg/L solids, accounting for suspended solids in the liquid and also biomass on the biofilm. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) and temperature were maintained at 26 hr and 30±2 °C, respectively. A settler removed the bio-solids from the effluent and returned almost all of them to the Anammox reactor. The sludge seed was originally obtained from the University of Winnipeg and enriched in the reactor for more than 6months before the experiment.  The up-flow fix-bed reactor contained Anammox sludge which was cultivated on the fabric biofilm in previous stage. The average of HRT was equal to 7.78 in the up flow fixed bed reactor, which gradually was decreased according to the Anammox reaction.  During the experiments, samples were taken 3 times a week, each time twice in the morning and afternoon, from reactors in order to determine NH3/NH4+, NO2- and NO3- , TOC, TKN, MLVSS and alkalinity.  36  Figure 12. Schematic of bench scale partial nitrification in sequencing batch reactor followed by Anammox in two reactors  In the PN reactor, Nitrite to Ammonia ratio base line was determined at initial pH=7.8, DO 1.5~2.5 mg/L and 20°C. Once the base line was determined, the impact of controlled operating parameters including DO (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 mg/L), pH (6, 6.6, 7.2, and 7.8) and feeding regime on the PN performance were investigated. Hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide were used to control the pH at desired levels.  To study the effect of feeding pattern on ammonium oxidation rate in the PN reactor, four experiments were conducted. The total feed volume in each cycle of partial nitrification reactor was 2.5 liters. In the first experiment 100 % of total feed volume (2.5 L) was pumped into the reactor in 10 min; whereas, in the second one 60% of total feed volume was pumped into the reactor in 6 minutes and the remaining 40% was pumped slowly in 40 minutes. Regarding the third experiment, 30% of the total feed volume was loaded at 3 minutes and the rest of the 37  operating capacity introduced to the reactor in 70 minutes. In the last experiment, 100% of the feed was pumped to the partial nitrification reactor slowly and evenly at a rate of 25 ml/min within one hour.  The effluent of the PN reactor was pumped to the Anammox reactor while it had been partially treated.  The flow rate to the Anammox had been monitored and adjusted according to  performance of the Anammox bacteria. The level of nitrite in the Anammox reactor was measured and monitored every day to prevent nitrite toxicity in the Anammox reactors. Samples for ammonium, nitrite, nitrate and alkalinity in the influent and effluent of the Anammox reactor had been taken at least 2 times a week. pH, Temperature, and ORP had been monitored daily (See Appendix 3).  For the Anammox reactors the concentration of ammonium plus nitrite was controlled at 100mg/L of N. Nitrite to ammonia ratio less than1 in the influent was considered as a base line. After that, parameters including nitrite to ammonia ratio (1-1.25, 1.25-1.35, 1.35-1.45 and more than 1.45) and external Alkalinity were studied, where NaHCO3 and NaNO2 was added to the Anammox feed to control Nitrite to ammonium ratio and alkalinity at desired levels in the Anammox reactors.  4.3.3 Chemical analysis NH3/NH4+, NO2- and NO3- were determined by flow injection analysis of spectrophotometry (Quikchem 8000, Lachat). Total organic carbon (TOC), total soluble organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) were measured by a TOC/TN analyzer (IL TOC-TN, Lachat). Alkalinity, MLSS and TS were determined according to Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater (Clescerl et al., 2005, Section 2540). For the purpose of daily monitoring of nitrite, nitrate and ammonium to prevent nitrite toxicity in the Anammox reactors quick test kits were utilized, as shown in Figure 10.  38  4.4 Results and discussion 4.4.1 Performance of the partial nitrification/Anammox process The Partial Nitrification reactor (SBR) successfully converted more than 45% of the ammonia in the centrate to nitrite, after partial nitrification (PN). The effluent of PN reactor contained 45.1% ammonium, 45.1% nitrite and 1.9% nitrate as initial nitrogen load.  The Hybrid Anammox reactor removed an average of 55.8% of NH4-N versus 48.3% NH4-N removal in the fixed bed reactor. Nitrite removal in the hybrid and fixed bed Anammox reactor averaged 80.8% and 62.5%, respectively.  4.4.2 Partial nitrification in the sequencing batch reactor According to Anammox reaction equation (Equation 4), the reaction of Anammox requires 1 mole of NH4+ and 1.32 mole of NO2-. The main objective of partial nitrification was to produce stable effluent with the appropriate nitrite to ammonium ratio for the Anammox step. However, lack of alkalinity in centrate prevented partial nitrification to reach this ideal ratio.Ammonium oxidation rate (AOR) slowed down over the time due to alkalinity limitation and the system hardly achieved the ideal point (Figure 13). As a result, In the SBR reactor, the nitrite to ammonia ratio equal to 1 was used a base point for comparing nitrogen conversion rates at different operation conditions. To determine the base point, pH was monitored in the process. Under base line condition, pH=7.8, DO=1.5~2.5 mg/L and 20°C ,after approximately 300 min of aeration, ammonia to nitrite ratio reached 1. Figure 13 indicates the typical time profile of nitrogen species in the partial nitrification reactor under baseline conditions. In Figure 14, pH changes are shown over an 8 hour life cycle in the PN.  Ammonia nitrogen in the centrate was mainly converted nitrite so that the effluent of PN reactor contained 47.3% nitrite and 1.4%% nitrate, as it is shown in Figure 13. Figure 14 indicates the pH profile during the PN reactor cycle. When the pH decreased to 5.8, nitrite concentration levelled off and ammonium to nitrite ratio reached 1. From this point forward, NH4-N barely converted to NO2-N under base line conditions. 39  Figure 13.Nitrogen species in the partial nitrification reactor over an 8-hour Cycle under base line conditions  40  Figure 14. pH measurement in the partial nitrification reactor over an 8 hour cycle under base line conditions  4.4.2.1 Partial nitrification under dissolved oxygen- DO controlled condition The SBR was operated under controlled dissolved oxygen between 0.5 to 4 mg/L, to investigate the effect of DO concentration on Ammonium Oxidation Rate (AOR). Figure 15 indicates the nitrogen species in partial nitrification reactor under DO equal to 0.3-0.5 mg/L. As it can be seen clearly, under low DO condition, after 450 min, the SBR reached an ideal base point of nitrite to ammonium ratio equal to 1. However, Figure 16 shows that once SBR was operated under DO=3-4 mg/L conditions, the base point were achieved at 160 min.  41  Figure 15. Nitrogen species in the partial nitrification reactor over an 8-hour cycle, level of dissolved oxygen controlled between 0.3 and 0.7 mg/L  42  Figure 16. Nitrogen species in the partial nitrification reactor over an 8-hour cycle, level of dissolved oxygen controlled between 3.5 and 4.5 mg/L  Higher DO resulted in higher average Ammonium Oxidation Rate (AOR). AOR was measured as 36.6 NH4+-N/hr/g biomass at DO of 4 mg/L, decreasing to AOR of 17.1 NH4+-N/hr/g biomass at DO of 0.5 mg/L. As a result, higher DO in SBR reactor reduces the required cycle time of partial nitrification used for centrate treatment. Nevertheless, operating the PN reactor at a higher dissolved oxygen may raise the concern of nitrate production by Nitrite Oxidizing Bacteria (NOB), thus decreasing the efficiency of a subsequent Anammox treatment. Ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) have been shown to have a higher affinity for oxygen than nitrite oxidation bacteria (NOB); therefore, high DO condition may promote the growth of both AOB and NOB (Schmidt and Bock, 1997; Jayamohan et al., 1988). It is generally accepted that for low ammonia wastewaters, a relatively low DO (<1 mg/L) has to be maintained to attain successful partial nitrification (Zeng et al., 2003; Wyffels et al., 2004). However, for treatment 43  of high ammonia wastewaters, (such as centrate), the growth of Nitrite Oxidizing Bacteria (NOB) at high DO is not a concern. As an example, the full scale partial nitrification at Dokhaven-Sluisjesdijk WWTP was operated at a DO level of 3 mg/L and nitrite was hardly converted to nitrate in long term treatment (Kampschreur et al., 2008). Bernet’s et al. (2005) reported free ammonia as the main factor inhibiting the growth of NOB even at higher DO values. High concentration of nitrite (higher than 200 mg/L) has also been considered toxic to organisms including NOB (Meinhold et al., 1999; Wyffels et al., 2004).  4.4.2.2 Partial nitrification under pH-controlled conditions In the partial nitrification reactor, Ammonium oxidation rates showed sensitivity to the pH level. As it is shown in Figure 17, once SBR operated under controlled pH at 7.2 after approximately 200 min, the reaction reached base point of nitrite to ammonium equal to 1; whereas, neither in a pH controlled at 6.6 nor 6, was the base point achieved (Figure 18, 19). Specific Ammonium oxidation rate (AOR) slowed down from 26.4 NH4+-N/hr/g biomass at pH 7.2 to 10.1 NH4+-N/hr/g biomass at pH 6. Alkalinity destruction, due to acid addition, for low level pH control experiments probably led to limited nitrification.  44  Figure 17. Nitrogen species in the partial nitrification reactor over an 8-hour cycle; pH controlled at 7.2 by additional sodium hydroxide  45  Figure 18. Nitrogen species in the partial nitrification reactor over an 8-hour cycle; pH controlled at 6.6 by additional hydrochloric acid  46  Figure 19. Nitrogen species in the partial nitrification reactor over an 8-hour cycle; pH controlled at 6 by additional hydrochloric acid  4.4.2.3 Partial nitrification under continuous feeding conditions Figure 20 indicates that the PN reactor reached the base point after approximately 240 minutes of aeration, while centrate was pumped to the reactor evenly and slowly at the rate of 25 ml/min in 100 minutes. On the other hand, once the PN was fed at the rate of 250 ml/min in 10 minutes, the nitrite to ammonium ratio in the reactor was equal to 1 after 350 minutes (Figure 23). Figure 21 and 22 confirmed the point that the ammonium oxidation rate increased when feed was pumped into the reactor slowly and evenly.  47  Figure 20. Nitrogen species in the partial nitrification reactor over an 8-hour cycle; the SBR was fed slowly at the rate of 25 ml/min in 100 minutes  48  Figure 21. Nitrogen species in the partial nitrification reactor over an 8-hour cycle; the SBR was fed fast at the rate of 250 ml/min for 3 minutes, then centrate was pumped slowly at the rate of 25 ml/min for 70 minutes  49  Figure 22. Nitrogen species in the partial nitrification reactor over an 8-hour cycle; the SBR was fed fast at the rate of 250 ml/min for 6 minutes, then centrate was pumped slowly at the rate of 25 ml/min for 40 minutes (how come nitrate and nitrate and nitrite are fluctuating )  50  Figure 23. Nitrogen species in the partial nitrification reactor over an 8-hour cycle; the SBR was fed fast at the rate of 250 ml/min for 10 minutes  When continuous slow feeding was applied to the PN reactor, the biomass was exposed to reduced ammonium concentration and alkalinity was provided more evenly for the reaction; whereas, pH levels were hardly changed during each cycle. Distribution of alkalinity druing the experiment resulted in higher AOR, which is suggested by researchers as a practical operation strategy to reduce the partial nitrification cycle.  51  4.4.3 Anammox in hybrid reactor and up-flow fixed-bed reactor In the Anammox process, ammonium is used as electron donor for denitrification and nitrite could also serve as a suitable electron acceptor. As a result, nitrite to ammonia ratio in the influent plays an important role in the Anammox reaction. However, the slow growth rate of Anammox bacteria is another fundamental parameter in nitrogen species removal from the centrate. To compare results of both reactors, nitrite to ammonia ratio equal to 1(R=1) in the Anammox influent was considered as a base line. According to Equation 4 (Chapter 1) Anammox reaction needs 0.066 mole of HCO3- for each mole NH4+ to be converted to N2. Therefore, alkalinity remaining in the PN effluent is enough for the Anammox reaction. Under base line conditions, R=1, T=30°C, HRT= 26 hours, in the Hybrid Anammox reactor, average of ammonium and nitrite removal was 55.8% and 80.8%, respectively. In the up-flow fixed-bed Anammox reactor with HRT= 7.78, average of 65.2% of NO2-N removal was achieved versus 48.26% NH4-N removal.  Experiments were conducted at controlled nitrite to ammonium ratios, to investigate the most suitable ratio for the Anammox reaction. As it shown in Figure 24, the best ratio for ammonium removal in the hybrid reactor is between 1.35 and 1.45; however, for the up-flow fixed-bed reactor, R between 1.25 and 1.35 had the best average ammonium removal (Figure 27).  The best average of total nitrogen removal in the hybrid Anammox reactor was achieved once R was controlled in the range of 1 to 1.25 (Figure 26) ;whereas, up-flow fixed-bed reactor showed the same result as ammonium removal in which R was maintained between 1.25 and 1.35 (Figure 29).  52  Figure 25 and 28; indicate average of nitrite removal in the hybrid Anammox and up-flow fixedbed Anammox reactors in 5 different nitrite to ammonium ratios. Nitrite removal in the up-flow fixed bed reactor showed that the best ratio was again, 1.25 to 1.35.  Druing the experiments, the up-flow fixed-bed reactor showed more stability than the hybrid reactor despite, lower hydraulic retention times compared with the hybrid reactor.  Figure 24. Average of ammonium removals in the hybrid Anammox reactor in 5 different nitrite to ammonium ratios  53  Figure 25. Average of nitrite removals in the hybrid Anammox reactor in 5 different nitrite to ammonium ratios  54  Figure 26. Average of total nitrogen removals in the hybrid Anammox reactor in 5 different nitrite to ammonium ratios  55  Figure 27. Average of ammonium removals in the up-flow fixed-bed Anammox reactor in 5 different nitrite to ammonium ratios  56  Figure 28. Average of nitrite Removals in the up-flow fixed-bed Anammox reactor in 5 different nitrite to ammonium ratios  57  Figure 29. Average of total nitrogen removals in the up-flow fixed-bed Anammox reactor in 5 different nitrite to ammonium ratios  Soluble organic carbon measurements in the influent and effluent of the hybrid and up-flow fixed-bed reactor illustrated no significant concentration difference which is an indicator of no heterotrophic reaction in both reactors.  These experiments also were conducted at controlled alkalinity; however, there was no evidence that showed Anammox reaction depends on alkalinity.  58  5. Greenhouse gases (nitrous oxide and nitric oxide) emission from partial nitrification and Anammox system 5.1 Summary This chapter presents the operational strategy for reducing nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions from a two-stage, partial nitrification coupled with anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process. The process was used to remove ammonia from centrate obtained from a full scale wastewater treatment plant. The partial nitrification was carried out in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), followed by Anammox treatment in a moving bed biofilm reactor. The partial nitrification reactor successfully converted approximately 49.5±1.0% of ammonia to nitrite. Partially nitrified centrate was further treated in an Anammox reactor where the mixture of ammonia and nitrite was converted mainly to nitrogen gas resulting in total nitrogen removal of 53.6%. The emissions from partial nitrification were, 2.6±0.2% N2O and 0.6±0.3% NO as nitrogen load ; Anammox, with 0.15% N2O and 0.0002% NO, showed relatively lower emissions compared to partial nitrification. In the partial nitrification reactor, higher dissolved oxygen (DO) decreased N2O emission by 67% without impacting NO emission. Under pH controlled conditions, lower pH dramatically affected N2O and NO emissions from the PN reactor, where N2O emission at pH=6.6 was 36% higher than pH=7.8. The Feeding regime into the PN reactor did not significantly affect N2O emission; however, it reduced NO emission by approximately 10%.  5.2 Introduction Nitrogen discharge regulations are becoming more stringent in North America and many wastewater treatment plants are striving to reduce their nitrogen discharge to the water bodies. A big contributor of nitrogen load to the main stream of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is the ammonia rich side stream wastewater, usually referred to as centrate, that is generated during dewatering of digested sludge. The centrate contains high concentrations of ammonia as high as 1500 mg/L and accounts for 15-30 % of total nitrogen loaded to the wastewater treatment plants. The common practice for side stream centrate treatment is through conventional-nitrification and denitrification, where denitrification is achieved by the addition of methanol (Zhiquan Yang et al., 2009). Centrate treatment through conventional nitrification and denitrification with 59  methanol is not sustainable, as it is costly and releases high amount of CO2 (Greenhouse gas) to the atmosphere. The new approach for nitrogen management from centrate is through a new process called anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) (Strous et al., 1998). Anammox offers a cost effective solution for centrate treatment, as opposed to conventional nitrification /denitrification, and relies on different type of bacteria to drive the process. Anammox is a short cut to conventional nitrification/denitrification, where mixture of ammonia and nitrite is converted to nitrogen gas, without the need for organic carbon. There are several advantages of using Anammox, as opposed to conventional nitrification/denitrification. 1) The cost of aeration will be much lower for partial nitrification and less sludge will be produced. 2) Denitrification using Anammox is carried out by autotrophic bacteria and does not require organic carbon (methanol) for denitrification. 3) Anammox is more environmentally friendly as the bacteria consume carbon dioxide as carbon source as opposed to conventional denitrification, which releases carbon dioxide (Greenhouse gas) to the atmosphere.  Although nitrogen gas is the theoretical gaseous product of partial nitrification/Anammox (PN/Anammox) process, N2O and NO emissions have been reported in practice from partial nitrification Anammox reactors (Zumft et al., 1993; Zheng et al., 1994; Stuven et al., 2001; Kampschreur et al., 2008). Kampschreur et al. (2008) reported N2O emission of 1.7% and 0.3% as the initial ammonia from a full scale partial nitrification and Anammox reactor, respectively, while NO emissions were 0.2% and 0.003% of ammonium load. Van der Star et al. (2007) reported negligible N2O emission from the Anammox reactor.  5.2.1 Objective of this study Although emissions from PN/Anammox process have been quantified, there is no research that reports the strategies to reduce N2O during the treatment. This is particularly important due to the fact that N2O is one of the greenhouse gases and its global warming potential is approximately 300 times the impact of carbon dioxide (ICCP, 2007). In this study, N2O and NO emissions from a bench scale partial nitrification sequencing batch reactor (SBR), coupled with a biofilm Anammox reactor treating dewatered digested sludge liquor (centrate), were examined. The specific objectives of this study were: 60    Quantify N2O and NO emissions from both partial nitrification and Anammox reactor under various operating conditions    Define a practical operational strategy to reduce N2O and NO emission from partial nitrification and the Anammox process.  5.3 Material and methods 5.3.1 Feed Dewatering sludge liquor (centrate) from Lulu Island WWTP in Richmond, B.C., Canada was used for feeding the combined partial nitrification/Anammox process. The anaerobic digester at Lulu digests the combination of primary sludge and waste activated sludge at 38 °C and operates at a retention time of approximately 32 days. Centrate contained ammonia ranged from 900~1,000 mg N/L, total organic carbon (TOC) of 150 mg/L and ortho-phosphate of 70 mg P/L. The alkalinity and pH of centrate were 2500 mg/L (as CaCO3) and 7.8, respectively. Alum was added to centrate for the purpose of sludge precipitation before it was feed to the Partial Nitrification reactor. The effluent from PN (SBR) was diluted and pumped to the Anammox reactors.  5.3.2 Experiment design Figure 30 shows the process schematic of the two stage partial nitrification-Anammox process. The partial nitrification (PN) reactor was composed of a 5-liters cylindrical (10 cm I.D. & 60 cm height) sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with the volumetric exchange ratio of 50 %. The Anammox reactor was made of 11-liter plastic cylinder (25 cm I.D. & 30 height) filled with 4 liters of plastic moving bed carriers (Kaldness K1). The centrate was first partially nitrified in the SBR, and the effluent was fed to the Anammox reactor. In the SBR, aeration was provided by a fine air diffuser, and mixing of the liquor was by an electrical/mechanical stirrer. A notebook computer loaded with LabView Signal Express software was used for monitoring temperature, pH and controlling dissolved oxygen (DO). LabView Signal Express software is commercially 61  available interactive software for acquiring, analysing and controlling the process signals. The SBR was operated at a cycle of 8 hr: 10 min of feeding, 7 hr and 10 min aeration, 30 min settling and 10 min decant. The dissolved oxygen (DO) and temperature were maintained at 2 mg/L and 20±2 °C, respectively. The sludge retention time (SRT) was kept at 10 days to maintain mixedliquor suspended solids (MLSS) at concentration of 1,650 mg/L. Sludge seed was obtained from the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) pilot plant located at the University of British Columbia (UBC), BC, and Canada.  Figure 30. Schematic of bench scale partial nitrification/Anammox process  The Anammox reactor contained 1,300 mg/L solids, accounting for suspended solids in the liquid and also biomass on the biofilm. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) and temperature were maintained at 26 hr and 30±2 °C, respectively. A settler removed the bio-solids from the effluent and returned all of them to the Anammox reactor. The sludge seed was originally obtained from the University of Winnipeg laboratory and enriched in the reactor for more than 6 months before the experiment. During 10 months operation, samples were taken twice a week from the reactors, in order to determine NH3/NH4+, NO2- and NO3- , TOC, TKN, MLVSS and alkalinity. 62  In the PN reactor, N2O emission base line was determined at initial pH=7.8, DO=1.5~2.5 mg/L and 20°C; whereas in the Anammox reactor pH=7, and temperature of 30±2°C was used to determine baseline emissions. For the Anammox reactor, due to the relatively small amount of N2O and NO emissions, the measurements were only applied to two operating conditions: with additional N2 as a stripping gas, and without additional N2 gas.  Once the base line was determined, the impact of controlled operating parameters including DO (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 mg/L) and pH (6, 6.6, 7.2, and 7.8) on N2O and NO emissions from partial nitrification were investigated. Hydrochloric acid and Sodium hydroxide were used to control the pH at desired levels.  To study the effect of feeding pattern on N2O and NO emissions from PN reactor, four experiments were conducted. The total feed volume in each cycle of partial nitrification reactor was 2.5 liters. In the first experiment 100 % of total feed volume (2.5 L) was pumped into the reactor in 10 min; whereas, in the second one 60% of total feed volume was pumped into the reactor in 6 minutes and the remaining 40% was pumped slowly in 40 minutes. Regarding to third experiment, 30% of the total feed volume was loaded at 3 minutes and the rest of the operating capacity introduced to the reactor in 70 minutes. In the last experiment, 100% of the feed was pumped to the partial nitrification reactor slowly and evenly at a rate of 25 ml/min within one hour.  5.3.3 Chemical analyses NH3/NH4+, NO2- and NO3- were determined by flow injection analysis of spectrophotometry (Quikchem 8000, Lachat). Total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) were measured by a TOC/TN analyzer (IL TOC-TN, Lachat). Alkalinity, MLSS and TS were determined according to Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater (Clescerl et al., 2005, Section 2540). 63  5.3.3.1 N2O and NO analysis N2O off-gas from partial nitrification reactor was monitored by an infrared N2O Monitor (Bacharach, N2O monitor 3010). The off-gas was pumped at a flow rate of 100 mL/min by a rotary pump from the head space of the reactor to the monitoring system. In order to reduce the interference of moisture, off-gas was passed through an ice-chilled flask to condense moisture before entering the N2O analyzer (Lo., 2008). GC ECD was used for detecting N2O emission from the Anammox reactor. N2 gas was the stripping gas for the reactor; a100 µL headspace sample was collected in a gas-tight syringe for GC ECD analysis. The operating conditions for the GC (HP-6890 GC ECD) were: column length of 0 .9144 m, 0.32 mm diameter with coating of 3 um of J&W carbonplate; carrier gas-He, 10psi, 40mL/min; oven temp: 100°C.  Nitric oxide was measured by a NO analyzer (NOA, Sievers 280i, GE), which applied the technology of ozone-chemiluminescence. Samples were taken by a plastic, gas-tight,syringe from the head space of reactors for detection.  5.4 Results and discussion 5.4.1 Performance of the partial nitrification/Anammox process The reactor successfully converted more than 50% of ammonia in the centrate to nitrite after partial nitrification (PN). The effluent of PN reactor contained 45.1±1.0 % ammonium, 45.1±1.0 % nitrite and 1.9±0.3% nitrate as initial nitrogen load. Subsequent Anammox treatment resulted in 35.4% additional ammonium removal, resulting in 84.9% total ammonia removal in the combined system. Total nitrogen removal in the combined partial nitrification/Anammox reached approximately 52.2%. The nitrogen mass balance showed that approximately 15.1% of ammonium, 9.4% of nitrite and 23.3% of nitrate, as total nitrogen load, were carried over to the final effluent. This result is comparable to the full scale partial nitrification/Anammox at Dokhaven-Sluisjesdijk Wastewater Treatment Plant in Netherlands (Kampschreur et al., 2008).  64  5.4.2 N2O and NO emissions  5.4.2.1 Partial nitrification under base line conditions Theoretically, the reaction of Anammox requires 1 mole of NH4+ and 1.32 mole of NO2according to Equation 4. The goal of partial nitrification was to convert sufficient ammonium to nitrite to reach nitrite to ammonium ratio of 1.32, favourable for the Anammox reaction. However, a lack of alkalinity in the centrate prevented partial nitrification to reach this ideal point (Equation 4). Due to alkalinity limitation, ammonium oxidation rate (AOR) slowed down over the time and the system barely achieved the ideal point (Figure 31). Nevertheless, the partial nitrification process was operated without alkalinity adjustment in this study. Instead, pH was monitored in the process to determine such a point.  In the PN reactor, nitrite to ammonia ratio equal to 1 was used a base point for comparing nitrogen conversion rates at various operation conditions. Under the base line condition, after approximately 300 min of aeration, ammonia to nitrite ratio reached 1. Figure 32 to 35 illustrate the typical time profile of nitrogen species, pH, N2O and NO emission under baseline conditions. Ammonia nitrogen in the centrate was mainly converted to nitrite, so that the effluent of PN reactor contained 47.3±0.9% nitrite and 1.4±0.2% nitrate. A nitrogen mass balance in the PN reactor revealed that only 1% of ammonium was converted to nitrogen gas, which might be due to denitrification and/or ammonia being stripped out from the reactor. The remaining nitrogen was emitted from the reactor as N2O (2.5±0.2% of nitrogen load) and NO (0.6±0.3% of nitrogen load). As it is shown by Figure 33 and 34, the concentration of N2O and NO in the reactor, off gas peaked at 180 ppm (as N2O) and 175 ppm (as NO) respectively. N2O concentration seems to have a correlation with the increasing nitrite concentration (Figure 34).  Figure 32 indicates the pH profile during the PN reactor cycle. When the pH decreased to 5.8, the nitrite concentration levelled off and the ammonium to nitrite ratio reached 1. From this point forward, the N2O profile sharply dropped while NO concentration increased rapidly (Figure 34). The decrease in N2O might be due to inhibition of hydroxylamine oxidation under lower pH conditions leading to lower N2O production rate. In The same way, the increase in NO 65  production might be the result of low pH, which inhibited the activity of NO oxidation and caused the accumulation of NO.  Figure 31. Nitrogen species in the partial nitrification reactor under base line conditions  66  Figure 32. pH measurement in the partial nitrification reactor  67  Figure 33.N2O emission from partial nitrification reactor under base line conditions  68  Figure 34.NO emission from partial nitrification reactor under base line conditions  5.4.2.2 Partial nitrification under dissolved oxygen- DO controlled condition The experiments were conducted at controlled dissolved oxygen between, 0.5 to 4 mg/L. Higher DO resulted in a higher average Ammonium Oxidation Rate (AOR). AOR was measured as 36.6 NH4+-N/hr/g biomass at DO of 4 mg/L, decreasing to AOR of 17.1 NH4+-N/hr/g biomass at DO of 0.5 mg/L. In contrast, higher DO caused lower N2O concentration in the PN reactor off-gas; whereas, NO was not affected by DO level. This suggests that the rate of N2O to NO oxidation is faster than hydroxylamine to N2O oxidation, at higher DO. On the other hand, lower DO reduced AOR and restrained N2O conversion to NO, which caused N2O accumulation in the reactor. The result of these experiments, under DO controlled conditions, suggests that higher DO not only has the potential of reducing N2O emission but also increases the ammonium oxidation rate and reduces the required cycle time of partial nitrification used for centrate treatment.  69  Although operating the PN reactor at higher dissolved oxygen may raise the concern of nitrate production by Nitrite Oxidizing Bacteria (NOB), decreasing the efficiency of subsequent Anammox treatment. Ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) have been shown to have a higher affinity for oxygen than nitrite oxidation bacteria (NOB); therefore, high DO condition may promote the growth of both AOB and NOB (Schmidt and Bock, 1997; Jayamohan et al., 1988). It is generally accepted that, for low ammonia wastewaters, a relatively low DO (<1 mg/L) has to be maintained to attain successful partial nitrification (Zeng et al., 2003; Wyffels et al., 2004). However, for treatment of high ammonia wastewaters, such as centrate, the growth of Nitrite Oxidizing Bacteria (NOB) at high DO is not a concern. As an example, the full scale partial nitrification at Dokhaven-Sluisjesdijk WWTP was operated at a DO level of 3 mg/L and nitrite was hardly converted to nitrate in long term treatment (Kampschreur et al., 2008). Bernet’s et al. (2005) reported free ammonia as the main factor inhibiting the growth of NOB even at higher DO values. High concentration of nitrite (higher than 200 mg/L) has also been considered toxic to organisms, including NOB (Meinhold et al., 1999; Wyffels et al., 2004).  5.4.2.3 Partial nitrification under pH-controlled conditions Both N2O and NO emissions in the partial nitrification reactor were sensitive to pH. Specific Ammonium oxygen rate (AOR) decreasedfrom 26.4 NH4+-N/hr/g biomass at pH 7.8 to 10.1 NH4+-N/hr/g biomass, at pH 6. In this experiment, the system could not reach the base point of nitrite to ammonia ratio equal to 1 at low pH (pH=6.6 and 6.0). Alkalinity destruction due to acid addition for low level pH control experiments, led to limited nitrification. Under low pH conditions both, N2O and NO emissions increased. N2O emission increased from 1.4% as nitrogen load at pH 7.8 to more than 3.9% at pH less than 6.6. NO emission was 0.7% as nitrogen load at pH 7.8 and rose sharply to 3.9%, when the pH dropped to 6.0. The increased level of N2O emission at lower pH may be attributed to lower solubility of N2O in solution at lower pH; this resulted in N2O being stripped out of the liquid (Lo et al. 2008).  70  5.4.2.4 Partial nitrification under continuous feeding conditions Results from continuous feeding to the PN reactor illustrate that pumping feed slowly and evenly reduces NO emission. There is no evidence to show the impact of feeding rate on N2O emission (Table 1). During continuous a feeding at the rate of 25ml/min, NO off-gas reduced by 10% compared to NO emissions at feeding rate at 250 ml/min. When continuous slow feeding was applied to the PN reactor, the biomass was exposed to reduced ammonium concentration and alkalinity was provided more evenly for the reaction; whereas, pH levels were hardly changed during each cycle. As this condition resulted in lower NO emission, it can be implied that NO oxidation is relatively sensitive to the concentration of free ammonia, where higher free ammonia results in higher NO emission. Table 1. N2O and NO emissions from partial nitrification in different conditions Conditions  Time to the point* (min)  NO2/NH3  N2O(%)  NO(%)  MLSS(mg/L)  DO (mg/L) 0.5 1 2 4  450 300 280 210  1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00  4.2 1.9 2.0 1.4  1.0 1.0 0.9 1.0  1740 1760 1800 1760  PH 7.8 7.2 6.6 6.0  300 350 420 420  1.00 1.00 0.41** 0.35**  1.4 2.8 3.9 3.4  0.7 1.0 2.4 3.9  1520 1620 1200 1200  Continuous feed (%) 100 70 40 0  240 240 240 280  1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00  2.2 2.2 2.5 2.0  0.1 0.2 0.5 0.9  1800  Base line  297±12  1.00  2.5±0.2  0.6±0.3  1,650±227  1800  *: The elapsed time to reach NO2-/NH4+ = 1. **: The nitrification rates were relatively slow. After 7 hours (420 min) aeration, NO2-/NH4+ were still less than 1.0.  71  5.4.2.5 Anammox Relatively low N2O and NO emissions were detected from the Anammox reactor. N2O and NO emission were monitored under two conditions. In the first series of experiments, the stripped gas was N2 gas, produced by the Anammox reaction; this resulted in N2O emission of 0.15±0.02% as initial ammonia load in the centrate and no detectable amount of NO . This result agrees with the measurements at Dokhaven-Sluisjesdijk WWTP, where 0.21% N2O and 0.0001% NO were emitted from the Anammox reactor (Kampschreur et al., 2008). In the second series of the experiments, external N2 gas was introduced into Anammox reactor which increased N2O emission to 1.21±.2 %. There is no research that reports N2O and NO produced from the Anammox metabolic pathway. The N2O emission might be due to dissolved N2O carryover from partial nitrification effluent to Anammox reactor, or produced by some denitrifiers growing in the Anammox reactor. In terms of reducing greenhouse gas, Anammox can be considered as a better process, compared to conventional nitrification denitrification processes.  72  6. Conclusions Nitrogen is a fundamental substances in the synthesis of protein (Metcalf & Eddy, 2003) and in the wastewater, ammonia(NH3), ammonium (NH4+), nitrogen gas, nitrite ion (NO2-) and nitrate ion (NO3-)are the most common and significant forms of nitrogen. Nitrogen compounds in wastewater play a crucial role in eutrophication and nitrite enrichment (Wuhrmann, K. 1964). As a result, more stringent regulations regarding nutrient compounds, are being applied for point source discharges; nitrogen exist in the wastewater in any form needs to be treated before to the water body.  In effort to reduce water body impairment, this research studied the Partial Nitrification and Anammox process. Partial nitrification/ Anammox process has been considered as an option for nitrogen removal instead of conventional nitrification/denitrification (Zhang,Li et al., 2010; Fujii et al., 2002; Fux et al., 2002; Schmidt et al. 2003; van Dongen et al., 2001). The combination of partial nitrification and the Anammox process provides a promising method for nitrogen removal from wastewater with low carbon to nitrogen ratio, and a large quantity of ammonium (Loosdrecht et al., 1998).  The application of the partial nitrification and Anammox in a continuous moving bed reactor followed by Anammox in a hybrid reactor was investigated in the first stage of the research. In this stage, analytical data was provided to understand what was necessary to have stable partial nitrification and Anammox reactions. The process was used to remove ammonia from centrate obtained from a full scale wastewater treatment plant. The partial nitrification system, which was carried out in a continuous, moving-bed, biofilm reactor, successfully converted approximately 31.7% of ammonia to nitrite. Lack of alkalinity in the centrate, low nitrifiers growth rate, and low sludge retention time were main reasons for the low conversion of ammonium to nitrite. The Anammox reactor that was set up after PN reactor resulted in 38.8% additional ammonium removal and nitrite removal of 83.1%. As a result, total ammonia removal in the combined system reached to 79.1% and total nitrogen removal was 56.8 %. The study illustrated alkalinity was found neither controlling nor limiting factor in Anammox reaction.  73  Furthermore, in the second stage of experiments, the performance of partial nitrification in a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) was studied. The feasibility of operating the Anammox process in the up-flow fixed-bed reactor and hybrid Anammox reactor was also investigated in this stage. The results illustrate that the partial nitrification reactor successfully converted approximately 49.5±1.0% of ammonia to nitrite. Alkalinity was investigated as a limiting factor to convert more ammonia to nitrite in partial nitrification.  The SBR was operated under controlled dissolved oxygen between 0.5 to 4 mg/L, to investigate the effect of DO concentration on Ammonium Oxidation Rate (AOR). Higher DO resulted in higher average Ammonium Oxidation Rate (AOR). AOR was measured as 36.6 NH4+-N/hr/g biomass at DO of 4 mg/L, decreasing to AOR of 17.1 NH4+-N/hr/g biomass at DO of 0.5 mg/L. Under low DO condition, after 450 min, the SBR reached an ideal base point of nitrite to ammonium ratio equal to 1. However, results showed that once SBR was operated under DO=34 mg/L conditions, the base point were achieved at 160 min. As a result, under higher dissolved oxygen required cycle time for partial nitrification reaction reduces for centrate treatment. In fact, for the same volume shorter time was needed for partial nitrification process once the SBR was operated under higher dissolved oxygen.  Ammonium oxidation rates in the SBR indicated sensitivity to the pH level. When SBR operated under controlled pH at 7.2 after approximately 200 min, the reaction reached base point of nitrite to ammonium equal to 1; whereas, neither in a pH controlled at 6.6 nor 6, was the base point achieved.  The effect of feeding pattern on the SBR system was studied. When the centrate was pumped to the reactor evenly and slowly at the rate of 25 ml/min in 100 minutes, results indicated that the PN reactor reached the base point after approximately 240 minutes of aeration. On the other hand, once the PN was fed at the rate of 250 ml/min in 10 minutes, the nitrite to ammonium ratio in the reactor was equal to 1 after 350 minutes. As a result, ammonium oxidation rate increased when feed was pumped into the reactor slowly and evenly. When continuous slow feeding was applied to the PN reactor, the biomass was exposed to reduced ammonium concentration and 74  alkalinity was provided more evenly for the reaction; whereas, pH levels were hardly changed during each cycle. Distribution of alkalinity druing the experiment resulted in higher AOR, which is suggested by researchers as a practical operation strategy to reduce the partial nitrification cycle.  Partially nitrified centrate was further treated in two Anammox reactors, where the mixture of ammonia and nitrite was converted mainly to nitrogen gas. Anammox treatment was carried out in two different Anammox reactors: a moving bed Hybrid reactor and Up-Flow Fixed-Bed biofilm reactor. The Hybrid Anammox reactor removed an average of 55.8% of NH4-N, versus 48.3% NH4-N removal in the Up Flow Fixed-Bed reactor. Nitrite removal in the Hybrid and Fixed-Bed Anammox reactors averaged 80.8% and 62.5%, respectively. The study illustrated that, in both Anammox reactors, the best Ammonia removal happens in Nitrite to Ammonium ratio between 1.35 and 1.45. As such, alkalinity was found to neither control nor limit the Anammox reaction.  In third stage of the experiments, the amount of N2O and NO emissions from both partial nitrification and Anammox reactor under various operating conditions were measured.  A  practical operational strategy to reduce N2O and NO emission from partial nitrification and the Anammox process was discovered by researchers. The emissions from partial nitrification were 2.6±0.2% N2O and 0.6±0.3% NO as nitrogen load; Anammox, with 0.15% N2O and non detected amount of NO, showed relatively lower emissions compared to partial nitrification. In the partial nitrification reactor, higher dissolved oxygen (DO) decreased N2O emission by 67% without impacting NO emission. Under pH controlled conditions, lower pH dramatically affected N2O and NO emissions from the PN reactor, where N 2O emission at pH=6.6 was 36% higher than pH=7.8. The Feeding regime into the PN reactor did not significantly affect N2O emission; however, it reduced NO emission by approximately 10%. N2O emission was affected by DO, pH and feeding pattern in the partial nitrification reactor. The results suggest strategies for N2O and NO emissions control as follow:   In the partial nitrification process, a higher DO in the solution results in a lower N2O emission. NO was not significantly affected by DO. 75    A higher pH level in the partial nitrification reactor caused a lower N2O and NO emission.    Continuous slow feeding to the partial nitrification reactor did not affect N2O emission. However, NO emission decreased with a slower rate of feeding.  Using conditions of a higher DO and higher pH are possible operating strategies, which could successfully reduce the emission of nitrous oxide and nitric oxide in a partial nitrification system.  6.1 Recommendation for the future research Anammox process is a relatively new technology in the wastewater treatment field especially in North America. Therefore, more research needs to be done to industrialize the process. Following are some of factors which need to be considered for future research:   Anammox bacteria are sensitive to temperature, considering the cold climate in Canada, temperature can be a cost effective obstacle in a way to have a full scale reactor. 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Raw data of the partial nitrification followed by Anammox in the continuous moving-bed biofilm reactors (MBBR) Date  Centrate Characteristics  Comments on the process Flow(ml/min) 22.00 20.00  04-Dec-08 05-Dec-08 7+ 27 06-Dec-08 07-Dec-08 08-Dec-08 09-Dec-08 seeded with Sludge 10-Dec-08 11-Dec-08 12-Dec-08 13-Dec-08 14-Dec-08 air is 763 ml/min- n2 in the feed 15-Dec-08 feed orp after one day storage, n2 in feed 16-Dec-08 17-Dec-08 18-Dec-08 19-Dec-08 20-Dec-08 21-Dec-08 22-Dec-08 23-Dec-08 24-Dec-08 feed line to PN ractor 12ml/min, RC line 70 ml/min, 45 minute 25-Dec-08 26-Dec-08 27-Dec-08 28-Dec-08 29-Dec-08 30-Dec-08 31-Dec-08 01-Jan-09 02-Jan-09 03-Jan-09 04-Jan-09 05-Jan-09timer 1 one hour on (64ml/ min) timer 2 120 min on (108) ml/min 06-Jan-09 timer 1 3 hour on (64ml/ min) timer 2 120 min on (108) ml/min 07-Jan-09 08-Jan-09 timer 1- 20 minutes on (50ml/ min) timer 2 120 min on (108) 09-Jan-09 10-Jan-09 11-Jan-09 12-Jan-09 RC changed from 8 to 24 13-Jan-09 good Anammox activity suspcted because of gas production 14-Jan-09 15-Jan-09 feed line to PN ractor 7.25 ml/min, RC 6.4 ml/min, 40 T-3.5 to PN 16-Jan-09 17-Jan-09 18-Jan-09 19-Jan-09 20-Jan-09 R1-I is recycle 21-Jan-09 22-Jan-09 35 T-3.5 added to the PN 23-Jan-09 24-Jan-09 25-Jan-09 26-Jan-09 27-Jan-09 28-Jan-09 Rpm increased to 168 29-Jan-09 30-Jan-09 31-Jan-09  pH ORP 7.88  NH3-N  Nox-N  NO3-N NO2-N Corrected Nox Alk, (mg/L)CaCO3  200.0  21.00  7.80  213.0  21.00  7.90  272.0  21.00  8.30 -243.00  266.0  21.00  8.00 -210.00  135.0  12.00  7.90  -3.30  12.00  7.84  10.00  181.0  12.00  7.94 -120.00  173.0  12.50 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00  7.80 7.80 7.90 7.80 7.80 7.56  178.0 200.0 228.0 215.0 213.0  15.00 -60.00 -230.00 -201.00 -200.00  7.00 7.00 7.00 7.00  7.90 -180.00 7.90 7.90 7.90  252.0 244.0 213.0 206.0  7.00 7.00 7.00 7.00 7.00  7.90 7.90 7.90 7.90 7.90  196.0 205.0 204.0 211.0 195.0  88  Date  Centrate Characteristics  Comments on the process Flow(ml/min) 7.00 7.00  01-Feb-09 02-Feb-09 03-Feb-09 04-Feb-09 Influent increased feed 12 ml/min rc 11.5 ml/min, ammonia feed 300 05-Feb-09 06-Feb-09 07-Feb-09 08-Feb-09 DO = 10.5 % = 1.25 mg/L 09-Feb-09 10-Feb-09 11-Feb-09 12-Feb-09 13-Feb-09 Air flow increased 140 = 2170 ml/min 14-Feb-09 15-Feb-09 16-Feb-09 17-Feb-09 18-Feb-09 19-Feb-09 20-Feb-09 21-Feb-09 22-Feb-09 23-Feb-09 pH is R1 has decreased! DO set poit decrease 6.9%=0.5 mg/l 24-Feb-09 pH is R2 has increased1DO set poit decrease 6.8% mg/l 25-Feb-09 26-Feb-09 27-Feb-09 28-Feb-09 01-Mar-09 02-Mar-09 Separated R1 fron R2, mixed Nano2 with centrate 03-Mar-09 04-Mar-09 feed flow increased to 6.5 ml/min 05-Mar-09 250 T-5 is added to R1 06-Mar-09 Nitrite TOXICITY 07-Mar-09 Operated batch 08-Mar-09 Operated batch 09-Mar-09 Operated batch 10-Mar-09 Operated batch 11-Mar-09 Operated batch 12-Mar-09 300 T-5 is added to R2 13-Mar-09 18-Jul-00 14-Mar-09 15-Mar-09 16-Mar-09 17-Mar-09 18-Mar-09 19-Mar-09 20-Mar-09 DO = 30 % = 1.7 mg/L 21-Mar-09 (heater reactor 2 was broken) 22-Mar-09 23-Mar-09 24-Mar-09 25-Mar-09 26-Mar-09 27-Mar-09 28-Mar-09 29-Mar-09 30-Mar-09 31-Mar-09  pH ORP 7.90 7.90 8.00  NH3-N 193.0 189.00 194  Nox-N  NO3-N NO2-N Corrected Nox Alk, (mg/L)CaCO3 760 780  206 204  780 800  297 284 330 338 339  1060 2220 1180 1200 1220  8.10 8.00 7.85  367 330 330 333 330  1300 1400 1240 1270 1280  8.03 8.02 8.00  314 334 352  1220 1300 1340  2.00 6.50  6.64 6.70  337 997 1000 1080  1220 3640 3200  5.50  5.90 200.00  12.00 12.00  7.90  288 217  3.46 1.33  0.8 0.3  2.65 0.993 900  217 290 305  1.56 1.63 3.57  0.2 0.2 1.4  1.32 1.41 2.22  860  267.5  8.84  1.8  7.04  800  270  2.41  1.4  1.33  2.8  740  360 249  8.57 7.12  0.6 0.5  8.09 6.77  8.7 7.2  900 880  89  Date  Centrate Characteristics  Comments on the process Flow(ml/min)  01-Apr-09 02-Apr-09 03-Apr-09 04-Apr-09 05-Apr-09 the mixture of R2 wa broken 06-Apr-09 07-Apr-09 08-Apr-09 09-Apr-09 10-Apr-09 11-Apr-09pomp which transfers f2 to f1 was clogged and feeded mannually 12-Apr-09 13-Apr-09 14-Apr-09the pomp fixed and all tube and connectors have been changed 15-Apr-09 16-Apr-09 17-Apr-09 18-Apr-09 19-Apr-09 Do controller does not work properly 20-Apr-09 21-Apr-09 the flow rate from R2 to R1 has been incresed to 15ml/min 22-Apr-09 23-Apr-09 24-Apr-09 25-Apr-09 26-Apr-09 27-Apr-09 28-Apr-09 29-Apr-09 Flow rate ,R2-R1 decreased to 8ml/min,300ml Anmmox sluge added to R1 30-Apr-09Flow rate ,R2-R1 increased t to 10ml/min(8ml H2SO4 added to ) 01-May-09 02-May-09 03-May-09 04-May-09 05-May-09 06-May-09 07-May-09 08-May-09 09-May-09 10-May-09 Flow rate ,from Feed to R2 increased to 17 ml/minR2-R1 increased t to 16ml/min 11-May-09 12-May-09 13-May-09 14-May-09 Dilution has changed to 500 mg/L Ammonia per liter 15-May-09 16-May-09 17-May-09 18-May-09 19-May-09 20-May-09 21-May-09 22-May-09 23-May-09 24-May-09 25-May-09 26-May-09 27-May-09 28-May-09 29-May-09 30-May-09 31-May-09 Dilution has changed to 500 mg/L Ammonia per liter  pH  4.25 6126.55  ORP  NH 3-N  Nox-N  NO 3-N NO2-N Corrected Nox Alk, (mg/L)CaCO3  239 273  6.3 1.01  0.8 0.4  5.7 0.708  6.5 1.1  940  274 225  1.92 2.89  0.8 1.2  1.32 2.02  2.1 3.2  1060  217 215 199  1.71 1.72 1.47  0.2 0.5 0.4  1.53 1.26 1.09  188  1.58  0.4  1.16  233 260  2.34 1.87  0.6 0.5  1.73 1.38  266  2.51  0.3  2.21  2.5  201 179  2.51 2.1  0.3 0.7  2.2 1.4  2.5 2.1  182 364 389 378 349  5.78 2.45 2.44 1.87 4.71  2.3 1.3 1.3 0.8 2.8  3.55 1.12 1.14 1.1 1.98  5.8 2.5 2.5 1.9 4.7  337 341 377 381  2.53 1.29 1.6 0.47  1.0 0.2 0.4  1.5 1.1 1.18 0.746  2.5 1.3 1.6  378 435 373 368 426 481  3.31 1.67 2.78 1.05 1.32  0.6 0.2 0.9 0.1 0.3  2.68 1.46 1.89 0.923 1.05  3.3 1.7 2.8 1.1 1.3  800  850  720  1460  1320  1430 1340 1360  1360 1700  329  357 375 379  2.21 1.62 1.01  0.3 0.1  1.89 1.54 1.46  385  4.04  0.6  3.44  354  0.612  3.22  1360  1.04  0.1  1240  3.14  90  Date  Centrate Characteristics  Comments on the process Flow(ml/min)  pH  01-Jun-09 02-Jun-09 03-Jun-09 04-Jun-09 05-Jun-09 06-Jun-09 07-Jun-09 08-Jun-09 09-Jun-09 10-Jun-09 11-Jun-09 12-Jun-09 13-Jun-09 14-Jun-09 15-Jun-09 16-Jun-09 17-Jun-09 18-Jun-09 19-Jun-09 20-Jun-09 21-Jun-09 22-Jun-09 23-Jun-09 24-Jun-09 25-Jun-09 Air flow increased 5 26-Jun-09 27-Jun-09 28-Jun-09 29-Jun-09 30-Jun-09 01-Jul-09 02-Jul-09 03-Jul-09 04-Jul-09 05-Jul-09 06-Jul-09 07-Jul-09 08-Jul-09 09-Jul-09 Flow rate from feed to R2 and from R2 to R1 have been changed to 16 ml/min and 15m/min respectively. 10-Jul-09 11-Jul-09 12-Jul-09 13-Jul-09 PH conroller diconent from R1 14-Jul-09 PH conroller applied to R1 15-Jul-09 16-Jul-09 17-Jul-09 18-Jul-09 19-Jul-09 Flow from R2 to R1 has been stopped and PN-SBR applied to loop insead of R2.R2 flow rate has been change d to 2mL/min 20-Jul-09 21-Jul-09 First day of PN applied to system instead of R2 22-Jul-09 23-Jul-09 24-Jul-09 25-Jul-09 26-Jul-09 27-Jul-09 Set point for PH controller for Anammox reactor has been change to 7.7 28-Jul-09 29-Jul-09  ORP  NH3 -N  Nox-N NO3-N NO2-N Corrected Nox Alk, (mg/L)CaCO3 0.951 1.26 4.27 0.2 4.04 1.43 1.69  0.5 0.5  0.907 1.24  421  1.47  0.7  0.793  1480  447 454 441  1.75 1.27 1.21  0.4 0.2 0.2  1.38 1.07 1.03  2020  452  0.914  0.1  0.854  1600  549  1.23  0.2  1.04  344  1.78  0.4  1.37  535  1.63  0.2  1.48  437  3.66  1.3  2.36  506  0.897  0.1  0.802  1680  623  2.98  1.0  1.96  2020  591  3.11  1.6  1.56  514  5.22  2.6  2.63  2060  1740  566  1880  507  1  0.5  0.764  533.55  2.535  1.2  1.305  601 540  1.95 2.72  1950  3.11 3.39  2050 1790  91  Date  Centrate Characteristics  Comments on the process Flow(ml/min)  pH  01-Aug-09 02-Aug-09 03-Aug-09 04-Aug-09 05-Aug-09 06-Aug-09 PH Set point for PN change to 6.2 07-Aug-09 08-Aug-09 09-Aug-09 10-Aug-09 Consider commend 11-Aug-09 12-Aug-09 13-Aug-09 14-Aug-09 Anammox pH controller is turned on again 15-Aug-09 16-Aug-09 Nitrite17-Aug-09 in Anammox reactor was so high,R1I had been stopped for 1 hour.10 ml acid added to R1. 18-Aug-09 19-Aug-09 20-Aug-09 21-Aug-09 22-Aug-09 23-Aug-09 24-Aug-09 25-Aug-09 26-Aug-09 27-Aug-09 28-Aug-09  ORP  NH3-N  Nox-N  NO3-N NO2-N Corrected Nox Alk, (mg/L)CaCO3  521  3.52  13.3  1800  562  2.54  2.1  0.676  2.8  1960  484  1.26  1.4  0  1.4  1710  451  1.18  1.0  0.332  1.3  1570  476  0  0.24  2170  565  4.19  2.67  2100  503  461  1750  531  1990  1870  92  Partial Nitrification Reactor  Date pH 04-Dec-08 05-Dec-08 06-Dec-08 07-Dec-08 08-Dec-08 09-Dec-08 10-Dec-08 11-Dec-08 12-Dec-08 13-Dec-08 14-Dec-08 15-Dec-08 16-Dec-08 17-Dec-08 18-Dec-08 19-Dec-08 20-Dec-08 21-Dec-08 22-Dec-08 23-Dec-08 24-Dec-08 25-Dec-08 26-Dec-08 27-Dec-08 28-Dec-08 29-Dec-08 30-Dec-08 31-Dec-08 01-Jan-09 02-Jan-09 03-Jan-09 04-Jan-09 05-Jan-09 06-Jan-09 07-Jan-09 08-Jan-09 09-Jan-09 10-Jan-09 11-Jan-09 12-Jan-09 13-Jan-09 14-Jan-09 15-Jan-09 16-Jan-09 17-Jan-09 18-Jan-09 19-Jan-09 20-Jan-09 21-Jan-09 22-Jan-09 23-Jan-09 24-Jan-09 25-Jan-09 26-Jan-09 27-Jan-09 28-Jan-09 29-Jan-09 30-Jan-09 31-Jan-09  ORP  temp  Do %  27.1  27.7  Partial Nitrification Effluent mixing RPM NH 3-N 28.0  NOX  NO 3-N  NO 2-N  296.0  9.7  3.1  6.6  192.0  45.6  1.7  43.9  7.6  10.0  30.5  19.4  7.8  15.0  28.6  18.8  40.0  234.0  35.0  1.4  33.6  9.8  43.0  234.0  23.5  0.3  23.2  106.0  45.7  2.9  42.8  7.5  67.0  31.7  18.0  7.2  96.8  32.5  8.9  160.0  6.7  91.0  32.5  28.0  160.0  86.6  107.0  5.0  102.0  6.9  76.8  33.7  21.0  160.0  64.0  97.0  7.0  90.0  7.2 7.1 6.7 7.1 7.0 7.2  85.0 110.0 144.0 99.3 111.3 90.7  32.8 34.0 34.0 36.0 34.7 36.0  15.0 13.4 14.1 14.5 14.1 14.4  162.0 162.0 162.0 162.0 162.0 162.0  86.6 102.0 109.0 141.0  9.2 8.1 9.3 6.7  0.5 0.6 0.5 1.1  8.7 7.5 8.8 5.6  6.4 6.6 6.8 6.7  110.0 73.4 63.9 64.0  33.4 33.6 35.0 33.6  15.0 14.5 14.6 14.3  114.0 114.0 114.0 114.0  134.0 140.0 101.0 102.0  110.0 107.0 1.4 2.0  2.0 2.0 99.6 100.0  14.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 14.0  114.0 114.0 168.0 168.0 168.0  104.0 91.2 95.3  5.9 5.0 5.0  98.1 86.2 90.3  127.1 64.0  32.0 32.6 32.0 30.7 32.9  97.9  8.2  89.7  6.7 7.1 6.9 6.5 6.7  93  Partial Nitrification Reactor  Date 02-Feb-09 03-Feb-09 04-Feb-09 05-Feb-09 06-Feb-09 07-Feb-09 08-Feb-09 09-Feb-09 10-Feb-09 11-Feb-09 12-Feb-09 13-Feb-09 14-Feb-09 15-Feb-09 16-Feb-09 17-Feb-09 18-Feb-09 19-Feb-09 20-Feb-09 21-Feb-09 22-Feb-09 23-Feb-09 24-Feb-09 25-Feb-09 26-Feb-09 27-Feb-09 28-Feb-09 01-Mar-09 02-Mar-09 03-Mar-09 04-Mar-09 05-Mar-09 06-Mar-09 07-Mar-09 08-Mar-09 09-Mar-09 10-Mar-09 11-Mar-09 12-Mar-09 13-Mar-09 14-Mar-09 15-Mar-09 16-Mar-09 17-Mar-09 18-Mar-09 19-Mar-09 20-Mar-09 21-Mar-09 22-Mar-09 23-Mar-09 24-Mar-09 25-Mar-09 26-Mar-09 27-Mar-09 28-Mar-09 29-Mar-09 30-Mar-09 31-Mar-09  pH 6.4 6.4  ORP 119.0 112.6  temp 32.0 30.3  7.6  45.2  6.8 6.5 7.0 7.4 7.2  NOX 105.0 103.0  NO3-N 19.3 43.4  NO2-N 85.7 59.6  31.9  43.6 61.4  42.0 12.8  1.7 48.6  102.5 105.0 55.5 47.3 80.2  33.9 33.9 33.8 32..6 32.3  11.0  132.0 147.0 136.0 112.0 120.0  57.2 68.8 61.9 47.6 51.4  74.8 78.2 74.1 64.4 68.6  7.0 7.5 6.2 6.9 6.5  88.7 44.4 161.0 24? 127.5  31.6 32.6 31.1 35.0 32.1  11.6 11.0 12.2 9.6 10.5  149.0 127.0 159.0 151.0 154.0  73.2 53.5 77.2 81.9 86.2  75.8 73.5 81.8 69.1 67.8  6.4 7.5 6.7  117.0 3.0 70.0  32.0 32.4 31.8  6.9  6.9  69.0  33.4  13%-16%  165.0 69.4  102.9 59.2  62.1 10.2  31.2  53.1 63.2 136.0  37.0 57.2 96.1  16.1 6.0 39.9  41.6  117.0  31.9  85.1  49=.9mg/L  49.7  60.5  4.5  49.9=.3 74.4=.9  94.2 94.6  8.0 69.6  88.2 42.7  7.5 7.5 7.5 7.7 7.5 7.7 7.4  108.4 39.0 52.8 81.6 95.3 82.0 91.0  33.5 31.3 32.2 25? 23.4 24.3 31.6  6.4  133.7  30.7  6.5  131.9  32.2  7.0 6.2  123.1 167.9  31.7 32.8  Do % 14.0  Partial Nitrification Effluent mixing RPM NH3-N 168.0  94  Partial Nitrification Reactor  Date 02-Apr-09 03-Apr-09 04-Apr-09 05-Apr-09 06-Apr-09 07-Apr-09 08-Apr-09 09-Apr-09 10-Apr-09 11-Apr-09 12-Apr-09 13-Apr-09 14-Apr-09 15-Apr-09 16-Apr-09 17-Apr-09 18-Apr-09 19-Apr-09 20-Apr-09 21-Apr-09 22-Apr-09 23-Apr-09 24-Apr-09 25-Apr-09 26-Apr-09 27-Apr-09 28-Apr-09 29-Apr-09 30-Apr-09 01-May-09 02-May-09 03-May-09 04-May-09 05-May-09 06-May-09 07-May-09 08-May-09 09-May-09 10-May-09 11-May-09 12-May-09 13-May-09 14-May-09 15-May-09 16-May-09 17-May-09 18-May-09 19-May-09 20-May-09 21-May-09 22-May-09 23-May-09 24-May-09 25-May-09 26-May-09 27-May-09 28-May-09 29-May-09 30-May-09  pH 6.4 6.3  ORP 140.0 138.8  temp 32.2 32.2  7.7 7.7  78.5 67.0  31.3 30.8  35.5=.8  7.3 6.5 6.7  114.0 131.5 153.2  33.3 36.6 30.3  0.8 0.8  Partial Nitrification Effluent  Do % mixing RPM NH 3-N 74.4=.6 79.2=.8  NOX 106.0 109.0  NO 3-N 29.2 44.1  NO 2-N 84.2 76.1  48.8 27.1  21.8 9.4  32.5 20.1  78.0 113.0 112.0  12.4 22.4 20.2  65.6 90.6 91.8  118.0  31.7  86.3  7.1 7.3  111.3 109.7  29.5 40.1  0.8 0.8  102.0 101.0  33.0 20.9  69.0 80.1  7.1  124.2  32.1  0.4  108.0  13.1  95.0  6.6 7.4  146.4 81.6  37.7 33.5  0.9 0.5  103.0 51.9  39.0 28.6  64.4 23.6  6.6  90.2  32.2  1.1  7.8 7.8 7.6 7.4  52.1 43.0 52.0 17.7  34.1 30.7 31.7 32.3  1.3 0.8 1.8  84.9 104.0 121.0 143.0 137.0  83.5 75.9 60.7 46.0 37.5  2.3 28.9 60.9 97.5 99.9  7.5 7.3 7.5 7.3 7.5 7.0 7.5 7.5 6.9 7.3  29.4 28.0 44.4 66.9 95.0 102.4 40.1 45.9 101.8 21.5?  30.4 29.4 37.0 34.7 31.4 35.2 31.5 34.3 33.3 33.7  1.8 1.5 0.8 0.5  125.0 147.0 132.0 150.0  22.2 23.2 21.2 27.4  103.0 124.0 111.0 123.0  1.4 1.6 0.3 0.6 0.5  156.0 150.0 139.0 158.0 169.0  3.0 2.0 1.0 2.0 5.1  153.0 148.0 138.0 156.0 164.0  6.9 7.4  73.0 31.7  34.8 35.0  5.9  134.0  34.4  172.0 180.0 172.0  1.0 1.0  173.0 179.0 171.0  6.4 7.3 7.3  6.5  68.0  27.1 35.7 34.3  0.9  176.0  1.0  175.0  147.6  33.4  2.0  166.0  1.0  165.0  114.0  2.0  112.0  95  Partial Nitrification Reactor  Date 02-Jun-09 03-Jun-09 04-Jun-09 05-Jun-09 06-Jun-09 07-Jun-09 08-Jun-09 09-Jun-09 10-Jun-09 11-Jun-09 12-Jun-09 13-Jun-09 14-Jun-09 15-Jun-09 16-Jun-09 17-Jun-09 18-Jun-09 19-Jun-09 20-Jun-09 21-Jun-09 22-Jun-09 23-Jun-09 24-Jun-09 25-Jun-09 26-Jun-09 27-Jun-09 28-Jun-09 29-Jun-09 30-Jun-09 01-Jul-09 02-Jul-09 03-Jul-09 04-Jul-09 05-Jul-09 06-Jul-09 07-Jul-09 08-Jul-09 09-Jul-09 10-Jul-09 11-Jul-09 12-Jul-09 13-Jul-09 14-Jul-09 15-Jul-09 16-Jul-09 17-Jul-09 18-Jul-09 19-Jul-09 20-Jul-09 21-Jul-09 22-Jul-09 23-Jul-09 24-Jul-09 25-Jul-09 26-Jul-09 27-Jul-09 28-Jul-09 29-Jul-09 30-Jul-09  pH  ORP  temp  7.2  85.0  36.9  7.1 6.8  4.5  35.5 33.5  Do %  2.1 1.8  Partial Nitrification Effluent mixing RPM NH 3-N  NOX  NO 3-N  NO 2-N  212.0 200.0  16.0 13.0  196.0 187.0  167.0  7.0  160.0  6.9 7.2 7.1  32.9 28.7 32.3  185.0 161.0 172.0  10.0 5.0 8.0  175.0 156.0 164.0  6.8 7.5  36.9 34.6  155.0  5.0  150.0  167.0  11.0  156.0  6.4  70.0  38.8  4.2  6.8 7.1  140.3 37.7  25.7  4.0 2.9  204.0  25.0  179.0  8.0 7.1  27.7  33.1 36.6  2.0 1.8  150.0  8.0  142.0  153.0  8.0  145.0  207.0  27.0  180.0  236.0  37.0  199.0  7.6  29.9  6.3  240.0  41.3  3.1  7.4 7.0  89.7 118.6  39.4 38.0  3.3 4.0  6.9 7.4  107.1 135.0  35.7 40.0  7.4  67.9  40.0  3.3  157.0  11.0  146.0  8.4 7.2 7.2 8.0 7.1 7.8  66.6 107.9 69.3 54.0 104.7 37.6  34.1 29.7 32.6 33.0 32.4 28.1  6.2 5.7 3.8 3.3  98.3  0.8  97.5  466.0  81.0  385.0  6.5  135.0  28.0  3.3 139.3  9.0  130.3  203.2  4.0  199.2  3.0  266.0 270.0  267.0 270.0  234.0 237.0  234.0 237.0  96  Partial Nitrification Reactor  Date pH 02-Aug-09 03-Aug-09 04-Aug-09 05-Aug-09 06-Aug-09 07-Aug-09 08-Aug-09 09-Aug-09 10-Aug-09 11-Aug-09 12-Aug-09 13-Aug-09 14-Aug-09 15-Aug-09 16-Aug-09  ORP  temp  Do %  Partial Nitrification Effluent mixing RPM NH 3-N  NOX  NO 3-N  NO 2-N  269.0  270.0  244.0  261.0  273.0  291.0  214.0  226.0  256.0  273.0  270.0  281.0  97  Anammox Reactor influent  Date  pH ORP NH 3-N Nox-N NO 3-N NO2-N Corrected Nox Alk, (mg/L)CaCO3 04-Dec-08 05-Dec-08 06-Dec-08 07-Dec-08 08-Dec-08 09-Dec-08 10-Dec-08 11-Dec-08 12-Dec-08 13-Dec-08 14-Dec-08 15-Dec-08 16-Dec-08 17-Dec-08 18-Dec-08 19-Dec-08 20-Dec-08 21-Dec-08 22-Dec-08 23-Dec-08 24-Dec-08 25-Dec-08 26-Dec-08 27-Dec-08 28-Dec-08 29-Dec-08 30-Dec-08 31-Dec-08 01-Jan-09 02-Jan-09 03-Jan-09 04-Jan-09 05-Jan-09 06-Jan-09 07-Jan-09 08-Jan-09 09-Jan-09 10-Jan-09 11-Jan-09 12-Jan-09 13-Jan-09 14-Jan-09 15-Jan-09 16-Jan-09 17-Jan-09 18-Jan-09 19-Jan-09 20-Jan-09 21-Jan-09 22-Jan-09 23-Jan-09 24-Jan-09 25-Jan-09 26-Jan-09 27-Jan-09 28-Jan-09 29-Jan-09 30-Jan-09 31-Jan-09  4.5  3.7  0.8  2.6  1.0  1.6  1.5  1.5  0.0  2.0  0.3  1.7  3.0  0.9  2.2  1.1  1.1  4.7  2.4  2.3  154.0 186.0 169.0 171.0  3.5 3.0 3.5 4.0  0.2 0.1 0.2 0.3  3.4 2.9 3.3 3.7  6.4 6.6 6.8 6.7  110.6 76.4 63.9 64.0  134.0 140.0 112.0 116.0  110.0 107.0 101.0 102.0  2.0 2.0 1.4 2.0  108.0 105.0 99.6 100.0  6.7 7.1 6.9 6.5 6.7  104.0 77.0 64.0 127.0 62.0  112.0 117.0 122.0 113.0 101.0  104.0 91.2 95.3  5.9 5.0 5.0  98.1 86.2 90.3  97.9  8.2  89.7  60.0 120.0  98  Anammox Reactor influent  Date 02-Feb-09 03-Feb-09 04-Feb-09 05-Feb-09 06-Feb-09 07-Feb-09 08-Feb-09 09-Feb-09 10-Feb-09 11-Feb-09 12-Feb-09 13-Feb-09 14-Feb-09 15-Feb-09 16-Feb-09 17-Feb-09 18-Feb-09 19-Feb-09 20-Feb-09 21-Feb-09 22-Feb-09 23-Feb-09 24-Feb-09 25-Feb-09 26-Feb-09 27-Feb-09 28-Feb-09 01-Mar-09 02-Mar-09 03-Mar-09 04-Mar-09 05-Mar-09 06-Mar-09 07-Mar-09 08-Mar-09 09-Mar-09 10-Mar-09 11-Mar-09 12-Mar-09 13-Mar-09 14-Mar-09 15-Mar-09 16-Mar-09 17-Mar-09 18-Mar-09 19-Mar-09 20-Mar-09 21-Mar-09 22-Mar-09 23-Mar-09 24-Mar-09 25-Mar-09 26-Mar-09 27-Mar-09 28-Mar-09 29-Mar-09 30-Mar-09 31-Mar-09  pH 7.0 6.5 6.5  ORP NH3-N Nox-N NO3-N NO2-N Corrected Nox Alk, (mg/L)CaCO3 52.0 103.0 87.7 10.2 77.5 119.0 97.8 105.0 19.3 85.7 60.0 110.8 99.4 103.0 43.4 59.6 70.0  6.5 105.0  148.0 135.0  43.6 61.4  42.0 12.8  1.7 48.6  380.0 340.0  154.0 152.0 176.0 193.0 197.0  132.0 147.0 136.0 112.0 120.0  57.2 68.8 61.9 47.6 51.4  74.8 78.2 74.1 64.4 68.6  210.0 110.0 60.0 400.0 280.0  206.0 189.0 152.0 178.0 162.0  149.0 127.0 159.0 151.0 154.0  73.2 53.5 77.2 81.9 86.2  75.8 73.5 81.8 69.1 67.8  180.0 380.0 80.0 110.0 90.0  191.0 229.0 182.0  70.0 600.0 120.0  187.0  270.0  163.0  165.0 69.4  102.9 59.2  62.1 10.2  154.0  322.0  190.0 190.3 200.8  53.1 63.2 136.0  37.0 57.2 96.1  16.1 6.0 39.9  560.0  180.3  117.0  31.9  85.1  380.0  145.5  49.7  60.5  4.5  65.1  100.0  214.0  94.2  8.0  88.2  96.2  300.0  99  Date  Anammox Reactor influent  pH ORP NH 3-N Nox-N NO 3-N NO2-N Corrected Nox Alk, (mg/L)CaCO3 02-Apr-09 126.0 94.6 69.6 42.7 112.3 50.0 03-Apr-09 04-Apr-09 120.0 106.0 29.2 84.2 113.4 05-Apr-09 123.0 109.0 44.1 76.1 120.2 70.0 06-Apr-09 07-Apr-09 207.0 48.8 21.8 32.5 54.3 08-Apr-09 212.0 27.1 9.4 20.1 560.0 09-Apr-09 10-Apr-09 11-Apr-09 123.0 78.0 12.4 65.6 290.0 12-Apr-09 115.0 113.0 22.4 90.6 13-Apr-09 107.0 112.0 20.2 91.8 14-Apr-09 15-Apr-09 16-Apr-09 99.5 118.0 31.7 86.3 17-Apr-09 18-Apr-09 133.0 102.0 33.0 69.0 215.0 19-Apr-09 153.0 101.0 20.9 80.1 20-Apr-09 21-Apr-09 136.0 108.0 13.1 95.0 108.1 22-Apr-09 23-Apr-09 90.2 103.0 39.0 64.4 103.4 24-Apr-09 121.0 51.9 28.6 23.6 52.2 320.0 25-Apr-09 26-Apr-09 27-Apr-09 28-Apr-09 29-Apr-09 97.6 84.9 83.5 2.3 85.7 30-Apr-09 238.0 104.0 75.9 28.9 104.8 640.0 01-May-09 254.0 121.0 60.7 60.9 121.6 02-May-09 233.0 143.0 46.0 97.5 143.5 03-May-09 197.0 137.0 37.5 99.9 137.4 300.0 04-May-09 05-May-09 223.0 125.0 22.2 103.0 125.2 06-May-09 127.0 147.0 23.2 124.0 147.2 310.0 07-May-09 243.0 132.0 21.2 111.0 132.2 08-May-09 226.0 150.0 27.4 123.0 150.4 300.0 09-May-09 10-May-09 205.0 156.0 3.0 153.0 156.0 230.0 11-May-09 258.0 150.0 2.0 148.0 150.0 12-May-09 257.0 139.0 1.0 138.0 139.0 13-May-09 211.0 158.0 2.0 156.0 158.0 142.0 14-May-09 257.0 169.0 5.1 164.0 169.1 15-May-09 286.0 16-May-09 400.0 17-May-09 221.0 18-May-09 19-May-09 20-May-09 21-May-09 180.0 172.0 173.0 22-May-09 156.0 180.0 1.0 179.0 60.0 23-May-09 178.0 172.0 1.0 171.0 24-May-09 25-May-09 211.0 176.0 1.0 175.0 26-May-09 27-May-09 28-May-09 176.0 166.0 1.0 165.0 80.0 29-May-09 30-May-09  100  Anammox Reactor influent  Date  pH ORP NH 3-N Nox-N NO 3-N NO2-N Corrected Nox Alk, (mg/L)CaCO3 02-Jun-09 03-Jun-09 04-Jun-09 05-Jun-09 06-Jun-09 07-Jun-09 08-Jun-09 09-Jun-09 10-Jun-09 11-Jun-09 12-Jun-09 13-Jun-09 14-Jun-09 15-Jun-09 16-Jun-09 17-Jun-09 18-Jun-09 19-Jun-09 20-Jun-09 21-Jun-09 22-Jun-09 23-Jun-09 24-Jun-09 25-Jun-09 26-Jun-09 27-Jun-09 28-Jun-09 29-Jun-09 30-Jun-09 01-Jul-09 02-Jul-09 03-Jul-09 04-Jul-09 05-Jul-09 06-Jul-09 07-Jul-09 08-Jul-09 09-Jul-09 10-Jul-09 11-Jul-09 12-Jul-09 13-Jul-09 14-Jul-09 15-Jul-09 16-Jul-09 17-Jul-09 18-Jul-09 19-Jul-09 20-Jul-09 21-Jul-09 22-Jul-09 23-Jul-09 24-Jul-09 25-Jul-09 26-Jul-09 27-Jul-09 28-Jul-09 29-Jul-09 30-Jul-09  168.0 35.6  7.0 27.1  161.0 8.5  212.0 200.0  16.0 13.0  196.0 187.0  232.0  167.0  7.0  160.0  180.0  241.0 288.0 279.0  185.0 161.0 172.0  10.0 5.0 8.0  175.0 156.0 164.0  180.0  287.0  155.0  5.0  150.0  440.0  413.0  167.0  11.0  156.0  255.0  204.0  25.0  179.0  337.0  150.0  8.0  142.0  337.0  153.0  8.0  145.0  259.0  207.0  27.0  180.0  170.0  336.0  236.0  37.0  199.0  370.0  383.0  157.0  11.0  146.0  386.0  98.3  0.8  97.5  317.0  466.0  81.0  385.0  450.0  136.7  139.3  9.0  130.3  130.0  220.2  203.2  4.0  199.2  284.0  266.0  720.0  267.0  700.0  200.0  101  Anammox Reactor influent  Date 02-Aug-09 03-Aug-09 04-Aug-09 05-Aug-09 06-Aug-09 07-Aug-09 08-Aug-09 09-Aug-09 10-Aug-09 11-Aug-09 12-Aug-09 13-Aug-09 14-Aug-09 15-Aug-09 16-Aug-09 17-Aug-09 18-Aug-09 19-Aug-09 20-Aug-09 21-Aug-09 22-Aug-09 23-Aug-09 24-Aug-09 25-Aug-09 26-Aug-09 27-Aug-09 28-Aug-09 29-Aug-09 30-Aug-09 31-Aug-09  pH ORP NH3-N Nox-N NO3-N NO2-N Corrected Nox Alk, (mg/L)CaCO3 273.0 234.0 234.0 220.0 284.0 237.0 237.0  277.0  269.0  270.0  490.0  274.0  244.0  261.0  180.0  255.0  273.0  291.0  251.0  214.0  226.0  120.0  261.0  256.0  273.0  130.0  276.0 281.0  270.0  281.0  120.0  254.0  120.0  215.0  120.0  134.0  102  Anammox Recator Effluent  Date 04-Dec-08 05-Dec-08 06-Dec-08 07-Dec-08 08-Dec-08 09-Dec-08 10-Dec-08 11-Dec-08 12-Dec-08 13-Dec-08 14-Dec-08 15-Dec-08 16-Dec-08 17-Dec-08 18-Dec-08 19-Dec-08 20-Dec-08 21-Dec-08 22-Dec-08 23-Dec-08 24-Dec-08 25-Dec-08 26-Dec-08 27-Dec-08 28-Dec-08 29-Dec-08 30-Dec-08 31-Dec-08 01-Jan-09 02-Jan-09 03-Jan-09 04-Jan-09 05-Jan-09 06-Jan-09 07-Jan-09 08-Jan-09 09-Jan-09 10-Jan-09 11-Jan-09 12-Jan-09 13-Jan-09 14-Jan-09 15-Jan-09 16-Jan-09 17-Jan-09 18-Jan-09 19-Jan-09 20-Jan-09 21-Jan-09 22-Jan-09 23-Jan-09 24-Jan-09 25-Jan-09 26-Jan-09 27-Jan-09 28-Jan-09 29-Jan-09 30-Jan-09 31-Jan-09  NH3-N  N0x  NO3-N  NO2-N Corrected NO x PO4-P  267.0  10.4  6.6  3.8  200.0  35.6  0.1  35.5  244.0  24.3  1.3  23.0  246.0  22.6  1.4  21.2  110.0  35.0  3.0  32.0  64.9  43.2  5.5  37.7  94.2  41.0  5.6  35.4  134.0 155.0 162.0 167.0  3.1 2.7 3.0 3.7  0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3  2.9 2.5 2.8 3.4  91.0 85.4 69.9 54.6  38.3 40.5  4.7 6.1  33.6 34.4  54.6 49.4 50.5 50.6 38.3  25.2 11.8 12.3  11.1 8.8 9.0  14.1 3.0 3.3  14.5  12.7  1.8  BOD  COD  Alk, (mg/L)CaCO3  180.0 140.0  103  Anammox Recator Effluent  Date 02-Feb-09 03-Feb-09 04-Feb-09 05-Feb-09 06-Feb-09 07-Feb-09 08-Feb-09 09-Feb-09 10-Feb-09 11-Feb-09 12-Feb-09 13-Feb-09 14-Feb-09 15-Feb-09 16-Feb-09 17-Feb-09 18-Feb-09 19-Feb-09 20-Feb-09 21-Feb-09 22-Feb-09 23-Feb-09 24-Feb-09 25-Feb-09 26-Feb-09 27-Feb-09 28-Feb-09 01-Mar-09 02-Mar-09 03-Mar-09 04-Mar-09 05-Mar-09 06-Mar-09 07-Mar-09 08-Mar-09 09-Mar-09 10-Mar-09 11-Mar-09 12-Mar-09 13-Mar-09 14-Mar-09 15-Mar-09 16-Mar-09 17-Mar-09 18-Mar-09 19-Mar-09 20-Mar-09 21-Mar-09 22-Mar-09 23-Mar-09 24-Mar-09 25-Mar-09 26-Mar-09 27-Mar-09 28-Mar-09 29-Mar-09 30-Mar-09 31-Mar-09  NH3-N 46.0 37.4 40.9  N0x 14.2 18.5 31.0  NO3-N 12.8 17.1 29.4  NO2-N Corrected NOx PO4-P 1.4 1.4 1.6  BOD  COD  Alk, (mg/L)CaCO3  95.4 107.0  48.8 26.5  31.9 22.1  16.9 4.4  280.0 340.0  80.8 72.5 96.7 112.0 155.0  55.9 53.0 70.9 51.7 38.2  23.9 31.4 33.2 36.1 33.0  32.0 21.6 37.7 15.6 5.2  180.0 115.0 160.0 280.0 460.0  141.0 122.0 94.6 92.0 102.0  66.2 53.5 45.4 66.4 67.8  46.3 32.3 28.3 63.0 65.4  19.9 21.2 17.1 3.4 2.4  240.0 280.0 220.0 240.0 170.0  80.0 130.0  153.0 154.0 131.0  120.0 330.0 240.0  115.0 123.0 297.0  220.0 2200.0 70.9  837.0  152.0 153.3  142.0 69.0  129.6 64.4  12.4 4.6  36.8 29.4 402.0  170.5 181.8 177.5  28.4 36.0 47.9  26.7 33.8 42.9  1.7 2.2 5.0  29.6 27.0 32.1  460.0  176.0  32.1  21.5  10.6  34.1  500.0  107.0  23.8  30.1  1.4  31.4  24.5  160.0  125.5  29.0  18.5  15.2  33.7  26.0  270.0  104  Anammox Recator Effluent  Date 02-Apr-09 03-Apr-09 04-Apr-09 05-Apr-09 06-Apr-09 07-Apr-09 08-Apr-09 09-Apr-09 10-Apr-09 11-Apr-09 12-Apr-09 13-Apr-09 14-Apr-09 15-Apr-09 16-Apr-09 17-Apr-09 18-Apr-09 19-Apr-09 20-Apr-09 21-Apr-09 22-Apr-09 23-Apr-09 24-Apr-09 25-Apr-09 26-Apr-09 27-Apr-09 28-Apr-09 29-Apr-09 30-Apr-09 01-May-09 02-May-09 03-May-09 04-May-09 05-May-09 06-May-09 07-May-09 08-May-09 09-May-09 10-May-09 11-May-09 12-May-09 13-May-09 14-May-09 15-May-09 16-May-09 17-May-09 18-May-09 19-May-09 20-May-09 21-May-09 22-May-09 23-May-09 24-May-09 25-May-09 26-May-09 27-May-09 28-May-09 29-May-09 30-May-09  NH3-N 65.3  N0x 33.8  NO3-N 30.8  NO2-N Corrected NO x PO4-P 10.8 41.6 29.2  BOD  COD  Alk, (mg/L)CaCO3 120.0  65.4 69.1  43.5 44.5  44.4 48.9  10.4 8.0  54.8 56.9  29.2 28.8  100.0  221.0 213.0  18.5 9.3  19.4 8.2  4.1 3.2  23.4 11.4  24.8 29.0  690.0  123.0 54.4 51.5  18.6 23.7 30.3  7.5 16.3 18.9  11.1 7.4 11.4  24.9 24.9 25.5  26.8  8.0  4.6  3.4  24.1  51.4 74.6  29.0 20.9  22.8 17.8  6.2 3.1  23.1 23.9  75.7  24.8  20.0  5.0  25.0  27.0  51.8 71.4  38.9 34.3  33.7 30.6  5.5 4.0  39.2 34.6  21.2 19.6  88.7 185.0 204.0 178.0 152.0  80.8 77.5 87.6 56.4 52.3  79.8 75.1 69.2 51.3 45.9  1.8 3.2 19.1 5.6 6.9  81.6 78.3 88.3 56.9 52.8  131.0 127.0 128.0 105.0 114.0 135.0 153.0 108.0 87.0 177.0  47.6 49.0 39.6 54.6  40.6 35.2 32.4 47.7  7.4 14.2 7.6 7.3  48.0 49.4 39.9 55.1  46.7 30.1 26.8 32.2 43.0  30.2 21.7 20.0 24.3 35.0  16.9 8.6 7.1 8.2 8.5  47.1 30.4 27.1 32.5 43.5  420.0  350.0  190.0  500.0 430.0  240.0 140.0 180.0  160.0  500.0 103.0  86.6 63.9  27.4 35.2 32.0  17.5 24.7 23.8  10.0 10.5 8.3  27.4 35.2 32.0  98.3  40.5  22.8  17.7  40.5  69.0  28.7  22.6  6.1  28.7  90.0  120.0  105  Anammox Recator Effluent  Date NH3-N 02-Jun-09 03-Jun-09 04-Jun-09 05-Jun-09 06-Jun-09 07-Jun-09 08-Jun-09 09-Jun-09 10-Jun-09 11-Jun-09 12-Jun-09 13-Jun-09 14-Jun-09 15-Jun-09 16-Jun-09 17-Jun-09 18-Jun-09 19-Jun-09 20-Jun-09 21-Jun-09 22-Jun-09 23-Jun-09 24-Jun-09 25-Jun-09 26-Jun-09 27-Jun-09 28-Jun-09 29-Jun-09 30-Jun-09 01-Jul-09 02-Jul-09 03-Jul-09 04-Jul-09 05-Jul-09 06-Jul-09 07-Jul-09 08-Jul-09 09-Jul-09 10-Jul-09 11-Jul-09 12-Jul-09 13-Jul-09 14-Jul-09 15-Jul-09 16-Jul-09 17-Jul-09 18-Jul-09 19-Jul-09 20-Jul-09 21-Jul-09 22-Jul-09 23-Jul-09 24-Jul-09 25-Jul-09 26-Jul-09 27-Jul-09 28-Jul-09 29-Jul-09 30-Jul-09  N0x  NO3-N  NO2-N Corrected NO x PO4-P  BOD  COD  Alk, (mg/L)CaCO3  25.6 35.6  20.3 27.1  5.3 8.5  47.8 48.3  32.9 33.4  14.9 14.9  48.3  64.9  1.5  0.7  0.8  1.5  100.0  85.3 115.0 129.0  43.8 41.1 41.7  31.7 28.0 23.5  12.1 13.1 18.2  43.8 41.1 41.7  120.0  107.0  27.0  19.9  7.1  27.0  220.0  209.0  28.9  16.7  12.2  28.9  159.0  33.5  20.5  13.0  33.5  216.0  35.5  22.6  12.9  35.5  195.0  37.7  28.7  9.0  37.7  96.5  28.8  25.2  3.6  28.8  136.0  54.4  39.9  14.5  54.4  178.0  30.5  24.0  6.5  30.5  299.0  32.6  12.3  20.3  32.6  173.0  40.8  30.5  10.3  40.8  310.0  64.6  17.8  13.7  4.1  17.8  100.0  67.8  40.2  27.6  12.6  40.2  94.7  39.3  33.4  10.5  43.9  25.6  920.0  570.0  210.0  220.0  200.0  106  Anammox Recator Effluent  Date 02-Aug-09 03-Aug-09 04-Aug-09 05-Aug-09 06-Aug-09 07-Aug-09 08-Aug-09 09-Aug-09 10-Aug-09 11-Aug-09 12-Aug-09 13-Aug-09 14-Aug-09 15-Aug-09 16-Aug-09 17-Aug-09 18-Aug-09 19-Aug-09 20-Aug-09 21-Aug-09 22-Aug-09 23-Aug-09 24-Aug-09 25-Aug-09 26-Aug-09 27-Aug-09 28-Aug-09 29-Aug-09 30-Aug-09  NH3-N 98.2  N0x 28.7  NO3-N 24.6  NO2-N Corrected NO x PO4-P 7.5 32.1  BOD  COD  Alk, (mg/L)CaCO3  91.6  31.4  26.6  8.5  35.1  180.0  101.0  34.0  36.2  2.3  38.5  120.0  84.4  38.3  36.9  6.0  42.9  84.8  41.5  38.5  7.8  46.3  130.0  72.0  22.0  20.7  3.9  24.6  110.0  93.3 92.8  23.2  22.2  3.8  26.0  170.0  86.8  110.0  79.1  120.0  100.0  107  Appendix 2.Raw data of partial nitrification in the sequencing batch reactor Partial Nitrification in the Sequencing Batch Reactor Result DO = 0.5 -1.5 mg/L Aeration rate = 3 LPM  Time sample# influent 6 9:30 7 9:40 8 10:15 9 11:00 10 11:45 11 12:30 12 1:05 13 1:40 14 2:15 15 2:50 16 3:15 17 4:00 18 4:50 effluent 19.00  min 0 10 45 90 135 180 205 250 285 320 345 390  NH4+ 1100.00 481.00 832.00 755.00 759.00 603.00 536.00 457.00 506.00 385.00 433.00 456.00 399.00  NH4+ 1100.00 481.00 832.00 755.00 759.00 603.00 556.00 520.00 506.00 485.00 456.00 445.00 435.00  NOX 5.81 537.00 229.00 262.00 351.00 417.00 440.00 482.00 509.00 521.00 510.00 513.00 514.00  NO2 3.26 495.00 220.00 249.00 329.00 387.00 407.00 442.00 465.00 467.00 460.00 466.00 467.00  NO3 NO2/NH4+ NH4+N02+NO3 2.60 0.00 1106 42.86 1.03 1019 9.18 0.26 1061 13.27 0.33 1017 22.45 0.43 1110 30.61 0.64 1021 33.67 0.73 997 40.82 0.85 1003 44.90 0.92 1016 55.10 0.96 1007 51.02 1.01 967 47.96 1.05 959 47.96 1.07 950  463.00  463.00  546.00  496.00  51.02  1.07  1010  PH 7.90 5.70 7.60 7.90 7.80 7.70 7.40 6.90 6.30 5.90 5.70 5.70 5.70 5.70 5.70  108  DO = 1.5 -2.5 mg/L Aeration rate = 2.5 LPM Time influent 9:30 9:40 10:15 11:00 11:45 12:30 1:05 1:40 2:15 2:50 3:15 4:00 4:50 effluent  sample# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 13  min 0 10 45 90 135 180 205 250 285 320 345 390 440  NH4+ 979 480 751 758 660 593 527 497 442 437 450 455 435  NH4+ 979 480 751 758 660 593 527 497 442 437 463 484 435  435  435  NOX 7.50 529.00 238.00 256.00 302.00 349.00 417.00 454.00 509.00 506.00 491.00 493.00 497.00  NO2 2.50 507.00 217.00 235.00 279.00 328.00 395.00 434.00 487.00 490.00 471.00 474.00 477.00  NO3 NO2/NH4+ NH4+N02+NO3 PH 5.10 0.00 987 7.80 22.45 1.06 1009 5.90 21.43 0.29 989 7.50 21.43 0.31 1014 7.90 23.47 0.42 962 7.80 21.43 0.55 942 7.60 22.45 0.75 944 7.40 20.41 0.87 951 7.10 22.45 1.10 951 6.60 16.33 1.12 943 5.90 20.41 1.05 941 5.70 19.39 1.04 948 5.60 20.41 1.10 932 5.60 5.60 0.00 0.00 435 5.60  109  DO = 0.3 - 0.7 mg/L Aeration rate = 2.5 LPM  Time influent  sample# 1  min  NH4+ 995  NOX 7.67  NO2 7.07  NO3 0.60  NO2/NH4+ NH4+N02+NO3 PH 0.01 1003 8.10  9:30 9:40 10:15 11:00 11:45 12:30 1:15 2:00 2:45 3:30 4:15 5:00 5:30 5:45 6:20 6:50  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17  0 10 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 405 450 480 495 530 560  469 705 681 642 613 597 568 518 495 486 477 445 440 432 428 431  542 252 242 280 309 340 368 410 417 420 442 470 471 468 481 485  540 244 232 274 304 330 365 388 397 417 432 448 451 455 465 468  2 8 10 6 5 10 3 22 20 3 10 22 20 13 16 17  1.15 0.35 0.34 0.43 0.50 0.55 0.64 0.75 0.80 0.86 0.91 1.01 1.03 1.05 1.09 1.09  1011 957 923 922 922 937 936 928 912 906 919 915 911 900 909 916  7.40 7.70 7.70 7.80 7.70 7.70 7.50 7.40 7.20 7.00 6.80 6.50 6.20 6.00 5.70 5.60  effluent  17  431  485  472  13  1.10  916  5.60  110  DO = 3.5 - 4.5 mg/L Aeration rate = 3 LPM  Time influent  sample# 1  min  NH4+ 1020  NOX 8.74  NO2 8.08  NO3 0.66  10:00 10:10 10:45 11:30 12:00 12:30 1:00 1:20 1:40 2:00 2:20  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12  0 10 45 90 120 150 180 200 220 240 260  505 766 731 648 538 485 450 445 430 425 410  516.00 237.00 281.00 360.00 408.00 460.00 510.00 515.00 522.00 526.00 532.00  516.00 226.00 273.00 351.00 408.00 460.00 510.00 515.00 522.00 520.00 530.00  0.00 11.00 8.00 9.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.00 2.00  1.02 0.30 0.37 0.54 0.76 0.95 1.13 1.16 1.21 1.22 1.29  1021 1003 1012 1008 946 945 960 960 952 951 942  5.70 7.80 8.10 7.80 7.70 7.10 6.40 6.00 5.80 5.70 5.60  410  532.00  530.00  2.00  1.29  942  5.60  effluent  NO2/NH4+ NH4+N02+NO3 PH 0.01 1029 8.10  111  pH=7.8 DO = 1.5 - 2.5 mg/L Aeration rate = 2 LPM  Time influent  sample# 1  min  NH4+ 1090  NOX 15  NO2 0  NO3 14.60  NO2/NH4+ NH4+N02+NO3 PH 0.00 1105 8.10  9:30 9:40 10:15 11:00 11:45 12:30 1:00 1:30 2:00 2:30 3:00 3:30 4:15 4:45  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15  0 10 45 90 135 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 405 435  475 689 667 637 604 559 536 497 467 436 391 368 315 272  440 214 230 256 292 342 374 408 446 482 512 556 594 652  426 210 218 238 284 324 356 390 420 440 464 504 534 564  14.00 4.00 12.00 18.00 8.00 18.00 18.00 18.00 26.00 42.00 48.00 52.00 60.00 88.00  0.90 0.30 0.33 0.37 0.47 0.58 0.66 0.78 0.90 1.01 1.19 1.37 1.70 2.07  915 903 897 893 896 901 910 905 913 918 903 924 909 924  5.70 7.80 7.80 7.80 7.80 7.80 7.80 7.80 7.80 7.80 7.80 7.80 7.80 7.80  effluent  15.00  272  652  564  88.00  2.07  924  7.80  112  pH=7.2 DO = 1.5 - 2.5 mg/L Aeration rate = 2.5 LPM  Time influent  sample# 16  min  NH4+ 904  NOX 6  NO2 6  NO3 0.80  NO2/NH4+ NH4+N02+NO3 PH 0.01 910 7.90  9:30 9:40 10:15 11:00 11:45 12:30 1:00 1:30 2:00 2:30 3:00 3:45 4:30  17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29  0 10 45 90 135 180 210 240 270 300 330 375 420  405 621 574 527 495 463 432 415 397 378 364 351 331  489 262 270 296 338 389 436 440 454 467 500 530 558  486 250 266 292 334 385 428 435 448 460 492 510 539  3.00 12.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 8.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 20.00 19.00  1.20 0.40 0.46 0.55 0.67 0.83 0.99 1.05 1.13 1.22 1.35 1.45 1.63  894 883 844 823 833 852 868 855 851 845 864 881 889  5.70 7.20 7.20 7.20 7.20 7.20 7.20 7.20 7.20 7.20 7.20 7.20 7.20  effluent  29.00  331  558  539  19.00  1.63  889  7.20  113  pH=6.6 DO = 1.5 - 2.5 mg/L Aeration rate = 2 LPM  Time influent  sample# 16  min  NH4+ 970  NOX 8.00  NO2 12.00  NO3 -4.00  NO2/NH4+ NH4+N02+NO3 PH 0.01 978 7.80  9:30 9:40 10:15 11:00 11:45 12:30 1:00 1:30 2:00 2:30 3:00 3:45 4:30  17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29  0 10 45 90 135 180 210 240 270 300 330 375 420  514 741 738 740 724 726 714 704 700 692 680 678 671  454 232 230 226 246 248 248 262 272 276 290 294 298  422 216 214 210 229 231 231 244 253 257 270 273 277  32 16 16 16 17 17 17 18 19 19 20 21 21  0.82 0.29 0.29 0.28 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.35 0.36 0.37 0.40 0.40 0.41  968 973 968 966 970 974 962 966 972 968 970 972 969  5.70 6.60 6.60 6.60 6.60 6.60 6.60 6.60 6.60 6.60 6.60 6.60 6.60  effluent  29.00  672  298  277  21  0.41  970  6.60  114  pH=6 DO = 1.5 - 2.5 mg/L Aeration rate = 0.25 LPM  Time influent  sample# 16  min  NH4+ 987  NOX 3.00  NO2 2.78  NO3 0.22  NO2/NH4+ NH4+N02+NO3 PH 0.00 990 8.00  11:00 11:10 12:00 12:45 1:30 2:15 3:00 3:45 4:30 5:15 6:00  17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27  0 10 60 105 150 195 240 285 330 375 420  534 742 765 754 738 735 732 729 720 718 715  457 248 223 232 248 250 253 257 268 267 272  408 214 204 211 226 230 231 236 243 244 250  49 34 19 21 22 20 22 21 25 23 22  0.76 0.29 0.27 0.28 0.31 0.31 0.32 0.32 0.34 0.34 0.35  991 990 988 986 986 985 985 986 988 985 987  5.70 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00  effluent  29.00  715  272  250  22  0.35  987  6.00  115  pH=6 DO = 1.5 - 2.5 mg/L Aeration rate = 0.25 LPM  Time influent  sample# 16  min  NH4+ 987  NOX 3.00  NO2 2.78  NO3 0.22  NO2/NH4+ NH4+N02+NO3 PH 0.00 990 8.00  11:00 11:10 12:00 12:45 1:30 2:15 3:00 3:45 4:30 5:15 6:00  17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27  0 10 60 105 150 195 240 285 330 375 420  534 742 765 754 738 735 732 729 720 718 715  457 248 223 232 248 250 253 257 268 267 272  408 214 204 211 226 230 231 236 243 244 250  49 34 19 21 22 20 22 21 25 23 22  0.76 0.29 0.27 0.28 0.31 0.31 0.32 0.32 0.34 0.34 0.35  991 990 988 986 986 985 985 986 988 985 987  5.70 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00  effluent  29.00  715  272  250  22  0.35  987  6.00  116  Continuous feeding (100 % of total feed volume (2.5 L) was pumped into the reactor in 10 min) DO = 1.5 - 2.5 mg/L Aeration rate = 1.5 LPM before 10:30; after 10:30 = 2.5 LPM Feeding rate was =250ml/min  Time influent  sample# 1  min  NH4+ 1040  NOX 4.57  NO2 5.06  NO3 -0.49  NO2/NH4+ NH4+N02+NO3 PH 0.00 1045 7.80  10:30 10:40 11:15 11:45 12:15 12:45 13:15 13:45 14:15 14:45 15:15 15:45 16:15 16:45 17:15  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16  0 10 35 65 95 125 155 185 215 245 275 305 335 365 395  463 555 644 559 559 455 471 475 448 450 480 470 442 478 417  526.00 405.00 382.00 374.00 401.00 483.00 463.00 460.00 497.00 481.00 486.00 501.00 506.00 532.00 483.00  539.00 403.00 369.00 366.00 391.00 395.00 457.00 448.00 506.00 485.00 479.00 495.00 503.00 466.00 473.00  -13.00 2.00 13.00 8.00 10.00 88.00 6.00 12.00 -9.00 -4.00 7.00 6.00 3.00 66.00 10.00  1.16 0.73 0.57 0.65 0.86 0.84 0.96 1.00 1.12 1.01 1.02 1.12 1.05 1.12 1.13  989 960 1026 933 960 938 934 935 945 931 966 971 948 1010 900  6.20 7.15 7.60 7.76 7.65 7.65 7.40 7.20 6.92 6.52 6.13 5.84 5.73  effluent  16  30  417  483.00  473.00  10.00  1.13  900  5.60  117  Continuous feeding (100 % of total feed volume (2.5 L) was pumped into the reactor in 2 hour) DO = 1.5 - 2.5 mg/L Aeration rate = 1.5 LPM before 10:30; after 10:30 = 2.5 LPM Feeding stopped at 12:00; feeding rate was 25ml/min of the feeding pump controller  Time influent  sample#  min  NH4+ 995  NOX 8.60  NO2 8.00  NO3 0.60  NO2/NH4+ NH4+N02+NO3 PH 0.01 1004 7.80  9:30 9:45 10:00 10:30 11:00 11:30 12:00 12:30 1:00 1:30 2:00 2:30 3:00 3:30 4:00  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15.00  0 5 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360  508 497 513 550 558 571 591 567 524 492 455 405 381 365  489.00 490.00 477.00 440.00 432.00 418.00 395.00 419.00 457.00 497.00 540.00 574.00 604.00 621.00  447.00 445.00 435.00 423.00 414.00 397.00 378.00 403.00 440.00 491.00 518.00 559.00 584.00 600.00  42.00 45.00 42.00 17.00 18.00 21.00 17.00 16.00 17.00 6.00 22.00 15.00 20.00 21.00  0.88 0.90 0.85 0.77 0.74 0.70 0.64 0.71 0.84 1.00 1.14 1.38 1.53 1.64  997 987 990 990 990 989 986 986 981 989 995 979 985 986  5.70 6.30 6.70 7.30 7.40 7.60 7.60 7.60 7.40 7.20 7.00 6.70 6.30 5.90 5.80  effluent  14.00  463  590.00  536.00  54.00  1.16  1053  5.60  118  Continuous feeding (60% of total feed volume was pumped into the reactor in 6 minutes and the remaining 40% was pumped slowly in 40 minutes) DO = 1.5 - 2.5 mg/L Aeration rate = 2.5 LPM  Time influent  sample#  min  NH4+ 931  NOX 3.03  NO2 3.20  NO3 -0.17  NO2/NH4+ NH4+N02+NO3 PH 0.00 934 7.80  10:30 10:40 11:15 11:45 12:15 12:45 13:15 13:45 14:15 14:45 15:15 15:45 16:15 16:45 17:15  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15  0 10 30 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390 420  587 647 623 704 637 576 565 478 504 507 497 473 489 478 515  385.00 257.00 296.00 312.00 345.00 379.00 417.00 449.00 479.00 495.00 489.00 529.00 514.00 531.00 538.00  386.00 250.00 292.00 307.00 342.00 376.00 410.00 447.00 469.00 489.00 473.00 515.00 502.00 511.00 514.00  -1.00 7.00 4.00 5.00 3.00 3.00 7.00 2.00 10.00 6.00 16.00 14.00 12.00 20.00 24.00  0.66 0.39 0.47 0.44 0.54 0.65 0.73 0.94 0.93 0.96 0.95 1.09 1.03 1.07 1.00  972 904 919 1016 982 955 982 927 983 1002 986 1002 1003 1009 1053  7.64 8.07 7.90 7.67 7.52 7.36 7.18 6.86 6.65 6.22 6.05 5.92 5.80 5.79  effluent  15.00  515  538.00  514.00  24.00  1.00  1053  5.79  119  Continuous feeding (30% of total feed volume was pumped into the reactor in 3 minutes and the remaining 70% was pumped slowly in 70 minutes) DO = 1.5 - 2.5 mg/L Aeration rate = 2.5 LPM  Time influent  sample# 1  min  NH4+ 916  NOX 1.33  NO2 4.75  NO3 -4.75  NO2/NH4+ NH4+N02+NO3 PH 0.01 916 7.80  9:30 9:33 10:00 10:30 11:00 11:30 12:00 12:30 1:00 1:30 2:00 2:30 3:00 3:30 4:00  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16.00  0 3 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390  498 596 629 638 621 663 606 552 563 508 489 471 488 462 457  471 338.00 392.00 427.00 360.00 375.00 357.00 397.00 416.00 452.00 483.00 487.00 469.00 477.00 449  373.00 302.00 342.00 359.00 300.00 345.00 343.00 385.00 397.00 439.00 448.00 440.00 483.00 492.00 383.00  -371.67 36.00 50.00 68.00 60.00 30.00 14.00 12.00 19.00 13.00 35.00 47.00 -14.00 -15.00 66.00  0.75 0.51 0.54 0.56 0.48 0.52 0.57 0.70 0.71 0.86 0.92 0.93 0.99 1.06 0.84  499 934 1021 1065 981 1038 963 949 979 960 972 958 957 939 906  5.70 7.00 7.50 7.50 7.52 7.55 7.53 7.40 7.20 6.88 6.46 6.10 5.90 5.73 5.62  effluent  29.00  457  449  383.00  66.00  0.84  906  5.62  120  Appendix 3. Data of the hybrid and the up-flow fixed-bed Anammox reactors Sample Number TOC(mg/L) SOC(mg/L) NH3-N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50  35.1 17 18  14 16  44.8 22.9 30.8 32.6  25.7  18  14  14  12  14  16  16  14  24.1  14 23.5  12 12  33  60.9 41.7 65 50.2 80.3 77.3 55.5 46.9 44.6 50 46.6 50.5 37.7 49.7 43.4 50.3 43.7 50.8 35.6 42.4 42.9 41.8 43.4 48 38.5 36.9 54 43.1 46.6 37.7 43.8 43 45.3 45.7 38.5 43.1 35.1 44.6 48.8 45.4 50.7 44.7 51.4 34.4 39.7 47.8 41.3 50.9 34 39.7  Nox-N 42.3 35.5 48.1 38.6 63.3 67.3 53 44.4 42.9 48.4 44.6 51.8 37.1 46 51 49.4 54 51 32.6 53 54.8 52 53.1 49.1 53.6 52.7 64.1 56.5 52.1 56.4 55.2 54.8 50.1 53.6 52.2 54.7 42.9 51.4 58.4 56.5 60.5 51 58.5 43.9 51.7 62 55.2 61.6 43.8 47  Influent Characteristics NO3-N NO2-N Corrected Nox NO2-N/NH4-N 8.7 11.1 8.4 7.3 13.0 15.8 12.8 9.6 9.4 9.7 8.1 11.4 6.4 10.3 15.5 7.0 16.2 6.2 1.2 15.1 16.2 14.3 19.2 5.0 17.9 18.4 13.4 16.2 8.4 20.9 14.1 14.1 6.9 9.9 15.3 13.2 9.1 8.0 11.1 11.9 10.7 6.7 7.4 9.8 16.8 13.8 13.7 9.8 9.2 6.3  33.6 24.7 39.7 31.5 50.8 52.1 40.2 35 33.7 38.7 36.5 40.4 30.7 40.6 35.7 42.4 38 44.8 31.4 38.1 38.8 37.9 39.5 44.1 35.7 34.3 50.7 40.5 43.8 35.5 41.3 40.9 43.3 43.8 37.1 41.6 34 43.5 47.7 44.7 50.2 44.4 51.1 34.2 39.8 48.2 41.7 51.8 34.7 40.7  42.31 35.78 48.10 38.78 63.77 67.87 53.01 44.64 43.14 48.41 44.61 51.81 37.11 50.90 51.17 49.40 54.18 51.00 32.60 53.17 54.98 52.16 58.74 49.10 53.60 52.70 64.10 56.68 52.19 56.40 55.35 54.95 50.18 53.71 52.37 54.85 43.13 51.49 58.80 56.63 60.88 51.07 58.50 44.01 56.63 62.00 55.35 61.60 43.90 47.00  Alak(mg/L CaCO3)  0.55 0.59 0.61 0.63 0.63 0.67 0.72 0.75 0.76 0.77 0.78 0.80 0.81 0.82 0.82 0.84 0.87 0.88 0.88 0.90 0.90 0.91 0.91 0.92 0.93 0.93 0.94 0.94 0.94 0.94 0.94 0.95 0.96 0.96 0.96 0.97 0.97 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 1.00 1.01 1.01 1.02 1.02 1.03  100  121  Sample Number 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100  Influent Characteristics TOC(mg/L) SOC(mg/L) NH3-N Nox-N NO3-N 25  15  13  11 11  19  12  25  19  14  13  23.3  15  17.1  11 14  16.1  13 11.8  25  19  15.3 15.4  25.4 12.3 12.3 12.2 15.3 12.7  53.8 46.5 33 44.7 32.7 41.7 42.5 44.1 40.9 48.5 41.2 32.6 58.4 41.1 42.9 46.9 40.1 34.4 36.9 36.9 38.3 48.1 37.6 38.6 47.5 36.6 31.1 48.7 36.6 36.6 36.5 47.2 31.6 38.3 51.2 36 40.9 42.7 35.4 35.4 43.5 33.9 45.6 38.3 32.6 34.3 36.7 47.1 39.2 34.5  68.1 62 43.8 63.2 44.5 56.3 58.3 51 58.5 59.2 59 52.2 70 64 64.8 58.4 60.3 59.1 62.4 62.4 62.9 79.5 57.2 60.4 72 57.8 54.2 65.4 65.2 65.2 57.1 64.5 51.1 64 69.3 59.3 64.2 63.9 64.5 64.5 75.1 58.5 73.5 67.5 54.9 61.5 67.3 73.5 67.3 62.4  12.8 13.9 9.7 15.1 9.4 11.3 12.0 2.6 12.3 4.5 12.2 15.3 3.1 16.2 14.0 2.5 11.7 17.2 19.6 19.6 17.5 22.5 14.3 11.8 13.3 16.1 13.9 2.3 20.2 20.2 13.7 3.3 9.9 14.2 2.3 11.6 10.3 7.4 19.6 19.6 18.6 15.0 13.7 16.1 10.8 16.8 17.6 10.8 14.2 17.4  NO 2-N Corrected Nox NO2-N/NH4-N Alaklinity(mg CaCO3) 55.3 48.1 34.2 48.1 35.2 45.1 46.4 48.4 46.2 54.8 46.8 37.1 66.9 48.3 51.2 56 48.6 41.9 45.2 45.2 47.2 59.8 47.1 48.6 60.1 46.4 40.3 63.2 47.5 47.5 47.4 61.3 41.2 50.1 67 47.7 54.2 56.7 47.3 47.3 58.2 45.4 61.2 51.7 44.1 46.4 49.7 63.8 53.1 46.8  68.10 62.00 43.91 63.20 44.60 56.42 58.43 51.00 58.51 59.31 59.01 52.37 70.03 64.52 65.25 58.46 60.31 59.12 64.83 64.83 64.70 82.29 61.39 60.41 73.37 62.52 54.20 65.46 67.71 67.71 61.12 64.59 51.10 64.28 69.33 59.31 64.53 64.14 66.93 66.93 76.77 60.35 74.91 67.82 54.90 63.23 67.30 74.61 67.31 64.19  1.03 1.03 1.04 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.13 1.13 1.14 1.14 1.15 1.18 1.19 1.19 1.21 1.22 1.22 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25 1.26 1.27 1.27 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.31 1.31 1.33 1.33 1.33 1.34 1.34 1.34 1.34 1.34 1.35 1.35 1.35 1.35 1.35 1.35 1.36  44 40  175  40  122  Sample Number 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150  Influent Characteristics TOC(mg/L) SOC(mg/L) NH3-N Nox-N NO3-N 20.1  12.6  17.6 24  17.6 17  18.8  12.4  19 23  13 15.00  16  12  14  15.2 12.7 12 ?  24  17  16.1  25.1 11.3  18 18.4  15 14.4  18.2 14.6 25.1  10.8 15.3 10.5 17.6  18.4  14.6  17.7 18.2  14.6 12.2  14.5  10.8  17.5 17.5  10.8 10.6  36.7 39.8 40.3 38.2 48.4 48.1 44.3 35.8 26.3 38.3 34.2 41.4 42.2 36.1 40 34.5 38.8 36 44.5 29.9 38.3 41.4 33.3 45.1 39.2 37.1 29.2 30.4 39.2 40 31.5 37.2 30.4 32 29.7 34.2 35.7 31.1 29.3 28 28.9 32.7 28.6 35.6 31.1 27.3 35.2 28.2 28.1 31.1  67.2 69.9 64.4 66.6 74.6 70.1 73.4 67.6 52.2 69.2 55 62.5 61.45 71.5 60.8 66.4 59 66.6 75.2 56.1 59 63.1 64.4 70.1 64.6 64.1 55.9 60.2 64.2 61.6 56.1 66.4 56.1 56.4 56.3 59 65.5 47.7 60.4 56.2 49 71.5 60.9 59.7 60 57.1 67.4 56.2 56.3 59.6  17.4 15.6 9.6 13.9 8.5 3.5 12.7 17.2 15.3 15.0 6.5 3.3 1.1 19.5 2.9 18.6 2.7 14.2 11.0 12.2 2.7 2.0 17.4 3.3 6.5 9.1 12.2 16.8 5.5 1.0 8.3 9.8 9.6 7.3 10.6 6.1 10.2 16.4 11.4 2.7 19.1 16.9 1.8 9.1 12.1 9.5 9.5 9.6 7.8  NO2-N Corrected Nox NO2-N/NH4-N Alaklinity(mg CaCO3) 49.8 54.3 55.1 52.7 67 66.6 62 50.4 37.1 54.2 48.5 59.2 60.35 52 58 50.1 56.4 52.4 65.3 43.9 56.4 61.1 49.2 66.8 58.3 55.2 43.7 45.5 58.9 60.6 47.8 56.8 46.5 49.1 45.7 52.9 55.6 48.5 46 44.8 46.3 52.4 46.1 57.9 50.9 45 58.1 46.7 46.7 51.8  67.20 69.90 64.71 66.61 75.47 70.14 74.71 67.60 52.37 69.20 55.00 62.54 61.48 71.50 60.89 68.71 59.07 66.61 76.34 56.10 59.07 63.12 66.55 70.14 64.81 64.28 55.90 62.28 64.38 61.61 56.10 66.60 56.10 56.40 56.30 59.00 65.83 47.70 62.44 56.20 49.00 71.50 62.99 59.70 60.00 57.10 67.59 56.20 56.30 59.60  1.36 1.36 1.37 1.38 1.38 1.38 1.40 1.41 1.41 1.42 1.42 1.43 1.43 1.44 1.45 1.45 1.45 1.46 1.47 1.47 1.47 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.49 1.49 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.52 1.52 1.53 1.53 1.53 1.54 1.55 1.56 1.56 1.57 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.61 1.63 1.64 1.65 1.65 1.66 1.66 1.67  40  40  48  71.5 71.5 71.5  123  Sample Number 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172  Influent Characteristics TOC(mg/L) SOC(mg/L) NH3-N Nox-N NO3-N 25.1  14.4  17.7  10.8  14  12  17.6  15.2  33.6 30 30 36.5 36.6 28.5 29.3 27.2 27.5 36.1 33.9 30.4 29.9 29.1 28.4 34.7 29.9 27.8 29.4 29.3 27.5 28.6  59.3 47.2 59 67.2 67.5 48 60.4 50.7 57.2 66.6 59 70.7 70.4 48.3 65.1 68.4 124 70.7 109 59.3 70.2 100  3.2 8.3 5.6 5.4 10.1 4.0 9.8 4.3 0.4 17.8 17.9 13.1 4.2 66.9 17.6 51.9 1.6 15.5 42.7  NO2-N Corrected Nox NO2-N/NH4-N Alaklinity(mg CaCO3) 56.1 50.7 50.7 61.7 62.2 48.5 50.3 46.7 47.4 62.4 58.6 52.9 52.5 51.2 52 64.3 57.1 53.1 57.1 57.7 54.7 57.3  59.30 47.20 59.00 67.31 67.61 48.00 60.40 50.70 57.20 66.72 59.00 70.70 70.40 48.30 65.10 68.48 124.00 70.70 109.00 59.30 70.20 100.00  1.67 1.69 1.69 1.69 1.70 1.70 1.72 1.72 1.72 1.73 1.73 1.74 1.76 1.76 1.83 1.85 1.91 1.91 1.94 1.97 1.99 2.00  124  Sample Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50  Anammox Hybrid Reactor Flow Rate(ml/min) HRT (hr) pH ORP 9.00 8.00 12.00 7.00 14.90 14.90 9.00 7.00 7.00 9.00 9.00 10.50 9.00 10.50 6.00 10.50 6.00 10.50 9.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.50 12.50 6.50 6.50 14.90 6.00 6.00 6.50 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 7.00 6.00 14.90 6.00 14.90 6.00 14.50 6.00 6.50 7.00 6.00 14.50 6.00 14.90  22.9 7.13 15.3 7.15 12.3 12.3 7.03 20.4 6.73 7.02 26.2 6.76 20.4 6.88 20.4 6.58 17.5 6.78 7.01 30.6 6.93 17.5 30.6 6.91 17.5 7.07 6.83 30.6 6.93 30.6 6.91 30.6 6.91 28.2 6.97 14.7 6.95 28.2 6.86 28.2 12.3 30.6 6.81 30.6 28.2 30.6 6.87 30.6 6.87 30.6 6.96 30.6 30.6 6.82 30.6 6.87 26.2 6.75 30.6 12.3 7.06 30.6 6.81 12.3 6.75 30.6 6.96 12.6 7.7 30.6 7.02 28.2 26.2 7.13 30.6 6.87 12.6 7.85 30.6 7.02 12.3  Temp  -86.1  30.1  -83.0  30.8  -126.2 -86.4 -82.0 -80.0 -96.0 -123.8 -116.5 -108.0  30.5 30.1 31.4 30 28.1 28.2 28.9 28.8  -148  32.2  -152.2 -102.8 -92.1 -148 -152.2 -152.2 -146.7 -122.4 -147.1  33.5 29.7 28.6 32.2 33.5 33.5 32.4 29.8 31.4  -147.3  32.6  -146.1 -146.1 -145.2  31 31 31.1  -154.8 -146.1 -82.7  31.3 31 28.3  -125.6 -147.3 -127.1 -145.2 -62.8 -158.7  31.1 32.6 29.7 31.1 26.9 30.4  -141.9 -146.1 -99.7 -158.7  28 31 30.4  125  Sample Number  Anammox Hybrid Reactor Flow Rate(ml/min)  51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100  14.90 7.00 6.00 7.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 12.50 6.50 19.50 6.50 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 19.50 6.50 6.50 7.00 7.00 6.50 7.00 6.50 6.50 6.50 6.50 7.00 10.00 7.00 7.00 6.50 10.00 7.00 6.50 6.00 6.50 6.00 6.00 7.00 7.00 7.00 7.00 6.50 6.50 7.00 6.50 7.00 6.50 6.50 6.50  HRT (hr) 12.3 26.2 30.6 26.2 30.6 30.6 30.6 28.2 9.4 28.2 30.6 30.6 30.6 30.6 9.4 28.2 28.2 26.2 26.2 28.2 26.2 28.2 28.2 28.2 28.2 26.2 18.3 26.2 26.2 28.2 18.3 26.2 28.2 30.6 28.2 30.6 30.6 26.2 26.2 26.2 26.2 28.2 28.2 26.2 28.2 26.2 28.2 28.2 28.2  pH  ORP  Temp  7.13 7.02 7.13 7.02 6.81 6.81  -141.9 -158.7 -141.9 -158.7 -147.3 -147.3  28 30.4 28 30.4 32.6 32.6  6.82 7.29 7.01  -154.8 -135.1 -133.3  31.3 30.9 32.3  6.9  -173.4  32.8  7.18 7.52  -155.1 -126.6  30 29  6.74 7.18 7.52 6.84 6.74 7.14  -158.5 -155.1 -126.6 -147.3 -158.5 -146.2  29.5 30 29 32.6 29.5 29.8  7.29  -135.1  30.9  7.04 7.18 7.52  -138.8 -155.1 -126.6  32.1 30 29  7.39  -140.5  30  6.9 7.14 7.05 6.88  -138.7 -146.2 -149.9 -145.1  31.5 29.8 31 29.9  126  Sample Number  Anammox Hybrid Reactor Flow Rate(ml/min)  101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150  7.00 6.00 6.00 6.50 6.50 6.00 6.50 7.00 6.00 6.00 6.50 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 7.00 19.50 6.50 6.50 7.00 19.50 6.00 7.00 6.00 6.00 6.50 7.00 7.00 6.00 6.00 6.50 6.50 7.00 6.50 7.00 6.50 6.00 6.50 7.00 7.00 6.50 6.00 7.00 6.50 7.00 7.00 6.50 7.00 7.00 7.00  HRT (hr) 26.2 30.6 30.6 28.2 28.2 30.6 28.2 26.2 30.6 30.6 28.2 30.6 30.6 30.6 30.6 26.2 9.4 28.2 28.2 26.2 9.4 30.6 26.2 30.6 30.6 28.2 26.2 26.2 30.6 30.6 28.2 28.2 26.2 28.2 26.2 28.2 30.6 28.2 26.2 26.2 28.2 30.6 26.2 28.2 26.2 26.2 28.2 26.2 26.2 26.2  pH  ORP  6.88  -145.1  Temp 29.9  6.88 6.82 6.9  -145.1 -154.8 31.5  29.9 31.3 -138.7  7.33 7.17  -104 -126.1  31.8 31  7.39  -140.5  30  7.4  -141.6  29.1  7.14 7.08 7.33 7.39  -146.2 -129 -104 -140.5  29.8 31.2 31.8 30  7.16  -129.9  29.4  7.32  -142  28  7.32  -132.4  30.9  6.98  -149.6  29.2  7.32 7.17  -142  28 30.2  6.98 7.32  -132.6 -142  31.6 28  7.43  -130.2  28.5  7.43  -130.2  28.5  127  Sample Number  Anammox Hybrid Reactor Flow Rate(ml/min)  151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172  6.50 6.50 6.50 6.50 6.50 6.50 7.00 6.50 7.00 22.50 6.50 6.00 6.00 6.50 6.00 6.50 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.50 6.00 6.00  HRT (hr) 28.2 28.2 28.2 28.2 28.2 28.2 26.2 28.2 26.2 8.1 28.2 30.6 30.6 28.2 30.6 28.2 30.6 30.6 30.6 28.2 30.6 30.6  pH  ORP  Temp  6.87 7.43  -153.5 -130.2  30.8 28.5  6.95  -146.2  29.7  7.16  29.4  -129.9  7.01  32.3  -133.3  6.95 7.23  30.1 24.3  -137.6 -88.7  128  Sample Number TOC(mg/L) SOC(mg/L) NH4-N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50  35.50 16.00 15.00  15.00 15.00  19.80 21.80 24.00 21.70  20.50  71.00  15.00  14.00  13.00  15.00  15.00  17.00  14.00  30.50  13.00 21.90  12.00 12.00  63.00  21.00 18.50 34.30 21.70 45.90 49.50 25.80 20.40 14.80 29.10 35.30 26.20 23.90 29.60 18.40 30.10 20.20 34.90 30.20 18.50 19.10 19.60 20.90 26.60 15.00 14.70 31.90 16.90 18.20 14.70 17.80 16.60 17.30 17.50 15.20 17.00 14.90 17.70 25.70 16.00 30.00 17.50 40.40 13.10 20.20 27.50 18.00 38.00 13.80 31.80  Hybrid Anammox Reactor Effluent NO x NO 3-N NO2-N Corrected NO x Alak(mg/L CaCO3) 13.00 12.40 17.40 12.50 38.20 38.40 15.20 13.70 14.20 11.50 13.40 24.70 16.30 21.00 24.30 25.40 23.00 26.80 21.90 24.30 22.70 22.20 23.50 18.90 31.30 29.80 32.00 22.50 22.40 33.30 23.10 23.30 21.20 23.40 24.90 24.30 11.10 22.50 29.10 22.70 32.80 20.70 26.80 19.50 24.40 48.40 23.10 30.60 19.00 32.00  9.71 9.61 6.30 9.83 13.07 10.06 8.46 10.00 9.50 9.61 9.66 12.51 12.36 12.03 26.20 10.70 23.52 10.20 12.08 26.21 23.42 22.85 31.37 11.42 29.90 28.45 11.10 23.01 22.00 31.91 23.20 23.54 21.16 22.99 26.81 24.80 10.35 22.09 8.71 23.20 10.68 20.68 5.00 21.21 32.04 27.20 23.31 5.70 20.25 6.10  3.30 3.03 11.10 2.92 25.60 28.70 6.75 3.95 4.94 1.90 3.75 12.20 3.95 8.97 0.56 14.70 1.69 16.60 9.83 0.56 1.48 1.50 1.51 7.48 1.40 1.35 21.30 1.65 2.47 1.39 2.08 1.97 2.03 2.57 0.61 1.83 1.01 2.49 20.70 1.68 22.50 1.96 21.80 0.28 1.94 21.20 1.98 24.90 0.65 25.90  13.01 12.64 17.40 12.75 38.67 38.76 15.21 13.95 14.44 11.51 13.41 24.71 16.31 21.00 26.76 25.40 25.21 26.80 21.91 26.76 24.90 24.35 32.88 18.90 31.30 29.80 32.40 24.66 24.47 33.30 25.28 25.51 23.19 25.56 27.42 26.63 11.36 24.58 29.41 24.88 33.18 22.64 26.80 21.49 33.98 48.40 25.29 30.60 20.90 32.00  115.00  300.00  129  Sample Number TOC(mg/L) SOC(mg/L) NH4-N 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100  45.00  14.00  14.00  13.00 12.00  14.00  14.00  25.00  19.00  16.00  12.00  11.00  15.10 21.00  12.00 15.00  25.00  14.00 12.30  25.00  15.60  19.00  12.50 12.50 10.90 11.40  12.10  19.80 30.10 12.90 30.60 15.20 15.40 15.50 32.20 14.10 22.20 13.50 14.90 14.70 19.60 20.00 22.80 13.40 13.30 26.20 26.40 17.60 34.70 13.70 14.00 22.40 13.50 19.30 33.80 21.70 27.00 13.30 32.60 16.60 14.60 15.00 13.00 17.50 16.30 23.60 27.30 28.40 22.10 22.60 14.80 16.10 11.70 22.40 20.40 13.50 18.10  Hybrid Anammox Reactor Effluent NO x NO 3-N NO2-N Corrected NO x Alak(mg/L CaCO3) 18.10 47.80 19.60 48.20 19.70 22.30 22.70 25.10 33.30 35.00 33.40 25.60 19.80 36.30 36.20 35.70 27.40 32.80 48.40 52.10 41.60 61.00 24.30 26.40 48.10 22.90 44.00 45.20 49.30 51.40 24.40 34.50 45.50 35.60 19.80 26.40 34.30 36.90 48.90 52.50 62.20 46.80 48.90 36.40 46.60 41.30 48.30 45.70 34.70 41.10  7.70 27.40 21.10 27.30 21.19 22.63 23.16 9.50 32.53 11.50 32.64 27.65 17.09 28.75 28.49 11.30 27.34 32.04 38.93 37.67 33.00 38.93 33.02 26.34 35.56 31.11 30.90 8.33 38.93 37.10 33.12 30.80 28.11 17.07 26.32 27.83 29.65 38.13 37.90 45.93 32.31 35.23 29.35 31.30 33.33 28.20 34.78 29.70 32.22  10.40 20.40 0.49 20.90 0.50 1.80 1.72 15.60 1.10 23.50 1.09 0.55 2.90 8.47 8.62 24.40 0.33 1.08 14.30 19.10 12.00 26.90 1.15 0.33 16.20 1.09 13.10 37.10 15.20 18.90 1.18 36.00 14.70 8.39 2.92 0.35 7.36 8.20 15.50 19.30 20.40 18.50 17.30 7.99 15.30 11.40 20.10 14.50 5.30 12.20  18.10 47.80 21.58 48.20 21.69 24.43 24.88 25.10 33.63 35.00 33.73 28.20 19.99 37.22 37.11 35.70 27.67 33.12 53.23 56.77 45.00 65.83 34.17 26.66 51.76 32.20 44.00 45.43 54.13 56.00 34.30 34.50 45.50 36.50 19.99 26.66 35.19 37.85 53.63 57.20 66.33 50.81 52.53 37.34 46.60 44.73 48.30 49.28 35.00 44.42  12.00 40.00  103.00  40.00  130  Sample Number TOC(mg/L) SOC(mg/L) NH4-N 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150  16.10  12.40  21.00  16.00  17.80  11.50  21.80 20.00  13.80 15.00 16.00  15.00  12.00  16.70 13.00  13.60 12.60 12.00  21.00  16.00  15.50  12.10 12.00  20.00  15.00 14.60  16.30 16.50 14.70  12.30 14.30 12.10  16.50  12.80  15.70 16.30  12.80 12.50  14.10  11.50  14.70 14.20  15.80 11.10  21.70 11.70 16.40 13.90 21.50 14.60 23.20 22.40 15.10 10.70 18.50 10.80 15.30 11.40 16.80 22.20 21.00 13.20 21.40 17.70 26.40 10.70 23.50 14.90 16.70 18.00 17.70 19.40 15.10 11.70 15.00 16.40 14.70 14.30 18.30 18.40 17.10 12.30 19.20 16.20 16.10 11.10 19.80 16.80 18.70 17.40 15.40 18.30 17.70 17.40  Hybrid Anammox Reactor Effluent NO x NO 3-N NO2-N Corrected NO x Alak(mg/L CaCO3) 47.70 38.30 34.70 35.80 43.90 20.80 48.20 47.70 25.70 37.00 50.80 16.80 17.50 38.00 37.40 46.80 34.10 36.10 44.60 43.30 39.00 15.80 51.00 20.10 36.80 34.50 44.00 48.90 38.50 14.80 47.30 33.20 43.70 45.80 44.10 49.40 34.80 30.10 49.10 45.90 32.50 38.10 45.20 49.20 44.60 45.00 35.00 44.30 44.40 45.10  27.80 31.97 28.10 30.65 32.55 18.66 34.78 28.70 27.63 30.78 31.00 15.03 12.04 35.22 32.58 32.88 11.10 31.02 32.33 29.10 11.42 14.00 38.47 17.95 29.60 25.44 31.00 32.42 33.65 13.17 34.30 24.87 28.40 33.50 30.70 30.30 28.06 23.79 32.76 30.10 21.20 35.23 30.14 32.30 28.70 31.70 26.32 30.70 31.10 28.90  19.90 6.33 7.50 5.46 14.70 2.35 17.00 19.00 0.66 6.22 19.80 1.94 5.80 3.91 5.86 18.00 23.00 5.39 15.60 14.20 27.90 1.95 17.30 2.35 8.15 9.57 13.00 20.50 5.93 1.77 13.00 9.13 15.30 12.30 13.40 19.10 7.64 6.31 20.40 15.80 11.30 4.00 18.80 16.90 15.90 13.30 9.52 13.60 13.30 16.20  47.70 38.30 35.60 36.11 47.25 21.01 51.78 47.70 28.30 37.00 50.80 16.97 17.84 39.13 38.44 50.88 34.10 36.41 47.93 43.30 39.32 15.95 55.77 20.30 37.75 35.01 44.00 52.92 39.58 14.94 47.30 34.00 43.70 45.80 44.10 49.40 35.70 30.10 53.16 45.90 32.50 39.23 48.94 49.20 44.60 45.00 35.84 44.30 44.40 45.10  40.00  38.50  54.00 54.00 54.00  131  Sample Number TOC(mg/L) SOC(mg/L) NH4-N 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172  21.80  14.60  15.70  12.30 12.50  16.70  13.60  17.40 13.50 14.00 19.80 16.80 14.20 18.60 16.10 16.70 19.40 16.90 7.88 7.05 13.40 6.99 15.90 7.53 7.35 7.41 17.00 7.13 6.62  Hybrid Anammox Reactor Effluent NO x NO 3-N NO2-N Corrected NO x Alak(mg/L CaCO3) 48.70 30.00 42.80 38.40 38.10 32.20 45.30 31.20 46.50 39.00 47.30 31.20 31.90 29.30 30.80 39.60 67.70 30.50 33.90 49.30 30.60 26.80  29.80 23.94 31.40 27.38 26.34 20.90 28.90 20.80 31.20 11.42 30.50 30.64 31.22 23.30 28.35 28.00 65.10 29.87 33.23 32.40 27.91 26.50  18.90 6.06 11.40 11.90 12.60 11.30 16.40 10.40 15.30 27.90 16.80 0.56 0.68 6.00 2.45 12.50 2.60 0.63 0.67 16.90 2.69 0.30  48.70 30.00 42.80 39.28 38.94 32.20 45.30 31.20 46.50 39.32 47.30 31.20 31.90 29.30 30.80 40.50 67.70 30.50 33.90 49.30 30.60 26.80  132  Sample Number  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50  Anammox Hybrid System Performance Volumetric Volumetric Volumetric Total N NH4 -N NO 2 -N Total N NH4-N NO2 -N removal removal removal removal removal removal Loading Loading Loading g/L.d g/L.d g/L.d % (g/d) % % (g/d) (g/d) (Total IN) (NH4-N) (NO2-N) 67.05 59.97 54.29 61.49 41.43 39.21 62.21 62.65 66.86 58.74 46.60 50.24 46.26 47.13 54.77 44.33 55.78 39.39  65.52 55.64 47.23 56.77 42.84 35.96 53.51 56.50 66.82 41.80 24.25 48.12 36.60 40.44 57.60 40.16 53.78 31.30  90.18 87.73 63.83 90.73  55.14 57.22 55.44 53.99 53.14 49.73 50.33 45.89 60.44 58.87 48.99 58.69 59.20 59.64 58.81 55.79 57.77 66.67 58.13 48.88 62.02 43.53 60.08  56.37 55.48 53.11 51.84 44.58 61.04 60.16 40.93 60.79 60.94 61.01 59.36 61.40 61.81 61.71 60.52 60.56 57.55 60.31  98.54 96.19 96.04 96.18 83.04 96.08 96.06 50.08 95.93 94.36 96.08 94.96 95.18 95.31 94.13 98.35 95.60 97.03 94.28  64.76 40.83 60.85  96.24  58.37 51.20 30.87 57.41  61.92 49.12 42.47 56.42  99.17 95.13 56.02 95.25  57.84  59.41  98.13  42.94 83.21 88.71 85.34 95.09 89.73 69.80 87.13 77.91 98.43 65.33 95.55 62.95  95.59  1.63 1.22 1.79 1.41 2.27 2.29 1.72 1.45 1.39 1.56 1.44 1.62 1.18 1.52 1.50 1.58 1.55 1.61 1.08 1.51 1.55 1.49 1.53 1.54 1.46 1.42 1.87 1.58 1.56 1.49 1.57 1.55 1.51 1.57 1.44 1.55 1.24 1.52 1.70 1.61 1.76 1.52 1.74 1.24 1.45 1.74 1.53 1.78 1.23 1.37  0.79 0.48 1.12 0.51 1.72 1.66 0.72 0.47 0.45 0.65 0.60 0.76 0.49 0.75 0.37 0.76 0.38 0.77 0.46 0.37 0.37 0.36 0.41 0.86 0.36 0.35 1.16 0.37 0.40 0.35 0.38 0.37 0.39 0.39 0.33 0.37 0.35 0.39 1.05 0.39 1.09 0.39 1.07 0.30 0.37 0.48 0.36 1.06 0.29 0.85  0.44 0.28 0.69 0.32 1.09 1.12 0.52 0.35 0.34 0.50 0.47 0.61 0.40 0.61 0.31 0.64 0.33 0.68 0.41 0.33 0.34 0.33 0.37 0.79 0.33 0.32 1.09 0.35 0.38 0.33 0.36 0.35 0.37 0.38 0.32 0.36 0.34 0.38 1.02 0.39 1.08 0.38 1.07 0.30 0.37 0.49 0.36 1.08 0.30 0.87  9.96 6.67 8.84 7.86 8.57 8.16 9.72 8.24 8.42 8.32 6.12 7.40 4.98 6.49 7.44 6.36 7.85 5.77  4.70 2.43 4.82 2.61 6.71 5.42 3.50 2.43 2.73 2.46 1.33 3.34 1.63 2.76 1.96 2.78 1.85 2.19  3.57 2.27 3.98 2.62 0.00 4.36 3.94 2.85 2.64 4.34 3.86 3.88 3.15 4.35 2.76 3.81 2.85 3.88  7.57 8.05 7.49 7.50 7.43 6.60 6.49 7.80 8.67 8.37 6.64 8.37 8.34 8.19 8.41 7.29 8.14 7.49 8.04 7.55 9.10 6.97 8.28 0.00 6.58 6.74 4.88 7.98 0.00 6.48 0.00  1.88 1.87 1.74 1.91 3.50 2.00 1.89 4.31 2.06 2.23 1.96 2.04 2.07 2.20 2.21 1.83 2.05 1.85 2.11 0.00 2.31 4.04 2.14 0.00 1.67 1.66 1.86 1.83 0.00 1.59 0.00  2.95 2.93 2.86 3.23 5.99 2.92 2.80 4.95 3.05 3.25 2.90 3.08 3.06 3.24 3.24 2.87 3.12 3.02 3.22 0.00 3.38 0.00 3.33 0.00 2.66 3.22 2.47 3.12 0.00 2.67 0.00  133  Sample Number  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50  Anammox Hybrid System Performance Volumetric Volumetric Volumetric Total N NH4 -N NO 2 -N Total N NH4-N NO2 -N removal removal removal removal removal removal Loading Loading Loading g/L.d g/L.d g/L.d % (g/d) % % (g/d) (g/d) (Total IN) (NH4-N) (NO2-N) 67.05 59.97 54.29 61.49 41.43 39.21 62.21 62.65 66.86 58.74 46.60 50.24 46.26 47.13 54.77 44.33 55.78 39.39  65.52 55.64 47.23 56.77 42.84 35.96 53.51 56.50 66.82 41.80 24.25 48.12 36.60 40.44 57.60 40.16 53.78 31.30  90.18 87.73 63.83 90.73  55.14 57.22 55.44 53.99 53.14 49.73 50.33 45.89 60.44 58.87 48.99 58.69 59.20 59.64 58.81 55.79 57.77 66.67 58.13 48.88 62.02 43.53 60.08  56.37 55.48 53.11 51.84 44.58 61.04 60.16 40.93 60.79 60.94 61.01 59.36 61.40 61.81 61.71 60.52 60.56 57.55 60.31  98.54 96.19 96.04 96.18 83.04 96.08 96.06 50.08 95.93 94.36 96.08 94.96 95.18 95.31 94.13 98.35 95.60 97.03 94.28  64.76 40.83 60.85  96.24  58.37 51.20 30.87 57.41  61.92 49.12 42.47 56.42  99.17 95.13 56.02 95.25  57.84  59.41  98.13  42.94 83.21 88.71 85.34 95.09 89.73 69.80 87.13 77.91 98.43 65.33 95.55 62.95  95.59  1.63 1.22 1.79 1.41 2.27 2.29 1.72 1.45 1.39 1.56 1.44 1.62 1.18 1.52 1.50 1.58 1.55 1.61 1.08 1.51 1.55 1.49 1.53 1.54 1.46 1.42 1.87 1.58 1.56 1.49 1.57 1.55 1.51 1.57 1.44 1.55 1.24 1.52 1.70 1.61 1.76 1.52 1.74 1.24 1.45 1.74 1.53 1.78 1.23 1.37  0.79 0.48 1.12 0.51 1.72 1.66 0.72 0.47 0.45 0.65 0.60 0.76 0.49 0.75 0.37 0.76 0.38 0.77 0.46 0.37 0.37 0.36 0.41 0.86 0.36 0.35 1.16 0.37 0.40 0.35 0.38 0.37 0.39 0.39 0.33 0.37 0.35 0.39 1.05 0.39 1.09 0.39 1.07 0.30 0.37 0.48 0.36 1.06 0.29 0.85  0.44 0.28 0.69 0.32 1.09 1.12 0.52 0.35 0.34 0.50 0.47 0.61 0.40 0.61 0.31 0.64 0.33 0.68 0.41 0.33 0.34 0.33 0.37 0.79 0.33 0.32 1.09 0.35 0.38 0.33 0.36 0.35 0.37 0.38 0.32 0.36 0.34 0.38 1.02 0.39 1.08 0.38 1.07 0.30 0.37 0.49 0.36 1.08 0.30 0.87  9.96 6.67 8.84 7.86 8.57 8.16 9.72 8.24 8.42 8.32 6.12 7.40 4.98 6.49 7.44 6.36 7.85 5.77  4.70 2.43 4.82 2.61 6.71 5.42 3.50 2.43 2.73 2.46 1.33 3.34 1.63 2.76 1.96 2.78 1.85 2.19  3.57 2.27 3.98 2.62 0.00 4.36 3.94 2.85 2.64 4.34 3.86 3.88 3.15 4.35 2.76 3.81 2.85 3.88  7.57 8.05 7.49 7.50 7.43 6.60 6.49 7.80 8.67 8.37 6.64 8.37 8.34 8.19 8.41 7.29 8.14 7.49 8.04 7.55 9.10 6.97 8.28 0.00 6.58 6.74 4.88 7.98 0.00 6.48  1.88 1.87 1.74 1.91 3.50 2.00 1.89 4.31 2.06 2.23 1.96 2.04 2.07 2.20 2.21 1.83 2.05 1.85 2.11 0.00 2.31 4.04 2.14 0.00 1.67 1.66 1.86 1.83 0.00 1.59  2.95 2.93 2.86 3.23 5.99 2.92 2.80 4.95 3.05 3.25 2.90 3.08 3.06 3.24 3.24 2.87 3.12 3.02 3.22 0.00 3.38 0.00 3.33 0.00 2.66 3.22 2.47 3.12 0.00 2.67  134  Sample Number  51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100  Anammox Hybrid System Performance Volumetric Volumetric Volumetric Total N NH4-N NO 2 -N Total N NH4 -N NO 2 -N removal removal removal removal removal removal Loading Loading Loading g/L.d g/L.d g/L.d % (g/d) % % (g/d) (g/d) (Total IN) (NH4-N) (NO2-N) 68.91 28.20 57.68  63.20 35.27 60.91  73.42 57.59 98.58  54.79 61.53 62.10 39.75 52.31 46.89 53.19 52.24 73.13 46.81 47.82 44.44 59.36 50.70  53.52 63.07 63.53 26.98 65.53 54.23 67.23 54.29 74.83 52.31 53.38 51.39 66.58 61.34  98.58 96.01 96.29 50.78 97.62 57.12 97.67 98.51 95.67 82.46 83.16 56.43 99.31 97.42  41.50  54.05  74.58  59.92 59.19 41.00 61.44 25.79 30.76 30.26  63.56 63.73 52.84 63.11 37.94  97.56 99.33 73.04 97.65 67.49  40.71 26.23 63.56  68.00 60.21 97.51  47.47 61.88 70.70 63.89 57.21 61.83 33.33  64.32 83.25 95.64 99.27 86.42 85.54 67.23  34.81 50.44 61.36 50.61 65.89 38.96 56.69 65.56 47.54 40.87  59.25 71.73 84.55 65.31 75.43 59.56 77.27 90.02 73.93 60.04  59.72 39.93 24.91 50.93 71.12 58.66 50.71 50.09  39.97 51.61 44.68 32.02 45.19 54.74 38.91 33.21  1.93 1.72 1.22 1.71 1.22 1.55 1.60 1.51 1.57 1.71 1.59 1.34 2.03 1.66 1.71 1.67 1.59 1.48 1.57 1.57 1.60 2.02 1.50 1.57 1.89 1.50 1.35 1.81 1.61 1.61 1.48 1.77 1.31 1.62 1.91 1.51 1.66 1.69 1.58 1.58 1.46 1.89 1.68 1.39 1.52 1.65 1.91 1.69 1.53 1.65  1.15 0.47 0.29 0.45 0.28 0.36 0.37 0.79 0.38 1.36 0.39 0.28 0.50 0.36 0.37 1.32 0.38 0.32 0.37 0.37 0.36 0.48 0.35 0.36 0.44 0.34 0.31 0.70 0.37 0.37 0.34 0.68 0.32 0.36 0.44 0.34 0.35 0.37 0.36 0.36 0.34 0.43 0.36 0.33 0.32 0.37 0.44 0.37 0.32 0.37  1.19 0.48 0.30 0.48 0.30 0.39 0.40 0.87 0.43 1.54 0.44 0.32 0.58 0.42 0.44 1.57 0.45 0.39 0.46 0.46 0.44 0.60 0.44 0.45 0.56 0.43 0.41 0.91 0.48 0.48 0.44 0.88 0.42 0.47 0.58 0.45 0.47 0.49 0.48 0.48 0.46 0.57 0.48 0.44 0.43 0.50 0.60 0.50 0.44 0.50  12.10 4.41 6.38 0.00 6.09 8.68 9.01 5.44 7.49 7.27 7.68 6.38 13.52 7.08 7.42 6.74 8.58 6.83  6.63 1.50 1.58 0.00 1.37 2.07 2.12 1.95 2.28 6.71 2.36 1.39 3.43 1.69 1.80 6.15 2.27 1.80  7.92 2.54 2.65 0.00 2.73 3.40 3.51 4.02 3.84 7.99 3.89 2.87 5.03 3.13 3.34 8.07 4.11 3.47  6.05  1.76  3.00  8.18 8.44 7.06 8.35 3.17 5.05 4.44 0.00 8.05 6.42 2.97 7.50 12.34 8.05 7.68 7.69  2.03 2.09 2.14 1.97 1.08 0.00 1.37 0.88 1.97 0.00 1.37 2.02 2.84 1.96 1.84 2.07 1.08  3.91 4.11 3.74 3.86 2.49 0.00 2.96 2.62 3.93 0.00 2.43 3.55 5.03 4.03 3.68 3.81 2.91  0.00 6.85 7.86 0.00 6.16 4.80 7.85 8.40 5.43 4.97  1.08 1.96 2.00 1.51 1.92 1.31 2.27 2.19 1.40 1.37  2.47 3.74 3.72 2.64 2.98 2.71 4.19 4.07 2.94 2.74  135  Sample Number  51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100  Anammox Hybrid System Performance Volumetric Volumetric Volumetric Total N NH4 -N NO 2 -N Total N NH4-N NO2 -N removal removal removal removal removal removal Loading Loading Loading g/L.d g/L.d g/L.d % (g/d) % % (g/d) (g/d) (Total IN) (NH4-N) (NO2-N) 68.91 28.20 57.68  63.20 35.27 60.91  73.42 57.59 98.58  54.79 61.53 62.10 39.75 52.31 46.89 53.19 52.24 73.13 46.81 47.82 44.44 59.36 50.70  53.52 63.07 63.53 26.98 65.53 54.23 67.23 54.29 74.83 52.31 53.38 51.39 66.58 61.34  98.58 96.01 96.29 50.78 97.62 57.12 97.67 98.51 95.67 82.46 83.16 56.43 99.31 97.42  41.50  54.05  74.58  59.92 59.19 41.00 61.44 25.79 30.76 30.26  63.56 63.73 52.84 63.11 37.94  97.56 99.33 73.04 97.65 67.49  40.71 26.23 63.56  68.00 60.21 97.51  47.47 61.88 70.70 63.89 57.21 61.83 33.33  64.32 83.25 95.64 99.27 86.42 85.54 67.23  34.81 50.44 61.36 50.61 65.89 38.96 56.69 65.56 47.54 40.87  59.25 71.73 84.55 65.31 75.43 59.56 77.27 90.02 73.93 60.04  59.72 39.93 24.91 50.93 71.12 58.66 50.71 50.09  39.97 51.61 44.68 32.02 45.19 54.74 38.91 33.21  1.93 1.72 1.22 1.71 1.22 1.55 1.60 1.51 1.57 1.71 1.59 1.34 2.03 1.66 1.71 1.67 1.59 1.48 1.57 1.57 1.60 2.02 1.50 1.57 1.89 1.50 1.35 1.81 1.61 1.61 1.48 1.77 1.31 1.62 1.91 1.51 1.66 1.69 1.58 1.58 1.46 1.89 1.68 1.39 1.52 1.65 1.91 1.69 1.53 1.65  1.15 0.47 0.29 0.45 0.28 0.36 0.37 0.79 0.38 1.36 0.39 0.28 0.50 0.36 0.37 1.32 0.38 0.32 0.37 0.37 0.36 0.48 0.35 0.36 0.44 0.34 0.31 0.70 0.37 0.37 0.34 0.68 0.32 0.36 0.44 0.34 0.35 0.37 0.36 0.36 0.34 0.43 0.36 0.33 0.32 0.37 0.44 0.37 0.32 0.37  1.19 0.48 0.30 0.48 0.30 0.39 0.40 0.87 0.43 1.54 0.44 0.32 0.58 0.42 0.44 1.57 0.45 0.39 0.46 0.46 0.44 0.60 0.44 0.45 0.56 0.43 0.41 0.91 0.48 0.48 0.44 0.88 0.42 0.47 0.58 0.45 0.47 0.49 0.48 0.48 0.46 0.57 0.48 0.44 0.43 0.50 0.60 0.50 0.44 0.50  12.10 4.41 6.38 0.00 6.09 8.68 9.01 5.44 7.49 7.27 7.68 6.38 13.52 7.08 7.42 6.74 8.58 6.83  6.63 1.50 1.58 0.00 1.37 2.07 2.12 1.95 2.28 6.71 2.36 1.39 3.43 1.69 1.80 6.15 2.27 1.80  7.92 2.54 2.65 0.00 2.73 3.40 3.51 4.02 3.84 7.99 3.89 2.87 5.03 3.13 3.34 8.07 4.11 3.47  6.05  1.76  3.00  8.18 8.44 7.06 8.35 3.17 5.05 4.44 0.00 8.05 6.42 2.97 7.50 12.34 8.05 7.68 7.69  2.03 2.09 2.14 1.97 1.08 0.00 1.37 0.88 1.97 0.00 1.37 2.02 2.84 1.96 1.84 2.07 1.08  3.91 4.11 3.74 3.86 2.49 0.00 2.96 2.62 3.93 0.00 2.43 3.55 5.03 4.03 3.68 3.81 2.91  0.00 6.85 7.86 0.00 6.16 4.80 7.85 8.40 5.43 4.97  1.08 1.96 2.00 1.51 1.92 1.31 2.27 2.19 1.40 1.37  2.47 3.74 3.72 2.64 2.98 2.71 4.19 4.07 2.94 2.74  136  Sample Number  101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150  Anammox Hybrid System Performance Volumetric Volumetric Volumetric Total N NH4-N NO 2 -N Total N NH4 -N NO 2 -N removal removal removal removal removal removal Loading Loading Loading g/L.d g/L.d g/L.d % (g/d) % % (g/d) (g/d) (Total IN) (NH4-N) (NO2-N) 54.42 51.19 52.58 46.83 70.05 39.34 32.21 48.03 55.63  70.60 59.31 63.61 55.58 69.65 47.63 37.43 42.59 72.06  88.34 86.39 89.64 78.06 96.47 72.58 62.30 98.21 88.52  73.44 68.36 54.09 46.23 31.62 43.66 51.95 44.86 29.07 32.79 74.64  30.75 30.52  73.91 63.74 68.42 58.00 35.65 45.88 63.33 51.91 40.80 31.07 74.15 29.43 66.96 57.40 51.48 39.38 36.18 61.48 70.75 52.38 55.91 51.64 55.31 38.38 46.20 52.10 60.45 34.47 42.14 44.29 66.06 30.77 52.81 39.87  96.72 90.39 92.48 89.90 64.07 59.22 89.71 76.11 67.65 50.53 96.81 64.84 96.48 86.02 82.66 70.25 54.95 89.93 97.08 72.80 83.93 67.10 74.95 70.68 63.89 86.26 86.99 55.65 64.73 75.59 92.37 59.22 70.81 68.76  50.88  56.25  83.61  31.09 28.85  44.05 48.21  68.73 66.31  69.62 48.46 48.12 27.50 24.61 48.16 73.92 28.88 52.12 32.49 32.01 27.44 27.25 48.72 46.19  37.61 52.78  1.74 1.66 1.66 1.95 1.87 1.86 1.64 1.24 1.70 1.41 1.65 1.64 1.70 1.60 1.60 1.55 1.63 1.90 1.36 1.54 1.66 1.55 1.82 1.64 1.60 1.35 1.44 1.64 1.61 1.39 1.64 1.37 1.40 1.36 1.48 1.60 1.25 1.42 1.33 1.23 1.65 1.42 1.51 1.44 1.34 1.63 1.34 1.34 1.44 1.47  0.34 0.35 0.36 0.45 0.42 0.41 0.36 0.23 0.33 0.32 0.36 0.36 0.31 0.35 0.35 1.09 0.34 0.42 0.30 1.08 0.36 0.34 0.39 0.34 0.35 0.29 0.31 0.34 0.35 0.29 0.35 0.31 0.30 0.30 0.32 0.31 0.29 0.30 0.28 0.27 0.28 0.29 0.33 0.31 0.28 0.33 0.28 0.28 0.31 0.31  0.47 0.48 0.49 0.63 0.58 0.58 0.51 0.32 0.47 0.45 0.51  8.60 7.72 7.93 8.29 11.92 6.67 4.80 5.43 8.61 0.00 10.99  2.21 1.88 2.07 2.29 2.63 1.80 1.23 0.88 2.17 0.00 2.40  3.77 3.74 4.02 4.45 5.05 3.83 2.88 2.86 3.77 0.00 4.50  0.45 0.50 0.51 1.58 0.49 0.61 0.44 1.58 0.53 0.50 0.58 0.50 0.52 0.44 0.46 0.51 0.52 0.45 0.53 0.47 0.46 0.46 0.50 0.48 0.45 0.46 0.45 0.43 0.45 0.46 0.54 0.51 0.45 0.54 0.47 0.47 0.52 0.53  8.38 6.71 4.59 6.15 7.68 7.73 3.60 4.59 11.23 0.00 11.55 7.24 7.01 3.37 3.21 7.17 10.81 3.64 7.78 4.05 4.08 3.40 3.66 7.10 5.24 0.00 0.00 4.22 7.92 0.00 4.22 4.00 0.00 7.52 0.00 0.00 4.06 3.86  1.94 1.82 1.13 4.54 1.94 1.97 1.12 3.04 2.41 0.90 2.37 1.77 1.63 1.05 1.01 1.89 2.22 1.40 1.77 1.44 1.51 1.04 1.34 1.46 1.60 0.93 1.08 1.09 1.70 0.81 1.60 1.14 0.00 1.68 0.00 0.00 1.26 1.38  3.78 4.10 2.94 8.53 4.00 4.23 2.72 7.28 4.65 2.92 5.06 3.94 3.88 2.81 2.29 4.16 4.62 2.96 4.06 2.86 3.13 2.96 2.88 3.77 3.59 2.35 2.66 2.98 3.80 2.50 3.49 3.21 0.00 4.13 0.00 0.00 3.26 3.17  137  Sample Number  151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171  Anammox Hybrid System Performance Volumetric Volumetric Volumetric Total N NH4 -N NO 2 -N Total N NH4-N NO2 -N removal removal removal removal removal removal Loading Loading Loading g/L.d g/L.d g/L.d % (g/d) % % (g/d) (g/d) (Total IN) (NH4-N) (NO2-N) 43.65 36.18 43.88 47.26 39.35 28.76 39.28  55.00 53.33 45.75 54.10 50.18 36.52 40.81  88.05 77.51 80.71 79.74 76.70 67.40 77.73  43.14 30.89 61.35 61.17 44.83 59.58 46.17 51.12 61.57 70.15  46.26 50.15 74.08 76.42 53.95 75.39 54.18 74.82 73.56 74.80  55.29 71.33 98.95 98.70 88.28 95.29 80.56 95.45 98.82 98.82  61.38 74.01  74.07 76.85  95.08 99.48  1.22 1.41 1.64 1.65 1.21 1.42 1.23 1.34 1.63 1.47 1.60 1.59 1.23 1.48 1.63 2.44 1.56 2.19 1.40 1.55 2.04  0.28 0.28 0.34 0.34 0.27 0.30 0.25 0.28 1.17 0.32 0.26 0.26 0.27 0.25 0.32 0.26 0.24 0.25 0.27 0.24 0.25  0.47 0.47 0.58 0.58 0.45 0.51 0.44 0.48 2.02 0.55 0.46 0.45 0.48 0.45 0.60 0.49 0.46 0.49 0.54 0.47 0.50  4.85 4.64 6.55 7.08 4.33 3.72 4.41 0.00 6.38 4.13 8.93 8.83 5.00 8.02 6.85 11.33 8.73 13.98  1.40 1.36 1.42 1.68 1.22 0.98 0.94 0.00 4.92 1.45 1.77 1.79 1.34 1.68 1.60 1.76 1.61 1.73  3.80 3.34 4.24 4.22 3.17 3.11 3.09 0.00 10.16 3.56 4.11 4.07 3.85 3.89 4.41 4.28 4.12 4.43  8.64 13.71  1.60 1.73  4.09 4.48  138  Sample Number  Fixed Bed Anammox Reactor Flow Rate (mL/min)  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50  5.00 4.85 5.00 4.50 8.00 7.00 5.00 4.00 4.00 7.00 7.00 5.00 10.00 7.50 10.00 7.50 10.00 5.00 7.50 7.50 7.50 3.00 12.50 3.00 3.00 6.00 7.50 7.50 3.00 7.50 7.50 7.50 7.50 7.50 3.00 7.50 6.00 7.50 7.00 7.50 5.00 7.50 3.00 7.50 5.00 7.50 6.00 6.00 7.50 7.50  HRT (hr) pH 12.03 11.67 12.96 7.29 8.33 11.67 14.58 14.58  ORP  Temp  7.01  35.10  7.00  32.40  7.18 -118.00 31.80 6.59 28.90 6.79 27.50 6.64 37.70 6.59 -100.20 29.20 8.33 6.92 -56.80 29.70 6.96 29.50 7.78  7.78 5.83 6.69 6.76 7.78 6.97 7.78 7.78 6.94 19.44 7.11 4.67 6.76 19.44 7.00 19.44 9.72 7.78 7.78 6.95 19.44 7.78 6.95 7.78 7.78 7.78 7.78 6.86 19.44 6.77 7.78 9.72 7.16 7.78 8.33 7.09 7.78 11.67 7.78 19.44 7.78 11.67 7.78 9.72 9.72 7.78 7.78 7.11  -117.00 28.90 28.10 -138.20 31.60 -144.80 -81.50 -132.00 -110.00  32.70 32.70 29.80 32.80  -97.90 30.80 -149.60 31.40  -136.60 33.90 35.30 -90.00 32.10 -96.70 32.40  -106.90 31.30  139  Sample Number  Fixed Bed Anammox Reactor Flow Rate (mL/min)  51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100  7.50 7.50 4.50 7.50 7.50 7.50 7.50 4.50 4.50 7.50 4.50 7.50 4.50 4.50 4.50 3.00 4.50 3.00 3.00 7.50 4.50 4.50 4.50 3.00 3.50 7.50 7.50 7.50 7.50 7.50 4.50 4.50 4.50 4.50 3.50 3.00 4.50 3.00 7.50 3.00 4.50 3.00 7.50 4.50 4.50 7.50 7.50 4.50 7.50 3.00  HRT (hr) pH 7.78 7.78 12.96 7.78 7.78 7.78 7.78 12.96 12.96 7.78 12.96 7.78 12.96 12.96 12.96 19.44 12.96 19.44 19.44 7.78 12.96 12.96 12.96 19.44 16.67 7.78 7.78 7.78 7.78 7.78 12.96 12.96 12.96 12.96 16.67 19.44 12.96 19.44 7.78 19.44 12.96 19.44 7.78 12.96 12.96 7.78 7.78 12.96 7.78 19.44  ORP  Temp  6.87 -140.50 30.60  7.17 -71.30 30.10 6.86 -136.60 33.90 7.12 -120.50 31.40 7.56 -109.50 34.00 7.13 7.16 7.85 7.51 7.84  7.03  -45.20 32.80 -139.40 -133.50 -128.60 -131.30  30.20 34.00 34.00 36.00  -80.50 31.30  7.51 -128.60 34.00 7.84 -131.30 36.00 6.93 -101.30 31.40  7.12 -120.50 31.40 7.03 -80.50 31.30 7.04 7.51 7.84 7.39 7.38  -138.80 -128.60 -131.30 -122.00 -110.30  32.10 34.00 36.00 34.00 29.00  7.02 -94.70 35.30 7.24 -134.60 31.50  7.24 -134.60 31.50  7.24 7.32 7.26 7.38 7.16 6.93  -134.60 -60.80 -102.50 -110.30 -85.00 -112.90  31.50 34.20 33.50 29.00 29.30 37.20  140  Sample Number  Fixed Bed Anammox Reactor Flow Rate (mL/min)  101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148  3.50 7.50 7.50 4.50 7.50 7.50 7.50 4.50 4.50 7.50 7.50 3.00 7.50 3.50 3.00 4.50 3.00 4.50 3.50 3.00 4.50 3.00 4.50 4.50 7.50 4.50 4.50 4.50 3.00 3.00 3.00 4.50 3.00 3.50 7.50 7.50 7.50 3.00 7.50 7.50 7.50 7.50 7.50 7.50 3.00 7.50 7.50 7.50  HRT (hr) pH 16.67 7.78 7.78 12.96 7.78 7.78 7.78 12.96 12.96 7.78 7.78 19.44 7.78 16.67 19.44 12.96 19.44 12.96 16.67 19.44 12.96 19.44 12.96 12.96 7.78 12.96 12.96 12.96 19.44 19.44 19.44 12.96 19.44 16.67 7.78 7.78 7.78 19.44 7.78 7.78 7.78 7.78 7.78 7.78 19.44 7.78 7.78 7.78  ORP  Temp  7.19 -60.00 29.40 7.32 -60.80 34.20 7.38 -110.30 29.00  7.02 -149.10 33.20 7.60 -117.30 29.00  7.04  35.50  7.60 -117.30 29.00 7.80 -78.50 30.60 7.60 -117.30 29.00 7.49 -142.00 29.00  7.49 -142.00 29.00  7.22 -67.20 33.40 7.49 -142.00 29.00  7.29  -77.00 33.10  7.02 -149.10 33.20  6.98 -110.90 35.90  6.73 -143.00 32.70 6.85 -154.60 32.20 7.35 -110.90 30.90  141  Sample Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50  Up-Flow Fixd-Bed Anammox Reactor Effluent TOC(mg/L) SOC(mg/L) NH3-N NOx NO3 -N NO2 -N Corrected NO x  35.10 14.00 15.00  14.00 15.00  18.10 21.30 22.80 24.90  23.40  18.00  14.00  14.00  12.00  14.00  14.00  15.00  15.00  24.20  13.00 20.20  12.00 13.00  16.00 15.00  15.00 13.00  18.20 19.90 35.70 14.10 44.60 25.30 24.40 20.10 14.40 26.30 30.90 20.40 32.90 30.00 37.10 31.20 36.20 21.30 30.10 28.90 29.30 20.90 30.10 20.40 20.60 29.40 29.50 27.80 19.70 31.40 27.50 30.40 29.20 26.30 2.35 29.10 23.80 29.40 25.40 30.60 39.00 21.60 20.20 29.30 27.70 21.70 23.50 17.10 20.70 20.40  11.30 12.40 16.70 12.40 45.20 25.90 19.00 13.30 17.50 14.80 13.80 13.50 27.40 35.40 31.20 36.30 31.10 11.40 36.00 36.00 35.80 14.50 28.20 33.80 35.30 32.30 36.30 33.40 35.10 36.90 37.10 30.60 34.50 40.90 11.20 33.50 20.50 36.90 26.90 31.10 26.80 26.70 14.30 37.90 20.80 26.40 23.80 21.10 26.10 26.20  9.11 9.61 6.70 9.28 15.04 15.15 9.65 11.82 11.74 8.81 10.49 10.49 9.10 21.28 6.60 21.83 9.80 10.65 21.50 21.50 22.16 18.05 7.80 25.11 26.34 6.54 14.33 17.53 26.76 19.40 19.74 12.13 18.52 22.71 9.91 17.86 10.17 14.88 10.37 12.90 6.70 14.33 17.90 19.96 7.00 14.44 8.10 9.50 14.00 14.44  2.20 3.03 10.00 3.35 30.70 11.30 9.36 1.78 6.05 6.00 3.32 3.02 18.30 16.10 24.60 16.50 21.30 0.76 16.50 16.50 15.70 0.47 20.40 8.69 8.96 26.00 23.30 17.50 8.34 19.30 19.20 19.60 17.70 20.30 1.54 17.30 10.70 23.40 16.90 19.40 20.10 13.70 0.39 19.80 13.80 13.30 15.70 11.60 13.40 13.10  11.31 12.64 16.70 12.63 45.74 26.45 19.01 13.60 17.79 14.81 13.81 13.51 27.40 37.38 31.20 38.33 31.10 11.41 38.00 38.00 37.86 18.53 28.20 33.80 35.30 32.54 37.63 35.03 35.10 38.70 38.94 31.73 36.22 43.01 11.45 35.16 20.87 38.28 27.27 32.30 26.80 28.03 18.29 39.76 20.80 27.74 23.80 21.10 27.40 27.54  142  Sample Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100  Up-Flow Fixd-Bed Anammox Reactor Effluent TOC(mg/L) SOC(mg/L) NH3 -N NOx NO 3-N NO2-N Corrected NO x  14.00  12.00  21.00  18.00  16.00  12.00  13.90  22.00 17.50  14.00 13.00  21.00 17.00  18.00 13.00  13.50 34.30  13.20 12.60 14.80  20.00 23.00  13.70 12.10 15.90 16.00  40.30 20.00  11.80 14.00 14.00  16.00 17.80  13.00 14.20  20.40 34.60 23.00 26.20 29.20 21.10 20.50 16.00 30.40 30.30 30.00 23.00 23.20 12.30 30.90 16.50 17.40 17.10 11.70 23.20 23.90 16.30 5.50 29.00 28.60 16.80 28.40 33.10 20.40 23.50 22.20 25.80 5.28 11.60 19.70 27.70 32.60 13.40 21.30 26.90 30.00 23.40 23.50 16.90 15.30 24.30 13.00 27.60  45.30 52.70 37.10 40.20 36.90 46.30 44.50 23.30 47.90 47.50 50.10 44.80 47.80 30.60 55.80 25.60 25.50 23.45 34.60 45.40 44.50 25.90 29.80 55.60 37.70 22.90 46.30 55.40 49.70 46.20 57.10 49.00 29.60 33.40 46.30 52.90 57.70 31.30 46.00 52.40 37.70 55.70 46.30 27.20 22.90 46.00 27.50 51.50  32.20 19.42 12.20 22.60 18.20 31.98 30.55 11.30 24.09 30.58 25.91 27.28 37.21 25.09 28.77 21.00 21.47 10.44 21.70 27.85 35.05 21.02 24.76 23.55 18.81 13.44 29.75 16.84 30.14 36.07 30.66 25.68 24.50 26.64 21.60 26.09 21.38 24.76 21.80 25.53 18.81 29.34 20.90 14.26 13.44 24.89 16.20 24.41  16.00 33.90 24.90 19.70 18.90 17.20 16.70 12.00 26.80 17.90 27.40 20.90 15.20 8.09 30.60 9.28 8.82 13.30 12.90 21.00 13.80 9.57 5.04 32.80 19.10 9.84 17.50 39.10 23.30 14.60 29.20 26.50 5.10 9.50 24.70 29.50 37.00 9.09 24.20 29.50 19.10 29.00 25.40 13.10 9.84 24.20 11.30 29.60  48.20 53.32 37.10 42.30 37.10 49.18 47.25 23.30 50.89 48.48 53.31 48.18 52.41 33.18 59.37 30.28 30.29 23.74 34.60 48.85 48.85 30.59 29.80 56.35 37.91 23.28 47.25 55.94 53.44 50.67 59.86 52.18 29.60 36.14 46.30 55.59 58.38 33.85 46.00 55.03 37.91 58.34 46.30 27.36 23.28 49.09 27.50 54.01  143  Sample Number 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148  Up-Flow Fixd-Bed Anammox Reactor Effluent TOC(mg/L) SOC(mg/L) NH3 -N NOx NO 3-N NO2-N Corrected NO x 13.00  12.00 18?  23.00  16.00  15.30  13.80 14.80  19.00  13.00 11.70  26.30 17.50 16.20 17.50  11.70 14.80 13.50 14.70  26.00 26.30  14.70 15.30  16.50  11.90  17.10 15.80  11.90 11.70  16.40  11.70  26.00  11.70 15.30 12.00  17.80  14.20  5.03 13.00 16.40 23.50 29.70 32.20 23.60 13.00 17.30 29.90 14.20 1.32 25.70 8.70 1.74 12.10 18.20 18.50 7.93 15.30 18.00 22.50 15.40 11.20 24.10 11.40 12.20 15.00 17.30 1.28 15.70 15.90 15.80 7.47 6.76 22.20 22.30 16.30 22.10 21.40 28.80 20.90 20.70 8.53 23.00 27.30 22.10 7.51  30.30 23.50 27.10 50.00 38.60 56.10 50.60 34.50 45.50 55.90 22.60 19.70 48.90 35.10 19.30 34.60 27.10 46.00 35.00 27.00 45.20 53.30 38.70 32.90 46.60 32.80 32.90 38.80 27.20 18.90 26.80 39.30 26.80 32.20 6.09 57.90 58.20 27.00 58.10 54.30 60.50 122.00 58.20 47.60 50.90 59.10 59.00 39.70  25.22 14.41 14.26 26.03 13.14 16.94 19.08 21.90 22.95 24.17 13.63 19.51 19.32 23.00 19.01 21.90 26.29 23.40 23.00 22.59 23.17 28.50 15.00 21.20 18.18 21.80 22.10 14.90 26.42 18.62 22.61 16.70 22.60 20.60 29.70 30.00 26.01 26.40 26.60 26.80 93.40 29.70 44.19 28.10 26.40 26.80 36.16  5.08 9.09 13.00 27.20 25.60 39.70 31.90 12.60 25.40 32.50 9.12 0.19 30.20 12.10 0.29 12.70 0.81 25.50 12.00 4.41 24.90 24.80 23.70 11.70 29.00 11.00 10.80 23.90 0.79 0.28 4.19 22.60 4.20 11.60 6.16 28.20 28.20 0.99 31.70 27.70 33.70 28.60 28.50 3.41 22.80 32.70 32.20 3.54  30.30 23.50 27.26 53.23 38.74 56.64 50.98 34.50 48.35 56.67 22.75 19.70 49.52 35.10 19.30 34.60 27.10 48.90 35.00 27.00 48.07 53.30 38.70 32.90 47.18 32.80 32.90 38.80 27.20 18.90 26.80 39.30 26.80 32.20 6.09 57.90 58.20 27.00 58.10 54.30 60.50 122.00 58.20 47.60 50.90 59.10 59.00 39.70  144  Sample Number  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50  Fixed Bed Anammox System performance Volumetric Volumetric Volumetric Total N NH4 -N NO2 -N Total N NH4 -N NO2 -N removal removal removal removal removal removal Loading Loading Loading g/L.d g/L.d g/L.d % (g/d) % % (g/d) (g/d) (Total IN) (NH4-N) (NO2-N) 71.41 58.16 53.67 70.16  70.11 52.28 45.08 71.91  93.45 87.73 74.81 89.37  64.59 60.00 63.42 63.54 58.23 56.30 54.68 36.99  67.27 56.04 57.14 67.71 47.40 38.81 45.89 33.80  78.31 76.72 94.91 82.05 84.50 91.78 90.16 54.93  52.05  40.17  97.57  33.57 30.60 63.32 39.96 41.15 37.61 47.76  32.63 29.90 51.84 37.29 47.01 44.17 45.56  57.47 58.58 98.80 53.74 75.66 73.88 48.72  37.99 41.76 31.01 33.95 36.06 35.85  40.34 47.75 28.31 36.05 32.89 36.11  60.05 76.51 53.27 53.06 54.73 59.59  82.63 34.79 58.68 34.94 52.97 35.53 40.13 38.31 62.25  93.30 34.75 51.23 35.24 49.90 31.54 24.12 37.21 49.12  95.47 60.23 77.57 47.65 66.33 56.31 60.67 59.94 99.01  56.89  45.58  73.36  45.44 68.66 39.06 39.64  40.81 68.22 37.27 37.61  61.43 79.02 60.82 62.78  0.74 0.54 0.81 0.58 1.65 1.46 0.78 0.53 0.50 0.99 1.03 0.54 1.38 1.02 1.44 1.06 1.47 0.49 1.03 1.06 1.01 0.32 1.75 0.32 0.32 1.02 1.08 1.07 0.33 1.07 1.06 1.03 1.07 0.98 0.34 1.04 0.93 1.10 1.12 1.03 0.79 0.85 0.31 1.04 0.81 0.84 0.75 1.05 0.83 0.83  0.44 0.29 0.47 0.33 0.93 0.78 0.40 0.27 0.26 0.50 0.51 0.27 0.72 0.47 0.72 0.47 0.73 0.26 0.46 0.46 0.45 0.09 0.86 0.09 0.09 0.47 0.47 0.50 0.09 0.47 0.46 0.49 0.49 0.42 0.15 0.48 0.42 0.49 0.51 0.48 0.37 0.37 0.09 0.45 0.37 0.37 0.34 0.46 0.36 0.35  0.24 0.17 0.29 0.20 0.59 0.53 0.29 0.20 0.19 0.39 0.41 0.22 0.58 0.39 0.61 0.41 0.65 0.23 0.41 0.42 0.41 0.17 0.79 0.15 0.15 0.44 0.44 0.47 0.15 0.45 0.44 0.47 0.47 0.40 0.15 0.47 0.41 0.48 0.51 0.48 0.37 0.37 0.17 0.45 0.37 0.37 0.35 0.48 0.37 0.38  15.16 8.96 12.49 11.53 0.00 26.90 13.39 9.53 9.15 16.50 16.59 8.41 14.56  8.78 4.35 6.03 6.68 0.00 14.98 6.40 4.41 4.97 6.83 5.64 3.56 6.91  6.46 4.32 6.11 5.21 0.00 11.75 6.34 5.47 4.55 9.42 10.68 5.69 9.17  7.30  2.94  6.30  10.12 8.86 5.78 19.95 3.76 3.40 13.92  4.32 3.86 1.34 9.21 1.18 1.12 6.07  6.88 6.85 4.82 12.19 3.33 3.13 6.10  11.57 3.92 9.47 10.24 10.61 10.99  5.80 1.16 3.83 4.78 4.60 5.09  8.12 3.35 6.79 6.70 7.31 8.05  7.95 10.31 15.53 10.99 16.96 10.49 9.07 9.26 5.52  4.04 4.78 6.17 4.94 7.29 4.35 2.55 3.95 1.22  4.01 8.08 9.13 6.57 9.59 7.71 6.38 6.33 4.86  13.17  4.77  7.82  9.73 20.66 9.26 9.44  4.00 9.06 3.80 3.80  6.17 10.79 6.42 6.82  145  Sample Number  51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100  Fixed Bed Anammox System performance Volumetric Volumetric Volumetric Total N NH4 -N NO2 -N Total N NH4 -N NO2 -N removal removal removal removal removal removal Loading Loading Loading g/L.d g/L.d g/L.d % (g/d) % % (g/d) (g/d) (Total IN) (NH4-N) (NO2-N) 30.26 39.78  22.59 50.72  49.35 64.68  44.20  52.58  54.56  48.52 35.87 39.08 62.68 34.26  50.00 45.62 48.88 65.88 33.91  71.75 61.69 64.09 78.57 51.80  34.45 31.72 28.50 57.61 32.05 55.59 54.56 64.32 45.72 32.61 32.81 54.91 57.32  36.03 37.67 37.13 67.89 35.76 56.12 52.46 64.89 62.38 36.61 34.70 55.34 82.59  51.85 53.76 66.37 82.86 48.83 80.30 80.99 78.63 67.99 55.79 70.95 79.81 87.77  44.98 64.60  44.14 64.41  71.49 84.20  29.83 30.23 28.50  42.37 33.62 48.97  50.74 69.13 49.83  60.14 53.03 36.54 33.17  83.80 66.18 46.32 41.19  88.44 79.53 50.30 53.76  53.87 35.23 35.53 42.72 32.22 32.50 57.56 63.15 30.33 58.59 33.92  61.16 41.96 44.42 37.63 44.15 34.36 59.18 63.74 29.57 66.49 37.98  80.58 51.41 55.97 71.32 50.17 49.60 77.87 83.70 51.70 79.96 54.67  1.06 1.09 0.57 1.01 1.16 0.92 1.39 0.57 0.56 1.14 0.67 0.98 0.68 0.55 0.55 0.32 0.72 0.32 0.32 1.23 0.43 0.57 0.58 0.32 0.29 1.00 1.30 1.21 0.95 1.05 0.55 0.57 0.63 0.55 0.30 0.32 0.56 0.44 1.08 0.33 0.57 0.44 1.28 0.64 0.59 1.12 1.12 0.59 1.06 0.44  0.45 0.46 0.13 0.37 0.52 0.35 0.63 0.14 0.13 0.51 0.20 0.33 0.19 0.15 0.15 0.05 0.20 0.07 0.08 0.53 0.08 0.15 0.15 0.07 0.03 0.31 0.55 0.51 0.31 0.36 0.13 0.15 0.14 0.17 0.03 0.05 0.13 0.12 0.35 0.06 0.14 0.12 0.52 0.15 0.15 0.45 0.46 0.16 0.22 0.12  0.49 0.50 0.29 0.50 0.59 0.40 0.72 0.29 0.30 0.60 0.36 0.52 0.37 0.29 0.29 0.20 0.39 0.20 0.20 0.67 0.26 0.31 0.31 0.20 0.21 0.54 0.72 0.67 0.52 0.61 0.31 0.31 0.38 0.29 0.22 0.20 0.32 0.28 0.57 0.20 0.32 0.29 0.72 0.38 0.33 0.64 0.65 0.32 0.37 0.28  9.41 6.49  2.96 1.92  7.07 5.42  14.69  7.87  9.23  19.22 5.80 6.30 20.37 6.56  9.01 1.78 1.86 9.53 1.91  14.81 5.13 5.52 13.58 5.33  6.72 5.02 4.52 5.35 6.55 5.06 5.06 22.56 5.58 5.34 5.41 4.98 4.67  2.00 1.60 1.59 1.03 2.05 1.14 1.13 9.75 1.35 1.57 1.54 1.11 0.65  5.46 4.50 5.55 4.83 5.41 4.67 4.64 15.10 5.07 4.91 6.24 4.67 5.21  16.72 22.36  6.97 9.38  14.78 16.17  4.69 4.93 5.13  1.60 1.46 2.01  4.44 6.05 5.37  5.21 4.78 5.89 4.14  0.64 0.95 1.69 1.41  5.62 4.55 4.63 4.23  5.04 5.77 4.45 15.58 5.86 5.48 18.45 20.20 5.09 17.68 4.30  1.01 1.65 1.47 5.59 1.91 1.49 7.56 8.30 1.33 4.25 1.29  4.65 4.74 4.63 14.66 5.41 4.63 14.23 15.59 4.80 8.35 4.41  146  Sample Number  101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148  Fixed Bed Anammox System performance Volumetric Volumetric Volumetric Total N NH4-N NO 2-N Total N NH4-N NO 2 -N removal removal removal removal removal removal Loading Loading Loading g/L.d g/L.d g/L.d % (g/d) % % (g/d) (g/d) (Total IN) (NH4-N) (NO2-N) 58.92 62.49 58.37 24.77 40.71  83.18 66.06 60.39 29.43 34.15  88.43 83.88 78.72 44.72 61.68  26.68 44.18 30.68  36.39 55.48 43.09  42.21 71.17 44.18  63.78 76.00 27.99 49.36 76.20 45.70 42.51 28.09 49.01 45.70 29.39  64.50 95.81 30.91 71.38 94.56 59.26 41.48 36.86 71.68 47.06 37.06  84.95 99.59 46.83 73.98 99.41 72.21 98.34 44.57 73.21 90.48 45.99  40.61 47.75 31.09 47.63 46.56 40.68 42.36 77.33 44.44 38.46 45.31 53.16 87.49  50.48 58.97 31.53 59.57 56.58 51.77 42.33 95.73 44.91 45.73 41.91 72.84 81.27  53.44 74.00 50.09 76.45 76.87 53.86 98.45 99.45 91.36 55.07 91.01 75.53 90.13  44.06  43.99 22.18 27.46  98.06 39.04 50.18  70.99 21.50 28.72 19.64 73.74  94.03 60.49 39.67 41.13 93.82  25.20  59.44  63.29  0.31 1.05 1.13 0.57 1.24 1.05 0.95 0.45 0.50 1.02 1.10 0.25 0.99 0.33 0.25 0.44 0.28 0.51 0.32 0.28 0.51 0.36 0.49 0.44 0.99 0.44 0.44 0.48 0.28 0.26 0.28 0.49 0.29 0.33 1.11 1.09 1.08 0.28 1.01 1.09 1.07 1.66 1.06 1.49 0.36 1.04 1.06 1.39  0.03 0.15 0.45 0.15 0.49 0.35 0.25 0.08 0.11 0.32 0.43 0.01 0.28 0.04 0.01 0.08 0.08 0.12 0.04 0.07 0.12 0.10 0.10 0.07 0.26 0.07 0.08 0.10 0.07 0.01 0.07 0.10 0.07 0.04 0.14 0.33 0.32 0.07 0.31 0.32 0.31 0.32 0.30 0.32 0.10 0.29 0.30 0.31  0.22 0.22 0.66 0.32 0.72 0.63 0.60 0.28 0.29 0.64 0.65 0.21 0.61 0.23 0.21 0.30 0.21 0.30 0.23 0.20 0.30 0.25 0.33 0.29 0.63 0.30 0.30 0.34 0.22 0.22 0.21 0.33 0.20 0.24 0.24 0.57 0.57 0.22 0.56 0.60 0.59 0.62 0.57 0.62 0.25 0.59 0.59 0.62  5.19 18.76 18.82 4.03 14.47  0.60 2.84 7.71 1.28 4.75  5.59 5.30 14.84 4.07 12.71  7.22 5.64 4.40  2.65 1.34 1.38  7.19 5.76 3.72  20.00 5.39 7.96 4.61 5.47 5.79 3.46 4.10 4.53 3.63 4.29  7.96 0.16 2.45 0.89 0.20 1.33 0.93 1.26 0.82 0.89 1.24  15.89 5.88 8.21 4.95 6.02 6.11 5.89 3.80 4.72 5.17 3.93  5.67 6.04 8.78 5.96 5.91 5.62 3.37 5.75 3.49 5.43 3.72 4.95 27.73  1.44 1.22 2.35 1.26 1.28 1.44 0.90 0.15 0.87 1.35 0.82 0.78 3.22  5.04 6.17 8.98 6.61 6.65 5.17 6.16 6.22 5.47 5.13 5.25 5.16 6.15  3.51  0.88 1.94 2.50  6.20 6.26 8.61  6.44 0.61 2.42 1.67 6.51  16.57 4.31 6.63 6.94 16.59  7.87  25.39  25.11  147  

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