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Midply shear walls use in non-residential buildings Clarke, Colin Nigel 2009

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  MIDPLY SHEAR WALLS USE IN NON‐RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS    by  COLIN NIGEL CLARKE  B.Sc., The University of the West Indies, 2004    A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREEE OF      MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE    in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  (Civil Engineering)      THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  (Vancouver)    February 2009  © Colin Nigel Clarke, 2009   ABSTRACT The MIDPLY shear wall has been developed to be used as a structural system for severe earthquakes. This type of construction has emerged as a viable alternative to concrete and steel for non-residential buildings. The MIDPLY shear wall utilizes a novel arrangement of sheathing and framing members with a special nailing technique. The MIDPLY joints have a different failure mode from that which is observed in standard shear walls. The study reported in this thesis focuses on the response of the MIDPLY shear wall due to monotonic and cyclic tests; the response of an increase size in the cross-section members of the MIDPLY shear wall; and also the evaluation of the design and performance of hold-down connections at the boundary end studs of the MIDPLY shear wall.  Previously tested MIDPLY shear walls showed that the boundary end stud hold-down connection is a very critical component in the performance of the MIDPLY shear wall. After a simplified analysis of 2 possible hold-down connections (see Fig. 7, 8, 9 and 10), hold-down connection #2 was selected as the most viable option since it had the ability to withstand large lateral forces. For non-residential buildings we expect a larger lateral force when compared to residential buildings. Therefore the cross-section of the members in the MIDPLY shear wall was increased and the number of boundary end studs was modified. These measures resulted in an increase in the lateral force capacity with the use of hold-down connection #2.  ii  The experimental results were used to verify an analytical model representing the MIDPLY shear wall in load-displacement characteristics. Recommendations and future research will also be discussed to show the way for further performance optimization of the wall system.  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT......................................................................................................................... ii TABLE OF CONTENTS.................................................................................................... iv LIST OF FIGURES ............................................................................................................iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS................................................................................................. v CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................... 1 1.1 Problem Overview ................................................................................................. 1 1.2 Research Objectives............................................................................................... 3 1.3 Scope...................................................................................................................... 4 1.4 Thesis Outline ........................................................................................................ 5 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................................ 6 2.1 Earthquake Effects on Timber Structures .............................................................. 6 2.2 Market Share of Timber Products in Non-Residential Buildings.......................... 8 2.3 Reasons For Lack Of Confidence in Using Timber for Non-Residential Buildings ...................................................................................................................................... 9 2.4 Suggested Future Priorities for Increasing Market Demand................................ 11 2.5 Timber Products: Use in Non-Residential Buildings .......................................... 13 CHAPTER 3 MIDPLY SHEAR WALL SIMPLIFIED ANALYSIS.............................. 16 3.1 Midply Shear Wall Analysis Procedure............................................................... 17 3.2 Simplified Analysis Summary ............................................................................. 24 3.3 Hold-down Connection Device on End Studs ..................................................... 25 3.4 Hold-down Connection Summary ....................................................................... 34 iv  CHAPTER 4 MIDPLY WALL TESTS........................................................................... 35 4.1 Objectives and Scope........................................................................................... 35 CHAPTER 5 METHODS AND MATERIALS .............................................................. 36 5.1 Midply Specimens ............................................................................................... 36 5.2 Testing Apparatus and Instrumentation ............................................................... 40 5.3 Testing Procedures............................................................................................... 45 5.4 Material Properties............................................................................................... 46 CHAPTER 6 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION................................................................ 48 6.1 Test Results.......................................................................................................... 49 CHAPTER 7 SUMMARY OF MIDPLY SHEAR WALLS ........................................... 64 CHAPTER 8 ANALYTICAL PREDICTION OF MIDPLY SHEAR WALLS .............. 66 8.1 Analytical Modelling of Midply Shear Walls...................................................... 67 8.2 Analytical Results and Discussion....................................................................... 69 8.3 Summary of Analytical Results ........................................................................... 70 CHAPTER 9 CONCLUSION AND DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS....................... 71 CHAPTER 10 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH ......................... 74 BIBLIOGRAPHY.............................................................................................................. 76 Appendix I Background on Sap 2000............................................................................... 79 Appendix II Sap 2000 Input Data ...................................................................................... 80   v  LIST OF FIGURES  Figure 1 - Typical Midply and standard shear wall ........................................................... 14 Figure 2 - Nail fastening to standard shear wall and Midply shear wall ........................... 15 Figure 3 - Internal forces in Midply shear wall ................................................................. 18 Figure 4 - Typical cross-section of Midply shear wall end stud in mm ............................ 19 Figure 5 - Typical Midply cross-section showing the coordinates of the centroid............ 20 Figure 6 – Typical cross-section of Midply wall showing nail location.............................. 1 Figure 7 - Hold-down connection #1 ................................................................................. 26 Figure 8 -Hold-down connection #1 details....................................................................... 27 Figure 9 - Hold-down connection #2 ................................................................................. 28 Figure 10 - Hold-down connection #2 details.................................................................... 29 Figure 11 –Midply shear wall setup................................................................................... 36 Figure 12 - Gap spacing between timber sheathing of the Midply shear walls................. 38 Figure 13 - Photo of the test set-up for determining the response of full-scale Midply shear walls under lateral loads ........................................................................................... 40 Figure 14 - Full-scale Midply shear wall test showing Channel 6 and Channel 0 ............ 42 Figure 15 - Full-scale Midply shear wall test showing Channel 3 and Channel 7 ............ 42 Figure 16 - Full-scale Midply shear wall test showing Channel 2 .................................... 43 Figure 17 - Full-scale Midply shear wall test showing Channel 4 .................................... 43 Figure 18 - Full-scale Midply shear wall test showing Laser 22 and Laser 23 ................. 44 Figure 19 - Simpson drive screws attached to studs of Midply shear walls ...................... 47 Figure 20 - Load vs. Displacement for wall M02-01......................................................... 49 iii  Figure 21 - Displacement vs. Time for wall M02-01 ........................................................ 50 Figure 22 - Load vs Time for wall M02-01 ....................................................................... 50 Figure 23 - Buckling failure of the sheathing and studs for M02-01................................. 51 Figure 24 - Side view of buckling failure of studs and sheathing for M02-01.................. 51 Figure 25 - Gap between the two sheathing panels of the Midply shear walls ................. 53 Figure 26 - Sheathing panel rotation of the Midply shear walls........................................ 54 Figure 27 - Lateral load vs Displacement for M03-01 and M02-01.................................. 55 Figure 28 - Buckling failure mode for M03-01 wall ......................................................... 55 Figure 29 - Lateral load vs displacement of M04-01......................................................... 56 Figure 30 - Movement of the top plate of M04-01 wall .................................................... 57 Figure 31 - Failure of the nails at the top plate of Midply shear wall................................ 57 Figure 32 - Lateral load vs. displacement for M05-01 wall .............................................. 58 Figure 33 - Buckling failure of M05-01 ............................................................................ 59 Figure 34 - Lateral load vs. displacement of M06-01........................................................ 61 Figure 35 - Nail withdrawal at the bottom plate of M06-01.............................................. 61 Figure 36 - Lateral load vs. displacement for M07-01 ...................................................... 62 Figure 37 - Failure at the bottom plate and end stud connection....................................... 63 Figure 38 - Picture of analytical model in SAP 2000 ........................................................ 67 Figure 39 - Picture showing the different elements of the SAP model ............................. 68 Figure 40 - Experimental and analytical response of Midply shear wall (M02-01)......... 69   iv  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  This project was conducted with the financial assistance of FP Innovations and the Department of Civil Engineering, University of British Columbia. I would like to take this opportunity to thank both institutions wholeheartedly.  I would like to specifically thank my two supervisors, Professor Siegfried Stiemer (UBC) and Dr. Marjan Popovski (FP Innovations) for their unwavering, welcoming demeanour, support and advice, especially in times when I was in need of renewed focus.  The extensive experimental portion of the thesis would not be possible without the continuous support of Mr. Paul Symons and Mr. Philip Eng. I appreciated their guidance on the experimental test program and equipment, which has been invaluable throughout the project.  I would also like to thank my fiancée Alicia Baksh for the understanding and consideration that she has shown throughout my entire Masters program.  I would like to express my greatest appreciation to my family members especially my mother, father, grandmother and sister, who supported me immeasurably and always showed their willingness to assist.  v  CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION  1.1 Problem Overview  Each year, over a million earthquakes occur throughout the world, but most are too small to be noticed by public. Earthquakes can happen anywhere but have a high incidence in certain areas for e.g. all Pacific Rim countries. Earthquakes around the world have contributed to deaths due to the collapse of buildings on occupants, falling debris on pedestrians, tsunamis etc. In North America, few lives were lost due to earthquakes because of tight code regulations and construction methods. Often timber was used to construct many of the residential areas and small businesses. One of the benefits of timber construction is that the high strength to weight ratio. Therefore timber buildings tend to be lighter than other building types (Madsen, 1992) designed to resist earthquakes. Also, the attachment of sheathing and finishes to the numerous timber joints and studs in typical timber-frame construction provide redundant load paths for the earthquake forces (Ranier & Karacabeyli, 1999). If one connection is overloaded, its share can be picked up by adjacent connections (Blake, Prion, Lam, & Popovski, 1999). This provides an extra factor of safety. Innovative designs have been made to extend the use of timber construction to nonresidential applications. Some of these applications are industrial buildings, and low-rise commercial buildings etc. MIDPLY walls have shown the greatest potential in the ability to withstand high earthquake and wind forces for non-residential buildings.  1  For larger non-residential buildings applications, an increase in size of MIDPLY shear walls was proposed. The MIDPLY shear wall elements which were increased include sheathing, studs, nails (size and number), etc. Previous test programs for MIDPLY shear walls focused on typical sizes in order to resist higher earthquake forces replacing regular shear walls in residential buildings; hence, the overall size of both walls remained the same. For non-residential buildings, there will be an increase in wall heights; therefore the studs and sheathing are subjected to much higher loads, necessitating the use of larger studs and sheathing. Computer models for the analysis of the increased MIDPLY wall size under axial and lateral loads are essential to extend the application of experimental results and predict load-deflection response and other characteristic behaviour. Once analytical models have been verified against test results, the models will then be used to predict the response of MIDPLY shear walls of different cross-sectional sizes.  2  1.2 Research Objectives  FP Innovations – Forintek Division initiated a research project on the structural performance of MIDPLY shear walls in non-residential buildings. The objective of this project was to assist the timber industry in expanding its market to non-residential construction. MIDPLY shear walls showed the greatest potential in achieving this goal due to its ability to resist the larger loads generated by non-residential construction. This thesis focuses on the structural performance of MIDPLY shear walls under lateral loads. The main objectives of this thesis can be summarized as follows: ¾ To provide data on the use of MIDPLY shear walls when the structural components have been increased in size; ¾ To determine the factors that influence the response of MIDPLY shear walls; and ¾ To validate the accuracy of the analytical modelling of the MIDPLY shear wall when compared to the actual results of the tested MIDPLY shear walls.  3  1.3 Scope  To meet the objectives outlined above, the project was broken up into 6 major parts: 1. A literature review on Earthquake effects on wooden structures; 2. Simplified analysis of MIDPLY shear walls; 3. Monotonic testing of full-scale MIDPLY shear walls under lateral loads; 4. Cyclic testing of full-scale MIDPLY shear walls under lateral loads; 5. Results and discussion; and 6. An analytical study to verify mathematical models to expand the test results to different design conditions.  4  1.4 Thesis Outline  The thesis is presented on the study of the above outlined research objectives. The first three chapters give an overview of the effects that earthquakes have on structures and a literature review on issues concerning timber construction in non-residential buildings. Chapter 4 describes the simplified analysis of the MIDPLY shear walls which resulted in a selection of an appropriate hold-down connection for the boundary end studs. Chapter 5 depicts the monotonic and cyclic tests conducted on a number of MIDPLY shear walls. Chapter 6 illustrates the methods and materials used to carry out the tests. Several issues affecting the performance of the MIDPLY shear wall, the discussion of the test results and the summary of MIDPLY shear walls are presented in Chapters 7 and 8. Analytical predictions of the full-scale test are presented in Chapter 9. Finally, in Chapters 10 and 11 the results are concluded and design recommendations are made.  5  CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW  2.1 Earthquake Effects on Timber Structures  Engineers do not attempt to make earthquake proof buildings that will not get damaged, even during the rare but strong earthquake; such buildings will be too robust and also too expensive (Karacabeyli, Lateral Resistance of Engineering Wood Structures to Seismic and Wind Loads, 1998). Instead, the engineer’s intention is to make buildings earthquake resistant; such buildings resist the effects of ground shaking, and even though there may be severe damage, the buildings would not collapse during the strong earthquake. Thus, the safety of people and contents is ensured in earthquake-resistant buildings, and thereby a disaster is avoided.  Earthquakes can occur anywhere; over two million earthquakes have been recorded each year. There is a high probability of damage to buildings in a seismically active zone. As documented in North America, timber-frame construction has the ability to withstand earthquakes when compared to other material construction practices (Blass, Ceccotti, & Dyrbe, 1994). Earthquakes affect buildings differently depending on the type of ground motions and characteristics of the building structure. If the ground motion is strong enough, it will move a building’s foundation (Kikuchi, 1994). However, inertia forces tend to keep the upper stories in their original position, causing the building to distort.  6  Since inertial forces are greater when objects are heavier, the effects of earthquakes are greater in heavier buildings. Therefore, since timber-frame construction is lighter than other material construction, it will generate smaller earthquake forces (Buchanan, 1989).  Timber has inherent characteristics, such as its light weight and flexibility, which make it an ideal material in areas prone to high winds and earthquakes (Deam & King, 1994). The shear walls and diaphragms of a timber-frame building enable it to withstand lateral loads (Breyer, 1980). However, in order for either to be effective, all of the related components including framing, structural panel sheathing and inter-element fastening details must be designed and installed correctly. Timber is also durable and with proper design and maintenance, timber structures can deliver decades of reliable service (Dolan, The Dynamic Response of Timber Shear Walls, 1989).  Timber is an inherently “green” building material. In addition to being renewable and sustainable over the long term, it outperforms steel and concrete when compared using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. LCA is an internationally recognized approach to evaluating materials and assemblies based on measurable indicators of environmental impact over their lifetime (Phil Townsend, 2001). Using this method, studies have consistently shown that wood is better for the environment than steel or concrete in terms of global warming potential, resource use, embodied energy, air pollution and water pollution.  7  2.2 Market Share of Timber Products in Non-Residential Buildings  The major barriers to increasing the market share of timber products in non-residential building applications in Canada have been indentified in previous studies as fire resistance performance and overall designer confidence in commercial and industrial timber-based construction. While the issue of fire performance is being addressed both through design solutions and amendments to building codes and standards, the issue of overall confidence in the use of wood as a structural material in non-residential applications required further exploration. The lack of confidence in the use of timber as a structural material can be based on lack of design education and also on the fact that there are only a few designers with a high degree of competence in timber design.  8  2.3 Reasons For Lack Of Confidence in Using Timber for NonResidential Buildings  One of the greatest barriers to the use of timber in non-residential buildings is the building codes. The element of the building code that restricts the size of the market in which timber could potentially occupy is fire-related code restrictions. Prior to the 1994 Building code in Canada, building regulations did not permit combustible materials (including timber) to be used for multi-storey building intertenancy fire separation walls. However, due to the timber industries’ use of risk analyses, providing evidence of the acceptability of timber structural fire performance, timber was permitted for “suitably designed buildings”. The ongoing high market share of non-timber materials in non-residential buildings is due to the perception of what is an “appropriate” size and type of building for timber in the market (R.A. Kozak, 2001). This perception is held by the engineers and developers due to lack of understanding by design professionals as to how to adequately specify in timber, and due to lack of design education.  Some other factors that affect timber’s ability to compete in non-residential markets are ¾ Easier and more cost effective steel and concrete design solutions. Timber does not have the same off-the-shelf solutions in terms of both range of structural members available and connection details for these, especially connections between two different product types (Yasumura, 1991). For engineers a large detraction to using timber is the complex detailing issues and the requirement to design the connections and structural supports, often from first principles.  9  Therefore, without easily available design solutions, timber designs require more engineering time than steel and concrete and subsequently add more overall cost to the project.  ¾ Inadequate skilled labour in timber construction. While a fairly straightforward light timber frame code construction system can be used in residential design, most non-residential developments require more specialist engineering design skills. ¾ Designers’ lack of training and familiarity with timber. Steel and concrete systems have a strong performance history in non-residential building markets and therefore, much research data and testing has been undertaken to support their use in the non-residential market. This research data has also been used to develop many training tools and a number of off-the-shelf design solutions. ¾ Performance perceptions (in terms of bio-deterioration and instability)  10  2.4 Suggested Future Priorities for Increasing Market Demand  The timber market demand can be increase by a number of actions. Some of these actions are listed below:  Build public and industry awareness of timber applications, benefits and aesthetic appeal ¾ Learn from the steel industry and develop programs to educate engineers, architects and the general public about the genuine benefits of using timber; ¾ Demonstrate the fire safety benefits associated with timber; ¾ Address negative perceptions attached to timber (e.g. cost, availability, lifespan, termite issues etc.); Fully utilize overseas technologies available ¾ Investigate available European technology e.g The use of Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) and its benefits; Distribute design and cost examples of timber applications throughout the industry ¾ Develop design examples and demonstration of the cost competitiveness of timber; ¾ Ensure data is readily available on different design and specification; Facilitate improved education of non-residential structure applications of timber ¾ Greater involvement in wider industry events e.g. sponsorship of architectural and designer prizes surrounding best use of structural timber; ¾ Establish project based demonstrations of applications to build publicity and knowledge;  11  ¾ Developed integrated information (software) packages on the use of timber products; ¾ Develop a one-stop shop handbook for timber information related to builders and designers; and ¾ Ensure timber takes a higher priority in tertiary and post-graduate education programs and related materials.  12  2.5 Timber Products: Use in Non-Residential Buildings  The current non-residential buildings framing type is mainly made up of concrete and steel. However, great potential exists for expanding the use of timber building products into non-residential buildings. One of these potential uses is the use of MIDPLY shear walls in non-residential buildings (Erol Varoglu E. K., 2006).  The MIDPLY shear wall is an improved timber shear wall that was developed by redesigning the joints between sheathing and framing members, so that the failure modes observed in standard wall testing are virtually eliminated at lateral load levels high enough to cause failures in standard walls.  In MIDPLY shear wall design, one ply of sheathing material is placed at the center of the wall between a series of pairs of studs oriented in a 90° rotated position relative to those in standard shear walls (see fig. 1)  The superior performance of the MIDPLY wall under lateral loading is attained through the following means: 1. A wood-based panel is used at the center of the wall to provide the lateral resistance of the wall without increasing the nominal width of the wall. The nails fasten the mid-sheathing to the framing work in double shear, whereas nails in standard shear walls work in single shear (see fig. 2)  13  Figure 1 - Typical Midply and standard shear wall  2. Studs and plates in the MIDPLY wall system are placed at a 90° rotated position relative to those in standard stud walls. The sheathing material is fastened to the wide faces of studs and plates versus the narrow face of framing in standard walls. This increases the lateral load capacity of the MIDPLY wall by providing more edge distance for fasteners on the perimeter of the sheathing panels placed at the mid-plane and the exterior face of the wall. This reduces the likelihood of nail tear-out failures. Increased edge distance also makes it easier for framers to nail sheathing to the studs.  2. The heads of nails are kept away from the surface of the mid-panel; consequently, nail pull-through failure at the mid-panel is prevented.  14  Figure 2 - Nail fastening to standard shear wall and Midply shear wall  15  CHAPTER 3 MIDPLY SHEAR WALL SIMPLIFIED ANALYSIS  The MIDPLY shear wall utilizes a novel arrangement of sheathing and framing members with a special nailing technique. The MIDPLY joints have a different failure mode from the one observed in standard shear walls.  This chapter shows a simplified calculation of the design shear load, Vdesign for the MIDPLY wall. The calculation process involves the MIDPLY wall end studs and the MIDPLY nail lateral resistance of the bottom plate being investigated for the various limit states. The analysis of the MIDPLY wall shows that one of the MIDPLY shear wall end studs can be idealized as a simple compression strut when a lateral load is applied at the top of the plate. From the calculation of the compression load in the boundary stud, the tension load in the other end stud can be found. The tension load in the end stud of the MIDPLY wall is also shown to be increasing exponentially when the MIDPLY shear wall increases in size.  16  3.1 Midply Shear Wall Analysis Procedure  End Studs  The MIDPLY wall end studs will be investigated through two limit states, namely crushing and buckling. The critical buckling load can be calculated by using the Euler buckling formula. After establishing the critical compression load for the boundary studs, equilibrium equations applied to the static system of the shear wall free body yield to find the tension load in the other end studs in order to design the hold-down details. The buckling / crushing load must be transferred to the plywood sheathing by shear. This shear must be consecutively transferred to the intermediate studs (See fig. 3); and so on until the shear load is transferred to the end stud.  17  Figure 3 - Internal forces in Midply shear wall  18  The tension load in the end stud is calculated by using the first principle of statics, which requires any free body system to be in equilibrium. Therefore, the compression (buckling or crushing) load must be equal to tension load. This tension load is the force that the end stud and connection will have to carry, due to stud size and orientation. For the typical MIDPLY shear wall, the boundary stud consists of 3 – 38mm x 89mm timber studs and 13mm sheathing (see fig. 4).  38  89  2 1  38  89 4  13  3  . Figure 4 - Typical cross-section of Midply shear wall end stud in mm  19  Calculation of buckling load in end studs The moment of inertia for this section is: Y – coordinate centroid (see Fig. 2), dy1 = 44.5mm dy2 = 70mm dy3 = 19mm dy4 = 44.5mm  dy2  dy4 dy1  dy3  Figure 5 - Typical Midply cross-section showing the coordinates of the centroid  Area,  A1 = 38 x 89 = 3,382mm2 A2 = 38 x 89 = 3,382mm2 A3 = 38 x 89 = 3,382mm2 A4 = 13 x 89 = 1,157mm2  20  Moment of inertia (axes through centroid), Ixc1 =  bd 3 38 × 89 3 = = 2,232,401.8 mm4 12 12  bd 3 89 × 38 3 Ixc2 = = = 406,967.33 mm4 12 12 bd 3 89 × 38 3 Ixc3 = = = 406,967.33 mm4 12 12 bd 3 89 × 133 Ixc4 = = = 16,294.42 mm4 12 12 Moment of inertia relative x – axis, Ix = (Ixc1 + A1dy1^2) + (Ixc2 + A2dy2^2) + (Ixc3 + A3dy3^2)+( Ixc4 + A4dy4^2) Ix = 29,843,687.7 mm4 Total area, Atot = A1+A2+A3+A4 = 11,303mm2 A1 dy1 + A2 dy 2 + A3 dy 3 + A4 dy 4 = 44.5mm Atot Moment of inertia – relative x axis, Ix`= Ix – (Y2xAtot) = 7,460,921.92mm4 Note: The elastic modulus, E = 13,100Mpa  Y – coordinate of total centroid, Y=  Using the column boundary condition, fixed for bottom and guided for top. The effective length constant, C = 1 The critical load can be calculated using Pcr =  π 2 EI L2 e  where  E = Modulus of elasticity of the material I = moment of inertia Le = effective length Therefore, Pcr =  π 2 × 13,100 × 7,460,921.92 2476 2  = 157350 N = 157.35 kN  The tension load that the boundary element will have to carry is 157.35kN A spreadsheet was developed to assist in the calculation of the tension load for different sizes of MIDPLY end studs.  21  Nailing of the studs at the bottom plate  Using a nail spacing parallel to grain of 50mm 38  89  2 1  38  89 13 3  Nail (3mm diam.) Figure 6 – Typical cross-section of Midply wall showing nail location  For a bottom stud length of 2.438 and spacing of nails of 50mm, the number of nails along the horizontal length required is 49 nails. Using Table 9.5.1A from CSA-086-01, we can get the specified shear strength for shear walls. By manipulating the formula ( φ × Fspecified = 0.434 × Fultimate ), we can find for Fultimate This ultimate specified shear strength of the nails will be for shear walls, so we can make the assumption that the MIDPLY shear wall has a resistance of double the times the strength of nails used in typical shear walls. For shear walls, Fultimate =  0.6 × 17.4 = 24.06kN/m 0.434  For MIDPLY shear walls, Fultimate = 2 x 24.06 = 48.11 kN/m  22  Therefore, ultimate unit lateral strength of a nail using a length of panel of 2.438m = 48.11 × 2.438 = 2.39 kN. 49  Therefore lateral strength provided by nailing = number of nails x ultimate unit lateral strength of a nail = 2.39 × 49 = 117 .29 kN  23  3.2 Simplified Analysis Summary  The MIDPLY shear wall can be investigated by the failure mode of the end studs and the nailing of the bottom plate. The lowest value yielded from these elements is used as the capacity of the MIDPLY shear wall. (Table 1 showing lateral capacity of different crosssectional sizes of Midply shear wall  Table 1 showing lateral capacity of different cross-sectional sizes of Midply shear wall calculated by simplified analysis Wall  1 2 3  No. of end studs 1 4 1  Framing (mm) Plates 38x89 38x89 38x89  Int. Studs 38x89 38x89 38x89  Mid. Studs 38x139 38x139 38x139  End Studs 38x89 38x89 38x89  Sheathing thickness (mm) 12.5 12.5 22.5  Stud Spacing (mm) 610 610 610  Lateral capacity (kN) 117.29 129.46 138.47  24  3.3 Hold-down Connection Device on End Studs  For the MIDPLY shear wall system, two possible hold-down mechanisms at the boundary element are being taken into consideration (See Fig. 7 , 8, 9 and 10).  25  Figure 7 - Hold-down connection #1  26  Figure 8 -Hold-down connection #1 details  27  Figure 9 - Hold-down connection #2  28  Figure 10 - Hold-down connection #2 details  29  Hold-down connection type 1(See Fig. 7, 8) is suitable for standard MIDPLY sizes, however, has problems with the increasing elements of the MIDPLY shear walls. One of these problems is that the capacity of the hold-down connection increases proportionally while the capacity of the walls increases exponentially. Hold-down connection type 1 capacity can be shown by a simple calculation. e.g. The unit lateral strength resistance for parallel to grain loading - pu φ = 0.7 (resistance factor) KD = 1.0 (load duration factor) KSF = 1.0 (service condition factor) KT = 1.0 (treatment factor) ns = 1 (number of shear planes) nf = 5 (number of bolts in a row) G = 0.42 (mean relative density) d = 9.525 (bolt diameter) f2 = 63 × G × (1 − 0.01d ) = 23.94 MPa f1 = 574 (for ASTM A36 Steel, MPa) l1 = 6.35 (side member thickness, mm) l2 = 89 (main member thickness, mm) fy = 300 (bolt yield strength, MPa) F1 = 0.8 × f1 = 459.2 MPa pua = F1 × d 2 × pub = F1 × d 2 ×  l1 = 27,770 N 2 f 2 l2 × = 16,240 N f1 d  30  ⎡ 1 f y 1 l1 ⎤ f2 × + × ⎥ = 8,015 N pud= F1 × d 2 ⎢ × ⎣⎢ 6 f1 + f 2 f1 5 d ⎦⎥ ⎡ 1 f y 1 l2 ⎤ f2 × + × ⎥ = 80, 320 N pue = F1 × d 2 ⎢ × ⎢⎣ 6 f1 + f 2 f1 5 d ⎥⎦ f l ⎞ 1⎛l puf = F1 × d 2 × ⎜⎜ 1 + 2 × 2 ⎟⎟ = 8,802 N 5 ⎝ d f1 d ⎠  pug = F1 × d 2 ×  fy f2 2 = 4,921 N × × 3 f1 + f 2 f1  [  pu = min p ua ; p ub ; p ud ; pue ; p uf ; p ug  ]  pu = 4,921 N The lateral strength resistance for parallel to grain loading – Pu Pu = pu × (K D × K SF × K T ) Pu = 4,921 N The factored lateral strength resistance for parallel to grain loading – Pr l = l2 (member thickness) s = 50.8 (bolt spacing in the row) N = nf (number of bolts in a row)  ⎛1⎞ JG’ = 0.33 × ⎜ ⎟ ⎝d ⎠  0.5  ⎛s⎞ ×⎜ ⎟ ⎝d ⎠  0.2  × N −0.3  JG = min [JG’ 1.0]  JG = 0.87  JL = 1.0 JR = 1.0 JF = JG x JL x JR = 0.87  31  Where JG = factor for 2 to 12 bolts in a row JL = factor for loaded end distance JR = factor for number of rows Pr = φ x Pu x ns x nf x JF = 14,984.45N = 14.98 kN Therefore, Pr is the factored tension force that a connection using 5 bolts can withstand. This Pr= 14.98 kN is much less than the anticipated tension load capacity of the end studs in the system.  Hold-down connection type 2 incorporates a steel rod (rebar or similar) in the end stud assembly element of the MIDPLY shear wall (see Fig.9, 10). Using a yield strength of 410 N/mm2, the tensile force for a 16mm bar with a nominal area of 199 mm2 is 81.59 kN This hold-down connection has a higher resistance when compared to hold-down connection of type 1. Note: By using this hold-down connection we change the failure mode of the MIDPLY wall boundary studs when a lateral load is applied, from being compression failure at one boundary and tension failure at the other boundary, to compression failure at both boundaries.  32  Checking the compression resistance of the horizontal top plate in the MIDPLY shear wall  Assuming SPF for the timber studs Qr = φ × Fcp × Ab × KB × Kzcp where Qr is the factored compressive resistance perpendicular to grain under the effect of all factored loads.  φ = 0.8 fcp = 5.3 (Compression perpendicular to grain – CSA086-01 (Canadian Wood Council, 2001) Table 5.3.1B KD = 1.0 (Load duration factor) KT = 1.0 (Treatment factor) KScp = 1.0 (Service condition factor for compression perpendicular to grain) KB = 1.13 (Length of bearing factor) KZcp = 1.0 (Size factor for bearing) Fcp = fcp × (KD × KT × KSc p) = 5.3 MPa Ab = 17,800 mm2 (Bearing area – 89mm x 200mm) Qr = 0.8 × 5.3 ×17800×1.13×1.0 = 85,283 N = 85.283 kN, Therefore with a plate of area 89mm × 200mm (See Dwg. S – 05), the horizontal top stud in the MIDPLY shear wall will resist a compression load of 85.283 kN which is greater than the compression force due to hold-down connection type 2.  33  3.4 Hold-down Connection Summary  The simplified analysis of the MIDPLY shear wall also shows that the increasing of the MIDPLY shear wall sizes can result in a very large increase in tension load capacity of the end element. Thereby, a simple geometric scaling of the hold-down connectors does not suffice. A hold-down system using a rebar in the end element (Fig. 9, 10) has shown good potential in withstanding the existing high tensile forces. Also it is evident when we increase member sizes of the MIDPLY shear walls, we get higher capacity but the structure becomes so stiff that we lose ductility. Therefore by increasing the elements of the MIDPLY shear walls, we decrease the energy dissipation capacity of the wall.  34  CHAPTER 4 MIDPLY WALL TESTS This chapter represents the test results of monotonic and cyclic tests on MIDPLY shear walls to assess the performance of wall under a lateral load. The aim was to determine the maximum lateral load carrying capacity of the wall and also what effects did the increasing in the size of sheathing, studs and gap spacing between the two sheathing have on the overall performance of the wall.  4.1 Objectives and Scope A MIDPLY shear wall is where one ply of sheathing is placed at the center of the wall between a series of pairs of studs oriented in a 90 degree rotated position relative to those in standard shear walls. The MIDPLY wall system consists of standard shear wall components arranged so that the lateral resistance as well as dissipated energy of the system significantly exceeds that of current standard wall arrangements. This study is primarily concerned with the performance of the MIDPLY wall under lateral loads due to wind and earthquakes.  The increasing of stud sizes, sheathing thickness and spacing between the two sheathing was to verify that larger MIDPLY sizes can be used where larger earthquake and wind loads are faced, for example, in a non-residential building, a high-rise structure where the ground storey uses the increased MIDPLY size since it will be subjected to the largest earthquake force etc.  35  CHAPTER 5 METHODS AND MATERIALS  5.1 Midply Specimens  The tested walls were nominally 2.44m (8’) tall and 2.44m (8’) wide. A typical specimen is shown below and pictures of specimens prepared for testing are shown in (Figure 11 – Midply shear wall setup). The framing members were 38mm x 89mm (2”x4”) and 38mm x 139mm (2”x6”). The middle framing studs in the MIDPLY shear wall used the 38mm x 139mm member to minimize the possibility of buckling failure.  Figure 11 –Midply shear wall setup  36  Six frames for the walls were constructed and tested. The tests that were carried out on the shear walls were monotonic and ISO16670 (ASTM Int`l, 2006). The monotonic tests were done to obtain the ultimate displacement. This ultimate displacement was used in the ISO Displacement schedule test of a matched specimen. This test involves displacement cycles grouped in phases at incrementally increasing displacement levels. The ISO loading schedule consists of two displacement patterns. The first displacement pattern consists of five single fully reversed cycles at displacements of 1.25%, 2.5% 5% and 7.5% and 10% of the ultimate displacement. The second displacement pattern consists of phases, each containing three fully reversed cycles of equal amplitude, at displacements of 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 100% and 120% of the ultimate displacement. The seven wall configurations are listed in table 2.  37  In the test matrix, one parameter was changed in every specimen to identify the controlling factors in overall performance of the MIDPLY wall. The parameters that were changed are sheathing thickness, framing studs size; fastener spacing and sheathing gap spacing (see fig. 12). These changed parameters were highlighted in the test matrix – table 2. All material used for testing has been left over from a previous research program and had been stored in the laboratory for several months.  Figure 12 - Gap spacing between timber sheathing of the Midply shear walls  38  Table 2 - Midply shear wall test matrix  Test wall  M02-01 M03-01 M04-01 M05-01 M06-01 M07-01  a b  No. of end Gaps studs (in.)  1 1 1 4 4 1  0.125 0.5 0.125 0.125 0.125 0.125  Framing species  S-P-F S-P-F S-P-F S-P-F S-P-F S-P-F  Plates  38 x 89 38 x 89 38 x 89 38 x 89 38 x 89 38 x 89  Framing (mm) Int. studs End studs  38 x 89 38 x 89 38 x 89 38 x 89 38 x 89 38 x 89  38 x 89 38 x 89 38 x 89 38 x 89 38 x 89 38 x 89  Mid Studs  38 x 139 38 x 139 38 x 139 38 x 139 38 x 139 38 x 139  Stud spacing (mm)  End studs  610 610 610 610 610 610  Nail Nail Nail Nail Nail Nail  Fastener Int / Mid Nail Spacing Diameter studs (mm) (mm) Nail Nail SDS SDS SDS SDS  3 3 3 3 3 3  100a 100a 100a 100a 100a 100a  Two rows of nails @ 100mm staggered. Two rows of nails @ 50mm staggered  39  Length Sheathing (mm)  82 82 82 82 82 82  CSP CSP CSP CSP CSP CSP  Thickness of sheathing (mm) 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 22.5  HoldStorey down steel Height rod (mm) (m) 16 16 16 16 16 16  2.44 2.44 2.44 2.44 2.44 2.44  Displacement schedule  Monotonic Monotonic ISO16670 2003 Monotonic ISO16670 2003 Monotonic  5.2 Testing Apparatus and Instrumentation  The MIDPLY shear wall was tested on a frame developed by Forintek Canada Corp. ( Figure 13 - Photo of the test set-up for determining the response of full-scale Midply shear walls under lateral loads). The MIDPLY wall was placed onto the steel artificial foundation member by an overhead crane. The steel artificial foundation is made up of an I-section with holes driven into the top flange at specified distances. The steel artificial foundation member was attached to a strong concrete floor of the lab with bolts to provide the rigid support. The upper steel transfer beam was attached to the top plate in the same manner as the bottom plate. Two steel guide frames with rollers to prevent out-of-plane displacements of the walls laterally supported the upper steel transfer beam.  Figure 13 - Photo of the test set-up for determining the response of full-scale Midply shear walls under lateral loads  40  The nine data measurements that were collected during the tests are: 1. Channel 0 - movement of the actuator head (Figure 14 - Full-scale Midply shear wall test showing Channel 6 and Channel 0); 2. Channel 1 - applied load; 3. Channel 2- the tension load of the vertical bar (Figure 16 - Full-scale Midply shear wall test showing Channel 2); 4. Channel 3 - the in-plane relative displacement (shear) between the diagonally opposite corners of each sheathing panel (Figure 15 - Full-scale Midply shear wall test showing Channel 3 and Channel 7); 5. Channel 4 – vertical displacement of the East end stud (Figure 17 - Full-scale Midply shear wall test showing Channel 4); 6. Channel 6 - in-plane horizontal displacement of the top plate of the wall; 7. Channel 7 – vertical displacement of West end stud; 8. Laser 22 – Located on the west side of the MIDPLY wall. This device measures shear buckling of the sheathing ( 9. 10. Figure 18 - Full-scale Midply shear wall test showing Laser 22 and Laser 23); 11. Laser 23 – Located on east side of MIDPLY wall. This device measures shear buckling of the sheathing.  41  Channel 6  Channel 0  Figure 14 - Full-scale Midply shear wall test showing Channel 6 and Channel 0  Channel 7 Channel 3  Figure 15 - Full-scale Midply shear wall test showing Channel 3 and Channel 7  42  Channel 2  Figure 16 - Full-scale Midply shear wall test showing Channel 2  Channel 4  Figure 17 - Full-scale Midply shear wall test showing Channel 4  43  Laser 22 and 23  Figure 18 - Full-scale Midply shear wall test showing Laser 22 and Laser 23  The software that controlled the actuator motion was MTS-3 which was developed at FP Innovations (Forintek Division). The maximum load that can be delivered by the actuation is 40,000lbs. The data acquisition was supplied by software called LABVIEW. The in-plane horizontal displacement of the bottom frame member of the top plate was measured using a coil spring-loaded transducer (DCDT) with a total measurement range of 3050mm (120”). The relative displacements were measured with displacement transducers with a measurement range of 76mm (3”). The transducers were connected to mounting brackets that were each in turn connected to studs using two wooden screws.  44  5.3 Testing Procedures  A specimen was selected and tested monotonic. A matched specimen was then tested cyclically by using the ultimate displacement that was found by the monotonic tests. To simplify the testing procedure, two tension rods were used at the boundary ends instead of the specified one tension rod. This was done to effectively connect the tension rod to the artificial I-section foundation. If only one tension rod was used then there will be an eccentricity because the bar will not be able to connect to the I-section at the center (because of the flange) but will be skewed to one side. The two tension rods when combined possess an equal or larger load carrying capacity compared to the specified one tension rod. Therefore, the load carrying capacity of the tension rod was not compromised.  45  5.4 Material Properties  The S-P-F frame members and the timber ply that were used to construct the MIDPLY walls were left over from a previous study conducted at FP Innovations (Forintek Division). The grade of the frame members was No.2. Therefore the design values in Table 1 are applicable since the walls are to be tested under normal load duration and were stored in dry service conditions. Spiral nails of lengths 3 ¼” were used to construct the specimens for the MIDPLY wall tests. The properties of the sheathing used in the MIDPLY walls are given in Table 3. The middle stud and intermediate studs were fastened together by 3 1/4 “ x ¼ “ Simpson Drive Screws (See fig. 19). These Simpson Drive Screws were used to effectively attached the studs to the sheathing  Table 3 - Specified strengths and modulus of elasticity (MPa)  Species Grade Bending Identification at extreme fibre fb S-P-F No.2 6.3  Longitudinal shear  Compression Parallel Perpendicul to grain ar to grain  Modulus elasticity Tension parallel to grain  fv 0.7  fc 5.2  ft 2.3  fcp 5.3  E 6,500  46  of  E05 4,500  Figure 19 - Simpson drive screws attached to studs of Midply shear walls  47  CHAPTER 6 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  The intention of the MIDPLY shear wall tests were to investigate the response of the wall due to the anchor rod hold down connection and also due to the modifying of the studs size, gaps between the sheathing and studs, and nail spacing etc. From the tested configurations, some observations were made of the walls under monotonic and cyclic loads. MIDPLY shear walls that used anchor rods as the hold down connection device showed an increase lateral load capacity but a decrease in the displacement capacity. This increased lateral load capacity is due to anchor rods taking up most of the tension force in the wall. When the anchor rods were used for the hold down connection device of the MIDPLY shear walls, this changed the failure mode of the shear wall by adding extra compression load on the both end studs. Therefore buckling failure was observed in the studs and the sheathings.  48  6.1 Test Results M02-01 The first MIDPLY shear wall was tested on December 15th 2008 and was given the designation M02-01 because previously a MIDPLY specimen designation of M01-01 was tested to validate the test equipment. The M02-1 displacement schedule was the monotonic test and also loaded at rate of 0.6”/min. Buckling failure in sheathing and studs was visible at 55.12mm displacement (See fig 20, 21 and 22). This buckling is due to the anchor rods supplying extra compression loads on the entire system when a lateral load is applied (See fig. 23 and 24)  Figure 20 - Load vs. Displacement for wall M02-01  49  Figure 21 - Displacement vs. Time for wall M02-01  Figure 22 - Load vs Time for wall M02-01  50  Figure 23 - Buckling failure of the sheathing and studs for M02-01  Figure 24 - Side view of buckling failure of studs and sheathing for M02-01  51  It can be also seen that with use of anchor rods as the hold-down connection device there is little ductility when compared with walls of the same size using the triangular hold-down connection device of previous tests (Erol Varoglu E. K., 2006). Also there is an increase in lateral load capacity due to anchor rods absorbing most of the tension force supplied by the lateral load (See fig. 16). Therefore from M02-01 test it can be said that the anchor rod hold-down connection device increases lateral load capacity but decreases ductility. From table 4 we see that the simplified analysis gives a reasonable estimate of the lateral capacity of the MIDPLY shear with little computation involved. This simplified analysis can be used as a first step analysis in the design of the MIDPLY shear walls  Table 4 showing lateral load capacities of a Midply wall  Designation  Lateral load Capacity Experimental  Simplified  Analytical result  result (kN)  Analysis result  (kN)  (kN) M02-01  125  117.29  113  52  M03-01 The second MIDPLY shear wall was tested on December 18th 2008 and was given the designation M03-01. The major difference between this wall and the previous wall is the gap around the sheathing (See fig. 25).  Figure 25 - Gap between the two sheathing panels of the Midply shear walls  The M02-01 had a 1/8” gap between the middle of the two sheathing panels, no gap between the sheathing and the end studs, also 3/8” gap between the sheathing and top/ bottom plates. The M03-01 had 0.5” gap all around the sheathing. This wall was built to determine whether gaps around sheathing influence the response of the MIDPLY shear wall. The technical philosophy behind having gaps around the sheathing is to ensure the ability of the two sheathing panels to rotate when a lateral load is applied, thereby increasing the energy dissipation of the wall (see fig. 26).  53  Figure 26 - Sheathing panel rotation of the Midply shear walls  From the results of the experiment, it can be seen that the effect of gaps between the two sheathing panels was not significant for the lateral load capacity but showed an increase in displacement capacity, which indicate an increase in ductility (see fig.27). Due to the limited benefits of having an increased gap and the difficulty involved in the construction of MIDPLY shear walls with the gap, the investigation into gap size between the two sheathing panels was discontinued. It can also be said that the failure modes between M02-01 and M03-01 was exactly the same, therefore the gap size between the sheathing panels made very little difference in the failure mode (See fig. 28 and 23).  54  Figure 27 - Lateral load vs Displacement for M03-01 and M02-01  Figure 28 - Buckling failure mode for M03-01 wall  55  M04-01 This test was similar to material properties and framing elements of M02-01. For this test we did a cyclic loading protocol to investigate the response of the test specimen to increasing cyclic loading and also to material fatigue. From the fig. 29 it can be seen that the MIDPLY shear wall specimen showed the ability to withstand a high lateral load capacity but showed very little energy dissipation. This wall also had a different failure mode when compared to a match specimen that was tested due to monotonic loading. The failure mode for M04-01 was shear failure at the top plate of the MIDPLY shear wall specimen (see Fig. 30 and 21). This failure was due to fatigue in the nails at the top plate. Also from fig. 29 the load – displacement curve obtained from the cyclic test was of a symmetrical shape. This indicated that the wall was not damaged on the compression side or tension side due to steel anchorage rods taking up the load.  Figure 29 - Lateral load vs displacement of M04-01  56  Figure 30 - Movement of the top plate of M04-01 wall  Figure 31 - Failure of the nails at the top plate of Midply shear wall  57  M05-01 For this specimen, we wanted to investigate an increased buckling capacity of the boundary end studs. Therefore we increased the number of boundary end studs to 4 from 1 as a means of strengthening end studs against buckling. This specimen was exactly the same as M02-01 except for the increase in the number of boundary end studs. From fig. 32 it can be seen that due to the increase in the number of end studs, there was an increase in the lateral load capacity and displacement capacity. This showed that critical buckling load failure was increased due to an increase number of end studs.  Figure 32 - Lateral load vs. displacement for M05-01 wall  58  Figure 33 - Buckling failure of M05-01  59  M06-01 A match specimen of M05-01 was experimented under cyclic loading. The results from the experiment showed the ability of the specimen to withstand high lateral load capacity but the inability to dissipate energy (see fig. 34). The load-displacement curve obtained from the cyclic test was of a slight non-symmetrical shape. This indicated that there was damage on the compression side under loading; this damage was visible during the test.  The failure of this specimen was due to shear failure at the bottom, fatigue failure of the nails attached to the bottom plate and nail withdrawal at the bottom plate (see fig. 35). This type of failure is due to increasing stiffness of the structure. This type of failure is not acceptable because we cannot see when the failure is occurring; therefore occupants of a building may not be aware of a possible collapse.  60  Figure 34 - Lateral load vs. displacement of M06-01  Figure 35 - Nail withdrawal at the bottom plate of M06-01  61  M07-01 Due to the sheathing buckling of the MIDPLY shear, we investigated an increase in thickness of the sheathing. The M07-01 is similar to M02-01 except for the sheathing thickness. We expected a higher lateral load capacity for M07-01 when compared to M02-01 but found that the lateral load capacity was lower (see fig. 36). This can be due to the increase stiffness of the system; therefore failure occurred at the weakest point which is the bottom plate connection to the end stud (see fig. 37). Note: An increased nail length of 3 ½ inch was proposed but due to the cost of acquiring a new nail gun, a decision was made to continue with the existing nail length of 3 inches. The nail length increase was due to the increased thickness of the sheathing and also to facilitate the penetration of 80% depth of the combined material.  Figure 36 - Lateral load vs. displacement for M07-01  62  Figure 37 - Failure at the bottom plate and end stud connection  63  CHAPTER 7 SUMMARY OF MIDPLY SHEAR WALLS  The behaviour of the test specimens demonstrated that pre-mature end stud failure can easily be avoided by restraining the end studs against uplift with the steel anchor rods. This idea was implemented and proven effective through the monotonic and cyclic tests that yielded higher lateral load capacities when compared with typical MIDPLY shear walls. These steel anchor rods that were used as the hold-down connection device takes up higher tension forces, thus preventing the excessive uplift in the bottom corner of the MIDPLY shear walls. One of the major disadvantages that this type of hold-down connection device possesses is the lack of energy dissipation. This is due to the anchor rods increasing the stiffness and capacity of the structure but reducing the displacement capacity.  Also it can be said that the use of the anchor rods as a hold down connection device did not result in desirable modes of failure. A ductile failure mode was observed when used in the test M03-01 (see table 5) due to the gaps between the sheathing being increased. This type of construction that facilitated the gaps between the sheathing was very difficult to construct and inspect.  From the results of M06-01 and M07-01 the instances in which the MIDPLY shear wall failed in the bottom plate indicate that timber does not have the high density required to transfer a high concentration of load.  64  Table 5 - Results for Midply shear wall tests  Test wall M02-01 M03-01 M04-01 M05-01 M06-01 M07-01  Displacement Lateral schedule capacity ρmax(kN) Monotonic 125 Monotonic 120 ISO 2003 104/102 Monotonic 148 ISO 2003 126/125 Monotonic 112  Displacement Ultimate at ρmax (mm) displacement 72.71 96.6 51.56/63.78 91.20 67.76/48.84 61.83  80.67 100 105/100.22 103.22 81.52/80.55 63.66  65  CHAPTER 8 ANALYTICAL PREDICTION OF MIDPLY SHEAR WALLS  Data responses from the walls were documented including maximum displacement, maximum strength in bending, and bending stiffness obtained from the load displacement curves of the walls. The objective of this investigation is to predict the response of the tested wall in analytical software. The analytical software chosen is SAP 2000 because of its non-linear capabilities and its ability to model complex structural components (Wilson & Habibulah, 2006). This software used the data of the tests on the MIDPLY shear walls that were presented throughout this thesis. The model in the software was then calibrated to the experimental results in order to accurately predict the MIDPLY shear wall response. By having a calibrated model, then we can predict the response of MIDPLY shear walls of different cross-sectional sizes and conditions.  66  8.1 Analytical Modelling of Midply Shear Walls  To predict the load-displacement response of the full scale tested MIDPLY shear walls discussed in previous chapters, an analytical model was developed using linear finite element modelling(Figure 38 - Picture of analytical model in SAP 2000). The linear model with the use of non-linearity in the springs showed that this model can account for some non-linear behaviour in the nails of the MIDPLY shear walls and provide a reasonable prediction of the MIDPLY shear walls.  Figure 38 - Picture of analytical model in SAP 2000  67  The MIDPLY shear wall computer model was developed by having studs that were designated as frame elements. The panel sections represented the plywood sheathing, cable elements were used to represent the anchor rods, and multi-linear elastic springs was used to represent the nails (Figure 39 - Picture showing the different elements of the SAP model). Two types of springs were used to denote the vertical and horizontal nails. The nails properties data for Force vs. Deflection were supplied by previous testing done at the FP Innovations lab.  Figure 39 - Picture showing the different elements of the SAP model  68  8.2 Analytical Results and Discussion  The load displacement responses of the MIDPLY shear wall are presented in table 4. The plot was obtained from the experimental results and the SAP 2000 computer model of M02-01 wall. These results were due to monotonic loading (fig 40) it can be seen that the linear computer model reasonably captures the response of the wall in monotonic loading for (M02-01). This was evident throughout the investigation of different MIDPLY specimens.  Figure 40 - Experimental and analytical response of Midply shear wall (M02-01)  69  8.3 Summary of Analytical Results  In this chapter, analytical models were used to predict the load-displacement response of the MIDPLY shear walls under monotonic loading. Results were presented from a finite element computer program that accounted for non-linearity of behaviour in the spring elements which represented the nails on the MIDPLY shear wall. Beyond the initial linear range, the computer model of the MIDPLY shear was able to reasonably predict the response of the wall in the non-linear range. This computer model can then be used to predict MIDPLY shear walls of various cross-sectional sizes and different material species accurately. Therefore this model can be used in the design offices to predict the load-deformation response of the MIDPLY shear walls.  70  CHAPTER 9 CONCLUSION AND DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS Several studies have been conducted over the past 8 years on the response of MIDPLY shear walls. These walls have been tested in static and cyclic loading by FP Innovations (Forintek) under the supervision of Dr. E. Varoglu, Mr. E. Karacabeyli, Dr. S. Stiemer and Dr. C. Ni. Those studies have focused on MIDPLY shear wall using typical cross-sectional sizes and different hold-down connection devices. The results presented in this study are thus complementary to those previous studies and can be considered as a contribution to the on-going research on MIDPLY shears walls. This study has shown that the increased elements of the MIDPLY shear wall can result in a tension load capacity that increases exponentially and also the effectiveness of the anchor rods as the hold-down connection device to resist large tension load capacity. These results can be useful for the design engineer who can incorporate the modified MIDPLY shear wall design into the workplace. Some of the major findings of this study are as follows:  ¾ By increasing the elements of the MIDPLY shear wall, the tension load capacity increases exponentially thereby rendering any typical holddown connection insufficient useless. The anchor rod hold-down connection device has show the ability to withstand the high tension forces developed by the increased by MIDPLY shear walls.  71  ¾ Steel anchor rods that were used as the hold-down connection device dissipates higher tension forces, thus preventing the excessive uplift in the bottom corner of the MIDPLY shear walls.  ¾ Steel anchor rods change the failure mode of the boundary end studs from compression on one side and tension on the other side to compression on both sides. ¾ An increased number of studs located at the end of MIDPLY shear walls can be used to withstand higher buckling loads. ¾ By increasing the gaps between the sheathing, we can increase the displacement capacity of the wall. This is due to the two sheathing having an increase in rotational displacement from side to side when a lateral load is applied (see fig. 26). These gaps are however difficult to construct and inspect. ¾ By increasing the individual cross-sections of the members in the MIDPLY shear wall, we get higher capacity but the structure becomes stiffer and we lose ductility.  72  ¾ A simplified analysis and finite element analytical model that were used to predict the load-displacement response of the MIDPLY shear wall under lateral loads proved to be sufficiently accurate, especially in the range where the linear-elastic behaviour prevailed. In the overall evaluation, considering effort and accuracy, the simplified analysis deemed to be a viable tool for the design office. ¾ The MIDPLY shear walls subjected to cyclic loading showed only little damage of the MIDPLY shear walls during the loading phases. ¾ Increasing the sheathing thickness of the MIDPLY shear walls increased the lateral load capacity. However, it failed in the bottom plate with little warning. This type of failure is not desirable since it is similar to a brittle failure type. This will not give any warning to possible occupants of a building regarding failure or collapse.  73  CHAPTER 10 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH This study focussed on the response of MIDPY shear walls using the anchor rod holddown connection device which yields valuable information. The results, however, have shown the need for future research to investigate a number of outstanding topics. Some of the topics are listed below: ¾ The use of the increased gap between the two sheathing panels has been shown to increase ductility. Further research is needed to understand the response of the MIDPLY shear wall with an increased gap between the sheathing panels.  ¾ The anchor rods that were used for the hold-down connection device showed great potential in withstanding high tension forces. These tension rods were hand tightened on the artificial foundation. Therefore when the lateral load was applied to MIDPLY shear wall, the tension rod was immediately invoked in the resistance of the load. It is recommended that a compressible material or a gap is used between the bolts of the anchor rods and the artificial foundation. By having a gap or a compressible material between the bolt of the anchor rod and the artificial foundation, it should give the MIDPLY shear wall the opportunity to withstand the earlier portion of the lateral load and the latter portion of the load will be taken up by the tension rods. This can result in a smaller tension load being applied to the steel rods, which will in turn apply a smaller compression load to the end studs of the MIDPLY shear wall.  74  ¾ Buckling failure was visible in the sheathing and intermediate framing studs. The fasteners that were used on the intermediate studs were Simpson Drive Screws. These screws were spaced one foot apart which may have allowed the intermediate studs not to work as one composite member due to the size of the spacing. Further research is needed to understand the effect of using closely spaced nailing on the intermediate framing studs.  ¾ One of the most common and severe failure modes of the MIDPLY shear walls was the shearing of bottom plate from the entire MIDPLY shear wall. This shearing of the bottom plate was due to timber not having a high enough density to transfer a high concentration of load. Further investigation is needed when different framing species are selected for use in the bottom plate or the use of a steel and timber system on the bottom plate.  75  BIBLIOGRAPHY ASTM Int`l. (2006). Standard Test Methods of Cyclic (Reversed) Load Test for Shear Resistance of Walls for Buildings. Pennsylvania: ASTM Int`l. Blake, H., Prion, H., Lam, F., & Popovski, M. (1999). Ductile Timber Connections for Earthquake Resistant Design. 8th Canadian Conference on Earthquake Engineering, (pp. 143-148). Vancouver, B.C, Canada. Blass, H., Ceccotti, A., & Dyrbe, M. (1994). Behavior of Timber Structures under Seismic Actions. Materials and Structures , 157-184. Breyer, D. E. (1980). Design of Wood Structures. Pomona: McGraw Hill Inc. Buchanan, A. (1989). Earthquake Resistance of Timber Buildings in New Zealand. Proceedings of Worshop on Sturctural Behavior of Timber Structures, (pp. 209-221). Florence, Italy. Canadian Wood Council. (2005). Introduction to Wood Design. Ontario: Canadian Wood Council. Canadian Wood Council. (2001). Wood Design Manual. Ontario: Canadian Wood Council. Deam, B., & King, A. (1994). The Seismic Behavior of Timber Structures. Pacific Timber Engineering of Timber Conference, (pp. 962-968). Gold Coast, Austraila. Dolan, J. (1989). The Dynamic Response of Timber Shear Walls. Vancouver, B.C: University of British Columbia. Dolan, J., & Foschi, R. (1991). Structural Analysis Model for Static Loads on Timber Shear Walls. Journal of Structural Engineering , 851-861. Erol Varoglu, E. K. (2006). Midply Wood Shear Wall System: Concept and Performance in Static and Cyclic Testing. Journal of Structral Engineering , 14171425. Erol Varoglu, E. K. (2007). Midply Wood Shear Wall System: Performance in Dynamic Testing. Journal of Structural Engineering , 1035-1042. Filiatrault, A. (1990). Static and Dynamic Analysis of Timber Shear Walls. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering , 643-651. Filiatrault, A., Uang, G., & Seible, F. (2000). Ongoing Seismic Testing and Analysis Program in the CURe-Caltech Woodframe Project in California. 6th World Conference on Timber Engineering. Whistler, Vancouver.  76  Foliente, G. (1995). Hysteresis Modeling of Wood Joints and Structural Systems. Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 121 , No.6 , 1013-1022. Foliente, G. (1996). Issues in Seismic Performance Testing and Evaluation of Timber Structural Systems. International Wood Engineering Conference, (pp. 29-36). New Orleans, Louisana. Foliente, G., Paevere, P., & Ma, F. (1998). Parameter Identification and Seismic Response Analysis of Timber Buildings. World Conference on Timber Engineering, (pp. 532-539). Lausanne-Montreux, Switzerland. Foliente, G., Singh, M., & Dolan, J. (1996). Response Analysis of Wood Structures Under Natural Hazard Dynamic Loads. Journal of the Society of Wood Science and Technology, Vol.28 , 110-127. He, M., Magnusson, H., Lam, F., & Prion, H. (1999). Cyclic Performance of Perforated Wood Shear Walls with Oversize OSB Panels. Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 123, No. 9 , 10-18. I, P. (2005). Timber Products in New Government Buildings. BRANZ report E356. J.Hans Rainer, E. K. (1999). Wood-Frame Building Construction in Earthquakes. Vancouver: Forintek Canada Corporation, Special Publication No. SP-40. Karacabeyli, E. (1998). Lateral Resistance of Engineering Wood Structures to Seismic and Wind Loads. Vancouver, BC: Forintek Canada Corp. Karacabeyli, E., & Ceccotti, A. (1999). Seismic Design Considerations on Wood Frame Structural . 8th Canadian Conference on Earthquake Engineering, (pp. 137142). Vancouver, BC. Kharrazi, M., Ventura, C., & Prion, H. (2000). Report on Dynamic Buildings with Canadian Configuration. Vancouver, Canada: FORINTEK Corp. Kikuchi, S. (1994). Earthquake Resistance of Multistorey Timber Frame Structures. Pacific Timber Engineering Conference, (pp. 205-214). Gold Coast, Austraila. Madsen, B. (1992). Structural Behaviour of Timber. Vancouver: Timber Engineering Ltd. Phil Townsend, C. W. (2001). Timber as a Building Material - An environmental comparison against synthetic building materials. Austraila: National Association of Forest Industries Ltd. Popvski, M., Karacabeyli, E., & Helmut, P. G. (2003). Seismic Performance of Connections in Heavy Timber Construction. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering , 389-399. R.A. Kozak, J. O. (2001). Potential for Increased Wood Use in N.A Non-Residential Markets. Canadian Forest Service Report No. 2711 , 106 pp. Ranier, J., & Karacabeyli, E. (1999). Performance of wood-frame building construction in earthquakes. Vancouver, Canada: Forintek Canada Corp. 77  Rihal, S. (1984). Behavior of Timber Buildings Structures During the Coalinga, California Earthquake of May 2, 1983. Pacific Timber Engineering Conference, (pp. 446-447). Auckland, New Zealand. Sakamoto, I., & Ohashi, Y. (1994). An Estimation Method of Earthquake Damage Ratio of Wooden Houses and its Application. Pacific Timber Engineering Conference, (pp. 197-204). Auckland, New Zealand. Sugiyama, H. (1984). Japanese Experience and Research on Timber Buildings in Earthquakes. Pacific Timber Engineering Conference, (pp. 431-438). Auckland, New Zealand. Watanabe, K. (2000). Prediction of Evaluation in Time of Dynamic Behaviour of Wood Structure. World Conference of Timber Engineering, (pp. 11-17). LausanneMontreux, Switzerland. Wilson, E., & Habibulah, A. (2006). SAP2000 Structural Analysis Users Manual. Berkeley, CA: Computer and Structures Inc. Yasumura, M. (1991). Structural Research on Wood-Framed Construction in Japan. Proceedings of the Workshop on Full-Scale Behavior of Woodframed Buildings in Earthquakes and High Winds, (pp. 1-33). Watford, United Kingdom.  78  Appendix I Background on Sap 2000 SAP2000 represents the most sophisticated and user-friendly release of the SAP series of computer programs. When initially released in 1996, SAP2000 was the first version of SAP to be completely integrated within the Microsoft Windows. It features a powerful graphical user interface that is unmatched in terms of ease-of-use and productivity. Creation and modification of a model, execution of an analysis, and checking and optimization of the design, and production of the output are all accomplished using the single interface. The version of SAP2000 used in this project is SAP2000 Advanced 11.0.8. This program feature sophisticated capabilities, such as fast equation solvers, force and displacement loading, non-prismatic frame elements, tension-only braces, line and area springs etc.  The SAP2000 Advanced level extends the PLUS capabilities by adding a 64-bit based analysis engine, a nonlinear link element, a multi-linear plastic hinge for use in frame elements etc. In general, the Advanced program is required to perform nonlinear analyses.  79  Appendix II Sap 2000 Input Data  Table: Active Degrees of Freedom UX Yes/No Yes  UY Yes/No No  UZ Yes/No Yes  RX Yes/No No  RY Yes/No Yes  RZ Yes/No No  Table: Analysis Options Solver Text Advanced  Force32Bit Yes/No No  StiffCase Text None  GeomMod Yes/No No  Table: Area Section Properties, Part 1 of 4 Section  Material  MatAngle  AreaType  Type  Thickness  Text  Text  Degrees  Text  Text  mm  BendThic k mm  ASEC1  CONC  0.000  Shell  Shell-Thin  1.000  1.000  PANEL12. 5 PANEL22. 5 PANEL25  PLYWOO D PLYWOO D PLYWOO D  0.000  Shell  Shell-Thin  12.500  12.500  0.000  Shell  Shell-Thin  22.500  22.500  0.000  Shell  Shell-Thin  25.000  25.000  Arc  InComp  Degrees  Yes/No  Table: Area Section Properties, Part 2 of 4 Section  CoordSys  Color  F11Mod  F22Mod  F12Mod  M11Mod  Text  Text  Text  Unitless  Unitless  Unitless  Unitless  M22Mod Unitless  ASEC1  White  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  PANEL12.5  Red  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  PANEL22.5  4259584  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  PANEL25  Yellow  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  Table: Area Section Properties, Part 3 of 4 Section  M12Mod  V13Mod  V23Mod  MMod  WMod  GUID  Text  Unitless  Unitless  Unitless  Unitless  Unitless  Text  ASEC1  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  PANEL12.5  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  PANEL22.5  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  PANEL25  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  80  Table: Area Section Properties, Part 4 of 4 Section Text ASEC1 PANEL12.5 PANEL22.5 PANEL25  Notes Text  Table: Area Section Property Design Parameters Section Text ASEC1 PANEL12.5 PANEL22.5 PANEL25  RebarMat Text None None None None  RebarOpt Text Default Default Default Default  Table: Auto Wave 3 - Wave Characteristics - General WaveChar  WaveType  KinFactor  Text Default  Text From Theory  Unitless 1.000000  SWaterDept h mm 45000.00  WaveHeight  WavePeriod  mm 18000.00  Sec 12.0000  WaveTheory Text Linear  Table: Cable Section Definitions, Part 1 of 3 CableSect  Material  Specify  Text  Text  Text  CAB1  STEEL  Diameter  Diameter  Area  TorsConst  I  AS  mm  mm2  mm4  mm4  mm2  16.000  201.06  6433.98  3216.99  180.96  Color Text 16744448  Table: Cable Section Definitions, Part 2 of 3 CableSect  TotalWt  TotalMass  AMod  A2Mod  A3Mod  JMod  I2Mod  I3Mod  KN  KN-s2/mm  Unitless  Unitless  Unitless  Unitless  Unitless  Unitless  0.149  0.000015  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  Text CAB1  Table: Cable Section Definitions, Part 3 of 3 CableSect Text CAB1  MMod Unitless 1.000000  WMod Unitless 1.000000  GUID Text  Notes Text  81  Table: Coordinate Systems Name  Type  X  Y  Z  AboutZ  AboutY  AboutX  Text  Text  mm  mm  mm  Degrees  Degrees  Degrees  GLOBAL  General  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.000  0.000  0.000  Table: Frame Section Properties 01 - General, Part 1 of 5 SectionName  Material  Shape  t3  t2  Area  Text  Text  Text  mm  mm  mm2  GLUBEAM  GlulamSP  Rectangular  228.000  130.000  29640.00  GLUCOLUMN  GlulamDF  Rectangular  130.000  130.000  16900.00  PLATE  SPF  Rectangular  38.000  89.000  3382.00  STUD  SPF  Rectangular  38.000  89.000  3382.00  TorsCons t mm4 10752215 9.1 40223410. 23 1191203.4 5 1191203.4 5  Table: Frame Section Properties 01 - General, Part 2 of 5 SectionName Text  I33 mm4  I22 mm4  AS2 mm2  AS3 mm2  S33 mm3  S22 mm3  Z33 mm3  24700.00  642200.00  14083.33  14083.33  1126320.0 0 366166.67  366166.67  1689480.0 0 549250.00  2818.33  2818.33  21419.33  50166.33  32129.00  STUD  406967.33  41743000. 00 23800833. 33 2232401.8 3 2232401.8 3  24700.00  PLATE  128400480 .0 23800833. 33 406967.33  2818.33  2818.33  21419.33  50166.33  32129.00  GLUBEAM GLUCOLUMN  Table: Frame Section Properties 01 - General, Part 3 of 5 SectionName  mm3  mm  mm  Yes/No  ConcBea m Yes/No  GLUBEAM  963300.00  65.818  37.528  No  No  Green  0.000  GLUCOLUMN  549250.00  37.528  37.528  No  No  Blue  0.000  PLATE  75249.50  10.970  25.692  No  No  Magenta  2.499  STUD  75249.50  10.970  25.692  No  No  16744448  6.099  Text  Z22  R33  R22  ConcCol  Color Text  TotalWt KN  Table: Frame Section Properties 01 - General, Part 4 of 5 SectionName  TotalMass  FromFile  Text  KN-s2/mm  Yes/No  GLUBEAM  0.000000  No  AMod  A2Mod  A3Mod  JMod  I2Mod  Unitless  Unitless  Unitless  Unitless  Unitless  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000 1.000000  GLUCOLUMN  0.000000  No  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  PLATE  0.000255  No  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  STUD  0.000622  No  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  82  Table: Frame Section Properties 01 - General, Part 5 of 5 SectionName Text GLUBEAM  I3Mod  MMod  WMod  GUID  Notes  Unitless  Unitless  Unitless  Text  Text  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  GLUCOLUMN  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  PLATE  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  STUD  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  Table: Function - Power Spectral Density - User Name Text UNIFPSD UNIFPSD  Frequency Cyc/sec 0.0000E+00 1.0000E+00  Value Unitless 1.000000 1.000000  Table: Function - Response Spectrum - IBC2003 Name Text Resp Resp Resp Resp Resp Resp Resp Resp Resp Resp Resp Resp Resp Resp Resp Resp Resp Resp Resp Resp Resp Resp Resp Resp Resp Resp Resp  Period Sec 0.000000 0.080000 0.400000 0.600000 0.800000 1.000000 1.200000 1.400000 1.600000 1.800000 2.000000 2.500000 3.000000 3.500000 4.000000 4.500000 5.000000 5.500000 6.000000 6.500000 7.000000 7.500000 8.000000 8.500000 9.000000 9.500000 10.000000  Accel Unitless 0.400000 1.000000 1.000000 0.666667 0.500000 0.400000 0.333333 0.285714 0.250000 0.222222 0.200000 0.160000 0.133333 0.114286 0.100000 0.088889 0.080000 0.072727 0.066667 0.061538 0.057143 0.053333 0.050000 0.047059 0.044444 0.042105 0.040000  FuncDamp Unitless 0.050000  SDS Unitless 1.000000  SD1 Unitless 0.400000  83  Table: Function - Steady State - User Name Text UNIFSS UNIFSS  Frequency Cyc/sec 0.0000E+00 1.0000E+00  Value Unitless 1.000000 1.000000  Table: Function - Time History - User Name Text RAMPTH RAMPTH RAMPTH UNIFTH UNIFTH Monotonic Monotonic  Time Sec 0.0000 1.0000 4.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 438.5000  Value Unitless 0.000000 1.000000 1.000000 1.000000 1.000000 0.000000 104.720000  Table: General Grids, Part 1 of 2 CoordSys  GridID  LineType  Text GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL  Text 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29  Text Straight Straight Straight Straight Straight Straight Straight Straight Straight Straight Straight Straight Straight Straight Straight Straight Straight Straight Straight Straight Straight Straight Straight Straight Straight Straight Straight Straight  X1  Y1  X2  Y2  mm 0.00 100.00 200.00 300.00 400.00 500.00 550.00 600.00 700.00 800.00 900.00 1000.00 1100.00 1150.00 1200.00 1300.00 1400.00 1500.00 1600.00 1700.00 1750.00 1800.00 1900.00 2000.00 2100.00 2200.00 2300.00 2350.00  mm 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00  mm 0.00 100.00 200.00 300.00 400.00 500.00 550.00 600.00 700.00 800.00 900.00 1000.00 1100.00 1150.00 1200.00 1300.00 1400.00 1500.00 1600.00 1700.00 1750.00 1800.00 1900.00 2000.00 2100.00 2200.00 2300.00 2350.00  mm 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00  PrimaryGr id Yes/No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes  84  CoordSys  GridID  LineType  Text GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL  Text 30 31 32 NEW-32  Text Straight Straight Straight Straight  X1  Y1  X2  Y2  mm 2400.00 0.00 0.00 0.00  mm 0.00 0.00 50.00 50.00  mm 2400.00 2400.00 2400.00 0.00  mm 50.00 0.00 50.00 51.00  PrimaryGr id Yes/No Yes Yes Yes Yes  Table: General Grids, Part 2 of 2 CoordSys  GridID  LineColor  Text GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL  Text 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 20  Text Gray8Dark Gray8Dark Gray8Dark Gray8Dark Gray8Dark Gray8Dark Gray8Dark Gray8Dark Gray8Dark Gray8Dark Gray8Dark Gray8Dark Gray8Dark Gray8Dark Gray8Dark Gray8Dark Gray8Dark Gray8Dark Gray8Dark  ColorByUse r Yes/No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No  GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL  21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 NEW-32  Gray8Dark Gray8Dark Gray8Dark Gray8Dark Gray8Dark Gray8Dark Gray8Dark Gray8Dark Gray8Dark Gray8Dark Gray8Dark Gray8Dark Gray8Dark  No No No No No No No No No No No No No  BubbleSize  SwitchBub  Visible  mm 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000  Yes/No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No  Yes/No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes  5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000  No No No No No No No No No No No No No  Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes  Table: Link Property Definitions 01 - General, Part 1 of 3 Link Text FR_FR_ML LIN1 Ro_Mo_ML SH_FR_ML  LinkType Text MultiLinear Elastic Linear MultiLinear Elastic MultiLinear Elastic  Mass KN-s2/mm 0.000000  Weight KN 0.000  RotInert1 KN-mm-s2 0.00  RotInert2 KN-mm-s2 0.00  RotInert3 KN-mm-s2 0.00  DefLength mm 1.000  0.000000 0.000000  0.000 0.000  0.00 0.00  0.00 0.00  0.00 0.00  1.000 1.000  0.000000  0.000  0.00  0.00  0.00  1.000  85  Table: Link Property Definitions 01 - General, Part 2 of 3 Link  DefArea  PDM2I  PDM2J  PDM3I  Text  mm2  Unitless  Unitless  Unitless  FR_FR_ML  1.00  0.000000  0.000000  0.000000  PDM3J  Color  GUID  Unitless  Text  Text  0.000000  Blue  LIN1  1.00  0.000000  0.000000  0.000000  0.000000  Gray8Dark  Ro_Mo_ML  1.00  0.000000  0.000000  0.000000  0.000000  Green  SH_FR_ML  1.00  0.000000  0.000000  0.000000  0.000000  Green  Table: Link Property Definitions 01 - General, Part 3 of 3 Link Text FR_FR_ML LIN1 Ro_Mo_ML SH_FR_ML  Notes Text  Table: Link Property Definitions 03 - MultiLinear, Part 1 of 2 Link  DOF  Fixed  NonLinear  Text  Text  Yes/No  Yes/No  TransKE  RotKE  TransCE  RotCE  DJ  KN/mm  KN-mm/rad  KN-s/mm  KN-mms/rad  mm  FR_FR_ML  U1  No  No  8.00000  0.00000  FR_FR_ML  U2  No  Yes  8.00000  0.00000  FR_FR_ML  U2  FR_FR_ML  U2  19.00  Table: Load Case Definitions LoadCase Text  DesignTyp e Text  DISP  OTHER  SelfWtMult Unitless  AutoLoad  GUID  Notes  Text  Text  Text  0.000000  86  Table: Material Properties 01 - General Material  Type  SymType  Color  GUID  Notes  Text Isotropic  TempDepe nd Yes/No No  Text ALUM  Text Aluminum  Text Gray8Dark  Text  Concrete  Isotropic  No  White  GlulamDF  Other  Isotropic  No  Red  GlulamSP  Other  Isotropic  No  Magenta  OTHER  Other  Isotropic  No  Blue  PLYWOOD  Other  Orthotropic  No  Green  SPF  Other  Isotropic  No  8454143  STEEL  Steel  Isotropic  No  Yellow  Text Aluminum Alloy 6061 T6 added 11/20/2008 11:19:08 AM Normalweight f'c = 4 ksi added 11/20/2008 11:19:08 AM Material added 11/20/2008 11:19:08 AM Material added 11/20/2008 11:19:08 AM Material added 11/20/2008 11:19:08 AM Material added 11/20/2008 11:19:08 AM Material added 11/20/2008 11:19:08 AM ASTM A36 added 11/20/2008 11:19:08 AM  CONC  Table: Material Properties 02 - Basic Mechanical Properties, Part 1 of 2 Material Text ALUM  UnitWeight  UnitMass  E1  E2  E3  KN/mm3 7.6820E-08  G12  G13  G23  KN-s2/mm4  KN/mm2  KN/mm2  KN/mm2  7.8271E-12  75.15286  28.90495  KN/mm2  KN/mm2  KN/mm2  0.50000  0.50000  CONC  2.3563E-08  2.4028E-12  24.82113  10.34214  GlulamDF  7.6970E-08  7.8490E-12  14.00000  5.38462  GlulamSP  7.6970E-08  7.8490E-12  10.50000  4.03846  OTHER  2.3562E-08  2.4007E-12  24.82113  10.34214  PLYWOOD  6.2000E-09  6.2000E-13  4.50000  5.10000  1.50000  0.30000  SPF  7.6970E-08  7.8490E-12  9.50000  3.65385  STEEL  7.6973E-08  7.8490E-12  199.94798  76.90307  Table: Material Properties 02 - Basic Mechanical Properties, Part 2 of 2 Material Text ALUM CONC GlulamDF GlulamSP OTHER PLYWOOD SPF STEEL  U12 Unitless 0.300000 0.200000 0.300000 0.300000 0.200000 0.300000 0.300000 0.300000  U13 Unitless  U23 Unitless  0.300000  0.300000  A1 1/C 1.1700E-05 9.9000E-06 1.1700E-05 1.1700E-05 9.9000E-06 1.1700E-05 1.1700E-05 1.1700E-05  A2 1/C  A3 1/C  1.1700E-05  1.1700E-05  87  Table: Material Properties 03a - Steel Data Material Text STEEL  Fy KN/mm2 0.24821  Fu KN/mm2 0.39990  EffFy KN/mm2 0.37232  EffFu KN/mm2 0.43989  SSCurveOpt Text User Defined  SSHysType Text Kinematic  FAngle Degrees 0.000  DAngle Degrees 0.000  Table: Material Properties 03b - Concrete Data Material Text CONC  Fc KN/mm2 0.02758  LtWtConc Yes/No No  SSCurveOpt Text User Defined  SSHysType Text Kinematic  Table: Material Properties 03c - Aluminum Data Material  AlumType  Alloy  Fcy  Fty  Ftu  Fsu  Text  Text  Text  KN/mm2  KN/mm2  KN/mm2  KN/mm2  SSHysTyp e Text  ALUM  Wrought  2014-T6  59.00000  58.00000  66.00000  40.00000  Kinematic  Table: Material Properties 03g - Other Data Material Text GlulamDF GlulamSP OTHER PLYWOOD SPF  SSHysType Text Elastic Elastic Elastic Elastic Elastic  FAngle Degrees 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000  DAngle Degrees 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000  Table: Material Properties 04 - User Stress-Strain Curves Material Text ALUM ALUM ALUM ALUM ALUM ALUM ALUM ALUM ALUM ALUM CONC CONC CONC CONC CONC CONC CONC CONC CONC CONC  Point Text 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10  Strain Unitless -0.063689 -0.044582 -0.025476 -0.012738 0.000000 0.012738 0.025476 0.063689 0.101902 0.127378 -45.000000 -31.500000 -18.000000 -1.862069 0.000000 1.862069 18.000000 45.000000 72.000000 90.000000  Stress KN/mm2 0.00000 -0.29661 -0.59322 -0.59322 0.00000 0.59322 0.59322 0.64407 0.64407 0.59322 0.00000 -7.50000 -15.00000 -15.00000 0.00000 15.00000 15.00000 18.75000 18.75000 15.00000  PointID Text -E -D -C -B A B C D E -E -D -C -B A B C D E  88  Material Text GlulamDF GlulamDF GlulamDF GlulamSP GlulamSP GlulamSP OTHER OTHER OTHER PLYWOOD PLYWOOD PLYWOOD SPF SPF SPF STEEL STEEL STEEL STEEL STEEL STEEL STEEL STEEL STEEL STEEL  Point Text 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10  Strain Unitless -1.000000 0.000000 1.000000 -1.000000 0.000000 1.000000 -1.000000 0.000000 1.000000 -1.000000 0.000000 1.000000 -1.000000 0.000000 1.000000 -40.277778 -28.194444 -16.111111 -1.000000 0.000000 1.000000 16.111111 40.277778 64.444444 80.555556  Stress KN/mm2 -1.00000 0.00000 1.00000 -1.00000 0.00000 1.00000 -1.00000 0.00000 1.00000 -1.00000 0.00000 1.00000 -1.00000 0.00000 1.00000 0.00000 -0.50000 -1.00000 -1.00000 0.00000 1.00000 1.00000 1.61111 1.61111 1.00000  PointID Text A  A  A  A  A -E -D -C -B A B C D E  Table: Material Properties 06 - Damping Parameters Material Text ALUM CONC GlulamDF GlulamSP OTHER PLYWOOD SPF STEEL  ModalRatio Unitless 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000  VisMass 1/Sec 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000  VisStiff Sec 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000  HysMass 1/Sec2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000  HysStiff Unitless 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000  Table: Program Control, Part 1 of 2 ProgramN ame Text SAP2000  Version  ProgLevel  LicenseOS  LicenseSC  LicenseBR  LicenseHT  CurrUnits  Text 11.0.8  Text Advanced  Yes/No No  Yes/No No  Yes/No No  Yes/No No  Text KN, mm, C  Table: Program Control, Part 2 of 2 SteelCode  ConcCode  AlumCode  ColdCode  Text  Text  Text  Text  RegenHing e Yes/No  AISC-ASD89  ACI 318-99  AA-ASD 2000  AISC-ASD89  No  89  Table: Rebar Sizes RebarID Text #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #14 #18 10M 15M 20M 25M 30M 35M 45M 55M 6_ 8_ 10_ 12_ 14_ 16_  Area mm2 32.258 70.968 129.032 200.000 283.870 387.096 509.676 645.160 819.353 1006.450 1451.610 2580.640 100.000 200.000 300.000 500.000 700.000 1000.000 1500.000 2500.000 28.300 50.300 78.500 113.000 154.000 201.000  Diameter mm 6.350 9.525 12.700 15.875 19.050 22.225 25.400 28.651 32.258 35.814 43.002 57.328 11.300 16.000 19.500 25.200 29.900 35.700 43.700 56.400 6.000 8.000 10.000 12.000 14.000 16.000  20_ 25_ 26_ 28_  314.000 491.000 531.000 616.000  20.000 25.000 26.000 28.000  Table: Solid Property Definitions, Part 1 of 2 SolidProp  Material  Text  Text  SOLID1  CONC  MatAngleA  MatAngleB  MatAngleC  InComp  Degrees  Degrees  Degrees  Yes/No  Color Text  0.000  0.000  0.000  Yes  Blue  Table: Solid Property Definitions, Part 2 of 2 SolidProp  GUID  Notes  Text  Text  Text  SOLID1  TotalWt  TotalMass  KN  KN-s2/mm  0.000  0.000000  90  

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