UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Impact resistance of high strength fiber reinforced concrete Zhang, Lihe 2008

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Notice for Google Chrome users:
If you are having trouble viewing or searching the PDF with Google Chrome, please download it here instead.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
24-ubc_2008_spring_zhang_lihe.pdf [ 195.7MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 24-1.0063072.json
JSON-LD: 24-1.0063072-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 24-1.0063072-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 24-1.0063072-rdf.json
Turtle: 24-1.0063072-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 24-1.0063072-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 24-1.0063072-source.json
Full Text
24-1.0063072-fulltext.txt
Citation
24-1.0063072.ris

Full Text

IMPACT RESISTANCE OF HIGH STRENGTH FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE by LIHE ZHANG B.Eng. Chongqing Jianzhu University, Chongqing, China, 1998 M.A.Sc., Tongji University, Shanghai, China, 2001  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Civil Engineering)           THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver)  March 2008 © Lihe Zhang, 2008                                   15 85-100% [11]. However, as stated earlier, the critical axial strain value was found to be variable, from a decrease of 30% to an increase of 40% [11]. The compressive impact response of SFRC was also studied using a split Hopkinson pressure bar [11, 25, 39]. It was found that the postpeak ductility was absent at high strain rates of greater than 50 s-1, because at such high strain rates, the fragments of concrete can no longer bond to the steel fibers [39]. These dynamic compressive toughness studies were based on two kinds of measurement of the strains or the deformations: (1). Strain gauges have been used to measure the strains at the surface of the concrete specimen. This method provides complete information of compressive behavior up to the peak load under impact [11, 25, 35, 39]. However, the brittle facture of concrete cylinders makes it impossible to measure the strain after the peak load, since the cracking will damage the strain gauges. (2). The direct measurement of the platen-to-platen displacement has been used to determine the deformation of the concrete cylinders under impact load [37-39]. Unfortunately, it may provide misleading results as the platen-to- platen deformation is not the “real” deformation of the cylindrical specimens, since it includes the relative displacement (deformation) of the test machine itself. Generally, direct measurement of deformation of FRC cylinders under impact is necessary. In the work reported here, a method was developed that permitted the deformation of the specimen itself to be measured, through the image analysis of a high speed video recording of the impact event. 2.3.5 FRC under flexural impact load The flexural strengths of polymeric FRC and steel FRC increase when subjected to impact [23]. However, it was found that only low modulus polymeric fibers improved the flexural toughness of concrete under impact; steel fibers were found to decrease the flexural toughness under impact [23].   16 2.4. Analysis of impact resistance Fracture mechanics has been used to analyze the failure of concrete under impact. Fracture occurs when the energy available from the loading source is greater than that needed to create two new fracture surfaces. Further, it is now generally assumed that a “fracture process zone” exists at the tip of a crack. The process zone is a microcracked zone which develops ahead of the crack tip; the crack essentially propagates in a stable manner before it becomes unstable, leading to failure. Two principal models: the “effective crack model” and the “cohesive crack model” have been developed to describe the fracture behavior of concrete in FRC. In addition, dynamic fracture mechanics has been adopted to model the mechanical behavior of concrete under high strain rates [3]. In FRC, in addition to the crack closing pressure due to aggregate interlocking, fibers bridging across the crack to prevent the crack from propagating provide additional closing pressure. 2.4.1 Fracture energy and fracture toughness It has generally been found that for both plain concrete and FRC, the fracture energy increases dramatically under impact loading compared to static loading. The fracture toughness, i.e., the critical stress intensity factor KIC, was also found to increase with increasing loading rate. A relationship between fracture toughness and loading rate was proposed by Evans [40] as: Bx n K IC ++ = )log( 1 1)log(                                                                                                (2.3) where n = subcritical crack growth parameter, x  = loading rate, Mindess [41] tested concrete beams and FRC beams under impact load using an instrumented drop weight machine. The bending load was modified to correct for inertial effects, but no correction was made for pre-peak crack growth. It was found that both fracture toughness and fracture energy increased with increasing hammer drop height. As  17 the determination of the dynamic stress intensity factor is difficult, it was suggested that it represents values of fracture toughness at some “average” crack velocity in the region of the peak load. 2.4.2 High strength concrete brittle behavior under impact loading Mindess [42, 43] found that high strength concrete was able to carry higher maximum loads for un-notched specimens than normal strength concrete, but lower maximum loads for notched specimens. Under impact loading, the high strength concrete required somewhat less fracture energy than the normal strength concrete, which again reflected its more brittle behavior. As shown in Fig 2.4, the stress intensity factor, KIc under static loading is higher for high strength concrete than for normal strength concrete, while the stress intensity factor under dynamic loading, KId is lower for high-strength concrete than for normal strength concrete.   Fig 2.4 Fracture toughness as a function of hammer drop height for normal and high-strength concrete, using an instrumented drop weight impact machine [44]. 2.4.3 Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) Under quasi-static loading conditions, a crack start to propagate when the stress intensity factor, K, reaches a critical value, KC, which is a materials property. Under dynamic loading conditions, as stated earlier, concrete has a higher load capacity [45]. Failure of  18 concrete is characterized by crack propagation under load; if the crack propagates at a constant velocity, the value of K decreases gradually. When the crack velocity reaches its critical value, i.e., Rayleigh wave speed, K decreases to zero. At higher crack velocities, the crack faces may not move fast enough to provide the strains at the crack tip necessary for a high stress intensity factor, which results in less stress localization at the crack tip as well as a reduced stress intensity factor. As a result, a lower stress intensity factor exists under impact loading at the same displacement compared to that under static loading. Since failure occurs when K reaches its critical value, Kc, the load capacity of concrete increases under dynamic loading, which involves a greater crack velocity. However, it is difficult to achieve the theoretical crack growth speed, i.e., the Rayleigh wave speed, for concrete under impact load. Mindess [42] observed the crack velocities to be much lower than the theoretically predicted Rayleigh speed. Cracks slowed down further in the presence of steel fibers, resulting in speeds in the range of 75-115 m/s. Except for the results of Takeda [46], which showed crack velocities to be as high as 1000m/s under explosive loads, results from other researchers have been similar to those of Mindess, i.e., far less (5-10%) than the theoretical value. 2.4.4 Fracture process zone and Non-Linear Fracture Mechanics Based on the theory of non-linear elastic fracture mechanics (NLEFM), due to sub- critical crack growth, a fracture process zone at the crack tip develops in concrete under load. As stated above, crack propagation depends on the critical stress intensity factor, KC. It has been reported both for in experiments and numerical modeling that the size of the fracture process zone decreases with increasing loading rate [47-49]. For example, Shah [50] reported a decrease of pre-peak crack growth, i.e., process zone, of concrete and mortar with increasing strain rates as shown in Table. 2.3. Table 2.3. Reduction of Pre-peak Crack Growth with Increasing Strain Rate [50] Crack Extension at Peak load (in) Strain Rate s-1 Mortar Concrete 0.2×10-4 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.075 0.03 - 0.01 0.12 0.05 0.028 0.016                         42  Calibration of 100 mm cylindrical load cell, excitaiton: 10 Volts, Gain: 200 y = 240.14x + 0.4681 R2 = 0.9999 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 0 1 2 3 4 5 Volts (V) Lo a d (k N )  Fig. 3.13 100 mm Cylinder load cell calibration curve  3.3.6 Accelerometers and cables for flexural impact tests The accelerometer (Fig. 3.14) used in this study was a Piezoelectric ICP Accelerometer1. The dynamic performance specifications of the accelerometer were: Sensitivity: 0.929 mV/g (0.095 mV/m/s2)                     Output Bias: 11.4 VDC Resonant Frequency: 66.0 kHz                                      Transverse Sensitivity: 1.2% Measurement Range (for +/- 5V output): 5000 +/-g pk [49,050 m/s2]  Fig. 3.14 Piezoelectric Accelerometer (mm)  1   PCB Piezotronics, Inc. USA, Model #350A 14  43  Fig. 3.15 Cable, accelerometer, and plastic base During the flexural impact test, the plastic base was attached to the FRC specimen with epoxy adhesive (Fig. 3.15). Before the plastic base was attached, the surface of the specimen was smoothed with sand paper. The accelerometer was screwed into the plastic base before the test, and was connected to the signal conditioner by a coaxial cable (Fig. 3.15). 3.3.7 High speed data acquisition system for impact test A schematic of the impact test data acquisition system is shown in Fig. 3.16. Both the flexural impact tests and the compressive impact test used the same data acquisition system to acquire the load vs. time information and the acceleration information, as shown in Fig. 3.17.                                                                                                                                                     191 Table. 10.5 k value for FRC under compressive impact  PPFRC SFRC k value 0.064-0.075 0.020-0.025 A value 1.1 1.0 Here, the maximum DIF (strength) for each mix was found to be less than 1.7. The actual k values acquired from the present study, as shown in Table. 10.6., are found to be higher for PP FRC than for SFRC, which shows that the compressive strength of SFRC tends to increase less than that of PPFRC at high strain rates. Replacing stress with compressive strength then yields the impact strength of the FRC under high strain rate: εσ ε )1()( )( staticstatick DEeimpact −=  . The predicted dynamic compressive strengths are plotted against the actual compressive strengths under impact load in Fig. 10.9. It may be seen that the predicted strengths are very close to the experimental results. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 1 2 3 4 5 Strain rate (1/sec) St re n gt h (M Pa ) Predicted Strength Actual strength (250mm) Actual strength (500mm) Actual strength (750mm) Actual strength (1000mm)  Fig. 10.9 Predicted Impact Strength of FRC      196 RCM Model vs Test Results under Impact 1.0 10.0 0.00001 0.001 0.1 10 1000 Strain rate (1/sec) D IF  (C o m p) Zhang-50 MPa Zhang-90 MPa Zhang-110 MPa Riisgaard-DIF-100 MPa [67] Riisgaard-DIF-160 MPa [67] RCM-50 MPa RCM-90 MPa RCM-110 MPa RCM-DIF-100 MPa RCM-DIF-160 MPa  Fig. 10.10-a). Plot of all of the experimental results of the DIF (Comp) compared with DIF derived from the RCM model. RCM Model vs Test Results 1.0 10.0 0.00001 0.001 0.1 10 1000 Strain rate (1/sec) D IF  (C o m p) Zhang-50 MPa RCM-50 MPa  Fig. 10.10-b). Plot of experimental results of the DIF (Comp) for 50 MPa FRC compared with DIF derived from the RCM model, .  197 RCM Model vs Test Results 1.0 10.0 0.00001 0.001 0.1 10 1000 Strain rate (1/sec) D IF  (C o m p) Zhang-90 MPa RCM-90 MPa  Fig. 10.10-c). Plot of experimental results of the DIF (Comp) for 90 MPa FRC compared with DIF derived from the RCM model RCM Model vs Test Results 1.0 10.0 0.00001 0.001 0.1 10 1000 Strain rate (1/sec) D IF  (C o m p) Zhang-110 MPa RCM-110 MPa  Fig. 10.10-d). Plot of experimental results of the DIF (Comp) for 110 MPa FRC compared with DIF derived from the RCM model   199 Chapter 11 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH  11.1 Conclusions The principle topics of the present research were FRC under static loading (compressive toughness and flexural toughness); FRC under impact loading (dynamic compressive toughness, dynamic flexural toughness, and strain rate effects); and analytical models. 11.2 Compressive toughness and flexural toughness Compressive toughness and flexural toughness of high strength FRC were studied. The compressive toughness under static load is dependent on the test method. JSCE SF-5 cannot be used to provide an adequate measure of the toughness of high strength fiber concretes, with compressive strengths greater than about 80MPa, though it appears to work reasonably well for lower strength FRC mixes. A closed loop testing system was found to provide complete load vs. displacement curves, from which compressive toughness could be obtained. However, the closed loop test itself appears to be dependent on the loading rate. Increasing the strength of the concrete matrix tends to improve the compressive toughness of FRC. Fibers also increase compressive toughness of FRC, except that a 1.0% fiber content may result in inferior compaction. FRC under flexural static load was analyzed according to JSCE SF4, the new ASTM C 1609 test method, the PCS method and the Template Performance Level (TPL) method. The flexural strength of the high strength FRC increases with increasing concrete strength, fiber content, and the addition of high modulus steel fibers. The failure strains of SFRC are higher than those of PPFRC for the same concrete strength. SFRC showed strain hardening behavior only when 1.0% steel fibers were added. The strain hardening      204 References: 1. Comite Euro-International du Beton (CEB), “Concrete structures under impact and impulsive loading”, Bulletin no. 187 1988. 2. S. Mindess, J.F. Young, D. Darwin,  Concrete 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall, 2002 3. ACI Committee 446, Report on Dynamic Fracture of Concrete, ACI 446.4R-04. 2004. 4. Hughes, B.P. and Gregory, R.; “Concrete Subjected to High Rates of Loading in Compression”. Magazine of Concrete Research, 24 (78), pp. 25-36, 1972. 5. Banthia, N., “Impact Resistance of Concrete” PhD Dissertation, UBC, 1987 6. Sercombe. J., Ulm. F.-J., and Toutlemonde. F., “Viscous Hardening Plasticity for Concrete in High Rate Dynamics.” ASCE Journal of Engineering Mechanics. V. 124. No. 9. Sep. 1998. 7. ASTM C39, Standard test method for compressive strength of cylindrical concrete specimens, American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohochen, Pennsylvania. 1999 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Edition, pp. 18-22. 8. Birkimer, D.L., and Lineman, R., “Dynamic Tensile Strength of Concrete Materials”, Journal of American Concrete Institute, 68(1971), pp.47-39. 9. Zielinski, A. J. ; “Model for Tensile Fracture of Concrete at High Rates of Loading”, Cement and Concrete Research, 14 (1984), pp. 215-224. 10. Yon, J. H., Hawkins, N. M., Kobayshi, A. S., 1992a, “Strain-Rate Sensitivity of Concrete Mechanical Properties,” ACI Materials Journal, V. 89, No. 2, Mar.-Apr., pp. 146-153. 11. Bischoff, P. H., Perry, S. H., “Compressive Behavior of Concrete at High Strain Rates”. Materials and Structures. V. 24, 1991, pp.425-450. 12. Zielinski, A.J., “Fracture of Concrete under Impact Loading,” Structural Impact and Crashworthiness, Vol. 2, 1984, pp. 654-665. 13. Banthia N.., M. Pigeon., “Dynamic Behavior of Concrete and its Fiber Reinforced Composites: A Review and Future Research Needs”. P.S. Bulson Ed. Structures under shock and impact, Proceeding of the 1st International Conference, Cambridge, Massachusetts. USA. July 1989. 14. Banthia N., Bindiganavile. V., “Crack Growth Resistance of FRC at High Strain-Rates” 15. Banthia N., Bindiganavile. V., “Fiber Reinforced Cement Based Composites under Drop Weight Impact Loading: Test Equipment & Material Influences” 16. Banthia. N., and Trottier. J.-F., “Deformed Steel Fiber-Cementitious Matrix Bond under Impact”. Cement and Concrete Research. V. 21. 1991. 17. Banthia N., Yan. C., Sakai. K., “Impact Resistance of Concrete Plates Reinforced with a Fiber Reinforced Plastic Crid”. ACI Materials Journal, V. 95, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1998. 18. Bentur, A.; Mindess S.; Banthia, N., Behavior of Reinforced Concrete under Impact: The Effect of Concrete Strength, Society for Experimental Mechanics, Inc., Bethel, Conn., 1987. pp. 449-458. 19. Gopalaratnam V. S., Shah. S. P., “Properties of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Subjected to Impact Loading”.  ACI Journal Mar. 25, 1985. 20. Gopalaratnam, V. S. Shah, S. P. and John, R., “A modified instrumented Charpy test for cement based composites” Experimental  mechanics, VOl. 24, No. 2, 1984, pp. 102-111.  205 21. Mindess, S., Bentur, A., Yan, C., Vondran, G., “Impact Resistance of Concrete Containing both Conventional Steel Reinforcement and Fibrillated Polypropylene Fibers”.  ACI Materials Journal, V. 86, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1989. 22. Banthia, N., Mindess, S., and Trottier, J.F., “Impact Resistance of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete,” ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 93, No. 5, 1996, pp. 472-479. 23. Bindiganavile. V., Banthia. N., “Polymer and Steel Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites under Impact Loading – Part 2: Flexural Toughness”.  ACI Materials Journal. V. 98. No. 1, Jan-Feb 2001. 24. Ross, C. A., “Review of Strain Rate Effects in Materials,” Structures under Extreme Loading Conditions, ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, July 27-31, 1997, pp.255-262. 25. Bischoff, P. H., Perry, S. H., “Compressive Behavior of Concrete at High Strain Rates”. in Cement-Based Composites: Strain Rate Effects on Fracture, Ed. S. Mindess and S. P. Shah, Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, PA, pp. 167-180 (1986) 26. Banthia, N.P, Mindess, S., and Bentur, A., “Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete under Impact”, Proceedings of International Symposium on Fiber Reinforced Concrete (ISFRC-87), Mardras, India, 1987, pp. 4.29-4.39. 27. Bindiganavile, V., Banthia, N., Brendt, A., “Impact Response of Ultra-High-Strength Fiber- Reinforced Cement Composite”. ACI Materials Journal, V.99, No. 6, Nov-Dec 2002. 28. Bindiganavile, V “Dynamic Fracture Toughness of Fiber Reinforced Concrete” University of British Columbia 2003, 29. A.N. Dancygier., D.Z. Yankelevsky., “High strength concrete response to hard projectile impact” International Journal of Impact Engineering. 18 (6) (1996) 583- 599. 30. Bindiganavile. V., Banthia. N., “Polymer and Steel Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites under Impact Loading – Part 1: Bond-Slip Response”.  ACI Materials Journal. V. 98. No. 1, Jan-Feb 2001. 31. Gokoz. U. N., and Naaman. A. E., “Effect of Strain Rate on the Pull-out Behavior of Fibers in Mortar”. International Journal of Cement Composites. V. 3. No. 3. 1981. 32. Kaadi. G. W., “Behavior of Fiber-Reinforced Concrete under High Rate of Tensile Loading”. MS thesis, University of Illinois. Chicago. 1983. 33. Gray. A. J., and Johnston. C. D., “The measurement of Fiber-Matrix Interfacial Bond Strength in Steel Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites”. Testing and Test Methods of Fiber Cement Composites. RILEM Symposium. 1978. 34. Japan Society of Civil Engineers (1984), Method of tests for compressive strength and compressive toughness of steel fiber reinforced concrete. Concrete Library of JSCE No.3, Standard SF-5, pp.63-66. 35. P.H. Bischoff, S. H. Perry., “Impact behavior of plain concrete loaded in uniaxial compression”. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 121, No. 6, June, 1995. 36. Fujikake, K., Mindess, S., Xu, H.F., “Analytical formulation for concrete confined with steel spirals subjected to impact loading”. in Design and Analysis of Protective Structures against Impact/Impulsive/Shock Loads, Ed. T. Ohno., T. Krauthammer, T.C. Pan, Tokyo, Japan, (2003), 500-507 37. Campione G. Mindess S. (1999a). “Compressive Toughness Characterization of Normal and High-Strength Fiber Concrete Reinforced with Steel Spirals”, in Banthia N. MacDonald C. and Tatnall P. (eds), Structural Applications of Fiber Reinforced Concrete, ACI SP-182, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, Michingan: 141-161  206 38. Celik. T, Marar. K, Eren. O,  Relationship between impact energy and compression toughness energy of high-strength fiber-reinforced concrete Materials Letters. Vol. 47, no. 4-5, pp. 297-304. Feb. 2001. 39. T. S. Lok, P. J. Zhao., “Impact response of steel fiber-reinforced concrete using a split Hopkinson pressure bar”. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Jan-Feb, 2004. 40. Evans, A.G., “Slow Crack Growth in Brittle Materials under Dynamic Loading,” International Journal of Fracture, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1974, pp. 251-259. 41. Mindess, S., “Rate of Loading Effects on the Fracture of Cementitious Materials”. in Proceedings of NATO advanced research workshop on Application of Fracture Mechanics to Cementitious Composites. NorthWestern University. Evanston, Illinois, USA, Sept. 4-7, 1984, S.P. Shah. 42. Mindess, S., “Crack Velocities in Concrete Subjected to Impact Loading”, Canada Journal of Physics, 1995. 43. Mindess, S.; Banthia, N.; Ritter, A.; Skalny, J. P.; “Crack Development in Cementitious Materials under Impact Loading”. ,” in Cement-Based Composites: Strain Rate Effects on Fracture, Ed. S. Mindess and S. P. Shah, Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, PA, pp. 217-223 (1986) 44. Mindess, S., Banthia, N., and Yan, C., “The Fracture Toughness of Concrete Under Impact Loading,” Cement and Concrete Research Vol. 17, 1987. 45. Sih, G. C., “Dynamic Crack Propagation,” Noordhoff International Publications, Leyden, 1972. 46. Takeda, J. Tachikawa, H. and Fujimoto. K.; in Proceedings, RILEM-CEB-IABSE-IASS Interassociation Symposium, Concrete Structures Under Impact and Impulsive Loading, (BAM, West Berlin, 1982), pp. 83-91. 47. Kobayashi, A., S., Hawkins, N., M., and Du, J., J., “An Impact Damage Model of Concrete,” Cement-Based Composites: Strain Rate Effects on Fracture, Ed. S. Mindess and S. P. Shah, Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, PA, pp. 167-180 (1986) 48. Suaris, W., and Shah, S. P., “Properties of Concrete Subjected to Impact,” Journal of Structural Engineering, Proceedings ASCE, Vol 109, No. ST7, 1983, pp. 1727- 1741. 49. Suaris, W. Shah, S. P., Inertial Effects in Instrumented impact testing of cemenitious composites, ASTM Journal of Cement Concrete and Aggregate, March 1982, pp. 78-83. 50. Shah, S., “Concrete and Fibers Reinforced Concrete Subjected to Impact Loading”, Cement-Based Composites: Strain Rate Effects on Fracture, Materials Research Society Symposia Proceedings Vol. 64, 1986. 51. Sukontasukkul, P., Mindess, S., and Banthia, N., “Fracture of fiber reinforced concrete notched beam under impact loading”, BEFIB, 5th RILEM Symposium on Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC), (Eds. P. Rossi & G. Chanvillard), Lyon, France, Sep 2000, pp. 531-540. 52. Sierakowski, R. L., “Dynamic effect in concrete materials”, Application of Fracture Mechanics to Cementitious Materials, (Ed. S.P. Shah), NATO ASI Series, 1984. 53. A. Brara, J.R. Klepaczko., “Dynamic tensile behavior of concrete: experiment and numerical analysis”. ACI Materials Journal, V. 101, No. 2, March-April 2004. 54. J.R. Klepaczko, A. Brara., “An experimental method for dynamic tensile testing of concrete by spalling”. International Journal of Impact Engineering 25 (2001) 387- 409. 55. Sukontasukkul, P.  “Impact Behavior of Concrete under Multiaxial Loading”. PhD Dissertation, UBC, 2001.  207 56. Krauthammer. T., Jenssen. A., Langseth. M., “Precision Testing in Support of Computer Code Validation and Verification”.  Workshop Report, Norwegian Defense Construction Service, May 1996. Session 7. 57. Banthia, N.P, Mindess, S., and Bentur, A., “Impact Behavior of Concrete Beams”, Materials and Structures, Vol. 20, 1987, pp. 293-302. 58. Cotteral, B, “Fracutre Toughness and the Charpy V Notch Impact Tests” British Welding Journal, Vol. 9, No. 2, 1962, pp. 83-90. 59. Saxton. H. J., Ireland. D. R., Sever. W. L. Analysis and Control of Inertial Effects During Instrumented Impact Testing. Instrumented Impact Testing, ASTM STP 563, American Society for Testign and Materials, 1974. 60. Server. W. L., “Impact Three-Point Bend Testing for Notched and Precracked Specimens”. J. Testing and Evaluation. JTEVA, Vol. 6. No. 1. Jan. 1978, pp. 29-34. 61. Server, W.L., Walluaeert, R.A., and Sheckhard, J.W., “Evaluation of Current Procedures of Dynamic Fracutre Toughness Testing,” in Flaw Growth and Fracture, STP 631, ASTM, 1977, pp. 446-461. 62. Reinhardt, H. W., “Tensile Fracture of Concrete at High Rates of Loading” Application of Fracture Mechanics to Cementitious Composites, NATO-ARW Symposium held at Northwestern University, 1984, pp.559-590. 63. Scott, B. D., Park, R., & Priestley, M.J.N., 1982. “Stress-strain behavior of Concrete by Overlapping Hoops at Low and High Strain Rates”  ACI Structural Journal, V19, 1, pp. 13- 27. 64. F. Bencardino, L. Rizzuti, G. Spadea “Experimental Test vs. Theoretical Modeling for FRC”. in Fracture Mechanics of Concrete and Concrete Structures – High- Performance Concrete, Brick-Masonry and Environmental Aspects – A. Carpinteri, P. Gambarova, G.  Ferro, G. Plizzari,. Taylor & Francis. Vol.3, 2007. pp 1473-1480 65. Nadeau, J. S., Bennett, R., and Fuller, E. R (Jr), “A Explanation for the Rate-of-Loading and the Duration-of-Load Effects in Wood in terms of Fracture Mechanics”, Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 17, (1982), pp. 2831-2840. 66. L. Javier Malvar, C. A. Ross, “Review of Strain Rate Effects for Concrete in Tension” ACI Materials Journal, V. 95, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1998. 67. B.Riisgaard, T.Ngo, P.Mendis, C.T. Georgakis, H.Stang., “Dynamic increases factors for high-performance concrete in compression using split Hopkinson pressure bar”. Fracture Mechanics of Concrete and Concrete Structures – High- Performance Concrete, Brick-Masonry and Environmental Aspects – Carpinteri, et.al. Vol.3, 2007. pp 1467-1472. 68. Agardh. L., Magnusson. John., Hansson. Hakan., “An Experimental Study of the Response of Concrete Beams Subjected to Heavy Drop Loading”, Defense Research Establishment FOA), Weapons and Protection Division, SE-172 90 Stockholm, Sweden. 69. Krauthammer. T., Elfahal. M. M., “Size Effect in Normal and High-Strength Concrete Cylinders Subjected to Static and Dynamic Axial Compressive Loads”. Report, Protective Technology Center, The Pennsylvania State University. Nov. 2002 70. Krauthammer. T., Elfahal. M. M., Lim. J., Ohno. T., Beppu. M., Markeset. G., “Size Effect for High-Strength Concrete Cylinders Subjected to Axial Impact”.  International Journal of Impact Engineerng 28 (2003) 1001-1016. 71. Krauthammer. T., Zineddin. M., “Structural Concrete Slabs under Localized Impact”. The Pennsylvania State University, USA. 72. Chen. E. P.; “Continuum Damage Mechnics Studies on the Dynamic Fracture of Concrete” in Cement-Based Composites: Strain Rate Effects on Fracture, Ed. S. Mindess and S. P. Shah, Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, PA, pp. 63-77 (1986)  208 73. Mendis, P. A., Pendyala, R., & Setunge, S. 2000.  “Stress-strain model to predict the full- range moment curvature behavior of high-strength concrete sections”. Magazine of Concrete Research, V52, 4, pp. 227-234. 74. Ngo T.D., Mendis P.A., Teo D. & Kusuma G. “Behavior of high-strength concrete columns subjected to blast loading”.   University of Melbourne, Australia. 75. S.C. Lee, S.T. Quek, M. Maalej., “3D FE modeling of hybrid-fiber ECC panels subjected to projectile impact”. International Workshop on High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites in Structural Applications Honolulu, Hawaii, USA May, 2005. 76. L.J. Malvar, J.E. Crawford, J.W. Wesevich, D.Simons., “A plasticity concrete material model for DYNA3D”, International Journal of Impact Engineering. 19 (9- 10) (1997) 847-873. 77. Zhang, L, Mindess, S. “The Compressive toughness of high strength fiber reinforced concrete”. 3rd International Conference on Construction Materials: Performance, Innovations and Structural Implications, Vancouver, Aug 22- 24, 2005. 78. Bentur, A. and Mindess, S., Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites. Elsevier Applied Science Publishers Ltd., England, 1990. 79. ASTM C 1609, Standard Test Method for Flexural Performance of Fiber- Reinforced Concrete (Using Beam With Third-Point Loading. American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohochen, Pennsylvania. 2006 pp. 1-8. 80. Japan Society of Civil Engineers “Method of Test for Flexural Strength and Flexural Toughness of Fiber Reinforced Concrete (SF-4)”, 1984, pp.58-66. 81. Japan Society of Civil Engineers (1984), Method of tests for compressive strength and compressive toughness of steel fiber reinforced concrete. Concrete Library of JSCE No.3, Standard SF-5, pp.63-66. 82. N. Banthia, J.F Trottier. “Test Methods for Flexural Toughness Characterization of Fiber Reinforced Concrete: Some Concernes and a Proposition”, ACI Materials Journal. V. 92. No. January-February 1995. 83. D.R. Morgan, S. Mindess, L. Chen, “Testing and Specifying Toughness for Fiber Reinforced Concrete and Shotcrete”. Fiber Reinorced Concrete: Modern Developments. Ed., N. Banthia, S. Mindess. Published by University of British Columbia. 1995. 84. R. Heere, D.R. Morgan. “Specification of Shotcrete Toughness”. Shotcrete, Fall 2003. 85. P. Sukontasukkul., “Impact Behavior of Concrete under Multiaxial Loading”. PhD Dissertation, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.  2001. 86. Banthia, N. Mindess. S., “Toughness Characterixation of Fiber-Reinforced Concrete: Which Standard to Use” Journal of Testing and Evaluation, Mar. 2004, Vol, 32, No.2. pp1-5. 87. Austrian Concrete Society "Sprayed Concrete Guideline: Application and Testing", published by the Osterreichischer Betonverein in March, 1999. 88. Balaguru, P. N. and Shah, S. P., Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites, McGraw- Hill, Inc., 1992. 89. Bentur, A. and Mindess, S., Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites. Elsevier Applied Science Publishers Ltd., England, 1990.  209 90. Campione, G. and Mindess, S., (1999), “Compressive toughness characterization of normal and high-strength fiber concrete reinforced with steel spirals”, Structural Applications of Fiber Reinforced Concrete, American Concrete Institute, SP182-9, pp. 141-161. 91. Chen, L., Mindess, S., Morgan, D. R., Shah, S. P., Johnston, C. D. and Pigeon, M., Comparative Toughness Testing of Fiber Reinforced Concrete, pp. 41-75 in Stevens, D., Banthia, N., Gopalaratnam, V. S. and Tatnall, P. C., (eds.), Testing of Fiber Reinforced Concrete, ACI SP-155, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 1995. 92. Mindess. S., “Standard testing”. High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites 2 (HPFRCC2). Ed. A.E. Naaman, H.W.Reinhardt. RILEM. 1995. pp 383-420. 93. Banthia, N. Trottier. J.F, “Concrete Reinforced with Deformed Steel Fibers Part 2: Toughness Characterization”, ACI Materials Journal. V. 92. No. 2. March-April 1995. pp146-154. 94. C. Redon, J-L Chermant., “Damage mechanics applied to concrete reinforced with amorphous cast iron fibers, concrete subjected to compression”. Cement & Concrete Composites 21 (1999) 197-204. 95. Hamelin, P., Razani, M., “Impact Behavior of Metallic Fiber Reinforced Concrete and Mortar”, in Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Materials, Ed. S. Mindess and J. Skalny, Materials Research Society, Boston, Massachusetts, (1990) Vol. 211, pp. 133-137. 96. N. Banthia, Impact Resistance of HPFRCC. International Workshop on High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites in Structural Applications, May, 2005. Hawaii, USA. pp. 64-75. 97. D.A. Fanella, A.E. Naaman, “Stress-Strain Properties of Fiber Reinforced Mortar in Compression”. ACI Journal. V. 82-41. July-August 1985 pp475-483. 98. N. Banthia, K. Chokri, Y. Ohama, S. Mindess., “Fiber-Reinforced Cement Based Composites Under Tensile Impact”. Advanced Cement Based Material 1994; 1:131-141. 99. Lemare, J., “A course on Damage Mechanics – 2nd Edition” Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, New York, 1996. 100. Mazars, J, “A Description of Micro- and Macroscale Damage of Concrete Structures,” Engineering Fracture Mechanics, Vol. 25, N. 5/6, 1986, pp. 729-737 101. K.E. Loland., “Continuous Damage Model for Load-response Estimation of Concrete”. Cement & Concrete Research. Vol. 10, 1980, pp. 395-402. 102. C. Yan “Impact Resistance of Concrete”, PhD Dissertation, University of British Columbia 1992. 103. Nianzhi Wang “Resistance of Concrete Railroad Ties to Impact Loading” PhD Dissertation, University of British Columbia 1996. 104. M. Boulfiza, N. Banthia, K. Sakai., “Application of continuum damage mechanics to carbon fiber-reinforced cement composites”. ACI Materials Journal. V97.  No. 3 May-June 2000 105. Najar, J., “Continuum Damage of Brittle Solids,” Continuum Damage Mechanics: Theory and Applications, edited by D. Krajcinovic and J. Lemaitre, Springer Verlag Wien-New York, 1987, pp.233-294.  210 106. P. Sukontasukkul, P. Nimityongskul, S. Mindess, “Effect of loading rate on damage of concrete” Cement and Concrete Research. Vol. 34 (2004) 2127-2134. 107. B.Riisgaard, private communication, June 2007.

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.24.1-0063072/manifest

Comment

Related Items