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UBC Theses and Dissertations

New methods of mass analysis with quadrupoles with added octopole fields Moradian, Annie 2007-09-05

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W MEO OMASS ASIS WI QUAUSWI AEOC ESAIE MOASc SUi ocogy199Mc Ui oisComaA ESIS SUIEIIAIE OE QUIMES E GE OCOISOYiE CUY OGA SES(CmisyE UI OISCOMAcemAie Moa AacMass sec aaecooio a mass asis wi a s is wiaquaus wi aeoc es a sc Wi mass sec aaeco quaus wi  a  aeoc es  esacom a coeioquaue eec oai io ae  q eseioagescaco ea uae ages oe a aeeee   eiesga e gsscase a gssooa oaiwi so eioa ecoag q (q =  Wiaaeco e quau wi a  aeoc e os mass sooa ecoeicieies simi a coeiose Quau asimuaous - eioeee  a  y i we coma aaage was u wi quau o- eio e eec oscasewe iesgaa a sooa ig oau1is ssie ascase u 5/sMass asis usi iss os was iesgawi a quau wi aeoc ee is os is ewi aua eio eeemes coi e eco oe simuoWi e soi  aee quau so ae Maieu meacoeiomass asis wiae a  a  aua eiois ssieIis case use oais os yies simiak s a soo wewi e  oesoi  eso aaoy  w sooca oai e aeoc es coeiomass asis usi a s is waesoois suiay imoiie oCoes^Abrt ^ iie oCoes ^soes ^sogus ^ soSym a Aao ^ iAckweme ^ iicao ^ Ce1 ^ Ico ^ 11^ eo a ckgu ^ ^1 ^ Quau Mass e ^ 1^ Mass Asis wi Quau se ^ ^1 ^ Mass e ^  ^1 ^ ii es ^  1^ Quau Ioa ^ 9^1 ^ e e meioQuau Ioa ^ 9^1 ^ aIoa ^  11^1^ e Secuequey a so Eio ^  131^ Quaus wi AeMuis ^  1^1 ^ Mui ia ^  1^1 ^ gOees i3-a aIoa ^  11^ aIoa as Mass A ^  19^1 ^ aQuau Ioawi aEco ^ ^1 ^ aQuau Ioawi AaEco ^ ^1 ^ Iss oS ^ 1^ Oui ois esis ^ CeEemeaMeo ^ 1^ Iume ^  ^ aIoaEemeaSeU ^ 3^1 ^ Same eo ^ ^ ^  Asis ^ ^Cht ^ Mass Sec AaEcooIo Wiouai ^ 3^ Ico ^ 3 ^ Eemea ^ 3^ sus a scussio ^ ^3^ Eemes wi a CoeioQuau Se ^ ^3 ^ Eemes wi a Quau Sewi a  AeOce ^ 53 Summa ^ iiiCeMass Sec AaEcooaeIo om a aQuau ^ 1 ^ Ico ^ ^1 ^ ew oe eocaeae oMSAE oIo om aIoa ^  ^ Eemea ^ 3 ^ sus a scussio ^ ^3 ^  Eio ^ ^3 ^ Quau Eio ^ 73^3 ^ - Eio ^ 75Summa ^ 75Ce5 Mass Sec AaEcooaeIo om a Quauwi a  AeOc e ^ 75^ Ico ^ 7^5^ Oc iaa equey Ss ^ 7^5 ^ Mass sooa equey soo ^ 75 ^ Eemea ^ ^5^ Mass Caao ^ 5^ sus a scussio ^ ^5 ^  Eiowi a Quau wi a  AeOc e^5 ^ Quau Eiowi a Quau wi a  AeOce ^ 9^5 ^  -  Eiowi a Quau wi a  AeOc e ^ 95^5^ Oimum O Mo wi a Quau wi a  AeOc e ^ 9^5 ^ EcoEicieies ^ 995 ^ Summa ^ 1Ce^ Mass Asis Usi aIs oS wi a Quau wi a AeOc e ^ 11 ^ Ico ^ 1^1 ^ eo a ckgu ^ 1 ^ Eemea ^ 13 ^ sus a scussio ^  111^3^ si  a^   111^3^ ga  a ^   115^3 ^ Aa Mass a Is sio ^  117 ^ Summa ^ 119Ce7 Summa a  Wo ^ 1es ^ 1isoese 1 Summa oe iaeacmui ^  1e 1 Iumeao ^ 3e Mui amis ^ 33e 3 O ages ^ e 3 Iao ages ^ e 3 o ages ^ e 5 Mos oaeeioa  ^ e 5 Aa mass osei wi e scaco wi aeio eieee smaea e a q  a a scaseo1/s ^ e 5 Ecoeicieies ( wi e sysm oimie gssoo ^  1e 5 Ecoeicieies wi a quau wi a  aeoc ea e sysm oimie gssei a 11   1 ^  1e 1 O ages ^  1e  a a  q  es om eemes a simuo ^  11sogusgu 1 Coeiociuquau  ia quau mass e ^ gu 1 s giooa quau mass ewi iso-13 seis m  m m3 ese io wi e masses oao 7gu 1 Scmac css secooa 3-quau ioa ^  1gu 1 A u quau wi a  aeoc e ^ 19gu 1 Scmac oe ESI-ie quau mass scomesysm ogecuaigas; Ccuaia;    sami oce; SKskimmeQO oy quau; Q mass-a quau; Q coisioce; Q3mass-a quau;    c gu 1 Scmac oe si quau iumeESIecosayioo QOiogui; Q quau mass e IGioogauge;  gauge; CEMceecomuiie ^ gu Ciuiagm oe cciuicoosi io ^ 3gu 3 Css seco oe ecos oa quau wi aaeoce ^ 3gu ock agm oe ioai eemeaseu ^ 3gu 5 e sequee coui iecio ^ 37gu Ieciocou iecome ^ 37gu 7 Ieciocou iecome iecoaq =  ^ 39gu Scmac oe mi me MSAE eemes ^ gu 9 Css secoew oe o ees a e ioe quau aa caci coue e 1 ^ gu 1MSAE  asis sowa GUI ^ gu 11 MSAE  asis sowa GUI ^ gu 3 ock agm oe eemeaseu a   e e ^ gu 3 Mass asis osei io wi ooae oe sgiowi a coeioquau sea a scaseo5 /s^ 5gu 3 MSAE osei io a q = 9 oaiwi e a a scaseo/s ^ 51gu 3 MSAE osei io a q = 9 wi a scaseo/se is uaeso ae A- is 15we age awie ^ 5gu 3 MSAE osei io a q = 9 wi a scaseo/se is uaeso ae A- is 15g age awi e ^ 53gu 3 MSAE osei io a q = 9 wi a scaseo/se is uaeso ae  is 15g age a  ^ 5gu 3 MSAE osei io a q = 9 wi a scaseo/se is uaeso ae A- is 15g age a +3 ^ 55gu 3 Iei e e age sei io oaiusie como ouae a ae ^ 5gu 3 MSAE osei io a q = 9 wi a scaseose was ea 11- ae e e ^ 57gu 3Coeio/ mass asis wi a quau wi a oc e a a scaseo5 /s ^ 59gu 31 MSAE osei io om a quau sewi a  aeoc e a q = 9 a a scaseo/s ^ gu 3Caus uaes oa quau wi a  aeoc e (cau Wao ^ gu 33 MSAE osei io a q =  wi  _  eioae e e ^ gu 3MSAE osei io a q =  wi  _  eioae e smae ^ gu 1 ak ss a soowi aaecooaeioa eio aa sca ecoa q =  15 /s  e scaecoa q =  15 /s ^ 7gu ak ss a soowi aaecooaeioa eio aa sca ecoa q =  5/s  esca ecoa q =  5/s ^ 7gu 3 ak ss a soowi aaecooaeioaquau eio ae sca ecoa q = 715 /s e sca ecoa q = 733 /s ^ 7gu 5 ak ss a soowi aaecooaeioa eioeee e(yae sca ecoaq =  1/s  e sca ecoa q =  1/s ^ gu 5 ak ss a soowi aaecoa  eioeee smae( aa sca ecoa q =  1/s  a sca ecoa q =  15 /s ^ gu 5 ak ss a soowi aaecooaeioa eioeee e(yaa sca ecoaq =  15 /s  e sca ecoa q =  15 /s ^ gu 5 ak ss a soowi aaecoa  eioeee smae( aa sca ecoa q =  15/s  e sca ecoa q =  15 /s ^ gu 5 ak ss a soowi aaecooaeioa eioeee e(yae sca ecoaq =  157/s  e sca ecoa q =  5/s 9igu 5 ak ss a soowi aaecoa  eioeee smae( aa sca ecoa q =  15/s  a sca ecoa q =  5/s ^ 91gu 5 ak ss a soowi aaecooaeioaquau eioeee aa sca ecoaq = 715 /s  e sca ecoa q = 715 /s 93gu 5 ak ss a soowi aaecooaeioaquau eioeee ae sca ecoaq = 71/s  e sca ecoa q = 7 /s^ 9gu 5 sooscasewi e eiomoswi acoeioquau a a quau wi a  aeoce ^ 9gu 5Aaecoo+3 io osua acai wi eioae acoeio wi a a scaa ecoa q =   e smae oa quau wi a  oc ewi a a scaa ecoa q =  a ce e oaquau wi a  oc e wi a e scaa ecoaq = e scaseia cases is 3/s ^ 9gu 1 S uaes a iss os  (q=   = 9/1 aquau wi  aeoc e wi  a   ^ 1gu S uaes a iss os  (q=   = 9 / 1 aquau wi  aeoc e wi  a   ^  1gu 3 Quau eiociui ^  1gu Mass asis wi  a  a (awi  eio( wi e sis ae wi e ga a (cwi e s is ae^wi e sse  11gu 5 Mass asis osei ioie s iss wi  a  aks a wi e me oe coesi is usemassasis ^  11gu Mass asis wi  a  (awi  eio( wi e sis ae wi e gaa (cwi e s is ae^wi e sse  11iisoSym a AaoSymo ^ oAao ^ o equey^ ccue3-^ e meioESI^ Ecosay iooMAI ^ Maiassissesooioo1 ^ sooa ak ig^ aioaIC ^ uea iocycosoe^ quicomagyMS^ Mass scomey ^ me oigMS/MS^ Mass scomey/mass scomey ^ o meio^ caioaMSAE^ Mass sec aaecoQO^ Quau ioguiQ1^ quauQ^ CoisioceQ3^d riCMCSCEMGUIQCACU yC11emaaa"u1wgi ag coeeMuicescaCeecomuiieGic useieaceQuau wesuCoisioy acssociaoCous secoccue ageo equey ageCaesiaco-oisAuequeye usmocesEcoceIomassmeMaieu meIegoCosIaciIaacioo a a  q  meIoosciaoequeym / ^ Mass  ce o^ mo cycs^ Co eacs gio^ se om e e oe co ^Qdrtn frnK^ Quau eiosoe oeA^nlpl thtr ptl lt^ e ecic iamui oe ^ aous[ (] ^ a oe comeo (Cy  ^d pd x-ppr/s^ omsosecoIG^Ioogauge^  gaugeE^Inl n n Iokic ey aecoisioC^ fntA^ Coisiocss seco^ Gas mi1^ Iomassm^ Coisiogas mass1^  aaioa(1EqaE e(E   eOwqAiaie ii gioAacom oe ecic eEcic e oe eAgeaaeEec iaSecuequeyequey sAmi oquau eioageo oauequeies oeio i o oeioage   ageS issiAckwemeMy ga yea iugs eo oe seeees imyis e saisoa acI cou  wis I g s commie  i see my ocug i comeo a s equaygeus a wise guie  e soe wo om eemes is I ao a om a ois esis wi  ocommes a aiceI wou ke  ess my g  my suiso commiee memesciay Miceas s  ugumy ses a ew oisesisI g a mem oCmisy meccaa ecoc eieseices ei esciay  is cicaeeise a gaassise wi quau wesu ecocsI gy ackwe E a SCIEugaIusiaciiasuo ois sea I wou ao ke  ackwe m geauce Cois om M-SCIEeicommes a suggesougue coue ois seaI ess my g  ugsea ese mem eia suo ugumy ses ie  My a as go  Caaassis me ugsges omy eemes a aays i a  Iwou ke  a aia e simuoses o"S iss quaus wi aeoc es"wcome e oou iesga em eemeayI a Wiie (cau e sua awas emy a esisI g MicaKeAO a  a eiies i e  amy ouage oyae y cue es a eisuo wiwas e Mo sciaas  Mica a Kecomi my mi cse iesI a my moea sacceseougemes a ac me aays sesuccessI wou ke  a my oeaays i emeI iee my moeiw a eiw eiuoioa suoei  iisi my o uge awe   myga ses eeme  come my geI gy acia eikissa My ugeai a  eigemy  a gi me mo se my y--y eeayI wou ke  ackwe my s A seous cooi e  asis sowa ckage myeemes I a m s com ugis ueys i amosoa s iesais my iocao Aai a a i memo omy eAoo MoaCe1 IcoI19 e i iysics was awaeo   amseyeieiooe seoscia es meoa i use ie ogemaseaoeamic ccksa o  i   e a Woga u ee oioai ciquese eemes oai io weoe ua s coa ie 195 [1w sweaio wie mass  ce os cou  se a u sc (ecic ewi a sumseo equey eis was io a sa meomass seo w wi use e quau mass e e e-meio(3- quau ioa ao iius ogi [3]was as a mass sec c sci1959 [is wo was esea oa i i ie e oioa ae cogy associawi eme 3-quau ioaa i acoueae quau mass ecame eme useiumesOe so case e oso ioociques sucasecosay ioo(ESI[5] a maiassissesooioo(MAI[  emass scomey io a weumeoeccooogicamocusA ous iusy s eau ese iumes a e ma goae sysms s iseaiis aaygecisiomass scomey s come a ioaiusywi a sa eai maeie omecaa aaceucasec1--(U os ^1 eo a ckgu1 Quau Mass ee sics oquau mass eooi e quau iaa iomoo  escii wso[7]a Maa gs [A quau e is oce a seoueoc Ma masse emoy ciu iaooc  e  e icuy omac oc   gecisio[7]is ices sg uao e  quau e is eswaese a iigca aeas oe am [9] a ca mimiwi e osecooe us  A co ccue (age  U  a a o equey (age   cos [a ae e  as swigu 1gu 1 Coeiociuquau  ia quau mass e (1- moUa=y= ^ Cmo  q^ qy  =e iac(yaa i ii e quau is sc(1 y  =   - y ow   a y a Caesiaco-ois a  o e e usis e se om ece oe quau  a  e iaOW is gi= (U  cos Sg (1w  U  is e  age  is e --ak ami oe  age aeom eacquau  gua Cis e auequey oe  agee iomoo ie a y co ie quau e a iee aa i e owi equaomoeY_  ^(U  cosC =m ^ i ^ aw  I   =  a  = ^   s e moces oio  e is e ecocem is e iomass a   is meese eiaequao ca wewimeioess mea a ee Maieu equao +(a u q u cosu =  ^ u =  oy ^ (1 comsowi equao(1 a a  q  ae ^ (U  cos =  (1(13e Maieu equaos escusseima oks [7a oy esoo  e equaowi  eseeuW=  ce   E ce +  a  e- ^C2n -i ^(o^ ow  a a  a" a  iegocos i oe iasio u a iaaci  / e cos C   a   oy oe  a a  q ese e  oaios moois i i (  a q egass oe iacoioe soo esee equao(1ca io osuagoes; se a ueSe soo ase oy w  is imagi suca = i  a  1  y a wimiamis a ss uge quau e wioui e Iegees o3  a sees osoowca oc a ueIoamisgw eoiay ie   y  oi coa io a s Su 1/3  io equao(1a simii i gis e equaoomoose io= A E c  cos( + /3+   E c si +   ^ (1o ^ ow  A = a+ a"  a  = i(a+a"  om equao(1  /3 is aima meais e osciaoequeies oe ioe oo     (a q isgi e cuiou [  = a + (+ 1  a (13  a  (+    a  (1( -   a q    a q      -  a  W q ^  ca ama [7q  a +  (1gi a  agesio ia quau e  oscia moo(accoi  equao(1 ais cc equeies uque  eimass--ce oe wesequey is ee "secuequey"gequeiesa sime ocs oe wesequeyese equeies ca cauusi equao(11 = (     =e s osoo  e Maieu equaos oe  a  a  q ese a agm ie  a  a  q  a cois ogio os a iis is caee s agmIe s agm e is aii mogio w iomoois se i e  a y coe oaigiocom a y s wi iso- s is oeigu 1causea a  ay (a equay  q a  qy  a symmeic wi sc e ogioe  aa as swiequao(1 e quaa is eug ese e ei5s agmAosa commeiaquau mass e a ois gio1 Mass Asis wi Quau se1 Mass  eIa quau mass aes o o  C U  a   a io wi esame  m /   e same o i  ((a q esie s agmSiea / q is equa  /   a es  o m a masses e a ao osca  a / q= co as swigu 1 scai e  U a   es ais  (iwi a o io wi e masses wi  amieisequee omass--ce o a wi aca cioe oci a massscumEaco  wi scic s  (a / q coess  o sooseiIeo e soois cauom e wioe s gioeacoe o s iasi e  U/  oe o  aacscse e oe s gioa oy a sma e o m /  es wi seis coess  gsoo Usuay soois as1M/AM 1/ w Am i    a measuak wia ig31O ^ 1 ^  ^ 3 ^  ^ 5^ ^ 7 ^ ^ 9^ 1qgu 1 s giooa quau mass ewi iso-13 se ism m3 ese io wi e masses oao Ieoas e o  ie s agm aacs e oes gio e soowi iase wioumi Iese eocaeaeso assumio  ema wccao come  ese a (1aio sy ie quau e a suicie  meie  a ii a ( ciu gi aaqua amao a oc eCoi e   oa aquau se e sooca esseas [1 11]11=    /^ (17w   is e mo cycs aio s ie quau e a e   is aco ais e e s gioe s gio -   [11]Aoy quau is a quau wcis owi   ageeee  i  (U  = is aows e esssie e omass--ceos  ss uge quauAios a se ac w q 9 ei  a CI a  e is a wemi e mass--ce o oiowc se aces ie quauCoeque  oy quaus auseas ioguis a gss mass e1 ii esIa accaquau mass ae e es e au ae es oe quau Usuay ae a is sioaa se  om e es oe aooe iaoe e a io e gioeeequau  wi cause a siooe iaquau ee e iisgiois e as e ii e [1e quau e gws om  (oe e as i  e wiie quauIe ii e gio   ya   moocome couea e iomoois  comica ayisii e mig  eec ee oa se oaase oeoe eus oe quau se[13]ukecoge imae oii es ie mass e oms ses o qua sus we awe eec oe ee iies oe amis oiomoo[11 S ii es gi weamis oioosciao aeces  e   a  y  co  ii es (ma  cycsgi e amis oosciaoie  y  co Iis case ii e cuses e ioukesce ii e wi a amoa osea "yem  aie cusi oe io cause e e  y  aces [1Wiooie s gioa wioue "ye me is aoimum ii e  oauo  cycs wcwas eeocay aeemeay  iase e amissio[1 15]ea McIosmoeii e a coaaeoiaoscs e e moascay aa amo[1A e a-meioses ii es we cuseoe eeii es / mass e wo s e  iesga e eecoe eii es oiomoo imaee -oy oooaquau seas a mass scome e meowas seoe eiies [17]Oe eaeos woi ois wi  giiSeco11 Quau Ioa1 e e meioQuau Ioae quaue ia 3-ioaca oce e ocecosa  eco ie mi wi caecos oeace as swi9gu 1e ecic iac  y  ie 3-ioais simi e eciciaie quau mass e(13( +y  -   gu 1 Scmac css secooa 3-quau ioaw y a   a Caesiaco-ois a  oa e  ecoe ia1( is gi equao1e quaue s s oe squa oe se om a e iiis case eceeoe a Iomooie   y a   co a ieeeequao omooca wea soeas iseco1Ie quau ioa e  age is cay ae e  eco a e o e caecos a cay  agu ia Wiia sece o m /  osi e aeagese ce a io wiie sce ue eecoscaya mass scum is oce scai e ae ages 1ecio ie aacougae caosequeiaywi iasim /  oco[is scai meois caea "mass sec isca a iwas ice So a co-woe ie commeia3-ioa[1cause e mass--ce o oe ioais ecom e ioaiscy oio e  age (a gi o S  auemi e mass--ce e oe ioais imse e mag oe  age acaae e ecos1 aIoaI19 Csc"" ioaa "ceack" ioageomeies [19]i e o-meioquau ecos io a ci ee  ioa  was ae  aa measu e esee oE + ( m /  =1a  3 + ( m /  = 3Ia a(o meio quau is owi -oy agesa isi ia a ae ecos ae es oe quauio oa oae o m / ca aeie quauIo a coiie a(    yco e quauiaa ie aa (  co e ecoscia ae es oe quaue a seaaages associawi e ai oio iaioa[]Sie e is  quau e a e   -asaa  giecoeicieies a3-ae eme oe aacom a3-aees sge omo io wiousce ce eecis ca a so cusi oio a e ceei oe aioa iasi eme occue io11aioa we use as aI19 kowski a co-woe [] aeio ia oy quau  s iomocu acoAeaco occueie aioa ese io we eio a quaumass emass asisaug ea [] ao see cmicaequiiaa kic a eomic me oseciomocu aco ia iequau iume w e cequau seeas a aioaacoisioceis cique s sueque euse oe  s iomocucmisy []Aaue same meesge ea [] eseea aioa wciasee mosecooamic io acou  aeiame wi mimaeec om si cause e  coiese success ois iume s  e acaooaioa iequey sas eemes []aioa  euseicomowi oemass aeeeaaccumuooio imui a aows gai eiciey asce ce cacius ey ca useas sge ces wi iomaocaesugs [] sccoui a aa a 3-ioa Iisiume e aaca use e-coe a io a mouaeio io mass asis ie 3-a[]is imos e cyc sigca a aows cooace a io ia e eess ooeioe sge caes omui a aioa o a coeemeoieaci a coious iosoue ke ecosay ioo(ESI meoig ( [] a uea IoCycosoe (IC mass1scomee ioaac as a o-e sge ce ese iumesIoa coious sas ey a iecio e a a a sueque eouio ese mass a co maea [3 sweaa"ecosc" amass a(Oia ca coue a coious ecosayiosoue  accumu io ia oy quau io eiiecoio e"ecosc" aquiComagy/ Mass Scomey (/MSasis wi ICiumes come mo accawi e iase isei ma ssie accumuooecosayeio ia aoc ioa io eiae ICce [31]Isome iumes a osegmeeaquauioa a usee same oseA aaca usessociaooogeee oio io ioco IC[3 coui aioa  mass scomee seaguao usea ioisooa agmeaougioeio[33-35]isas em mass scomey ca  mass scome1 e Secuequey a so EioIo ia aquau ioaca so eiwaaua acage aa equey  Oe is ae e i  equey e ami oeeioage is seoe omag weae ami oe i age a quau eioa ssie eio eaua ac is aeeeo oosi s oe quau sea eecic e oe eiois co (iee osiosoe kes13ace we equey    coiis wi o oe secuequeies giequao(11Quau eiooccu we aua ac is ae a us oaquau se Iis case e mag oe ecic e is ay oio e coois   a  y  Sukoea [3 caue eioequeies oio wi quau eioa sweio a eiwco ^+ xj K ^(w  K =1 / = 1 a  =  o  y Wio a so ei e ami oeiosciaogi iaseIe ami oe sumeaac age is suicieio ca ecom e ioa is ocess is e as so eco so eiooio s eeec useisoagmei a mass-sec ecio ae  q es iquau ioa1 Quaus wi AeMuis1 Mui iaA ia (I wiia gioee ocemussas ace equaocI= (15Muie soo  e ace equaoasas e a coioes Ieaciiasoois coi  a com (oaco oe o iao aiosoois e acomooe com iae1com ia may  esseis oa mui eaio ICaesiacoois a o-meioecic ia131 y   ca eaeimuis O (  y as [] y   = E A O (  y^ (1w    is a me e ami oe ia a  A is e meioessami oe mui  O (  y e   O (  yca omO(  3 =  [+ iyi(17w    is a aous a [ (  mea e a oe comeo (C(C = + iy a i  =  [37]Acaessio e muisiCaesiacoois a gi Sgyi [3e    (  y=1 eses aco iaais iee o  a y   (  ycoess  a aia   (  yis a quau ia  3 (  yis a  ia   ( yis aoc ia ee es oe coeicies  A  ouacoioa sysm oueese ca cauwi e meooeec ces [39]Eoemuis (   a symmeic wi sc ecoie   a y as a o oemuis (135  aaisymmeic wi sc ecoie as a symmeic wi scecoie y asIquausecic e coms gaose om a aa a egoeesA summa oe muis isgiie 115e 1 Summa oe iaeacmuiMui ^ ia (1 ^ =  Quau ( ^   =    y  (3Oc (ca (5ca ( - (    3Y   o = (  y +    o5 5  1 3y  5   o  = (  5y+ 15 y  y /  o1 gOees i3-a aIoaiaes ie eco geomey oe quau mass aa e 3-quau ioasu ie esee ogoeesese iaessu om e cessa uaooe ecos ie quau mass eae quau ioa usi u  e quau mass e s ie eca oioa ioiecooeco a imeco ie mac amac oecos []Segu  see eec 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55]I cases a a equay sceom e ceasgu 1 sws a og oa uquau wi a  aeoc ee o    i swas ao u acoeiomass asis wi ae a  es is ssiewi is se s e e e siooe  is aewi ecoecie si  ae e smae [5e si  oe smae is si io is ega ioEemes waeio we so ei iuce agmeaosweaa sewi a aeoc e cagi geiciey issocia io aacoeiose[57]esciay aessus o1   oss1gu 1 A u quau wi a  aeoc e1 aIoa as Mass As e eous scaaages oioa iiiumesoy ce  ey ecommeiaas s-a mass aSome eaieemes oioa useas mass scome a esee ieySeo ea moaimage cue cowi uea (asis wi a a wcuiee coecos eeequau  [5Auge sus we omisisce ce eec weu  mie seiWei ea moao aea meo mass sec i sca ia aquau ioa[59]e eoemaooe q-e oe aeio a ossca oau119/s wi w soo (m / Am   awas  mass iee oemass es o-1e seco useequey swe meic eioecio eee quau Wi wescas o15-3/ssoooa m /  13was oai1 aQuau Ioawi aEcoea Syka scses oaa ciuioa acauseas mass scome []ey suggesusi e mass sec i scamo ooo(wi soe eio scai ese ioaScaa co-woe [] sca woi iume seoisey useoc cuie seco as eiquau aioa Io a coiay ie 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mea ae amissioeiciey isiee omass a icuiumeI ecgeomey su  ssima sie io s ss me ae oumi oe e []ima ee -oy oooa aquau as a massscome[17]ima ma e ameai aio a equau  cou gaicoie ey om e ii esis is ssiewe io auge egiowi coie aami w eii es a cse  eimamumis coioaes we -oyquau seos wi io ae ee oe s agmIo oee oi aq = 9 acqui e aaeies om e eiies; e ey ca suisom se io wi weq-eswcoscia ae e asAey e cique seoa ae secai e was usemass seo ima oaia sooieesso1am/= 5moa mes gamissioaaoaiwi e same iume wi / oomo [17]Oe eaeima wo i -oy mass scome ci e geomey oe i e a acce io ae ioe[-]A ee aaages oges meccaimeco iequau assemygsei a gsoocomcoeio/ mass awee we some ees ie susesee o gu osea gai e ee osoooemo cycs io s ie quau se [7Iwas caae -oy mo oowas we ueoa seawas eicome ccoI1999 ge[71] ea w meoomass scai wi aquauscaemass sec aaeco(MSAE is meois a e oima ia ousi ii es ae eoe quause Ie ii ee oeise iee iomoo i   y  a   acoue e quau is oiioy mo wi io owi coious ioe quaue e a oe is seaa si ia  equau ose Wiie ii eaey oe io is coeeio aaey a io casuou e e ie aca c Io wieasacemes ie ii e cei gaaakic eyiases aio wi smaeasacemesus some  oaeiooio is quiioecoe same coe was euseaaecooio aeia aquau [7Eemes we  wi a ie quau mass scomekeaswigu 1agme io oceiem mass scomey weaeie coisioce (Q oe smass a quau (Q3  aisi ia  es ae es oe quausaaeco io weeiaeiso equeies  ai equey aua ac ages o oa u oa quau o e e scai e ai iamiio oe  m /  os came io soe a we ec ocea mass scumQO Q1 Q Q3Iom1 I^I ommE  I I I I SKgu 1 Scmac oe ESI-ie quau mass scomesysmogecuaigas; Ccuaia;  sami oce; SKskimme QO oyquau; Q mass-a quau; Q coisioce; Q3mass-aquau;  ce sooa ig ( 11  wi aaecoom Q(1 -  wascay au1am/9 wi a sca o1/sSwesca5 /ssueimucgsoo 1  am/9Iwas u a cause oe weessu iQ3 (3 -5 /7  cou  oaiae gscaseo1 /sEemes wi agme io eiQa eaeaaay ecom Q3 swe1mes gasei aa coeioiequau MS/MS sca[7gaa co-woe [73] we  emoy is meoie ugsco eey scaiase ie sei oMS/MS  a cocom i MS/MS ie aie quau mo oe sameiumea ea [7 scacao oMSAE  oomicseysweae comooe ie quau seMS/MS sca wi e sei ioaocMSAE sca aows iicaoois awcoeoIwas moaawi is iume iwas ssie  coucae oioocessi s io oi a mass sca us wi a iequau sysmai iQoQ3 wi MSAE aows gsei iMS/MSae same mea e scamos oa ie quau sysm sucassi acomomuie acomo a uass sca a sssieese escamos a ssie wi oe o3asysmsgey agmeaoes a gewi is iumea  acocioscum wiouaie w mass cuo1 Iss oSSukoea [3 e a goesoe coio iocoiia quau ioawi aua quau eio(equao(1ey ao sweaaua quau eioces e s coio oaioie quau eCois a ugs [75] moaeiooioia essuaioa(1-7 musi goesoes (uK=Wi quau eioia aioa muie s oi aeaoe s agm e  e a goesoesus muieecocoio caoccue same ioaa si eioequey [3Kooa co woe [7 sweaie quau eiois aea/ mass e w e quau e is cc e o ees o ^ a   y  eio ca eiio e co  ( y wi esame eioequeyAs e eioami iasese s agmsi io a mose aas oisseacwi i owo i a masssoi aesey iesgais eme eocay a eemeay[7Usi aiuc coueasma mass scome eemeamai oe s agm coiee eoak s eaemes (iw mass isussio we moa measu Aioiso aaesAoi was u aga aosa 1mes iase 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Cescseemeaiesgaoomass asis wi iss os wi a quaumass ewi a  aeoc eMosoCes eisie 7 Ce7 is a summa wi suggeso  woCeEemeaMeo1 IumeEemes we  wi e sysm swigu 1i a giie 1Io e eumacay assisecosay iooss uga1 5 mm ameau ia cuaiauga y    cuaigasa eeecuum sysm uga 1 mm ameoce ie oa coIo eauga quau ioguiQo w ey a coisioy coo e  cm QO  a caci coueugo   caci  e Q1 i  agee mass equauQ is seom e iogui  e ee  awi a 1 mm ameauIo a Q1 a ss ugo aioese wi a mesco9 mm aua e seco wi ao9 mm aue mesco is e as e 1 a e oau  as e E 1 is ca3 5 mm om e e oe Q1 a e is seome 1  a 5 mm scee m sysm cois oo o m a o  mA gauge a aiogauge a use measu e essus ie a secocm m1 a o m1 e cuum sge  se o7a 3 s sc ma o me seco cuumsge  se o a 5s scWi ese aaemes e cuum sge essu was measuas 11 -3  a e seco cuum sge 31 -5   is eemeaseuwas useai eemesoa (I- "-CU Ca a_IoEOI / ^ I/ asO^  (7c^ c^ -(   -71cqgE= E= -a 13 co7^ (I- a^  _e 1 IumeaoSye mQuau seQuau wesum sysmcComIogauge gaugeeamiescmia Aasmo(Sou ckMAM SCIE(Coo OM SCIE(Coo O A 3+ 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useas e ioc e CEM is acoious  cewccaceiesi oga iosi iocoe iuis gey aa gga iaa e ouuis aguAiosiki e iuce oe CEM ss aecocascasui ia cue e(3 - A wcis amie a eamie A scmiis use suises cause io om ckgu isee iosigis coeiiocouimoe coe a e moio cae  m/  osecomcaus e cou  (io/seacscaa ese  a use couca mass scum oa ceai m/ e ce e ck uo age  ecciui o 1 caci we ae e cciuias swigugu Ciuiagm oe cciuicoosi ioEemes we  wi a coeioquau aay wi a e uso = 17 mma o ous  e us   o = 1 a wi quaus wi3oaeoc es wi e i  oes a ae maki e us oe  y   y  gaae us oe    (  =   e quau wi a  aeoc e y    =  1 a e  aeoc  y 1  =  1 e sws e meioess amis oe emuis u = 1cauas sci[35]e Mui amisse AO A A A A A1Coeio  1  17  -31 Oc -9 999 9 31  - Oc - 1 5 1 51 -533gu 3 Css seco oe ecos oa quau wi aaeoc eaIoaEemeaSeUe si-quau iume swigu 1 was moe o as aaioa A ock agm oe aas as useai eemes is oigu  e ee a ees we coec a o-ceaiawa ge ( Iumes AWG-3iO USA Eacceos a mamum ami ouu( ako1 wcis iase memaamie  e siagese mascck is o e aia wage 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15gu Scmac oe mi me MSAE eemese 3 O agesSaye +35Cuaia +5Oce +5 +3QO ose +Ee  +1 -1-o+1Q1 ose  -1- -3- -5E 1 -15 o+1E  -3Aua ac om aaia wa ge(S 3SoIumesSuyCAwas aeeeo io  ( oy as eio[33] osimuaous eeo i o as - eioo a u as quau eio  eioe ecicacoecoeee  ( oy ioe  was scoeca e ouuom e maii was coec e ceeoe secoa wii oa ae(1 s o e ima wii oe aewas coec e Saia wa gea e o es oe secoa we coec a i Quau eiowas aeuge quau wesu ugaciuisue M-SCIEa e eemes wi aeio eama oei  (iase wi e ios as e aua eio was ae ee  coec e   e  ouuoe quau su uga 15 caci[79] as swie sca agm igu 9co335mm mm 111cc3m^ co3^ 333 315  3  5saycacie iugu 9 Css secoew oe o ees a e ioe quau aa caci coue e 11 Same eosei (C33   9(m9a sua acai(IS(m1759 we om Sigma (S uisMOUSA Agi miwas om Agi cogies (Saa CCAUSA Meaa acecaciwe om sScieic (a O Ca U g ogewas omai(ou Ca Soo we as owssei1-1Msua 11Ma i7 ( mea ( wa 5( acecaci Agi  mias sue e sooow  a eemes was 1/mi Asis asis useiuse sowae sowa is sig aMCS ocesca wi e coesi me (e age scicaoa sa sca ia se asis a giIa w s a usecag sca as iei mass--ce o aks a cau sooe sowa is cae os a soi ousas osca seoeicoecoUsi is sowa iwas ssie  oa a quick owse om a e moeemesgu 1a 11 sw e Gic UseIeace (GUIoe MSAE  asis sowaAuemeI E171E15GcaA is MCS  seka  Eco Asis o (MES  AOwe iAcciMo 113we^ 5ssie^ ssCou ssCouese ^ me ^ 15 ^ 17MaAmeMCSm^ 1Caaoy ^ CaaoCaiaueicieCakaooeicieEsmami Mes 1133aceeumMo 1eau& es1  - 7meS13// 17;e S Mk ^ Ea3 779e [[  193 17 7e (1 1 OW3e c 1 1 33  711   11+ 1_-_s es sie 1SOAS Ga11MI W ^ i1-_-aSecMCS e( I ^ICAMOtrnCl4ArnExpOSAaEco(1117-/ 15E113qaKIEssCouaememSus1e ^ 99^137 ^ 1 ^ 199Aa  Mass (m^ oisEcus351 - 33My cumesAieaCauoeAie EAieMCS esmcsaacsaMcsa3csaMcsa5csaEcs COcs^ EIgu 1MSAE  asis sowa GUIn1 11 A 1359-1 n    A -n  311(9Id 333pl  s   3 A111MOICE311io O; r+17I 11 1 3713737 ^1311g  7131E33Apl  Eltn tAn Ch (MCS An[r 11- S 1MCS  1 MCS  a AI  119111/193E191-1+1 I sooAsci  IW MCS tsc   Eeco(//111113M13-13311111111111St73E399 33399M  173EdAaEco(/117 33-177-9I O1E1 3q-OMM3asCoue1ei-517935 ^ 9 ^ 9 ^ 1 ^ 3Aa Mass  (mi^ a 5IhSA    931 lnAdd r n^ 1Eltnnt tW31 lt- ^  ff     se  C SeieciMes3Cgu 11 MSAE  asis sowa GUICe3 Mass Sec AaEcooIoWiouai3 Icois cescs e eemeaseua meo oi MSAE oio om a coeiosea a  aeoc e quau sewiouai e ioe ose ois wo was  oce ges sus wia coeiou-quau comso MSAE sus om equau sewi a  aeoc e3 Eemeae eemeaaas is swigu 1e o ages asummaie 3 e quau wesu was oi/ massemo a a scum osei isoc aks was coe e isi iomo moe moisoc ak (9was mow iasi e e age  se ioWi e o ages swie 3 e eie se io was +3 sIoe case e quiagea e ages oe sysm we wesuca+1 s oe e seeioe o ages a summaie 3Oe e siiae moisoc ak (9osei was i e iumewas oi-oy mo wi e si iaae e eeami oe i  was scae i io oe  m / os  e sua  (a =   q = 9 Io ae ua gaie amis oosciaoe 3 Iao ages (saye +37cuaia +55oce +QO ose +11ieua +7Q1 ose +1E 1 -1 +3E  -1 +3e 3 o agessaye +37cuaia +1oce +91QO ose +1ieua -39Q1 ose E 1 -119+1E  -119+15meamieegescaQ  ou  ese eiio oome e e iea a ec oce a massscum [71]Iay eemes we  wi a coeioquau seusiea uae(u 15 wi 7  aeeee  a wi511 - aua  (ae equey oquau wesuae e eis  was 1  3 oe mai a was iase a ase ckewi ei i gu 3 sws a ock agm oe eemeaseuai  e iis coiguoe sowa (  Scie use cou ioiicas e mocousseco oe mosiee ak mes e mosca  e iei ascous secoe mkeom e sowa was  e mo Egu 3 ock agm oe eemeaseu a   e ee s uaes a quau wi a  aeoc e wecauas i[13]e amissiooe quau gi aq es wascauom  ioacese iasasio we Gaussiawisa ao a  =  y =  o Iaci sio we eaaioomass 39 Muis u e     (=1  we iiecauo  ii es we i is wi a amissioo1wekeas e s uaes3 sus a scussio3 Eemes wi a CoeioQuau Segu 3 sws a scum osei isoc aks oai o equau as a coeio/ mass e e soo(1 is au a escaseis 5 /sgu 3 sws a scum oe isoc aks osei wiMSAEoaiwi e a ecoae s ua  q  9 wi ascaseo/sWi MSAE scaaus e osea e eages caoimi e soo gu 3 e e age was 1 si wi sc e  oseoe quau (-s is eyieeoimum sig-ckgu e soo(1 is au19moasuicie  se e isoc akse ckgu was 1cous/sec oage a iwas ssie  imo e sig-ckgu o yo wisswigu 3soo= 1- ^ ^ ^ m/gu 3 Mass asis osei io wi ooae oe s giowi a coeioquau sea a scaseo5 /s5soo= 19-5- ^  ^6 ^ gu 3 MSAE osei io a q = 9 oaiwi e a a scaseo/sAs iges eemes [71]uai e i   ama 5sa amac eecoMSAE oae sei a sooiaseeeecoauae is swigu 3A we age (-15 was ae e A-s (e s wi si   -s e sei is ca5 mes gaawi e (gu 3 e soo(/ is 95gu 3 sws eMSAE osei io we A-s  +15 uae a e soo(/ is Wi uae sg esoois oaiwe A-s e g(+15  ageWe io eee eii e e iomoo ie    a  y as a couea come  comea e is 51k soo= 951eocaeae aiewe geaue[79] awe  isuaee e ge wi  e ie    a  y asIe  isuaesucae g is oe - ( e si  i eioagwi e  y - (e ga  ia swewa s mome ie eii e wcimos e a aacouie agie ieage is sus isigca gioecoeies aimoecoeiciey11 ^  ^  ^ gu 3 MSAE osei io a q = 9 wi a scaseo/se  isuaeso ae A- is 15we age awi ei51soo= 1  -E --^ ^  ^ m/gu 3 MSAE osei io a q = 9 wi a scaseo/se  isuaeso ae A- is 15g age awi egeu aiwas cessa  a e gage uae  e iwi e ga soi  ioe oaigsooasei aueasma amous osoi  a e age ioam (si io iis casewi e  ias e weuaeageUeese coio io agwi is  is mo me ieii e a cei gaakic eies [79]Ai sma amous osoi   -5  icouowi e uaei wcga e soae ges eemeso   as eec wi oueemeaseuMSAE a q = 9gu 3 sws a scum om MSAE o53sei io wi +15uae ae e  i(  y wcs soi 75Uo_o --- 3 -csoo= 1335-1 -^  ^  ^ Mkgu 3 MSAE osei io a q = 9 wi a scaseo/se  isuaeso ae  is 15g age a e soo(1 is 1335Ai e 3 soi  cases  ak iei a soo e asois ee om ges oeao ise  e ees ie eemeaseu i e e ausise om e a e cmouigu 3 sws e scum osei io aay ecaq=9 weguae age was ae e A- iwc+3soi 55  -o_ -wa 3 -aAs eecom ges sus is mo ooosus icoiy oak ss a weioiei7soo=  ^ ^  ^ m/gu 3 MSAE osei io a q = 9 wi a scaseoise  isuaeso ae A- is 15g age a +3gu 3 is a ooioiei e e age MSAE oseiio wi a sees ocomo ouae a soi  coioIswsageeies a oy oeewuae is aea a gage is ae e A- i ( 55A- i+15A- i+15+3 A- i-15+3 A- i-151e+5o_1e+CaE1e+31e+ ^ 1 ^ 1 ^ 1 ^ 1 ^ 1 ^ E agegu 3 Iei e e age sei io oaiusi ecomo ouae a aegeu ae eecace uai e  ae e  caao  ace ai a ceaieage oe i  wi oase  ee []Auae is equi  a e wi aaeas iaeee quau a e [39]is iaee eeequau a e ca oce ai some oe quau   ee wioue e uae e MSAE eemes we ao oewi e a 1-3 oe i  ae e ee soooaiwi 5 -  ae e e was  7=  1 gu 3 sws MSAEosei io oai ai 11 -   e ee soo (1 is511e sooiases sg wi g ages oe eWi eseuaameiwas ssie  a mo a11 -   e e75Uo_c  3--soo= 11-1 - ^  ^  ^ 111/gu 3 MSAE osei io a q = 9 wi a scaseo/se was ea 11- ae e e573 Eemes wi a Quau Sewi a  AeOce3 MSAE oio  ae s ua q = 9Coeio/ mass asis- is ssie wi a quau wi  aeoc e we si  age is ae e smae (siio[5gu 3sws a scum osei io oaiwi is moesoo( 11 is MSAE eemes wiouai a ecoa q = 9we eiewi is quauWi e a   eee a oaak wi osoo(mi17 was oceaaum  / =7gu 3151soo=  -U - c - -^ I ^  ^  ^ Mkgu 3Coeio/ mass asis wi a quau wi a  oce a a scaseo5 /sComo ouae eee ia  oe e weie e soocou  imo E wi aaecoa q = 9a wi eioae s uae quau wi  aeoce oces mucwesooaa coeioquau595+5  ^+5 -1e+51e+5Uo1e+5 -ac 1e+5 -1e+5 -+-++595igu 31 MSAE osei io om a quau sewi a  aeoc e a q = 9 a a scaseo/se wesoomay  a su oces  e s uaes causee oc eWi a coeiose ae  a =  q = 9 uaiomoocomes ue ie   a  y co simuaouse suaes oa quau wi  oc e a swigu 3 e a  y moo  se s uaes oe  a = ase   ua isaq = 9e  y ua is aau q = 931e y ua is use [5e oc e coues e a y mooEiooio ia q = 9a --s uay s ua ^ ^ 9 ^ 91^ 9 ^ 93 ^ 9qmay a eioie y cow moois sesui iyeecoa w soogu 3Caus uaes oa quau wi a  aeoce (cau Wao3 MSAE oio wi  eioaq = W eio( _a5 k is aeeee esuiay esoois oai e isoc aks osei cou soeaug se (175 (gu 33 e same su cou ocewi  eioeee smae (1 (gu 3escasewi  eioae e eoe smae was isa a sca we use7  ^soo= 75-5 -U-a 3 --1 - ^ ^  ^ m/gu 33 MSAE osei io a q   wi  -  eioae e e353- CauCaE 1515 ^ 5 ^  ^ 5 ^ igu 3MSAE osei io a q =  wi  -  eioae e smae3 Summasooa ak ss wi MSAE oio ae s uaq = 9 wi a coeiou sewe simi ose oai gewi some ees awe scusseiis ce MSAE oio wi aquau wi  aeoc e oceoy a w-sooscum wiecoae s uaCauooe s agm sweae a  y moo  se s uaes oe  a = assusoaiw eiowas aeeee e a io weeca q =  we omisisoowas imo aoeomag a isoc aks we soe( seCeMass Sec AaEcooaeIo om a aQuau1 IcoIis cee MSAE oaeio om a coeioquau sewi  sc e mos oeiowi  moa eacmo oeioe oimum es oeioami a e ages weiesga e eec oscacoa scaseoaaecooio wieacmo oeiowe e1 ew oe eocaeae oMSAE oIo om aIoa a ge[] see ecic es sie MSAE oioaeia aioausi a comooac eo a comsimuoe cay oe o meioquau iaie ii gioae es oe  was sc a o (  so ae iaieii gio O  ca weas  (1  y (w  y is e quau iasciequao(1 e aacom oe ecic e e  e cay oe quau e is(E^- - ^a(  y  a(1(E qua a( a MC q  (  + y 1 (5Iai mo e is   com  e quau ia e ee [] amaoiomooca aea  ya coequeEua  ca ama a eu oeec ia e eec iae me e iaoequao(1is gi-eEe Q e iaoequao(1e eec iaca cauusi equao(3qA   +  y (Y ^ (^  ^  (wcgis(3w  m is e mass oa si ceio  e is e ecoc ce a Cis eauequey oe i Equao(5sws aas a su oa casiquau iaie ii gio(  ( casi  wi io wi eeeea si aaecic e a amao is e is oio esqua oe asacemee squa oe  q e a e mass  ce ooe ioIoe ecio ia mass sec soe si ecic e sc equao(5mus e a ga ecic ewccases ise wi iasi ioasacemeis ca ace ai asc ia e e a ge[] oaie ecic eE   asi om e e ia  eia a mecasoo eace equao oi e cooo Ee   e ecic e ie   aa scic e iasweae  e  cases wiiasi   e o coo  e aacom oe ecic e E   aEe  we summe oaie aae eeee aio ^ Wesui  E   was oeas a ooaasiomoses oasaceme e was a e o  wc E  =  e cao oese cssis we maeie    aese is a suace owce aae ac oaiois e s ois suace is simi a co a is asoiwas caee "co oecoOy io wi suicie aami a ae  a is suace a  ecaayw oe aec a ge[] scussee imc oe me ke e  q -e a e iaoe co oe eco e cauo wecois wi eieemeasuse eec oe e iaascussewMSAE   eece e iamus csecayWiis cew oimumsoois g Iiasea oimumsei is ce e mai ocos oecoe e iacoieisWe e iais o we co oecois om e eAs a sue co ca a io wi oy moaami a e soois g Wi iasi e ia eco mos wa e es oe a io qui gaamis a e co a  cIis esis a eocaeae ois ki is aeme ss eeemeasus a cois wi  a ges eocasus MSAE oio om a coeioaquaua a aquau wi a aeoc eEemeae si quau iume scicewas use o MSAEeemes wi a coeioaquaue iume was oiai mo as scice ieyas swie scmac oe scaooigu  io a iecio e aioaa cooese io ca ecaay ia mass sec way  m e ami oe i i io io soe wi a si equey - oquau aua sig e io gaiaami uiey a ecaayouaoe 3 sus a scussio3  Eio eiowas use ei io ia coeiosea q = (eioequey 3kami   - e eemes sc scase o15 is e was  soi  ae e a eoeescase e was 7  aeeee   emi eckgu a  iase sei wi sscaAs ge[] aue eoem oaueyi coium ckgu cou  sigca MSAEeemes wi io iceom aosec essu iosoues ke ESIeseces caoce ioc cs oi sis a eiesgmass io wiq -es weae eco q -e caao ss e e ieieikic eies a suicieese io  gaisigca ey ie iie a ey wi  oeeas a ckgu coo e mass scumIwasu ae acaooa w osoi   e quau secousigca ce is ckgu  aowi e quau  acas a w ss e[]gea  sweaai some oe ai   e e caimo e soo wi  ss oiosig [79]us ia eemes wiaeio e i  was eaas swice ama oe  was ae e eWi  eioae eieioMSAE osei io wia a e sca aw scase(15 isa aeioami o  _ ga simiscawi soo ou  (gu 1(a soo= 1 -( soo= 1 -Mass (m/gu 1 ak ss a soowi aaecooaeioa eio aa sca ecoa q =  15 /s  e sca ecoaq =  15 /s7As eeca a e sca wi a coeioquau aioaocesimisooscaWi a a e scaa15 /s(eioami  _Wi a scaa33 /s (eioami1  - e soowas5 e same scasea eioami a wi a e scasooo was oai Wi a sca a5/s (eioami - aks swemass ss a uquascis cau e sooiis casee ak wioe mosaa ak (e moisoc akwascom e sci eee o mosaa isoc akskeas 1 massu e soo cauas scawas 197 Wi e sca a5/s a simisoo (same meoocauo was ace Sca aswigu  e uquaak wi a scis a ke a su oamiooe quau wesuwcwas sigscase oca1/s wi ssis o1 71(a soo= 19711 -( soo= 571 - ^  ^ ^ Mass (m/gu ak ss a soowi aaecooaeioa eio aa sca ecoa q =  5/s  e sca ecoaq =  5/s73 Quau EioAua quau eiowas ae e coeioquau  gi meic eioaice e ameaequey oioosciao e aecocs mio e gaua ages ae gequeies equau eioa q =  cou  ae so eemes weoewi io aea q = 7(eioequey  k Wiquau eio(9 _a wi a scaseo15 /s a ae sca ga a sooo-gscasewas ao ssie wi a a e scaiWi 7  aeeee ascai (3 _  a a scaseo3/se soowas 15a wie scai (35  _a a scaseo33 /ssooo15 wasssieScase ga33 - 3/s ieacscai cosueioak sse scai ga someweak ss a sggsoo gu 3 sws MSAE oAgi  mi m / =wi escai ao e scase73(a soo= 31 -( soo= 11 -          1 ^ 3 ^ 5 ^ 7Mass (m/gu 3 ak ss a soowi aaecooaeioa quaueio ae sca ecoa q = 715 /s  e sca ecoaq= 733 /s73 - EioEemes we  wi  eioaesimuaous   ioe oimaeioamis e scase eom  a15 /s  3  _ a5/sWi a scaw scase (15 /sga a soooau Wi iasi scase au3/sasooo was ssiea wi a scasea5/se soowas15- eiosueiwesooagscase asi  eio  imomes iscaseosoowe u wi- eio Summagsooa gscase we ssie wi MSAE eemes wi acoeiou quau ioa e eiomos wi escacoa scase we s Wi  eiowi eiea oe scai co ascase o5/s sooo is ssieWi quau eiomamum acee scasewas au33 3a a e scai scIis case soowas 15 /sWi- eiosooo15 was ssie wi a scaseo5/s eioyies gsooaquau o- eio75Ce5 Mass Sec AaEcooaeIo om a Quau wi a  AeOc e5 IcoIis cee MSAE oaeio om a quau wi  aeoc e wi  sc e mos oeiowi  scusse eacmo oeioe oimum es oeioami a e age weiesga e eec oscacoa scaseoaaecooio wieacmo oeiowe e5 Oc iaa equey Sse ecic iawiie se wi a  oc e is gi agooamao^x  ^x(^^ ^   ^ + -  y^ y y (1 y = A  + A^ + A^ (U -   cos Sg^r (5w s e se om e ce was a smae  y is e se om ece was a e  U a   a e amis o a iages aeom   guA o A a  A a e meioess amis oa coia e quau iaa e oc iascese 7qA  (  + y ^  A =e ^4 ^ ^ 1  -  y(5se  A  1 o  (e  [535e iaoequao(5e eec iaca cauusiequao(3as [57]w  q is gi equao(1 e  iequao(5is e eeciaa a-oy quaua e seco  scs e mocaocause e oc es i  y  eiiequao(5sie oy e eiooe   moow y = is coia e y  moow= Ie cooe    e eec iaiases mo ywi se om e ceeaaoa  quau ia a ie  ycoiases ss y aaoa  quau iaMoooa si ceioie   coie eec iaoequao(5is scm  _e  ao =  eqA  qA  A   3  ^O ^ -^ Equao(5ca we  ^  qA A   3^C    ^ ^Mr w eqA coo = wcca weas(5(5(577qA^coo = ^Equao(5is e secuequey oe iowcca cauusi equao(1 a (11Equao(5semes e equaoomooaaaoc osciasc au a  []  ^+ CO  =    (5qA   egi5as oe g oequao(5 []^ (5w  a =  a  1 ^ aaocmcause ss ie so equey om co o3/3Ow=oo^ (w   is e ami oosciao e eoc e is3eqAAA  =equey s cause e(5m coEquao(5 ca wesu   om equao(5A^ ( Aco= 3=1   (51A^  5 Mass sooa equey sooMass sooa equey sooie ioaca  oceeom e ameaequao[](571em= ^co  o o  q ^ (5eia equao(5 gis = ^^ (  -^[ ^-2 ^ e  ^ A^(53wo  ^ r  c  3-1 ( co  Q^ "coo Equao(53iicas aa sma ce ie ami oe i  oiesecuequey oe i equey is ay  a sma aoimassCoequemass asis  soe ecoca ace m e age   i e equey oe sumea eio o sweee i  equeySei    a     iequao(53  equao(5a maki e assumioa   = o    Am yiescooA Amis iicas amass soois mecay equa e equey soo qu co =  qu  io equao(5 gis(5m =   qu Am Aco o (55Equao(55sws e oomass soo e ameaome a e equey soo a giAco owi  q 795 Eemeae si quau iume oiai mo as scicewas use o MSAE eemes wi e quau wi a  aeoc ee mos oaeeioa ae a ssie aa summaie 5Iiiea oe e  mos ca comwi a oe eiomos a wi a oe meo oai  (3comoe 5 Mos oaeeioa EioMo eee  uae (smaeoe+ smaeoe- + equau5 Mass Caaoe  a   oe ages ae e quau  wi coeioasis a se a a ay oio a mass comma age eea 1  mass caa e sca swe quau was coeioy wi / a caaso ae moisoc sei ak aeaam/9Iis case e  coess  e oe s agm wq = 7 [7]Io we emass sec ecaous  q esa eage awcey we ecwas iom e MCS mmeeaa mass was cauomaa mass= (ecoage9/ (age wi coeioasise aa mass coes ecy  aeecom e  q e sececo(see w e sca ogus  e masses we causoae moisoc ak aeaae coecmass (e9 sei5 sus a scussio5   Eiowi a Quau wi a  AeOceIaeemes wi aeio a a quau wi a  aeoce we iewi ecoae s ua a q = 9As wieemes wiouaioy  w soowas ue asueque eemes wi aeio useaua ac ages  ei io aaecoAaecoeemes wi  eioeee eosmaewe  wi a quau wi a  aeoc eWe quau isuseas eiea mass eoa aaia ie quau sysm [7iiscessa  o e seas  a coeio/ mass aa a aioawi aaeco Ooas a mass equis ae si  ae e smae [5As meioiseco3 ai some oeai  (e  e e caimo e soo wi  ss oiosig [79]us ia eemes wi aeio e i  was e(ae e ea e si  was ae e smaee oe  aeeee  was ea iwas u ais ga imomes isoo Wi w scase (115 /s  soi  wasae e Ai  imo e soo Wi gscase( /sai e w a oimum  o aa iicaw eimo e ecoeiciey a soo5 ComsooEcoae  q esIayecowi eioequeies coesi   q es o 5 7 a was s gus 5 a 5 sw sus oecoa q =  aq =  scwi eioeee e (e scaa smae (a scasc soi  was ae g q es su igsoo Wi  eioae e e a e scaieioamis o - 1  _ ascase o115 /s ga e saks a soo Wi  eioae e smae a ascaiaeioami o3 _ ascase o115 /swas oima(a soo= 171 -a5 -a( ^ soo= 351 -5 -^ A  Mass (m/gu 5 ak ss a soowi aaecooaeioa eioeee e(yae sca ecoa q =  1/s e sca ecoa q =  1/s(a soo=191 -( soo= 751 -          ^ ^ ^ Mass (m/gu 5 ak ss a soowi aaecoa  eioeee smae( aa sca ecoa q =  1/s  a scaecoa q =  15 ise c may co  e gsooag q es io gosciaoequeies ag q Accoi  equao (5 a (55a gi Aco e equey soo coo o a e mass soo  m I Amiases wi  q Seco  1oo q a iases mo y wi  q ag q esis iases e oce oequey wi mass(    =    =  q   wcmay ao iase   m mass soo ie se o ^ iases wi e squa o q (equao(5ges o E ua  meaagsi ia ca useoee a ese gia gi gsoo5 Comsooa a e Scagu 5 sws a comsoeea a e sca wi eioeee e (15 /s   was aeeee gsoois ssie wi e scagu 5 coms a a e sca wieioeee smae (15 /s   eee  was ae Iiscase a sca gi gsoo ese sus a as eecom eequey ss cause e aeoc e []e s oosciaoequeyA  co ia quau wi aaeoc is gi equao(51W A   e   mooss  gequeiese s is oioA a  e squa oe ami oioosciao ey mooe is a s weequey oe same mag e same ami oosciao Wieioeee smae a a scaias e  ami iasese osciaoequeies oe io iaseAs e io come io soe eiequeies a iase e oc comese equey ssi e io swa e equey oe aua acwci causes e ioosciaoamis  gw mo y uiio a ecom e a Wieioeee smae a e scaias e  ami casese osciaoequeies oe io caseAs e io come io soe eiequeies a iase oc comese equey ss causes e io mo away om e equey oe aua acwci causes e osciaoamis  gw mo swa is gs mass soo simiasoe sca gi gsoowi eioeee ee aa masses awcio oi9 a eca cois wi iseoa a swie 5Wi a scaa eioeeesmaeio a ecaaaa mass o5 Wi e ecoeee ee io a eca15swi aecois yea equau musscau a somewg age  e io a ecWi a e scaa eioeee eio a ec9 Wieioeee smaee io a eca53swi agaiaecois yea e quau musscaw a we age  eio a ec(a^ soo= 91 -( ^ soo= 31 -a ^  ^  ^ Mass (m/gu 5 ak ss a soowi aaecooaeioa eioeee e(yaa sca ecoa q =  15 /s e sca ecoa q =   15 /s1 -5 - (a soo= 3soo= 1(b1 -5 -         ^  ^  ^ Mass (m/gu 5 ak ss a soowi aaecoa  eioeee smae( aa sca ecoa q =  15 /s  e scaecoa q =  15 /se 5 Aa mass osei wi e scaco wi aeioeieee smaea e a q  a a scaseo1sScaco iwiaeeioAa massom/9a smae 5a e 15e e 9e smae 535 Comsooe ScaSee eec ogscase we iesga gu 5 sws sca osei io wi eioeee e a scase o157a 5is sc (e sca e was 1 aeeee Agscasewi  eioae e e a e scaiaeioami o55 1  - ascase o35is ga e sak s a soo gu 5 sws sca osei io wi eioeee smae ascase o15 is (wi 7 a 5/s (wi1sc (a sca Wi  eioae e smaea a scaiaeioami o1 - ascase o35is was oima Asca se oca5 is (gus 5a a 5ae soois au15A5is (gus 5a 5 e ak wi a sci a coicuy wi e scagu 5 e sooiis casewas511(b soo= 1soo= 1(acauas sciseco3soo oca1(gu 5 a 1(gu 5 a cau ^  ^  ^ Mass (m/gu 5 ak ss a soowi aaecooaeioa eioeee e(yae sca ecoa q =  157/s e sca ecoa q =  5/s9115E"0aas 5(b soo= 1soo= 15(a ^  ^  ^ Mass (m/gu 5 ak ss a soowi aaecoa  eioeee smae( aa sca ecoa q =  15 /s  a scaecoa q =  5/s915 Quau Eiowi a Quau wi a  AeOc eAua quau eiowas ae e quau  wi a aeoc e  gi meic eioaice e ameaequey oioosciao As wi a coeiose(seco3io we aeaq = 7(eioequey  k e oimaeioami wscase (115 /swas 1-a e gsssie eioami gscase (35/swas 3-Wi a sca a15 /sa soooau1was oai Wie sca a15 /s a soooau31 was ssie (gu 5 Icases  soi  was ae e ese soo a simi oseoaiwi  eioeee eQuau eioeis iomooee e smaea eIaea as ie mooeeee mis e ecoocessMoseemes wi quau eioiesgae scai cause is yies gsoo Wi e sca a1/s a 7  eee a sooo was oai a a/sa sooo1was ace(gu 5 O aaage  usiquau eiowas u9soo= 11 -soo= 311 -   5 -             ^  ^ ^ Mass (m/gu 5 ak ss a soowi aaecooaeioa quaueioeee aa sca ecoa q = 715 /s  esca ecoa q = 715 /s93soo= 11 -5 -Mass (m/gu 5 ak ss a soowi aaecooaeioa quaueioeee ae sca ecoa q = 71a/s  esca ecoa q = 7 /s95  -  Eiowi a Quau wi a  AeOc eEemes we iewi  eioaesimuaous eeesmaea e wi  soi  ae e a wi scase o1/sWe same eioequey a ami (3k a -we ae  iwi a a e scai e io we ecmaiy ae aa masses o/ 15 a m/9scese ae aa masses awcio a ecwi eioeee eaAma 1 oe ecio aeaae aa massescoesi  eioeee smaem/5a m/53 a a e sca sce eioequey ae e smae was eiase 3 kso aio we ecae aa massescoesi  eioeee eWi e scai a a scaseo1isa sooo was ssieis ga sooweaawi  eioeee e aWi a scai esoocase 1 us  imomes we oai ai eiosimuaous ee i a  aioeemes wissca we gu 5 sws a comsooscase a soo acewi eacmo oeioa coeioquau a a quau wi a  aeoc eIge iasi scasecases soo e quauwi a  aeoc e sws somewwesooaa coeio95 Eioe EioSmaeQuau EioSmae& e EioCoeioQuau EioCoeioseaa giscase Ia cases soo o1omo ca oaiascase u 5is50  3a1^ 1 ^  ^ 3 ^  ^ 5 ^ Scase(/sgu 5 sooscasewi e eiomoswi a coeioquau a a quau wi a  aeoc e5 Oimum O Mo wi a Quau wi a  AeOc eMass sec aaecooaeio a a oae omass ce os quis ecoaa g q  e wi a scaIis caseeioeee smae gis e gssooa is e eemo9ooo Coeewi e scaa oae omass  ce os ca mass awi ecoaw  q e scaeioeee e gis gsooa is ee wea gaiisooomei eee e is ose ec awe q a sca wiecoa q =  we com e sca wi ecoa q =  wi e+3 io osua acai wi a coeioquau sea asewi a  aeoc eIa cases 1 was aeeeegu 5 sws e sooacewi a coeiosewia scai a ecoa q =  a3is scasea a ssi o mass ue soois ssuicie  se e isoc aksgu5 sws e ak s a soowi e quau wi a  aeoc e eioeee smaeecoa q =  a ascaa3/sa ssi o mass uAuge soois sgweawi a coeiose e isoc aks a (s soe Wi eioeee ee scai a ecoa q =  a3/sa a ssi o mass uiwas ssie  soe e isoc aksgu5usoa e o mos iesga eioeeesmae wi ecoag q is eewio oa oae o m/ a  mass a971 -1 -aco 5aC1 -5 59gu 5Aaecoo+3 io osua acai wi eioae acoeio wi a a scaa ecoa q =   e smae oa quau wi a  oc e wi a a scaaecoa q =  a ce e oa quau wi a  oc e wia e scaa ecoa q = e scaseia cases is 3/s95 EcoEicieiesWi aeioe o coio ca cse gi e gssooo gi e gssei aeacscase we e eieiases sei cases soo e ecoeicieies oecoeiosea e sewi a  aeoc e we measuwie sus swie 5 e sysm was oimie gssoowi  eio ecio a q =  wi a scae ecoeiciey cases as e scaseiasese o se sw simieicieiese sysm was eoimie gsecoeiciey wkee   11  1aeacscase a e ecoeicieies wi e quauwi a  aeoc e we -measu wi e sus swie 5e ecoeicieies  a g wi e gasiases ae gscasegeu eicieies o1 wi ecooio om qoa iequau sysm wi o essus oca1  1 -3  essus ga geicieiescause oe mucgo essus iose eemese sus cao comcy  e eemes 99e 5 Ecoeicieies ( wi e sysm oimie gssooScaseis Coeioquau Quau wi a aeoc e15 3  3 15  13 1 15 5 e 5 Ecoeicieies wi a quau wi a  aeoc e ae sysm oimie gssei a 11 "-1Scase(is Ecoeiciey  (15 7 31 517 3 53917 15  SummaMass sec aaecooio wi a quau wi a  aeoce is ssieWi w scase o115 /ssoooseousa wasace Agscaseu 5/saasusoois ssieComsooe eiomos sws ae oimum o mo oMSAE wi is quau is a scai a ecoa q =  wi eioae e smaess some acao w a emass e e scae e scai wi  eioae ee a ecoa q =  caao  use gi gsoo1CeMass Asis Usi aIs oSwi a Quau wi a  AeOce1 Icois cescs eemeaiesgao omass asis usi a"isos" wi a aquau wi  aeoc ee eo is meoomass asis wi  eiieyEemeaseis ameo scic  ese eemes wi  scusse sus om ese eemesa com eous simuoses1 eo a ckguMass asis wi aquaus is ao ssie usi iss os [7]ese iss a e meic eiooioeiewi aauaquau  e [7 o ami moooe  age []Ia quau e e iais sc equao (1a (1Wi quau eio e me e iaae e ecos co(is gi(9(= U  cos(Q 7 cos(coy ^ (11w    is e ami oe quau eioage wi auequey Wi e iaase as  y  a  7 se  simicimoooaioie iaoequao (1a (1is i  + [a   cos(cos(] =  ^ ( y [a   cos( cos(]y = w e meioess me a aseU^ ea= ^ q = ^m "  ^ "  - C e ^ q =^ =mo w is e o oeioauequey  i iauequey aq is e o oeioage   age oe scic m /   muiie i  q -ee auequeies oiomoo  o u (wi  u = o y a gi equao(11 e eioequeies oio wi quau eioa sciseco1 ugequao(1 ( we = 1 +  K K =1 a ^ a1= 1 I= w  Q a   a iegeio a eiwei /3es sasQ^ + uK  (3((51e s agm si io isswi muie o  aie massasis [7 ]gu 1 a gu (aeom e 77sw e suaes a iss os caua quau wi a  aeoc e wa a a scIo ca mass a aus eae a  ages  ace e io ae oaisA mass scaisoe ci e  a  ages wi o  U /   i io oe  m /   e oe s isAe same mee eioami  ca scae kee q co [7 77]e eiome aq a aus gi iss scesucaa sca sses uge oais wiouieec oeiss1    7 -co5 --5 - ^  ^  ^ 7q55 --ua wioueioIs AIs Is CIs ua oaiaquagu 1 S uaes a iss os (  q=   = 9 /1aquau wi  aeoc e wi  a  1 ua aiaquaua wioueioIs AIs Is CIs   ^ 7^ 7 ^ 7 ^ 711 O  ^   ^ ^  "^ ^  i   ^ - -cy - -  ^qgu S uaes a iss os (  q=   = 9/1aquau wi  aeoc e wi  a  ceeei comsimuo omass asis usi iss os escaquaus wi aeoc es [77]Suaesis sioak ss a ioamissioaquauswi oc es ou  we cau Wi aaeoc ecoeiomass asis is ssie wi e  age ae e  so aeMaieu me a ;  wi e   eso a a  coeiooosus i w soo[5wee comsimuo [77]suggesaw a  mass asis come  awi  a  su  ssieoais os is usewi ooae coec Iis case e is1 accaacaaaage ii wi  a   cause aqua oaeca oaiwi  a  a wiouuse oaiswee oeaoause oais aows mass asis wa moas aiss mig gey use oome aassome e imeco iquau mass eEemeaEemes we oeusi e si quau iume a equau sewi  aeoc e sciseco1agesae e ous emes a swie 1Wi e si  aee smae (   a  ; wi e si  ae e e(  y  a  i is se e is a  as ia AoU  iaio e ose[5w A o U =   a  a  a  scus e asiaw a  was +1 a w a   +1e 1 O agessaye +37cuaia +5oce +5QO ose +ieua -Q1 ose +1a ; + a  1 -1E  -3e quau eiociui gu 3was assemeiuse a is simi aoCois a ugs [75]e maee is acaci aocke  oe quau wesu om ac Q1 we mo eseeemes e soi  oe quau su mus ae e mo e ocki caci iasee caci aoe quau wesu  a e e quau wesue o equey wasweom 1  1 M a a 15  caciwas aeacss e su ouuae caci  CI a  C ( 11  we use mimi e eack om emai io e aua eioecocse aua  was oce eS wa gesciseco1 a amie a weamie(moEcs w Yo1AuaIQO Osegu 3 Quau eiociui1ese eemeses o q= (    =  _    gua= 9/1we csecause simuo sw ese es oce ais wi asca aes ieecoeisscause oy a  mimass ewas scaeiese eemes  was scaewi masse is wi egase o(e"is A"was use Mass asis ae o  oisis wi e gaa ssees o was iesga Sca oeeemass es wi e / os coieascas ugese   ieecoeisse o o/ ages ae e  was seugcomco a sowa me1 wi es ee1 a 5emecae o1 s  co mass soo a gi agee  age U iases ay wi 1Am /   9a wi e quauusee  age   gu iaseom 1 a1=17(a = 5  15a1= (a = 5  gi os  U/  om au1 17e sysm was mass caawi  a  a wioueiosoae moisoc ak oosei (ecmass 9 aeaa m / 9 Sca we ecoewi ooie is wi e  aegi  a  a wi a wioue is a  a  e aa  m / oemoisoc ak ss cause e o    q es aeom e wioueioa  a  es omass sooa eas sooaig ( 1 = m/Am 113 sus a scussio3 si  agu sws sca osei io coewi  a  wi a wioueio Wi  eio (coeiomass asisgu e sooisau 11 =15 e soosei was 1 = 17 Wi e eioae ascaae ue(gaa oe s is oces a simiscum(gu wi  11 moa ae ueois s is is caa e oes agmas swisimuo [77] a gu 1Wi is sei o1a a coeiosca  io a ccause e sca is oui e sgio A scaae weoe s is (sse a ca oceci 1  1Iis case a oaak is oce gu a e isocaks a soe we e soosei causes sigsses es imo e soo us e wi e gais cessa mass asisasseeie comsimuo [77]e amissioa sooigu  a a comeWi  a  e is  aaage iusi e is osmass asis1115e+5(+5 -a 3e+5 - +5  -1e+5 -    5e+5+5111e+5 1 Oe+5coco5e+  (b  _     3e+5e+-+1e+ca1e+5e+5 -( ^  ^  ^  ^ 111/gu Mass asis wi  a a (awi  eio( wi e s isae wi e ga I a11gus 5a  5sw mass asis osei io ie s isswi  a e soosei was ceso e sca cssee issis eeme cois e sio oe iss ec e simuo [77]Igu 5a e sei ak is ae weoe s is A sie1=1 a as was swigu  e we(sseoe s isA is a1=1Igu 5w 1 is case 15 e s oe scais case a a scacsses is  e ak au  m  =595 ss  aeagu 5c wi 1=1sws is mo cay we 1  115gu 5 e sca csses iss a C is Aoci e aksi  =5 a  gu 5ewi 1=1sws awi a case o1e sca s csses iss a CW1 is ce 9 gu 5e sca gi  css is  a a w iei ak aea a m / =1gus 5g a 5wi we1 es sw awi aiocases oes oe scae sca sses uge s issC a wie ak oe s is C gi e mosiee ak wcis sa ec1131e+ ^ 5e+5e+1+51e+51e+55e+(a1  = 1(1  = 15 1A(c1  = 1A(1  = 115C(e1  = 1 C1(1  = 9C_7__(g1  =  C(1  = 75--/5 ^ 5 ^ 5 ^ 5 ^ 5 ^  ^  ^ Mass (m/1e+5e+13e+5+51e+515U5+5aC15+51e+51e+55e++53e+5+51e+511e+53e+5+51e+5+53e+55e+5+5151e+55e+5 5 5 5 5 Mass (m/gu 5 Mass asis osei ioie s iss wi  a  aksa wi e me oe coesi is usemass asis113 ga agu sws sca osei io wi  a  coewi a wioueio Wi  eio gu a oaak (mi 11= 1isocea e isoc aks a soe is is as eeca s esceous [5is sca1 =  A/ o gaause a  is quicause e s uaes s ouw a  [5 77]Wieio a scaae wi e gasus ia oaak (mi 11= (gu   1 = 19wcsws ae wi ga is cauee oe s agm wioueio Wi e eioae awi scai ae wi e sse  a e soois amacay imo11= 117(gu  e sooigu  is come  awicoeiomass asis wi  a  a  eioae e amissioisausimes ssis weamissiowas seeie simuoAis 1 = 1iica e qui/ o is ss awi  eioa  a  a ae is is uee oowioueio e asec e simuoa as swigu  wi  a  e s isis come cauee oe s agm a quau wi a oc e1153e+5  ^3e+5 -5e+5  -ea +5  -1e+5 -asa- 1e+5  -5e+-7e++-  5e+-a +-=  3e+  - e+-1e+-        +(c+scC3 +-tccE +- ^  ^  ^  ^ I/gu Mass asis wi  a (awi  eio( wi e s is ae wi e gaaa (cwi e s is ae wi e sse 113 Aa Mass a Is sioe aa  m /  es oe aks gi ama e  q  es oeo Wi  a  a wioueio e s agm a quauwi  aeoc e is  simi aoa  quau ea soe o is a q = 7a  a = 7 [7]Wi oemos ooo e  qe oe o ca cauomq = [(aa m /   9]7 ^ (a coesi  a es ca cauusi e iumeame ameasu ages  (U  eemes as owi1  -19  a =  ^ (7(9 3    ( -      (5  -3 ese eemeay i a a  q  es a swie acom e o  a a  q  es cauie simuo i11Isomecases a e o q  es is ee simuo cause a ueooyis e Iis seeae oee a a  q  es age we wi ea a  q  es oe simuous ese eemes coi e simuoasw ae ssooa ak s a oaiwi ooae oes is wi e ga wi  a  a e wi e sse wi  a  117c-1 71-eegg E q-    ge   71- -i CIE   -  c  -5"CECAeee"-71cce  c sa o o  oc-o71-o--1    E-coE oc1-o-coc;c   11Ck1-i-  cc   --1c      s=1a    acu^v^ 3cs;-oc;C oof= 0 C C - 0CIa $i  1- CI1&a1a;_ce "coEc- C(11a15 1 1  1 1 1CI;saoI--  co c o o coAc c  e 11SummaWi a quau wi a  aeoc ea wi e  ae e so ae Maieu me a  mass asis es gay om euse oaiswew a  e aeoc se mi e soowi coeiomass asis usi e s is w a  eoae is gay imo Iis case use oais oomes e ouseec oe aemui eWi mass asise amissioois seis  w (ca1 -3com a coeiose e asois ueai Simise  swamissiocome  coeiose u  11 = [5Uouse wi aeocs wi is goae a  eaie sse sus  qua coi e eco ocomsimuo oe sioos uaes wioueio a is sioMosima ese eemes sw ause oais os mayaow imosoooak s uecoio w aaemuieiis case aoc eoeise gs oae119Ce7 Summa a  Woe iasi  oaquau ioa a eiaaages wescusseiceo ois esisaioamass scome we sciseco1ese iumes o gsooa scase a aea eiooisecommeiaiumesIis we esisa3-a om seooegeomeies aice e siosc e aioogoemuis  e ia[]ugs aco-woe [5355] we  e e aioo1 goemuies  aquau ioaey egMS/MS eicieies a wmeo omass asis wi aquau ioa wi aemui es[5 57777ese se  e ia come imoioassmucwo mai  iesga e eec oese muis oeoae oaquau se oas a a mass ee woeseeiis esis was  ois iesgaoIis esis e mass asis meo a quau wi a  aeoc e we sca eemeasus we esee Eemesusi iss os coi e sus oeous comsimuo amoa e ssi omass asis uecoio w e oc  ie iase gs coeiomass asisComsooMSAE wi a coeioquau sea a quau wia  aeoc e wi e mos oeiosws simisooa ecoeicieieswi somewgsoooaiwi a coeioquau se Mass sec aaecowi quaus wi aeoc1es is ssie wi a soooseousa a scase oaas/sus quaus wi aeoc es ca useas / mass emoa geiciey iMS/MS eemesa caecio aay iamass sec maewi gsooa scase Quaus wi aeoc es sw omise as imoioaicuy iumes w aaais useas Q3 oa ie quauIsimieemes ke MSAE a mass asis wi iss oscou  oewi quaus wi a  oc es uee iomoo MSAE ocessimig ao  use simu e iie giooese quausAs  oooi oc iis emeo omass asis wi quaus wi 1 ae es a aoueiesgao1es1 u W Sie    oc  1953   u W ia ;    ysik  195  15  1-13 u W Sie  Gea 9195 sc E  ysik  1959 15  1-5  ; MaM MeCK WoS; WuseCM Sciee19   -71 KasM eam   A Cm 19  99-7 wso    Quau Mass Scomey a I Acao;  A essWoouY 19 Ma  E gs   Quau Sge Mass Scomey;   Wiy& Sow Yo199 so     cScico  1971   91 Aus WE eAE ck  I Quau Mass Scomey ai Acao;  wso  E; Eee Amsam197  1-15111     AmSocMass Scom 199  9 71 uke W MAa Mass Scom 19  3-913 wso    AEco Ecoys 19 53 153-1 wso    I Mass ScomIoocess 1977  375-3915 Ee C  ysE  197  37-91 e K; McIos    I Mass ScomIoocess 19 57-117^ imaU I Mass ScomIoys 197  9 1-111 SoGC Keey E Syka E; ysWE     IMass ScomIoocess 19 -919 C  A  Ays 19 31-313 ugs ; aA; Mao M Mass Scom    1- owskiGG KsM; EeCG Wao    I MassScomIoocess 19  1-15 augC oue ; Mesag ; oC A Cm 19 17-13 C Y; Came M Cois A Koa; ugs  Commu Mass Scom 199  1  13-1 esge ; ckG; Maki   A ys 19 13-17 esge ; ckG; 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1-17 WaY ae ; WakK  I Mass ScomIoocess 19931 1-1 WaY ae   I Mass ScomIoocess 199  13  155-175 Suko M I Mass Scom   -51 ae   I Mass ScomIoocess 199  13  15-5 Souko M ugs ; CUS  73 53 Suko M ugs   Commu Mass Scom  17 995 ugs ; C;  US  755 Koo ; ; C; ugs    AmSocMass Scom 17 13-135 C; Koo  ; ugs   Commu Mass Scom 17 95-57 Micu A; aA; C ao ; ugs    AmSocMass Scom  1  5-95 SeoMW US  35559^ WeiM Scess  A omo  I Wa   I MassScom 199  17  95-111 e ME Syka E US  51995 Sca  C SeoMW Syka E   AmSocMass Scom 13 9-9 Ouya; WuG; SoYS  Y assW; Cooks G ACm  7  95- wso  ; Meue M I Mass ScomIoocess 1979 9-9 wso    I Mass ScomIoocess 19 7- eAE I Mass ScomIoocess 197   1-5 eAE Sayyi S ck   I Mass ScomIoocess 197 191- Wea  E MaeGE  Mass Scom 197  5-5 wso  ; Meue M mWC AMass Scom 19  19-17 Ya; ck   cuum  19 3 1-7 ss ; ck   M  Mass ScomIoocess 19  1-971 ge  W Commu Mass Scom 1999137-77 ge  W Commu Mass Scom  1  51573 ga G sse C M  Mass Scom 3  13157  a CY ge  W IsiuAM; e C o; CIoomics   39-975 Cois A ugs    AmSocMass Scom  ,  1117 Koo  ; Cousi M   I Suko MY I MassScom    17-77 Koo ; ao ; ao ; ugs    AmSocMassScom  1  7 Moa A ugs   Commu Mass Scom   33-33179 ge  W  AUS  7199  ge  WUS  3  A ge  W  AmSocMass Scom  1  11311 e G AAmMo ys 19 353-7 ge  WUS  5971999 au ; EM Meccs;  amoessw Yo19 793 Goee  E We W ;  msey M McckeySA Gs GA Cm 199   119 Wiiams ; Co KA Cooks G McckeySA K;Goee  E A Cm 199  7-7 Koo  ; Koo A; Macu M  AmSocMass Scom 1  379-31

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