Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Beyond lip service : an analysis of labrets and their social context on the Pacific Northwest Coast of.. 2008

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
ubc_2008_fall_la_salle_marina.pdf [ 3.96MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 1.0058398.json
JSON-LD: 1.0058398+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0058398.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0058398+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0058398+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0058398+rdf-ntriples.txt
Citation
1.0058398.ris

Full Text

          BEYOND LIP SERVICE:  AN ANALYSIS OF LABRETS AND THEIR SOCIAL CONTEXT ON THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST COAST OF BRITISH COLUMBIA      by  MARINA J. LA SALLE  BA, Simon Fraser University, 2006       A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS  in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Anthropology)   THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver)  August 2008     © Marina J. La Salle, 2008   ii ABSTRACT This thesis provides an analysis of the history and social context of the labret (lip plug) on the Northwest Coast of British Columbia over the last 5,000 years.  Although labrets have typically been characterized as markers of ‘status’ with connotations of gender, the variability in observations made by early explorers and ethnographers suggests that this simplistic depiction belies a complexity in what aspect of social identity this form of personal communicated.  Therefore, this research has sought to explore the relationship between labrets and social identity by conducting a comprehensive typological analysis by which to examine patterning in materiality through time and space.  Although hindered by a lack of temporal data and contextual information on gender association, the results of this research demonstrate that there is geographical patterning at multiple scales—regional, sub-regional and even on the village or site level—which supports the hypothesis that the labret has been an exclusionary tradition conveying both individual and group social identity that varies through time and space in this region.  The social meaning of labrets is further explored through research on contemporary labret use, which highlights a tension between individual expression and group acceptance that is expressed materially, contrasting the physical permanence of the labret and the mutability in social meaning conveyed.  Finally, interviews with First Nations artists who include labrets in their art has shown that cultural identity both informs and is informed by a concept of shared heritage; thus, the labret is a symbol and expression of social identity that continues to hold significant meaning for the descendants of this heritage.  Therefore, while simple correlations of the labret with ‘status’ and ‘gender’ are not wrong, nonetheless they betray the complexity of body ornamentation which, though manifested materially, is highly contextual.  This research contributes to the ongoing anthropological discussion of materiality and identity, considering the ways that structured style is negotiated through practice, and asking whether this recursive, dynamic and dialectical relationship can be accessed archaeologically—a task that ultimately requires a commitment to reflexivity, multivocality, and critical examination of the research process itself.  iii TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT..........................................................................................................................................................ii TABLE OF CONTENTS.................................................................................................................................... iii LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................................................v LIST OF FIGURES.............................................................................................................................................vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS................................................................................................................................vii  CHAPTER 1:  THESIS OVERVIEW. .................................................................................................................1  CHAPTER 2:  RESEARCH CONTEXT .............................................................................................................4 2.1  Early Explorations ...........................................................................................................................4 2.2  Archaeological Accounts ..................................................................................................................6 2.3  Osteological Observations ................................................................................................................7 2.4  'Simple' Status, Worn by Women? ..................................................................................................8 2.5  The Self and the Social Surface........................................................................................................9 2.6  The Challenge: To Clarify and Complicate ...................................................................................11  CHAPTER 3:  RESEARCH DESIGN and METHODOLOGY ........................................................................12 3.1  Research Outline ............................................................................................................................12 3.2  Methods ..........................................................................................................................................12 3.2.1  Typology .........................................................................................................................12 3.2.2  Raw Material ...................................................................................................................13 3.3.3  Geography.......................................................................................................................14 3.2.4  Contextual Data ...............................................................................................................15 3.2.5  Contemporary Ethnography .............................................................................................15  CHAPTER 4:  RESULTS...................................................................................................................................17 4.1  Assemblage Overview.....................................................................................................................17 4.1.1  Artifact Sample................................................................................................................17 4.1.2  Geographic Distribution...................................................................................................17 4.1.3  Temporal Distribution......................................................................................................18 4.2  Attribute Analysis. .........................................................................................................................19 4.2.1  Typology .........................................................................................................................20 4.2.2  Material Properties...........................................................................................................21 4.2.3  Size .................................................................................................................................24 4.3  Distributional Analyses ..................................................................................................................26 4.3.1  Geographic Patterning......................................................................................................26 4.3.1.1  Type.......................................................................................................................26 4.3.1.2  Material.................................................................................................................27 4.3.1.3  Size ........................................................................................................................27 4.3.2  Temporal Patterning ........................................................................................................28 4.3.2.1  Type.......................................................................................................................28 4.3.2.2  Material.................................................................................................................29 4.3.2.3  Size ........................................................................................................................29 4.4  Burial Association: ‘Gender’ and Age ...........................................................................................29 4.5  ‘Possible Labrets’ ...........................................................................................................................31 4.5.1  Orientation of Wear .........................................................................................................31 4.5.2  Composite and Buccal Labrets, and Ear-spools.................................................................32 4.5.3  ‘Plug’ Labrets..................................................................................................................33 4.5.4  Other Anomalies..............................................................................................................33  CHAPTER 5:  ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION................................................................................................34 5.1  Labrets on the Northwest Coast.....................................................................................................34 5.2  Typology, Materiality and Social Identity .....................................................................................43 5.3  The Ethnographic Present .............................................................................................................45 5.4  Towards a Reflexive Research Process ..........................................................................................47   iv CHAPTER 6:  CONCLUSIONS ........................................................................................................................49  REFERENCES CITED ......................................................................................................................................51  APPENDICES ....................................................................................................................................................57  Appendix A. Wear facets on labret surfaces caused by tooth abrasion ................................................................57 Appendix B. Detailed methodology for labret attribute recording.......................................................................58 Appendix C. Ethics review certificate of approval .............................................................................................62 Appendix D. Letter that was sent to all First Nations in whose traditional territory the labrets under study  were recovered .............................................................................................................................63 Appendix E. Crosstabulation analyses comparing flange and body formal attributes, based on which the  typology employed in the ensuing analyses was constructed..........................................................64 Appendix F. Crosstabulation of created types with attributes, demonstrating the robustness of the typology........69 Appendix G. Original data collected ..................................................................................................................70 Appendix H. Crosstabulation of material type by labret type ............................................................................ 171 Appendix I.  Results of PIMA analysis on sub-sample of labrets using SIMIS FeatureSearch software and  US Geological Survey data to identify mineral content ................................................................ 172 Appendix J.  Flange area to Body area, depicting a positive correlation between the body and flange  dimensions ................................................................................................................................. 177 Appendix K. Geographical distribution by sub-region of labret type identified in this research ......................... 178 Appendix L.  Crosstabulation of labret material type by region ......................................................................... 179 Appendix M. Crosstabulation of labret material type by sub-region .................................................................. 180 Appendix N. Frequency of labret type by material type and site ....................................................................... 181 Appendix O. Labret body area distribution by sub-region................................................................................. 183 Appendix P. Various labrets, highlighting the emphasized shininess due to a) a concave anterior surface,  or b) shell inlays ......................................................................................................................... 186 Appendix Q. Dates available (radiocarbon, associated time interval, and culture period) for labrets under  study, and association with geography and labret type ................................................................. 187 Appendix R. Photograph taken by the author at the Canadian Museum of Civilization, depicting a female  figure wearing a labret ................................................................................................................ 188 Appendix S. Artifacts that may be ‘composite’ labrets..................................................................................... 189 Appendix T. Microscopic wear on surfaces of possible ‘composite’ labrets...................................................... 190 Appendix U. Artifacts suggested to be ‘buccal’ (lateral) labrets........................................................................ 191 Appendix V. Earspools and/or ‘lip spools’ ....................................................................................................... 192 Appendix W. Crosstabulation of ‘plug’ labrets by material and region .............................................................. 193 Appendix X. Artifacts classified as ‘plug’ labrets............................................................................................. 194 Appendix Y. Anomalous artifacts suggested to be labrets................................................................................. 195 Appendix Z. Labrets in contemporary art created by artists interviewed in this research ................................... 196      v LIST OF TABLES  Table 3.1 Labret typologies commonly employed in the archaeological literature..........................................13 Table 3.2 Summary of variables recorded.....................................................................................................13 Table 3.3 Labrets included in sample by source institution............................................................................14 Table 4.1 Labret frequency by region and sub-region....................................................................................17 Table 4.2 Integrity of labret provenience and available radiocarbon dates......................................................18 Table 4.3 Cultural period associated with dated labrets .................................................................................19 Table 4.4 Dates for labrets by stratigraphic or artifact assemblage associations .............................................19 Table 4.5 Labret sample classified according to Stewart (1976) ....................................................................21 Table 4.6 Crosstabulation of flange to body form, based on Loy and Powell (1977) / Keddie (1981) .............21 Table 4.7 Description and frequency of types identified................................................................................22 Table 4.8 Crosstabulation of material class by labret type .............................................................................23 Table 4.9 Geographical distribution by region of labret type .........................................................................26 Table 4.10 Crosstabulation of material class by region....................................................................................27 Table 4.11 Burial context data for labrets in association with human remains of known sex ............................30     vi LIST OF FIGURES  Figure 1.1 Haida woman with labret & fur cloak, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia ...........................3 Figure 1.2 “Queen Johnny of Masset” or “New Gold Harbour Jonnie with Labret”...........................................3 Figure 3.1 Map of British Columbia regions as defined for this research.........................................................15 Figure 3.2  Mask of the Slave Woman ............................................................................................................16 Figure 3.3  Illustration of types of labrets........................................................................................................16 Figure 4.1 Labret frequencies by body area....................................................................................................25 Figure 4.2 Labret body area range..................................................................................................................25 Figure 4.3 Labret body area range by type .....................................................................................................25 Figure 4.4 Labret body area range by material class .......................................................................................25 Figure 4.5 Labret body area range by region ..................................................................................................28 Figure 4.6 Labret body area range by collection source ..................................................................................28  vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am indebted to many who have helped me along the way to completing this thesis.  First and foremost, for his unfailing support, encouragement and guidance, I am most thankful to have had Andrew Martindale act as my supervisor, and friend—Andrew, you are awesome.  I am also eternally grateful to Grant Keddie, whose insight, expertise and enthusiasm for this topic has been the inspiration for my thesis from the beginning.  For encouraging me to be creative and know no limits, I am thankful to Mike Blake, who has always had a kind word and a smile for me when I needed it.  This research has benefited tremendously from the generous input of Christian White, for sharing his thoughts, inspiration and vision with me, and Russell Mather, for showing me in his mural that my research means something. While in the throes of data collection, the incredible staff at LOA, the RBCM, CMC and SFU made this research not just possible but delightful, and I look forward to working with them again in the future.  I am also grateful for the financial support that enabled me to travel to these institutions, the Walter C. Koerner Fellowship granted by UBC, which funded the second year of my research.  Throughout this process, my friends and family have put up with both my mania and depression, been there when I needed coffee or margaritas, ensured that I had a steady supply of chocolate and good tunes to keep me going, and persisted in reaching out to me even when I was hiding from the world.  You all deserve some pretty fancy gold stars for your patience and kindness, and I am forever indebted: are you all ready for the next round?  Finally, I would like to dedicate this thesis to my mother, without whom I wouldn't be here today.  Thank you for this, my life.  1 CHAPTER 1:  THESIS OVERVIEW This thesis explores the history and use of the labret and its social context on the Northwest Coast of British Columbia.  Labrets have a complex and varied history in this region as indicators of social identity.  Observations made by early explorers and ethnographers of the Northern coast indicate that labrets were worn by high-status women, an association frequently invoked more generally by archaeologists.  Moss (1999) has demonstrated that this generalization masks local patterns, where in some cases men also wore labrets.  Cybulski’s (1991) research on dental abrasion caused by labret use demonstrates that both men and women wore labrets during different times, and relates these patterns to shifts in tracing descent and ascribed versus achieved status.  Archaeological evidence of labrets in this region is recounted by Keddie (1981), who also suggests that labrets were status symbols, connecting cultural groups regionally by a shared symbolic grammar.  The precise relationship between materiality and social identity seen in labrets, however, remains unclear. This review of the ethnographic, ethnohistorical, osteological and archaeological literature on labrets in Chapter 2 suggests that the characterization of labrets as simple ‘status’ markers underestimates the complexity and ambiguity of meaning conveyed in a form of social expression that was far from static over the last 5,000 years. Additionally, there remains a tendency to focus on the Northern ethnographic pattern of female labret-wearers as the default gender paradigm for this artifact.  Thus, several testable hypotheses of the social context of labrets contribute to the overall aim of providing a more thorough understanding of labrets in this region: 1.  How many styles of labrets are there?  The assumption that labrets have a regional and long-term contextual meaning (i.e., correlation with status, gender) implies that there should be a coherent material pattern to these objects.  While not necessarily so, since local-scale heterogeneity in form can also correlate with broad-scale uniformity of meaning, most archaeological studies refer to ‘labrets’ as a discrete class of objects.  Thus, one hypothesis tested is whether there is, in fact, a consistent form of ‘Northwest Coast labret.’ 2.  Are different styles of labrets found in different areas or during different time periods?  If this is not the case and there is no consistent type of labret, the derivation of this logic is that a coherent typology of labrets exists and correlates with distributions in time and space.  This proposition is tested by examining labrets using variables already proposed by archaeologists (i.e., size), and then trying to accommodate different variables in the typology. 3.  How can patterning in the distribution and style of labrets help to illuminate our understanding of social relations in this region?  If there is a typological order and it correlates with temporal and/or spatial distributions,  2 then it would be possible to test whether existing interpretations are weakened by these data, or if there are more compelling alternative interpretations of labrets based on their distribution. In Chapter 3, I discuss the methodology I employed to address these questions.  The primary component of this research has been to construct a database of labrets from coastal British Columbia, documenting their age, distribution, stylistic attributes, and any contextual information available.  The labret sample used in this research included artifacts from institutions in Canada including the Laboratory of Archaeology (LOA) at the University of British Columbia, Simon Fraser University (SFU), the Royal British Columbia Museum (RBCM), and the Canadian Museum of Civilization (CMC).  All labrets and artifacts suggested as ‘possible’ labrets (based on similarity of basic formal properties) were identified using the source institution catalogues and staff expertise, and assembled for analysis.  The artifact sample from LOA was used in the development and testing of data collection methods, after which I visited the three remaining institutions to compile the dataset.  For each labret, observations of various artifact attributes were recorded in a digital spreadsheet, including material properties (i.e., raw material, colour, texture, luminescence, iridescence), technological manufacture (ground/abraded), and any notable wear or fracturing.  Observations of the body and flange (where distinguishable) were recorded separately, including shape, dimensions, weight, and any decoration or detailing (e.g., drilled holes). Contextual information available was also recorded, including site location, object provenience, associated dates and, where recovered from burials, the sex of the individual. This dataset was used to evaluate existing typologies and to consider the creation of new ones by which to examine patterning that may be suggestive of social identity including age, gender, status, and cultural affiliation, through time and space.  The data were compiled in Statistics Program for the Social Sciences (SPSS V15.0) for analysis, including frequencies, cross-tabulation, and a variety of scatterplots, boxplots and histograms to illustrate relationships between variables.  Cross-tabulation was specifically used both to aid in the formulation of typological classes, as well as to compare expected and hypothesized types with other attributes including material, size, date and geographic distribution.  Basic frequency analyses were employed to consider temporality, the geographical distribution of types and specific attributes thereof on regional, sub-regional and site scales, and association with individuals of known sex from burials.  The results of these analyses are detailed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 returns to the hypothesis advanced in this research, discussing the labret as an exclusionary and cultural-specific tradition that conveyed aspects of social identity at various continually mediated scales of social negotiation.  In other words, the labret signaled different meanings and messages depending on who wore it, during  3 what occasions, and who was present to interpret it (i.e., family or strangers).  As such, this form of body ornamentation and the ‘status’ that it conveys are mutable and highly contextual; yet discernable patterns exist in this variability.  Based on this premise, I suggest that the patterning of labret style and distribution can be used to infer relationships within and between coastal groups through time, although my attempts to demonstrate this were hindered by a lack of data for temporal patterns and gender associations.  Simultaneously, I maintain that the relationship between body modification, materiality and identity is more complex than archaeological methodologies are currently equipped to deal with.  In this chapter, I discuss my attempt to move past these limitations by speaking with people who are currently relating to the labret on a personal level, either as body ornamentation or as art.  This ethnographic component highlights the importance of body modification to social identity today, and the continued meaning of the labret to contemporary Indigenous peoples. In Chapter 6, I conclude that this typological study, complimented by the inclusion of ethnohistory and contemporary ethnography, has resulted in a more comprehensive, robust and holistic understanding of the labret and its social context on the Northwest Coast.  Noting the weaknesses in the analyses undertaken herein, I suggest that further compilation of contextual information and dates available in unpublished reports may enable a more fine-grained analysis of types through time.  The utility of lithic sourcing in further material studies is also proposed as a viable method to consider the movement of materials and potentially thus social interaction through the region. Finally, although archaeologists may be primarily interested in the social identity of past peoples, this research highlights that heritage directly impacts contemporary social identity.  Thus, the labret is shown to be an ornament of ongoing social significance, both over the last 5,000 years and for the descendants of this heritage today.  Figure 1.1 Haida woman with labret & fur cloak, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, in engraving made 1787 by George Dawson. (Used with Permission University of Washington Libraries) Figure 1.2 "Queen Johnny of Masset" or "New Gold Harbour Jonnie with Labret", 1883 or 1888, taken by Hannah or Richard Maynard (Used with Permission of British Columbia Archives)  4 CHAPTER 2:  RESEARCH CONTEXT The labret holds a unique position for archaeologists on the Northwest Coast and for scholars worldwide. This chapter will provide a summary of observations and analyses suggested by scholars, based primarily on early ethnographic records, archaeological research, and derivatives thereof. 2.1  Early Explorations On the Northwest Coast, labrets feature prominently in the literature, illustrations and photographs produced during the early days of contact between indigenous people on the coast and Westerners (Figures 1 and 2). Members of the La Perouse Expedition in 1786 describe labrets among the Tlingit, while the Russians referred to the labret as kaluga (von Kotzebue 1821), koloshi or kalushka (Dall 1884:78), which also became the word used for the Tlingit and Kaigani Haida peoples (Grinev et al. 2005:22).  Many early descriptions by Europeans of labrets are filled with curiosity and disdain for this foreign cultural practice.  For example, the labret was frequently referred to as a “disfiguring” ornament worn by women that “renders them frightful” (Dall 1883:87; citing La Perouse 1798 and Lisianski 1814).  The impracticality of labrets in every-day life was also stressed by Lisianski who suggested that labrets were “so inconveniently placed that the wearer can neither eat nor drink without extreme difficulty” (cited by Dall 1883:87), and portrayed as a spectacle by von Kotzebue who claimed that, “[i]n running, the lips flap and down so as to knock sometimes against the chin and sometimes against the nose” (cited by Keithahn 1973:22). As with any historic source, these references must be considered in the larger context of cross-cultural contact and interaction, in which both ethnocentric bias and individual interpretation caution us to be critical of taking these observations at face-value (cf., Thomas 1991).  Yet, despite these biases, there remain clues in these passages as to who wore labrets, how they were worn, and what the role of this ornament was in social life.  For example, von Kotzebue (1821; quoted by Keithahn 1973:22), stated that, “[u]pon the continent, the kaluga (labret) is worn still larger, and the female who can cover her whole face with her under-lip passes for the most perfect beauty”, while La Perouse (cited in Dall 1884:87-8) notes, “[t]he older the woman the larger is the ornament”, as “young girls have only a needle in the lower lip, the married women alone have the right to the bowls.” These early descriptions nearly all highlight two critical symbolic correlations of labrets that have influenced the interpretations of labrets made by archaeologists: that they were worn by women, and that they were objects of status, with greater size reflecting higher status.  Yet even while confirming this image, a nuanced complexity in the meaning of this ornament was acknowledged by the early ethnographers who wrote about the  5 labret and the role it played in society.  Dall (1884:81-2) described the labret as “a symbol of vigor, fortitude, and mature development,” of “sexual freedom,” of “maturity only,” and of “power, privileges, and respect.” There was also recognition by these early ethnographers of regional stylistic differences in the shape of the labrets worn.  Dawson (1880:108-9) and Niblack (1890:256-7) claimed the shape of the Haida labret was oval, while the Ts’msyan 1 labret was “elongated”, and circular for the Stikine River Tlingit labret.  At the time of his writing, however, the practice of wearing labrets was declining, and while older women still bore labrets, young girls sometimes wore a small silver pin, if anything at all (Dawson 1880:109). These texts highlight a confusion, or perhaps complication, as to the identity of the labret-wearer, particularly with respect to social status, which may in part relate to the observer’s bias of who qualifies as ‘a woman.’  For example, Dawson (in Dall 1884:82) suggests that among the Haida, all females wore labrets, while La Perouse (Dall 1884:87) states that all married women wore them, and Lisianski (Dall 1884:87) notes that young girls also had this piercing that was merely enlarged with age.  Thus the meaning of ‘status’ as used by these ethnographers is both ambiguous and contextual.  Dall (1884:81), for example, notes that, among the Tlingit at least, “the labret was forbidden to slaves” (Figure 3.2). This uncertainty is further highlighted in the results of Drucker’s (1950) survey of labret use on the Northwest Coast.  Among the Kwakiutl2, one informant said all women wore them, another part- Ts’msyan informant said high-ranking women only, while the other four informants said the practice was not known in that area (Drucker 1950:191).  On the North Coast, however, informants amongst the Ts’msyan, Tlingit and Haida said that labrets were worn exclusively by women, but there was some disagreement among the Haida informants as to whether all women or only ‘high-status’ women wore them.  On the South Coast, the labret practice was historically unknown, even though the majority of known archaeological examples come from this area (Mitchell 1990:341).  Even the gender of the labret-bearer has been called into question.  Writing from Tlingit ethnographies, Moss (1999:32) relates that the labret size was influenced by both the bearer’s family position, as well as how many children she had, with the largest labrets “worn exclusively by elite women.”  However, in her analysis of George Catlin’s notes, Moss (1999:56-7) also confirms evidence of men wearing labrets, suggesting they represented either shamans mistakenly assumed to be female, or perhaps a third gender. Despite seemingly contradictory claims, these ethnographic accounts of labrets and their bearers remain  1 Ts’msyan is the preferred spelling for the Anglicized spelling of ‘Tsimshian.’ 2 Kwakiutl was the term applied by Europeans to all the Kwakwaka'wakw (Kwakwala-speakers), but now only refers to the people of Fort Rupert.  The term here is used correctly as Drucker’s survey was based in Fort Rupert.  6 incredibly useful in illuminating the complexity of this practice through history.  The task thus becomes to use these data in conjunction with other sources, particularly archaeological evidence and our understanding of how cultural meanings and identities are created and propagated, to identify patterns of convergence and divergence that are indicative of the changing role of labrets through time and space in this region. 2.2  Archaeological Accounts  While early records only describe the use of labrets by Northern Northwest Coast peoples during the last three hundred years, labrets are recovered archaeologically all along the Coast.  Archaeological interest in the labret dates back at least to Charles Borden who presented a paper at the 1959 Society for American Archaeology meeting entitled, “Labrets in Western North America: Eskimo or Indian?”  Therein, he took up the challenge of using archaeological data to identify the origin and trace the spread of this tradition across vast distances; yet in relation to the social identity of the labret-bearer, he noted only that labrets “were commonly worn by women” amongst Northern coastal groups (Borden 1959).  Indeed, most interest in labrets amongst scholars internationally has focused on theories of diffusion and migration through North and South America and East Asia to account for these artifacts (cf., Vasilievsky 2002; Charlin and Menghin 1950), with little to no discussion of the social implications and complexities inherent in being a ‘labret-bearer.’  Yet, Ames and Maschner (1999:182) suggest that, for archaeologists, “the most crucial evidence about status on the coast is that provided by labrets and by the practice of cranial deformation.”  Status, however, means many things depending on the scale of analysis—indeed, it is synonymous with identity—yet the intricacies of social identity as conveyed via the labret have been substituted instead by the ‘simple’ explanation of status as socio-political rank with labrets indicating ‘elite’ position.  Carlson (1996:221) also suggests an association between subsistence, social hierarchy and labrets: There is some suggestion from the [Blue Jackets Creek and Namu] that the males may have been sea mammal hunters which suggests further that the female [labret] wearers were their wives.  If so, it may be further inferred that they constituted the top echelon of society…The sequence of labret types may mark the evolution of a progressively more rigid and precise system of social ranking during the Middle Period.  If so, this system continued on the northern coast until historic times, whereas on the southern and central coasts labrets went out of use toward the end of the Middle Period, and were replaced by artificial head deformation as a visible mark of high status.  Most archaeologists discussing labrets on the Northwest Coast refer to Grant Keddie’s (1981) article, in which he challenges the correlation of labrets with women, pointing to archaeological evidence for labret use by both sexes at least 3000 years ago.  Keddie’s interest in labrets took Borden’s initial work many steps further along by tracing the distribution of labrets world-wide, and exploring the social context of this form of ornamentation,  7 which Keddie (1981:76-7) describes as “the most visual evidence of status” expressing “sets of reciprocal relationships” that were likely adapted between groups to facilitate “trade relationships.”  He recognized that labret- wearing was an exclusive (i.e., restrictive) tradition with significant social implications for the labret-wearers and their children (i.e., influencing marriage ties between communities), as well as for the interpretations that archaeologists have made of this artifact type (Keddie 1994).  Keddie’s research represents the archaeological equivalent of Moss’ (1999) ethnohistorical paper, wherein she delved further into the widespread view that only women wore this form of personal adornment on the Coast by the period of initial European contact with Coastal peoples.  Her research into ethnographic sources concluded that the gender aspect of the labret was less straightforward ethnographically and included region-specificity, since some men were known to have worn the labret amongst some communities (Catlin 1867:128,136).  A similar scenario has been documented among the Inuit (Nelson 1983 [1899]), where the social context of the labret has received attention, including attempts to relate labret form to certain cultural groups (cf., Steffian and Saltonstall 2001). 2.3  Osteological Observations Of over 300 labrets from the Northwest Coast held in museum collections in Canada, very few were recovered in primary context with associated dates (Keddie 2008 pers. comm.).  Instead, labrets are predominantly found either out of context in eroded or otherwise disturbed areas, or were collected decades previous with little regard for recording provenience.  Labrets have been recovered in artifact assemblages associated with the Marpole and Locarno Beach culture history periods on the South Coast (Mitchell 1971) and are generally attributed to these time periods in the absence of independent dating.  However, evidence for labrets has been recovered from burial contexts, which frequently received more meticulous attention and analysis including radiocarbon dating.  This evidence of early labret use is indirect, inferred from the presence of dental abrasion to the tooth enamel where the labret has worn against the teeth (Appendix A), in some cases wearing right through to the inner dentine3.  Cybulski (1991:7) notes that the oldest evidence of labret wear on the South Coast comes from a burial at Pender Canal, with a radiocarbon date of 5170±220 years BP.  As Carlson and Hobler (1993:45) report, “simple labrets” were found at Pender Canal dating 4000 to 5000 BP, with, they suggest, increasingly varied types appearing in the 2000 year period following this, and none found after 2200 BP.  This seems to be the general trend on the South Coast, and it is widely accepted that artificial cranial deformation replaced labrets sometime after 2000 BP (Ames and Maschner 1999; Cybulski 1991; Keddie 1981).  3 This wear is associated with stone labrets; it is unclear whether wooden labrets would produce the same result.  8  On the North Coast, wear suggestive of lateral, or ‘buccal,’ labrets was identified at the Blue Jackets Creek site on Haida Gwaii (Severs 1974:193; Murray 1981), and at Namu associated with three male individuals from ‘Period IV’ dating to 4500 to 3500 cal.BP (Carlson 2007 email comm.; Curtin 1984:104-5).  Medial, or ‘labial,’ labrets were also recovered from Namu, which is of particular interest as the Central Coast is underrepresented archaeologically, yet labrets are known ethnographically to have been worn by high-status women among Heiltsuk- Oowekyala speakers (Hilton 1990:315).  In Prince Rupert, Cybulski (1974:34; 1991:5) notes that labret wear consistent with medial labrets was positively identified on the mandibles of 12 individuals, dating between 3500 and 1500 years BP, of which at least seven were male.  Labrets themselves were recovered in this area dating as early as 3450 BP (MacDonald 1983:105), while one found at Dodge Island (GbTo-18) with a male was dated to 2590 ± 40 years BP (Cybulski 2007 pers.comm.).  Cybulski (1991:11) also suggests that skeletal evidence from Greenville (GgTj-6) supports the “known north coast historic pattern” of women exclusively wearing labrets at about 1500 BP, and proposes that this may relate both to a shift towards both matrilineality and ascribed status (Cybulski 1992:72). 2.4  ‘Simple’ Status, Worn by Women? Although archaeologists frequently cite Keddie, Cybulski, and Moss to acknowledge that labrets are known to have been worn by both men and women at different periods, nonetheless there is a tendency to represent the labret in association with women.  For example, archaeologists frequently include photographs in books and articles of female labret-bearers, and use women in drawings to illustrate the use of the labret (Ames and Maschner 1999:182; Keddie 1981:59,65; McMillan 1995:190; Cybulski 1996:12; Stewart 1973:92; Blackman 1990:248; Ames 1995:166). Such focus on ethnographic and ethnohistoric accounts, and the blurring of these data with archaeological evidence, has translated into a synchronic, simplified ‘high-status women wore labrets’ message that is commonly communicated in widely accessible formats, such as textbooks (Fagan 1995:214), guides to Northwest Coast Indigenous culture (Duff 1975; Drucker 1965; Stewart 1973, 1976), and encyclopedias (Paterek 1996:299; Werness 2000:177).  ‘Woman’ as labret-wearer has become the default gender paradigm (Nord and Herbert 2007). In this way, the ethnographic pattern is the perceived ‘null hypothesis’ based on an overextension of the direct historic approach, used to explain the emergence of the so-called ‘Developed Northwest Coast Pattern’ (Maschner 1991:929; Matson and Coupland 1994).  As such, even while acknowledging temporal ambiguity in terms of gender, the correlation with high economic status resolutely remains in the archaeological literature (Carlson 1996; Matson and Coupland 1994; Ames 1995; Cybulski 1992; Keddie 1981).  Yet the labret potentially  9 exemplified myriad forms of ‘status’ (e.g., gender, age, spiritual efficacy) on multiple scales (individual, familial, cultural) depending on the social context of its display.  Ultimately, the complexity of the labret’s role on the Northwest Coast, and the relationship between social identity and its material manifestation, remain poorly understood, a situation which the research discussed in this thesis seeks to address. 2.5  The Self and the Social Surface  The cultural meaning of labrets, like all cultural gestures, shifts with the scale and nature of the social context in which its meaning is communicated, translated, and interpreted (Giddens 1984; Hodder 1987). The audience for such gestures is varied and maps onto the social networks of people in antiquity, which are both culturally influential and notoriously difficult to reconstruct from material evidence. Yet while the specific meanings of a particular labret likely varied as its wearer journeyed through the social landscape of life, some generalizations regarding how people conceived of and interacted with this meaning are possible.  As Wylie (1985) notes, the interpretation of meaning in archaeology proceeds via two forms of analogy: those more general to the human condition, and those that can be traced to specific historical contexts.  In terms of the former, as an object that perforates the body, a labret becomes both decoration and part of the self.  Sanborn (1927) wrote that such ornamentation “modifies consciousness,” and is a language “conditioned structurally by the identity of the human form adorned,” borrowed from the external world; similarly, Joyce (2005:140) suggests the body is a “metaphor for society.”  Dahm’s (1994:100) research on ‘Gulf Islands complex’ soapstone artifacts (known commonly as ‘whatzits’) and labrets from Pender Island discusses the labret as a form of cosmological expression, suggesting that body ornamentation is indicative both of “transformation from one state, or period of the life cycle, to another,” and of “the relative wealth or socio-economic status of the wearer.”  Thus, it represents a social interaction between people as well as between the bearer and their environment—a statement of both self and other, or of “personhood” (Gilchrist 2006:147; Fowler 2004).  Favazza (1996) discusses this form of body modification in terms of the socializing role it played in the construction of gender and kinship ties.  Citing Jonaitis (1988), Favazza (1996:130) suggests that labret-wearing on the Northwest Coast was associated with “social relations, eating, the potlatch ritual, and sexuality,” noting especially the vaginal/phallic relationship of the piercing, where “maleness and femaleness are united by the appearance of the labret when worn.”  Duff (1975:35) similarly refers to the labret as “convey[ing] hints of the sexual duality” of its bearer.  Additionally, the kinship role of the new labret-bearer is reified in having the piercer as “the girl’s future mother-in-law” from the opposite clan (Favazza 1996:130, citing Jonaitis 1988), a kin-based  10 connection said to represent “the perpetuation of social stability.”  These accounts effectively represent a snapshot of one person’s interpretation at one time in one place, but they lend insight into the multilayered meaning that this form of adornment may have played in times past.  Kan (1989:61), describing the body made social among the Tlingit, relates that labret perforations were “aimed at socializing the orifices of the head, which mediated between the inside and the outside of the body.”  For the Tlingit, the body’s inside was reflected onto its outside; therefore, a strong and properly socialized outside also indicated spiritual virility and moral fortitude—the ‘ideal’ social person, which was the aristocrat.  In this sense, body decoration, in the form of tattoos and piercings, was a means of “surfacing the body interior” (Taylor 2005), and the social organization of the Tlingit figured prominently in body marking of crests, which were matrilineally- owned symbols (Kan 1989:69).  Forms of personal ornamentation have been argued to very visibly reflect changes in the socio-political organization of society, and even be a medium for resistance to hegemony, as Jolles (1997) argued was a key influence in the shifting design (increased size, more ornate patterns, newer materials) that Zulu earplugs underwent with British colonization.  Continuity of form with altered meaning, or alternative manifestations with continued meaning, is also seen among the Inuit of St. Lawrence Island (Nelson (1983 [1899]:45), where labrets, known archaeologically and ethnographically, were nearly entirely replaced in the later days of European contact by circular tattoos of varying designs, located where once labret incisions would have been made—an interesting alteration to a continuing tradition.  This example illustrates how Wylie’s distinction between the general and particular is a heuristic.  The specific meanings and general human tendencies of interpretation are interwoven within the individual, becoming separable as the interpretive view becomes distant (as in archaeology) and the nuance of meaning becomes attenuated.  Such investigations highlight that the ‘labret = status’ formula employed by Northwest Coast archaeologists is an undeservedly simple way to account for a 5,000-year old practice that quite clearly varied in time and space. These simplifications are, however, not inherently wrong.  Despite the range of contextually mediated meanings any specific labret may invoke (cf., Hodder 1982), meanings gain historical traction when they are pervasive and relatively consistent within large numbers of people across spans of time.  Thus, simplifications of meaning have value precisely because they can be culturally accurate.  The challenge, of course, is to demonstrate that any particular archaeological simplification accurately replicates an aspect of historical meaning.  11 2.6  The Challenge: To Clarify and Complicate  The use of ethnographic and ethnohistorical sources to aid in archaeological interpretation has resulted in an assumption that labrets are high-status objects, and a tendency to associate these with women.  Although there is value in these historical data, only a handful of scholars have sought to look beyond reproducing this characterization of a complex phenomenon by either testing it against archaeological data, or querying it against specific and general analogies.  Considering the varying geographical distribution of labrets during the vast duration of their use, it is certain that the practice of labret-wearing has not remained unchanged in other aspects, and one may fall into the trap of ‘tyrannical analogy’ (Wobst 1978) when one presumes to make this assumption.  Indeed, Ames and Maschner (1999:183) recognize that “[t]he wearing of labrets is a permanent and visible modification of the face, and so can be an unambiguous status marker—one wears a labret or one does not”; yet without knowing the rules of use, can we be certain what kind of social status it is marking—age, gender, rank, economic status, spiritual efficacy?  Thus the labret may be acknowledged as an imperfect gesture of social distinction visibly dividing labret wearers from non-labret wearers; what this distinction reflected, and to what extent its meaning and material manifestation were heterogenous, is not clear.  Indeed, the apparent shift from labret use to cranial deformation on the South Coast may reflect a transition from more fluid toward more restrictive symbolism.  While the archaeological data are varied, there exists patterning in the locations, dates and contexts in which different styles of labrets are found.  What remains is to identify and test these material patterns against the assumptions archaeologists have made based on historical records, by framing this analysis within the larger discussion of complex social identity.  If the existing archaeological assumptions are accurate, they should withstand such testing.  If not, a more comprehensive study of the variables within the suite of objects known as ‘labrets’ should point us toward at least the nature of the culture-historical patterns, if not their translation.  This is the challenge presented by Keddie and Moss that has been taken up in the research here, for their respective studies represent the only focused research on labrets to date undertaken in this culture area, the closest to it being Dahm’s (1994) research on the Gulf of Georgia soapstone tradition, in which labrets play a role.  In light of the continued importance of the labret, both as a form of body piercing in contemporary Western society, and as a connection with history and tradition being evoked in Indigenous Coastal art, this research represents a unique opportunity to link contemporary understanding with materiality in meaningful ways.  12 CHAPTER 3:  RESEARCH DESIGN and METHODOLOGY 3.1  Research Outline  As outlined in Chapter 1, this research seeks to document the variation of labrets and their distribution through time and space, with the overall aim of relating patterns in materiality to different kinds of social identity, testing the assumed correlation of labrets with ‘status’ and gender.  These research questions were approached by, 1) compiling the extant data on archaeological labrets; 2) formalizing labret variables within a morphofunctional typology, to consider regional patterns and to test whether the archaeological types proposed in previous analyses are robust; 3) reviewing the empirical criteria from which these variables were drawn and expanding these, to see whether alternative variables reinforce or contradict the orthodox archaeological typologies; 4) evaluating whether the assumptions in archaeological interpretation are uniformly applicable to all archaeological contexts. A detailed description of the methods employed in this process is provided in the following section. 3.2  Methods 3.2.1  Typology  Typological analyses are most commonly a form of attribute-based grouping rather than a formal taxanomic classification (Read 2007:108).  This means that the concept of type is fluid and based on comparative measures of varying suites of morphological attributes, identifiable more by their presence in an artifact assemblage than through the projection of paradigmatic variables. The most common variables are traits (the presence or absence of a specific feature) and metrics (the dimension of a specific feature). Since the presence of some typological features is not common across the class, the nature of distinguishing traits and the relative importance of any trait over others in grouping objects are subject to change as the population of objects expands.  Typological grouping can sort the same objects in different orders by changing the hierarchical ranking of traits. Thus, the constraints of classification efforts in archaeology produce typologies that are not inherently wrong; indeed, many typologies may be both a good fit of the data and reasonable approximations of how people in the past sorted things.  However, it is useful to remember that such typologies tend to be treated as more factual with use when, in reality, they are only one of a number of equally valid ways of sorting that change as new data are added.  As a consequence, most typologies of labrets are based on an arbitrarily defined hierarchy of attributes, the ranking of which corresponds to the expectations of the archaeologists rather than any ‘emic’ classification that  13 corresponds to use or universally defined traits that vary across the class.  Table 3.1 lists the classificatory terms of Loy and Powell (1977), Ames and Maschner (1999), and Stewart (1976), which are frequently employed in the archaeological literature, although each present different terms for the same morphological types (Figure 3.3): Loy and Powell (1977) / Keddie (1981) Ames and Maschner (1999) Stewart (1976) circular flange, short body pulley-shaped medial labret; button labret disc labret circular flange, extended body circular flange medial labret; spool labret hat-shaped labret lateral flange, short body ‘top hat’ medial labret hat-shaped labret; button labret lateral flange, extended body ‘T’ shaped medial labret T-shaped labret n/a n/a pendulant labret n/a n/a novice labret n/a n/a double-button labret Table 3.1 Labret typologies commonly employed in the archaeological literature. Using Loy and Powell’s classification, Stewart’s pendulant labret would be ‘lateral flange, extended body’; while the double-button and novice labret designations would both fall into ‘lateral flange, short body’.  The key points for this project are 1) to test the existing typologies using the stated or implied attribute hierarchies, and 2) to query whether any patterns that are identified in (1) are maintained if new attributes and/or attribute orders are applied (Table 3.2).  These efforts at classification have relied in part on computer-assisted statistical applications (SPSS) to apply analytical and descriptive statistics to the typology as a tool to explore the strength of any patterns.  Attributes under consideration are primarily related to form, thus various frequency and cross-tabulation techniques can identify patterns of varying strengths in the data that may represent meaningful classes or ‘types’.  As a visual object however, there is value in classifying labrets into ‘types’ by visual similarity, and so the two methods have been combined in this research. Description of Form  Modification Material Properties  Measurements Object Designation Detailed Description Flange Form and Decoration Body Form and Decoration Completeness Condition Primary – Manufacture Secondary – Alteration Tertiary – Decoration Post-Initial Manufacture Alteration Primary – Manufacture Secondary – Alteration Tertiary – Decoration Class Type Texture Colour (Munsell) Colour Appearance Patterning Luminance Iridescence PIMA Result Density Flange width height thickness concavity length concavity depth completeness   Body length width height concavity length concavity depth Completeness Other Other: description Other: measurement Table 3.2 Summary of variables recorded; the variables focused on for statistical analyses are in bold. (details in Appendix B) 3.2.2  Raw Material  Although sometimes overlooked, the importance of raw material as both enabling the creation of labrets, and yet constraining its potential form, is a critical factor within the chaîne opératoire sequence of artifact biography (Schiffer 1997).  For this study, several properties within the larger attribute of ‘material’ were considered to explore the hypothesis that the properties of the material itself, as well as its treatment, were important considerations when choosing which material to make a labret from.  These considerations may have been largely aesthetic or matters of  14 convenience, or there may be a symbolic element to it, as McGhee (1977) attempted to demonstrate with ivory and antler artifacts and gender of the Thule, and Jones (1998) illustrated with colour, personal adornment, and identity in a mortuary context.  Other differences in material properties, such as weight, have been identified by Kan (1989:89) as being particularly significant with piercings such as the labret.  In addition to the suite of material-related attributes that were recorded, an experimental analysis was undertaken using a Portable Infrared Mineral Analyzer (PIMA). This non-invasive technology identifies mineralogical composition of a material, providing a signature that can be compared to other known materials using a provided geological library.  PIMA has been successfully used in archaeology for the identification and sourcing of clay-based materials (Wisseman et al. 2002) and is particularly useful for materials with high hydroxyl content, such as soapstone, a material from which many labrets are thought to have been made.  This technology was employed with a view to gauging its potential for 1) identifying the mineral composition of labret materials, and then 2) comparing the mineral signatures with each other and source materials, ultimately to consider whether identifying the geographical distribution of these materials compared to their archaeological recovery may shed light on local and regional relationships.  This was, however, a ‘pilot’ project and thus only a minor part of this research. 3.3.3  Geography  This project was addressing labrets of the Northwest Coast, however logistical necessity dictated that I focus on labrets of the Northwest Coast of British Columbia specifically.  This was largely due to constraints in travel opportunities and funding, and is not meant to be taken as a ‘revised’ geographic designation for this culture area, which certainly has always extended trans-nationally beyond contemporary political borders. However, because of this somewhat more localized picture, the terminology used to denote regions (North, Central and South Coasts) is in reference to British Columbia, as depicted in Figure 3.1. Institution Number Percent Canadian Museum of Civilization 48 21.8 Laboratory of Archaeology, University of British Columbia 29 13.2 Royal British Columbia Museum 110 50.0 Simon Fraser University 33 15.0 Total 220 100.0 Table 3.3 Labrets included in sample by source institution  15  Figure 3.1 Map of British Columbia regions as defined for this research 3.2.4  Contextual Data  Two main aspects of ‘contextual data’ were of concern in this research, specifically 1) dates and 2) burial association where the sex of the individual was known.  As such, provenience information for the labrets examined was retrieved from field notes and institution catalogues, which were cross-referenced where possible with available reports.  What dates were available ranged from precise radiocarbon dates to those derived based on association with artifact assemblages or stratigraphy, stated as culture-historic periods (e.g., Marpole Phase) and/or broad time periods (e.g., 2500-3500 BP).  All three date descriptions were considered independently when examining the data for temporal patterning.  Burial context information was available for a small sample of artifacts examined, provided primarily via personal communication with the original researchers. 3.2.5  Contemporary Ethnography  Although not the primary focus of this research, an ethnographic component was included to contextualize the labret within its contemporary cultural meaning, and to challenge archaeological expectations of the role of this ornamentation for those who wear labrets.  This relied on the applicability of analogy, specific and general, to contextualize the labret as a form of body modification with both culture-specific significance and meaning that is translatable on the level of ‘human experience.’  To avoid the pitfall of analogy of reducing the lived experience to ‘bare-bones’ structures for comparison, instead I have approached analogy as a metaphor (Tilley 2000), mapping out the layered, contextual and interconnected meanings of the labret and its past as understood in the present. To these ends, two groups of individuals were interviewed: Indigenous artists from the Northwest Coast who are portraying labrets in their work, and individuals who wear lip piercings today (Appendix C).  Additionally, South Coast North Coast  16 a letter (Appendix D) was sent to each of the First Nations in whose territory the labrets were retrieved from, detailing the research outline and the kind of analyses that were being proposed, with the hope of soliciting interest to participate in the project4.  In this way, I hoped to avoid simply perpetuating the ongoing “appropriation of indigenous things” (Thomas 1991:184) as a step towards the larger effort of “decolonizing” research (Smith 2006). The scale of this component was necessarily restricted, such that I was able to formally (by telephone and/or email) interview two artists and one ‘labret-wearer.’  To augment the perspectives obtained from the latter, I have included my observations made from examining publicly accessible web-based body modification forums (i.e.,http://www.bmezine.com), providing a broad base of contemporary labret use from which to compare the archaeological examples for patterning that may extend beyond culture-specific meaning into the realm of the mutually-translatable.  These data provide a more holistic and contemporary understanding of the labret and body modification more broadly, and are discussed more fully in Chapter 5.  Figure 3.2 Mask of the Slave Woman, Smith, Harlan, 1872-1940  "Wooden mask belonging to Willie Mack. It represents the slave woman who is believed to have been murdered long ago by a powerful chief to give power to a Kusiut ceremony which he was inaugurating. Whenever this ceremony is given the murdered slave appears. The mask is unpainted. In the chin can be seen a plug of abalone shell to represent the labret worn by the northern tribes. The 'hair' is from the tail of either a horse or a cow". (Used with Permission of Canadian Museum of Civilization) Figure 3.3 Illustration of types of labrets, after Loy and Powell (1977)  (Used with Permission of RBCM Archives)   4 Twenty-eight letters were sent to different First Nations in whose territory the labret study sample was recovered; however, I received no responses.  I recognize that, in future, such introductions really need to be followed up with in-person attendance or telephone calls to establish a relationship from which to consider ‘collaborative research.’  17 CHAPTER 4:  RESULTS 4.1  Assemblage Overview 4.1.1  Artifact Sample  A total of 309 labrets or possible labrets were initially considered in this research, and attribute data recorded for them (see Table 3.2, and Appendix B); however, a significant portion (N=89) could not be positively identified as labrets.  These included forms considered to be worn laterally (‘buccal’ labrets, N=6), composite labrets (N=25), performs (N=2), labret inlays (N=12), and artifacts that are either likely not labrets (N=12) or may also be classified as ear-spools (N=13).  Because of this ambiguity in their classification, these artifacts have not been included in the following ‘labret’ analyses to avoid contaminating the sample with objects that are not actually labrets.  Instead, these artifacts, and what I have called ‘plug’ labrets (N=19), have been dealt with separately in the later sections of this chapter.  This has reduced the sample size to 220 positively identified labrets from four institutions.  For analyses specifically of the size of the labret body, labrets with incomplete body measurements (N=3) were excluded. 4.1.2  Geographic Distribution  Although the ethnographic record indicates that labrets were used primarily by peoples on the North Coast, the geographic distribution of labrets from archaeological contexts is heavily weighted towards the South Coast. Region Sub-Region Number Percent of Total North Haida Gwaii 20 9.1  Kitimat 1 0.5  Nass River 4 1.8  Skeena River 20 9.5  Unknown 9 0.4  Total 54 Central Central 4 1.8 South West Vancouver Island 1 0.5  East Vancouver Island 21 9.5  Gulf Islands 69 30.9  Fraser Delta 64 29.1  Upper Fraser 4 1.8  Unknown 1 0.5  Total 160 Unknown Unknown 2 1.0   Total 220 100.0 Table 4.1 Labret frequency by region and sub-region This likely represents a sampling bias, reflecting in part the amount of archaeology that has been done in these particular areas, specifically the Gulf Islands and the Fraser Delta sub-regions, especially since the  18 ethnographic evidence indicates widespread labret wear on the North Coast even recently yet this region accounts for only 54 of 220 labrets in this sample. Additionally, the clustering within the South Coast region at only a handful of sites (DeRt-2, DeRt-4, DgRr-1 in particular account for 55 of the total 160 labrets in this region) would support this suggestion, and the frequent occurrence of labrets in burial contexts compounds this bias, as the aforementioned DeRt sites were both cemetery shell middens that received intensive excavation.  Conversely, the Central Coast is vastly under-represented (N=4) in light of ethnographic support for labret use in parts of this region, and reflects a lack of comparable archaeological excavation and specifically excavation of burials in this region. 4.1.3  Temporal Distribution  An initial look at the number of artifacts with provenience shows that less than half of the labrets (N=81) in my sample are considered to have been recovered in situ.  Of these, availability of associated dates and contextual materials and data (i.e., sex of human remains in burial contexts) is limited.  Radiocarbon (C14) dates exist in association with only 12, representing 15% of this subsample and only 5% of the total number of labrets.  This lack of data has frustrated my attempt to evaluate the temporal distribution of different types of labrets.  While other dates do exist for directly associated strata, accessing and synthesizing the unpublished ‘grey literature’ has not been feasible within the scope of this project. Context Frequency Percent surface 18 8.2 screen 3 1.4 disturbed 23 10.5 unknown 95 43.1 in situ (no C14 date) 69 31.3  12 5.5 1880 +/-40 BP 1 2090 +/-100 BP 1 2110 +/-110 BP uncorrected 1 2590 +/-40 BP 1 2630 +/-95 BP and 2490 +/-85 BP uncorrected 1 3017 +/-173 BC to 1012 +/-270 BC 1 after 3210 +/-110 BP 3 3210 to 3590 +/-110 BP 1 4000 +/1 500 BP 1 4320 +/- 220 BP 1 in situ (C14 date available) Total 220 100 Table 4.2 Integrity of labret provenience and available radiocarbon dates  With such a small sample of absolute dates, I attempted to consider time on two additional scales: associated date ranges (i.e., 2000-3000 BP) and cultural phases (i.e., Locarno Beach).  This is somewhat precarious,  19 since it is often difficult to determine by what evidence labrets have been assigned to ‘associated’ time periods, and there is the danger that a priori assumptions have been reified in these designations.  Thus, some sites may be considered to date to a particular time period because of the presence of labrets which are thought date to that time period (Mitchell 1971), making it impossible to test whether the labrets or the site actually date from this time.      Table 4.3 Cultural period associated with dated labrets    Table 4.4 Dates for labrets by stratigraphic   or artifact assemblage associations   Finally, I also elected to look at the data distribution in consideration of the collection methods (‘archaeological’ versus ‘ethnological’).  In theory, ethnological labrets should date to roughly the period they were collected from (e.g., European contact period), and thus represent the most recent manifestation of the labret tradition in this region, and the practice as it is described in the ethnographic literature.  Separating ethnological from archaeological labrets affords the opportunity to evaluate the accuracy of these accounts by testing the extent to which patterning observed within the ethnological sub-sample is directly comparable to what these early written sources documented.  Furthermore, because archaeological understanding of labrets over 5,000 years has been largely reliant upon the relatively recent literature, a comparison of patterning between archaeological (N=183) and ethnologically-collected (N=30) labrets should reveal any discrepancies between what has been assumed based on recent observations of labrets, and what is actually observed in ‘deep time.’ 4.2  Attribute Analysis  As discussed in Chapter 3, a series of attributes relating to formal properties were compiled to create a typology, in which different types may relate to different scales of social identity.  These types were compared with the material properties of the labrets, specifically raw material, based on the premise that the choice of material was meaningful (cf., Hodder 1991) and not simply a matter of convenience, and thus would also conform to socially maintained ‘norms’ of appropriateness.  Additionally, the size range within and between identified types was Cultural Period Frequency Percent Marpole 3 1.3 Locarno/Marpole 6 2.7 Locarno 13 5.8 Charles/Locarno 6 2.7 no date 192 87.3 Total 220 100.0 Date Range Frequency Percent 2000 – 3000 BP 4 1.8 2000 BP 3 1.4 2500-3500 BP 9 4.1 2500-4000 BP 1 .5 2500 BP 2 .9 3000-3500 BP 4 1.8 3000 – 4500 BP 3 1.4 3500 – 4500 BP 1 .5 4000 – 4500 BP 1 .5 no date 192 87.3 Total 220 100.0  20 considered because of the emphasis in both archaeological and ethnographic literature that larger size specifically conveyed elevated social rank within the social class of labret-bearer.  These aspects of materiality were compared to each other both geographically and temporally, and considered with respect to known association with burials for which the sex of the individual is known. 4.2.1  Typology  While the organization of labrets into types is fundamentally the ‘first step’ in looking at labret form through time and space, it has simultaneously proven to be the most challenging one.  The sheer range of variation, even within so-called ‘types,’ has defied the very goal of creating typology—in this case, to standardize and reveal patterning that is meaningful.  As such, the danger has been in reifying a typology in which the variability within types exceeds the variation between then, which is logically incoherent as taxonomy.  This problem is compounded by the fact that several artifact ‘types’ have been postulated as potentially being labrets (Keddie 2008 pers.comm.; Dahm 1994), although evidence for why is unclear. Specifically, ‘buccal’ labrets are historically unknown in this region so there is no local comparative example, and so-called ‘composite’ forms have not been demonstrated conclusively to actually be labrets.  Even having excluded forms designated as ‘possible labrets,’ my first observation is that the typologies commonly employed do not account for the full range of labret forms observed (Tables 4.5 and 4.6)5.  This suggests that there is little consensus on what constitutes a type, and that the labret sample is either too small or too diverse to be easily sorted into clearly defined patterns.  Additionally, the existing typologies are archaeological and thus have been biased towards labrets recovered on the South Coast, such that ‘North Coast’ labrets seen during the contact period are altogether absent in these classificatory schemes.  For example, each of Stewart’s (1976) ‘composite’ and ‘novice’ labrets are represented by single examples only, while 48% of the labret sample either fit into multiple categories, or none at all.  In attempting to use Keddie’s (1981) four categories, I repeatedly encountered labrets that defied these designations (i.e., a circular/lateral flange), or designations that seemed lacking in purpose.  Therefore, while I agree with Keddie (1981:60) that there is utility in having simplified categories, especially as an initial step, nonetheless I feel that this masks important variation that may be directly indicative of social relationships.  The complexities of typological classification noted, I have attempted nonetheless to contribute to the known ‘types’ of labrets, with the caveat that there will likely always be outliers within standardized classes as an  5 The classification scheme/terminology employed by Ames and Maschner (1999) is not illustrated therein, so it was not possible for me to classify the labret study sample according to their terms.  21         Table 4.6 Crosstabulation of flange to body form, based on Loy and Powell (1977) / Keddie (1981)  Table 4.5 Labret sample classified according to Stewart (1976)  expression of individuality.  The types I have identified are based on formal properties of flange and body shape, and have been created using SPSS crosstabulation of the various properties recorded for these labret attributes (Appendices E and F).  This reflects a ‘bottom up’ flat grouping approach to typology (Read 2007:28) using shape as the primary grouping variable without further hierarchical sub-division; specifically, types were identified based on a correlation of shape between each of the labret elements (flange, neck, body).  Having created these types, I then performed another series of crosstabulations, comparing these types with the same attributes used to create them—effectively ‘back-sighting’ the attribute-type correlations—to confirm that the typology is robust. These ten labret types appear to be mutually exclusive6, with the possible exception of ‘knob’ labrets.  This class contains internal variation suggestive of either being further divisible into sub-classes, but is more likely related to post-initial-manufacture reworking and/or reuse modification, for which knob labrets contained the highest proportional frequency (N=29, 58% of total 50 specimens).  Additionally, labrets classified as ‘plates’ (N=4) have a bimodal size distribution, which may indicate two sub-types; the larger form (N=2) are extreme outliers by size from all other labrets, and may in fact be a different kind of artifact altogether.  The material properties and size ranges of these ten types have been examined and compared geographically and temporally in the following section. 4.2.2  Material Properties  As outlined in Chapter 3, several aspects of labret material were recorded to consider their inclusion in typological classification; these efforts to look at materiality more broadly met with varying results.  My attempt to measure importance of labret body surface reflectivity by quantifying Lux with a light meter was proven in concept, but was technically challenging insofar as it was very difficult to standardize and thus replicate the results.  6 Plug labrets have been included tentatively as a labret type and are discussed separately in this chapter. Stewart (1976) Types Frequency Percent button 11 5.0 composite 1 .5 disc 26 11.8 double-button 3 1.4 hat-shaped 10 4.5 novice 1 .5 pendulant 11 5.0 T-shaped 51 23.2 multiple classifications possible 36 16.4 not represented in any type 70 31.8 Total 220 100.0 Body Description Keddie (1981) Types extended short Total circular 1 34 35 indistinguishable 1 29 30 lateral 64 85 149 Flange Description     lateral/circular 0 6 6 Total 66 154 220  22  No. in Sample (N=220) No. in Sample (N=220) Labret Type FORMAL DESCRIPTION  N % Labret Type FORMAL DESCRIPTION  N % Disc -circular or oval body -with or without drilled hole -concave, flat or convex anterior and/or posterior   31 14.1  Pulley -circular, oval or circular-square body -with or without grooved or constricted neck -concave or flat anterior and/or posterior  16 7.3 Bowl -elongated oval, ovoid body -with or without grooved or constricted neck -often inlaid -concave or flat anterior and/or posterior  17 7.7  Spool -circular or oval body, ‘circular flange, extended body’ -extended flange-body length/neck -concave anterior and posterior   1 0.5 Knob -includes ‘button’ and ‘Top-hat’ -circular, oval, square circular-square, or ‘zoomorphic’ body (zoomorphic labrets are rare and have only been recovered from the North Coast) -concave, flat or convex anterior -lateral flange, often concave  81 36.8  Double- Knob - as left, with two bodies   4 1.8 Pendulant -this type has the most variation and ‘outliers’ and is difficult to classify -extended usually downward projected body -lateral flange, often concave   15 6.8  Tee -includes ‘T-shaped’ and one ‘circular flange, extended body’ labret -cylindrical to rectangular body -circular, rectangular, laterally- tapered flange -concave, flat or convex anterior and/or posterior  51 23.2 Plate -circular, oval body -oval flange -grooved or constricted neck -concave or flat anterior and/or posterior   4 1.8  Plug -elongated oval body -concave or flat anterior and/or posterior -similar to ‘bowls’ only much smaller and oriented without the lip projecting  19 not includ ed in total sample Table 4.7 Description and frequency of types identified     23  Efforts to identify wood species using source references (e.g., Friedman 1978) were not successful, proving to be exceptionally difficult without a cross-sectional microscopic analysis.  Likewise, limited expertise and a lack of comparative collections hindered my ability to identify some of the faunal labrets, particularly those I suggest are made of ivory, which would benefit from further analysis both in conceptualizing the natural-cultural landscape interface, as well as potential coastal trade for sea mammal materials.  Other properties such as colour and patterning, texture, and polish were initially considered, however after examining the results, there does not appear to be any relationship between these attributes and type, size, geographical or temporal distribution, nor any correlation with sex identified in burials.  The absence of patterns in these attributes may imply that such traits were less important to the labret users and makers than raw material itself, or that they were more important in conveying individuality.  As such, several of the recorded attributes will not be considered in detail but are available in Appendix G.  Overall, there is some correlation between raw material and labret types identified.  For example, tee labrets comprise over half (N=19, 53%) of all faunal examples (mostly bone), while all floral (wood) labrets are ‘bowls’ (N=13), the only class that had no lithic specimens.  Bowl labrets are also the type most frequently inlaid, with primarily shell (N=5) and copper (N=1).  All four plate labrets were lithic (slate), while all disc and double- knob labrets were lithic, with steatite/soapstone comprising 69% (N=24), and another 10 examples made of coal (lignite). Thus, while there may not be a pattern in the qualities of the raw material, the kind of raw material and its source may be important factors. Material Class Types faunal faunal, faunal floral floral, faunal floral, metallic lithic Total bowl 4 0 7 5 1 0 17 disc 0 0 0 0 0 31 31 double-knob 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 knob 3 1 0 0 0 77 81 pendulant 7 0 0 0 0 8 15 plate 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 pulley 2 1 0 0 0 13 16 spool 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 tee 19 0 0 0 0 32 51 Total 36 2 7 5 1 169 220 Table 4.8 Crosstabulation of material class by labret type  Of the labrets examined for this research, 65% were lithic, and of those, ‘steatite’ comprised 39% by visual identification (Appendix H).  This material designation was based on a visibly mottled amalgam of materials that roughly resembled soapstone and nephrite but visibly and tactilely lacked the talc of soapstone or the ‘quartz’-like  24 appearance of nephrite, making it suitably malleable for grinding and detail work (drilling, polishing), as required in the creation of a labret.  As PIMA helped to demonstrate, what I had called ‘steatite’ was nearly all identified by minerals as lizardite (Appendix I); however, the specific mineral signature may have been less important than the properties of the material, and certainly PIMA is of utility in considering the properties (hardness, colour) of these materials and their potential correlation with artifact type.  Additionally, the ability of PIMA to compare materials on a mineralogical level has demonstrated its effectiveness as a sourcing technique (Wisseman et al. 2002). Conformity in material type may represent one way of aligning oneself with a larger group, and technical analysis such as can be accomplished with PIMA may be a useful way to explore degrees of access to certain materials, which may in turn reflect social grouping on some level.  This would require obtaining specimens from known sources in the region for comparison and spatial analysis, which was beyond the scope of this project. 4.2.3  Size  Due to the prevailing assumption that labret size was a signifier of the bearer’s status, I considered this to be one of the more critical variables to test.  The nature of the labret as inherently divisible into two parts—the internally-worn flange and the externally-visible body—somewhat complicated my efforts to standardize size.  Both elements are independently significant in different ways when considering the dialectic between ‘agency’ as individual choice and comfort, and ‘structure’ as the larger societal notions of how things ought to be done (cf., Giddens 1984).  Yet, as a form of visual communication, if the association between size and status is valid, it is important that size is demonstrated visibly (i.e., via the body of the labret).  Additionally, although I considered that the size of the flange would likely be more related to the size of the labret-wearer’s mouth, and thus age or even sex could be discernable statistically via a bimodal size distribution, in fact such patterning was absent, and osteological support for the mandibular arcade to sex and age proportions is tenuous (Sutter 2003).  Therefore, I focused on the size (area, width by height) of the labret body in particular, noting that the flange and body sizes are in general positively correlated (Appendix J).  Finally, I filtered out labrets from the testable sample to include only artifacts for which the body was complete or could be accurately estimated based on symmetry, to provide a reduced sample of 217 labrets. Of this reduced sample, labret body area ranges from 5.5mm² to 6400mm².  Nearly a third (28.6%) cluster within the 1-100mm² range, 16.4% at 101-300mm², 11.4% at 301-500mm², 20.9% at 501-800 mm², 11.3% at 801-1500mm², 10.5% at 1501-3300mm², and only 0.9% (N=2) above 6000mm².  Further subdivision showed a size clustering at the 0-50mm² range, 51-100mm², with the greatest variation between 100 to 1000mm², above which the sizes range broadly amongst a small sub-sample.  25 Body Area 6000mm24000mm22000mm20mm2 Nu m be r o f L ab re ts 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Mean =624.42 Std. Dev. =865.468 N =217  B od y A re a 6000mm2 4000mm2 2000mm2 0mm2   Figure 4.1 Labret frequencies by body area Figure 4.2 Labret body area range; * = individual outliers, O = outlier groups with the same value   There is some degree of correlation of size with type, with the plate labrets (N=4) clearly largest, and bowl, pendulant7 and pulley types in the next largest size range.  The smallest category, comprising most of the 0-50mm² range, is the tee labret, next to the spool, knob and double-knob types, while disc labrets cluster between the larger and smaller types, with several larger outliers. Types tee     spool   double- knob knob    disc    pendulantpulley  bowl    plate B od y A re a 6000mm2 4000mm2 2000mm2 0mm2  Material Class faunal  lithic  faunal, faunalfloral  floral,faunal B od y A re a 6000mm2 4000mm2 2000mm2 0mm2  Figure 4.3 Labret body area range by type; * = individual outliers,O = outlier groups with the same value  Figure 4.4 Labret body area range by material class; * = individual outliers, O = outlier groups with the same value    In comparing labret body size with material class, it is apparent that the most variation in size is within the class of lithic labrets, which contains several outliers.  However, there is a clear size distinction between the floral and floral/faunal (i.e., wood with shell inlay) labrets, and the lithic labrets, where the former are clustered within the size range of the lithic outliers, while faunal labrets are generally within the same distribution as the lithic specimens.  7 The body area for pendulant labrets is larger than the pierced hole would be to accommodate it, since the pendulant extends down towards the chin.  26 4.3  Distributional Analyses 4.3.1  Geographic Patterning 4.3.1.1  Type  Geographically, there is distinct patterning in the association of certain types, materials and sizes with specific regions and sub-regions. The ‘disc’ labret is found almost exclusively on the South Coast, as is the pendulant form.  By sub-region (Appendix K), double-knob labrets were only recovered from the Fraser Delta area, although it should be noted that many labrets classified as ‘knob’ appear to have once been double-knob and then broken (see section on ‘Orientation’), which would broaden the geographic patterning for the double-knob form, yet still restrict it to the South Coast.  Knob labrets in general are primarily found in this region and in the Gulf Islands. Region My Types Central North South unknown Total bowl 0 17 0 0 17 disc 0 1 30 0 31 double-knob 0 0 4 0 4 knob 0 8 72 1 81 pendulant 1 0 14 0 15 plate 0 2 1 1 4 pulley 0 16 0 0 16 spool 0 1 0 0 1 tee 3 9 39 0 51 Total 4 54 160 2 220 Table 4.9 Geographical distribution by region of labret type  Within the North Coast region, ‘bowl’ and ‘pully’ labrets have been recovered at Haida Gwaii, the Nass and Skeena River areas.  Likewise, the ‘spool’ type, although only one was included in this sample, is clearly associated with the North Coast based on the collection of the same type held at the Burke Museum (not analyzed in this research), and was common amongst Tlingit in particular.  As previously-mentioned, the Central Coast was represented by only four labrets, three of which were tee- shaped while the fourth was a very small pendulant-style labret of purple-hinged scallop shell (Crassodoma gigantea), recovered from Namu8, which represents the only one of this style and material found outside of the South Coast.  In fact, the most widespread form of labret found geographically was the ‘tee.’  This type is found all along the Coast but certainly concentrated on the South Coast (24% of all labrets in region), with a smaller sample from the North Coast (16%)  This is of interest in light of the possibility that these may be labrets worn during the earlier  8 Subsequent to data collection, two tee labrets from Namu were identified in the Museum of Ethnology and Archaeology at SFU, associated with Period 4 dating to between 4500-3500 BP; one is purple-hinged scallop shell.  27 stages of piercing and eventually replaced by larger labrets, and as such could be redefined as labret hole-stretchers, which Nelson (1983 [1899]:48) suggests of similar objects used by the Inuit.  Of particular interest are the geographically-dispersed ‘plate’ labrets.  Two such labrets in this sample were recovered from the North Coast at Haida Gwaii and the Skeena River area; however, a third of this type represents the only confirmed labret ever recovered from the West Coast of Vancouver Island, a culture area not known to have ever had a labret tradition (Alan McMillan 2008 email communication). 4.3.1.2  Material There are some general trends with respect to raw material and geographic distribution.  For example, all floral (wood) labrets are from the North Coast, which also has a disproportionately high number of faunal labrets (31%) compared to the South Coast (11%). Region Material Class  Central North South unknown Total faunal 3 15 18 0 36 faunal, faunal 0 2 0 0 2 floral 0 7 0 0 7 floral, faunal 0 5 0 0 5 floral, metallic 0 1 0 0 1 lithic 1 24 142 2 169 Total 4 54 160 2 220  Table 4.10 Crosstabulation of material class by region; ‘faunal,faunal’ is used to  describe a labret made from two different types of faunal material (i.e., bone and shell)   Additionally, when looking at the specific material types (Appendix L), the South Coast accounts for 95% of all labrets made of ‘steatite,’ 84% of soapstone labrets, and nearly all shell labrets (N=12, of 13; the remaining one was from the Central Coast).  By sub-region, coal was associated predominantly with sites on Eastern Vancouver Island and concentrated in sites along the Fraser Delta, although it was present on the North Coast as well (Appendix M).  A further breakdown of material by site and type of labret is provided in Appendix N. 4.3.1.3  Size The geographic distribution shows that while there is overlap in all regions, the types of labrets from the North Coast are generally larger than those on the South Coast (see Appendix O for a breakdown by sub-region). The size and type appears to be correlated with material type as well: as previously noted, with the exception of the large plate labrets made of slate, there is a tendency overall for labrets made of wood from the North Coast to be larger than lithic labrets.  28 Region Central South   North B od y A re a 6000mm2 4000mm2 2000mm2 0mm2  Collection Source ArchaeolEthnolog B od y A re a 6000mm2 4000mm2 2000mm2 0mm2  Figure 4.5 Labret body area range by region; * = individual outliers, O = outlier groups with the same value  Figure 4.6 Labret body area range by collection source; * = individual outliers, O = outlier groups with the same value    Obviously, employing wood as a labret raw material enabled much larger sizes to be worn ‘comfortably’ due to the lighter density, although some labret types, such as discs, were significantly concaved, both lightening the object and highlighting the ‘shininess’ of the visible surface (Appendix P).  Additionally, wooden labrets were often inlaid with abalone shell, at times in complex designs, enabled by the mutability of a wooden base.  Whether this is the reason behind this choice of material cannot be assumed, but it may well be significant that the larger labrets, with a few exceptions, are all made of wood. 4.3.2  Temporal Patterning 4.3.2.1  Type  As previously mentioned, considering type by associated date has been problematic due to a lack of temporal data (Appendix Q).  In the absence of an adequate sample of dated artifacts, I have relied on the distinction between ‘ethnological’ and ‘archaeological’ labrets, which has proven useful in looking at differences in form, material and size through both time and space.  All ethnological labrets were recovered from the North Coast where labrets were still being worn during the period of initial European contact and thereafter.  In considering artifact type, the ‘bowl’ labret is only seen ‘ethnologically’ while pulley labrets were recovered equally archaeologically and ethnologically.  On the South Coast, disc labrets (N=4) were recovered associated with dates between 2500 to 3500 BP, and knob labrets span the entire time range represented, 2000-4500 BP.  However, the precision of these data is questionable, as is the utility of such ‘patterns’ considering the small the sample size.  Carlson and Hobler (1993:45) suggest that there is a general pattern of “increasingly varied types appearing in the 2000-year period following 4-5 Kya”.  Certainly, most labrets with absolute or inferred dates examined in this  29 research are associated by researchers with the Locarno Beach period (3500-2500 BP).  However, this pattern is not generally testable due to a dearth of robust dates, a lack of resolution, and an inadequate sample size, which prevented analysis of labret type by time period beyond the few broad patterns that have already been suggested. 4.3.2.2  Material  In terms of materials represented through time, the archaeologically-recovered labrets are mostly lithic, with bone employed primarily for tee labrets.  Additionally, there is a correlation both geographically (as noted) and temporally with the use of purple-hinged scallop, for labrets in particular and for personal ornamentation more broadly (Keddie 2008 pers. comm.).  Yet the dominance of lithic labrets archaeologically is held in stark contrast to the ethnology collections at the CMC and RBCM, which both demonstrate that, at least within the last two hundred years, bone, ivory, wood and shell were equally if not more important materials used for labrets.  Additionally, the single example of a horn labret, while extremely rare within this sample, is perhaps not uncommon of labrets in Tlingit territory (the Ethnology Collection of the Burke Museum has seven ‘spool’ type labrets noted as ‘Tlingit’, of which at least two are horn).  Thus, there is no clearly demonstrable relationship between time period and particular raw material choice since differential preservation (i.e., wood versus lithic) cannot be controlled for. 4.3.2.3  Size  Based on the study sample, there are not enough data for any fine-scale analyses of size distribution over time.  What can be said is intrinsically linked with geography as noted above—namely, that labrets from the North Coast from the more recent ‘ethnographic’ period are generally larger than those recovered archaeology from the South Coast.  Chapter 5 will provide more discussion of this pattern. 4.4  Burial Association: ‘Gender’ and Age  The consideration of ‘identity associations’ primarily through contextual data, predominantly burials, has proven a somewhat dissatisfying aspect of this research.  This is in part because the number of examples where labrets have been found in situ with burials is small to begin with (see Table 4.11), which is due in part to a lack of published and available data.  Usually they have been found in shell middens, where multiple individuals were interred over a potentially vast period of time, and thus clear relationship between one artifact to one individual is frequently impossible.  Finally, much of this material remains unpublished, with the exception of significant and substantial contributions by Cybulski (1974, 1992).  Of the total number of labrets examined (N=220), 12 were positively identified as having been in direct association with burials.  Of these, five were male, four female, and three were identified by ethnographer Charles  30 Site Region Sub-Region Proven- ience Integrity C14 Date Date Range Culture Period Source Sex Age Labret Type GbTo-31, Boardwalk Site North Skeena River in situ    Archaeological male mid-30s pulley GbTo-36, Baldwin Site North Skeena River in situ “late part of  burial sequence” Archaeological male 30-40 knob GbTo-18, Dodge Island North Skeena River in situ 2590 +/- 40 BP 2500 ‘Locarno/ Marpole’ Archaeological male mid-20s knob Hazelton North Skeena River unknown    Ethnological female elderly pulley Yan North Haida Gwaii in situ    Ethnological shaman grave unknown bowl Ninstints North Haida Gwaii in situ    Ethnological shaman grave unknown bowl Ninstints North Haida Gwaii in situ    Ethnological shaman grave unknown bowl Laxgalts'ap (Greenville) North Nass River in situ 1880 +/- 40 BP 2000 ‘Marpole’ Archaeological female elderly pulley DeRt-2, Pender Canal South Gulf Islands in situ 4320 +/- 220 BP 4000 – 4500 Charles/ Locarno Archaeological female adult tee DeRt-2, Pender Canal South Gulf Islands in situ 4000 +/1 500 BP 3500 – 4500 Charles/ Locarno Archaeological female adult knob DfRu-4, Toynbee Beach South Gulf Islands unknown    Archaeological male mid-20s knob DfRu-4, Toynbee Beach South Gulf Islands unknown    Archaeological unknown unknown pendulant DgRs-2, Tsawwassen South Fraser Delta in situ    Archaeological male unknown tee Table 4.11 Burial context data for labrets in association with human remains of known sex  Newcombe in 1905 only as a “shaman grave” (C. Newcombe, Notes on Haida material culture collection held by the British Columbia Provincial Museum, CMC archives VII-B-14M, Box 137 F1).  Two of these labrets were found with elderly women—one being the Greenville example previously mentioned, while the other was a labret carried by Edward Clark (Git’anmeks) that had belonged to his grandmother (CMC artifact record VII-C-1219).  In looking at the range of dates and labret types, there appears to be no demonstrable association with sex or age.  Thus, overall, based on this sample of labrets recovered in direct association with burials, there is not enough data to support a correlation between type with sex or gender.  Further, when considered with osteological evidence as discussed, what patterns may exist are made more complicated when examined over time. An alternative avenue of investigation may be in associated representations of labrets.  For example, the CMC ethnology collections contain several masks and ‘shamanic’ relics, as well as ‘shaman’ dolls, exhibiting labrets.  What is of note is that these objects have all been assumed to either belong to or represent women, perhaps  31 in part because of the presence of the labret (Barbeau 1958).  Although Moss (1999:56-7) notes that, among the Tlingit, male shamans were not known to wear labrets, it remains a possibility, and three labrets in this study sample were recovered from what Newcombe called a Haida shaman grave (C. Newcombe, CMC VII-B-14M, Box 137 F1). Thus it may be precisely the liminal role of the shaman in society that is being communicated through the use of this form of personal adornment.  More background research is needed on the collection of these objects to shed light on this association, the potential for which has been demonstrated in other regions (cf., Steffian and Saltonstall 2001). 4.5  ‘Possible Labrets’ 4.5.1  Orientation of Wear  There has been some debate concerning exactly how labrets were worn, which is a critical consideration when attempting to evaluate ambiguous artifacts that may be labrets.  This confusion stems in part from a seeming discontinuity between the ethnographic examples, photographs and masks, archaeological samples, and contemporary representations of labrets.  The general trend is to portray the labret in the mouth orientated horizontally—that is, with the lip projecting away from the teeth like a ‘bowl.’  Indeed, ethnographic accounts of labrets have described these lip plugs as ‘bowls,’ and this is generally how they are represented in contemporary depictions (Appendix R).  Conversely, the labrets recovered archaeologically are generally quite different from some of the more recent Northern examples.  From scratches on the posterior flange surfaces, it is apparent that labrets with lateral flanges and singular or double-body projections were worn against the teeth, with the body visible under the lower lip.  Disc labrets were likely worn the same way, tied around one tooth to prevent the lip from falling forward, while several of the large pendulant labrets also exhibit grooves around the flange, perhaps for the same purpose9.  The ‘pulley’ labrets of the North, made of stone, present a different problem for interpretation.  These objects were quite heavy, and it is difficult to conceive that they could have been worn ‘vertically,’ and rather more likely that they fell forward not unlike the wooden ‘bowls.’  How they stayed in place between the teeth and the lip is equally unclear; however, the example from Greenville was found against the anterior surface of the bearer’s lower jaw, where all lower incisors and canines had been lost and the bone had deteriorated, presumably in part due to prolonged abrasive contact with this stone labret.  The two largest labrets, both made of slate, may have been worn altogether differently.  With these, the sheer size alone (both are 8x8cm width by height, total body area 64cm²) suggests that it was simply not possible to  9 Mackenzie (1891:54-55) describes this practice among the Haida.  32 wear the ‘flange’ inside the mouth against only the lower teeth.  Instead, either the flange took up the entire labial area of both the upper and lower incisor surfaces, effectively making speech impossible, or the ‘flange’ was in fact worn against the chin, with the lower lip resting effectively underneath the large body, facing anterior.  Scratches observed on the flanges may suggest the former was practiced, but this does not exclude the latter possibility.  That some labrets were in fact quite cumbersome is clear from Nelson’s (1983 [1899]:49-50) observations that, whilst traveling with a group of Inuit, “the labrets were invariably removed in order to prevent the lip from freezing,” and kept during this time in a small bag until approaching the destination village when they were replaced “that the wearer might present a proper appearance before the people.”  Nelson (1983 [1899]:50) also notes that they were sometimes removed for eating and sleeping.  Additionally, the Emmons (1991) collection of jade objects from British Columbia and Alaska presents another possibility, based on one labret (Plate XXI) with a rectangular/oval body face exhibiting a narrow groove cut through the centre.  The description for this plate explains the asymmetrical lateral wings of the flange as having “a longer and a shorter arm for insertion.”  Whether this could, in fact, be the reason why several of the labrets examined for this thesis have asymmetrical flange wings is unclear, but certainly possible; yet from evidence of reworking and comparison with complete examples, in at least several cases, the labrets had been double-bodied, broken down the medial axis, then been reworked10. 4.5.2  Composite and Buccal Labrets, and Ear-spools  Observations of so-called ‘composite’ labrets (Appendix S), rectangular in form and curved with two drilled holes posterior to anterior, were made for this research, partly in an attempt to positively identify these ‘whatzits’ as labrets.  As such, high-definition digital photographs were taken of apparent wear on the posterior surfaces (Appendix T).  In comparing the patterns of scratching and wear facets, the results are inconclusive, and it remains uncertain whether these objects were used as labrets at all.  Having examined several such artifacts (N=25), as well as other whatzits, the range of variation in form alone suggests that, if they were used as labrets, they represent a form completely unknown, and it is not clear how they might have been worn.  Also, in this research, most labrets were designated as ‘labial.’ However, I would propose that this is in part due to a lack of examples of labrets that were worn bucally (Appendix U), which has led to at best informed guesses as to what one actually looks like. As such, I suggest that several of the ‘buccal’ forms included in this sample are  33 not in fact labrets, and again the wear patterns are not conclusive. Comparison with known buccal examples from further north amongst the Inuit may aid in the identification of similar examples from the Northwest Coast.  Finally, there has been discussion as to whether some objects classified as ear-spools may in fact be labrets (Dahm 1994:74a).  Rather than the ‘standard’ circular form, it is the elongated rectangular-oval pieces that have called this to attention (Appendix V).  In examining the surface wear to these objects, I could see no evidence to suggest tooth abrasion.  While not conclusive, since wooden examples of roughly the same size also do not exhibit such wear, that combined with the sheer weight of these objects suggest to me that they are not labrets. 4.5.3  ‘Plug’ Labrets  Most of these objects have in past been identified as ‘whatzits’ on the South Coast; however, the ethnology collection at the CMC contained similar artifacts that had been positively identified as labrets, comparable in form although the materials employed differed.  Additionally, the overall form is similar to bowl labrets, although plugs are much smaller and, on the South Coast, made of stone.  The three examples from the North Coast were all ‘ethnological’ examples, while on the South Coast, they were all archaeological, which may account for the different materials used (Appendix W).  Although not demonstrable conclusively, based on similarity of form with examples from the North Coast, I have included the ‘plug’ labret tentatively as a formal type (Appendix X). 4.5.4  Other Anomalies  There were several other artifacts that had some characteristics of labrets but are considered complete outliers and unique.  Because of their unclear designation as ‘labrets,’ these objects were not useful to consider in the creation of a formalized typology.  Nonetheless, it is important to mention them here to aid in future research if similar objects are encountered that may illuminate the ambiguity of these classifications.  Photographs for some of these artifacts have been included under Appendix Y.       10 Ames (2001:8) suggests that “some labrets were deliberately broken before disposal,” which he interprets as a deliberate attempt to remove them from circulation, indicating “permanent social rank”.  The evidence for deliberate breakage is unclear however, and this hypothesis is challenged by the many cases I observed where broken labrets were obviously reworked, presumably to be wearable again.  Further analysis of these labrets may help clarify this.  34 CHAPTER 5:  ANALYSIS and DISCUSSION My goal in this research was to investigate the assumptions made by archaeologists about labrets on the Northwest Coast by compiling data against which to test the association of labrets with ‘status’ and gender.  In doing so, I conducted a focused examination of archaeological and ethnological examples of labrets from the region to consider whether social identity is observable in artifact material patterning.  These efforts were complimented by a review of historical and osteological evidence of labret use, as well as (below) the perspectives of people today for whom labrets, in one way or another, hold special meaning.  Together, this ‘braided stream’ of evidence has enabled both clarification of some assumptions concerning the identity of the labret-wearer, and complication in discerning and understanding patterning in material culture that is generated by both context-specific and universally-employed modes in the construction of social meaning. This chapter will explore the concept of social identity as a venue to examine these meanings embedded in material culture, conveyed in the use of the labret.  Specifically, I attempt to unravel the widespread archaeological association of labrets with ‘status’ and gender by considering how such objects of personal ornamentation can convey both allegiance to and confrontation of standards of meaning and social position.  While the variability of such meanings is potentially infinite, there is value in employing both specific and general analogies to consider how the material patterns of labrets may relate to the cultural patterns of their use and meaning. 5.1  Labrets on the Northwest Coast Having provided a detailed account of the research results in the previous chapter, this section addresses the patterning observed in labrets on the Northwest Coast, and how this correlates to varying scales of social identity. With the goal of exploring the materiality of the labret, I considered the relationship between four critical components: 1) labret form, 2) spatial distribution, 3) temporal distribution, and 4) the social role of the labret. Based on the artifact analysis undertaken in this project, the following statements can be made about the hypotheses proposed in this research. 1) There is a clear association between some labret types, raw material, and size. In general, bowl, pulley, plate and pendulant labret forms fall within a larger size range than the other types.  Of these, bowls are primarily made of wood, pulleys of various types of stone, plates of slate, while pendulant labrets were shell or stone but predominantly ‘steatite.’  Falling in the middle size-range, disc labrets are both relatively homogeneous in size, and account for most of the ‘steatite’ labrets in this sample.  Finally, tee labrets were the smallest, and also have the highest proportion of faunal examples, particularly bone.  The extent to which  35 labret form dictated its materiality however is unclear, since each type is also represented by labrets of other materials (i.e., stone tees, coal discs).  Additionally, while many larger labrets are made of wood, the largest are lithic, as are most pulleys, and pendulants are of a heavy shell or stone (hence, the groove to fasten a cord around the teeth).  Differential preservation likely plays a role in this as well.  Thus, it appears that the choice of material for particular kinds of labrets in certain geographic areas relied on cultural concepts of what is an appropriate and valued material for a labret rather than by the physical demands of either the labret shape or the labret wearer. 2) There is geographic patterning of some labret types, while other types are seen Coast-wide. Bowl, plate, spool and pulley labrets are recovered almost exclusively on the North Coast, while the South Coast accounts for all disc, double-knob and pendulant labrets, clustered in the Gulf Islands and Fraser Delta sub- regions.  Knob and tee labrets are found all along the coast, while ‘plugs’ are mostly on the South Coast with a few on the North Coast (and of a different material, although double-knob labial labrets are associated with the Inuit ethnographically; cf., Nelson 1983 [1899]).  Based on this broad geographic distribution, it appears that types do correlate somewhat on the level of the regional social or cultural groups, although there is frequent overlap at the sub-regional level; meanwhile, typological distinction is also apparent between sites in the same sub-region. For example, recalling to Dawson’s (1880:108-9) description of the Haida labret as oval, Ts’msyan “elongated,” and circular for the Stikine River Tlingit, by type alone these cultural distinctions are not mutually- exclusive at the sub-regional scale.  Additionally, ‘bowl’ labrets transitioned imperceptibly between elongated ovoid to oval, and were found in Haida Gwaii and on the Nass River, while ‘pulley’ labrets were seen in all areas on the North Coast, and represent the closest type to Dawson’s ‘circular’ labret of the Tlingit.  That the data do not fully align with Dawson’s observations is not a direct refutation of the accuracy of his records (although his sample size may not be representative), as certainly the types closest to his descriptions are geographically patterned.  Rather, the ‘biography’ of the labret is intimately linked with the life history of its bearer, such that even if Dawson’s ‘types’ were sub-regionally consistent, travel, intermarriage, warfare, and other social transactions would create a geographically varied pattern for these types, as is seen here. 3) There is an association between raw materials and region, sub-region, and/or individual sites. Wooden labrets were recovered exclusively from the North Coast, where the frequency of faunal labrets, including bone, antler, horn and ivory, was also proportionally elevated compared to the other regions.  The South Coast accounted for nearly all ‘steatite’ labrets, as well as coal labrets, found concentrated in sites on the Fraser Delta and the Gulf Islands.  Purple-hinged scallop and other shell labrets were primarily found on the South Coast,  36 particularly in the Gulf Islands, as well as one on the Central Coast.  As previously mentioned, the materials employed were likely influenced more by what was valued and considered appropriate culturally, rather than what was locally available; however, this hypothesis requires empirical testing via sourcing of raw materials. 4) There is geographic patterning regarding labret size, however this is also correlated temporally. The larger forms of labrets are primarily found in ethnological collections from the North Coast.  However, the largest labrets (plates, N=4) represent a geographical mystery as two were found on the North Coast, while another represents the only labret from the West coast of Vancouver Island.  Generally, however, larger labrets are clustered on the North Coast, with the exception of pendulant forms on the South Coast (a form that required a smaller pierced hole than the North Coast types, even while the body area may be comparable).  The relationship between size, geography and time will be further discussed later in this chapter. 5) There is no demonstrable association between time period and either labret type, material or size, except between archaeologically-recovered labrets and particular forms collected ethnologically. As previously noted, the biggest stumbling block in looking at associations of labret form through time and association with status, gender, and age, has been a lack of published and accessible contextual data (specifically spatial and temporal provenience).  Most labrets are recovered from disturbed contests, and of those recovered in situ, few are independently dated to test the accepted association with certain periods (e.g., Locarno Beach). The result is that a clear correlation between specific labret type, material or size, and archaeological time period, cannot be demonstrated.  However, of the labrets with established dates, a few simple statements can be made.  For example, the oldest labrets recovered date to ca.4500 BP although, as mentioned, indirect evidence for labrets is at least 500 years older.  This may be due to a sampling bias in the age of sites identified and excavated, or it may be related to differential preservation if earlier labrets were organic as the later ones were.  Additionally, of the labrets that were dated, most fall within the range between 2500 to 3500 BP, associated on the South Coast with the Locarno Beach period.  This is consistent with contemporary interpretations of labrets in this region, which appear to be gradually phased out and cranial deformation introduced in the Marpole period (Cybulski 1991; McMillan 1995:191).  Of course, this pattern is also skewed by sampling bias in that many more labrets have been recovered from the South Coast, an apparent over-representation that has played a significant role in archaeological studies and translated into a strong tendency to focus on labrets from the South Coast, in particular from the Gulf Islands, as ‘the standard.’  Indeed, in the archaeological literature, labrets feature as a diagnostic artifact type in the South Coast  37 ‘Locarno Beach’ and ‘Marpole’ assemblages (Mitchell 1971), despite the fact that for the longest duration, and very recently at less than 100 years ago, labrets were used on the North Coast by at least the Tlingit, Ts’msyan and Haida. Thus, while general observations can be made regarding the temporal distribution of archaeological labrets, the small sample of dated labrets and low spatial resolution requires such statements be made on a broad scale. The exception to this is seen in the comparison of archaeological examples with ethnological ones, based on the assumption that the latter were collected during the period of initial European colonization on the North Coast and thus reflect a more recent manifestation of the labret tradition than archaeologically-recovered examples—a somewhat indirect way to access temporal distribution.  Additionally, this ethnological/archaeological division is spatially significant because labrets were not known to be worn on the South Coast by at least the period of initial contact.  Therefore, the geographic distribution both reflects distance between peoples spatially, and in time.  Along these lines, there is clear geographic patterning in labret form that is correlated temporally—that is, large, wooden bowl labrets represent one of the most recent manifestations of the labret tradition on the Coast, accompanied by both lithic and faunal pulley labrets.  Excluding ‘plate’ labrets (which, as mentioned, may not in fact be labrets), these two categories represent the next largest size ranges for all types observed.  Conversely, in the archaeological sample of the South Coast where labrets were used between 2000-5000 BP, relatively standardized sizes of smaller, ‘steatite’ disc, knob (and double-knob) and plug labrets were pervasive. This suggests two correlations: 1) size was more variable and thus a more important attribute during the recent labret use on the North Coast, and 2) the labret tradition as observed by European explorers and ethnographers, and cited frequently by archaeologists, is not representative of labrets on the Northwest Coast over the last 5,000 years.  Therefore, the correlation of size with ‘status,’ and status with labrets, is not inherent, but may instead be contextual, a point that will be discussed at length in the sections following. 6) There is no demonstrable association between labret type, material, size, time and space, and sex/‘gender’ or age of the labret-bearer. As discussed in Chapter 4, a lack of available data on known associations between sex-identified interred individuals and retrieved labrets, or ambiguity in these associations during excavation, has significantly hindered testing of any correlation between labret type and gender.  Based on osteological, archaeological, and ethnohistorical evidence, clearly both men and women did wear labrets; however, during what time periods, during what phase of life, what kind of labret, all men or women or just some…these issues remain ambiguous, and the archaeological examples have brought me no closer to clarifying any patterning therein.  38 Instead, it is the osteologically-derived evidence for labret wear that continues to be of most value in this regard.  Cybulski (1991:18) illustrates that, on the South Coast based on human remains from Pender Canal (N=22) and Crescent Beach (N=35), labrets were worn equally by men and women.  Conversely, on the North Coast, during the same timeframe males outnumbered females with labret wear 4:1 at Prince Rupert Harbour (N=157), while after 1400 BP at Greenville, only women were observed with dental faceting (N=30).  This is a significant transition on the North Coast, yet lacks resolution in the later burials, since Cybulski (1991:12) suggests that interment in this burial ground was restricted to individuals of elevated position within the community.  This is a critical point that highlights the danger of presuming the burial record to be directly indicative of the ‘living’ record (and seen in the concept of labrets as heirlooms [Cybulski 1991:14], which is observed for at least one ethnologically-collected labret in this sample from the North Coast.  Likewise, the suggestion that contemporary kinship structure of bilateral descent on the South Coast may be signified in the equal male-to-female burial population at Crescent Beach dating 2500-3300 BP (Cybulski 1991:13) implies a long-term social stasis that is not materially correlated in labrets. Rather than indicating that there is no relationship between permanent body modification, descent and lineage–– ethnographic sources alone show there clearly is––instead I suggest that this may be more related to the varying social role of the labret on a regional scale, which I discuss further in the following section. Thus, while the osteological evidence certainly has much to contribute to contextualize labrets and their bearers over time, all forms and scales of social identity are themselves inherently ambiguous, as are their material expressions.  There is a caution to heed in concluding that the social role of the labret is discernable osteologically, and so empirically demonstrable, in light of how drastically ones identity can change in the course of a single lifetime (Figure 3.2) and the multiple layers of meaning that underscore the social role of the labret.  Nonetheless, while the archaeological evidence did not yield patterning in labret type, material or size that could be correlated with the sex, gender or age of the bearer, nonetheless the ethnographic descriptions of different labrets for different life stages (cf., Dall 1884:88), and the variability observed in the mortuary record, suggests that such patterning does exist, merely at a resolution as yet inaccessible via the limited provenience data available. 7) The association between labret type, material, size, in time and space, and ‘status,’ is uncertain. The concept of ‘status’ is one that is frequently presented in a simplified package of ‘privilege and power,’ and synonymous with ‘elite’; however, on the Northwest Coast, there is patterned variability in labrets through time and space that this characterization cannot fully account for.  Indeed, the concepts of ‘status,’ ‘elite,’ and ‘power’ are themselves both complex and relational because they rely on the distinction between ‘self' and 'other’ for  39 classification and meaning.  Therefore, part of the challenge of using the ‘labrets = status’ association is not that it is incorrect, but rather that it encompasses too many potential definitions of context-specific ‘status’ to be useful on anything more than a very general level. For example, in cultural communities where social position is tightly controlled and reinforced through other means (i.e. inherited names, resources), the meaning of labrets as markers of ‘elite’ status may be widely accepted, the population of wearers fairly restricted, and the variability of form comparatively low.  By contrast, in settings where claims to social position are being asserted on many fronts (spiritual, economic, political, symbolic etc.), labret form and their use as symbols may be varied as their meaning is manipulated to emulate or contest claims of entitlement.  Finally, both dynamics may be concurrent at different scales of ‘interaction spheres,’ between individuals, families, villages and broader cultural and inter-cultural communities. Therefore, although expressed as a simple relationship, ‘labrets = status’ is in fact a very complex concept. Indeed, the elaboration presented here is itself an oversimplification since labrets invoke meanings that will also vary idiosyncratically.  Thus, the initial step towards unraveling these meanings is to search firstly for homogeneous forms shared by a wider community in time and space as this is more visible archaeologically, and then examine the variability within and between these clusters of material patterning.  Based on the sample of ethnologically collected labrets, and supported by observations of contemporary lip-piercing, there are two initial observations of labret form that I propose are significant: 1) when labrets are most prolific, their form is also most varied, and size within type more consistent; and, 2) when labrets are geographically constrained, their form remains comparatively homogenous while the size, decoration and/or material are more variable.  Certainly, to some extent these patterns reflect simply an unrepresentative sample, geographically and temporally; yet the relationship between these patterns, social organization and ‘status’ is significant, for it suggests that on the South Coast, the kind of status that labrets represented was itself being queried by their bearers, while on the North Coast, the degree of status within an accepted concept of what it meant to be a labret-bearer was at issue.  To support this suggestion, the greatest variation in labret style is seen during the broad time period that labrets were present on the South Coast, where there is also little deviance from an almost ‘standardized’ size range within types.  For example, disc, knob and double-knob labrets, all characteristic of the South Coast, cluster fairly tightly in size range, while the bowl and pulley labrets of the North Coast are not just larger but have a broader size range.  On a local level, there is more internal consistency in type and material.  The Fraser Delta and Gulf Islands have a similar ratio of types and similar materials represented, yet some sites within those sub-regions are  40 proportionally distinct (i.e., Crescent Beach has the largest number of pendulant labrets of any site, while Musqueam North East has the highest concentration of coal labrets).  Based on these data, it may be that the more appropriate scale of analysis is at the site level where local homogeneity is observed, within a heterogeneous region. Conversely, on the North Coast, the ethnological examples from Haida, Tlingit and Ts’msyan territories are testimony to an increasing emphasis placed on size, while the shapes remain geographically homogeneous and ‘standardized.’  This is perhaps most clear in the examples from Haida Gwaii, where wooden labrets accommodated inlays of copper and abalone shell, frequently with more ornate designs, highlighting the increasing importance of these ornaments as visual markers of distinction (Wobst 1977).  If labrets are used to communicate both solidarity and difference, then the use of a particular type may be to strengthen ties with certain groups (Weissner 1998), while distancing from others; however, the motivation for reinforcing such differences can vary.  The labret, as a permanent body modification, is a gesture of distinction made on a group level targeting a large audience, which suggests that the message communicated is fundamental; likewise, the provocation for this practice must be equally important.  For example, during times of social instability, permanent body modification may be used as a tactic to demarcate and naturalize social distinction and thus secure access to scarce or tightly controlled resources, whatever those may be.  A fluctuation from heterogeneity to homogeneity in labret use may be one illustration of an increased need to adhere to orthodoxy; the shift from labrets to cranial deformation may be another, seen on the South Coast during the Marpole period and potentially related to environmental and social stresses (Lepofsky et al 2005).  Meanwhile, the conventional markers indicating distinction may become exaggerated or enhanced.  The sudden influx of wealth that accompanied prolonged contact with Europeans may be one stimulus provoking increased economic disparity, materially manifested in the larger wooden bowl labrets with increasingly ornate designs of abalone shell and copper, and iron (Mullens and Paynter 2000)—again highlighting the social importance of visibility in distinction.  Having said that, while wearing a labret may signify adherence to social convention through homogeneity of form, simultaneously it may also communicate resistance to the rules governing this practice via unorthodox heterogeneous material expression.  The problem of low temporal resolution in making statements of causality requires that these observations are by necessity generalized.  Nonetheless, the labret communicated distinction both within and between groups, and this distinction may in some contexts relate to accessing wealth of some form, be it economic, spiritual or other.  As such, it can also be suggested that such permanent body alteration was consciously manipulated as a tactic to naturalize the social position of the labret bearer and family, a position that, on the  41 Northwest Coast, is intrinsically related to access to resources, both material and incorporeal, the inheritance of which may have been eased as a result of this modification  In this vein, a correlation between ‘status’ and labrets has also been used to suggest broad scale shifts in social organization from so-called ‘simple’ to ‘complex’ hunter-gatherers, as well as to highlight the perceived cultural florescence of the Marpole period (cf., Matson and Coupland 1994).  Yet the labret as a symbol of social identity in fact functions to simplify social transactions, particularly between groups, by emphasizing difference within, thereby reducing time and effort spent by outsiders to gauge an individual’s position in the community.  In this sense, while the ‘institutionalized inequality’ characteristic of so-called ‘social complexity’ may be reflected in the standardization of ornament form, social inequality necessarily always precedes this.  As such, if the ornament is important to secure inheritance, the beginnings of its form should reflect great variation as position and appropriate means of conveying this are negotiated.  This would be followed by ‘standardization’ in style, representing a social stability via the ‘institutionalization’ of what has become an accepted practice.  On the Northwest Coast, the earliest suite of labrets with dates already exhibit such formal typological properties, and thus a collective understanding of this ornamentation may well already have been in place by the time archaeology enters the picture.  At this point, however, the standards of distinction become commonplace; since rarity frequently denotes value, homogeneity may be a threat to distinction (cf., Cannon 1989), and thus this stage sees renewed efforts to reassert such distinction through other means, such as size or material.  In fact, this is precisely the broad pattern seen in labrets on the Coast; yet this pattern is non-linear, since both sameness and difference are being continually expressed materially in a dialectical ebb-and-flow between individual aspirations and collective orthodoxy, and depending on resolution (region, sub-region, site, time period), there is frequently more variation within a group than between.  Ultimately, while a correlation between labret types, social, economic, spiritual and other ‘status’-based wealth can be hypothesized, the difficulty is in reifying a pervasive assumption that has been thus far empirically untestable.  Indeed, the material patterning for the North and South Coasts is sufficiently different that two separate historically-particular processes seem to be at play.  On the South Coast, standardization of size within types during the Locarno Beach period may denote relative stability in social positioning on one scale (i.e., the distribution of disc labrets in the Gulf Islands and Fraser Delta), while variation highlights distinction at other scales (i.e., coal versus ‘steatite’).  Additionally, if descent was reckoned bilaterally as it is now amongst the Coast Salish, which Cybulski (1992:71-2) suggests based on mortuary evidence, it may be that the labret was less critical as a symbol of  42 power and instead reflected other kinds of identity, perhaps even at the village level.  This suggests that the kind of status that labrets communicated, and thus the meaning of the labret itself, was being negotiated between groups on the South Coast at multiple scales and in widely varying contexts. Meanwhile, a different situation on the North Coast during the ethnographic period is observed, where increasing variation in size and material within fewer type classes may be related to disturbance or threat to social positioning, in part due to the new and increased opportunity for wealth that bred a social environment of increased competition.  Here, the labret as a signifier of high-status was the accepted meaning, but the size and, for example, use of abalone or copper inlays indicated the degree of elevated position within that restricted elite class.  This is consistent with the use of the labret as a statement of power within a relatively rigid and formalized matrilineal social structure, where the position of labret-wearer is as strictly governed as the various resources and privileges inherited (Ames 2001). Therefore, two separate scenarios are observed in labret use regionally and in time.  While the South Coast pattern suggests an ongoing discourse concerning what kind of status labrets mean, this question was resolved by the ethnographic period on the North Coast, where ‘labrets = high status’ was accepted and instead it was the degree of status that was being navigated in labret size.  The range of typological variation on the South Coast therefore highlights that labrets were an imperfect gesture of identity, since one piercing could accommodate any number of different types of labrets, facilitated by the fact that most types on the South Coast fall within a comparable size range.  The same could be argued of the North Coast based on the archaeological labrets in this sample, and indeed it may be that this pattern was Coast-wide prior to ca.2500 BP (Cybulski 1992:72).  However, at this point on the South Coast, labrets were abandoned and cranial deformation introduced—a physically permanent marker of non- negotiable status, arguably again signifying ‘kind’ rather than ‘degree within.’  Meanwhile, sometime thereafter, the recent labret tradition of the North Coast overcame the ‘imposter’ potential by emphasizing size: quite simply, a big labret requires a larger pierced hole, and it takes time to stretch the lip, a process that is not reversible. Thus, ‘status’ is a complex and fluid concept, and while the most recent manifestation of labrets on the Coast equates status with ‘high rank’ or ‘elite,’ this function is not inherent in labrets, but rather dependent on the social context of its use.  The challenge is to strive for a more sophisticated understanding of this dynamic in order to better equip ourselves to address what are some of the more critical questions being posed in archaeology.    43 5.2  Typology, Materiality and Social Identity  The principal component of this research has been to test and potentially revise existing labret typologies. As such, the main task was also the most difficult one, and most paradoxical: that is, while seeking to complicate the notion of simple equations between material culture and social identity, typological analysis is necessarily a reductionist and essentializing over-simplification of what is infinitely complex.  Certainly, there is a fine line between a typological classification that is too broad to be useful, or too narrow to observe patterning, especially with an artifact type that is potentially as idiosyncratic as the individuals wearing the labrets.  While all material culture can be said to defy natural classification and as such resist the order of classification (Read 2007), nonetheless, people within cultural communities share sufficient experiential and symbolic conversance with objects that meaningful patterns do exist. As a visually prominent form of ornamentation that requires a permanent physical alteration, labrets represent an exclusionary tradition meant to communicate intimate symbolic information (Ingold 1986).  As such, the labret would not be readily adopted by others simply for its aesthetic properties, but rather its use would be restricted to only those meeting the culturally shared and enforced criteria, criteria that imply systemic, translatable levels of meaning.  For an object such as the labret that is intended for visual display, the dialectical negotiation between individual and group ideas of what is appropriate remains visible in discernable patterns reflecting adherence to institutionalized meanings and divergences from them (Adams and Adams 1991:54). This relationship is demonstrated by the creation of a labret typology, recognizing that it has meaning at one scale yet masks meaning on other scales.  Therefore, while the typology I have proposed here appears to reflect discrete types, in fact even these remain ambiguous, and so it is useful to conceive of these more as trait-clusters on a gradation of one form to another when attempting to interpret based on what remain at least partly artificial ‘types’.  To aid in conceptualizing the meaning of typology and its utility in accessing the relationship between societal notions of appropriateness and individual expressions of difference, I sought the perspectives of people who today wear labrets, albeit typically in a modified form than the assemblage under study.  This included accessing body modification web forums to get a sense of the ‘sub-culture’ of contemporary labret use, and interviewing a labret-bearer11.  This informant stated that she both “liked the aesthetic value” of her lip-piercing, and “that it was a little out of the norm.”  She clarified, speaking to this tension specifically: By ‘out of the norm’ I meant that it was an aesthetic expression that wasn’t too overly common.  I guess I’m not big on the idea of looking exactly like everyone else on the street...In the same  11 This informant has subsequently removed her labret to conform to her rules of employment.  44 breath though it wasn’t so out of the norm that I would be stared at, nor necessarily judged negatively in academic/professional situations...Strangers didn’t really react usually, I think because [my labret] was reasonably small and unobtrusive.   In recent years, the labret has become a socially acceptable form of individual expression, yet at the same time the style of labret is shifting to more visually prominent forms, becoming at times more ornate, using a wider range of raw materials, and/or with exaggerated size, all of which are dependent on the labret ‘type.’  This veritable explosion of stylistic heterogeneity is pushing beyond the previous limits of ‘acceptable’ labret form by individuals reacting against the normalization of body modification to retain it as an expression of individuality, of ‘difference between’ (Emberling 1997).  In the archaeological examples of labrets, a similar trend can be suggested of some of the idiosyncratic variation and significant size increase observed during the periods when this ornament became prolific; yet, in the ethnographic example of the North Coast, a hierarchically-derived position of ‘status’ was definitely a factor influencing labret character, while the contemporary use of the labret may only have this ‘rank’ element on a ‘sub-cultural’ level (i.e., large labrets do indicate status within the realm of body modification where rare or extreme expressions are valued [Larratt 2002], but lack coherence in the larger society where the ‘meaning’ of labret forms is only superficially understood and thus necessarily generalized).  Thus, critical to this analysis is the idea of the labret as dynamic—that it both defines and is defined by the bearer and larger social groups within and external to the culture (Barth 1969)—and so is mutable, fluid and negotiated, invoking and at the same time commenting on cultural conventions (Giddens 1984).  As such, the labret functions on individual, community and inter-community scales as a complex identity marker, the meaning of which is/was manipulated, reinforced or revised by conforming to or refusing the conventional rules of its use, thereby changing the rules (Bourdieu 1977). Thus it is in the practice of making and wearing labrets that collective grammars of meaning are created and informed and negotiated, both between ‘agents’ and with the larger ‘structure,’ the collective idea of the orthodox. However, while objects such as personal ornaments invoke the most complex, idiosyncratic and thus dynamic suite of meanings, this does not preclude the existence of standardization in the form of typology.  The danger is that the latter overshadow the former because archaeologists have been more adept at so-called ‘morphofunctional’ classification than what is considered to be ‘symbolic’ interpretation, perceived as being less tangible and thus inaccessible in the absence of an ‘emic’ perspective (Headland et al. 1990).  Of course, as a prominently visible form of personal ornamentation, the labret signified the cultural boundary between those who understood at least some of its meaning on ‘the inside,’ and those who were excluded from this meaning.  Thus the  45 interpretation that one cannot access the symbolism of the labret without an emic perspective is in itself accessing the symbolism, meaning and intent of the labret: to exclude. Efforts here to move away from this false dichotomy turned to the concept of the chaîne opératoire, wherein the technological production sequence is seen as representing choices that have meaning, embodying elements of social identity (Stark 1998).  This approach is modeled nicely in Schiffer’s (1997) discussion of pottery, in which he suggests that ceramic form/style derives from an agency-structure feedback loop that is discernable in form/style variability and patterning.  In the creation of a typology, I approached the labret as a duality in itself: the flange worn inside the mouth, hidden and more closely linked with the individual and personal comfort (Smith 2007), and the visible body, which may conform more to societal concepts of appropriateness and rules of symbolic communication, “shared, largely uninterrogated ways of acting” (Joyce 2007:86).  Yet fundamentally, all attributes of a labret both contain and inspire a culturally constructed concept of ‘materiality,’ and so whether archaeologists explicitly address the ‘symbolic’ aspects of artifacts, nonetheless every typology inherently evokes perhaps not what the meaning is, but rather, that there is meaning. 5.3  The Ethnographic Present  This effort to contextualize the labret in social life has included the labret within its cultural past and present.  This began with a look at Swanton’s (1905:99) account of the Haida, wherein he notes that the Eagle families of at least Skidegate and Masset trace their lineage back to Labret-Woman. Swanton (1905:216-7) also relates a story about Stī’tga-k!Α’mala12, or Shell-Labret woman.  Shell-Labret, as Swanton (1905:217) discusses, is a figure “used to frighten children into good behaviour”—in this case, conforming to societal expectations of ear- piercing. In general, these stories of Haida origins and mythology feature the labret prominently as an ornament conveying lineage, kinship, gender, and social distinction, as well as ensuring adherence to social values of tradition and belonging.  Thus, many veneers of meaning and relationship are revealed in these stories, a crucial step toward ‘contextualizing’ the labret in its cultural framework alongside what is primarily an empirically-based analysis.  In an effort to further explore the social role of this form of ‘material culture,’ I spoke with two First Nations artists, Russell Mather of Lax Kw’alaams, and Christian White of Masset, Haida Gwaii, both of whom are depicting labrets in their art (Appendix Z).  In doing so, these layered identities were expanded, and it became clear that the labret continues to be a powerful symbol and carries significant cultural meaning that both harkens to the past and is informed by the present (cf., Silliman 2001).  46 By considering the contemporary social context of the labret, some of the notions of what it has meant in the past are being confronted. Ethnohistorical analyses of the labret have often conflated the perceived cumbersomeness of the worn labret, with social constraints on and controlling of women (see Dahm 1994:97 for a discussion of these accounts).  Essentially, labrets were perceived as oppressive, physically and symbolically.  Kan (1989) notes that, among the Tlingit, male Indigenous informants told male European ethnographers that the labret stopped women from talking too much, and thereby from causing wars.  Whether this was a joke misunderstood or represents the opinion of one man cannot be ascertained, but the result has been a broad conceptualization of this particular form of body modification as society’s attempt to control women (Favazza 1996).  Yet, in speaking on his perception of the labret and its female bearers, Christian White described the labret as a “sounding-board,” worn in the mouth to amplify the voice.  He explained that in the last few decades, it has been rare to hear women speak at public events, but more recently they have started to speak at the potlatches, in English but also in Haida.  Christian described this as the women having lost their voice but coming back again and speaking more strongly.  To honour and encourage this, Christian made a series of labrets to be worn as medallions13, which he gave to all his female friends at a potlatch in 2006 to be “a symbol of their voice,” and to help “carry their voice.”  Thus, although these labrets are not worn in the mouth, nonetheless the meaning they carry is of inner strength ‘sounded,’ of women and the matriline, empowered through speaking and being heard.  Christian also stressed that the labret symbolized the female line, the matrilineal nature of Haida culture, going back to Labret-Woman.  As such, he described it as a symbol being used by the youth to empower themselves by reconnecting with their culture, as he did during the repatriation ceremonies while reflecting upon labrets as burial objects, and as the women do when they wear the labret medallions and speak in their own language at the potlatch.  This connection between being a matrilineal society, the power and the voice of women, was also discussed by Russell Mather, a Ts’msyan artist, who described this as his motivation to include labrets in his work: I started to include labrets in my work because first and foremost we are a matrilineal society and we use[d to] honored women in our opening remarks so I thought why not use what we speak in my art and then my art will speak.  [the labret is] a memory of what used to be and a instant connection to my ancestors.  It reminds us of a time long ago and how women were honored and recognized and to this day in my tribe we still follow that.   12 Christian White pointed out that the term ‘Stī’tga’ means labret, and was commonly attached to women’s names to indicate they were of a certain lineage and ‘higher status’ 13 This highlights an aspect of materiality not discussed in this thesis: the relationship between who made versus who wore labrets, and how this influences and is influenced by the cultural meaning that the labret carries, status and gender alike.  47  For both Russell and Christian, the labret is a symbol of the power of women to both speak and be heard, a total reversal from the interpretations of some early ethnographers who saw labrets as oppressive and inhibiting. The labret represents a kind of veneration of women and, by extension, of Ts’msyan and Haida culture respectively, a connection to the past through lineage; thus, the labret is the ultimate symbol of lineage: women = matriline = ancestors = culture = identity  As such, it is a matter of scales of personhood (Fowler 2004), wherein the labret simultaneously connotes personal and group relationships including gender, spirituality, the family and clan, ancestry and kinship, and what it is to be a matrilineal people, Ts’msyan or Haida—as well as more broadly, what it is to be human, and to socialize the body.  Yet these ‘nested’ or ‘fractalized’ senses of self and other, while multilayered, are not necessarily expressed in an explicit material form (e.g., different styles relating to different scales of identity) but rather are encoded in the labret as veneers.  For archaeologists seeking to understand social identity in material culture, this translates into an inability to separate what is inherently intertwined, and thus discerning material patterning related to social identity, as this thesis sought to investigate, may be fundamentally limited. Rather than dismiss the endeavour, however, it is precisely because of the nuanced meanings in material culture that alternative methodologies must be employed, for archaeologists are always studying social identity whether or not this is their aim (Childe 1957); the goal must therefore be to make the effort to understand the complexity of materiality, rather than mask this with simplified ‘explanations’ that ultimately do not satisfy.  The past only matters insofar as it is given meaning by people in the present (Tilley 1989); thus, it is in speaking with people today that the labret is placed in its wider context as an ornament that continues to both inform and be informed by contemporary cultural identity. 5.4  Towards a Reflexive Research Process  In asking the question, how can labrets be used to trace the relationship of peoples on the coast in the last 5,000 years, empirical data was inherently privileged over the voices of the descent community of this heritage.  The history of the labret is also a colonial one (Thomas 1991), as European objectification of labrets has moved from the initial curiosity of explorers, to disgust and abolishment by missionaries intent on assimilation, to a renewed fascination and consumption of labrets in art (Lenz 1994), to an appropriation in contemporary North American body piercing sub-culture—and finally a return to curiosity, as the labret became an object for study in this research. In an effort to counter this, I also asked the question, “What does the labret continue to mean to people?”, and began a dialogue with Indigenous artists who are representing labrets in their work.  48 This research on the topic of social identity, materiality and the labret has demonstrated that cultural identity is something that is expressed and shared between people who feel connected by a common history.  The labret for contemporary First Nations on the North Coast has the potential to be a significant and empowering connection with their culture, heritage, tradition, and thus identity as a people, when empowered through the work of artists like Russell Mather and Christian White. In looking at labrets recovered archaeologically therefore, I wonder whether the labret provoked similar emotion in its bearers, in their families, in the villages?  How it came to be that labrets ceased to have this value for people on the South Coast, where it disappeared potentially in just a few generations?  And how this shift in the ways that people presented themselves impacted relationships between communities all along the coast?  There are potentially profound implications resulting from research on past social identity.  As this project on labrets has demonstrated, accessing identity archaeologically is an extremely complex undertaking and the results are far from certain.  Yet in present-day British Columbia in particular, the results of such research can still represent a direct challenge to Aboriginal Right and Title and land claims, and have real impact on how people view themselves, as a people.  It is therefore crucial that the descent community of the heritage under study be involved in as much of the research process as possible.  As a Masters thesis, the end product has constrained what can be adequately addressed herein while fulfilling the degree requirements.  However, it is only through practice on even the level of a Masters thesis that issues of ethical practice and accountability will be addressed and improved upon.  49 CHAPTER 6:  CONCLUSIONS This thesis represents the most comprehensive and focused investigation of labrets in the Northwest Coast culture area of British Columbia to date.  By tracing the labret through its material life-cycle from raw material and idea to manufacture, modification, wear, reuse, discard, and retrieval, literally and metaphorically, the labret is characterized as both a product in and a producer of the social fabric of its community.  In this manner, I have attempted to provide a holistic analysis of labrets and their social context both in the past and present, moving beyond simple explanations to facilitate a richer understanding of how body ornamentation conveys multiple scales of hyper-contextual social identity. My efforts to clarify labret use through time and space by tracing patterning in the type, material and size, and relating these to different scales of group identity, have produced varied results.  Labret style is patterned at least geographically and to some extent temporally, and was used to convey identity on many scales, particularly observable at the culture group and even village level.  I have suggested that a somewhat different social process may account for the divergent patterns between the North and South Coasts, where the mutability of labret meaning was confronted by an emphasis on size in the North, and a replacement with cranial deformation in the South. Although interaction between these regions was conceivably constant, there is an internal cohesiveness to each that distinguish them culturally, and thus it would be appropriate to refocus separate analyses of each within the broader context of the region’s archaeology.  This would enable a finer-resolution consideration of types, materials, and size, on the site level, where there is clearly significant geographical and temporal patterning of labrets.  At this scale, a material analysis (including PIMA as a sourcing technique, among others) would be appropriate to consider relationships between neighbouring and distant groups, which would be a valuable contribution especially to ongoing discussions of the Locarno/Marpole ‘transition’ (Carlson and Hobler 1993). This research has been hindered by a lack of available data preventing further analysis on both a fine temporal resolution, and in terms of sex, gender and age direct correlations with labrets.  Thus the concept that labret unequivocally delineate high-status, while not wrong, is not supported over the entire history of labret use in this region, and so only conveys a small and recent piece of what has always been a complex picture.  As such, the crucial next step to provide clarity in labret changes over time is to compile additional dates for labrets from the ‘grey literature,’ creating a temporal map of labret style.  While initially the aim of this project, this component proved too time-consuming and logistically challenging to be accomplished here; however, based on the archaeological-to-ethnological patterns, temporal associations should be observable both between and within types.  50 Additionally, this analysis has relied upon typology, yet there remains variation within types (specifically ‘knob’ labrets), types that may not be labrets (plates, plugs), and several unidentified artifacts that were masked or excluded from this analysis.  Identifying previously-unknown types of labrets may be aided through a focused study of tooth- wear on labrets, which is frequently clearly-evident but often ambiguous.  With the case of ‘knob’ labrets, in fact this may in part be related to post-initial-manufacture alteration, certainly demonstrable for a portion of the sample. While a detailed analysis of artifact biography was not possible here, this avenue of research would contribute to the concept of labrets as ‘mutable,’ and may clarify the obscurity that currently exists within the most geographically and temporally widespread type of labret on the coast.  Finally, this research has demonstrated how critical it is to use multiple lines of evidence to address any one research question, particularly when dealing with something as multifaceted and contextual as social identity.  In this vein, I found that speaking with people who are experiencing and relating to the labret today in different ways was one of the most rewarding avenues of research, both in considering the social significance of this ornament and, more broadly, how meaning is constructed by individuals within the constraints of the collective consciousness. Thus, this work has highlighted that one of the critical features of identity is a shared concept of a common history: who you are is where you came from, and as such, because of the role of heritage in the construction of group identity, archaeology can have profound implications for contemporary people’s understanding of who they are. This is particularly significant for the Indigenous peoples in North America and elsewhere, where a colonial myth of disconnect between First Nations and their heritage is still being perpetuated. Thus, while I sought to look at identity in the archaeological record, it was shown to me that the labret continues to hold meaning that is very much alive, connecting the past with a present sense of self and other. Archaeologists must therefore strive for multivocality in their interpretations of materiality and social identity, a challenging endeavour that can only benefit by privileging voices intimately connected to the heritage that we study.  51 REFERENCES CITED Adams, William Y., and Earnest W. Adams 1991  Archaeological typology and practical reality: a dialectical approach to artifact classification and sorting. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.  Ames, Kenneth M. 1995 Chiefly Power and Household Production on the Northwest Coast. In Foundations of Social Inequality, edited by T. Douglas Price and Gary M. Feinman, pp.155-181. Plenum Press, New York.  2001 Slaves, chiefs and labour on the northern Northwest Coast. World Archaeology 33(1):1-17.  Ames, Kenneth M., and Herbert D.G. Maschner 1999 Peoples of the Northwest Coast: Their Archaeology and Prehistory. Thames and Hudson, London.  Barbeau, Marius 1958 Medicine Men on the North Pacific Coast. National Museum of Canada Bulletin 152, Ottawa.  Barth, Fredrik 1969 Introduction. In Ethnic Groups and Boundaries: The Social Organization of Culture Difference, edited by Fredrik Barth., pp.1-38. Little, Brown, Boston.  Blackman, Margaret 1990 Haida: Traditional Culture. In Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 7 Northwest Coast, edited by Wayne Suttles, pp.240-260. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C.  Bourdieu, Pierre 1977 Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.  Borden, Charles 1959 Labrets in Western North America: Eskimo or Indian? Paper presented at the 24th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, Salt Lake City.  Cannon, Aubrey 1989 The Historical Dimension in Mortuary Expressions of Status and Sentiment. Current Anthropology 30:437-458.  Carlson, Roy I. 1996 The Later Prehistory of British Columbia. In Early Human Occupation in British Columbia, edited by Roy Carlson and Luke Dalla Bona, pp. 215-226. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver.  Carlson, Roy I., and Philip M. Hobler 1993 The Pender Canal Excavations and the Development of Coast Salish Culture. BC Studies 99:25-52.  Catlin, George C. 1867 Last Rambles Amongst the Indians of the Rocky Mountains and of the Andes. D. Appleton, New York.  Charlin, Jorge Iribarren and O.F.A. Menghin 1950 Notas preliminares sobre la dispersion continental de un adorno del labio en los pueblos aborigines, el bezote, labret o tembeta; Arqueologia del bezote en el viejo mundo.  Talleres Graficos El Tamaya, Republic of Chile.  Childe, V. Gordon 1957 Social Evolution. Watts & Co., London.  Curtin, A. Joanne 1984 Human Skeletal Remains from Namu (ElSx-1): A Descriptive Analysis. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Department of Archaeology, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver.  52 Cybulski, Jerome S. 1974 Tooth wear and material culture: Precontact Patterns in the Tsimshian area, British Columbia. Syesis 7:31-35.  1991 Observations on Dental Labret wear at Crescent Beach, Pender Canal, and other Northwest Coast Prehistoric Sites. Report prepared for Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada Grant #410-89-1337, Archaeology Branch of British Columbia, Semiahmoo Band, and Canadian Museum of Civilization.  1992 A Greenville Burial Ground: Human Remains and Mortuary Elements in British Columbia Coast Prehistory. Archaeological Survey of Canada Mercury Series Paper No.146, Canadian Museum of Civilization, Ottawa.  1996 Archaeological Human Remains and Associated Cultural Materials from Greenville, B.c., October, 1995. Archaeological Survey of Canada Mercury Series Ms.3947, Canadian Museum of Civilization, Ottawa.  Dahm, Inge R. 1994 Cultural and Social Dimensions of the Prehistoric Gulf Islands Soapstone Industry. Master’s Thesis, Department of Archaeology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby. National Library of Canada Microfilms, Ottawa.  Dall, William H. 1884 On Masks, Labrets, and Certain Aboriginal Customs. Bureau of American Ethnology, Annual Reports 3:73-203.  Dawson, George Mercer 1880 Report on the Queen Charlotte Islands, 1878. Geological Survey of Canada Publication No. 133.  Drucker, Philip 1950 Culture Element Distributions XXVI Northwest Coast. Anthropology Records 9(3). California University Press.  1965 Cultures of the North Pacific Coast. Chandler Publishing, California.  Duff, Wilson 1975 Images Stone B.C.: Thirty Centuries of Northwest Coast Indian Sculpture. Hancock House, Victoria.  Emberling, Geoff 1997 Ethnicity in Complex Societies: Archaeological Perspectives. Journal of Archaeological Research 5 (4):295-344  Emmons, George Thornton 1991 The Tlingit Indians. Washington University Press, Washington D.C.  Fagan, Brian 1995 Ancient North America: The Archaeology of a Continent, Second Edition. Thames and Hudson, New York.  Favazza, Armando R. 1996 Bodies under Siege: Self-mutilation and Body Modification in Culture and Psychiatry. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.  Fowler, Chris 2004 The Archaeology of Personhood: An Anthropological Approach. Routledge, London.     53 Friedman, Janet 1978 Wood Identification by Microscopic Examination: A Guide for the Archaeologist on the Northwest Coast of North America. British Columbia Provincial Museum Heritage Record No.5, Victoria.  Giddens, Anthony 1984 The Constitution of Society. California University Press, Berkeley.  Gilchrist, Roberta 2006 Archaeology and the Life Course: A Time and Age for Gender. In A Companion to Social Archaeology, edited by Lynn Meskell and Robert W. Preucel, 142-160. Blackwell, Oxford.  Grinev, Andrei Val'terovich, Richard L. Bland, and Katerina G. Solovjova 2005 The Tlingit Indians in Russian America, 1741-1867. Translated by Richard L. Bland, Katerina G. Solovjova. University of Nebraska Press.  Headland, Thomas N., Kenneth Pike and Marvin Harris 1990 Emics and Etics: The Insider/Outsider Debate. Sage Publications, London.  Hilton, Suzanne F. 1990 Haihais, Bella Bella, and Oowekeeno. In Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 7 Northwest Coast, edited by Wayne Suttles, pp.312-322. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C.  Hodder, Ian 1982 Symbols in Action: Ethnoarchaeological Studies of Material Culture. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.  1987 The Archaeology of Contextual Meaning. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.  1991 The Meanings of Things: Material Culture and Symbolic Expression. Routledge, London.  Ingold, Timothy 1986 The appropriation of nature. Manchester University Press, Manchester.  Jolles, Frank 1997 Zulu Earplugs: A Study in Transformation. African Arts 30(2):46-59, 94-95.  Jones, Andrew 1998 A Biography of Colour: Colour, Material Histories and Personhood in the Early Bronze Age of Britain and Ireland. In Reader in Archaeological Theory Post-Processual and Cognitive Approaches, edited by David S. Whitley, pp.159-174. Routledge, London.  Joyce, Rosemary A. 2005 Archaeology of the Body. Annual Review of Anthropology 34:139-158.  2007 Embodied Subjectivity: Gender, Femininity, Masculinity, Sexuality. In A Companion to Social Archaeology, edited by Lynn Meskell and Robert W. Preucel, pp.82-95. Blackwell, Oxford.  Kan, Sergei 1989 Symbolic Immortality: The Tlingit Potlatch of the Nineteenth Century. Smithsonian Institutional Press, Washington D.C.  Keddie, Grant 1994 Symbolism and Context: The World History of the Labret and Cultural Diffusion on the Pacific Rim. Paper presented at the Circum-Pacific Conference. Session VIII Prehistoric Trans-Pacific Contacts. Seattle Washington, August 1-6, 1989. Reviewed paper published on-line at the Royal B.C. Museum web site.  1981 The use and distribution of labrets on the North Pacific Rim. Syesis 14:59-80.  54 Keithahn, Edward L. 1973 Monuments in Cedar: The Authentic Story of The Totem Pole. Bonanza Books, Seattle.  Larratt, Shannon 2002 ModCon: The Secret World Of Extreme Body Modification. BME Books, Toronto.  Lenz, Mary Jane 1994 Art of the Northwest Coast. Magazine Antiques Oct 1994. FindArticles.com. Electronic document http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1026/is_n4_v146/ai_16348366, accessed 25 August 2008.  Lepofsky, D., K. Lertzman, D. Hallett, and R. Mathewes. 2005 Climate Change and Culture Change on the Southern Coast of British Columbia 2400–1200 B.P.: An Hypothesis. American Antiquity 70: 267–293.  Loy, T. and G.R. Powell 1977 Archaeological Data Recording Guide. British Columbia Provincial Museum Heritage Record No.3. British Columbia Provincial Museum, Victoria.  MacDonald, George F. 1983 Haida Monumental Art. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver.  Mackenzie, Alexander 1891 Descriptive Notes on Certain Implements, Weapons etc. From Graham Island, Queen Charlotte Islands, B.C. Proceedings and Transactions, Vol. IX, Section VI, Royal Society of Canada:45-59.  Maschner, H.D.G. 1991 Emergence of cultural complexity on the northern Northwest Coast. Antiquity 65:924-34.  Matson, R.G. and Gary Coupland 1994 The Prehistory of the Northwest Coast. Academic Press, San Diego.  McGhee, Robert 1997 Ivory for the Sea Woman: The Symbolic Attributes of a Prehistoric Technology. Canadian Journal of Archaeology 1:141-149.  McMillan, Alan D. 1995 Native Peoples and Cultures of Canada. Douglas & McIntyre, Vancouver.  Mitchell, Donald H. 1971 Archaeology of the Gulf of Georgia Area. Syesis 4(1):101-114.  1990 Prehistory of the Coasts of Southern British Columbia and Northern Washington. In Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 7, Northwest Coast, edited by Wayne Suttles, pp.340-358. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C.  Murray, Jeffrey S. 1981 Prehistoric skeletons from Blue Jackets Creek (FlUa-4), Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. In Contributions to Physical Anthropology, 1979-1980, edited by Jerome S. Cybulski, pp.127-168. Archaeological Survey of Canada, Mercury Series Paper, Ottawa.  Moss, Madonna L. 1999 George Catlin among the Nayas: Understanding the Practice of Labret Wearing on the Northwest Coast. Ethnohistory 46(1):31-65.  Mullins, Paul R. and Robert Paynter 2000 Representing Colonizers: An Archaeology of Creolization, Ethnogenisis, and Indigenous Material Culture among the Haida. Historical Archaeology 34(3):73-84.   55 Nelson, Edward William 1983[1899]  The Eskimo About Bering Strait. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C.  Newcombe, Charles F. 1905 Notes on Haida material culture collection held by the British Columbia Provincial Museum. Canadian Museum of Civilization, Library, Archives and Documentation, Ethnological Records VII- B-14M, Box 137 f.1.  Niblack, A.P. 1890 The Coast Indians of Southern Alaska and Northern British Columbia. United States National Museum Report for 1888, Washington D.C.  Nord, Celia and James E. Herbert 2007  Challenging the Default Gender Paradigm: Re(de)fining Pre-contact Subsistence Roles. Paper Presented at the 2007 Chacmool Conference, November 9-11, 2007. Calgary, Alberta, Canada.  Paterek, Josephine 1996 Encyclopedia of American Indian Costume. WW Norton, New York.  Read, Dwight W. 2007  Artifact Classification: a conceptual and methodological approach. Left Coast Press, California.  Sanborn, Herbert C. 1927 The Function of Clothing and of Bodily Adornment. The American Journal of Psychology 28(1):1-20.  Schiffer, Michael Brian and James M. Skibo 1997 The Explanation of Artifact Variability. American Antiquity 62 (1):27-50.  Severs, P.D.S. 1974 Archaeological investigations at Blue Jackets Creek FlUa-4, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, 1973. Canadian Archaeology Association Bulletin No.6:163-203  Smith, Linda Tuhiwai 2006 Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples. St. Martin’s Press, New York.  Smith, Monica L. 2007 Inconspicuous Consumption: Non-Display Goods and Identity Formation. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 14(7):412-438.  Stark, Miriam T. 1998 Technical Choices and Social Boundaries in Material Culture Patterning: An introduction. In The Archaeology of Social Boundaries, edited by Miriam Stark, pp.1-11. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C.  Steffian, Amy F., and Patrick G. Saltonstall 2001 Markers of Identity: Labrets and Social Organization in the Kodiak Archipelago. Alaska Journal of Anthropology 1(1):1-27.  Silliman, Stephen 2001 Agency, practical politics and the archaeology of culture contact. Journal of Social Archaeology 1(2):190-209.  Stewart, Hilary 1973 Artifacts of the Northwest Coast Indians. Hancock House, Victoria.  1976 Stone, Bone, Antler & Shell: Artifacts of the Northwest Coast. Douglas & McIntyre, Vancouver.    56 Sutter, R.C. 2003 Nonmetric subadult skeletal sexing traits: I. A blind test of the accuracy of eight previously proposed methods using prehistoric known-sex mummies from Northern Chile. Journal of Forensic Sciences 48(5):9.  Sutton, Mark Q. and Brooke S. Arkush 1996 Archaeological Laboratory Methods: An Introduction. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Iowa.  Swanton, J.R. 1905 The Jesup North Pacific Expedition, Volume V Part 1: Contributions to the Ethnology of The Haida. Memoir of the American Museum of Natural History, New York.  Taylor, Janelle S. 2005 Surfacing the Body Interior. Annual Review of Anthropology 34:741-756.  Thomas, Nicholas 1991 Entangled Objects: Exchange, Material Culture, and Colonialism in the Pacific. Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA.  Tilley, Christopher 2000 Metaphor and Material Culture. Wiley-Blackwell, New York.  1989 Archaeology as Socio-political Action in the Present. In Critical Traditions in Contemporary Archaeology, edited by V. Pinsky and A. Wylie, pp.104-116. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.  Vasilievsky, R.S. 2002 Labrets in the Cultures of the North Pacific. Archaeology, Ethnology & Anthropology of Eurasia 1(10):71-78.  Von Kotzebue, Otto 1821 A Voyage of Discovery, into the South Sea, and to Beering’s Straits, for the Purpose of Exploring a North-East Passage, undertaken in the Years 1815-1818, in the Ship Rurick. Translated by H. E. Lloyd, Vol.1. Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, London.  Weissner, P. 1988 Style and changing relations between the individual and society. In The Meaning of Things: Material culture and symbolic expression, edited by Ian Hodder, pp.105-112. Oxford University Press, London.  Werness, Hope B. 2000 The Continuum Encyclopedia of Native Art. Continuum International Publishing, New York.  Wisseman, S. U., D. M.Moore, R. E.Hughes, M. R.Hynes, T. E.Emerson 2002 Mineralogical approaches to sourcing pipes and figurines from the eastern woodlands, USA. Geoarchaeology: An International Journal 17:689–715.  Wobst, H. Martin 1978 The Archaeo-Ethnology of Hunter-Gatherers or the Tyranny of the Ethnographic Record in Archaeology. American Antiquity 43(2):303-309.  1977  Stylistic behavior and information exchange. Anthropological Papers, Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan (61):317–342.  Wylie, Alison 1985 The reaction against analogy. In Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory Vol.8, edited by M.B. Schiffer, pp.63-111. Academic Press, Orlando.  57 APPENDIX A  Wear facets on labret surfaces caused by tooth abrasion   Posterior inferior surface worn flat from prolonged contact with mandibular incisors  Top: Five wear facets on posterior flange surface caused by contact with mandibular incisors and canines; Bottom, wear facet on posterior superior surface caused by contact with maxillary incisors    58 APPENDIX B  Detailed methodology for labret attribute recording  The variables recorded for labrets are outlined below. The terms used herein are after Keddie (1981), with the exception of the terms 'labial' instead of 'medial' and 'buccal' in place of 'lateral', which is adopted from Cybulski (1992:67) to retain anatomical continuity.  Description  Object Designation  This is a basic description of the artifact – is it a labret, possible labret, or possible element of a labret? Can the type of labret be identified (medial, lateral, composite, double)?  Detailed Description  This is a comprehensive description of the labret, including flange and body style, any additional decoration etc.  Flange  Is the flange lateral or circular? Rectangular, or laterally-tapered? Concave, convex, flat? Drilled or incised?  Body  Is the body short or extended, circular, oval, cylindrical or pendulum? Tapered distally, constricted body with flared distal end? Concave, convex, flat?  Completeness  This indicates the completeness of the labret, whether it is complete (100%), incomplete (51-99%) or a fragment (less than 50%).  Condition  This is a detailed description of the condition of the labret, including polishing, wear, breakage, scratching etc. This is also where any qualifications or further description of the previous designation under the 'Completeness' category are made.  Material Properties  Class (lithic, faunal, floral)  This is self-explanatory; however, where two materials have been used, both are provided (i.e. wood, shell = floral, faunal).  Type  Here, the specific type of lithic or faunal material is recorded, for example soapstone, basalt, antler, bone.  Polish This is simply the extent to which the labret is polished (trace, polished, highly polished).  Texture  This attribute describes the extent to which the labret is rough versus smooth, and is qualitative.  Colour  A Munsell designation will be assigned for each labret using the extended Munsell Book of Color (1972).  Colour Appearance  This is a simple description of the colour.  Patterning  Here, the patterning of the raw material is noted as either solid, banded, mottled, marbled or flecked.    59 Luminance  This attribute represents an experimental element that requires some explanation. In order to assign a number in lux for the labret, a digital light meter is used to measure the amount of light that is reflected back from the labret when a focused light source is projected towards it. The distance and angle of the light to the labret is controlled for. A dark cloth with a 10mm hole cut out is used to standardize the size of the sample being tested, and the lux measurement assigned is represents the difference between the reading with and without the labret in place. The intent behind this somewhat unusual measurement was to quantify how 'reflective' a labret is, enabling statistical testing of whether the ability to reflect light was an important attribute to the labret-bearer.  Iridescence  This indicates the presence or absence of iridescence in the raw material.  PIMA Result  For a subsample of the labrets from LOA and SFU, an infrared spectrometer (PIMA) was employed to measure and identify variation in the materials used, with a specific focus on what was visually identified as steatite/soapstone. Because of the high water and talc content of soapstone, PIMA is particularly effective in distinguishing subtle variation in this material. The goal of this exercise was to identify this variation using SIMIS FeatureSearch software and comparative data from the US Geological Survey library, and attempt to establish whether it represents a diversity in source locations, which could be significant in terms of inter-community relationships.  Density  The density of the labret was calculated using the standard mass/volume formula, for which the volume is measured using a graduated cylinder and small 2mm glass beads (instead of water for conservation purposes). The graduated cylinder allowed for up to 5ml accuracy.  Modification  I have employed a chaîne opératoire behavioural approach to the classification of the morphological products of labret creation (cf. Schiffer 1997), which presumes an order of manufacture from most invasive on the raw material to least invasive finishing touches.  Initial Manufacture  Primary - Manufacture  Here, the most invasive method by which the labret was shaped is recorded (i.e. ground/abraded).  Secondary – Alteration  This category represents any modification to the labret which was not part of its initial formation, but was still moderately invasive (i.e. drilling).  Tertiary – Decoration  This represents the least-invasive forms of alteration to the labret, including polishing and incising.  Modification  This refers to whether the labret has been broken, reworn or reworked.  Post-Initial Manufacture Alteration In this section, any modification that was done after the initial manufacture is recorded.  Primary - Manufacture  (as above) Secondary - Alteration  (as above) Tertiary – Decoration (as above)  60 Measurements  Standard digital calipers were employed for these measurements. Where curvature is the object of measurement, a flexible tape is used against the labret, then measured with the calipers when laid flat. The concavity depth is measured by drawing an outline of the concave surface, then a straight line across the two ends (Sutton and Arkush 1996:89).    Flange width (horizontal) height (vertical, at mid-flange) thickness (proximal to distal, at base of body) concavity length concavity depth (at centre) flange completeness  Body length (proximal to distal) width (horizontal) height (vertical) concavity length concavity depth (at centre)  * this measurement was inconsistent and subsequently removed body completeness  Other In this section, additional measurements specific to the labret under study were recorded (i.e. drilled hole diameter, constricted neck), as well as 'estimated' complete measurements provided for labrets which are incomplete. description measurement         61 Weight (g)  Weight was gauged using a digital scale.  Contextual Records  This information was retrieved from the museums' various records including archived excavation reports, databases, field notes and reports. Historical and archived documents and photographs were retrieved from the following sources, as well as other institutions with labrets that will not be visited in person (cf. Burke Museum):  Archives of British Columbia, Victoria Archives and Library at the Canadian Museum of Civilization, Ottawa Reports filed with the British Columbia Archaeology Branch, Victoria Ethnographic literature available through libraries  The information collected included:  Site Information Institution Catalogue No. Borden/Other Catalogue No. Borden No. Site Name Site Location Cultural Affiliations Contemporary First Nation(s)  Provenience Unit Layer, Level Associated Date Contextual Materials  Affiliated Documents Reports Excavation / Collection Records References     62  APPENDIX C   63 APPENDIX D  Letter that was sent to all First Nations in whose traditional territory the labrets under study were recovered       Dear ______ Nation Chief and Council:  I am a graduate student at UBC studying archaeology, and am writing to tell you about my research and find out whether there might be interest from ______ Nation to contribute to this project.  For my Masters degree in anthropology, I am looking at labrets (lip plugs) from all along the coast that date between 4000 to 100 years ago.  I am putting together a database to identify patterning in labret style that can be linked with different social identities (gender, age, status), which can be used to document relationships between coastal peoples over the last 4000 years.  I am writing to you now because some of the labrets that I hope to use for this project are from ______ traditional territory, and are part of ______ cultural heritage.  These labrets are all currently held by museums who will be providing access to the labrets so I can document their characteristics for the database.  It is also my hope to include many perspectives about the history of labrets in my thesis, and I would welcome the opportunity to speak with anyone from ______ who may have interest in this project.  Also, I am happy to provide more details about my project, as well as a copy of my thesis when it is completed (August 2008), and can be reached at the address above or via email, which is mlasalle@interchange.ubc.ca.  Thank you for your understanding, and I hope to hear from you with any questions or comments you may have.  Yours sincerely,     Marina J. La Salle MA Student, UBC    64 APPENDIX E  Crosstabulation analyses comparing flange and body formal attributes, based on which the typology employed in the ensuing analyses was constructed    Flange Description * Body Description Crosstabulation Body Description   concave convex convex/nipple flat incomplete Total circular 31 3 0 1 0 35 indistinguishable 22 0 0 8 0 30 lateral 16 61 1 65 6 149 Flange Description    lateral/circular 5 0 0 0 1 6 Total 74 64 1 74 7 220  Flange Description * Body Description Crosstabulation Body Description   double flaring none pendulant possible double tapering Total circular 0 0 35 0 0 0 35 indistinguishable 0 0 30 0 0 0 30 lateral 4 2 87 16 14 26 149 Flange Description    lateral/circular 0 0 6 0 0 0 6 Total 4 2 158 16 14 26 220   Flange Description * Body Description Crosstabulation Body Description   drilled grooved hollowed incised inlaid none Total circular 1 0 0 1 4 29 35 indistinguishable 1 0 0 0 4 25 30 lateral 4 2 0 2 0 141 149 Flange Description    lateral/circular 0 1 2 0 0 3 6 Total 6 3 2 3 8 198 220   Flange Description * Neck Description Crosstabulation Neck Description   circumferential groove constricted none Total circular 3 0 32 35 indistinguishable 25 0 5 30 lateral 0 7 142 149 Flange Description    lateral/circular 0 4 2 6 Total 28 11 181 220   Flange Description * Body Description Crosstabulation Body Description    circular cylindrical oval ovoid rectangular semi- cylindrical square zoomorphic Total circular 1 1 33 0 0 0 0 0 35 indistinguishable 8 0 7 15 0 0 0 0 30 lateral 26 78 25 0 7 9 2 2 149 Flange Description     lateral/circular 3 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 6 Total 38 79 67 16 7 9 2 2 220    65  Flange Description * Body Description Crosstabulation Body Description   extended short Total circular 1 34 35 indistinguishable 1 29 30 lateral 64 85 149 Flange Description    lateral/circular 0 6 6 Total 66 154 220   Flange Description * Body Description Crosstabulation Body Description   concave convex convex/nipple flat incomplete Total circular 3 0 0 6 0 9 incomplete 0 3 0 0 0 3 laterally-rounded 15 47 1 47 3 113 oval 45 3 0 3 1 52 ovoid 10 0 0 0 0 10 Flange Description      rectangular 1 11 0 18 3 33 Total 74 64 1 74 7 220  Flange Description * Body Description Crosstabulation Body Description   double flaring none pendulant possible double tapering Total circular 0 0 9 0 0 0 9 incomplete 0 0 0 2 1 0 3 laterally-rounded 4 1 64 14 13 17 113 oval 0 0 52 0 0 0 52 ovoid 0 0 10 0 0 0 10 Flange Description      rectangular 0 1 23 0 0 9 33 Total 4 2 158 16 14 26 220   Flange Description * Body Description Crosstabulation Body Description   drilled grooved hollowed incised inlaid none Total circular 0 0 0 0 0 9 9 incomplete 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 laterally-rounded 2 1 0 2 0 108 113 oval 2 1 2 1 7 39 52 ovoid 0 0 0 0 1 9 10 Flange Description      rectangular 2 1 0 0 0 30 33 Total 6 3 2 3 8 198 220   Flange Description * Neck Description Crosstabulation Neck Description   circumferential groove constricted none Total circular 9 0 0 9 incomplete 0 0 3 3 laterally-rounded 0 5 108 113 oval 10 4 38 52 ovoid 9 0 1 10 Flange Description      rectangular 0 2 31 33 Total 28 11 181 220  66  Flange Description * Body Description Crosstabulation Body Description   circular cylindrical oval ovoid rectangular semi-cylindrical square zoomorphic Total circular 7 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 9 incomplete 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 laterally- rounded 24 50 23 0 6 6 2 2 113 oval 5 1 41 5 0 0 0 0 52 ovoid 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 0 10 Flange Description      rectangular 1 27 1 0 1 3 0 0 33 Total 38 79 67 16 7 9 2 2 220   Flange Description * Body Description Crosstabulation Body Description   extended short Total circular 0 9 9 incomplete 0 3 3 laterally-rounded 36 77 113 oval 2 50 52 ovoid 0 10 10 Flange Description      rectangular 28 5 33 Total 66 154 220   Flange Description * Body Description Crosstabulation Body Description   concave convex convex/nipple flat incomplete Total concave 54 46 1 29 4 134 convex 5 0 0 2 0 7 Flange Description   flat 15 18 0 43 3 79 Total 74 64 1 74 7 220   Flange Description * Body Description Crosstabulation Body Description   double flaring none pendulant possible double tapering Total concave 4 1 87 15 14 13 134 convex 0 0 7 0 0 0 7 Flange Description   flat 0 1 64 1 0 13 79 Total 4 2 158 16 14 26 220   Flange Description * Body Description Crosstabulation Body Description   drilled grooved hollowed incised inlaid none Total concave 3 3 1 2 6 119 134 convex 0 0 0 1 0 6 7 Flange Description   flat 3 0 1 0 2 73 79 Total 6 3 2 3 8 198 220   Flange Description * Neck Description Crosstabulation Neck Description   circumferential groove constricted none Total concave 22 8 104 134 convex 0 0 7 7 Flange Description   flat 6 3 70 79 Total 28 11 181 220  67  Flange Description * Body Description Crosstabulation Body Description   circular cylindrical oval ovoid rectangular semi-cylindrical square zoomorphic Total concave 28 37 43 14 2 6 2 2 134 convex 0 1 5 0 1 0 0 0 7 Flange Description   flat 10 41 19 2 4 3 0 0 79 Total 38 79 67 16 7 9 2 2 220   Flange Description * Body Description Crosstabulation Body Description   extended short Total concave 23 111 134 convex 2 5 7 Flange Description   flat 41 38 79 Total 66 154 220   Flange Description * Body Description Crosstabulation Body Description   concave convex convex/nipple flat incomplete Total drilled 24 2 0 2 0 28 drilled, incised 1 0 0 0 0 1 hollowed 0 0 0 1 0 1 incised 0 1 0 0 0 1 Flange Description     none 49 61 1 71 7 189 Total 74 64 1 74 7 220   Flange Description * Body Description Crosstabulation Body Description   double flaring none pendulant possible double tapering Total drilled 0 0 25 0 2 1 28 drilled, incised 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 hollowed 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 incised 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 Flange Description     none 4 2 131 15 12 25 189 Total 4 2 158 16 14 26 220   Flange Description * Body Description Crosstabulation Body Description   drilled grooved hollowed incised inlaid none Total drilled 0 0 1 1 1 25 28 drilled, incised 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 hollowed 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 incised 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Flange Description     none 6 3 1 2 6 171 189 Total 6 3 2 3 8 198 220           68  Flange Description * Neck Description Crosstabulation Neck Description   circumferential groove constricted none Total drilled 1 1 26 28 drilled, incised 0 0 1 1 hollowed 0 0 1 1 incised 0 0 1 1 Flange Description     none 27 10 152 189 Total 28 11 181 220  Flange Description * Body Description Crosstabulation Body Description    circular cylindrical oval ovoid rectangular semi- cylindrical square zoomorphic Total drilled 1 1 25 1 0 0 0 0 28 drilled, incised 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 hollowed 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 incised 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Flange Description     none 37 77 40 15 7 9 2 2 189 Total 38 79 67 16 7 9 2 2 220   Flange Description * Body Description Crosstabulation Body Description   extended short Total drilled 1 27 28 drilled, incised 0 1 1 hollowed 0 1 1 incised 0 1 1 Flange Description     none 65 124 189 Total 66 154 220    69 APPENDIX F  Crosstabulation of created types with attributes, demonstrating the robustness of the typology   Flange Description * My Types Crosstabulation My Types   bowl disc double-knob knob pendulant plate pulley spool tee Total circular 4 29 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 35 indistinguishable 13 0 0 1 0 0 15 1 0 30 lateral 0 1 4 79 15 0 0 0 50 149 Flange Description    lateral/circular 0 1 0 0 0 4 1 0 0 6 Total 17 31 4 81 15 4 16 1 51 220  Flange Description * My Types Crosstabulation My Types   bowl disc double-knob knob pendulant plate pulley spool tee Total circular 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 0 0 9 incomplete 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 3 laterally-rounded 0 1 4 71 13 0 0 0 24 113 oval 8 30 0 2 0 4 6 1 1 52 ovoid 9 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 10 Flange Description      rectangular 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 0 26 33 Total 17 31 4 81 15 4 16 1 51 220   Flange Description * My Types Crosstabulation My Types   bowl disc double-knob knob pendulant plate pulley spool tee Total concave 16 10 4 61 14 3 10 1 15 134 convex 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 7 Flange Description   flat 1 16 0 20 1 1 6 0 34 79 Total 17 31 4 81 15 4 16 1 51 220   Flange Description * My Types Crosstabulation My Types   bowl disc double-knob knob pendulant plate pulley spool tee Total drilled 0 22 0 3 0 1 1 0 1 28 drilled, incised 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 hollowed 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 incised 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Flange Description     none 17 8 4 77 14 3 15 1 50 189 Total 17 31 4 81 15 4 16 1 51 220   Body Description * My Types Crosstabulation My Types   bowl disc double-knob knob pendulant plate pulley spool tee Total extended 0 0 0 13 1 0 0 1 51 66 Body Description   short 17 31 4 68 14 4 16 0 0 154 Total 17 31 4 81 15 4 16 1 51 220       70 Body Description * My Types Crosstabulation My Types   bowl disc double-knob knob pendulant plate pulley spool tee Total circular 0 1 3 23 0 3 7 1 0 38 cylindrical 0 0 1 26 11 0 0 0 41 79 oval 6 30 0 24 2 0 5 0 0 67 ovoid 11 0 0 0 0 1 4 0 0 16 rectangular 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 0 3 7 semi-cylindrical 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 7 9 square 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 Body Description        zoomorphic 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 Total 17 31 4 81 15 4 16 1 51 220   Body Description * My Types Crosstabulation My Types   bowl disc double-knob knob pendulant plate pulley spool tee Total concave 17 28 0 16 0 3 9 1 0 74 convex 0 3 3 29 12 0 0 0 17 64 convex/nipple 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 flat 0 0 1 31 2 0 7 0 33 74 Body Description     incomplete 0 0 0 4 1 1 0 0 1 7 Total 17 31 4 81 15 4 16 1 51 220   Body Description * My Types Crosstabulation My Types   bowl disc double-knob knob pendulant plate pulley spool tee Total double 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 flaring 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 none 17 31 0 60 0 4 16 1 29 158 pendulant 0 0 0 1 15 0 0 0 0 16 possible double 0 0 0 14 0 0 0 0 0 14 Body Description      tapering 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 21 26 Total 17 31 4 81 15 4 16 1 51 220   Body Description * My Types Crosstabulation My Types   bowl disc double-knob knob pendulant plate pulley spool tee Total drilled 0 0 0 3 0 0 1 0 2 6 grooved 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 3 hollowed 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 incised 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 3 inlaid 6 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 8 Body Description      none 11 30 4 76 12 1 14 1 49 198 Total 17 31 4 81 15 4 16 1 51 220   Neck Description * My Types Crosstabulation My Types   bowl disc double-knob knob pendulant plate pulley spool tee Total circumferential groove 13 0 0 0 0 0 15 0 0 28 constricted 0 0 0 4 0 3 1 0 3 11 Neck Description    none 4 31 4 77 15 1 0 1 48 181 Total 17 31 4 81 15 4 16 1 51 220   71 A PP E N D IX  G   O ri gi na l d at a co lle ct ed : L A B R E T S In st it ut io n In fo rm at io n Si te  In fo rm at io n In st it ut io n B or de n N o. Si te  N am e Si te  L oc at io n R eg io n Su b- R eg io n A ss oc ia te d D at e M Y  T Y PE Se x ag e la te ra l, ci rc ul ar LO A 78 58 4 13 39 5 Cr es ce nt  B ea ch So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t Sa lis h in  s it u 30 00 -3 50 0 A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l LO A 78 56 2 13 27 8 Cr es ce nt  B ea ch So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t Sa lis h in  s it u 30 00 -3 50 0 A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l LO A 78 43 7 12 59 2 Cr es ce nt  B ea ch So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t Sa lis h in  s it u 30 00 -3 50 0 A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l LO A 86 10 8 10 14 36 Cr es ce nt  B ea ch So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t Sa lis h un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l LO A 80 71 8 66 36 Cr es ce nt  B ea ch So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t Sa lis h su rf ac e A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l LO A 78 14 1 11 74 6 Cr es ce nt  B ea ch So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t Sa lis h in  s it u 30 00 -3 50 0 A rc ha eo lo gi ca l bu tt on kn ob la te ra l LO A 61 78 4 11 09 So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t Sa lis h in  s it u A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l LO A 61 78 1 12 19 So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t Sa lis h in  s it u A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l LO A 61 78 0 42 05 So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t Sa lis h in  s it u A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l LO A 61 78 2 23 42 So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t Sa lis h in  s it u A rc ha eo lo gi ca l ha t- sh ap ed kn ob la te ra l LO A 54 82 8 14 01 Li qu id  A ir Si te So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t Sa lis h in  s it u A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l LO A 54 84 1 12 15 Li qu id  A ir Si te So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t Sa lis h in  s it u A rc ha eo lo gi ca l ha t- sh ap ed kn ob la te ra l LO A 54 82 1 13 68 Li qu id  A ir Si te So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t Sa lis h in  s it u A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l LO A 30 48 2 14 01 So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t Sa lis h un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l do ub le -b ut to n do ub le -k no b la te ra l In st it ut io n C at al og ue  N o. B or de n/ O th er  C at al og ue  N o. C on te m po ra ry  C ul tu ra l A ff il ia ti on s In te gr it y of  Pr ov en ie nc e C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls O bj ec t D es ig na ti on C la ss ic ' T yp e D es cr ip ti on Fl an ge  D es cr ip ti on s N or th , C en tr al , So ut h N or th  (N as s,  Sk ee na , H ai da  G w ai i) ; C en tr al ; S ou th  (G ul f I sl an ds , Fr as er  D el ta , U pp er  F ra se r,  W es t V an co uv er  Is la nd , E as t V an co uv er  Is la nd in  s it u,  in  sc re en ,d is tu rb e d,  s ur fa ce , un kn ow n Ty pe  1 : C 14  da te s Ty pe  2 : A ss oc ia te d D at e ra ng es A ss oc ia te d Pe ri od s (C ha rl es , Lo ca rn o,  M ar po le ) C ol le ct ed : A rc ha eo lo gi ca l, Et hn ol og ic al la br et , p os si bl e la br et , i nl ay  on ly ; l ab ia l, bu cc al , co m po si te D gR r- 1 Bo un da ry  B ay , T sa ww as se n af te r 3 21 0 +/ -1 10  B P M ar po le la br et bu tt on ; o rig in al ly  do ub le -b ut to n D gR r- 1 Bo un da ry  B ay , T sa ww as se n af te r 3 21 0 +/ -1 10  B P M ar po le la br et T -s ha pe d or  h at - sh ap ed D gR r- 1 Bo un da ry  B ay , T sa ww as se n af te r 3 21 0 +/ -1 10  B P M ar po le la br et bu tt on  o r ha t- sh ap ed ; o ri gi na lly  do ub le -b ut to n D gR r- 1 Bo un da ry  B ay , T sa ww as se n la br et D gR r- 1 Bo un da ry  B ay , T sa ww as se n la br et bu tt on ; o rig in al ly  do ub le -b ut to n D gR r- 1 Bo un da ry  B ay , T sa ww as se n 32 10  to  3 59 0 +/ -1 10  B P L oc ar no la br et D gR r- 6 Gl en ro se  C an ne ry  Si te Fr as er  R iv er , Va nc ou ve r la br et D gR r- 6 Gl en ro se  C an ne ry  Si te Fr as er  R iv er , Va nc ou ve r la br et D gR r- 6 Gl en ro se  C an ne ry  Si te Fr as er  R iv er , V an co uv er la br et D gR r- 6 Gl en ro se  C an ne ry  Si te Fr as er  R iv er , V an co uv er la br et D hR s- 19 Fr as er  R iv er , V an co uv er la br et ha t- sh ap ed  o r T - sh ap ed D hR s- 19 Fr as er  R iv er , V an co uv er la br et D hR s- 19 Fr as er  R iv er , Va nc ou ve r la br et bu tt on  o r ha t- sh ap ed D hR t- 6 Lo ca rn o B ea ch Fr as er  R iv er , Va nc ou ve r la br et   72 D es cr ip ti on M at er ia l P ro pe rt ie s C la ss  Ty pe Po li sh Te xt ur e Pa tt er ni ng sh or t, ex te nd ed la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t ci rc ul ar co nv ex po ss ib le  d ou bl e no ne no ne co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk m ot tle d 5 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed fla t no ne sh or t ci rc ul ar co nv ex no ne no ne no ne fr ag m en t an tle r po lis he d sm oo th m ed iu m be ig e so lid 0 in co m pl et e co nc av e no ne sh or t ci rc ul ar co nv ex po ss ib le  d ou bl e no ne no ne fr ag m en t hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk m ot tle d 3 re ct an gu la r fla t no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al fla t no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e bo ne tr ac e po lis h sli gh tly  ro ug h m ed iu m be ig e so lid 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al co nv ex no ne no ne no ne fr ag m en t tr ac e po lis h sli gh tly  ro ug h da rk fle ck ed 3 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al fla t no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e sil ts to ne po lis he d ve ry  sm oo th da rk so lid 4 re ct an gu la r fla t no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al  co nv ex no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e po lis he d ve ry  sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid 0 re ct an gu la r fla t no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al  co nv ex no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid 0 re ct an gu la r fla t no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al  fla t no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed fla t no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al  fla t no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e du ll sm oo th m ed iu m fle ck ed 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed fla t no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al  fla t no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e po lis he d ve ry  sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed fla t no ne sh or t cy lin dr ic al  fla t no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e tr ac e po lis h sm oo th da rk so lid la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t cy lin dr ic al  co nv ex no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e sil ts to ne tr ac e po lis h sm oo th m ed iu m m ot tle d 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t ci rc ul ar co nv ex do ub le no ne no ne co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th m ed iu m m ot tle d 13 B od y D es cr ip ti on N ec k D es cr ip ti on O bj ec t C om pl et en es s C ol ou r In te ns it y C ol ou r A pp ea ra nc e Lu m in an ce  (l ux ) ci rc ul ar , o va l, sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  ov oi d,  cy li nd ri ca l, la te ra ll y- ro un de d co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at , cu rv ed dr il le d,  in ci se d,  gr oo ve d,  ho ll ow ed ov al , o vo id , cy li nd ri ca l, se m i- cy li nd ri ca l, ci rc ul ar , sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  zo om or ph ic co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at ta pe ri ng , fl ar in g (d is ta ll y) , pe nd ul an t, do ub le , po ss ib le  d ou bl e dr il le d,  ho ll ow ed , in ci se d,  in la id , gr oo ve d co ns tr ic te d,  ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve (l it hi c,  fa un al , fl or al ) da rk , m ed iu m , li gh t m ai n,  se co nd ar y co lo ur s lit hi c st ea tit e br ow n,  g re y fa un al lit hi c st ea tit e br ow n,  g re y fa un al lit hi c st ea tit e gr ey -b ro wn lit hi c br ow n,  g re y lit hi c st ea tit e lit hi c m ud st on e lit hi c m ud st on e lit hi c un kn ow n,  sil ts to ne gr ey lit hi c m ud st on e lit hi c m ud st on e gr ey lit hi c gr ey lit hi c st ea tit e gr ee n- gr ey   73 M at er ia l P ro pe rt ie s M od if ic at io n D im en si on s (m m ) Ir id es ce nc e V ol um e fl an ge bo dy no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d ye s, ye s, no gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d 33 .5 14 .6 5. 5 4. 7 ye s 12 .7 16 15 .3 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 18 .4 6. 6 3. 3 ye s 10 .2 9. 2 7. 1 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 19 .3 11 .4 4. 7 no 14 .3 14 .1 13 .6 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 9. 7 3. 8 1. 8 ye s 20 2. 5 2. 5 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 54 18 .1 5. 5 4 ye s 15 .1 29 .7 22 .6 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 50 .1 20 .4 5. 3 3. 7 ye s 10 .9 26 .6 22 .5 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 8. 1 3. 3 2 ye s 15 .1 4. 1 3. 9 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 9. 3 2. 9 2. 2 ye s 20 .2 3. 7 3. 8 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 9. 3 4. 3 2. 4 ye s 16 4. 9 4. 4 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 15 6. 7 3. 5 ye s 12 .7 10 9. 1 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 12 .5 6. 7 2. 8 ye s 13 .3 6. 1 6. 3 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 16 .5 6. 3 3. 1 ye s 11 .6 9. 3 9. 5 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 17 .5 8. 3 3. 6 1. 4 ye s 13 9. 3 9. 6 no 40 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 70 .5 17 .5 8. 5 19 .1 ye s 17 26 27 In it ia l M an uf ac tu re B ro ke n;  R e- W or ke d;  W or n bu t n ot  R e- W or ke d? Po st - M an uf ac tu re  A lt er at io ns Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (a t m id  fl an ge th ic kn es s (a t ba se  o f b od y) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e) Fl an ge  –  u se  m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? le ng th  (p ro xi m al  to  di st al ) w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (v er ti ca l) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e)   74 W ei gh t ( g) N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  S PS S Fu ll  D at e In fo fl an ge bo dy ot he r m ea su re m en ts ye s 6. 7 34 .4 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 0. 58 2. 5y  6 /4 wi dt h es tim at ed wi dt h es tim at ed ye s 5. 08 5y  3 /1 in co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 0. 26 bo dy , d ist al  ti p 10 yr  7 /4 co m pl et e le ng th  e st im at ed ye s 14 .3 5 35 .6 wi dt h es tim at ed co m pl et e ye s 17 10 yr  2 /1 51 .5 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 0. 55 n 1. 0 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 0. 56 n 2. 0 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 0. 8 n 1. 0 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 2. 22 2. 5y  4 /2 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 1. 23 n 2. 0 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 2. 26 ch ip , b od y sc ra tc hi ng , b od y n 2. 5 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 1. 75 5y  5 /2 , 5 y 3/ 1 17 .1 wi dt h es tim at ed ye s 50 .9 4 10 y 5/ 2,  1 0y  3 /1 78 .7 co m pl et e co m pl et e D im en si on s (m m ) N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  SP SS Lo ca ti on  o f Fr ac tu re Lo ca ti on  o f W ea r an d Ty pe C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls C ol ou r (M un se ll ) B od y – us e m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? bu ri al s:  s ex , ag e gr ou p? co nc av it y le ng th co nc av it y le ng th dr il le d ho le  di am et er dr il le d ho le  de pt h di st an ce  be tw ee n ho le s co ns tr ic te d ne ck  w id th co ns tr ic te d ne ck  h ei gh t O th er  de sc ri pt io n O th er  m ea su re m en t fl an ge  m ea su re m en t st at us bo dy  m ea su re m en t st at us m ed ia l a xi s, fla ng e;  d ou bl e- bo dy  re wo rk ed m an uf ac tu re  st ria tio ns , f la ng e tip 'O ld  M us qu ea m ' co m po ne nt  o f M ar po le , d at in g to  la te r t ha n 32 10 +/ -1 10  RC Y BP  (W SU 42 47 ) 10  y r 2 /1 , 1 0y  8/ 2 m ed ia l a xi s, fla ng e bo dy we at he rin g,  an te rio r b od y;  wo rn , m ed ia l fla ng e ed ge 'O ld  M us qu ea m ' co m po ne nt  o f M ar po le , d at in g to  la te r t ha n 32 10 +/ -1 10  RC Y BP  (W SU 42 47 ) la te ra l f la ng e wi ng s, do ub le - bo dy  re wo rk ed st ria tio ns , po st er io r m ed ia l fla ng e;  co nc re tio n,  fla ng e an te rio r 32 10 +/ -1 10 RC Y BP  (W SU 42 47 ) st ria tio ns , po st er io r f la ng e su rf ac e;  o ve ra ll we at he rin g la te ra l f la ng e wi ng s; ch ip pe d an te rio r b od y ov er al l we at he rin g an d m ic ro pi tt in g 2. 5y  2 /2 , 2 .5 y 5/ 2 la te ra l f la ng e wi ng  c hi pp ed co nc re tio n,  an te rio r f la ng e ba se ; we at he rin g/ ro ot  et ch in g,  m ic ro pi tt in g,  po st er io r f la ng e;  ov er al l s tr ia tio ns ; in fe rio r m ed ia l fla ng e ed ge  be ve lle d 32 10 +/ -1 10  RC Y BP  (W SU 42 47 ) t o 35 90 +/ -8 5 RC Y BP  (W SU 42 45 ) co nc re tio n,  an te rio r f la ng e ba se ; b ev el lin g po st er io r f la ng e su rf ac e st ria tio ns  a nd  co nc re tio n,  an te rio r f la ng e;  be ve lli ng , i nf er io r fla ng e co nc re tio n,  an te rio r f la ng e we ar  p ol ish , an te rio r b od y ch ip , l at er al  fla ng e wi ng m ic ro pi tt in g,  bo dy ch ip , l en gt h- ax is;  ch ip , l at er al  fla ng e wi ng in co m pl et e,  b ut  m ea su re m en ts  ac cu ra te fr ac tu re , m ed ia l ax is po lis h,  p os te rio r fla ng e;  fo ur  w ea r fa ce ts  e qu i- di st an t f ro m  m ed ia l a xi s o n in fe rio r a nd  su pe rio r p os te rio r fla ng e (t oo th  we ar ?)   75 In st it ut io n In fo rm at io n Si te  In fo rm at io n D es cr ip ti on In st it ut io n B or de n N o. Si te  N am e Si te  L oc at io n R eg io n Su b- R eg io n A ss oc ia te d D at e M Y  T Y PE Se x ag e la te ra l, ci rc ul ar LO A 80 72 4 42 3 So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish in  si tu 25 00 -3 50 0 A rc ha eo lo gi ca l di sc di sc ci rc ul ar LO A 33 65 1 25 63 So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l di sc di sc ci rc ul ar LO A 44 11 0 36 8 So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l bu tt on kn ob la te ra l LO A 67 01 So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l LO A 45 33 6 55 0 So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l bu tt on kn ob la te ra l LO A 41 67 3 86 54 So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l LO A 41 84 4 59 90 So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l di sc di sc ci rc ul ar LO A 37 61 5 59 34 So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l di sc di sc ci rc ul ar LO A 37 45 7 79 98 So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l di sc di sc ci rc ul ar LO A 41 90 2 99 43 So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l di sc di sc ci rc ul ar LO A 41 91 1 51 41 So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l di sc di sc ci rc ul ar In st it ut io n C at al og ue  N o. B or de n/ O th er  C at al og ue  N o. C on te m po ra ry  C ul tu ra l A ff il ia ti on s In te gr it y of  Pr ov en ie nc e C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls O bj ec t D es ig na ti on C la ss ic ' T yp e D es cr ip ti on Fl an ge  D es cr ip ti on s N or th , C en tr al , So ut h N or th  (N as s,  Sk ee na , H ai da  G w ai i) ; C en tr al ; S ou th  (G ul f I sl an ds , Fr as er  D el ta , U pp er  F ra se r,  W es t V an co uv er  Is la nd , E as t V an co uv er  Is la nd in  s it u,  in  sc re en ,d is tu rb e d,  s ur fa ce , un kn ow n Ty pe  1 : C 14  da te s Ty pe  2 : A ss oc ia te d D at e ra ng es A ss oc ia te d Pe ri od s (C ha rl es , Lo ca rn o,  M ar po le ) C ol le ct ed : A rc ha eo lo gi ca l, Et hn ol og ic al la br et , p os si bl e la br et , i nl ay  on ly ; l ab ia l, bu cc al , co m po si te D hR t- 6 Lo ca rn o Be ac h B ur ra rd  In le t, Va nc ou ve r Lo ca rn o la br et D hR t- 6 Lo ca rn o Be ac h B ur ra rd  In le t, Va nc ou ve r la br et D hR s- 1 M ar po le Fr as er  R iv er , Va nc ou ve r la br et D hR s- 1 M ar po le Fr as er  R iv er , Va nc ou ve r la br et D hR s- 1 M ar po le Fr as er  R iv er , Va nc ou ve r la br et D hR t- 4 M us qu ea m  N or th  Ea st Fr as er  R iv er , Va nc ou ve r la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s b ut to n bu t an te rio r su rf ac e is co nc av e D hR t- 4 M us qu ea m  N or th  Ea st Fr as er  R iv er , Va nc ou ve r la br et D hR t- 4 M us qu ea m  N or th  Ea st Fr as er  R iv er , Va nc ou ve r la br et D hR t- 4 M us qu ea m  N or th  Ea st Fr as er  R iv er , Va nc ou ve r la br et D hR t- 4 M us qu ea m  N or th  Ea st Fr as er  R iv er , Va nc ou ve r la br et D hR t- 4 M us qu ea m  N or th  Ea st Fr as er  R iv er , Va nc ou ve r la br et   76 D es cr ip ti on M at er ia l P ro pe rt ie s C la ss  Ty pe Po li sh Te xt ur e Pa tt er ni ng sh or t, ex te nd ed ov al co nv ex dr ill ed , i nc ise d sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e co al hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid 2 ov al co nv ex dr ill ed sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne in ci se d no ne co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk br ow n fle ck ed 9 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed fla t no ne sh or t ci rc ul ar fla t no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e tr ac e po lis h ve ry  sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid 0 re ct an gu la r fla t no ne ex te nd ed se m i-c yl in dr ic al fla t no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e sc hi st du ll sm oo th da rk so lid 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed fla t no ne sh or t ci rc ul ar fla t no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e tr ac e po lis h ve ry  sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t ci rc ul ar co nc av e no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e so ap st on e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk br ow n fle ck ed 3 ov al fla t no ne sh or t ci rc ul ar co nc av e no ne no ne no ne fr ag m en t co al hi gh ly  p ol ish ed sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid ov al fla t no ne sh or t ov al co nv ex no ne no ne no ne fr ag m en t co al po lis he d sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid 1 ov al fla t no ne sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne fr ag m en t co al hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid 4 ov al fla t dr ill ed sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne fr ag m en t co al tr ac e po lis h sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid 3 ov al fla t no ne sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne fr ag m en t co al hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid 3 B od y D es cr ip ti on N ec k D es cr ip ti on O bj ec t C om pl et en es s C ol ou r In te ns it y C ol ou r A pp ea ra nc e Lu m in an ce  (l ux ) ci rc ul ar , o va l, sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  ov oi d,  cy li nd ri ca l, la te ra ll y- ro un de d co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at , cu rv ed dr il le d,  in ci se d,  gr oo ve d,  ho ll ow ed ov al , o vo id , cy li nd ri ca l, se m i- cy li nd ri ca l, ci rc ul ar , sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  zo om or ph ic co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at ta pe ri ng , fl ar in g (d is ta ll y) , pe nd ul an t, do ub le , po ss ib le  d ou bl e dr il le d,  ho ll ow ed , in ci se d,  in la id , gr oo ve d co ns tr ic te d,  ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve (l it hi c,  fa un al , fl or al ) da rk , m ed iu m , li gh t m ai n,  se co nd ar y co lo ur s lit hi c lit hi c st ea tit e lit hi c m ud st on e lit hi c gr ey lit hi c m ud st on e lit hi c lit hi c lit hi c lit hi c lit hi c lit hi c   77 Mat er ia l P ro pe rt ie s M od if ic at io n D im en si on s (m m ) Ir id es ce nc e V ol um e fl an ge bo dy no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d no , y es , n o no ne in ci se d no ne 29 .3 18 .4 ye s 9. 6 32 21 .3 4. 5 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed in ci se d,  p ol ish ed no ne no ne no ne no ne 34 .9 22 .3 ye s 11 .3 36 .5 23 .2 3. 5 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 30 .1 11 5 1. 2 ye s 12 .3 13 .6 14 .1 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 7. 1 1. 8 1. 8 ye s 12 .4 3. 5 1. 8 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 29 .2 14 4 1. 7 ye s 10 .4 14 .9 16 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 30 .1 20 .2 3. 9 2. 3 no 9. 6 23 .1 22 .1 5. 5 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne n/ a 18 .5 55 35 2. 3 no 15 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne n/ a 21 .5 55 35 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne n/ a 15 .1 55 35 3. 6 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne n/ a 15 .8 39 24 1. 9 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne n/ a 15 .6 60 35 In it ia l M an uf ac tu re B ro ke n;  R e- W or ke d;  W or n bu t n ot  R e- W or ke d? Po st - M an uf ac tu re  A lt er at io ns Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (a t m id  fl an ge th ic kn es s (a t ba se  o f b od y) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e) Fl an ge  –  u se  m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? le ng th  (p ro xi m al  to  di st al ) w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (v er ti ca l) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e)   78 W ei gh t ( g) N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  S PS S Fu ll  D at e In fo fl an ge bo dy ot he r m ea su re m en ts ye s 5. 46 n 1. 0 35 .5 2. 9 ye s 11 .4 8 10  y r 2 /1 39 2. 5 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 5. 72 n 1. 5 30 .4 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 0. 17 n 1. 5 co m pl et e ye s 6. 05 n 2. 0 29 .8 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 6. 87 2. 5y  2 /2 28 .4 23 .8 wi dt h in co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 8. 22 n 1. 0 ye s 17 .7 6 n 2. 0 ye s 5. 1 n 2. 0 ye s 7. 49 ov er al l w ea th er ed n 2. 5 35 .4 4 ye s 11 .4 3 n 2. 0 D im en si on s (m m ) N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  SP SS Lo ca ti on  o f Fr ac tu re Lo ca ti on  o f W ea r an d Ty pe C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls C ol ou r (M un se ll ) B od y – us e m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? bu ri al s:  s ex , ag e gr ou p? co nc av it y le ng th co nc av it y le ng th dr il le d ho le  di am et er dr il le d ho le  de pt h di st an ce  be tw ee n ho le s co ns tr ic te d ne ck  w id th co ns tr ic te d ne ck  h ei gh t O th er  de sc ri pt io n O th er  m ea su re m en t fl an ge  m ea su re m en t st at us bo dy  m ea su re m en t st at us ch ip , f la ng e;  ch ip , a nt er io r bo dy we at he rin g,  b od y;  st ria tio ns , f la ng e;  ga ug in g,  in ci se d su rf ac e 25 00 -3 30 0 RC Y BP in co m pl et e,  b ut  m ea su re m en ts  ac cu ra te in co m pl et e,  b ut  m ea su re m en ts  ac cu ra te ch ip , fla ng e/ dr ill ed  h ol ep itt in g,  p ol ish , fla ng e/ dr ill ed  ho le ; v er tic al  st ria tio ns , po st er io r f la ng e;  po lis h,  a nt er io r bo dy co nc re tio n,  an te rio r f la ng e;  st ria tio ns  a nd  sc ra tc hi ng , an te rio r b od y;  sc ra tc hi ng /g au gi n g,  p os te rio r fla ng e;  b ev el lin g,  in fe rio r f la ng e ed ge br ok en , d ist al  bo dy  ti p le ng th  in co m pl et e sc ra tc hi ng , an te rio r b od y an d po st er io r f la ng e;  be ve lli ng  a nd  po lis h,  m ed ia l in fe rio r f la ng e ed ge la te ra l f la ng e wi ng s b ro ke n m ic ro pi tt in g,  an te rio r b od y;  sc ra tc hi ng  a nd  pi tt in g,  p os te rio r fla ng e he av ily  we at he re d ov er al l wi dt h,  h ei gh t es tim at ed ov er al l h ea vi ly  we at he re d wi dt h,  h ei gh t es tim at ed he av ily  fr ag m en te d wi dt h,  h ei gh t es tim at ed wi dt h,  h ei gh t es tim at ed he av ily  fr ag m en te d wi dt h,  h ei gh t es tim at ed   79 In st it ut io n In fo rm at io n Si te  In fo rm at io n D es cr ip ti on In st it ut io n B or de n N o. Si te  N am e Si te  L oc at io n R eg io n Su b- R eg io n A ss oc ia te d D at e M Y  T Y PE Se x ag e la te ra l, ci rc ul ar LO A 72 01 3 56 55 So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l m al e un kn ow n T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l LO A 97 3 So ut h U pp er  F ra se r C oa st  S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l LO A 11 70 So ut h U pp er  F ra se r Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l bu tt on kn ob la te ra l LO A 76 73 So ut h U pp er  F ra se r Co as t S al ish sc re en A rc ha eo lo gi ca l no vi ce kn ob la te ra l RB CM 61 Li tt le  B ea ch  S ite So ut h in  si tu 25 00 -4 00 0 A rc ha eo lo gi ca l pl at e la te ra l/c irc ul ar RB CM 10 07 M ap le  B an k So ut h Co as t S al ish su rf ac e A rc ha eo lo gi ca l la te ra l RB CM 20 07 -3 4 46 1 un kn ow n So ut h Co as t S al ish di st ur be d A rc ha eo lo gi ca l la te ra l RB CM 59 9 W ill ow s B ea ch So ut h Co as t S al ish in  si tu 25 00 A rc ha eo lo gi ca l di sc di sc ci rc ul ar RB C M 46 7 So ut h Co as t S al ish su rf ac e A rc ha eo lo gi ca l di sc di sc ci rc ul ar In st it ut io n C at al og ue  N o. B or de n/ O th er  C at al og ue  N o. C on te m po ra ry  C ul tu ra l A ff il ia ti on s In te gr it y of  Pr ov en ie nc e C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls O bj ec t D es ig na ti on C la ss ic ' T yp e D es cr ip ti on Fl an ge  D es cr ip ti on s N or th , C en tr al , So ut h N or th  (N as s,  Sk ee na , H ai da  G w ai i) ; C en tr al ; S ou th  (G ul f I sl an ds , Fr as er  D el ta , U pp er  F ra se r,  W es t V an co uv er  Is la nd , E as t V an co uv er  Is la nd in  s it u,  in  sc re en ,d is tu rb e d,  s ur fa ce , un kn ow n Ty pe  1 : C 14  da te s Ty pe  2 : A ss oc ia te d D at e ra ng es A ss oc ia te d Pe ri od s (C ha rl es , Lo ca rn o,  M ar po le ) C ol le ct ed : A rc ha eo lo gi ca l, Et hn ol og ic al la br et , p os si bl e la br et , i nl ay  on ly ; l ab ia l, bu cc al , co m po si te D gR s- 2 T sa ww as se n Bo un da ry  B ay , T sa ww as se n la br et D iR i-3 M ill ik en Fr as er  R iv er  Ca ny on la br et D iR i-3 M ill ik en Fr as er  R iv er  Ca ny on la br et D iR i-3 M ill ik en Fr as er  R iv er  Ca ny on la br et D fS j-1 00 U cl ut h Pe ni ns ul a,  U cl ue le t W es t V an co uv er  Is la nd N uu -C ha h- N ul th Ch ar le s/L oc ar no la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s b ut to n bu t a nt er io r b od y su rf ac e is co nc av e D cR u- 12 Es qu im al t I R# 1 Ea st  V an co uv er  Is la nd la br et pe nd ul an t pe nd ul an t D cR u- 63 Es qu im al t H ar bo ur , H el m ke n Ba y Ea st  V an co uv er  Is la nd la br et pe nd ul an t pe nd ul an t D cR t- 10 O ak  B ay , Vi ct or ia Ea st  V an co uv er  Is la nd 26 30  + /-9 5 BP  an d 24 90  + /-8 5 B P un co rr ec te d Lo ca rn o/ M ar po le la br et D cR t- 13 O ak  B ay  F ire  H al l O ak  B ay , Vi ct or ia Ea st  V an co uv er  Is la nd la br et   80 D es cr ip ti on M at er ia l P ro pe rt ie s C la ss  Ty pe Po li sh Te xt ur e Pa tt er ni ng sh or t, ex te nd ed re ct an gu la r fla t no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al co nv ex ta pe rin g no ne no ne in co m pl et e sla te du ll sm oo th da rk so lid la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne ex te nd ed se m i-c yl in dr ic al co nv ex ta pe rin g no ne no ne co m pl et e so ap st on e tr ac e po lis h sli gh tly  ro ug h m ed iu m m ot tle d 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al co nv ex no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e so ap st on e po lis he d sm oo th m ed iu m m ot tle d 2 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t cy lin dr ic al fla t no ne no ne co ns tr ic te d co m pl et e so ap st on e tr ac e po lis h sm oo th lig ht m ot tle d 3 ov al fla t no ne sh or t ci rc ul ar in co m pl et e no ne ho llo we d no ne in co m pl et e sla te po lis he d sm oo th da rk so lid 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al in co m pl et e gr oo ve d no ne in co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk m ar bl ed 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t cy lin dr ic al co nv ex no ne no ne co m pl et e du ll sm oo th lig ht wh ite so lid 5 ov al co nv ex dr ill ed sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk fle ck ed 1 ov al co nv ex dr ill ed sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th m ed iu m re d- br ow n,  g re en m ot tle d 2 B od y D es cr ip ti on N ec k D es cr ip ti on O bj ec t C om pl et en es s C ol ou r In te ns it y C ol ou r A pp ea ra nc e Lu m in an ce  (l ux ) ci rc ul ar , o va l, sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  ov oi d,  cy li nd ri ca l, la te ra ll y- ro un de d co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at , cu rv ed dr il le d,  in ci se d,  gr oo ve d,  ho ll ow ed ov al , o vo id , cy li nd ri ca l, se m i- cy li nd ri ca l, ci rc ul ar , sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  zo om or ph ic co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at ta pe ri ng , fl ar in g (d is ta ll y) , pe nd ul an t, do ub le , po ss ib le  d ou bl e dr il le d,  ho ll ow ed , in ci se d,  in la id , gr oo ve d co ns tr ic te d,  ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve (l it hi c,  fa un al , fl or al ) da rk , m ed iu m , li gh t m ai n,  se co nd ar y co lo ur s lit hi c gr ey lit hi c gr ey lit hi c gr ey lit hi c gr ey lit hi c gr ey pe nd ul an t lit hi c un kn ow n,  se rp en tin e bl ac k,  g re en -g re y pe nd ul an t fa un al sh el l ( pu rp le - hi ng ed  sc al lo p) lit hi c st ea tit e gr ey lit hi c st ea tit e   81 Mat er ia l P ro pe rt ie s M od if ic at io n D im en si on s (m m ) Ir id es ce nc e V ol um e fl an ge bo dy no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 12 .8 3. 2 6. 2 ye s 35 .1 3. 8 3. 8 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 19 .5 7. 6 4. 3 3 ye s 17 .8 7. 6 6. 4 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d ye s, no , y es no ne no ne no ne 23 .8 12 .2 3. 2 0. 7 ye s 10 17 .8 10 .8 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed in ci se d no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 16 .5 7. 9 3. 9 0. 5 ye s 9. 5 9. 7 7. 3 no 15 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne in la id no ne no ne no ne no ne 70 46 5. 2 ye s 12 .5 51 46 9. 1 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed gr oo ve d,  p ol ish ed ye s, un kn ow n,  n o no ne no ne no ne 41 16 7. 2 2. 3 ye s 12 28 .5 33 no 25 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 57 .7 20 8 7 ye s 15 .3 43 .5 66 .3 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d un kn ow n,  y es , n o gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne 23 .6 18 .2 ye s 10 .2 27 .3 19 .9 2 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 33 .7 22 .1 ye s 11 .6 35 .4 26 .1 2 In it ia l M an uf ac tu re B ro ke n;  R e- W or ke d;  W or n bu t n ot  R e- W or ke d? Po st - M an uf ac tu re  A lt er at io ns Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (a t m id  fl an ge th ic kn es s (a t ba se  o f b od y) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e) Fl an ge  –  u se  m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? le ng th  (p ro xi m al  to  di st al ) w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (v er ti ca l) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e)   82 W ei gh t ( g) N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  S PS S Fu ll  D at e In fo fl an ge bo dy ot he r m ea su re m en ts ye s 1. 12 n 2. 0 wi dt h es tim at ed ye s 2. 26 st ria tio ns  o ve ra ll 10 y 6/ 1,  1 0y  5 /1 20 .2 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 4. 13 7. 5y  6 /2 , 5 y 4/ 2 24 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 1. 31 5y  8 /2 , 5 y 5/ 2 16 .5 6. 5 6. 5 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 30 .8 n2 .5 37 .2 he ig ht  e st im at ed ye s 16 .8 42 co m pl et e ye s 40 10 yr  9 /1 59 .5 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 5. 1 5y  2 /1 28 .3 1. 7 co m pl et e ye s 12 .3 35 .6 3. 7 co m pl et e co m pl et e D im en si on s (m m ) N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  SP SS Lo ca ti on  o f Fr ac tu re Lo ca ti on  o f W ea r an d Ty pe C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls C ol ou r (M un se ll ) B od y – us e m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? bu ri al s:  s ex , ag e gr ou p? co nc av it y le ng th co nc av it y le ng th dr il le d ho le  di am et er dr il le d ho le  de pt h di st an ce  be tw ee n ho le s co ns tr ic te d ne ck  w id th co ns tr ic te d ne ck  h ei gh t O th er  de sc ri pt io n O th er  m ea su re m en t fl an ge  m ea su re m en t st at us bo dy  m ea su re m en t st at us la te ra l f la ng e wi ng  b ro ke n C1 4 sa m pl e on  bo ne  w as  ta ke n bu ria l w as  m al e,  sin gl e,  d ist ur be d by  b ac kh oe , tig ht ly  fl ex ed ; co ns tr uc tio n di st ur ba nc e pu sh ed  to rs o bo ne s t ow ar ds  cr an iu m , a nd  a lso  di st ur ba nc e fr om  ot he r a dj ac en t bu ria ls (a lso  m al e) ; s o,  as so ci at io n be tw ee n la br et  an d m al e sk el et on  is  N O T  de m on st ra te d in co m pl et e,  b ut  m ea su re m en ts  ac cu ra te ch ip pi ng , i nf er io r fla ng e ed ge ch ip , a nt er io r bo dy ; c hi pp in g,  fla ng e ed ge s po lis h,  fl an ge  in fe rio r m ed ia l ed ge ch ip , a nt er io r bo dy br ok en  la te ra l fla ng e wi ng  ti p st ria tio ns , b od y an te rio r a nd  in te rio r; la te ra l st ria tio ns , f la ng e po st er io r fo un d Se pt .2 0 19 91 ; d ep os its  da te  b et we en  25 00 -4 00 0 yr s ag o wi dt h,  h ei gh t es tim at ed br ok en , i nf er io r pe nd ul um ve rt ic al  st ria tio ns , po st er io r f la ng e;  pi tt in g,  fl an ge  wi ng  ti ps sit e ha s l ow er  co m po ne nt  da tin g c. 29 00 -2 05 5 BP 5g y 5/ 2,  5 gy  1 /2 , 5g y 4/ 2 in co m pl et e,  b ut  m ea su re m en ts  ac cu ra te ch ip s, la te ra l bo dy  e dg e st ria tio ns , su pe rio r a nd  in fe rio r f la ng e,  la te ra l p en du lu m  bo dy ch ip pi ng , b od y;  br ok en , t hr ou gh  dr ill ed  h ol e we ar  a nd  st ria tio ns , b od y su pe rio r s ur fa ce 26 30 +- 95 BP  (G ak  5 10 2)  a nd  24 90 +- 85 bp  (G ak 51 03 ) un co rr ec te d in co m pl et e,  b ut  m ea su re m en ts  ac cu ra te ch ip pi ng  a nd  cr ac k,  a nt er io r bo dy  su rf ac e sc ra tc hi ng , f la ng e po st er io r 2. 5y  5 /6 , 2 .5 y 2/ 2,  5 y 5/ 4   83 In st it ut io n In fo rm at io n Si te  In fo rm at io n D es cr ip ti on In st it ut io n B or de n N o. Si te  N am e Si te  L oc at io n R eg io n Su b- R eg io n A ss oc ia te d D at e M Y  T Y PE Se x ag e la te ra l, ci rc ul ar RB C M 26 So ut h Co as t S al ish su rf ac e A rc ha eo lo gi ca l di sc di sc ci rc ul ar RB C M 47 9 So ut h Co as t S al ish su rf ac e A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l RB CM 17 un kn ow n So ut h Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l RB CM 61 So ut h Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l ha t- sh ap ed kn ob la te ra l RB CM 42 So ut h Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l RB CM 14 82 So ut h Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l di sc ci rc ul ar RB C M 1 So ut h C oa st  S al ish su rf ac e A rc ha eo lo gi ca l di sc di sc ci rc ul ar RB CM 36 So ut h Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l In st it ut io n C at al og ue  N o. B or de n/ O th er  C at al og ue  N o. C on te m po ra ry  C ul tu ra l A ff il ia ti on s In te gr it y of  Pr ov en ie nc e C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls O bj ec t D es ig na ti on C la ss ic ' T yp e D es cr ip ti on Fl an ge  D es cr ip ti on s N or th , C en tr al , So ut h N or th  (N as s,  Sk ee na , H ai da  G w ai i) ; C en tr al ; S ou th  (G ul f I sl an ds , Fr as er  D el ta , U pp er  F ra se r,  W es t V an co uv er  Is la nd , E as t V an co uv er  Is la nd in  s it u,  in  sc re en ,d is tu rb e d,  s ur fa ce , un kn ow n Ty pe  1 : C 14  da te s Ty pe  2 : A ss oc ia te d D at e ra ng es A ss oc ia te d Pe ri od s (C ha rl es , Lo ca rn o,  M ar po le ) C ol le ct ed : A rc ha eo lo gi ca l, Et hn ol og ic al la br et , p os si bl e la br et , i nl ay  on ly ; l ab ia l, bu cc al , co m po si te D cR t- 13 O ak  B ay  F ire  H al l O ak  B ay , Vi ct or ia Ea st  V an co uv er  Is la nd la br et D cR t- 13 O ak  B ay  F ire  H al l O ak  B ay , Vi ct or ia Ea st  V an co uv er  Is la nd la br et un cl as sif ie d;  bu tt on  b ut  w ith  co nc av e an te rio r (o ld  # 23 74  &  19 12 -6 ) D eR v- Y Co wi ch an  D ist ric t, Va nc ou ve r I sla nd Ea st  V an co uv er  Is la nd la br et D eR v- 10 7 T em p. N o.  D eR v- 51 0 Co wi ch an  B ay , Va nc ou ve r I sla nd Ea st  V an co uv er  Is la nd la br et D cR t- 71 T em p. N o.  D cR t- 59 9 so ut h of  C ad bo ro  Ba y,  M un ic ip al ity  o f O ak  B ay , Vi ct or ia Ea st  V an co uv er  Is la nd la br et un cl as sif ie d;  bu tt on  b ut  w ith  an te rio r c on ca ve  su rf ac e D gR x- 5 T em p. N o.  D gR x- 27 7A Ja ck  P oi nt , n ea r D uk e Po in t, N an ai m o Ea st  V an co uv er  Is la nd la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s d isc (o ld  a cc .7 2- 13 7,  pr ev io us ly  D iS c1 :7 ) D iS c- 26 Q ua lic um  G ol f Co ur se Q ua lic um  B ea ch , Va nc ou ve r I sla nd Ea st  V an co uv er  Is la nd la br et D gR x- 5 T em p. N o.  D gR x- 27 7A Ja ck  p oi nt , n ea r D uk e Po in t, N an ai m o Ea st  V an co uv er  Is la nd la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s b ut to n   84 D es cr ip ti on M at er ia l P ro pe rt ie s C la ss  Ty pe Po li sh Te xt ur e Pa tt er ni ng sh or t, ex te nd ed ov al co nc av e dr ill ed sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk fle ck ed 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk m ot tle d 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed fla t no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al fla t no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e qu ar tz ite tr ac e po lis h sli gh tly  ro ug h lig ht be ig e so lid la te ra lly -r ou nd ed fla t no ne sh or t ci rc ul ar fla t no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e sil ts to ne tr ac e po lis h ve ry  sm oo th da rk so lid 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk m ot tle d 0 ov al fla t no ne sh or t ov al co nv ex no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e co al hi gh ly  p ol ish ed sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid pu t f or  sh in y co al ov al fla t dr ill ed sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e co al hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid pu t f or  sh in y co al la te ra lly -r ou nd ed fla t no ne sh or t re ct an gu la r fla t no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e bo ne hi gh ly  p ol ish ed sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid 0 B od y D es cr ip ti on N ec k D es cr ip ti on O bj ec t C om pl et en es s C ol ou r In te ns it y C ol ou r A pp ea ra nc e Lu m in an ce  (l ux ) ci rc ul ar , o va l, sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  ov oi d,  cy li nd ri ca l, la te ra ll y- ro un de d co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at , cu rv ed dr il le d,  in ci se d,  gr oo ve d,  ho ll ow ed ov al , o vo id , cy li nd ri ca l, se m i- cy li nd ri ca l, ci rc ul ar , sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  zo om or ph ic co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at ta pe ri ng , fl ar in g (d is ta ll y) , pe nd ul an t, do ub le , po ss ib le  d ou bl e dr il le d,  ho ll ow ed , in ci se d,  in la id , gr oo ve d co ns tr ic te d,  ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve (l it hi c,  fa un al , fl or al ) da rk , m ed iu m , li gh t m ai n,  se co nd ar y co lo ur s lit hi c st ea tit e br ow n- gr ey lit hi c st ea tit e gr ey lit hi c lit hi c gr ey lit hi c st ea tit e gr ey lit hi c lit hi c fa un al   85 M at er ia l P ro pe rt ie s M od if ic at io n D im en si on s (m m ) Ir id es ce nc e V ol um e fl an ge bo dy no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 33 .8 19 .6 6 ye s 11 .6 35 .8 20 .4 5 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 28 .7 15 .3 2. 8 no 7 22 .8 15 .4 4 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 11 5 4 ye s 27 6 5. 1 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne po ss ib ly , y es , n o gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne 29 .8 18 6. 1 ye s 16 19 .5 18 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 42 22 .2 4. 7 5. 5 ye s 7 32 22 .4 5 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d un kn ow n,  y es , n o gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d 22 .4 14 .6 ye s 9. 9 27 17 .6 no 15 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 37 .9 27 ye s 17 .5 43 28 .4 5 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 42 6 4. 6 ye s 17 .2 14 4. 8 In it ia l M an uf ac tu re B ro ke n;  R e- W or ke d;  W or n bu t n ot  R e- W or ke d? Po st - M an uf ac tu re  A lt er at io ns Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (a t m id  fl an ge th ic kn es s (a t ba se  o f b od y) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e) Fl an ge  –  u se  m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? le ng th  (p ro xi m al  to  di st al ) w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (v er ti ca l) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e)   86 W ei gh t ( g) N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  S PS S Fu ll  D at e In fo fl an ge bo dy ot he r m ea su re m en ts ye s 9. 7 35 .3 36 .6 2. 3 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 3. 6 10 yr  2 /1 24 wi dt h in co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 1. 9 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 7. 9 n 3/ 0 he ig ht  e st im at ed he ig ht  e st im at ed ye s 4. 8 29 .8 21 .6 wi dt h es tim at ed wi dt h es tim at ed ye s 3. 4 n 0. 5 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 15 .5 n 0. 5 42 .8 wi dt h es tim at ed ye s 1. 8 ov er al l s tr ia tio ns n 1. 5 wi dt h es tim at ed co m pl et e D im en si on s (m m ) N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  SP SS Lo ca ti on  o f Fr ac tu re Lo ca ti on  o f W ea r an d Ty pe C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls C ol ou r (M un se ll ) B od y – us e m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? bu ri al s:  s ex , ag e gr ou p? co nc av it y le ng th co nc av it y le ng th dr il le d ho le  di am et er dr il le d ho le  de pt h di st an ce  be tw ee n ho le s co ns tr ic te d ne ck  w id th co ns tr ic te d ne ck  h ei gh t O th er  de sc ri pt io n O th er  m ea su re m en t fl an ge  m ea su re m en t st at us bo dy  m ea su re m en t st at us ch ip pi ng , an te rio r b od y;  ve rt ic al  st ria tio ns , f la ng e po st er io r; ov er al l we ar 5y  2 /1 , 5 y 8/ 4,  5y  5 /4 la te ra l f la ng e wi ng s b ro ke n;  ch ip pi ng , an te rio r b od y st ria tio ns  a nd  we ar  fa ce t (t oo th ?) , po st er io r f la ng e;  st ria tio ns , an te rio r b od y ov er al l we at he rin g or ig in al  c ol ou r, 10 yr  9 /1 , b ut  we at he rin g ha s cr ea te d m ot tle d 10 yr  7 /4 fr ac tu re d on  ho riz on ta l p la ne st ria tio ns  o ve ra ll;  po lis h,  fl an ge  an te rio r; st ria tio ns , in fe rio r p os te rio r fla ng e;  st ria tio ns , an te rio r b od y fr ac tu re d m ed ia l ax is po lis h,  p os te rio r fla ng e;  st ria tio ns , m ed ia l i nf er io r fla ng e;  m ic ro ch ip pi ng , an te rio r b od y 10 yr  3 /1 , 1 0y r 7/ 2 st ria tio ns  o ve ra ll;  st ria tio ns , b od y ci rc um fe re nc e “r e- da tin g of  Co m po ne nt  II  o f th is sit e to  a  m uc h ea rli er  ti m e pe rio d su gg es ts  th at  a  la te  d at e of  ar ou nd  9 10 A D  at tr ib ut ed  to  ar tif ac ts  in  A re a A  o f t he  si te  is  wr on g”  (K ed di e) fr ac tu re , a nt er io r bo dy ; f ra ct ur e,  po st er io r f la ng e,  ar ou nd  d ril le d ho le m ic ro pi tt in g,  po st er io r f la ng e in co m pl et e,  b ut  m ea su re m en ts  ac cu ra te la te ra l f la ng e wi ng  b ro ke n   87 In st it ut io n In fo rm at io n Si te  In fo rm at io n D es cr ip ti on In st it ut io n B or de n N o. Si te  N am e Si te  L oc at io n R eg io n Su b- R eg io n A ss oc ia te d D at e M Y  T Y PE Se x ag e la te ra l, ci rc ul ar RB CM 27 73 So ut h Co as t S al ish di st ur be d A rc ha eo lo gi ca l di sc di sc ci rc ul ar RB CM 11 77 un kn ow n So ut h Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l RB CM 1 So ut h un kn ow n Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l RB CM 89 4 So ut h Co as t S al ish in  si tu 20 00  –  3 00 0 A rc ha eo lo gi ca l un cl as sif ie d kn ob la te ra l RB CM 1 un kn ow n So ut h Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l la te ra l RB CM 2 un kn ow n So ut h Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l la te ra l RB CM 3 un kn ow n So ut h Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l la te ra l RB CM 4 un kn ow n So ut h Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l la te ra l RB CM 25 Br uc e Bi gh t So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l di sc la te ra l RB CM 11 un kn ow n So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l un cl as sif ie d kn ob ci rc ul ar RB C M 38 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish su rf ac e A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l RB CM 40 un kn ow n So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l RB CM 16 8 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l di sc di sc ci rc ul ar In st it ut io n C at al og ue  N o. B or de n/ O th er  C at al og ue  N o. C on te m po ra ry  C ul tu ra l A ff il ia ti on s In te gr it y of  Pr ov en ie nc e C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls O bj ec t D es ig na ti on C la ss ic ' T yp e D es cr ip ti on Fl an ge  D es cr ip ti on s N or th , C en tr al , So ut h N or th  (N as s,  Sk ee na , H ai da  G w ai i) ; C en tr al ; S ou th  (G ul f I sl an ds , Fr as er  D el ta , U pp er  F ra se r,  W es t V an co uv er  Is la nd , E as t V an co uv er  Is la nd in  s it u,  in  sc re en ,d is tu rb e d,  s ur fa ce , un kn ow n Ty pe  1 : C 14  da te s Ty pe  2 : A ss oc ia te d D at e ra ng es A ss oc ia te d Pe ri od s (C ha rl es , Lo ca rn o,  M ar po le ) C ol le ct ed : A rc ha eo lo gi ca l, Et hn ol og ic al la br et , p os si bl e la br et , i nl ay  on ly ; l ab ia l, bu cc al , co m po si te D hR x- 16 St i'i lu p D ep ar tu re  B ay , N an ai m o Ea st  V an co uv er  Is la nd la br et D gR x- 5B D uk e Po in t, N an ai m o Ea st  V an co uv er  Is la nd la br et D bR v- 17 T em p. N o.  D bR v- RP -1 la br et bu tt on  o r h at - sh ap ed D kS f- 26 M ou nt ie  S ite , T em p. N o.  D kS f- T a Co m ox , Va nc ou ve r I sla nd Ea st  V an co uv er  Is la nd 31 7 +/ -1 73  B C to  10 12  + /-2 70  B C Lo ca rn o/ M ar po le la br et D eR v- 6 M t. T zu ha le m , Va nc ou ve r I sla nd Ea st  V an co uv er  Is la nd la br et pe nd ul an t pe nd ul an t D eR v- 6 M t. T zu ha le m , Va nc ou ve r I sla nd Ea st  V an co uv er  Is la nd la br et pe nd ul an t pe nd ul an t D eR v- 6 M t. T zu ha le m , Va nc ou ve r I sla nd Ea st  V an co uv er  Is la nd la br et pe nd ul an t pe nd ul an t D eR v- 6 M t. T zu ha le m , Va nc ou ve r I sla nd Ea st  V an co uv er  Is la nd la br et pe nd ul an t pe nd ul an t (a cc .# 67 -4 9) D eR s- 1 no rt h of  T ay lo r Po in t, Sa tu rn a Is la nd  la br et bu tt on  a nd  co m po sit e (o ld  RB CM #4 87 5,  fo rm er ly  D eR t- Y :5 ) D eR st -Y Sa tu rn a Is la nd la br et D eR t- Y Pe nd er  C an al  (p ro ba bl y D eR t- 2 K ed di e) Pe nd er  Is la nd la br et D eR t- Y Pe nd er  Is la nd la br et bu tt on  o r h at - sh ap ed D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  Is la nd la br et   88 D es cr ip ti on M at er ia l P ro pe rt ie s C la ss  Ty pe Po li sh Te xt ur e Pa tt er ni ng sh or t, ex te nd ed ov al fla t dr ill ed sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e co al po lis he d sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid 0 re ct an gu la r fla t no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al fla t no ne dr ill ed no ne co m pl et e sil ts to ne po lis he d sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid la te ra lly -r ou nd ed fla t no ne sh or t ci rc ul ar fla t no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e tr ac e po lis h sli gh tly  ro ug h lig ht be ig e,  re d fle ck ed re ct an gu la r co nc av e no ne sh or t re ct an gu la r in co m pl et e no ne gr oo ve d no ne in co m pl et e co al hi gh ly  p ol ish ed sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t cy lin dr ic al co nv ex no ne no ne in co m pl et e du ll sli gh tly  ro ug h lig ht be ig e fle ck ed 4 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t cy lin dr ic al co nv ex no ne no ne co m pl et e du ll sli gh tly  ro ug h lig ht be ig e fle ck ed 2 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e in ci se d sh or t cy lin dr ic al co nv ex no ne no ne co m pl et e tr ac e po lis h sli gh tly  ro ug h lig ht be ig e fle ck ed 1 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t cy lin dr ic al co nv ex no ne no ne co m pl et e tr ac e po lis h sli gh tly  ro ug h lig ht be ig e fle ck ed 3 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al co nv ex no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e po lis he d sm oo th m ed iu m br ow n,  b ei ge m ot tle d 0 ov al fla t no ne sh or t ov al co nv ex no ne dr ill ed no ne in co m pl et e tr ac e po lis h sm oo th lig ht fle ck ed 1 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed fla t no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al fla t ta pe rin g no ne no ne co m pl et e po lis he d ve ry  sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t ci rc ul ar co nv ex fla rin g no ne no ne fr ag m en t ba sa lt tr ac e po lis h sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid ov al fla t dr ill ed sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk m ot tle d 0 B od y D es cr ip ti on N ec k D es cr ip ti on O bj ec t C om pl et en es s C ol ou r In te ns it y C ol ou r A pp ea ra nc e Lu m in an ce  (l ux ) ci rc ul ar , o va l, sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  ov oi d,  cy li nd ri ca l, la te ra ll y- ro un de d co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at , cu rv ed dr il le d,  in ci se d,  gr oo ve d,  ho ll ow ed ov al , o vo id , cy li nd ri ca l, se m i- cy li nd ri ca l, ci rc ul ar , sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  zo om or ph ic co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at ta pe ri ng , fl ar in g (d is ta ll y) , pe nd ul an t, do ub le , po ss ib le  d ou bl e dr il le d,  ho ll ow ed , in ci se d,  in la id , gr oo ve d co ns tr ic te d,  ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve (l it hi c,  fa un al , fl or al ) da rk , m ed iu m , li gh t m ai n,  se co nd ar y co lo ur s lit hi c lit hi c lit hi c un kn ow n,  sil ts to ne lit hi c pe nd ul an t fa un al sh el l ( pu rp le - hi ng ed  sc al lo p) pe nd ul an t fa un al sh el l ( pu rp le - hi ng ed  sc al lo p) pe nd ul an t fa un al sh el l ( pu rp le - hi ng ed  sc al lo p) pe nd ul an t fa un al sh el l ( pu rp le - hi ng ed  sc al lo p) lit hi c st ea tit e lit hi c st ea tit e gr ey -b lu e,  b lu e lit hi c m ud st on e lit hi c lit hi c st ea tit e br ow n,  re d- br ow n,  b ei ge   89 Mat er ia l P ro pe rt ie s M od if ic at io n D im en si on s (m m ) Ir id es ce nc e V ol um e fl an ge bo dy no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 32 22 no 11 .5 50 38 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 7 3. 4 2. 6 ye s 18 .4 3. 8 3. 5 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 14 .5 6. 1 3. 2 ye s 15 7 6. 1 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed gr oo ve d po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 45 .5 10 .5 5. 2 3 ye s 12 .2 27 .1 10 .5 2 no 30 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne ye s, ye s, no gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne 46 .3 15 7. 4 12 .2 ye s 16 .5 33 .5 59 no 15 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne ye s, ye s, no gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne 62 .4 15 .5 8. 5 7 ye s 10 .6 41 38 .8 no 30 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 53 .8 12 .4 7. 5 8. 3 ye s 20 .1 35 53 .8 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 34 .7 10 .2 4. 2 3. 7 ye s 6. 1 20 34 .9 no 30 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 38 .3 30 .2 10 .7 ye s 25 .3 44 .5 35 .9 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 28 .3 15 .2 6. 8 no 15 25 .7 20 .2 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 14 .1 5. 9 3. 6 ye s 21 7. 3 6 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 22 5. 2 5 ye s 15 10 .4 11 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 27 .7 17 .6 ye s 9. 9 29 .3 18 .3 2. 5 In it ia l M an uf ac tu re B ro ke n;  R e- W or ke d;  W or n bu t n ot  R e- W or ke d? Po st - M an uf ac tu re  A lt er at io ns Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (a t m id  fl an ge th ic kn es s (a t ba se  o f b od y) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e) Fl an ge  –  u se  m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? le ng th  (p ro xi m al  to  di st al ) w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (v er ti ca l) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e)   90 W ei gh t ( g) N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  S PS S Fu ll  D at e In fo fl an ge bo dy ot he r m ea su re m en ts ye s 11 m ul tip le  fr ac tu re s n 0. 5 ye s 0. 5 st ria tio ns , b od y n 1. 5 3. 5 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 0. 5 di st al  ti p,  b od y we at he rin g,  b od y co m pl et e le ng th  e st im at ed ye s 5. 6 n 0. 5 42 .7 co m pl et e ye s 50 .5 48 .6 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 25 .4 di st al  ti p,  b od y 63 .4 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 49 .6 56 .1 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 6. 3 35 .9 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 51 .9 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 11 .1 6. 6 wi dt h in co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 2. 1 n1 .5 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 1. 5 n2 .0 wi dt h es tim at ed he ig ht  e st im at ed ye s 8. 3 31 .2 2. 9 co m pl et e co m pl et e D im en si on s (m m ) N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  SP SS Lo ca ti on  o f Fr ac tu re Lo ca ti on  o f W ea r an d Ty pe C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls C ol ou r (M un se ll ) B od y – us e m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? bu ri al s:  s ex , ag e gr ou p? co nc av it y le ng th co nc av it y le ng th dr il le d ho le  di am et er dr il le d ho le  de pt h di st an ce  be tw ee n ho le s co ns tr ic te d ne ck  w id th co ns tr ic te d ne ck  h ei gh t O th er  de sc ri pt io n O th er  m ea su re m en t fl an ge  m ea su re m en t st at us bo dy  m ea su re m en t st at us ov er al l we at he rin g wi dt h,  h ei gh t in co m pl et e wi dt h,  h ei gh t es tim at ed 2. 5y  4 /2 , 1 0y r 2/ 1,  2 .5 yr  4 .8 m ul tip le  fr ac tu re s; di st al  bo dy  ti p br ok e ve rt ic al  st ria tio ns , po st er io r f la ng e;  be ve lli ng  w ea r, po st er io r f la ng e ed ge s co rr ec te d ra di o- ca rb on  d at es  fo r Zo ne  II  sp an  pe rio d 31 7+ -1 73 BC  (S FU 11 4)  to  10 12 +- 27 0B C (S FU 12 4) le ng th  in co m pl et e la te ra l f la ng e wi ng  b ro ke n st ria tio ns , f la ng e wi ng ; o ve ra ll he av ily  we at he re d fo un d D eR v- 6: 1, 2, 3, 4 to ge th er 2. 5y  8 /2 , 2 .5 y 7/ 4 st ria tio ns , d ist al  bo dy  ti p fo un d D eR v- 6: 1, 2, 3, 4 to ge th er 2. 5y  8 /2 , 2 .5 y 7/ 4 po lis h,  a nt er io r fla ng e fo un d D eR v- 6: 1, 2, 3, 4 to ge th er 2. 5y  8 /2 , 2 .5 y 7/ 4 po lis h,  p os te rio r fla ng e;  st ria tio ns , an te rio r b od y fo un d D eR v- 6: 1, 2, 3, 4 to ge th er 2. 5y  8 /2 , 2 .5 y 7/ 4 ch ip , a nt er io r bo dy ve rt ic al  sc ra tc hi ng , an te rio r b od y 10 yr  3 /2 , 1 0y r 6/ 4,  1 0y r 8 /4 la te ra l f la ng e wi ng s b ro ke n di ag on al  sc ra tc hi ng , po st er io r f la ng e 10 g 7/ 1,  1 0g  5 /1 , 10 g 3/ 1 un ifo rm  m ic ro - pi tt in g br ok en  a lo ng  ho riz on ta l p la ne un ifo rm  m ic ro - pi tt in g ve rt ic al  sc ra tc he s, in fe rio r p os te rio r fla ng e;  u ni fo rm  we ar  a nd  m ic ro - pi tt in g;  c hi pp ed , an te rio r b od y 5y  3 /2 , 5 y 2/ 1,  2. 5y  4 /4 , 5 y 8/ 1   91 In st it ut io n In fo rm at io n Si te  In fo rm at io n D es cr ip ti on In st it ut io n B or de n N o. Si te  N am e Si te  L oc at io n R eg io n Su b- R eg io n A ss oc ia te d D at e M Y  T Y PE Se x ag e la te ra l, ci rc ul ar RB CM 10 4 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish su rf ac e A rc ha eo lo gi ca l bu tt on kn ob la te ra l RB CM 74 9 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish di st ur be d A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l RB CM 92 1 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish di st ur be d A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l RB CM 91 8 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish di st ur be d A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l RB CM 10 00 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish di st ur be d A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l RB CM 10 10 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish di st ur be d A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l RB CM 70 1 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish di st ur be d A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l RB CM 74 8 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish di st ur be d A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l RB CM 62 0 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish di st ur be d A rc ha eo lo gi ca l di sc ci rc ul ar RB CM 94 9 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish di st ur be d A rc ha eo lo gi ca l di sc di sc ci rc ul ar In st it ut io n C at al og ue  N o. B or de n/ O th er  C at al og ue  N o. C on te m po ra ry  C ul tu ra l A ff il ia ti on s In te gr it y of  Pr ov en ie nc e C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls O bj ec t D es ig na ti on C la ss ic ' T yp e D es cr ip ti on Fl an ge  D es cr ip ti on s N or th , C en tr al , So ut h N or th  (N as s,  Sk ee na , H ai da  G w ai i) ; C en tr al ; S ou th  (G ul f I sl an ds , Fr as er  D el ta , U pp er  F ra se r,  W es t V an co uv er  Is la nd , E as t V an co uv er  Is la nd in  s it u,  in  sc re en ,d is tu rb e d,  s ur fa ce , un kn ow n Ty pe  1 : C 14  da te s Ty pe  2 : A ss oc ia te d D at e ra ng es A ss oc ia te d Pe ri od s (C ha rl es , Lo ca rn o,  M ar po le ) C ol le ct ed : A rc ha eo lo gi ca l, Et hn ol og ic al la br et , p os si bl e la br et , i nl ay  on ly ; l ab ia l, bu cc al , co m po si te D eR t- 19 (n ow  p ar t o f D eR t- 2) Pe nd er  Is la nd la br et D eR t- 4 Eg er ia  B ay  S ite , Pe nd er  C an al  4 , Po et s C ov e Be dw el l H ar bo ur , Pe nd er  Is la nd la br et un cl as sif ie d;  bu tt on  b ut  w ith  co nc av e an te rio r D eR t- 4 Eg er ia  B ay  S ite , Pe nd er  C an al  4 , Po et s C ov e Be dw el l H ar bo ur , Pe nd er  Is la nd la br et un cl as sif ie d;  bu tt on  b ut  w ith  co nc av e an te rio r D eR t- 4 Eg er ia  B ay  S ite , Pe nd er  C an al  4 , Po et s C ov e Be dw el l H ar bo ur , Pe nd er  Is la nd la br et un cl as sif ie d;  bu tt on  b ut  w ith  co nc av e an te rio r D eR t- 4 Eg er ia  B ay  S ite , Pe nd er  C an al  4 , Po et s C ov e Be dw el l H ar bo ur , Pe nd er  Is la nd la br et un cl as sif ie d;  bu tt on  b ut  w ith  co nc av e an te rio r D eR t- 4 Eg er ia  B ay  S ite , Pe nd er  C an al  4 , Po et s C ov e Be dw el l H ar bo ur , Pe nd er  Is la nd la br et un cl as sif ie d;  bu tt on  b ut  w ith  co nc av e an te rio r D eR t- 4 Eg er ia  B ay  S ite , Pe nd er  C an al  4 , Po et s C ov e Be dw el l H ar bo ur , Pe nd er  Is la nd la br et bu tt on  o r h at - sh ap ed ; o rig in al ly  do ub le -b ut to n D eR t- 4 Eg er ia  B ay  S ite , Pe nd er  C an al  4 , Po et s C ov e Be dw el l H ar bo ur , Pe nd er  Is la nd la br et bu tt on ; o rig in al ly  do ub le -b ut to n D eR t- 4 Eg er ia  B ay  S ite , Pe nd er  C an al  4 , Po et s C ov e Be dw el l H ar bo ur , Pe nd er  Is la nd la br et un cl as sif ie d;  d isc  bu t c on ca ve  o n bo th  si de s D eR t- 4 Eg er ia  B ay  S ite , Pe nd er  C an al  4 , Po et s C ov e Be dw el l H ar bo ur , Pe nd er  Is la nd la br et   92 D es cr ip ti on M at er ia l P ro pe rt ie s C la ss  Ty pe Po li sh Te xt ur e Pa tt er ni ng sh or t, ex te nd ed la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t ci rc ul ar fla t ta pe rin g no ne no ne co m pl et e po lis he d sm oo th da rk m ot tle d 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e dr ill ed sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e so ap st on e po lis he d ve ry  sm oo th da rk br ow n m ot tle d 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th m ed iu m fle ck ed 0 re ct an gu la r co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e so ap st on e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th m ed iu m br ow n m ot tle d 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk m ot tle d 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e po lis he d sm oo th da rk m ot tle d 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t cy lin dr ic al co nv ex po ss ib le  d ou bl e no ne no ne in co m pl et e tr ac e po lis h sli gh tly  ro ug h m ed iu m m ot tle d 1 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e dr ill ed sh or t ov al co nv ex po ss ib le  d ou bl e no ne no ne co m pl et e tr ac e po lis h sli gh tly  ro ug h m ed iu m fle ck ed 0 ov al co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk m ot tle d 0 ov al fla t dr ill ed sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk bl ac k fle ck ed 0 B od y D es cr ip ti on N ec k D es cr ip ti on O bj ec t C om pl et en es s C ol ou r In te ns it y C ol ou r A pp ea ra nc e Lu m in an ce  (l ux ) ci rc ul ar , o va l, sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  ov oi d,  cy li nd ri ca l, la te ra ll y- ro un de d co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at , cu rv ed dr il le d,  in ci se d,  gr oo ve d,  ho ll ow ed ov al , o vo id , cy li nd ri ca l, se m i- cy li nd ri ca l, ci rc ul ar , sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  zo om or ph ic co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at ta pe ri ng , fl ar in g (d is ta ll y) , pe nd ul an t, do ub le , po ss ib le  d ou bl e dr il le d,  ho ll ow ed , in ci se d,  in la id , gr oo ve d co ns tr ic te d,  ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve (l it hi c,  fa un al , fl or al ) da rk , m ed iu m , li gh t m ai n,  se co nd ar y co lo ur s lit hi c st ea tit e gr ey lit hi c lit hi c st ea tit e gr ey lit hi c lit hi c st ea tit e gr ey , r ed -b ro wn , bl ue -g re y lit hi c st ea tit e br ow n,  g re y lit hi c un kn ow n,  lim es to ne br ow n- pe ac h,  re d- br ow n lit hi c un kn ow n,  lim es to ne be ig e- br ow n,  re d- br ow n lit hi c st ea tit e gr ey lit hi c st ea tit e   93 Mat er ia l P ro pe rt ie s M od if ic at io n D im en si on s (m m ) Ir id es ce nc e V ol um e fl an ge bo dy no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d ye s, ye s, no gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d 27 .4 19 .2 4 2 ye s 11 .4 20 .4 19 .3 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d ye s, ye s, ye s gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed no ne 21 .9 17 .6 2. 2 no 8 21 .6 19 2 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 33 .1 17 .3 2. 9 1. 4 ye s 7. 7 24 .6 17 .9 4. 5 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d ye s, ye s, no gr ou nd /a br ad ed gr oo ve d po lis he d 23 .9 15 .1 3. 4 1. 5 ye s 10 .1 18 .6 15 3. 2 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 47 24 .2 4. 7 5. 5 ye s 8 32 .9 25 .3 4 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 44 22 3. 4 ye s 8. 1 26 .2 21 .7 4 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne ye s, ye s, no gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne 21 .4 13 .9 8 ye s 16 .2 13 .4 15 .5 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne ye s, ye s, no gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed no ne 42 .6 21 .6 7. 8 5 ye s 12 .4 27 .6 22 .5 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 32 22 .2 5 ye s 11 .1 34 22 5. 4 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 32 19 .7 ye s 11 .3 34 22 3. 4 In it ia l M an uf ac tu re B ro ke n;  R e- W or ke d;  W or n bu t n ot  R e- W or ke d? Po st - M an uf ac tu re  A lt er at io ns Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (a t m id  fl an ge th ic kn es s (a t ba se  o f b od y) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e) Fl an ge  –  u se  m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? le ng th  (p ro xi m al  to  di st al ) w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (v er ti ca l) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e)   94 W ei gh t ( g) N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  S PS S Fu ll  D at e In fo fl an ge bo dy ot he r m ea su re m en ts ye s 8. 1 27 .9 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 5. 1 5y  2 /1 , 5 y 3/ 2 22 .5 2. 8 10 wi dt h in co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 4. 4 34 29 .6 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 5. 9 23 .6 18 .6 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 10 .5 44 .8 38 wi dt h es tim at ed co m pl et e ye s 5. 8 29 .3 wi dt h es tim at ed ye s 4. 7 12 .5 12 .5 co m pl et e ye s 16 45 .6 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 4 2. 5r  n 2. 5,  5 y 5/ 1 25 .5 29 .4 wi dt h es tim at ed wi dt h es tim at ed ye s 6. 5 17 .5 2 wi dt h es tim at ed wi dt h es tim at ed D im en si on s (m m ) N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  SP SS Lo ca ti on  o f Fr ac tu re Lo ca ti on  o f W ea r an d Ty pe C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls C ol ou r (M un se ll ) B od y – us e m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? bu ri al s:  s ex , ag e gr ou p? co nc av it y le ng th co nc av it y le ng th dr il le d ho le  di am et er dr il le d ho le  de pt h di st an ce  be tw ee n ho le s co ns tr ic te d ne ck  w id th co ns tr ic te d ne ck  h ei gh t O th er  de sc ri pt io n O th er  m ea su re m en t fl an ge  m ea su re m en t st at us bo dy  m ea su re m en t st at us la te ra l f la ng e wi ng s b ro ke n,  re wo rk ed st ria tio ns , an te rio r f la ng e an d bo dy ; p itt in g,  m ed ia l p os te rio r fla ng e n1 , 5 y 5/ 1,  5 y 3/ 15 y 8/ 2 la te ra l f la ng e wi ng s b ro ke n,  th en  d ril le d un ifo rm  sc ra tc hi ng ; m ic ro -c hi pp in g,  an te rio r b od y ho riz on ta l sc ra tc hi ng , po st er io r f la ng e;  m ic ro -c hi pp in g,  an te rio r b od y;  po lis h,  p os te rio r fla ng e 5y  2 /1 , 5 y 3/ 2,  5y  4 /1 la te ra l f la ng e wi ng s b ro ke n,  re gr ou nd co nc re tio n,  an te rio r f la ng e;  un ifo rm  w ea r 5y  3 /2 , 5 y 8/ 2,  5y  3 /1 la te ra l f la ng e wi ng  b ro ke n un ifo rm  we at he rin g;  m ic ro -c hi pp in g,  an te rio r b od y;  co nc re tio n,  an te rio r f la ng e 10 yr  3 /4 , 1 0y r 7/ 4,  n 2. 5,  1 0g  7/ 1 la te ra l f la ng e wi ng s b ro ke n ch ip pi ng , an te rio r b od y an d po st er io r f la ng e;  sc ra tc hi ng , po st er io r f la ng e 1y r 3 /6 , n 2. 0,  5 y 6/ 1 in co m pl et e,  b ut  m ea su re m en ts  ac cu ra te un ifo rm  h ea vi ly  we at he re d 5y r 5 /6 , 7 .5 yr  8/ 4,  7 .5 yr  5 /4 in co m pl et e,  b ut  m ea su re m en ts  ac cu ra te he av ily  we at he re d;  sm oo th , po st er io r f la ng e 10 yr  6 /4 , 1 0y r 4/ 4 (p ol ish ), 2. 5y  7/ 2 4. 8 po st er io r, 1. 9 an te rio r fr ac tu re d al on g m ed ia l a nd  la te ra l ax es ch ip pi ng , an te rio r b od y an d po st er io r f la ng e;  ov er al l s cr at ch in g fr ac tu re d al on g m ed ia l a xi s ch ip pi ng , an te rio r b od y;  st ria tio ns  a nd  be ve lli ng , po st er io r f la ng e;  un ifo rm  sc ra tc hi ng 2. 5r  n 1. 0,  2 .5 r n2 .5   95 In st it ut io n In fo rm at io n Si te  In fo rm at io n D es cr ip ti on In st it ut io n B or de n N o. Si te  N am e Si te  L oc at io n R eg io n Su b- R eg io n A ss oc ia te d D at e M Y  T Y PE Se x ag e la te ra l, ci rc ul ar RB CM 65 9 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish di st ur be d A rc ha eo lo gi ca l di sc di sc ci rc ul ar RB CM 93 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish di st ur be d A rc ha eo lo gi ca l di sc di sc ci rc ul ar RB CM 87 2 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish di st ur be d A rc ha eo lo gi ca l di sc di sc ci rc ul ar RB CM 91 3 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish di st ur be d A rc ha eo lo gi ca l di sc ci rc ul ar RB CM 95 1 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish di st ur be d A rc ha eo lo gi ca l di sc di sc ci rc ul ar RB CM 93 8 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish di st ur be d A rc ha eo lo gi ca l di sc di sc ci rc ul ar RB CM 70 9 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish di st ur be d A rc ha eo lo gi ca l di sc di sc ci rc ul ar RB C M 92 9 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish di st ur be d A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l RB CM 22 M ay ne  Is la nd So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l RB CM (o ld  # 11 60 0) 5 H el en  P oi nt M ay ne  Is la nd So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish su rf ac e A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l RB CM 43 80 H el en  P oi nt M ay ne  Is la nd So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l In st it ut io n C at al og ue  N o. B or de n/ O th er  C at al og ue  N o. C on te m po ra ry  C ul tu ra l A ff il ia ti on s In te gr it y of  Pr ov en ie nc e C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls O bj ec t D es ig na ti on C la ss ic ' T yp e D es cr ip ti on Fl an ge  D es cr ip ti on s N or th , C en tr al , So ut h N or th  (N as s,  Sk ee na , H ai da  G w ai i) ; C en tr al ; S ou th  (G ul f I sl an ds , Fr as er  D el ta , U pp er  F ra se r,  W es t V an co uv er  Is la nd , E as t V an co uv er  Is la nd in  s it u,  in  sc re en ,d is tu rb e d,  s ur fa ce , un kn ow n Ty pe  1 : C 14  da te s Ty pe  2 : A ss oc ia te d D at e ra ng es A ss oc ia te d Pe ri od s (C ha rl es , Lo ca rn o,  M ar po le ) C ol le ct ed : A rc ha eo lo gi ca l, Et hn ol og ic al la br et , p os si bl e la br et , i nl ay  on ly ; l ab ia l, bu cc al , co m po si te D eR t- 4 Eg er ia  B ay  S ite , Pe nd er  C an al  4 , Po et s C ov e Be dw el l H ar bo ur , Pe nd er  Is la nd la br et D eR t- 4 Eg er ia  B ay  S ite , Pe nd er  C an al  4 , Po et s C ov e Be dw el l H ar bo ur , Pe nd er  Is la nd la br et D eR t- 4 Eg er ia  B ay  S ite , Pe nd er  C an al  4 , Po et s C ov e Be dw el l H ar bo ur , Pe nd er  Is la nd la br et D eR t- 4 Eg er ia  B ay  S ite , Pe nd er  C an al  4 , Po et s C ov e Be dw el l H ar bo ur , Pe nd er  Is la nd la br et un cl as sif ie d;  d isc  bu t c on ca ve  o n bo th  si de s D eR t- 4 Eg er ia  B ay  S ite , Pe nd er  C an al  4 , Po et s C ov e Be dw el l H ar bo ur , Pe nd er  Is la nd la br et D eR t- 4 Eg er ia  B ay  S ite , Pe nd er  C an al  4 , Po et s C ov e Be dw el l H ar bo ur , Pe nd er  Is la nd la br et D eR t- 4 Eg er ia  B ay  S ite , Pe nd er  C an al  4 , Po et s C ov e Be dw el l H ar bo ur , Pe nd er  Is la nd la br et D eR t- 4 Eg er ia  B ay  S ite , Pe nd er  C an al  4 , Po et s C ov e Be dw el l H ar bo ur , Pe nd er  Is la nd la br et D fR tu -Y A ct iv e Pa ss , (f or m er ly  D fR uv - Y :7 , o ld  ac c. #5 23 3 &  19 44 -1 4) la br et D fR u- 8 la br et D fR u- 8 la br et bu tt on ; o rig in al ly  do ub le -b ut to n   96 D es cr ip ti on M at er ia l P ro pe rt ie s C la ss  Ty pe Po li sh Te xt ur e Pa tt er ni ng sh or t, ex te nd ed ov al co nv ex dr ill ed sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk so lid 0 ov al co nc av e dr ill ed sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk m ot tle d 0 ov al fla t dr ill ed sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th m ed iu m fle ck ed 0 ov al co nc av e dr ill ed sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th m ed iu m fle ck ed 0 ov al co nc av e dr ill ed sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th m ed iu m m ot tle d 0 ov al co nc av e dr ill ed sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid 0 ov al fla t dr ill ed sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e so ap st on e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al fla t no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e sil ts to ne du ll sli gh tly  ro ug h m ed iu m so lid 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al fla t ta pe rin g no ne no ne co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed sm oo th da rk so lid re ct an gu la r fla t no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al fla t no ne dr ill ed no ne in co m pl et e so ap st on e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk gr ee n m ot tle d la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al co nc av e po ss ib le  d ou bl e no ne no ne co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th m ed iu m m ot tle d 1 B od y D es cr ip ti on N ec k D es cr ip ti on O bj ec t C om pl et en es s C ol ou r In te ns it y C ol ou r A pp ea ra nc e Lu m in an ce  (l ux ) ci rc ul ar , o va l, sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  ov oi d,  cy li nd ri ca l, la te ra ll y- ro un de d co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at , cu rv ed dr il le d,  in ci se d,  gr oo ve d,  ho ll ow ed ov al , o vo id , cy li nd ri ca l, se m i- cy li nd ri ca l, ci rc ul ar , sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  zo om or ph ic co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at ta pe ri ng , fl ar in g (d is ta ll y) , pe nd ul an t, do ub le , po ss ib le  d ou bl e dr il le d,  ho ll ow ed , in ci se d,  in la id , gr oo ve d co ns tr ic te d,  ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve (l it hi c,  fa un al , fl or al ) da rk , m ed iu m , li gh t m ai n,  se co nd ar y co lo ur s lit hi c st ea tit e gr ey lit hi c st ea tit e gr ey , b la ck lit hi c st ea tit e gr ey lit hi c st ea tit e gr ey lit hi c st ea tit e gr ey lit hi c st ea tit e lit hi c lit hi c gr ey lit hi c st ea tit e da rk  g re y lit hi c lit hi c st ea tit e gr ee n,  g re y   97 Mat er ia l P ro pe rt ie s M od if ic at io n D im en si on s (m m ) Ir id es ce nc e V ol um e fl an ge bo dy no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 32 .5 22 .6 ye s 11 .6 35 .4 23 .4 3. 2 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 27 16 .3 1 ye s 8. 4 29 .2 17 .9 3 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 30 1. 9 ye s 11 .8 32 23 .1 4. 6 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 32 18 ye s 13 .2 32 20 .4 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 31 .2 21 .4 2. 7 ye s 11 .2 33 .6 22 .3 6 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d po ss ib ly , y es , n o no ne dr ill ed no ne 30 .7 18 2. 3 ye s 11 .3 34 .1 20 5 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 30 .8 20 .8 ye s 12 .9 33 .4 21 .9 6 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne ye s, ye s, no gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne 23 10 .4 4. 1 0. 5 ye s 25 .1 9. 7 10 .3 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 21 .8 8 5. 9 1. 7 ye s 32 .1 8. 1 8 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 6. 5 3. 9 2. 9 ye s 29 .8 4. 9 4. 9 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d ye s, ye s, no gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d 33 16 .3 6. 4 ye s 11 .4 17 .9 16 .3 In it ia l M an uf ac tu re B ro ke n;  R e- W or ke d;  W or n bu t n ot  R e- W or ke d? Po st - M an uf ac tu re  A lt er at io ns Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (a t m id  fl an ge th ic kn es s (a t ba se  o f b od y) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e) Fl an ge  –  u se  m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? le ng th  (p ro xi m al  to  di st al ) w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (v er ti ca l) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e)   98 W ei gh t ( g) N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  S PS S Fu ll  D at e In fo fl an ge bo dy ot he r m ea su re m en ts ye s 14 .4 2. 5r  n 2. 0 36 .3 2. 2 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 6. 4 2. 5r  n 1. 5 27 30 .3 3 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 7. 2 2 wi dt h es tim at ed wi dt h es tim at ed ye s 3. 7 2. 2 wi dt h es tim at ed wi dt h es tim at ed ye s 11 .3 30 37 .5 2. 7 co m pl et e ye s 10 .4 2. 5r  n 1. 0 31 .5 36 .2 2. 9 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 14 .2 2. 5r  n 1. 5 28 .3 3. 7 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 5. 6 5y  4 /1 18 .6 wi dt h es tim at ed co m pl et e ye s 3. 9 n2 .0 22 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 1. 5 1. 5 2. 8 co m pl et e ye s 8. 8 10 y 6/ 4,  1 0y  3 /1 36 .7 14 .4 co m pl et e co m pl et e D im en si on s (m m ) N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  SP SS Lo ca ti on  o f Fr ac tu re Lo ca ti on  o f W ea r an d Ty pe C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls C ol ou r (M un se ll ) B od y – us e m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? bu ri al s:  s ex , ag e gr ou p? co nc av it y le ng th co nc av it y le ng th dr il le d ho le  di am et er dr il le d ho le  de pt h di st an ce  be tw ee n ho le s co ns tr ic te d ne ck  w id th co ns tr ic te d ne ck  h ei gh t O th er  de sc ri pt io n O th er  m ea su re m en t fl an ge  m ea su re m en t st at us bo dy  m ea su re m en t st at us ch ip pi ng , an te rio r b od y;  sc ra tc hi ng , po st er io r f la ng e ho riz on ta l sc ra tc hi ng  a nd  pi tt in g,  p os te rio r fla ng e;  c hi pp in g,  an te rio r b od y fr ac tu re d ve rt ic lly  a lo ng  m ed ia l a xi s; br ok en  th ro ug h ho le sc ra tc hi ng , po st er io r f la ng e 10 y 3/ 1,  1 0y  2 /1 , 10 y 5/ 2,  1 0y  8. 5/ 2 br ok en  o ff  m ed ia l ax is;  d ril le d ho le  br ok en  th ro ug h m ic ro -c hi pp in g,  an te rio r b od y;  po lis h,  a nt er io r bo dy 2. 5y  5 /4 , 2 .5 y 2/ 2,  1 0y r 2 /1 br ok en , a nt er io r bo dy  e dg e m ic ro -c hi pp in g,  an te rio r a nd  po st er io r e dg es ; we at he rin g (f ire ?)  ov er al l 2. 5r  n 2. 0 wh er e po lis he d,  2 .5 y 7/ 2 in co m pl et e,  b ut  m ea su re m en ts  ac cu ra te dr ill ed  h ol e br ok e th ro ug h,  po st er io r f la ng e m ic ro -c hi pp in g,  an te rio r b od y su rf ac e m ic ro -c hi pp in g,  an te rio r- bo dy  su rf ac e;  sc ra tc hi ng  a nd  we ar  fa ce ts , po st er io r f la ng e;  co nc re tio n,  an te rio r f la ng e la te ra l f la ng e wi ng  b ro ke n,  re gr ou nd (? ) un ifo rm  w ea r; ch ip pi ng , an te rio r la te ra l w in g br ok en un ifo rm  m ic ro - pi tt in g 10 gy  3 /1 , 1 0g y 2/ 1 in co m pl et e,  b ut  m ea su re m en ts  ac cu ra te co nc re tio n,  an te rio r f la ng e;  ve rt ic al  st ria tio ns , po st er io r f la ng e   99 In st it ut io n In fo rm at io n Si te  In fo rm at io n D es cr ip ti on In st it ut io n B or de n N o. Si te  N am e Si te  L oc at io n R eg io n Su b- R eg io n A ss oc ia te d D at e M Y  T Y PE Se x ag e la te ra l, ci rc ul ar RB CM 11 71 H el en  P oi nt M ay ne  Is la nd So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish su rf ac e A rc ha eo lo gi ca l di sc di sc ci rc ul ar RB CM 23 A ct iv e Pa ss M ay ne  Is la nd So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l di sc di sc ci rc ul ar RB C M 32 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish su rf ac e A rc ha eo lo gi ca l di sc di sc ci rc ul ar RB CM 10 25 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l RB CM 14 16 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish un kn ow n 25 00 -3 50 0 A rc ha eo lo gi ca l te e la te ra l RB CM 99 8 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish in  si tu 25 00 -3 50 0 A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l RB CM 20 00 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish in  si tu 25 00 -3 50 0 A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l RB CM 17 91 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish su rf ac e 25 00 -3 50 0 A rc ha eo lo gi ca l bu tt on kn ob la te ra l RB CM 63 5 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish un kn ow n 25 00 -3 50 0 A rc ha eo lo gi ca l di sc di sc ci rc ul ar RB CM 18 29 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish su rf ac e 25 00 -3 50 0 A rc ha eo lo gi ca l di sc di sc la te ra l/c irc ul ar In st it ut io n C at al og ue  N o. B or de n/ O th er  C at al og ue  N o. C on te m po ra ry  C ul tu ra l A ff il ia ti on s In te gr it y of  Pr ov en ie nc e C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls O bj ec t D es ig na ti on C la ss ic ' T yp e D es cr ip ti on Fl an ge  D es cr ip ti on s N or th , C en tr al , So ut h N or th  (N as s,  Sk ee na , H ai da  G w ai i) ; C en tr al ; S ou th  (G ul f I sl an ds , Fr as er  D el ta , U pp er  F ra se r,  W es t V an co uv er  Is la nd , E as t V an co uv er  Is la nd in  s it u,  in  sc re en ,d is tu rb e d,  s ur fa ce , un kn ow n Ty pe  1 : C 14  da te s Ty pe  2 : A ss oc ia te d D at e ra ng es A ss oc ia te d Pe ri od s (C ha rl es , Lo ca rn o,  M ar po le ) C ol le ct ed : A rc ha eo lo gi ca l, Et hn ol og ic al la br et , p os si bl e la br et , i nl ay  on ly ; l ab ia l, bu cc al , co m po si te D fR u- 8 la br et (o ld  # D fR uv -7 :8 ) D fR tu -Y la br et (o ld  a cc .# 55 06 , ne w ac c. 19 44 -5 1,  fo rm er ly  D fR u- Y :5 ) D fR tu -Y pr ob ab ly  fr om  D fR u- 24  T ol an 's B ea ch  (K ed di e) A ct iv e Pa ss , Ga lia no  Is la nd la br et D fR u- 13 M on ta gu e H ar bo ur  S ite Ga lia no  Is la nd la br et bu tt on  o r h at - sh ap ed D fR u- 24 T ol an 's Be ac h Ga lia no  Is la nd Lo ca rn o la br et T -s ha pe d or  h at - sh ap ed (o ld  a cc .# 68 -1 9) D fR u- 24 T ol an 's Be ac h Ga lia no  Is la nd Lo ca rn o la br et bu tt on  o r h at - sh ap ed (o ld  ac c. #7 0- 10 3) D fR u- 24 T ol an 's Be ac h Ga lia no  Is la nd Lo ca rn o la br et un cl as sif ie d;  bu tt on  o r h at - sh ap ed  b ut  w ith  co nc av e an te rio r (a cc .# 69 -6 6) D fR u- 24 T ol an 's Be ac h Ga lia no  Is la nd Lo ca rn o la br et D fR u- 24 T ol an 's Be ac h Ga lia no  Is la nd Lo ca rn o la br et (a cc .# 69 -8 2) D fR u- 24 T ol an 's Be ac h Ga lia no  Is la nd Lo ca rn o la br et   100 D es cr ip ti on M at er ia l P ro pe rt ie s C la ss  Ty pe Po li sh Te xt ur e Pa tt er ni ng sh or t, ex te nd ed ov al fla t dr ill ed sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e so ap st on e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk br ow n,  b la ck m ot tle d 0 ov al co nc av e dr ill ed sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e po lis he d sm oo th m ed iu m m ot tle d 2 ov al co nc av e dr ill ed sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e so ap st on e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk m ot tle d 1 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t ci rc ul ar co nv ex no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e so ap st on e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk bl ac k,  b ei ge m ot tle d 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nv ex no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al fla t no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e po lis he d sm oo th da rk so lid la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t ci rc ul ar co nv ex no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e co al hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e tr ac e po lis h sm oo th m ed iu m m ot tle d 1 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al co nv ex no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e po lis he d sm oo th lig ht m ot tle d 2 ov al fla t dr ill ed sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e so ap st on e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed sm oo th m ed iu m m ot tle d ov al co nc av e dr ill ed sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed sm oo th da rk m ot tle d 2 B od y D es cr ip ti on N ec k D es cr ip ti on O bj ec t C om pl et en es s C ol ou r In te ns it y C ol ou r A pp ea ra nc e Lu m in an ce  (l ux ) ci rc ul ar , o va l, sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  ov oi d,  cy li nd ri ca l, la te ra ll y- ro un de d co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at , cu rv ed dr il le d,  in ci se d,  gr oo ve d,  ho ll ow ed ov al , o vo id , cy li nd ri ca l, se m i- cy li nd ri ca l, ci rc ul ar , sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  zo om or ph ic co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at ta pe ri ng , fl ar in g (d is ta ll y) , pe nd ul an t, do ub le , po ss ib le  d ou bl e dr il le d,  ho ll ow ed , in ci se d,  in la id , gr oo ve d co ns tr ic te d,  ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve (l it hi c,  fa un al , fl or al ) da rk , m ed iu m , li gh t m ai n,  se co nd ar y co lo ur s lit hi c lit hi c st ea tit e gr ey , b ei ge lit hi c gr ey lit hi c lit hi c m ud st on e gr ey lit hi c lit hi c st ea tit e gr ey , b ro wn lit hi c st ea tit e bl ue -g re y,  w hi te lit hi c gr ey , b ro wn lit hi c st ea tit e gr ey   101 Mat er ia l P ro pe rt ie s M od if ic at io n D im en si on s (m m ) Ir id es ce nc e V ol um e fl an ge bo dy no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 33 .7 22 .4 ye s 11 .3 34 .7 22 .9 3. 7 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 33 .5 21 .6 1. 5 ye s 9. 7 35 .2 22 .9 4. 5 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 29 .5 18 .7 1 ye s 10 .2 31 .8 19 .4 3. 5 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d ye s, no , y es no ne no ne no ne 37 15 .7 7. 2 1. 5 ye s 17 .5 22 .2 19 .3 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d ye s, no , y es no ne no ne no ne 9. 2 6. 3 3 no 13 .9 7. 5 6. 5 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 27 14 .2 2. 9 2 ye s 10 .2 15 .3 14 .6 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 32 15 .4 3. 2 1. 7 ye s 8. 4 21 .7 16 .9 2. 9 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d po ss ib ly , y es , n o gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d 28 .7 12 .6 5. 2 2. 5 ye s 11 .9 21 14 .3 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d un kn ow n,  y es , n o no ne dr ill ed no ne 31 .1 24 .1 ye s 15 34 .9 25 .9 5 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d ye s, ye s, no gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed no ne 25 .6 21 .1 1. 2 ye s 6. 4 25 20 .8 2. 8 In it ia l M an uf ac tu re B ro ke n;  R e- W or ke d;  W or n bu t n ot  R e- W or ke d? Po st - M an uf ac tu re  A lt er at io ns Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (a t m id  fl an ge th ic kn es s (a t ba se  o f b od y) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e) Fl an ge  –  u se  m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? le ng th  (p ro xi m al  to  di st al ) w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (v er ti ca l) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e)   102 W ei gh t ( g) N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  S PS S Fu ll  D at e In fo fl an ge bo dy ot he r m ea su re m en ts ye s 15 5y  2 /1 , 5 y 3/ 2 39 .2 3 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 12 .9 34 .1 40 .1 2. 9 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 9. 3 un ifo rm  w ea r 5y  3 /1 , 5 y 5/ 2,  29 .7 33 .6 1. 9 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 12 .6 n1 .0 , 5 y 7/ 2 35 .1 wi dt h es tim at ed co m pl et e ye s 12 .7 un ifo rm  p ol ish in co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 2. 4 2. 5r  n 0. 5 23 wi dt h es tim at ed co m pl et e ye s 4. 4 28 22 wi dt h es tim at ed co m pl et e ye s 7 we at he rin g 29 .7 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 17 .7 36 .5 4. 2 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 5. 5 5g y 5/ 2,  5 gy  3 /1 26 26 1. 6 co m pl et e co m pl et e D im en si on s (m m ) N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  SP SS Lo ca ti on  o f Fr ac tu re Lo ca ti on  o f W ea r an d Ty pe C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls C ol ou r (M un se ll ) B od y – us e m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? bu ri al s:  s ex , ag e gr ou p? co nc av it y le ng th co nc av it y le ng th dr il le d ho le  di am et er dr il le d ho le  de pt h di st an ce  be tw ee n ho le s co ns tr ic te d ne ck  w id th co ns tr ic te d ne ck  h ei gh t O th er  de sc ri pt io n O th er  m ea su re m en t fl an ge  m ea su re m en t st at us bo dy  m ea su re m en t st at us un ifo rm  we at he rin g;  ch ip pi ng , an te rio r b od y m ic ro -c hi pp in g,  an te rio r b od y;  un ifo rm  we at he rin g 5y  3 /1 , 5 y 8/ 2,  5y  6 /2 ch ip , a nt er io r bo dy ch ip , l at er al  fla ng e;  h ea vy  we at he rin g,  an te rio r b od y la te ra l f la ng e wi ng  b ro ke n as so ci at ed  w ith  ea rli er  d ep os its  da tin g c.  3 20 0 to  29 00  B P (K ed di e) 2. 5r  n 2. 0 wh er e po lis he d,  1 0y r 6/ 2 la te ra l f la ng e wi ng  b ro ke n co nc re tio n,  an te rio r f la ng e;  ov er al l we at he rin g as so ci at ed  w ith  ea rli er  d ep os its  da tin g c.  3 20 0 to  29 00  B P (K ed di e) la te ra l f la ng e wi ng  b ro ke n di ag on al  sc ra tc hi ng , po st er io r f la ng e as so ci at ed  w ith  ea rli er  d ep os its  da tin g c.  3 20 0 to  29 00  B P (K ed di e) 5g y 6/ 1,  5 g 6/ 1,  10 yr  3 /4 la te ra l f la ng e wi ng s b ro ke n an d re gr ou nd (? ) as so ci at ed  w ith  ea rli er  d ep os its  da tin g c.  3 20 0 to  29 00  B P (K ed di e) 10 yr  8 /4  w eb , 10 g 2/ 1 un ifo rm  we at he rin g;  be ve lli ng , 'su pe rio r' (w as  in fe rio r)  po st er io r f la ng e as so ci at ed  w ith  ea rli er  d ep os its  da tin g c.  3 20 0 to  29 00  B P (K ed di e) 2. 5y  2 /2 , 5 y 5/ 2,  5g y 6/ 1 la te ra l f la ng e wi ng s b ro ke n un ifo rm  we at he rin g as so ci at ed  w ith  ea rli er  d ep os its  da tin g c.  3 20 0 to  29 00  B P (K ed di e)   103 In st it ut io n In fo rm at io n Si te  In fo rm at io n D es cr ip ti on In st it ut io n B or de n N o. Si te  N am e Si te  L oc at io n R eg io n Su b- R eg io n A ss oc ia te d D at e M Y  T Y PE Se x ag e la te ra l, ci rc ul ar RB CM 18 28 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish un kn ow n 25 00 -3 50 0 A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l RB CM 63 6 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish un kn ow n 25 00 -3 50 0 A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l RB CM 3 un kn ow n So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l RB CM 28 W al ke r's  H oo k So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l RB CM 4 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l RB CM 56 T oy nb ee  B ea ch So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l RB CM 35 T oy nb ee  B ea ch So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l RB CM 74 T oy nb ee  B ea ch So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l RB CM 73 T oy nb ee  B ea ch So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l RB CM 77 T oy nb ee  B ea ch So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l m al e m id -2 0s kn ob la te ra l In st it ut io n C at al og ue  N o. B or de n/ O th er  C at al og ue  N o. C on te m po ra ry  C ul tu ra l A ff il ia ti on s In te gr it y of  Pr ov en ie nc e C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls O bj ec t D es ig na ti on C la ss ic ' T yp e D es cr ip ti on Fl an ge  D es cr ip ti on s N or th , C en tr al , So ut h N or th  (N as s,  Sk ee na , H ai da  G w ai i) ; C en tr al ; S ou th  (G ul f I sl an ds , Fr as er  D el ta , U pp er  F ra se r,  W es t V an co uv er  Is la nd , E as t V an co uv er  Is la nd in  s it u,  in  sc re en ,d is tu rb e d,  s ur fa ce , un kn ow n Ty pe  1 : C 14  da te s Ty pe  2 : A ss oc ia te d D at e ra ng es A ss oc ia te d Pe ri od s (C ha rl es , Lo ca rn o,  M ar po le ) C ol le ct ed : A rc ha eo lo gi ca l, Et hn ol og ic al la br et , p os si bl e la br et , i nl ay  on ly ; l ab ia l, bu cc al , co m po si te (a cc .# 69 -8 2) D fR u- 24 T ol an 's Be ac h Ga lia no  Is la nd Lo ca rn o la br et un cl as sif ie d;  be tw ee n bu tt on  an d di sc , p ro ba bl y or ig in al ly  b ut to n bu t w ith  c on ca ve  an te rio r s ur fa ce D fR u- 24 T ol an 's Be ac h Ga lia no  Is la nd Lo ca rn o la br et un cl as sif ie d;  bu tt on  b ut  w ith  co nc av e an te rio r su rf ac e D fR w- 3 N W  e nd  o f Ga ng es  H ar bo ur , Sa lts pr in g Is la nd la br et bu tt on ; o rig in al ly  do ub le -b ut to n D fR u- 2 Sa lts pr in g Is la nd la br et (o ld  a cc .# 45 90 ) D eR t- Y /D eR u- 21 Be dd is Ba y Sa lts pr in g Is la nd la br et D fR u- 4 Sa lts pr in g Is la nd la br et bu tt on  o r h at - sh ap ed D fR u- 4 Sa lts pr in g Is la nd la br et bu tt on  o r h at - sh ap ed D fR u- 4 Sa lts pr in g Is la nd la br et bu tt on  o r h at - sh ap ed (o ld  a cc .# 73 -2 5) D fR u- 4 Sa lts pr in g Is la nd la br et bu tt on  o r h at - sh ap ed D fR u- 4 Sa lts pr in g Is la nd la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s T - sh ap ed   104 D es cr ip ti on M at er ia l P ro pe rt ie s C la ss  Ty pe Po li sh Te xt ur e Pa tt er ni ng sh or t, ex te nd ed la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed sm oo th da rk fle ck ed 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed sm oo th m ed iu m m ot tle d 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e dr ill ed sh or t ci rc ul ar co nv ex po ss ib le  d ou bl e no ne no ne in co m pl et e tr ac e po lis h sli gh tly  ro ug h m ed iu m br ow n,  b ei ge m ot tle d 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al fla t no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e tr ac e po lis h sli gh tly  ro ug h lig ht wh ite fle ck ed la te ra lly -r ou nd ed fla t dr ill ed ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al fla t ta pe rin g no ne no ne co m pl et e po lis he d sm oo th lig ht be ig e,  p ur pl e fle ck ed la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t cy lin dr ic al fla t no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e sil ts to ne po lis he d sm oo th m ed iu m m ot tle d 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t cy lin dr ic al fla t no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed fla t no ne sh or t cy lin dr ic al fla t no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e sil ts to ne po lis he d ve ry  sm oo th m ed iu m m ot tle d 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed fla t no ne sh or t cy lin dr ic al fla t no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e sa nd st on e du ll sli gh tly  ro ug h m ed iu m m ot tle d 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed fla t no ne ex te nd ed re ct an gu la r co nv ex ta pe rin g no ne no ne co m pl et e sil ts to ne du ll sli gh tly  ro ug h lig ht m ot tle d 0 B od y D es cr ip ti on N ec k D es cr ip ti on O bj ec t C om pl et en es s C ol ou r In te ns it y C ol ou r A pp ea ra nc e Lu m in an ce  (l ux ) ci rc ul ar , o va l, sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  ov oi d,  cy li nd ri ca l, la te ra ll y- ro un de d co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at , cu rv ed dr il le d,  in ci se d,  gr oo ve d,  ho ll ow ed ov al , o vo id , cy li nd ri ca l, se m i- cy li nd ri ca l, ci rc ul ar , sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  zo om or ph ic co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at ta pe ri ng , fl ar in g (d is ta ll y) , pe nd ul an t, do ub le , po ss ib le  d ou bl e dr il le d,  ho ll ow ed , in ci se d,  in la id , gr oo ve d co ns tr ic te d,  ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve (l it hi c,  fa un al , fl or al ) da rk , m ed iu m , li gh t m ai n,  se co nd ar y co lo ur s lit hi c st ea tit e gr ey lit hi c st ea tit e gr ey lit hi c m ud st on e fa un al sh el l ( pu rp le - hi ng ed  sc al lo p) fa un al sh el l ( pu rp le - hi ng ed  sc al lo p) lit hi c gr ey lit hi c m ud st on e lit hi c gr ey lit hi c gr ey lit hi c gr ey   105 Mat er ia l P ro pe rt ie s M od if ic at io n D im en si on s (m m ) Ir id es ce nc e V ol um e fl an ge bo dy no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d ye s, ye s, no gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d 25 17 .4 3 1. 5 ye s 8. 3 22 .7 18 .2 2. 4 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d ye s, ye s, no gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne 24 .7 18 .1 3. 4 2. 3 ye s 8. 5 23 .1 19 3. 7 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne ye s, ye s, no gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed no ne 30 .7 15 7. 9 10 .5 no 17 .4 21 .8 20 .5 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 24 .1 6. 6 3. 9 1. 7 ye s 15 .4 8. 9 7. 2 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 15 .2 6. 9 5. 1 ye s 56 .8 6 6. 3 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 22 .2 10 4. 2 0. 3 ye s 12 .2 10 .5 10 .1 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 27 .5 10 .9 5. 6 1 ye s 15 .8 14 14 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 26 .4 10 .3 5. 9 ye s 13 .2 12 .3 11 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 22 .6 8 7 ye s 16 .7 12 .6 10 .5 no 25 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 57 .6 11 .4 7. 2 ye s 40 .2 42 .5 16 .3 In it ia l M an uf ac tu re B ro ke n;  R e- W or ke d;  W or n bu t n ot  R e- W or ke d? Po st - M an uf ac tu re  A lt er at io ns Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (a t m id  fl an ge th ic kn es s (a t ba se  o f b od y) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e) Fl an ge  –  u se  m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? le ng th  (p ro xi m al  to  di st al ) w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (v er ti ca l) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e)   106 W ei gh t ( g) N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  S PS S Fu ll  D at e In fo fl an ge bo dy ot he r m ea su re m en ts ye s 7. 2 26 23 .5 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 6. 4 5g y 5/ 2,  5 gy  3 /1 25 .4 23 .8 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 9. 9 32 .9 wi dt h in co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 3. 6 24 .9 co m pl et e ye s 3. 6 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 3. 1 un ifo rm  w ea r 22 .5 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 6. 3 27 .7 13 .5 10 .3 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 3. 9 co m pl et e he ig ht  e st im at ed ye s 2. 1 he ig ht  e st im at ed he ig ht  e st im at ed ye s 29 .4 5y  6 /2 , 5 y 8/ 2 co m pl et e co m pl et e D im en si on s (m m ) N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  SP SS Lo ca ti on  o f Fr ac tu re Lo ca ti on  o f W ea r an d Ty pe C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls C ol ou r (M un se ll ) B od y – us e m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? bu ri al s:  s ex , ag e gr ou p? co nc av it y le ng th co nc av it y le ng th dr il le d ho le  di am et er dr il le d ho le  de pt h di st an ce  be tw ee n ho le s co ns tr ic te d ne ck  w id th co ns tr ic te d ne ck  h ei gh t O th er  de sc ri pt io n O th er  m ea su re m en t fl an ge  m ea su re m en t st at us bo dy  m ea su re m en t st at us la te ra l f la ng e wi ng s w or n do wn un ifo rm  we at he rin g as so ci at ed  w ith  ea rli er  d ep os its  da tin g c.  3 20 0 to  29 00  B P (K ed di e) 2. 5r  n 1. 5,  1 0y r 5/ 4,  2 .5 y 7/ 2 la te ra l f la ng e wi ng s w or n do wn un ifo rm  we at he rin g;  ho riz on ta l st ria tio ns , po st er io r f la ng e as so ci at ed  w ith  ea rli er  d ep os its  da tin g c.  3 20 0 to  29 00  B P (K ed di e) fr ac tu re , m ed ia l fla ng e ax is di ag on al  st ria tio ns , po st er io r f la ng e;  he av ily  we at he re d un ifo rm ly 2. 5y  6 /4 , 2 .5 r n2 .5 ch ip pe d,  la te ra l fla ng e;  o ve ra ll we at he rin g;  st ria tio ns , an te rio r b od y 10 yr  9 /2 , 1 0y r 2/ 1,  1 `0 yr  8 /2 in co m pl et e,  b ut  m ea su re m en ts  ac cu ra te st ria tio ns , b od y;  be ve lli ng , m ed ia l in fe rio r f la ng e 2. 5y  9 /2 , 2 .5 y 8/ 4,  fl an ge  po st er io r i s 2 .5 y 6/ 6,  w hi le  d ist al  en d of  b od y is 2. 5r  3 /6  o n in fe rio r h al f fr ac tu re , l at er al  wi ng 5y  3 /1 , 5 y 8/ 2,  5y  6 /2 m ic ro -p itt in g,  an te rio r b od y;  co nc re tio n,  an te rio r f la ng e;  be ve lli ng , i nf er io r po st er io r f la ng e n1 .5 , 2 .5 y 7/ 4 (o nl y on  le ft  po st er io r f la ng e) fr ac tu re d ho riz on ta lly  w ith  an te rio r b od y m iss in g be ve lli ng , i nf er io r po st er io r f la ng e 5y  2 /1 , 5 y 6/ 2,  5y  8 /2 fr ac tu re d on  ho riz on ta l a xi s 5y  4 /1 , 5 y 6/ 2,  5y  8 /2 fo un d wi th  b ur ia l #1 8 of  a du lt m al e “p ro ba bl y in  h is 20 's”   107 In st it ut io n In fo rm at io n Si te  In fo rm at io n D es cr ip ti on In st it ut io n B or de n N o. Si te  N am e Si te  L oc at io n R eg io n Su b- R eg io n A ss oc ia te d D at e M Y  T Y PE Se x ag e la te ra l, ci rc ul ar RB CM 78 T oy nb ee  B ea ch So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l un kn ow n un kn ow n la te ra l RB CM 3 un kn ow n Po rt la nd  Is la nd So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish su rf ac e A rc ha eo lo gi ca l di sc di sc ci rc ul ar RB CM 84 50 Be ac h Gr ov e So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l RB CM 87 23 Be ac h Gr ov e So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l RB CM 92 00 Be ac h Gr ov e So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish su rf ac e A rc ha eo lo gi ca l bu tt on kn ob la te ra l RB CM A 26 9 L iq ui d A ir Si te So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish su rf ac e A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d kn ob la te ra l RB CM 13 82 Pi tt  R iv er  S ite So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l un cl as sif ie d la te ra l RB CM 21 13 Pi tt  R iv er  S ite So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l la te ra l RB CM 21 4 Pi tt  R iv er  S ite So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l bu tt on kn ob la te ra l RB CM 44 Pi tt  R iv er  S ite So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l RB CM 30 49 Pi tt  R iv er  S ite So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l bu tt on kn ob la te ra l RB CM 35 96 Pi tt  R iv er  S ite So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l do ub le -b ut to n do ub le -k no b la te ra l In st it ut io n C at al og ue  N o. B or de n/ O th er  C at al og ue  N o. C on te m po ra ry  C ul tu ra l A ff il ia ti on s In te gr it y of  Pr ov en ie nc e C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls O bj ec t D es ig na ti on C la ss ic ' T yp e D es cr ip ti on Fl an ge  D es cr ip ti on s N or th , C en tr al , So ut h N or th  (N as s,  Sk ee na , H ai da  G w ai i) ; C en tr al ; S ou th  (G ul f I sl an ds , Fr as er  D el ta , U pp er  F ra se r,  W es t V an co uv er  Is la nd , E as t V an co uv er  Is la nd in  s it u,  in  sc re en ,d is tu rb e d,  s ur fa ce , un kn ow n Ty pe  1 : C 14  da te s Ty pe  2 : A ss oc ia te d D at e ra ng es A ss oc ia te d Pe ri od s (C ha rl es , Lo ca rn o,  M ar po le ) C ol le ct ed : A rc ha eo lo gi ca l, Et hn ol og ic al la br et , p os si bl e la br et , i nl ay  on ly ; l ab ia l, bu cc al , co m po si te D fR u- 4 Sa lts pr in g Is la nd la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s T - sh ap ed pe nd ul an t D eR u- 26 la br et D gR s- 1 Gr au er  P ar k,  T sa ww as se n la br et D gR s- 1 Gr au er  P ar k,  T sa ww as se n la br et (a cc .# 71 -2 91 ) D gR s- 1 Gr au er  P ar k,  T sa ww as se n la br et D hR s- 19 Fr as er  R iv er , Va nc ou ve r la br et D hR q- 21 M ar y H ill , P itt  R iv er  a re a,  F ra se r Va lle y la br et pe nd ul an t D hR q- 21 M ar y H ill , P itt  R iv er  a re a,  F ra se r Va lle y la br et pe nd ul an t pe nd ul an t D hR q- 21 M ar y H ill , P itt  R iv er  a re a,  F ra se r Va lle y la br et D hR q- 21 M ar y H ill , P itt  R iv er  a re a,  F ra se r Va lle y la br et bu tt on  o r h at - sh ap ed D hR q- 21 M ar y H ill , P itt  R iv er  a re a,  F ra se r Va lle y la br et D hR q- 21 M ar y H ill , P itt  R iv er  a re a,  F ra se r Va lle y la br et   108 D es cr ip ti on M at er ia l P ro pe rt ie s C la ss  Ty pe Po li sh Te xt ur e Pa tt er ni ng sh or t, ex te nd ed la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t cy lin dr ic al fla t no ne no ne co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed sm oo th lig ht be ig e,  p in k so lid 8 ov al fla t dr ill ed sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e so ap st on e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk m ot tle d 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed fla t no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al fla t no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e qu ar tz ite tr ac e po lis h sli gh tly  ro ug h lig ht be ig e fle ck ed 0 re ct an gu la r co nc av e no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al fla t no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e qu ar tz ite du ll sm oo th m ed iu m so lid la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al fla t no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e ba sa lt tr ac e po lis h sli gh tly  ro ug h m ed iu m so lid 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al in co m pl et e ta pe rin g no ne no ne in co m pl et e tr ac e po lis h sli gh tly  ro ug h m ed iu m m ot tle d 0 in co m pl et e fla t no ne sh or t ov al co nv ex no ne no ne in co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk m ot tle d 1 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t cy lin dr ic al co nv ex no ne no ne in co m pl et e sil ts to ne po lis he d ve ry  sm oo th m ed iu m m ot tle d 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al co nv ex /n ip pl e no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed sm oo th m ed iu m m ot tle d 3 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t cy lin dr ic al co nv ex no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e un kn ow n,  p um ic e tr ac e po lis h sm oo th da rk m ot tle d 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al co nv ex no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e sh el l ( un kn ow n) tr ac e po lis h sm oo th lig ht pi nk -b ei ge fle ck ed 3 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t cy lin dr ic al fla t do ub le no ne no ne co m pl et e tr ac e po lis h sm oo th lig ht fle ck ed B od y D es cr ip ti on N ec k D es cr ip ti on O bj ec t C om pl et en es s C ol ou r In te ns it y C ol ou r A pp ea ra nc e Lu m in an ce  (l ux ) ci rc ul ar , o va l, sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  ov oi d,  cy li nd ri ca l, la te ra ll y- ro un de d co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at , cu rv ed dr il le d,  in ci se d,  gr oo ve d,  ho ll ow ed ov al , o vo id , cy li nd ri ca l, se m i- cy li nd ri ca l, ci rc ul ar , sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  zo om or ph ic co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at ta pe ri ng , fl ar in g (d is ta ll y) , pe nd ul an t, do ub le , po ss ib le  d ou bl e dr il le d,  ho ll ow ed , in ci se d,  in la id , gr oo ve d co ns tr ic te d,  ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve (l it hi c,  fa un al , fl or al ) da rk , m ed iu m , li gh t m ai n,  se co nd ar y co lo ur s pe nd ul an t fa un al sh el l ( pu rp le - hi ng ed  sc al lo p) lit hi c gr ey , b ro wn -g re y lit hi c lit hi c gr ey lit hi c gr ey , o ra ng e lit hi c st ea tit e bl ue -g re y,  b ei ge pe nd ul an t lit hi c st ea tit e gr ey , b la ck , r ed - br ow n pe nd ul an t lit hi c gr ey lit hi c st ea tit e gr ey , y el lo w- be ig e lit hi c bl ac k,  g re y,  br ow n- be ig e fa un al lit hi c st ea tit e bl ue -g re y   109 Mat er ia l P ro pe rt ie s M od if ic at io n D im en si on s (m m ) Ir id es ce nc e V ol um e fl an ge bo dy no 15 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 31 7. 8 6 1. 4 ye s 15 14 .6 51 4. 3 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d no , y es , n o no ne dr ill ed no ne 31 .7 20 .2 ye s 9. 3 34 .1 21 .1 3 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 22 6. 9 7. 9 ye s 51 .2 12 .9 8. 8 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 17 .8 4. 4 3. 9 0. 8 ye s 25 .4 4. 7 4. 7 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne ye s, ye s, no gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne 46 .7 12 .5 6. 6 1. 8 ye s 13 .5 26 .3 17 .4 no 20 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne ye s, ye s, no gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne 64 .3 20 .8 10 .7 3. 8 ye s 44 .3 26 .8 21 .3 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne to o fr ag m en te d 24 .8 5 no 12 .2 25 .8 43 .4 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d ye s, ye s, no gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d 42 9 8 3. 2 ye s 26 .8 15 46 .1 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 29 .2 18 .6 6. 6 no 16 22 17 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 32 13 6. 6 ye s 18 .8 16 .5 13 .7 co m pl et e no 15 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 72 17 .9 8. 2 16 ye s 16 .4 34 .1 22 .8 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 35 .8 8. 3 4. 6 8. 5 ye s 17 .4 8. 5 8 In it ia l M an uf ac tu re B ro ke n;  R e- W or ke d;  W or n bu t n ot  R e- W or ke d? Po st - M an uf ac tu re  A lt er at io ns Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (a t m id  fl an ge th ic kn es s (a t ba se  o f b od y) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e) Fl an ge  –  u se  m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? le ng th  (p ro xi m al  to  di st al ) w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (v er ti ca l) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e)   110 W ei gh t ( g) N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  S PS S Fu ll  D at e In fo fl an ge bo dy ot he r m ea su re m en ts ye s 13 .6 31 .4 7. 8 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 9. 56 un ifo rm  w ea r 36 .6 2. 2 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 11 .1 wi dt h es tim at ed co m pl et e ye s 1. 6 gr ou nd  w ith  d irt 5y  9 /1  o rig in al ly 18 co m pl et e ye s 13 .3 n2 .5 47 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 39 .2 66 .2 co m pl et e ye s 12 .3 wi dt h in co m pl et e ye s 13 .6 5y  3 /1 , 5 y 4/ 2 38 .9 wi dt h es tim at ed ye s 9. 6 wi dt h in co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 6. 6 wi dt h es tim at ed co m pl et e no 19 .3 55 .6 15 .7 wi dt h es tim at ed wi dt h in co m pl et e ye s 5. 6 40 .7 co m pl et e co m pl et e D im en si on s (m m ) N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  SP SS Lo ca ti on  o f Fr ac tu re Lo ca ti on  o f W ea r an d Ty pe C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls C ol ou r (M un se ll ) B od y – us e m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? bu ri al s:  s ex , ag e gr ou p? co nc av it y le ng th co nc av it y le ng th dr il le d ho le  di am et er dr il le d ho le  de pt h di st an ce  be tw ee n ho le s co ns tr ic te d ne ck  w id th co ns tr ic te d ne ck  h ei gh t O th er  de sc ri pt io n O th er  m ea su re m en t fl an ge  m ea su re m en t st at us bo dy  m ea su re m en t st at us un ifo rm  m ic ro - sc ra tc hi ng ; st ria tio ns , an te rio r pe nd ul um  b od y fo un d wi th  b ur ia l of  a du lt an d in fa nt  # 19 5y  9 /1 , 5 y 9/ 2,  2. 5r  5 /8  a t pe nd ul um  d ist al  po st er io r 2. 5y  5 /4 , n 1. 5,  5y  2 /1 ch ip pi ng , f la ng e wi ng  a nd  su pe rio r bo dy he av ily  we at he re d ov er al l 2. 5y  8 /4 ,2 .5 y 3/ 2,  2 .5 y 9/ 2 fr ac tu re , d ist al  bo dy  ti p le ng th  in co m pl et e la te ra l f la ng e tip  br ok en , r eg ro un d ch ip pe d,  a nt er io r bo dy ; o ve ra ll we at he rin g di st al  b od y tip  br ok en  o ff ; la te ra l f la ng e wi ng  ti p br ok en  an d re gr ou nd ov er al l we at he rin g 5g  6 /1 , 5 g 7/ 1,  10 yr  7 /6 , 1 0y r 8/ 4 ba nd in g le ng th  in co m pl et e la te ra l f la ng e wi ng s b ro ke n;  di st al  p en du lu m  tip  b ro ke n st ria tio ns , po st er io r b od y an d fla ng e;  ve rt ic al  sc ra tc hi ng  po st er io r f la ng e;  m ic ro -s cr at ch in g,  an te rio r b od y n1 .5 , 5 y 6/ 2,  5 y 2/ 2 in co m pl et e,  b ut  m ea su re m en ts  ac cu ra te la te ra l f la ng e wi ng  b ro ke n;  an te rio r pe nd ul um  's lic ed ' un ifo rm  sc ra tc hi ng in co m pl et e,  b ut  m ea su re m en ts  ac cu ra te la te ra l f la ng e wi ng s b ro ke n ch ip , a nt er io r bo dy ; v er tic al  sc ra tc he s, po st er io r f la ng e 5y  7 /4 , 5 y 4/ 2,  5y  8 .5 /2  la te ra l f la ng e wi ng  b ro ke n ch ip , l at er al  fla ng e wi ng  ti p 5y  9 /2 , n 3. 5,  10 yr  3 /4 la te ra l f la ng e wi ng  b ro ke n wi th  pa rt  o f b od y he av ily  we at he re d;  sc ra tc hi ng , an te rio r b od y 10 yr  7 /4 , 1 0y r 9/ 2 ba nd in g,  1 0y r 8/ 4 ov er al l we at he rin g or ig in al  su rf ac e 5g  9 1/  a nd  5 g 8/ 1,  w ea th er ed  is  10 yr  3 /1 di st an ce  b et we en  bo di es  a lo ng  fla ng e;  le ng th  o f fla ng e its el f 6. 6,  a t m ed ia l ax is,  5 .7   111 In st it ut io n In fo rm at io n Si te  In fo rm at io n D es cr ip ti on In st it ut io n B or de n N o. Si te  N am e Si te  L oc at io n R eg io n Su b- R eg io n A ss oc ia te d D at e M Y  T Y PE Se x ag e la te ra l, ci rc ul ar RB CM 98 4 Pi tt  R iv er  S ite So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l RB CM 13 4 Pi tt  R iv er  S ite So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l do ub le -k no b la te ra l RB CM 18 Pi tt  R iv er  S ite So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l RB CM 17 6 Pi tt  R iv er  S ite So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l RB CM 21 98 Pi tt  R iv er  S ite So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l RB CM 12 un kn ow n So ut h U pp er  F ra se r Co as t S al ish su rf ac e A rc ha eo lo gi ca l bu tt on kn ob la te ra l RB CM 34 Ce nt ra l Ce nt ra l un kn ow n 20 90  + /-1 00  B P 20 00 A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l RB C M 27 7 Ce nt ra l Ce nt ra l in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l RB CM 52 7 Ce nt ra l Ce nt ra l in  si tu 20 00 A rc ha eo lo gi ca l te e ci rc ul ar In st it ut io n C at al og ue  N o. B or de n/ O th er  C at al og ue  N o. C on te m po ra ry  C ul tu ra l A ff il ia ti on s In te gr it y of  Pr ov en ie nc e C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls O bj ec t D es ig na ti on C la ss ic ' T yp e D es cr ip ti on Fl an ge  D es cr ip ti on s N or th , C en tr al , So ut h N or th  (N as s,  Sk ee na , H ai da  G w ai i) ; C en tr al ; S ou th  (G ul f I sl an ds , Fr as er  D el ta , U pp er  F ra se r,  W es t V an co uv er  Is la nd , E as t V an co uv er  Is la nd in  s it u,  in  sc re en ,d is tu rb e d,  s ur fa ce , un kn ow n Ty pe  1 : C 14  da te s Ty pe  2 : A ss oc ia te d D at e ra ng es A ss oc ia te d Pe ri od s (C ha rl es , Lo ca rn o,  M ar po le ) C ol le ct ed : A rc ha eo lo gi ca l, Et hn ol og ic al la br et , p os si bl e la br et , i nl ay  on ly ; l ab ia l, bu cc al , co m po si te D hR q- 21 M ar y H ill , P itt  R iv er  a re a,  F ra se r Va lle y la br et bu tt on ; o rig in al ly  do ub le -b ut to n D hR q- 21 M ar y H ill , P itt  R iv er  a re a,  F ra se r Va lle y la br et bu tt on ; o rig in al ly  do ub le -b ut to n D hR q- 21 M ar y H ill , P itt  R iv er  a re a,  F ra se r Va lle y la br et bu tt on ; o rig in al ly  do ub le -b ut to n D hR q- 21 M ar y H ill , P itt  R iv er  a re a,  F ra se r Va lle y la br et bu tt on ; o rig in al ly  do ub le -b ut to n D hR q- 21 M ar y H ill , P itt  R iv er  a re a,  F ra se r Va lle y la br et D jR i-Y Sp uz zu m -Y al e ar ea , “ Y al e di st ric t”  F ra se r Ca ny on la br et (a cc .# 72 -3 62 ) Fc T e- 4 Gr an t A nc ho ra ge  Si te N or th  E nd  P ric e Is la nd H ei lts uk M ar po le la br et (a cc .# 72 -3 62 ) Fc T e- 4 Gr an t A nc ho ra ge  Si te N or th  E nd  P ric e Is la nd H ei lts uk la br et (a cc .# 72 -3 62 ) Fc T e- 4 Gr an t A nc ho ra ge  Si te N or th  E nd  P ric e Is la nd H ei lts uk 21 10  + /-1 10  B P un co rr ec te d M ar po le la br et un cl as sif ie d;  ci rc ul ar  fl an ge  (A & M )   112 D es cr ip ti on M at er ia l P ro pe rt ie s C la ss  Ty pe Po li sh Te xt ur e Pa tt er ni ng sh or t, ex te nd ed la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al co nv ex po ss ib le  d ou bl e no ne no ne co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th m ed iu m gr ee n,  b ei ge m ot tle d 4 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t ci rc ul ar co nv ex do ub le no ne no ne in co m pl et e un kn ow n,  p um ic e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th m ed iu m be ig e,  b la ck fle ck ed 5 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t ci rc ul ar  co nv ex po ss ib le  d ou bl e no ne no ne co m pl et e un kn ow n,  p um ic e tr ac e po lis h sm oo th m ed iu m m ot tle d 2 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t ci rc ul ar  co nv ex po ss ib le  d ou bl e no ne no ne in co m pl et e tr ac e po lis h sm oo th m ed iu m m ot tle d 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed fla t no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al co nv ex no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e sil ts to ne po lis he d ve ry  sm oo th lig ht br ow n m ot tle d la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t ci rc ul ar co nv ex no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed fla t no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al co nv ex ta pe rin g no ne no ne co m pl et e bo ne po lis he d sm oo th lig ht be ig e so lid la te ra lly -r ou nd ed fla t no ne ex te nd ed re ct an gu la r fla t ta pe rin g no ne no ne co m pl et e un kn ow n,  a nt le r po lis he d sm oo th lig ht be ig e so lid ov al fla t no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al fla t no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e qu ar tz  c ry st al tr ac e po lis h sm oo th lig ht tr an slu ce nt so lid B od y D es cr ip ti on N ec k D es cr ip ti on O bj ec t C om pl et en es s C ol ou r In te ns it y C ol ou r A pp ea ra nc e Lu m in an ce  (l ux ) ci rc ul ar , o va l, sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  ov oi d,  cy li nd ri ca l, la te ra ll y- ro un de d co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at , cu rv ed dr il le d,  in ci se d,  gr oo ve d,  ho ll ow ed ov al , o vo id , cy li nd ri ca l, se m i- cy li nd ri ca l, ci rc ul ar , sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  zo om or ph ic co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at ta pe ri ng , fl ar in g (d is ta ll y) , pe nd ul an t, do ub le , po ss ib le  d ou bl e dr il le d,  ho ll ow ed , in ci se d,  in la id , gr oo ve d co ns tr ic te d,  ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve (l it hi c,  fa un al , fl or al ) da rk , m ed iu m , li gh t m ai n,  se co nd ar y co lo ur s lit hi c st ea tit e lit hi c lit hi c bl ue -g re y lit hi c st ea tit e gr ey lit hi c lit hi c m ud st on e fa un al fa un al lit hi c   113 Mat er ia l P ro pe rt ie s M od if ic at io n D im en si on s (m m ) Ir id es ce nc e V ol um e fl an ge bo dy no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d ye s, ye s, no gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d 31 .6 15 .4 7. 2 4. 5 ye s 13 .6 20 17 .2 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d ye s, ye s, no gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d 72 16 .6 7. 8 ye s 13 .6 17 .9 18 .3 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d ye s, ye s, no gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d 28 .9 16 .2 8. 1 ye s 16 .2 17 .5 18 .3 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 38 25 .7 9. 7 no 15 .2 30 27 .1 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 8. 9 4 2. 2 ye s 18 .8 4. 8 4. 4 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 30 .1 9. 3 4. 5 2. 8 ye s 10 .2 13 .1 12 .4 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 6. 9 5. 2 4. 7 ye s 37 .3 3. 4 3. 2 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d ye s, ye s, no gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d 11 .2 5. 9 6. 8 ye s 32 .8 8 4. 4 ye s 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 12 .4 9. 5 9 ye s 34 .1 9 9 In it ia l M an uf ac tu re B ro ke n;  R e- W or ke d;  W or n bu t n ot  R e- W or ke d? Po st - M an uf ac tu re  A lt er at io ns Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (a t m id  fl an ge th ic kn es s (a t ba se  o f b od y) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e) Fl an ge  –  u se  m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? le ng th  (p ro xi m al  to  di st al ) w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (v er ti ca l) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e)   114 W ei gh t ( g) N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  S PS S Fu ll  D at e In fo fl an ge bo dy ot he r m ea su re m en ts ye s 7. 6 33 15 co m pl et e wi dt h es tim at ed ye s 7 37 .4 16 .1 fla ng e le ng th 7. 4 wi dt h es tim at ed co m pl et e ye s 10 30 16 .3 co m pl et e co m pl et e no 23 .6 wi dt h in co m pl et e wi dt h in co m pl et e ye s 0. 7 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 3. 9 n1 .0 30 .8 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 0. 4 st ria tio ns  o ve ra ll co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 1. 8 10 yr  8 /6 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 5. 3 co m pl et e co m pl et e D im en si on s (m m ) N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  SP SS Lo ca ti on  o f Fr ac tu re Lo ca ti on  o f W ea r an d Ty pe C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls C ol ou r (M un se ll ) B od y – us e m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? bu ri al s:  s ex , ag e gr ou p? co nc av it y le ng th co nc av it y le ng th dr il le d ho le  di am et er dr il le d ho le  de pt h di st an ce  be tw ee n ho le s co ns tr ic te d ne ck  w id th co ns tr ic te d ne ck  h ei gh t O th er  de sc ri pt io n O th er  m ea su re m en t fl an ge  m ea su re m en t st at us bo dy  m ea su re m en t st at us fr ac tu re , m ed ia l fla ng e ax is,  re wo rk ed ve rt ic al  st ria tio ns  an d fa ce ts  (t oo th  we ar ), po st er io r fla ng e;  co nc re tio n,  an te rio r f la ng e;  5g  5 /2 , 5 y 8/ 2,  10 y 7/ 2 fr ac tu re , m ed ia l fla ng e ax is,  re wo rk ed ve rt ic al  st ria tio ns  an d fa ce t ( to ot h we ar ), po st er io r fla ng e;  sc ra tc hi ng , an te rio r b od y 2. 5y  6 /4 , 2 .5 y 8/ 4 wh er e wo rn fr ac tu re , m ed ia l fla ng e ax is,  re wo rk ed 2. 5y  6 /2 , 2 .5 y 8. 5/ 2,  1 0g y 8/ 1 fr ac tu re , m ed ia l fla ng e ax is ch ip , a nt er io r bo dy ; u ni fo rm  sc ra tc hi ng ch ip , l at er al  fla ng e;  st ria tio ns , po st er io r f la ng e 10 yr  4 /2 , 1 0y r 7/ 4 (a ro un d fla ng e an te rio r) sc ra tc hi ng , po st er io r a nd  an te rio r f la ng e;  m ic ro -s cr at ch in g,  an te rio r b od y in  c om po ne nt  wi th  e ar lie r (u nc or re ct ed ) da te  o f a bo ut  14 0B C (2 09 0+ -1 00 , Ga k- 27 57 ) 2. 5y  8 .5 /4 , 2 .5 y 6/ 2 (d irt ) di st al  b od y br ok en , re wo rk ed (? ); la te ra l f la ng e wi ng  b ro ke n,  re wo rk ed (? ) ve rt ic al  st ria tio ns , po st er io r f la ng e m ic ro -c hi pp in g,  po st er io r i nf er io r fla ng e;  o ve ra ll we at he rin g 21 10 +- 11 0 BP  un co rr ec te d tr an slu ce nt , ap pe ar s 1 0y r 5 /1  pe rh ap s b ec au se  of  d irt   115 In st it ut io n In fo rm at io n Si te  In fo rm at io n D es cr ip ti on In st it ut io n B or de n N o. Si te  N am e Si te  L oc at io n R eg io n Su b- R eg io n A ss oc ia te d D at e M Y  T Y PE Se x ag e la te ra l, ci rc ul ar RB CM 22 47 So ut h Co as t S al ish di st ur be d A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l RB CM 22 77 So ut h Co as t S al ish di st ur be d A rc ha eo lo gi ca l ha t- sh ap ed kn ob la te ra l RB CM 11 44 5 Be ac h Gr ov e So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l RB CM 11 44 6 Be ac h Gr ov e So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d kn ob la te ra l RB CM 12 02 5 Be ac h Gr ov e So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l RB CM 11 95 1 Be ac h Gr ov e So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l ha t- sh ap ed kn ob la te ra l RB CM 11 15 7 Be ac h Gr ov e So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l RB CM 11 24 1 Be ac h Gr ov e So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l RB CM 11 35 2 Be ac h Gr ov e So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l RB CM 11 13 8 Be ac h Gr ov e So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l CM C VI I- X -1 44 5 un kn ow n un kn ow n N or th un kn ow n “N or th er n” un kn ow n E th no lo gi ca l un cl as sif ie d bo wl in di st in gu ish ab le CM C N or th un kn ow n 18 80  + /-4 0 BP 20 00 A rc ha eo lo gi ca l fe m al e el de rly pu lle y in di st in gu ish ab le In st it ut io n C at al og ue  N o. B or de n/ O th er  C at al og ue  N o. C on te m po ra ry  C ul tu ra l A ff il ia ti on s In te gr it y of  Pr ov en ie nc e C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls O bj ec t D es ig na ti on C la ss ic ' T yp e D es cr ip ti on Fl an ge  D es cr ip ti on s N or th , C en tr al , So ut h N or th  (N as s,  Sk ee na , H ai da  G w ai i) ; C en tr al ; S ou th  (G ul f I sl an ds , Fr as er  D el ta , U pp er  F ra se r,  W es t V an co uv er  Is la nd , E as t V an co uv er  Is la nd in  s it u,  in  sc re en ,d is tu rb e d,  s ur fa ce , un kn ow n Ty pe  1 : C 14  da te s Ty pe  2 : A ss oc ia te d D at e ra ng es A ss oc ia te d Pe ri od s (C ha rl es , Lo ca rn o,  M ar po le ) C ol le ct ed : A rc ha eo lo gi ca l, Et hn ol og ic al la br et , p os si bl e la br et , i nl ay  on ly ; l ab ia l, bu cc al , co m po si te D iS e- 7 D ee p Ba y;  T em p. N o. D iS e- 2 no rt h of  Q ua lic um  B ay , Va nc ou ve r I sla nd E as t V an co uv er  Is la nd la br et T -s ha pe d or  h at - sh ap ed D iS e- 7 D ee p Ba y;  T em p. N o. D iS e- 2 no rt h of  Q ua lic um  B ay , Va nc ou ve r I sla nd E as t V an co uv er  Is la nd la br et D gR s- 1 Gr au er  P ar k,  T sa ww as se n la br et T -s ha pe d or  h at - sh ap ed D gR s- 1 Gr au er  P ar k,  T sa ww as se n la br et D gR s- 1 Gr au er  P ar k,  T sa ww as se n la br et D gR s- 1 Gr au er  P ar k,  T sa ww as se n la br et D gR s- 1 Gr au er  P ar k,  T sa ww as se n la br et D gR s- 1 Gr au er  P ar k,  T sa ww as se n la br et D gR s- 1 Gr au er  P ar k,  T sa ww as se n la br et D gR s- 1 Gr au er  P ar k,  T sa ww as se n la br et la br et Cy bu lsk i La xg al ts 'ap  (G re en vi lle ) N as s R iv er N as s R iv er N isg a'a M ar po le la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s p ul le y (A & M )   116 D es cr ip ti on M at er ia l P ro pe rt ie s C la ss  Ty pe Po li sh Te xt ur e Pa tt er ni ng sh or t, ex te nd ed la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne ex te nd ed se m i-c yl in dr ic al fla t no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e co al hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed fla t no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al fla t no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e co al po lis he d sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed fla t no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al fla t no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e sil ts to ne du ll sm oo th m ed iu m m ot tle d 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed fla t no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al fla t no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e sil ts to ne tr ac e po lis h sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid 0 re ct an gu la r fla t no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al fla t no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e sil ts to ne tr ac e po lis h sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid re ct an gu la r fla t no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al fla t no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e sil ts to ne tr ac e po lis h sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid re ct an gu la r fla t no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al fla t ta pe rin g no ne no ne in co m pl et e so ap st on e po lis he d sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid re ct an gu la r fla t no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al co nv ex ta pe rin g no ne no ne co m pl et e sil ts to ne du ll sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid re ct an gu la r fla t no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al co nv ex no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e an tle r hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th lig ht fle ck ed re ct an gu la r fla t no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al co nv ex fla rin g no ne no ne in co m pl et e tr ac e po lis h sm oo th lig ht be ig e so lid ov oi d co nc av e no ne sh or t ov oi d co nc av e no ne no ne co m pl et e flo ra l wo od po lis he d ve ry  sm oo th m ed iu m ye llo w- re d,  b ro wn fle ck ed 3 ci rc ul ar co nc av e no ne sh or t ci rc ul ar co nc av e no ne no ne co m pl et e so ap st on e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th m ed iu m fle ck ed 8 B od y D es cr ip ti on N ec k D es cr ip ti on O bj ec t C om pl et en es s C ol ou r In te ns it y C ol ou r A pp ea ra nc e Lu m in an ce  (l ux ) ci rc ul ar , o va l, sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  ov oi d,  cy li nd ri ca l, la te ra ll y- ro un de d co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at , cu rv ed dr il le d,  in ci se d,  gr oo ve d,  ho ll ow ed ov al , o vo id , cy li nd ri ca l, se m i- cy li nd ri ca l, ci rc ul ar , sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  zo om or ph ic co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at ta pe ri ng , fl ar in g (d is ta ll y) , pe nd ul an t, do ub le , po ss ib le  d ou bl e dr il le d,  ho ll ow ed , in ci se d,  in la id , gr oo ve d co ns tr ic te d,  ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve (l it hi c,  fa un al , fl or al ) da rk , m ed iu m , li gh t m ai n,  se co nd ar y co lo ur s lit hi c lit hi c lit hi c gr ey lit hi c lit hi c lit hi c lit hi c lit hi c fa un al be ig e,  g re y- br ow n fa un al sh el l ( pu rp le - hi ng ed  sc al lo p) ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve lit hi c gr ey -b ro wn , m ic a   117 Mat er ia l P ro pe rt ie s M od if ic at io n D im en si on s (m m ) Ir id es ce nc e V ol um e fl an ge bo dy no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 12 .6 5. 4 4 ye s 16 .2 7. 6 5. 4 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 19 .5 11 4. 6 ye s 15 .8 12 .8 12 .4 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 11 .3 5. 6 3. 1 ye s 14 .8 6. 8 6. 8 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 13 .7 6. 3 3 ye s 17 .4 6. 8 6. 8 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 10 .2 5. 1 3. 6 ye s 15 6 5. 3 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 11 .1 4. 6 3 ye s 13 .2 5. 6 4. 9 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 8. 9 5. 4 2. 5 ye s 18 .3 5. 8 5. 4 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 7. 9 4 1. 9 ye s 23 .3 2. 9 3. 2 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 6. 6 2. 5 2. 9 ye s 19 .4 2. 2 2. 5 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 10 .5 5 2. 7 ye s 16 .6 5. 4 5. 2 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 53 .5 20 .9 3. 4 ye s 13 .3 53 .5 20 .9 3 no 35 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 55 .5 55 5 2. 3 ye s 12 .4 58 .2 56 .6 4. 3 In it ia l M an uf ac tu re B ro ke n;  R e- W or ke d;  W or n bu t n ot  R e- W or ke d? Po st - M an uf ac tu re  A lt er at io ns Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (a t m id  fl an ge th ic kn es s (a t ba se  o f b od y) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e) Fl an ge  –  u se  m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? le ng th  (p ro xi m al  to  di st al ) w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (v er ti ca l) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e)   118 W ei gh t ( g) N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  S PS S Fu ll  D at e In fo fl an ge bo dy ot he r m ea su re m en ts ye s 0. 8 n1 ye s 2. 8 n1 .5 ye s 1. 2 un ifo rm  w ea r 5y  4 /1 , 5 y 5/ 2 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 1. 9 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 0. 8 n1 .5 , 5 y 5/ 2 wi dt h es tim at ed wi dt h es tim at ed ye s 0. 8 n1 .5 , 5 y 5/ 2 co m pl et e ye s 1. 2 n1 .5 , 5 y 5/ 2 co m pl et e ye s 0. 4 n1 .5 , 5 y 5/ 2 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 0. 2 co m pl et e ye s 1. 1 co m pl et e ye s 5 co lle ct ed  1 85 0s 10 yr  4 /4 54 .6 54 .6 52 .2 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 50 n 2. 0,  7 .5 y 2. 3 56 .4 59 .1 he ig ht  e st im at ed co m pl et e D im en si on s (m m ) N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  SP SS Lo ca ti on  o f Fr ac tu re Lo ca ti on  o f W ea r an d Ty pe C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls C ol ou r (M un se ll ) B od y – us e m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? bu ri al s:  s ex , ag e gr ou p? co nc av it y le ng th co nc av it y le ng th dr il le d ho le  di am et er dr il le d ho le  de pt h di st an ce  be tw ee n ho le s co ns tr ic te d ne ck  w id th co ns tr ic te d ne ck  h ei gh t O th er  de sc ri pt io n O th er  m ea su re m en t fl an ge  m ea su re m en t st at us bo dy  m ea su re m en t st at us fr ac tu re , b od y- fla ng e le ng th  a xi sc on cr et io n,  an te rio r f la ng e;  sc ra tc hi ng , b od y ci rc um fe re nc e;  sc ra tc hi ng , po st er io r f la ng e in co m pl et e,  b ut  m ea su re m en ts  ac cu ra te in co m pl et e,  b ut  m ea su re m en ts  ac cu ra te fr ac tu re , l at er al  wi ng , g lu ed ch ip , a nt er io r bo dy  a nd  fl an ge ; un ifo rm  we at he rin g;  co nc re tio n,  an te rio r f la ng e in co m pl et e,  b ut  m ea su re m en ts  ac cu ra te in co m pl et e,  b ut  m ea su re m en ts  ac cu ra te st ria tio ns , an te rio r b od y n2 .0 , 2 .5 y 7/ 4 (d irt ?) fr ac tu re d ve rt ic al ly  o n m ed ia l a xi s st ria tio ns  un ifo rm ch ip pi ng , b od y;  st ria tio ns  un ifo rm in co m pl et e,  b ut  m ea su re m en ts  ac cu ra te ch ip pi ng , l at er al  fla ng e tip s; un ifo rm  we at he rin g in co m pl et e,  b ut  m ea su re m en ts  ac cu ra te di st al  b od y tip  br ok en 2. 5y  7 /4 , 2 .5 y 4/ 2 le ng th  in co m pl et e ch ip , f la ng e/ bo dy ; un ifo rm  we at he rin g;  po lis h,  p os te rio r fla ng e 2. 5y  8 .5 /4 , 2 .5 y 7/ 2 in co m pl et e,  b ut  m ea su re m en ts  ac cu ra te ad zi ng /c hi se l m ar ks , ci rc um fe re nc e st ria tio ns , ci rc um fe re nc e;  sc ra tc hi ng , an te rio r; be ve lli ng , i nf er io r po st er io r f la ng e;  un ifo rm  m ic ro - ch ip pi ng Be ta  2 33 -3 22 , af fin ity  B ox  1 0,  co nv er te d 18 80 BP  + /- 40  ex ca va tio ns  fr om  A ug us t 2 00 6 fo un d wi th  fe m al e sk el et on  wi th  in ci so rs  wo rn  c om pl et el y aw ay , b on e re ce de d;  e ld er ly   119 In st it ut io n In fo rm at io n Si te  In fo rm at io n D es cr ip ti on In st it ut io n B or de n N o. Si te  N am e Si te  L oc at io n R eg io n Su b- R eg io n A ss oc ia te d D at e M Y  T Y PE Se x ag e la te ra l, ci rc ul ar CM C VI I- X -1 44 4 un kn ow n un kn ow n N or th un kn ow n “N or th er n” un kn ow n E th no lo gi ca l un cl as sif ie d bo wl in di st in gu ish ab le CM C VI I- X -1 44 6 un kn ow n N or th un kn ow n E th no lo gi ca l un cl as sif ie d bo wl in di st in gu ish ab le CM C VI I- B- 98 4 N or th un kn ow n E th no lo gi ca l un cl as sif ie d bo wl in di st in gu ish ab le CM C VI I- B- 97 9 N or th un kn ow n E th no lo gi ca l pu lle y in di st in gu ish ab le CM C VI I- B- 97 7 N or th un kn ow n E th no lo gi ca l pu lle y in di st in gu ish ab le CM C VI I- B- 99 3 N or th in  si tu E th no lo gi ca l pl at e la te ra l/c irc ul ar CM C VI I- A -3 38 un kn ow n un kn ow n N or th un kn ow n T lin gi t un kn ow n E th no lo gi ca l sp oo l in di st in gu ish ab le CM C VI I- A -3 31 un kn ow n un kn ow n N or th un kn ow n T lin gi t un kn ow n E th no lo gi ca l bo wl in di st in gu ish ab le CM C VI I- B- 10 41 N or th un kn ow n E th no lo gi ca l un cl as sif ie d bo wl in di st in gu ish ab le CM C VI I- A -1 92 a un kn ow n un kn ow n N or th un kn ow n T lin gi t un kn ow n E th no lo gi ca l bu tt on kn ob la te ra l In st it ut io n C at al og ue  N o. B or de n/ O th er  C at al og ue  N o. C on te m po ra ry  C ul tu ra l A ff il ia ti on s In te gr it y of  Pr ov en ie nc e C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls O bj ec t D es ig na ti on C la ss ic ' T yp e D es cr ip ti on Fl an ge  D es cr ip ti on s N or th , C en tr al , So ut h N or th  (N as s,  Sk ee na , H ai da  G w ai i) ; C en tr al ; S ou th  (G ul f I sl an ds , Fr as er  D el ta , U pp er  F ra se r,  W es t V an co uv er  Is la nd , E as t V an co uv er  Is la nd in  s it u,  in  sc re en ,d is tu rb e d,  s ur fa ce , un kn ow n Ty pe  1 : C 14  da te s Ty pe  2 : A ss oc ia te d D at e ra ng es A ss oc ia te d Pe ri od s (C ha rl es , Lo ca rn o,  M ar po le ) C ol le ct ed : A rc ha eo lo gi ca l, Et hn ol og ic al la br et , p os si bl e la br et , i nl ay  on ly ; l ab ia l, bu cc al , co m po si te la br et H ai da  G wa ii H ai da  G wa ii H ai da la br et N in st in ts , S ku ng  Gw ai i I ln ag ai , Ea gl e Ch ie f H ai da  G wa ii H ai da  G wa ii H ai da la br et Sk id eg at e H ai da  G wa ii H ai da  G wa ii H ai da la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s d isc  o r pu lle y (A & M ) K ui ha nl us  (K wu nd la s? ) H ai da  G wa ii H ai da  G wa ii H ai da la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s p ul le y (A & M ) M as se t H ai da  G wa ii H ai da  G wa ii H ai da la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s b ut to n la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s c irc ul ar  fla ng e (A & M ) la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s d isc  o r pu lle y (A & M ) M as se t H ai da  G wa ii H ai da  G wa ii H ai da la br et la br et   120 D es cr ip ti on M at er ia l P ro pe rt ie s C la ss  Ty pe Po li sh Te xt ur e Pa tt er ni ng sh or t, ex te nd ed ov oi d co nc av e no ne sh or t ov oi d co nc av e no ne no ne co m pl et e flo ra l wo od tr ac e po lis h ve ry  sm oo th m ed iu m ye llo w- re d,  b ro wn fle ck ed 3 ov oi d co nc av e no ne sh or t ov oi d co nc av e no ne no ne co m pl et e flo ra l wo od po lis he d ve ry  sm oo th m ed iu m ye llo w- re d,  b ro wn fle ck ed 3 ov oi d co nc av e no ne sh or t ov oi d co nc av e no ne no ne co m pl et e flo ra l wo od po lis he d ve ry  sm oo th m ed iu m re d- br ow n ba nd ed 4 ov oi d co nc av e no ne sh or t ov oi d co nc av e no ne no ne co m pl et e an tle r po lis he d ve ry  sm oo th lig ht be ig e so lid 8 ov al co nc av e no ne sh or t ov oi d co nc av e no ne no ne co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk so lid -2 ov al co nc av e dr ill ed sh or t ov oi d co nc av e no ne ho llo we d co ns tr ic te d in co m pl et e sla te po lis he d ve ry  sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid 2 ov al co nc av e no ne ex te nd ed ci rc ul ar co nc av e no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e ho rn tr ac e po lis h sm oo th lig ht so lid -4 ov al co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne in co m pl et e flo ra l wo od po lis he d sm oo th m ed iu m re d- br ow n ba nd ed 0 ov oi d co nc av e no ne sh or t ov oi d co nc av e no ne no ne co m pl et e iv or y hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th lig ht fle ck ed 7 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t ci rc ul ar fla t no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e so ap st on e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th m ed iu m m ot tle d -4 B od y D es cr ip ti on N ec k D es cr ip ti on O bj ec t C om pl et en es s C ol ou r In te ns it y C ol ou r A pp ea ra nc e Lu m in an ce  (l ux ) ci rc ul ar , o va l, sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  ov oi d,  cy li nd ri ca l, la te ra ll y- ro un de d co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at , cu rv ed dr il le d,  in ci se d,  gr oo ve d,  ho ll ow ed ov al , o vo id , cy li nd ri ca l, se m i- cy li nd ri ca l, ci rc ul ar , sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  zo om or ph ic co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at ta pe ri ng , fl ar in g (d is ta ll y) , pe nd ul an t, do ub le , po ss ib le  d ou bl e dr il le d,  ho ll ow ed , in ci se d,  in la id , gr oo ve d co ns tr ic te d,  ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve (l it hi c,  fa un al , fl or al ) da rk , m ed iu m , li gh t m ai n,  se co nd ar y co lo ur s ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve fa un al ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve lit hi c st ea tit e gr ey lit hi c fa un al or an ge -b ei ge , tr an slu ce nt ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve fa un al or an ge -b ei ge , r ed - br ow n lit hi c gr ee n- gr ey   121 Mat er ia l P ro pe rt ie s M od if ic at io n D im en si on s (m m ) Ir id es ce nc e V ol um e fl an ge bo dy no 20 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 66 .5 24 .2 3 ye s 15 .4 66 .9 24 .3 3 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 42 .4 17 .1 2. 8 ye s 12 .2 42 16 .2 3 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 42 15 .3 3 1. 2 ye s 11 .4 42 15 .3 1. 1 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 34 19 .4 2. 3 ye s 13 .4 33 .8 19 .2 2. 6 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 33 .2 20 1. 9 ye s 9. 8 33 19 .5 no 15 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 66 .9 34 .3 3. 8 1. 7 ye s 18 .4 39 28 7. 7 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 18 .2 10 .8 3. 3 ye s 26 .4 18 13 4. 7 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 39 .7 18 .7 3. 8 4. 4 ye s 18 .9 41 19 .7 3. 3 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 30 .4 12 .6 2 ye s 12 .5 32 .4 13 .3 1. 7 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d po ss ib ly , y es , n o gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne 36 .8 15 .9 3. 7 2. 6 ye s 9. 8 20 .1 18 .2 In it ia l M an uf ac tu re B ro ke n;  R e- W or ke d;  W or n bu t n ot  R e- W or ke d? Po st - M an uf ac tu re  A lt er at io ns Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (a t m id  fl an ge th ic kn es s (a t ba se  o f b od y) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e) Fl an ge  –  u se  m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? le ng th  (p ro xi m al  to  di st al ) w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (v er ti ca l) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e) ch ise lle d   122 W ei gh t ( g) N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  S PS S Fu ll  D at e In fo fl an ge bo dy ot he r m ea su re m en ts ye s 9 co lle ct ed  1 85 0s 10 yr  4 /4 68 .3 68 .3 66 .2 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 3 co lle ct ed  1 85 0s 10 yr  4 /4 43 .4 44 40 .7 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 4 7. 5y r 5 /6 42 .3 42 .1 37 .5 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 11 34 .2 34 .3 33 .2 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 12 n2 .5 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 24 co lle ct ed  1 88 4 n2 .0 67 .3 34 .1 co m pl et e ye s 4 10 yr  5 /8 14 .6 10 .2 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 3 37 .5 16 .9 ye s 6 29 12 .6 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 8 n 3. 0,  1 0y  4 /1 37 .2 18 .5 15 .6 co m pl et e co m pl et e D im en si on s (m m ) N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  SP SS Lo ca ti on  o f Fr ac tu re Lo ca ti on  o f W ea r an d Ty pe C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls C ol ou r (M un se ll ) B od y – us e m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? bu ri al s:  s ex , ag e gr ou p? co nc av it y le ng th co nc av it y le ng th dr il le d ho le  di am et er dr il le d ho le  de pt h di st an ce  be tw ee n ho le s co ns tr ic te d ne ck  w id th co ns tr ic te d ne ck  h ei gh t O th er  de sc ri pt io n O th er  m ea su re m en t fl an ge  m ea su re m en t st at us bo dy  m ea su re m en t st at us st ria tio ns /c hi se l m ar ks , ci rc um fe re nc e;  we ar  fa ce ts , in fe rio r p os te rio r st ria tio ns /c hi se l m ar ks , ci rc um fe re nc e co nc re tio n,  ci rc um fe re nc e;  po lis h,  p os te rio r co lle ct ed  18 90 -1 91 0 un ifo rm  sc ra tc hi ng co lle ct ed  18 90 -1 91 0 2. 5y  9 /4 , 2 .5 y 8/ 4 de ep  sc ra tc hi ng , po st er io r f la ng e;  st ria tio ns , ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve ; sc ra tc he s, an te rio r b od y co lle ct ed  18 90 -1 91 0 fr ac tu re s, bo dy  ed ge s; fr ac tu re  th ro ug h dr ill ed  ho le we ar , i nf er io r m ed ia l f la ng e wi dt h,  h ei gh t es tim at ed we ar , i nf er io r m ed ia l e dg e co lle ct ed  18 90 -1 91 0 ch ip pi ng , f la ng e an d bo dy  e dg es co lle ct ed  18 90 -1 91 0 7. 5y r 5 /6 , 5 yr  2/ 4 in co m pl et e,  b ut  m ea su re m en ts  ac cu ra te in co m pl et e,  b ut  m ea su re m en ts  ac cu ra te st ria tio ns  o ve ra ll;  ve rt ic al  sc ra tc hi ng , in fe rio r ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve  (t oo th  we ar ?) ; co nc re tio n,  po st er io r co lle ct ed  18 90 -1 91 0 10 yr  8 /6 , 7 .5 yr  3/ 4 la te ra l f la ng e wi ng  b ro ke n,  re wo rk ed (? ) ve rt ic al  sc ra tc hi ng , po st er io r f la ng e;  ch ip pi ng , l at er al  fla ng e wi ng s; sc ra tc hi ng , an te rio r b od y;  st ria tio ns  o ve ra ll co lle ct ed  18 90 -1 91 0 CM C et hn ol og y no te s s ay  'f em al e'   123 In st it ut io n In fo rm at io n Si te  In fo rm at io n D es cr ip ti on In st it ut io n B or de n N o. Si te  N am e Si te  L oc at io n R eg io n Su b- R eg io n A ss oc ia te d D at e M Y  T Y PE Se x ag e la te ra l, ci rc ul ar CM C VI I- A -1 92 b un kn ow n un kn ow n N or th un kn ow n T lin gi t un kn ow n E th no lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l CM C VI I- A -1 92 c un kn ow n un kn ow n N or th un kn ow n T lin gi t un kn ow n E th no lo gi ca l ha t- sh ap ed kn ob la te ra l CM C VI I- B- 23 7 un kn ow n N or th un kn ow n E th no lo gi ca l un cl as sif ie d bo wl in di st in gu ish ab le CM C VI I- B- 98 3 N or th in  si tu E th no lo gi ca l sh am an  g ra ve ' un kn ow n bo wl in di st in gu ish ab le CM C VI I- B- 98 5 N or th un kn ow n E th no lo gi ca l pu lle y in di st in gu ish ab le CM C VI I- B- 98 1 N or th in  si tu E th no lo gi ca l sh am an  g ra ve ' un kn ow n un cl as sif ie d bo wl ci rc ul ar CM C VI I- B- 98 2 N or th in  si tu E th no lo gi ca l sh am an  g ra ve ' un kn ow n bo wl in di st in gu ish ab le CM C VI I- B- 23 8 un kn ow n N or th un kn ow n E th no lo gi ca l bo wl in di st in gu ish ab le CM C VI I- B- 98 0 N or th un kn ow n E th no lo gi ca l kn ob in di st in gu ish ab le CM C VI I- B- 97 8 N or th un kn ow n E th no lo gi ca l bo wl in di st in gu ish ab le CM C VI I- C- 67 un kn ow n N or th un kn ow n E th no lo gi ca l un cl as sif ie d bo wl ci rc ul ar CM C VI I- C- 18 2 un kn ow n un kn ow n N or th un kn ow n un kn ow n un kn ow n un cl as sif ie d bo wl ci rc ul ar CM C VI I- C- 18 3 N or th un kn ow n E th no lo gi ca l un cl as sif ie d bo wl ci rc ul ar CM C VI I- C- 19 2 N or th un kn ow n E th no lo gi ca l pu lle y in di st in gu ish ab le In st it ut io n C at al og ue  N o. B or de n/ O th er  C at al og ue  N o. C on te m po ra ry  C ul tu ra l A ff il ia ti on s In te gr it y of  Pr ov en ie nc e C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls O bj ec t D es ig na ti on C la ss ic ' T yp e D es cr ip ti on Fl an ge  D es cr ip ti on s N or th , C en tr al , So ut h N or th  (N as s,  Sk ee na , H ai da  G w ai i) ; C en tr al ; S ou th  (G ul f I sl an ds , Fr as er  D el ta , U pp er  F ra se r,  W es t V an co uv er  Is la nd , E as t V an co uv er  Is la nd in  s it u,  in  sc re en ,d is tu rb e d,  s ur fa ce , un kn ow n Ty pe  1 : C 14  da te s Ty pe  2 : A ss oc ia te d D at e ra ng es A ss oc ia te d Pe ri od s (C ha rl es , Lo ca rn o,  M ar po le ) C ol le ct ed : A rc ha eo lo gi ca l, Et hn ol og ic al la br et , p os si bl e la br et , i nl ay  on ly ; l ab ia l, bu cc al , co m po si te la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s b ut to n bu t c on ca ve  an te rio r la br et H ai da  G wa ii H ai da  G wa ii H ai da la br et Y an H ai da  G wa ii H ai da  G wa ii H ai da la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s d isc  o r pu lle y (A & M ) Sk id eg at e H ai da  G wa ii H ai da  G wa ii H ai da la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s d isc  o r pu lle y (A & M ) N in st in ts ; S ku ng  Gw ai i I ln ag ai , Ea gl e Ch ie f H ai da  G wa ii H ai da  G wa ii H ai da la br et N in st in ts H ai da  G wa ii H ai da  G wa ii H ai da la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s d isc  o r pu lle y (A & M ) H ai da  G wa ii H ai da  G wa ii H ai da la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s d isc  o r pu lle y (A & M ) N in st in ts H ai da  G wa ii H ai da  G wa ii H ai da la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s d isc Sk id eg at e H ai da  G wa ii H ai da  G wa ii H ai da la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s d isc  o r pu lle y (A & M ) N as s R iv er N as s R iv er N isg a'a  (T sim sh ia n? ) la br et la br et A ng id ah  V ill ag e N as s R iv er N as s R iv er N isg a'a  (T sim sh ia n? ) la br et La ka lsa p Vi lla ge  (G re en vi lle ) N as s R iv er N as s R iv er N isg a'a  (T sim sh ia n? ) la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s d isc  o r pu lle y (A & M )   124 D es cr ip ti on M at er ia l P ro pe rt ie s C la ss  Ty pe Po li sh Te xt ur e Pa tt er ni ng sh or t, ex te nd ed la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t ci rc ul ar co nc av e no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e so ap st on e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk m ot tle d -5 re ct an gu la r co nc av e no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al fla t no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e po lis he d ve ry  sm oo th da rk pu rp le -r ed so lid -4 ov oi d co nc av e no ne sh or t ov oi d co nc av e no ne in la id no ne co m pl et e tr ac e po lis h ve ry  sm oo th m ed iu m re d- br ow n ba nd ed 18 ov al co nc av e no ne sh or t ov oi d co nc av e no ne no ne co m pl et e iv or y hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th lig ht or an ge -b ei ge so lid 12 ov al co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne in co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk re d- br ow n fle ck ed -4 ov al co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne in la id co m pl et e tr ac e po lis h ve ry  sm oo th m ed iu m re d- br ow n ba nd ed 20 ov oi d co nc av e no ne sh or t ov oi d co nc av e no ne no ne co m pl et e flo ra l wo od po lis he d ve ry  sm oo th m ed iu m re d- br ow n ba nd ed 3 ov oi d co nc av e no ne sh or t ov oi d co nc av e no ne no ne co m pl et e iv or y hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th lig ht be ig e,  re d- br ow n m ot tle d 15 ov al co nc av e ho llo we d sh or t ov al fla t no ne in la id no ne co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th lig ht be ig e,  re d- br ow n m ot tle d ov oi d co nc av e no ne sh or t ov oi d co nc av e no ne no ne co m pl et e iv or y hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th lig ht be ig e so lid 7 ov al co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne in la id no ne co m pl et e po lis he d ve ry  sm oo th m ed iu m re d- br ow n so lid 13 ov al co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne in la id co m pl et e po lis he d sm oo th m ed iu m br ow n m ot tle d 10 ov al co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne in la id in co m pl et e tr ac e po lis h sm oo th m ed iu m br ow n m ot tle d 5 ci rc ul ar fla t no ne sh or t ov al fla t no ne no ne co m pl et e po lis he d ve ry  sm oo th da rk re d so lid -5 B od y D es cr ip ti on N ec k D es cr ip ti on O bj ec t C om pl et en es s C ol ou r In te ns it y C ol ou r A pp ea ra nc e Lu m in an ce  (l ux ) ci rc ul ar , o va l, sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  ov oi d,  cy li nd ri ca l, la te ra ll y- ro un de d co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at , cu rv ed dr il le d,  in ci se d,  gr oo ve d,  ho ll ow ed ov al , o vo id , cy li nd ri ca l, se m i- cy li nd ri ca l, ci rc ul ar , sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  zo om or ph ic co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at ta pe ri ng , fl ar in g (d is ta ll y) , pe nd ul an t, do ub le , po ss ib le  d ou bl e dr il le d,  ho ll ow ed , in ci se d,  in la id , gr oo ve d co ns tr ic te d,  ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve (l it hi c,  fa un al , fl or al ) da rk , m ed iu m , li gh t m ai n,  se co nd ar y co lo ur s lit hi c gr ee n- gr ey lit hi c m ud st on e flo ra l, fa un al wo od , s he ll (a ba lo ne ) ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve fa un al ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve lit hi c st ea tit e ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve flo ra l, fa un al wo od , s he ll (a ba lo ne ) ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve fa un al fa un al , f au na l iv or y,  sh el l (a ba lo ne ) 8 (f la ng e su rf ac e wi th  a ba lo ne ) ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve fa un al flo ra l, fa un al wo od , s he ll (a ba lo ne ) ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve flo ra l, fa un al wo od , s he ll (a ba lo ne ) ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve flo ra l, fa un al wo od , s he ll (a ba lo ne ) ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve lit hi c m ud st on e   125 Mat er ia l P ro pe rt ie s M od if ic at io n D im en si on s (m m ) Ir id es ce nc e V ol um e fl an ge bo dy no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d ye s, no , y es no ne no ne no ne 32 16 .1 3. 6 1. 4 ye s 7. 8 21 .7 20 .1 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 18 .7 8 4. 4 ye s 15 .8 10 .3 10 .8 ye s 35 gr ou nd /a br ad ed in la id no ne no ne no ne no ne 72 .3 29 .6 4. 3 ye s 15 .2 74 .2 28 .8 3. 8 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 55 .5 23 .1 3. 5 ye s 10 .5 56 .1 23 .4 2. 4 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 48 25 2. 6 ye s 12 .7 41 .3 23 .6 1. 3 ye s 20 in la id no ne no ne no ne no ne 71 .4 31 .3 3. 3 ye s 16 .1 71 .8 33 .9 3. 8 no 15 gr ou nd /a br ad ed po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 55 .6 24 .5 3 ye s 17 .4 56 .5 23 .8 2. 6 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 45 .4 20 .9 3. 8 ye s 12 .6 45 .4 20 .9 2. 5 ye s 5 po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 28 .7 17 .5 10 .7 ye s 12 .4 25 .6 13 .5 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 39 .2 18 .3 3. 7 2. 1 ye s 14 39 .2 19 .7 3 ye s 35 oi le d,  p ol ish ed no ne no ne no ne no ne 80 33 .6 3. 2 ye s 13 80 33 .8 3. 6 ye s 30 oi le d,  p ol ish ed no ne no ne no ne no ne 77 .6 35 .1 5 2. 7 ye s 13 80 .5 39 .4 ye s 25 oi le d,  p ol ish ed no ne no ne no ne no ne 75 .6 34 .9 3 ye s 13 .3 74 .4 35 .6 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 34 .2 31 .7 ye s 10 .5 36 .4 31 .6 In it ia l M an uf ac tu re B ro ke n;  R e- W or ke d;  W or n bu t n ot  R e- W or ke d? Po st - M an uf ac tu re  A lt er at io ns Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (a t m id  fl an ge th ic kn es s (a t ba se  o f b od y) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e) Fl an ge  –  u se  m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? le ng th  (p ro xi m al  to  di st al ) w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (v er ti ca l) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e) ch ise lle d ch ise lle d gr ou nd /a br ad ed , dr ill ed ch ise lle d ch ise lle d gr ou nd /a br ad ed , dr ill ed , i nl ai d ch ise lle d ch ise lle d gr ou nd /a br ad ed , in la id ch ise lle d gr ou nd /a br ad ed , in la id ch ise lle d gr ou nd /a br ad ed , dr ill ed , i nl ai d   126 W ei gh t ( g) N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  S PS S Fu ll  D at e In fo fl an ge bo dy ot he r m ea su re m en ts ye s 6 10 y 3/ 1 28 .2 20 .7 16 wi dt h es tim at ed co m pl et e ye s 4 st ria tio ns  o ve ra ll 7. 5r  3 /2 8. 9 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 15 7. 5y r 5 /6 77 .5 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 17 co lle ct ed  1 90 5 57 .3 56 .9 51 .6 22 .9 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 24 co lle ct ed  1 90 0 10 r 3 /1 41 .7 3. 75 20 .5 wi dt h es tim at ed co m pl et e ye s 21 sh el l i nl ay  b ro ke n co lle ct ed  1 90 5 7. 5y r 5 /6 72 .3 1. 9 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 10 7. 5y r 5 /6 55 .8 56 .7 51 .7 22 .6 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 14 46 .7 45 .8 41 19 .4 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 4 in la y br ok en co lle ct ed  1 90 5 10 .7 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 10 co lle ct ed  1 90 5 29 .1 13 .8 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 19 co lle ct ed  1 87 9 80 .7 81 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 20 79 .7 72 .3 34 .4 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 17 la te ra l t ip  b ro ke n st ria tio ns  o ve ra ll co lle ct ed  1 90 5 77 0. 9 70 .3 32 .1 co m pl et e ye s 23 sc ra tc hi ng  o ve ra ll co lle ct ed  1 90 5 10 r 3 /4 30 .9 28 .3 co m pl et e co m pl et e D im en si on s (m m ) N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  SP SS Lo ca ti on  o f Fr ac tu re Lo ca ti on  o f W ea r an d Ty pe C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls C ol ou r (M un se ll ) B od y – us e m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? bu ri al s:  s ex , ag e gr ou p? co nc av it y le ng th co nc av it y le ng th dr il le d ho le  di am et er dr il le d ho le  de pt h di st an ce  be tw ee n ho le s co ns tr ic te d ne ck  w id th co ns tr ic te d ne ck  h ei gh t O th er  de sc ri pt io n O th er  m ea su re m en t fl an ge  m ea su re m en t st at us bo dy  m ea su re m en t st at us la te ra l f la ng e wi ng  b ro ke n,  re wo rk ed (? ) m ic ro -p itt in g,  fla ng e;  m ic ro - ch ip pi ng , an te rio r b od y co lle ct ed  18 90 -1 91 0 co lle ct ed  18 90 -1 91 0 sh el l i nl ay  m iss in g di ag on al  sc ra tc hi ng , l at er al  ed ge co lle ct ed  18 90 -1 91 0 we ar , s up er io r ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve 7. 5y r 6 /8 , 1 0y r 8/ 6 ch ip pi ng , l at er al  ed ge s; un ifo rm  sc ra tc hi ng co nc re tio n,  la te ra l e dg e;  ch ise lli ng , an te rio r re ct an gu la r 5 3 by  25 ch ise lli ng , ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve co lle ct ed  18 90 -1 91 0 sc ra tc hi ng , an te rio r( ?) co lle ct ed  18 90 -1 91 0 2. 5y  8 .5 /4 , 7 .5 yr  7/ 8,  7 .5 yr  4 /6 we at he rin g ov er al l; co nc re tio n,  po st er io r( ?) 2. 5y  8 .5 /4 , 7 .5 yr  7/ 8,  7 .5 yr  4 /6 st ria tio ns  o ve ra ll;  sc ra tc hi ng , l at er al  ed ge 2. 5y  8 .5 /4 , 7 .5 yr  7/ 8,  2 1. 5y  9 /2 ho riz on ta l sc ra tc hi ng , po st er io r 2. 4y r 3 /4  an te rio r, 7. 5y r 5/ 6 ci rc um fe re nc e,  7. 5y r 5 /4  po st er io r ch ise lli ng  o ve ra ll;  sc ra tc hi ng , in fe rio r( ?)  ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve 10 yr  8 /6  n at ur al , 10 yr  3 /2  st ai ne d 10 yr  8 /6  n at ur al , 10 yr  3 /2  st ai ne d in co m pl et e,  b ut  m ea su re m en ts  ac cu ra te   127 In st it ut io n In fo rm at io n Si te  In fo rm at io n D es cr ip ti on In st it ut io n B or de n N o. Si te  N am e Si te  L oc at io n R eg io n Su b- R eg io n A ss oc ia te d D at e M Y  T Y PE Se x ag e la te ra l, ci rc ul ar CM C VI I- C- 12 19 N or th un kn ow n E th no lo gi ca l fe m al e el de rly pu lle y in di st in gu ish ab le CM C VI I- C- 16 49 un kn ow n un kn ow n N or th un kn ow n T sim sh ia n un kn ow n un kn ow n pu lle y in di st in gu is ha bl e CM C VI I- C- 16 50 un kn ow n N or th un kn ow n un kn ow n pu lle y in di st in gu is ha bl e CM C 60 N or th T sim sh ia n in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l CM C 36 6 N or th T sim sh ia n in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l CM C 70 2 N or th T sim sh ia n in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l CM C 10 73 N or th T sim sh ia n in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l CM C 49 7 N or th T sim sh ia n in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l CM C C- 37 2 N or th T sim sh ia n in  s itu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l pu lle y in di st in gu is ha bl e CM C 60 1 R itc hi e Is la nd N or th T sim sh ia n in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l CM C 11 0 Gr as sy  B ay N or th T sim sh ia n in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l un cl as sif ie d pl at e la te ra l/c irc ul ar CM C X II -B -1 87 5- CA un kn ow n un kn ow n un kn ow n un kn ow n un kn ow n un kn ow n kn ob la te ra l CM C 46 36 N or th T sim sh ia n di st ur be d A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l CM C 17 63 Ga rd en  Is la nd N or th T sim sh ia n in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l CM C 10 44 N or th T sim sh ia n in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l CM C 18 9 N or th T sim sh ia n in  s itu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l di sc ci rc ul ar In st it ut io n C at al og ue  N o. B or de n/ O th er  C at al og ue  N o. C on te m po ra ry  C ul tu ra l A ff il ia ti on s In te gr it y of  Pr ov en ie nc e C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls O bj ec t D es ig na ti on C la ss ic ' T yp e D es cr ip ti on Fl an ge  D es cr ip ti on s N or th , C en tr al , So ut h N or th  (N as s,  Sk ee na , H ai da  G w ai i) ; C en tr al ; S ou th  (G ul f I sl an ds , Fr as er  D el ta , U pp er  F ra se r,  W es t V an co uv er  Is la nd , E as t V an co uv er  Is la nd in  s it u,  in  sc re en ,d is tu rb e d,  s ur fa ce , un kn ow n Ty pe  1 : C 14  da te s Ty pe  2 : A ss oc ia te d D at e ra ng es A ss oc ia te d Pe ri od s (C ha rl es , Lo ca rn o,  M ar po le ) C ol le ct ed : A rc ha eo lo gi ca l, Et hn ol og ic al la br et , p os si bl e la br et , i nl ay  on ly ; l ab ia l, bu cc al , co m po si te H az el to n U pp er  S ke en a Ri ve r Sk ee na  R iv er T sim sh ia n (G itk sa n) , s ay s T rib e 'N b7 ' la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s d isc  o r pu lle y (A & M ) la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s d isc  o r pu lle y (A & M ) Sk ee na  R iv er Sk ee na  R iv er T sim sh ia n,  s ay s T rib e 'N b7 ' la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s d isc  o r pu lle y (A & M ) Gb T o- 30 Pa riz ea u Po in t D ig by  Is la nd Sk ee na  R iv er la br et G bT o- 31 B oa rd wa lk  S ite , T em p. N o.  N M C D od ge  C ov e,  D ig by  Is la nd Sk ee na  R iv er la br et G bT o- 33 Re se rv oi r S ite , La ch an e K ai en  Is la nd Sk ee na  R iv er la br et Gc T o- 1 Be nc ke  P oi nt  Si te M et la ka tla Sk ee na  R iv er la br et G bT o- 33 Re se rv oi r S ite , La ch an e K ai en  Is la nd Sk ee na  R iv er la br et G bT o- 33 Re se rv oi r S ite , La ch an e K ai en  Is la nd Sk ee na  R iv er la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s p ul le y (A & M ) Gb T o- 34 K ita nd ac h Sk ee na  R iv er la br et Gb T n- 1 K ai en  Is la nd Sk ee na  R iv er la br et la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s pe nd ul an t G bT o- 33 Re se rv oi r S ite , La ch an e K ai en  Is la nd Sk ee na  R iv er la br et G bT o- 23 Pr in ce  R up er t ar ea Sk ee na  R iv er la br et Gc T o- 1 Be nc ke  P oi nt  Si te M et la ka tla Sk ee na  R iv er la br et G bT o- 18 D od ge  Is la nd , T em p. N o.  Sm ith #1 3 D od ge  C ov e,  D ig by  Is la nd Sk ee na  R iv er la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s p ul le y (A & M )   128 D es cr ip ti on M at er ia l P ro pe rt ie s C la ss  Ty pe Po li sh Te xt ur e Pa tt er ni ng sh or t, ex te nd ed ci rc ul ar fla t no ne sh or t ov oi d fla t no ne no ne in co m pl et e qu ar tz  c ry st al hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th lig ht tr an slu ce nt so lid 0 ci rc ul ar fla t no ne sh or t ci rc ul ar fla t no ne no ne co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk re d so lid -5 ci rc ul ar fla t no ne sh or t ci rc ul ar fla t no ne no ne co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk re d so lid -5 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne ex te nd ed se m i-c yl in dr ic al co nv ex ta pe rin g no ne no ne co m pl et e bo ne po lis he d sm oo th lig ht be ig e so lid to o sm al l la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne ex te nd ed se m i-c yl in dr ic al fla t no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e bo ne tr ac e po lis h sm oo th lig ht be ig e so lid to o sm al l la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne ex te nd ed se m i-c yl in dr ic al co nv ex no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e bo ne du ll sli gh tly  ro ug h lig ht be ig e so lid to o sm al l re ct an gu la r fla t no ne ex te nd ed se m i-c yl in dr ic al co nv ex ta pe rin g no ne no ne co m pl et e bo ne tr ac e po lis h sm oo th lig ht or an ge -b ei ge so lid to o sm al l la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nv ex no ne ex te nd ed re ct an gu la r fla t no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e bo ne po lis he d sm oo th lig ht be ig e so lid to o sm al l ci rc ul ar co nc av e no ne sh or t ci rc ul ar co nc av e no ne no ne in co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed fla t no ne ex te nd ed re ct an gu la r fla t no ne no ne co ns tr ic te d co m pl et e an tle r hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th lig ht or an ge -b ei ge so lid to o sm al l ov al co nc av e no ne sh or t ci rc ul ar co nc av e no ne no ne co ns tr ic te d in co m pl et e sla te hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk so lid -5 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne ex te nd ed co nv ex dr ill ed no ne in co m pl et e (c as t) un kn ow n,  C A ST hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid n/ a (c as t) re ct an gu la r fla t no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al fla t no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e qu ar tz ite du ll sm oo th lig ht be ig e so lid to o sm al l re ct an gu la r fla t no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al co nv ex ta pe rin g no ne no ne co m pl et e bo ne tr ac e po lis h sm oo th lig ht be ig e so lid to o sm al l re ct an gu la r fla t no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al co nv ex ta pe rin g no ne no ne co m pl et e bo ne tr ac e po lis h sm oo th lig ht be ig e so lid to o sm al l ov al fla t no ne sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e co al hi gh ly  p ol ish ed sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid -5 B od y D es cr ip ti on N ec k D es cr ip ti on O bj ec t C om pl et en es s C ol ou r In te ns it y C ol ou r A pp ea ra nc e Lu m in an ce  (l ux ) ci rc ul ar , o va l, sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  ov oi d,  cy li nd ri ca l, la te ra ll y- ro un de d co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at , cu rv ed dr il le d,  in ci se d,  gr oo ve d,  ho ll ow ed ov al , o vo id , cy li nd ri ca l, se m i- cy li nd ri ca l, ci rc ul ar , sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  zo om or ph ic co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at ta pe ri ng , fl ar in g (d is ta ll y) , pe nd ul an t, do ub le , po ss ib le  d ou bl e dr il le d,  ho ll ow ed , in ci se d,  in la id , gr oo ve d co ns tr ic te d,  ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve (l it hi c,  fa un al , fl or al ) da rk , m ed iu m , li gh t m ai n,  se co nd ar y co lo ur s ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve lit hi c ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve lit hi c m ud st on e ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve lit hi c m ud st on e fa un al fa un al fa un al fa un al fa un al ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve lit hi c st ea tit e fa un al lit hi c gr ey zo om or ph ic pe nd ul an t lit hi c lit hi c fa un al fa un al lit hi c   129 Mat er ia l P ro pe rt ie s M od if ic at io n D im en si on s (m m ) Ir id es ce nc e V ol um e fl an ge bo dy ye s 20 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 44 .2 34 .7 ye s 17 .2 43 .2 35 .2 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 24 .9 26 .1 ye s 11 25 .5 26 no 15 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 29 .6 30 .4 ye s 13 30 .7 32 .2 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 9. 3 1. 8 3 ye s 35 .2 4. 1 3 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 6. 6 1. 8 3 ye s 28 .7 3. 6 2. 4 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 12 .8 4. 2 5. 3 ye s 29 .7 5. 3 4 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 6. 5 2. 6 2. 2 ye s 43 .2 3 2. 5 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 13 .5 8. 9 5 ye s 34 .4 4. 9 4. 2 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d ye s, no , p os sib ly no ne no ne no ne n/ a 11 .1 40 40 .8 4. 2 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 4. 9 2. 4 2. 8 ye s 16 .2 3 3 no 20 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 67 51 3. 7 3 ye s 6. 6 80 80 6. 8 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed , i nc ise d po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 46 14 .1 4. 1 2. 7 ye s 10 17 .1 38 .2 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 14 .8 6. 7 6 ye s 28 5. 8 6. 2 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 12 .9 3. 5 4 ye s 39 .1 5. 2 3. 3 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 8. 9 3. 3 4 ye s 48 .6 4. 8 3. 5 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 22 .3 15 .1 ye s 5. 8 28 .1 23 .7 In it ia l M an uf ac tu re B ro ke n;  R e- W or ke d;  W or n bu t n ot  R e- W or ke d? Po st - M an uf ac tu re  A lt er at io ns Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (a t m id  fl an ge th ic kn es s (a t ba se  o f b od y) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e) Fl an ge  –  u se  m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? le ng th  (p ro xi m al  to  di st al ) w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (v er ti ca l) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e)   130 W ei gh t ( g) N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  S PS S Fu ll  D at e In fo fl an ge bo dy ot he r m ea su re m en ts ye s 49 co lle ct ed  1 92 5 tr an slu ce nt  c le ar 40 32 .6 co m pl et e ye s 15 10 r 3 /2 10 .7 22 .6 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 24 10 r 3 /2 23 .3 25 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 0. 8 2. 5y  7 /4 1. 6 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 0. 8 we ar in g,  fl an ge 2. 5y  7 /4 1. 6 co m pl et e ye s 1 2. 5y  7 /4 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 0. 8 10 yr  8 /6 1. 8 2 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 1 st ria tio ns  o ve ra ll 2. 5y  8 /4 2 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 8 n 2. 0 wi dt h es tim at ed ye s 0. 8 2. 5y  8 /4 2. 1 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 31 n2 .5 60 .9 wi dt h es tim at ed ye s 5 ca st n2 .0 36 16 13 .3 wi dt h es tim at ed co m pl et e ye s 3 2. 5y  7 /4 7 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 1 10 yr  8 /4 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 1 10 yr  7 /4 4. 3 3. 6 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 2 n 2. 0 D im en si on s (m m ) N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  SP SS Lo ca ti on  o f Fr ac tu re Lo ca ti on  o f W ea r an d Ty pe C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls C ol ou r (M un se ll ) B od y – us e m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? bu ri al s:  s ex , ag e gr ou p? co nc av it y le ng th co nc av it y le ng th dr il le d ho le  di am et er dr il le d ho le  de pt h di st an ce  be tw ee n ho le s co ns tr ic te d ne ck  w id th co ns tr ic te d ne ck  h ei gh t O th er  de sc ri pt io n O th er  m ea su re m en t fl an ge  m ea su re m en t st at us bo dy  m ea su re m en t st at us cr ac ke d,  m ed ia l ax is ch ip pi ng  a nd  be ve lli ng , i nf er io r po st er io r “s ac k is in  g oo d co nd iti on ” (k ep t in  it  b y he r gr an ds on ?) ; la xg ib u,  Gi t'a nm ek s, Ed wa rd  C la rk 's gr an dm ot he r's in co m pl et e,  b ut  m ea su re m en ts  ac cu ra te be ve lli ng , i nf er io r po st er io r; m ic ro - pi tt in g,  a nt er io r be ve lli ng , in fe rio r( ?) di st al  b od y tip  br ok en le ng th  in co m pl et e he av ily  we at he re d un ifo rm ly  we at he re d di st al  b od y tip  br ok en br ok en  o n m ed ia l ax is sc ra tc hi ng , po st er io r a nd  an te rio r la te ra l f la ng e tip s br ok en ; b od y ou te r ci rc um fe re nc e po rt io ns  b ro ke n sc ra tc hi ng  a nd  we ar  fa ce ts , po st er io r a nd  an te rio r; st ria tio ns , co ns tr ic te d ne ck wi dt h,  h ei gh t es tim at ed la te ra l f la ng e wi ng  b ro ke n un ifo rm  w ea r; po lis h,  fl an ge  po st er io r un ifo rm  w ea r; be ve lli ng , f la ng e m ul tip le  fr ac tu re s; an te rio r b od y ch ip pe d in co m pl et e,  b ut  m ea su re m en ts  ac cu ra te in co m pl et e,  b ut  m ea su re m en ts  ac cu ra te   131 In st it ut io n In fo rm at io n Si te  In fo rm at io n D es cr ip ti on In st it ut io n B or de n N o. Si te  N am e Si te  L oc at io n R eg io n Su b- R eg io n A ss oc ia te d D at e M Y  T Y PE Se x ag e la te ra l, ci rc ul ar CM C 54 4 N or th T sim sh ia n in  si tu 25 90  + /-4 0 BP 25 00 A rc ha eo lo gi ca l m al e m id -2 0s kn ob la te ra l CM C X II -B -6 37 un kn ow n un kn ow n un kn ow n un kn ow n un kn ow n un kn ow n un cl as sif ie d pl at e la te ra l/c irc ul ar CM C 15 48 Ga rd en  Is la nd N or th T sim sh ia n in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l CM C 21 79 Bo ar dw al k Si te N or th T sim sh ia n in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l CM C 51 5 B oa rd wa lk  S ite N or th T sim sh ia n in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l m al e m id -3 0s pu lle y la te ra l/c irc ul ar CM C 80 Ba ld wi n Si te N or th T sim sh ia n in  s itu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l m al e 30 -4 0 un cl as sif ie d kn ob la te ra l SF U 23 99 H el en  P oi nt M ay ne  Is la nd So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish sc re en A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l SF U 15 40  (4 ) H ec at e St ra ig ht Ce nt ra l Ce nt ra l un kn ow n un kn ow n la te ra l SF U 69 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish in  si tu 20 00  –  3 00 0 A rc ha eo lo gi ca l ha t- sh ap ed kn ob la te ra l SF U 36 50 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l SF U 32 62 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l In st it ut io n C at al og ue  N o. B or de n/ O th er  C at al og ue  N o. C on te m po ra ry  C ul tu ra l A ff il ia ti on s In te gr it y of  Pr ov en ie nc e C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls O bj ec t D es ig na ti on C la ss ic ' T yp e D es cr ip ti on Fl an ge  D es cr ip ti on s N or th , C en tr al , So ut h N or th  (N as s,  Sk ee na , H ai da  G w ai i) ; C en tr al ; S ou th  (G ul f I sl an ds , Fr as er  D el ta , U pp er  F ra se r,  W es t V an co uv er  Is la nd , E as t V an co uv er  Is la nd in  s it u,  in  sc re en ,d is tu rb e d,  s ur fa ce , un kn ow n Ty pe  1 : C 14  da te s Ty pe  2 : A ss oc ia te d D at e ra ng es A ss oc ia te d Pe ri od s (C ha rl es , Lo ca rn o,  M ar po le ) C ol le ct ed : A rc ha eo lo gi ca l, Et hn ol og ic al la br et , p os si bl e la br et , i nl ay  on ly ; l ab ia l, bu cc al , co m po si te G bT o- 18 D od ge  Is la nd , T em p. N o.  Sm ith #1 3 D od ge  C ov e,  D ig by  Is la nd Sk ee na  R iv er L oc ar no /M ar po le la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s p ul le y (A & M ) la br et G bT o- 23 Pr in ce  R up er t ar ea Sk ee na  R iv er la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s b ut to n bu t a nt er io r b od y su rf ac e is co nc av e G bT o- 31 D od ge  C ov e,  D ig by  Is la nd Sk ee na  R iv er la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s b ut to n bu t a nt er io r b od y su rf ac e is co nc av e G bT o- 31 D od ge  C ov e,  D ig by  Is la nd Sk ee na  R iv er la br et un cl as sif ie d:  cl os es t i s d isc  o r pu lle y (A & M ) G bT o- 36 Pr in ce  R up er t H ar bo ur Sk ee na  R iv er “l at e pa rt  o f bu ria l s eq ue nc e” la br et D fR u- 8 la br et bu tt on ; o rig in al ly  do ub le -b ut to n El Sx -1 N am u H ei lts uk la br et T -s ha pe d or  pe nd ul an t pe nd ul an t D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  Is la nd L oc ar no /M ar po le la br et D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  Is la nd la br et D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  Is la nd la br et   132 D es cr ip ti on M at er ia l P ro pe rt ie s C la ss  Ty pe Po li sh Te xt ur e Pa tt er ni ng sh or t, ex te nd ed la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e co al hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid -5 ov al co nc av e no ne sh or t ci rc ul ar co nc av e no ne gr oo ve d co ns tr ic te d in co m pl et e sla te po lis he d ve ry  sm oo th da rk so lid 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t ci rc ul ar co nc av e no ne no ne co ns tr ic te d co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid -5 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t ci rc ul ar co nc av e no ne no ne co ns tr ic te d co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid -5 ov al co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne co ns tr ic te d co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid -5 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne ex te nd ed co nv ex ta pe rin g no ne no ne in co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid -5 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al co nv ex po ss ib le  d ou bl e no ne no ne fr ag m en t un kn ow n,  ta lc du ll sli gh tly  ro ug h da rk fle ck ed 4 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne ex te nd ed se m i-c yl in dr ic al co nv ex no ne no ne co m pl et e du ll sm oo th lig ht be ig e,  p in k m ot tle d 5 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al fla t no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e un kn ow n,  ta lc tr ac e po lis h sli gh tly  ro ug h lig ht be ig e m ot tle d 4 re ct an gu la r fla t no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al co nv ex ta pe rin g no ne no ne co m pl et e bo ne tr ac e po lis h sm oo th lig ht be ig e m ot tle d re ct an gu la r fla t no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al fla t ta pe rin g no ne no ne co m pl et e bo ne po lis he d ve ry  sm oo th lig ht be ig e m ot tle d B od y D es cr ip ti on N ec k D es cr ip ti on O bj ec t C om pl et en es s C ol ou r In te ns it y C ol ou r A pp ea ra nc e Lu m in an ce  (l ux ) ci rc ul ar , o va l, sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  ov oi d,  cy li nd ri ca l, la te ra ll y- ro un de d co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at , cu rv ed dr il le d,  in ci se d,  gr oo ve d,  ho ll ow ed ov al , o vo id , cy li nd ri ca l, se m i- cy li nd ri ca l, ci rc ul ar , sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  zo om or ph ic co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at ta pe ri ng , fl ar in g (d is ta ll y) , pe nd ul an t, do ub le , po ss ib le  d ou bl e dr il le d,  ho ll ow ed , in ci se d,  in la id , gr oo ve d co ns tr ic te d,  ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve (l it hi c,  fa un al , fl or al ) da rk , m ed iu m , li gh t m ai n,  se co nd ar y co lo ur s lit hi c lit hi c gr ey lit hi c m ud st on e lit hi c m ud st on e lit hi c m ud st on e zo om or ph ic lit hi c m ud st on e lit hi c br ow n,  g re y pe nd ul an t fa un al sh el l ( pu rp le - hi ng ed  sc al lo p) lit hi c fa un al fa un al   133 Mat er ia l P ro pe rt ie s M od if ic at io n D im en si on s (m m ) Ir id es ce nc e V ol um e fl an ge bo dy no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 32 14 .2 3. 8 1. 3 ye s 9. 2 22 .7 20 .5 no 30 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 67 .3 51 .5 5. 4 4. 5 ye s 10 .4 80 80 4 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 50 .4 23 5. 1 6. 2 ye s 9 28 .7 27 .5 3. 7 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d ye s, ye s, no gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d 37 .8 17 .4 2. 3 0. 7 ye s 7. 5 24 .7 19 1. 5 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 32 .9 23 4. 8 2. 2 ye s 9 26 .2 23 .1 2. 2 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed po lis he d un kn ow n,  y es , n o gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne 39 11 .3 5. 9 1. 5 ye s 25 .7 16 .4 15 .6 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne pa in te d no ne no ne no ne no ne 34 .4 20 .3 6. 4 4. 7 no 9. 2 31 .3 24 .6 ye s 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 17 .7 6. 3 7 ye s 11 .5 12 20 no 20 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 42 .8 20 .5 10 .2 ye s 40 .5 24 .2 23 .1 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 9. 7 3. 3 2. 7 ye s 23 .7 5. 1 3. 1 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 10 .1 4 4. 3 ye s 25 .1 4. 4 4. 1 In it ia l M an uf ac tu re B ro ke n;  R e- W or ke d;  W or n bu t n ot  R e- W or ke d? Po st - M an uf ac tu re  A lt er at io ns Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (a t m id  fl an ge th ic kn es s (a t ba se  o f b od y) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e) Fl an ge  –  u se  m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? le ng th  (p ro xi m al  to  di st al ) w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (v er ti ca l) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e) ch ise lle d   134 W ei gh t ( g) N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  S PS S Fu ll  D at e In fo fl an ge bo dy ot he r m ea su re m en ts ye s 3 n 2. 0 wi dt h es tim at ed co m pl et e ye s 47 ch ip , f la ng e n 2. 5 69 7 ye s 16 n 2. 0 52 .2 31 .1 26 .5 23 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 6 n 2. 0 38 .1 20 .7 14 .9 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 8 n 2. 0 32 .7 27 .5 20 .1 17 .6 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 10 n 2. 0 15 .6 10 .9 wi dt h es tim at ed co m pl et e ye s 7. 7 wi dt h in co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 2. 6 ov er al l s tr ia tio ns co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 43 .8 28 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 0. 4 2. 5y  9 /2 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 0. 7 2. 5y  9 /2 co m pl et e co m pl et e D im en si on s (m m ) N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  SP SS Lo ca ti on  o f Fr ac tu re Lo ca ti on  o f W ea r an d Ty pe C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls C ol ou r (M un se ll ) B od y – us e m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? bu ri al s:  s ex , ag e gr ou p? co nc av it y le ng th co nc av it y le ng th dr il le d ho le  di am et er dr il le d ho le  de pt h di st an ce  be tw ee n ho le s co ns tr ic te d ne ck  w id th co ns tr ic te d ne ck  h ei gh t O th er  de sc ri pt io n O th er  m ea su re m en t fl an ge  m ea su re m en t st at us bo dy  m ea su re m en t st at us la te ra l f la ng e wi ng s b ro ke n,  on e m iss in g;  cr ac k,  a nt er io r bo dy ho riz on ta l sc ra tc hi ng , po st er io r f la ng e;  co nc re tio n,  an te rio r f la ng e 25 90 +/ -4 0y bp  (c on ve nt io na l ag e;  Be ta -2 02 02 1) Bu ria l 1 66 , m al e 20 -2 4y ea rs ; “s to ne  la br et  to  le ft  o f c he st , be tw ee n fo ld ed  rig ht  h an d an d di st al  le ft  fo re ar m sc ra tc hi ng , po st er io r f la ng e an d an te rio r b od y di am et er  o f ce nt ra l i nd en t in co m pl et e,  b ut  m ea su re m en ts  ac cu ra te wi dt h,  h ei gh t es tim at ed we at he rin g,  an te rio r b od y;  we ar  fa ce ts  (t ee th ), po st er io r fla ng e la te ra l f la ng e wi ng  b ro ke n,  re wo rk ed we ar  fa ce t (t oo th ?) , po st er io r f la ng e;  sc ra tc hi ng , b od y an te rio r we ar  fa ce ts  (t oo th ?) , po st er io r f la ng e;  m ic ro -p itt in g,  an te rio r b od y Bu ria l 5 25 , M al e 30 -3 9 ye ar s; de nt al  la br et  ab ra sio n;  “ st on e la br et  in  si tu  ag ai ns t f ro nt  o f m an di bl e” la te ra l f la ng e wi ng  b ro ke n co nc re tio n,  an te rio r f la ng e;  ho riz on ta l sc ra tc hi ng , po st er io r f la ng e;  ch ise lli ng , an te rio r b od y Bu ria l 5 05 , m al e,  35 -4 4 ye ar s; la br et  fo un d “b et we en  lo ng  bo ne s a nd  fi ng er s — ne ar  th e m an di bl e”  (C yb ul sk i);  sk el et on  h ad  “d en ta l l ab re t ab ra sio n” la te ra l f la ng e wi ng s b ro ke n;  cr ac ki ng , po st er io r f la ng e ch ip pi ng , an te rio r b od y;  he av ily  we at he re d 10 yr  2 /1 , 2 .5 y 7/ 2 5y  9 /1 , 5 y 9/ 2,  2. 5r  5 /8 ov er al l h ea vi ly  we at he re d La te  M id de n,  30 00 -2 20 0 BP 10 yr  8 /2 , 1 0y r 6/ 2,  2 .5 y 6/ 4 ch ip , l at er al  fla ng e wi ng ch ip , a nt er io r bo dy  su rf ac e co nc re tio n,  an te rio r f la ng e   135 In st it ut io n In fo rm at io n Si te  In fo rm at io n D es cr ip ti on In st it ut io n B or de n N o. Si te  N am e Si te  L oc at io n R eg io n Su b- R eg io n A ss oc ia te d D at e M Y  T Y PE Se x ag e la te ra l, ci rc ul ar SF U 38 1 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l SF U 25 2 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l SF U 50 7 or  5 67 ? So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l SF U 31 22 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l SF U 38 4 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish in  si tu 43 20  + /- 22 0 BP 40 00  –  4 50 0 A rc ha eo lo gi ca l fe m al e ad ul t T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l SF U 34 68 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l ha t- sh ap ed kn ob la te ra l SF U 24 77 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l SF U 94 0 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish in  si tu 40 00  + /1  5 00  B P 35 00  –  4 50 0 A rc ha eo lo gi ca l fe m al e ad ul t kn ob la te ra l SF U 10 39 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish in  si tu 20 00  –  3 00 0 A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l SF U 38 6 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish in  si tu 20 00  –  3 00 0 A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l SF U 28 2 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish in  si tu 30 00  –  4 50 0 A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l SF U 90 5 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish in  si tu 30 00  –  4 50 0 A rc ha eo lo gi ca l to o fra gm en te d kn ob la te ra l SF U 40 3 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish in  si tu 30 00  –  4 50 0 A rc ha eo lo gi ca l to o fra gm en te d kn ob la te ra l SF U 10 61 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l ha t- sh ap ed kn ob la te ra l RB CM 17 2 un kn ow n N or th un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l pu lle y in di st in gu ish ab le In st it ut io n C at al og ue  N o. B or de n/ O th er  C at al og ue  N o. C on te m po ra ry  C ul tu ra l A ff il ia ti on s In te gr it y of  Pr ov en ie nc e C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls O bj ec t D es ig na ti on C la ss ic ' T yp e D es cr ip ti on Fl an ge  D es cr ip ti on s N or th , C en tr al , So ut h N or th  (N as s,  Sk ee na , H ai da  G w ai i) ; C en tr al ; S ou th  (G ul f I sl an ds , Fr as er  D el ta , U pp er  F ra se r,  W es t V an co uv er  Is la nd , E as t V an co uv er  Is la nd in  s it u,  in  sc re en ,d is tu rb e d,  s ur fa ce , un kn ow n Ty pe  1 : C 14  da te s Ty pe  2 : A ss oc ia te d D at e ra ng es A ss oc ia te d Pe ri od s (C ha rl es , Lo ca rn o,  M ar po le ) C ol le ct ed : A rc ha eo lo gi ca l, Et hn ol og ic al la br et , p os si bl e la br et , i nl ay  on ly ; l ab ia l, bu cc al , co m po si te D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  Is la nd la br et bu tt on  o r h at - sh ap ed D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  Is la nd la br et D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  Is la nd la br et D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  Is la nd la br et D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  Is la nd C ha rle s/L oc ar no la br et D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  Is la nd la br et D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  Is la nd la br et D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  Is la nd C ha rle s/L oc ar no la br et bu tt on  o r h at - sh ap ed D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  Is la nd Lo ca rn o/ M ar po le la br et bu tt on  o r h at - sh ap ed D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  Is la nd Lo ca rn o/ M ar po le la br et ha t- sh ap ed ; or ig in al ly  d ou bl e- bu tt on D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  Is la nd C ha rle s/L oc ar no la br et bu tt on ; o rig in al ly  do ub le -b ut to n D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  Is la nd C ha rle s/L oc ar no la br et D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  Is la nd C ha rle s/L oc ar no la br et D eR t- 1 Pe nd er  C an al Pe nd er  Is la nd la br et H ai da  G wa ii H ai da  G wa ii H ai da la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s d isc  a nd  pu lle y (A & M )   136 D es cr ip ti on M at er ia l P ro pe rt ie s C la ss  Ty pe Po li sh Te xt ur e Pa tt er ni ng sh or t, ex te nd ed re ct an gu la r co nc av e no ne sh or t ci rc ul ar co nv ex no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e so ap st on e po lis he d ve ry  sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid re ct an gu la r co nc av e no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al fla t ta pe rin g no ne no ne in co m pl et e sil ts to ne tr ac e po lis h sm oo th da rk br ow n so lid la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al co nv ex ta pe rin g no ne no ne co m pl et e du ll sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al fla t ta pe rin g no ne no ne co m pl et e tr ac e po lis h sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid re ct an gu la r fla t no ne ex te nd ed se m i-c yl in dr ic al fla t no ne no ne co ns tr ic te d co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed sm oo th m ed iu m bl ue ba nd ed la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t cy lin dr ic al fla t no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e sil ts to ne du ll sm oo th m ed iu m so lid la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al in co m pl et e no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e sil ts to ne du ll sm oo th m ed iu m so lid la te ra lly -r ou nd ed fla t no ne sh or t cy lin dr ic al fla t no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e tr ac e po lis h sm oo th m ed iu m m ot tle d 6 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t cy lin dr ic al fla t no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e tr ac e po lis h ve ry  sm oo th m ed iu m m ar bl ed 3 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t cy lin dr ic al fla t po ss ib le  d ou bl e no ne no ne co m pl et e un kn ow n,  c la y tr ac e po lis h sm oo th lig ht m ot tle d 6 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t ci rc ul ar co nv ex po ss ib le  d ou bl e no ne no ne co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th lig ht m ot tle d 6 re ct an gu la r fla t no ne sh or t cy lin dr ic al in co m pl et e no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e du ll sm oo th da rk so lid 0 re ct an gu la r fla t no ne sh or t cy lin dr ic al in co m pl et e no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e du ll sm oo th m ed iu m so lid 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t cy lin dr ic al co nv ex no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e un kn ow n,  ta lc du ll sm oo th lig ht be ig e fle ck ed 8 ov al fla t dr ill ed sh or t ov al fla t no ne in la id co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th lig ht be ig e,  p in k m ot tle d 8 B od y D es cr ip ti on N ec k D es cr ip ti on O bj ec t C om pl et en es s C ol ou r In te ns it y C ol ou r A pp ea ra nc e Lu m in an ce  (l ux ) ci rc ul ar , o va l, sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  ov oi d,  cy li nd ri ca l, la te ra ll y- ro un de d co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at , cu rv ed dr il le d,  in ci se d,  gr oo ve d,  ho ll ow ed ov al , o vo id , cy li nd ri ca l, se m i- cy li nd ri ca l, ci rc ul ar , sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  zo om or ph ic co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at ta pe ri ng , fl ar in g (d is ta ll y) , pe nd ul an t, do ub le , po ss ib le  d ou bl e dr il le d,  ho ll ow ed , in ci se d,  in la id , gr oo ve d co ns tr ic te d,  ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve (l it hi c,  fa un al , fl or al ) da rk , m ed iu m , li gh t m ai n,  se co nd ar y co lo ur s lit hi c lit hi c lit hi c m ud st on e lit hi c m ud st on e lit hi c st ea tit e lit hi c gr ey lit hi c gr ey lit hi c un kn ow n,  sil ts to ne gr ey lit hi c un kn ow n,  sil ts to ne br ow n- gr ey , r ed lit hi c gr ey lit hi c st ea tit e be ig e,  g re y lit hi c un kn ow n,  m ud st on e gr ey lit hi c un kn ow n,  so ap st on e gr ey lit hi c ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve fa un al , f au na l bo ne , s he ll (a ba lo ne )   137 M at er ia l P ro pe rt ie s M od if ic at io n D im en si on s (m m ) Ir id es ce nc e V ol um e fl an ge bo dy no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d ye s, ye s, no gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d 27 12 .7 2. 5 ye s 10 .5 13 .6 13 .3 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 13 .5 4. 2 3. 4 ye s 16 .1 6. 2 4. 6 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 16 3. 4 4. 7 ye s 29 .9 5. 9 3. 3 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 15 .4 7. 2 5. 4 1. 4 ye s 31 .8 7. 6 7. 2 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 13 .1 5. 9 6. 5 ye s 26 .4 7. 3 5. 6 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 25 10 .2 6 ye s 16 .9 9. 2 8. 7 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 28 11 .2 4. 7 ye s 28 .6 10 .5 11 .2 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 28 .7 13 4. 7 ye s 14 .2 15 .2 13 .7 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne po ss ib ly , y es , n o gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne 28 .5 14 .3 6 ye s 14 .8 16 .1 15 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne po ss ib ly , y es , n o gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne 26 .4 13 .2 7. 2 ye s 17 .6 13 .4 14 .7 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d ye s, ye s, no gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne 40 .4 17 .8 9 7 ye s 14 .7 19 .9 17 .9 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 35 .2 16 .8 7. 7 ye s 12 .9 18 .8 17 .6 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 30 .6 13 .7 6. 6 ye s 8. 2 16 14 .6 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 26 17 .6 6 ye s 15 .5 16 .5 16 .9 ye s 20 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed , i nl ai d po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 46 .6 33 .2 6. 4 ye s 18 .5 46 32 .3 In it ia l M an uf ac tu re B ro ke n;  R e- W or ke d;  W or n bu t n ot  R e- W or ke d? Po st - M an uf ac tu re  A lt er at io ns Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (a t m id  fl an ge th ic kn es s (a t ba se  o f b od y) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e) Fl an ge  –  u se  m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? le ng th  (p ro xi m al  to  di st al ) w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (v er ti ca l) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e)   138 W ei gh t ( g) N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  S PS S Fu ll  D at e In fo fl an ge bo dy ot he r m ea su re m en ts ye s 4 n2 .0 12 .6 wi dt h es tim at ed co m pl et e ye s 0. 8 pi tt in g,  b od y 5y  3 /1 co m pl et e ye s 1. 2 n2 .0 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 3. 9 n2 .0 16 .5 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 2. 1 5. 5 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 3. 8 5y  4 /1 wi dt h es tim at ed co m pl et e ye s 5. 5 5y  4 /1 wi dt h es tim at ed ye s 6. 9 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 8. 4 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 8. 5 13 , 1 1. 2 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 13 .2 5g y 2/ 1,  2 .5 y 7/ 2 41 .1 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 10 .1 st ria tio ns  o ve ra ll n 2. 0 3 ye s 60 fr ac tu re , b od y st ria tio ns  o ve ra ll n 4. 0 co m pl et e ye s 9 st ria tio ns , b od y 5y  8 .5 /2 wi dt h es tim at ed co m pl et e ye s 29 st ria tio ns  o ve ra ll 5y  9 /2 co m pl et e co m pl et e D im en si on s (m m ) N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  SP SS Lo ca ti on  o f Fr ac tu re Lo ca ti on  o f W ea r an d Ty pe C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls C ol ou r (M un se ll ) B od y – us e m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? bu ri al s:  s ex , ag e gr ou p? co nc av it y le ng th co nc av it y le ng th dr il le d ho le  di am et er dr il le d ho le  de pt h di st an ce  be tw ee n ho le s co ns tr ic te d ne ck  w id th co ns tr ic te d ne ck  h ei gh t O th er  de sc ri pt io n O th er  m ea su re m en t fl an ge  m ea su re m en t st at us bo dy  m ea su re m en t st at us la te ra l f la ng e wi ng  ti ps  b ro ke n,  re wo rk ed sc ra tc hi ng , an te rio r b od y;  ga ug in g,  su pe rio r fla ng e/ bo dy  (t oo th ?) di st al  b od y tip  br ok en ; l at er al  fla ng e wi ng  ti p br ok en , r eg ro un d le ng th  in co m pl et e co nc re tio n,  fla ng e co nc re tio n,  fla ng e;  p ol ish , po st er io r f la ng e co nc re tio n,  fla ng e 43 20 ±2 20  c- 14 yr s B P Bu ria l 8 4- 31 , ad ul t f em al e 5g  3 /1 , 5 g 6/ 1,  5g y 9/ 1 la te ra l f la ng e wi ng  b ro ke n di st al  b od y tip  br ok en ; l at er al  fla ng e wi ng  br ok en po lis h,  p os te rio r fla ng e le ng th  in co m pl et e co nc re tio n,  an te rio r f la ng e;  we at he rin g,  an te rio r b od y 40 00 ±5 00  C -1 4 yr s B P ad ul t f em al e,  bu ria l 8 5- 8,  n ea r m an di bl e,  n ot  di re ct ly  d at ed  b ut  by  st ra tig ra ph ic  as so ci at io n 5y  3 /1 , 2 .5 y 4/ 2,  2. 5y  6 /4 la te ra l f la ng e wi ng  ti ps  br ok en (? ), re wo rk ed (? ) co nc re tio n,  an te rio r f la ng e;  po lis h,  fl an ge La te  M id de n,  30 00 -2 20 0 BP 2. 5y  4 /2 , 1 0y r 5/ 4,  1 0y r 6 /2 fr ac tu re  a t m ed ia l fla ng e ax is( ?) , re wo rk ed co nc re tio n,  fla ng e Ea rly  M id de n 50 00 -4 50 0 BP 2. 5y  7 /2 , 2 .5 y 8/ 4,  5 y 6/ 2 ta pe re d en ds  he ig ht fr ac tu re  a t m ed ia l fla ng e ax is( ?) , re wo rk ed st ria tio ns , f la ng e;  ov er al l we at he rin g M ai n M id de n 45 00 -3 00 0 BP fr ac tu re  th ro ug h dr ill ed  h ol e to wa rd s b od y M ai n M id de n 45 00 -3 00 0 BP in co m pl et e,  b ut  m ea su re m en ts  ac cu ra te le ng th  in co m pl et e M ai n M id de n 45 00 -3 00 0 BP le ng th  in co m pl et e la te ra l f la ng e wi ng s b ro ke n cr ac k,  le ng th wi se  ax is   139 In st it ut io n In fo rm at io n Si te  In fo rm at io n D es cr ip ti on In st it ut io n B or de n N o. Si te  N am e Si te  L oc at io n R eg io n Su b- R eg io n A ss oc ia te d D at e M Y  T Y PE Se x ag e la te ra l, ci rc ul ar RB CM 99 64  (9 64 ) N or th un kn ow n Et hn ol og ic al bo wl in di st in gu ish ab le RB CM 10 01 2 N or th un kn ow n Et hn ol og ic al bo wl in di st in gu ish ab le RB CM 14 29  (1 10 2) N or th un kn ow n Et hn ol og ic al pu lle y in di st in gu ish ab le RB CM 14 30 N or th un kn ow n Et hn ol og ic al pu lle y in di st in gu ish ab le RB CM 14 30 2 un kn ow n un kn ow n N or th in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l pu lle y in di st in gu ish ab le RB CM 97 09  (7 09 ) N or th un kn ow n Et hn ol og ic al pu lle y in di st in gu ish ab le RB CM 93 69 un kn ow n N or th T sim sh ia n un kn ow n un kn ow n pu lle y in di st in gu ish ab le RB CM 24 93 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish di st ur be d A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l RB CM 15 8 D io ni sio  P oi nt So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l RB CM 70 53 So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish su rf ac e A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l RB C M 15 7 D io ni sio  P oi nt So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish sc re en A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l SF U 19 67 Cr es ce nt  B ea ch So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l un cl as sif ie d la te ra l SF U no  n um be r ( da rk ) Cr es ce nt  B ea ch So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l SF U no  n um be r ( sh el l) Cr es ce nt  B ea ch So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l In st it ut io n C at al og ue  N o. B or de n/ O th er  C at al og ue  N o. C on te m po ra ry  C ul tu ra l A ff il ia ti on s In te gr it y of  Pr ov en ie nc e C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls O bj ec t D es ig na ti on C la ss ic ' T yp e D es cr ip ti on Fl an ge  D es cr ip ti on s N or th , C en tr al , So ut h N or th  (N as s,  Sk ee na , H ai da  G w ai i) ; C en tr al ; S ou th  (G ul f I sl an ds , Fr as er  D el ta , U pp er  F ra se r,  W es t V an co uv er  Is la nd , E as t V an co uv er  Is la nd in  s it u,  in  sc re en ,d is tu rb e d,  s ur fa ce , un kn ow n Ty pe  1 : C 14  da te s Ty pe  2 : A ss oc ia te d D at e ra ng es A ss oc ia te d Pe ri od s (C ha rl es , Lo ca rn o,  M ar po le ) C ol le ct ed : A rc ha eo lo gi ca l, Et hn ol og ic al la br et , p os si bl e la br et , i nl ay  on ly ; l ab ia l, bu cc al , co m po si te M as se t H ai da  G wa ii H ai da  G wa ii H ai da la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s d isc  a nd  pu lle y (A & M ) Ch aa th H ai da  G wa ii H ai da  G wa ii H ai da la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s d isc  a nd  pu lle y (A & M ) Ch aa th H ai da  G wa ii H ai da  G wa ii H ai da la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s d isc  a nd  pu lle y (A & M ) M as se tt H ai da  G wa ii H ai da  G wa ii H ai da la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s d isc  a nd  pu lle y (A & M ) H ai da  G wa ii N isg a'a la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s d isc  a nd  pu lle y (A & M ) K iti m at K iti m at  R iv er K iti m at H ai sla la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s d isc  a nd  pu lle y (A & M ) Ch im da m ish  C re ek , 1 5 m ile s ea st  o f T er ra ce , so ut h sid e Ch im de m as h 4 m ile s u p Sk ee na  R iv er la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s d isc  a nd  pu lle y (A & M ) D eR t- 4 Pe nd er  C an al  4 , Po et s C ov e Be dw el l H ar bo ur , Pe nd er  Is la nd la br et D gR v- 3 Ga lia no  Is la nd la br et D gR r- 6 Gl en ro se  C an ne ry  Si te Fr as er  R iv er , Va nc ou ve r la br et D gR v- 3 Ga lia no  Is la nd la br et D gR r- 1 Bo un da ry  B ay , T sa ww as se n la br et pe nd ul an t D gR r- 1 Bo un da ry  B ay , T sa ww as se n la br et D gR r- 1 Bo un da ry  B ay , T sa ww as se n la br et   140 D es cr ip ti on M at er ia l P ro pe rt ie s C la ss  Ty pe Po li sh Te xt ur e Pa tt er ni ng sh or t, ex te nd ed ov al co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e flo ra l wo od du ll ve ry  sm oo th m ed iu m m ot tle d 0 ov al fla t no ne sh or t ov oi d co nc av e no ne in la id no ne co m pl et e flo ra l, m et al lic wo od , c op pe r po lis he d ve ry  sm oo th m ed iu m re d- br ow n fle ck ed 2 ov al co nc av e no ne sh or t ov oi d co nc av e no ne no ne co m pl et e bo ne po lis he d ve ry  sm oo th lig ht be ig e,  re d- br ow n fle ck ed 4 ov al co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne dr ill ed in co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk so lid 0 ci rc ul ar co nc av e no ne sh or t ci rc ul ar co nc av e no ne no ne in co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk so lid 0 ci rc ul ar fla t no ne sh or t ci rc ul ar fla t no ne no ne co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk re d so lid -2 ci rc ul ar co nc av e no ne sh or t ci rc ul ar fla t no ne no ne co m pl et e po lis he d ve ry  sm oo th m ed iu m re d,  w hi te fle ck ed 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed fla t no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al fla t no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e du ll sm oo th lig ht be ig e m ot tle d 7 re ct an gu la r fla t no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al fla t no ne no ne no ne fr ag m en t sil ts to ne du ll ve ry  sm oo th da rk so lid re ct an gu la r fla t no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al fla t no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e sil ts to ne du ll ve ry  sm oo th m ed iu m so lid re ct an gu la r fla t no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al fla t no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t re ct an gu la r fla t no ne no ne in co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk m ot tle d 1 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al fla t ta pe rin g no ne no ne co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk m ot tle d la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al co nv ex ta pe rin g no ne no ne in co m pl et e tr ac e po lis h sm oo th m ed iu m m ar bl ed B od y D es cr ip ti on N ec k D es cr ip ti on O bj ec t C om pl et en es s C ol ou r In te ns it y C ol ou r A pp ea ra nc e Lu m in an ce  (l ux ) ci rc ul ar , o va l, sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  ov oi d,  cy li nd ri ca l, la te ra ll y- ro un de d co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at , cu rv ed dr il le d,  in ci se d,  gr oo ve d,  ho ll ow ed ov al , o vo id , cy li nd ri ca l, se m i- cy li nd ri ca l, ci rc ul ar , sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  zo om or ph ic co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at ta pe ri ng , fl ar in g (d is ta ll y) , pe nd ul an t, do ub le , po ss ib le  d ou bl e dr il le d,  ho ll ow ed , in ci se d,  in la id , gr oo ve d co ns tr ic te d,  ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve (l it hi c,  fa un al , fl or al ) da rk , m ed iu m , li gh t m ai n,  se co nd ar y co lo ur s br ow n- gr ey ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve fa un al ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve lit hi c m ud st on e gr ey ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve lit hi c m ud st on e gr ey ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve lit hi c m ud st on e ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve lit hi c m ud st on e fa un al sh el l ( pu rp le - hi ng ed  sc al lo p) lit hi c gr ey lit hi c gr ey -b ei ge lit hi c m ud st on e pe nd ul an t lit hi c st ea tit e gr ey , b ro wn lit hi c st ea tit e br ow n- gr ey , or an ge fa un al sh el l ( pu rp le - hi ng ed  sc al lo p) gr ey , b ei ge   141 M at er ia l P ro pe rt ie s M od if ic at io n D im en si on s (m m ) Ir id es ce nc e V ol um e fl an ge bo dy no 15 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 70 .4 30 ye s 13 .3 69 .5 30 .6 no 20 oi le d,  p ol ish ed no ne no ne no ne no ne 72 .3 35 .8 3. 3 ye s 13 .4 74 36 .2 3 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 37 .5 18 .2 6 ye s 16 .6 38 .6 17 .7 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no , y es , n o no ne dr ill ed no ne 37 26 4. 7 2 ye s 11 .7 37 26 2. 1 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 23 .1 23 .1 3. 5 ye s 7. 5 22 .9 23 .1 no 15 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 35 .9 36 .5 5. 3 ye s 13 .5 34 .7 36 .6 no 20 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 41 .3 41 .9 4 ye s 12 .7 42 .7 41 .9 3. 2 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 13 .1 5. 8 4 ye s 21 .1 7. 7 5. 6 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 9 5. 6 2. 4 ye s 17 6 5. 5 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 8. 4 3. 1 2. 6 ye s 12 .9 3. 6 3. 9 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 13 .4 7 3. 7 ye s 13 .2 7 6. 3 no 30 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d ye s, no , u nk no wn no ne no ne no ne 74 20 .4 10 2 ye s 36 .3 34 .8 22 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no , p os sib ly , n o gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne 17 .6 6. 3 4. 2 1. 7 ye s 20 .2 6. 8 6. 8 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 25 7. 4 5. 6 ye s 24 .4 9. 6 7. 5 In it ia l M an uf ac tu re B ro ke n;  R e- W or ke d;  W or n bu t n ot  R e- W or ke d? Po st - M an uf ac tu re  A lt er at io ns Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (a t m id  fl an ge th ic kn es s (a t ba se  o f b od y) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e) Fl an ge  –  u se  m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? le ng th  (p ro xi m al  to  di st al ) w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (v er ti ca l) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e) ch ise lle d gr ou nd /a br ad ed , in la id ch ise lle d   142 W ei gh t ( g) N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  S PS S Fu ll  D at e In fo fl an ge bo dy ot he r m ea su re m en ts ye s 14 .2 co lle ct ed  1 91 3 7. 5y r 4 /6 15 .1 , 1 3. 6 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 18 .7 co lle ct ed  1 91 3 10 yr  5 /4 66 .3 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 14 co lle ct ed  1 91 3 2. 5y  7 /4 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 16 .4 ch ip pi ng , e dg es co lle ct ed  1 91 1 n 3. 0 2 ye s 6. 9 n3 .0 he ig ht  e st im at ed co m pl et e ye s 39 .2 co lle ct ed  1 91 0 10 r 3 /2 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 38 .7 sc ra tc h,  p os te rio r 10 r 3 /2 43 .9 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 1. 9 5y  9 /1 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 0. 4 n 3. 0 wi dt h es tim at ed he ig ht  e st im at ed ye s 0. 4 2. 5y  4 /2 co m pl et e ye s 1. 6 n 2. 0 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 53 .1 53 .5 wi dt h es tim at ed co m pl et e ye s 2. 1 2. 5y  3 /4 , 5 y 2/ 1 18 .2 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 2. 6 wi dt h es tim at ed D im en si on s (m m ) N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  SP SS Lo ca ti on  o f Fr ac tu re Lo ca ti on  o f W ea r an d Ty pe C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls C ol ou r (M un se ll ) B od y – us e m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? bu ri al s:  s ex , ag e gr ou p? co nc av it y le ng th co nc av it y le ng th dr il le d ho le  di am et er dr il le d ho le  de pt h di st an ce  be tw ee n ho le s co ns tr ic te d ne ck  w id th co ns tr ic te d ne ck  h ei gh t O th er  de sc ri pt io n O th er  m ea su re m en t fl an ge  m ea su re m en t st at us bo dy  m ea su re m en t st at us ch ip pe d,  la te ra l ed ge le ng th  a t b ot h la te ra l e nd s ch ise lli ng , l at er al  ci rc um fe re nc e co nc re tio n,  la te ra l ci rc um fe re nc e;  ch ise lli ng , l at er al  ci rc um fe re nc e ho riz on ta l sc ra tc hi ng , po st er io r wi dt h,  h ei gh t es tim at ed wi dt h,  h ei gh t es tim at ed la te ra l e dg e fr ac tu re st ria tio ns , ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve ; sc ra tc hi ng , an te rio r po ss ib ly  fo un d M ay  2 1 un de r La ka lz ah , 1 2f t. di tc h wi th  sk el et on s.. . ch ip pi ng , i nf er io r ed ge s he av ily  we at he re d ov er al l fr ac tu re d le ng th wi se ve rt ic al  sc ra tc hi ng , po st er io r f la ng e di st al  b od y tip  br ok e po lis h,  fl an ge  po st er io r le ng th  in co m pl et e co nc re tio n,  an te rio r f la ng e la te ra l f la ng e wi ng  b ro ke n,  re wo rk ed (? ) sc ra tc hi ng  ov er al l; ch ip pi ng , an te rio r 5y  2 /2 , 7 .5 y 5/ 2,  10 y 6/ 2 po lis h,  p os te rio r fla ng e;  st ria tio ns , bo dy la te ra l f la ng e wi ng  b ro ke n;  di st al  b od y tip  br ok en ch ip pi ng , f la ng e;  po lis h,  p os te rio r fla ng e 5y  4 /1 , 5 y 8/ 2,  2. 5y  8 /4 le ng th  in co m pl et e   143 In st it ut io n In fo rm at io n Si te  In fo rm at io n D es cr ip ti on In st it ut io n B or de n N o. Si te  N am e Si te  L oc at io n R eg io n Su b- R eg io n A ss oc ia te d D at e M Y  T Y PE Se x ag e la te ra l, ci rc ul ar SF U 19 70 Cr es ce nt  B ea ch So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l SF U 19 71 Cr es ce nt  B ea ch So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l ha t- sh ap ed kn ob la te ra l SF U 67 94 Cr es ce nt  B ea ch So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l do ub le -b ut to n do ub le -k no b la te ra l SF U 67 91 Cr es ce nt  B ea ch So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l un cl as sif ie d kn ob la te ra l SF U 67 97 Cr es ce nt  B ea ch So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l la te ra l SF U 60 4 Cr es ce nt  B ea ch So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l la te ra l SF U 67 95  &  6 79 6 Cr es ce nt  B ea ch So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l la te ra l SF U 54 21 Cr es ce nt  B ea ch So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l SF U 52 64 Cr es ce nt  B ea ch So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l T -s ha pe d te e la te ra l SF U 60 31 Cr es ce nt  B ea ch So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l SF U 50 24 Cr es ce nt  B ea ch So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l la te ra l In st it ut io n C at al og ue  N o. B or de n/ O th er  C at al og ue  N o. C on te m po ra ry  C ul tu ra l A ff il ia ti on s In te gr it y of  Pr ov en ie nc e C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls O bj ec t D es ig na ti on C la ss ic ' T yp e D es cr ip ti on Fl an ge  D es cr ip ti on s N or th , C en tr al , So ut h N or th  (N as s,  Sk ee na , H ai da  G w ai i) ; C en tr al ; S ou th  (G ul f I sl an ds , Fr as er  D el ta , U pp er  F ra se r,  W es t V an co uv er  Is la nd , E as t V an co uv er  Is la nd in  s it u,  in  sc re en ,d is tu rb e d,  s ur fa ce , un kn ow n Ty pe  1 : C 14  da te s Ty pe  2 : A ss oc ia te d D at e ra ng es A ss oc ia te d Pe ri od s (C ha rl es , Lo ca rn o,  M ar po le ) C ol le ct ed : A rc ha eo lo gi ca l, Et hn ol og ic al la br et , p os si bl e la br et , i nl ay  on ly ; l ab ia l, bu cc al , co m po si te D gR r- 1 Bo un da ry  B ay , T sa ww as se n la br et D gR r- 1 Bo un da ry  B ay , T sa ww as se n la br et D gR r- 1 Bo un da ry  B ay , T sa ww as se n la br et D gR r- 1 Bo un da ry  B ay , T sa ww as se n la br et D gR r- 1 Bo un da ry  B ay , T sa ww as se n la br et pe nd ul an t pe nd ul an t D gR r- 1 Bo un da ry  B ay , T sa ww as se n la br et pe nd ul an t pe nd ul an t D gR r- 1 Bo un da ry  B ay , T sa ww as se n la br et pe nd ul an t pe nd ul an t D gR r- 1 Bo un da ry  B ay , T sa ww as se n la br et bu tt on  a nd  co m po sit e la br et D gR r- 1 Bo un da ry  B ay , T sa ww as se n la br et D gR r- 1 Bo un da ry  B ay , T sa ww as se n la br et bu tt on , o rig in al ly  do ub le -b ut to n D gR r- 1 Bo un da ry  B ay , T sa ww as se n la br et pe nd ul an t pe nd ul an t   144 D es cr ip ti on M at er ia l P ro pe rt ie s C la ss  Ty pe Po li sh Te xt ur e Pa tt er ni ng sh or t, ex te nd ed re ct an gu la r fla t no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al fla t no ne no ne co ns tr ic te d in co m pl et e sil ts to ne du ll sm oo th da rk so lid la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t cy lin dr ic al co nv ex ta pe rin g no ne no ne in co m pl et e du ll sm oo th m ed iu m m ot tle d 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t ci rc ul ar co nv ex do ub le no ne no ne in co m pl et e tr ac e po lis h sm oo th da rk m ot tle d 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t sq ua re fla t po ss ib le  d ou bl e no ne co ns tr ic te d in co m pl et e qu ar tz ite du ll sm oo th lig ht be ig e so lid 2 in co m pl et e co nc av e no ne sh or t cy lin dr ic al co nv ex no ne no ne in co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk br ow n,  b ei ge fle ck ed la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t cy lin dr ic al co nv ex in ci se d no ne in co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th m ed iu m m ot tle d 2 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t cy lin dr ic al co nv ex in ci se d no ne in co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk m ot tle d 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t sq ua re co nv ex no ne dr ill ed no ne in co m pl et e po lis he d ve ry  sm oo th m ed iu m m ot tle d 2 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al fla t ta pe rin g no ne no ne in co m pl et e po lis he d ve ry  sm oo th m ed iu m m ot tle d la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t ci rc ul ar fla t po ss ib le  d ou bl e no ne no ne co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk m ot tle d 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t cy lin dr ic al co nv ex no ne no ne co m pl et e so ap st on e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed sm oo th da rk fle ck ed 0 B od y D es cr ip ti on N ec k D es cr ip ti on O bj ec t C om pl et en es s C ol ou r In te ns it y C ol ou r A pp ea ra nc e Lu m in an ce  (l ux ) ci rc ul ar , o va l, sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  ov oi d,  cy li nd ri ca l, la te ra ll y- ro un de d co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at , cu rv ed dr il le d,  in ci se d,  gr oo ve d,  ho ll ow ed ov al , o vo id , cy li nd ri ca l, se m i- cy li nd ri ca l, ci rc ul ar , sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  zo om or ph ic co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at ta pe ri ng , fl ar in g (d is ta ll y) , pe nd ul an t, do ub le , po ss ib le  d ou bl e dr il le d,  ho ll ow ed , in ci se d,  in la id , gr oo ve d co ns tr ic te d,  ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve (l it hi c,  fa un al , fl or al ) da rk , m ed iu m , li gh t m ai n,  se co nd ar y co lo ur s lit hi c da rk  g re y lit hi c st ea tit e gr ey lit hi c st ea tit e gr ey , b ei ge lit hi c pe nd ul an t lit hi c st ea tit e pe nd ul an t lit hi c st ea tit e gr ey -g re en pe nd ul an t lit hi c st ea tit e gr ey -b ro wn , gr ee n lit hi c st ea tit e be ig e,  g re y- br ow n lit hi c st ea tit e gr ey lit hi c st ea tit e gr ey , g re en -b ei ge pe nd ul an t lit hi c gr ey   145 Mat er ia l P ro pe rt ie s M od if ic at io n D im en si on s (m m ) Ir id es ce nc e V ol um e fl an ge bo dy no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne no ne 9. 4 4. 4 3. 8 ye s 34 .5 5. 6 5. 3 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne ye s, ye s, no gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne 21 .4 7. 2 4. 2 0. 8 ye s 16 .1 10 .4 9. 2 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 26 .2 12 .2 4. 9 no 14 .3 14 .3 12 .8 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne 46 17 .6 6. 3 3. 4 ye s 11 .2 26 .9 25 .4 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 13 .7 7. 3 5. 3 no 18 6. 8 26 .9 no 20 gr ou nd /a br ad ed in ci se d po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 40 12 .7 6. 4 1. 7 ye s 29 .4 21 .5 37 .4 no 15 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no , y es , n o no ne in ci se d no ne 38 .9 10 .1 5. 9 3. 7 ye s 17 .8 20 .6 52 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed , i nl ai d po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 40 12 .8 4. 8 1. 6 ye s 9. 6 17 .4 16 .4 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 19 10 .6 5. 6 ye s 31 .1 10 .1 10 .7 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d ye s, ye s, no gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d 30 .6 12 .2 5. 6 3. 4 ye s 12 .3 15 .2 15 .2 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne po lis he d ye s, ye s, no gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne 17 .5 6 3. 5 ye s 22 .7 10 .6 25 .8 In it ia l M an uf ac tu re B ro ke n;  R e- W or ke d;  W or n bu t n ot  R e- W or ke d? Po st - M an uf ac tu re  A lt er at io ns Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (a t m id  fl an ge th ic kn es s (a t ba se  o f b od y) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e) Fl an ge  –  u se  m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? le ng th  (p ro xi m al  to  di st al ) w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (v er ti ca l) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e) ye s, po ss ib ly , po ss ib ly   146 W ei gh t ( g) N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  S PS S Fu ll  D at e In fo fl an ge bo dy ot he r m ea su re m en ts ye s 2. 1 n2 .5 5. 1 4 ye s 3. 9 st ria tio ns  o ve ra ll co m pl et e ye s 3. 6 5y  3 /1 , 2 .5 y 7/ 2 wi dt h in co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 13 .1 36 .8 18 .6 17 .2 2. 9 wi dt h es tim at ed co m pl et e ye s 2. 5 st ria tio ns  o ve ra ll 10 yr  2 /1 , 5 y 8/ 4 wi dt h in co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 18 .5 31 .8 wi dt h es tim at ed co m pl et e no 13 .3 7. 5y  4 /4 , 5 y 2/ 1 40 .7 co m pl et e ye s 4. 4 ch ip , a nt er io r 6. 2 4. 5 13 .2 wi dt h es tim at ed co m pl et e ye s 5. 3 7,  7 .5 co m pl et e ye s 5. 6 32 .6 14 .3 co m pl et e co m pl et e ye s 5. 4 5y  3 /1 co m pl et e co m pl et e D im en si on s (m m ) N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  SP SS Lo ca ti on  o f Fr ac tu re Lo ca ti on  o f W ea r an d Ty pe C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls C ol ou r (M un se ll ) B od y – us e m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? bu ri al s:  s ex , ag e gr ou p? co nc av it y le ng th co nc av it y le ng th dr il le d ho le  di am et er dr il le d ho le  de pt h di st an ce  be tw ee n ho le s co ns tr ic te d ne ck  w id th co ns tr ic te d ne ck  h ei gh t O th er  de sc ri pt io n O th er  m ea su re m en t fl an ge  m ea su re m en t st at us bo dy  m ea su re m en t st at us fr ac tu re  le ng th wi se , fla ng e;  d ist al  bo dy  ti p br ok en in co m pl et e,  b ut  m ea su re m en ts  ac cu ra te le ng th  in co m pl et e fr ac tu re  le ng th wi se ; c hi p,  la te ra l f la ng e wi ng  ti ps , o ne  re wo rk ed 2. 5y  7 /4 , 2 .5 y 4/ 2,  5 y 3/ 1 in co m pl et e,  b ut  m ea su re m en ts  ac cu ra te fr ac tu re  a t m ed ia l an d la te ra l m ar gi ns  th ro ug h fla ng e;  fr ac tu re d at  n ec k,  g lu ed  to ge th er ov er al l we at he rin g la te ra l f la ng e wi ng  b ro ke n;  pr ev io us  fr ac tu re  al on g m ed ia l a xi s ov er al l we at he rin g 5y  8 /2 , i nt er io r 5y  9 /1 fla ng e th ic kn es s at  m ed ia l(? ) s id e la te ra l f la ng e wi ng s b ro ke n;  cr ac ks  th ro ug h bo dy la te ra l f la ng e wi ng  b ro ke n;  ch ip pi ng , l at er al  fla ng e wi ng ; cr ac ks  th ro ug h bo dy ve rt ic al  sc ra tc hi ng  (t oo th ), po st er io r fla ng e 10 y 6/ 2,  1 0y  4 /2 , 5y  7 /4 fr ac tu re d th ro ug h pe nd ul an t b od y on  h or iz on ta l pl an e;  c hi p,  la te ra l f la ng e wi ng we ar  fa ce ts , la te ra l a nt er io r fla ng e (c or da ge ?) he ig ht  in co m pl et e la te ra l f la ng e wi ng  b ro ke n;  in la y( ?)  m iss in g 5y  8 /2 , 5 y 3/ 1,  5y  2 /1 ch ip , l at er al  fla ng e wi ng po lis h,  p os te rio r fla ng e 5y  5 /2 , 5 y 3/ 1,  5y  7 /1 di st al  b od y tip  wi dt h an d he ig ht in co m pl et e,  b ut  m ea su re m en ts  ac cu ra te fr ac tu re d( ?)  a t m ed ia l a nd  la te ra l m ar gi ns  th ro ug h fla ng e,  re wo rk ed po lis h,  p os te rio r fla ng e;  w ea r f ac et  (t oo th ?) , po st er io r f la ng e 5y  8 /2 , 5 y 3/ 15 y 4/ 2 la te ra l f la ng e wi ng  b ro ke n,  re wo rk ed ov er al l we at he rin g   147 PL U G  L A B R ET S In st it ut io n In fo rm at io n Si te  In fo rm at io n O bj ec t D es cr ip ti on In st it ut io n B or de n N o. Si te  N am e Si te  L oc at io n R eg io n Su b- R eg io n A ss oc ia te d D at e M Y  T Y PE Se x ag e la te ra l, ci rc ul ar SF U 33 17 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish in  si tu 30 00  –  4 50 0 A rc ha eo lo gi ca l pl ug in di st in gu ish ab le SF U 28 57 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish in  si tu 20 00  –  3 00 0 A rc ha eo lo gi ca l pl ug in di st in gu ish ab le SF U 10 3 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l pl ug in di st in gu ish ab le SF U 79 7 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish in  si tu 30 00  –  4 50 0 A rc ha eo lo gi ca l pl ug in di st in gu ish ab le SF U 17 35 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish in  si tu 30 00  –  4 50 0 A rc ha eo lo gi ca l pl ug in di st in gu ish ab le SF U 20 78 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish in  si tu 30 00  –  4 50 0 A rc ha eo lo gi ca l pl ug in di st in gu ish ab le SF U 30 34 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l pl ug in di st in gu ish ab le SF U 30 41 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish in  si tu 30 00  –  4 50 0 A rc ha eo lo gi ca l pl ug in di st in gu ish ab le SF U 25 48 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l pl ug in di st in gu ish ab le SF U 18 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l un cl as sif ie d pl ug in di st in gu ish ab le SF U 20 45 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l un cl as sif ie d pl ug in di st in gu ish ab le RB CM 64 0 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish di st ur be d A rc ha eo lo gi ca l un cl as sif ie d pl ug in di st in gu ish ab le RB CM 93 7 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish di st ur be d A rc ha eo lo gi ca l un cl as sif ie d pl ug in di st in gu ish ab le RB CM 11 8 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l un cl as sif ie d pl ug in di st in gu ish ab le RB CM 57 1 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l un cl as sif ie d pl ug in di st in gu ish ab le SF U 17 82 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l pl ug in di st in gu ish ab le CM C VI I- B- 98 8 N or th un kn ow n Et hn ol og ic al pl ug la te ra l CM C VI I- B- 98 6 N or th un kn ow n Et hn ol og ic al un cl as sif ie d pl ug in di st in gu ish ab le CM C VI I- B- 98 7 N or th un kn ow n Et hn ol og ic al pl ug in di st in gu ish ab le In st it ut io n C at al og ue  N o. B or de n/ O th er  C at al og ue  N o. C on te m po ra ry  C ul tu ra l A ff il ia ti on s In te gr it y of  Pr ov en ie nc e C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls O bj ec t D es ig na ti on C la ss ic ' T yp e D es cr ip ti on Fl an ge  D es cr ip ti on s N or th , C en tr al , So ut h N or th  (N as s,  Sk ee na , H ai da  G w ai i) ; C en tr al ; S ou th  (G ul f I sl an ds , Fr as er  D el ta , U pp er  F ra se r,  W es t V an co uv er  Is la nd , E as t V an co uv er  Is la nd in  s it u,  in  sc re en ,d is tu rb e d,  s ur fa ce , un kn ow n Ty pe  1 : C 14  da te s Ty pe  2 : A ss oc ia te d D at e ra ng es A ss oc ia te d Pe ri od s (C ha rl es , Lo ca rn o,  M ar po le ) C ol le ct ed : A rc ha eo lo gi ca l, Et hn ol og ic al la br et , p os si bl e la br et , i nl ay  on ly ; l ab ia l, bu cc al , co m po si te D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  Is la nd C ha rle s/L oc ar no po ss ib le  la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s d isc D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  Is la nd Lo ca rn o/ M ar po le po ss ib le  la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s d isc D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  Is la nd po ss ib le  la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s d isc D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  Is la nd C ha rle s/L oc ar no po ss ib le  la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s d isc D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  Is la nd C ha rle s/L oc ar no po ss ib le  la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s d isc D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  Is la nd C ha rle s/L oc ar no po ss ib le  la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s d isc D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  Is la nd po ss ib le  la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s d isc D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  Is la nd C ha rle s/L oc ar no po ss ib le  la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s d isc D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  Is la nd po ss ib le  la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s d isc D eR t- 1 Pe nd er  C an al Pe nd er  Is la nd po ss ib le  la br et D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  Is la nd po ss ib le  la br et D eR t- 4 Pe nd er  C an al  4 , Po et s C ov e Be dw el l H ar bo ur , Pe nd er  Is la nd po ss ib le  la br et D eR t- 4 Pe nd er  C an al  4 , Po et s C ov e Be dw el l H ar bo ur , Pe nd er  Is la nd po ss ib le  la br et D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  Is la nd po ss ib le  la br et D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  Is la nd po ss ib le  la br et D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  Is la nd po ss ib le  la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s d isc M as se tt H ai da  G wa ii H ai da  G wa ii H ai da la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s d isc  o r ha t- sh ap ed N in st in ts , S ku ng  Gw ai i I ln ag ai , Ea gl e Ch ie f H ai da  G wa ii H ai da  G wa ii H ai da la br et N in st in ts , S ku ng  Gw ai i I ln ag ai , Ea gl e Ch ie f H ai da  G wa ii H ai da  G wa ii H ai da la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s d isc  o r pu lle y (A & M )   148 D es cr ip ti on M at er ia l P ro pe rt ie s C la ss  Ty pe Po li sh Te xt ur e Pa tt er ni ng sh or t, ex te nd ed ov oi d fla t no ne sh or t ov al fla t no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e ne ph rit e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th m ed iu m gr ee n,  b la ck m ar bl ed 0 ov oi d co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e tr ac e po lis h ve ry  sm oo th m ed iu m m ot tle d 4 ov oi d co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e un kn ow n tr ac e po lis h sm oo th lig ht pi nk -b ei ge m ot tle d 0 ov al co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e so ap st on e po lis he d ve ry  sm oo th da rk m ot tle d 0 ov oi d co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e so ap st on e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk br ow n fle ck ed ov oi d co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e so ap st on e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk br ow n m ot tle d ov oi d co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e so ap st on e po lis he d ve ry  sm oo th da rk m ot tle d ov oi d fla t no ne sh or t ov al fla t no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e po lis he d ve ry  sm oo th lig ht be ig e,  p in k m ar bl ed 8 ov al fla t no ne sh or t ov al fla t no ne gr oo ve d no ne co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid -2 ov oi d co nc av e no ne sh or t ov oi d co nc av e no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e po lis he d ve ry  sm oo th da rk so lid 0 ov al co nc av e no ne sh or t re ct an gu la r co nc av e no ne gr oo ve d no ne co m pl et e so ap st on e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk m ot tle d 0 ov al co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk m ot tle d 0 ov al fla t no ne sh or t ov al fla t no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid 0 ov al co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e tr ac e po lis h sm oo th lig ht be ig e- pi nk , b lu e m ot tle d 1 ov al co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e po lis he d sm oo th m ed iu m be ig e- pi nk m ot tle d ov al co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e tr ac e po lis h ve ry  sm oo th m ed iu m m ot tle d 0 ov al co nc av e no ne sh or t ov al co nc av e no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e an tle r po lis he d ve ry  sm oo th lig ht be ig e so lid 5 ov oi d fla t no ne sh or t ov oi d fla t no ne dr ill ed co m pl et e iv or y hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th lig ht or an ge -b ei ge ba nd ed 9 ov al co nc av e no ne sh or t ov oi d co nc av e no ne no ne no ne in co m pl et e iv or y hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th lig ht or an ge -b ei ge so lid 4 B od y D es cr ip ti on N ec k D es cr ip ti on O bj ec t C om pl et en es s C ol ou r In te ns it y C ol ou r A pp ea ra nc e Lu m in an ce  (l ux ) ci rc ul ar , o va l, sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  ov oi d,  cy li nd ri ca l, la te ra ll y- ro un de d co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at , cu rv ed dr il le d,  in ci se d,  gr oo ve d,  ho ll ow ed ov al , o vo id , cy li nd ri ca l, se m i- cy li nd ri ca l, ci rc ul ar , sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  zo om or ph ic co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at ta pe ri ng , fl ar in g (d is ta ll y) , pe nd ul an t, do ub le , po ss ib le  d ou bl e dr il le d,  ho ll ow ed , in ci se d,  in la id , gr oo ve d co ns tr ic te d,  ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve (l it hi c,  fa un al , fl or al ) da rk , m ed iu m , li gh t m ai n,  se co nd ar y co lo ur s lit hi c lit hi c st ea tit e gr ey lit hi c lit hi c gr ey lit hi c lit hi c lit hi c gr ey fa un al sh el l ( pu rp le - hi ng ed  sc al lo p) lit hi c un kn ow n,  m ud st on e lit hi c un kn ow n,  m ud st on e gr ey , b ro wn lit hi c gr ey lit hi c st ea tit e gr ey lit hi c st ea tit e lit hi c un kn ow n,  st ea tit e lit hi c un kn ow n,  st ea tit e lit hi c st ea tit e gr ey , b ei ge , b lu e fa un al ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve fa un al fa un al   149 M at er ia l P ro pe rt ie s M od if ic at io n D im en si on s (m m ) W ei gh t ( g) N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  S PS S Ir id es ce nc e V ol um e bo dy no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 11 .8 30 .4 12 .7 ye s 8. 7 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 12 .8 34 .4 11 .3 1. 7 ye s 10 .4 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 13 .1 28 .5 8. 4 1. 3 ye s 6. 1 ch ip , l at er al  e dg e ov er al l w ea th er ed no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 11 .3 21 .5 7. 1 2 ye s 3. 6 st ria tio ns  o ve ra ll no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 11 .5 27 .3 9 1 ye s 6. 3 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 10 .5 21 .9 6. 7 1 ye s 3. 4 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed po lis he d no , y es , n o gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne 9. 2 28 .5 6. 2 ye s 3 st ria tio ns  o ve ra ll ye s 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 9. 3 38 .9 12 .9 ye s 9. 2 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed in ci se d po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 7. 5 30 .4 14 .4 ye s 5. 6 sc ra tc hi ng  o ve ra ll no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed no ne no ne no ne no ne 11 .6 23 .7 11 .8 ye s 6. 1 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed po lis he d un kn ow n,  y es , n o no ne gr oo ve d no ne 10 .8 35 .6 6. 7 1. 3 ye s 5. 4 st ria tio ns , g ro ov e no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 15 .5 33 10 .6 1. 4 ye s 10 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 11 30 .4 8. 3 ye s 6. 1 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 13 41 .6 9. 9 2. 5 ye s 11 .1 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 14 30 .5 7. 8 1. 8 ye s 5. 6 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 14 .6 39 11 .4 3. 3 ye s 8. 9 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 8 19 .5 10 .1 1. 2 ye s 1 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 11 .8 18 .7 13 ye s 4 cr ac k,  d ril le d ho le no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed po lis he d no ne no ne no ne no ne 9. 3 38 11 .6 1. 7 ye s 5 In it ia l M an uf ac tu re B ro ke n;  R e- W or ke d;  W or n bu t n ot  R e- W or ke d? Po st - M an uf ac tu re  A lt er at io ns Lo ca ti on  o f Fr ac tu re Lo ca ti on  o f W ea r an d Ty pe Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n le ng th  (p ro xi m al  to  di st al ) w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (v er ti ca l) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e) B od y – us e m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? sc ra tc hi ng , an te rio r an d po st er io r m ic ro -p it tin g,  an te rio r an d po st er io r po lis he d,  a nt er io r an d po st er io r; sc ra tc hi ng , ci rc um fe re nc e po lis he d,  a nt er io r an d po st er io r; sc ra tc hi ng , ci rc um fe re nc e un ifo rm  w ea th er in g un ifo rm  w ea th er in g br ok en  o n ho ri zo nt al  p la ne ov er al l h ea vi ly  w ea th er ed ve rt ic al  st ria tio ns , po st er io r a nd  an te rio r;  p ol ish  an d w ea r fa ce ts , po st er io r ch ip pi ng , an te ri or  e dg es w ea th er in g (b ur ni ng ?) , po st er io r f la ng e   150 N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  S PS S Fu ll  D at e In fo ot he r m ea su re m en ts co m pl et e co m pl et e co m pl et e n2 .0 , 5 y 3/ 1 12 .8 , 1 3. 6 co m pl et e n2 .0 , 1 0y r 2 /1 11 .6 , 1 4 co m pl et e 5y  2 /1 , n 2. 0 10 .8 , 1 2. 7 co m pl et e n2 .5 , 2 .5 y 3/ 2 10 , 1 1 co m pl et e co m pl et e n 1. 0 co m pl et e 5y  2 /1 , 2 .5 y 6/ 4 co m pl et e 5y  2 /1 , 5 y 4/ 1 co m pl et e 5y  2 /1  a nd  6 /2 co m pl et e n 2. 0 co m pl et e co m pl et e co m pl et e co m pl et e co m pl et e wi dt h es tim at ed C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls C ol ou r (M un se ll ) bu ri al s:  s ex , ag e gr ou p? O th er  de sc ri pt io n O th er  m ea su re m en t bo dy  m ea su re m en t st at us M ai n M id de n 45 00 -3 00 0 BP 5g y 7/ 4,  5 gy  2 /1 , 5g y 4/ 2 La te  M id de n,  30 00 -2 20 0 BP 2. 5y  5 /2 , 2 .5 y 8/ 2,  n 2. 0 7. 5y r 8 /6 , 2 .5 y 6/ 4 M ai n M id de n 45 00 -3 00 0 BP le ng th  a t l at er al  en ds M ai n M id de n 45 00 -3 00 0 BP le ng th  a t l at er al  en ds M ai n M id de n 45 00 -3 00 0 BP le ng th  a t l at er al  en ds le ng th  a t l at er al  en ds M ai n M id de n 45 00 -3 00 0 BP 5y  9 /1 , 5 y 9/ 2,  2. 5r  5 /8 2. 5y  7 /4 , 2 .5 y 9/ 4 2. 5y  6 /4 , 2 .5 y 8/ 4 5y  7 /2 , 2 .5 y 4/ 4,  5g  6 /1 in co m pl et e,  b ut  m ea su re m en ts  ac cu ra te co lle ct ed  18 90 -1 91 0 2. 5y  9 /4 , 2 .5 y 8/ 4 co lle ct ed  18 90 -1 91 0 7. 5y r 7 /8 , 2 .5 y 8/ 6 co lle ct ed  18 90 -1 91 0 7. 5y r 6 /8 , 7 .5 yr  5/ 6,  2 .5 y 8/ 6   151 C O M PO SI T E L A B R ET S In st it ut io n In fo rm at io n Si te  In fo rm at io n In st it ut io n B or de n N o. Si te  N am e Si te  L oc at io n R eg io n Su b- R eg io n A ss oc ia te d D at e M Y  T Y PE Se x ag e la te ra l, ci rc ul ar LO A 30 74 9 28 7 So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish in  si tu 25 00 -3 50 0 A rc ha eo lo gi ca l co m po sit e co m po sit e la te ra l RB CM 13 9 un kn ow n So ut h Co as t S al ish un kn ow n 25 00 A rc ha eo lo gi ca l un cl as sif ie d co m po sit e la te ra l RB CM 70 un kn ow n So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l co m po sit e la te ra l RB CM (o ld  c at .# 85 83 ) 9 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l co m po sit e la te ra l RB CM 89 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish di st ur be d A rc ha eo lo gi ca l co m po sit e la te ra l RB CM 91 9 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish di st ur be d A rc ha eo lo gi ca l co m po sit e la te ra l RB CM 15 5 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l co m po sit e la te ra l RB CM 13 3 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l un cl as sif ie d co m po sit e la te ra l RB CM 12 88 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish un kn ow n 25 00 -3 50 0 A rc ha eo lo gi ca l co m po sit e la te ra l RB CM 94 4 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish un kn ow n 25 00 -3 50 0 A rc ha eo lo gi ca l co m po sit e la te ra l CM C X II -B -5 83 un kn ow n un kn ow n un kn ow n un kn ow n un kn ow n co m po sit e la te ra l RB CM 17 un kn ow n So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l co m po sit e la te ra l RB CM 18 un kn ow n So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish su rf ac e A rc ha eo lo gi ca l co m po sit e la te ra l SF U 67 86 Cr es ce nt  B ea ch So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l co m po sit e la te ra l SF U 33 25 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l co m po sit e la te ra l In st it ut io n C at al og ue  N o. B or de n/ O th er  C at al og ue  N o. C on te m po ra ry  C ul tu ra l A ff il ia ti on s In te gr it y of  Pr ov en ie nc e C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls O bj ec t D es ig na ti on C la ss ic ' T yp e D es cr ip ti on Fl an ge  D es cr ip ti on s N or th , C en tr al , So ut h N or th  (N as s,  Sk ee na , H ai da  G w ai i) ; C en tr al ; S ou th  (G ul f I sl an ds , Fr as er  D el ta , U pp er  F ra se r,  W es t V an co uv er  Is la nd , E as t V an co uv er  Is la nd in  s it u,  in  sc re en ,d is tu rb e d,  s ur fa ce , un kn ow n Ty pe  1 : C 14  da te s Ty pe  2 : A ss oc ia te d D at e ra ng es A ss oc ia te d Pe ri od s (C ha rl es , Lo ca rn o,  M ar po le ) C ol le ct ed : A rc ha eo lo gi ca l, Et hn ol og ic al la br et , p os si bl e la br et , i nl ay  on ly ; l ab ia l, bu cc al , co m po si te D hR t- 6 Lo ca rn o Be ac h Bu rr ar d In le t, Va nc ou ve r Lo ca rn o po ss ib le  la br et D cR u- 57 6 La ng fo rd , Va nc ou ve r I sla nd Ea st  V an co uv er  Is la nd 32 80  + /-7 0 BP  un co rr ec te d sh el l; 24 00  B P Lo ca rn o/ M ar po le po ss ib le  la br et D eR t- Y Pe nd er  Is la nd po ss ib le  la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s co m po sit e D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  Is la nd po ss ib le  la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s co m po sit e D eR t- 4 Eg er ia  B ay  S ite , Pe nd er  C an al  4 , Po et s C ov e Be dw el l H ar bo ur , Pe nd er  Is la nd po ss ib le  la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s co m po sit e D eR t- 4 Eg er ia  B ay  S ite , Pe nd er  C an al  4 , Po et s C ov e Be dw el l H ar bo ur , Pe nd er  Is la nd po ss ib le  la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s co m po sit e D fR u- 13 M on ta gu e H ar bo ur  S ite Ga lia no  Is la nd po ss ib le  la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s co m po sit e D fR u- 13 M on ta gu e H ar bo ur  S ite Ga lia no  Is la nd po ss ib le  la br et D fR u- 24 T ol an 's Be ac h Ga lia no  Is la nd Lo ca rn o po ss ib le  la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s co m po sit e D fR u- 24 T ol an 's Be ac h Ga lia no  Is la nd Lo ca rn o po ss ib le  la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s co m po sit e po ss ib le  la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s co m po sit e (o ld  a cc .# 52 41  &  19 44 -1 2) D fR tu -y A ct iv e Pa ss , M ay ne  Is la nd po ss ib le  la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s co m po sit e (o ld  a cc .# 52 39 ) D fR tu -y A ct iv e Pa ss , M ay ne  Is la nd po ss ib le  la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s co m po sit e D gR r- 1 Bo un da ry  B ay , T sa ww as se n po ss ib le  la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s co m po sit e D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  Is la nd po ss ib le  la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s co m po sit e   152 D es cr ip ti on M at er ia l P ro pe rt ie s C la ss  Ty pe Po li sh Te xt ur e Pa tt er ni n g sh or t, ex te nd ed la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e dr ill ed -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 co m pl et e an tle r hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th lig ht be ig e fle ck ed 2 re ct an gu la r co nc av e dr ill ed -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk m ot tle d 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed cu rv ed dr ill ed -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 co m pl et e po lis he d sm oo th m ed iu m fle ck ed 2 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed cu rv ed dr ill ed -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 in co m pl et e po lis he d sm oo th da rk m ot tle d 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed cu rv ed dr ill ed -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 in co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th m ed iu m fle ck ed 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed cu rv ed dr ill ed -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 in co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk fle ck ed 0 re ct an gu la r cu rv ed dr ill ed -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 fr ag m en t an tle r hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th lig ht be ig e so lid 3 re ct an gu la r cu rv ed dr ill ed -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 fr ag m en t hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th lig ht m ot tle d 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed cu rv ed dr ill ed -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th m ed iu m be ig e m ot tle d 0 re ct an gu la r cu rv ed dr ill ed -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 fr ag m en t so ap st on e po lis he d sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid 0 re ct an gu la r cu rv ed dr ill ed -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 in co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk m ot tle d 0 re ct an gu la r cu rv ed dr ill ed -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 in co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th m ed iu m m ot tle d 2 re ct an gu la r cu rv ed dr ill ed -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 in co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th m ed iu m m ot tle d re ct an gu la r cu rv ed dr ill ed -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 co m pl et e po lis he d ve ry  sm oo th da rk br ow n m ot tle d 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed cu rv ed dr ill ed -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 in co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk m ot tle d 0 B od y D es cr ip ti on N ec k  D es cr ip ti on O bj ec t C om pl et en es s C ol ou r In te ns it y C ol ou r A pp ea ra nc e L um in an ce  (l ux ) ci rc ul ar , o va l, sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  ov oi d,  cy li nd ri ca l, la te ra ll y- ro un de d co n ve x,  co n ca ve , f la t, cu rv ed dr il le d,  in ci se d,  gr oo ve d,  ho ll ow ed ov al , o vo id , cy li nd ri ca l, se m i- cy li nd ri ca l, ci rc ul ar , sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  zo om or ph ic co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at ta pe ri ng , fl ar in g (d is ta ll y) , pe nd ul an t,  do ub le , po ss ib le  d ou bl e dr il le d,  ho ll ow ed , in ci se d,  in la id , gr oo ve d co ns tr ic te d,  ci rc u m fe re nt ia l gr oo ve (l it hi c,  fa un al , fl or al ) da rk , m ed iu m , li gh t m ai n,  se co nd ar y co lo ur s fa un al lit hi c st ea tit e gr ey lit hi c st ea tit e bl ue -g re y,  b ro wn lit hi c st ea tit e bl ue -g re y,  b ro wn lit hi c st ea tit e bl ue -g re y,  b la ck lit hi c st ea tit e bl ac k,  g re y,  ye llo w fa un al lit hi c st ea tit e ye llo w,  g re y lit hi c st ea tit e lit hi c lit hi c st ea tit e gr ey lit hi c m ud st on e gr ey lit hi c st ea tit e gr ey lit hi c st ea tit e lit hi c st ea tit e br ow n- gr ey   153 M at er ia l P ro pe rt ie s M od if ic at io n D im en si on s (m m ) Ir id es ce nc e V ol um e fl an ge bo dy no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d 37 .4 9. 6 3. 5 38 .5 co m pl et e no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d 38 .8 15 .5 39 .7 co m pl et e no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d 46 .4 10 .2 49 .1 11 .4 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d 55 14 .1 43 .4 wi dt h es tim at ed 14 .5 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d 48 11 .4 wi dt h es tim at ed no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d 57 10 .4 49 .4 wi dt h es tim at ed no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d 25 15 .7 wi dt h in co m pl et e 9. 2 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d 27 .5 13 .3 wi dt h in co m pl et e 9. 5 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d 39 .8 11 .7 34 co m pl et e 10 .6 no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d 15 .6 12 .5 wi dt h in co m pl et e 9. 1 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d 45 15 .1 wi dt h es tim at ed 11 .6 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d 44 13 .8 wi dt h es tim at ed 10 .1 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d 36 19 .4 wi dt h es tim at ed 7. 6 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d no , y es , n o gr ou nd /a br ad ed 39 .3 11 .9 39 .8 co m pl et e 7. 1 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d 57 10 .2 45 .7 wi dt h es tim at ed 12 .4 In it ia l M an uf ac tu re B ro ke n;  R e- W or ke d;  W or n bu t n ot  R e- W or ke d? Po st - M an uf ac tu re  A lt er at io ns Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (a t m id  fl an ge th ic kn es s (a t ba se  o f b od y) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e) Fl an ge  –  u se  m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? le ng th  (p ro xi m al  to  di st al ) w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (v er ti ca l) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e) in co m pl et e,  b ut  m ea su re m en ts  ac cu ra te   154 W ei gh t ( g) N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  S PS S Fu ll  D at e In fo fl an ge bo dy ot he r m ea su re m en ts 1. 69 5y  6 /4 , 5 y 7/ 4 3. 5 8. 8 6. 6 19 .7 6 8. 3 18 .8 5. 6 11 .8 26 .4 2. 5,  p os te rio r 6 .2 6. 7 24 .4 8. 7,  7 .2  p os te rio r 10 .7 st ria tio ns  o ve ra ll 2. 5y  7 /4 3. 5 st ria tio ns  o ve ra ll 5y  7 /6 , 5 y 3/ 1 8. 4 3. 7 12 6 5. 3 2. 5r  n 1. 5 4. 4 2. 3 9. 1 7 8 la te ra l l en gt h 12 .7 18 .6 5. 3 7. 7 9. 6 5. 6 6. 3 15 .3 5y  2 /2 , 2 .5 y 3/ 2 5. 4 20 5y  2 /1 , 5 y 3/ 2 6. 5 7. 9 D im en si on s (m m ) Lo ca ti on  o f Fr ac tu re Lo ca ti on  o f W ea r an d Ty pe C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls C ol ou r (M un se ll ) B od y – us e m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? bu ri al s:  s ex , ag e gr ou p? co nc av it y le ng th co nc av it y le ng th dr il le d ho le  di am et er dr il le d ho le  de pt h O th er  de sc ri pt io n O th er  m ea su re m en t st ria tio ns , an te rio r m ed ia l be tw ee n ho le s 25 00 -3 30 0 RC Y BP ch ip pi ng , po st er io r sc ra tc hi ng , an te rio r s ur fa ce un co rr ec te d sh el l da te  3 28 0 +-  7 0;  're se rv oi r co rr ec tio n wo ul d da te  si te  to  ar ou nd  2 40 0 ye ar s a go ' (K ed di e) 10 yr  5 /2 , 1 0y r 2/ 1 ch ip , a nt er io r bo dy  to  d ril le d ho le ov er al l h ea vi ly  we at he re d 5g y 8/ 1,  1 0g  5 /1  ba nd s, 5y  3 /2  pa tc he s la te ra l f la ng e wi ng  b ro ke n at  dr ill ed  h ol e un ifo rm  m ic ro - sc ra tc hi ng 5y  2 /1 , 5 y 6/ 2,  10 yr  4 /4 , 5 y 7/ 2,  10 g 6/ 1 la te ra l w in g br ok en ch ip , l at er al  ti p;  m ic ro -s cr at ch in g,  po st er io r 2. 5r  n 1. 5,  7 .5 y 5/ 2,  1 0g  4 /1  in  we bb in g la te ra l w in g br ok en  th ro ug h ho le di ag on al  st ria tio ns , po st er io r; st ria tio ns , a ro un d un br ok en  h ol e,  wi th  fa in t w ea r fa ce t 2. 5r  n 1. 5,  2 .5 y 5/ 4,  2 .5 y 6/ 2 la te ra l w in g br ok en 7. 5 an te rio r, 11 .2  po st er io r la te ra l w in g br ok en un ifo rm  we at he rin g;  be ve lle d ro ug h,  po st er io r as so ci at ed  w ith  ea rli er  d ep os its  da tin g c.  3 20 0 to  29 00  B P (K ed di e) 2. 5y  6 /4 , 2 .5 y 4/ 2,  2 .5 y 2/ 2 la te ra l w in g br ok en  th ro ug h ho le un ifo rm  we at he rin g as so ci at ed  w ith  ea rli er  d ep os its  da tin g c.  3 20 0 to  29 00  B P (K ed di e) br ok en  th ro ug h dr ill ed  h ol e,  le ng th  a xi s m an uf ac tu rin g st ria tio ns  o ve ra ll n 2. 0,  2 .5 y 8/ 2,  2. 5y  6 /2 br ok en  th ro ug h ho le un ifo rm  we at he rin g 7. 5y  6 /2  a nd  5 y 4/ 2 br ok en  th ro ug h ho le un ifo rm  we at he rin g 7. 5y  6 /2  a nd  5 y 4/ 2 fa ce ts , p os te rio r ne xt  to  la te ra l ho le s; sc ra tc hi ng , po st er io r; st ria tio ns  o ve ra ll 3. 5 an te rio r, 4. 5 po st er io r fr ac tu re , t hr ou gh  ho le ; l at er al  fla ng e tip  b ro ke n st ria tio ns  o ve ra ll;  ve rt ic al  sc ra tc hi ng  a nd  we ar  fa ce ts  (t oo th ?) , po st er io r   155 In st it ut io n In fo rm at io n Si te  In fo rm at io n D es cr ip ti on In st it ut io n B or de n N o. Si te  N am e Si te  L oc at io n R eg io n Su b- R eg io n A ss oc ia te d D at e M Y  T Y PE Se x ag e la te ra l, ci rc ul ar SF U 86 6 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l co m po sit e la te ra l SF U 23 67 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l co m po sit e la te ra l SF U 72 0 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l co m po sit e la te ra l SF U 16 85 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l co m po sit e la te ra l SF U 16 49 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l co m po sit e la te ra l SF U 91 3 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l co m po sit e la te ra l SF U 16 24 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l co m po sit e la te ra l SF U 32 94 So ut h Gu lf Is la nd s Co as t S al ish in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l co m po sit e la te ra l RB CM 36 3 Pi tt  R iv er  S ite So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l co m po sit e la te ra l RB CM 47 2 Pi tt  R iv er  S ite So ut h Fr as er  D el ta Co as t S al ish un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l co m po sit e la te ra l In st it ut io n C at al og ue  N o. B or de n/ O th er  C at al og ue  N o. C on te m po ra ry  C ul tu ra l A ff il ia ti on s In te gr it y of  Pr ov en ie nc e C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls O bj ec t D es ig na ti on C la ss ic ' T yp e D es cr ip ti on Fl an ge  D es cr ip ti on s N or th , C en tr al , So ut h N or th  (N as s,  Sk ee na , H ai da  G w ai i) ; C en tr al ; S ou th  (G ul f I sl an ds , Fr as er  D el ta , U pp er  F ra se r,  W es t V an co uv er  Is la nd , E as t V an co uv er  Is la nd in  s it u,  in  sc re en ,d is tu rb e d,  s ur fa ce , un kn ow n Ty pe  1 : C 14  da te s Ty pe  2 : A ss oc ia te d D at e ra ng es A ss oc ia te d Pe ri od s (C ha rl es , Lo ca rn o,  M ar po le ) C ol le ct ed : A rc ha eo lo gi ca l, Et hn ol og ic al la br et , p os si bl e la br et , i nl ay  on ly ; l ab ia l, bu cc al , co m po si te D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  Is la nd po ss ib le  la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s co m po sit e D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  Is la nd po ss ib le  la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s co m po sit e D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  Is la nd po ss ib le  la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s co m po sit e D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  Is la nd po ss ib le  la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s co m po sit e D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  Is la nd po ss ib le  la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s co m po sit e D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  Is la nd po ss ib le  la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s co m po sit e D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  Is la nd po ss ib le  la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s co m po sit e D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  Is la nd po ss ib le  la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s co m po sit e D hR q- 21 M ar y H ill , P itt  R iv er  a re a,  F ra se r Va lle y po ss ib le  la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s co m po sit e D hR q- 21 M ar y H ill , P itt  R iv er  a re a,  F ra se r Va lle y po ss ib le  la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s co m po sit e   156 D es cr ip ti on M at er ia l P ro pe rt ie s C la ss  Ty pe Po li sh Te xt ur e Pa tt er ni ng sh or t, ex te nd ed la te ra lly -r ou nd ed cu rv ed dr ill ed -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 in co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk m ot tle d 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed cu rv ed dr ill ed -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 in co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk bl ac k,  b ei ge fle ck ed la te ra lly -r ou nd ed cu rv ed dr ill ed -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 in co m pl et e po lis he d ve ry  sm oo th da rk m ot tle d 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed cu rv ed dr ill ed -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 in co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th m ed iu m be ig e,  b ro wn m ot tle d 0 re ct an gu la r cu rv ed dr ill ed -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 fr ag m en t hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk m ot tle d 0 re ct an gu la r cu rv ed dr ill ed -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 in co m pl et e po lis he d ve ry  sm oo th m ed iu m m ot tle d 0 cy lin dr ic al co nv ex no ne sh or t re ct an gu la r co nv ex fla rin g no ne -1 co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk m ot tle d 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed cu rv ed dr ill ed -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 fr ag m en t hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk m ot tle d 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed cu rv ed dr ill ed -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 fr ag m en t un kn ow n,  p um ic e du ll sm oo th lig ht be ig e,  b ro wn m ot tle d 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed cu rv ed dr ill ed -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 fr ag m en t un kn ow n,  p um ic e du ll sli gh tly  ro ug h lig ht be ig e m ot tle d 1 B od y D es cr ip ti on N ec k D es cr ip ti on O bj ec t C om pl et en es s C ol ou r In te ns it y C ol ou r A pp ea ra nc e Lu m in an ce  (l ux ) ci rc ul ar , o va l, sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  ov oi d,  cy li nd ri ca l, la te ra ll y- ro un de d co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at , cu rv ed dr il le d,  in ci se d,  gr oo ve d,  ho ll ow ed ov al , o vo id , cy li nd ri ca l, se m i- cy li nd ri ca l, ci rc ul ar , sq ua re , re ct an gu la r,  zo om or ph ic co nv ex , co nc av e,  fl at ta pe ri ng , fl ar in g (d is ta ll y) , pe nd ul an t, do ub le , po ss ib le  d ou bl e dr il le d,  ho ll ow ed , in ci se d,  in la id , gr oo ve d co ns tr ic te d,  ci rc um fe re nt ia l gr oo ve (l it hi c,  fa un al , fl or al ) da rk , m ed iu m , li gh t m ai n,  se co nd ar y co lo ur s lit hi c st ea tit e br ow n- gr ey lit hi c st ea tit e lit hi c st ea tit e gr ey , b ro wn lit hi c st ea tit e lit hi c st ea tit e gr ey , b ei ge lit hi c st ea tit e bl ue -g re y lit hi c st ea tit e gr ey lit hi c st ea tit e gr ey lit hi c lit hi c   157 Mat er ia l P ro pe rt ie s M od if ic at io n D im en si on s (m m ) Ir id es ce nc e V ol um e fl an ge bo dy no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d 60 10 .1 41 .2 wi dt h es tim at ed 12 .3 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d 60 10 .4 45 .2 wi dt h es tim at ed 13 .8 no 10 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d 52 12 54 .7 wi dt h es tim at ed 12 .7 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d 54 6. 9 50 .5 wi dt h es tim at ed 13 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d 28 .8 10 .3 wi dt h in co m pl et e 12 .1 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d 62 9. 6 43 .8 wi dt h es tim at ed 10 .3 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed po lis he d 39 .6 6. 9 7. 4 co m pl et e 25 .8 11 .1 7. 2 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed dr ill ed po lis he d 30 .6 10 .7 wi dt h in co m pl et e 13 .8 no 5 gr ou nd /a br ad ed pa in te d 24 .1 11 .1 wi dt h in co m pl et e no 2 gr ou nd /a br ad ed 19 .8 12 .3 wi dt h in co m pl et e In it ia l M an uf ac tu re B ro ke n;  R e- W or ke d;  W or n bu t n ot  R e- W or ke d? Po st - M an uf ac tu re  A lt er at io ns Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n Pr im ar y – M an uf ac tu re Se co nd ar y – A lt er at io n Te rt ia ry  - D ec or at io n w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (a t m id  fl an ge th ic kn es s (a t ba se  o f b od y) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e) Fl an ge  –  u se  m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? le ng th  (p ro xi m al  to  di st al ) w id th  (h or iz on ta l) he ig ht  (v er ti ca l) co nc av it y de pt h (a t c en tr e)   158 W ei gh t ( g) N O T IN C LU D ED  IN  S PS S Fu ll  D at e In fo fl an ge bo dy ot he r m ea su re m en ts 15 .6 5y  2 /1 , 5 y 3/ 2 5 6. 6 25 .5 17 .1 n 1. 5,  5 y 8/ 2 5. 4 10 28 .8 19 5. 7 12 le ng th  e st im at ed 20 un ifo rm  w ea r 4. 6 5. 1 n/ a un ifo rm  w ea r 5. 9 5. 5 22 .5 un ifo rm  w ea r 5. 7 7. 3 29 .4 co m pl et e 6. 1 7. 5 5y  4 /1 , 5 y 2/ 1 4. 5 4. 4 2. 4 m ul tip le  fr ac tu re s 6. 6,  5 .6  p os te rio r 3 11 13 D im en si on s (m m ) Lo ca ti on  o f Fr ac tu re Lo ca ti on  o f W ea r an d Ty pe C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls C ol ou r (M un se ll ) B od y – us e m ea su re m en ts  fo r ar ea  (w id th , he ig ht ) a s co m pl et e? bu ri al s:  s ex , ag e gr ou p? co nc av it y le ng th co nc av it y le ng th dr il le d ho le  di am et er dr il le d ho le  de pt h O th er  de sc ri pt io n O th er  m ea su re m en t fr ac tu re , t hr ou gh  ho le ; l at er al  fla ng e tip  b ro ke n st ria tio ns  o ve ra ll;  ve rt ic al  sc ra tc hi ng  a nd  we ar  fa ce ts  (t oo th ?) , po st er io r es tim at ed  co m pl et e wi dt h fr ac tu re , t hr ou gh  ho le ; l at er al  fla ng e tip  b ro ke n ve rt ic al  sc ra tc hi ng  a nd  be ve lli ng , po st er io r (t oo th ?) ; st ria tio ns , su pe rio r es tim at ed  co m pl et e wi dt h la te ra l f la ng e wi ng  ti p br ok en 5y  6 /1 , 5 y 2/ 1,  5y  3 /2 fr ac tu re d ho riz on ta lly ; la te ra l f la ng e wi ng  b ro ke n 5y  6 /2 , 5 y 2/ 1,  5y  7 /2 la te ra l f la ng e tip s br ok en 5y  3 /1 , 5 y 7/ 2,  5y  4 /1 fr ac tu re , t hr ou gh  ho le ; l at er al  fla ng e tip  b ro ke n n 1. 0,  5 y 6/ 1,  5 y 2/ 2,  5 g 5/ 1 es tim at ed  co m pl et e wi dt h ch ip , l at er al  fla ng e wi ng  ti p 10 yr  8 /4 , 5 y 4/ 1,  5y  5 /2 fr ac tu re  th ro ug h ho le ; l at er al  ti p br ok en le ng th  o f pr oj ec tio n fr om  an te rio r s ur fa ce he av ily  we at he re d 10 yr  2 /2 , b ut  m at er ia l i s 2 .5 y 9/ 4 la te ra l w in gs  br ok en he av ily  we at he re d 2. 5y  5 /2  we at he re d ar ea , tr ac e 10 g 8/ 1,  5 y 8. 5/ 1   159 B U C C A L A N D  P O SS IB L E L A B R E T S In st it ut io n In fo rm at io n Si te  In fo rm at io n D es cr ip ti on In st it ut io n B or de n N o. Si te  N am e Si te  L oc at io n R eg io n Su b- R eg io n A ss oc ia te d D at e M Y  T Y PE Se x ag e la te ra l, ci rc ul ar R B CM 72 3 So ut h Gu lf  I sla nd s C oa st  S al is h di st ur be d A rc ha eo lo gi ca l un cl as sif ie d do ub le  c ir cu la r SF U 27 7 So ut h Gu lf  I sla nd s C oa st  S al is h un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l un cl as sif ie d do ub le  c ir cu la r SF U 90 3 So ut h Gu lf  I sla nd s C oa st  S al is h in  si tu A rc ha eo lo gi ca l un cl as sif ie d do ub le  c ir cu la r SF U 13 20 So ut h Gu lf  I sla nd s C oa st  S al is h un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l un cl as sif ie d do ub le  c ir cu la r R B CM 63 Li tt le  B ea ch  S ite So ut h in  si tu 25 00 -4 00 0 BP A rc ha eo lo gi ca l la te ra l/c ir cu la r R B CM 43 41 H el en  P oi nt M ay ne  I sla nd So ut h Gu lf  I sla nd s C oa st  S al is h un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l la bi al un cl as sif ie d la te ra l R B CM 95 4 So ut h Gu lf  I sla nd s C oa st  S al is h un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l co m po si te un cl as sif ie d do ub le  c ir cu la r R B CM 25 14 So ut h Gu lf  I sla nd s C oa st  S al is h di st ur be d A rc ha eo lo gi ca l la bi al un cl as sif ie d la te ra l L O A 44 10 4 22 07 So ut h Fr as er  D el ta C oa st  S al is h un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l la bi al to o fra gm en te d la te ra l R B CM 36 5 So ut h Gu lf  I sla nd s C oa st  S al is h un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l la bi al un cl as sif ie d la te ra l R B CM 86 9 So ut h Gu lf  I sla nd s C oa st  S al is h di st ur be d A rc ha eo lo gi ca l la bi al un cl as sif ie d la te ra l SF U 28 58 So ut h Gu lf  I sla nd s C oa st  S al is h in  si tu 20 00  –  3 00 0 A rc ha eo lo gi ca l la bi al un fin ish ed la te ra l R B CM 66 un kn ow n So ut h Gu lf  I sla nd s C oa st  S al is h un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l la bi al un cl as sif ie d la te ra l R B CM Y -1 28 6 un kn ow n un kn ow n un kn ow n un kn ow n un kn ow n un kn ow n un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l un cl as sif ie d la te ra l SF U 11 66 So ut h Gu lf  I sla nd s C oa st  S al is h un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l bu tt on kn ob la te ra l SF U 50 68 Cr es ce nt  B ea ch So ut h Fr as er  D el ta C oa st  S al is h un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l po ss ib le  p re fo rm T -s ha pe d kn ob la te ra l C M C VI I- B -1 04 2 N or th un kn ow n E th no lo gi ca l te e ci rc ul ar R B CM 11 89 Pe tr og ly ph  P ar k So ut h C oa st  S al is h in  si tu be fo re  2 00 0 B P ? - 20 00 A rc ha eo lo gi ca l kn ob la te ra l R B CM 30 97 Be ac h Gr ov e So ut h Fr as er  D el ta C oa st  S al is h un kn ow n A rc ha eo lo gi ca l un cl as sif ie d la te ra l In st it ut io n C at al og ue  N o. B or de n/ O th er  C at al og ue  N o. C on te m po ra ry  C ul tu ra l A ff il ia ti on s In te gr it y of  Pr ov en ie nc e C on te xt ua l M at er ia ls O bj ec t D es ig na ti on C la ss ic ' T yp e D es cr ip ti on Fl an ge  D es cr ip ti on s N or th , C en tr al , So ut h N or th  (N as s,  Sk ee na , H ai da  G w ai i) ; C en tr al ; S ou th  (G ul f I sl an ds , Fr as er  D el ta , U pp er  F ra se r,  W es t V an co uv er  Is la nd , E as t V an co uv er  Is la nd in  s it u,  in  sc re en ,d is tu rb e d,  s ur fa ce , un kn ow n Ty pe  1 : C 14  da te s Ty pe  2 : A ss oc ia te d D at e ra ng es A ss oc ia te d Pe ri od s (C ha rl es , Lo ca rn o,  M ar po le ) C ol le ct ed : A rc ha eo lo gi ca l, Et hn ol og ic al la br et , p os si bl e la br et , i nl ay  on ly ; l ab ia l, bu cc al , co m po si te D eR t- 4 Eg er ia  B ay  S it e,  Pe nd er  C an al  4 , Po et s C ov e Be dw el l H ar bo ur , Pe nd er  I sla nd po ss ib le  la br et bu cc al D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  I sla nd po ss ib le  la br et bu cc al D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  I sla nd po ss ib le  la br et bu cc al D eR t- 1 Pe nd er  C an al Pe nd er  I sla nd po ss ib le  la br et bu cc al D fS j-1 00 U cl ut h Pe ni ns ul a,  U cl ue le t W es t V an co uv er  Is la nd N uu -C ha h- N ul th po ss ib le  la br et bu cc al un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t i s T - sh ap ed D fR u- 8 po ss ib le  la br et D fR u- 13 M on ta gu e H ar bo ur  S it e Ga lia no  I sla nd po ss ib le  la br et D eR t- 4 Pe nd er  C an al  4 , Po et s C ov e Be dw el l H ar bo ur , Pe nd er  I sla nd po ss ib le  la br et D hR s- 1 M ar po le Fr as er  R iv er , Va nc ou ve r po ss ib le  la br et D gR w -4 Se ne we le ts Fa ls e N ar ro w s, Ga br io la  I sl an d po ss ib le  la br et D eR t- 4 Eg er ia  B ay  S it e,  Pe nd er  C an al  4 , Po et s C ov e Be dw el l H ar bo ur , Pe nd er  I sla nd po ss ib le  la br et D eR t- 2 Pe nd er  C an al  2 Pe nd er  I sla nd L oc ar no /M ar po le la br et  p re fo rm D eR t- Y Pe nd er  I sla nd po ss ib le  la br et po ss ib le  la br et pe nd ul an t D eR t- 1 Pe nd er  C an al Pe nd er  I sla nd po ss ib le  la br et D gR r- 1 Bo un da ry  B ay , T sa w w as se n K lu kw an H ai da  G w ai i H ai da  G w ai i H ai da po ss ib le  la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t is  T - sh ap ed  ( ol d ac c. 71 -6 3) D gR x- 6 N ew ca st le  I sla nd , N an ai m o Ea st  V an co uv er  Is la nd la br et un cl as sif ie d;  cl os es t is  b ut to n D gR s- 1 Gr au er  P ar k,  T sa w w as se n la br et pe nd ul an t   160 D es cr ip ti on M at er ia l P ro pe rt ie s C la ss  Ty pe Po li sh Te xt ur e Pa tt er ni ng sh or t, ex te nd ed ov al co nc av e no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al fla t no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid 0 ov al fla t no ne ex te nd ed se m i-c yl in dr ic al no ne no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk m ot tle d ov al co nv ex no ne ex te nd ed se m i-c yl in dr ic al no ne no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk m ot tle d 2 ov al fla t no ne ex te nd ed re ct an gu la r no ne no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e so ap st on e hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th da rk br ow n m ot tle d in co m pl et e fla t no ne ex te nd ed ci rc ul ar co nv ex no ne no ne no ne fr ag m en t sla te po lis he d sm oo th da rk so lid 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e dr ill ed ex te nd ed ci rc ul ar fla t no ne ho llo we d no ne co m pl et e an tle r po lis he d sm oo th lig ht be ig e so lid ov al fla t ho llo we d ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al no ne no ne ho llo we d,  d ril le d no ne co m pl et e an tle r hi gh ly  p ol ish ed ve ry  sm oo th lig ht be ig e so lid 3 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t re ct an gu la r co nc av e ta pe rin g no ne no ne co m pl et e po lis he d sm oo th lig ht be ig e m ot tle d 6 ov al fla t no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al in co m pl et e ta pe rin g no ne no ne in co m pl et e ba sa lt po lis he d sm oo th da rk bl ac k so lid 0 re ct an gu la r co nc av e no ne ex te nd ed cy lin dr ic al fla t ta pe rin g no ne no ne in co m pl et e bo ne po lis he d sm oo th lig ht be ig e so lid 3 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t re ct an gu la r co nc av e no ne no ne no ne co m pl et e po lis he d sm oo th da rk fle ck ed 0 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t re ct an gu la r fla t fla rin g no ne no ne co m pl et e du ll sm oo th lig ht m ot tle d 5 la te ra lly -r ou nd ed co nc av e no ne sh or t se m i-c yl in dr ic al fla t fla rin g no ne co ns tr ic te d co m pl et e po lis he d sm oo th da rk fle ck ed 0 cy lin dr