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Beyond lip service : an analysis of labrets and their social context on the Pacific Northwest Coast of.. La Salle, Marina J. 2008

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BEYOND LIP SERVICE: AN ANALYSIS OF LABRETS AND THEIR SOCIAL CONTEXT ON THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST COAST OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  by MARINA J. LA SALLE BA, Simon Fraser University, 2006  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Anthropology) THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver) August 2008  © Marina J. La Salle, 2008  ABSTRACT This thesis provides an analysis of the history and social context of the labret (lip plug) on the Northwest Coast of British Columbia over the last 5,000 years. Although labrets have typically been characterized as markers of ‘status’ with connotations of gender, the variability in observations made by early explorers and ethnographers suggests that this simplistic depiction belies a complexity in what aspect of social identity this form of personal communicated. Therefore, this research has sought to explore the relationship between labrets and social identity by conducting a comprehensive typological analysis by which to examine patterning in materiality through time and space. Although hindered by a lack of temporal data and contextual information on gender association, the results of this research demonstrate that there is geographical patterning at multiple scales—regional, sub-regional and even on the village or site level—which supports the hypothesis that the labret has been an exclusionary tradition conveying both individual and group social identity that varies through time and space in this region. The social meaning of labrets is further explored through research on contemporary labret use, which highlights a tension between individual expression and group acceptance that is expressed materially, contrasting the physical permanence of the labret and the mutability in social meaning conveyed. Finally, interviews with First Nations artists who include labrets in their art has shown that cultural identity both informs and is informed by a concept of shared heritage; thus, the labret is a symbol and expression of social identity that continues to hold significant meaning for the descendants of this heritage. Therefore, while simple correlations of the labret with ‘status’ and ‘gender’ are not wrong, nonetheless they betray the complexity of body ornamentation which, though manifested materially, is highly contextual. This research contributes to the ongoing anthropological discussion of materiality and identity, considering the ways that structured style is negotiated through practice, and asking whether this recursive, dynamic and dialectical relationship can be accessed archaeologically—a task that ultimately requires a commitment to reflexivity, multivocality, and critical examination of the research process itself.  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT..........................................................................................................................................................ii TABLE OF CONTENTS.................................................................................................................................... iii LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................................................ v LIST OF FIGURES.............................................................................................................................................vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS................................................................................................................................vii CHAPTER 1: THESIS OVERVIEW..................................................................................................................1 CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH CONTEXT .............................................................................................................4 2.1 Early Explorations ...........................................................................................................................4 2.2 Archaeological Accounts ..................................................................................................................6 2.3 Osteological Observations ................................................................................................................7 2.4 'Simple' Status, Worn by Women? ..................................................................................................8 2.5 The Self and the Social Surface........................................................................................................9 2.6 The Challenge: To Clarify and Complicate ................................................................................... 11 CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH DESIGN and METHODOLOGY ........................................................................ 12 3.1 Research Outline ............................................................................................................................ 12 3.2 Methods .......................................................................................................................................... 12 3.2.1 Typology ......................................................................................................................... 12 3.2.2 Raw Material ................................................................................................................... 13 3.3.3 Geography....................................................................................................................... 14 3.2.4 Contextual Data ............................................................................................................... 15 3.2.5 Contemporary Ethnography ............................................................................................. 15 CHAPTER 4: RESULTS................................................................................................................................... 17 4.1 Assemblage Overview..................................................................................................................... 17 4.1.1 Artifact Sample................................................................................................................ 17 4.1.2 Geographic Distribution................................................................................................... 17 4.1.3 Temporal Distribution...................................................................................................... 18 4.2 Attribute Analysis. ......................................................................................................................... 19 4.2.1 Typology ......................................................................................................................... 20 4.2.2 Material Properties........................................................................................................... 21 4.2.3 Size ................................................................................................................................. 24 4.3 Distributional Analyses .................................................................................................................. 26 4.3.1 Geographic Patterning...................................................................................................... 26 4.3.1.1 Type....................................................................................................................... 26 4.3.1.2 Material................................................................................................................. 27 4.3.1.3 Size........................................................................................................................ 27 4.3.2 Temporal Patterning ........................................................................................................ 28 4.3.2.1 Type....................................................................................................................... 28 4.3.2.2 Material................................................................................................................. 29 4.3.2.3 Size........................................................................................................................ 29 4.4 Burial Association: ‘Gender’ and Age ........................................................................................... 29 4.5 ‘Possible Labrets’ ........................................................................................................................... 31 4.5.1 Orientation of Wear ......................................................................................................... 31 4.5.2 Composite and Buccal Labrets, and Ear-spools................................................................. 32 4.5.3 ‘Plug’ Labrets.................................................................................................................. 33 4.5.4 Other Anomalies.............................................................................................................. 33 CHAPTER 5: ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION................................................................................................ 34 5.1 Labrets on the Northwest Coast..................................................................................................... 34 5.2 Typology, Materiality and Social Identity ..................................................................................... 43 5.3 The Ethnographic Present ............................................................................................................. 45 5.4 Towards a Reflexive Research Process .......................................................................................... 47  iii  CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSIONS ........................................................................................................................ 49 REFERENCES CITED ...................................................................................................................................... 51 APPENDICES .................................................................................................................................................... 57 Appendix A. Wear facets on labret surfaces caused by tooth abrasion ................................................................ 57 Appendix B. Detailed methodology for labret attribute recording....................................................................... 58 Appendix C. Ethics review certificate of approval ............................................................................................. 62 Appendix D. Letter that was sent to all First Nations in whose traditional territory the labrets under study were recovered ............................................................................................................................. 63 Appendix E. Crosstabulation analyses comparing flange and body formal attributes, based on which the typology employed in the ensuing analyses was constructed.......................................................... 64 Appendix F. Crosstabulation of created types with attributes, demonstrating the robustness of the typology........ 69 Appendix G. Original data collected .................................................................................................................. 70 Appendix H. Crosstabulation of material type by labret type ............................................................................ 171 Appendix I. Results of PIMA analysis on sub-sample of labrets using SIMIS FeatureSearch software and US Geological Survey data to identify mineral content ................................................................ 172 Appendix J. Flange area to Body area, depicting a positive correlation between the body and flange dimensions ................................................................................................................................. 177 Appendix K. Geographical distribution by sub-region of labret type identified in this research ......................... 178 Appendix L. Crosstabulation of labret material type by region ......................................................................... 179 Appendix M. Crosstabulation of labret material type by sub-region .................................................................. 180 Appendix N. Frequency of labret type by material type and site ....................................................................... 181 Appendix O. Labret body area distribution by sub-region................................................................................. 183 Appendix P. Various labrets, highlighting the emphasized shininess due to a) a concave anterior surface, or b) shell inlays ......................................................................................................................... 186 Appendix Q. Dates available (radiocarbon, associated time interval, and culture period) for labrets under study, and association with geography and labret type ................................................................. 187 Appendix R. Photograph taken by the author at the Canadian Museum of Civilization, depicting a female figure wearing a labret ................................................................................................................ 188 Appendix S. Artifacts that may be ‘composite’ labrets..................................................................................... 189 Appendix T. Microscopic wear on surfaces of possible ‘composite’ labrets...................................................... 190 Appendix U. Artifacts suggested to be ‘buccal’ (lateral) labrets........................................................................ 191 Appendix V. Earspools and/or ‘lip spools’....................................................................................................... 192 Appendix W.Crosstabulation of ‘plug’ labrets by material and region .............................................................. 193 Appendix X. Artifacts classified as ‘plug’ labrets............................................................................................. 194 Appendix Y. Anomalous artifacts suggested to be labrets................................................................................. 195 Appendix Z. Labrets in contemporary art created by artists interviewed in this research ................................... 196  iv  LIST OF TABLES Table 3.1 Table 3.2 Table 3.3 Table 4.1 Table 4.2 Table 4.3 Table 4.4 Table 4.5 Table 4.6 Table 4.7 Table 4.8 Table 4.9 Table 4.10 Table 4.11  Labret typologies commonly employed in the archaeological literature.......................................... 13 Summary of variables recorded..................................................................................................... 13 Labrets included in sample by source institution............................................................................ 14 Labret frequency by region and sub-region.................................................................................... 17 Integrity of labret provenience and available radiocarbon dates...................................................... 18 Cultural period associated with dated labrets ................................................................................. 19 Dates for labrets by stratigraphic or artifact assemblage associations ............................................. 19 Labret sample classified according to Stewart (1976) .................................................................... 21 Crosstabulation of flange to body form, based on Loy and Powell (1977) / Keddie (1981) ............. 21 Description and frequency of types identified................................................................................ 22 Crosstabulation of material class by labret type ............................................................................. 23 Geographical distribution by region of labret type ......................................................................... 26 Crosstabulation of material class by region.................................................................................... 27 Burial context data for labrets in association with human remains of known sex ............................ 30  v  LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.1 Figure 1.2 Figure 3.1 Figure 3.2 Figure 3.3 Figure 4.1 Figure 4.2 Figure 4.3 Figure 4.4 Figure 4.5 Figure 4.6  Haida woman with labret & fur cloak, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia ...........................3 “Queen Johnny of Masset” or “New Gold Harbour Jonnie with Labret”...........................................3 Map of British Columbia regions as defined for this research......................................................... 15 Mask of the Slave Woman ............................................................................................................ 16 Illustration of types of labrets........................................................................................................ 16 Labret frequencies by body area.................................................................................................... 25 Labret body area range.................................................................................................................. 25 Labret body area range by type ..................................................................................................... 25 Labret body area range by material class ....................................................................................... 25 Labret body area range by region .................................................................................................. 28 Labret body area range by collection source .................................................................................. 28  vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am indebted to many who have helped me along the way to completing this thesis. First and foremost, for his unfailing support, encouragement and guidance, I am most thankful to have had Andrew Martindale act as my supervisor, and friend—Andrew, you are awesome. I am also eternally grateful to Grant Keddie, whose insight, expertise and enthusiasm for this topic has been the inspiration for my thesis from the beginning. For encouraging me to be creative and know no limits, I am thankful to Mike Blake, who has always had a kind word and a smile for me when I needed it. This research has benefited tremendously from the generous input of Christian White, for sharing his thoughts, inspiration and vision with me, and Russell Mather, for showing me in his mural that my research means something. While in the throes of data collection, the incredible staff at LOA, the RBCM, CMC and SFU made this research not just possible but delightful, and I look forward to working with them again in the future. I am also grateful for the financial support that enabled me to travel to these institutions, the Walter C. Koerner Fellowship granted by UBC, which funded the second year of my research. Throughout this process, my friends and family have put up with both my mania and depression, been there when I needed coffee or margaritas, ensured that I had a steady supply of chocolate and good tunes to keep me going, and persisted in reaching out to me even when I was hiding from the world. You all deserve some pretty fancy gold stars for your patience and kindness, and I am forever indebted: are you all ready for the next round? Finally, I would like to dedicate this thesis to my mother, without whom I wouldn't be here today. Thank you for this, my life.  vii  CHAPTER 1: THESIS OVERVIEW This thesis explores the history and use of the labret and its social context on the Northwest Coast of British Columbia. Labrets have a complex and varied history in this region as indicators of social identity. Observations made by early explorers and ethnographers of the Northern coast indicate that labrets were worn by high-status women, an association frequently invoked more generally by archaeologists. Moss (1999) has demonstrated that this generalization masks local patterns, where in some cases men also wore labrets. Cybulski’s (1991) research on dental abrasion caused by labret use demonstrates that both men and women wore labrets during different times, and relates these patterns to shifts in tracing descent and ascribed versus achieved status. Archaeological evidence of labrets in this region is recounted by Keddie (1981), who also suggests that labrets were status symbols, connecting cultural groups regionally by a shared symbolic grammar. The precise relationship between materiality and social identity seen in labrets, however, remains unclear. This review of the ethnographic, ethnohistorical, osteological and archaeological literature on labrets in Chapter 2 suggests that the characterization of labrets as simple ‘status’ markers underestimates the complexity and ambiguity of meaning conveyed in a form of social expression that was far from static over the last 5,000 years. Additionally, there remains a tendency to focus on the Northern ethnographic pattern of female labret-wearers as the default gender paradigm for this artifact. Thus, several testable hypotheses of the social context of labrets contribute to the overall aim of providing a more thorough understanding of labrets in this region: 1. How many styles of labrets are there? The assumption that labrets have a regional and long-term contextual meaning (i.e., correlation with status, gender) implies that there should be a coherent material pattern to these objects. While not necessarily so, since local-scale heterogeneity in form can also correlate with broad-scale uniformity of meaning, most archaeological studies refer to ‘labrets’ as a discrete class of objects. Thus, one hypothesis tested is whether there is, in fact, a consistent form of ‘Northwest Coast labret.’ 2. Are different styles of labrets found in different areas or during different time periods? If this is not the case and there is no consistent type of labret, the derivation of this logic is that a coherent typology of labrets exists and correlates with distributions in time and space. This proposition is tested by examining labrets using variables already proposed by archaeologists (i.e., size), and then trying to accommodate different variables in the typology. 3. How can patterning in the distribution and style of labrets help to illuminate our understanding of social relations in this region? If there is a typological order and it correlates with temporal and/or spatial distributions,  1  then it would be possible to test whether existing interpretations are weakened by these data, or if there are more compelling alternative interpretations of labrets based on their distribution. In Chapter 3, I discuss the methodology I employed to address these questions. The primary component of this research has been to construct a database of labrets from coastal British Columbia, documenting their age, distribution, stylistic attributes, and any contextual information available. The labret sample used in this research included artifacts from institutions in Canada including the Laboratory of Archaeology (LOA) at the University of British Columbia, Simon Fraser University (SFU), the Royal British Columbia Museum (RBCM), and the Canadian Museum of Civilization (CMC). All labrets and artifacts suggested as ‘possible’ labrets (based on similarity of basic formal properties) were identified using the source institution catalogues and staff expertise, and assembled for analysis. The artifact sample from LOA was used in the development and testing of data collection methods, after which I visited the three remaining institutions to compile the dataset. For each labret, observations of various artifact attributes were recorded in a digital spreadsheet, including material properties (i.e., raw material, colour, texture, luminescence, iridescence), technological manufacture (ground/abraded), and any notable wear or fracturing. Observations of the body and flange (where distinguishable) were recorded separately, including shape, dimensions, weight, and any decoration or detailing (e.g., drilled holes). Contextual information available was also recorded, including site location, object provenience, associated dates and, where recovered from burials, the sex of the individual. This dataset was used to evaluate existing typologies and to consider the creation of new ones by which to examine patterning that may be suggestive of social identity including age, gender, status, and cultural affiliation, through time and space. The data were compiled in Statistics Program for the Social Sciences (SPSS V15.0) for analysis, including frequencies, cross-tabulation, and a variety of scatterplots, boxplots and histograms to illustrate relationships between variables. Cross-tabulation was specifically used both to aid in the formulation of typological classes, as well as to compare expected and hypothesized types with other attributes including material, size, date and geographic distribution. Basic frequency analyses were employed to consider temporality, the geographical distribution of types and specific attributes thereof on regional, sub-regional and site scales, and association with individuals of known sex from burials. The results of these analyses are detailed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 returns to the hypothesis advanced in this research, discussing the labret as an exclusionary and cultural-specific tradition that conveyed aspects of social identity at various continually mediated scales of social negotiation. In other words, the labret signaled different meanings and messages depending on who wore it, during  2  what occasions, and who was present to interpret it (i.e., family or strangers).  As such, this form of body  ornamentation and the ‘status’ that it conveys are mutable and highly contextual; yet discernable patterns exist in this variability. Based on this premise, I suggest that the patterning of labret style and distribution can be used to infer relationships within and between coastal groups through time, although my attempts to demonstrate this were hindered by a lack of data for temporal patterns and gender associations. Simultaneously, I maintain that the relationship between body modification, materiality and identity is more complex than archaeological methodologies are currently equipped to deal with. In this chapter, I discuss my attempt to move past these limitations by speaking with people who are currently relating to the labret on a personal level, either as body ornamentation or as art. This ethnographic component highlights the importance of body modification to social identity today, and the continued meaning of the labret to contemporary Indigenous peoples. In Chapter 6, I conclude that this typological study, complimented by the inclusion of ethnohistory and contemporary ethnography, has resulted in a more comprehensive, robust and holistic understanding of the labret and its social context on the Northwest Coast. Noting the weaknesses in the analyses undertaken herein, I suggest that further compilation of contextual information and dates available in unpublished reports may enable a more fine-grained analysis of types through time. The utility of lithic sourcing in further material studies is also proposed as a viable method to consider the movement of materials and potentially thus social interaction through the region. Finally, although archaeologists may be primarily interested in the social identity of past peoples, this research highlights that heritage directly impacts contemporary social identity. Thus, the labret is shown to be an ornament of ongoing social significance, both over the last 5,000 years and for the descendants of this heritage today.  Figure 1.1 Haida woman with labret & fur cloak, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, in engraving made 1787 by George Dawson. (Used with Permission University of Washington Libraries)  Figure 1.2 "Queen Johnny of Masset" or "New Gold Harbour Jonnie with Labret", 1883 or 1888, taken by Hannah or Richard Maynard (Used with Permission of British Columbia Archives)  3  CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH CONTEXT The labret holds a unique position for archaeologists on the Northwest Coast and for scholars worldwide. This chapter will provide a summary of observations and analyses suggested by scholars, based primarily on early ethnographic records, archaeological research, and derivatives thereof. 2.1 Early Explorations On the Northwest Coast, labrets feature prominently in the literature, illustrations and photographs produced during the early days of contact between indigenous people on the coast and Westerners (Figures 1 and 2). Members of the La Perouse Expedition in 1786 describe labrets among the Tlingit, while the Russians referred to the labret as kaluga (von Kotzebue 1821), koloshi or kalushka (Dall 1884:78), which also became the word used for the Tlingit and Kaigani Haida peoples (Grinev et al. 2005:22). Many early descriptions by Europeans of labrets are filled with curiosity and disdain for this foreign cultural practice. For example, the labret was frequently referred to as a “disfiguring” ornament worn by women that “renders them frightful” (Dall 1883:87; citing La Perouse 1798 and Lisianski 1814). The impracticality of labrets in every-day life was also stressed by Lisianski who suggested that labrets were “so inconveniently placed that the wearer can neither eat nor drink without extreme difficulty” (cited by Dall 1883:87), and portrayed as a spectacle by von Kotzebue who claimed that, “[i]n running, the lips flap and down so as to knock sometimes against the chin and sometimes against the nose” (cited by Keithahn 1973:22). As with any historic source, these references must be considered in the larger context of cross-cultural contact and interaction, in which both ethnocentric bias and individual interpretation caution us to be critical of taking these observations at face-value (cf., Thomas 1991). Yet, despite these biases, there remain clues in these passages as to who wore labrets, how they were worn, and what the role of this ornament was in social life. For example, von Kotzebue (1821; quoted by Keithahn 1973:22), stated that, “[u]pon the continent, the kaluga (labret) is worn still larger, and the female who can cover her whole face with her under-lip passes for the most perfect beauty”, while La Perouse (cited in Dall 1884:87-8) notes, “[t]he older the woman the larger is the ornament”, as “young girls have only a needle in the lower lip, the married women alone have the right to the bowls.” These early descriptions nearly all highlight two critical symbolic correlations of labrets that have influenced the interpretations of labrets made by archaeologists: that they were worn by women, and that they were objects of status, with greater size reflecting higher status. Yet even while confirming this image, a nuanced complexity in the meaning of this ornament was acknowledged by the early ethnographers who wrote about the  4  labret and the role it played in society. Dall (1884:81-2) described the labret as “a symbol of vigor, fortitude, and mature development,” of “sexual freedom,” of “maturity only,” and of “power, privileges, and respect.” There was also recognition by these early ethnographers of regional stylistic differences in the shape of the labrets worn. Dawson (1880:108-9) and Niblack (1890:256-7) claimed the shape of the Haida labret was oval, while the Ts’msyan 1 labret was “elongated”, and circular for the Stikine River Tlingit labret. At the time of his writing, however, the practice of wearing labrets was declining, and while older women still bore labrets, young girls sometimes wore a small silver pin, if anything at all (Dawson 1880:109). These texts highlight a confusion, or perhaps complication, as to the identity of the labret-wearer, particularly with respect to social status, which may in part relate to the observer’s bias of who qualifies as ‘a woman.’ For example, Dawson (in Dall 1884:82) suggests that among the Haida, all females wore labrets, while La Perouse (Dall 1884:87) states that all married women wore them, and Lisianski (Dall 1884:87) notes that young girls also had this piercing that was merely enlarged with age.  Thus the meaning of ‘status’ as used by these  ethnographers is both ambiguous and contextual. Dall (1884:81), for example, notes that, among the Tlingit at least, “the labret was forbidden to slaves” (Figure 3.2). This uncertainty is further highlighted in the results of Drucker’s (1950) survey of labret use on the Northwest Coast.  Among the Kwakiutl2, one informant said all women wore them, another part- Ts’msyan  informant said high-ranking women only, while the other four informants said the practice was not known in that area (Drucker 1950:191). On the North Coast, however, informants amongst the Ts’msyan, Tlingit and Haida said that labrets were worn exclusively by women, but there was some disagreement among the Haida informants as to whether all women or only ‘high-status’ women wore them. On the South Coast, the labret practice was historically unknown, even though the majority of known archaeological examples come from this area (Mitchell 1990:341). Even the gender of the labret-bearer has been called into question. Writing from Tlingit ethnographies, Moss (1999:32) relates that the labret size was influenced by both the bearer’s family position, as well as how many children she had, with the largest labrets “worn exclusively by elite women.” However, in her analysis of George Catlin’s notes, Moss (1999:56-7) also confirms evidence of men wearing labrets, suggesting they represented either shamans mistakenly assumed to be female, or perhaps a third gender. Despite seemingly contradictory claims, these ethnographic accounts of labrets and their bearers remain 1  Ts’msyan is the preferred spelling for the Anglicized spelling of ‘Tsimshian.’ Kwakiutl was the term applied by Europeans to all the Kwakwaka'wakw (Kwakwala-speakers), but now only refers to the people of Fort Rupert. The term here is used correctly as Drucker’s survey was based in Fort Rupert.  2  5  incredibly useful in illuminating the complexity of this practice through history. The task thus becomes to use these data in conjunction with other sources, particularly archaeological evidence and our understanding of how cultural meanings and identities are created and propagated, to identify patterns of convergence and divergence that are indicative of the changing role of labrets through time and space in this region. 2.2 Archaeological Accounts While early records only describe the use of labrets by Northern Northwest Coast peoples during the last three hundred years, labrets are recovered archaeologically all along the Coast. Archaeological interest in the labret dates back at least to Charles Borden who presented a paper at the 1959 Society for American Archaeology meeting entitled, “Labrets in Western North America: Eskimo or Indian?” Therein, he took up the challenge of using archaeological data to identify the origin and trace the spread of this tradition across vast distances; yet in relation to the social identity of the labret-bearer, he noted only that labrets “were commonly worn by women” amongst Northern coastal groups (Borden 1959). Indeed, most interest in labrets amongst scholars internationally has focused on theories of diffusion and migration through North and South America and East Asia to account for these artifacts (cf., Vasilievsky 2002; Charlin and Menghin 1950), with little to no discussion of the social implications and complexities inherent in being a ‘labret-bearer.’ Yet, Ames and Maschner (1999:182) suggest that, for archaeologists, “the most crucial evidence about status on the coast is that provided by labrets and by the practice of cranial deformation.” Status, however, means many things depending on the scale of analysis—indeed, it is synonymous with identity—yet the intricacies of social identity as conveyed via the labret have been substituted instead by the ‘simple’ explanation of status as socio-political rank with labrets indicating ‘elite’ position. Carlson (1996:221) also suggests an association between subsistence, social hierarchy and labrets: There is some suggestion from the [Blue Jackets Creek and Namu] that the males may have been sea mammal hunters which suggests further that the female [labret] wearers were their wives. If so, it may be further inferred that they constituted the top echelon of society…The sequence of labret types may mark the evolution of a progressively more rigid and precise system of social ranking during the Middle Period. If so, this system continued on the northern coast until historic times, whereas on the southern and central coasts labrets went out of use toward the end of the Middle Period, and were replaced by artificial head deformation as a visible mark of high status. Most archaeologists discussing labrets on the Northwest Coast refer to Grant Keddie’s (1981) article, in which he challenges the correlation of labrets with women, pointing to archaeological evidence for labret use by both sexes at least 3000 years ago. Keddie’s interest in labrets took Borden’s initial work many steps further along by tracing the distribution of labrets world-wide, and exploring the social context of this form of ornamentation,  6  which Keddie (1981:76-7) describes as “the most visual evidence of status” expressing “sets of reciprocal relationships” that were likely adapted between groups to facilitate “trade relationships.” He recognized that labretwearing was an exclusive (i.e., restrictive) tradition with significant social implications for the labret-wearers and their children (i.e., influencing marriage ties between communities), as well as for the interpretations that archaeologists have made of this artifact type (Keddie 1994). Keddie’s research represents the archaeological equivalent of Moss’ (1999) ethnohistorical paper, wherein she delved further into the widespread view that only women wore this form of personal adornment on the Coast by the period of initial European contact with Coastal peoples. Her research into ethnographic sources concluded that the gender aspect of the labret was less straightforward ethnographically and included region-specificity, since some men were known to have worn the labret amongst some communities (Catlin 1867:128,136). A similar scenario has been documented among the Inuit (Nelson 1983 [1899]), where the social context of the labret has received attention, including attempts to relate labret form to certain cultural groups (cf., Steffian and Saltonstall 2001). 2.3 Osteological Observations Of over 300 labrets from the Northwest Coast held in museum collections in Canada, very few were recovered in primary context with associated dates (Keddie 2008 pers. comm.). Instead, labrets are predominantly found either out of context in eroded or otherwise disturbed areas, or were collected decades previous with little regard for recording provenience. Labrets have been recovered in artifact assemblages associated with the Marpole and Locarno Beach culture history periods on the South Coast (Mitchell 1971) and are generally attributed to these time periods in the absence of independent dating. However, evidence for labrets has been recovered from burial contexts, which frequently received more meticulous attention and analysis including radiocarbon dating. This evidence of early labret use is indirect, inferred from the presence of dental abrasion to the tooth enamel where the labret has worn against the teeth (Appendix A), in some cases wearing right through to the inner dentine3. Cybulski (1991:7) notes that the oldest evidence of labret wear on the South Coast comes from a burial at Pender Canal, with a radiocarbon date of 5170±220 years BP. As Carlson and Hobler (1993:45) report, “simple labrets” were found at Pender Canal dating 4000 to 5000 BP, with, they suggest, increasingly varied types appearing in the 2000 year period following this, and none found after 2200 BP. This seems to be the general trend on the South Coast, and it is widely accepted that artificial cranial deformation replaced labrets sometime after 2000 BP (Ames and Maschner 1999; Cybulski 1991; Keddie 1981). 3  This wear is associated with stone labrets; it is unclear whether wooden labrets would produce the same result.  7  On the North Coast, wear suggestive of lateral, or ‘buccal,’ labrets was identified at the Blue Jackets Creek site on Haida Gwaii (Severs 1974:193; Murray 1981), and at Namu associated with three male individuals from ‘Period IV’ dating to 4500 to 3500 cal.BP (Carlson 2007 email comm.; Curtin 1984:104-5). Medial, or ‘labial,’ labrets were also recovered from Namu, which is of particular interest as the Central Coast is underrepresented archaeologically, yet labrets are known ethnographically to have been worn by high-status women among HeiltsukOowekyala speakers (Hilton 1990:315). In Prince Rupert, Cybulski (1974:34; 1991:5) notes that labret wear consistent with medial labrets was positively identified on the mandibles of 12 individuals, dating between 3500 and 1500 years BP, of which at least seven were male.  Labrets themselves were recovered in this area dating as early as 3450 BP (MacDonald  1983:105), while one found at Dodge Island (GbTo-18) with a male was dated to 2590 ± 40 years BP (Cybulski 2007 pers.comm.). Cybulski (1991:11) also suggests that skeletal evidence from Greenville (GgTj-6) supports the “known north coast historic pattern” of women exclusively wearing labrets at about 1500 BP, and proposes that this may relate both to a shift towards both matrilineality and ascribed status (Cybulski 1992:72). 2.4 ‘Simple’ Status, Worn by Women? Although archaeologists frequently cite Keddie, Cybulski, and Moss to acknowledge that labrets are known to have been worn by both men and women at different periods, nonetheless there is a tendency to represent the labret in association with women. For example, archaeologists frequently include photographs in books and articles of female labret-bearers, and use women in drawings to illustrate the use of the labret (Ames and Maschner 1999:182; Keddie 1981:59,65; McMillan 1995:190; Cybulski 1996:12; Stewart 1973:92; Blackman 1990:248; Ames 1995:166). Such focus on ethnographic and ethnohistoric accounts, and the blurring of these data with archaeological evidence, has translated into a synchronic, simplified ‘high-status women wore labrets’ message that is commonly communicated in widely accessible formats, such as textbooks (Fagan 1995:214), guides to Northwest Coast Indigenous culture (Duff 1975; Drucker 1965; Stewart 1973, 1976), and encyclopedias (Paterek 1996:299; Werness 2000:177). ‘Woman’ as labret-wearer has become the default gender paradigm (Nord and Herbert 2007). In this way, the ethnographic pattern is the perceived ‘null hypothesis’ based on an overextension of the direct historic approach, used to explain the emergence of the so-called ‘Developed Northwest Coast Pattern’ (Maschner 1991:929; Matson and Coupland 1994). As such, even while acknowledging temporal ambiguity in terms of gender, the correlation with high economic status resolutely remains in the archaeological literature (Carlson 1996; Matson and Coupland 1994; Ames 1995; Cybulski 1992; Keddie 1981). Yet the labret potentially  8  exemplified myriad forms of ‘status’ (e.g., gender, age, spiritual efficacy) on multiple scales (individual, familial, cultural) depending on the social context of its display. Ultimately, the complexity of the labret’s role on the Northwest Coast, and the relationship between social identity and its material manifestation, remain poorly understood, a situation which the research discussed in this thesis seeks to address. 2.5 The Self and the Social Surface The cultural meaning of labrets, like all cultural gestures, shifts with the scale and nature of the social context in which its meaning is communicated, translated, and interpreted (Giddens 1984; Hodder 1987). The audience for such gestures is varied and maps onto the social networks of people in antiquity, which are both culturally influential and notoriously difficult to reconstruct from material evidence. Yet while the specific meanings of a particular labret likely varied as its wearer journeyed through the social landscape of life, some generalizations regarding how people conceived of and interacted with this meaning are possible. As Wylie (1985) notes, the interpretation of meaning in archaeology proceeds via two forms of analogy: those more general to the human condition, and those that can be traced to specific historical contexts. In terms of the former, as an object that perforates the body, a labret becomes both decoration and part of the self. Sanborn (1927) wrote that such ornamentation “modifies consciousness,” and is a language “conditioned structurally by the identity of the human form adorned,” borrowed from the external world; similarly, Joyce (2005:140) suggests the body is a “metaphor for society.”  Dahm’s (1994:100) research on ‘Gulf Islands complex’ soapstone artifacts (known commonly as  ‘whatzits’) and labrets from Pender Island discusses the labret as a form of cosmological expression, suggesting that body ornamentation is indicative both of “transformation from one state, or period of the life cycle, to another,” and of “the relative wealth or socio-economic status of the wearer.” Thus, it represents a social interaction between people as well as between the bearer and their environment—a statement of both self and other, or of “personhood” (Gilchrist 2006:147; Fowler 2004). Favazza (1996) discusses this form of body modification in terms of the socializing role it played in the construction of gender and kinship ties. Citing Jonaitis (1988), Favazza (1996:130) suggests that labret-wearing on the Northwest Coast was associated with “social relations, eating, the potlatch ritual, and sexuality,” noting especially the vaginal/phallic relationship of the piercing, where “maleness and femaleness are united by the appearance of the labret when worn.” Duff (1975:35) similarly refers to the labret as “convey[ing] hints of the sexual duality” of its bearer. Additionally, the kinship role of the new labret-bearer is reified in having the piercer as “the girl’s future mother-in-law” from the opposite clan (Favazza 1996:130, citing Jonaitis 1988), a kin-based  9  connection said to represent “the perpetuation of social stability.” These accounts effectively represent a snapshot of one person’s interpretation at one time in one place, but they lend insight into the multilayered meaning that this form of adornment may have played in times past. Kan (1989:61), describing the body made social among the Tlingit, relates that labret perforations were “aimed at socializing the orifices of the head, which mediated between the inside and the outside of the body.” For the Tlingit, the body’s inside was reflected onto its outside; therefore, a strong and properly socialized outside also indicated spiritual virility and moral fortitude—the ‘ideal’ social person, which was the aristocrat. In this sense, body decoration, in the form of tattoos and piercings, was a means of “surfacing the body interior” (Taylor 2005), and the social organization of the Tlingit figured prominently in body marking of crests, which were matrilineallyowned symbols (Kan 1989:69). Forms of personal ornamentation have been argued to very visibly reflect changes in the socio-political organization of society, and even be a medium for resistance to hegemony, as Jolles (1997) argued was a key influence in the shifting design (increased size, more ornate patterns, newer materials) that Zulu earplugs underwent with British colonization. Continuity of form with altered meaning, or alternative manifestations with continued meaning, is also seen among the Inuit of St. Lawrence Island (Nelson (1983 [1899]:45), where labrets, known archaeologically and ethnographically, were nearly entirely replaced in the later days of European contact by circular tattoos of varying designs, located where once labret incisions would have been made—an interesting alteration to a continuing tradition. This example illustrates how Wylie’s distinction between the general and particular is a heuristic. The specific meanings and general human tendencies of interpretation are interwoven within the individual, becoming separable as the interpretive view becomes distant (as in archaeology) and the nuance of meaning becomes attenuated. Such investigations highlight that the ‘labret = status’ formula employed by Northwest Coast archaeologists is an undeservedly simple way to account for a 5,000-year old practice that quite clearly varied in time and space. These simplifications are, however, not inherently wrong. Despite the range of contextually mediated meanings any specific labret may invoke (cf., Hodder 1982), meanings gain historical traction when they are pervasive and relatively consistent within large numbers of people across spans of time. Thus, simplifications of meaning have value precisely because they can be culturally accurate. The challenge, of course, is to demonstrate that any particular archaeological simplification accurately replicates an aspect of historical meaning.  10  2.6 The Challenge: To Clarify and Complicate The use of ethnographic and ethnohistorical sources to aid in archaeological interpretation has resulted in an assumption that labrets are high-status objects, and a tendency to associate these with women. Although there is value in these historical data, only a handful of scholars have sought to look beyond reproducing this characterization of a complex phenomenon by either testing it against archaeological data, or querying it against specific and general analogies. Considering the varying geographical distribution of labrets during the vast duration of their use, it is certain that the practice of labret-wearing has not remained unchanged in other aspects, and one may fall into the trap of ‘tyrannical analogy’ (Wobst 1978) when one presumes to make this assumption.  Indeed, Ames and  Maschner (1999:183) recognize that “[t]he wearing of labrets is a permanent and visible modification of the face, and so can be an unambiguous status marker—one wears a labret or one does not”; yet without knowing the rules of use, can we be certain what kind of social status it is marking—age, gender, rank, economic status, spiritual efficacy? Thus the labret may be acknowledged as an imperfect gesture of social distinction visibly dividing labret wearers from non-labret wearers; what this distinction reflected, and to what extent its meaning and material manifestation were heterogenous, is not clear. Indeed, the apparent shift from labret use to cranial deformation on the South Coast may reflect a transition from more fluid toward more restrictive symbolism. While the archaeological data are varied, there exists patterning in the locations, dates and contexts in which different styles of labrets are found. What remains is to identify and test these material patterns against the assumptions archaeologists have made based on historical records, by framing this analysis within the larger discussion of complex social identity. If the existing archaeological assumptions are accurate, they should withstand such testing. If not, a more comprehensive study of the variables within the suite of objects known as ‘labrets’ should point us toward at least the nature of the culture-historical patterns, if not their translation. This is the challenge presented by Keddie and Moss that has been taken up in the research here, for their respective studies represent the only focused research on labrets to date undertaken in this culture area, the closest to it being Dahm’s (1994) research on the Gulf of Georgia soapstone tradition, in which labrets play a role. In light of the continued importance of the labret, both as a form of body piercing in contemporary Western society, and as a connection with history and tradition being evoked in Indigenous Coastal art, this research represents a unique opportunity to link contemporary understanding with materiality in meaningful ways.  11  CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH DESIGN and METHODOLOGY 3.1 Research Outline As outlined in Chapter 1, this research seeks to document the variation of labrets and their distribution through time and space, with the overall aim of relating patterns in materiality to different kinds of social identity, testing the assumed correlation of labrets with ‘status’ and gender. These research questions were approached by, 1) compiling the extant data on archaeological labrets; 2) formalizing labret variables within a morphofunctional typology, to consider regional patterns and to test whether the archaeological types proposed in previous analyses are robust; 3) reviewing the empirical criteria from which these variables were drawn and expanding these, to see whether alternative variables reinforce or contradict the orthodox archaeological typologies; 4) evaluating whether the assumptions in archaeological interpretation are uniformly applicable to all archaeological contexts. A detailed description of the methods employed in this process is provided in the following section. 3.2 Methods 3.2.1 Typology Typological analyses are most commonly a form of attribute-based grouping rather than a formal taxanomic classification (Read 2007:108). This means that the concept of type is fluid and based on comparative measures of varying suites of morphological attributes, identifiable more by their presence in an artifact assemblage than through the projection of paradigmatic variables. The most common variables are traits (the presence or absence of a specific feature) and metrics (the dimension of a specific feature). Since the presence of some typological features is not common across the class, the nature of distinguishing traits and the relative importance of any trait over others in grouping objects are subject to change as the population of objects expands. Typological grouping can sort the same objects in different orders by changing the hierarchical ranking of traits. Thus, the constraints of classification efforts in archaeology produce typologies that are not inherently wrong; indeed, many typologies may be both a good fit of the data and reasonable approximations of how people in the past sorted things. However, it is useful to remember that such typologies tend to be treated as more factual with use when, in reality, they are only one of a number of equally valid ways of sorting that change as new data are added. As a consequence, most typologies of labrets are based on an arbitrarily defined hierarchy of attributes, the ranking of which corresponds to the expectations of the archaeologists rather than any ‘emic’ classification that  12  corresponds to use or universally defined traits that vary across the class. Table 3.1 lists the classificatory terms of Loy and Powell (1977), Ames and Maschner (1999), and Stewart (1976), which are frequently employed in the archaeological literature, although each present different terms for the same morphological types (Figure 3.3): Loy and Powell (1977) / Keddie (1981)  Ames and Maschner (1999)  Stewart (1976)  circular flange, short body  pulley-shaped medial labret; button labret disc labret  circular flange, extended body  circular flange medial labret; spool labret hat-shaped labret  lateral flange, short body  ‘top hat’ medial labret  hat-shaped labret; button labret  lateral flange, extended body  ‘T’ shaped medial labret  T-shaped labret  n/a  n/a  pendulant labret  n/a  n/a  novice labret  n/a  n/a  double-button labret  Table 3.1 Labret typologies commonly employed in the archaeological literature. Using Loy and Powell’s classification, Stewart’s pendulant labret would be ‘lateral flange, extended body’; while the double-button and novice labret designations would both fall into ‘lateral flange, short body’.  The key points for this project are 1) to test the existing typologies using the stated or implied attribute hierarchies, and 2) to query whether any patterns that are identified in (1) are maintained if new attributes and/or attribute orders are applied (Table 3.2). These efforts at classification have relied in part on computer-assisted statistical applications (SPSS) to apply analytical and descriptive statistics to the typology as a tool to explore the strength of any patterns. Attributes under consideration are primarily related to form, thus various frequency and cross-tabulation techniques can identify patterns of varying strengths in the data that may represent meaningful classes or ‘types’. As a visual object however, there is value in classifying labrets into ‘types’ by visual similarity, and so the two methods have been combined in this research. Description of Form  Modification  Material Properties  Object Designation Detailed Description Flange Form and Decoration Body Form and Decoration Completeness Condition  Primary – Manufacture Secondary – Alteration Tertiary – Decoration Post-Initial Manufacture Alteration Primary – Manufacture Secondary – Alteration Tertiary – Decoration  Class Type Texture Colour (Munsell) Colour Appearance Patterning Luminance Iridescence PIMA Result Density  Measurements Flange width height thickness concavity length concavity depth completeness  Body length width height concavity length concavity depth Completeness Other Other: description Other: measurement  Table 3.2 Summary of variables recorded; the variables focused on for statistical analyses are in bold. (details in Appendix B)  3.2.2 Raw Material Although sometimes overlooked, the importance of raw material as both enabling the creation of labrets, and yet constraining its potential form, is a critical factor within the chaîne opératoire sequence of artifact biography (Schiffer 1997). For this study, several properties within the larger attribute of ‘material’ were considered to explore the hypothesis that the properties of the material itself, as well as its treatment, were important considerations when choosing which material to make a labret from. These considerations may have been largely aesthetic or matters of  13  convenience, or there may be a symbolic element to it, as McGhee (1977) attempted to demonstrate with ivory and antler artifacts and gender of the Thule, and Jones (1998) illustrated with colour, personal adornment, and identity in a mortuary context. Other differences in material properties, such as weight, have been identified by Kan (1989:89) as being particularly significant with piercings such as the labret. In addition to the suite of material-related attributes that were recorded, an experimental analysis was undertaken using a Portable Infrared Mineral Analyzer (PIMA). This non-invasive technology identifies mineralogical composition of a material, providing a signature that can be compared to other known materials using a provided geological library. PIMA has been successfully used in archaeology for the identification and sourcing of clay-based materials (Wisseman et al. 2002) and is particularly useful for materials with high hydroxyl content, such as soapstone, a material from which many labrets are thought to have been made. This technology was employed with a view to gauging its potential for 1) identifying the mineral composition of labret materials, and then 2) comparing the mineral signatures with each other and source materials, ultimately to consider whether identifying the geographical distribution of these materials compared to their archaeological recovery may shed light on local and regional relationships. This was, however, a ‘pilot’ project and thus only a minor part of this research. 3.3.3 Geography This project was addressing labrets of the Northwest Coast, however logistical necessity dictated that I focus on labrets of the Northwest Coast of British Columbia specifically. This was largely due to constraints in travel opportunities and funding, and is not meant to be taken as a ‘revised’ geographic designation for this culture area, which certainly has always extended trans-nationally beyond contemporary political borders. However, because of this somewhat more localized picture, the terminology used to denote regions (North, Central and South Coasts) is in reference to British Columbia, as depicted in Figure 3.1. Institution  Number  Percent  Canadian Museum of Civilization  48  21.8  Laboratory of Archaeology, University of British Columbia  29  13.2  Royal British Columbia Museum  110  50.0  Simon Fraser University  33  15.0  220  100.0  Total  Table 3.3 Labrets included in sample by source institution  14  North Coast  South Coast  Figure 3.1 Map of British Columbia regions as defined for this research 3.2.4 Contextual Data Two main aspects of ‘contextual data’ were of concern in this research, specifically 1) dates and 2) burial association where the sex of the individual was known. As such, provenience information for the labrets examined was retrieved from field notes and institution catalogues, which were cross-referenced where possible with available reports. What dates were available ranged from precise radiocarbon dates to those derived based on association with artifact assemblages or stratigraphy, stated as culture-historic periods (e.g., Marpole Phase) and/or broad time periods (e.g., 2500-3500 BP). All three date descriptions were considered independently when examining the data for temporal patterning. Burial context information was available for a small sample of artifacts examined, provided primarily via personal communication with the original researchers. 3.2.5 Contemporary Ethnography Although not the primary focus of this research, an ethnographic component was included to contextualize the labret within its contemporary cultural meaning, and to challenge archaeological expectations of the role of this ornamentation for those who wear labrets. This relied on the applicability of analogy, specific and general, to contextualize the labret as a form of body modification with both culture-specific significance and meaning that is translatable on the level of ‘human experience.’ To avoid the pitfall of analogy of reducing the lived experience to ‘bare-bones’ structures for comparison, instead I have approached analogy as a metaphor (Tilley 2000), mapping out the layered, contextual and interconnected meanings of the labret and its past as understood in the present. To these ends, two groups of individuals were interviewed: Indigenous artists from the Northwest Coast who are portraying labrets in their work, and individuals who wear lip piercings today (Appendix C). Additionally,  15  a letter (Appendix D) was sent to each of the First Nations in whose territory the labrets were retrieved from, detailing the research outline and the kind of analyses that were being proposed, with the hope of soliciting interest to participate in the project4. In this way, I hoped to avoid simply perpetuating the ongoing “appropriation of indigenous things” (Thomas 1991:184) as a step towards the larger effort of “decolonizing” research (Smith 2006). The scale of this component was necessarily restricted, such that I was able to formally (by telephone and/or email) interview two artists and one ‘labret-wearer.’ To augment the perspectives obtained from the latter, I have included my observations made from examining publicly accessible web-based body modification forums (i.e.,http://www.bmezine.com), providing a broad base of contemporary labret use from which to compare the archaeological examples for patterning that may extend beyond culture-specific meaning into the realm of the mutually-translatable. These data provide a more holistic and contemporary understanding of the labret and body modification more broadly, and are discussed more fully in Chapter 5.  Figure 3.2 Mask of the Slave Woman, Smith, Harlan, 1872-1940 "Wooden mask belonging to Willie Mack. It represents the slave woman who is believed to have been murdered long ago by a powerful chief to give power to a Kusiut ceremony which he was inaugurating. Whenever this ceremony is given the murdered slave appears. The mask is unpainted. In the chin can be seen a plug of abalone shell to represent the labret worn by the northern tribes. The 'hair' is from the tail of either a horse or a cow". (Used with Permission of Canadian Museum of Civilization)  Figure 3.3 Illustration of types of labrets, after Loy and Powell (1977) (Used with Permission of RBCM Archives)  4  Twenty-eight letters were sent to different First Nations in whose territory the labret study sample was recovered; however, I received no responses. I recognize that, in future, such introductions really need to be followed up with in-person attendance or telephone calls to establish a relationship from which to consider ‘collaborative research.’  16  CHAPTER 4: RESULTS 4.1 Assemblage Overview 4.1.1 Artifact Sample A total of 309 labrets or possible labrets were initially considered in this research, and attribute data recorded for them (see Table 3.2, and Appendix B); however, a significant portion (N=89) could not be positively identified as labrets. These included forms considered to be worn laterally (‘buccal’ labrets, N=6), composite labrets (N=25), performs (N=2), labret inlays (N=12), and artifacts that are either likely not labrets (N=12) or may also be classified as ear-spools (N=13). Because of this ambiguity in their classification, these artifacts have not been included in the following ‘labret’ analyses to avoid contaminating the sample with objects that are not actually labrets. Instead, these artifacts, and what I have called ‘plug’ labrets (N=19), have been dealt with separately in the later sections of this chapter. This has reduced the sample size to 220 positively identified labrets from four institutions. For analyses specifically of the size of the labret body, labrets with incomplete body measurements (N=3) were excluded. 4.1.2 Geographic Distribution Although the ethnographic record indicates that labrets were used primarily by peoples on the North Coast, the geographic distribution of labrets from archaeological contexts is heavily weighted towards the South Coast. Region North  Sub-Region  Number  Percent of Total  Haida Gwaii  20  9.1  Kitimat  1  0.5  Nass River  4  1.8  Skeena River  20  9.5  9  0.4  Unknown Total Central  Central  South  4  1.8  West Vancouver Island  1  0.5  East Vancouver Island  21  9.5  Gulf Islands  69  30.9  Fraser Delta  64  29.1  Upper Fraser  4  1.8  1  0.5  Unknown Total Unknown  54  Unknown Total  160 2  1.0  220  100.0  Table 4.1 Labret frequency by region and sub-region  This likely represents a sampling bias, reflecting in part the amount of archaeology that has been done in these particular areas, specifically the Gulf Islands and the Fraser Delta sub-regions, especially since the  17  ethnographic evidence indicates widespread labret wear on the North Coast even recently yet this region accounts for only 54 of 220 labrets in this sample. Additionally, the clustering within the South Coast region at only a handful of sites (DeRt-2, DeRt-4, DgRr-1 in particular account for 55 of the total 160 labrets in this region) would support this suggestion, and the frequent occurrence of labrets in burial contexts compounds this bias, as the aforementioned DeRt sites were both cemetery shell middens that received intensive excavation. Conversely, the Central Coast is vastly under-represented (N=4) in light of ethnographic support for labret use in parts of this region, and reflects a lack of comparable archaeological excavation and specifically excavation of burials in this region. 4.1.3 Temporal Distribution An initial look at the number of artifacts with provenience shows that less than half of the labrets (N=81) in my sample are considered to have been recovered in situ. Of these, availability of associated dates and contextual materials and data (i.e., sex of human remains in burial contexts) is limited. Radiocarbon (C14) dates exist in association with only 12, representing 15% of this subsample and only 5% of the total number of labrets. This lack of data has frustrated my attempt to evaluate the temporal distribution of different types of labrets. While other dates do exist for directly associated strata, accessing and synthesizing the unpublished ‘grey literature’ has not been feasible within the scope of this project. Context  Frequency  Percent  surface  18  8.2  screen  3  1.4  disturbed  23  10.5  unknown  95  43.1  in situ (no C14 date) in situ (C14 date available) 1880 +/-40 BP  69  31.3  12  5.5 1  2090 +/-100 BP  1  2110 +/-110 BP uncorrected  1  2590 +/-40 BP  1  2630 +/-95 BP and 2490 +/-85 BP uncorrected  1  3017 +/-173 BC to 1012 +/-270 BC  1  after 3210 +/-110 BP  3  3210 to 3590 +/-110 BP  1  4000 +/1 500 BP  1  4320 +/- 220 BP  1 Total  220  100  Table 4.2 Integrity of labret provenience and available radiocarbon dates  With such a small sample of absolute dates, I attempted to consider time on two additional scales: associated date ranges (i.e., 2000-3000 BP) and cultural phases (i.e., Locarno Beach). This is somewhat precarious,  18  since it is often difficult to determine by what evidence labrets have been assigned to ‘associated’ time periods, and there is the danger that a priori assumptions have been reified in these designations. Thus, some sites may be considered to date to a particular time period because of the presence of labrets which are thought date to that time period (Mitchell 1971), making it impossible to test whether the labrets or the site actually date from this time. Frequency  Percent  Date Range  Frequency  Percent  Marpole  3  1.3  2000 – 3000 BP  4  1.8  Locarno/Marpole  6  2.7  2000 BP  3  1.4  Locarno  13  5.8  2500-3500 BP  9  4.1  Charles/Locarno  6  2.7  2500-4000 BP  1  .5  192  87.3  2500 BP  2  .9  220  100.0  3000-3500 BP  4  1.8  3000 – 4500 BP  3  1.4  3500 – 4500 BP  1  .5  4000 – 4500 BP  1  .5  Cultural Period  no date Total  Table 4.3 Cultural period associated with dated labrets  no date Total  192  87.3  220  100.0  Table 4.4 Dates for labrets by stratigraphic or artifact assemblage associations  Finally, I also elected to look at the data distribution in consideration of the collection methods (‘archaeological’ versus ‘ethnological’). In theory, ethnological labrets should date to roughly the period they were collected from (e.g., European contact period), and thus represent the most recent manifestation of the labret tradition in this region, and the practice as it is described in the ethnographic literature. Separating ethnological from archaeological labrets affords the opportunity to evaluate the accuracy of these accounts by testing the extent to which patterning observed within the ethnological sub-sample is directly comparable to what these early written sources documented. Furthermore, because archaeological understanding of labrets over 5,000 years has been largely reliant upon the relatively recent literature, a comparison of patterning between archaeological (N=183) and ethnologically-collected (N=30) labrets should reveal any discrepancies between what has been assumed based on recent observations of labrets, and what is actually observed in ‘deep time.’ 4.2 Attribute Analysis As discussed in Chapter 3, a series of attributes relating to formal properties were compiled to create a typology, in which different types may relate to different scales of social identity. These types were compared with the material properties of the labrets, specifically raw material, based on the premise that the choice of material was meaningful (cf., Hodder 1991) and not simply a matter of convenience, and thus would also conform to socially maintained ‘norms’ of appropriateness. Additionally, the size range within and between identified types was  19  considered because of the emphasis in both archaeological and ethnographic literature that larger size specifically conveyed elevated social rank within the social class of labret-bearer. These aspects of materiality were compared to each other both geographically and temporally, and considered with respect to known association with burials for which the sex of the individual is known. 4.2.1 Typology While the organization of labrets into types is fundamentally the ‘first step’ in looking at labret form through time and space, it has simultaneously proven to be the most challenging one. The sheer range of variation, even within so-called ‘types,’ has defied the very goal of creating typology—in this case, to standardize and reveal patterning that is meaningful. As such, the danger has been in reifying a typology in which the variability within types exceeds the variation between then, which is logically incoherent as taxonomy. This problem is compounded by the fact that several artifact ‘types’ have been postulated as potentially being labrets (Keddie 2008 pers.comm.; Dahm 1994), although evidence for why is unclear. Specifically, ‘buccal’ labrets are historically unknown in this region so there is no local comparative example, and so-called ‘composite’ forms have not been demonstrated conclusively to actually be labrets. Even having excluded forms designated as ‘possible labrets,’ my first observation is that the typologies commonly employed do not account for the full range of labret forms observed (Tables 4.5 and 4.6)5. This suggests that there is little consensus on what constitutes a type, and that the labret sample is either too small or too diverse to be easily sorted into clearly defined patterns. Additionally, the existing typologies are archaeological and thus have been biased towards labrets recovered on the South Coast, such that ‘North Coast’ labrets seen during the contact period are altogether absent in these classificatory schemes. For example, each of Stewart’s (1976) ‘composite’ and ‘novice’ labrets are represented by single examples only, while 48% of the labret sample either fit into multiple categories, or none at all. In attempting to use Keddie’s (1981) four categories, I repeatedly encountered labrets that defied these designations (i.e., a circular/lateral flange), or designations that seemed lacking in purpose. Therefore, while I agree with Keddie (1981:60) that there is utility in having simplified categories, especially as an initial step, nonetheless I feel that this masks important variation that may be directly indicative of social relationships. The complexities of typological classification noted, I have attempted nonetheless to contribute to the known ‘types’ of labrets, with the caveat that there will likely always be outliers within standardized classes as an 5  The classification scheme/terminology employed by Ames and Maschner (1999) is not illustrated therein, so it was not possible for me to classify the labret study sample according to their terms.  20  Stewart (1976) Types  Frequency  Percent  button  11  5.0  composite  1  .5  disc  26  11.8  double-button  3  1.4  hat-shaped  10  4.5  novice  1  .5  lateral  pendulant  11  5.0  T-shaped  51  23.2  lateral/circular Total  multiple classifications possible  36  16.4  not represented in any type  70  31.8  Total  220  100.0  Keddie (1981) Types Flange Description  circular indistinguishable  Body Description  Total  extended 1  short 34  35  1  29  30  64  85  149  0  6  6  66  154  220  Table 4.6 Crosstabulation of flange to body form, based on Loy and Powell (1977) / Keddie (1981)  Table 4.5 Labret sample classified according to Stewart (1976)  expression of individuality. The types I have identified are based on formal properties of flange and body shape, and have been created using SPSS crosstabulation of the various properties recorded for these labret attributes (Appendices E and F). This reflects a ‘bottom up’ flat grouping approach to typology (Read 2007:28) using shape as the primary grouping variable without further hierarchical sub-division; specifically, types were identified based on a correlation of shape between each of the labret elements (flange, neck, body). Having created these types, I then performed another series of crosstabulations, comparing these types with the same attributes used to create them—effectively ‘back-sighting’ the attribute-type correlations—to confirm that the typology is robust. These ten labret types appear to be mutually exclusive6, with the possible exception of ‘knob’ labrets. This class contains internal variation suggestive of either being further divisible into sub-classes, but is more likely related to post-initial-manufacture reworking and/or reuse modification, for which knob labrets contained the highest proportional frequency (N=29, 58% of total 50 specimens). Additionally, labrets classified as ‘plates’ (N=4) have a bimodal size distribution, which may indicate two sub-types; the larger form (N=2) are extreme outliers by size from all other labrets, and may in fact be a different kind of artifact altogether. The material properties and size ranges of these ten types have been examined and compared geographically and temporally in the following section. 4.2.2 Material Properties As outlined in Chapter 3, several aspects of labret material were recorded to consider their inclusion in typological classification; these efforts to look at materiality more broadly met with varying results. My attempt to measure importance of labret body surface reflectivity by quantifying Lux with a light meter was proven in concept, but was technically challenging insofar as it was very difficult to standardize and thus replicate the results. 6  Plug labrets have been included tentatively as a labret type and are discussed separately in this chapter.  21  Labret Type  FORMAL DESCRIPTION  No. in Sample (N=220) N  %  Labret Type  FORMAL DESCRIPTION  No. in Sample (N=220) N  %  Disc  -circular or oval body -with or without drilled hole -concave, flat or convex anterior and/or posterior  31  14.1  Pulley  -circular, oval or circular-square body -with or without grooved or constricted neck -concave or flat anterior and/or posterior  16  7.3  Bowl  -elongated oval, ovoid body -with or without grooved or constricted neck -often inlaid -concave or flat anterior and/or posterior  17  7.7  Spool  -circular or oval body, ‘circular flange, extended body’ -extended flange-body length/neck -concave anterior and posterior  1  0.5  Knob  -includes ‘button’ and ‘Top-hat’ -circular, oval, square circular-square, or ‘zoomorphic’ body (zoomorphic labrets are rare and have only been recovered from the North Coast) -concave, flat or convex anterior -lateral flange, often concave  81  36.8  4  1.8  15  6.8  Tee  -includes ‘T-shaped’ and one ‘circular flange, extended body’ labret -cylindrical to rectangular body -circular, rectangular, laterallytapered flange -concave, flat or convex anterior and/or posterior  51  23.2  4  1.8  Plug  -elongated oval body -concave or flat anterior and/or posterior -similar to ‘bowls’ only much smaller and oriented without the lip projecting  19  not includ ed in total sample  Pendulant -this type has the most variation and ‘outliers’ and is difficult to classify -extended usually downward projected body -lateral flange, often concave  Plate  -circular, oval body -oval flange -grooved or constricted neck -concave or flat anterior and/or posterior  Double- - as left, with two bodies Knob  Table 4.7 Description and frequency of types identified  22  Efforts to identify wood species using source references (e.g., Friedman 1978) were not successful, proving to be exceptionally difficult without a cross-sectional microscopic analysis. Likewise, limited expertise and a lack of comparative collections hindered my ability to identify some of the faunal labrets, particularly those I suggest are made of ivory, which would benefit from further analysis both in conceptualizing the natural-cultural landscape interface, as well as potential coastal trade for sea mammal materials. Other properties such as colour and patterning, texture, and polish were initially considered, however after examining the results, there does not appear to be any relationship between these attributes and type, size, geographical or temporal distribution, nor any correlation with sex identified in burials. The absence of patterns in these attributes may imply that such traits were less important to the labret users and makers than raw material itself, or that they were more important in conveying individuality. As such, several of the recorded attributes will not be considered in detail but are available in Appendix G. Overall, there is some correlation between raw material and labret types identified. For example, tee labrets comprise over half (N=19, 53%) of all faunal examples (mostly bone), while all floral (wood) labrets are ‘bowls’ (N=13), the only class that had no lithic specimens. Bowl labrets are also the type most frequently inlaid, with primarily shell (N=5) and copper (N=1). All four plate labrets were lithic (slate), while all disc and doubleknob labrets were lithic, with steatite/soapstone comprising 69% (N=24), and another 10 examples made of coal (lignite). Thus, while there may not be a pattern in the qualities of the raw material, the kind of raw material and its source may be important factors. Material Class  Types  Total  bowl  faunal 4  faunal, faunal 0  floral 7  floral, faunal 5  floral, metallic 1  lithic 0  17  disc  0  0  0  0  0  31  31  double-knob  0  0  0  0  0  4  4  knob  3  1  0  0  0  77  81  pendulant  7  0  0  0  0  8  15  plate  0  0  0  0  0  4  4  pulley  2  1  0  0  0  13  16  spool  1  0  0  0  0  0  1  tee  19  0  0  0  0  32  51  36  2  7  5  1  169  220  Total  Table 4.8 Crosstabulation of material class by labret type  Of the labrets examined for this research, 65% were lithic, and of those, ‘steatite’ comprised 39% by visual identification (Appendix H). This material designation was based on a visibly mottled amalgam of materials that roughly resembled soapstone and nephrite but visibly and tactilely lacked the talc of soapstone or the ‘quartz’-like  23  appearance of nephrite, making it suitably malleable for grinding and detail work (drilling, polishing), as required in the creation of a labret. As PIMA helped to demonstrate, what I had called ‘steatite’ was nearly all identified by minerals as lizardite (Appendix I); however, the specific mineral signature may have been less important than the properties of the material, and certainly PIMA is of utility in considering the properties (hardness, colour) of these materials and their potential correlation with artifact type. Additionally, the ability of PIMA to compare materials on a mineralogical level has demonstrated its effectiveness as a sourcing technique (Wisseman et al. 2002). Conformity in material type may represent one way of aligning oneself with a larger group, and technical analysis such as can be accomplished with PIMA may be a useful way to explore degrees of access to certain materials, which may in turn reflect social grouping on some level. This would require obtaining specimens from known sources in the region for comparison and spatial analysis, which was beyond the scope of this project. 4.2.3 Size Due to the prevailing assumption that labret size was a signifier of the bearer’s status, I considered this to be one of the more critical variables to test. The nature of the labret as inherently divisible into two parts—the internally-worn flange and the externally-visible body—somewhat complicated my efforts to standardize size. Both elements are independently significant in different ways when considering the dialectic between ‘agency’ as individual choice and comfort, and ‘structure’ as the larger societal notions of how things ought to be done (cf., Giddens 1984). Yet, as a form of visual communication, if the association between size and status is valid, it is important that size is demonstrated visibly (i.e., via the body of the labret). Additionally, although I considered that the size of the flange would likely be more related to the size of the labret-wearer’s mouth, and thus age or even sex could be discernable statistically via a bimodal size distribution, in fact such patterning was absent, and osteological support for the mandibular arcade to sex and age proportions is tenuous (Sutter 2003). Therefore, I focused on the size (area, width by height) of the labret body in particular, noting that the flange and body sizes are in general positively correlated (Appendix J). Finally, I filtered out labrets from the testable sample to include only artifacts for which the body was complete or could be accurately estimated based on symmetry, to provide a reduced sample of 217 labrets. Of this reduced sample, labret body area ranges from 5.5mm² to 6400mm². Nearly a third (28.6%) cluster within the 1-100mm² range, 16.4% at 101-300mm², 11.4% at 301-500mm², 20.9% at 501-800 mm², 11.3% at 801-1500mm², 10.5% at 1501-3300mm², and only 0.9% (N=2) above 6000mm². Further subdivision showed a size clustering at the 0-50mm² range, 51-100mm², with the greatest variation between 100 to 1000mm², above which the sizes range broadly amongst a small sub-sample.  24  120  6000mm2  80  Body Area  Number of Labrets  100  60  4000mm2  40 2000mm2  20 Mean =624.42 Std. Dev. =865.468 N =217 0  0mm2  0mm2  2000mm2  4000mm2  6000mm2  Body Area  Figure 4.2 Labret body area range; * = individual outliers, O = outlier groups with the same value  Figure 4.1 Labret frequencies by body area  There is some degree of correlation of size with type, with the plate labrets (N=4) clearly largest, and bowl, pendulant7 and pulley types in the next largest size range. The smallest category, comprising most of the 0-50mm² range, is the tee labret, next to the spool, knob and double-knob types, while disc labrets cluster between the larger and smaller types, with several larger outliers.  6000mm2  4000mm2  Body Area  Body Area  6000mm2  2000mm2  4000mm2  2000mm2  0mm2  0mm2  plate  bowl  pulley  pendulant  disc  knob  doubleknob  spool  tee  Types  Figure 4.3 Labret body area range by type; * = individual outliers,O = outlier groups with the same value  floral,faunal  floral  faunal, faunal  lithic  faunal  Material Class  Figure 4.4 Labret body area range by material class; * = individual outliers, O = outlier groups with the same value  In comparing labret body size with material class, it is apparent that the most variation in size is within the class of lithic labrets, which contains several outliers. However, there is a clear size distinction between the floral and floral/faunal (i.e., wood with shell inlay) labrets, and the lithic labrets, where the former are clustered within the size range of the lithic outliers, while faunal labrets are generally within the same distribution as the lithic specimens. 7  The body area for pendulant labrets is larger than the pierced hole would be to accommodate it, since the pendulant extends down towards the chin.  25  4.3 Distributional Analyses 4.3.1 Geographic Patterning 4.3.1.1 Type Geographically, there is distinct patterning in the association of certain types, materials and sizes with specific regions and sub-regions. The ‘disc’ labret is found almost exclusively on the South Coast, as is the pendulant form. By sub-region (Appendix K), double-knob labrets were only recovered from the Fraser Delta area, although it should be noted that many labrets classified as ‘knob’ appear to have once been double-knob and then broken (see section on ‘Orientation’), which would broaden the geographic patterning for the double-knob form, yet still restrict it to the South Coast. Knob labrets in general are primarily found in this region and in the Gulf Islands. Region  My Types  Total  bowl  Central 0  North 17  South 0  unknown 0  17  disc  0  1  30  0  31  double-knob knob pendulant plate pulley spool tee Total  0 0 1 0 0 0 3 4  0 8 0 2 16 1 9 54  4 72 14 1 0 0 39 160  0 1 0 1 0 0 0 2  4 81 15 4 16 1 51 220  Table 4.9 Geographical distribution by region of labret type  Within the North Coast region, ‘bowl’ and ‘pully’ labrets have been recovered at Haida Gwaii, the Nass and Skeena River areas. Likewise, the ‘spool’ type, although only one was included in this sample, is clearly associated with the North Coast based on the collection of the same type held at the Burke Museum (not analyzed in this research), and was common amongst Tlingit in particular. As previously-mentioned, the Central Coast was represented by only four labrets, three of which were teeshaped while the fourth was a very small pendulant-style labret of purple-hinged scallop shell (Crassodoma gigantea), recovered from Namu8, which represents the only one of this style and material found outside of the South Coast. In fact, the most widespread form of labret found geographically was the ‘tee.’ This type is found all along the Coast but certainly concentrated on the South Coast (24% of all labrets in region), with a smaller sample from the North Coast (16%) This is of interest in light of the possibility that these may be labrets worn during the earlier 8  Subsequent to data collection, two tee labrets from Namu were identified in the Museum of Ethnology and Archaeology at SFU, associated with Period 4 dating to between 4500-3500 BP; one is purple-hinged scallop shell.  26  stages of piercing and eventually replaced by larger labrets, and as such could be redefined as labret hole-stretchers, which Nelson (1983 [1899]:48) suggests of similar objects used by the Inuit. Of particular interest are the geographically-dispersed ‘plate’ labrets. Two such labrets in this sample were recovered from the North Coast at Haida Gwaii and the Skeena River area; however, a third of this type represents the only confirmed labret ever recovered from the West Coast of Vancouver Island, a culture area not known to have ever had a labret tradition (Alan McMillan 2008 email communication). 4.3.1.2 Material There are some general trends with respect to raw material and geographic distribution. For example, all floral (wood) labrets are from the North Coast, which also has a disproportionately high number of faunal labrets (31%) compared to the South Coast (11%). Material Class faunal  Central 3  Region North South 15 18  unknown 0  Total 36  faunal, faunal  0  2  0  0  2  floral  0  7  0  0  7  floral, faunal  0  5  0  0  5  floral, metallic  0  1  0  0  1  lithic  1  24  142  2  169  4  54  160  2  220  Total  Table 4.10 Crosstabulation of material class by region; ‘faunal,faunal’ is used to describe a labret made from two different types of faunal material (i.e., bone and shell)  Additionally, when looking at the specific material types (Appendix L), the South Coast accounts for 95% of all labrets made of ‘steatite,’ 84% of soapstone labrets, and nearly all shell labrets (N=12, of 13; the remaining one was from the Central Coast).  By sub-region, coal was associated predominantly with sites on Eastern  Vancouver Island and concentrated in sites along the Fraser Delta, although it was present on the North Coast as well (Appendix M). A further breakdown of material by site and type of labret is provided in Appendix N. 4.3.1.3 Size The geographic distribution shows that while there is overlap in all regions, the types of labrets from the North Coast are generally larger than those on the South Coast (see Appendix O for a breakdown by sub-region). The size and type appears to be correlated with material type as well: as previously noted, with the exception of the large plate labrets made of slate, there is a tendency overall for labrets made of wood from the North Coast to be larger than lithic labrets.  27  6000mm2  Body Area  Body Area  6000mm2  4000mm2  2000mm2  4000mm2  2000mm2  0mm2  0mm2  North  South  Central  Region  Figure 4.5 Labret body area range by region; * = individual outliers, O = outlier groups with the same value  Ethnolog  Archaeol  Collection Source  Figure 4.6 Labret body area range by collection source; * = individual outliers, O = outlier groups with the same value  Obviously, employing wood as a labret raw material enabled much larger sizes to be worn ‘comfortably’ due to the lighter density, although some labret types, such as discs, were significantly concaved, both lightening the object and highlighting the ‘shininess’ of the visible surface (Appendix P). Additionally, wooden labrets were often inlaid with abalone shell, at times in complex designs, enabled by the mutability of a wooden base. Whether this is the reason behind this choice of material cannot be assumed, but it may well be significant that the larger labrets, with a few exceptions, are all made of wood. 4.3.2 Temporal Patterning 4.3.2.1 Type As previously mentioned, considering type by associated date has been problematic due to a lack of temporal data (Appendix Q). In the absence of an adequate sample of dated artifacts, I have relied on the distinction between ‘ethnological’ and ‘archaeological’ labrets, which has proven useful in looking at differences in form, material and size through both time and space. All ethnological labrets were recovered from the North Coast where labrets were still being worn during the period of initial European contact and thereafter. In considering artifact type, the ‘bowl’ labret is only seen ‘ethnologically’ while pulley labrets were recovered equally archaeologically and ethnologically. On the South Coast, disc labrets (N=4) were recovered associated with dates between 2500 to 3500 BP, and knob labrets span the entire time range represented, 2000-4500 BP. However, the precision of these data is questionable, as is the utility of such ‘patterns’ considering the small the sample size. Carlson and Hobler (1993:45) suggest that there is a general pattern of “increasingly varied types appearing in the 2000-year period following 4-5 Kya”. Certainly, most labrets with absolute or inferred dates examined in this  28  research are associated by researchers with the Locarno Beach period (3500-2500 BP). However, this pattern is not generally testable due to a dearth of robust dates, a lack of resolution, and an inadequate sample size, which prevented analysis of labret type by time period beyond the few broad patterns that have already been suggested. 4.3.2.2 Material In terms of materials represented through time, the archaeologically-recovered labrets are mostly lithic, with bone employed primarily for tee labrets. Additionally, there is a correlation both geographically (as noted) and temporally with the use of purple-hinged scallop, for labrets in particular and for personal ornamentation more broadly (Keddie 2008 pers. comm.). Yet the dominance of lithic labrets archaeologically is held in stark contrast to the ethnology collections at the CMC and RBCM, which both demonstrate that, at least within the last two hundred years, bone, ivory, wood and shell were equally if not more important materials used for labrets. Additionally, the single example of a horn labret, while extremely rare within this sample, is perhaps not uncommon of labrets in Tlingit territory (the Ethnology Collection of the Burke Museum has seven ‘spool’ type labrets noted as ‘Tlingit’, of which at least two are horn). Thus, there is no clearly demonstrable relationship between time period and particular raw material choice since differential preservation (i.e., wood versus lithic) cannot be controlled for. 4.3.2.3 Size Based on the study sample, there are not enough data for any fine-scale analyses of size distribution over time. What can be said is intrinsically linked with geography as noted above—namely, that labrets from the North Coast from the more recent ‘ethnographic’ period are generally larger than those recovered archaeology from the South Coast. Chapter 5 will provide more discussion of this pattern. 4.4 Burial Association: ‘Gender’ and Age The consideration of ‘identity associations’ primarily through contextual data, predominantly burials, has proven a somewhat dissatisfying aspect of this research. This is in part because the number of examples where labrets have been found in situ with burials is small to begin with (see Table 4.11), which is due in part to a lack of published and available data. Usually they have been found in shell middens, where multiple individuals were interred over a potentially vast period of time, and thus clear relationship between one artifact to one individual is frequently impossible. Finally, much of this material remains unpublished, with the exception of significant and substantial contributions by Cybulski (1974, 1992). Of the total number of labrets examined (N=220), 12 were positively identified as having been in direct association with burials. Of these, five were male, four female, and three were identified by ethnographer Charles  29  Site  Region  SubRegion  Provenience Integrity  GbTo-31, Boardwalk Site  North  Skeena River  in situ  GbTo-36, Baldwin Site  North  Skeena River  in situ  GbTo-18, Dodge Island  North  Skeena River  Hazelton  North  Skeena River Haida Gwaii Haida Gwaii Haida Gwaii  in situ  2590 +/40 BP  Date Range  2500  Source  Sex  Age  Labret Type  Archaeological  male  mid-30s  pulley  “late part of burial sequence”  Archaeological  male  30-40  knob  ‘Locarno/ Marpole’  Archaeological  male  mid-20s  knob  female  elderly  pulley  unknown  bowl  unknown  bowl  unknown  bowl  Culture Period  unknown  Ethnological  in situ  Ethnological  in situ  Ethnological  in situ  Ethnological  Yan  North  Ninstints  North  Ninstints  North  Laxgalts'ap (Greenville)  North  Nass River  in situ  DeRt-2, Pender Canal  South  Gulf Islands  in situ  DeRt-2, Pender Canal  South  Gulf Islands  in situ  South  Gulf Islands  South South  DfRu-4, Toynbee Beach DfRu-4, Toynbee Beach DgRs-2, Tsawwassen  C14 Date  1880 +/40 BP 4320 +/220 BP 4000 +/1 500 BP  shaman grave shaman grave shaman grave  2000  ‘Marpole’  Archaeological  female  elderly  pulley  4000 – 4500  Charles/ Locarno  Archaeological  female  adult  tee  3500 – 4500  Charles/ Locarno  Archaeological  female  adult  knob  unknown  Archaeological  male  mid-20s  knob  Gulf Islands  unknown  Archaeological  unknown  unknown  pendulant  Fraser Delta  in situ  Archaeological  male  unknown  tee  Table 4.11 Burial context data for labrets in association with human remains of known sex  Newcombe in 1905 only as a “shaman grave” (C. Newcombe, Notes on Haida material culture collection held by the British Columbia Provincial Museum, CMC archives VII-B-14M, Box 137 F1). Two of these labrets were found with elderly women—one being the Greenville example previously mentioned, while the other was a labret carried by Edward Clark (Git’anmeks) that had belonged to his grandmother (CMC artifact record VII-C-1219). In looking at the range of dates and labret types, there appears to be no demonstrable association with sex or age. Thus, overall, based on this sample of labrets recovered in direct association with burials, there is not enough data to support a correlation between type with sex or gender. Further, when considered with osteological evidence as discussed, what patterns may exist are made more complicated when examined over time. An alternative avenue of investigation may be in associated representations of labrets. For example, the CMC ethnology collections contain several masks and ‘shamanic’ relics, as well as ‘shaman’ dolls, exhibiting labrets. What is of note is that these objects have all been assumed to either belong to or represent women, perhaps  30  in part because of the presence of the labret (Barbeau 1958). Although Moss (1999:56-7) notes that, among the Tlingit, male shamans were not known to wear labrets, it remains a possibility, and three labrets in this study sample were recovered from what Newcombe called a Haida shaman grave (C. Newcombe, CMC VII-B-14M, Box 137 F1). Thus it may be precisely the liminal role of the shaman in society that is being communicated through the use of this form of personal adornment. More background research is needed on the collection of these objects to shed light on this association, the potential for which has been demonstrated in other regions (cf., Steffian and Saltonstall 2001). 4.5 ‘Possible Labrets’ 4.5.1 Orientation of Wear There has been some debate concerning exactly how labrets were worn, which is a critical consideration when attempting to evaluate ambiguous artifacts that may be labrets. This confusion stems in part from a seeming discontinuity between the ethnographic examples, photographs and masks, archaeological samples, and contemporary representations of labrets.  The general trend is to portray the labret in the mouth orientated  horizontally—that is, with the lip projecting away from the teeth like a ‘bowl.’ Indeed, ethnographic accounts of labrets have described these lip plugs as ‘bowls,’ and this is generally how they are represented in contemporary depictions (Appendix R). Conversely, the labrets recovered archaeologically are generally quite different from some of the more recent Northern examples. From scratches on the posterior flange surfaces, it is apparent that labrets with lateral flanges and singular or double-body projections were worn against the teeth, with the body visible under the lower lip. Disc labrets were likely worn the same way, tied around one tooth to prevent the lip from falling forward, while several of the large pendulant labrets also exhibit grooves around the flange, perhaps for the same purpose9. The ‘pulley’ labrets of the North, made of stone, present a different problem for interpretation. These objects were quite heavy, and it is difficult to conceive that they could have been worn ‘vertically,’ and rather more likely that they fell forward not unlike the wooden ‘bowls.’ How they stayed in place between the teeth and the lip is equally unclear; however, the example from Greenville was found against the anterior surface of the bearer’s lower jaw, where all lower incisors and canines had been lost and the bone had deteriorated, presumably in part due to prolonged abrasive contact with this stone labret. The two largest labrets, both made of slate, may have been worn altogether differently. With these, the sheer size alone (both are 8x8cm width by height, total body area 64cm²) suggests that it was simply not possible to 9  Mackenzie (1891:54-55) describes this practice among the Haida.  31  wear the ‘flange’ inside the mouth against only the lower teeth. Instead, either the flange took up the entire labial area of both the upper and lower incisor surfaces, effectively making speech impossible, or the ‘flange’ was in fact worn against the chin, with the lower lip resting effectively underneath the large body, facing anterior. Scratches observed on the flanges may suggest the former was practiced, but this does not exclude the latter possibility. That some labrets were in fact quite cumbersome is clear from Nelson’s (1983 [1899]:49-50) observations that, whilst traveling with a group of Inuit, “the labrets were invariably removed in order to prevent the lip from freezing,” and kept during this time in a small bag until approaching the destination village when they were replaced “that the wearer might present a proper appearance before the people.” Nelson (1983 [1899]:50) also notes that they were sometimes removed for eating and sleeping. Additionally, the Emmons (1991) collection of jade objects from British Columbia and Alaska presents another possibility, based on one labret (Plate XXI) with a rectangular/oval body face exhibiting a narrow groove cut through the centre. The description for this plate explains the asymmetrical lateral wings of the flange as having “a longer and a shorter arm for insertion.” Whether this could, in fact, be the reason why several of the labrets examined for this thesis have asymmetrical flange wings is unclear, but certainly possible; yet from evidence of reworking and comparison with complete examples, in at least several cases, the labrets had been double-bodied, broken down the medial axis, then been reworked10. 4.5.2 Composite and Buccal Labrets, and Ear-spools Observations of so-called ‘composite’ labrets (Appendix S), rectangular in form and curved with two drilled holes posterior to anterior, were made for this research, partly in an attempt to positively identify these ‘whatzits’ as labrets. As such, high-definition digital photographs were taken of apparent wear on the posterior surfaces (Appendix T). In comparing the patterns of scratching and wear facets, the results are inconclusive, and it remains uncertain whether these objects were used as labrets at all. Having examined several such artifacts (N=25), as well as other whatzits, the range of variation in form alone suggests that, if they were used as labrets, they represent a form completely unknown, and it is not clear how they might have been worn. Also, in this research, most labrets were designated as ‘labial.’ However, I would propose that this is in part due to a lack of examples of labrets that were worn bucally (Appendix U), which has led to at best informed guesses as to what one actually looks like. As such, I suggest that several of the ‘buccal’ forms included in this sample are  32  not in fact labrets, and again the wear patterns are not conclusive. Comparison with known buccal examples from further north amongst the Inuit may aid in the identification of similar examples from the Northwest Coast. Finally, there has been discussion as to whether some objects classified as ear-spools may in fact be labrets (Dahm 1994:74a). Rather than the ‘standard’ circular form, it is the elongated rectangular-oval pieces that have called this to attention (Appendix V). In examining the surface wear to these objects, I could see no evidence to suggest tooth abrasion. While not conclusive, since wooden examples of roughly the same size also do not exhibit such wear, that combined with the sheer weight of these objects suggest to me that they are not labrets. 4.5.3 ‘Plug’ Labrets Most of these objects have in past been identified as ‘whatzits’ on the South Coast; however, the ethnology collection at the CMC contained similar artifacts that had been positively identified as labrets, comparable in form although the materials employed differed. Additionally, the overall form is similar to bowl labrets, although plugs are much smaller and, on the South Coast, made of stone. The three examples from the North Coast were all ‘ethnological’ examples, while on the South Coast, they were all archaeological, which may account for the different materials used (Appendix W). Although not demonstrable conclusively, based on similarity of form with examples from the North Coast, I have included the ‘plug’ labret tentatively as a formal type (Appendix X). 4.5.4 Other Anomalies There were several other artifacts that had some characteristics of labrets but are considered complete outliers and unique. Because of their unclear designation as ‘labrets,’ these objects were not useful to consider in the creation of a formalized typology. Nonetheless, it is important to mention them here to aid in future research if similar objects are encountered that may illuminate the ambiguity of these classifications. Photographs for some of these artifacts have been included under Appendix Y.  10  Ames (2001:8) suggests that “some labrets were deliberately broken before disposal,” which he interprets as a deliberate attempt to remove them from circulation, indicating “permanent social rank”. The evidence for deliberate breakage is unclear however, and this hypothesis is challenged by the many cases I observed where broken labrets were obviously reworked, presumably to be wearable again. Further analysis of these labrets may help clarify this.  33  CHAPTER 5: ANALYSIS and DISCUSSION My goal in this research was to investigate the assumptions made by archaeologists about labrets on the Northwest Coast by compiling data against which to test the association of labrets with ‘status’ and gender. In doing so, I conducted a focused examination of archaeological and ethnological examples of labrets from the region to consider whether social identity is observable in artifact material patterning. These efforts were complimented by a review of historical and osteological evidence of labret use, as well as (below) the perspectives of people today for whom labrets, in one way or another, hold special meaning. Together, this ‘braided stream’ of evidence has enabled both clarification of some assumptions concerning the identity of the labret-wearer, and complication in discerning and understanding patterning in material culture that is generated by both context-specific and universally-employed modes in the construction of social meaning. This chapter will explore the concept of social identity as a venue to examine these meanings embedded in material culture, conveyed in the use of the labret. Specifically, I attempt to unravel the widespread archaeological association of labrets with ‘status’ and gender by considering how such objects of personal ornamentation can convey both allegiance to and confrontation of standards of meaning and social position. While the variability of such meanings is potentially infinite, there is value in employing both specific and general analogies to consider how the material patterns of labrets may relate to the cultural patterns of their use and meaning. 5.1 Labrets on the Northwest Coast Having provided a detailed account of the research results in the previous chapter, this section addresses the patterning observed in labrets on the Northwest Coast, and how this correlates to varying scales of social identity. With the goal of exploring the materiality of the labret, I considered the relationship between four critical components: 1) labret form, 2) spatial distribution, 3) temporal distribution, and 4) the social role of the labret. Based on the artifact analysis undertaken in this project, the following statements can be made about the hypotheses proposed in this research. 1) There is a clear association between some labret types, raw material, and size. In general, bowl, pulley, plate and pendulant labret forms fall within a larger size range than the other types. Of these, bowls are primarily made of wood, pulleys of various types of stone, plates of slate, while pendulant labrets were shell or stone but predominantly ‘steatite.’ Falling in the middle size-range, disc labrets are both relatively homogeneous in size, and account for most of the ‘steatite’ labrets in this sample. Finally, tee labrets were the smallest, and also have the highest proportion of faunal examples, particularly bone. The extent to which  34  labret form dictated its materiality however is unclear, since each type is also represented by labrets of other materials (i.e., stone tees, coal discs). Additionally, while many larger labrets are made of wood, the largest are lithic, as are most pulleys, and pendulants are of a heavy shell or stone (hence, the groove to fasten a cord around the teeth). Differential preservation likely plays a role in this as well. Thus, it appears that the choice of material for particular kinds of labrets in certain geographic areas relied on cultural concepts of what is an appropriate and valued material for a labret rather than by the physical demands of either the labret shape or the labret wearer. 2) There is geographic patterning of some labret types, while other types are seen Coast-wide. Bowl, plate, spool and pulley labrets are recovered almost exclusively on the North Coast, while the South Coast accounts for all disc, double-knob and pendulant labrets, clustered in the Gulf Islands and Fraser Delta subregions. Knob and tee labrets are found all along the coast, while ‘plugs’ are mostly on the South Coast with a few on the North Coast (and of a different material, although double-knob labial labrets are associated with the Inuit ethnographically; cf., Nelson 1983 [1899]). Based on this broad geographic distribution, it appears that types do correlate somewhat on the level of the regional social or cultural groups, although there is frequent overlap at the sub-regional level; meanwhile, typological distinction is also apparent between sites in the same sub-region. For example, recalling to Dawson’s (1880:108-9) description of the Haida labret as oval, Ts’msyan “elongated,” and circular for the Stikine River Tlingit, by type alone these cultural distinctions are not mutuallyexclusive at the sub-regional scale. Additionally, ‘bowl’ labrets transitioned imperceptibly between elongated ovoid to oval, and were found in Haida Gwaii and on the Nass River, while ‘pulley’ labrets were seen in all areas on the North Coast, and represent the closest type to Dawson’s ‘circular’ labret of the Tlingit. That the data do not fully align with Dawson’s observations is not a direct refutation of the accuracy of his records (although his sample size may not be representative), as certainly the types closest to his descriptions are geographically patterned. Rather, the ‘biography’ of the labret is intimately linked with the life history of its bearer, such that even if Dawson’s ‘types’ were sub-regionally consistent, travel, intermarriage, warfare, and other social transactions would create a geographically varied pattern for these types, as is seen here. 3) There is an association between raw materials and region, sub-region, and/or individual sites. Wooden labrets were recovered exclusively from the North Coast, where the frequency of faunal labrets, including bone, antler, horn and ivory, was also proportionally elevated compared to the other regions. The South Coast accounted for nearly all ‘steatite’ labrets, as well as coal labrets, found concentrated in sites on the Fraser Delta and the Gulf Islands. Purple-hinged scallop and other shell labrets were primarily found on the South Coast,  35  particularly in the Gulf Islands, as well as one on the Central Coast. As previously mentioned, the materials employed were likely influenced more by what was valued and considered appropriate culturally, rather than what was locally available; however, this hypothesis requires empirical testing via sourcing of raw materials. 4) There is geographic patterning regarding labret size, however this is also correlated temporally. The larger forms of labrets are primarily found in ethnological collections from the North Coast. However, the largest labrets (plates, N=4) represent a geographical mystery as two were found on the North Coast, while another represents the only labret from the West coast of Vancouver Island. Generally, however, larger labrets are clustered on the North Coast, with the exception of pendulant forms on the South Coast (a form that required a smaller pierced hole than the North Coast types, even while the body area may be comparable). The relationship between size, geography and time will be further discussed later in this chapter. 5) There is no demonstrable association between time period and either labret type, material or size, except between archaeologically-recovered labrets and particular forms collected ethnologically. As previously noted, the biggest stumbling block in looking at associations of labret form through time and association with status, gender, and age, has been a lack of published and accessible contextual data (specifically spatial and temporal provenience). Most labrets are recovered from disturbed contests, and of those recovered in situ, few are independently dated to test the accepted association with certain periods (e.g., Locarno Beach). The result is that a clear correlation between specific labret type, material or size, and archaeological time period, cannot be demonstrated. However, of the labrets with established dates, a few simple statements can be made. For example, the oldest labrets recovered date to ca.4500 BP although, as mentioned, indirect evidence for labrets is at least 500 years older. This may be due to a sampling bias in the age of sites identified and excavated, or it may be related to differential preservation if earlier labrets were organic as the later ones were. Additionally, of the labrets that were dated, most fall within the range between 2500 to 3500 BP, associated on the South Coast with the Locarno Beach period. This is consistent with contemporary interpretations of labrets in this region, which appear to be gradually phased out and cranial deformation introduced in the Marpole period (Cybulski 1991; McMillan 1995:191). Of course, this pattern is also skewed by sampling bias in that many more labrets have been recovered from the South Coast, an apparent over-representation that has played a significant role in archaeological studies and translated into a strong tendency to focus on labrets from the South Coast, in particular from the Gulf Islands, as ‘the standard.’ Indeed, in the archaeological literature, labrets feature as a diagnostic artifact type in the South Coast  36  ‘Locarno Beach’ and ‘Marpole’ assemblages (Mitchell 1971), despite the fact that for the longest duration, and very recently at less than 100 years ago, labrets were used on the North Coast by at least the Tlingit, Ts’msyan and Haida. Thus, while general observations can be made regarding the temporal distribution of archaeological labrets, the small sample of dated labrets and low spatial resolution requires such statements be made on a broad scale. The exception to this is seen in the comparison of archaeological examples with ethnological ones, based on the assumption that the latter were collected during the period of initial European colonization on the North Coast and thus reflect a more recent manifestation of the labret tradition than archaeologically-recovered examples—a somewhat indirect way to access temporal distribution. Additionally, this ethnological/archaeological division is spatially significant because labrets were not known to be worn on the South Coast by at least the period of initial contact. Therefore, the geographic distribution both reflects distance between peoples spatially, and in time. Along these lines, there is clear geographic patterning in labret form that is correlated temporally—that is, large, wooden bowl labrets represent one of the most recent manifestations of the labret tradition on the Coast, accompanied by both lithic and faunal pulley labrets. Excluding ‘plate’ labrets (which, as mentioned, may not in fact be labrets), these two categories represent the next largest size ranges for all types observed. Conversely, in the archaeological sample of the South Coast where labrets were used between 2000-5000 BP, relatively standardized sizes of smaller, ‘steatite’ disc, knob (and double-knob) and plug labrets were pervasive. This suggests two correlations: 1) size was more variable and thus a more important attribute during the recent labret use on the North Coast, and 2) the labret tradition as observed by European explorers and ethnographers, and cited frequently by archaeologists, is not representative of labrets on the Northwest Coast over the last 5,000 years. Therefore, the correlation of size with ‘status,’ and status with labrets, is not inherent, but may instead be contextual, a point that will be discussed at length in the sections following. 6) There is no demonstrable association between labret type, material, size, time and space, and sex/‘gender’ or age of the labret-bearer. As discussed in Chapter 4, a lack of available data on known associations between sex-identified interred individuals and retrieved labrets, or ambiguity in these associations during excavation, has significantly hindered testing of any correlation between labret type and gender. Based on osteological, archaeological, and ethnohistorical evidence, clearly both men and women did wear labrets; however, during what time periods, during what phase of life, what kind of labret, all men or women or just some…these issues remain ambiguous, and the archaeological examples have brought me no closer to clarifying any patterning therein.  37  Instead, it is the osteologically-derived evidence for labret wear that continues to be of most value in this regard. Cybulski (1991:18) illustrates that, on the South Coast based on human remains from Pender Canal (N=22) and Crescent Beach (N=35), labrets were worn equally by men and women. Conversely, on the North Coast, during the same timeframe males outnumbered females with labret wear 4:1 at Prince Rupert Harbour (N=157), while after 1400 BP at Greenville, only women were observed with dental faceting (N=30). This is a significant transition on the North Coast, yet lacks resolution in the later burials, since Cybulski (1991:12) suggests that interment in this burial ground was restricted to individuals of elevated position within the community. This is a critical point that highlights the danger of presuming the burial record to be directly indicative of the ‘living’ record (and seen in the concept of labrets as heirlooms [Cybulski 1991:14], which is observed for at least one ethnologically-collected labret in this sample from the North Coast. Likewise, the suggestion that contemporary kinship structure of bilateral descent on the South Coast may be signified in the equal male-to-female burial population at Crescent Beach dating 2500-3300 BP (Cybulski 1991:13) implies a long-term social stasis that is not materially correlated in labrets. Rather than indicating that there is no relationship between permanent body modification, descent and lineage–– ethnographic sources alone show there clearly is––instead I suggest that this may be more related to the varying social role of the labret on a regional scale, which I discuss further in the following section. Thus, while the osteological evidence certainly has much to contribute to contextualize labrets and their bearers over time, all forms and scales of social identity are themselves inherently ambiguous, as are their material expressions. There is a caution to heed in concluding that the social role of the labret is discernable osteologically, and so empirically demonstrable, in light of how drastically ones identity can change in the course of a single lifetime (Figure 3.2) and the multiple layers of meaning that underscore the social role of the labret. Nonetheless, while the archaeological evidence did not yield patterning in labret type, material or size that could be correlated with the sex, gender or age of the bearer, nonetheless the ethnographic descriptions of different labrets for different life stages (cf., Dall 1884:88), and the variability observed in the mortuary record, suggests that such patterning does exist, merely at a resolution as yet inaccessible via the limited provenience data available. 7) The association between labret type, material, size, in time and space, and ‘status,’ is uncertain. The concept of ‘status’ is one that is frequently presented in a simplified package of ‘privilege and power,’ and synonymous with ‘elite’; however, on the Northwest Coast, there is patterned variability in labrets through time and space that this characterization cannot fully account for. Indeed, the concepts of ‘status,’ ‘elite,’ and ‘power’ are themselves both complex and relational because they rely on the distinction between ‘self' and 'other’ for  38  classification and meaning. Therefore, part of the challenge of using the ‘labrets = status’ association is not that it is incorrect, but rather that it encompasses too many potential definitions of context-specific ‘status’ to be useful on anything more than a very general level. For example, in cultural communities where social position is tightly controlled and reinforced through other means (i.e. inherited names, resources), the meaning of labrets as markers of ‘elite’ status may be widely accepted, the population of wearers fairly restricted, and the variability of form comparatively low. By contrast, in settings where claims to social position are being asserted on many fronts (spiritual, economic, political, symbolic etc.), labret form and their use as symbols may be varied as their meaning is manipulated to emulate or contest claims of entitlement. Finally, both dynamics may be concurrent at different scales of ‘interaction spheres,’ between individuals, families, villages and broader cultural and inter-cultural communities. Therefore, although expressed as a simple relationship, ‘labrets = status’ is in fact a very complex concept. Indeed, the elaboration presented here is itself an oversimplification since labrets invoke meanings that will also vary idiosyncratically. Thus, the initial step towards unraveling these meanings is to search firstly for homogeneous forms shared by a wider community in time and space as this is more visible archaeologically, and then examine the variability within and between these clusters of material patterning. Based on the sample of ethnologically collected labrets, and supported by observations of contemporary lip-piercing, there are two initial observations of labret form that I propose are significant: 1) when labrets are most prolific, their form is also most varied, and size within type more consistent; and, 2) when labrets are geographically constrained, their form remains comparatively homogenous while the size, decoration and/or material are more variable. Certainly, to some extent these patterns reflect simply an unrepresentative sample, geographically and temporally; yet the relationship between these patterns, social organization and ‘status’ is significant, for it suggests that on the South Coast, the kind of status that labrets represented was itself being queried by their bearers, while on the North Coast, the degree of status within an accepted concept of what it meant to be a labret-bearer was at issue. To support this suggestion, the greatest variation in labret style is seen during the broad time period that labrets were present on the South Coast, where there is also little deviance from an almost ‘standardized’ size range within types. For example, disc, knob and double-knob labrets, all characteristic of the South Coast, cluster fairly tightly in size range, while the bowl and pulley labrets of the North Coast are not just larger but have a broader size range. On a local level, there is more internal consistency in type and material. The Fraser Delta and Gulf Islands have a similar ratio of types and similar materials represented, yet some sites within those sub-regions are  39  proportionally distinct (i.e., Crescent Beach has the largest number of pendulant labrets of any site, while Musqueam North East has the highest concentration of coal labrets). Based on these data, it may be that the more appropriate scale of analysis is at the site level where local homogeneity is observed, within a heterogeneous region. Conversely, on the North Coast, the ethnological examples from Haida, Tlingit and Ts’msyan territories are testimony to an increasing emphasis placed on size, while the shapes remain geographically homogeneous and ‘standardized.’ This is perhaps most clear in the examples from Haida Gwaii, where wooden labrets accommodated inlays of copper and abalone shell, frequently with more ornate designs, highlighting the increasing importance of these ornaments as visual markers of distinction (Wobst 1977). If labrets are used to communicate both solidarity and difference, then the use of a particular type may be to strengthen ties with certain groups (Weissner 1998), while distancing from others; however, the motivation for reinforcing such differences can vary. The labret, as a permanent body modification, is a gesture of distinction made on a group level targeting a large audience, which suggests that the message communicated is fundamental; likewise, the provocation for this practice must be equally important. For example, during times of social instability, permanent body modification may be used as a tactic to demarcate and naturalize social distinction and thus secure access to scarce or tightly controlled resources, whatever those may be. A fluctuation from heterogeneity to homogeneity in labret use may be one illustration of an increased need to adhere to orthodoxy; the shift from labrets to cranial deformation may be another, seen on the South Coast during the Marpole period and potentially related to environmental and social stresses (Lepofsky et al 2005).  Meanwhile, the conventional markers indicating  distinction may become exaggerated or enhanced. The sudden influx of wealth that accompanied prolonged contact with Europeans may be one stimulus provoking increased economic disparity, materially manifested in the larger wooden bowl labrets with increasingly ornate designs of abalone shell and copper, and iron (Mullens and Paynter 2000)—again highlighting the social importance of visibility in distinction. Having said that, while wearing a labret may signify adherence to social convention through homogeneity of form, simultaneously it may also communicate resistance to the rules governing this practice via unorthodox heterogeneous material expression. The problem of low temporal resolution in making statements of causality requires that these observations are by necessity generalized. Nonetheless, the labret communicated distinction both within and between groups, and this distinction may in some contexts relate to accessing wealth of some form, be it economic, spiritual or other. As such, it can also be suggested that such permanent body alteration was consciously manipulated as a tactic to naturalize the social position of the labret bearer and family, a position that, on the  40  Northwest Coast, is intrinsically related to access to resources, both material and incorporeal, the inheritance of which may have been eased as a result of this modification In this vein, a correlation between ‘status’ and labrets has also been used to suggest broad scale shifts in social organization from so-called ‘simple’ to ‘complex’ hunter-gatherers, as well as to highlight the perceived cultural florescence of the Marpole period (cf., Matson and Coupland 1994). Yet the labret as a symbol of social identity in fact functions to simplify social transactions, particularly between groups, by emphasizing difference within, thereby reducing time and effort spent by outsiders to gauge an individual’s position in the community. In this sense, while the ‘institutionalized inequality’ characteristic of so-called ‘social complexity’ may be reflected in the standardization of ornament form, social inequality necessarily always precedes this. As such, if the ornament is important to secure inheritance, the beginnings of its form should reflect great variation as position and appropriate means of conveying this are negotiated.  This would be followed by  ‘standardization’ in style, representing a social stability via the ‘institutionalization’ of what has become an accepted practice. On the Northwest Coast, the earliest suite of labrets with dates already exhibit such formal typological properties, and thus a collective understanding of this ornamentation may well already have been in place by the time archaeology enters the picture. At this point, however, the standards of distinction become commonplace; since rarity frequently denotes value, homogeneity may be a threat to distinction (cf., Cannon 1989), and thus this stage sees renewed efforts to reassert such distinction through other means, such as size or material. In fact, this is precisely the broad pattern seen in labrets on the Coast; yet this pattern is non-linear, since both sameness and difference are being continually expressed materially in a dialectical ebb-and-flow between individual aspirations and collective orthodoxy, and depending on resolution (region, sub-region, site, time period), there is frequently more variation within a group than between. Ultimately, while a correlation between labret types, social, economic, spiritual and other ‘status’-based wealth can be hypothesized, the difficulty is in reifying a pervasive assumption that has been thus far empirically untestable. Indeed, the material patterning for the North and South Coasts is sufficiently different that two separate historically-particular processes seem to be at play. On the South Coast, standardization of size within types during the Locarno Beach period may denote relative stability in social positioning on one scale (i.e., the distribution of disc labrets in the Gulf Islands and Fraser Delta), while variation highlights distinction at other scales (i.e., coal versus ‘steatite’). Additionally, if descent was reckoned bilaterally as it is now amongst the Coast Salish, which Cybulski (1992:71-2) suggests based on mortuary evidence, it may be that the labret was less critical as a symbol of  41  power and instead reflected other kinds of identity, perhaps even at the village level. This suggests that the kind of status that labrets communicated, and thus the meaning of the labret itself, was being negotiated between groups on the South Coast at multiple scales and in widely varying contexts. Meanwhile, a different situation on the North Coast during the ethnographic period is observed, where increasing variation in size and material within fewer type classes may be related to disturbance or threat to social positioning, in part due to the new and increased opportunity for wealth that bred a social environment of increased competition. Here, the labret as a signifier of high-status was the accepted meaning, but the size and, for example, use of abalone or copper inlays indicated the degree of elevated position within that restricted elite class. This is consistent with the use of the labret as a statement of power within a relatively rigid and formalized matrilineal social structure, where the position of labret-wearer is as strictly governed as the various resources and privileges inherited (Ames 2001). Therefore, two separate scenarios are observed in labret use regionally and in time. While the South Coast pattern suggests an ongoing discourse concerning what kind of status labrets mean, this question was resolved by the ethnographic period on the North Coast, where ‘labrets = high status’ was accepted and instead it was the degree of status that was being navigated in labret size. The range of typological variation on the South Coast therefore highlights that labrets were an imperfect gesture of identity, since one piercing could accommodate any number of different types of labrets, facilitated by the fact that most types on the South Coast fall within a comparable size range. The same could be argued of the North Coast based on the archaeological labrets in this sample, and indeed it may be that this pattern was Coast-wide prior to ca.2500 BP (Cybulski 1992:72). However, at this point on the South Coast, labrets were abandoned and cranial deformation introduced—a physically permanent marker of nonnegotiable status, arguably again signifying ‘kind’ rather than ‘degree within.’ Meanwhile, sometime thereafter, the recent labret tradition of the North Coast overcame the ‘imposter’ potential by emphasizing size: quite simply, a big labret requires a larger pierced hole, and it takes time to stretch the lip, a process that is not reversible. Thus, ‘status’ is a complex and fluid concept, and while the most recent manifestation of labrets on the Coast equates status with ‘high rank’ or ‘elite,’ this function is not inherent in labrets, but rather dependent on the social context of its use. The challenge is to strive for a more sophisticated understanding of this dynamic in order to better equip ourselves to address what are some of the more critical questions being posed in archaeology.  42  5.2 Typology, Materiality and Social Identity The principal component of this research has been to test and potentially revise existing labret typologies. As such, the main task was also the most difficult one, and most paradoxical: that is, while seeking to complicate the notion of simple equations between material culture and social identity, typological analysis is necessarily a reductionist and essentializing over-simplification of what is infinitely complex. Certainly, there is a fine line between a typological classification that is too broad to be useful, or too narrow to observe patterning, especially with an artifact type that is potentially as idiosyncratic as the individuals wearing the labrets. While all material culture can be said to defy natural classification and as such resist the order of classification (Read 2007), nonetheless, people within cultural communities share sufficient experiential and symbolic conversance with objects that meaningful patterns do exist. As a visually prominent form of ornamentation that requires a permanent physical alteration, labrets represent an exclusionary tradition meant to communicate intimate symbolic information (Ingold 1986). As such, the labret would not be readily adopted by others simply for its aesthetic properties, but rather its use would be restricted to only those meeting the culturally shared and enforced criteria, criteria that imply systemic, translatable levels of meaning. For an object such as the labret that is intended for visual display, the dialectical negotiation between individual and group ideas of what is appropriate remains visible in discernable patterns reflecting adherence to institutionalized meanings and divergences from them (Adams and Adams 1991:54). This relationship is demonstrated by the creation of a labret typology, recognizing that it has meaning at one scale yet masks meaning on other scales. Therefore, while the typology I have proposed here appears to reflect discrete types, in fact even these remain ambiguous, and so it is useful to conceive of these more as trait-clusters on a gradation of one form to another when attempting to interpret based on what remain at least partly artificial ‘types’. To aid in conceptualizing the meaning of typology and its utility in accessing the relationship between societal notions of appropriateness and individual expressions of difference, I sought the perspectives of people who today wear labrets, albeit typically in a modified form than the assemblage under study. This included accessing body modification web forums to get a sense of the ‘sub-culture’ of contemporary labret use, and interviewing a labret-bearer11. This informant stated that she both “liked the aesthetic value” of her lip-piercing, and “that it was a little out of the norm.” She clarified, speaking to this tension specifically: By ‘out of the norm’ I meant that it was an aesthetic expression that wasn’t too overly common. I guess I’m not big on the idea of looking exactly like everyone else on the street...In the same 11  This informant has subsequently removed her labret to conform to her rules of employment.  43  breath though it wasn’t so out of the norm that I would be stared at, nor necessarily judged negatively in academic/professional situations...Strangers didn’t really react usually, I think because [my labret] was reasonably small and unobtrusive. In recent years, the labret has become a socially acceptable form of individual expression, yet at the same time the style of labret is shifting to more visually prominent forms, becoming at times more ornate, using a wider range of raw materials, and/or with exaggerated size, all of which are dependent on the labret ‘type.’ This veritable explosion of stylistic heterogeneity is pushing beyond the previous limits of ‘acceptable’ labret form by individuals reacting against the normalization of body modification to retain it as an expression of individuality, of ‘difference between’ (Emberling 1997). In the archaeological examples of labrets, a similar trend can be suggested of some of the idiosyncratic variation and significant size increase observed during the periods when this ornament became prolific; yet, in the ethnographic example of the North Coast, a hierarchically-derived position of ‘status’ was definitely a factor influencing labret character, while the contemporary use of the labret may only have this ‘rank’ element on a ‘sub-cultural’ level (i.e., large labrets do indicate status within the realm of body modification where rare or extreme expressions are valued [Larratt 2002], but lack coherence in the larger society where the ‘meaning’ of labret forms is only superficially understood and thus necessarily generalized). Thus, critical to this analysis is the idea of the labret as dynamic—that it both defines and is defined by the bearer and larger social groups within and external to the culture (Barth 1969)—and so is mutable, fluid and negotiated, invoking and at the same time commenting on cultural conventions (Giddens 1984). As such, the labret functions on individual, community and inter-community scales as a complex identity marker, the meaning of which is/was manipulated, reinforced or revised by conforming to or refusing the conventional rules of its use, thereby changing the rules (Bourdieu 1977). Thus it is in the practice of making and wearing labrets that collective grammars of meaning are created and informed and negotiated, both between ‘agents’ and with the larger ‘structure,’ the collective idea of the orthodox. However, while objects such as personal ornaments invoke the most complex, idiosyncratic and thus dynamic suite of meanings, this does not preclude the existence of standardization in the form of typology. The danger is that the latter overshadow the former because archaeologists have been more adept at so-called ‘morphofunctional’ classification than what is considered to be ‘symbolic’ interpretation, perceived as being less tangible and thus inaccessible in the absence of an ‘emic’ perspective (Headland et al. 1990). Of course, as a prominently visible form of personal ornamentation, the labret signified the cultural boundary between those who understood at least some of its meaning on ‘the inside,’ and those who were excluded from this meaning. Thus the  44  interpretation that one cannot access the symbolism of the labret without an emic perspective is in itself accessing the symbolism, meaning and intent of the labret: to exclude. Efforts here to move away from this false dichotomy turned to the concept of the chaîne opératoire, wherein the technological production sequence is seen as representing choices that have meaning, embodying elements of social identity (Stark 1998). This approach is modeled nicely in Schiffer’s (1997) discussion of pottery, in which he suggests that ceramic form/style derives from an agency-structure feedback loop that is discernable in form/style variability and patterning. In the creation of a typology, I approached the labret as a duality in itself: the flange worn inside the mouth, hidden and more closely linked with the individual and personal comfort (Smith 2007), and the visible body, which may conform more to societal concepts of appropriateness and rules of symbolic communication, “shared, largely uninterrogated ways of acting” (Joyce 2007:86). Yet fundamentally, all attributes of a labret both contain and inspire a culturally constructed concept of ‘materiality,’ and so whether archaeologists explicitly address the ‘symbolic’ aspects of artifacts, nonetheless every typology inherently evokes perhaps not what the meaning is, but rather, that there is meaning. 5.3 The Ethnographic Present This effort to contextualize the labret in social life has included the labret within its cultural past and present. This began with a look at Swanton’s (1905:99) account of the Haida, wherein he notes that the Eagle families of at least Skidegate and Masset trace their lineage back to Labret-Woman. Swanton (1905:216-7) also relates a story about Stī’tga-k!Α’mala12, or Shell-Labret woman. Shell-Labret, as Swanton (1905:217) discusses, is a figure “used to frighten children into good behaviour”—in this case, conforming to societal expectations of earpiercing. In general, these stories of Haida origins and mythology feature the labret prominently as an ornament conveying lineage, kinship, gender, and social distinction, as well as ensuring adherence to social values of tradition and belonging. Thus, many veneers of meaning and relationship are revealed in these stories, a crucial step toward ‘contextualizing’ the labret in its cultural framework alongside what is primarily an empirically-based analysis. In an effort to further explore the social role of this form of ‘material culture,’ I spoke with two First Nations artists, Russell Mather of Lax Kw’alaams, and Christian White of Masset, Haida Gwaii, both of whom are depicting labrets in their art (Appendix Z). In doing so, these layered identities were expanded, and it became clear that the labret continues to be a powerful symbol and carries significant cultural meaning that both harkens to the past and is informed by the present (cf., Silliman 2001).  45  By considering the contemporary social context of the labret, some of the notions of what it has meant in the past are being confronted. Ethnohistorical analyses of the labret have often conflated the perceived cumbersomeness of the worn labret, with social constraints on and controlling of women (see Dahm 1994:97 for a discussion of these accounts). Essentially, labrets were perceived as oppressive, physically and symbolically. Kan (1989) notes that, among the Tlingit, male Indigenous informants told male European ethnographers that the labret stopped women from talking too much, and thereby from causing wars. Whether this was a joke misunderstood or represents the opinion of one man cannot be ascertained, but the result has been a broad conceptualization of this particular form of body modification as society’s attempt to control women (Favazza 1996). Yet, in speaking on his perception of the labret and its female bearers, Christian White described the labret as a “sounding-board,” worn in the mouth to amplify the voice. He explained that in the last few decades, it has been rare to hear women speak at public events, but more recently they have started to speak at the potlatches, in English but also in Haida. Christian described this as the women having lost their voice but coming back again and speaking more strongly.  To honour and encourage this, Christian made a series of labrets to be worn as  medallions13, which he gave to all his female friends at a potlatch in 2006 to be “a symbol of their voice,” and to help “carry their voice.” Thus, although these labrets are not worn in the mouth, nonetheless the meaning they carry is of inner strength ‘sounded,’ of women and the matriline, empowered through speaking and being heard. Christian also stressed that the labret symbolized the female line, the matrilineal nature of Haida culture, going back to Labret-Woman. As such, he described it as a symbol being used by the youth to empower themselves by reconnecting with their culture, as he did during the repatriation ceremonies while reflecting upon labrets as burial objects, and as the women do when they wear the labret medallions and speak in their own language at the potlatch. This connection between being a matrilineal society, the power and the voice of women, was also discussed by Russell Mather, a Ts’msyan artist, who described this as his motivation to include labrets in his work: I started to include labrets in my work because first and foremost we are a matrilineal society and we use[d to] honored women in our opening remarks so I thought why not use what we speak in my art and then my art will speak. [the labret is] a memory of what used to be and a instant connection to my ancestors. It reminds us of a time long ago and how women were honored and recognized and to this day in my tribe we still follow that. 12  Christian White pointed out that the term ‘Stī’tga’ means labret, and was commonly attached to women’s names to indicate they were of a certain lineage and ‘higher status’ 13 This highlights an aspect of materiality not discussed in this thesis: the relationship between who made versus who wore labrets, and how this influences and is influenced by the cultural meaning that the labret carries, status and gender alike.  46  For both Russell and Christian, the labret is a symbol of the power of women to both speak and be heard, a total reversal from the interpretations of some early ethnographers who saw labrets as oppressive and inhibiting. The labret represents a kind of veneration of women and, by extension, of Ts’msyan and Haida culture respectively, a connection to the past through lineage; thus, the labret is the ultimate symbol of lineage: women = matriline = ancestors = culture = identity As such, it is a matter of scales of personhood (Fowler 2004), wherein the labret simultaneously connotes personal and group relationships including gender, spirituality, the family and clan, ancestry and kinship, and what it is to be a matrilineal people, Ts’msyan or Haida—as well as more broadly, what it is to be human, and to socialize the body. Yet these ‘nested’ or ‘fractalized’ senses of self and other, while multilayered, are not necessarily expressed in an explicit material form (e.g., different styles relating to different scales of identity) but rather are encoded in the labret as veneers. For archaeologists seeking to understand social identity in material culture, this translates into an inability to separate what is inherently intertwined, and thus discerning material patterning related to social identity, as this thesis sought to investigate, may be fundamentally limited. Rather than dismiss the endeavour, however, it is precisely because of the nuanced meanings in material culture that alternative methodologies must be employed, for archaeologists are always studying social identity whether or not this is their aim (Childe 1957); the goal must therefore be to make the effort to understand the complexity of materiality, rather than mask this with simplified ‘explanations’ that ultimately do not satisfy. The past only matters insofar as it is given meaning by people in the present (Tilley 1989); thus, it is in speaking with people today that the labret is placed in its wider context as an ornament that continues to both inform and be informed by contemporary cultural identity. 5.4 Towards a Reflexive Research Process In asking the question, how can labrets be used to trace the relationship of peoples on the coast in the last 5,000 years, empirical data was inherently privileged over the voices of the descent community of this heritage. The history of the labret is also a colonial one (Thomas 1991), as European objectification of labrets has moved from the initial curiosity of explorers, to disgust and abolishment by missionaries intent on assimilation, to a renewed fascination and consumption of labrets in art (Lenz 1994), to an appropriation in contemporary North American body piercing sub-culture—and finally a return to curiosity, as the labret became an object for study in this research. In an effort to counter this, I also asked the question, “What does the labret continue to mean to people?”, and began a dialogue with Indigenous artists who are representing labrets in their work.  47  This research on the topic of social identity, materiality and the labret has demonstrated that cultural identity is something that is expressed and shared between people who feel connected by a common history. The labret for contemporary First Nations on the North Coast has the potential to be a significant and empowering connection with their culture, heritage, tradition, and thus identity as a people, when empowered through the work of artists like Russell Mather and Christian White. In looking at labrets recovered archaeologically therefore, I wonder whether the labret provoked similar emotion in its bearers, in their families, in the villages? How it came to be that labrets ceased to have this value for people on the South Coast, where it disappeared potentially in just a few generations? And how this shift in the ways that people presented themselves impacted relationships between communities all along the coast? There are potentially profound implications resulting from research on past social identity. As this project on labrets has demonstrated, accessing identity archaeologically is an extremely complex undertaking and the results are far from certain. Yet in present-day British Columbia in particular, the results of such research can still represent a direct challenge to Aboriginal Right and Title and land claims, and have real impact on how people view themselves, as a people. It is therefore crucial that the descent community of the heritage under study be involved in as much of the research process as possible. As a Masters thesis, the end product has constrained what can be adequately addressed herein while fulfilling the degree requirements. However, it is only through practice on even the level of a Masters thesis that issues of ethical practice and accountability will be addressed and improved upon.  48  CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSIONS This thesis represents the most comprehensive and focused investigation of labrets in the Northwest Coast culture area of British Columbia to date. By tracing the labret through its material life-cycle from raw material and idea to manufacture, modification, wear, reuse, discard, and retrieval, literally and metaphorically, the labret is characterized as both a product in and a producer of the social fabric of its community. In this manner, I have attempted to provide a holistic analysis of labrets and their social context both in the past and present, moving beyond simple explanations to facilitate a richer understanding of how body ornamentation conveys multiple scales of hyper-contextual social identity. My efforts to clarify labret use through time and space by tracing patterning in the type, material and size, and relating these to different scales of group identity, have produced varied results. Labret style is patterned at least geographically and to some extent temporally, and was used to convey identity on many scales, particularly observable at the culture group and even village level. I have suggested that a somewhat different social process may account for the divergent patterns between the North and South Coasts, where the mutability of labret meaning was confronted by an emphasis on size in the North, and a replacement with cranial deformation in the South. Although interaction between these regions was conceivably constant, there is an internal cohesiveness to each that distinguish them culturally, and thus it would be appropriate to refocus separate analyses of each within the broader context of the region’s archaeology. This would enable a finer-resolution consideration of types, materials, and size, on the site level, where there is clearly significant geographical and temporal patterning of labrets. At this scale, a material analysis (including PIMA as a sourcing technique, among others) would be appropriate to consider relationships between neighbouring and distant groups, which would be a valuable contribution especially to ongoing discussions of the Locarno/Marpole ‘transition’ (Carlson and Hobler 1993). This research has been hindered by a lack of available data preventing further analysis on both a fine temporal resolution, and in terms of sex, gender and age direct correlations with labrets. Thus the concept that labret unequivocally delineate high-status, while not wrong, is not supported over the entire history of labret use in this region, and so only conveys a small and recent piece of what has always been a complex picture. As such, the crucial next step to provide clarity in labret changes over time is to compile additional dates for labrets from the ‘grey literature,’ creating a temporal map of labret style. While initially the aim of this project, this component proved too time-consuming and logistically challenging to be accomplished here; however, based on the archaeological-to-ethnological patterns, temporal associations should be observable both between and within types.  49  Additionally, this analysis has relied upon typology, yet there remains variation within types (specifically ‘knob’ labrets), types that may not be labrets (plates, plugs), and several unidentified artifacts that were masked or excluded from this analysis. Identifying previously-unknown types of labrets may be aided through a focused study of toothwear on labrets, which is frequently clearly-evident but often ambiguous. With the case of ‘knob’ labrets, in fact this may in part be related to post-initial-manufacture alteration, certainly demonstrable for a portion of the sample. While a detailed analysis of artifact biography was not possible here, this avenue of research would contribute to the concept of labrets as ‘mutable,’ and may clarify the obscurity that currently exists within the most geographically and temporally widespread type of labret on the coast. Finally, this research has demonstrated how critical it is to use multiple lines of evidence to address any one research question, particularly when dealing with something as multifaceted and contextual as social identity. In this vein, I found that speaking with people who are experiencing and relating to the labret today in different ways was one of the most rewarding avenues of research, both in considering the social significance of this ornament and, more broadly, how meaning is constructed by individuals within the constraints of the collective consciousness. Thus, this work has highlighted that one of the critical features of identity is a shared concept of a common history: who you are is where you came from, and as such, because of the role of heritage in the construction of group identity, archaeology can have profound implications for contemporary people’s understanding of who they are. This is particularly significant for the Indigenous peoples in North America and elsewhere, where a colonial myth of disconnect between First Nations and their heritage is still being perpetuated. Thus, while I sought to look at identity in the archaeological record, it was shown to me that the labret continues to hold meaning that is very much alive, connecting the past with a present sense of self and other. 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Academic Press, Orlando.  56  APPENDIX A Wear facets on labret surfaces caused by tooth abrasion  Posterior inferior surface worn flat from prolonged contact with mandibular incisors  Top: Five wear facets on posterior flange surface caused by contact with mandibular incisors and canines; Bottom, wear facet on posterior superior surface caused by contact with maxillary incisors  57  APPENDIX B Detailed methodology for labret attribute recording The variables recorded for labrets are outlined below. The terms used herein are after Keddie (1981), with the exception of the terms 'labial' instead of 'medial' and 'buccal' in place of 'lateral', which is adopted from Cybulski (1992:67) to retain anatomical continuity. Description Object Designation  This is a basic description of the artifact – is it a labret, possible labret, or possible element of a labret? Can the type of labret be identified (medial, lateral, composite, double)?  Detailed Description  This is a comprehensive description of the labret, including flange and body style, any additional decoration etc.  Flange  Is the flange lateral or circular? Rectangular, or laterally-tapered? Concave, convex, flat? Drilled or incised?  Body  Is the body short or extended, circular, oval, cylindrical or pendulum? Tapered distally, constricted body with flared distal end? Concave, convex, flat?  Completeness  This indicates the completeness of the labret, whether it is complete (100%), incomplete (51-99%) or a fragment (less than 50%).  Condition  This is a detailed description of the condition of the labret, including polishing, wear, breakage, scratching etc. This is also where any qualifications or further description of the previous designation under the 'Completeness' category are made.  Material Properties Class (lithic, faunal, floral)  This is self-explanatory; however, where two materials have been used, both are provided (i.e. wood, shell = floral, faunal).  Type  Here, the specific type of lithic or faunal material is recorded, for example soapstone, basalt, antler, bone.  Polish  This is simply the extent to which the labret is polished (trace, polished, highly polished).  Texture  This attribute describes the extent to which the labret is rough versus smooth, and is qualitative.  Colour  A Munsell designation will be assigned for each labret using the extended Munsell Book of Color (1972).  Colour Appearance  This is a simple description of the colour.  Patterning  Here, the patterning of the raw material is noted as either solid, banded, mottled, marbled or flecked.  58  Luminance  This attribute represents an experimental element that requires some explanation. In order to assign a number in lux for the labret, a digital light meter is used to measure the amount of light that is reflected back from the labret when a focused light source is projected towards it. The distance and angle of the light to the labret is controlled for. A dark cloth with a 10mm hole cut out is used to standardize the size of the sample being tested, and the lux measurement assigned is represents the difference between the reading with and without the labret in place. The intent behind this somewhat unusual measurement was to quantify how 'reflective' a labret is, enabling statistical testing of whether the ability to reflect light was an important attribute to the labret-bearer.  Iridescence  This indicates the presence or absence of iridescence in the raw material.  PIMA Result  For a subsample of the labrets from LOA and SFU, an infrared spectrometer (PIMA) was employed to measure and identify variation in the materials used, with a specific focus on what was visually identified as steatite/soapstone. Because of the high water and talc content of soapstone, PIMA is particularly effective in distinguishing subtle variation in this material. The goal of this exercise was to identify this variation using SIMIS FeatureSearch software and comparative data from the US Geological Survey library, and attempt to establish whether it represents a diversity in source locations, which could be significant in terms of inter-community relationships.  Density  The density of the labret was calculated using the standard mass/volume formula, for which the volume is measured using a graduated cylinder and small 2mm glass beads (instead of water for conservation purposes). The graduated cylinder allowed for up to 5ml accuracy.  Modification I have employed a chaîne opératoire behavioural approach to the classification of the morphological products of labret creation (cf. Schiffer 1997), which presumes an order of manufacture from most invasive on the raw material to least invasive finishing touches. Initial Manufacture Primary - Manufacture  Here, the most invasive method by which the labret was shaped is recorded (i.e. ground/abraded).  Secondary – Alteration  This category represents any modification to the labret which was not part of its initial formation, but was still moderately invasive (i.e. drilling).  Tertiary – Decoration  This represents the least-invasive forms of alteration to the labret, including polishing and incising.  Modification  This refers to whether the labret has been broken, reworn or reworked.  Post-Initial Manufacture Alteration In this section, any modification that was done after the initial manufacture is recorded. Primary - Manufacture Secondary - Alteration Tertiary – Decoration  (as above) (as above) (as above)  59  Measurements Standard digital calipers were employed for these measurements. Where curvature is the object of measurement, a flexible tape is used against the labret, then measured with the calipers when laid flat. The concavity depth is measured by drawing an outline of the concave surface, then a straight line across the two ends (Sutton and Arkush 1996:89).  Flange width (horizontal) height (vertical, at mid-flange) thickness (proximal to distal, at base of body) concavity length concavity depth (at centre) flange completeness Body length (proximal to distal) width (horizontal) height (vertical) concavity length concavity depth (at centre) body completeness Other  * this measurement was inconsistent and subsequently removed  In this section, additional measurements specific to the labret under study were recorded (i.e. drilled hole diameter, constricted neck), as well as 'estimated' complete measurements provided for labrets which are incomplete.  description measurement  60  Weight (g) Weight was gauged using a digital scale. Contextual Records This information was retrieved from the museums' various records including archived excavation reports, databases, field notes and reports. Historical and archived documents and photographs were retrieved from the following sources, as well as other institutions with labrets that will not be visited in person (cf. Burke Museum): Archives of British Columbia, Victoria Archives and Library at the Canadian Museum of Civilization, Ottawa Reports filed with the British Columbia Archaeology Branch, Victoria Ethnographic literature available through libraries The information collected included: Site Information Institution Catalogue No. Borden/Other Catalogue No. Borden No. Site Name Site Location Cultural Affiliations Contemporary First Nation(s) Provenience Unit Layer, Level Associated Date Contextual Materials Affiliated Documents Reports Excavation / Collection Records References  61  APPENDIX C  62  APPENDIX D Letter that was sent to all First Nations in whose traditional territory the labrets under study were recovered  Dear ______ Nation Chief and Council: I am a graduate student at UBC studying archaeology, and am writing to tell you about my research and find out whether there might be interest from ______ Nation to contribute to this project. For my Masters degree in anthropology, I am looking at labrets (lip plugs) from all along the coast that date between 4000 to 100 years ago. I am putting together a database to identify patterning in labret style that can be linked with different social identities (gender, age, status), which can be used to document relationships between coastal peoples over the last 4000 years. I am writing to you now because some of the labrets that I hope to use for this project are from ______ traditional territory, and are part of ______ cultural heritage. These labrets are all currently held by museums who will be providing access to the labrets so I can document their characteristics for the database. It is also my hope to include many perspectives about the history of labrets in my thesis, and I would welcome the opportunity to speak with anyone from ______ who may have interest in this project. Also, I am happy to provide more details about my project, as well as a copy of my thesis when it is completed (August 2008), and can be reached at the address above or via email, which is mlasalle@interchange.ubc.ca. Thank you for your understanding, and I hope to hear from you with any questions or comments you may have. Yours sincerely,  Marina J. La Salle MA Student, UBC  63  APPENDIX E Crosstabulation analyses comparing flange and body formal attributes, based on which the typology employed in the ensuing analyses was constructed Flange Description * Body Description Crosstabulation  Flange Description  concave  convex  Body Description convex/nipple  flat  incomplete  Total  circular  31  3  0  1  0  35  indistinguishable  22  0  0  8  0  30  lateral  16 5  61 0  1 0  65 0  6 1  149 6  74  64  1  74  7  220  lateral/circular Total  Flange Description * Body Description Crosstabulation  Flange Description  Body Description pendulant possible double 0 0  double 0  flaring 0  none 35  indistinguishable  0  0  30  0  0  0  30  lateral  4  2  87  16  14  26  149  lateral/circular  0  0  6  0  0  0  6  4  2  158  16  14  26  220  circular  Total  tapering 0  Total 35  Flange Description * Body Description Crosstabulation  Flange Description  Body Description hollowed incised 0 1  drilled 1  grooved 0  indistinguishable  1  0  0  0  4  25  30  lateral  4  2  0  2  0  141  149  lateral/circular  0  1  2  0  0  3  6  6  3  2  3  8  198  220  circular  Total  inlaid 4  none 29  Total 35  Flange Description * Neck Description Crosstabulation  Flange Description  Neck Description circumferential groove constricted 3 0  circular indistinguishable lateral lateral/circular  Total  none 32  Total 35  25  0  5  30  0  7  142  149  0  4  2  6  28  11  181  220  Flange Description * Body Description Crosstabulation Body Description  Flange Description  cylindrical  oval  ovoid  rectangular  square  zoomorphic  Total  circular  1  1  33  0  0  0  0  0  35  indistinguishable  8  0  7  15  0  0  0  0  30  26  78  25  0  7  9  2  2  149  3  0  2  1  0  0  0  0  6  38  79  67  16  7  9  2  2  220  lateral lateral/circular Total  semicylindrical  circular  64  Flange Description * Body Description Crosstabulation  Flange Description  circular  Body Description extended short 1 34  indistinguishable lateral lateral/circular Total  Total 35  1  29  30  64  85  149  0  6  6  66  154  220  Flange Description * Body Description Crosstabulation  Flange Description  circular  concave 3  incomplete  convex 0  Body Description convex/nipple 0  flat 6  incomplete 0  Total 9  0  3  0  0  0  3  laterally-rounded  15  47  1  47  3  113  oval  45  3  0  3  1  52  ovoid  10 1  0 11  0 0  0 18  0 3  10 33  74  64  1  74  7  220  rectangular Total  Flange Description * Body Description Crosstabulation  Flange Description  Body Description pendulant possible double  double  flaring  none  tapering  Total  circular  0  0  9  0  0  0  9  incomplete  0  0  0  2  1  0  3  laterally-rounded  4  1  64  14  13  17  113  oval  0  0  52  0  0  0  52  ovoid  0  0  10  0  0  0  10  rectangular  0  1  23  0  0  9  33  4  2  158  16  14  26  220  Total  Flange Description * Body Description Crosstabulation  Flange Description  Body Description hollowed incised 0 0  drilled 0  grooved 0  incomplete  0  0  0  0  0  3  3  laterally-rounded  2  1  0  2  0  108  113  oval  2  1  2  1  7  39  52  ovoid  0  0  0  0  1  9  10  rectangular  2  1  0  0  0  30  33  6  3  2  3  8  198  220  circular  Total  inlaid 0  none 9  Total 9  Flange Description * Neck Description Crosstabulation Neck Description circumferential groove constricted Flange Description  Total  none  Total  circular  9  0  0  9  incomplete  0  0  3  3  laterally-rounded  0  5  108  113  oval  10  4  38  52  ovoid  9  0  1  10  rectangular  0  2  31  33  28  11  181  220  65  Flange Description * Body Description Crosstabulation  Flange Description  Body Description rectangular semi-cylindrical  circular  cylindrical  oval  ovoid  square  zoomorphic  Total  circular  7  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  9  incomplete  1  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  3  24  50  23  0  6  6  2  2  113  5  1  41  5  0  0  0  0  52 10  laterallyrounded oval ovoid  0  0  0  10  0  0  0  0  rectangular  1  27  1  0  1  3  0  0  33  38  79  67  16  7  9  2  2  220  Total  Flange Description * Body Description Crosstabulation Body Description extended short Flange Description  Total  circular  0  9  9  incomplete  0  3  3  36  77  113  2  50  52 10  laterally-rounded oval ovoid rectangular Total  0  10  28  5  33  66  154  220  Flange Description * Body Description Crosstabulation  Flange Description  concave  concave 54  convex flat Total  convex 46  Body Description convex/nipple 1  flat 29  incomplete 4  Total 134  5  0  0  2  0  7  15  18  0  43  3  79  74  64  1  74  7  220  Flange Description * Body Description Crosstabulation  Flange Description  Body Description pendulant possible double  double  flaring  none  tapering  Total  concave  4  1  87  15  14  13  134  convex  0  0  7  0  0  0  7  flat  0  1  64  1  0  13  79  4  2  158  16  14  26  220  Total  Flange Description * Body Description Crosstabulation  Flange Description  Body Description hollowed incised  drilled  grooved  inlaid  none  Total  concave  3  3  1  2  6  119  134  convex  0  0  0  1  0  6  7  flat  3  0  1  0  2  73  79  6  3  2  3  8  198  220  Total  Flange Description * Neck Description Crosstabulation Neck Description circumferential groove constricted Flange Description  none  Total  concave  22  8  104  134  convex  0 6  0 3  7 70  7 79  28  11  181  220  flat Total  66  Flange Description * Body Description Crosstabulation  Flange Description  Body Description rectangular semi-cylindrical  circular  cylindrical  oval  ovoid  28  37  43  14  2  6  2  2  concave convex flat  Total  square  zoomorphic  0  1  5  0  1  0  0  0  7  41  19  2  4  3  0  0  79  38  79  67  16  7  9  2  2  220  Body Description extended short concave convex flat Total  23  Total  111  134  2  5  7  41  38  79  66  154  220  Flange Description * Body Description Crosstabulation  Flange Description  concave  convex  Body Description convex/nipple  flat  incomplete  Total  24  2  0  2  0  28  drilled, incised  1  0  0  0  0  1  hollowed  0  0  0  1  0  1  incised  0  1  0  0  0  1  49  61  1  71  7  189  74  64  1  74  7  220  drilled  none Total  Flange Description * Body Description Crosstabulation  Flange Description  Body Description pendulant possible double 0 2  double 0  flaring 0  none 25  drilled, incised  0  0  1  0  hollowed  0  0  1  incised  0  0  0  none  4  2  4  2  drilled  Total  tapering 1  Total 28  0  0  1  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  1  131  15  12  25  189  158  16  14  26  220  Flange Description * Body Description Crosstabulation  Flange Description  Total  Body Description hollowed incised 1 1  drilled 0  grooved 0  drilled, incised  0  0  0  hollowed  0  0  0  incised  0  0  none  6  3  6  3  drilled  134  10  Flange Description * Body Description Crosstabulation  Flange Description  Total  inlaid 1  none 25  Total 28  0  0  1  1  0  1  0  1  0  0  0  1  1  1  2  6  171  189  2  3  8  198  220  67  Flange Description * Neck Description Crosstabulation  Flange Description  Neck Description circumferential groove constricted 1 1  drilled  none 26  Total 28  drilled, incised  0  0  1  1  hollowed  0  0  1  1  incised none Total  0  0  1  1  27  10  152  189  28  11  181  220  Flange Description * Body Description Crosstabulation Body Description  Flange Description  circular  cylindrical  oval  ovoid  rectangular  semicylindrical  square  zoomorphic  drilled  1  1  25  1  0  0  0  0  28  drilled, incised  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  1  hollowed  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  1  incised  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  37  77  40  15  7  9  2  2  189  38  79  67  16  7  9  2  2  220  none Total  Total  Flange Description * Body Description Crosstabulation  Flange Description  drilled  Total 28  drilled, incised  0  1  1  hollowed  0  1  1  incised  0  1  1  65  124  189  66  154  220  none Total  Body Description extended short 1 27  68  APPENDIX F Crosstabulation of created types with attributes, demonstrating the robustness of the typology Flange Description * My Types Crosstabulation  Flange Description  My Types knob pendulant  bowl  disc  double-knob  plate  pulley  spool  tee  Total  4  29  0  1  0  0  0  0  1  35  13  0  0  1  0  0  15  1  0  30  0 0  1 1  4 0  79 0  15 0  0 4  0 1  0 0  50 0  149 6  17  31  4  81  15  4  16  1  51  220  My Types knob pendulant  circular indistinguishable lateral lateral/circular  Total  Flange Description * My Types Crosstabulation  Flange Description  bowl  disc  double-knob  plate  pulley  spool  tee  Total  circular  0  0  0  0  0  0  9  0  0  9  incomplete  0  0  0  1  2  0  0  0  0  3  laterally-rounded  0  1  4  71  13  0  0  0  24  113  oval  8  30  0  2  0  4  6  1  1  52  ovoid  9  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  10  rectangular  0  0  0  7  0  0  0  0  26  33  17  31  4  81  15  4  16  1  51  220  plate 3  pulley 10  spool 1  Total  Flange Description * My Types Crosstabulation  Flange Description  concave  bowl 16  disc 10  double-knob 4  My Types knob pendulant 61 14  tee 15  Total 134  convex  0  5  0  0  0  0  0  0  2  7  flat  1  16  0  20  1  1  6  0  34  79  17  31  4  81  15  4  16  1  51  220  Total  Flange Description * My Types Crosstabulation  Flange Description  My Types knob pendulant  bowl  disc  double-knob  plate  pulley  spool  tee  Total  drilled  0  22  0  3  0  1  1  0  1  28  drilled, incised  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  hollowed  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  1  0 17  0 8  0 4  0 77  1 14  0 3  0 15  0 1  0 50  1 189  17  31  4  81  15  4  16  1  51  220  incised none Total  Body Description * My Types Crosstabulation  Body Description  extended short  Total  My Types knob pendulant  bowl  disc  double-knob  plate  pulley  spool  tee  Total  0 17  0 31  0 4  13 68  1 14  0 4  0 16  1 0  51 0  66 154  17  31  4  81  15  4  16  1  51  220  69  Body Description * My Types Crosstabulation  Body Description  bowl 0  circular  disc 1  double-knob 3  My Types knob pendulant 23 0  plate 3  pulley 7  spool 1  tee 0  Total 38  cylindrical  0  0  1  26  11  0  0  0  41  79  oval  6  30  0  24  2  0  5  0  0  67  ovoid  11  0  0  0  0  1  4  0  0  16  rectangular  0  0  0  3  1  0  0  0  3  7  semi-cylindrical  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  7  9  square  0 0  0 0  0 0  2 2  0 0  0 0  0 0  0 0  0 0  2 2  17  31  4  81  15  4  16  1  51  220  zoomorphic Total  Body Description * My Types Crosstabulation  Body Description  My Types knob pendulant  bowl  disc  double-knob  plate  pulley  spool  tee  Total  concave  17  28  0  16  0  3  9  1  0  74  convex  0  3  3  29  12  0  0  0  17  64  convex/nipple  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  1  flat  0  0  1  31  2  0  7  0  33  74  0  0  0  4  1  1  0  0  1  7  17  31  4  81  15  4  16  1  51  220  plate 0  pulley 0  spool 0  incomplete Total  Body Description * My Types Crosstabulation  Body Description  bowl 0  double flaring  disc 0  double-knob 4  My Types knob pendulant 0 0  tee 0  Total 4  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  1  2  17  31  0  60  0  4  16  1  29  158  pendulant  0  0  0  1  15  0  0  0  0  16  possible double  0 0  0 0  0 0  14 5  0 0  0 0  0 0  0 0  0 21  14 26  17  31  4  81  15  4  16  1  51  220  none  tapering Total  Body Description * My Types Crosstabulation  Body Description  My Types knob pendulant  bowl  disc  double-knob  plate  pulley  spool  tee  Total  drilled  0  0  0  3  0  0  1  0  2  6  grooved  0  0  0  1  1  1  0  0  0  3  hollowed  0  0  0  0  0  2  0  0  0  2  incised  0  1  0  0  2  0  0  0  0  3  inlaid  6  0  0  1  0  0  1  0  0  8  none  11  30  4  76  12  1  14  1  49  198  17  31  4  81  15  4  16  1  51  220  plate 0  pulley 15  spool 0  Total  Neck Description * My Types Crosstabulation  Neck Description Total  circumferential groove  bowl 13  disc 0  double-knob 0  My Types knob pendulant 0 0  tee 0  Total 28  constricted  0  0  0  4  0  3  1  0  3  11  none  4  31  4  77  15  1  0  1  48  181  17  31  4  81  15  4  16  1  51  220  70  54 841  54 821  30 482  LOA  LOA  61 781  LOA  LOA  61 784  LOA  54 828  78 141  LOA  LOA  80 718  LOA  61 780  86 108  LOA  61 782  78 437  LOA  LOA  78 562  LOA  LOA  78 584  In stitutio n Catalogue No.  LOA  Institu tion  Borden No.  South  South  Boundary Bay, T sawwassen  Boundary Bay, T sawwassen  Liquid Air Site  Locarno Beach  1401 DhRt-6  South  South  Fraser River, Vancouver  South  South  South  South  Fraser River, Vancouver  Glenro se Cannery Fraser River, Site Van couver Glenro se Cannery Fraser River, Site Van couver Fraser River, Liquid Air Site Van couver Fraser River, Liquid Air Site Van couver  1368 DhRs-19  1215 DhRs-19  1401 DhRs-19  2342 DgRr-6  4205 DgRr-6  South  South  Boundary Bay, T sawwassen  Glenro se Cannery Fraser River, Site Vancouver  South  Boundary Bay, T sawwassen  1219 DgRr-6  Crescent Beach  11746 DgRr-1  South  Boundary Bay, T sawwassen  South  Crescent Beach  6636 DgRr-1  South  Glenro se Cannery Fraser River, Site Vancouver  Crescent Beach  101436 DgRr-1  Su b-Region  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  North (Nass, S keen a, Haida Gwaii); C entral; Sou th (Gulf Islands, North , C entral, Fraser Delta, S ou th Upper Fraser, West Van co uver Island, East Van co uver Island  Regi on  Boundary Bay, T sawwassen  Site Location  1109 DgRr-6  Crescent Beach  Crescent Beach  Crescent Beach  S ite Name  12592 DgRr-1  13278 DgRr-1  13395 DgRr-1  Borden/O th er C atalogu e No.  In stitutio n Information  APPENDIX G Original data collected: LABRETS  71  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Con tempo rary C u ltural Affiliation s Associa ted Date  unknown  in situ  in situ  in situ  in situ  in situ  in situ  in situ  in situ  surface  unknown  in situ  in situ  in situ  3210 to 3590 +/-110 BP  after 32 10 +/-110 BP  after 32 10 +/-110 BP  after 32 10 +/-110 BP  in situ, in screen,disturbe Type 1: C 14 d, surface , dates un k nown  In tegri ty of Proven ien ce  Site In formation  3000-3500  3000-3500  3000-3500  3000-3500  Locarno  Marpole  Marpole  Marpole  Associated Type 2: Periods Associated Date (C h arles, range s Locarn o, Marpole)  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  C ollecte d: Arch aeological, Sex Eth nolo gical  Con textu al Materials  age  MY TYPE  labret  double-knob  knob  double-button  knob  hat-shap ed button or hatshaped  labret  labret  hat-shap ed or T knob shaped labret  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral lat eral  knob  hat-shap ed  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  T -shaped  tee  tee  tee  knob  lat eral  lat eral  labret  T -shaped  T -shaped  button  button; originally knob double-button  tee  lat eral  button or hatshaped; originally knob double-button  T -shaped  lat eral  lat eral  lateral, circu lar  Flang e Description s  T -shaped or hatknob shaped  button; originally knob double-button  Classic' Type Description  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  la bret, po ssible la bret, in lay on ly; labial, bu ccal, composite  O bje ct Design ation  72  none  concave  flat  incom plete  rectangular  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  laterally-rounded concave  flat  flat  flat  rectangular  rectangular  rectangular  laterally-rounded flat  laterally-rounded flat  laterally-rounded flat  laterally-rounded concave  laterally-rounded concave  none  none  laterally-rounded concave  none  none  laterally-rounded flat  short  short  short  extended  extended  extended  extended  extended  short  short  extended  short  short  short  circular  cylindrical  cylindrical  cylindrical  cylindrical  cylindrical  cylindrical  cylindrical  oval  oval  cylindrical  circular  circular  circular  oval , ovoid, cyli ndrical, sem idrill ed, incised, cyli ndrical, short, e xtended grooved, circular, hollowed square, rectangular, z oomorphic  none  convex, concave, fl at, curve d  laterally-rounded concave  circular, oval, square, rectangular, ovoid, cyl indri cal , laterallyrounded  Body Description  convex  convex  flat  flat  flat  flat  convex  convex  flat  convex  flat  convex  convex  convex  convex, concave, flat  Description  double  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  possible double  none  possible double  tapering, flaring (di stally), pendulant, doubl e, possible double  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  dri lled, constricted, hollowe d, circumfere ntial incised, inlaid, groove grooved  Neck Description  complet e  incomplete  complet e  complet e  complet e  complet e  complet e  complet e  complet e  fragment  incomplete  fragment  fragment  complet e  O bject C om plete ne ss  lithic  lithic  lithic  lithic  lithic  lithic  lithic  lithic  lithic  lithic  faunal  lithic  faunal  lithic  (lithic, faunal, floral)  C lass  st eatite  siltstone  mudstone  highly polished  t race polish  t race polish  polished  dull mudstone  highly polished mudstone  highly polished  polished  polished  t race polish  t race polish  highly polished  polished  highly polished  Poli sh  unknown, siltstone  mudstone  st eatite  siltstone  st eatite  bone  st eatite  antler  st eatite  Type  very smooth  smoot h  smoot h  very smooth  smoot h  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  slightly rough  slightly rough  very smooth  smoot h  very smooth  Te xture  C olour Appearance  medium  medium  dark  dark  medium  dark  dark  dark  dark  dark  medium  dark  medium  dark  green-grey  grey  grey  black  grey  black  black  black  brown, grey  grey-brown  beige  brown, grey  beige  brown, grey  m ain, dark, medi um , secondary light colours  C olour Intensity  Mate rial Prope rtie s  mott led  mott led  solid  solid  flecked  solid  solid  solid  solid  flecked  solid  mott led  solid  mott led  Patte rning  0  0  0  0  0  0  4  3  0  3  0  5  13  Luminance (l ux)  73  2 ground/abraded  10 ground/abraded  2 ground/abraded  10 ground/abraded  10 ground/abraded  2 ground/abraded  2 ground/abraded  2 ground/abraded  2 ground/abraded  2 ground/abraded  2 ground/abraded  2 ground/abraded  40 ground/abraded  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  Primary – Manufacture  Ini tial Manufacture  10 ground/abraded  Volume  no  Iridescence  Material Properties  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  Secondary – Alteration  polished  none  none  polished  none  polished  polished  polished  polished  none  none  polished  polished  polished  Tertiary Decoration  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  yes, yes, no  B roken; ReWorked; W orn but not ReWorked?  Modification  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  ground/abraded  Pri mary – Manufacture  PostManufacture Alterations  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  Secondary – Alterati on  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  polished  Te rti ary De coration  70.5  17.5  16.5  12.5  15  9.3  9.3  8.1  50.1  54  9.7  19.3  18.4  33.5  width (horizontal)  flange  17.5  8.3  6.3  6.7  6.7  4.3  2.9  3.3  20.4  18.1  3.8  11.4  6.6  14.6  height (at mid thickness (at flange base of body)  8.5  3.6  3.1  2.8  3.5  2.4  2.2  2  5.3  5.5  1.8  4.7  3.3  5.5  body  19.1 yes  1.4 yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  3.7 yes  4 yes  yes  no  yes  4.7 yes  17  13  11.6  13.3  12.7  16  20.2  15.1  10.9  15.1  20  14.3  10.2  12.7  Flange – use me asureme nts length concavity depth for area (width, (proxim al to (at centre) height) as distal) compl ete?  Dimensions (m m)  9.2  16  26  9.3  9.3  6.1  10  4.9  3.7  4.1  26.6  29.7  2.5  14.1  wi dth (horizontal)  height (vertical)  27  9.6  9.5  6.3  9.1  4.4  3.8  3.9  22.5  22.6  2.5  13.6  7.1  15.3  concavity depth (at centre )  74  2.26  1.75  50.94  yes  yes  0.56  yes  yes  0.55  yes  1.23  17  yes  yes  14.35  yes  0.8  0.26  yes  2.22  5.08  yes  yes  0.58  yes  yes  6.7  We ight (g)  yes  Body – use measure ments for area (width, he ight) as complete ?  Dim ensions (m m)  fracture, medial axis  chip, length-axis; chip, lateral flange wing  chip, body  chip, lat eral flange wing  lateral flange wing chipped  lateral flange wings; chipped anterior body  body, dist al tip  lateral flange wings, doublebody reworked  medial axis, flange body  medial axis, flange; doublebody reworked  Locati on of Fracture Ful l Date Info  polish, posterior flange; four wear facet s equidist ant from medial axis on inferior and superior posterior flange (tooth wear?)  scrat ching, body  concretion, anterior flange base; bevelling posterior flange surface striations and concretion, anterior flange; bevelling, inferior flange concretion, anterior flange wear polish, anterior body micropitting, body  concretion, ant erior flange base; weathering/root etching, micropit ting, posterior flange; overall striations; inferior medial flange edge bevelled 3210+/-110 RCYBP (WSU4247) to 3590+/-85 RCYBP (WSU4245)  'Old Musqueam' component of manufacture Marpole, dating striat ions, flange t o later than t ip 3210+/-110 RCYBP (WSU4247) 'Old Musqueam' component of weathering, Marpole, dating ant erior body; t o later than worn, medial 3210+/-110 flange edge RCYBP (WSU4247) striations, posterior medial 3210+/-110RCY flange; BP (WSU4247) concretion, flange anterior striations, posterior flange surface; overall weathering overall weathering and micropitting  Location of W ear and Type  burials: sex, age group?  Contextual Mate ri als  10y 5/2, 10y 3/1  5y 5/2, 5y 3/1  n 2.5  n 2.0  2.5y 4/2  n 1.0  n 2.0  n 1.0  10yr 2/1  2.5y 2/2, 2.5y 5/2  10yr 7/4  5y 3/1  2.5y 6/4  10 yr 2/1, 10y 8/2  Colour (Munsel l)  concavi ty length  flange  78.7  17.1  51.5  35.6  34.4  concavity length  body  drill ed hole diame ter  drille d hole depth  othe r m easurem ents  NO T INCLUDED IN SPSS  distance be twee n holes  constricted neck width  constricted neck height  Other de scription  O ther m easurem ent  complete  width estimat ed  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  width estimat ed  complete  incomplete  width estimat ed  complete  fl ange m easurem ent status  complete  incomplete, but measurements accurate  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  length estimat ed  complete  widt h estimated  complete  body m easureme nt status  NOT INCLUDED IN SPSS  LOA  LOA  LOA  LOA  LOA  LOA  LOA  LOA  LOA  LOA  LOA  5990 DhRt -4  5934 DhRt -4  7998 DhRt -4  9943 DhRt -4  5141 DhRt -4  37615  37457  41902  41911  8654 DhRt -4  41673  41844  550 DhRs-1  45336  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Fraser River, Vancouver  Musqueam North Fraser River, East Vancouver  Musqueam North Fraser River, East Vancouver Musqueam East Musqueam East Musqueam East Musqueam East  Marpole  North Fraser River, Vancouver North Fraser River, Vancouver North Fraser River, Vancouver North Fraser River, Vancouver Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Fraser River, Vancouver  Marpole  6701 DhRs-1  Sout h  Fraser River, Vancouver  Marpole  368 DhRs-1  44110  Sout h  Burrard Inlet, Vancouver  Locarno Beach  2563 DhRt -6  Locarno Beach  Sub-Re gi on  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  North (Nas s, Ske e na, Hai da Gwaii ); Central ; South (Gulf Isl ands , North, Ce ntral , Frase r De lta, South Uppe r Fras e r, We s t Vancouve r Isl and, East Vancouve r Isl and  Re gi on  Sout h  Site Location  Burrard Inlet, Vancouver  Site Name  33651  Borde n No.  423 DhRt -6  Borde n/O the r Catal ogue No.  80724  Insti tution Catal ogue No.  Insti tution Information  Ins ti tuti on  75  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Conte mporary Cul tural Affil i ati ons As soci ate d Date  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  unknown  in sit u  i n si tu, i n s cre e n ,di sturbe Type 1: C14 d, s urface , date s unknown  Inte grity of Prove ni e nce  Site Information  2500-3500 Locarno  As soci ate d Type 2: Pe riods Ass oci ate d Date (Charl e s, range s Locarno, Marpole )  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Col l e cte d: Archae ol ogical, Se x Ethnol ogi cal  Conte xtual Mate ri al s  age  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  l abre t, possi bl e l abre t, inl ay only; l abial , buccal , composi te  O bje ct De s ignation  disc  disc  disc  disc  disc  disc  disc  disc  disc  knob  unclassified; closest is butt on but ant erior surface is concave disc  knob  t ee  knob  disc  disc  MY TYPE  but t on  T-shaped  but t on  disc  disc  Cl ass ic' Type De s cri ption  De scri pti on  circular  circular  circular  circular  circular  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  circular  circular  l ate ral , ci rcul ar  Fl ange De s cri pti ons  none  laterally-rounded concave  oval  oval  oval  oval  oval  none  none  drilled  none  flat  flat  flat  flat  none  none  laterally-rounded flat  flat  none  flat  rectangular  none  drilled  convex  short  short  short  short  short  short  short  ext ended  short  short  oval  oval  oval  oval  circular  circular  circular  semi-cylindrical  circular  oval  oval  convex  short  drilled, incised  convex, concave, flat, curved  Body Description  concave  concave  concave  convex  concave  concave  flat  flat  flat  concave  concave  convex, concave , flat  Description  oval, ovoid, cylindrical , se mi dril led, i ncis ed, cylindrical , short, extended grooved, ci rcul ar, hollowed square, re ctangul ar, zoomorphi c  laterally-rounded flat  oval  oval  ci rcular, oval , square, rectangular, ovoi d, cyl indri cal , lateral lyrounded  76  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  tape ring, fl aring (di stal ly), pendulant, double , poss ible doubl e  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  incised  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  drill ed, constricted, hol lowed, circumferenti al i ncise d, inl aid, groove grooved  Neck Descri pti on  fragment  fragment  fragment  fragment  fragment  incomplet e  complete  incomplet e  complete  complete  incomplet e  O bject C omplete ness  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  (lithic, faunal, floral )  C lass  coal  coal  coal  coal  coal  soapstone  mudst one  schist  mudst one  steatite  coal  Type  highly polished  trace polish  highly polished  polished  highly polished  highly polished  trace polish  dull  trace polish  highly polished  highly polished  Pol ish  very smooth  smoot h  very smooth  smoot h  smoot h  very smooth  very smooth  smoot h  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  Texture  C ol our Appearance  dark  dark  dark  dark  dark  dark  dark  dark  dark  dark  dark  black  black  black  black  black  brown  black  grey  black  brown  black  mai n, dark, m edium , secondary l ight col ours  C olour Intensity  Material Properti es  solid  solid  solid  solid  solid  flecked  solid  solid  solid  flecked  solid  Patterni ng  Luminance (lux)  3  3  4  1  3  0  0  0  9  2  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  Irides cence  Volum e  Materi al Propertie s  77  drilled  drilled  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  drilled  none  10 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  2 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  10 ground/abraded  15 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  10 ground/abraded  Secondary – Alte rati on  5 ground/abraded  Pri mary – Manufacture  Ini tial Manufacture  no, yes, no  polished  none  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  none  polished  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  incised, polished none  polished  Tertiary Decorati on  Broken; ReWorked; Worn but not ReWorke d?  Modification  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  Prim ary – Manufacture  PostManufacture Alterations  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  incised  Secondary – Alterati on  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  Tertiary De coration  30.1  29.2  7.1  30.1  34.9  29.3  width (hori zontal)  fl ange  20.2  14  1.8  11  22.3  18.4  hei ght (at m id thickne ss (at fl ange base of body)  3.9  4  1.8  5  body  n/a  n/a  n/a  n/a  n/a  2.3 no  1.7 yes  yes  1.2 yes  yes  yes  9.6  15.6  15.8  15.1  21.5  18.5  9.6  10.4  12.4  12.3  11.3  Fl ange – use measurements l ength concavity depth for area (width, (proxi mal to (at ce ntre) hei ght) as distal) com ple te?  Dim ensions (mm )  32  60  39  55  55  55  23.1  14.9  3.5  13.6  36.5  width (horizontal)  hei ght (verti cal )  35  24  35  35  35  22.1  16  1.8  14.1  23.2  21.3  1.9  3.6  2.3  5.5  3.5  4.5  concavi ty depth (at centre)  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  Body – use me asure me nts for area (width, hei ght) as comple te ?  Di me ns ions (mm)  78  11.43  7.49  5.1  17.76  8.22  6.87  6.05  0.17  5.72  11.48  5.46  W ei ght (g) Locati on of W e ar and Type Full Date Info  lateral flange wings broken  broken, distal body tip  n 2.5 n 2.0  n 2.0  n 2.0  n 1.0  2.5y 2/2  n 2.0  n 1.5  n 1.5  10 yr 2/1  n 1.0  Colour (Munse ll)  heavily fragmented  buri al s: s ex, age group?  C ontextual Mate rials  overall weathered  overall heavily weathered heavily fragmented  heavily weat hered overall  scrat ching, anterior body and posterior flange; bevelling and polish, medial inferior flange edge micropitt ing, anterior body; scrat ching and pitt ing, posterior flange  concretion, anterior flange; striations and scrat ching, anterior body; scrat ching/gaugin g, posterior flange; bevelling, inferior flange edge  weathering, body; striations, flange; 2500-3300 gauging, incised RCYBP surface pitt ing, polish, flange/drilled hole; vert ical chip, striations, flange/drilled hole posterior flange; polish, anterior body  chip, flange; chip, ant erior body  Location of Fracture  concavity l ength  flange  28.4  29.8  30.4  concavity le ngth  body  35.4  23.8  39  35.5  dril le d hole diame te r  4  2.5  2.9  dri lle d hole de pth  othe r me asure m ents  NO T INC LUDED IN SPSS  distance be twee n hole s  constricte d ne ck width  constricte d neck he i ght  O the r de scription  O the r me asure m ent  complete  length incomplete  complete  complete  incomplet e, but measurements accurate  body m easure me nt status  width, height estimated width, height estimated width, height estimated width, height estimated  width, height estimated  widt h incomplete complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  incomplet e, but measurements accurate  fl ange me asure me nt status  NO T INC LUDED IN SPSS  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  LOA  LOA  LOA  LOA  2007-34  72013  Insti tution Catal ogue No.  Sout h Sout h  Fraser River Canyon  Milliken Milliken  1170 DiRi-3  7673 DiRi-3  Oak Bay, Vict oria  Oak Bay Fire Hall  467 DcRt-13  Sout h  Sout h  Oak Bay, Vict oria  Willows Beach  Sout h  Esquimalt Harbour, Helmken Bay  599 DcRt-10  Sout h  Esquimalt IR#1  unknown  Maple Bank  Litt le Beach Sit e  461 DcRu-63  1007 DcRu-12  61 DfSj-100  Uclut h Peninsula, Sout h Ucluelet  Sout h  Tsawwassen  Fraser River Canyon  973 DiRi-3  5655 DgRs-2  Sub-Re gi on  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Conte mporary Cul tural Affil i ati ons  East Vancouver Island  East Vancouver Island  East Vancouver Island  East Vancouver Island  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  As soci ate d Date  screen  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  surface  in sit u  dist urbed  surface  2630 +/-95 BP and 2490 +/-85 BP uncorrect ed  i n si tu, i n s cre e n ,di sturbe Type 1: C14 d, s urface , date s unknown  Inte grity of Prove ni e nce  Site Information  West Vancouver Nuu-Chah-Nult h in sit u Island  Upper Fraser  Upper Fraser  Upper Fraser  Fraser Delta  North (Nas s, Ske e na, Hai da Gwaii ); Central ; South (Gulf Isl ands , North, Ce ntral , Frase r De lta, South Uppe r Fras e r, We s t Vancouve r Isl and, East Vancouve r Isl and  Re gi on  Fraser River Canyon  Site Location  Milliken  Site Name  Sout h  Borde n No.  Boundary Bay, Tsawwassen  Borde n/O the r Catal ogue No.  Insti tution Information  Ins ti tuti on  79  2500-4000  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  2500 Locarno/Marpole Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  male  Col l e cte d: Archae ol ogical, Se x Ethnol ogi cal  Charles/Locarno Archaeological  As soci ate d Type 2: Pe riods Ass oci ate d Date (Charl e s, range s Locarno, Marpole )  Conte xtual Mate ri al s  unknown  age  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  l abre t, possi bl e l abre t, inl ay only; l abial , buccal , composi te  O bje ct De s ignation  knob  knob  t ee  t ee  MY TYPE  disc  disc  pendulant  pendulant  disc  disc  pendulant  pendulant  unclassified; closest is butt on but ant erior body plate surface is concave  novice  but t on  T-shaped  T-shaped  Cl ass ic' Type De s cri ption  De scri pti on  circular  circular  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral/circular  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  l ate ral , ci rcul ar  Fl ange De s cri pti ons  none  drilled  drilled  laterally-rounded concave  convex  convex  oval  oval  none  laterally-rounded concave  none  none  laterally-rounded concave  flat  none  laterally-rounded concave  oval  none  short  short  short  short  short  short  short  ext ended  oval  oval  cylindrical  oval  circular  cylindrical  oval  semi-cylindrical  cylindrical  flat  ext ended  none  convex, concave, flat, curved  Body Description  concave  concave  convex  incom plete  incom plete  flat  convex  convex  convex  convex, concave , flat  Description  oval, ovoid, cylindrical , se mi dril led, i ncis ed, cylindrical , grooved, short, extended ci rcul ar, hollowed square, re ctangul ar, zoomorphi c  laterally-rounded concave  rectangular  ci rcular, oval , square, rectangular, ovoi d, cyl indri cal , lateral lyrounded  80  none  pendulant  none  none  none  grooved  pendulant  none  hollowed  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  const ricted  none  none  none  drill ed, constricted, hol lowed, circumferenti al i ncise d, inl aid, groove grooved  none  none  none  tapering  tapering  tape ring, fl aring (di stal ly), pendulant, double , poss ible doubl e  Neck Descri pti on  complete  incomplet e  complete  incomplet e  incomplet e  complete  complete  complete  incomplet e  O bject C omplete ness  highly polished  dull  soapstone  slate  unknown, serpentine  shell (purplehinged scallop)  steatite  steatite  lit hic  lit hic  faunal  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  polished  soapstone  lit hic  highly polished  highly polished  trace polish  polished  trace polish  soapstone  lit hic  dull  Pol ish  slate  Type  lit hic  (lithic, faunal, floral )  C lass  very smooth  very smooth  smoot h  very smooth  smoot h  smoot h  smoot h  slightly rough  smoot h  Texture  C ol our Appearance  medium  dark  light  dark  dark  light  medium  medium  dark  solid  mott led  mott led  mott led  solid  Patterni ng  flecked  solid  red-brown, green mott led  grey  whit e  black, green-grey marbled  grey  grey  grey  grey  grey  mai n, dark, m edium , secondary l ight col ours  C olour Intensity  Material Properti es Luminance (lux)  2  1  5  0  0  3  2  0  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  Irides cence  Volum e  Materi al Propertie s  81  none  none  none  incised  none  drilled  none  drilled  drilled  2 ground/abraded  2 ground/abraded  2 ground/abraded  15 ground/abraded  10 ground/abraded  25 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  10 ground/abraded  Secondary – Alte rati on  2 ground/abraded  Pri mary – Manufacture  Ini tial Manufacture  none  none  yes, no, yes  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  Prim ary – Manufacture  PostManufacture Alterations  polished  polished  none  none  none  none  unknown, yes, no ground/abraded  none  grooved, polished yes, unknown, no none  inlaid  none  polished  none  none  Tertiary Decorati on  Broken; ReWorked; Worn but not ReWorke d?  Modification  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  Secondary – Alterati on  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  Tertiary De coration  33.7  23.6  57.7  41  70  16.5  23.8  19.5  12.8  width (hori zontal)  fl ange  22.1  18.2  20  16  46  7.9  12.2  7.6  3.2  hei ght (at m id thickne ss (at fl ange base of body)  8  7.2  5.2  3.9  3.2  4.3  6.2  body  yes  yes  7 yes  2.3 yes  yes  0.5 yes  0.7 yes  3 yes  yes  11.6  10.2  15.3  12  12.5  9.5  10  17.8  35.1  Fl ange – use measurements l ength concavity depth for area (width, (proxi mal to (at ce ntre) hei ght) as distal) com ple te?  Dim ensions (mm )  7.6  3.8  35.4  27.3  43.5  28.5  51  9.7  17.8  width (horizontal)  hei ght (verti cal )  26.1  19.9  66.3  33  46  7.3  10.8  6.4  3.8  2  2  9.1  concavi ty depth (at centre)  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  Body – use me asure me nts for area (width, hei ght) as comple te ?  Di me ns ions (mm)  82  striations, body anterior and interior; lateral striations, flange posterior vertical striations, posterior flange; pitt ing, flange wing t ips striations, superior and inferior flange, lat eral pendulum body  wear and striations, body superior surface  scrat ching, flange posterior  broken lat eral flange wing tip  broken, inferior pendulum  chips, lateral body edge  chipping, body; broken, through drilled hole  chipping and crack, anterior body surface  30.8  16.8  40  5.1  12.3  1.31  4.13  polish, flange inferior medial edge  chipping, inferior striations overall flange edge  chip, anterior body; chipping, flange edges chip, anterior body  2.26  Locati on of W e ar and Type  lateral flange wing broken  Location of Fracture  1.12  W ei ght (g) Colour (Munse ll)  2630+-95BP (Gak 5102) and 2490+-85bp (Gak5103) uncorrected  5gy 5/2, 5gy 1/2, 5gy 4/2  site has lower component dating c.2900-2055 BP  2.5y 5/6, 2.5y 2/2, 5y 5/4  5y 2/1  10yr 9/1  n2.5  5y 8/2, 5y 5/2  7.5y 6/2, 5y 4/2  10y 6/1, 10y 5/1  burial was male, single, dist urbed by backhoe, tight ly flexed; construct ion dist urbance pushed t orso bones t owards cranium, and also n 2.0 dist urbance from ot her adjacent burials (also male); so, association between labret and male skelet on is NOT demonstrated  buri al s: s ex, age group?  C ontextual Mate rials  found Sept.20 1991; deposit s date between 2500-4000 yrs ago  C14 sample on bone was taken  Full Date Info  concavity l ength  flange  59.5  42  16.5  24  20.2  concavity le ngth  body  35.6  28.3  37.2  dril le d hole diame te r  3.7  1.7  dri lle d hole de pth  othe r me asure m ents  NO T INC LUDED IN SPSS  distance be twee n hole s  constricte d ne ck width  6.5  constricte d neck he i ght  6.5  O the r de scription  O the r me asure m ent  complete  complete  complete  complete  widt h, height est imated  complete  complete  complete  widt h est imat ed  fl ange me asure me nt status  complete  incomplet e, but measurements accurate  complete  incomplet e, but measurements accurate  height estimated  complete  complete  complete  incomplet e, but measurements accurate  body m easure me nt status  NO T INC LUDED IN SPSS  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  (old acc.72-137, previously DiSc1:7)  (old #2374 & 1912-6)  Insti tution Catal ogue No. Sub-Re gi on  East Vancouver Island  East Vancouver Island  sout h of Cadboro Bay, Municipality of Sout h Oak Bay, Vict oria  Jack Point , near Sout h Duke Point, Nanaimo  Temp.No. DcRt -599  Temp.No. DgRx-277A  42 DcRt-71  East Vancouver Island  Jack point, near Duke Point , Nanaimo  Temp.No. DgRx-277A  36 DgRx-5  Sout h  East Vancouver Island  Qualicum Beach, Sout h Vancouver Island  Qualicum Golf Course  1 DiSc-26  1482 DgRx-5  East Vancouver Island  Cowichan Bay, Sout h Vancouver Island  Temp.No. DeRv-510  61 DeRv-107  East Vancouver Island  Cowichan Sout h Dist rict, Vancouver Island  unknown  East Vancouver Island  East Vancouver Island  Sout h  Sout h  North (Nas s, Ske e na, Hai da Gwaii ); Central ; South (Gulf Isl ands , North, Ce ntral , Frase r De lta, South Uppe r Fras e r, We s t Vancouve r Isl and, East Vancouve r Isl and  Re gi on  17 DeRv-Y  Oak Bay, Vict oria  Oak Bay Fire Hall  479 DcRt-13  Site Location  Oak Bay, Vict oria  Site Name  Oak Bay Fire Hall  Borde n No.  26 DcRt-13  Borde n/O the r Catal ogue No.  Insti tution Information  Ins ti tuti on  83  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Conte mporary Cul tural Affil i ati ons As soci ate d Date  in sit u  surface  in sit u  unknown  unknown  unknown  surface  surface  i n si tu, i n s cre e n ,di sturbe Type 1: C14 d, s urface , date s unknown  Inte grity of Prove ni e nce  Site Information  As soci ate d Type 2: Pe riods Ass oci ate d Date (Charl e s, range s Locarno, Marpole )  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Col l e cte d: Archae ol ogical, Se x Ethnol ogi cal  Conte xtual Mate ri al s  age  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  l abre t, possi bl e l abre t, inl ay only; l abial , buccal , composi te  O bje ct De s ignation  disc  MY TYPE  knob  t ee  unclassified; closest is butt on  disc  unclassified; closest is disc  knob  disc  disc  unclassified; but t on but with knob ant erior concave surface  hat -shaped  T-shaped  unclassified; but t on but with knob concave ant erior  disc  Cl ass ic' Type De s cri ption  De scri pti on  lat eral  circular  circular  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  circular  l ate ral , ci rcul ar  Fl ange De s cri pti ons  84  drilled  none  none  none  none  none  drilled  none  convex, concave, flat, curved  concave  laterally-rounded flat  laterally-rounded flat  laterally-rounded concave  flat  oval  laterally-rounded concave  flat  ci rcular, oval , square, rectangular, ovoi d, cyl indri cal , lateral lyrounded  oval  oval  laterally-rounded flat  short  short  short  short  short  ext ended  short  short  rect angular  oval  oval  oval  circular  cylindrical  oval  oval  oval, ovoid, cylindrical , se mi dril led, i ncis ed, cylindrical , short, extended grooved, ci rcul ar, hollowed square, re ctangul ar, zoomorphi c  Body Description  flat  concave  convex  concave  flat  flat  concave  concave  convex, concave , flat  Description  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  tape ring, fl aring (di stal ly), pendulant, double , poss ible doubl e  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  drill ed, constricted, hol lowed, circumferenti al i ncise d, inl aid, groove grooved  Neck Descri pti on  incomplet e  incomplet e  complete  incomplet e  incomplet e  complete  incomplet e  complete  O bject C omplete ness  faunal  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  (lithic, faunal, floral )  C lass  bone  coal  coal  steatite  siltstone  quartzite  steatite  steatite  Type  highly polished  highly polished  highly polished  highly polished  trace polish  trace polish  highly polished  highly polished  Pol ish  smoot h  very smooth  smoot h  very smooth  very smooth  slightly rough  very smooth  very smooth  Texture  C ol our Appearance  dark  dark  dark  dark  dark  light  dark  dark  black  black  black  grey  grey  beige  grey  brown-grey  mai n, dark, medium, secondary l ight col ours  C olour Intensity  Material Properti es  solid  solid  solid  mott led  solid  solid  mott led  flecked  Patterni ng  0  0  0  0  0  put for shiny coal  put for shiny coal  Luminance (lux)  85  5 ground/abraded  2 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  15 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  Pri mary – Manufacture  Ini tial Manufacture  10 ground/abraded  Volume  no  Irides cence  Materi al Propertie s  none  drilled  none  none  none  none  none  drilled  Secondary – Alte rati on  polished  polished  polished  polished  none  polished  polished  polished  Tertiary Decorati on  none  none  none  Primary – Manufacture  PostManufacture Alterations  none  none  none  none  none  unknown, yes, no ground/abraded  none  possibly, yes, no ground/abraded  none  none  none  Broken; ReWorked; Worn but not ReWorke d?  Modification  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  Secondary – Alterati on  none  none  polished  none  none  none  none  none  Tertiary De coration  42  37.9  22.4  42  29.8  11  28.7  33.8  width (hori zontal)  fl ange  6  27  14.6  22.2  18  5  15.3  19.6  hei ght (at mid thickne ss (at fl ange base of body)  4.6  4.7  6.1  4  2.8  body  yes  yes  yes  5.5 yes  yes  yes  no  6 yes  17.2  17.5  9.9  7  16  27  7  11.6  Fl ange – use measurements l ength concavity depth for area (width, (proxi mal to (at ce ntre) hei ght) as distal) comple te?  Dimensions (mm)  14  43  27  32  19.5  6  22.8  35.8  width (horizontal)  hei ght (verti cal )  4.8  28.4  17.6  22.4  18  5.1  15.4  20.4  5  5  4  5  concavi ty depth (at centre)  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  Body – use me asure me nts for area (width, hei ght) as comple te ?  Di me ns ions (mm)  86  n 0.5  1.8  15.5  3.4  “ re-dating of Component II of this site to a much earlier time striations overall; period suggests striations, body that a late date of around 910AD circumference att ributed t o art ifacts in Area A of the site is wrong” (Keddie)  n 1.5  lateral flange wing broken  overall st riations  n 0.5  fracture, ant erior body; fracture, micropitt ing, posterior flange, posterior flange around drilled hole  fractured medial axis  n 3/0  original colour, 10yr 9/1, but weathering has creat ed mottled 10yr 7/4  10yr 2/1  5y 2/1, 5y 8/4, 5y 5/4  Colour (Munse ll)  10yr 3/1, 10yr 7/2  buri al s: s ex, age group?  C ontextual Mate rials  4.8  Full Date Info  polish, post erior flange; striations, medial inferior flange; microchipping, anterior body  overall weat hering  chipping, anterior body; vertical striations, flange posterior; overall wear striations and wear facet (tooth?), posterior flange; striations, anterior body  Locati on of W e ar and Type  7.9  lateral flange wings broken; chipping, anterior body  Location of Fracture  striations overall; polish, flange anterior; fractured on striations, horizontal plane inferior posterior flange; striations, anterior body  1.9  3.6  9.7  W ei ght (g)  concavity l ength  flange  29.8  35.3  concavity le ngth  body  42.8  21.6  24  36.6  dril le d hole diame te r  2.3  dri lle d hole de pth  othe r me asure m ents  NO T INC LUDED IN SPSS  distance be twee n hole s  constricte d ne ck width  constricte d neck he i ght  O the r de scription  O the r me asure m ent  complete  body m easure me nt status  complete  widt h est imat ed  incomplet e, but measurements accurate  complete  widt h est imat ed  complete  width estimated  complete  width estimated  height estimated height estimated  complete  widt h incomplete complete  complete  fl ange me asure me nt status  NO T INC LUDED IN SPSS  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  Sub-Re gi on  East Vancouver Island  Gulf Islands  Mt. T zuhalem, Sout h Vancouver Island nort h of T aylor Point , Sat urna Island  unknown  unknown  3 DeRv-6  4 DeRv-6  Pender Canal 2  40 DeRt-Y  168 DeRt-2  unknown  38 DeRt-Y  Pender Island  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Pender Canal (probably DeRt -2 Pender Island Keddie)  11 DeRst -Y  Pender Island  Sout h  Saturna Island  unknown  25 DeRs-1  (acc.#67-49)  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  East Vancouver Island  Mt. T zuhalem, Sout h Vancouver Island  Sout h  East Vancouver Island  Mt. T zuhalem, Sout h Vancouver Island  unknown  2 DeRv-6  Bruce Bight  East Vancouver Island  Mt. T zuhalem, Sout h Vancouver Island  unknown  1 DeRv-6  unknown  East Vancouver Island East Vancouver Island  East Vancouver Island  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  North (Nas s, Ske e na, Hai da Gwaii ); Central ; South (Gulf Isl ands , North, Ce ntral , Frase r De lta, South Uppe r Fras e r, We s t Vancouve r Isl and, East Vancouve r Isl and  Re gi on  Mountie Sit e, Comox, Sout h Temp.No. DkSfVancouver Island Ta  Temp.No. DbRvRP-1  Depart ure Bay, Nanaimo Duke Point , Nanaimo  Site Location  894 DkSf-26  1 DbRv-17  unknown  1177 DgRx-5B  Site Name  St i'ilup  Borde n No.  2773 DhRx-16  Borde n/O the r Catal ogue No.  (old RBCM#4875, formerly DeRt Y:5)  Insti tution Catal ogue No.  Insti tution Information  Ins ti tuti on  87  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Conte mporary Cul tural Affil i ati ons As soci ate d Date  unknown  unknown  surface  unknown  unknown  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  unknown  unknown  dist urbed  Conte xtual Mate ri al s  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Col l e cte d: Archae ol ogical, Se x Ethnol ogi cal  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Locarno/Marpole Archaeological  As soci ate d Type 2: Pe riods Ass oci ate d Date (Charl e s, range s Locarno, Marpole )  317 +/-173 BC t o 2000 – 3000 1012 +/-270 BC  i n si tu, i n s cre e n ,di sturbe Type 1: C14 d, s urface , date s unknown  Inte grity of Prove ni e nce  Site Information  age  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  l abre t, possi bl e l abre t, inl ay only; l abial , buccal , composi te  O bje ct De s ignation  disc  disc  knob  disc  t ee  T-shaped  knob  disc  pendulant  pendulant  pendulant  pendulant  knob  knob  t ee  MY TYPE  but t on or hatshaped  unclassified  but t on and composite  pendulant  pendulant  pendulant  pendulant  unclassified  but t on or hatshaped  T-shaped  disc  Cl ass ic' Type De s cri ption  De scri pti on  circular  lat eral  lat eral  circular  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  circular  l ate ral , ci rcul ar  Fl ange De s cri pti ons  drilled  none  none  flat  laterally-rounded flat  oval  flat  drilled  ext ended  none  short  short  none  short  laterally-rounded flat  none  laterally-rounded concave  short  laterally-rounded concave  none  laterally-rounded concave  short  short  incised  laterally-rounded concave  short  short  short  none  none  laterally-rounded concave  flat  none  laterally-rounded concave  oval  none  concave  rectangular  short  ext ended  short  oval  circular  cylindrical  oval  oval  cylindrical  cylindrical  cylindrical  cylindrical  rect angular  circular  cylindrical  oval  convex, concave, flat, curved  Body Description  concave  convex  flat  convex  convex  convex  convex  convex  convex  incom plete  flat  flat  concave  convex, concave , flat  Description  oval, ovoid, cylindrical , se mi dril led, i ncis ed, cylindrical , short, extended grooved, ci rcul ar, hollowed square, re ctangul ar, zoomorphi c  flat  rectangular  oval  ci rcular, oval , square, rectangular, ovoi d, cyl indri cal , lateral lyrounded  88  none  flaring  tapering  none  none  pendulant  pendulant  pendulant  pendulant  none  none  none  none  tape ring, fl aring (di stal ly), pendulant, double , poss ible doubl e  none  none  none  drilled  none  none  none  none  none  grooved  none  drilled  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  drill ed, constricted, hol lowed, circumferenti al i ncise d, inl aid, groove grooved  Neck Descri pti on  complete  fragment  complete  incomplet e  complete  complete  complete  complete  incomplet e  incomplet e  incomplet e  complete  incomplet e  O bject C omplete ness  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  faunal  faunal  faunal  faunal  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  (lithic, faunal, floral )  C lass  dull  trace polish  trace polish  shell (purplehinged scallop) shell (purplehinged scallop) shell (purplehinged scallop)  steatite  basalt  mudst one  steatite  highly polished  trace polish  polished  trace polish  polished  dull  shell (purplehinged scallop)  steatite  highly polished  coal  trace polish  unknown, siltstone  polished polished  coal  Pol ish  siltstone  Type  very smooth  smoot h  very smooth  smoot h  smoot h  slightly rough  slightly rough  slightly rough  slightly rough  smoot h  slightly rough  smoot h  smoot h  Texture  C ol our Appearance  dark  dark  dark  light  medium  light  light  light  light  dark  light  dark  dark  solid  mott led  brown, redbrown, beige  solid  flecked  mott led  flecked  flecked  flecked  flecked  solid  flecked  solid  solid  Patterni ng  black  black  grey-blue, blue  brown, beige  beige  beige  beige  beige  black  beige, red  black  black  mai n, dark, m edium , secondary l ight col ours  C olour Intensity  Material Properti es Luminance (lux)  0  1  0  3  1  2  4  0  0  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  Irides cence  Volum e  Materi al Propertie s  89  drilled  5 ground/abraded  drilled  10 ground/abraded  none  none  30 ground/abraded  none  none  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  none  30 ground/abraded  2 ground/abraded  none  grooved  5 ground/abraded  15 ground/abraded  none  2 ground/abraded  none  drilled  30 ground/abraded  drilled  2 ground/abraded  Secondary – Alte rati on  10 ground/abraded  Pri mary – Manufacture  Ini tial Manufacture  polished  none  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  none  none  polished  polished  polished  polished  Tertiary Decorati on  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  yes, yes, no  yes, yes, no  none  none  none  none  Broken; ReWorked; Worn but not ReWorke d?  Modification  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  ground/abraded  ground/abraded  none  none  none  none  Prim ary – Manufacture  PostManufacture Alterations  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  Secondary – Alterati on  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  Tertiary De coration  7  32  27.7  22  14.1  28.3  38.3  34.7  53.8  62.4  46.3  45.5  14.5  width (hori zontal)  fl ange  17.6  5.2  5.9  15.2  30.2  10.2  12.4  15.5  15  10.5  6.1  3.4  22  4.2  7.5  8.5  7.4  5.2  3.2  2.6  5  3.6  6.8  10.7  hei ght (at m id thickne ss (at fl ange base of body)  body  yes  yes  yes  no  yes  3.7 yes  8.3 yes  7 yes  12.2 yes  3 yes  yes  yes  no  9.9  15  21  15  25.3  6.1  20.1  10.6  16.5  12.2  15  18.4  11.5  Fl ange – use measurements l ength concavity depth for area (width, (proxi mal to (at ce ntre) hei ght) as distal) com ple te?  Dim ensions (mm )  50  7  3.8  29.3  10.4  7.3  25.7  44.5  20  35  41  33.5  27.1  width (horizontal)  hei ght (verti cal )  38  18.3  11  6  20.2  35.9  34.9  53.8  38.8  59  10.5  6.1  3.5  2.5  2  concavi ty depth (at centre)  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  Body – use me asure me nts for area (width, hei ght) as comple te ?  Di me ns ions (mm)  90  vertical striations, posterior flange; bevelling wear, posterior flange edges  striations, flange wing; overall heavily weathered  multiple fractures; dist al body tip broke  lateral flange wing broken  distal tip, body  5.6  50.5  25.4  n2.0  broken along uniform microhorizontal plane pitt ing  2.1  1.5  5y 3/2, 5y 2/1, 2.5y 4/4, 5y 8/1  n1.5  uniform micropitting  lateral flange wings broken  11.1  8.3  10g 7/1, 10g 5/1, 10g 3/1  diagonal scrat ching, posterior flange  vertical scrat ches, inferior posterior flange; uniform wear and micropitting; chipped, anterior body  10yr 3/2, 10yr 6/4, 10yr 8/4  2.5y 8/2, 2.5y 7/4 35.9  56.1  2.5y 8/2, 2.5y 7/4  48.6  42.7  63.4  concavity l ength  flange  2.5y 8/2, 2.5y 7/4  2.5y 8/2, 2.5y 7/4  n 0.5  2.5y 4/2, 10yr 2/1, 2.5yr 4.8  n 1.5  n 0.5  Colour (Munse ll)  vertical scrat ching, anterior body  found DeRv-6:1,2,3,4 together  found DeRv-6:1,2,3,4 together found DeRv-6:1,2,3,4 together  found DeRv-6:1,2,3,4 together  buri al s: s ex, age group?  C ontextual Mate rials  chip, ant erior body  polish, post erior flange; striations, anterior body  polish, ant erior flange  corrected radiocarbon dates for Zone II span period 317+-173BC (SFU114) t o 1012+-270BC (SFU124)  Full Date Info  51.9  6.3  49.6  weat hering, body  striations, dist al body tip  striations, body  overall weathering  distal tip, body  multiple fract ures  Locati on of W e ar and Type  0.5  11  Location of Fracture  0.5  W ei ght (g)  concavity le ngth  body  31.2  dril le d hole diame te r  2.9  6.6  dri lle d hole de pth  othe r me asure m ents  NO T INC LUDED IN SPSS  3.5  distance be twee n hole s  constricte d ne ck width  constricte d neck he i ght  O the r de scription  O the r me asure m ent  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  length incomplet e  length estimated  complete  width, height estimated  body m easure me nt status  complete  widt h est imat ed  complete  complete  height estimated  complete  widt h incomplete complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  widt h, height incomplet e  fl ange me asure me nt status  NO T INC LUDED IN SPSS  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  Insti tution Catal ogue No. Sub-Re gi on  Bedwell Harbour, Sout h Pender Island  Bedwell Harbour, Sout h Pender Island  Bedwell Harbour, Sout h Pender Island  Bedwell Harbour, Sout h Pender Island  Bedwell Harbour, Sout h Pender Island  Bedwell Harbour, Sout h Pender Island  Bedwell Harbour, Sout h Pender Island  Bedwell Harbour, Sout h Pender Island  Bedwell Harbour, Sout h Pender Island  Egeria Bay Sit e, Pender Canal 4, Poets Cove  Egeria Bay Sit e, Pender Canal 4, Poets Cove  Egeria Bay Sit e, Pender Canal 4, Poets Cove  Egeria Bay Sit e, Pender Canal 4, Poets Cove  Egeria Bay Sit e, Pender Canal 4, Poets Cove  Egeria Bay Sit e, Pender Canal 4, Poets Cove Egeria Bay Sit e, Pender Canal 4, Poets Cove Egeria Bay Sit e, Pender Canal 4, Poets Cove  Egeria Bay Sit e, Pender Canal 4, Poets Cove  921 DeRt-4  918 DeRt-4  1000 DeRt-4  1010 DeRt-4  701 DeRt-4  748 DeRt-4  620 DeRt-4  949 DeRt-4  Sout h  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  North (Nas s, Ske e na, Hai da Gwaii ); Central ; South (Gulf Isl ands , North, Ce ntral , Frase r De lta, Uppe r Fras e r, South We s t Vancouve r Isl and, East Vancouve r Isl and  Re gi on  749 DeRt-4  Site Location  Pender Island  Site Name  (now part of DeRt -2)  Borde n No.  104 DeRt-19  Borde n/O the r Catal ogue No.  Insti tution Information  Ins ti tuti on  91  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Conte mporary Cul tural Affil i ati ons As soci ate d Date  dist urbed  dist urbed  dist urbed  dist urbed  dist urbed  dist urbed  dist urbed  dist urbed  dist urbed  surface  i n si tu, i n s cre e n ,di sturbe Type 1: C14 d, s urface , date s unknown  Inte grity of Prove ni e nce  Site Information  As soci ate d Pe riods Type 2: Ass oci ate d Date (Charl e s, Locarno, range s Marpole )  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Col l e cte d: Archae ol ogical, Se x Ethnol ogi cal  Conte xtual Mate ri al s  age  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  l abre t, possi bl e l abre t, inl ay only; l abial , buccal , composi te  O bje ct De s ignation  knob  MY TYPE  knob  disc  disc  unclassified; disc but concave on disc bot h sides  but t on; originally knob double-but t on  but t on or hatshaped; originally knob double-but t on  knob unclassified; but t on but with concave ant erior  knob unclassified; but t on but with concave ant erior  unclassified; but t on but with knob concave ant erior  unclassified; but t on but with concave ant erior  unclassified; knob but t on but with concave ant erior  but t on  Cl ass ic' Type De s cri ption  De scri pti on  circular  circular  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  l ate ral , ci rcul ar  Fl ange De s cri pti ons  convex, concave, flat, curved  oval  oval  laterally-rounded  laterally-rounded  laterally-rounded  laterally-rounded  rectangular  laterally-rounded  laterally-rounded  Body Description  none  drilled  flat  drilled  none  none  none  none  none  drilled  none  short  short  short  short  short  short  short  short  short  short  oval  oval  oval  cylindrical  oval  oval  oval  oval  oval  circular  concave  concave  convex  convex  concave  concave  concave  concave  concave  flat  convex, concave , flat  Description  oval, ovoid, cylindrical , se mi dril led, i ncis ed, cylindrical , grooved, short, extended ci rcul ar, hollowed square, re ctangul ar, zoomorphi c  concave  concave  concave  concave  concave  concave  concave  concave  laterally-rounded concave  ci rcular, oval , square, rectangular, ovoi d, cyl indri cal , lateral lyrounded  92  none  none  possible double  possible double  none  none  none  none  none  tapering  tape ring, fl aring (di stal ly), pendulant, double , poss ible doubl e  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  drill ed, constricted, hol lowed, circumferenti al i ncise d, inl aid, groove grooved  Neck Descri pti on  incomplet e  incomplet e  complete  incomplet e  incomplet e  incomplet e  complete  complete  incomplet e  complete  O bject C omplete ness  steatite  steatite  lit hic  lit hic  unknown, limestone  unknown, limestone  steatite  steatite  soapstone  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  steatite  soapstone  lit hic  lit hic  steatite  Type  lit hic  (lithic, faunal, floral )  C lass  highly polished  highly polished  trace polish  trace polish  polished  highly polished  highly polished  highly polished  polished  polished  Pol ish  very smooth  very smooth  slightly rough  slightly rough  smoot h  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  smoot h  Texture  C ol our Appearance  dark  dark  medium  medium  dark  dark  medium  medium  dark  dark  mott led  mott led  mott led  mott led  flecked  mott led  mott led  Patterni ng  black  grey  flecked  mott led  beige-brown, redflecked brown  brown-peach, red-brown  brown, grey  grey, red-brown, blue-grey  brown  grey  brown  grey  mai n, dark, m edium , secondary l ight col ours  C olour Intensity  Material Properti es Luminance (lux)  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  Irides cence  Volum e  Materi al Propertie s  93  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  drilled  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  10 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  10 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  ground/abraded  5  none  Secondary – Alte rati on  5 ground/abraded  Pri mary – Manufacture  Ini tial Manufacture  polished  polished  none  none  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  Tertiary Decorati on  none  none  yes, yes, no  yes, yes, no  none  none  yes, yes, no  none  yes, yes, yes  yes, yes, no  Broken; ReWorked; Worn but not ReWorke d?  Modification  none  none  ground/abraded  ground/abraded  none  none  ground/abraded  none  ground/abraded  ground/abraded  Prim ary – Manufacture  PostManufacture Alterations  none  none  drilled  none  none  none  grooved  none  drilled  none  Secondary – Alterati on  none  none  none  none  none  none  polished  none  none  polished  Tertiary De coration  32  32  42.6  21.4  44  47  23.9  33.1  21.9  27.4  width (hori zontal)  fl ange  19.7  22.2  21.6  13.9  22  24.2  15.1  17.3  17.6  19.2  hei ght (at m id thickne ss (at fl ange base of body)  7.8  8  3.4  4.7  3.4  2.9  2.2  4  body  yes  5 yes  5 yes  yes  yes  5.5 yes  1.5 yes  1.4 yes  no  2 yes  11.3  11.1  12.4  16.2  8.1  8  10.1  7.7  8  11.4  Fl ange – use measurements l ength concavity depth for area (width, (proxi mal to (at ce ntre) distal) hei ght) as com ple te?  Dim ensions (mm )  34  34  27.6  13.4  26.2  32.9  18.6  24.6  21.6  20.4  width (horizontal)  hei ght (verti cal )  22  22  22.5  15.5  21.7  25.3  15  17.9  19  19.3  3.4  5.4  4  4  3.2  4.5  2  concavi ty depth (at centre)  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  Body – use me asure me nts for area (width, hei ght) as comple te ?  Di me ns ions (mm)  94  lateral flange wings broken, then drilled  5.1  10yr 6/4, 10yr 4/4 (polish), 2.5y 7/2  heavily weathered; smooth, posterior flange  4.7  16  6.5  fractured along medial axis  chipping, anterior body; striations and bevelling, posterior flange; uniform scrat ching  2.5r n1.0, 2.5r n2.5  2.5r n2.5, 5y 5/1  5yr 5/6, 7.5yr 8/4, 7.5yr 5/4  uniform heavily weat hered  5.8  chipping, fractured along anterior body and medial and lateral posterior flange; axes overall scratching  1yr 3/6, n2.0, 5y 6/1  chipping, anterior body and posterior flange; scrat ching, posterior flange  lateral flange wings broken  10.5  4  10yr 3/4, 10yr 7/4, n2.5, 10g 7/1  uniform weathering; micro-chipping, anterior body; concretion, anterior flange  lateral flange wing broken  25.5  45.6  44.8  23.6  17.5  29.4  29.3  38  18.6  29.6  5y 2/1, 5y 3/2, 5y 4/1 34  27.9  concavity le ngth  body  22.5  concavity l ength  flange  2.8  2  4.8 posterior, 1.9 anterior  dril le d hole diame te r  dri lle d hole de pth  othe r me asure m ents  NO T INC LUDED IN SPSS  5y 2/1, 5y 3/2  n1, 5y 5/1, 5y 3/15y 8/2  Colour (Munse ll)  5y 3/2, 5y 8/2, 5y 3/1  buri al s: s ex, age group?  C ontextual Mate rials  concretion, anterior flange; uniform wear  Full Date Info  lateral flange wings broken, reground  striations, anterior flange and body; pitting, medial posterior flange uniform scrat ching; micro-chipping, anterior body horizontal scrat ching, posterior flange; micro-chipping, anterior body; polish, posterior flange  Locati on of W e ar and Type  5.9  4.4  lateral flange wings broken, reworked  Location of Fracture  8.1  W ei ght (g)  10  distance be twee n hole s  constricte d ne ck width  12.5  constricte d neck he i ght  12.5  O the r de scription  O the r me asure m ent  complete  body m easure me nt status  widt h est imat ed  widt h est imat ed  complete  complete  widt h est imat ed  widt h est imat ed  complete  complete  width estimated  width estimated  complete  incomplet e, but measurements accurate  incomplet e, but measurements accurate  complete  complete  complete  widt h incomplete complete  complete  fl ange me asure me nt status  NO T INC LUDED IN SPSS  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  (old #11600)  Insti tution Catal ogue No.  Bedwell Harbour, Sout h Pender Island  Bedwell Harbour, Sout h Pender Island  Bedwell Harbour, Sout h Pender Island  Bedwell Harbour, Sout h Pender Island  Bedwell Harbour, Sout h Pender Island  Egeria Bay Sit e, Pender Canal 4, Poets Cove Egeria Bay Sit e, Pender Canal 4, Poets Cove Egeria Bay Sit e, Pender Canal 4, Poets Cove Egeria Bay Sit e, Pender Canal 4, Poets Cove  Egeria Bay Sit e, Pender Canal 4, Poets Cove  872 DeRt-4  913 DeRt-4  951 DeRt-4  938 DeRt-4  709 DeRt-4  Helen Point  Helen Point  5 DfRu-8  4380 DfRu-8  22 DfRt u-Y  Mayne Island  Mayne Island  Sout h  Sout h  Egeria Bay Sit e, Bedwell Harbour, Pender Canal 4, Sout h Pender Island Poets Cove Active Pass, (formerly DfRuvMayne Island Sout h Y:7, old acc.#5233 & 1944-14)  Bedwell Harbour, Sout h Pender Island  Egeria Bay Sit e, Pender Canal 4, Poets Cove  929 DeRt-4  Sub-Re gi on  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  North (Nas s, Ske e na, Hai da Gwaii ); Central ; South (Gulf Isl ands , North, Ce ntral , Frase r De lta, Uppe r Fras e r, South We s t Vancouve r Isl and, East Vancouve r Isl and  Re gi on  93 DeRt-4  Site Location  Bedwell Harbour, Sout h Pender Island  Site Name  Egeria Bay Sit e, Pender Canal 4, Poets Cove  Borde n No.  659 DeRt-4  Borde n/O the r Catal ogue No.  Insti tution Information  Ins ti tuti on  95  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Conte mporary Cul tural Affil i ati ons As soci ate d Date  unknown  surface  unknown  dist urbed  dist urbed  dist urbed  dist urbed  dist urbed  dist urbed  dist urbed  dist urbed  i n si tu, i n s cre e n ,di sturbe Type 1: C14 date s d, s urface , unknown  Inte grity of Prove ni e nce  Site Information  As soci ate d Type 2: Pe riods Ass oci ate d Date (Charl e s, range s Locarno, Marpole )  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Col l e cte d: Archae ol ogical, Se x Ethnol ogi cal  Conte xtual Mate ri al s  age  labret  t ee  t ee  t ee  disc  disc  disc  but t on; originally knob double-but t on  T-shaped  T-shaped  labret  labret  T-shaped  disc  disc  disc  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  circular  circular  circular  circular  unclassified; disc but concave on disc bot h sides  circular  circular  l ate ral , ci rcul ar  Fl ange De s cri pti ons  circular  disc  disc  MY TYPE  disc  disc  disc  disc  Cl ass ic' Type De s cri ption  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  l abre t, possi bl e l abre t, inl ay only; l abial , buccal , composi te  O bje ct De s ignation  De scri pti on  drilled  drilled  drilled  concave  concave  flat  flat  laterally-rounded concave  rectangular  none  none  none  drilled  concave  laterally-rounded concave  drilled  flat  none  drilled  concave  short  ext ended  ext ended  ext ended  short  short  short  short  short  short  oval  cylindrical  cylindrical  cylindrical  oval  oval  oval  oval  oval  oval  oval  convex  short  drilled  convex, concave, flat, curved  Body Description  concave  flat  flat  flat  concave  concave  concave  concave  concave  concave  concave  convex, concave , flat  Description  oval, ovoid, cylindrical , se mi dril led, i ncis ed, cylindrical , grooved, short, extended ci rcul ar, hollowed square, re ctangul ar, zoomorphi c  laterally-rounded concave  oval  oval  oval  oval  oval  oval  oval  ci rcular, oval , square, rectangular, ovoi d, cyl indri cal , lateral lyrounded  96  possible double  none  tapering  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  tape ring, fl aring (di stal ly), pendulant, double , poss ible doubl e  none  drilled  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  drill ed, constricted, hol lowed, circumferenti al i ncise d, inl aid, groove grooved  Neck Descri pti on  complete  incomplet e  complete  incomplet e  complete  complete  incomplet e  incomplet e  incomplet e  complete  complete  O bject C omplete ness  steatite steatite  steatite  steatite  soapstone  siltstone  steatite  soapstone  steatite  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  steatite  steatite  Type  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  (lithic, faunal, floral )  C lass  highly polished  highly polished  highly polished  dull  highly polished  highly polished  highly polished  highly polished  highly polished  highly polished  highly polished  Pol ish  very smooth  very smooth  smoot h  slightly rough  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  Texture  C ol our Appearance  medium  dark  dark  medium  dark  dark  medium  medium  medium  dark  dark  green, grey  green  dark grey  grey  black  black  grey  grey  mott led  mott led  solid  solid  solid  solid  mott led  flecked  flecked  mott led  grey, black  grey  solid  Patterni ng  grey  mai n, dark, m edium , secondary l ight col ours  C olour Intensity  Material Properti es Luminance (lux)  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  Irides cence  Volum e  Materi al Propertie s  97  none  none  drilled  none  5 ground/abraded  2 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  polished  polished  polished  none  yes, yes, no  none  none  yes, yes, no  none  ground/abraded  none  none  ground/abraded  none  none  none  none  none  none  polished  none  none  none  none  none  33  6.5  21.8  23  30.8  30.7  31.2  5 ground/abraded  polished  drilled  none  drilled  possibly, yes, no none  none  10 ground/abraded  polished  none  drilled  none  none  10 ground/abraded  polished  none  none  27  drilled  none  none  none  32.5  10 ground/abraded  none  none  none  none  width (hori zontal)  32  polished  none  none  none  Tertiary De coration  drilled  polished  none  none  Secondary – Alterati on  5 ground/abraded  drilled  ground/abraded  polished  none  Prim ary – Manufacture  fl ange  30  drilled  5 ground/abraded  polished  Tertiary Decorati on  PostManufacture Alterations  5  drilled  Secondary – Alte rati on  10 ground/abraded  Pri mary – Manufacture  Ini tial Manufacture  Broken; ReWorked; Worn but not ReWorke d?  Modification  16.3  3.9  8  10.4  20.8  18  21.4  18  1.9  16.3  22.6  hei ght (at m id thickne ss (at fl ange base of body)  6.4  2.9  5.9  4.1  body  yes  yes  1.7 yes  0.5 yes  yes  2.3 yes  2.7 yes  yes  yes  1 yes  yes  11.4  29.8  32.1  25.1  12.9  11.3  11.2  13.2  11.8  8.4  11.6  Fl ange – use measurements l ength concavity depth for area (width, (proxi mal to (at ce ntre) distal) hei ght) as com ple te?  Dim ensions (mm )  17.9  4.9  8.1  9.7  33.4  34.1  33.6  32  32  29.2  35.4  width (horizontal)  hei ght (verti cal )  16.3  4.9  8  10.3  21.9  20  22.3  20.4  23.1  17.9  23.4  6  5  6  4.6  3  3.2  concavi ty depth (at centre)  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  Body – use me asure me nts for area (width, hei ght) as comple te ?  Di me ns ions (mm)  98  8.8  1.5  3.9  5.6  14.2  10.4  11.3  3.7  7.2  lateral wing broken  2  3  2.2  10gy 3/1, 10gy 2/1  10y 6/4, 10y 3/1  concretion, anterior flange; vertical striations, posterior flange  n2.0  5y 4/1  2.5r n1.5  2.5r n1.0  36.7  22  18.6  31.5  28.3  36.2  1.5  3.7  2.9  2.7  37.5  30.3  36.3  dril le d hole diame te r  dri lle d hole de pth  othe r me asure m ents  2.5r n2.0 where polished, 2.5y 7/2 30  27  concavity le ngth  body  2.2  concavity l ength  flange  NO T INC LUDED IN SPSS  2.5y 5/4, 2.5y 2/2, 10yr 2/1  10y 3/1, 10y 2/1, 10y 5/2, 10y 8.5/2  uniform micropitting  uniform wear; chipping, anterior  scrat ching, posterior flange micro-chipping, broken off medial anterior body; axis; drilled hole polish, anterior broken through body micro-chipping, anterior and broken, anterior posterior edges; body edge weathering (fire?) overall drilled hole broke micro-chipping, t hrough, anterior body post erior flange surface micro-chipping, anterior-body surface; scrat ching and wear facets, posterior flange; concretion, anterior flange lateral flange wing broken, reground(?)  2.5r n1.5  Colour (Munse ll)  horizontal scrat ching and pitting, posterior flange; chipping, anterior body  buri al s: s ex, age group?  C ontextual Mate rials  6.4  Full Date Info  2.5r n2.0  Locati on of W e ar and Type  chipping, anterior body; scrat ching, posterior flange  fractured verticlly along medial axis; broken through hole  Location of Fracture  14.4  W ei ght (g)  2.8  distance be twee n hole s  constricte d ne ck width  constricte d neck he i ght  14.4  O the r de scription  O the r me asure m ent  complete  complete  incomplet e, but measurements accurate  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  incomplet e, but measurements accurate  width estimated  width estimated  complete  complete  body m easure me nt status  complete  widt h est imat ed  complete  complete  complete  widt h est imat ed  widt h est imat ed  complete  complete  fl ange me asure me nt status  NO T INC LUDED IN SPSS  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  Borde n No.  Tolan's Beach  Tolan's Beach  Tolan's Beach  1791 DfRu-24  635 DfRu-24  1829 DfRu-24  (acc.#69-66)  (acc.#69-82)  Tolan's Beach  Tolan's Beach  2000 DfRu-24  998 DfRu-24  (old acc.#70-103)  (old acc.#68-19)  Tolan's Beach  1416 DfRu-24  Galiano Island  Galiano Island  Galiano Island  Galiano Island  Galiano Island  Galiano Island  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Mont ague Harbour Site Galiano Island  Sub-Re gi on  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  North (Nas s, Ske e na, Hai da Gwaii ); Central ; South (Gulf Isl ands , North, Ce ntral , Frase r De lta, Uppe r Fras e r, South We s t Vancouve r Isl and, East Vancouve r Isl and  Re gi on  1025 DfRu-13  Mayne Island  Mayne Island  Site Location  Sout h  32 DfRt u-Y  (old acc.#5506, new acc.1944-51, formerly DfRuY:5)  Active Pass  Helen Point  Site Name  probably from Active Pass, DfRu-24 T olan's Galiano Island Beach (Keddie)  23 DfRt u-Y  1171 DfRu-8  Borde n/O the r Catal ogue No.  (old #DfRuv-7:8)  Insti tution Catal ogue No.  Insti tution Information  Ins ti tuti on  99  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Conte mporary Cul tural Affil i ati ons As soci ate d Date  surface  unknown  surface  in sit u  in sit u  unknown  unknown  surface  unknown  surface  i n si tu, i n s cre e n ,di sturbe Type 1: C14 d, s urface , date s unknown  Inte grity of Prove ni e nce  Site Information  2500-3500  2500-3500  2500-3500  2500-3500  2500-3500  2500-3500  Locarno  Locarno  Locarno  Locarno  Locarno  Locarno  As soci ate d Type 2: Pe riods Ass oci ate d Date (Charl e s, range s Locarno, Marpole )  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Col l e cte d: Archae ol ogical, Se x Ethnol ogi cal  Conte xtual Mate ri al s  age  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  l abre t, possi bl e l abre t, inl ay only; l abial , buccal , composi te  O bje ct De s ignation  disc  disc  disc  disc  knob  lat eral/circular  circular  lat eral  lat eral  unclassified; but t on or hatknob shaped but wit h concave ant erior  but t on  lat eral  knob  but t on or hatshaped  lat eral  circular  circular  circular  l ate ral , ci rcul ar  Fl ange De s cri pti ons  lat eral  knob  disc  disc  disc  MY TYPE  T-shaped or hat t ee shaped  but t on or hatshaped  disc  disc  disc  Cl ass ic' Type De s cri ption  De scri pti on  oval  drilled  concave  none  laterally-rounded concave  drilled  none  laterally-rounded concave  flat  none  laterally-rounded concave  oval  none  laterally-rounded convex  drilled  concave  none  drilled  concave  short  short  short  short  short  ext ended  short  short  short  oval  oval  oval  oval  circular  cylindrical  circular  oval  oval  oval  flat  short  drilled  convex, concave, flat, curved  Body Description  concave  concave  convex  concave  convex  flat  convex  concave  concave  concave  convex, concave , flat  Description  oval, ovoid, cylindrical , se mi dril led, i ncis ed, cylindrical , short, extended grooved, ci rcul ar, hollowed square, re ctangul ar, zoomorphi c  laterally-rounded concave  oval  oval  oval  ci rcular, oval , square, rectangular, ovoi d, cyl indri cal , lateral lyrounded  100  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  tape ring, fl aring (di stal ly), pendulant, double , poss ible doubl e  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  drill ed, constricted, hol lowed, circumferenti al i ncise d, inl aid, groove grooved  Neck Descri pti on  complete  complete  complete  incomplet e  incomplet e  incomplet e  complete  complete  complete  complete  O bject C omplete ness  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  (lithic, faunal, floral )  C lass  steatite  soapstone  steatite  steatite  coal  mudst one  soapstone  soapstone  steatite  soapstone  Type  highly polished  highly polished  polished  trace polish  highly polished  polished  highly polished  highly polished  polished  highly polished  Pol ish  smoot h  smoot h  smoot h  smoot h  very smooth  smoot h  very smooth  very smooth  smoot h  very smooth  Texture  C ol our Appearance  dark  medium  light  medium  dark  dark  dark  dark  medium  dark  grey  grey, brown  blue-grey, whit e  grey, brown  black  grey  black, beige  grey  grey, beige  brown, black  mai n, dark, m edium , secondary l ight col ours  C olour Intensity  Material Properti es  mott led  mott led  mott led  mott led  solid  solid  mott led  mott led  mott led  mott led  Patterni ng  Luminance (lux)  2  2  1  0  0  1  2  0  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  Irides cence  Volum e  Materi al Propertie s  101  drilled  drilled  drilled  none  none  none  none  none  drilled  none  10 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  10 ground/abraded  2 ground/abraded  2 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  10 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  Secondary – Alte rati on  10 ground/abraded  Pri mary – Manufacture  Ini tial Manufacture  polished  polished  polished  none  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  Tertiary Decorati on  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  Prim ary – Manufacture  PostManufacture Alterations  yes, yes, no  ground/abraded  unknown, yes, no none  possibly, yes, no ground/abraded  none  none  yes, no, yes  yes, no, yes  none  none  none  Broken; ReWorked; Worn but not ReWorke d?  Modification  drilled  drilled  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  Secondary – Alterati on  none  none  polished  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  Tertiary De coration  25.6  31.1  28.7  32  27  9.2  37  29.5  33.5  33.7  width (hori zontal)  fl ange  21.1  24.1  12.6  15.4  14.2  6.3  15.7  18.7  21.6  22.4  hei ght (at m id thickne ss (at fl ange base of body)  5.2  3.2  2.9  3  7.2  body  1.2 yes  yes  2.5 yes  1.7 yes  2 yes  no  1.5 yes  1 yes  1.5 yes  yes  6.4  15  11.9  8.4  10.2  13.9  17.5  10.2  9.7  11.3  Fl ange – use measurements l ength concavity depth for area (width, (proxi mal to (at ce ntre) hei ght) as distal) com ple te?  Dim ensions (mm )  25  34.9  21  21.7  15.3  7.5  22.2  31.8  35.2  34.7  width (horizontal)  hei ght (verti cal )  20.8  25.9  14.3  16.9  14.6  6.5  19.3  19.4  22.9  22.9  2.8  5  2.9  3.5  4.5  3.7  concavi ty depth (at centre)  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  Body – use me asure me nts for area (width, hei ght) as comple te ?  Di me ns ions (mm)  102  15  diagonal scrat ching, posterior flange  lateral flange wing broken  4.4  5.5  17.7  lateral flange wings broken  uniform weat hering  uniform weathering; bevelling, 'superior' (was inferior) posterior flange  lateral flange wings broken and weat hering reground(?)  concretion, anterior flange; overall weat hering  lateral flange wing broken  2.4  7  uniform polish  2.5y 2/2, 5y 5/2, 5gy 6/1  5gy 5/2, 5gy 3/1  associated wit h earlier deposits dating c. 3200 t o 2900 BP (Keddie) associated wit h earlier deposits dating c. 3200 t o 2900 BP (Keddie)  10yr 8/4 web, 10g 2/1  5gy 6/1, 5g 6/1, 10yr 3/4  2.5r n0.5  2.5r n2.0 where polished, 10yr 6/2  n1.0, 5y 7/2  26  29.7  28  23  35.1  29.7  26  36.5  22  33.6  40.1  34.1  5y 3/1, 5y 8/2, 5y 6/2  concavity le ngth  body  39.2  concavity l ength  flange  dril le d hole diame te r  1.6  4.2  1.9  2.9  3  dri lle d hole de pth  othe r me asure m ents  NO T INC LUDED IN SPSS  5y 2/1, 5y 3/2  Colour (Munse ll)  chip, lateral flange; heavy weathering, anterior body  buri al s: s ex, age group?  C ontextual Mate rials  5y 3/1, 5y 5/2,  associated wit h earlier deposits dating c. 3200 t o 2900 BP (Keddie) associated wit h earlier deposits dating c. 3200 t o 2900 BP (Keddie) associated wit h earlier deposits dating c. 3200 t o 2900 BP (Keddie) associated wit h earlier deposits dating c. 3200 t o 2900 BP (Keddie)  Full Date Info  uniform wear  uniform weathering; chipping, anterior body micro-chipping, anterior body; uniform weathering  Locati on of W e ar and Type  lateral flange wing broken  chip, ant erior body  Location of Fracture  12.7  12.6  9.3  12.9  W ei ght (g)  distance be twee n hole s  constricte d ne ck width  constricte d neck he i ght  O the r de scription  O the r me asure m ent  complete  complete  complete  widt h est imat ed  widt h est imat ed  incomplet e  widt h est imat ed  complete  complete  complete  fl ange me asure me nt status  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  body m easure me nt status  NO T INC LUDED IN SPSS  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  (old acc.#73-25)  (old acc.#4590)  (acc.#69-82)  Insti tution Catal ogue No.  Walker's Hook  unknown  Toynbee Beach  Toynbee Beach  Toynbee Beach  Toynbee Beach  Toynbee Beach  56 DfRu-4  35 DfRu-4  74 DfRu-4  73 DfRu-4  77 DfRu-4  4 DeRt-Y/DeRu-21 Beddis Bay  28 DfRu-2  3 DfRw-3  Tolan's Beach  636 DfRu-24  Site Name  Tolan's Beach  Borde n No.  1828 DfRu-24  Borde n/O the r Catal ogue No.  Insti tution Information  Ins ti tuti on  103  Sub-Re gi on  Saltspring Island Sout h  Saltspring Island Sout h  Saltspring Island Sout h  Saltspring Island Sout h  Saltspring Island Sout h  Saltspring Island Sout h  Saltspring Island Sout h  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  NW end of Ganges Harbour, Sout h Saltspring Island  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Sout h  North (Nas s, Ske e na, Hai da Gwaii ); Central ; South (Gulf Isl ands , North, Ce ntral , Frase r De lta, South Uppe r Fras e r, We s t Vancouve r Isl and, East Vancouve r Isl and  Re gi on  Sout h  Galiano Island  Galiano Island  Site Location  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Conte mporary Cul tural Affil i ati ons As soci ate d Date  unknown  unknown  unknown  unknown  unknown  unknown  unknown  unknown  unknown  unknown  i n si tu, i n s cre e n ,di sturbe Type 1: C14 d, s urface , date s unknown  Inte grity of Prove ni e nce  Site Information  2500-3500  2500-3500  Locarno  Locarno  As soci ate d Type 2: Pe riods Ass oci ate d Date (Charl e s, range s Locarno, Marpole )  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  male  Col l e cte d: Archae ol ogical, Se x Ethnol ogi cal  Conte xtual Mate ri al s  mid-20s  age  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  l abre t, possi bl e l abre t, inl ay only; l abial , buccal , composi te  O bje ct De s ignation  t ee  knob  knob  knob  knob  knob  but t on or hatshaped  but t on or hatshaped  but t on or hatshaped but t on or hatshaped unclassified; closest is Tshaped  t ee  T-shaped  T-shaped  but t on; originally knob double-but t on  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  unclassified; but t on but with knob concave ant erior surface  l ate ral , ci rcul ar  Fl ange De s cri pti ons  lat eral  MY TYPE  unclassified; bet ween but ton and disc, probably knob originally butt on but with concave ant erior surface  Cl ass ic' Type De s cri ption  De scri pti on  none  none  drilled  none  drilled  none  none  none  none  none  laterally-rounded concave  laterally-rounded concave  laterally-rounded concave  laterally-rounded flat  laterally-rounded concave  laterally-rounded concave  laterally-rounded flat  laterally-rounded flat  laterally-rounded flat  convex, concave, flat, curved  Body Description  ext ended  short  short  short  short  ext ended  ext ended  short  short  short  rect angular  cylindrical  cylindrical  cylindrical  cylindrical  cylindrical  cylindrical  circular  oval  oval  convex  flat  flat  flat  flat  flat  flat  convex  concave  concave  convex, concave , flat  Description  oval, ovoid, cylindrical , se mi dril led, i ncis ed, cylindrical , grooved, short, extended ci rcul ar, hollowed square, re ctangul ar, zoomorphi c  laterally-rounded concave  ci rcular, oval , square, rectangular, ovoi d, cyl indri cal , lateral lyrounded  104  tapering  none  none  none  none  tapering  none  possible double  none  none  tape ring, fl aring (di stal ly), pendulant, double , poss ible doubl e  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  drill ed, constricted, hol lowed, circumferenti al i ncise d, inl aid, groove grooved  Neck Descri pti on  complete  incomplet e  incomplet e  complete  complete  complete  incomplet e  incomplet e  complete  complete  O bject C omplete ness  trace polish  trace polish  polished  mudst one  shell (purplehinged scallop)  shell (purplehinged scallop)  siltstone  mudst one  siltstone  sandstone  siltstone  lit hic  faunal  faunal  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  dull  dull  polished  highly polished  polished  highly polished  steatite  lit hic  highly polished  Pol ish  steatite  Type  lit hic  (lithic, faunal, floral )  C lass  slightly rough  slightly rough  very smooth  very smooth  smoot h  smoot h  slightly rough  slightly rough  smoot h  smoot h  Texture  C ol our Appearance  light  medium  medium  dark  medium  light  light  medium  medium  dark  grey  grey  grey  black  grey  beige, purple  whit e  brown, beige  grey  grey  mai n, dark, medium, secondary l ight col ours  C olour Intensity  Material Properti es  mott led  mott led  mott led  solid  mott led  flecked  flecked  mott led  mott led  flecked  Patterni ng  Luminance (lux)  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  Irides cence  Volume  Materi al Propertie s  105  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  5 ground/abraded  10 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  25 ground/abraded  Secondary – Alte rati on  5 ground/abraded  Pri mary – Manufacture  Ini tial Manufacture  none  none  polished  polished  polished  none  none  none  polished  polished  Tertiary Decorati on  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  yes, yes, no  yes, yes, no  yes, yes, no  Broken; ReWorked; Worn but not ReWorke d?  Modification  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  ground/abraded  ground/abraded  ground/abraded  Primary – Manufacture  PostManufacture Alterations  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  drilled  none  none  Secondary – Alterati on  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  polished  Tertiary De coration  25  57.6  22.6  26.4  27.5  22.2  15.2  24.1  30.7  24.7  width (hori zontal)  fl ange  11.4  8  10.3  10.9  10  6.9  6.6  15  18.1  17.4  hei ght (at mid thickne ss (at fl ange base of body)  7.2  7  5.9  5.6  4.2  5.1  3.9  7.9  3.4  3  body  yes  yes  yes  1 yes  0.3 yes  yes  1.7 yes  10.5 no  2.3 yes  1.5 yes  8.5  8.3  40.2  16.7  13.2  15.8  12.2  56.8  15.4  17.4  Fl ange – use measurements l ength concavity depth for area (width, (proxi mal to (at ce ntre) distal) hei ght) as comple te?  Dimensions (mm)  42.5  12.6  12.3  14  10.5  6  8.9  21.8  23.1  22.7  width (horizontal)  hei ght (verti cal )  16.3  10.5  11  14  10.1  6.3  7.2  20.5  19  18.2  3.7  2.4  concavi ty depth (at centre)  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  Body – use me asure me nts for area (width, hei ght) as comple te ?  Di me ns ions (mm)  106  Locati on of W e ar and Type  29.4  2.1  3.9  6.3  3.1  fractured horizontally wit h bevelling, inferior posterior flange ant erior body missing fractured on horizontal axis  micro-pit ting, anterior body; concretion, anterior flange; bevelling, inferior posterior flange  uniform wear  3.6  fracture, lateral wing  striations, body; bevelling, medial inferior flange  3.6  6.4  9.9  lateral flange uniform wings worn down weat hering  Location of Fracture  uniform weathering; lateral flange horizontal wings worn down striations, posterior flange diagonal striations, fracture, medial posterior flange; flange axis heavily weathered uniformly chipped, lateral flange; overall weathering; striations, anterior body  7.2  W ei ght (g)  associated wit h earlier deposits dating c. 3200 t o 2900 BP (Keddie)  associated wit h earlier deposits dating c. 3200 t o 2900 BP (Keddie)  Full Date Info  distance be twee n hole s  constricte d ne ck width  13.5  constricte d neck he i ght  10.3  O the r de scription  O the r me asure m ent  complete  complete  body m easure me nt status  complete  complete  complete  incomplet e, but measurements accurate  height estimated  complete  complete  complete  complete  widt h incomplete complete  complete  complete  fl ange me asure me nt status  complete  complete  height estimated height estimated  dri lle d hole de pth  complete  23.8  23.5  dril le d hole diame te r  othe r me asure m ents  5y 4/1, 5y 6/2, 5y 8/2  27.7  concavity le ngth  body  NO T INC LUDED IN SPSS  5y 2/1, 5y 6/2, 5y 8/2  n1.5, 2.5y 7/4 (only on left posterior flange)  22.5  24.9  10yr 9/2, 10yr 2/1, 1`0yr 8/2 2.5y 9/2, 2.5y 8/4, flange posterior is 2.5y 6/6, while distal end of body is 2.5r 3/6 on inferior half 5y 3/1, 5y 8/2, 5y 6/2  32.9  2.5y 6/4, 2.5r n2.5  26  25.4  concavity l ength  flange  5gy 5/2, 5gy 3/1  2.5r n1.5, 10yr 5/4, 2.5y 7/2  Colour (Munse ll)  found wit h burial #18 of adult male 5y 6/2, 5y 8/2 “probably in his 20's”  buri al s: s ex, age group?  C ontextual Mate rials  NO T INC LUDED IN SPSS  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  (acc.#71-291)  Insti tution Catal ogue No.  A269  Borde n No.  Liquid Air Site  Pitt River Site  Pitt River Site  Pitt River Site  Pitt River Site  Pitt River Site  Pitt River Site  DhRs-19  1382 DhRq-21  2113 DhRq-21  214 DhRq-21  44 DhRq-21  3049 DhRq-21  3596 DhRq-21  Beach Grove  Beach Grove  8723 DgRs-1  9200 DgRs-1  Beach Grove  unknown  Toynbee Beach  Site Name  8450 DgRs-1  3 DeRu-26  78 DfRu-4  Borde n/O the r Catal ogue No.  Insti tution Information  Ins ti tuti on  107  Sub-Re gi on  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Grauer Park, T sawwassen Grauer Park, Tsawwassen  Fraser River, Vancouver  Mary Hill, Pitt River area, Fraser Sout h Valley  Mary Hill, Pitt River area, Fraser Sout h Valley Mary Hill, Pitt River area, Fraser Sout h Valley Mary Hill, Pit t River area, Fraser Sout h Valley Mary Hill, Pitt River area, Fraser Sout h Valley Mary Hill, Pitt River area, Fraser Sout h Valley  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Sout h  Gulf Islands  Sout h  Port land Island Grauer Park, Tsawwassen  Gulf Islands  North (Nas s, Ske e na, Hai da Gwaii ); Central ; South (Gulf Isl ands , North, Ce ntral , Frase r De lta, Uppe r Fras e r, South We s t Vancouve r Isl and, East Vancouve r Isl and  Re gi on  Saltspring Island Sout h  Site Location  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Conte mporary Cul tural Affil i ati ons As soci ate d Date  unknown  unknown  unknown  unknown  unknown  unknown  surface  surface  unknown  unknown  surface  unknown  i n si tu, i n s cre e n ,di sturbe Type 1: C14 d, s urface , date s unknown  Inte grity of Prove ni e nce  Site Information  As soci ate d Type 2: Pe riods Ass oci ate d Date (Charl e s, range s Locarno, Marpole )  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  unknown  Col l e cte d: Archae ol ogical, Se x Ethnol ogi cal  Conte xtual Mate ri al s  unknown  age  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  l abre t, possi bl e l abre t, inl ay only; l abial , buccal , composi te  O bje ct De s ignation  double-but t on  but t on  but t on or hatshaped  but t on  pendulant  unclassified  T-shaped  but t on  T-shaped  T-shaped  disc  unclassified; closest is Tshaped  Cl ass ic' Type De s cri ption  double-knob  knob  knob  knob  pendulant  pendulant  knob  knob  t ee  t ee  disc  pendulant  MY TYPE  De scri pti on  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  circular  lat eral  l ate ral , ci rcul ar  Fl ange De s cri pti ons  convex, concave, flat, curved  none  none  none  none  none  laterally-rounded concave  laterally-rounded concave  laterally-rounded concave  laterally-rounded concave  laterally-rounded concave  none  none  laterally-rounded concave  flat  none  laterally-rounded concave  incom plete  none  concave  none  laterally-rounded flat  none  drilled  rectangular  Body Description  short  short  short  short  short  short  ext ended  short  ext ended  ext ended  short  short  cylindrical  oval  cylindrical  oval  cylindrical  oval  cylindrical  oval  cylindrical  cylindrical  oval  cylindrical  flat  convex  convex  convex/nipple  convex  convex  incom plete  flat  flat  flat  concave  flat  convex, concave , flat  Description  oval, ovoid, cylindrical , se mi dril led, i ncis ed, cylindrical , grooved, short, extended ci rcul ar, hollowed square, re ctangul ar, zoomorphi c  flat  oval  laterally-rounded concave  ci rcular, oval , square, rectangular, ovoi d, cyl indri cal , lateral lyrounded  108  none  pendulant  double  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  pendulant  none  none  none  none  none  none  tapering  none  none  none  none  none  pendulant  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  drill ed, constricted, hol lowed, circumferenti al i ncise d, inl aid, groove grooved  tape ring, fl aring (di stal ly), pendulant, double , poss ible doubl e  Neck Descri pti on  complete  incomplet e  incomplet e  incomplet e  incomplet e  incomplet e  incomplet e  complete  incomplet e  incomplet e  complete  complete  O bject C omplete ness  unknown, pumice trace polish  shell (unknown)  steatite  lit hic  faunal  lit hic  trace polish  trace polish  highly polished  steatite  lit hic  polished  siltstone  highly polished  trace polish  trace polish  dull  trace polish  highly polished  highly polished  Pol ish  lit hic  steatite  steatite  lit hic  lit hic  basalt  lit hic  quartzite  lit hic  quartzite  soapstone  lit hic  lit hic  shell (purplehinged scallop)  Type  faunal  (lithic, faunal, floral )  C lass  smoot h  smoot h  smoot h  smoot h  very smooth  very smooth  slightly rough  slightly rough  smoot h  slightly rough  very smooth  smoot h  Texture  C ol our Appearance  light  light  dark  medium  medium  dark  medium  medium  medium  light  dark  light  solid  Patterni ng  mott led  black, grey, brown-beige  blue-grey  flecked  flecked  mott led  grey, yellowbeige  pink-beige  mott led  mott led  grey, black, redbrown  grey  mott led  solid  solid  flecked  blue-grey, beige  grey, orange  grey  beige  grey, brown-grey mott led  beige, pink  mai n, dark, medium, secondary l ight col ours  C olour Intensity  Material Properti es Luminance (lux)  3  0  3  0  1  0  0  0  0  8  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  Irides cence  Volume  Materi al Propertie s  109  none  drilled  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  2 ground/abraded  10 ground/abraded  20 ground/abraded  10 ground/abraded  10 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  15 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  Secondary – Alte rati on  15 ground/abraded  Pri mary – Manufacture  Ini tial Manufacture  polished  none  polished  polished  polished  polished  none  none  none  none  polished  polished  Tertiary Decorati on  none  none  none  none  yes, yes, no  none  yes, yes, no  yes, yes, no  none  none  no, yes, no  none  Broken; ReWorked; Worn but not ReWorke d?  Modification  none  none  none  none  ground/abraded  none  ground/abraded  ground/abraded  none  none  none  none  Primary – Manufacture  PostManufacture Alterations  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  drilled  none  Secondary – Alterati on  none  none  none  none  polished  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  Tertiary De coration  31  35.8  72  32  29.2  42  too fragment ed  64.3  46.7  17.8  22  31.7  width (hori zontal)  fl ange  8.3  17.9  13  18.6  9  24.8  20.8  12.5  4.4  6.9  20.2  7.8  6.6  3.9  7.9  6  4.6  8.2  6.6  6.6  8  5  10.7  hei ght (at mid thickne ss (at fl ange base of body)  body  8.5 yes  16 yes  yes  no  3.2 yes  no  3.8 yes  1.8 yes  0.8 yes  yes  yes  1.4 yes  9.3  15  17.4  16.4  18.8  16  26.8  12.2  44.3  13.5  25.4  51.2  Fl ange – use measurements l ength concavity depth for area (width, (proxi mal to (at ce ntre) distal) hei ght) as comple te?  Dimensions (mm)  8.5  34.1  16.5  22  15  25.8  26.8  26.3  4.7  12.9  34.1  14.6  width (horizontal)  hei ght (verti cal )  8  22.8  13.7 complet e  17  46.1  43.4  21.3  17.4  4.7  8.8  21.1  51  3  4.3  concavi ty depth (at centre)  yes  no  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  Body – use me asure me nts for area (width, hei ght) as comple te ?  Di me ns ions (mm)  110  Colour (Munse ll)  12.3  5.6  19.3  6.6  9.6  chip, lat eral flange wing tip  overall weat hering  heavily lateral flange weathered; wing broken wit h scrat ching, part of body anterior body  lateral flange wing broken  40.7  original surface 5g 91/ and 5g 8/1, weathered is 10yr 3/1  38.9  66.2  47  18  31.4  55.6  concavity l ength  flange  10yr 7/4, 10yr 9/2 banding, 10yr 8/4  5y 9/2, n3.5, 10yr 3/4  5y 7/4, 5y 4/2, 5y 8.5/2  5y 3/1, 5y 4/2  n1.5, 5y 6/2, 5y 2/2  striations, posterior body and flange; vertical scrat ching posterior flange; micro-scratching, anterior body  lateral flange wings broken; distal pendulum tip broken  lateral flange uniform wing broken; scrat ching ant erior pendulum 'sliced' chip, anterior body; vertical lateral flange scrat ches, wings broken posterior flange  5g 6/1, 5g 7/1, 10yr 7/6, 10yr 8/4 banding  overall weat hering  distal body tip broken off; lateral flange wing tip broken and reground  39.2  13.6  n2.5  5y 9/1 originally  2.5y 8/4,2.5y 3/2, 2.5y 9/2  2.5y 5/4, n1.5, 5y 2/1  5y 9/1, 5y 9/2, found wit h burial 2.5r 5/8 at of adult and pendulum distal infant #19 posterior  buri al s: s ex, age group?  C ontextual Mate rials  13.3  Full Date Info  chipped, anterior lateral flange tip body; overall broken, reground weat hering  1.6  11.1  uniform wear  chipping, flange heavily wing and superior weat hered overall body fracture, dist al ground with dirt body tip  9.56  Locati on of W e ar and Type  uniform microscrat ching; striations, anterior pendulum body  Location of Fracture  13.6  W ei ght (g)  concavity le ngth  body  36.6  7.8  dril le d hole diame te r  2.2  dri lle d hole de pth  othe r me asure m ents  NO T INC LUDED IN SPSS  distance be twee n hole s  constricte d ne ck width  constricte d neck he i ght  15.7  O the r me asure m ent  distance between 6.6, at medial bodies along flange; length of axis, 5.7 flange itself  O the r de scription  length incomplet e  complete  length incomplete  complete  complete  complete  body m easure me nt status  incomplet e, but measurements accurate  complete  widt h est imat ed  widt h est imat ed  complete  width incomplet e  complete  widt h incomplete complete  widt h est imat ed  incomplet e, but widt h incomplete measurements accurate  complete  complete  complete  widt h est imat ed  complete  complete  fl ange me asure me nt status  NO T INC LUDED IN SPSS  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  Pitt River Site  Pitt River Site  176 DhRq-21  2198 DhRq-21  34 FcTe-4  277 FcTe-4  527 FcTe-4  (acc.#72-362)  (acc.#72-362)  Sub-Re gi on  Upper Fraser  Spuzzum-Yale area, “ Yale dist rict” Fraser Canyon  Cent ral  Cent ral  Cent ral  Grant Anchorage Nort h End Price Central Sit e Island  Grant Anchorage Nort h End Price Central Sit e Island  Sout h  Fraser Delta  Mary Hill, Pitt River area, Fraser Sout h Valley  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Mary Hill, Pitt River area, Fraser Sout h Valley  Mary Hill, Pit t River area, Fraser Sout h Valley Mary Hill, Pit t River area, Fraser Sout h Valley  Fraser Delta  North (Nas s, Ske e na, Hai da Gwaii ); Central ; South (Gulf Isl ands , North, Ce ntral , Frase r De lta, Uppe r Fras e r, South We s t Vancouve r Isl and, East Vancouve r Isl and  Re gi on  Mary Hill, Pitt River area, Fraser Sout h Valley  Site Location  Grant Anchorage Nort h End Price Central Sit e Island  unknown  Pitt River Site  18 DhRq-21  12 DjRi-Y  Pitt River Site  134 DhRq-21  Site Name  Pitt River Site  Borde n No.  984 DhRq-21  Borde n/O the r Catal ogue No.  (acc.#72-362)  Insti tution Catal ogue No.  Insti tution Information  Ins ti tuti on  111  Heiltsuk  Heiltsuk  Heiltsuk  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Conte mporary Cul tural Affil i ati ons As soci ate d Date  in sit u  in sit u  unknown  surface  unknown  unknown  unknown  unknown  unknown  2110 +/-110 BP uncorrected  2090 +/-100 BP  i n si tu, i n s cre e n ,di sturbe Type 1: C14 d, s urface , date s unknown  Inte grity of Prove ni e nce  Site Information  2000 Marpole  2000 Marpole  As soci ate d Type 2: Pe riods Ass oci ate d Date (Charl e s, range s Locarno, Marpole )  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Col l e cte d: Archae ol ogical, Se x Ethnol ogi cal  Conte xtual Mate ri al s  age  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  l abre t, possi bl e l abre t, inl ay only; l abial , buccal , composi te  O bje ct De s ignation  MY TYPE  t ee  t ee  unclassified; circular flange (A&M)  t ee  knob  T-shaped  T-shaped  but t on  t ee  circular  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  but t on; originally knob double-but t on  T-shaped  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  l ate ral , ci rcul ar  Fl ange De s cri pti ons  but t on; originally knob double-but t on  but t on; originally double-knob double-but t on  but t on; originally knob double-but t on  Cl ass ic' Type De s cri ption  De scri pti on  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  laterally-rounded concave  laterally-rounded concave  laterally-rounded concave  laterally-rounded flat  laterally-rounded concave  laterally-rounded flat  laterally-rounded flat  flat  oval  none  convex, concave, flat, curved  Body Description  ext ended  ext ended  ext ended  short  ext ended  short  short  short  short  cylindrical  rect angular  cylindrical  circular  cylindrical  circular  circular  circular  oval  flat  flat  convex  convex  convex  convex  convex  convex  convex  convex, concave , flat  Description  oval, ovoid, cylindrical , se mi dril led, i ncis ed, cylindrical , grooved, short, extended ci rcul ar, hollowed square, re ctangul ar, zoomorphi c  laterally-rounded concave  ci rcular, oval , square, rectangular, ovoi d, cyl indri cal , lateral lyrounded  112  none  tapering  tapering  none  none  possible double  possible double  double  possible double  tape ring, fl aring (di stal ly), pendulant, double , poss ible doubl e  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  drill ed, constricted, hol lowed, circumferenti al i ncise d, inl aid, groove grooved  Neck Descri pti on  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  incomplet e  complete  incomplet e  complete  O bject C omplete ness  steatite  siltstone  mudst one  bone  unknown, antler  quartz cryst al  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  faunal  faunal  lit hic  trace polish  polished  polished  highly polished  polished  trace polish  unknown, pumice trace polish  smoot h  smoot h  smoot h  very smooth  very smooth  smoot h  smoot h  light  light  light  dark  light  medium  medium  medium  lit hic  very smooth  unknown, pumice highly polished  translucent  beige  beige  black  brown  grey  blue-grey  beige, black  green, beige  lit hic  C ol our Appearance  medium  C olour Intensity  steatite  very smooth  Texture  lit hic highly polished  Pol ish  mai n, dark, medium, secondary l ight col ours  Type  (lithic, faunal, floral )  C lass  Material Properti es  solid  solid  solid  solid  mott led  mott led  mott led  flecked  mott led  Patterni ng  Luminance (lux)  0  0  2  5  4  yes  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  Irides cence  Volume  Materi al Propertie s  113  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  10 ground/abraded  2 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  2 ground/abraded  2 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  Secondary – Alte rati on  5 ground/abraded  Pri mary – Manufacture  Ini tial Manufacture  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  Tertiary Decorati on  none  yes, yes, no  none  none  none  none  yes, yes, no  yes, yes, no  yes, yes, no  Broken; ReWorked; Worn but not ReWorke d?  Modification  none  ground/abraded  none  none  none  none  ground/abraded  ground/abraded  ground/abraded  Primary – Manufacture  PostManufacture Alterations  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  Secondary – Alterati on  none  polished  none  none  none  none  polished  polished  polished  Tertiary De coration  12.4  11.2  6.9  30.1  8.9  38  28.9  72  31.6  width (hori zontal)  fl ange  9.5  5.9  5.2  9.3  4  25.7  16.2  16.6  15.4  hei ght (at mid thickne ss (at fl ange base of body)  9  6.8  4.7  4.5  2.2  9.7  8.1  7.8  7.2  body  yes  yes  yes  2.8 yes  yes  no  yes  yes  4.5 yes  34.1  32.8  37.3  10.2  18.8  15.2  16.2  13.6  13.6  Fl ange – use measurements l ength concavity depth for area (width, (proxi mal to (at ce ntre) distal) hei ght) as comple te?  Dimensions (mm)  20  9  8  3.4  13.1  4.8  30  17.5  17.9  width (horizontal)  hei ght (verti cal )  9  4.4  3.2  12.4  4.4  27.1  18.3  18.3  17.2  concavi ty depth (at centre)  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  no  yes  yes  yes  Body – use me asure me nts for area (width, hei ght) as comple te ?  Di me ns ions (mm)  114  fracture, medial flange axis, reworked  fracture, medial flange axis  7  10  23.6  5.3  1.8  distal body broken, reworked(?); lateral flange wing broken, reworked(?)  complete  complete  10yr 8/6  translucent, appears 10yr 5/1 perhaps because of dirt  vertical striations, posterior flange  micro-chipping, posterior inferior 2110+-110 BP uncorrected flange; overall weat hering  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  2.5y 8.5/4, 2.5y 6/2 (dirt)  complete  0.4  complete  complete  width estimated  body m easure me nt status  in component with earlier (uncorrected) striations overall date of about 140BC (2090+-100, Gak-2757)  30.8  complete  fl ange me asure me nt status  7.4 widt h est imat ed  O the r me asure m ent  n1.0  16.3  16.1 flange length  15  O the r de scription  scrat ching, posterior and anterior flange; micro-scratching, anterior body  constricte d neck he i ght  3.9  constricte d ne ck width  complete  distance be twee n hole s  10yr 4/2, 10yr 7/4 (around flange anterior)  dri lle d hole de pth  chip, lat eral flange; striations, posterior flange  dril le d hole diame te r  othe r me asure m ents  0.7  30  37.4  33  concavity le ngth  body  NO T INC LUDED IN SPSS  widt h incomplete width incomplet e  concavity l ength  flange  NO T INC LUDED IN SPSS  chip, anterior body; uniform scrat ching  2.5y 6/2, 2.5y 8.5/2, 10gy 8/1  2.5y 6/4, 2.5y 8/4 where worn  vertical striations and facet (tooth wear), posterior flange; scrat ching, anterior body  Colour (Munse ll)  fracture, medial flange axis, reworked  buri al s: s ex, age group?  C ontextual Mate rials  5g 5/2, 5y 8/2, 10y 7/2  Full Date Info  7.6  Locati on of W e ar and Type  vertical striations and facets (tooth wear), posterior flange; concretion, anterior flange;  Location of Fracture  fracture, medial flange axis, reworked  W ei ght (g)  CMC  CMC  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  Insti tution Catal ogue No. Sub-Re gi on  Beach Grove  11138 DgRs-1  Grauer Park, Tsawwassen  Nass River  Beach Grove  11352 DgRs-1  Laxgalt s'ap (Greenville)  Beach Grove  11241 DgRs-1  North  North  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Grauer Park, Tsawwassen Grauer Park, T sawwassen Grauer Park, T sawwassen  Sout h  Cybulski  Beach Grove  11157 DgRs-1  Sout h  Grauer Park, Tsawwassen  unknown  Beach Grove  11951 DgRs-1  Sout h Sout h  Grauer Park, Tsawwassen  unknown  Beach Grove  12025 DgRs-1  Grauer Park, T sawwassen Grauer Park, T sawwassen  VII-X-1445  Beach Grove Beach Grove  11445 DgRs-1  11446 DgRs-1  Nass River  unknown  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  East Vancouver Island  north of Deep Bay; Qualicum Bay, Sout h Temp.No.DiSe-2 Vancouver Island  North (Nas s, Ske e na, Hai da Gwaii ); Central ; South (Gulf Isl ands , North, Ce ntral , Frase r De lta, Uppe r Fras e r, South We s t Vancouve r Isl and, East Vancouve r Isl and  Re gi on  2277 DiSe-7  Site Location  East Vancouver Island  Site Name  north of Deep Bay; Qualicum Bay, Sout h Temp.No.DiSe-2 Vancouver Island  Borde n No.  2247 DiSe-7  Borde n/O the r Catal ogue No.  Insti tution Information  Ins ti tuti on  115  Nisga'a  “ Nort hern”  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Conte mporary Cul tural Affil i ati ons As soci ate d Date  unknown  unknown  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  unknown  unknown  dist urbed  dist urbed  1880 +/-40 BP  i n si tu, i n s cre e n ,di sturbe Type 1: C14 date s d, s urface , unknown  Inte grity of Prove ni e nce  Site Information  2000 Marpole  As soci ate d Pe riods Type 2: Ass oci ate d Date (Charl e s, Locarno, range s Marpole )  Archaeological  Et hnological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  female  Col l e cte d: Archae ol ogical, Se x Ethnol ogi cal  Conte xtual Mate ri al s  elderly  age  MY TYPE  pulley  unclassified; closest is pulley (A&M) labret  bowl  unclassified  labret  t ee  t ee  t ee  t ee  knob  t ee  T-shaped  T-shaped  T-shaped  T-shaped  hat -shaped  T-shaped  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  T-shaped  knob  T-shaped or hat knob shaped  knob  labret  hat -shaped  T-shaped or hat knob shaped  Cl ass ic' Type De s cri ption  labret  labret  labret  l abre t, possi bl e l abre t, inl ay only; l abial , buccal , composi te  O bje ct De s ignation  De scri pti on  indistinguishable  indistinguishable  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  l ate ral , ci rcul ar  Fl ange De s cri pti ons  circular  ovoid  rectangular  rectangular  rectangular  none  none  none  concave  concave  none  flat  rectangular  flat  none  flat  rectangular  none  none  flat  none  none  laterally-rounded flat  flat  none  laterally-rounded flat  flat  none  laterally-rounded flat  rectangular  none  convex, concave, flat, curved  Body Description  short  short  ext ended  ext ended  ext ended  ext ended  ext ended  ext ended  ext ended  ext ended  ext ended  ext ended  circular  ovoid  cylindrical  cylindrical  cylindrical  cylindrical  cylindrical  cylindrical  cylindrical  cylindrical  cylindrical  semi-cylindrical  concave  concave  convex  convex  convex  flat  flat  flat  flat  flat  flat  flat  convex, concave , flat  Description  oval, ovoid, cylindrical , se mi dril led, i ncis ed, cylindrical , grooved, short, extended ci rcul ar, hollowed square, re ctangul ar, zoomorphi c  laterally-rounded concave  ci rcular, oval , square, rectangular, ovoi d, cyl indri cal , lateral lyrounded  116  none  none  flaring  none  tapering  tapering  none  none  none  none  none  none  tape ring, fl aring (di stal ly), pendulant, double , poss ible doubl e  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  incomplet e  complete  complete  circumferent ial groove  circumferent ial groove  incomplet e  complete  incomplet e  incomplet e  incomplet e  complete  complete  incomplet e  incomplet e  O bject C omplete ness  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  drill ed, constricted, hol lowed, circumferenti al i ncise d, inl aid, groove grooved  Neck Descri pti on  siltstone  soapstone  siltstone antler  shell (purplehinged scallop)  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic faunal  faunal  lit hic  soapstone  wood  trace polish  siltstone  lit hic  floral  highly polished  siltstone  lit hic  highly polished  polished  dull  polished  trace polish  trace polish  trace polish  dull  very smooth  very smooth  smoot h  very smooth  smoot h  smoot h  smoot h  smoot h  smoot h  smoot h  medium  medium  light  light  dark  dark  dark  dark  dark  medium  dark  siltstone  smoot h  lit hic  polished  coal  solid  solid  solid  solid  solid  mott led  solid  solid  Patterni ng  solid  grey-brown, mica flecked  yellow-red, brown flecked  beige  beige, grey-brown flecked  black  black  black  black  black  grey  black  black  lit hic  C ol our Appearance  dark  C olour Intensity  coal  very smooth  Texture  lit hic highly polished  Pol ish  mai n, dark, m edium , secondary l ight col ours  Type  (lithic, faunal, floral )  C lass  Material Properti es Luminance (lux)  8  3  0  0  0  0  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  Irides cence  Volum e  Materi al Propertie s  117  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  2 ground/abraded  2 ground/abraded  2 ground/abraded  2 ground/abraded  2 ground/abraded  2 ground/abraded  2 ground/abraded  10 ground/abraded  35 ground/abraded  none  2 ground/abraded  2 ground/abraded  none  Secondary – Alte rati on  2 ground/abraded  Pri mary – Manufacture  Ini tial Manufacture  polished  none  none  polished  none  polished  none  polished  polished  none  polished  polished  Tertiary Decorati on  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  Broken; ReWorked; Worn but not ReWorke d?  Modification  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  Prim ary – Manufacture  PostManufacture Alterations  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  Secondary – Alterati on  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  Tertiary De coration  55.5  53.5  10.5  6.6  7.9  8.9  11.1  10.2  13.7  11.3  19.5  12.6  width (hori zontal)  fl ange  55  20.9  5  2.5  4  5.4  4.6  5.1  6.3  5.6  11  5.4  hei ght (at m id thickne ss (at fl ange base of body)  5  2.7  2.9  1.9  2.5  3  3.6  3  3.1  4.6  4  body  2.3 yes  3.4 yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  12.4  13.3  16.6  19.4  23.3  18.3  13.2  15  17.4  14.8  15.8  16.2  Fl ange – use measurements l ength concavity depth for area (width, (proxi mal to (at ce ntre) hei ght) as distal) com ple te?  Dim ensions (mm )  7.6  58.2  53.5  5.4  2.2  2.9  5.8  5.6  6  6.8  6.8  12.8  width (horizontal)  hei ght (verti cal )  56.6  20.9  5.2  2.5  3.2  5.4  4.9  5.3  6.8  6.8  12.4  5.4  4.3  3  concavi ty depth (at centre)  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  Body – use me asure me nts for area (width, hei ght) as comple te ?  Di me ns ions (mm)  118  Locati on of W e ar and Type  50  5  1.1  0.2  0.4  1.2  0.8  0.8  distal body tip broken  fractured vertically on medial axis  10yr 4/4  collected 1850s  Beta 233-322, affinit y Box 10, converted 1880BP +/- 40 excavations from August 2006  adzing/chisel marks, circumference  striations, circumference; scrat ching, anterior; bevelling, inferior posterior flange; uniform microchipping found wit h female skeleton with incisors n 2.0, 7.5y 2.3 worn completely away, bone receded; elderly  2.5y 8.5/4, 2.5y 7/2  2.5y 7/4, 2.5y 4/2  n1.5, 5y 5/2  n1.5, 5y 5/2  n1.5, 5y 5/2  n1.5, 5y 5/2  chip, flange/body; uniform weat hering; polish, post erior flange  chipping, body; striations uniform chipping, lateral flange tips; uniform weathering  striations uniform  5y 4/1, 5y 5/2 n2.0, 2.5y 7/4 (dirt?)  n1.5  n1  Colour (Munse ll)  uniform wear  buri al s: s ex, age group?  C ontextual Mate rials  striations, anterior body  Full Date Info  1.9  concretion, anterior flange; scrat ching, body fracture, bodyflange length axis circumference; scrat ching, posterior flange chip, anterior body and flange; fracture, lateral uniform wing, glued weathering; concretion, anterior flange  Location of Fracture  1.2  2.8  0.8  W ei ght (g)  concavity l ength  flange  56.4  54.6  concavity le ngth  body  59.1  54.6  dril le d hole diame te r  dri lle d hole de pth  othe r me asure m ents  NO T INC LUDED IN SPSS  distance be twee n hole s  constricte d ne ck width  52.2  constricte d neck he i ght  O the r de scription  O the r me asure m ent  complete  complete  length incomplete  height estimated complete  complete  incomplet e, but measurements accurate  complete  complete  incomplet e, but measurements accurate complete  complete  complete  width estimated  complete  incomplete, but measurements accurat e  widt h est imat ed  complete  complete  incomplet e, but measurements accurate  incomplet e, but measurements accurate  complete  incomplet e, but measurements accurate  body m easure me nt status  incomplet e, but measurements accurate  fl ange me asure me nt status  NO T INC LUDED IN SPSS  CMC  CMC  CMC  CMC  CMC  CMC  CMC  CMC  CMC  CMC  Insti tution Catal ogue No. Site Name  North  North  Haida Gwaii  Haida Gwaii  Haida Gwaii  unknown  Haida Gwaii  Skidegat e  Kuihanlus (Kwundlas?)  Masset  unknown  unknown  Masset  unknown  VII-B-984  VII-B-979  VII-B-977  VII-B-993  VII-A-338  VII-A-331  VII-B-1041  VII-A-192a  unknown  North  North  North  North  North  North  North  Haida Gwaii  unknown Ninstint s, Skung Gwaii Ilnagai, Haida Gwaii Eagle Chief  North  unknown  Sub-Re gi on  unknown  Haida Gwaii  unknown  unknown  Haida Gwaii  Haida Gwaii  Haida Gwaii  Haida Gwaii  Haida Gwaii  unknown  North (Nas s, Ske e na, Hai da Gwaii ); Central ; South (Gulf Isl ands , North, Ce ntral , Frase r De lta, Uppe r Fras e r, South We s t Vancouve r Isl and, East Vancouve r Isl and  Re gi on  unknown  Site Location  VII-X-1446  unknown  Borde n No.  VII-X-1444  Borde n/O the r Catal ogue No.  Insti tution Information  Ins ti tuti on  119  Tlingit  Haida  Tlingit  Tlingit  Haida  Haida  Haida  Haida  Haida  “ Nort hern”  Conte mporary Cul tural Affil i ati ons As soci ate d Date  unknown  unknown  unknown  unknown  in sit u  unknown  unknown  unknown  unknown  unknown  i n si tu, i n s cre e n ,di sturbe Type 1: C14 date s d, s urface , unknown  Inte grity of Prove ni e nce  Site Information  As soci ate d Pe riods Type 2: Ass oci ate d Date (Charl e s, Locarno, range s Marpole )  Et hnological  Et hnological  Et hnological  Et hnological  Et hnological  Et hnological  Et hnological  Et hnological  Et hnological  Et hnological  Col l e cte d: Archae ol ogical, Se x Ethnol ogi cal  Conte xtual Mate ri al s  age  indistinguishable  plate  unclassified; closest is butt on  unclassified; closest is circular spool flange (A&M) unclassified; closest is disc or pulley (A&M)  labret  labret  labret  unclassified  but t on  labret  labret  knob  bowl  bowl  indistinguishable  pulley  lat eral  indistinguishable  lat eral/circular  indistinguishable  indistinguishable  unclassified; closest is pulley (A&M) labret  labret  pulley  indistinguishable  indistinguishable  bowl  bowl  unclassified  unclassified  unclassified; closest is disc or pulley (A&M)  labret  labret  indistinguishable  Fl ange De s cri pti ons  labret  bowl  MY TYPE  l ate ral , ci rcul ar  unclassified  Cl ass ic' Type De s cri ption  l abre t, possi bl e l abre t, inl ay only; l abial , buccal , composi te  O bje ct De s ignation  De scri pti on  none  none  none  none  drilled  none  none  none  none  concave  concave  concave  concave  concave  concave  concave  concave  laterally-rounded concave  ovoid  oval  oval  oval  oval  ovoid  ovoid  ovoid  short  short  short  ext ended  short  short  short  short  short  circular  ovoid  oval  circular  ovoid  ovoid  ovoid  ovoid  ovoid  ovoid  concave  ovoid  short  none  convex, concave, flat, curved  Body Description  flat  concave  concave  concave  concave  concave  concave  concave  concave  concave  convex, concave , flat  Description  oval, ovoid, cylindrical , se mi dril led, i ncis ed, cylindrical , short, extended grooved, ci rcul ar, hollowed square, re ctangul ar, zoomorphi c  ci rcular, oval , square, rectangular, ovoi d, cyl indri cal , lateral lyrounded  120  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  tape ring, fl aring (di stal ly), pendulant, double , poss ible doubl e  none  none  none  none  hollowed  none  none  none  none  none  complete  complete  complete  circumferent ial groove circumferent ial groove  circumferent ial groove  complete  circumferent ial groove  complete  incomplet e  circumferent ial groove  none  complete  none  incomplet e  complete  circumferent ial groove  const ricted  complete  O bject C omplete ness  circumferent ial groove  drill ed, constricted, hol lowed, circumferenti al i ncise d, inl aid, groove grooved  Neck Descri pti on  lit hic  faunal  floral  faunal  lit hic  lit hic  faunal  floral  floral  floral  (lithic, faunal, floral )  C lass  soapstone  ivory  wood  horn  slate  steatite  antler  wood  wood  wood  Type  highly polished  highly polished  polished  trace polish  polished  highly polished  polished  polished  polished  trace polish  Pol ish  very smooth  very smooth  smoot h  smoot h  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  Texture  C ol our Appearance  medium  light  medium  light  dark  dark  light  medium  medium  medium  Patterni ng  green-grey  mott led  orange-beige, redflecked brown  banded  solid  orange-beige, translucent  red-brown  solid  solid  solid  banded  black  grey  beige  red-brown  yellow-red, brown flecked  yellow-red, brown flecked  mai n, dark, m edium , secondary l ight col ours  C olour Intensity  Material Properti es  -4  -4  -2  Luminance (lux)  7  0  2  8  4  3  3  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  Irides cence  Volum e  Materi al Propertie s  121  none  none  none  drilled  10 ground/abraded  10 ground/abraded  10 ground/abraded  15 ground/abraded  none  none  none  10 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  ground/abraded  none  10 ground/abraded  5 chiselled  none  Secondary – Alte rati on  20 ground/abraded  Pri mary – Manufacture  Ini tial Manufacture  polished  polished  none  none  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  none  Tertiary Decorati on  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  Prim ary – Manufacture  PostManufacture Alterations  possibly, yes, no ground/abraded  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  Broken; ReWorked; Worn but not ReWorke d?  Modification  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  Secondary – Alterati on  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  Tertiary De coration  36.8  30.4  39.7  18.2  66.9  33.2  34  42  42.4  66.5  width (hori zontal)  fl ange  15.9  12.6  18.7  10.8  34.3  20  19.4  15.3  17.1  24.2  hei ght (at m id thickne ss (at fl ange base of body)  3.7  3.8  3.8  1.9  3  body  2.6 yes  2 yes  4.4 yes  3.3 yes  1.7 yes  yes  2.3 yes  1.2 yes  2.8 yes  3 yes  9.8  12.5  18.9  26.4  18.4  9.8  13.4  11.4  12.2  15.4  Fl ange – use measurements l ength concavity depth for area (width, (proxi mal to (at ce ntre) hei ght) as distal) com ple te?  Dim ensions (mm )  20.1  32.4  41  18  39  33  33.8  42  42  66.9  width (horizontal)  hei ght (verti cal )  18.2  13.3  19.7  13  28  19.5  19.2  15.3  16.2  24.3  1.7  3.3  4.7  7.7  2.6  1.1  3  3  concavi ty depth (at centre)  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  Body – use me asure me nts for area (width, hei ght) as comple te ?  Di me ns ions (mm)  122  W ei ght (g)  CMC ethnology n 3.0, 10y 4/1 not es say 'female'  striations overall; vertical scrat ching, inferior collected circumferential 1890-1910 groove (tooth wear?); concretion, posterior  vertical scrat ching, posterior flange; chipping, lateral collected flange wings; 1890-1910 scrat ching, anterior body; striations overall  6  8  lateral flange wing broken, reworked(?)  10yr 8/6, 7.5yr 3/4  collected 1890-1910  chipping, flange and body edges  3  7.5yr 5/6, 5yr 2/4  10yr 5/8  collected 1890-1910  wear, inferior medial edge  24  4  n2.0  n2.5  2.5y 9/4, 2.5y 8/4  7.5yr 5/6  10yr 4/4  10yr 4/4  Colour (Munse ll)  collected 1884  buri al s: s ex, age group?  C ontextual Mate rials  wear, inferior medial flange  12  collected 1890-1910  uniform scrat ching  striations/chisel collected 1850s marks, circumference concretion, collected circumference; 1890-1910 polish, posterior  deep scratching, posterior flange; striations, collected circumferential 1890-1910 groove; scrat ches, anterior body  fractures, body edges; fracture t hrough drilled hole  Full Date Info  striations/chisel marks, circumference; collected 1850s wear facets, inferior posterior  Locati on of W e ar and Type  11  4  3  9  Location of Fracture  concavity l ength  flange  37.2  67.3  34.2  42.3  43.4  68.3  concavity le ngth  body  34.3  42.1  44  68.3  dril le d hole diame te r  dri lle d hole de pth  othe r me asure m ents  NO T INC LUDED IN SPSS  distance be twee n hole s  constricte d ne ck width  18.5  29  37.5  14.6  34.1  33.2  37.5  40.7  66.2  constricte d neck he i ght  15.6  12.6  16.9  10.2  O the r de scription  O the r me asure m ent  complete  complete  complete  incomplete, but measurements accurat e  incomplet e, but measurements accurate  complete  complete  width, height estimated  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  body m easure me nt status  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  fl ange me asure me nt status  NO T INC LUDED IN SPSS  CMC  CMC  CMC  CMC  CMC  CMC  CMC  CMC  CMC  CMC  CMC  CMC  CMC  CMC  Insti tution Catal ogue No. Site Name  Sub-Re gi on  North  North  North  North  North  North  Haida Gwaii  Haida Gwaii  Haida Gwaii  Haida Gwaii  Haida Gwaii  Nass River  unknown  Nass River  Nass River  Skidegat e Ninstint s; Skung Gwaii Ilnagai, Haida Gwaii Eagle Chief Haida Gwaii  Yan  Ninstint s  unknown  Ninstint s  Skidegat e  unknown  unknown  Angidah Village Lakalsap Village (Greenville)  VII-B-983  VII-B-985  VII-B-981  VII-B-982  VII-B-238  VII-B-980  VII-B-978  VII-C-67  VII-C-182  VII-C-183  VII-C-192  North  North  North  North  North  North North  unknown Haida Gwaii  unknown unknown  North  Nass River  Nass River  unknown  Nass River  Haida Gwaii  Haida Gwaii  Haida Gwaii  Haida Gwaii  Haida Gwaii  Haida Gwaii  Haida Gwaii  Haida Gwaii  unknown  unknown  North (Nas s, Ske e na, Hai da Gwaii ); Central ; South (Gulf Isl ands , North, Ce ntral , Frase r De lta, Uppe r Fras e r, South We s t Vancouve r Isl and, East Vancouve r Isl and  Re gi on  VII-A-192c  unknown  Site Location  VII-B-237  unknown  Borde n No.  VII-A-192b  Borde n/O the r Catal ogue No.  Insti tution Information  Ins ti tuti on  123  Nisga'a (Tsimshian?)  unknown  unknown  unknown  unknown  Nisga'a (Tsimshian?)  unknown  unknown  in sit u  in sit u  unknown  in sit u  unknown  unknown  unknown  unknown  Nisga'a (Tsimshian?)  As soci ate d Date  i n si tu, i n s cre e n ,di sturbe Type 1: C14 date s d, s urface , unknown  Inte grity of Prove ni e nce  Haida  Haida  Haida  Haida  Haida  Haida  Haida  Haida  Tlingit  Tlingit  Conte mporary Cul tural Affil i ati ons  Site Information  As soci ate d Pe riods Type 2: Ass oci ate d Date (Charl e s, Locarno, range s Marpole )  Et hnological  Et hnological  unknown  Et hnological  Et hnological  Et hnological  Et hnological  Et hnological  Et hnological  Et hnological  Et hnological  Et hnological  Et hnological  Et hnological  shaman grave'  shaman grave'  shaman grave'  Col l e cte d: Archae ol ogical, Se x Ethnol ogi cal  Conte xtual Mate ri al s  unknown  unknown  unknown  age  hat -shaped  labret  labret  bowl  pulley  unclassified  bowl  unclassified; closest is disc or pulley (A&M)  unclassified  labret  bowl  bowl  unclassified; closest is disc or pulley (A&M)  unclassified  knob  bowl  bowl  bowl  pulley  bowl  bowl  knob  knob  MY TYPE  unclassified; closest is disc  unclassified; closest is disc or pulley (A&M) unclassified; closest is disc or pulley (A&M)  unclassified  unclassified; closest is disc or pulley (A&M) unclassified; closest is disc or pulley (A&M)  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  unclassified  labret labret  unclassified; closest is butt on but concave ant erior  Cl ass ic' Type De s cri ption  labret  l abre t, possi bl e l abre t, inl ay only; l abial , buccal , composi te  O bje ct De s ignation  De scri pti on  indistinguishable  circular  circular  circular  indistinguishable  indistinguishable  indistinguishable  indistinguishable  circular  indistinguishable  indistinguishable  indistinguishable  lat eral  lat eral  l ate ral , ci rcul ar  Fl ange De s cri pti ons  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  hollowed  none  none  none  none  none  concave  concave  concave  concave  concave  concave  concave  concave  concave  concave  concave  concave  flat  circular  oval  oval  oval  ovoid  oval  ovoid  ovoid  oval  oval  oval  ovoid  rectangular  none  convex, concave, flat, curved  Body Description  short  short  short  short  short  short  short  short  short  short  short  short  ext ended  short  oval  oval  oval  oval  ovoid  oval  ovoid  ovoid  oval  oval  ovoid  ovoid  cylindrical  circular  flat  concave  concave  concave  concave  flat  concave  concave  concave  concave  concave  concave  flat  concave  convex, concave , flat  Description  oval, ovoid, cylindrical , se mi dril led, i ncis ed, cylindrical , grooved, short, extended ci rcul ar, hollowed square, re ctangul ar, zoomorphi c  laterally-rounded concave  ci rcular, oval , square, rectangular, ovoi d, cyl indri cal , lateral lyrounded  124  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  tape ring, fl aring (di stal ly), pendulant, double , poss ible doubl e  none  inlaid  inlaid  inlaid  none  inlaid  none  none  inlaid  none  none  inlaid  none  none  complete  complete  circumferent ial groove circumferent ial groove  complete  complete  incomplet e  complete  none  circumferent ial groove  circumferent ial groove circumferent ial groove  complete  complete  circumferent ial groove  circumferent ial groove  incomplet e  circumferent ial groove  complete  complete  circumferent ial groove  none  complete  complete  incomplet e  O bject C omplete ness  none  none  none  drill ed, constricted, hol lowed, circumferenti al i ncise d, inl aid, groove grooved  Neck Descri pti on  lit hic  floral, faunal  mudst one  wood, shell (abalone)  wood, shell (abalone)  polished  trace polish  polished  polished  wood, shell (abalone) floral, faunal  floral, faunal  highly polished  ivory  highly polished  ivory, shell (abalone) faunal, faunal  faunal  highly polished  polished  trace polish  highly polished  ivory  wood  wood, shell (abalone)  steatite  highly polished  faunal  floral  floral, faunal  lit hic  ivory  trace polish  floral, faunal  faunal  polished  mudst one wood, shell (abalone)  lit hic  highly polished  Pol ish  soapstone  Type  lit hic  (lithic, faunal, floral )  C lass  very smooth  smoot h  smoot h  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  Texture  C ol our Appearance  dark  medium  medium  medium  light  light  light  medium  medium  dark  light  medium  dark  dark  red  brown  brown  red-brown  beige  beige, red-brown  beige, red-brown  red-brown  red-brown  red-brown  orange-beige  red-brown  purple-red  green-grey  mai n, dark, m edium , secondary l ight col ours  C olour Intensity  Material Properti es  solid  mott led  mott led  solid  solid  mott led  mott led  banded  banded  flecked  solid  banded  solid  mott led  Patterni ng  -5  5  10  13  7  15  3  20  12  18  8 (flange surface with abalone)  -4  -4  -5  Luminance (lux)  no  yes  yes  yes  no  yes  no  no  yes  no  no  yes  no  no  Irides cence  Volum e  Materi al Propertie s  125  inlaid  polished  inlaid  polished  polished  polished  oiled, polished  oiled, polished  oiled, polished  chiselled  none  none  ground/abraded, drilled  ground/abraded  none  ground/abraded, drilled, inlaid  ground/abraded  ground/abraded, inlaid  ground/abraded, inlaid  ground/abraded, drilled, inlaid  none  35 ground/abraded  10 ground/abraded  10 ground/abraded  20 chiselled  15 chiselled  10 ground/abraded  5 chiselled  5 chiselled  35 chiselled  30 chiselled  25 chiselled  10 ground/abraded  polished  polished  polished  polished  none  2 ground/abraded  polished  Tertiary Decorati on  none  Secondary – Alte rati on  5 ground/abraded  Pri mary – Manufacture  Ini tial Manufacture  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  yes, no, yes  Broken; ReWorked; Worn but not ReWorke d?  Modification  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  Prim ary – Manufacture  PostManufacture Alterations  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  Secondary – Alterati on  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  Tertiary De coration  32  34.2  75.6  77.6  80  39.2  28.7  45.4  55.6  71.4  48  55.5  72.3  18.7  width (hori zontal)  fl ange  31.7  34.9  35.1  33.6  18.3  17.5  20.9  24.5  31.3  25  23.1  29.6  8  16.1  hei ght (at m id thickne ss (at fl ange base of body)  5  3.7  4.4  3.6  body  yes  3 yes  2.7 yes  3.2 yes  2.1 yes  10.7 yes  3.8 yes  3 yes  3.3 yes  2.6 yes  3.5 yes  4.3 yes  yes  1.4 yes  7.8  10.5  13.3  13  13  14  12.4  12.6  17.4  16.1  12.7  10.5  15.2  15.8  Fl ange – use measurements l ength concavity depth for area (width, (proxi mal to (at ce ntre) distal) hei ght) as com ple te?  Dim ensions (mm )  36.4  74.4  80.5  80  39.2  25.6  45.4  56.5  71.8  41.3  56.1  74.2  10.3  21.7  width (horizontal)  hei ght (verti cal )  31.6  35.6  39.4  33.8  19.7  13.5  20.9  23.8  33.9  23.6  23.4  28.8  10.8  20.1  3.6  3  2.5  2.6  3.8  1.3  2.4  3.8  concavi ty depth (at centre)  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  Body – use me asure me nts for area (width, hei ght) as comple te ?  Di me ns ions (mm)  126  W ei ght (g)  striations overall  micro-pit ting, flange; microchipping, anterior body  lateral t ip broken striations overall collected 1905  scrat ching overall collected 1905  17  23  10r 3/4  77  chiselling overall; scrat ching, inferior(?) circumferential groove  20  80.7  10yr 8/6 natural, 10yr 3/2 stained  horizontal scrat ching, posterior  19  79.7  2.4yr 3/4 anterior, 7.5yr 5/6 circumference, 7.5yr 5/4 posterior  46.7  55.8  72.3  10yr 8/6 natural, 10yr 3/2 stained  2.5y 8.5/4, 7.5yr 7/8, 21.5y 9/2  striations overall; scrat ching, lat eral collected 1905 edge  10  collected 1879  2.5y 8.5/4, 7.5yr 7/8, 7.5yr 4/6  collected 1905  inlay broken  4  2.5y 8.5/4, 7.5yr 7/8, 7.5yr 4/6  collected 1890-1910  7.5yr 5/6  collected 1890-1910  scrat ching, anterior(?)  7.5yr 5/6  10r 3/1  57.3  7.5yr 6/8, 10yr 8/6  collected 1905  collected 1900  collected 1905  28.2  77.5  concavity l ength  flange  7.5yr 5/6  7.5r 3/2  collected 1890-1910  collected 1890-1910  Colour (Munse ll)  10y 3/1  buri al s: s ex, age group?  C ontextual Mate rials  collected 1890-1910  Full Date Info  weathering overall; concretion, posterior(?)  diagonal shell inlay scrat ching, lateral missing edge wear, superior circumferential groove chipping, lateral edges; uniform scrat ching concretion, lat eral edge; shell inlay broken chiselling, anterior chiselling, circumferential groove  lateral flange wing broken, reworked(?)  Locati on of W e ar and Type  14  10  21  24  17  15  4  6  Location of Fracture  41.7  56.9  81  45.8  56.7  rectangular 53 by 25  concavity le ngth  body  dril le d hole diame te r  0.9  10.7  1.9  dri lle d hole de pth  othe r me asure m ents  NO T INC LUDED IN SPSS  distance be twee n hole s  constricte d ne ck width  30.9  70.3  72.3  29.1  41  51.7  3.75  51.6  8.9  20.7  constricte d neck he i ght  28.3  32.1  34.4  13.8  19.4  22.6  20.5  22.9  16  O the r de scription  O the r me asure m ent  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  widt h est imat ed  complete  complete  complete  widt h est imat ed  fl ange me asure me nt status  complete  incomplete, but measurements accurat e  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  body m easure me nt status  NO T INC LUDED IN SPSS  CMC  CMC  CMC  CMC  CMC  CMC  CMC  CMC  CMC  CMC  CMC  CMC  CMC  CMC  CMC  CMC  Insti tution Catal ogue No.  Met lakat la Dodge Cove, Digby Island  Dodge Island, Temp.No. Smit h#13  1044 GcT o-1  189 GbT o-18  North  Prince Rupert area  Garden Island Bencke Point Sit e  1763 GbT o-23  North  North  North  Kaien Island  Reservoir Sit e, Lachane  unknown  North  North  North  North  North  North  North  North  North  North  North  4636 GbT o-33  Kaien Island  Sub-Re gi on  Skeena River  Skeena River  Skeena River  Skeena River  unknown  Skeena River  Skeena River  Skeena River  Skeena River  Skeena River  Skeena River  Skeena River  Skeena River  Skeena River  unknown  Skeena River  North (Nas s, Ske e na, Hai da Gwaii ); Central ; South (Gulf Isl ands , North, Ce ntral , Frase r De lta, South Uppe r Fras e r, We s t Vancouve r Isl and, East Vancouve r Isl and  Re gi on  unknown  Grassy Bay  110 GbT n-1  Ritchie Island  Kaien Island  Kaien Island  Met lakat la  Kaien Island  Digby Island Dodge Cove, Digby Island  Skeena River  unknown  Upper Skeena River  Site Location  unknown  Kit andach  Reservoir Sit e, Lachane  601 GbT o-34  GbT o-33  497 GbT o-33  XII-B-1875-CA  C-372  1073 GcT o-1  702 GbT o-33  366 GbT o-31  Parizeau Point Boardwalk Sit e, Temp.No. NMC Reservoir Sit e, Lachane Bencke Point Sit e Reservoir Sit e, Lachane  unknown  VII-C-1650  60 GbT o-30  unknown  VII-C-1649  Site Name  Hazelt on  Borde n No.  VII-C-1219  Borde n/O the r Catal ogue No.  Insti tution Information  Ins ti tuti on  127  Tsimshian  Tsimshian  Tsimshian  Tsimshian  Tsimshian  Tsimshian  Tsimshian  Tsimshian  Tsimshian  Tsimshian  Tsimshian  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  dist urbed  unknown  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  unknown  Tsimshian, says Tribe 'Nb7'  unknown  unknown  Tsimshian  As soci ate d Date  i n si tu, i n s cre e n ,di sturbe Type 1: C14 d, s urface , date s unknown  Inte grity of Prove ni e nce  Tsimshian  Tsimshian (Git ksan), says Tribe 'Nb7'  Conte mporary Cul tural Affil i ati ons  Site Information  As soci ate d Type 2: Pe riods Ass oci ate d Date (Charl e s, range s Locarno, Marpole )  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  unknown  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  unknown  unknown  Et hnological  female  Col l e cte d: Archae ol ogical, Se x Ethnol ogi cal  Conte xtual Mate ri al s  elderly  age  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  l abre t, possi bl e l abre t, inl ay only; l abial , buccal , composi te  O bje ct De s ignation  knob  unclassified; closest is pulley (A&M)  T-shaped  T-shaped  disc  t ee  t ee  t ee  unclassified; closest is pendulant T-shaped  plate  t ee  pulley  t ee  t ee  t ee  t ee  unclassified  unclassified; closest is pulley (A&M) T-shaped  T-shaped  T-shaped  T-shaped  T-shaped  t ee  pulley  pulley  unclassified; closest is disc or pulley (A&M) unclassified; closest is disc or pulley (A&M) T-shaped  pulley  MY TYPE  unclassified; closest is disc or pulley (A&M)  Cl ass ic' Type De s cri ption  De scri pti on  circular  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral/circular  lat eral  indistinguishable  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  indistinguishable  indistinguishable  indistinguishable  l ate ral , ci rcul ar  Fl ange De s cri pti ons  oval  rectangular  rectangular  none  none  none  none  flat  flat  flat  flat  none  laterally-rounded concave  rectangular  none  concave  oval  laterally-rounded flat  none  none  concave  circular  none  laterally-rounded convex  none  none  flat  laterally-rounded concave  rectangular  none  laterally-rounded concave  none  flat  none  none  flat  short  ext ended  ext ended  ext ended  ext ended  short  ext ended  short  ext ended  ext ended  ext ended  ext ended  ext ended  short  short  oval  cylindrical  cylindrical  concave  convex  convex  flat  convex  zoomorphic cylindrical  concave  flat  concave  flat  convex  convex  flat  convex  flat  flat  flat  convex, concave , flat  circular  rect angular  circular  rect angular  semi-cylindrical  semi-cylindrical  semi-cylindrical  semi-cylindrical  circular  circular  ovoid  flat  short  none  convex, concave, flat, curved  Body Description  Description  oval, ovoid, cylindrical , se mi dril led, i ncis ed, cylindrical , grooved, short, extended ci rcul ar, hollowed square, re ctangul ar, zoomorphi c  laterally-rounded concave  circular  circular  circular  ci rcular, oval , square, rectangular, ovoi d, cyl indri cal , lateral lyrounded  128  none  tapering  tapering  none  pendulant  none  none  none  none  tapering  none  none  tapering  none  none  none  tape ring, fl aring (di stal ly), pendulant, double , poss ible doubl e  none  none  none  none  drilled  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  complete  circumferent ial groove  none  none  none  none  none  const ricted  incomplet e  complete  complete  complete  C lass  quartzite bone bone  coal  lit hic faunal faunal  lit hic  unknown, CAST  slate  bone  faunal  lit hic  bone  faunal  antler  bone  faunal  faunal  bone  faunal  steatite  bone  lit hic  mudst one  faunal  mudst one  quartz cryst al  Type  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  (lithic, faunal, floral )  incomplet e (cast) lit hic  incomplet e  complete  incomplet e  circumferent ial groove const ricted  incomplet e  complete  complete  incomplet e  none  none  none  none  complete  complete  circumferent ial groove  none  incomplet e  O bject C omplete ness  circumferent ial groove  drill ed, constricted, hol lowed, circumferenti al i ncise d, inl aid, groove grooved  Neck Descri pti on  highly polished  trace polish  trace polish  dull  highly polished  highly polished  highly polished  highly polished  polished  trace polish  dull  trace polish  polished  highly polished  highly polished  highly polished  Pol ish  smoot h  smoot h  smoot h  smoot h  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  smoot h  smoot h  slightly rough  smoot h  smoot h  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  Texture  C ol our Appearance  dark  light  light  light  dark  dark  light  dark  light  light  light  light  light  dark  dark  light  black  beige  beige  beige  black  grey  orange-beige  black  beige  orange-beige  beige  beige  beige  red  red  translucent  mai n, dark, m edium , secondary l ight col ours  C olour Intensity  Material Properti es  solid  solid  solid  solid  solid  solid  solid  solid  solid  solid  solid  solid  solid  solid  solid  solid  Patterni ng  -5  t oo small  t oo small  t oo small  n/a (cast )  -5  t oo small  t oo small  t oo small  t oo small  t oo small  t oo small  -5  -5  Luminance (lux)  0  0  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  yes  Irides cence  Volum e  Materi al Propertie s  129  none  none  none  none  2 ground/abraded  2 ground/abraded  2 ground/abraded  drilled, incised  10 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  none  20 ground/abraded  none  2 ground/abraded  none  none  2 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  none  2 ground/abraded  drilled  none  2 ground/abraded  none  none  15 ground/abraded  2 ground/abraded  none  10 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  none  Secondary – Alte rati on  20 ground/abraded  Pri mary – Manufacture  Ini tial Manufacture  polished  none  none  none  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  none  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  Tertiary Decorati on  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  Prim ary – Manufacture  PostManufacture Alterations  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  yes, no, possibly none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  Broken; ReWorked; Worn but not ReWorke d?  Modification  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  Secondary – Alterati on  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  Tertiary De coration  22.3  8.9  12.9  14.8  46  67  4.9  13.5  6.5  12.8  6.6  9.3  29.6  24.9  44.2  width (hori zontal)  fl ange  15.1  3.3  3.5  6.7  14.1  51  2.4  8.9  2.6  4.2  1.8  1.8  30.4  26.1  34.7  hei ght (at m id thickne ss (at fl ange base of body)  4  4  6  4.1  3.7  2.8  5  2.2  5.3  3  3  body  yes  yes  yes  yes  2.7 yes  3 yes  yes  n/a  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  5.8  48.6  39.1  28  10  6.6  16.2  11.1  34.4  43.2  29.7  28.7  35.2  13  11  17.2  Fl ange – use measurements l ength concavity depth for area (width, (proxi mal to (at ce ntre) distal) hei ght) as com ple te?  Dim ensions (mm )  28.1  4.8  5.2  5.8  17.1  80  3  40  4.9  3  5.3  3.6  4.1  30.7  25.5  43.2  width (horizontal)  hei ght (verti cal )  23.7  3.5  3.3  6.2  38.2  80  3  40.8  4.2  2.5  4  2.4  3  32.2  26  35.2  6.8  4.2  concavi ty depth (at centre)  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  Body – use me asure me nts for area (width, hei ght) as comple te ?  Di me ns ions (mm)  130  Full Date Info  Colour (Munse ll)  2  1  1  3  5  31  multiple fractures; ant erior body chipped  cast  lateral flange wing broken  uniform wear; polish, flange posterior uniform wear; bevelling, flange  scrat ching and wear facets, posterior and anterior; striations, constricted neck  lateral flange tips broken; body outer circumference portions broken  8  0.8  striations overall  scrat ching, broken on medial posterior and axis anterior  heavily weathered uniformly weathered  wearing, flange  distal body tip broken  distal body tip broken  1  0.8  1  0.8  n 2.0  10yr 7/4  10yr 8/4  2.5y 7/4  n2.0  n2.5  2.5y 8/4  n 2.0  2.5y 8/4  10yr 8/6  2.5y 7/4  2.5y 7/4  2.5y 7/4  10r 3/2  bevelling, inferior(?)  24  “sack is in good condition” (kept in it by her grandson?); translucent clear laxgibu, Git'anmeks, Edward Clark's grandmother's  buri al s: s ex, age group?  C ontextual Mate rials  10r 3/2  chipping and bevelling, inferior collected 1925 posterior  Locati on of W e ar and Type  bevelling, inferior posterior; micropitting, anterior  cracked, medial axis  Location of Fracture  15  49  0.8  W ei ght (g)  concavity l ength  flange  36  concavity le ngth  body  60.9  dril le d hole diame te r  2  dri lle d hole de pth  othe r me asure m ents  NO T INC LUDED IN SPSS  distance be twee n hole s  constricte d ne ck width  4.3  7  16  1.8  23.3  10.7  40  constricte d neck he i ght  3.6  13.3  2.1  2  1.6  1.6  25  22.6  32.6  O the r de scription  O the r me asure m ent  incomplet e, but measurements accurate  complete  complete  complete  widt h est imat ed  widt h est imat ed  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  incomplet e, but measurements accurate  fl ange me asure me nt status  incomplet e, but measurements accurate  complete  complete  complete  complete  width, height estimated  complete  width estimated  complete  complete  complete  complete length incomplete  complete  complete  complete  body m easure me nt status  NO T INC LUDED IN SPSS  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  CMC  CMC  CMC  CMC  CMC  CMC  Insti tution Catal ogue No.  1540 (4)  XII-B-637  Borde n No.  Boardwalk Sit e  515 GbT o-31  Pender Canal 2 Pender Canal 2 Pender Canal 2  3650 DeRt-2  3262 DeRt-2  Namu  Helen Point  69 DeRt-2  ElSx-1  2399 DfRu-8  Baldwin Sit e  Boardwalk Sit e  2179 GbT o-31  80 GbT o-36  Garden Island  unknown  Dodge Island, Temp.No. Smit h#13  Site Name  1548 GbT o-23  544 GbT o-18  Borde n/O the r Catal ogue No.  Insti tution Information  Ins ti tuti on  131  North  North  North  Dodge Cove, Digby Island  Dodge Cove, Digby Island  Prince Rupert Harbour  Hecat e Straight  Pender Island  Pender Island  Pender Island  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Central  Sout h  North  Prince Rupert area  North  unknown  Mayne Island  Sub-Re gi on  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Cent ral  Gulf Islands  Skeena River  Skeena River  Skeena River  Skeena River  unknown  Skeena River  North (Nas s, Ske e na, Hai da Gwaii ); Central ; South (Gulf Isl ands , North, Ce ntral , Frase r De lta, South Uppe r Fras e r, We s t Vancouve r Isl and, East Vancouve r Isl and  Re gi on  unknown  Dodge Cove, Digby Island  Site Location  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Heiltsuk  Coast Salish  Tsimshian  Tsimshian  Tsimshian  Tsimshian  Tsimshian  Conte mporary Cul tural Affil i ati ons As soci ate d Date  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  unknown  screen  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  unknown  in sit u  2590 +/-40 BP  i n si tu, i n s cre e n ,di sturbe Type 1: C14 d, s urface , date s unknown  Inte grity of Prove ni e nce  Site Information  2000 – 3000  unknown  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Locarno/Marpole Archaeological  “ lat e part of burial sequence”  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  unknown  male  male  male  Col l e cte d: Archae ol ogical, Se x Ethnol ogi cal  2500 Locarno/Marpole Archaeological  As soci ate d Type 2: Pe riods Ass oci ate d Date (Charl e s, range s Locarno, Marpole )  Conte xtual Mate ri al s  30-40  mid-30s  mid-20s  age  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  l abre t, possi bl e l abre t, inl ay only; l abial , buccal , composi te  O bje ct De s ignation  plate  knob  MY TYPE  T-shaped  T-shaped  t ee  t ee  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral knob  pendulant  T-shaped or pendulant hat -shaped  lat eral  but t on; originally knob double-but t on  lat eral/circular  lat eral  pulley  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral/circular  lat eral  l ate ral , ci rcul ar  Fl ange De s cri pti ons  knob  unclassified  unclassified: closest is disc or pulley (A&M)  unclassified; closest is butt on but ant erior body knob surface is concave unclassified; closest is butt on but ant erior body knob surface is concave  unclassified  unclassified; closest is pulley (A&M)  Cl ass ic' Type De s cri ption  De scri pti on  none  none  none  none  laterally-rounded concave  laterally-rounded concave  laterally-rounded concave  laterally-rounded concave  rectangular  rectangular  none  none  concave  oval  none  none  laterally-rounded concave  flat  none  laterally-rounded concave  flat  none  concave  oval  none  convex, concave, flat, curved  Body Description  ext ended  ext ended  ext ended  ext ended  short  ext ended  short  short  short  short  short  semi-cylindrical  cylindrical  cylindrical  cylindrical  flat  convex  flat  convex  convex  convex  zoomorphic  oval  concave  concave  concave  concave  concave  oval  circular  circular  circular  oval  convex, concave , flat  Description  oval, ovoid, cylindrical , se mi dril led, i ncis ed, cylindrical , grooved, short, extended ci rcul ar, hollowed square, re ctangul ar, zoomorphi c  laterally-rounded concave  ci rcular, oval , square, rectangular, ovoi d, cyl indri cal , lateral lyrounded  132  tapering  tapering  none  none  none  none  pendulant none  none  none  none  none  none  grooved  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  const ricted  const ricted  const ricted  const ricted  none  drill ed, constricted, hol lowed, circumferenti al i ncise d, inl aid, groove grooved  possible double  tapering  none  none  none  none  none  tape ring, fl aring (di stal ly), pendulant, double , poss ible doubl e  Neck Descri pti on  complete  complete  complete  complete  fragment  incomplet e  complete  complete  complete  incomplet e  incomplet e  O bject C omplete ness  mudst one  mudst one  lit hic  lit hic  dull  shell (purplehinged scallop) unknown, t alc bone bone  faunal lit hic faunal faunal  polished  trace polish  trace polish  dull  unknown, t alc  lit hic  highly polished  mudst one  lit hic  highly polished  highly polished  highly polished  very smooth  smoot h  slightly rough  smoot h  slightly rough  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  light  light  light  light  dark  dark  dark  dark  dark  dark  mudst one  very smooth  lit hic  polished  slate  beige  beige  beige  beige, pink  brown, grey  black  black  black  black  grey  black  lit hic  C ol our Appearance  dark  C olour Intensity  coal  very smooth  Texture  lit hic highly polished  Pol ish  mai n, dark, m edium , secondary l ight col ours  Type  (lithic, faunal, floral )  C lass  Material Properti es  mott led  mott led  mott led  mott led  flecked  solid  solid  solid  solid  solid  solid  Patterni ng  -5  -5  -5  -5  -5  Luminance (lux)  4  5  4  0  no  no  no  yes  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  Irides cence  Volum e  Materi al Propertie s  133  none  none  2 ground/abraded  2 ground/abraded  polished  polished  polished  none  none  polished  none  ground/abraded  5 chiselled  polished  5 ground/abraded  none  5 ground/abraded  polished  20 ground/abraded  none  5 ground/abraded  polished  paint ed  none  10 ground/abraded  polished  polished  Tertiary Decorati on  none  none  30 ground/abraded  10 ground/abraded  none  Secondary – Alte rati on  5 ground/abraded  Pri mary – Manufacture  Ini tial Manufacture  none  ground/abraded  none  none  none  Prim ary – Manufacture  PostManufacture Alterations  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  unknown, yes, no ground/abraded  none  yes, yes, no  none  none  none  Broken; ReWorked; Worn but not ReWorke d?  Modification  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  Secondary – Alterati on  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  polished  none  none  none  Tertiary De coration  32  10.1  9.7  42.8  17.7  34.4  39  32.9  37.8  50.4  67.3  width (hori zontal)  fl ange  4  3.3  20.5  6.3  20.3  11.3  23  17.4  23  51.5  14.2  7  6.4  5.9  4.8  2.3  5.1  5.4  3.8  4.3  2.7  10.2  hei ght (at m id thickne ss (at fl ange base of body)  body  yes  yes  yes  yes  4.7 no  1.5 yes  2.2 yes  0.7 yes  6.2 yes  4.5 yes  1.3 yes  9.2  25.1  23.7  40.5  11.5  9.2  25.7  9  7.5  9  10.4  Fl ange – use measurements l ength concavity depth for area (width, (proxi mal to (at ce ntre) distal) hei ght) as com ple te?  Dim ensions (mm )  4.4  5.1  24.2  12  31.3  16.4  26.2  24.7  28.7  80  22.7  width (horizontal)  hei ght (verti cal )  4.1  3.1  23.1  20  24.6  15.6  23.1  19  27.5  80  20.5  2.2  1.5  3.7  4  concavi ty depth (at centre)  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  Body – use me asure me nts for area (width, hei ght) as comple te ?  Di me ns ions (mm)  134  0.7  0.4  43.8  2.6  chip, lateral flange wing chip, anterior body surface  concretion, anterior flange  overall heavily weathered  overall st riations  chipping, anterior body; heavily weathered  lateral flange wings broken; cracking, post erior flange  7.7  wear facets (tooth?), posterior flange; micro-pit ting, anterior body  weathering, anterior body; wear facets (teet h), posterior flange wear facet (tooth?), posterior flange; scrat ching, body anterior  scrat ching, posterior flange and anterior body  lateral flange wing broken  lateral flange wing broken, reworked  chip, flange  horizontal scrat ching, posterior flange; concretion, anterior flange  Locati on of W e ar and Type  10  8  6  16  47  3  lateral flange wings broken, one missing; crack, ant erior body  Location of Fracture  concretion, anterior flange; horizontal scrat ching, posterior flange; chiselling, anterior body  W ei ght (g)  Late Midden, 3000-2200 BP  2590+/-40ybp (conventional age; Beta-202021)  Full Date Info  Colour (Munse ll)  2.5y 9/2  2.5y 9/2  5y 9/1, 5y 9/2, 2.5r 5/8 10yr 8/2, 10yr 6/2, 2.5y 6/4  10yr 2/1, 2.5y 7/2  Burial 525, Male 30-39 years; dental labret abrasion; “ stone n 2.0 labret in situ against front of mandible” Burial 505, male, 35-44 years; labret found “between long bones and fingers —near t he n 2.0 mandible” (Cybulski); skelet on had “dental labret abrasion”  n 2.0  n 2.0  n 2.5  Burial 166, male 20-24years; “stone labret to left of chest, n 2.0 between folded right hand and dist al left forearm  buri al s: s ex, age group?  C ontextual Mate rials  concavity l ength  flange  32.7  38.1  52.2  69  concavity le ngth  body  27.5  31.1  dril le d hole diame te r  dri lle d hole de pth  othe r me asure m ents  NO T INC LUDED IN SPSS  distance be twee n hole s  constricte d ne ck width  28  15.6  20.1  20.7  26.5  constricte d neck he i ght  10.9  17.6  14.9  23  diameter of cent ral indent  O the r de scription  O the r me asure m ent  complete  complete  complete  complete  width, height estimated  complete  body m easure me nt status  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  widt h incomplete complete  widt h est imat ed  complete  complete  complete  incomplet e, but 7 measurements accurate  widt h est imat ed  fl ange me asure me nt status  NO T INC LUDED IN SPSS  RBCM  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  Insti tution Catal ogue No.  507 or 567?  Pender Canal 2 Pender Canal 2  Pender Canal 2  Pender Canal 2  Pender Canal 2  Pender Canal 2  Pender Canal 2  Pender Canal 2 Pender Canal 2 Pender Canal  384 DeRt-2  3468 DeRt-2  2477 DeRt-2  940 DeRt-2  1039 DeRt-2  386 DeRt-2  282 DeRt-2  905 DeRt-2  403 DeRt-2  1061 DeRt-1  unknown  Pender Island  Pender Canal 2  172  Pender Island  Pender Canal 2  DeRt-2  3122 DeRt-2  Sub-Re gi on  Sout h  North  Haida Gwaii  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Haida Gwaii  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  North (Nas s, Ske e na, Hai da Gwaii ); Central ; South (Gulf Isl ands , North, Ce ntral , Frase r De lta, Uppe r Fras e r, South We s t Vancouve r Isl and, East Vancouve r Isl and  Re gi on  Pender Island  Pender Island  Pender Island  Pender Island  Pender Island  Pender Island  Pender Island  Pender Island  Pender Island  Pender Island  Pender Island  Pender Canal 2  Pender Island  Site Location  252 DeRt-2  Site Name  Pender Canal 2  Borde n No.  381 DeRt-2  Borde n/O the r Catal ogue No.  Insti tution Information  Ins ti tuti on  135  Haida  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Conte mporary Cul tural Affil i ati ons As soci ate d Date  unknown  unknown  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  unknown  in sit u  in sit u  3000 – 4500  3000 – 4500  3000 – 4500  2000 – 3000  2000 – 3000  4000 +/1 500 BP 3500 – 4500  Conte xtual Mate ri al s  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Charles/Locarno Archaeological  Charles/Locarno Archaeological  Charles/Locarno Archaeological  Locarno/Marpole Archaeological  Locarno/Marpole Archaeological  Charles/Locarno Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  female  female  Col l e cte d: Archae ol ogical, Se x Ethnol ogi cal  Charles/Locarno Archaeological  As soci ate d Type 2: Pe riods Ass oci ate d Date (Charl e s, range s Locarno, Marpole )  4320 +/- 220 BP 4000 – 4500  i n si tu, i n s cre e n ,di sturbe Type 1: C14 d, s urface , date s unknown  Inte grity of Prove ni e nce  Site Information  adult  adult  age  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  l abre t, possi bl e l abre t, inl ay only; l abial , buccal , composi te  O bje ct De s ignation  lat eral  but t on; originally knob double-but t on  knob  knob  unclassified; closest is disc and pulley pulley (A&M)  hat -shaped  too fragmented  knob  lat eral  hat -shaped; originally double- knob but t on  too fragmented  lat eral  knob  but t on or hatshaped  indistinguishable  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  knob  but t on or hatshaped  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  l ate ral , ci rcul ar  Fl ange De s cri pti ons  t ee  knob  t ee  t ee  t ee  t ee  knob  MY TYPE  T-shaped  hat -shaped  T-shaped  T-shaped  T-shaped  T-shaped  but t on or hatshaped  Cl ass ic' Type De s cri ption  De scri pti on  136  none  none  none  concave  rectangular  laterally-rounded concave  laterally-rounded concave  rectangular  none  none  flat  flat  rectangular  rectangular  flat  drilled  none  laterally-rounded concave  oval  short  none  laterally-rounded concave  none  none  laterally-rounded concave  laterally-rounded concave  short  none  laterally-rounded flat  short  short  short  short  short  short  ext ended  none  laterally-rounded concave  short  none  ext ended  ext ended  ext ended  ext ended  short  laterally-rounded concave  flat  none  concave  rectangular  none  convex, concave, flat, curved  ci rcular, oval , square, rectangular, ovoi d, cyl indri cal , lateral lyrounded  oval  cylindrical  cylindrical  cylindrical  circular  cylindrical  cylindrical  cylindrical  cylindrical  cylindrical  semi-cylindrical  cylindrical  cylindrical  cylindrical  circular  oval, ovoid, cylindrical , se mi dril led, i ncis ed, cylindrical , grooved, short, extended ci rcul ar, hollowed square, re ctangul ar, zoomorphi c  Body Description  flat  convex  incom plete  incom plete  convex  flat  flat  flat  incom plete  flat  flat  flat  convex  flat  convex  convex, concave , flat  Description  none  none  none  none  possible double  possible double  none  none  none  none  none  tapering  tapering  tapering  none  tape ring, fl aring (di stal ly), pendulant, double , poss ible doubl e  inlaid  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  incomplet e  complete  circumferent ial groove  incomplet e  incomplet e  complete  complete  complete  complete  incomplet e  incomplet e  complete  complete  complete  incomplet e  incomplet e  O bject C omplete ness  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  const ricted  none  none  none  none  drill ed, constricted, hol lowed, circumferenti al i ncise d, inl aid, groove grooved  Neck Descri pti on  trace polish  highly polished  dull dull  siltstone  siltstone  unknown, siltstone  unknown, siltstone  unknown, clay  steatite  unknown, mudst one unknown, soapstone unknown, t alc  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic lit hic lit hic  bone, shell (abalone)  trace polish  steatite  lit hic  faunal, faunal  dull  mudst one  lit hic  highly polished  dull  trace polish  dull  highly polished  trace polish  dull  very smooth  smoot h  smoot h  smoot h  very smooth  smoot h  very smooth  smoot h  smoot h  smoot h  smoot h  smoot h  smoot h  light  light  medium  dark  light  light  medium  medium  medium  medium  medium  dark  dark  dark  mudst one  smoot h  lit hic  trace polish  siltstone  beige, pink  beige  grey  grey  beige, grey  grey  brown-grey, red  grey  grey  grey  blue  black  black  brown  black  lit hic  C ol our Appearance  dark  C olour Intensity  soapstone  very smooth  Texture  lit hic polished  Pol ish  mai n, dark, m edium , secondary l ight col ours  Type  (lithic, faunal, floral )  C lass  Material Properti es  mott led  flecked  solid  solid  mott led  mott led  marbled  mott led  solid  solid  banded  solid  solid  solid  solid  Patterni ng  Luminance (lux)  8  8  0  0  6  6  3  6  137  5 ground/abraded  no  20 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  no  yes  5 ground/abraded  no  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  no  2 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  no  no  5 ground/abraded  no  no  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  no  no  2 ground/abraded  no  no  2 ground/abraded  no  Pri mary – Manufacture  Ini tial Manufacture  5 ground/abraded  Volum e  no  Irides cence  Materi al Propertie s  drilled, inlaid  none  none  drilled  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  Secondary – Alte rati on  polished  none  none  none  polished  none  none  polished  none  none  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  Tertiary Decorati on  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  ground/abraded  Prim ary – Manufacture  PostManufacture Alterations  none  none  none  none  yes, yes, no  none  none  none  none  ground/abraded  possibly, yes, no ground/abraded  possibly, yes, no ground/abraded  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  yes, yes, no  Broken; ReWorked; Worn but not ReWorke d?  Modification  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  Secondary – Alterati on  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  polished  Tertiary De coration  27  46.6  26  30.6  35.2  40.4  26.4  28.5  28.7  28  25  13.1  15.4  16  13.5  width (hori zontal)  fl ange  33.2  17.6  13.7  16.8  17.8  13.2  14.3  13  11.2  10.2  5.9  7.2  3.4  4.2  12.7  hei ght (at m id thickne ss (at fl ange base of body)  6.4  6  6.6  7.7  9  7.2  6  4.7  4.7  6  6.5  5.4  4.7  3.4  2.5  body  yes  yes  yes  yes  7 yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  1.4 yes  yes  yes  yes  18.5  15.5  8.2  12.9  14.7  17.6  14.8  14.2  28.6  16.9  26.4  31.8  29.9  16.1  10.5  Fl ange – use measurements l ength concavity depth for area (width, (proxi mal to (at ce ntre) distal) hei ght) as com ple te?  Dimensions (mm)  46  16.5  16  18.8  19.9  13.4  16.1  15.2  10.5  9.2  7.3  7.6  5.9  6.2  13.6  width (horizontal)  hei ght (verti cal )  32.3  16.9  14.6  17.6  17.9  14.7  15  13.7  11.2  8.7  5.6  7.2  3.3  4.6  13.3  concavi ty depth (at centre)  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  Body – use me asure me nts for area (width, hei ght) as comple te ?  Di me ns ions (mm)  138  4  9  29  n 4.0  Main Midden 4500-3000 BP  striations overall  striations, body  fracture, body  lateral flange wings broken  60  crack, lengthwise striations overall axis  5y 9/2  5y 8.5/2  n 2.0  Main Midden 4500-3000 BP  fracture through drilled hole t owards body  10.1  striations overall  5gy 2/1, 2.5y 7/2  2.5y 7/2, 2.5y 8/4, 5y 6/2  2.5y 4/2, 10yr 5/4, 10yr 6/2  fracture at medial striations, flange; Main Midden overall flange axis(?), 4500-3000 BP weat hering reworked  Early Midden 5000-4500 BP  Late Midden, 3000-2200 BP  4000±500 C-14 yrs BP  adult female, burial 85-8, near mandible, not 5y 3/1, 2.5y 4/2, directly dated but 2.5y 6/4 by st ratigraphic association  5y 4/1  5y 4/1  5g 3/1, 5g 6/1, 5gy 9/1  n2.0  n2.0  13.2  fracture at medial concretion, flange axis(?), flange reworked  8.5  concretion, anterior flange; polish, flange  concretion, anterior flange; weat hering, anterior body  polish, post erior flange  lateral flange wing tips broken(?), reworked(?)  lateral flange wing broken distal body tip broken; lateral flange wing broken  concretion, flange concretion, flange; polish, posterior flange concretion, flange Burial 84-31, adult female  Colour (Munse ll)  5y 3/1  buri al s: s ex, age group?  C ontextual Mate rials  distal body tip broken; lateral pitting, body flange wing tip broken, reground  4320±220 c-14yrs BP  Full Date Info  n2.0  Locati on of W e ar and Type  scrat ching, lateral flange anterior body; wing tips broken, gauging, superior reworked flange/body (tooth?)  Location of Fracture  8.4  6.9  5.5  3.8  2.1  3.9  1.2  0.8  W ei ght (g)  concavity l ength  flange  41.1  16.5  concavity le ngth  body  dril le d hole diame te r  3  dri lle d hole de pth  othe r me asure m ents  NO T INC LUDED IN SPSS  distance be twee n hole s  constricte d ne ck width  5.5  constricte d neck he i ght  12.6  tapered ends height  O the r de scription  13, 11.2  O the r me asure m ent  complete  widt h est imat ed  complete  complete  length incomplete  length incomplet e  incomplet e, but measurements accurate complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  length incomplet e  complete  complete  complete  complete  length incomplet e  complete  body m easure me nt status  complete  complete  complete  complete  widt h est imat ed  widt h est imat ed  complete  complete  complete  complete  widt h est imat ed  fl ange me asure me nt status  NO T INC LUDED IN SPSS  SFU  SFU  SFU  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  Insti tution Catal ogue No.  North  Haida Gwaii  unknown  Kit imat River Chimdamish Creek, 15 miles east of Terrace, sout h side Chimdemash 4 miles up Bedwell Harbour, Sout h Pender Island  Masset t  unknown  Kit imat  unknown  Pender Canal 4, Poets Cove Dionisio Point  1430  14302  9369  2493 DeRt-4  158 DgRv-3  Dionisio Point  Crescent Beach  Crescent Beach  Crescent Beach  1967 DgRr-1  no number (dark) DgRr-1  no number (shell) DgRr-1  7053 DgRr-6 Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Boundary Bay, Tsawwassen Boundary Bay, Tsawwassen Boundary Bay, Tsawwassen  Sout h  Sout h  North  North  North  Galiano Island  Glenrose Cannery Fraser River, Sit e Vancouver  157 DgRv-3  9709 (709)  Galiano Island  North  Haida Gwaii  North  North  Chaat h  1429 (1102)  10012  9964 (964)  Sub-Re gi on  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Gulf Islands  Fraser Delta  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Skeena River  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Tsimshian  Haisla  Nisga'a  Haida Gwaii  Kitimat  Haida  Haida  Haida  Haida  Conte mporary Cul tural Affil i ati ons  Haida Gwaii  Haida Gwaii  Haida Gwaii  Haida Gwaii  North (Nas s, Ske e na, Hai da Gwaii ); Central ; South (Gulf Isl ands , North, Ce ntral , Frase r De lta, Uppe r Fras e r, South We s t Vancouve r Isl and, East Vancouve r Isl and  Re gi on  Haida Gwaii  Site Location  Chaat h  Site Name  Haida Gwaii  Borde n No.  Masset  Borde n/O the r Catal ogue No.  Insti tution Information  Ins ti tuti on  139  As soci ate d Date  unknown  unknown  unknown  screen  surface  in sit u  dist urbed  unknown  unknown  in sit u  unknown  unknown  unknown  unknown  i n si tu, i n s cre e n ,di sturbe Type 1: C14 d, s urface , date s unknown  Inte grity of Prove ni e nce  Site Information  As soci ate d Type 2: Pe riods Ass oci ate d Date (Charl e s, range s Locarno, Marpole )  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  unknown  Et hnological  Archaeological  Et hnological  Et hnological  Et hnological  Et hnological  Col l e cte d: Archae ol ogical, Se x Ethnol ogi cal  Conte xtual Mate ri al s  age  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  l abre t, possi bl e l abre t, inl ay only; l abial , buccal , composi te  O bje ct De s ignation  indistinguishable  indistinguishable  indistinguishable  unclassified; closest is disc and pulley pulley (A&M) unclassified; closest is disc and pulley pulley (A&M) unclassified; closest is disc and pulley pulley (A&M)  T-shaped  T-shaped  unclassified  T-shaped  T-shaped  T-shaped  T-shaped  t ee  t ee  pendulant  t ee  t ee  t ee  t ee  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  indistinguishable  indistinguishable  unclassified; closest is disc and pulley pulley (A&M)  unclassified; closest is disc and pulley pulley (A&M)  indistinguishable  unclassified; closest is disc and bowl pulley (A&M)  l ate ral , ci rcul ar  Fl ange De s cri pti ons  indistinguishable  MY TYPE  unclassified; closest is disc and bowl pulley (A&M)  Cl ass ic' Type De s cri ption  De scri pti on  140  none  none  none  none  laterally-rounded concave  laterally-rounded concave  laterally-rounded concave  none  flat  none  flat  concave  circular  none  rectangular  flat  circular  none  rectangular  concave  circular  none  none  concave  oval  none  flat  concave  oval  none  rectangular  flat  oval  none  none  concave  oval  ext ended  ext ended  short  ext ended  ext ended  ext ended  ext ended  short  short  short  short  short  short  short  cylindrical  cylindrical  rect angular  cylindrical  cylindrical  cylindrical  cylindrical  circular  circular  circular  oval  ovoid  ovoid  oval  oval, ovoid, cylindrical , se mi dril led, i ncis ed, cylindrical , grooved, short, extended ci rcul ar, hollowed square, re ctangul ar, zoomorphi c  laterally-rounded flat  convex, concave, flat, curved  ci rcular, oval , square, rectangular, ovoi d, cyl indri cal , lateral lyrounded  Body Description  convex  flat  flat  flat  flat  flat  flat  flat  flat  concave  concave  concave  concave  concave  convex, concave , flat  Description  tapering  none  none  none  pendulant  tapering  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  drilled  none  inlaid  none  incomplet e  incomplet e  complete  complete  circumferent ial groove  circumferent ial groove  circumferent ial groove  circumferent ial groove  none  none  none  none  none  none  incomplet e  complete  incomplet e  complete  incomplet e  fragment  complete  complete  circumferent ial groove  none  complete  complete  O bject C omplete ness  none  none  drill ed, constricted, hol lowed, circumferenti al i ncise d, inl aid, groove grooved  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  tape ring, fl aring (di stal ly), pendulant, double , poss ible doubl e  Neck Descri pti on  dull  shell (purplehinged scallop) siltstone siltstone mudst one  faunal  lit hic lit hic lit hic  highly polished  trace polish  steatite  shell (purplehinged scallop)  lit hic  faunal  highly polished  steatite  lit hic  highly polished  dull  dull  polished  highly polished  highly polished  highly polished  polished  polished  dull  Pol ish  mudst one  mudst one  mudst one  mudst one  bone  wood, copper  wood  Type  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  faunal  floral, met allic  floral  (lithic, faunal, floral )  C lass  smoot h  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  smoot h  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  Texture  C ol our Appearance  medium  dark  dark  dark  medium  dark  light  medium  dark  dark  dark  light  medium  medium  marbled  mott led  brown-grey, orange  grey, beige  mott led  solid  solid  solid  mott led  flecked  solid  solid  solid  flecked  flecked  mott led  Patterni ng  grey, brown  black  grey-beige  grey  beige  red, whit e  red  grey  grey  beige, red-brown  red-brown  brown-grey  mai n, dark, m edium , secondary l ight col ours  C olour Intensity  Material Properti es Luminance (lux)  1  7  0  -2  0  0  4  2  0  141  30 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  no  no  2 ground/abraded  no  no  5 ground/abraded  no  2 ground/abraded  20 ground/abraded  no  5 ground/abraded  15 ground/abraded  no  no  5 ground/abraded  no  no  10 ground/abraded  no  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  ground/abraded  10 chiselled  no  polished  polished  polished  polished  none  none  none  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  oiled, polished  ground/abraded, inlaid  20 chiselled  no  Tertiary Decorati on  none  Secondary – Alte rati on  none  Pri mary – Manufacture  Ini tial Manufacture  15 ground/abraded  Volum e  no  Irides cence  Materi al Propertie s  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  Prim ary – Manufacture  PostManufacture Alterations  none  no, possibly, no  none  ground/abraded  yes, no, unknown none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  no, yes, no  none  none  none  Broken; ReWorked; Worn but not ReWorke d?  Modification  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  drilled  none  none  none  Secondary – Alterati on  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  Tertiary De coration  25  17.6  74  13.4  8.4  9  13.1  41.3  35.9  23.1  37  37.5  72.3  70.4  width (hori zontal)  fl ange  7.4  6.3  20.4  7  3.1  5.6  5.8  41.9  36.5  23.1  26  18.2  35.8  30  hei ght (at m id thickne ss (at fl ange base of body)  5.6  4.2  10  3.7  2.6  2.4  4  4  5.3  3.5  4.7  6  3.3  body  yes  1.7 yes  2 yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  2 yes  yes  yes  yes  24.4  20.2  36.3  13.2  12.9  17  21.1  12.7  13.5  7.5  11.7  16.6  13.4  13.3  Fl ange – use measurements l ength concavity depth for area (width, (proxi mal to (at ce ntre) distal) hei ght) as com ple te?  Dimensions (mm)  9.6  6.8  34.8  7  3.6  6  7.7  42.7  34.7  22.9  37  38.6  74  69.5  width (horizontal)  hei ght (verti cal )  7.5  6.8  22  6.3  3.9  5.5  5.6  41.9  36.6  23.1  26  17.7  36.2  30.6  3.2  2.1  3  concavi ty depth (at centre)  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  Body – use me asure me nts for area (width, hei ght) as comple te ?  Di me ns ions (mm)  142  striations, circumferential groove; scrat ching, anterior  lateral edge fracture  2.6  2.1  53.1  lateral flange wing broken; distal body tip broken  lateral flange wing broken, reworked(?)  0.4  1.6  distal body tip broke  0.4  5y 4/1, 5y 8/2, 2.5y 8/4  2.5y 3/4, 5y 2/1  polish, posterior flange; striations, body  chipping, flange; polish, post erior flange  5y 2/2, 7.5y 5/2, 10y 6/2  scrat ching overall; chipping, anterior  n 2.0  2.5y 4/2  n 3.0  5y 9/1  vertical scrat ching, posterior flange polish, flange posterior concretion, anterior flange  heavily weat hered overall  1.9  fractured lengthwise  10r 3/2  scrat ch, posterior  10r 3/2  38.7  collected 1910  chipping, inferior edges  39.2  6.9  n3.0  n 3.0  collected 1911  horizontal scrat ching, posterior  chipping, edges  16.4  2.5y 7/4  concretion, lateral circumference; collected 1913 chiselling, lateral circumference  14  Colour (Munse ll)  10yr 5/4  possibly found May 21 under Lakalzah, 12ft. ditch with skelet ons...  buri al s: s ex, age group?  C ontextual Mate rials  chiselling, lateral collected 1913 circumference  Full Date Info  18.7  Locati on of W e ar and Type  7.5yr 4/6  chipped, lateral edge  Location of Fracture  collected 1913  14.2  W ei ght (g)  concavity l ength  flange  18.2  53.5  concavity le ngth  body  43.9  66.3  dril le d hole diame te r  2  dri lle d hole de pth  othe r me asure m ents  NO T INC LUDED IN SPSS  distance be twee n hole s  constricte d ne ck width  constricte d neck he i ght  length at both lateral ends  O the r de scription  15.1, 13.6  O the r me asure m ent  width, height estimated  complete  complete  complete  body m easure me nt status  widt h est imat ed  complete  widt h est imat ed  complete  complete  widt h est imat ed  complete  complete  complete  length incomplet e  complete  complete  complete  length incomplete  height estimated  complete  complete  complete  height estimated complete  widt h, height est imated  complete  complete  complete  fl ange me asure me nt status  NO T INC LUDED IN SPSS  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  Insti tution Catal ogue No.  Crescent Beach  Crescent Beach  Crescent Beach  Crescent Beach  Crescent Beach  Crescent Beach  Crescent Beach  Crescent Beach  Crescent Beach  6794 DgRr-1  6791 DgRr-1  6797 DgRr-1  604 DgRr-1  DgRr-1  5421 DgRr-1  5264 DgRr-1  6031 DgRr-1  5024 DgRr-1  6795 & 6796  Crescent Beach  1971 DgRr-1  Site Name  Crescent Beach  Borde n No.  1970 DgRr-1  Borde n/O the r Catal ogue No.  Insti tution Information  Ins ti tuti on  143  Sub-Re gi on  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Boundary Bay, Tsawwassen  Boundary Bay, Tsawwassen  Boundary Bay, Tsawwassen  Boundary Bay, Tsawwassen  Boundary Bay, Tsawwassen  Boundary Bay, Tsawwassen  Boundary Bay, Tsawwassen Boundary Bay, Tsawwassen  Boundary Bay, Tsawwassen  Boundary Bay, Tsawwassen Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  North (Nas s, Ske e na, Hai da Gwaii ); Central ; South (Gulf Isl ands , North, Ce ntral , Frase r De lta, Uppe r Fras e r, South We s t Vancouve r Isl and, East Vancouve r Isl and  Re gi on  Boundary Bay, Tsawwassen  Site Location  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Conte mporary Cul tural Affil i ati ons As soci ate d Date  unknown  unknown  unknown  unknown  unknown  unknown  unknown  unknown  unknown  unknown  unknown  i n si tu, i n s cre e n ,di sturbe Type 1: C14 d, s urface , date s unknown  Inte grity of Prove ni e nce  Site Information  As soci ate d Type 2: Pe riods Ass oci ate d Date (Charl e s, range s Locarno, Marpole )  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Col l e cte d: Archae ol ogical, Se x Ethnol ogi cal  Conte xtual Mate ri al s  age  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  labret  l abre t, possi bl e l abre t, inl ay only; l abial , buccal , composi te  O bje ct De s ignation  pendulant  pendulant  pendulant  knob  double-knob  knob  t ee  MY TYPE  t ee  pendulant  pendulant  but t on, originally knob double-but t on  T-shaped  but t on and knob composite labret  pendulant  pendulant  pendulant  unclassified  double-but t on  hat -shaped  T-shaped  Cl ass ic' Type De s cri ption  De scri pti on  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  l ate ral , ci rcul ar  Fl ange De s cri pti ons  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  laterally-rounded concave  laterally-rounded concave  concave  laterally-rounded concave  laterally-rounded concave  laterally-rounded concave  laterally-rounded concave  laterally-rounded concave  laterally-rounded concave  incom plete  none  short  short  ext ended  short  short  short  short  short  short  short  cylindrical  circular  cylindrical  square  cylindrical  cylindrical  cylindrical  square  circular  cylindrical  cylindrical  flat  ext ended  none  convex, concave, flat, curved  Body Description  convex  flat  flat  convex  convex  convex  convex  flat  convex  convex  flat  convex, concave , flat  Description  oval, ovoid, cylindrical , se mi dril led, i ncis ed, cylindrical , grooved, short, extended ci rcul ar, hollowed square, re ctangul ar, zoomorphi c  laterally-rounded concave  rectangular  ci rcular, oval , square, rectangular, ovoi d, cyl indri cal , lateral lyrounded  144  incised  incised  pendulant  pendulant  none  none  pendulant  none  possible double  tapering  drilled  none  pendulant  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  const ricted  none  none  const ricted  drill ed, constricted, hol lowed, circumferenti al i ncise d, inl aid, groove grooved  possible double  double  tapering  none  tape ring, fl aring (di stal ly), pendulant, double , poss ible doubl e  Neck Descri pti on  complete  complete  incomplet e  incomplet e  incomplet e  incomplet e  incomplet e  incomplet e  incomplet e  incomplet e  incomplet e  O bject C omplete ness  steatite  quartzite  lit hic  lit hic  steatite  steatite  lit hic  lit hic  soapstone  steatite  lit hic  lit hic  steatite  steatite  lit hic  lit hic  steatite  steatite  lit hic  lit hic  siltstone  Type  lit hic  (lithic, faunal, floral )  C lass  highly polished  highly polished  polished  polished  highly polished  highly polished  highly polished  dull  trace polish  dull  dull  Pol ish  smoot h  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  smoot h  smoot h  smoot h  smoot h  Texture  C ol our Appearance  dark  dark  medium  medium  dark  medium  dark  light  dark  medium  dark  mott led  grey-brown, green  mott led  grey  flecked  grey, green-beige mott led  grey  beige, grey-brown mott led  mott led  flecked  solid  mott led  mott led  solid  Patterni ng  grey-green  brown, beige  beige  grey, beige  grey  dark grey  mai n, dark, m edium , secondary l ight col ours  C olour Intensity  Material Properti es Luminance (lux)  0  0  2  0  2  2  0  0  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  Irides cence  Volum e  Materi al Propertie s  145  none  none  none  none  none  incised  none  drilled, inlaid  none  none  none  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  10 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  20 ground/abraded  15 ground/abraded  10 ground/abraded  10 ground/abraded  10 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  Secondary – Alte rati on  5 ground/abraded  Pri mary – Manufacture  Ini tial Manufacture  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  none  polished  none  none  Tertiary Decorati on  yes, yes, no  yes, yes, no  none  none  no, yes, no  none  ground/abraded  ground/abraded  none  none  none  none  none  ground/abraded  yes, possibly, possibly  none  none  ground/abraded  none  Prim ary – Manufacture  PostManufacture Alterations  none  yes, yes, no  none  Broken; ReWorked; Worn but not ReWorke d?  Modification  none  none  none  none  incised  none  none  none  none  none  none  Secondary – Alterati on  none  polished  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  Tertiary De coration  9.4  17.5  30.6  19  40  38.9  40  13.7  46  26.2  21.4  width (hori zontal)  fl ange  6  12.2  10.6  12.8  10.1  12.7  7.3  17.6  12.2  7.2  4.4  hei ght (at m id thickne ss (at fl ange base of body)  3.5  5.6  5.6  4.8  5.9  6.4  5.3  6.3  4.9  4.2  3.8  body  yes  3.4 yes  yes  1.6 yes  3.7 yes  1.7 yes  no  3.4 yes  no  0.8 yes  yes  22.7  12.3  31.1  9.6  17.8  29.4  18  11.2  14.3  16.1  34.5  Fl ange – use measurements l ength concavity depth for area (width, (proxi mal to (at ce ntre) distal) hei ght) as com ple te?  Dim ensions (mm )  5.6  10.6  15.2  10.1  17.4  20.6  21.5  6.8  26.9  14.3  10.4  width (horizontal)  hei ght (verti cal )  25.8  15.2  10.7  16.4  52  37.4  26.9  25.4  12.8  9.2  5.3  concavi ty depth (at centre)  yes  yes  yes  yes  no  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  Body – use me asure me nts for area (width, hei ght) as comple te ?  Di me ns ions (mm)  146  Locati on of W e ar and Type  polish, post erior flange  polish, post erior flange; wear facet (tooth?), posterior flange  overall weat hering  chip, lateral flange wing  fractured(?) at medial and lateral margins through flange, reworked  lateral flange wing broken, reworked  5.3  5.6  5.4  5y 3/1  5y 8/2, 5y 3/15y 4/2  5y 5/2, 5y 3/1, 5y 7/1  5y 8/2, 5y 3/1, 5y 2/1  chip, anterior  13.3  lateral flange wing broken; inlay(?) missing  10y 6/2, 10y 4/2, 5y 7/4  vertical scrat ching (tooth), post erior flange  4.4  10yr 2/1, 5y 8/4  striations overall  7.5y 4/4, 5y 2/1  lateral flange wings broken; cracks t hrough body lateral flange wing broken; chipping, lat eral flange wing; cracks t hrough body  fractured through pendulant body wear facets, on horizontal lateral anterior plane; chip, flange (cordage?) lateral flange wing  18.5  2.5  5y 8/2, interior 5y 9/1  lateral flange wing broken; overall previous fracture weat hering along medial axis  2.5y 7/4, 2.5y 4/2, 5y 3/1  n2.5  Colour (Munse ll)  13.1  buri al s: s ex, age group?  C ontextual Mate rials  5y 3/1, 2.5y 7/2  Full Date Info  fracture at medial and lateral margins through overall flange; fractured weat hering at neck, glued toget her  fracture lengthwise, flange; distal body tip broken fracture lengthwise; chip, striations overall lateral flange wing tips, one reworked  Location of Fracture  3.6  3.9  2.1  W ei ght (g)  concavity l ength  flange  32.6  40.7  31.8  36.8  concavity le ngth  body  dril le d hole diame te r  6.2  dri lle d hole de pth  othe r me asure m ents  NO T INC LUDED IN SPSS  4.5  distance be twee n hole s  constricte d ne ck width  18.6  5.1  constricte d neck he i ght  14.3  13.2  17.2  4  complete  incomplet e, but measurements accurate  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  widt h est imat ed  height incomplet e  complete  incomplet e, but measurements accurate  complete  widt h est imat ed  widt h incomplete complete  complete  widt h incomplete complete  length incomplet e  body m easure me nt status  incomplet e, but measurements accurate  fl ange me asure me nt status  2.9 widt h est imat ed  O the r me asure m ent  distal body tip 7, 7.5 widt h and height  flange t hickness at medial(?) side  O the r de scription  NO T INC LUDED IN SPSS  CMC  CMC  CMC  SFU  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  Ins ti tuti on  Insti tution Catal ogue No.  Pender Canal 2 Pender Canal 2 Pender Canal 2 Pender Canal 2 Pender Canal 2  1735 DeRt-2  2078 DeRt-2  3034 DeRt-2  3041 DeRt-2  2548 DeRt-2  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Sout h  Pender Canal 2 Pender Canal 2  1782 DeRt-2  North  North  North  Haida Gwaii  Masset t  Ninstint s, Skung Gwaii Ilnagai, Haida Gwaii Eagle Chief Ninstint s, Skung Gwaii Ilnagai, Haida Gwaii Eagle Chief  VII-B-986  VII-B-987  Sout h  VII-B-988  Pender Island  Pender Island  Sout h  Pender Canal 2  118 DeRt-2  571 DeRt-2  Pender Island  Gulf Islands  Bedwell Harbour, Sout h Pender Island  Pender Canal 4, Poets Cove  937 DeRt-4  Haida Gwaii  Haida Gwaii  Haida Gwaii  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Bedwell Harbour, Sout h Pender Island  Pender Canal 4, Poets Cove  Gulf Islands  640 DeRt-4  Sout h  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Pender Island  Sout h  Sout h  Gulf Islands  Sout h Sout h  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Pender Canal 2  Pender Island  Pender Island  Pender Island  Pender Island  Pender Island  Pender Island  Sub-Re gi on  North (Nas s, Ske e na, Hai da Gwaii ); Central ; South (Gulf Isl ands , North, Ce ntral , Frase r De lta, South Uppe r Fras e r, We s t Vancouve r Isl and, East Vancouve r Isl and  Re gi on  2045 DeRt-2  Pender Canal  Pender Island  Pender Canal 2  797 DeRt-2  18 DeRt-1  Pender Island  Pender Canal 2  103 DeRt-2  Pender Island  Pender Canal 2  Pender Island  Site Location  2857 DeRt-2  Site Name  Pender Canal 2  Borde n No.  3317 DeRt-2  Borde n/O the r Catal ogue No.  Insti tution Information  PLUG LABRETS  147  Haida  Haida  Haida  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Conte mporary Cul tural Affil i ati ons As soci ate d Date  unknown  unknown  unknown  in sit u  unknown  unknown  dist urbed  dist urbed  in sit u  unknown  in sit u  in sit u  unknown  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  i n si tu, i n s cre e n ,di sturbe Type 1: C14 d, s urface , date s unknown  Inte grity of Prove ni e nce  Site Information  3000 – 4500  3000 – 4500  3000 – 4500  3000 – 4500  2000 – 3000  3000 – 4500  Col l e cte d: Archae ol ogical, Se x Ethnol ogi cal  Et hnological  Et hnological  Et hnological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Charles/Locarno Archaeological  Archaeological  Charles/Locarno Archaeological  Charles/Locarno Archaeological  Charles/Locarno Archaeological  Archaeological  Locarno/Marpole Archaeological  Charles/Locarno Archaeological  As soci ate d Type 2: Pe riods Ass oci ate d Date (Charl e s, range s Locarno, Marpole )  Conte xtual Mate ri al s  age  labret  labret  labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  l abre t, possi bl e l abre t, inl ay only; l abial , buccal , composi te  O bje ct De s ignation  plug  unclassified; closest is disc or hat -shaped  unclassified; closest is disc or pulley (A&M)  plug  plug  plug  unclassified; closest is disc  unclassified  plug  plug  plug  plug  plug  plug  plug  plug  plug  plug  unclassified  unclassified  unclassified  unclassified  unclassified  unclassified  unclassified; closest is disc unclassified; closest is disc unclassified; closest is disc  unclassified; closest is disc  plug  plug  plug  plug  unclassified; closest is disc unclassified; closest is disc unclassified; closest is disc unclassified; closest is disc  plug  MY TYPE  unclassified; closest is disc  Cl ass ic' Type De s cri ption  O bje ct De scripti on  indistinguishable  indistinguishable  lat eral  indistinguishable  indistinguishable  indistinguishable  indistinguishable  indistinguishable  indistinguishable  indistinguishable  indistinguishable  indistinguishable  indistinguishable  indistinguishable  indistinguishable  indistinguishable  indistinguishable  indistinguishable  indistinguishable  l ate ral , ci rcul ar  Fl ange De s cri pti ons  148  concave  concave  flat  oval  oval  oval  concave  flat  concave  ovoid  oval  ovoid  flat  oval  concave  flat  oval  concave  ovoid  ovoid  concave  concave  ovoid  oval  concave  ovoid  concave  concave  oval  concave  concave  ovoid  oval  none  concave  ovoid  oval  none  flat  ovoid  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  convex, concave, flat, curved  ci rcular, oval , square, rectangular, ovoi d, cyl indri cal , lateral lyrounded  short  short  short  short  short  short  short  short  short  short  short  short  short  short  short  short  short  short  short  ovoid  ovoid  oval  oval  oval  oval  oval  oval  rect angular  ovoid  oval  oval  oval  oval  oval  oval  oval  oval  oval  oval, ovoid, cylindrical , se mi dril led, i ncis ed, cylindrical , short, extended grooved, ci rcul ar, hollowed square, re ctangul ar, zoomorphi c  Body Description  concave  flat  concave  concave  concave  concave  flat  concave  concave  concave  flat  flat  concave  concave  concave  concave  concave  concave  flat  convex, concave , flat  Description  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  tape ring, fl aring (di stal ly), pendulant, double , poss ible doubl e  none  drilled  none  none  none  none  none  none  grooved  none  grooved  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  incomplet e  complete  circumferent ial groove  none  complete  incomplet e  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  incomplet e  complete  complete  O bject C omplete ness  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  drill ed, constricted, hol lowed, circumferenti al i ncise d, inl aid, groove grooved  Neck Descri pti on  faunal  faunal  faunal  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  faunal  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  (lithic, faunal, floral )  C lass  highly polished  highly polished  highly polished  polished  highly polished  polished  polished  highly polished  highly polished  polished  trace polish  trace polish  highly polished  Pol ish  ivory  ivory  antler  steatite  highly polished  highly polished  polished  trace polish  unknown, steatite polished  unknown, steatite trace polish  steatite  steatite  soapstone  shell (purplehinged scallop) unknown, mudst one unknown, mudst one  soapstone  soapstone  soapstone  soapstone  unknown  steatite  nephrite  Type  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  smoot h  smoot h  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  smoot h  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  smoot h  very smooth  very smooth  Texture  C ol our Appearance  light  light  light  medium  medium  light  dark  dark  dark  dark  dark  light  dark  dark  dark  dark  light  medium  medium  orange-beige  orange-beige  beige  grey, beige, blue  beige-pink  beige-pink, blue  black  grey  grey  grey, brown  black  beige, pink  grey  brown  brown  grey  pink-beige  grey  green, black  mai n, dark, medium, secondary l ight col ours  C olour Intensity  Material Properti es  solid  banded  solid  mott led  mott led  mott led  solid  mott led  mott led  solid  solid  marbled  mott led  mott led  flecked  mott led  mott led  mott led  marbled  Patterni ng  -2  Luminance (lux)  4  9  5  0  1  0  0  0  0  8  0  0  4  0  149  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  5 ground/abraded  no  no  5 ground/abraded  no  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  no  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  no  yes  5 ground/abraded  no  5 ground/abraded  Primary – Man ufacture  In itial Man ufacture  no  Volume  no  Iride scen ce  Mate rial Prope rties  drilled  incised  Se con dary – Alte ration  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  Te rtiary Decoration  none  none  none  ground/abraded  none  none  none  none  none  none  Primary – Manu factu re  PostManu factu re Al terations  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  unknown, yes, no none  none  none  none  no, yes, no  none  none  none  none  none  none  Brok en ; ReW ork ed; Worn bu t n ot Re Worke d?  Modification  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  grooved  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  S econdary – Alte ration  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  Terti ary De coration  9.3  11.8  8  14.6  14  13  11  15.5  10.8  11.6  7.5  9.3  9.2  10.5  11.5  11.3  13.1  12.8  11.8  le ngth (proximal to distal )  body  38  18.7  19.5  39  30.5  41.6  30.4  33  35.6  23.7  30.4  38.9  28.5  21.9  27.3  21.5  28.5  34.4  30.4  width (h ori zontal)  he ight (verti cal)  11.6  13  10.1  11.4  7.8  9.9  8.3  10.6  6.7  11.8  14.4  12.9  6.2  6.7  9  7.1  8.4  11.3  12.7  1.7 yes  yes  1.2 yes  3.3 yes  1.8 yes  2.5 yes  yes  1.4 yes  1.3 yes  yes  yes  yes  yes  1 yes  1 yes  2 yes  1.3 yes  1.7 yes  yes  Body – use me asu reme nts concavi ty de pth for are a (width, (at ce ntre ) h ei gh t) as compl ete ?  Dime nsions (mm)  5  4  1  8.9  5.6  11.1  6.1  10  5.4  6.1  5.6  9.2  3  3.4  6.3  3.6  6.1  10.4  8.7  We ight (g)  scratching, anterior and posterior  Location of We ar and Type  chipping, ant erior edges  crack, drilled hole  vertical st riations, posterior and anterior; polish and wear facets, posterior weathering (burning?), posterior flange  broken on overall heavily horizontal plane weathered  uniform weathering uniform weathering  polished, anterior and posterior; scratching, circumference  polished, anterior and posterior; scratching, circumference  st riations, groove  scratching overall  st riations overall  micro-pitting, anterior and posterior  st riations overall  chip, lat eral edge overall weathered  Location of Fractu re  NO T INCLUDED IN S PS S  150  complete  complete  complete  complete  5y 2/1, 5y 4/1  5y 2/1 and 6/2  n 2.0  2.5y 9/4, 2.5y 8/4  7.5yr 7/8, 2.5y 8/6  7.5yr 6/8, 7.5yr 5/6, 2.5y 8/6  collected 1890-1910  collected 1890-1910  5y 7/2, 2.5y 4/4, 5g 6/1  width estimated  complete  complete  incomplete, but measurement s accurate  complete  complete  complete  5y 2/1, 2.5y 6/4  2.5y 7/4, 2.5y 9/4 2.5y 6/4, 2.5y 8/4  complete complete  n 1.0  complete  10, 11  n2.5, 2.5y 3/2  complete complete  5y 9/1, 5y 9/2, 2.5r 5/8  10.8, 12.7  lengt h at lateral ends  11.6, 14  12.8, 13.6  length at lat eral ends  lengt h at lateral ends lengt h at lateral ends  5y 2/1, n2.0  collected 1890-1910  Main Midden 4500-3000 BP  Main Midden 4500-3000 BP  n2.0, 10yr 2/1  n2.0, 5y 3/1  complete  Main Midden 4500-3000 BP Main Midden 4500-3000 BP  complete  complete  body me asure me nt statu s  7.5yr 8/6, 2.5y 6/4  O the r measu reme n t  2.5y 5/2, 2.5y 8/2, n2.0  O th e r de scription  oth er measu re me n ts  Lat e Midden, 3000-2200 BP  Colou r (Mun se ll)  5gy 7/4, 5gy 2/1, 5gy 4/2  bu rials: se x, age group?  Conte xtu al Materi al s  Main Midden 4500-3000 BP  Fu ll Date In fo  NO T INCLUDED IN SPSS  XII-B-583  155 DfRu-13  133 DfRu-13  1288 DfRu-24  944 DfRu-24  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  3325 DeRt-2  18 DfRtu-y  SFU  RBCM  6786 DgRr-1  (old acc.#5239)  RBCM  SFU  (old acc.#5241 & 1944-12)  17 DfRtu-y  919 DeRt-4  RBCM  CMC  89 DeRt-4  RBCM  9 DeRt-2  RBCM  (old cat.#8583)  70 DeRt-Y  RBCM  287 DhRt-6  Borde n No.  139 DcRu-576  30749  Instituti on Borden/O ther C atalogue No. C atalogue No.  RBCM  LOA  Institution  Institution Inform ation  COMPOSITE LABRETS  151  South  Pender Canal 2  Crescent Beach  unknown  unknown  unknown  Tolan's Beach  South  Boundary Bay, Tsawwassen  South  South  Pender Island  South  Active Pass, Mayne Island  unknown  South  South  South  South  Active Pass, Mayne Island  unknown  Galiano Island  Galiano Island  Galiano Island  Montague Harbour Site  Tolan's Beach  Galiano Island  Bedwell Harbour, South Pender Island  Egeria Bay Site, Pender Canal 4, Poets Cove  Montague Harbour Site  Bedwell Harbour, South Pender Island  Egeria Bay Site, Pender Canal 4, Poets Cove  South  South  Pender Island  Pender Island  Sub-Regi on  Gulf Islands  Fraser Delta  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  unknown  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  East Vancouver Island  Fraser Delta  North (Nass, Skeena, Haida Gwaii ); C entral; South (Gulf Isl ands, North, C entral, Fraser Delta, South Upper Fraser, We st Vancouver Island, East Vancouver Island  Region  Langford, South Vancouver Island  Burrard Inlet , Vancouver  Site Location  Pender Canal 2  unknown  unknown  Locarno Beach  Site Nam e  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Contemporary Cultural Affi liations Associ ated Date  in situ  unknown  surface  unknown  unknown  unknown  unknown  unknown  disturbed  disturbed  in situ  unknown  unknown  in situ  3280 +/-70 BP uncorrect ed shell; 2400 BP  in situ, in screen,disturbe Type 1: C 14 d, surface, dates unknown  Integrity of Provenience  Site Inform ation  2500-3500  2500-3500  2500-3500  Archaeological  C ollecte d: Archaeological, Sex Ethnological  Locarno  Locarno  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  unknown  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  2500 Locarno/Marpole Archaeological  Locarno  Associate d Type 2: Periods Associate d Date (Charles, range s Locarno, Marpole)  C ontextual Materials  age  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  labret, possible labret, inlay only; labial, buccal , composite  O bject Designati on  composite  unclassified; closest is composite  composite  composite  unclassified; closest is composite  unclassified; closest is composite  composite  composite  composite  composite  unclassified; closest is composite  unclassified; closest is composite unclassified; closest is composite unclassified; closest is composite  composite  composite  unclassified; closest is composite unclassified  composite  composite  composite  composite  composite  composite  MY TYPE  unclassified; closest is composite  unclassified; closest is composite  unclassified; closest is composite unclassified; closest is composite  unclassified  composite  C lassic' Type Description  lateral  lateral  lateral  lateral  lateral  lateral  lateral  lateral  lateral  lateral  lateral  lateral  lateral  lateral  lateral  l ateral, circular  Fl ange De scriptions  152  drilled  drilled  drilled  drilled  drilled  drilled  drilled  drilled  drilled  drilled  lat erally-rounded curved  lat erally-rounded curved  lat erally-rounded curved  curved  curved  curved  curved  curved  curved  rectangular  lat erally-rounded curved  curved  rectangular  rectangular  rectangular  rectangular  rectangular  rectangular  lat erally-rounded curved  drilled  drilled  drilled  drilled  lat erally-rounded curved  concave  rectangular  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  conve x, concave, fl at  Descripti on  oval , ovoi d, cyli ndrical, se midri lle d, inci sed, cyli ndrical, short, e xte nded groove d, ci rcular, hol lowe d square , re ctangul ar, z oomorphic  drilled  con vex, con cave, fl at, curved  lat erally-rounded concave  circular, oval, square, rectangu lar, ovoid, cyli ndri cal, laterallyrounded  Body Descripti on  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  tape ring, flaring (distally), pe ndul ant, doubl e, possibl e double  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  dril le d, constricted, holl owe d, ci rcu mfere nti al incise d, inl aid, groove grooved  Ne ck De scri ption  incomplete  complete  incomplete  incomplete  incomplete  fragment  complete  fragment  fragment  incomplete  incomplete  incomplete  complete  complete  complete  O bject Compl ete ne ss  lithic  lithic  lithic  lithic  lithic  lithic  lithic  lithic  faunal  lithic  lithic  lithic  lithic  lithic  faunal  (li thic, faunal , floral )  Cl ass  steatite  steatite  steatite  mudstone  steatite  soapstone  steatite  steatite  antler  steatite  steatite  steatite  steatite  steatite  antler  Type  highly polished  polished  highly polished  highly polished  highly polished  polished  highly polished  highly polished  highly polished  highly polished  highly polished  polished  polished  highly polished  highly polished  Pol ish  very smoot h  very smoot h  very smoot h  very smoot h  very smoot h  smoot h  very smoot h  very smoot h  very smoot h  very smoot h  very smoot h  smoot h  smoot h  very smoot h  very smoot h  Te xture  Colour Appe arance  dark  dark  medium  medium  dark  dark  medium  light  light  dark  medium  dark  medium  dark  light  mot tled  flecked  Patternin g  brown-grey  brown  grey  grey  grey  black  beige  yellow, grey  mot tled  mot tled  mot tled  mot tled  mot tled  solid  mot tled  mot tled  solid  flecked  black, grey, yellow  beige  flecked blue-grey, black  blue-grey, brown mot tled  blue-grey, brown flecked  grey  beige  main, dark, medium, se condary l ight colours  Colour Intensi ty  Material Prope rtie s Luminan ce (lux)  0  0  2  0  0  0  0  3  0  0  0  2  0  2  153  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  10 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  2 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  Primary – Manufacture  2 ground/abraded  Volume  Initial Manufacture  no  Iri descence  Mate ri al Prope rties  drilled  drilled  drilled  drilled  drilled  drilled  drilled  drilled  drilled  drilled  drilled  drilled  drilled  drilled  drilled  Secondary – Al teration  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  Tertiary Decoration  Modifi cation  no, yes, no  Broken; Re Worke d; W orn but not ReWorke d?  ground/abraded  Primary – Manufacture  PostManufacture Alte rations  Secondary – Alterati on  Terti ary Decoration  57  39.3  36  44  45  15.6  39.8  27.5  25  57  48  55  46.4  38.8  37.4  width (horizontal)  fl ange  10.2  11.9  19.4  13.8  15.1  12.5  11.7  13.3  15.7  10.4  11.4  14.1  10.2  15.5  9.6  height (at mid flange  thickness (at base of body)  3.5  body  45.7 width estimated  39.8 complet e  width estimated  width estimated  width estimated  width incomplete  34 complet e  width incomplete  width incomplete  49.4 width estimated  width estimated  43.4 width estimated  incomplete, but 49.1 measurements accurate  39.7 complet e  38.5 complet e  12.4  7.1  7.6  10.1  11.6  9.1  10.6  9.5  9.2  14.5  11.4  Flange – use measure me nts le ngth concavity depth for area (width, (proximal to (at centre ) he ight) as di stal) complete ?  Dimensions (mm)  width (horiz ontal)  hei ght (verti cal)  concavity depth (at centre )  154  Body – use me asure me nts for area (width, he ight) as complete ?  Dim ensions (m m )  5y 6/4, 5y 7/4  7.5y 6/2 and 5y 4/2  5y 2/2, 2.5y 3/2  uniform weathering uniform weathering facets, post erior next to lateral holes; scratching, posterior; st riat ions overall  broken through hole  broken through hole  st riat ions overall; vertical fracture, through scratching and hole; lateral wear facets flange tip broken (t oot h?), posterior  18.6  9.6  15.3  20  5y 2/1, 5y 3/2  7.5y 6/2 and 5y 4/2  n 2.0, 2.5y 8/2, 2.5y 6/2  manufacturing st riat ions overall  broken through drilled hole, lengt h axis  9.1  2.5r n1.5  uniform weathering  2.5y 6/4, 2.5y 4/2, 2.5y 2/2  5y 7/6, 5y 3/1  lateral wing broken through hole  12  st riat ions overall  lateral wing broken uniform weathering; bevelled rough, posterior  st riat ions overall  lateral wing broken  24.4  2.5y 7/4  2.5r n1.5, 2.5y 5/4, 2.5y 6/2  diagonal st riat ions, posterior; st riat ions, around unbroken hole, with faint wear facet  lateral wing broken through hole  uncorrect ed shell date 3280 +- 70; 'reservoir correction would 10yr 5/2, 10yr 2/1 date site to around 2400 years ago' (Keddie) 5gy 8/1, 10g 5/1 bands, 5y 3/2 patches 5y 2/1, 5y 6/2, 10yr 4/4, 5y 7/2, 10g 6/1  2500-3300 RCYBP  burials: sex, age group?  concavi ty l ength  flange  concavity length  body  NO T INCLUDED IN SPSS Colour (Munse ll)  lateral wing broken  associat ed with earlier deposits dating c. 3200 to 2900 BP (Keddie) associat ed with earlier deposits dating c. 3200 to 2900 BP (Keddie)  Full Date Info  Conte xtual Material s  26.4  uniform microscratching  overall heavily weathered  scratching, ant erior surface  st riat ions, ant erior medial between holes  Locati on of W ear and Type  2.5r n1.5, 7.5y 5/2, 10g 4/1 in webbing  chip, ant erior body to drilled hole lateral flange wing broken at drilled hole  chipping, posterior  Location of Fracture  chip, lateral tip; micro-scrat ching, posterior  18.8  19.7  8.8  1.69  W eight (g)  5.6  6  6.6  3.5  6.5  3.5 anterior, 4.5 posterior  5.6  5.3  7  4.4  6  8.4  7.5 anterior, 11.2 posterior  8.7, 7.2 posterior  2.5, post erior 6.2  drill ed hol e diame ter  dri lled hole depth  othe r m easurem ents  7.9  5.4  6.3  7.7  8 lateral length  2.3  5.3  3.7  3.5  10.7  6.7  11.8  8.3  Othe r description  12.7  O ther m easurem ent  RBCM  RBCM  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  Insti tution Catal ogue No.  Pender Canal 2  Pender Canal 2  Pender Canal 2  913 DeRt-2  1624 DeRt-2  3294 DeRt-2  Pitt River Site  Pender Canal 2  1649 DeRt-2  472 DhRq-21  Pender Canal 2  1685 DeRt-2  Pitt River Site  Pender Canal 2  720 DeRt-2  363 DhRq-21  Pender Canal 2  2367 DeRt-2  Site Name  Pender Canal 2  Borde n No.  866 DeRt-2  Borde n/O the r Catal ogue No.  Insti tution Information  Ins ti tuti on  155  Fraser Delta  Fraser Delta  Mary Hill, Pitt River area, Fraser Sout h Valley  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Pender Island  Sub-Re gi on  North (Nas s, Ske e na, Hai da Gwaii ); Central ; South (Gulf Isl ands , North, Ce ntral , Frase r De lta, South Uppe r Fras e r, We s t Vancouve r Isl and, East Vancouve r Isl and  Re gi on  Mary Hill, Pit t River area, Fraser Sout h Valley  Pender Island  Pender Island  Pender Island  Pender Island  Pender Island  Pender Island  Pender Island  Site Location  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Conte mporary Cul tural Affil i ati ons As soci ate d Date  unknown  unknown  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  i n si tu, i n s cre e n ,di sturbe Type 1: C14 d, s urface , date s unknown  Inte grity of Prove ni e nce  Site Information  As soci ate d Type 2: Pe riods Ass oci ate d Date (Charl e s, range s Locarno, Marpole )  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Col l e cte d: Archae ol ogical, Se x Ethnol ogi cal  Conte xtual Mate ri al s  age  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  l abre t, possi bl e l abre t, inl ay only; l abial , buccal , composi te  O bje ct De s ignation  composit e  composit e  composit e  composit e  unclassified; closest is composite unclassified; closest is composite unclassified; closest is composite unclassified; closest is composite  unclassified; closest is composite  composit e  composit e  composit e  composit e  composit e  unclassified; closest is composite  unclassified; closest is composite unclassified; closest is composite unclassified; closest is composite  composit e  unclassified; closest is composite  MY TYPE  De scri pti on Cl ass ic' Type De s cri ption  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  lat eral  l ate ral , ci rcul ar  Fl ange De s cri pti ons  drilled  drilled  drilled  drilled  drilled  none  laterally-rounded curved  laterally-rounded curved  laterally-rounded curved  curved  curved  convex  drilled  drilled  drilled  laterally-rounded curved  laterally-rounded curved  laterally-rounded curved  cylindrical  rectangular  rectangular  Body Description  -1  -1  -1  short  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  rect angular  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  convex  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  convex, concave , flat  Description  oval, ovoid, cylindrical , se mi dril led, i ncis ed, cylindrical , short, extended grooved, ci rcul ar, hollowed square, re ctangul ar, zoomorphi c  drilled  convex, concave, flat, curved  laterally-rounded curved  ci rcular, oval , square, rectangular, ovoi d, cyl indri cal , lateral lyrounded  156  -1  -1  -1  flaring  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  tape ring, fl aring (di stal ly), pendulant, double , poss ible doubl e  -1  -1  -1  none  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  drill ed, constricted, hol lowed, circumferenti al i ncise d, inl aid, groove grooved  Neck Descri pti on  fragment  fragment  fragment  complete  incomplet e  fragment  incomplet e  incomplet e  incomplet e  incomplet e  O bject C omplete ness  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  (lithic, faunal, floral )  C lass  Pol ish  highly polished  highly polished  polished  highly polished  highly polished  polished  highly polished  highly polished  unknown, pumice dull  unknown, pumice dull  steatite  steatite  steatite  steatite  steatite  steatite  steatite  steatite  Type  slightly rough  smoot h  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  Texture  C ol our Appearance  light  light  dark  dark  medium  dark  medium  dark  dark  dark  beige  beige, brown  grey  grey  blue-grey  grey, beige  beige, brown  grey, brown  black, beige  brown-grey  mai n, dark, m edium, secondary l ight col ours  C olour Intensity  Material Properti es  mott led  mott led  mott led  mott led  mott led  mott led  mott led  mott led  flecked  mott led  Patterni ng  Luminance (lux)  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  Irides cence  Volume  Materi al Propertie s  157  drilled  5 ground/abraded  polished  polished  polished  2 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  paint ed  polished  drilled  5 ground/abraded  drilled  drilled  5 ground/abraded  polished  5 ground/abraded  drilled  10 ground/abraded  polished  polished  drilled  5 ground/abraded  polished  Tertiary Decorati on  5 ground/abraded  drilled  Secondary – Alte rati on  5 ground/abraded  Pri mary – Manufacture  Ini tial Manufacture  Broken; ReWorked; Worn but not ReWorke d?  Modification  Primary – Manufacture  PostManufacture Alterations  Secondary – Alterati on  Tertiary De coration  54  52  60  60  19.8  24.1  30.6  39.6  62  28.8  width (hori zontal)  fl ange  12.3  11.1  10.7  6.9  9.6  10.3  6.9  12  10.4  10.1  hei ght (at mid thickne ss (at fl ange base of body)  7.4  body  width incomplet e  width incomplet e  width incomplet e  complete  43.8 width estimat ed  width incomplet e  50.5 width estimat ed  54.7 width estimat ed  45.2 width estimat ed  41.2 width estimat ed  13.8  25.8  10.3  12.1  13  12.7  13.8  12.3  Fl ange – use measurements l ength concavity depth for area (width, (proxi mal to (at ce ntre) hei ght) as distal) comple te?  Dim ensions (mm)  11.1  width (horizontal)  hei ght (verti cal )  7.2  concavi ty depth (at centre)  complete  length estimated  Body – use measure me nts for area (width, height) as complete ?  Dime nsions (mm)  158  n/a  Location of W e ar and Type  n 1.0, 5y 6/1, 5y 2/2, 5g 5/1 10yr 8/4, 5y 4/1, 5y 5/2 5y 4/1, 5y 2/1  fracture, through uniform wear hole; lateral flange tip broken  heavily weathered heavily weathered  chip, lateral flange wing tip  fracture through hole; lateral tip broken  multiple fractures  lateral wings broken  6.1  7.5  2.4  3  22.5  10yr 2/2, but material is 2.5y 9/4 2.5y 5/2 weathered area, trace 10g 8/1, 5y 8.5/1  5y 3/1, 5y 7/2, 5y 4/1  lateral flange tips uniform wear broken  20  19  5y 6/2, 5y 2/1, 5y 7/2  n 1.5, 5y 8/2  5y 2/1, 5y 3/2  Colour (Munsell)  uniform wear  burials: sex, age group?  C onte xtual Mate rials  fractured horizontally; lateral flange wing broken  Full Date Info  5y 6/1, 5y 2/1, 5y 3/2  striations overall; vertical fracture, through scratching and hole; lateral wear facets flange tip broken (tooth?), posterior vertical scratching and fracture, through bevelling, hole; lateral posterior flange tip broken (tooth?); striations, superior  Location of Fracture  concavity le ngth  flange  concavity le ngth  body  NO T INC LUDED IN SPSS  lateral flange wing tip broken  17.1  15.6  We ight (g)  4.5  5.7  5.9  4.6  5.7  5.4  5  11  6.6, 5.6 posterior  drille d hole diame ter  drille d hole de pth  other me asure me nts  13  7.3  5.5  5.1  12  10  6.6  length of projection from anterior surface  4.4  29.4  28.8  estimated complete width  estimated complete width  25.5  O ther me asure me nt  estimated complete width  O ther de scription  Y-1286  RBCM  RBCM  (old acc.71-63)  VII-B-1042  3097 DgRs-1  1189 DgRx-6  5068 DgRr-1  SFU  CMC  1166 DeRt-1  unknown  66 DeRt-Y  SFU  RBCM  RBCM  2858 DeRt-2  869 DeRt-4  RBCM  SFU  365 DgRw-4  2207 DhRs-1  LOA  RBCM  2514 DeRt-4  954 DfRu-13  4341 DfRu-8  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  44104  1320 DeRt-1  SFU  63 DfSj-100  903 DeRt-2  SFU  RBCM  277 DeRt-2  SFU  Borde n No.  723 DeRt-4  Borde n/O the r C atalogu e No.  RBCM  In sti tu tion  Institu ti on Catal ogue No.  In sti tu tion Information  Pender Island  Pender Island  Pender Island  S ub-Region  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  False Narrows, Gabriola Island  Bedwell Harbour, Sout h Pender Island  Senewelet s  Egeria Bay Sit e, Pender Canal 4, Poets Cove  Nort h  Sout h  Boundary Bay, T sawwassen  Haida Gwaii  Sout h  unknown  Sout h  Pender Island  unknown  Pender Island  Sout h  Beach Grove  Grauer P ark, T sawwassen Sout h  Newcast le Island, Pet roglyph Park Sout h Nanaimo  Klukwan  Crescent Beach  Pender Canal  unknown  unknown  Pender Canal 2  Pender Island  Fraser Delta  Sout h  Fraser River, Vancouver  Marpole  Gulf Islands  Bedwell Harbour, Sout h Pender Island  Fraser Delta  East Vancouver Island  Haida Gwaii  Fraser Delta  Gulf Islands  unknown  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Pender Canal 4, Poets Cove  Sout h  Galiano Island  Mont ague Harbour Sit e  Gulf Islands  Mayne Island  Helen P oint  Sout h  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Con temporary C u ltural Affil iati on s  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Haida  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  unknown  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Associated Date  unknown  in sit u  unknown  disturbed  unknown  in sit u  unknown  unknown  unknown  unknown  unknown  in sit u  disturbed  unknown  unknown  disturbed  unknown  unknown  before 2000 BP  2500-4000 BP  i n si tu , i n screen ,disturbe Type 1: C14 d, surface, dates u nk n own  In te grity of Prove ni en ce  S i te In formati on  West Vancouver Nuu-Chah-Nult h in sit u Island  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  North (Nass, Sk ee na, Haida Gwaii ); Cen tral; S ou th (Gul f Isl an ds, North , Ce ntral , Fraser Delta, S ou th Uppe r Fraser, We st Van cou ver Isl an d, East Van cou ver Isl an d  Region  Bedwell Harbour, Sout h Pender Island  S ite Location  Ucluth Peninsula, Litt le Beach Site Sout h Ucluelet  Pender Canal  Pender Canal 2  Pender Canal 2  Egeria Bay Sit e, Pender Canal 4, Poets Cove  Si te Name  BUCCAL AND POSSIBLE LABRETS  159  ? - 2000  2000 – 3000  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  C ol le cted: Arch ae ologi cal, S ex Eth n ologi cal  Archaeological  Archaeological  Et hnological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Locarno/Marpole Archaeological  Associ ate d Type 2: Periods Associ ated Date (C h arle s, ran ge s Locarn o, Marpole)  Con textual Materials  age  butt on  unclassified  labial  labial  labial  labial  labial  labial  composite  labial  buccal  buccal  buccal  buccal  buccal  labret  labret  possible labret  unclassified  unclassified; closest is butt on  unclassified; closest is T shaped  pendulant  knob  t ee  knob  knob  pendulant  unclassified  unfinished  unclassified  unclassified  too fragmented  unclassified  unclassified  lateral  lateral  circular  lateral  lateral  lateral  lateral  lateral  lateral  lateral  lateral  lateral  double circular  lateral  lateral/circular unclassified  double circular unclassified; closest is T shaped  double circular  double circular  double circular  late ral, ci rcu lar  Fl an ge De scri ptions  unclassified  unclassified  unclassified  unclassified  MY TYPE  Descripti on Cl assic' Type Descri ption  possible preform T -shaped  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  labret preform  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  l abre t, possible l abre t, in lay onl y; labi al, buccal , composite  O bject Desi gn ati on  160  flat  flat  oval  incomplete  ext ended  none  flat  concave  flat  concave  incomplete  rect angular  rect angular  rect angular  convex  drilled  convex  cylindrical  cylindrical  none  laterally-rounded concave  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  concave  rect angular  laterally-rounded concave  none  flat  oval  laterally-rounded concave  none  laterally-rounded concave  flat  short  short  ext ended  ext ended  short  short  short  short  short  ext ended  ext ended  short  ext ended  ext ended  ext ended  ext ended  ext ended  ext ended  none  none  hollowed  convex  oval  none  oval  flat  oval  none  drilled  concave  oval  cylindrical  rectangular  circular  semi-cylindrical  cylindrical  cylindrical  semi-cylindrical  rectangular  rectangular  cylindrical  cylindrical  rectangular  cylindrical  circular  circular  rectangular  semi-cylindrical  semi-cylindrical  cylindrical  flat  convex  flat  incomplete  flat  convex  flat  flat  concave  flat  incomplete  concave  none  flat  convex  none  none  none  flat  convex, concave , fl at  De scri pti on  oval, ovoi d, cyl i ndri cal , semi dril l ed, i nci sed, cyl i ndri cal , short, e xtended grooved, ci rcular, holl owed square, rectangul ar, zoomorphi c  laterally-rounded concave  convex, concave , flat, curve d  circul ar, oval , s quare , rectangular, ovoid, cyl indrical , l ate ral l yrounde d  Body De scri pti on  pendulant  none  none  tapering  none  pendulant  flaring  flaring  none  tapering  tapering  tapering  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  tape ri ng, fl aring (dis tall y), pe ndul ant, doubl e, possibl e double  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  constrict ed  none  none  none  none  none  hollowed, drilled none  hollowed  none  none  none  none  none  dri l le d, constri cted, hol l owe d, ci rcumfere nti al i nci se d, inl ai d, groove groove d  Ne ck De scri pti on  incomplete  complete  complete  incomplete  incomplete  complete  complete  complete  complete  incomplete  incomplete  complete  complete  complete  fragment  complete  complete  complete  complete  O bject C ompl etene ss  lit hic  faunal  faunal  lit hic  faunal  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  faunal  lit hic  faunal  faunal  faunal  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  (li thic, faunal , floral )  C l ass  steatite  bone  bone  steatite  bone  steatite  steatite  steatite  steatite  bone  trace polish  highly polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  dull  polished  polished  polished  polished  shell (purplehinged scallop)  basalt  highly polished  polished  polished  highly polished  highly polished  highly polished  highly polished  Pol is h  antler  antler  slat e  soapstone  steatite  steatite  steatite  Type  slightly rough  very smoot h  very smoot h  smoot h  smoot h  smoot h  smoot h  smoot h  smoot h  smoot h  smoot h  smoot h  very smoot h  smoot h  smoot h  very smoot h  very smoot h  very smoot h  very smoot h  C ol our Appe arance  medium  light  light  dark  light  medium  dark  light  dark  light  dark  light  light  light  dark  dark  dark  dark  dark  blue-grey, grey  beige  beige  brown, grey  mot t led  solid  solid  mot t led  solid  flecked  blue-grey, grey, red-brown  beige  flecked  mot t led  flecked  solid  solid  mot t led  solid  solid  solid  mot t led  mot t led  mot t led  solid  Patte rning  brown, grey  beige, grey  grey  beige  black  beige  beige  beige  grey  brown  grey-brown  grey-brown  black  m ai n, dark, medium , s econdary l i ght col ours  C ol our Intensi ty  Material Propertie s  Te xture  Lumi nance (l ux)  2  13  0  1  0  5  0  3  0  6  3  0  2  0  161  5 ground/abraded  2 ground/abraded  2 ground/abraded  2 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  10 ground/abraded  20 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  15 ground/abraded  30 ground/abraded  10 ground/abraded  30 ground/abraded  2 ground/abraded  25 ground/abraded  2 ground/abraded  2 ground/abraded  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  15 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  no  no  15 ground/abraded  Primary – Manufacture  Ini tial Manufacture  no  Vol ume  Mate ri al Properti es  Iri de scence  grooved  drilled  drilled  Secondary – Alteration  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  Te rti ary De coration  Modifi cati on  ground/abraded  Prim ary – Manufacture  PostManufacture Al te rati ons  possibly, yes, no ground/abraded  yes, yes, no  Broken; Re Worke d; Worn but not Re Worked?  drilled  Secondary – Al terati on  polished  polished  Tertiary Decorati on  83  50  13.3  44  23.7  61.7  50.3  24  28.5  39.7  40.9  12.4  11.8  11.1  16  19.2  25.9  wi dth (horiz ontal)  flange  10.8  3.7  4.9  17.6  7.3  15.6  37.7  67.6  12  3.9  21.8  11  13.8  1.6  3.6  6.5  9.1  10.7  16  7.7  5.1  3.1  4  11.9  3  8.6  2.6  16  11.1  17.4  9.4  7.9  10.6  hei ght (at mi d thickne ss (at flange base of body)  body  complet e  4 complet e  complet e  widt h est imat ed  widt h, height incomplete  complet e  10 complet e  22.4 complet e  51.5 complet e  17.6 widt h est imat ed  incomplete  44.2 complet e  complet e  13.7 complet e  widt h, height incomplete  complet e  complet e  complet e  26.3 complet e  37  width (horiz ontal )  43.7  6.4  27.8  50.2  10.2  50.6 including pendulum  28.4  44.9  28.9  36.7  38.1  23.4  16.8  19.8  15.3  29  12.3  32  5.4  24.3  17.3  25  20  17.5  21.2  21.7  15  14.1  10.3  9.9  28  15.5  short 18.6, long 28.8  22  21.7 nearest , 41.3 t ot al lengt h  19.6 nearest , 14.4 at 38.9 t ot al lengt h cent re10.2  Fl ange – use me asure ments l ength concavi ty de pth for area (wi dth, (proxi mal to (at centre ) hei ght) as distal) compl ete?  Di me nsi ons (m m)  hei ght (verti cal )  13  5  4.4  17.9  5.6  19.6  13.1  19.2  12.4  5.9  21.7  12.1  14.6  1.8  4.5  5.9  7.8  15.9  concavi ty depth (at ce ntre)  162  10.6  complet e  30.47  3  incomplete  lengt h incomplete  complet e  complet e  complet e  n/a  0.6  complet e  2  36.7  48.8  complet e  widt h est imated, lengt h incomplete  15.5  65.5  complet e  complet e  20.4  14.4  complet e  complet e  3.7  complet e  2  0.4  complet e  widt h, height incomplete  2.8  8.8  complet e  complet e  17.3  n/a  W e ight (g)  complet e  B ody – use me asure ments for area (wi dth, he ight) as compl ete?  Di mensi ons (mm)  uniform wear  st riations, body  wear facet , medial body; uniform scrat ching  scrat ching, post erior flange; uniform weathering diagional scrat ching, flange; st riations, body  Late Midden, 3000-2200 BP  fracture, lateral flange t ip and pendulum t ip  pre-2000 BP assemblage  10yr 6/6  heavily weathered  heavily weathered, burnt(?)  st riations, overall  st riations, body circumference; concret ion, ant erior and post erior flange  10g 4/1, 10g 8/1, 10g 2/1, 5g 9/1  2.5y 9/2  2.5y 8.5/4  5y 3/1, 5y 6/2  5y 5/2, 10yr 4/6, 10yr 7/4, 10gy 4/1  10yr 2/1, 5y 6/2, 5y 4/2  water(?) weathering  st riations, inferior flange; chipping, dist al body  fracture, dist al polish, post erior body tip; flange fractured lengt hwise, flange  lateral flange wing broken(?), reworked/drilled; pendulum project ion broken(?), reworked fracture on horizont al plane through flange  lateral flange wings broken, reworked  10y 8/2, 10y 3/1  2.5r n1.0, 2.5r n1.5  st riations overall  lateral flange wing t ip broken  n 0.5  2.5y 8/2, 10yr 6/2  5y 9/1  overall weathering and micropit ting; bevelled inferior medial flange edge; polish, post erior flange  2.5y 7/4  2.5y 8.5/2  n 2.5  5y 2/1, 5y 3/1  2.5y 9/2, 10y 3/1, 2.5y 5/4  10y 3/1, 2.5y 5/4  n1.0  concavity l ength  flange  51  40.8  65.5  9  3.1  7.3  2.5  concavi ty l ength  body  NO T INC LUDED IN SPSS C ol our (Munsel l)  concret ion, post erior flange  found wit h DfSj-100:61  burials: se x, age group?  C ontextual Materials  lateral flange v' scrat ched int o wing broken; superior body dist al body t ip broken at drilled surface hole  ant erior tip broken; lat eral flange wings broken  dat e between 2500 and 4000 yrs ago  Locati on of Full Date Info W ear and Type  broken along polish, post erior horizont al plane flanges  Location of Fracture  23.2  14.4  3.7  0.4  2.8  10.6  8.8  17.3  7.3  15.5  20.4  3  30.47  dri l le d hol e di ame te r  dril le d hole depth  other me asure ments  7.4  O ther measure ment  drilled holes on posterior diamet er; drilled 8.3, 8.6; 13.5, holes on lat eral 14.3; 23.9, 24.2 diamet er; lat eral edge lengt h  O ther descri ption  RBCM  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  Ins ti tuti on  (old #12658)  Insti tution Catal ogue No.  3324A  Pender Canal 2  Pender Canal 2  Pender Canal 2  Pender Canal 2  Pender Canal 2  Pender Canal 2  Pender Canal  Crescent Beach  Snyega  207 DeRt-2  3402 DeRt-2  DeRt-2  2999 DeRt-2  204 DeRt-2  171 DeRt-2  117 DeRt-1  6104 DgRr-1  1608 DcRt-15  Site Name  Pender Canal 2  Borde n No.  982 DeRt-2  Borde n/O the r Catal ogue No.  Insti tution Information  EARSPOOLS OR LIPSPOOLS  163  Sub-Re gi on  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Boundary Bay, Tsawwassen Cadboro Bay, Vict oria  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  East Vancouver Island  Fraser Delta  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  North (Nas s, Ske e na, Hai da Gwaii ); Central ; South (Gulf Isl ands , North, Ce ntral , Frase r De lta, Uppe r Fras e r, South We s t Vancouve r Isl and, East Vancouve r Isl and  Re gi on  Pender Island  Pender Island  Pender Island  Pender Island  Pender Island  Pender Island  Pender Island  Pender Island  Site Location  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Conte mporary Cul tural Affil i ati ons As soci ate d Date  unknown  unknown  unknown  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  in sit u  i n si tu, i n s cre e n ,di sturbe Type 1: C14 d, s urface , date s unknown  Inte grity of Prove ni e nce  Site Information  2000 – 3000  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Col l e cte d: Archae ol ogical, Se x Ethnol ogi cal  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Locarno/Marpole Archaeological  As soci ate d Pe riods Type 2: Ass oci ate d Date (Charl e s, range s Locarno, Marpole )  Conte xtual Mate ri al s  age  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  possible labret  labret  l abre t, possi bl e l abre t, inl ay only; l abial , buccal , composi te  O bje ct De s ignation  indistinguishable  indistinguishable  indistinguishable  indistinguishable  circular earspool indistinguishable  circular earspool indistinguishable  circular earspool indistinguishable  oval earspool  oval earspool  oval earspool  oval earspool  bowl or earspool indistinguishable  l ate ral , ci rcul ar  Fl ange De s cri pti ons  unclassified  circular earspool indistinguishable  unclassified; pulley or circular closest is disc, or indistinguishable earspool Pulley (A&M)  unclassified  unclassified  unclassified  unclassified  unclassified  unclassified  unclassified  unclassified; closest is disc or pulley (A&M)  MY TYPE  De scri pti on Cl ass ic' Type De s cri ption  circular  circular  circular  circular  circular  oval  oval  oval  oval  oval  ci rcular, oval , square, rectangular, ovoi d, cyl indri cal , lateral lyrounded  164  drilled  drilled  drilled  drilled  drilled  drilled  drilled  drilled  none  flat  flat  flat  flat  flat  flat  flat  flat  flat  flat  short  short  short  short  short  short  short  short  short  circular  circular  oval  oval  oval  oval  oval  oval  oval  oval  none  convex, concave, flat, curved  short  oval, ovoid, cylindrical , se mi dril led, i ncis ed, cylindrical , grooved, short, extended ci rcul ar, hollowed square, re ctangul ar, zoomorphi c  Body Description  flat  flat  flat  flat  flat  flat  flat  flat  flat  flat  convex, concave , flat  Description  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  tape ring, fl aring (di stal ly), pendulant, double , poss ible doubl e  hollowed  hollowed  hollowed  hollowed  hollowed  hollowed  hollowed  hollowed  hollowed  none  complete  complete  incomplet e  incomplet e  fragment  complete  fragment  fragment  incomplet e  fragment  circumferent ial groove  circumferent ial groove  circumferent ial groove  circumferent ial groove circumferent ial groove circumferent ial groove circumferent ial groove circumferent ial groove circumferent ial groove  O bject C omplete ness  circumferent ial groove  drill ed, constricted, hol lowed, circumferenti al i ncise d, inl aid, groove grooved  Neck Descri pti on  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  lit hic  (lithic, faunal, floral )  C lass  unknown, t alc  steatite  steatite  steatite  steatite  steatite  steatite  steatite  steatite  steatite  Type  trace polish  trace polish  highly polished  highly polished  highly polished  polished  highly polished  highly polished  highly polished  highly polished  Pol ish  slightly rough  slightly rough  smoot h  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  very smooth  Texture  C ol our Appearance  dark  medium  dark  dark  dark  dark  dark  dark  dark  medium  flecked  flecked  grey, yellowbeige brown, beige  mott led  mott led  flecked  flecked  flecked  flecked  mott led  mott led  Patterni ng  grey, beige  grey, beige  grey, beige  grey, beige  grey, beige  grey, beige  grey  grey-beige, brown, blue  mai n, dark, m edium, secondary l ight col ours  C olour Intensity  Material Properti es Luminance (lux)  0  1  8  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  no  Irides cence  Volume  Materi al Propertie s  165  drilled  drilled  drilled  drilled  drilled  drilled  drilled  drilled  20 ground/abraded  10 ground/abraded  10 ground/abraded  50 ground/abraded  10 ground/abraded  10 ground/abraded  15 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  paint ed  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  polished  drilled  20 ground/abraded  Tertiary Decorati on  polished  Secondary – Alte rati on  30 ground/abraded  Pri mary – Manufacture  Ini tial Manufacture  Broken; ReWorked; Worn but not ReWorke d?  Modification  Primary – Manufacture  PostManufacture Alterations  Secondary – Alterati on  Tertiary De coration  50  50  57.4  55.1  70  65.5  72.5  73.8  width (hori zontal)  fl ange  14.4  38  38.3  32.6  31.8  hei ght (at mid thickne ss (at fl ange base of body)  2.9  8  6.9  7.4  5.5  5  6.1  5.1  body  16.3  width, height estimated  width estimat ed  width estimat ed  complete  7.8  9.8  20.3  17.4  24.9  18.9  20.5  incomplete, but measurements accurate  too fragmented  18.3  17.2  complete  complete  Fl ange – use measurements l ength concavity depth for area (width, (proxi mal to (at ce ntre) distal) hei ght) as comple te?  Dim ensions (mm)  40  41.1  74.6  width (horizontal)  hei ght (verti cal )  40  41.4  30.7  concavi ty depth (at centre)  widt h, height est imated  incomplete, but measurement s accurate  complet e  Body – us e me asure m e nts for are a (width, he ight) as compl e te ?  Dime nsi ons (mm)  166  fract ured laterally, glued t ogether  fract ured laterally, glued t ogether  fract ured, glued t ogether  fract ured, glued t ogether  fract ured laterally  fract ured laterally  26.6  12.2  11.2  97.2  15.3  13.1  5.7  16.6  fract ured laterally, glued t ogether  Location of Fracture  32.4  65.5  We i ght (g)  overall weat hering  2.5y 6/4, 2.5y 3/2  5y 5/1, 5y 7/6 int erior  5y 3/1, 5y 2/1  heavily weat hered overall  chipping, edges; heavily weat hered overall  5y 5/4, 5y 2/1  micro-scratching overall  5y 8/2, 5y 2/1, 5y 4/1  5y 4/1, 5y 7/2  5y 4/1, 5y 7/2  5y 8/2, 5y 2/1, 5y 4/1  2.5gy 7/2, 10g 5/1, y 4/2  Col our (Munse ll)  5y 8/2, 5y 2/1, 5y 4/1  burial s: se x, age group?  C onte xtual Mate rial s  micro-scratching Lat e Midden, overall 3000-2200 BP  striations, hollow; polish, ant erior and posterior striations, hollow; polish, ant erior and posterior striations, hollow; polish, ant erior and posterior striations, hollow; polish, ant erior and posterior  scrat ching, posterior flange and ant erior body  Locati on of Full Date Info We ar and Type  NO T INCLUDED IN SPSS  widt h of hollowed centre  widt h of hollowed centre  widt h and height 55, 28.3 of hollowed centre  23  30  O the r me asure me nt  widt h and height 53, 17.5 of hollowed centre  O the r de scri ption  O the r Me asure m e nts  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  SFU  CMC  RBCM  RBCM  RBCM  Ins ti tuti on  Insti tution Catal ogue No.  Saltspring Island Sout h  Haida Gwaii  Toynbee Beach  Yan  Pender Canal Namu Namu  1011 DeRt-1  3221 ElSx-1  Pender Canal 2  1981 DeRt-2  3220 ElSx-1  Pender Canal  1358 DeRt-1  Hecat e Straight  Hecat e Straight  Pender Island  Pender Island  Pender Island  Central  Central  Sout h  Sout h  Sout h  North  Saltspring Island Sout h  Saltspring Island Sout h  118 DfRu-4  VII-B-968  Sub-Re gi on  Cent ral  Cent ral  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Haida Gwaii  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  Gulf Islands  North (Nas s, Ske e na, Hai da Gwaii ); Central ; South (Gulf Isl ands , North, Ce ntral , Frase r De lta, Uppe r Fras e r, South We s t Vancouve r Isl and, East Vancouve r Isl and  Re gi on  Toynbee Beach  Site Location  Toynbee Beach  Site Name  57 DfRu-4  Borde n No.  51 DfRu-4  Borde n/O the r Catal ogue No.  Insti tution Information  LABRET INLAYS  167  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Haida  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Coast Salish  Conte mporary Cul tural Affil i ati ons As soci ate d Date  unknown  unknown  unknown  in sit u  in sit u  unknown  unknown  unknown  unknown  i n si tu, i n s cre e n ,di sturbe Type 1: C14 d, s urface , date s unknown  Inte grity of Prove ni e nce  Site Information  3000 – 4500  Charles/ Locarno  As soci ate d Pe riods Type 2: Ass oci ate d Date (Charl e s, range s Locarno, Marpole )  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Et hnological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Archaeological  Col l e cte d: Archae ol ogical, Se x Ethnol ogi cal  Conte xtual Mate ri al s  age  possible inlay  possible inlay  possible inlay  possible inlay  possible inlay  possible inlay  possible inlay  possible inlay  possible inlay  l abre t, possi bl e l abre t, inl ay only; l abial , buccal , composi te  O bje ct De s ignation  inlay only  inlay only  inlay only  inlay only  inlay only  inlay only  inlay only  inlay only  inlay only  inlay only  inlay only  inlay only  inlay only  inlay only  MY TYPE  De scri pti on Cl ass ic' Type De s cri ption  inlay only  inlay only  inlay only  inlay only  inlay only  inlay only  inlay only  inlay only  inlay only  l ate ral , ci rcul ar  Fl ange De s cri pti ons  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  circular  ci rcular, oval , square , re ctangular, ovoi d, cyl indri cal , late ral lyrounde d  168  flat  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  circular  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  conve x, concave , flat, curve d  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  drilled  circular circular circular  ovoid  circular oval oval circular circular  inlay only inlay only  inlay only  inlay only inlay only inlay only inlay only inlay only  conve x, concave , flat  inlay only  oval, ovoid, cylindrical , se mi dril le d, i ncis e d, cylindrical , short, e xte nde d groove d, ci rcul ar, hollowe d square , re ctangul ar, z oomorphi c  Body De scription  De scription  concave  concave  convex  flat  flat  flat  concave  concave  flat  tape ring, fl aring (di stal ly), pe ndulant, double , poss ible doubl e  none  none  drilled  drilled  none  drilled  none  none  drilled  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  none  const ricted  drill e d, constricte d, hol lowe d, circumfe re nti al i ncise d, inl aid, groove groove d  Ne ck De scri pti on  complete  complete  incomplet e  complete  complete  incomplet e  complete  complete  complete  O bje ct C omple te ne ss  faunal  faunal  lit hic  faunal  faunal  faunal  faunal  faunal  faunal  (lithic, faunal, floral )  C lass  dull  shell (purplehinged scallop)  shell (purplehinged scallop) shell (purplehinged scallop)  polished  polished  highly polished  dull  shell (purplehinged scallop)  coal  highly polished  trace polish  polished  polished  Pol ish  shell (abalone)  shell (purplehinged scallop) shell (purplehinged scallop) shell (purplehinged scallop)  Type  smoot h  smoot h  very smooth  smoot h  slightly rough  very smooth  smoot h  very smooth  smoot h  Te xture  C ol our Appe arance  light  light  dark  light  light  light  light  light  light  beige  beige  black  beige  whit e  iridescent  beige  beige  beige  mai n, dark, m e dium , se condary l ight col ours  C olour Inte nsity  Mate rial Prope rti e s  solid  solid  solid  flecked  flecked  solid  mott led  solid  solid  Patte rni ng  Luminance (lux)  10  9  -2  7  7  12  8  9  5  yes  yes  no  no  no  yes  no  no  no  Iride s ce nce  Volum e  Mate ri al Prope rtie s  169  polished  drilled  width (hori z ontal)  36  27  13  13  he i ght (at m id thickne ss (at fl ange base of body)  5.3  complete  complete  complete  Fl ange – use m e asure m e nts l e ngth concavity de pth for are a (width, (proxi mal to (at ce ntre ) he i ght) as distal) com ple te ?  2.4  16  7.7  5.4  5 ground/abraded  10.4 10.2  possibly, yes, no  5 ground/abraded  5 ground/abraded  5.1  possibly, yes, no ground/abraded  Te rtiary De coration  body  2 ground/abraded  drilled  Se condary – Alte rati on  fl ange  Dim e nsions (mm )  6.8  drilled  Prim ary – Manufacture  PostManufacture Alte rations  5 ground/abraded  2 ground/abraded  polished polished  polished  Te rtiary De corati on  2 ground/abraded  drilled  Se condary – Alte rati on  20 ground/abraded  2 ground/abraded  Pri mary – Manufacture  Ini tial Manufacture  Broke n; Re Worke d; Worn but not Re Worke d?  Modification  28  30  30.8  25.7  22.6  48.5  40  19.3  width (horiz ontal)  he i ght (ve rti cal )  27.2  27.8  27.5  15.9  22.6  22.6  19.3  concavi ty de pth (at ce ntre )  complete  complete  complete  complete  complete  incomplete, but measurements accurate  complete  complete  complete  Body – use me asure me nts for area (width, he ight) as complete ?  Dime nsions (mm)  170  5.4  9.1  7  2.8  4.8  3  crack through  scratching, posterior striations, circumference striations, circumference  striations, anterior  Main Midden 4500-3000 BP  wear, lateral edge collected 1901  5y 9/1  5y 9/1  n 2.0  5y 9/2  5y 9/1, 5y 8/2  5y 9/1, 10yr 7/4 CMC: was inlay for a bone labret which is now missing  striations, body circumference  32.7  5y 9/2, 5y 9/1  Colour (Munse ll)  10yr 9/2, 10yr 9/1  burials: sex, age group?  C onte xtual Mate rials  polish, anterior  Full Date Info  3.5  Location of W e ar and Type  dirt ground in uniformly  lateral tip broken(?), reground  Location of Fracture  concavity length  flange  NO T INC LUDED IN SPSS  2.2  W e ight (g)  12  concavity le ngth  body  2.2  6.9  12 5, 6.2 posterior  drille d hole diame te r  drille d hole de pth  othe r me asureme nts  3.2  APPENDIX H Crosstabulation of material type by labret type  Material Type  disc  double-knob  plate  pulley  spool  tee  Total  antler  0  0  0  1  0  0  1  0  2  4  basalt  0  0  0  2  0  0  0  0  0  2  bone  0  0  0  1  0  0  1  0  11  13  bone, shell (abalone)  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  1  coal  0  10  0  5  0  0  0  0  0  15  horn  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  1  ivory  4  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  4  ivory, shell (abalone)  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  1  mudstone  0  0  0  11  0  0  8  0  7  26  quartz crystal  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  1  2  quartzite  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  4  5  sandstone  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  1  schist  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  7  0  0  0  5  12  shell (unknown)  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  1  siltstone  0  0  0  10  1  0  0  0  10  21  slate  0  0  0  0  0  4  0  0  1  5  soapstone  0  5  0  9  1  0  1  0  3  19  steatite  0  16  3  23  5  0  3  0  5  55  unknown, antler  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  unknown, CAST  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  1  unknown, clay  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  1  unknown, limestone  0  0  0  2  0  0  0  0  0  2  unknown, mudstone  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  1  unknown, pumice  0  0  1  2  0  0  0  0  0  3  unknown, serpentine  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  1  unknown, siltstone  0  0  0  4  0  0  0  0  0  4  unknown, soapstone  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  1  unknown, talc  0  0  0  3  0  0  0  0  0  3  wood  7  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  7  wood, copper  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  wood, shell (abalone)  5  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  5  17  31  4  81  15  4  16  1  51  220  shell (purple-hinged scallop)  Total  My Types knob pendulant  bowl  171  APPENDIX I Results of PIMA analysis on sub-sample of labrets using SIMIS FeatureSearch software and US Geological Survey data to identify mineral content ARTIFACT DeRt-1:117  DeRt-1:1061 DeRt-1:1061 (sample 2) DeRt-2:69  BEST FIT  #2 FIT  MINERAL TYPE  MINERAL/CHE MICAL  Chrysotile (KaoliniteSerpentine Group) Calcite 1 (Calcite group Calcite 1 (Calcite group Lazurite (Lapis Lazuli) (Sodalite group)  Lizardite 2 (same group)  Phyllosilicate  Mg3 Si2 O5 (OH)4  Carbonate  CaCO3  Carbonate  CaCO3  Jarosite 2 (KJarosite) (Synthetic) (Alunite Group)  Tectosilicate  (Na,Ca)78(Al,Si)12(O,S)24( SO4),C12(OH)2; K(Fe+3)3(SO4)2( OH)6 Gamma-FeO(OH); Alpha-FeO(OH)  DeRt-2:103  Lepidocrosite (Synethetic)  Goethite 4  Hydroxide  DeRt-2:282  Lizardite 1 (KaoliniteSerpentine group)  Serpentine 1  Phyllosilicate  NOTES  None of these fit well  Mg3 Si2 O5(OH)4  DeRt-2:381  No features to identify material with  DeRt-2:384  Chlorite 3 Mgrich (Chlorite Group)  Phyllosilicate  (Mg,Fe)3(Si,Al)4O 10(OH)2(Mg,Fe)3(OH)6  DeRt-2:384 (sample 2)  Lepidocrosite (Synthetic)  Hydroxide  Gamma-FeO(OH)  DeRt-2:386  Halloysite 2 (KaoliniteSerpentine group) Lizardite 2 (KaoliniteSerpentine group) Lizardite 2 (KaoliniteSerpentine group)  Phyllosilicate ; Nesosilicate  Al2Si2O5(OH)4; Ca3Al2(SiO4)3x(OH)4x  Doesn’t fit with this line, but this is the mineral brought up for each of 2 features; none of the other minerals match it This is the mineral that fit best, although it’s still off by quite a bit Fits better with the latter one; also fits well with 'chert'??  Phyllosilicate  Mg3Si2O5(OH)4  Fits almost exactly perfectly  Phyllosilicate  Mg3Si2O5  Fits almost exactly perfectly  DeRt-2:797  DeRt-2:866  Hydrogrossular (Garnet group)  DeRt-2:905 DeRt-2:913  features did exist but FS was unable to identify them Lizardite 2 (KaoliniteSerpentine group)  Antigorite 2 (KaoliniteSerpeinte Group)  Halloysite 2 (KaoliniteSerpentine group)  Kaolinite/Smectit e 2 (85% Kaol.) (KaoliniteSerpentine Group)  DeRt-2:1039  Phyllosilicate  (Mg,Fe+2)3Si2O5( OH)4; Mg3Si2O5  fits better with the second one; also identified talc as a similar signature  Phyllosilicate  Al2Si2O5(OH)4; Ca3Al2(SiO4)3x(OH)4x, or the first with (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,M g)  fits well with both  172  ARTIFACT  DeRt-2:1685 DeRt-2:1685 (sample 2)  BEST FIT  #2 FIT  Lizardite 2 (KaoliniteSerpentine group) Lizardite 2 (KaoliniteSerpentine group)  DeRt-2:1782  Serpentine  DeRt-2:1782 (sample 2)  Lizardite 1 (KaoliniteSerpentine group)  MINERAL TYPE  MINERAL/CHE MICAL  Phyllosilicate Mg3 Si2 O5(OH)4 Phyllosilicate Mg3 Si2 O5(OH)4 Chrysotile (KaoliniteSerpentine group)  DeRt-2:2548  DeRt-2:2857  DeRt-2:2999  Antigorite (KaoliniteSerpeinte Group)  DeRt-2:3317  Magnesite + Hydromagnesite (Calcite Group Antigorite 1 (KaoliniteSerpentine Group)  Lizardite 2 (same group)  DeRt-2:3325  Lizardite 1 (KaoliniteSerpentine group)  Antigorite 1 (KaoliniteSerpentine Group)  DeRt-2:3041  doesn't fit perfectly with both, but looks like it belongs within that 'family' fit is poor, but for all 3 features it was #1; the peaks and valleys are smoothed out in the sample itself, result of noise? there are features, but too 'noisy' to identify; looks like the lizardite/serpentine ones though  Phyllosilicate  MG3 Si2 O5(OH)4; same  Phyllosilicate  Mg3 Si2 O5(OH)4  Phyllosilicate  Mg3 Si2 )5(OH)4; (Mg,Fe+2)3Si2O5( OH)4  fits better with the latter one, though it brought up 3 lizardites as the top 3  Phyllosilicate  (Mg,Fe+2)3Si2O5( OH)4  fits almost spot on  Phyllosilicate  Mg3Si2O5(OH)4  just about spot on  Carbonate  MgCo3 + Mg5(CO3)2*4H2 O  close, missing a peak  Phyllosilicate  (Mg,Fe+2)3Si2O5( OH)4; Mg3Si2O5(OH)4  close to both, I prefer Antigorite  Phyllosilicate  (Mg,Fe+2)3Si2O5( OH)4; Mg3Si2O5(OH)4  the actual reading is smoother without the high peaks of either, but the top 6 choices are in this family closer to Serpentine but lizardite is brought up first, and there's really not a huge difference between either  DeRt-2:1782 (sample 3) Lizardite 1 (KaoliniteSerpentine group) Antigorite 7 (KaoliniteSerpeinte Group) Lizardite 3 (KaoliniteSerpentine group)  NOTES  Serpentine  Phyllosilicate  (Mg,Fe+2)3Si2O5( OH)4; Mg3Si2O5(OH)4  DfRu-8:2399  Lizardite 1 (KaoliniteSerpentine group) Chrysotile (KaoliniteSerpentine Group)  Serpentine  Phyllosilicate  Mg3Si2O5(OH)4  pretty good fit  DgRi-3:973  Clinochlore 4 (Sheridanite) (Chlorite group)  Lizardite (KaoliniteSerpetine group)  Phyllosilicate  (Mg,Fe+2)5Al(Si2 Al)O10(OH)8; Mg3Si2O5(OH)4  pretty good fit with both actually  DeRt-2:3325 (sample 2)  173  ARTIFACT  DgRi-3:1170 DgRi-3:7673  DgRi-3:8654  BEST FIT  Clinochlore 4 (Sheridanite) (Chlorite group) Talc 3 Lizardite 2 (KaoliniteSerpentine group)  DgRr1:13395  Serpentine  DgRr-6:1109  Clinochlore 3 (Sheridanite) (Chlorite group)  DhRt-6:287  DhRt-6:1401  Juniper Lizardite 2 (KaoliniteSerpentine group)  DhRt-6:2563  Lizardite 1 (KaoliniteSerpentine group)  EsLx-1:3221 SOAPSTON E CONTROL TEST 1 SOAPSTON E CONTROL TEST 2  #2 FIT  Rhodonite  MINERAL TYPE  MINERAL/CHE MICAL  Phyllosilicate Phyllosilicate  (Mg,Fe+2)5Al(Si2 Al)O10(OH)8 Mg3Si4O10(OH)2  spot on just about spot on  Phyllosilicate  Mg3 Si2 O5(OH)4  spot on  Phyllosilicate ; Inosilicate  Mg3Si2O5(OH)4; MnSiO3  closer to Serpentine, but very close to Rhodonite too, and neither are a great fit  Phyllosilicate  (Mg,Fe+2)5Al(Si3 Al)O10(OH)8  Shrub  NOTES  very close fit ** this is the closest fit; compare it though with the bone and antler, it's a far better fit, although bone and antler register as nearly identical  Phyllosilicate  Mg3 Si2 O5(OH)4  Phyllosilicate  (Mg,Fe+2)3Si2O5( OH)4; Mg3Si2O5(OH)4  Calcite 3 (Calcite group)  Carbonate  CaCO3  spot on closer to Serpentine but lizardite is brought up first, and there's really not a huge difference between either; missing the pronounced peaks though this one is shell; it's close to the calcite but the peaks are not as pronounced; the database also brought up all the organics  Talc 2  Phyllosilicate  Mg3Si4O10(OH)2  close enough  Talc 1  Phyllosilicate  Mg3Si4O10(OH)2  close but different from sample 1  Serpentine  174  APPENDIX J Flange area to Body area, depicting a positive correlation between the body and flange dimensions  4000mm2  Flange Area  3000mm2  2000mm2  1000mm2  0mm2 0mm2  2000mm2  4000mm2  6000mm2  Body Area  175  APPENDIX K Geographical distribution by sub-region of labret type identified in this research Sub-Region  Types Fraser Delta  Gulf Islands  Haida Gwaii  Total Nass River  Skeena River  2  0  unknown 4  Upper Fraser  West Vancouver Island  0  0  17  0  0  0  11  Kitimat 0  0  6  7  17  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  31  0  0  4  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  4  knob  0  7  27  33  1  0  0  5  5  3  0  81  pendulant  1  6  7  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  15  plate  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  1  1  0  1  4  pulley  0  0  0  0  7  1  2  5  1  0  0  16  spool  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  1  tee  3  2  19  17  0  0  0  9  0  1  0  51  Total  4  21  64  68  20  1  4  21  12  4  1  220  bowl disc doubleknob  Central 0  East Vancouver Island  176  APPENDIX L Crosstabulation of labret material type by region Region  Material Type  Total  antler  Central 0  North 2  South 2  unknown 0  4  basalt  0  0  2  0  2  bone  1  8  4  0  13  bone, shell (abalone)  0  1  0  0  1  coal  0  2  13  0  15  horn  0  1  0  0  1  ivory  0  4  0  0  4  ivory, shell (abalone)  0  1  0  0  1  mudstone  0  12  14  0  26  quartz crystal  1  1  0  0  2  quartzite  0  1  4  0  5  sandstone  0  0  1  0  1  schist  0  0  1  0  1  1  0  11  0  12  shell (unknown)  0  0  1  0  1  siltstone  0  0  21  0  21  slate  0  2  2  1  5  soapstone  0  3  16  0  19  steatite  0  3  52  0  55  unknown, antler  1  0  0  0  1  unknown, CAST  0  0  0  1  1  unknown, clay  0  0  1  0  1  unknown, limestone  0  0  2  0  2  unknown, mudstone  0  0  1  0  1  unknown, pumice  0  0  3  0  3  unknown, serpentine  0  0  1  0  1  unknown, siltstone  0  0  4  0  4  unknown, soapstone  0  0  1  0  1  unknown, talc  0  0  3  0  3  wood  0  7  0  0  7  wood, copper  0  1  0  0  1  shell (purple-hinged scallop)  wood, shell (abalone) Total  0  5  0  0  5  4  54  160  2  220  177  APPENDIX M Crosstabulation of labret material type by sub-region Sub-Region  antler basalt bone bone, shell (abalone) coal horn ivory ivory, shell (abalone) mudstone quartz crystal  0 0 1  East Vancouver Island 0 0 1  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0 0 0  6 0 0  6 0 0  1 0 0  0 0 4  0 0 0  0 0 0  2 0 0  0 1 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  15 1 4  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  6  7  2  1  1  6  2  1  0  26  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  2  quartzite sandstone schist shell (purple hinged scallop)  0 0 0  1 0 0  3 0 1  0 1 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  1 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  5 1 1  1  5  2  4  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  12  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0 0 0 0  2 0 0 5  11 1 3 22  8 0 10 25  0 1 0 2  0 0 0 0  0 0 1 0  0 1 0 1  0 1 2 0  0 0 3 0  0 1 0 0  21 5 19 55  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  1  Material Type  shell (unknown) siltstone slate soapstone steatite unknown, antler unknown, CAST unknown, clay  Central  Total  0 0 0  West Vancouver Island 0 0 0  Fraser Delta  Gulf Islands  Haida Gwaii  Kitimat  Nass River  Skeena River  unknown  Upper Fraser  2 1 1  0 1 2  1 0 1  0 0 0  0 0 0  1 0 7  0 0 0  4 2 13  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  unknown, limestone unknown, mudstone unknown, pumice unknown, serpentine unknown, siltstone unknown, soapstone unknown, talc  0  0  0  2  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  2  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  3  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  3  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  1  2  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  4  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  2  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  3  wood wood, copper  0  0  0  0  4  0  0  0  3  0  0  7  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  2  0  2  0  1  0  0  5  4  21  64  68  20  1  4  21  12  4  1  220  wood, shell (abalone) Total  178  APPENDIX N Frequency of labret type by material type and site Material Type antler  My Types  Site bowl Site Name  disc  Beach Grove Crescent Beach Kitandach Skidegate Total  basalt  Site Name  Beach Grove unknown Total  bone  Site Name  Bencke Point Site Boardwalk Site, Temp.No. NMC Chaath Crescent Beach Garden Island Grant Anchorage Site Parizeau Point Pender Canal 2 Reservoir Site, Lachane Temp.No. DgRx-277A Total  bone, shell (abalone)  Site Name  unknown  coal  Site Name  Deep Bay; Temp.No.DiSe-2  doubleknob  knob  horn  Site Name  ivory  Site Name  Mountie Site, Temp.No. DkSf-Ta Musqueam North East Qualicum Golf Course Sti'ilup Temp.No. DgRx-277A Tolan's Beach Total unknown  plate  pulley  Skidegate unknown Yan Total ivory, shell (abalone)  Site Name  Ninstints  mudstone  Site Name  Baldwin Site  tee 1  1  1 0 0 1  0 0 1 1  0 1 0 2  1 1 1 4  1  1  1 2  1 2  0  0  2  2  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1  0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1  1 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 0 11  1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 13  1  1  1  1  0  2  2  1  1  2  1 0 5 1 1 1 0 10  0 1 0 0 0 0 1 5  1 1 5 1 1 1 1 15 1  1  1  1  1  1  1 1 1 4  1 1 1 4 1  Total Boardwalk Site Dionisio Point Garden Island Glenrose Cannery Site Kitimat Lakalsap Village (Greenville) Liquid Air Site Marpole Massett Pender Canal (probably DeRt-2  Total  0  Total Masset  spool  0  Total Dodge Island, Temp.No. Smith#13 Locarno Beach  pendulant  1  1  1  1  0  0  1  1 0 1 0 0 0 2 2 0 0  1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0  0 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1  2 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1  179  Material Type  My Types  Site bowl  disc  Keddie) Pender Canal 2 Tolan's Beach Toynbee Beach Total Site Name  knob  pendulant  plate  0 0 1 3 11  unknown quartz crystal  doubleknob  Crescent Beach Reservoir Site, Lachane unknown sandstone  Total Site Name  Toynbee Beach  0  1  1  1 1  0 1  1 2  0  2  2  1 0 0 1  0 1 1 4  1 1 1 5  1 Total  schist  Site Name  Marpole  shell (purplehinged scallop)  Site Name  Beach Grove  1  1  1 1  1  1  1  0  1  1  0 0 1 0 1 5 0 7  1 1 0 1 0 0 1 5  1 1 1 1 1 5 1 12  Total  Beddis Bay Crescent Beach Namu Pender Canal 4, Poets Cove Toynbee Beach unknown Walker's Hook Total shell (unknown)  Site Name  Pitt River Site  siltstone  Site Name  Beach Grove  1 Total  slate  Site Name  1  1  Crescent Beach Dionisio Point Egeria Bay Site, Pender Canal 4, Poets Cove Glenrose Cannery Site Liquid Air Site Pender Canal 2 Pitt River Site Temp.No. DeRv-510 Toynbee Beach unknown Total Grassy Bay  1  3  0  2  5  1 0  0 0  1 1  2 1  0  0  1  1  0 1 1 0 1 3 0 10  0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1  1 0 2 1 0 0 1 10  1 1 3 2 1 3 1 21  1  0  1  1 1 0 1 4  0 0 1 0 1  1 1 1 1 5  Little Beach Site Masset Tsawwassen unknown Total soapstone  Site Name  Beach Grove Crescent Beach Egeria Bay Site, Pender Canal 4, Poets Cove Helen Point Laxgalts'ap (Greenville) Milliken Montague Harbour Site  Total  2 1 1 7 26  Grant Anchorage Site  Beach Grove  tee 2 1 0 0 7  Total Site Name  spool  0 0 0 4 8  Hazelton quartzite  pulley  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  1  0  0  1  1  2  0  0  0  3  1 0 0 0  0 0 2 1  0 0 0 0  0 1 0 0  1 0 1 0  2 1 3 1  180  Material Type  steatite  My Types  Site bowl  Site Name  disc  doubleknob  knob  pendulant  0 0  0 0  1 1  1  0  0  0  0  1  1 1 5  0 2 9  0 0 1  0 0 1  0 0 3  1 3 19  0  0  1  0  0  0  1  Active Pass Active Pass, (formerly DfRuvY:7, old acc.#5233 & 1944-14) Bruce Bight Crescent Beach Egeria Bay Site, Pender Canal 4, Poets Cove Glenrose Cannery Site Helen Point Kuihanlus (Kwundlas?) Liquid Air Site Locarno Beach Oak Bay Fire Hall Pender Canal 2 Pitt River Site Reservoir Site, Lachane Skidegate Temp.No. DcRt-599 Tolan's Beach unknown Willows Beach  1  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  1 0  0 1  0 6  0 4  0 0  0 2  1 13  8  0  3  0  0  0  11  0 0 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 16  0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3  0 1 0 1 0 1 1 3 0 0 1 4 1 0 23  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5  0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 3  1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5  1 1 1 1 2 3 3 5 1 1 1 5 1 1 55  1  1  1  1  unknown, CAST  Site Name  unknown  unknown, clay  Site Name  Pender Canal 2  unknown, limestone  Site Name  Total 1  1  1  1  1  1  Total Egeria Bay Site, Pender Canal 4, Poets Cove Total Pender Canal 2  1  1  2  2  2  2  1  1  Total  1  1  1  2  3  1  2  3  Total  Pitt River Site Total  unknown, serpentine  Site Name  Maple Bank  unknown, siltstone  Site Name  Glenrose Cannery Site  Total Pender Canal 2 Temp.No. DbRv-RP-1 Total unknown, soapstone  Site Name  Pender Canal 2  unknown, talc  Site Name  Helen Point  Total Pender Canal Pender Canal 2 Total wood  Site  Total  0 0  Total  Site Name  tee  1 1  Grant Anchorage Site  unknown, pumice  spool  0 0  Site Name  Site Name  pulley  Musqueam North East Pender Canal 2 probably from DfRu-24 Tolan's Beach (Keddie) Tolan's Beach unknown Total (now part of DeRt-2)  unknown, antler  unknown, mudstone  plate  Masset  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  2 1 4  2 1 4  1  1  1  1  1  1  1 1 3  1 1 3 1  181  Material Type  My Types  Site bowl  disc  doubleknob  knob  pendulant  plate  pulley  spool  tee  Total  Name  wood, copper  Site Name  wood, shell (abalone)  Site Name  Ninstints Ninstints, Skung Gwaii Ilnagai, Eagle Chief unknown Total Chaath  1  1  1  1  4 7  4 7  1  1  Total  1  1  1  1  1  1  3 5  3 5  Angidah Village Ninstints; Skung Gwaii Ilnagai, Eagle Chief unknown Total  182  APPENDIX O Labret body area distribution by sub-region; * = individual outliers,  O = outlier groups with the same value  Body Area  6000mm2  4000mm2  2000mm2  0mm2  da ai w G  i ai  er iv  st oa lC tra en C er as Fr er pp U ta el D er as Fr sl nd sa fI ul G er iv R na ee . sl Sk rI ve ou nc Va  E.  H  R  at l. tim Is Ki er uv co an  s as  .V W  N  Sub-Region  183  APPENDIX P Various labrets, highlighting the emphasized shininess due to a) a concave anterior surface, or b) shell inlays  Disc labret made of 'steatite'  Disc labret made of coal (lignite)  Bowl labrets of wood with abalone shell inlays  184  APPENDIX Q Dates available (radiocarbon, associated time interval, and culture period) for labrets under study, and association with geography and labret type Region  Sub-Region  North Central Central  Nass River Central Central  North  South  Skeena River East Vancouver Island East Vancouver Island Gulf Islands Gulf Islands Gulf Islands Gulf Islands Gulf Islands Gulf Islands Gulf Islands Gulf Islands Gulf Islands Gulf Islands Gulf Islands Fraser Delta West Vancouver Island Fraser Delta  South  Fraser Delta  in situ  South  Fraser Delta  in situ  South  Fraser Delta  in situ  South South South South South  Gulf Islands Gulf Islands Gulf Islands Gulf Islands Gulf Islands  in situ in situ in situ in situ in situ  South South South South South South South South South South South South South South South  Provenience Integrity unknown unknown in situ in situ in situ in situ  Radiocarbon Date 1880 +/-40 BP 2090 +/-100 BP 2110 ±110 BP uncorrected 2590 ±40 BP 2630 ±95 BP and 2490 ±85 BP uncorrected 3017 ±173 BC to 1012 ±270 BC  in situ in situ in situ surface surface unknown unknown unknown in situ in situ unknown in situ in situ in situ  3210 to 3590 ±110 BP After 3210 ±110 BP After 3210 ±110 BP After 3210 ±110 BP  4000 ±500 BP 4320 ±220 BP  Date Range  Culture Period  Source  2000 2000 2000  Marpole Marpole Marpole  Archaeological Archaeological Archaeological  Labret Type pulley tee tee  2500  Locarno/Marpole  Archaeological  knob  2500  Locarno/Marpole  Archaeological  disc  2000-3000  Locarno/Marpole  Archaeological  knob  2000-3000 2000-3000 2000-3000 2500-3500 2500-3500 2500-3500 2500-3500 2500-3500 2500-3500 2500-3500 2500-3500 2500-3500 2500-4000  Locarno/Marpole Locarno/Marpole Locarno/Marpole Locarno Locarno Locarno Locarno Locarno Locarno Locarno Locarno Locarno Charles/Locarno/ Marpole  Archaeological Archaeological Archaeological Archaeological Archaeological Archaeological Archaeological Archaeological Archaeological Archaeological Archaeological Archaeological Archaeological  knob knob knob disc knob disc tee knob knob knob knob disc plate  3000-3500  Locarno  Archaeological  knob  3000-3500  Locarno  Archaeological  knob  3000-3500  Locarno  Archaeological  knob  3000-3500  Locarno  Archaeological  knob  3000-4500 3000-4500 3000-4500 3500-4500 4000-4500  Charles/Locarno Charles/Locarno Charles/Locarno Charles/Locarno Charles/Locarno  Archaeological Archaeological Archaeological Archaeological Archaeological  knob knob knob knob tee  185  APPENDIX R Photograph taken by the author at the Canadian Museum of Civilization, depicting a female figure wearing a labret  186  APPENDIX S Artifacts that may be ‘composite’ labrets  Superior/inferior surface of possible ‘composite’ labrets, where anterior is at top and posterior at bottom  Posterior surface of possible ‘composite’ labrets, which would rest against the teeth(?)  187  APPENDIX T Microscopic wear on surfaces of possible ‘composite’ labrets  Scratching on posterior surface of ‘composite’ labret, possibly resulting from manufacture (magnification 10x)  Scratching on posterior surface of ‘composite’ labret, possibly resulting from tooth abrasion (magnification 10x)  188  APPENDIX U Artifacts suggested to be ‘buccal’ (lateral) labrets  189  APPENDIX V Earspools and/or ‘lip spools’  Artifacts classified as earspools  Artifacts classified as either earspools or potentially ‘lip-spools’  190  APPENDIX W Crosstabulation of ‘plug’ labrets by material and region  Region North South 1 0  Material Type antler  Total 1  ivory  2  0  2  shell (purple-hinged scallop)  0  1  1  nephrite  0  1  1  soapstone  0  5  5  steatite  0  4  4  unknown  0  5  5  3  16  19  Total  191  APPENDIX X Artifacts classified as ‘plug’ labrets  Posterior/anterior surface of artifacts classified as 'plug' labrets  Superior/inferior surface of 'plug' labrets  192  APPENDIX Y Anomalous artifacts suggested to be labrets  Drilled concavity in place of lateral extension  193  Possible labret inlays  194  Possible labret 'preform’  195  APPENDIX Z Labrets in contemporary art created by artists interviewed in this research  Photograph of a mural designed by Russell Mather, depicting two clan houses, one with a labret (left) and one where the door itself to the house is a labret, right (Photograph taken by and used with permission of Jennifer Wolowic)  Photograph of a housefront designed by Russell Mather, depicting labrets in the two outer masks and the central figure (Photograph taken by and used with permission of Russell Mather)  196  Photograph of a mural designed by Russell Mather, depicting a salmon bearing a labret (Photograph taken by and used with permission of Jennifer Wolowic)  Frog bowl on labret, piece by Christian White held at the Spirit Wrestler Gallery (Photograph used with permission of Spirit Wrestler Gallery and Christian White)  197  

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