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Promoting the "classroom and playground of Europe": Swiss private school prospectuses and education-focused… Swann, Michelle 2007

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PROMOTING THE ‘CLASSROOM AND PLAYGROUND OF EUROPE’: SWISS PRIVATE SCHOOL PROSPECTUSES AND EDUCATION FOCUSED TOURISM GUIDES, 1890-1945  by MICHELLE SWANN B.A., The University of British Columbia, 1997 M.A., The University of British Columbia, 2000  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Educational Studies)  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November 2007 © Michelle Swann, 2007  Abstract  Since the late nineteenth century, Switzerland, a self-professed “playground” and “classroom” of the world, has successfully promoted itself as a desirable destination for international study and tourism. The historically entangled private schooling and tourism industries have steadily communicated idealised images of educational tourism in Switzerland via advertising. Concentrating on the period 1890 -1945 – when promotional ties between tourism organisations and private schools solidified – this thesis investigates the social construction of educational tourist place in two different types of promotion aimed at English-speaking markets: private international school prospectuses and education-focused tourism brochures. An analysis of early prospectuses from three long-standing private international schools and of educationfocused tourism guides written by municipal organisations, travel agencies, school boards and the Swiss government revealed highly visual, ideologically-charged textual representations of locations and markets simultaneously defined, idealised and commodified international education in Switzerland. Chapters provide close interpretation of documents and aim, through thick description, to understand specific place-making examples within a wider socio-historical context. Chapter One examines the earliest prospectuses of Le Rosey and Brillantmont, two of the world’s must exclusive Swiss schools (1890-1916). An examination of photo-essay style prospectuses reveals highly selective portrayals of “Château” architecture communicated capacity to deliver a “high-class” and gender appropriate Swiss finishing. Visual cues hallmarking literary and sporting preferences indicated texts catered to the gaze of social-climbing, Anglo-centric markets desirous a continental cosmopolitan education that was not overly “foreign.” Chapter Two analyses the social construction of towns in French-speaking Switzerland as attractive educational centres (1890-1914). It explores how guides promoting Geneva, Neuchâtel and Lausanne constructed an idealised study-abroad landscape through thematic testaments to the educative capacities of local human and natural landscapes. The remaining chapters explore interwar texts. Chapter Three examines a high-altitude institute’s use of the idealising skills of high-end tourism poster artists to manufacture a pleasant, schoollike image for the mountain sanatoria-like campus of Beau Soleil. Chapter Four investigates two series of education-focused tourism guidebooks which promoted education in Switzerland. An examination of a Swiss National Tourist Office series reveals discourses of nationhood racialised the Swiss as natural-born pedagogues and constructed Switzerland as a safe, moral destination populated by cooperative, multilingual and foreign student-friendly folk. An analysis of R. Perrin Travel Agency’s series explores guidebooks which openly classified education as a tourism commodity. The final chapter examines Le Rosey and Brillantmont’s interwar prospectuses within the context of complex, transnational schooling and school advertising practices. An analysis of images of school sports at winter holiday resorts suggests prospectuses expressed the sense of freedom which accompanies upper-class identity more so than any sense of gender-driven restriction.  ii  Table of Contents Abstract .....................................................................................................................ii Table of Contents .................................................................................................... iii List of Tables ............................................................................................................iv List of Figures............................................................................................................v Abbreviations .........................................................................................................viii INTRODUCTION. ....................................................................................................1 CHAPTER ONE. Picturing Pensionnats: The Earliest Prospectuses of Two Château Schools, 1890-1916....................................................................................36 1.1 Châteaux, Prestigious School Property................................................................37 1.2 Le Rosey..............................................................................................................42 1.3 Brillantmont ........................................................................................................59 CHAPTER TWO. Constructing Intellectual and Beautiful Civic Kingdoms: Guides Promoting Geneva, Lausanne and Neuchâtel as Educational Centres, 1890-1914. ................................................................................................................94 2.1 Heritage ..............................................................................................................96 2.2 Public Instruction.............................................................................................. 106 2.3 Rational Recreation........................................................................................... 120 CHAPTER THREE. Sun Cures and Serious Studies? The Interwar Advertising Campaign of a High Altitude School .................................................................... 143 3.1 Pre-Renovation Promotion ................................................................................ 144 3.2 Post-Renovation Promotion............................................................................... 158 CHAPTER FOUR. Promoting the Land of Education: Two Education-Focused Guidebook Series Selling Switzerland, Her Schools and Sports (1922-1942) ..... 188 4.1 Heritage ............................................................................................................ 189 4.2 Pathways of Education ...................................................................................... 206 4.3 The World Beyond the Classroom...................................................................... 219 CHAPTER FIVE. Elite School Spaces, Sports and Resorts: The Interwar Prospectuses of Le Rosey and Brillantmont in International Perspective .......... 237 5.1 Le Rosey............................................................................................................ 238 5.2 Brillantmont ...................................................................................................... 266 CONCLUSION...................................................................................................... 299 References for Tables ............................................................................................ 310 References for Figures .......................................................................................... 311 Bibliography .......................................................................................................... 316 Appendix A............................................................................................................ 359  iii  List of Tables Table 2.1 Table 2.2 Table 4.1 Table 5.1  Results of Genevese Moral and Intellectual Education (Harvey, Geneva Educational Centre, 1899)........................................103 Plan of Instruction in the Lake Geneva area around 1910 ....................109 Index of Promotional Pathways as promoted in R. Perrin (1927) and Swiss National Tourist Office (1930)............................................207 Number of Girl Pensionnats in Lausanne, 1856-1921. Rafael Salvador, “Les pensionnats de jeunes filles à Lausanne au tournant du siècle.” Mémoire de licence, University of Lausanne, 1989 ...................................................................................266  iv  List of Figures  Figure I.1 Figure I.2 Figure I.3 Figure 1.1 Figure 1.2 Figure 1.3 Figure 1.4 Figure 1.5 Figure 1.6 Figure 1.7 Figure 1.8 Figure 1.9 Figure 1.10 Figure 1.11 Figure 1.12 Figure 1.13 Figure 1.14 Figure 1.15 Figure 1.16 Figure 1.17 Figure 1.18 Figure 1.19 Figure 1.20 Figure 1.21 Figure 1.22 Figure 1.23 Figure 1.24 Figure 1.25 Figure 1.26 Figure 1.27 Figure 1.28 Figure 1.29 Figure 1.30 Figure 1.31 Figure 1.32 Figure 1.33 Figure 1.34  Switzerland of America (1922) .............................................................12 Map of Lake Geneva Region in the geographical context of Switzerland ...........................................................................................21 Le Rosey advertisement, The Times (1900) ...........................................22 Prangins Château, 1872.........................................................................41 Château du Rosey, [1890] .....................................................................42 Château du Rosey, 1912........................................................................43 Drawn portrait of Le Rosey “Façade du Sud,” 1890 (left) compared to Photograph, 1900 (right) ...................................................44 Paid advertisement for Le Rosey...........................................................45 Drawing (left) and photograph of the Château du Rosey (right).............46 Château du Rosey 1667.........................................................................47 Coat of Arms on the earliest Le Rosey prospectus (1890)......................49 Close up drawing of the Le Rosey Eagle (left) and German flag 1870 (right).......................................................................50 The Rajkumar College coat of arms (India, 1882) .................................51 Madame Henri Carnal ...........................................................................52 Football field at Le Rosey .....................................................................54 Tennis courts at Le Rosey .....................................................................55 The Rosey Rowing Club (left) and The San Diego Rowing Club in 1912 (right) .........................................56 Various sports at Le Rosey and chalets of Le Rosey..............................57 Cover of Brillantmont prospectus (1898)...............................................59 Château Brillantmont (left) and Villa and Château Brillantmont (right) .................................................................61 Château Brillantmont, 1902...................................................................62 Château Brillantmont, Allée des Roses amd Allée des Hêtres, 1902 ......63 Panorama from Brillantmont .................................................................64 Paul Heubi in his office at Brillantmont.................................................65 Brillantmont Porche, 1898 ....................................................................72 Brillantmont Escalier et Vestibule d'Entrée ...........................................73 Brillantmont Vestibule, 1911 ................................................................74 Brillantmont Ecole Ménagerie, Le Hall, 1911 .......................................75 Brillantmont Vestibule, 1902 ................................................................76 Brillantmont Salon, 1911 ......................................................................77 Brillantmont Salle d’Etudes ..................................................................80 Brillantmont Salon de Musique .............................................................81 Dining room at Brillantmont, [1911] .....................................................82 Brillantmont Kitchen, 1911 ...................................................................84 Brillantmont Domestic economy school, [1902]....................................85 Brillantmont Kitchen, stock room, ironing, 1911...................................88 Sports at Brillantmont ...........................................................................90 v  Figure 1.35 Summer mountain sojourn on Les Marécottes, 1902 .............................91 Figure 1.36 “Tourists in the mountains” painted by Johann Conrad Zeller (1807-1856) about 1850..............................................................92 Figure 2.1 Figure 2.2  Skiing in 1911.....................................................................................129 Barks of the Lake Geneva in 1905.......................................................131  Figure 3.1 Figure 3.2 Figure 3.3 Figure 3.4 Figure 3.5 Figure 3.6  Advertisement for Beau Soleil, 1927 ...................................................145 Cover, Beau Soleil Prospectus 1927....................................................147 Photographs depicting the interior of Beau Soleil, 1927 ......................148 Rollier’s Heliotherapy, Beau Soleil, 1927............................................150 Scenes of Heliotherapy at Beau Soleil .................................................152 Students at Ecole au Soleil studying in winter (left); students at Beau Soleil (1925) studying Outdoors in summer (right).....................153 Advertisement for Alpine Sun Lamp in E. A. Jones around 1930 ........156 World Championships in Chamonix (left) and a winter scene of the Vosges and the Alsace (right) by Roger Broders............................160 View of Villars from Beau Soleil ........................................................161 Beau Soleil by Roger Broders in Beau Soleil prospectus .....................163 Beau Soleil before (above) and after renovations (below)....................168 Children at Beau Soleil undergoing curative therapy ...........................169 Boy on skis at Beau Soleil...................................................................170 “Coupe Vertical Montrant La Disposition Intérieure de Beau Soleil” ..171 Detail from “Coupe Vertical Montrant La Disposition Intérieure de Beau Soleil”........................................................................................173 Detail from “Coupe Vertical Montrant La Disposition Intérieure de Beau Soleil”........................................................................................174 Detail from “Coupe Vertical Montrant La Disposition Intérieure de Beau Soleil”........................................................................................174 Detail from “Coupe Vertical Montrant La Disposition Intérieure de Beau Soleil”........................................................................................175 Ultra-violet room at Beau Soleil (left) and Detail from “Coupe Vertical Montrant La Disposition Intérieure de Beau Soleil” (right) ....177 Ice Hockey and Tennis at Beau Soleil .................................................178 Playing at the water at Beau Soleil ......................................................179 Beau Soleil prospectus cover, Beau Soleil, 1935 .................................181 Sunshine in the classrooms at Beau Soleil ...........................................185 Open-air classes at Beau Soleil............................................................185  Figure 3.7 Figure 3.8 Figure 3.9 Figure 3.10 Figure 3.11 Figure 3.12 Figure 3.13 Figure 3.14 Figure 3.15 Figure 3.16 Figure 3.17 Figure 3.18 Figure 3.19 Figure 3.20 Figure 3.21 Figure 3.22 Figure 3.23 Figure 3.24 Figure 4.1 Figure 4.2 Figure 4.3 Figure 4.4  Studious Girl on the cover page of Schools and Sports in Switzerland, 1942................................................................................225 “Alpine Lake in the Engadine” accompanied the “Importance and Scope of the Private Schools of Switzerland,” 1942 ............................228 Ski-jumping: A part of Swiss education, 1942.....................................230 Water sports: Regatta at Lucerne, Boat Race and College Jaccard Lausanne, and Bathing at Montreux,” 1925-1930................................234  vi  Figure 5.1 Figure 5.2 Figure 5.3 Figure 5.4 Figure 5.5 Figure 5.6 Figure 5.7 Figure 5.8 Figure 5.9 Figure 5.10 Figure 5.11 Figure 5.12 Figure 5.13 Figure 5.14 Figure 5.15 Figure 5.16 Figure 5.17 Figure 5.18 Figure 5.19 Figure 5.20 Figure 5.21 Figure 5.22 Figure 5.23  Tourism poster by Roger Broders of the Golden Pass or Golden Mountain Railway...............................................................................240 Chalet Le Rosey, 1920 ........................................................................243 Prospectus photograph of the winning Le Rosey ice hockey team at Gstaad 1920 ....................................................................................247 Children’s Turnen or German gymnastics for children ........................248 Royal Hotel & Winter Palace in Gstaad during the swinging twenties...............................................................................................250 Ski jumping in the winter resort Gstaad, 1928 and 1925......................251 An example of a map included in a Le Rosey prospectus, 1932...........253 Aerial view of Le Rosey, 1932 ............................................................254 Le Rosey's chalets in Gstaad, 1932......................................................255 Skiing in Gstaad in the 1920's .............................................................258 Le Rosey boys rowing on Lake Geneva...............................................258 Brillantmont's hall and salon in 1924 (left) and 1936 (right) ................269 Example of one of the most modern kitchens in a public school, 1930........................................................................................278 Juxtaposition of Brillantmont's electric kitchen images of 1924 (top) and 1936 (bottom)...............................................................................279 Un match de Hockey (top) and Field Hockey (bottom)........................283 En course de montagne, Brillantmont, 1924 ........................................286 Two Brillantmont girls on skis ............................................................287 Winter sports. “John Bull in Switzerland,” 1928 .................................288 “The Flappers Rest Cure after Politics,” 1923 .....................................289 Brillantmont girls in a ski race.............................................................290 Hotel Waldhaus at Sils Maria, next to St. Moritz, Engadine, where Brillantmont sojourned in winter, 1932 ...............................................293 “Women who live for the camera,” 1928.............................................294 Brillantmont girls riding horses (top and middle); Brillantmont girl playing golf (bottom left) 1936 juxtaposed with golfing advertisement [1935] (bottom right) ....................................................295  Figure A 1 Cover by Edouard Jeanmaire, Geneva Educational Centre, 1899.........360 Figure A.2 Sample cover page, Geneva: An Educational Centre, 1905..................361 Figure A.3 Advertisement for the Free Inquiry Office, Eight Days at Geneva, 1906 ......................................................................................362  vii  Abbreviations APSFS AIG Ecolint EDICS PSSPA SDL SFR SHA SPA  STO  Association of Private Schools in French Switzerland (Association des Directeurs d'Instituts de la Suisse Romande, ADISR) Association for the Interest of Geneva (Association des Intérêts de Genève) International School of Geneva/ Ecole Internationale de Genève Education Development and Investment Company of Switzerland Propaganda Society of the Swiss Private Schools' Association (Propagandagesellschaft AG) Society for the Development of Lausanne Swiss Federal Railways Swiss Hotel Association Swiss Private Schools' Association (Association Suisse de l'Enseignement Privé/ Verband Schweizerischer Erziehungsinstitute und Privatschulen/ Association of Swiss Educational Institutes and Private Schools, formerly Association des Directeurs des Ecoles Privées/ Verband Schweizerischer Institutsvorsteher/ Swiss Association of Principals of Private Schools) Swiss National Tourist Office  viii  INTRODUCTION.  In 1941, Dr. Karl E. Lusser (1898-1951), Headmaster of Rosenberg Boys’ Institute (St Gall), member of the Swiss Private Schools Association (SPA)1, and author of the National Tourism Office’s Switzerland and Her Schools guidebook series opened the Swiss Tourism Industry Annual Congress with a speech exploring the relationship between education and tourism in Switzerland. The speech began on an ironic note: Sometimes one still hears the question what does education have to do with hotelerie, transportation and other branches of tourism? … despite a long-standing entangled education and tourism economy there remains confusion about this relationship among some of the general public.2 Mincing few words, he speculated that this type of “naïve” question would continually arise until the lingering conspiracy of silence, the all too shaming derisive public mentality suppressing conversation about the relationship between education and tourism one of Switzerland’s most interesting and important socio-economic intersections was finally laid to rest.3 Lusser suggested that despite being symbolically elevated in sanctimonious supremacy and falsely perceived as wholly above the capitalist economy Swiss education was very much entangled in Switzerland’s tourism economy.4 After detailing the latest econometric method5 for calculating educational tourism earnings the speech drew attention the intangible qualities of Switzerland’s invisible exports and the importance of promotion in communicating these intangible qualities as desirable to target markets. He suggested that although one typically calculates tourism profits on the basis of concrete consumptive practices (thinking, for example, of sausages, train tickets, tuition fees, hotel rooms, school books, stamps, and 1  The Swiss Private Schools’ Association (SPA) was founded in 1909 as the Swiss Association of Principals of Private Schools; the name changed during the 1930s. 2 K. E. Lusser, Das Private Unterrichts- und Erziehungswesen der Schweiz (Olten: Otto Walter, 1941). Unless otherwise noted all translations are my own. 3 Ibid. Lusser suggested this condition was a source of pain for private school directors who, not being within the public system were wrongly viewed as “tainted” because of their direct relationship to the economy. 4 Ibid. 5 A method the Federal Bureau of Statistics considered.  1  telephone calls) the fulcrum of the industry turns around things we cannot so easily calculate. Lusser asserted that the Swiss needed to think more about how ideational aspects of educational tourism products were communicated as ‘desirable’ to prospective customers.6 Lusser also encouraged his audience to consider the fact that Switzerland’s international reputation as classroom and playground of the world did not magically fly to distant parts of the globe on its own accord. He proposed this reputation was the result of both conscious and unconscious messengers who delivered images of Switzerland to the world in the form of idealized clichés, narratives and tales of personal experience. Thus, not only was the reputation spread through guides, posters and newspaper advertisements designed by propaganda agencies but also by unwitting tourists including foreign children who had spent time at Swiss schools.7 With these observations Lusser returned to his opening statement, suggesting the tourism and private schooling industries in particular had successfully delivered the message that Switzerland was the land of good education and mountains to the world but in some respects had forgotten to bring this message home. He concluded arguing that if all members of the Swiss public were to see there was nothing untoward, cheapening or superficial in the traffic of educational tourists, the industry needed to direct its publicity efforts at its own people. One need not agree with the views expressed in Lusser’s speech to recognise the intersection of education and tourism in Switzerland as an important but unexplored subject for the history of education and for the history of tourism.8 While several studies have addressed historical relationships between education and travel, so far there has been very little discussion surrounding historical relationships between education and modern tourism industries.9 Furthermore, little has been written about the history of advertising efforts at this intersection. This thesis is concerned with 6  K. E. Lusser, Das Private Unterrichts- und Erziehungswesen der Schweiz (Olten: Otto Walter, 1941). Ibid. 8 It is necessary here to clarify exactly what the term propaganda means in the context in which it was used. The word implied effective or strong advertising. Any sinister connotations associated with the term are not intended to be communicated here. 9 Historical studies at the intersection of education and travel in Switzerland touch upon subjects such as medieval monastic and inter-university travel, late eighteenth century scientific expeditions and the Grand Tour. 7  2  destination images produced by schools and tourism organisations which communicated Swiss education as desirable to target markets between 1890-1945. It is concerned with what Lusser characterised as the clichéd images that helped build Switzerland’s reputation as “classroom and playground of the world”. In recent years historians in both fields have, in their separate veins, questioned the ‘dating’ of social scientists’ observations regarding the “late-capitalist” encroachment of promotional culture into the world of education and human leisure respectively. Educational historians have noted the issue of educational promotion public or private - is not new.10 Tourism historians have discussed modern advertising campaigns that predate World War I. The Swiss educational tourism entanglement offers an ideal opportunity to connect this literature and examine promotional cultures of education and tourism before the ‘dawn of late capitalism’.11 Lusser’s speech points to an early episode of what educational historian Clyde Chitty and others have characterised as the trend towards the subordination of education to the needs of economy – the marketisation and commercialisation of education.12 The educationaltourism entanglement also points to what tourism historian Dean MacCannell and others have discussed as the subordination of leisure to the needs of economy - the marketisation and commercialising of human travel.13 The suggested legacy of conjoined propagandising raises new questions relevant to these capitalist developments. Who was, for example involved in advertising study abroad in Switzerland? When did this advertising begin? What means and methods were instrumental in 10  Alison Prentice, The School Promoters: Education and Social Class in Mid-Nineteenth Century Upper Canada (Toronto: University of Toronto, 1977). 11 Late capitalism is associated with post-industrial society in the second half of the 20th century. Fredric Jameson, a socio-cultural critic, usefully described late capitalism from a historical perspective. The term is often used in Marxian literary criticism to refer to the domination of contemporary culture through pervasive powers including the mediatisation of culture, internationalisation of business, or Americanisation. For an in-depth discussion of late capitalism as a socio-historical phenomenon, see Fredric Jameson, Postmodernism or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism (Durham: Duke University, 1991). 12 C. Chitty, “Privatisation and Marketisation,” Oxford Review of Education 23 (1997): 45-62. See also, G. McCulloch, “Forty Years On: Presidential Address to the Journal of the History of Education Society, London, 4 November 2006” History of Education 36 no. 1 (2007), 1-15. 13 See D. MacCannell, The Tourist: A Theory of the Leisure Class (Berkeley: University of California Press, [1976] 1999); J. Urry, The Tourist Gaze: Leisure and Travel in Contemporary Societies (London: Sage, 1990); John Bensom, The Rise of Consumer Society in Britain, 1880-1980 (London: Longman, 1994).  3  attracting international students? In what formats did promotion occur? When did private schooling and tourism first collaborate in advertising? Was public education involved and if so, how? Where did promotional materials direct visiting students – to private boarding schools? universities? public schools? other places? How costly were these campaigns? To what degree was the advertising industry itself involved? What images were used to represent and sell Swiss education? How were they delivered, in print? by photograph? in film? A comprehensive assessment of the history of Swiss educational-tourism promotion addressing these and other questions would involve a wide sample of documents, a detailed investigation of, among other things, the people, business enterprises, agencies and organisations involved, the changing definitions of the study abroad and tourism industries, target market demographics, patterns and developments in advertising practices, and regional or language-based differences in promotional strategies. In terms of content alone, it would require an exploration of the changing discourses of schooling, Switzerland, tourism, childhood, health, consumption, leisure, politics, gender, class, ethnicity and so on. Such tasks are beyond the scope of this dissertation. As an alternative, concentrating on the period from 1890-1945 when promotional ties between tourism organisations and private schools solidified, the thesis investigates the social construction of educational tourist place in two different types of promotion: private international school prospectuses produced by three longstanding members of the Swiss Private Schools Association as well as educationfocused tourism brochures produced by civic, regional and national tourism organisations. The aim of the thesis is to critically examine ideological representations of desirable educational and tourism places in a carefully chosen sample of promotional documents produced by different players at various junctures in the entanglement of education and tourism in Swiss history. School prospectuses and education-focused guides prove interesting sources for an educational historiography “alert” to the potential of working with a wider range of sources including visual ones, open to new theories and methods, sensitive to issues of  4  internationalisation and willing to adopt an interdisciplinary perspective.14 Cultural, linguistic and spatial turns in the social sciences and humanities have influenced both educational and tourism historiography in their separate domains. Studies from both fields, drawing on a range of approaches and methods of enquiry have identified promotional texts as rich sources for understanding the textual articulation of idealised educational and tourism landscapes. Historians and contemporary theorists alike have asserted the argument that promotional images are not a reflection but an extension of products.15 A small but growing body of educational and tourism literature has analysed the “imagineering” or social construction of place in advertising and raised important questions of how textual representations define, idealise and commodify physical and human geography. In recent years historians of education have analysed ideological beliefs in the “promotional culture” different types of schools created. For example, Joyce Goodman examined advertisements in the Headmistresses Association of England’s “Girls’ School Yearbook” (1906-1995).16 Her study draws attention to the key role location and school buildings played in promotional representations of English girls’ school place. Goodman maintains the advertisements were structured through social codes and conventions which encouraged certain “readings” of schools. Her research  14  For a discussion of the spatial and visual turns in the history of education, see G. McCulloch and Roy Lowe, “Introduction: Centre and Periphery-Networks, Space and Geography in the History of Education,” History of Education 32, no. 5 (2003): 457-459. There has been considerable debate about the relevance of theory and methods for the history of education. For a discussion of these issues, see especially Paedagogica Historica XXXII (2)1996, Paedagogica Historica XXXV (2) 1999; J. Herbst, “The History of Education: State of the Art at the Turn of the Century,” Paedagogica Historica 35/3 (1999): 737-747. 15 Following Victor Middleton this thesis assumes that from the standpoint of a potential customer considering any form of tourist visit, the ‘product’ consists of tangible and intangible components. Purchase of educational tourism service product does not confer ownership, but rather permits access and use at a specified time in a specified place. Purchase can, however, loosely be seen as asset accruement in the sense of cultural capital. The thesis assumes that while production and consumption are inseparable in so much as the performance of the service requires the active participation of both producer and consumer of the product, as symbolic capital, they are separable. As Lusser suggests in his speech, the characteristic of intangibility is critical to tourism and study abroad service products for it is at this level qualitative distinctions are encoded into the product image in order to attract the consumer. The qualitative distinctions are, of course, historically contingent. Victor Middleton, Marketing in Travel and Tourism (London: Butterworth, 1988), 78. 16 See Joyce Goodman, “A Cloistered Ethos? Landscapes of Learning and English Secondary Schools for Girls: An Historical Perspective,” Paedagogica Historica vol. 41, 4-5 (2005): 589-603.  5  demonstrates texts relied upon ideologically charged socio-spatial clichés to communicate classed and gendered messages about the quality of education schools provided. Deborah Olsen’s in-depth study of promotional literature created by some of the American Ivy League women’s colleges in the mid-to-late 1940s proves another compelling example. Olsen found administrators “well versed in the field of public relations” staged deliberate campaigns to steer fragile school identities away from discursive associations with “radical feminism, lesbianism or careerism.”17 Along a different vein, John Synott and Colin Symes’ investigation of the “symbolic architecture of education” has pointed to the historical importance of heritage iconography in Australian private school advertisements during the late nineteenth and twentieth century alike.18 And finally critical discourse analyst Norman Fairclough’s study of United Kingdom University prospectuses (1960-2001) demonstrates textual formats created in private sphere marketing sectors increasingly found their way into prospectuses following the 1960s. His study linked genre changes to the marketisation of public discourse in Britain and the development of post World War II “promotional culture.”19 Historical studies of tourism promotion are more numerous but have followed similar lines. Several studies of advertorial guidebooks have revealed these texts as important mediating links between tourist and destination. Surveys of place representation in documents affirm guides are not mimetic reflections of locale but rather selective, partial, evaluative, ideologically-laden constructions of place. Tourism historian John Walton has, for example suggested tourism guidebooks (promotional or otherwise) illuminate and modify two aspects of Benedict Anderson’s much quoted work Imagined Communities in that they reflect the growth of print capitalism and provide a glimpse of something about the “imagined communities” on both the supply  17  Deborah M. Olsen, “Remaking the Image: Promotional Literature of Mount Holyoke, Smith, and Wellesley Colleges in the Mid-to-late 1940s,” History of Education Quarterly 40 (2000): 418-459, 419 ff. 18 John Synott and Colin Symes, “The Genealogy of the School: An Iconography of Badges and Mottos”, Journal of Sociology of Education 16, no. 2 (1995): 139-152. 19 Norman Fairclough, “Critical Discourse Analysis and the Marketisation of Public Discourse: the Universities,” Discourse and Society 4, (1993): 133-168, 14.  6  and demand side of tourism practices.20 John Urry’s argument that advertising played an important historical role in structuring the tourist gaze, producing geographic discourses and creating ways of seeing destinations draws attention to the significance of studying changes in guidebook content over time.21 John MacKenzie considered the “work” tourism texts performed in legitimating British cultural imperialism in the 19th and 20th centuries. His exploration of imperial guides accentuates the need to examine representations in close relation to political, economic, and cultural practices as well as ideological beliefs.22 Studies of French, German and American guidebooks highlight the taxonomic function of these types of texts which many argue produce a view of what ought to be seen away from home that is classified, organised and pre-determined.23 Numerous recent historical studies have demonstrated that tourism information provides ideological orientation as it marks tourist sites and attractions, and frames colonial and other cultures and societies through narratives of history, ethnology and political structure.24 Thus, informed by disciplines including sociology, cultural studies and literary studies, both educational and tourism historians have identified the importance of investigating promotional representations of educational and tourism place as mediated, ideological and culturally determined ways of seeing. However, the research to date has tended to focus on either the social construction of educational place or of 20  J. Walton, “‘Introduction” in Histories of Tourism: Representation, Identity and Conflict, ed. J. Walton (Toronto: Channel View, 2005): 33-54, 40. See also Anderson, B. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of National (London: Verso, 1991). 21 John Urry, The Tourist Gaze: Leisure and Travel in Contemporary Societies (London: Sage, 1990). 22 J. MacKenzie, “Empires of Travel: British Guidebooks and Cultural Imperialism in the 19th and 20th Centuries,” in Histories of Tourism: Representation, Identity and Conflict, ed. J. Walton (Toronto: Channel View, 2005): 19-38, 20. 23 Ibid. See also, Rudy Koshar, “‘What Ought to be Seen’: Tourists’ Guidebooks and National Identities in Modern Germany and Europe,” Journey of Contemporary History 33, no. 3 (1998): 323-340. 24 Tourist advertising practices reflect the sights and signs of tourism as part of a complex historical picture of interwoven social and cultural relations, including the intersection of gender and colonial power. See Cara Aitchison, “Theorising Other Discourses of Tourism, Gender and Culture,” Tourist Studies 1, no. 2 (2001): 133-147. For a discussion of identity, see Marjorie Morgan, National Identities and Travel in Victorian Britain (New York: Palgrave, 2001); Kristen Semmens, “‘Travel in Merry Germany’: Tourism in the Third Reich,” in Histories of Tourism: Representation, Identity and Conflict, ed. J. Walton (Toronto: Channel View, 2005), 145-158; Furlough, E, “‘Une Leçon des Choses’: Tourism, Empire, and the Nation in Interwar France,” French Historical Studies 25, no. 3 (2002): 441473; A. Sillitoe, The Blind Leading the Blind: A Century of Guidebook Travel 1815-1911 (London: MacMillan, 1995). For the relevance of representations of ethnicity in tourist advertising, see “Ethnicity as Spectacle,” in Michael Dawson, Selling British Columbia: Tourism and Consumer Culture, 18901970 (Vancouver: UBC Press, 2004): 69-78.  7  tourism space. The case of Swiss literature is similar. A few pioneering studies by educational and tourism historians respectively have made important progress on each end of the educational-tourist entanglement, yet, to date these research avenues have not been linked together and addressed in one study. Rafael Salvador’s Mémoire de licence, “Les pensionnats de jeunes filles à Lausanne au tournant du siècle” is the only history focused squarely upon the topic of Swiss international private school promotion.25 Although limited to the girls’ finishing school industry in Lausanne (1890-1914), the investigation outlines some of the earliest connections between education, tourism and promotion.26 Salvador contends that English-language tourism guidebooks constituted the primary means of promotion for the international private schooling industry.27 While his research consists primarily of a content analysis of these advertisements, his chapters on the historical background of private education make a start towards understanding the main characteristics of the industry. He proposes that private schools differed in numerous ways, the most important of which was their students’ nationality. He argues private schools were thus divisible into two main types: day schools for the Swiss and boarding schools for foreigners.28 His single most striking observation is that private boarding schools for foreign students were not “counted” or “governed” as schools but rather operated as licensed businesses within the tourism economy. Officially under the control of police departments controlling “strangers” and enumerated by federal statistics as tourism businesses, private boarding schools for foreigners in Lausanne outnumbered private schools for local children and youth.29  25  Rafael Salvador, “Les pensionnats de jeunes filles à Lausanne au tournant du siècle”, Mémoire de licence (Lausanne: Faculté des Lettres, University of Lausanne, 1989). 26 Salvador located his research in Lausanne because, in his words, this town is the “mythical, historical and statistical heart of the Swiss international boarding schooling industry.” He suggests that of all the towns in Switzerland Lausanne likely supported the biggest business of boarding schools around the turn of the century. 27 His search of French newspapers, magazines and tourism guides revealed no advertisements. 28 He suggests statistics do not support this black and white vision as some crossover did exist however, it was minimal. He noted there were some foreigners attending the religious and pedagogical reform movement schools. 29 The Swiss, unlike the British, do not have a strong tradition of boarding.  8  Salvador’s content analysis forged a rough picture of the girls’ school “product” as advertised. In his view, five dominant features stood out.30 First, pensionnats promoted a type of education which corresponded with hegemonic ideologies of femininity. Second, most schools listed traditional accomplishment subjects. Third, schools advertised themselves on a class and ethnicity basis as “high class schools for the daughters of English gentlemen.”31 Fourth, programs emphasised the size, look and physical setting of their surroundings. Finally, the more expensive schools consistently pointed to references being available upon request. Salvador’s investigation found no correlation between the English target markets indicated in the advertisements and school demographics. Police statistics identified pensionnats32 served a mixed international clientele yet, pensionnats promoted themselves as ‘for the English’. The study offered no definite explanation for this discrepancy but speculated the inconsistency was likely due to English dominance in the tourism industry. One main drawback of Salvador’s investigation is its exclusive focus on Lausanne. The findings may have been more convincing had the analysis extended to include other towns in the country’s French-speaking region; statistics indicate Geneva and Neuchâtel were also key centres for the boarding school industry.33 Further, another weakness arises in the method of school classification. While the division between “schools for the Swiss” and “schools for foreigners” was relevant, it is ultimately too simplistic a view.34 A further problem is that Salvador’s interpretation 30  It is interesting for this thesis that classified advertisements in guides communicated basic information about schools and directed prospective clients to tourism offices, libraries and bookstores to find prospectuses. 31 Rafael Salvador, “Les pensionnats de jeunes filles à Lausanne au tournant du siècle”, Mémoire de licence (Lausanne: Faculté des Lettres, University of Lausanne, 1989). 32 Pensionnat is the French word for residential boarding school. 33 According to a list of private schools Rudolf Hotz compiled in 1904, Lausanne, Geneva and Neuchâtel housed the great majority of boarding schools for foreigners in Switzerland at that time. Of these towns, Lausanne was the leader. See Rudolf Hotz, Das Schweizerische Unterrichtswesen. Ein Ueberblick ueber die bedeutenden oeffentlichen und privaten Unterrichts- und Erziehungsanstalten der Schweiz [Swiss Schooling. An Overview of the more significant public and private schools and educational institutes in Switzerland] (Basel: Universitaetsdruckerei Reinhardt, 1904). For the history of private schools in Geneva in the 19th century, see Hofstetter, Le Drapeau dans le Cartable: Histoire des Ecoles Privées à Genève au 19e Siècle (Carouge-Genève: Editions Zoé, 1994). For a brief description of the history of private schools in Switzerland, see Rita Hofstetter and Bruno Santini-Amgarten, “Écoles privées,” Dictionnaire historique de la Suisse, 11 November 2005, http://hls-dhsdss.ch/textes/f/F48088.php (accessed May 5, 2007). 34 There were further relevant aspects in the taxonomy of schooling including type of school, age of students, religious and pedagogical leanings and so forth.  9  does not cross disciplinary boundaries. Given pensionnats were officially considered part of the tourism industry this oversight marks a substantial drawback. Many of the study’s limitations reflect the difficulties of working on an uncharted historical topic. Salvador’s investigation, for example predated the first systematic examination of Swiss tourism which may well explain why he did not address tourism literature. Laurent Tissot’s Naissance d’une Industrie Touristique. Les Anglais et la Suisse au XIXe siècle - the most comprehensive history of Swiss tourism to date - provides important background for understanding the development of education-focused tourism guide promotion.35 Tissot demonstrates the importance of English-language tourism guides to the development of Swiss tourism – an industry English tourists fuelled from its beginnings in the first half of the nineteenth century.36 While Tissot suggests the rapid growth of Swiss tourism in the late nineteenth century was the result of an elite English desire for the “romantic Alps, the spectacular Alps, the sporty Alps and the therapeutic Alps” his study demonstrates that tourism guidebooks were key textual components of tourism infrastructure which integrated Switzerland into the travel market.37 Guidebooks – both “promotional” and “critical” – communicated important 35  L. Tissot, Naissance d’une Industrie Touristique. Les Anglais et la Suisse au XIXe siècle (Lausanne: Editions Payot, 2000). For a discussion in English, see L. Tissot, “How did the British Conquer Switzerland?” Journal of Transport History 16 no. 1 (1995): 21-52. 36 The English are credited with inventing tourism in the modern sense of the word. Switzerland was a favoured continental destination for the British. The class make-up of the British market for Swiss tourism changed over time. British travellers in the first half of the nineteenth century were typically aristocratic. In the ensuing fifty years the educated bourgeoisie, the higher echelons of the British military, leaders in the financial industry or those wealthy individuals generically characterised as having “new money” followed the example of the aristocracy and travelled abroad. Towards the end of the century, the nobility constituted only a small percentage of tourists: the educated, affluent uppermiddle classes far out numbered the older landed classes. For further analysis of Britain’s pivotal role in the development of tourism, see B. Korte, “Britain and the Making of Modern Tourism: An Interdisciplinary Approach” in H. Berghoff, B. Korte and R. Schneider, The Making of Modern Tourism: The Cultural History of the British Experience, 1600-2000 (London: Palgrave MacMillan, 2002). Critics suggested Switzerland had become a recreational extension of the British Empire. The rapidity of the British influx was discussed across Europe and characterised by many, the Swiss included, as a disturbing development. For some, “alpinism” was an unsettling sign of the shallowness of modernity or a new era of recreational freedom. For a critical view, see in particular, G. Simmel, “The Alpine Journey” in Theory, Culture & Society (Sage: London, Newbury Park and New Delhi), Vol. 8 (1991), 95-98. 37 Tissot points out growth was also linked to other travel motivations including cultural education and schooling. Tourism guidebooks that travel agencies produced played a role. Tissot draws attention to the role British tourism operators performed in fostering Swiss tourism and notes Thomas Cook (18081892) – the “father of mass tourism” – was a key figure. See for example, T. Cook, Cook’s Tourist’s  10  information about transportation, accommodation, and entertainment but also mapped, imagined and, in part constituted “a product” for British consumption. Tissot’s investigation revealed that during the nineteenth century, between 500 000 and 700 000 English language guidebooks were printed and circulated, the majority produced within the final third of the century.38 First generation tourism guides (1780-1830) resembled travel diaries that captured the author’s personal feelings, opinions and experiences.39 Second generation texts (1830-1860) focused on pragmatic details, such as routes, itineraries and train schedules and laboured to use unmediated or “objective” language. Third generation guides (1860-1914) continued this basic format but also branched out in two important dimensions. On one hand, special interest tourism brochures covering special interest activities emerged in this third generation. These texts devoted to, for example alpinism, medical tourism, cycling or winter sports occasionally focused on education. On the other hand, after the 1880s, competitive civic boosterism among towns vying for tourism dollars resulted in the production of localised special interest guides. Some of those advocating tourism in Geneva, Lausanne and Neuchâtel promoted towns as “educational tourist centres.” Tissot’s study identifies the existence of education-focused promotional tourism guides but neither investigates them nor discusses the “education end” of tourism development at any depth. His research would have been even more useful here had it included additional clues about the nature of education-focused tourism guides. While his history explains much about the role guides played in the discursive Handbook for Switzerland (London: [s.n.], 1876. See also, P. Brenden, Thomas Cook: 150 Years of Popular Tourism (London: Secker and Warburg, 1991). Other less well known travel agencies were also influential. Tissot mentions, for example, Henry Lunn whose travel agency organised trips to Switzerland for educational purposes. Lunn’s travel agency targeted members of liberal professions, high functionaries, university professionals, professors, and ecclesiastics interested in mental and physical activities while on holiday. 38 Based on information from Tissot’s study of 73 titles (416 editions) produced between 1780 and 1914. Given the possibility of multiple readers the reach was likely greater than the number of guides produced. A modest estimation of British readers between 1820 and 1900 is four million. As a comparison, the population of Britain encompassed 8.3 million in 1801, 16.9 million in 1850 and 30.1 million in 1901. See L. Tissot, Naissance d’une Industrie Touristique. Les Anglais et la Suisse au XIXe siècle (Lausanne: Editions Payot, 2000), 18-22. 39 When practical information was included, authors evaluated it according to their taste and consideration. The first generation of guides directly reflected the late eighteenth century romantic interest in Switzerland and its Alps.  11  development of Switzerland’s international fame as the playground of Europe, it does little to address the manner in which brochures fostered its reputation as “the playground and classroom of Europe.”40  Fig. I.1: Regions as far away as Oregon, Washington and British Columbia claimed to be “the Switzerland of America.” This Pacific Northwest Tourist Association advertisement (1922) asserted “[t]ake advantage of special reduced fares to the Switzerland of America – a land of enchantment, of opportunity, of family happiness and contentment.”  Unfortunately there is even less written that connects education and tourism promotion during the interwar period. No studies discuss the promotion of private 40  The idea of Switzerland as a classroom was expressed as early as 1904 in Swiss guides. For example, MacMillan’s, Guide to Switzerland (1904) remarked “[t]ruly, Switzerland is the playground of Europe. But a playground seems to suggest a school. Switzerland can claim to be in many senses the school of Europe as well as its playground. Certainly, no other country with so small a population sees such a large population of tourists visit every year. No other county has made catering for and amusing its visitors into a separate industry which has been dignified by a special name as the Swiss have done in the ‘Touristenindustrie [Industrie des Touristes].’” See, MacMillan, Guide to Switzerland (1904), 1.  12  education. One study points to the development of education-focused tourism advertising between the wars. Jean-Charles Giroud and Michel Schlup’s investigation Paradis à Vendre: Un Siècle d’Affiches Touristiques Suisses examined the history of the Swiss National Tourist Office’s (STO) promotional campaigns (1890-2000).41 Their analysis, mostly preoccupied with the interwar period characterized educationfocused campaigns between the wars as one part of a larger marketing strategy designed to counter the new wave of international tourism industry competition that Switzerland faced following World War I (see fig. I.1).42 The STO, aware the country had become a model duplicated around the world turned to the power of modern, American advertising techniques and especially to the strategy of product differentiation. The creative re-packaging of the “tourism product” resulted in new tourism lines which included “winter,” “spring,” “health” and “sports”.43 Giroud and Schlup maintain each new line was intended to create distinctive stereotypical images or clichés about Switzerland and Swiss identity. Unfortunately, the study does not address the “education line” at any length. Salvador, Tissot, and Giroud and Schlup’s analyses introduce important questions about the collaboration between private education and tourism in promotion. Their research suggests that when investigating this complex historical intersection it is critical to ask “who was promoting what, to whom and for what purpose?” While  41  Jean-Charles Giroud and Michel Schlup, eds. Paradis á vendre: Un siècle d’affiches touristiques suisses (Geneva: Cramer, 2005). The history of the Swiss tourist office began in 1893 when the Syndicat des Intérêts de la Suisse Romande et du Jura-Simplon opened the first Swiss Tourist Office in London. However, the Swiss Federal Railways (SFR) operated the first central, federally funded promotional tourism agency with offices in London (1902). In 1908, the SFR together with the Swiss Hotel Association opened an office in New York on Fifth Avenue. Education was part of early classified and poster advertising campaigns which referred to a “Switzerland replete with health, pleasure and education”. See “Display Ad.,” Washington Post, January 26, 1908. The SFR also published a “special” booklet on Swiss education in 1911. In the same year Swiss Parliament mandated the creation of a central office and in 1917 the Swiss National Tourism Office became a federally funded organisation under direct control of Parliament. It was not until 1939 that the Swiss National Tourism Office became a public corporation (a federal public body). Newspaper advertisements referred to Geneva as an intellectual and beautiful city and Lausanne as a centre of education starting in the 1920s. See Display Ad, New York Times, April 1, 1923. 42 For a discussion of the new era of North American tourism during the interwar period, see M. Dawson, “From the Investment to the Expenditure Imperative: Regional Cooperation and the Lessons of Modern Advertising” in Selling British Columbia: Tourism and Consumer Culture, 1890-1970 (Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2004), 43-79. 43 They concluded that the period between 1920 and 1940 witnessed the highest levels of image production and dissemination of Switzerland in its history.  13  secondary sources provide only a few clues about the entanglements of education and tourism in interwar promotion, various articles in one of Switzerland’s preeminent pedagogical journals – the Swiss Review of Education [1928-1993] – help clarify the interrelationships.44 The Review clarifies that the Swiss Private Schools’ Association (SPA) played the leading role in initiating collaboration with the STO. The SPA - the only national association of Swiss private schools and institutes – was formed in 1909 to represent the interests of private education in Switzerland. Its membership however, was not representative of Swiss private schools. The members of the SPA were in great majority proprietary schools serving, for the most part, an international clientele.45 Thus, a particular type of private school with a direct relationship to the international free-market economy drove the organisation.46 Given the majority of SPA’s 44  The SPA funded the journal Schweizer Erziehungsrundschau [Swiss Review of Education] which K.E. Lusser edited; it was distributed to 20 countries abroad. The journal, an organ for public and private schooling and education in Switzerland included a significant international component and thus had a strong comparative education focus. Contributors included those representing public and private educational institutions at all levels. Cantonal administrators and teachers’ training colleges were also involved. Articles from abroad were translated into German or French. The audience for the journal included pedagogues, teachers, medical doctors, and tourism directors from Switzerland and around the world as well as various people interested in public and private school issues. Significant contributors included Pierre Bovet (1878-1965), founder of the International Bureau of Education in Geneva in 1925, Paul Geheeb (1870-1961), German reform pedagogue, Paul Haeberlin (1878-1960), Swiss philosopher, pedagogue, and psychologist, and Erich Weniger (1894-1961), German social scientific pedagogue and chair of the New Education Fellowship. In 1930 the Swiss Review of Education absorbed the “Schweizerische Paedagogische Zeitschrift” – Switzerland’s main Journal of Pedagogy. 45 There are no precise and universally accepted definitions for the term “international school” as it embodies a multitude of schooling scenarios. For the most comprehensive summary of definitions used, see M. Hayden and J. Thompson, “International Schools and International Education: A Relationship Reviewed,” Oxford Review of Education 21, no. 3 (1995): 327-345. 46 A. Pönisch’s definition and classification, applied to the Swiss case helps clarify relationships between the many different types of international schools and the for-profit tourism economy. Pönisch defines 11 types of international schools, five of which existed during the timeframe of this study. These are: (1) Proprietary schools primarily catering to international students and families (2) Non-Proprietary Denominational schools primarily catering to international students and families(3) National Public [Swiss] schools which welcome foreign pupils in the regular program and/or offer special programs for international students (4) “National” overseas schools [i.e. British school in Switzerland] serving nationals and international students (5) Self named “international schools” organised for the purpose of international education. There has been considerable debate surrounding whether international schools necessarily offer international education in the sense of purposeful intercultural understanding and inclusion of international assets in the curriculum. See Andrew Pönisch, “Special Needs and the International Baccalaureate: A Study of the Need for and Development of Alternate Courses to the International Baccalaureate” (master’s thesis, University of Oxford, 1987), 34-37. Only two church supported (not-for-profit) schools were members of the SPA. No “national” overseas schools joined the group; all schools in the association had Swiss owners. Membership also did not extend to Swiss public schools. During the early 1930s, the SPA gained a type (5) school – a “self-named” international school  14  membership schools shared a vested interest in securing an international clientele, the connection between the SPA and the Swiss National Tourism Office – Switzerland’s main tourism organisation dedicated to attracting visitors to Switzerland – was logical. International proprietary schools, like hotels depended largely upon distant, non-local markets; the proprietary school/ tourism organisation alliance was fundamentally economic. Historical commemorations of the SPA in the Review, despite their often nostalgic biases provide further insight. It seems the SPA did not collaborate with tourism organisations in formal, planned propaganda campaigns until the 1920s.47 Evidence suggests the first collaboration with the STO occurred in 1922 when Dr. K. E. Lusser authored the tourism guide Switzerland and Her Schools which the STO edited and published.48 Importantly, this guide discussed all types of Swiss education. Along with an introduction to Swiss educational history, it offered an overview of the various levels and types of schooling (primary, secondary, intermediate, vocational and university). In the same year the SPA and STO collaborated in writing and editing the Guide to Private Education and Schooling in Switzerland.49 This directory-style document listed the names and addresses of a wide range of private schools in Switzerland (including those which served mainly Swiss students). With the SPA’s creation of the Propaganda Society of Swiss Private Schools in 1930 the association achieved a higher level of professional advertising organisation.50 The Society lessened the dependency of the SPA on the STO, but at the same time enabled new collaborative projects.51 The Society aimed to coordinate:  (not-for-profit) founded to advance the cause of “internationally-minded education” – The International School of Geneva (Ecolint). 47 M. Jaccard, “Cinquantenaire de Association des directeurs d'Instituts de la Suisse Romande (A.D.I.S.R.),” Schweizer Erziehungsrundschau [Swiss Review of Education], 32 (1959-60): 49. 48 A. Laett, “School and Education in Switzerland,” Schweizer Erziehungsrundschau [Swiss Review of Education], 2 (1929-30): 56. 49 The Guide de l’éducation et de l’enseignement privé en Suisse (Frauenfeld: Huber & Co., 1922) was published in several editions in numerous languages due to subsequent high demand. “Fremdenverkehr und private Erziehungsinstitute [Tourism and private educational institutes],” Neue Zürcher Zeitung, no. 818, May 1, 1931. 50 “Propagandagesellschaft Schweizerischer Erziehungsinstitute AG, S.A. Lausanne,” Schweizer Erziehungsrundschau [Swiss Review of Education], 3 (1930-31): 259. 51 The Propaganda Society was mandated to work as an independent unit as well as in cooperation with the STO and other propaganda organisations including the Hotel Association of Switzerland.  15  a rational, economic, effective and systematic orchestration of all private schools’ propaganda in order to achieve a consistent and centrally regulated international advertising campaign at all levels.52 The society engaged in multiple pursuits. For example, it collaborated with the STO on a new, updated Guide to Private Education and Schooling in Switzerland (1931) and assisted individual schools with their advertising campaigns.53 In 1931 Switzerland’s newspaper of record, the Neue Zürcher Zeitung featured an article written by the Society discussing the propaganda needs of the conjoined education and tourism economies. The piece contended that while the Swiss National Tourist Office (STO) had done an admirable job advertising “Switzerland and her Schools” in its guidebook of the same name, more needed to be done to foster the education side of the tourism industry. The editorial advised the Swiss Private Schools’ Association and the Swiss Hotel Association supported an immediate funding increase for the Swiss National Tourism Office in order to enhance its education-focused advertising campaign with propaganda films, tourism posters and mobile slide-show presentations “as further means to traffic a series of education and tourism clichés designated to sell Switzerland abroad.”54 The Propaganda Society of Swiss Private Schools an “independent advertising body created to facilitate private schools’ propaganda efforts and promote the study abroad industry at an international level” was installed in Lausanne with a “professional advertising man” at the helm.55 The Society intended to: take away some of the work, sorrow and pain from the many private school directors who, visited daily by armies of advertisement acquisitors of all kinds, were not only overwhelmed by the task of school promotion but, in many cases, were watching their businesses suffer as a result of amateur publicity. 56  52  H.C. Riis-Favre, “Aims, organisation and working program of the propaganda society of Swiss educational institutes, S.A.,” Schweizer Erziehungsrundschau [Swiss Review of Education], 4 (193132): 23. 53 “Fremdenverkehr und private Erziehungsinstitute [Tourism and private educational institutes],” Neue Zürcher Zeitung, no. 818, May 1, 1931. 54 Ibid. 55 “Propaganda Society of the Swiss Private Schools’ Association (PSSPA) [Propagandagesellschaft Schweizerischer Erziehungsinstitute AG], Lausanne,” Schweizer Erziehungsrundschau [Swiss Review of Education], 3 (1930-31): 259. The director of the PSSPA was H.C. Riis-Favre, a private school headmaster with a prior career in advertising. Riis-Favre was also the secretary of the SPA. 56 Ibid.  16  In addition to assisting individual schools and the private schooling industry as a whole, the Society “was to stand [as] advocate for the public schools and universities for they too play[ed] an important role in Switzerland’s student visitor tourism economy.”57 As a final purpose the agency was to enter into collaborative relationships with representatives of hotelerie and tourism organisations as well as university and public schools administrators. In 1934, the SPA and STO participated in a special tourism congress held at the Swiss Parliament buildings. Together, these organisations caused “private and public education [to] figure prominently at the conference.”58 For example, Paul Walter Buser, (SPA President) delivered a speech on the significance of Swiss private ‘international’ schools to the national economy.59 During the late 1930s, the SPA participated in tourism industry vocational training programs and it provided lectures on the educational side of tourism. In 1939, the Federal Council appointed Dr. K.E. Lusser to join the “Federal Expert Commission on Matters of the Foreign Economy” to represent “one main area of the Swiss tourism industry.”60 In 1941, the SPA’s one-time request for funding to Parliament was granted under the clause of hotel needs. Money was provided to prevent schools from declaring bankruptcy during the war.61  57  Ibid. A. Junod, “L'enseignement officiel et privé en Suisse [Public and private schooling in Switzerland],” Schweizer Erziehungsrundschau [Swiss Review of Education], 6 (1933-34): 56. 59 W. P. Buser, “Das private Unterrichts- und Erziehungswesen,” Archiv fuer das schweizerische Unterrichtswesen 24 (1938): 266-291. Paul Walter Buser (1876-1941) was a professor for national economy and economic geography at the School of Transportation in St. Gall. He founded the Prealpine Toechterinstitut in Teufen (1908-1972) for upper-class girls. His active engagements in the SPA as well as in the tourism field informed his activities. As a private school director, he was also a tourism specialist and appointed to the federal ministry of tourism; he was also a co-founder of the STO, founder of tourism Appenzell and member of various tourism associations. See Thomas Fuchs, “Paul Walter Buser,” Dictionnaire Historique de la Suisse, http://www.hls-dhs-dss.ch/textes/d/D15068.php (accessed July 3, 2007). 60 Six members represented different sectors including transportation, accommodation and advertising. The expert commission examined and recommended measures and regulations to protect the businesses of tourism during war time. See “Federal expert commission on matters of the foreign economy,” Schweizer Erziehungsrundschau [Swiss Review of Education], 15 (1942-43): 40. 61 K. E. Lusser, on behalf of the SPA presented several postulates to Parliament in 1941. In sum, the SPA asked the Federal Council to treat private international boarding schools like hotels which were protected by public funds for the duration of the war. This was granted. Another request – for Swiss representatives and consulates abroad to systematically advertise private Swiss educational institutes – was also granted. The final postulate however, requesting that private institutes be allowed to administer the Federal Maturity exam was denied. The federal Constitution did not allow this right to be extended 58  17  The SPA’s propaganda activity clarifies that proprietary international schools and tourism organisations promoted both public and private education in Switzerland. While there was no apparent direct public school involvement in advertising efforts, public schooling constituted a large part of the “product” promoted.62 In this respect, the encroachment of promotional culture into the public sphere and the commodification of public education were evident.63 At the level of representation, educational commodities were both public and private in nature, however the promotional involvement of each type of school differed substantially. While Lusser’s speech suggested there was some objection to the idea of the commodification of education among the Swiss public, an examination of the opinions of certain members from the tourism sphere indicates full acceptance. In the words of the “Education Department” of international travel agency R. Perrin: An important fact to be grasped is that Switzerland, as a whole, has one abiding industry and important source of revenue “tourists.” This word is used in its widest sense to include passing travellers or more or less permanent visitors seeking education, leisure or health – commodities in the production of which Switzerland is unrivalled. This being the case Switzerland – both collectively and individually – is anxious to attract consumers of these products and to retain them as long as they continue to be desirable customers.64 This basic vision of historical and economic entanglement between education and tourism in Switzerland, as Swiss historians’ analyses and evidence found in the Swiss Review of Education indicate presents a clearer vision of who exactly was “anxious to attract consumers of these products.” While Switzerland as a whole benefited from the tourism economy, it goes too far to suggest, as R. Perrin does that the country in toto was anxious to define education as a tourism commodity. Tourism organisations and international proprietary schools were the key players in marketing “Swiss” education abroad; it was these groups that promoted Swiss education in the advertising sense of the word. Both these players focused considerable attention on crafting propagandistic to non-religious (Catholic and Protestant) private schools. See K. E. Lusser, Das Private Unterrichtsund Erziehungswesen der Schweiz (Olten: Otto Walter, 1941), 17-20. 62 Public schooling also formed part of the consumed product. 63 Strictly speaking, the promotion of private schooling advocated a type of education already “commodified.” 64 “William Harvey, BA Oxford” was director of R. Perrin’s Education Department in Lausanne. See R. Perrin, Schools and Sports in Switzerland (Lausanne: R. Perrin, 1927), 65-66.  18  texts intended to influence consumers abroad to travel to Switzerland in order to “purchase” education and tourist products. For the SPA, tourism guides and individualised private schooling promotion constituted central axes of communication. For various tourism organisations, education-focused tourism guides were an important line of advertsing.65 Investigating the texts produced to secure business is an important part of understanding the work of those involved in the schooling and tourism industries. Texts captured on paper particular ideas about the nature and quality of various types of Swiss education. They helped deliver the series of clichés designed to condense and represent complex service products. The aim of this thesis to critically examine ideological representations of desirable educational and tourism places (1890-1945) - thus involves settling upon specific promotional texts that provide different vantage points for understanding the work of rendering educational and tourism places attractive to the outside world. Of all the texts produced for this purpose, how does any one study decide which to consider and which to ignore? The sampling process of any historical study is never simple. All studies face the problem of incomplete records. Studies in the history of private school promotion must confront the problem of how to identify the universe of schools from which to select a sample. Studies in the history of tourism guide promotion deals with the challenge of determining which guides to choose. Analyses linking these promotional histories together face the additional task of justifying their interdisciplinary vantage point. This latter undertaking is, in hindsight easily accomplished: the object of choosing seemingly unrelated promotional documents is justified since in the specific historical context of this thesis prospectuses and tourism guides were relationally “situated genres” at the level of social practice. Yet, while at the end of this study it is easier to “see” the connection between these types of documents – or, as Lusser phrased to comprehend “what education had to do with hotelerie and tourism” – these connections were not clear at the beginning of this project.66 This thesis began researching on one side of the educational tourism entanglement – the education side –  65  Jarkko Saarinen, “Destinations in Change: The Transformation Process of Tourist Destinations,” Tourist Studies 4, no. 2 (2004): 161-179. 66 K. E. Lusser, Das Private Unterrichts- und Erziehungswesen der Schweiz (Olten: Otto Walter, 1941).  19  and as a result of preliminary research findings it became enmeshed in the other side. The sampling process thus evolved and occurred at different stages in the project.67 The following requirements governed the initial sampling criteria for selecting the schools. With the intention of studying educational promotion produced by Swiss private international schools the study sought long-standing, Swiss owned, proprietary (for profit) international schools which historically targeted an English-speaking market and retained pre-World War II prospectuses. Further, schools in Frenchspeaking Switzerland were desired because of the historical significance of this region in the development of the Swiss boarding schooling industry. A small sample was chosen due to the difficulty of obtaining information. Three of Switzerland’s most exclusive schools (in terms of price) - Le Rosey, Brillantmont and Beau Soleil (for geographical locations see fig. I. 2) - met these criteria and with caveats, participated in the study.68 As the research proceeded, it became clear that the schools shared other characteristics. Each was, for example, a long standing member of the SPA and each received special commendations from Swiss tourism guides during the interwar period. All were committed to both summer and winter sports. Differences however, outweighed similarities. Although today these schools offer almost identical programs, during the time of this study (1890-1945) each offered a very different type of education. It is beyond the scope of this thesis to offer a comprehensive history of these schools but, the task of analysing their prospectuses naturally involved delving into their histories to some extent. While I leave the task of outlining their development to the individual chapters, here I provide a brief orientation to the sample of schools and their documents.69  67  What was initially intended to be a study of international private school prospectuses led to a study which included tourism guides. The sampling rationale thus developed and changed as the study evolved. 68 I have honoured my agreement to only refer to information about the schools’ alumni when it has already been published in the public domain. I have not disclosed any details about former students that I learned from the schools themselves. 69 Each school had retained incomplete sets of their earliest prospectuses; all offer their own challenges in terms of records. Like many proprietary schools, historical documents have irretrievably disappeared. See G. Avery, The Best Type of Girl: A History of Girls’ Independent Schools (London: André Deutsch, 1991).  20  Fig. I.2: Map of Lake Geneva region (Lac Léman) with the locations of Le Rosey in Rolle and Gstaad, Brillantmont in Lausanne and Beau Soleil in Villars-sur-Ollon. To locate the Lake Geneva region within Switzerland, see Swiss map (top right).  Le Rosey, the oldest school in the sample began life in 1880 as a boys’ Handelsschule (commercial school). Its founder Paul Carnal, a pedagogue from German-speaking Switzerland bought “Château Rosey,” a medieval castle, near Lake Geneva in order to live out his dreams and run a boarding school.70 In 1911, his son Henri Carnal took over directorship and developed Le Rosey into a finishing-type school for boys. 71 Since its foundation Le Rosey has prioritised sports.72 In 1919, for  70  Paul Emile Carnal purchased the Le Rosey estate of 29 hectares for 82 215.45 Francs in 1880. For more details of the history and purchase, see Louis Johannot, ed. Le Rosey: Un siècle de souvenirs, 1880-1980 (Rolle: Le Rosey, 1980). 71 During the interwar period Le Rosey schooled boys aged 10 to 18. It taught classical, scientific and commercial education and trained students for various exams, including the Swiss Maturity, French Baccalaureate, American College Board Exams, and University entrance examinations. French was the everyday language of the school, however students also learned Latin, Greek, German, English, Italian, and Spanish. The religious orientation was non-sectarian; Protestant and Catholic teachings and services were provided.  21  example, the school purchased property in Gstaad (1200 metres) so its students could spend part of the school year engaged in winter activities. The directors’ active involvement in private schooling associations at both a local and national level enabled students to play inter-mural sports within the international boarding school community in Switzerland.73 The Carnals’ outside contacts presented further opportunities to compete with American and English teams. Le Rosey’s “migratory lifestyle” also proved beneficial for Gstaad’s tourism industry; the school helped Gstaad achieve its status as one of Switzerland’s most exclusive winter resorts.74  Fig. I.3: Le Rosey, The Times (1900)  Evidence suggests Le Rosey targeted an English-speaking clientele early on.75 A classified advertisement in The Times (1900), for example, describes Paul Carnal’s journey to England and Scotland for recruitment purposes (see fig. I.3). School records specify Henri Carnal’s marriage to American Margaret Boorum (1911) resulted in active solicitation of the North American market. Despite its tendency to target English-speaking markets Le Rosey never limited itself to an Anglo-Saxon clientele. During the interwar years students from over 22 countries attended the school. The school has retained prospectuses dating from 1890 to 1932. However, as was common practice, individual prospectuses were not marked with specific dates.76 Early  72  The school offered tennis, football, skiing, ice hockey, fencing, rowing, sailing, horse riding, boxing and athletics. The Carnals along with Auckenthaler, Villa Longchamps in Ouchy played a key role in organising private boarding schools’ team sports in the French-speaking region. 73 Paul and Henri Carnal were active members of the SPA and the Association of Private Schools in French Switzerland (APSFS). They played key roles in each of these associations but invested more time in the APSFS. It was on the initiative of Henri Carnal, for example, that following World War I the APSFS consciously fostered a collegiate rather than competitive ethos. M. Jaccard, “Cinquantenaire de Association des directeurs d'Instituts de la Suisse Romande (A.D.I.S.R.),” Schweizer Erziehungsrundschau [Swiss Review of Education], 32 (1959-60): 49. 74 G. von Siebenthal, Gstaad: eine Reise in die Vergangenheit [Gstaad: a journey into the past]. (Gstaad: Mueller Marketing & Druck AG, 2004), 40 and 201. 75 Le Rosey was mentioned in the British publication Guide to Switzerland (1904) as one of the schools English pupils principally attended. See MacMillan, Guide to Switzerland (1904), 1. 76 Not identifying the prospectuses by date enabled schools to use them for several years in a row.  22  prospectuses, jacketed by “borrowed” Orell Fuessli tourism guidebook covers were short in length and consisted predominantly of images highlighting school buildings and sports facilities. Interwar prospectuses lost tourist publicity covers but gained professional portraiture, as well as new images of winter sports and enhanced visuals of both campuses. Together with Le Rosey, Brillantmont stands as one of Switzerland’s oldest surviving international boarding schools. Founded by the Heubi family in 1882 as a girls’ finishing school, Brillantmont expanded in 1902 to include a domestic education program and, again in the 1930s to include an academic section preparing girls for the American College Examinations.77 Located in château and villa-style buildings, the girls’ school has from its early beginnings been housed in impressive facilities. Its owners participated in local and national private school associations and were also members of the Association des Pensionnats de Jeunes Filles de Lausanne since its foundation in 1911.78 The girls’ school also consistently maintained relations with tourism organisations.79 Brillantmont targeted an Anglo-Saxon market from its inception but, like Le Rosey, schooled students from various countries.80 It advertised in English tourism guides as early as 1883.81 During the interwar period the Swiss National Tourist Office guides drew attention to this “exceptional private girls’ boarding school.”82  77  Brillantmont was a finishing school for girls aged 15 to 17 years until after World War II. See Collège International Brillantmont, Souvenirs: Brillantmont 1882-2002 (Lausanne: Collège International Brillantmont, 2002), 9-19. 78 Unfortunately little is known about the history of the Association des Pensionnats de Jeunes Filles de Lausanne. It was formed when several female directors belonging to the French-speaking private schools organisation “tired of hearing about boys’ private school sports” decided to form their own group. See M. Jaccard, “Cinquantenaire de Association des directeurs d'Instituts de la Suisse Romande (A.D.I.S.R.),” Schweizer Erziehungsrundschau [Swiss Review of Education], 32 (1959-60): 49. 79 The school remains under Heubi family ownership. It is a member of the Swiss National Tourist Office. 80 The internationalism of the school was strongly linked to countries within the British Empire. 81 It placed advertisements in other places as well. See I. Longinski Excursions to the Environs of Geneva, (Geneva: Printing Office of the Tribune, 1902); Society for the Development of Lausanne, Guide to Lausanne and Ouchy: Western Switzerland (Lausanne: Society for the Development of Lausanne, 1894). 82 Swiss National Tourist Office Zurich and Lausanne. Switzerland and Her Schools: Education – Instruction. Lausanne: Swiss National Tourist Office Zurich and Lausanne, 1922.  23  Brillantmont has retained many of its earliest prospectuses.83 In terms of format, the photo-narrative style texts changed little during the timeframe of this study. Prospectuses consistently highlighted the schools’ impressive buildings. During the interwar period, images of girls’ sports were also prioritized and brochures showed signs of tourism industry connections. The scenic panoramic views of the Lake Geneva and Mont Blanc area included in the texts were the product of Gaston de Jongh (1888-1973), a prominent photographer who specialised in tourism advertising portraiture.84 Beau Soleil, the final school of the sample, was founded by Mrs. and Mr. Terrier-Ferrier in Gstaad in 1910. Originally a small home for “delicate children,” Beau Soleil transitioned from a sanatoria-like institution offering little in the way of academics to a school offering serious studies and sun-cure.85 This transition occurred after 1920 when it moved to its current location in Villars-sur-Ollon.86 During the 1930s, the school offered classical and scientific training.87 Although its advertisements at times indicated it was a co-educational school, there is little evidence of girls ever attending. Unfortunately no prospectuses survive from the period 1910-1926. However, those that are available – produced between 1927 and 1942 – in some ways compensate for this loss. During the 1930s world renowned poster artist Roger Broders (1883-1953) edited and illustrated some of the school’s promotional materials. Its interwar prospectuses exhibited the latest in advertising techniques. Creative, poetic, beautiful and, at times aggressively sales-oriented, Beau Soleil’s advertising stands out among the sample.  83  The dates of the prospectuses have been recorded however, they are not necessarily always correct. The dates which are fairly certain are of those prospectuses from 1898, 1902, 1911, 1924, 1932 and 1936. 84 For Gaston de Jongh’s photographs, see for example E. Breguet, 100 ans de Photographie chez les Vaudois, 1838-1939 (Lausanne: Payot, 1981). 85 In the Swiss Review of Education it advertised as “Institut pour Enfants delicats, Etablissement d'Instruction, d'Education et de Santé sous surveillance médicale.” See for example, Schweizer Erziehungsrundschau [Swiss Review of Education], 1 (1930-31): 24. 86 The high altitude school in Villars-Sur-Ollon is located at 1250 m. It schooled children aged 7 to 14 years, offered both Protestant and Catholic catechism and remained under the same ownership until after World War II. 87 Beau Soleil followed the French curriculum of “academic track” primary and secondary schooling.  24  Although in some respects these “Swiss” private boarding schools seem quite removed from Anglo-Saxon educational historiography, as school types they have long figured in the Anglo-Saxon imaginary. While their particularities have only been experienced by the relative few, within what English educational historian Jeffrey Richards has called the “world of popular boarding school mythology,” their base characteristics envelop easily accessed scholastic stereotypes.88 Le Rosey, for example, broadly viewed as a “European” boys’ château school corresponded to a certain type of institution fancifully described by an anonymous American boy in “Letter to Mother” as follows: Towering among the trees is the château, rising like a beautiful white flower and holding undisputed right over the surrounding country … It seems perfectly built for the imagination of a boy to rove in … this château school is the type of place about which every boy has dreamed. Here only the beauty of the Middle Ages predominates, the memories of modern life are forgotten...89 If the boys’ château school cliché has somewhat faded from English-speaking imagined communities, the emblematic Swiss finishing school still evokes as a strong stereotype. While the name Brillantmont may not register meaning for many, its historical business constituted an easily recognisable ideal type of education.90 Countless references to the finishing school trope exist in English-language discourse. The BBC’s British Edwardian drama Upstairs Downstairs provides a typical example.91 The “Path of Duty” episode - about the social failure of a society-daughter not sufficiently prepared for her debut - did not bother, for instance, to explain the who’s who of girls’ finishing school history; it expected a modern audience sufficiently 88  Jeffrey Richards, Happiest Days: The Public Schools in English Fiction (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1988). Here I am referring to the general discourse on school, not the specific fictional discourses. Jeffrey Richards discussing the British context suggests fiction is one realm that has contributed to larger public discourse on schooling. I argue that within the Anglo-Saxon imaginary there is also a smaller discourse on Swiss schools. 89 “A School in a Château”, Christian Science Monitor, July 25, 1927. 90 And indeed, the names of such schools were never intended to be widely known. Elite schools, at the top of their hierarchy which do not offer scholarship opportunities are, in a sense, ‘luxury’ products. As such they are purposely ‘popularised’ only within the narrow circles who can afford their services. 91 The Upstairs Downstairs series (London Weekend Television, 1971-1975) depicted the lives of a typical Edwardian elite household with its servants downstairs and masters upstairs. The upstairs family included a father (Richard Belamy) who was an MP, a mother (Marjorie) who was the daughter of the Earl and Countess of Southwold and two children Elizabeth and James.  25  versed.92 Great Aunt Kate’s singular rebuke “remember Marjorie I suggested Switzerland…” served adequate commentary to contextualise the scene showing Miss Lizzie, freshly back from Miss Beck’s school in Germany acting out “all too loud a zeal for things Germanic including Goethe, Wagner and Gymnastics.”93 The ancient relative’s knowledge that “had Miss Lizzy been to a Swiss finishing school instead of a German one,” she would have arrived home “properly finished” was affirmed when, later in the episode, Miss Lizzie damaged the family name by failing to behave like a lady at her coming out ball. Instead, the ill-equipped girl ran away in tears. And finally, in a completely different corner of English discourse, the school sample studied here also conjures the romantic idea of the Alpine “chalet school.” Le Rosey’s chalet campus in Gstaad, Brillantmont’s chalet holidays in the Engadine and Beau Soleil’s year round stay in the Vaudois Alps quickly recall the idyllic mountain highs often associated with the ideology of childhood as played out in English, mountain-top fiction. Whether communicated via Johanna Spyri’s (1827-1901) popular children’s novel Heidi or British author Elinor Brent-Dyer’s Chalet School series English-speakers need not dig too deep to find examples of the historic Alpine/childhood cliché.94 Today, all three schools are very much enshrouded in another private education cliché – that of being “at the top of the private school hierarchy.”95 Le Rosey, heavily 92  Season 1 (4): “The Path of Duty” (c. 1905). Ibid. 94 The series included over sixty novels. For a list of titles, see New Chalet Club, http://www.newchaletclub.co.uk/index.html; for a biography of Elinor Brent-Dyer, see Helen McClelland, Behind the Chalet School (Essex: Bettany Press, 1996). 95 According to the most recent taxonomy for classifying which schools are “at the top of the private school hierarchy” each school today is unquestionably at the top end of the scale see, Rubén A. Gaztambide-Fernàndez, “Lives of Distinction: Ideology, Space, and Ritual in Processes of Identification at an Elite Boarding,” Dissertation (Graduate School of Education of Harvard, 2006). It is very difficult to judge the status of schools during the time frame of this study. However, evidence suggests that Le Rosey and Brillantmont were, by the interwar period already near the top of the hierarchy. Student demographics in conjunction with the schools’ physical characters, location, extensive curriculum and sports programs supports this view. Random searches of the New York Times and the Times reveal well networked students in the 1920s and 1930s. Trothal announcements, for example, Brillantmont alumni demonstrate ties with leading New England boarding schools, Ivy League colleges and the Who’s Who. In 1935, for example it was announced that “…Miss Hariette Warmington Engaged to Lee M. Rumsey, Bride educated at Brillantmont, Lausanne, He is a Graduate of Yale.” See NYT, Aug. 6. Further that “Miss Vanderbilt attended Châteaux Brillantmont will marry Mr. Clark, graduate of Princeton and “great grandson of Senator Amos Clark” see, NYT, Sept. 19. Further Washington Post, (July 4) indicated Maria Sieber, daughter of Marlene Dietrich attended. School histories indicate alumni include various members of the nobility including Princess Benedikte (Denmark) see Collège International 93  26  labeled in the English press as, among other things, “the school of kings,” the “place where millionaires send their children” and the “world’s most exclusive boarding school” fights its own public discursive image through silence and retreat.96 Brillantmont, sensitive to the vulnerability of its high-profile alumni, shies away from the spotlight to protect its past, present and future from unscrupulous, invasive and undesired inquisitiveness. Beau Soleil too, harboring elite reputation(s) has become an island cordoned off from the world, deliberately silent but nevertheless surrounded by the threat of paparazzi-type publicity. In this aspect of private boarding school typology, the particularities of these schools do matter. Despite their broad associations with commonplace, romantic and esteemed fictive clichés in Anglo-Saxon consciousness, the schools’ fame for being “extremely unusual social environments” has ultimately severed them from public understanding.97 While researchers are free to study the social constructions of Swiss scholastic stereotypes, their research into the worlds of exclusive private educational places (discursive or otherwise) is somewhat obstructed by the rule of privacy. In the history of each school’s promotion, setting, social networks and cultural capital were key parts of the storyline. The wall of silence surrounding these schools has, in some respects, affected this study. Namely, the study is limited by an agreement not to discuss information about alumni except in those cases where information is already within the public domain. Further, historical data used in the study is limited to that published in school histories or in other public documents.  Brillantmont, Souvenirs (Lausanne, 2002). Similar references characterise Rosey students: “Richard McGarrah Helms [Director of Central Intelligence, 1966-1973] candidate for Rhodes scholarship see, (NYT Nov. 8, 1934); “Mr. Haskell attended Le Rosey, Phillips Exeter Academy and Harvard University” (NYT Dec.17, 1934); Rhodes Scholar Thomas C. Mendenhall [B.A Yale, B.Litt Oxford, Ph.D Yale sixth President of Smith College, Yale] “Le Rosey’s rowing”, see Chris. Science Mon., Dec. 16, 1932. The same means of checking does not work for Beau Soleil. Because of the stigma of mountain sanatoria attendance was not typically publicised. 96 In 1965 (May 7) Life Magazine printed an article entitled “Le Rosey – the World’s Most Exclusive Boarding School: A School for the Rich and Royal.” The article outraged the school that has refused all contact with the press ever since, however the press has not stopped discussing or labelling the school. 97 This is true about most schools of this type, see Learnard Baird, The Elite Schools (Toronto and Massachusetts: Lexington, 1977); C. W Mills, The Power Elite (New York: Oxford University Press, 1959); E.D. Baltzell, Philadelphia Gentlemen: The Making of Na