UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Assisting bug report triage through recommendation Anvik, John 2007-12-31

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Assis g  iage ugcommeao KaAikM Ui oAeaSc Ui ocaA ESIS SUIEIIAIME OE QUIMES E GE OCOISOYiE CUY OGA SES(ComScieeE UI OISCOMAm KaAikAbrtA key coa ma sowa e oc is e issue ackisysmog sie use oa g si caimo e sowa oe ocess ia moways i aowi  w a geogicaysi commuca auocewe s ae esi e  iage a ma caee iage  i is amea Ia  is mea e iagecis w  oa e  iegoio e ocs e ocessWe ca iagecisio wi e goaoi ia  is mea si-oeecisioa iagecisioaoa s e e ocesse-oeecisioiage cacome oe e mos ae e sime s iagi ao cay s ae soues away om e imome oe oc e magi oe e ocess assisiageis sseaoeses a mac ai aac ca commee aassiswi a e oe-oeecisioIis waywe si  ce maioeme iiage  mo e iages  om   gaeioao make a cisioaocoii a suggesois sseaoices a iage-assis commeecaoocess acaca a e oe e-oeecisiocommee a eooce commee cawi is aaca accucommee wc assiga   a ecisioo7  9 o osoueoccommee wcoccom e  is  a ca o7  9a commee w  a  e ccsoa  a aca o 7We  eacommee cawi ouiage-assiscommeecaoocess usi  aac eaoa a e sIaio we ese iis sseaoaaac assisocmem  scie ocscic es e iage-assis commeecaoocessa swasuccommee ca cawi a sueoe si CttAac  ^ iiCoes  ^soes  ^  isogus  ^  iAckwmes  ^  cao ^  iCe1 Ico  ^ 11 AOiew og s   ^ 1 e g iage ocess   ^ 1 A Waugoe iage ocess   ^ 1 commeeCaoocess Oiew   ^ 1 Suey oWo   ^ 71 Coo   ^ 1 Oaooe sseao  ^ Ceckgu  ^  11 e g iage ocess  ^  11 ocees e iage ocess   ^ 11 Some Cees oe iage ocess  ^  11g s  ^  11 Amy oa g   ^  1e -cyc oa g   ^  133 Mac ai Aoms  ^  133 Oiew oSecMac ai Aoms  ^  153 o oCices  ^  111Ce3 AAac Ca iage Assis commee ^ 3 Oiew o Mage  ^  3 A commee ^  3 Wcs?  ^  3 w Ma s?  ^  3 Wcas?  ^  3 w  e s?  ^  3 Wc A   ^  3 WcAom?  ^  33 A Com commee ^  333 A Iescommee ^  33 SiAImemeaooe Aac ^  33 Sick-e  ^  33 Sio-e  ^  373 Summa  ^  39CeEao ^  1 AAc Eaooe commee  ^  1 Oiew oAc Eaooce  ^  1 commeeEao ^  1 Com commeeEao ^  1 IescommeeEao ^  1 a    ^  1 Summa oe AcaEao ^  5A e S oe commee  ^  51 S Suec  ^  51S Meo  ^  53 Quai sus  ^  5Qua sus  ^  5 Sioae sus  ^  a    ^  7 Summa oe S sus  ^  Ce5 AssisCoiguoocommee  ^  5 e AssisCoiguoAac ^  5 Sec a  e s  ^  5 Sec e    ^ 75 Sec e s   ^ 735 Eaooe Aac ^  75i5 uscs Use ^  755 s Sei  ^  75  SecoSagy   ^ 75 sus   ^ 775 Summa osus  ^  5 Coigu  Ca Oecommee  ^  5 Coigu a Com commee ^  5 Coigu aIescommee ^  5 Summa  ^  Cescussio ^  1 Usi a e Aac e-OeecommeeCao ^Usi Oee ocess Ioao Ca a e-Oeecisiocommee ^  1 Com-secommeao ^  3 Ca commee Oee-Oeecisio ^ 3 Sucom commee ^  3 Eo Esmaocommee ^  913 ImcAsis commee ^  9AssisCoiguoocommee Oesi s ^ 95 Usi commee  Auma iage cisio  ^  93Usi aImeay UaAom  ^  97 o eack  e commee ^  97Ce7 Wo  ^  97 Ses o i iage  ^  97 Mi Sowa Aicsies  ^  17 Mi Soue Co sies  ^  17 Mi g sies  ^  17 EmaiAs  ^  17 Eeise commeao ^  17 Eeise commeaoiGe ^  17 Ee commeaoiSowa Eie  ^  17 Assis iage ugcommeao ^  1CeCosio  ^  11  Wo  ^  1Coo  ^  1iogy  ^  11AeiA  uscs  ^  11A Ece ao oc ^  11A Moa oc  ^  117A gcc oc ^  11A Myoc ^  119Aei uscs om AssisCoiguo ^  1AeiC Eics Ceica  ^  1  bl1 Emes oies useca a commee  ^  13  es s om e Ece a oc use ^   3 Emes ouscs use s wi mes ^ 3 Oiew o useocess  ^  3 ecisio ca a measu wusi o e ^ 33 ecisio ca a measu oa    wusi e mac a-i aoms  ^  33 ecisio ca a measu oa    wusi a asigouaom ^  33 Awe  e siqueso Mage wca a com c-ommee  ^  333 Awe  e siqueso Mage wca a iescom-mee  ^  33 ecisio ca a measu wusi ccse  ^ 31 Oiews oe  oc useac eao  ^   suissiosscs e  oc  ^ 3  es  usee ac eao  ^  ai a s sesis ea commee ^ 5 Si ocommeaooa age imemeaoeeise ssiecisio ca a measu e  commee ^  7 Oiew o usecom commeeeao ^  ca e  com commee ^  9 eage oai s suie ac  ^  1Oiew o useiescommeeeao ^ 11 ecisio ca a measu e  iescommee ^  1iage eeee as e iage  ^ 513 Accucy oe commee om e e s ^  51Meaes coa eae cases commeao ^  i15 i ocommee  iageies  ^  1oae oe Siseice ^  5 ge g  -cyc ss ^  5  es ai  a s sesis useieao  ^ 755 Ac ss useeao ^ 75 Oiew oeous cacommee ^  775 ecisio ca a measu  secosagies ^  5 ecisio ca a measu usi e uscs a ss ^ 5 sus ousi e oio secosagy ^  1 Com e commeecaoaacs ^  sus oa iscom e o s ocommee  ^  3 ecisio ca a measu a com-secommee ecisio ca a measu a commee ^  5 e sucoms e Ece oc  ^  Awe  e siqueso Mage wca a sucomcommee ^  7 ca a sucom commee ^  9Awe  e siqueso Mage wca aeo esmaocommee ^  99 Awe  e siqueso Mage wca aimcasiscommee ^  931ecisio ca a measu wusi aimeay uaeyes aom  ^  951 agewiss iage-assis commee ^  11 uscs usee Ece oc ^  1uscs usee oc ^  13 uscs usee gcc oc ^  1uscs usee Myoc  ^  15 uscs usee ga oc  ^  1ii  r1 Aeme oa g  ^ 13 e -cyc oa ga  ^ 13 e -cyc oa     ^ 1 Eme oa cisioee ^ 15 Suo cMacs aom agy ^ 193 Oiew ocommeecao ^ 3 Queso   aweica a commee  ^ 3 g   Siies commeao ^ 33 g  aeSiies commeao ^ 33 Oiew ow Siwos ^ 31 G oe  commee e commeao  Queso e ckgu quesoai ^ 513 Queso e cisioquesoai ^ 53 Queso e usage quesoai ^ 535 Ioaogge Si  ^ 5 Queso e sSiusage ieiews ^ 555 Mock-uusc coiguo  ^ 5 Eme osei e s-soes ^ 735 A scaeoo si commeeecisio  ^ 791 Eme oaEce  e sucom o  ^ 9 ecisiooimeaaom ^ 953 ca oimeaaom  ^ 91 soog Ece ^ 1 soog  ^ 13 soog gcc ^ 1 soog My ^ 15 soog ga  ^ 1iC Eics Ceica  ^  1Anltsas ikes a age  ise a cso o es ike ma oe ayi e a sma s   wo sucas is come au1 GaiMumy suiso wiouwm is wo wou  goe Gaiwas ia mosc  s eme eque ke asck a ok ais ia w g ae my se eie io Secos aeme  wmy w came o "eoaiey a commooccueesys eme uggg is woa my mi siesmosoesimy wi aaei ea eemy wiw ggea eu came aeI  eacmoi a aoweme  cus ois woI cou  accomisiswo wiouuai suo3 o eemao Ec Wosea Key omy suiso commieew eme  ke a oaew ois wo Cs Co a CaoWooe ui emia em ueeeaemi w ga couc commes agay imoe quaois sseao Iwas ao Cs coue aosome oe iasis wo a e coue ocom wcis wo gw5 aua wse ao osome oe ias a es is wo e Ece ao UI iage w iciie e s oe com-mee a ga  a eack ow e commee woeiacce7 y emy oeiww me a me seos ooweeksso aI cou sw is sseaoaemo my mi  ca Cis  Aw Eiseeomas ioewy  aSiiSe a oe om e Sowa acces w oaicesuo a sacooe coue ois woEka KiiCe IntrtnA key coa ma sowa oc is a se os sc gs ae  a w as   ae[1 is se is oecaea  b r  oissue acki sysme use oa g si caimoe e ocess ia mowaysiaows e eooe oc acke kwi w ma s3 a oui [15]iaows w a geogicay si commuca auoce [57]iees aacs  i wc  eeise ie aas oeoc[5]ica imo e qua oe sowa oce[1751]a icao si  use aue ss ooem s e g sicaus o a caousequa assue ams a mage eage ia "useiege ocess" [3 ge we e use oa g si ao s a cos  cacome owewi e mos suie e g si as eac e   trd5  [395Eac is iage i iiscs a oema isow e  su  cago uge e o-cess [5W a oe se a o eece is aeo is caway om imo e oc magi e oc Iaocge iy s a y a ikes  mis  iage a  eoo-ou y a s iagi sIa oese s  imomeso see   //wiki moa o/MoaQuaAssue iage e//s me is oious a misme e si es coaie gsssciooe gse wi use  e   rt  a e mo cooquia b rt  ieeay  e ims ia g sias e si cay coai  u s a aquess  is mo a accessie aua om g sies useiosoue oe ocwe cus oucommes a emes osies om is  oocwe we e ae issues scusseiis sseaoa acae  g siesom  oa csesoue e oc5iageA ocess iwcis a eis oimae oio(Meiam-Wecose m a seoouoeaooaosoue oc1ie cois mig  aacceae cos e oc we some ocss a osuies a co imomesemewe u ae Ece7 oc5515 uc s i [3]e seco eecis as may  asseia me so Ie mos aeee si is mo aca asoy iagewiia suie amou ome e oc esome s may uisiesi as oes mai mo immea aeioke eceeaosoue ocw e siss oe e am  e commuis oemeasu w quick s a assea e moouise  awcs a iageca aima ciw e ocis ei emeCwsea u aa measu osuccess aosoue ocis e  ause suieg s a iciiocmai s [17]e ow iages e e  trr su  o goae goais   e si coaie smaesseoss e oc esmaesseoss is sie cause s cay eee si oma e osouessucas mem oa cicasuo sio oeae usecommuUouwi so ma e soues ossome oes a mea[3]emeoa e ocwi ma am memse may suia  sc e same g [3ese icas e  gaegeeso ae eo is was o  soe e same oem [3 55]A iageao e  es a aqua ee a g   oceoasc a oem wse causeis e oc eis somei yo e cooe sucase o sysmSomemesa iageao e  eous aa smya iagemay iica ae oem wi  oae a wi ae e oc s mee a oese ca mus iiesoae eo cacus oe s aa ocimomesemeay a i oe s suie e  occaeeMay  a Augus we maeas icas [3]We ca iage cisio asu ia  i sigas meaas a  rnt dnA seco goaoe iageis  oa e s iegoio e -e ocesss may  oaia e owaysemea may  cago e occom9 ieec so ae  is u7Ece  os aeeie e eiei a  Ia cau awww ece o (e//iis a weowsea ca u a wwwoa/oc/   (e//9We use e  com   a scic ece oocosucas e useieaceo ocoosiss gice e am sie acomAeaa  may  caego accoi  w s e eeise  soe i ioewose is assig a  ya  may  cago oeocmem amay wa   ioeoogss oe We ca ese s ocisio  dnt-nt dncaye-oeecisio a ma aesi-oeeci-siowe e o cisio may  iei emeimay  aaiagecks e kwe  i ia  icas ae (a si-oeecisioe iagemay cose ia assige   a (ae-oeecisio so aaaia caci weoe  scs a w oemE si-oeeoe-oeecisioamus ma sa cos O soue ocosis e me a eo qui gaee ioao makee cisio eme i ia  icas a  aaea esie sie iagemusseae si seokeywos a emie sus iaicasAs aeeme make a cisioauwcsu  assige e iagee  gaeioaoauws e eeise  e oeme wescosmea  gaee ioaois om e iages oweeeeWa cisioes oui aeeeemoeei aacs mus use sucas coui a ocwesi ass esies o osea simis ie siemewe esma ae Ece ocs ou ouc s i(5515 s 5 mis / [3]is sseaoeses aaac assisiage wi e e-oeecisio ey make  iage acese goa is aacis wee cosoiage aces  ci maioeme ie iage ocessOuaacuses a suisemac-ai aom  i mo e cagoes (e  com o e mo a euse o- e iagewi commeao a w  ais suie e siIis waywe si  ce maioeme iiage  mo e iages om   gaeioao make a cisio aocoii a suggesoe esis ois wo is ah vvt  thb tr prn br r-nd thrndn bt pr pr llthtr-rnd tn pre sois ceocee as ows we o a ieoiew og sowe a sciooe iage ocessWe esc e iage-assis commeecaoocessWe co  oui eous wo a e3coo ois wo1 AOiew og sA g  coai a e oioao Some oe ioaois cagocasucas e  iicaom i sooss (i wuoie soee occom e  is e ioe a wcs egisi e Oeioaois scisucas e e oe e sciooe  a aiocommessucas scussio aussieaacs  soi e ye  may  oeioao sucasaaces oa sos ae  asse is  ca soeA mo iscioog s is giiSeco1 e g iage ocessEv 3 bpr th nd trn  [nb  rt f t  f lthMlprrrthdlAs eous meio e cisio aa iagemakes ca io ossi-oeeoe-oee ese s ocisio ca seeie sciooa iages sies e Gme oc"1 "Maki su e g s aea ee "Maki su e g s eugioaoe  a makes see3 "Maki su e g is ie coecace "Maki su e g s seie "Se" a "io" es5"Maki su e g is iocoecy [1e o cisio sa si-oeecisioeiie is mo s awi co  e o imome oe oc emai e cisio a e-oee1 A Waugoe iage ocessis secoeses a c w iage is gey oe  ca is cwegaeioaoom a e osoues i cumeaoom osoue1eocommucao wi Moa  //e Gme ocos a gicaske oUo sysmSeewwwgme o e//ocweisoeao om e commes a s g og sa emaicoesee a ieiews wi iageA iagegi ei  sea e si w suiese occom oies coeeeiage cay use a sique as suca s  oaia sos  iagee iagewiseca  a eae e a scio Ie sciooe oemis ca e iagewi cay a a comme  e  aski ccaoa some oc ce e  ss  iica amo ioaos equese iages si is  make e si-oeecisioicaye si-oeecisioae iagemakes is i ieoem is aea scie si (i e w  is a ica oees  ie si  i ie  is a icae iagewi  oeiockweA iaeme occu wa eie suiee ecsame  ice a e iages siagee iee iageao oeuses keywo a  seas oe si  s asc e same oemIe  scs a c a e iagegai coie ae cseeous e e iagewi  y  oce e oemI isue  oce e oemee iagewi iica ae oem cou  coiea iica is ioao ci e ss oe Ieoem is coie e iagewi somemes aaca scase   e icoec e oem ma si-oeecisio sucas esis ae  -scs a w oem osiooae cis ociee iagewi gi make e-oeecisioImaki e si-oeeci-sioe iagemay  gaeeugioao com wi eiowockwe  make succisio as w  cago e  wi sc oca  wm  assige Ie iages yegaeeugioaoey wi eiecoie  seaa emi s ie si  make ese ci-sio oseek e aice omo eeeeiage a some oceiagewi a scic keywos  assisoeiage a  ikwi ceaias aue oem oquesosucas ie oem sus iacsocauses e acao eeoe  oo quessucas amocao e useieace51 commeeCaoocess Oiewe s wiia si o a weaoioaoaua ocs me ocessesciay auw s a oaIoao  cagooca ecom a seos a eeous cagoa use ecw a w  su  cago[ 1 19]eme ec ioaoom s awe oaas i  e UseIace coma moouseieace s cou  i a use suggesia w  s  is occom []Simiyioaoecom s soe a icuca use comme ia w su  assig a Sucmo ca i usi a mac aiaom [ 1 19]We  mo aa cae ose oosuggeso ocommeao as  rnd  We use e sym    eguocommee aassiswi e-oeecisio  g iageWe caca se commee e cagoosks usi a simio-cessiea commeeaassis wi com cagoois aemeoa   commee A commeeaassis wi assig s  is aeie oa   commeeIge usi a mac ai aacquis awe queso auw  usew  e e a wmac ai aom  use ca a   commee siqueso e  awe1 Wcs om e si su  use w ma s su  use3 w su e s   Wa e ?5 Wceces o om e s su  use Wcmac ai aom su  useugouwowe  ia oe awe  ese quesoa e same gass oe icu   e awe  e e queso owcs  useweces o  usea wmac ai aom  usea e same eac o x we  iesga Scicaywe  uae use ouaioaoaua oem oeaeme osoes13a e Suo cMacs aom [33] ca use ca use   e1   oa commee  e ioaoae commeecommes (ea assige commee ( is a  o  Aie oa     a o  as ecaa scic oc sucas a    Ece13A  is coisoeiis ace e oi -cycaoeee e commee is iw ma s a use w es a a wca e ewe  e macai-seiage-assis commeecaoocess ouaaccaa  commeeas Mageemecoica a commee  wi assig w gs (aassige commeeo  e Ece ao oc  useWIr we gi coec soes om e mosce eig mo (iawee queso owcs a w ma s  use We ees wi e me oe w soee  (i awee quesoow  e s As  may   e ocie seig mowe oy kees aa  e cue Ece  (i aweequesoowc a  coece s we wi use ai e we ece summa a scioom eacis uaioaoa e oe  icame oma egias iu a Suo cMacs suisemac ai aom [31]Aee aom s cae we cao e commeee uaioaooa w  a ceick a socommeao aca esee  e maiage com e oae oe s a coiguo o  we usee aomeasus oecisio caa measu ee eemeaowi e commee causi Magewe iegus o  ioa weoe ga issue acki sysme us o  we iegwe a assige commee (  a com commee (  a sucom commee ( a aiescommee (  We ca ouoSi1 Suey oWois sseaoeses aaac(Mage ca commee aassiswi e-oeecisioOuaacis uque ie sce is wi sc geeous aacs  okeaassiswi o e-oeecisio eieassige [1 19] ocomassige []Icos  Mage  caca commee  oese socisioas we as oesucas a commeew su  ae e ccs(see Seco3 esma e eo e a g (see Seco3osugges wcs uc a u oimeme a a (see Seco3Oe  ao coiusi mac ai  assiswi maki e-oeecisio [1 19]Was e eous auo aeeiocess 1 ga issue acki sysm is commoy use osoue oc a ca uawww uga o  (e11//  b  is a oess oe aie wo7o [19] oo [1 ocwe sw aMage aes  a e oocOuaacis ao uque wi sc i oaeeous aacsca a commee aceaccucies o[1 a 3 [19]Usi Magewe ca commee wi accucies ie e o7 9  e oceous wo ca a com commeeaceaaccucy o[] maki o com commeao Augwe  ace a comy gaccucy o commeao(eeous wo emisuggeso eig comswas we emiocwi e iy-ucoms a wwe e   a wequa oais u iosoue oc1 Coois sseaomakes e owi coo  e e osowa eie1Aaacamewo  ca  O  commee a Ges acss s o O  Ges acss sowa oc oces commee aa accu A e s swi w   commee wo iacce3Aaac assisocmem icoigu ocscic mewca a   commeeaaows commeecao occuoace iaoa see1 Oaooe sseaois ceeseeo oe cees ce oc ause a g si cacome oe e mos suie e siis cee a  e e iage e sWe eseeaoiew oeiage ocess a e cisio ma  iage io o cagoessi-oeea e-oee is sseaoeses aaac(Mageacas commee ao suggeso e-oeecisio  (Ie  ce we o a mo ickgu og s amac ai ieoesei e i oouaacca commeeMageowi iswe sc w we Mage ca a assige commeea esc w Mage is use"Simi eous wowe emi osoue ocas eiocess  is mo aaccessiewe we e aMage ao ges  csesoue oc ca commee a  com e a ccs(see Ce3 ecices ma i Mage a eaiCe Augsome oe aweMage a u acss ocoe a ocscic assisa iageicoigu Mage a scic oc we ese aassiscoiguoaacMage  iCe5We escuss ous queso ise is wo (Cea ew wo (Ce7  maki ouco mas9Cendis cegis aioioaooe iage ocess a os ckguioaoog s a mac ai aoms e aioioaooe iage ocess was gaeom iagequesoaisieiewsa ocwesis a moas w iage acce e om oc oc1 e g iage ocessA geoiew oe iage ocess was eseeiSeco1is secoossome ckgu io w e iage e om oc oc a some oe cees oe iage ocess1 ocees e iage ocessAuge s ocisio a iagemusmake gey   om ococ w os e iage aces es emeiage e Eceocis   ocwas iage e Moa oc Ka Gme a ima   eeW om e ocoiageey a ae  aw oeockwe amay aow em  makecoeccisio mo oe we e cos e ocis gas e me a s i iage is me s imo e oc Icos wee a use o iagee iage a mo ke  make eo amaycause ys ie imome oe oc wee ocis ae  make euse osoueske ma e ocessese iage ocess a icuocis sc a cace omeemeeay ie s oe Ece oc asi iagee swe as e ocmaa e equey1e Moa occomises ma ocsucas e weowsea euei emaicea wcs e same e ocess a g si is a gicaska Uwoso; www   o e//3See gmeo/gsquaiageGui   e//1oaio  e g si iase e sk came o oi a sio iage was ecea eaccom am was ma sie mo e si s awe cago eicomAssige osWe  oeeaoc use o oo aacs assigeiagecassige ose-assigeemee Ece ocuseiagecassige w e iages e auo  cs  scic -Icos e Moa ocuses se-assige w s a assig a u usemecay associawi a scic occoma e cose e s aey wis soe is acce is ao oweie eeoc[]we oc ause is aac ao eoee ocay assigs    geem asse e Gme ocs a assig a am aosomeo ice ocooi maieeaces []As wi oee acesiiaiage aac assigee i oeieeee wi e oc Iieiews wi uoeiage om e Ece oc we u amo eeeeiage oy e ae  scio make assige cisiow oe ok a sck ace i em  e g com omay e  a wege  kw w scue si a icucom osucom1 Some Cees oe iage ocessIieiews wi uiage e Ece oc e iage iiesecesA commocee esse eaciagewas oci e oem -sc e Oewo s ao ma is oeao[39]O iageiicaaiwas cei  kw aue aa oe oca aey ei uaioockwe ioe iage mo eecSeoe iage commeeae icuy oiagi a  eoe e O iagecommeeas we easie iage om iiaiwm  coieeiecause e iagekws e iia ocausee iiais oa occom e amAeiagecagoe io eie"I usi i e o"I ii oi ee guges s aa   awi as ey oe e comw iay a   osc e oem  wee oe o suie e "I ii oi gu cay oce s a gooeocommucaowi Ece  //5ocommucaowi Moa //Ao see   //wiki  oao/MoaQuaAssue age e//11scio a a  cica somemes ii oue co awas causi eoemiage  aiis easie iage s om e seco guas om e gug s assisiage imaki e-oeecisiowe ca commee seo u ig s o mo ckgu oe  soue aweuse maki commeaois secoos ooiew oe g Weese o asc oa g i amy a i -cyc1 Amy oa g gu 1 sws aeme oa  e Ece oc e Ece ocusese ga g si sowaAugwe cus oe coes oa gag  iis seco gs s ioeg sies sucas  Ga accoaisimiEac is e-esee- aacesa eiese e-es o a e ocagoca aue Someessucas e  iicaom caoa e a we  is ca Oeessucas e oc como sysmio ioa sea sec e ewe  is ae may ao  ceoe me oe Oees u ce omesucas e o wm e  is assig e cue ss oe a isoe i soose is ao a soe emaiasses ooe w aske  ke u  oe ac oe gese eswi eeiooose aa a cao ese e e ways aa g  ca cagoie e ocesse ee-  is e e oe a  sciooe gaaiocommese  scioaa cay coai aesciooe eec oe g a a cessa ioaoa  oce ege aiocommes i scussio aussie aacs   eg a ie  oegs acoaiaioioaoaue oem oaaea  ica se a  may o aaces  s  o uaaioioao sucas a sceoeoous ou e g siacks wcgs ock e sooooegs a e ac oeaceww aassia com/sowa/  i e//7www go/s  oa/gs e //c eewa o e //1gu mocog asoOgisoue u as/gsceigs/sw_ggi?igu 1Aeme oa g ac g os a sca ow e  s ceomesucaswe  s eassig owi io s ecee -cyc oa g gs mo uga sees oss oeimeWe iusa ese ss usie -cyc oa  ia gec ga si (see gu we sioesies  a simi-cyc (see gu 3 oc may a omoss  ea ocs e ocesswe we  oeeaesemocao cay a ssciao oe u ssemeeGme ocas aaio EIO  s ais a sciaooe  WsWa  is suie e sii ss is se  UOIEOe e oem scie  s ee e  mos  e  WsOe a s eeieassig oacceesi e e ss is se  ASSIG  Wa  is csei ss is se  SOE  Imay  maeas i e (E  ocsegoo(CSEA ca soeia moways; e sooss ie  is use cow e  was soe Ie soosueia ce  e co seeg is soeas    Wa is ae  is a ica oaes  eiis maeas  ICA Ie was ue  ocee g iis iica sei e sooss   WOSE Ie scs a oem awi   ois aacage  is maeasWO o IA  scA ey soe may  oaa  a wi  i ss se  O3 Mac ai Aomse commee sciis esis a i usi a mac ai ciquee e omac ai is coeewi e e oaoms a cques aaow com  a []Aug e ecooaiie coe ocomai seems   s o oa Mi [] ss13---t Crt UOIEr- SOE11hECSEgu  e -cyc oa ga llnICAWOWOSEIAOO ^jOGnSSSOECWSrgu 3e -cyc oa    (pt Crt-1A  prr   tlrn fr pn E th rpt t t d pfn   pfn  t    b pr th pn EMac ai aoms  uee cagoessuiseaiusuiseaia ioeme ai []Iis wowe iesga e useoe suiseai aoms  i wcaom is e mosaoiaas we as emi e use oo uuiseai aomWe emi e use oioeme ai as is  omac ai cuses oai as es e was we iesga ai om scaUee cago osuiseaie a a moiaao-ms acou  useca commee assisiageese aoms ue sucagoes-seaomsosc mo aoms-cisioee aomsamo aomsa ie-seaoms Wecse  iesga o ie oeacoese cagoescou s []eyes [3C5 [5Suo cMacs [31]a asigou[ scSie a uuiseai aacs a esseiay a cs aom aeico []we cse  coio eme oye uuiseai aom awe cse was e cs aom caeEecoMamio[]We  ese aoiew oe aoms we cse  ea a cois secowi ouaso oucices3 Oiew oSecMac ai Aoms ue w e ous mac ai aoms woe coes musueo e  tr (ao caee  ft e    a e    Aais a scic ece oioaoais use i e csssucas e comaa g  is agaioe me oe w e u sc e Aie is a coecooas a scic esemewe may  ca ies acoaiioaoaue com a was agaia e me oe w i e as oeie a "Com" a ""e 1 sws emes oe iese ie is a  agaie UseIeace com a me seco ie is a  ocessi  awas ao  me i ie is a  e UseIeace com a  Sya css is e coecooies aa   e same cagoemeeacw ie 1 cou   a icuoc om ese iesa commeecou  caasuggesia g  s  a scic oc(i e csssucas wiie Moa g siIis emeeas o"Com" a "" a useec e css  Mo15e 1Emes oies useca a commeeCom Ie 1 UseIeace mIe   ocessi mIe 3 UseIeace Scomesucas e  oe g caao  use o e asec e css oa g Mac ai aoms eiw ey usee es oe as  eca csse sois suecoos scio oe ous aoms we cse eaCou sCou s is aie oa -seaac[]e ia  a -seaacis  i a oseoseaccss ascs aoas maas ssieies iacsse cou s aom cois oe caooa seosweac is e couoo tt ais associawi a icucssAsime eme osuca  is "Ie  is e Mac OS ao a is euseieace comee  su  assig Kei"s eacoe csses a coucie owi mae a oe as a oe ies a css a gae(i a e as oes a ewi Kei o oe as is secas aaece seoi  ftn   []Ioewose a is eaow we icos was i acss oe ieIis emeimea i w we e a s  i aa  s Kei as oose o oe oeA commo ke e ocmewou co  mucioaoas iwou ke aeaie s wi oemeswas e me oa scic com mig como ioaoauwc assige e  is i  ogssi ai aeces ie oeoioaogaiuia oe as oe ies e css  euse As aoe aeces wi  cessa i e csse  r r prcique is use ca e smaes ssie e cssceeouwos  i mo aeces a usi a iooe ies e css ea w we e u coecy cssies aiee seoiesuseeaois seasi io ca e Ioewosa  is i usia sueoe s  Kei a e mai s a use ea ee  is sysmacay u mo  as wi w ioao1gaia e u is ea w we e  coecy cssies e sawe seasiu coies uie eo is mimiOe e us e csses  ege ey a ae aw   cssi ii yese yes is a osc cique auses yes  ocoioo i e o aaie s  a ceaicssemeie wo  dt  occu mo eque ie s soe m ae ssoe Seiis mo ke aa w  as e wo  dt  iesciosu  gi m  soeIuiyes  ss aisomei occueeque ie s eiis mo ke  occuie  (see Equao1rldr= (1EvMo ayyes s ss ae o aaie is ocssC giae ie / s ceaia es   (i  p(Clh f is eo ae ie is ocss  C (i  p(C  mes e o ae aes wi  ese es ie css is  C  (i  p(ffn  ICa oe oae as wi  e es o f^ fn (i  p(fl ^   (see Equaop(Cx p(f ^ fnICClf ^= ^ (fne aom is cae"i yes" as imakes e so assumiooiee oe asAugis assumiois e ima awoacaoiacce commee seoe yes o susi we a is eu   a maemacay ueasoe assumio[]ki e ieeeassumioio accou ces Equao Equao3 w / eses e seoai iesC1f1 fn ^  A (311Iouuse oe e yes aome a oes a seoeequey os ie swe is caa  oes wa es  o oe sis oemkwas e -equey oem []is commoy coecusi a ace esma[]17Cptrtnntn"dt"Y ^  OS I-  1gu  Eme oa cisioeeC5e C5 aom [5 cas a cisioee seoe as oe iesie ai se is aom e om e oe (wi eeioocousii ie a  moiecoeee as []C5 gi  i e  ftn   oeaca a sece a as e gseIoaogaiis a measu ow useaicua is ici eecssesAa wi a gioaogaiwi  gooascmi eee e csses sece a wi e gsioaogai(ae C5aom cas a cisio a ecues oe mai as oai sii oa e sues e ias esei e cssesA ecaois ma  owi e aia  uge cisioee seoe aes oe iegu sws aeme oe oa cisioee causi C5 ci  wc assiga e gu sws ae C5 aomcse e Com a as e ooe eei oe e oCom-o oe s is owe Ie Com is Yee  is assigSusa Ie Com is  ee  cisiois ma seoe e oe OSaa so Suo cMacsSuo cMacs is aaom ais amo sc eaccss a euses ese mo  ece css ow iesom e i-oew oe Suo cMacs aome eies esia mui-meiosce  e asemeieies  uasee ies a aceia umeiosceaccoi  eia esS wos  i e mamum mai1Em A- ^ St St(?Em CC  Spt gu 5Suo cMacs aom agya(seee e csses iis mui-meiosceA ais use i e suo cscic ies om eacoe csses iescee suo c a euse ca a aequaosc eacoe csses  sei e su oe equao a scic esucas oausi e as es  i e cos oe equao  cssi a wiee ies a es a uggeio e equao eaccss ae essu iicas e eccssCoie agy moa gu 5e a o gacc emsEms A a  a age a scic ua isce (i e aEacoe ems ow scic ssysms (i e iesaceaisaco-ois (i e as Sie  ems wa as muci as ssiee ua is sucaes come a cse eacoe o ies as isssie (i e ua is a mamum mai  is uaiis suicieoy  kw wcssysms a cses aua (i e suo ce co-ois oeacoe ssysms a is ua a use  aequaoesei e i oeacemWa w ssysm is scoe equao a use i  wcem e ssysm sEecoMamioEecoMamiois ai cs aom aguesses ae o- aaie s  a scic cs(i cssa ei se guesses uia mamum g-keooe oes is ac e aomcois oo sguessi e oes (i eeco a mami eeeckeou ie eous s(i mamioImagi e is a seos awe soe o we kw w soeeacAs we  kw  wccs(i csseac19 swe a goi  i e o aa  s  a ceaics(i was soe a icuwe we  kw weo siois eieoe o csso we esma e meoe o ooeaccs(i e mea a sa aoasami o (i e oiooe s acame om e sguos is esmaoome is e eecos We  use eseesmame  i e o aa  s  eaca ecom e g keoe me (i e keoawe u e g me is sis e mamios We euse e comcss oes  esma e me e  io We coie is cycuie g keos iasemo aa sma amousucas 11 oa moioO way  ew is ocess is awe ace e s io asi csa ease a e s uiey a io csasigoue asigouaom is aie-seaomao kwas a  ao-mAs oose e oeaoms iwca ois icome o aaie s  a csse asigouaom uses aoe ies  make a eco e aom makes e eco coma w ie  a oeies (oesea iesa i e eousie wcis cses i e css oe w ies asigouis euseas e w ie eccsse se eeo ies is uusi a se meic scic  e seoas3 o oCicesWe cse  iesga -seaoms a cisioee aomscause we -e aey  some simi  e aso use iage imaki e-oeecisioemewci w  assiga   e iagemayuse a  sucas "Ie com is UI a e OS is Wiows eassige  S"-seaoms a cisioee aoms asome simiemea cisioee ca eio a seoswe ey  su ees e seos ge a -seaom   caa ss comeee equi cisioeeAos cus o asi  aaes  o cago wiouga e eecoe  ooecagoesIcos cisioees aem  i s asuiseea csses[] Aec oese o aom s is aa cisioeeis a waac cssicaoa s is a om-ucssicaoaacy-seaoms a cisioee aoms eom e oecseagoms iaey  aie a  moiecoeee asoe cagoes []We cse  iesga e cou s [] aomas ioces sime s sucas e eme giaWe cse e C5 [5 aomas iis coio oe scisioee aomsWe eao ao oe e yes aome is a muimiaaoa e seco is aimeay uae ao We eae i-meay uaao iesga e use oaaom ais kes aaageoe ow og s io e g siWe eaa muimiaaooi yes cause iwas useieous wo  auma g assige [19] acom assige []a us oa weus i a mo ai-a aome aom is cae ltl  cause iuses a coiegeas (i wo cous ese e sWe eaSuo cMacs cause is esw  eec  cagoo[33] a eous wo ao iicaaimay  a goocice []We cse  iesga e asigouaom as io euseieouswo []a is esea oie-semac ai aoms a ecom a mo ause a oe s comso ywe iesgaEecoMamioas iwas suggesieous wo as a way  oome emioosuisemac ai aoms aqui s  [19]Ce3An Appr tCrtAtdOuaac assis g  iage is  o a e ocommee agui e iageimaki commoe-oeeiage cisiois ceeses ouiage-assis commeecaoocesswcwe  as Mage(ia mac ai aac ca iage-assis commee We -gi esei aoiew oe aac we sw w we useo  oe-oeecisiocommee a commee   e aoac We eese w  use Mage  ca commee wcoccom   e  agai1 a wcoeocmem may  iesii ioeoces  e We co is cewi aoiew oSia weseice auses commee ca ouaac o e-oeecisiocommeao  iage w use e ga issue acki sysm3 Oiew oMageAa g e caooa commee assiswi e-oeeiagecisio is saigagu 3 sws aoiew oe ocess som a ocs issue acki sysm a aumacay sec scic eces ocae ft a coecom e secs; s wi simiasa guuea  l e iicas e cago o   wce ase ec a  a e a suisemac aiaom a a commeea scic e-oeecisiois ca As iCe1we wi  suca commeeas  x  We commeeis aske make a ecoa w as a ecom e w  a  e commee wcos a soiaiage ca assis1Wiouss ogewe use ga igy uguousciooouaoaca e cacommeeai is ocess  ca e  OMg ^ ass Issuesi Mac aiAom commeegu 3Oiew ocommeecaoAuge o aacis saigaai e aaciacceis comeas seiecisio mus ma  ca e commeeScicaysiqueso mus awe1 Wcs om e si su  use ca e commee w ma s su  use3 w su e s   Wa e ?5 Wcas om e s su  use Wcmac ai aom su  usegu 3 c w e queso imcouo aac b? ^ Whh bWhh pt%11%1i g ^ asIssue ssiMWhh Alrh[-_==Mac aiAomcommeeWhh ?gu 3Queso   aweica a commeeA simiocess awe ese queso ca use ca e  OIca use ca a commeeasugges wcsu  assige si soi a icug (aassige commeeo   Ica use ca a commeeasugges wcoccom e su  agai(a com commeeo  Ica use ca acommeeasugges wcocmem may  aiesii ioeoogss ma was e sooois g (aiescommeeo iscescs iiw  a e o ocess  ca ese e so  commeeWe ese oessie commee aca caiSeco3We Mage iay ca a   We eiesgawMr  ges  oe   me  a   is ceos a asis oawe  e queso   mi e iesgaoowcsasa aom  use  a  As some oe queso qui eemeao awe we ouaacusi  om e Ece aoa  ocWe cse  use ese ooc  as ey  e e commuesma occomsa  a e seos ai a commee ese cices we eusi  e oc (see Seco1We u aMage cacommee wi gecisio(7  9  gca (7  9 a - wi mo  gcas ( 7e maieois cescs w ese e s oiage assiscommee a causi Magee sciooeaccommeecaoocess is seuw e siqueso sca a awe3 A commeeA commee ( os e iagewi suggeso owcoc5 su  gie si osoi e  seoscaioao emewa iageemis a w suiea   cousuggese  w  e cessa eeise  e scoemIacce iis ssie  awee queso ca a  ( commeesequeiay e  eiieo We e  sc e awe  equeso sequeiayeese e awe ia maeamimis eieeiesce os aeeie e eiei a  Ia cau awwwce  (e//3is a weowsea ca u a wwwoa/oc/   (e//iouss ogee oc awe iesga a usee ga issue ackisysmAs eiiSeco e coes a -cyc os a  simiacsse issue acki sysms5A prt d  is aiiaacos  a oc soi gs oime-mei as3 Wcs?Ouaacquis sec g s ao ioaoauw a occagos i sa commeeis mea sec e s ao ioaoaue oems eacs soeoe as aey  imemee As scusseiSeco aa gimomeeaciaissue si is aa e i ie  -cycSome s wi ia ssucas e UOIEoWaes  ii wc  ekw soe icus ooems oimeme ceaiasAs a suwe ig ese s wca a   cusi iaos a eeieassig a osoeAs e aacca a   uses a suisemac ai aom(see Seco3 iis cessa aa s ie ai se Wee  e  se mo s acao (see Sec-o3 e  seis ao  mo s aa wi e meso w oucique em   ac co  e ocaasuicie  waa commeao(see Seco33 w Ma s?e a seways  i e quai os om wc ca a  O way is  use a quaisucas e  mosce sweis s o saaagese is ae aia me   kwiaaee seco is ae oc  e quaies osSomeoc may  a e-csequaioiey  e s may sa me o sucas seyeaiasi e keoousi ooo ioaoAeway is  use a eage oe mos ie issuesiwe is sue om e same oems ousi a quaioc wi a e mos oo  may  usea oc wi asma mose may  suicie   aie commeeAeae s ca secseoe me oowceyoccue sucas e s awe soeie ssimois cique  secos e aaage oo some assue ocey oioaoWe ke e eaaca use s om e eous eig-mome oca a   is me ame was cseemcay usi  om e Ece a oc a aea   aia oeoc (see Seco1 we isme ame wi  oe scic oc some oc may  eieig mo yes  a suicie quai os  ca a  e 3 es s om e Ece a oc useS  E Ece Oc1 May 31 1 Se 3 3 Wcas?Ouaacquis auei owcs a simi eacoeso awe caa e kis os cay soe eac Ie coe omac aiis quime as  cki as  cc a s wi simias cae guAs sciSeco1eac coai a suiaamou oiomao Ouaacuses e o- summa a   scio cceac as ey uque sc a soes a emaeas ICAe  o e  a e  iicas a use we caa a mac ai aom  e ee-  u ie summa a scio e  mus coeeio a a c We w a sa  cagooaac[59] omo a swosaac ke [Augsmmi7 is aoy use we cse  usesmmi cause eaiewo [19] iicaai eec e mai wosa use ca a a ciica e equey oe s ie Weea e equeies seocume (i i-cumeequey a iecume equey [53]Ia  occu oe ia eiis ke  occumo mes ie same [53]Ie  sciois is caskew e  sio acssa e sWe e a a  equey  cume   (t   e  equey ie  (  e squa ooe squa oe equey acss a e s (see Equao3=   (3I11 (e i-cume equey (ao kwas  tfrn   w oea  occu wiie sciooe We a e  equey ki e g oo us e equey o i i (Equao3 We  isso as wi ecous (w ioaocoe  mi s wismaecous (gioaocoe We a o  e  equey so ae wos a owos sucas   a  wc coey mea7Smmi iies gmmacaao oa wosucas ee eei a eeaea em as a i e same wooaocou is a measu oa a a  suiseee cssesa comes e ii a s aoccu oo mesie ewo ccoai ees a s ie seos [53]t^ = l(1  i ^ (3e iecume equey   e equey  wcs occuacssa e s use ai   (i e ai seWe a  is equey soas  scou s aoccueque acss muie cumesemesaoccuie ia oa  sciosucas ose ie se "S oce" wou co ioao suiss aa wie me oo e  com iecume equey a  weke e equey o i i ( a muiy i e g oe mos (7 oe mos coai  i ( (see Equao3^f, = f l (t  ^ (3Aeis ocesse a ca  coai aequeyes eacoe wos u ie summa a scio oe ai s3 w  e s? aie    i ca we e o a seos aa wi eme oe w was eieassig e  ow soei Ageis sseems iaas iseems oious  use e e oe  assig -   eie we e oem is is sime cause oc   use ess  a  assig -   es oa  eemei e Ecea oce e oe  assig -   e es iay  a scic a assig a u emaiass  ey a assig aaca9 s wi a iasoo sucas icaos wia ia sucas ci e access moeoa meo e  assig -   e isoeceIaousi e  assig -   ewe use ocscic uscs  esese uscs ca eieom ckwe oa ocs ocesso emi e gs oa om same os e oc We ok e eaace Ece a oc sui ia seouscse 3sws eme uscs e Ece ao a oce  seouscs usee ous oc awe iesgais oiAeiA9 Ece a use e ga issue acki sysm a a useme ie gasysm is aemaiasse 3Emes ouscs use s wi mesEce Ia  is soeas    iwi wemaee  assoeI a  is soeas    iwi wesuiee saoIa  is soeas  ICA iwi wesoee owcis  is a icaIe  was soeas   e ow e  awas assig i a  o -se e gee cao Ia  is soeas  WOS-E iwas mae e iagea iis uwwcwou  eassige ias ussiae3 Wc A  iw  e swe  ci wc a owccsses wi  commee e seo is iom e seoai swe  e  ca i e seoai s muse e sie is  mo s aao occuie seosusese mo oese s is oy  ie coe oeeaooe commee commee use iageese s wou mo e comoe 3 sws e mos e Ecea ai se  a ee  comsws e mosmocause ey ao occuie seos usesWe ao e es acao cssie e  uscse i comoe 3sws e moussiae se Ece oc oy 1oe sie  sea ussiaeIcos 39oe s a ussiaee  a e oio(3oe ai s i maeas  WOSEWO IA  oe ica oa  W  g A s mai aee e ca  We w i e seo  mo s om e ai seaa wi e meo w  ewo oe oca  w  oy asma mogsWe mo e ecause iis use comme aw is  eaie assigeWe ee ecause wewis comme ocmem w  a moaeeise wi e oc maki sigca coo  e oc We use e uscs eoc(Seco3 i a s occoo wcwe ca es  tl We use a s oe s ac  ie seo w waa commeaomese ki os a cay ieee a iagea iis uwwcwou  eassigsi ese se 3Si o se ai se a s seuseocess s mo aiSesSeEce 73 37 9(1 7 (1 5 15 759 15  (39 1(17 333  i aaia swe eae eecocosi eac ss oe ecisioa ca oa    usi  om e Ece aoce commee useiis eaowe causi e assiga soes om aeig-mome o(see Seco3  uscs(see Seco3 a e Suo cMacs aom (see Seco3 We eee ac s e a ie ecisio ca a measu oecommeeEquao 3 ug3 sw w ecisio caa measu acau i ow ese es a iis e Seco1n =  rndnd   prrtrndnll = pblrt v  (prn x rl=   ^ (3prn + rle 3 sws e eecoous ac os ocommeaoese o oce comeses e ac s awe ei om  s  eigees oe mosce e moe o com sws e mo coiac e Ece a oc wusi e gise o com ese e o ecisioa ca oa    causi e gise e iese com ise ecisioa e seco is e ca e e eses e sus o   ocommeaoeWe com e eecousi  oi s om e mosce e moa e coo e mosce e moe me ame oe mo was cseseoaemiooac os om e o oc si e ooa yeaa oei ama  aea come ic mo ae mo eouse 3 sws ausi e mosce e mo mo ( a 133(37 mes om e Ece a  sesc a ausi a se oaage oo soomoe e mo aocee momes aaio (39 a 1 (31eacocscGiae ecisioa ca es  sigca ce as ese iscussiooe es oecisioa ca is e Seco1 w ou  eaooce is ei prrtrndn (3(3e 3ecisio ca a measu wusi o e ecisioca/ Ece  Ece o 373 151 /1/ 75/13/1 i3 mo  1 /1/ 75/13/As MoO3 mo1 119  /1/ 713/  53 /1/ 713 5  71/ 713/   71/ 713/5 35  /1/ 71 33 3 /1/ 71mes a uiicas aaaia seo  comme is iuis  cois ausi e mosce e mo is aia ac oAoas e is  sigca ce ie oae oe commee ae ee 1 a 1s ie mosce e mo wou  asoe; wecse aage e oe soo oe ce e mo as e seUsi is s e eou5oe Ece s a 17oes om ou se(see e comoe 3 As we oeeae Ece uscs a mos wi e u usemes (i e usemes sewi "ao" we ao mos wi ese wcmoaaio5oe Ece se so com oe 3 sws e sioe ai a s se e Ece a oce ssecoisoe soes om e moowi e  e usee ai sewcaimemeaoeeise seca i3 WcAom?e a a e omac ai aoms aca use ca a iage-assis commee(see Seco3  i aaia aom  we eae eecosie aoms  ca a    e Ece a -oc sce aoms we iesgawe i yes [3SuocMacs [31]C5 [5EecoMamio[]cou s []aasigou[3 We cse ese aoms as ey coe e cagoesosuisemac ai aoms []a EecoMamioos aeme ousi uuiseaiWe e e use oioeme a-i aoms []cause ioeme ai cuses oai as es e1 pltn ptt  is a so w we e  e cessa eese  soe a See Seco1 mo i13e imemeaooe aoms was o e Weka mac ai a 3 (wwwcs aikac-wekae17//3was we iesga ai om scaWe ca   usi e e mac ai aoms a ieecisioa caAgai e scioow e ecisioa ca is iis e Seco1e ecisioa ca oe commee causi sioe seagoms is eseeie 3As e seaomasigou s aaiomee moigou  coie 3 sws e eci-sioa ca is aome asigouaom we ee useoe asiea e  a ey asiesa   we aiesia commeeas gecisioas we wou ee commee oce a sma so wi e g eeise as oose a commeeaoces a scoai a  wi e g eeiseom e es wesee ae Suo cMacs a e yes aoms oce   ae gsecisiowmaki o commeao we wmaki o omo commeaoe Suo cMacs aom gey os a gecisio We e cse Suo cMacs as e aom ca a  1 e mai awe ca e    we e same as i e ac s (see Seco331e 3ecisioca a measu oa    wusi e mac ai aomeco i ayes S C5 EM s Ece  Ece  Ece  Ece  Ece( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (1 71/ 71 71/ 75/13/ /1/ 57/117 35/1 11/1/ /1/ / / 517/ / //3 / /17/ 31/ 13 /1/ /9/13 /3/ //31 /3/ 51//33 /3/ 35/19/ /1/ 11/3/5 / /11/15e 3ecisioca a measu oa    wusi a asigouaomeco k = 1 k = 5 k = 1 k = (eccEce(ecc(eccEce(ecc(eccEce(ecc(eccEce(ecc1 51/ /7 51/ 13/5 51/ /5/ 53/1/ 37/5/9 / 19 59/1/ 1 57/ 17/9 51/1/ 3113 59/3/ 13/7/9 / 11/5/7 55/ 19/1 5 3119e 3Awe  e siqueso Mage wca a com com-meeQueso ^ AweWcs? ^ Assiga soes a usew ma s? ^ s a coecom aeig-mooWcas? ^ e summa a scioa usee a-sw   ^ s a  e e oe  come ie Wc a  A com  a coiWcaom? ^ e Suo cMacs aom is useca e commee3 A Com commeeIaissue acki sysms e oc a oegu e o wce  ai e ga issue acki sysm   ese gusas  t  A commooccuee wi og sies15 is as asuieuea u comsucas  Ge  is sus ie s eiee   gu iage ocausi a   assigw may  e cessa eeisessiy causi a y ie soooe Asoo is oem is  o e iagewi a com commeaosoae  ca coecy emewe iageemis aw suiea comcommee ( cou o e commeao owcoccoms e su  agai Ie ocmem a io ams seoe occomsea    ca eweas sugges wcocam  assige As eous meio we u amosoe awe  e queso weiom     ca use ca aeec  e o awe aeis w   a ia w  a i e 3sws e siqueso a eisc awewi e ees iawe omca    gigeAs a  wi oy   o occomwe a iesikwiw we e commeeis aoci acoeccommeao We e cusoca oecisioa    Usi Mage we ca Ece a wi cas o9 a 79sc e commeaoi au iSeco115We use e    b r   sies iwcao wi a giasswo casa w  ocomme uaes 33e 3Awe  e siqueso Mage wca a iescommeeQueso^ AweWcs? ^ Assiga soes a usew ma s? ^ s a coecom ae mooWcas? ^ e summa a scioa usee a-sw   ^ s a  e mes aea ie ccsoe Wc a  Oy mes aoccuoeeomo s acoiWcaom? ^ e Suo cMacs aom is useca e commee3 A IescommeeIis commoaa  wi  a soiia w wa   ewace is ma  a is sis maiaiie ccsoa g ea a e oaso asomeo wou  iesices  a Ie eses a oeme iia may  eoue e oem a wa kw we oem is  Ie iiais a e oc eymay  iescause ey a woi oa g wcis g is ocki eiogssAeasois aa a mo seowou ke  keeoe wo oa ow  is meoysome ocsucas Moaw iage  assigs  se assig e siecce is use io  os aey may wa  1Aiescommee(-assis e iageici wcoeocmem su awa oa Agai we seca a    wi e awe i e o  We u awe e ce w ma s we sec w a ia w  a cse e 3 sws ese awe wi eees eee awe a    a a gige Ie sois secowe o mo i auese e ees om a  As wi  11  /i/ we a iesie commee a gcae Ece a ocMage cas /=([ wi cas oa sc secommeaoe scussioow ese ca es aacceae is euiSeco1Uike    a  commee w s a gaeom a ooeigmoa  we use a ooe moe asois aa si  caoce ma ai iesWas s a assig o a ocome ccsoa  cacoaimuie meseacoose mesa1eocommucaowi Moa  //3co oe  is caa aceie ai se Iaeig-mome ois use icasu ia  e ai se(e 15ies ouse awou ke a ocs wa souesa e commeewou kea  me  ai Aouike e oceeise aa    causaiiasiesia icuoem oseooems is mo ke  ei as eiiesss  mo essi maeUsi a e-moois mo ke  cau ecue iesoe iia a eieiiesAs wi a   a mes aea ie ccsa aia commeo Oee ccsoa  coai e me oaiiaw oy aeaoo oo oes as ey a cy aec e oemAs e is   aue iesosuciiae commeecaoocess caoca a goomooeigeocies We use a s oe momes a me occu  i  i aaia s we oeaeemew we ee s e a a oecices e Mage ocessuse ca   As oose a    w we we iesicommei a smaseoe g oea  we a iesicommei a oe g oeIoewosa   we we iesia gecisio a a ///we a iesia gcae ecisioa ca a com com e commeao e ccsoe ssAs wi a   e ss assiga soes awom e mosuccee e ousee ai see 3 sws e sus ousi e ss i e seomes om wc comme ies As we a iesii ie com-meeis sugges a oe iesiiawe  e ecisioa ca secommeaoAgai e i ow e ecisioa ca we iis e Seco1We we ue  com e ecisioa ca e case w  sis usee  memo coais7 Gie e mo (1om wcese commee sugges iis uasuca commeewou  oaccause cause wi is momesma oe mes wou   w aiies a wou oce ae iesmoAs wi e ac s a   we agaisee s ieage ecisioa ca e iess We e cose use e mimas oeeca a /i/17We eoueOuemo eeio wusi a G ae eeme35e 3ecisio ca a measu wusi ccses Ece mes ca/ecisio mes ca/ecisio s 11 -/-/- 119 -/-/-15 s 5 /13/ 1 /15/ s  /13/ 7 /15/35 s 37 /119 57 /15/ s  /119  /13 SiAImemeaooe Aac ee eemeaowi mag iagewe iegouiage-assis gcommeaoaacio a weoe ga issue acki sysmWe cou cseaeieaceas e oc we emia usega a i weieaceis cice was accaaemi  aces g iageWe ca ouoSi1Sicois oo sa ck-e aos e commeao aa o-e aiegs e commeao io e wege oe ga  e o a ck es oSia imemeeas Ac mca9 se3 Sick - ee Sick-e os commeao seoe  summa a sco Sicoai us o  commee1   -  wcsu  assige si osoi is    - wcoccom su e   agai Ie occom s sucomsSiao commes wcsucom e su  agai(3   - wcoe oe ocmay  iesii ke u oe ogss ois e commee a caas sciSeco 3  3We Sio-e ques a ki ocommeaoa scic oc e aia c-ommeeis aio memo ie (oaiauacommeeesa use e commee a uai usi a  c  e cwoa a ss iaai s om e eous ey-uuasese s  e es ai  om e ssemoa eis1 b  is a oess oe aie wo19Ac mcais a secoaiaimemes e  Sea Seecgiesa ca u a mcac (e19//Mo ioaoaue sucom commeeca u iSeco3Siis imemeei a commee a sas seaoec oe see3e occommee ca e ucommee e Ece ockesama ee iy mis i oe mow s  ie e oc iok au aua a   ca a  a a  i ow ma w s e  ie Siuses eimemeaooSuo cMacs ie Weka mac ai a  3   ca e commee3 Sio - egu 3 sws a sceoa  om e Ece oc Siies ecommeao5 gu 3 sws e same  aeSiies e commea-o wi es ae gig e cesgu 3 sws aSias a owcommeao  e "assigg " (gu 3-1 e iages s e oioousie ogi   ie me oe  wm  assige Simakes u ucommeaocom commeao Siaugmes e es "Com" ow(gu 3-  iei u e com commeao ae oe soesA miis ieeaee commeao  suiseee commeao a e socomse sucom commeao a eseeia owais iseeaee com ow(gu 3-3 As a coms  sucomsis owis oy ieewe sucom commeecamake commeaoSimakes u e sucom commeaoe commeaois e iescommeaoese commeaoa eseeia mui-  (gu 3-Simakes u seiescommeaoWe ma e cices ow ma commeao  ese seooususoaacaeaooe ucommeeSee Seco1 e sus oeacaeaoo   a e acaeaosus    aeseeiSeco3gu 3 os aoiew ow Sios commeao  a iageSiwos ie owi mae a    we ae Si a e s wi Ece iage a aeiwas caa iage wou ici ie se we    ow iwou ke  ese ucommee is ocSo as  o e si see e iesc s a seco y eesueque  ie a caa a sigca amou ome  e come commeecaoocessie awwws aikac-mweka  e 17// gu 3 a gu 3 sw coeeio oe acaga ieace37gu mocog asoOgisoue u as/gsceigs/sw_ggi?i1937gu 3e ga ieace  Siies commeaogu mocog asoOgisoue  eaiegu 3e ga ieace aeSis ieee  comsucoma iescommeaoIA ques ew a  om e ocs ga si is ieeeieiages weowse a sc sce quesis ec eSisee e Sio-e as e ques e ocs ga si3 e Sio-e ceis e  ge om e ocs ga see Ieec e summa a scioom e  a ge e comsucoma iescommeao om e Sick-ee Sio-e ies e commeao io e  ge e Sio-e s e augmee ge  e iages owse            1            3      owse Si ocsi   GasemokeyEeiogu 3Oiew ow Siwos ce iages  ewi ques we use GasemoeyGasemo3keyis a eeioaaows e i ousecasc scs ie owse As  oe usecoiguooSi e iageis a gesc ac we iageis accessi a  om a kwga s-ia c e ques e Sisee e iagecaac e sc oe Gasemoey eeioaa me iey wa  use Si3 Summais ceeseeouaac ca commee  assise iagewie-oeecisio ( ca suca commeequis awesiiequesoA suiamoawe  ese queso a esame e e kis o   e awe  e e queso owcs usewas  usea waom  use maie same gass oeki o   e aoie commee is iw ma s  usew es a  a wca e We eseee i ow we usee caooa     awea  e ocessa useese sus  a eMage   ca commee e occom e  su  agaia wcoeocmem may  aiesii ma awa oe We u ais aacca   wi ecisio o7 a 75wmaki o commeao Ece a scWe u ausiMr   ca a    cacommee e Ece a oc wicas o9 a 79sc e commeaoywe ca/// Ece a wi cas oa scywe eseea sciooe imemeaooa weseice amaiage-assis commeao usi commee ca Mage/wwwases   e//39CeEvtng iage is a maiei ocess acoumes soues acou  eu-eew ie oc Iis sseaowe  icea mac ai-seiage-assis commeecaoaac(Mageawe esi cace maioeme e-oeecisio ie g iage ocessWe u e seaqueso  iesga is esis es Mage ca commee amake accu commea-o? IMage cas commee amake accu commeaoea iageeemi e  as ey as ey wou wioue commeoUsi succommee ces e iages  om maki cisioi oeiowkweeeeea iuiooawcey cagaiom es o  coii cisio ma  e commee  commee causi  Mage  ce e me ikes  iagea ? IMage commee ce e me ke iage sesome oe masoues coume e iage ocess ca cee-w ie oc is coosoues was e is esciayima oc w  ao  e  oiage e commee causi Mage  iage  make ecisio? Isome ociage is ga ose w  ye eoceeee  cois make coece-oeecisioWeo a mamo maioeme is cessa as o omo ees musassise iage coece miskeemeia iagemakes aioecassigee ioecy assigmusio e iageaa miske was ma a may   eie asoa  e iage e coec Ieiecasee s emo maioeme ie iage ocess aia ecisioema iesga we coucaacaeaooe e-oeecisiocommeea assige commee (  a come 1 Oiews oe  oc  useac eaooc iage ocess mai CoEce i ogmmi o 151 eese Weowse 3gcc i Com My i ogmmi o 13ga eese Issue acki commee (  a aiescommee (  Ouacaeaocosisoa sees o eemes w e commeao we com ecom sWe iesga a  uga e siwcumaiage om e Ece ocuseSioa umoo(seeSeco1 AAc Eaooe commee  oueaMage caoce goocommeewe acay eua  a  -  (caas sciCe3ug eemesusi  om  oce Ece ao oc e oc e gcc com-oc1 e Myoca e ga oc ese oc we cseasey sa e oiage ocesses a maisma  e m ocoa w (1y g( yg suissioequeiese 1 swse e meio e oce seco comcagos e oc seoeiiage ocessioeese e  comscse acaomaioe e oce ucomgis aesma3 oe mocoeacocseooueig-mo seIoewose moco a ocis e mosa e s iou se e sws e mimummamuma agemos suiei  eacocoe eig-mo ocoou se (see e 3 As meioiCe3we usee Ece a oc  MageWe  e sus a  oc iis secoi e  sus ease oeis secogi wi aoiew ooueaomeogye maiois secoeses e sus oouac eaooe e kis ocommee1Gcc is a coecoocom a ca u a www go/sowa/gcc/gcc  (e //yis a sk-cuseUI ug-iEce a ca u a wwweceo/my(e//3As ese es a seoouocuscswe caoy asse ais is aesmaeca awe  co meaaiiaacos  soue co oeoce   suissiosscs e  ococ  Suie/ yMi Ma AEce  1  1 1 3gcc   9My  15 ga  1 3e 3 es  usee ac eaoS  E Ece Oc1 May 31 1 Se 3 gcc A 1 3 My 1 Se 3 ga 1 Se 3 1 Oiew oAc Eaoocee gemeogy we use acay ea e commee was  aie commeeoe  om semo a euse e soes ome owi moas e s se We cse is aac eu a asc e-ao iacceo wou  usi a commeeawas aioe mosceioaoAs is caimac aiwe ea e oae oe commeecausi Mage  e measus oecisioa caecisiomeasus woee aacmakes a  commeaoa  (Equao1 cameasus w ma oe commeao aa  a acay commee(Equaoemea    e ecisiomeasus e eage ocom-meao oa wi  eeee  e oem a ca measusw ma oe  w e aia eeise we commee Asecisioa ca o comemea measusmeasu is use ess eoc meaoe ecisioa ca (Equao3e key ece oioaoicom  ecisioa ca is e seoaia commeaoAs is ioaois scic  e ki ocommeewe ei w we i is seeaccommee e aiaseco prrtrndnn = ^ rndnd prrtrndnll =  ^ pblrt v(1(e  ai a s sesis ea commeeoc  ai s s sEce 31 5 15 31 333 gcc 31  7My  3 5ga 11 799 5   (prn  rlprn+ rl (31 commeeEaoWe usee  om e oeocgccMy a ga ea e;  e  Ece a was use  e    ocess a is ocoee ee sws e moac e moai sa e mos s useie eao is  swsae gcc ocs a simimoac  as e Ece a oc (see e 3a ae Mya ga  w ac i e ImemeaoEeise Se ea a   we e kw eac ie ssewc oe ocmig  e imemeaoeeise  soe e Imemeaoeeise   eeise ie co se oe sowa oca is ei e ecisioa ca oa   e easiesway  i e seo wi imemeaoeeise a  is  ask aee ie ocWe  access  sucees so we uscs eacocseoioaoie soue siosiesSoue siosies g ioaoauces ma  e soue coeacme a sui co  a soue si (ao kwas ccki-iocommii e suissiog e is ous eces ome-ioao sucase  awas cckei i siom e cck-i a mea e cck-icomme ma  e oi e commi e soue si sowacaoce a oe g ees a scic We use ese soue si cck-igs  o ioaoaue imemeaoeeise oe ocais wc  accumueeise iwcs oe ocs coseWe cse  use soue si ioaoso as  imo e coucoou   eao Aois cique s ao euse oe e sameose []We  e seo w  imemeaoeeise a icu as e   pltn ptt Ca aimemeaoeeisesea  ioes e se sis  esise age eee  a e soue si- []oc ause o aauma is ageis sis iaUouis was e case e oc awe emi5 we eacoe oc es use e same age coeiooi e  iie cck-icommes esisa -soue co  we seae soue si gs e  ima coece mes oe coesi se sui sosoue s s e   t  e  [7e  sis  i e coai mo eacsoue  iece se e  ntnd may  e  ie osome gaacosucas i ckage ie case osowa imemeeiis scogs aimay  ueasc  emi se soue s oa icuwieeise w wo wi associassucas ose ie same ckageao  some oimemeaoeeise amay   a is eeisesu  scoue e  oc (Ece a Mywe usee ckageas e coai moe Moa oc (a ga we useesucom gccwe usee c iwce  aeae ssis  com a seo w eous commieces eacmois seis couc a e sios oeac iemo a usi e  1 []e  1 is a usc iwc 1oe soue si cck-ig a icue  coai e useme oe ow oee commi is use i w s eeise asoue eac ie coai mowe gaee mes oa usew  commiea ce e    e imemeaoeeise seaWe ecom e imemeaoeeise se a e s ie coaimo  ca e imemeaoeeise see g Usi is cique we i eace so w e imemeaoeeise  soe e Uouwe caocy useis s cau e ecisioa ca oe   As e issue si a souesies a si sysmsa is oeeseeieacsysm  eusemes [7]As a suwe   ca a mai eee usemes oe osysmseacoc we caa mai om e usemes ie issue ackisysm  ose u ie soue sie Ecegcca Myoc is mai is saigaas - w make a usuay  commiaccess  e sie mai e  ao oeeamai g s  e soue ces ca icuemeWiiams a iswowe oy ae   os  ces ie souesi e Ac wesee[]osome oce occoms a suiio sucomsa ga is mo cei cause ese oc use a ocess iwcsa ewea co7 musquesaeices  cckei a co-mieAs a sue ow ccks ia is  e oama e Icouc a usemes mai suca oc we assumeae owmaea  as soeis gey ao e ow cckeie  We emaee useme oe iiaamaee  as soe  a sousemes owse  ey may  commieces  e soue siUsi e cique omai og s  mes om e soue sis aima coequeeiosmas e seo wi imemeaoeeiseesciay oc sucas a ga w aaiomaiosoe   is e9 As e mioe ca u is e si ois se e comca e wi  weae ue ewe as isosmaooe  makes iss ke  miss a wi e eeiseis eeoie comca is coma a weeoiecomecisio Ioewosas we a usi aamaooe coecseo w  e eeeise a e is a measu oeoioucauooecisioa ca a   we e measu oeois ss e ecisiocauoae ca cauo is smaeamou oeoisima e couc oou   susas we uecisioocae a oeciques amay  use i e imemeaoeise sea g emee g o [5 aa  is ica useca suca se  i wccique was mosaiaweeaw we e g o cique a e soue si cique aaama e coecimemeaoeeise se[5]We u ae souesi cique was esuie eaooa   [5]suse 5 sws e  oc e si oe oom wccommeao aawa e age si oe imemeaoeeise s usee eaoe sws e sus oai Mage  ca a    e gccMyaga ocas we as e sus om  wi Ece a  gu 1sws a g oe ecisio ca a measu e commeaoeacoe  ocom e we see ae ocess cas commee wi g7A commieis a  ocmemas e iges cessa  commices  esoue siugis siaomay ao ewi e Ecegcca Myocwe oeeaiwas e eeioa e Ioewosmosces seeme  ema commie9Augis osmaocou a aaiciaiooe ecisioesoewo [5] sugges aa aiciaiowi  sigcae 5Si ocommeaooa age imemeaoeeise ssiEce  gcc My gaKw  5 31  11AImemeaoEeise sSi    3 3e  ecisio ca a measu e  commeeEce  gcc My ga( ( ( ( (1 75/13/ 71/ /3/ 93 95/1 //3 / /11 93/55/ 911/3 51//33 /3/ 711 /777 91ecisioa ese ocese ecisioes iica aa asoe siseocommeaosucas o oee sewi oecoaiaaia e ecisioe gccMy a ga oc is eaae Ece a oc ke cause oe smaee ams ese e ocAs oose e Ece a ocw e    makescommeao om y  y ese oc e commeecoseseesi(Mye(ga oiy-o  (gcc Wi a smaemo  comme omiis mo ke ae commeewi makea coeccommeao is is suoe e weecisiogcc  eoeo ocwcs ugy e   mes as ma  om wc make a commeaoCom e oeoce    Mys a  gcaWee is is a su ooueaomeogyOa e ocMys esmaesoo w mig  eeise a icuee osmaooe  wi imemeaoeeise a icuwi  ss a e eoie ca e wi  ss1 Com commeeEaoAs we sceaieiSeco3s ia g si a commoy guau e o aey aeca aoiasuissio s a oemiswi sc e commis secoeses e sus ousi Mage ca a com commee(oe  ocAs a  wi oy   o occomwe a iesikw-i w we e commeeis aoci acoeccommeao As e isoy o coecawe com e ecisiois eige; e ecisioocommeaowi  same as e caa e secisioacou  ace1ee  //wiki oao/MoaQuaAssue iage e//1% -9 -% -7 -% -5 -%3%1^r ^  ^ M ^ l^ ^ I ll ^ MrEgu 1G oe  commee e commeaoe o a e commeao wou  5 a 33scWe ecus oe ca oe commeea   ecisioe mocoms a si oe ai a s e eaooecom commee is swie 7 com e com commeescawe usee e oe s  com e as e  come e sws e sus usi Mage  ca a  eaco eocWe see om e e aiwe use e commeao(e w "1"ie e commeecoecy iies e com 5  omeIe com commeao a ma ee coeccom is iie75oe me oee  wos esome ocsucas EceaoeWe ee a o ke asoe asois ae Ece ocs e gsmoai s com (37soe ocCom is e ga ocwcs a simimocoms o-sioe moai s as Ece a s e wescaIoewosEce s moioaoaueaccomAeais may  a su ow is  e sImoss a  ocmemee  scio wi ke  simiigy ae commeewi  aeasieme i e com uaese 9e 7mocomsa si oai a s se comcommeeeaoEce  gcc My gaComs 1 3 33 11 1ai s 59  3 751 1s s 19 9 5 9 15e  ca e  com commeeeco Ece ( ( gcc ( My( ga (1  57 55 53   7   3 9 79 7  7sws e eage os om ou seawe suie ac We u aoe s ie ai see Ece commeewesuie ac as com 1 e oc i somesuo  is iawe  e Mya ga oc  a simimocoms a ai s com a yee Myocs a gca eougwe(39com  oe s a suie acIe may  ae gca Ece is a su oa comoo e gmoai s com a e geckgu oe e1 IescommeeEaoAs sciSeco3a  oecoaia soiia w a iesii ewa ce is ma  e is secoeses e sus usi Mage  ca a commeew mig  iesia icu (Seco3e 1sws e momes a e si oai a s se e  ocAs scusseiSeco3e ai s a keom e mosce e mo oouai  se(see e 3a e ss a awom owi mo We use e ccsoeacs as e seocoecese e 9eage oai s suie ac Suie Ac Ece  1gcc My 39ga e 1 momesa ai a s sesis iescommea-omes ai s ssEce 5 3  1 79 79gcc  11 5My 5 17 31ga 17 7 1e 11ecisio ca a measu e  iescommeeeco Ece((gcc(My(ga(1 /11/15 /13/1 1/59/7 // //31 // // // 1/ 33333 19/31/ // //53 13 3/3 17/37/ 19/33/ 35// 15// /53/355 1/ 139/ /71/ 15 /57/3 1/ 1/ /73 -/- //37 13// 15// /733 -/- //3e 11 sws e sus e i/ oe  oc u secommeo1 We cse  iesga e eseaoose   commeaoas wewa  i w ma commeao e  eseee commee  a goocaAs wi we uca oecisioa   (Seco3e  ie 11 sws ae    commee ace ca  oee 7 secommeao (o ie case oMyIoewosa  wi coecy comme ugy 5  75oe mes aaeaoeccsoe Coi aa ccswi oecoaimes oiia waeaoe ccso w s (see e 3 iseems ueasoe  eecagca e om accscommeeige We e e aa ca ee 7 is a gooe  eecom suca commee1 a  A a e couc oouac eaooe    is ouciquei imemeaoeeiseAs was seouse cique oesmas e mo w  imemeaoeeise a icusAugis imos e accucy oouecisiomeasumeies so ae eee oe oua  accu i e ca oe   As wewe mo iesie ecisiooe ca ois  ocommee we eais is a oemA simia e iea oe acaeaooe    is e11e My   oy  mes wcmee s ca o15 smai ousemes eee g a soue siesAugwe ma eaem  make coecmaisiis ssie asome oe mais we ieo1 Summa oe AcaEaoWe coucaac eao aweouseaqueso "es Mageca commee amake accu commeao?" a    we we okia gecisioa a  a a    we we oki a gcaWe u aMage caa    wi asoy gecisio i om7  9 ga a Mywmaki o commeao Weu ausi Mage  ca a    sueicommee acoecy iiee occom 7  9 oe me wmaki e commeaoyusi Mage  ca a   we u aiocea    wi caseeee 7Giae wi commoy  iia aaiesia a uw e commee we  ais ca eiicaa Mage es  oce a    aa accueouge ca wasgey gA e S oe commee esisacay aMage oces commee amake goocommeaowe couca e s  aweuquesoe oqueso we  a   commee causi Mage ce e me ikes  iagea ?  e commee causi Mage  iage  make ecisio?e oeo queso we auw we e commee woeiacce(a auo oe Sisigcices ( Wis e emcaoae ocommee causi Mmage?We wae com wee sus om e ac eaocoes e sus seeiacce Wis aaia mocommeao  ese  eiage  We wae i we maiage oug e aiamocommeao wou      a  51 S SuecWe ciiage om ue osoue oc as suec ouse uoc we ciom we Ece My a Eo esuec we aske use Sias  oeiaiage aces a ooe mo wi eiuse oe ogge Suec we cia ocwsgua ccoac ici ie ssuec we gia $ giceica aoi oksAs  oe usecoiguooSi e icis we aske aweackgu quesoaie queso askeoe icis a swigu 1 Wis youo [Acao QA/sogm c-  CIO/C  e Sysm Ieg AcaoAc ocMage ScuysissAs se Aisa Oe w ma yea oogmmi eeee  you ?3 A you a e oc [Yes] w   you woewi is oc5 w ma yea oiage eeee  you ? w ma u a week  you s iagi?7 w ma iage a e youcom ooc Wassig swca  you use? W is a  assig aicuogu   Queso e ckgu quesoaiOy iage om e Ece ao ocage ici ie esuiage om e UseIeace (UIam oEce useSisuccessi umo as  oeiiage esAuge suec we aske use Sie mois oimacca as iage  is amo e siocmemwi eacmemki a siweek e usuec eaey s aw om o  siu iiage  ei a aeiiage eeee e oceom soa yea o-a-o yeae  1sws e eoceeeeiage eeeea week me s iagi e e usuecois a oioaomageme ocom e  Gme oca is aiae  awwwme/oc/eo  e//51e 1 iage eeee as e iageocEeeeiageEeeeWeekiage meiageA 3 yea 1 yea(1weeks - 3 miss uiage  3 yea 5 yea 3 uiageC 5 yea O a o5 yea 1 uiage 1 yea 1 yea(1weeks - 3 miss 5 uS Meois secoos aoiew oe meo we use e e sWe gi sc e commee use e suecwe scuss w we moeiacWe eese ioaoaue quesoais we use coecous ckgu a qua ywe ese oiews oe quaia qua ciques we usea e coecS commeee iooSiuse e suec ous ocommeaocommeao  (  com commeao  (  sucom commea-o (3a ccscommeao  (e    use e suec was a com-secommee wcmakescommeao seoe com agaiwce  is (seeSeco1 e  a    use Siwe causi e same aacassciCe3e sucom commee( was casimi  sucomsuike com sigoa ee-  es eaa coiguee oy oeee eee commee usee acaeuaoa ose useie e s was e  e om wce s wecoec e e se eig mo os we coecsi om eeous y oe commeeuseemeie iagewas usi e com-mee ugSioa 1ee commee we aiwi oc om  May 1  cem31 oe eous yea A i sysm was usegaee w ai  a sa i skAs ac  was i coec ioccu aaassig coecoy cou  coecas a soe oa sueque y use e  wi emosce ioao s we gaeio e ai seie cogicaoe ai e commee Ioewose mosce iooe was use aie commee"e sucom commeewas oy acae  e Ece oca is scusseiSeco351 e mocommeao giwe[o maasoeo w] We muie commeao aia? [Yes] IYeswas cosi eeem easy oicu? [ easyasoy easyasoy icu icu] ease eiwgu 3 Queso e cisioquesoai1 w usea e assige commeao? [ use asoy use use es imake is  assiges? [Yes]3 es imake you coisomeo you mig  eous coi [Yes] A e a sysmac ees eeyoueeco a wwas com-mee [Yes]5 Iyou aweYes  Quesoease e  you  a commes auusi e commeegu   Queso e usage quesoai o a se- w  ikes a iage iage a e Sick-e sige commeaoquesas a cocase a ma commeaoUse we ioeois ae s oe s so as  susew commeao we maQuesoaisIaio e quai  coecuge use oSi e suec weaske come quesoaise we o quesoaise  quesoai was eseeocay  e suecs use oSia iqueso aue mocommeao eseea imuiecommeao we aia (see gu 3 ese queso we askeeaco  a   We  is quesoai as e  dn tnnr  isquesoai was esee e suecie weowseaee coe cee seco quesoai was eseeie weowsewe suec sumieeiac gs asis a askeaue suecs imessio ousie commeee queso    a swigu  e queso   a  we simi We  is quesoai as e  tnnr531 me smowa iageewea  me smoce quesa e ces  a  suie a iage3 e commeao ma  Sie e kis ocommee e oae oSi(a w   gee  om e ocs issue si see( w  Si make e commeao(cw   couce augmeege5 Wa quesoai was gi e iage e sus oe quesoaigu 5 Ioaogge SiMo oiage Ace suec useaaugmeeiooSias  oeiaiage ac-esSiwas augmee g sieces oioaoaue iages ac  (seegu 5 As  oe usecoiguooSi suec coee  is iaoggea we assiga uque s iicaomso as  keeeiii a gge amousSuec  access  is ggeioaoso as   ioeauwwas i coeca we aske e  suieiac gs weeke ggeioaowas coea moosesA me smowa iageewea  was coee ose oi w  iok e iage make a icuceA me smowa ce was ma ae coes oe ce ques e si seewe gge o e soe eioao i w  iok e iage make a icucesucas assig e   a  Aoom e ce ioao acoi wSicommeee  ae me e ce was mawe ie accucy a ca e commeee oae oSiwas ackeso as  i wiawe e cks ie seiceSicoewa quesoai was gi a we quesoais ses we i ie iage we skii e quesoaisQuesoai seswe coeasis i iaia m ocommeaowe i esee e iage Sicoeaiocommeao eaccommee e aiocommeao we euse o eemessimu Sio a emocommeao  Siggeu commeao a   Sicoeu sicommeaoa"We saw  ee oiage skii quesoais51 w   you iagee Ece UI com? Wocess  you ow wyou iage? w  you aace sk?3 W you  is e easiesa ess oiage?(aW you i wou  make e es ss cei?  e ukis ocommee ioeomosiesiusi  asiesiusi  youiage aces5 A e oees/ioaoayou wou ke  see commeao  Wwe youimessio oe Siogu  Queso e sSiusage ieiewse   Sicoeu ueecommeaoe iagewas oy sweiee u (  e  (  a    ose ( oese commeaoSuecIeiewse usuec we ieiewe gaemo ioaoaue ocs iageocessmo icommes auusi Sia  gaemo ioaoauoeways aiage cou  assis commeaoieiwoe oeiage we ieieweaeey comeeiiage  a e usseusi Si e me oeewe iageusee oae ieiew eom a w mo  cue usi e oQueso e ieiews we eiaae so as  cus e ieiewswe e scic queso aske eacsueceoe ow oe ieiewa e suecs eeee wi Si emeo suecwas askeaueiimessio ousi Siiage as ey yeusee oa suicie omegu sws e equesoMeo oQuai AsisWe useo meo quai asise was usei iecommee wo as we iacce as was iica e acaeao(We usee measus oca a accucye ca measu was e same as was useeous (see Seco1A measus ie commeema e coeccommeao eamea    is accu iicommes e oawas assig We use 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imemeeas  oe e s a weese  aacaa e eaooe commeeas was  e  f a    commee eseeiCe e oeo commeeeeo esmaocommeea e imcasis commee we oy ese aoiew ow Mage cou  use ca e commeee imemeaoa eaooese o commee is    wo3 Su - com commee e e se Ece iage quesaa sucom commee(  causi Mageey ma is quescause e com wcey iage UIwas io sucoms a assige ci-sio we seoe sucomis secoeses e sus oaacaasis oe sucom commeea sus om e use oe sucom e e se 5e sucoms e Ece ocCom sucoms ai sC 1 17g  17ime  33SW  35am 11 197 15 UseAssise  1UI 5 1e  Awe  e siqueso Mwca a sucom c-ommeeQueso ^ AweWcs? ^ Assiga soes a usea i-oseoe e oe com ew ma s? ^ s a coecom aeig-mooWcas? ^ e summa a scioa usee a-sw   ^ s a  e sucom ioa-oaea ie  summaWc a  A sucom  a coiWcaom? ^ e Suo cMacs aom is useca e commeeCa a Sucom commeeOe eigeecoms oe Ece oc eig coms sucomse 5 sws e mosucoms ese coms a e moai s a e sucoms oe comom e e we see ae mosucoms es om u(SW  y-si(UIA   is caia simiway  aoa /= (see Seco1 e com-meeis ca  e s  e e oe com e a caa commeeeac gu e 3 sws e awe  e siquesoom Mage ca a    wi e ees iawe eea    a a  gigee ocess oai e sucom quis eo As gaes  a ee sucomse Ece occoeiois sci e sucom ie summa  esi iisqua acesem-ea  summa si wi "[Wo      a g  e"Wo sucom (see gu 1s a e wi eisucom usi e usc oec e wos coaiie seosquaaces u ie summa egu mocog asoOgisoue u a ^ -s/gsceigs/sw_ggi?i1gu 1Eme oaEce  e sucom oe 7ca a sucom commeecommeao ca1  53 57Acasusca om Seco1 aa  wi oy   o occomSimiya  wi oy   o sucome same asoaecisioeso aaia eaooa   we oy ese e ca eaa  e ai s we gaeom e soes acou  wi a sucom om e me ame oOc  May Ous secoai7 swcwe e assiga soes oe Ece ocom   aa sucom sciee 7 sws e acasus sucom commeaoeEce oc Wi e commeaowe ace a ca o57 is sumea awi e commeaoe coecsucom was commeeso oe meGiae sucoms oe ocese a g oocoa e e is   ai  eacsucom com ausee oecommeeis su is susie S susQuai sus   e e s (see Secowe coe1 sucom assigesAs meioiSeco3Sioe sucomcommeaoWe u aiacce   oe coecsucomcommeaosue ( oe meCoi ae sucom a ss coaiae com  (i iis  easy  a a sucom ac a com e oecommee e csses e sucom commeee asamou oiis susi a   make  accu commeao9Ie cases w e sucom commeecou asoy ocoeccommeao a moom coio(i e ee cases w e euee w com ee accucy imos maiy 5is accucy aacs e 57accucy we iacayAs was meioiSeco as we  ioaoauwwase coecmosucom commeao  makewe cse  o ecommeaoas is was e same mocommeao we oe we as wi e oecommee iSi we ggemo commeaoawe esee e iage As wi    we coesicommeao iegWe u aie mosucoms commeao eseeeiseom e  si ae    wou  aimoiacce accucy aaccucy o55a 59scis su sws aewi uie mocommeaoe accucy oe sucom commeewouoy imo  ss aeQua sus  As was     a a cisioquesoai was gie iage e sucom commeesucom commeao  ses iicae iage  ae commeao was a asoe mocommeaowe eses iicaae commeao was o wWe e is su iske e  e w accucy oe commee e iage wae  e gcommeaoie sa eaiwas wew As wi e comcommee e iage iicaice ae we muie acae commea-oa aey  aiwas easy  ci eeemIe usage quesoaieou o oe iagee iagecommeeas u      use3 Eo EsmaocommeeSome ocsucas oss ack e eo qui gs a a as ie g si eous wo  Wei a coeagues eseea cique esma w  iwi ke  a g (a e-oeecisio seoeo ioaou ie g s [] comme w  iwi ke a w ey use e asigouaom a com e summa asciooe g sUsi eiaacoy 3 oeieco wewiia +5 e oacaeeoIeec Wei ea usea ugiooMage  use Mage  caa commeeaesmas eo  (  e siqueso wou  aweas swss is a acaosee aie a  ossom/ossas   e1/3 oe oc awe emiackeg  eo auo ackwe aeiwo was mo ouMage wo91ie 3wi e ees eeawe a    a a    gige ecaoa asis ois  o  is  as  woe  Awe  e siqueso Me wca aeo esmaocommeeQueso^ AweWcs? ^ soes a usew ma s? ^ s a coecom aeig-mooWcas? ^ e summa a scioa usee a-sw   ^ s a  eo  e eo es(e 1 uwou  scio  sucas  1 u 1-uo 1 yWc a  A eo es wou  coiWcaom?^^ e Suo cMacs aom is useca e commee3 ImcAsis commeeA commoe-oeecisiois  pt    wce seosoues ae  accesse a u oimeme a a a i[7 71]Cao a Ce useaioaoiecique i imcasis og s [13]Ieiaac ey ec om  ss a souesi gsAeocessi a ie e seisysm ea sossie s  ce see  oa w Wi eiaacey we ae ecimcsoue s wi a ecisioa ca o3 a sc i a g   e soue s imc e Mage couca a soue  commee (  e 3 sws e awe  e siMagequeso suca commeewi e ees eeawe a    a a  gige e caoa asis ois  o  is  as  woAssisCoiguoocommee Oes-i sWe e aemes oouassiscoiguoaaccaao a  com-mee i oekis osi aicAs o eme mmeaa coeagues [71] a Yi a coeagues [7  oseaacs a giaseosoue s a is ecomme oes ae sucoici seoco-occuees oces  ese s coeie souesiese kis oaacs ao qui coiguo sucas i wcaaco  e soue si  coiwmai co-occui cesSim-9Wcaom?Wc a siqueso Mage wca aimcasisAwesoes a uses a coecom aeig-mooe summa a scioa usee a-ss a  e mes os aweuc e A  mes cou  coi Aaea- is  use ge oiesioao sucasMycoec sice   e mes os awe mosima e [35]e Suo cMacs aom is useca e commeee 9Awe  ecommeeQuesoWcs?w ma s?Wcas?w  i e aacusei coo a    (see Sec-o5 a siog oe si oaaco cou  esee e use aiicoigu a  commee ese aacs cou ao  eee e usecoigu wckis oaaco  coi simi e  gusec-o   coiguo(see Seco5 As o emee aaco cou gu a seowee aaco soesimioems seogsimia cc a ugkeywo eco a esee euseseco5 Usi commee  Auma iage cisioI Magewe eisioae cacommee wou  useiasemi-aumaso e iagesec om a seocommeao eaa oaumacay ai a commeao Ouo is aimaki a iage cisioe iage aws okwe ais cessa aie  e commee emewusi a commee sugges wm e  su  assigsoo e iagemig cose om e seo e ocommesseosuckwe as e cue woaoeaccommee w isocao ooeioaoawas aie ie g si a us aie  e commeewe we u asome ocMage caca  ( wca geugecisiooca aimay  ssie  use e commee eieauma ceaie-oeecisio oas  oe  suissioocessemee    e Mya ga oc ecisio a9is mea as ese oc cou  assigaumacay wiw eoWe ao u ae    a  oc we a 75e93commeaois eses e ssi o e suieoe g secom e occom commeao iaoe eseseee issue acki sysmocsucas Ece aow s a iagewiie am a icuo e   e suiemay ce emomiscssies ae iage   emiwe mo s oe imco  commee oe iage ocess is eUsi aImeay UaAome aacwe ese iis sseaoai e cssieusi a seo;a e  is gaegeea  e mac ai aom so aecommees a come ew oa e ai  Icos aimeayuaaom oy ews e ies oe ai  o aa me a ecssiemois uaaccoi []e a o iaaaages  usi aimeay uae aome is ausi aimeay uaaom mimics w ioaoowsi a ae a g sie seco is ausi aimeay uaaom aows e cssiemo  caoe yAs eiiSeco3e Sicssie a ua ocay woa w ai s a ai em  e seos  useaiWe commeeis ai a e  is eseee aom ae same mee ocess ua ce-si commee wou e same; woae w ai s a ese a e ai s aom ia  e w cssieis aio a ema ac wai s come A cssieaiwi aimeay uamac aiaom es e use ao ai ocessAs wi ua e aicommeew s wou  woaocaywee scou  iegio e commeeas ey a accesse is may su iecssiei mo si  occes sucas e aioow ooccomsgu a gu 3 os a ew oe oae oaimeayua yes aom  ca a    w e s a ae e c-ommeeicogicaoe We cse  use e e yes aom oucomsoas we  access  a imeay uae iooSuo c-Macse commee a eaaey w s a ae ecommee gu coms e ecisiooe imeay uacssieEce a  e ecisioa ca oe Ece a    causi e yes (see Ce3 eae e gus comso As eecisioe   yes    wou aeaas a ie gwe 9e 1 ecisio ca a measu wusi aimeay uaeyes aomeco  Ece( (1 55/1 5/1 /1/ 3/13 / 3/1/1-9-7- -531^0 ,tl, ^?"^ S  E3^ 5i 53 E13 ^  l"  CO 0  C^  I^ I r 1^ 1 1 rSS ES S S ES SS E 53   A   5    (9(   3 ^ E g3^ (`- (.os-E - Int ^ E - t r - Int ^ r - tgu  ecisiooa cssiecausi ae yes aom ais imeay uaieoe eSimiygu 3 sws e ca oe imeay uacssie e o ocwi e cas e  e yes    aoieo We usee same  a  eoocess as iSeco3om e o gus we see ausi aimeae yes aom esoce  goocommee ie scase (i usi oy e mosce 7s om Ece o3 as e secisioac oc isw aacewgi a oe s  a e yes aom ia si Ieaccasee commees ecisioa ca gs suiay ome95 -1-1-1-1 ^ 11 1  31 3  51 5  71 7  91 91 1 111 111 1 131 131 1  pt- E - Int ^ -E - t r - Int ^ - - - r - tgu 3ca oa cssiecausi ae yes aom aisimeay ua97 o eack  e commeeA miooe commee causi Mage is aey  iooceack om e iageaue commeaoemea comcommee   cou  causi Mage a euse a oaeses eiagewi e commeao Ie commeaois aia (i eiagees ke e commeaoe iagecou ask a w commeaoa e owou mo we s we iaccei e commeaoe iages osome eack; ey  oa ga case amig use imo  commeaowe e aoms awe iesga cy ke suceack io accou; e aoms use si  ioa-oga  ioao Ioewose aoms qui e s "is ie s  is css" a  cy use e ioaoiesme "is ie es   is css"iowo emie usee use oeack a    [] cca a coague aac ioo eack ia com commeaosysm was ese e  ke com ie iageke e commeao wewe sage ais is u o eack  e commee as e commeeis ioo a w ioaoom e cooe commeao iecommeewas immea eseewi e same  iwou oce e sameseocommeaoA iacique ioo eack io e commeeis  useioeme ai []ioeme ai is coeewi w aagesu  so as  mami a - waioeme ai ies  -i a cy ama e ss ie wo w e age su ac essIe coe o   e commeewou make a commeaoa woucei a si oga awe seoaawee commeewou makew commeao seoyi  mami e wa (i wee commeoeo we as a ioeme ai aom is sig a-o- a s- wawe e aa iageowou ke giuusi e commee e commeeacea suicie oaccucy97Ce7l WIis cewe ese wo  oumac ai-seaacc-a e-cisiocommeeMageWe gi esei aoiewooewo as oeee iage ocess a w s a assig -o oe e-oeecisiowe scuss ous wo as mi om sowa siesSie o oe s oe-oeecisiocommeee assige commee is a  oee com-mee we ese aoiew oous wo as okeaassis wi eecommeao  ii a oui e e osowa eieWe e iscewi comso ooewo aoks ao suo iage ugcommeao7 Ses o i iage e sooukwe e  eses ascicay ok aeocess oiagewe oeses o  o gmes oe iageocessima w assige is Sausky a coeagues emi1 s om a e osouee commu  iesga e iie ogoaoie cooioosisowa oem mageme [57]ey iieiage a assige aso oe sis ie "a sowa oem mageme ocess" [57ge1] a o oe o s owcey cuse iesga goao Oeieecs u   goa "w is sie  e g?" was esigs Oe  cs awe gie we si-oeecisio ("is e a oem? "is is a ica []"a "is is oem e mai o we e-oeecisio aca cago("wis e ssig" a "w su e []  mage" Cwsoeee sowa ce ocess useie micomsiooa e cooo[1 usea cooioeo aac ese o aeas9 ei assige ocesse cooos es assige sagy was assigs  e ice oe mo aaeaieo(caee sciassagy Cwsscussee aaages a saaages ousi agessagy w s we gie  aie a a maesagy iwc oe s wcey wi assume siAs Mage is icommee seoscaeewciee geomaeuseiis ie a sciassagyMockus a coeagues emie e ocess use o osouesowa ocAca Moaa comem   commeiaoc []e  commeiaocey eas we assig  a suisoaccoi  ai a  oeeise qui A commeecausi Mage assis e suisowi e e  eAc a Moa ociwas ea we aowe se-assigs seoeico ow eeisea ies Mockus ea ao eae Ac oc iage was   o oo ies w eoc iage ow quesom ouoeao is is cois wi oeosoue oc; auge may  ous ee a wi iageeis usuay o oo key oe oi iageKo a coeagues oeeseeeMicso   i eiiomaoe [39]ey u ag iage was a commoacoeia9 ouoe 17  iages  e oee9mi oiwcey we oee ey u ae ima ioaoe e oee wi iage was  i ie oem was gima (a si-oeecisiow icu wi i  e oem (a e-oee-cisio a is e oem wo (a si-oeecisioMage couo a commeeawou assise iesma e eo ee  ie s ie ocs si ioaoaue eoqui s (i w icu   a e eo es we sc(e3mis1 u o5 u See Seco3 mo iCaea coeagues ae cooiowo osowa s aasmac com  omo gequimes comsuo [15]ey oeeaiagei e assige os  was iweek meesey suggesaa ecssicaosysm e  aimae ogs wou  cie iage ocessom ioacoeaowi  woi ocommeiaocis assige cique is s usess oee  imocooioo sucas o g siesc is a wese  // ac o  e1/997 Mi Sowa Aicsiesce yea  seeaiase ie mi osi  om sowa ocima e soue sig sia emaiasWe  ese eosio cagoes seoe  osi ais mi7 Mi Soue Co siesSoue sies  emia e ooses i ec uymos [937]commei oes  ce [7 71]a co ow[We gig eos om eacoese csua coeagues osea ogm asis cique i wcogm oies may iica us [9]Ieiaac a ogm asis oges ogm oies uy a uy io oe e ogmseseoies a egi a mac ai aoma mo oese oiesa ca uea eemeewi usi e Suo cMacs a C5 (aseiooC5 ca ese moseoeemeao ey u ae Suo cMacs aom was  gooai e ogm oies iica wcoies mosiicauy sowa Yi a coeagues [7 a mmea a coeagues [71] oseaoacs a gia seosoue s a is ecomme oes ae su coici seoco-occuees oces  ese scoeie soue sieiaacs we seo mi ciquesa we u  scoeogm eiesemeoccki iaseos  e soue sie cou  waeaumissi s (is asu  ao ecewmaa  misoue sies  i e  n toa sysm [e owac sws w  a guio amsa s ese ams  e co wcey a sieoseuses oaoweac ie iicaooeese iicaoooeiessowa qua esmasco aoeowcogea osi ouei osuysmswe e aacwas oy maay ae e ocas a ooocoea emoyeiacce7 Mi g siesIoaosia g si s euse a moseaSome usee ioao iesga queso aue e ocesses [573some auo eeaic oe e ocess [] a oeo iage a ocmage wi commeao [553We gigeos om eacoese cagoes a e  ouwo1Mockusei a suse om e soue a g sies oo osoue oc oa a Ac   com e osoue sowae (OSSocess  aocommeiae meo []Usie g siey aiacosio ausucis as e s ayeie OSS e commusioowoa e cies oe oocO i was aOSS oc    a guo oeomaggaaa co guw ic a cei g s om a guo oe omag gaae si oe co e amis o o oe omag ee eee gui e gs a e gu e gs makes iage a oem sucocWo  Sausky a coeagues cus oe ioaou ie g s-ie goaois wo was  ii  b rt nr  [5g  osa gus og s e  icao ey oe oese o a scie s as a mea oimo w oemsa mage is wo s  ou oo Aa w  ouwo ae wo oSausky ea iesga e use ogu s  a commoaIeiwo iis e o aa eciy sie Iouwoe gu is  e-cisiocagoesAa g  wos aim ass e mageme og sIe case oSausky a coeaguesg os  o osesas aioaosuc sagy  ce cog aoaoeo a as a sociaoe mecsm oe commu s sucase assigoccsmem Ouwo oks aassis wi e magemeos  o cagoocommeao w sWei a coeagues a cique esma w  iwi ke a g (a e-oeecisio seoeo ioaou ie gs [] comme w  iwi ke  a w ey use e asigouaom a com e e a sciooe g sUsi eiaacoy 3 oeieco we wiia  e oacaeoIeecWei a coeagues usea ugiooMage7 EmaiAs a coeagues mie emaia oe Ac    seeoc awequeso aue commucaoa cooioacces o iosouesowa [7]ey emiqueso aue oies osociaoscoeoeeac omai s a ac ie soue siass ea u ae emaisociao was caooeecoc commuessucas a w mem accoui mosoe messagesey auo ackwe aeiwo was mo ouMage wo1u ae was a so coeoeemai sac a eac a   ay a mo sigca socia aa e icis oe mai ssas  ea oeeaa w mem accou ma oe emaimessages ie mai s we oeeag s    uy seaacsse e e-oeecisiocagoesis usioacss ecagoes a  e e sci wc a wca a  O7 Eeise commeaoO ki ocommeecausi Mage is aassige commeeasug-ges wc assiga   is ki ocommeeis a pt r-nd Iis seco we scuss oewo as emie commeaooees ii a oui oe sowa eie e7 Eeise commeaoiGeOui oe e osowa eie e  eeos usi a e ocques commei eesIis secowe scuss ee commee ausemaicesgs a ioaoie emes oaumac ee ea s Yimam-seia Koa []O cique useee commeaois e use oeeise maicesSeea caum eseea cique ausea mai cago emes oa seaa e com [] mes wecagoseoe es oe cumes oce e mesO aas okweocoeswe iusi  lt nt   [] auseas e ws oaeeise mai Aiiawou que aee commeeoa e s oe que we use ecaia ws om e eeisemai e es oe ws we euse o a esomesAecique useee commeao is ee gsCame acoeagues i eeise gs e cs aea iemaimessages [11]Emaisuie use  e ee commeesysm we csseo ae o eee see a cei omessages ie cs was caA g-sei aom ( [3was euse i e uses ceeiseAeg-seaacis e  Expt wccas eeise gsosea seoeiicao []Eeiseuses e  a cio oicao  ca aeeise g oa sea e cio a use gaugew aauoiees ceaies seoe es a ci a e esaci   semaic asis [] is useoe  oe cume 1i w o cumes aAee ca u  keywo seaoe eeise A eme ow a sysm cao ee commeao is  iomaoie e  Exptnd  sysm e MIE coooecumes oe coo i sucas cicaeseao sumesauemes a wseEeeeoa seaei ieace aeee commeao seoequey os associawi icuemoyees []Ouwo uses a uciquemac aica e eeise mooe is cique is mossimi e ioaoieaacuse e Eeeiawe e   i eeisewe a macai aace om aioaoieaaciawe a caaieos ai  a iaii a mo gemooeeise7 Ee commeaoiSowa EieEe commeaoie sowa eie mais ima cuseoeuse oe soue co siWe o e sucemese  Exptd   Mac a Ackea[] oeeisecommeao o gua cicasuo gua a sowa egu e eeise was iseoo uscse usc e ccasuo guwas seoa keywo seaae e es ooeoemse usc e e guwas e -1wcise useme oe w ma ces  a  ie soue sieee e  was eme  e w scckeia ce  e Aesysm ausea simiaacis Mockus a ss  Exptr e Eeise owseocommeao o w  eese soue co sey see oa s eeise oe moeeise ams e e w aeeise am was a ce e  awas cckeio e soue sike e Eeise commee eyusee -1wew e Eeise commeeoy usee mee Eeise owseusea e mes om e  soue si ge Eise owsecoaiaieace w a useseca  a ceia esoees e wi e amou oeeise i iica  sieusecou ao seca a see wcs ey woeo a simiysee w mucey moee e Eeise owsewas oyeia esisowa e oc a u   mosuseicao awe eiew  e oc ockecasysm eeise1e  Ernt Exptt  (EE  Mio a Mu ao usee -1aac i eeise  nt dnt t  []Aemee amis aac am asaous s au soi icuoemEEo-commeao mem oe emee am sewcs  cegeeie sa wc ma e cese EEaacusemaisecomo o e eeise commeao e seosae was cue iesi7 Assis iage ugcommeaoe a e oewos a okeaca ies o  commeeo  okeaca commee  ( a o s okeacaa com commee (   ouskwe oese wos  eiooio a ouse  iagee  ao eeos  assiswio oe si-oeecisioc s asc oems aeaeseeie si (i ica s cca a coeagues [] iesgae use oe mac ai agoms  comme wcoeig maiee ams  wca  su assig Augey e eicommeao as e am com-meaoas e e ams we eacsie o occomom oui oew is is e same as com commeao Simi ouwoey iesgae Suo cMacse yescisioeesa asigouaomsa u a e yes a Suo cMacs weaia aoms (see Seco3uaa Mu [19] eseeaaac ca a    seocagoo Ieiwo ey aceecisio oau 3 o om eEce ocusi e muimiae yes aomSimi ouwoeyuseuscs i e oe ai s (see Seco3Cao a Ce [1 1 oui aaaccommeaoseoioaoie ey use om  e g  scioasoue si gs a ee  ia maesimiaMageAoey use a cique agous  ouuse oe i yes aom maki ecommeaoeiaacacea ecisiooau e Moaoce wo o soa coeagues [55] a ew [3 emie use ocommee  assisiage wi o oe si-oeecisio i ia w  icas aes soa coeagues usea uageaaca ei ae   oe icas s ia coo1g siew aacao useuage ocessi as we as cs-a aceecisioa ca s oa 5 sc1CeCne use oa g si ie sowa e ocess s a moa oc we  oe cosousi a g si is e ee s  oauge iage ocesse oaocisio ma  iageca io o se  is cisio ai ia  ismea sucas ie  is a ica ois ocieWe ca succisiosi-oeecisioe seco  is cisio aoa e e ocs e ocesssucas i e occom e aec oe  assige We ca ese e-oeecisioMaki ese cisio uses soues amig e s imo eoceamagi e e ocessis sseaocuses oci maioeme ie-oeecisio uga ocess we ca e e iage-assis commeecaoocesse wo sciis sseaomakes ucoo  is e osowaeie we ese a mac ai-seiage-assis commeecaoocess/amewowcwe  as Mageca commee aosuggeso   a iagemake e-oeecisioSecowe swugacaa emcaeaoacommeewi gooaccucy ca causi Magee acaeaowas coucacss  e osoue oc a sweacommee wi gooaccucycou  causi Magee emcaeaowas coucusi a e swi uiage om e UI com oe Ece ao oca sweae commee woewe iacceiwe ice aaac assisie coiguooe-oeecommeeis aows a ocmem a eiocscic kwee  e coiguoo  commee eiocsywe sw iis ssie  o commeao seoai omsi ioaooa ce eaoa see is aows   commee1e 1iagewiss iage-assis commeeiageA Is is a ica?Wis gss?iagew se is is oem?iageC w se is is oem?Is is a ica?Wo sysm is is Keywos e iagew se is is oem?Wis e siss io ois ?Co soo simis ooems  causi a smaeamou o1  Wois wo s okeao i ie sowa e ocessg  iagea eseeaaac assiswi o  oiage cisio e-oeecisiowe mo wo e    was assis wi iagescicaywi assis si-oeecisioe s aea esome wo wasassis wi o  osi-oeecisio c ica s [3 55]Oeao oioaoe  ao swa s a ome yi  oce ouscieia  [39] e sooukwee s e wo iauma ocoocouO oe queso se e uEce iage  ouieiew was woees oeces oioaowou ey ke   commeaoeiage we  aey we aowe ask is acessa seemasie simy o a wiss e 1 sws eiwisse s acessa ioeoimae  e iageom e e we see ae oe uiage saesmaoose oe eoemis is ae o x wse caousi  Mage  cou  eom oueeees wi is wowe saw a e o iage wi ea  aia use   oeimac (i a ce eieso as qui ii sowa oe ocs g si see  is ewe cae assiscoiguoaac  commee (see Ce5 Augwemoaa eae aacca assige commee(  e is mo wo   ymo iesgaois ewas usi eassiscoiguoaacoe ( commeeAugwe  eseew  use e assiscoiguoaac aiie caoooecommee1sucas a occom commee ( a sucom commee (eaois cessa  i ie assiscoiguoocess ocescommee aa come  ose caiCe5Secoaugweomock-u oe ieace assis wi    coiguo e is s wo   was s a useieace e assisaace sus om ouassiscoiguoeaosweasi miciques may  ae oss aa  si ois o ei wco a queso mii sowa si wosucas e acaomi aacs  smaeoc a i use  ue ocess ecom si A aa o wo is wi sc e aioo  commee i a ocs iage ocessO oe cees we ceicouc e e swas igei iage  y Si a iis we u we cea  Augwe coigucommee seociage we si  use e com-mee uiey we oeecwe  moa aey we eecwe e  iage use emis sseaoeses iasus aiicae eecss o ( commeewemo wo e    was egoaoaio scicay io coe cois mo eaooe commee  i weoe use o  commee ces e me a iagekes  iage a caais was o oouseaqueso (see CeAs meioiSeco3we we ae  coeceugioao i ie was aeec Oea-oses oiage usi e commee a wi a mo ecise iumeeieace is ke e aweis seaqueso moa ae use o commee cace iage me wi ke make e use oe commeemo ac  iagee seco coowo was e aioo  commee is eeooe e o  commee aca causi MageSeco3eiw Mage mig  use ca commee  eoesmaoa imcasiswee caoa eaooese commees e  woo mo  ( commee may ao o ie  iageemee Ece ao UI iage came iesiasucom commeeaeusi SiCoois wo makes e owi coo  e e osowa eie we eseeaaac ca   commee agesacss s o   Iis sseaowe iesgaus o  commee1a commeew  assiga    (  commee wccom(a sucom  (   a  agai a a commeewcoeocmem may wa   ioeauogss ois   (Secowe sweaMage ges acss sowa ocWe ca a    commee  e osoue ociwe swee commee causi Mage a gey accuis was swio wayse was aacaeaooe   acommeeWe eae     a    commee ia es coucwi uEce ao iage e UI comom is es we coieouacasusu is sseaooaeoousi suisea uusemac ai aoms  ca    commeeWe eae use ocou se yesSuo cMacsasigou C5aEecoMamio ca suca commee We u aSuo cMacs cas e mosaccu    ige we eseeaaac assisocmem icoigu ocscic me wca a   commee We moais aacca    commee  ocWe swew e aacassis a ocmemii wcs  usew ma s  usew  esa wc a yis sseaoos a s ow iage is accomisa e ces ce iage e ocam oa successosoue oc is siioaoom quesoaisiageieiewsa a e s swi w commee wo iacce1blh[1] kasAgwaa maksaSkaMi sequeiaesI d thElth Intnn Cf  tEnnr  ges 3-1 1995[ WAis Kie a Ma KAeIe-seai aomsMhn  137-a 1991[3]  Aikoewa GaiCMuCo wi og siesI d  th OO rh  E thn ges35-39[  Aikoewa GaiCMuW su is g? Id  thth Intnn Cf  StrEnnr  ges 3137 [5]  Aik a GaiCMui imemeaoeeise om gsI d  thh Intnn Wh  MStrp-  ge  IEEE ComSocie[ cao Ae-Yas a eAi- Mn Inftn trvACM ess1999[7] CisaAGoueyem uMiceGe a A Swami-a Mi emaisociaosI d  th Intnn W  MStrp  ges 137-1May [ I wmaa c Ccouc owacs  ue sowa sysmsI d  Intnn Wh  rCpr ges -371999[9] Yuy ua Mice Es i  co eo a mac ai oogm ecuoI d  thth Intnn Cf  StrEnnr  ges  [1 gsquaiageguiWege/me/gsquaiageGui[11] CiseSCameu MagoACoia mEeiseiicaousi emaicommucaoI CIKM 3d  thtlfthtnn nf  Inftn d l nt ges 5-531ACM ess[1 Geo Cao a igi Cew sowa sies ca isoi aw ce ques I Wh  E St v Ennr  11[13] Geo Cao a igi CeImcasis  mi sowa a cequessiesI  Intnn StrMrSp  ge IEEE ComSocie ess[1 Geo Cao a igi CeSuoi ce quesassige iosoue eI  th ACM Sp Appld Cpges 17177 ACM ess[15]  Caea CaSoe s  augs Sndnn  Inftn St  7(133-5 1995[1 KeCws A cooioeo aac oaoocess sigOrnn S 57-1751997[17] KeCws mes wiso a  AaIoaosysms success iee a osoue sowa eeo a measus StrIrt d t  11(-1[1 KeCwsa a ScoiCooioacces wiioss eams e g  ocessI Cp Spt AtCrdn ges-3 ICC ess[19] auaa GaiCMuAumac g iage usi  cssicao Id  StrEnnrd Knl Ennr  ges 997[] Cio   SouisGa Ma  a MaaeSieuisMageme oieeeies icoa sowa eId  thIntnn Sp E StrEnnr  ges3[] Sco ees Susa maisGeoe Wasomas Kaue ac a Ie   semaic asis n  thArStf Inftn S (91-7199[] Am ia   Mamum keoom iome a e EM aom n  thl Stt St  39(1-3 1977[] Giusee Aoo  ccaMassimia  aa Sa GAaaccssi sowa maiee quesI d  thIntnn Cf StrMnt ges 93-1[] omas Geec Mac ai En  CnS [] u  -o a mes Mema e eeoc A icaocase s oosoue e IEEE n StrEnnr31(- [] o mios a Mice ayo ieeeCoio eoima oe sime yesiacssie I  thIntnn Cf Mhn  ges 1-11 199111[] Micesc Maige a  GaA a  g  a ackiI d  th1h WnCf  vEnnr  ge IEEE ComSocie[] Micesc Maige a  Ga a ase sse om iocoa g acki sysmsI d  thInt-nn Cf  StrMnt ges -3 IEEE ComSocie[] Geoe aa I Coai om Comsioocssie gi aiI d  h En Cf  pl d t Knl  t ges 1-17 [3 s Gassea Gaiecsicoec acces a OSS oemmagemec a meoI  Cf  CpnInntn d n [31] S  GuSuo cMacs cssicaoa gssio cicaUi oSouamo cuy oEieSciee a Maemacs;ScooEcocs a ComSciee199[3 oewAssiscooica g sMass esisUioisComa[33] oacms cagoowi suo cmacsai wima  asI d  th1h En Cf  Mhn  ges 137-1199[3 Geoe   a yEsma coius sio iyesiacssieI d  thElth Cf  Unrtnt Artl In-tl ges 3331995[35] Mik Kea GaiCMuMy a ge-oiesmoisI   thh tnn nf  At-nt ftrdntges 159-1ACM ess[3 mes wisoKeCws e sociasuc oee a osoue sowae r Md 1[37] SuKimomas mmeaEmes Wa a Aas eec us om cacsI d  thth Intnn C-f  StrEnnr  ges 9- [3 MKieAuo soues ia ieeie n  thACM (5 1999[39] Aw  Ko a Gi aIoaoe icoocasowa e amsI  thth Int Cf  StrEn-nr  ges 3-353[] SKoca Geo Scei Eoco-ooa co-oioiaosoue sowa oc Gme Inftn Stn 11 11[] Mao Ma  Maya MoyEese ee a kwee scoI d  thIntnn Cf  n-CpInttn ges 3-3we Eum AssociasI 1999[] WMcEa eeise commeaoI d  th Intnn ACM SIGGUCf  SptGrp W  ges3ACM ess[] WMc a Ma SAckea Eeise commee A ee c-ommeaosysm a acI d  ACM Cf  C-p Spt ClW  ges 1- [] SwMio a GaiCMucommei emee ams I  hInt Wh  MStrp  ge 5IEEE ComSocieMay[] m MMi Mhn  WCMcGw-1997[] Auis Mockusy  eia mes  s o case ses oosoue sowa eAc a Moa ACM n StrEnnrd Mh  11(33-3[] Auis Mockus a mes  s Eeise owse A quai aaciii eeiseI d  thth Intnn Cf  StrEnnr  ges 5-51 [] Sa Mosca a GuA iaac a emcasowaeie  a i acao ecmo u-oss imaieen  Std Str  53(35-7Yea[] Ay ukio ick aisWes MasMea Mi ayaSu a WaAumasuo cssii sowa i sId  thth Intnn Cf  StrEnnr  ges 55[5 ss Quia  C5rf Mhn  1993[51] Ec Symoe caeaa e a  r Md 3(3 199[5 Cisaom is a  i Maos esAoiew oesowa eie ocess a o ie Moa oc I d  thOp Sr Strvnt Wh ges 155-175[53] so Miewe S ime e a  Kae ck eoassumio oi yes cssieI d  Intnn Cf Mhn  ges 3[5 Ggoo esSKoc a ss MGomo asis ameasume oe sowa sysms  mea oe ca o I d thd ICSE Wh  tAn d Mrt  StrSt(MSS  May 113[55] so Mags Aeso a Oskacooica cs usi uage ocessiI  thth Int Cf StrEnnr  ges 9-51 [5 Yasumi Sakakice aaes ogmmacaiee r C-p S 1(115-Oc1997[57]   Sausky a s Gasse goaoa e cooiooioaoa ac isisowa oem magemeI d  thIn-tnn Cf  SptGrp W  ges 1-19 ACM ess[5   Sauskys Gasse a Gaiecg  oseessagiesa imc ia OSS e commu d  1 IntWh  MStrp  ges -[59] io SesaMac ai iauma cagoo  ACM C-pSv  31-[] c Segaa y KeaImeaai iSwiI d thSth Intnn Cf  Mhn  ges 3- [] cek kwekiomas mmeaa Aas e W ces iuces? 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I d  th Int Wh  MStrp  [] C CWiiams a y Kiswo g ig eI   thIntnn Wh  MStrp  ges77 May [] Ia Wiea moy Ce -equey oemEsma eoes oes iai  comessio  n Inftnr  37(5-1  1991[] Ia Wiea Ei a tM t MhnthvIltn  11[] wiYimam-Seia AKoaEe-i sysms oaoom a maiasis a e MOIaac  n  Ornn C-pd Eltr Cr 13(-[7 Aie  YiGaiCMuymo a Ma CC-Caoeci soue co ces  mi ce s IEEE n StrEnnr  39575Seem[71] omas mmeaWeigee Saea Aas e Miioses  gui sowa cesI d  thth IntnnCf  StrEnnr  ges -57 115Appd Abtis aeieses e uscs awe use e s e a-caeaoocommee om Seco1A Ece ao ocese uscs a eeio oe os gi auaa a Mu [19]1 Ie  s esoe(i  WUOIE O  e wi e me oe w was sassig i Ie  is maeas  ASSIG  ea s kesi  e  a e  is wi eime3 Ie  was soe e assig o e  wi e assig o Ie  was soe e ow e  ow was assig e e  wi e me oe w soei5 Ie  is maeas    gass ow soei e  wie ow maeias suc Ie  was soeas   (i  WO WOSEIA  e ow e  a was assig i e  wi eme oe ow se e is usc co casesw e suieac a  sucas aei askemo ioaoa i ae  oce e oem7Ie  was soeas    e ow e  a was assig i a  o se e gee  cao is usc co cases wa g is suie eo sucas e e11kwi e ooooEcea ac e gs  ao eess  i Ie  was soeas   o WO  e ow e a was assig i e  wi e me oe e isusc co s aa - ims e 9 Ie  is maeas a  ICA e  wi e oe owcis  is a ica oA Moa ocAs a oe Moa oc use e same e ocesswe usee same uscs e a ga oc1 Ie  is maeas  WUOIE  o O e o s kesi e  a iis uw wciwi  assige  is as ussiae Ia  is soeas  WOSE iwas so mae e oi e giagea iis uwwcwou  eassige e is as ussiae3 Ie  is maeas  ASSIG  ea s kesi  e  a e  is wi eime Ie  is soeas   a e  s aaces wcwe a a ewe e(a Ie is oy o suieoase  wi eime( Ie is mo ao suieoascose e me oew suiee moss(cIe suiesoe as cao i ee wi e ow is assig e 5 Ie  was maeas   wiouaaac eiwas ke agssioa e  is wi e me oe ow maee as  Ie  is maeas  IA a e ow soee  was e ow suiee e  wi e me oe w ma e cisio1177 Ie  was maeas  IA  e ow suiee e was ke suieieoa iis uwwcwou eassige e  is as ussiae s aa maeas  WO a oesoeaesome scussioae  aca coeusIis uwwcwou  e gso e  is as ussiae9Ie  is maeas a  ICA e  wi e oe owcis  is a ica oA gcc oc1 Ie  is  WUOIE  o O e is sieia iis uww wi  assig e  is as ussiae Ie  is maeas  ASSIG  ea s kesi  e  a e  is wi eime3 Ie  is maeas  WAI  o SUSE  ea is wai mo ioaoosome oee  occu sucas aeg i  is g ca soe As a is ie ocess osoi eoeme  wi eime Ia  is soeas    ee  wi e me oe ow maee  as 5 Ie  was soeas  IA WO  o WOSE   e suieee  was ke suieieoa iis uww wou  eassige e  is as ussiae Ie  was soeas  IA WO  o WOSE   someo oeae suie ee  wi e me ama aio7 Ie  was maeas  IA a  was e sm com ee  was e su oaco  a smmea is as ussiae W e  ss  CSE is e gcc oc some g acgs sw aaa g was maeas suc ese aea  o s aa ie si so aoes cae emsucas icasSucs a wi e me oe w scee ssoe 119Ie  is maeas a  ICA e  wi e oe owcis  is a ica oA Myoc1 Ie  is  W  o O e is sie ia iisuww wi  assig e  is as ussiae Ie  is maeas  ASSIG  ea s kesi  e  a e  is wi eime3 Ie  is maeas a  ICA e  wi e oe owcis  is a ica o Ie  is maeas    gass ow soei e  wie ow maeias suc5 Ie  was soeas   (i  WO WOSEIA  e ow e  a was assig i e  wi eme oe ow se e is usc co  casesw e suieac a  sucas aei askemo ioaoa i ae  oce e oem Ie  was soeas    e ow e  a was assig i a  o se e gee  cao is usc co cases wa g is suie eo sucas e ekwi e ooooEcea ac e gs  ao eess  i7s aa maeas   a oesoeaesome scussioa e aca coeusIis uwwcwou  egso e  is as ussiae119(?(?(C?(?A?(?A(?(?W smaeW smaeW smaeW smaeW smaeo ais icaW smaeW smaeW smaeW smaeU(U(?((?(?(UI(?(UUI(?(?UIo ais icaW aacs e oassig eW aacs e oassig eW aacs e oassig e(  Soues Sece oassig ee oassig e(  Soues SecW aacs W smae(  Soues SecAppd btfr AtCfnis aeieses e ous coiguo use e eaooe assiscoiguoaac(see Ce5e 1uscs usee Ece oce  uscs usee oc1U((?(U((?(U(?U(?U((U(U(UU?UA(?W aacs e oassig eW aacs e oassig eW aacs e oassig eW aacs e oassig eW smae e oassig eW smae e oassig eW smae e oassig eW smae e oassig eo ais icaW smae e oassig e(C(?((?(?((?O(?O(?W smaeo ais icao ais icaW smaeW smae W sW smae W sW smaeW smae W sW smaeW smaemaeSOEcee sscee sse 3uscs usee gcc oce  uscs usee Myoce 5uscs usee ga oc(U(? ^ W aacs W smae e oassig e((? ^ W aacs W smae e oassig e(U ^ W aacs W smae e oassig e(? ^ W aacs W smae e oassig e( ^ W aacs W smae e oassig e ^ W aacs W smae e oassig e(?A ^ W aacs W smae e oassig eU(? ^ W aacs W smae e oassig eU? ^ o ais icaU ^ W aacs W smae e oassig e11o- 3t511 -gu 1soog Ecegu  soog 111 - - -vgu 3soog gcc11         gu  soog My1 1 111 -1 -t   r - - -ogu 5soog ga1Appd CEthCtU ^ Unt h CbOff  Svh  EthdSt2, 60 A, n, C. CEICA OA MIMASK WAIIIESGAGl CMphMEU/S/Cp SU EM339IOSW SEAWI  CAIEOUAOecao w e seawi  coucACO-IESGAShn AnvSO AGEIESt Sd Ennr Cnl  C(E- "SAptAnnt"OCESApt AnntEI  OIS A Ai13Ai13Annl n f Sthbn rd d thpr rfnd tbptl hndf rr vvh bjtAIs issueo oe ouseaEics aa sigecocay  o oe owit SdfdChrptAtChrArn KjnAtChrMdh nAtChr rdAtChrgu C Eics Ceica1

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